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Title: A Short History of the United States
Author: Channing, Edward, 1856-1931
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Short History of the United States" ***

[Illustration: ABRAHAM LINCOLN.]

     "Our children shall behold his fame,
       The kindly-earnest, brave, foreseeing man,
     Sagacious, patient, dreading praise, not blame,
       New birth of our new soil, the first American."












The aim of this little book is to tell in a simple and concise form the
story of the founding and development of the United States. The study of
the history of one's own country is a serious matter, and should be
entered upon by the text-book writer, by the teacher, and by the pupil
in a serious spirit, even to a greater extent than the study of language
or of arithmetic. No effort has been made, therefore, to make out of
this text-book a story book. It is a text-book pure and simple, and
should be used as a text-book, to be studied diligently by the pupil and
expounded carefully by the teacher.

Most of the pupils who use this book will never have another opportunity
to study the history and institutions of their own country. It is highly
desirable that they should use their time in studying the real history
of the United States and not in learning by heart a mass of
anecdotes,--often of very slight importance, and more often based on
very insecure foundations. The author of this text-book, therefore, has
boldly ventured to omit most of the traditional matter which is usually
supposed to give life to a text-book and to inspire a "love of
history,"--which too often means only a love of being amused. For
instance, descriptions of the formation of the Constitution and of the
struggle over the extension of slavery here occupy the space usually
given to the adventures of Captain John Smith and to accounts of the
institutions of the Red Men. The small number of pages available for the
period before 1760 has necessitated the omission of "pictures of
colonial life," which cannot be briefly and at the same time accurately
described. These and similar matters can easily be studied by the pupils
in their topical work in such books as Higginson's _Young Folks'
History_, Eggleston's _United States and its People_, and McMaster's
_School History_. References to these books and to a limited number of
other works have been given in the margins of this text-book. These
citations also mention a few of the more accessible sources, which
should be used solely for purposes of illustration.

It is the custom in many schools to spread the study of American history
over two years, and to devote the first year to a detailed study of the
period before 1760. This is a very bad arrangement. In the first place,
it gives an undue emphasis to the colonial period; in the second place,
as many pupils never return to school, they never have an opportunity to
study the later period at all; in the third place, it prevents those
pupils who complete this study from gaining an intelligent view of the
development of the American people. And, finally, most of the time the
second year is spent in the study of the Revolutionary War and of the
War for the Union. A better way would be to go over the whole book the
first year with some parallel reading, and the second year to review the
book and study with greater care important episodes, as the making of
the Constitution, the struggle for freedom in the territories, and the
War for the Union. Attention may also be given the second year to a
study of industrial history since 1790 and to the elements of civil
government. It is the author's earnest hope that teachers will regard
the early chapters as introductory.

Miss Annie Bliss Chapman, for many years a successful teacher of history
in grammar schools, has kindly provided a limited number of suggestive
questions, and has also made many excellent suggestions to teachers.
These are all appended to the several divisions of the work. The author
has added a few questions and a few suggestions of his own. He has also
altered some of Miss Chapman's questions. Whatever there is commendable
in this apparatus should be credited to Miss Chapman. Acknowledgments
are also due to Miss Beulah Marie Dix for very many admirable
suggestions as to language and form. The author will cordially welcome
criticisms and suggestions from any one, especially from teachers, and
will be very glad to receive notice of any errors.


March 29, 1900.




1. The European Discovery of America.
2. Spanish and French Pioneers in the United States.
3. Pioneers of England.


COLONIZATION, 1600-1660.

4. French Colonists, Missionaries, and Explorers.
5. Virginia and Maryland.
6. New England.
7. New Netherland and New Sweden.



8. The Colonies under Charles II.
9. Colonial Development, 1688-1760.
10. Expulsion of the French.


COLONIAL UNION, 1760-1774.

11. Britain's Colonial System.
12. Taxation without Representation.
13. Revolution impending.



14. Bunker Hill to Trenton.
15. The Great Declaration and the French Alliance.
16. Independence.



17. The Confederation, 1783-1787.
18. Making of the Constitution, 1787-1789.



19. Organization of the Government.
20. Rise of Political Parties.
21. The Last Federalist Administration.



22. The United States in 1800.
23. Jefferson's Administrations.
24. Causes of the War of 1812.


WAR AND PEACE, 1812-1829.

25. The Second War of Independence, 1812-1815.
26. The Era of Good Feeling, 1815-1824.
27. New Parties and New Policies, 1824-1829.



28. The American People in 1830.
29. The Reign of Andrew Jackson, 1829-1837.
30. Democrats and Whigs, 1837-1844.



31. Beginning of the Antislavery Agitation.
32. The Mexican War.
33. The Compromise of 1850.
34. The Struggle for Kansas.


SECESSION, 1860-1861.

35. The United States in 1860.
36. Secession, 1860-1861.



37. The Rising of the Peoples, 1861.
38. Bull Run to Murfreesboro', 1861-1862.
39. The Emancipation Proclamation.
40. The Year 1863.
41. The End of the War, 1864-1865.



42. President Johnson and Reconstruction, 1865-1869.
43. From Grant to Cleveland, 1869-1889.



44. Confusion in Politics.
45. The Spanish War.



_Table of Dates_

1815-1824. Era of Good Feeling.
1819. The Florida Treaty.
1820. Missouri Compromise.
1823. The Monroe Doctrine.
1825. The Erie Canal.
1828. Election of Jackson.
1830. The Locomotive.
1832. The Nullification Episode.
1840. Election of William H. Harrison.
1844. The Electric Telegraph.
1845. The Horse Reaper.
1845. Annexation of Texas.
1846. The Oregon Treaty.
1846-1848. The Mexican War (Acquisition of California, New Mexico, etc.)
1849. California (Discovery of Gold).
1850. Compromise of 1850.
1854. Kansas-Nebraska Act.
1857. The Dred Scott Case.
1861-1865. The War for the Union.
1863. Emancipation Proclamation, Vicksburg, and Gettysburg.
1867. Purchase of Alaska.
1867. Reconstruction Acts.
1868. Impeachment of Johnson.
1876. The Electoral Commission.
1881-1883. Civil Service Reform.
1890. Sherman Silver Law (Repealed, 1893).
1898. The War with Spain.


The lists of "Books for Study and Reading" contain such titles only as
are suited to the pupil's needs. The teacher will find abundant
references in Channing's _Students' History of the United States_ (N.Y.,
Macmillan). The larger work also contains the reasons for many
statements which are here given as facts without qualification.
Reference to the _Students' History_ is made easy by the fact that the
divisions or parts (here marked by Roman numerals) cover the same
periods in time as the chapters of the larger work. On the margins of
the present volume will be found specific references to three text-books
radically unlike this text-book either in proportion or in point of
view. There are also references to easily accessible sources and to a
few of the larger works. It is not suggested that any one pupil, or even
one class, shall study or read all of these references. But every pupil
may well read some of them under each division. They are also suited to
topical work. Under the head of "Home Readings" great care has been
taken to mention such books only as are likely to be found interesting.

The books most frequently cited in the margins are Higginson's _Young
Folks' History_ (N.Y., Longmans), cited as "_Higginson_"; Eggleston's
_United States and its People_ (N.Y., Appleton), cited as "_Eggleston_",
McMaster's _School History of the United States_ (N.Y., American Book
Co.), cited as "_McMaster_"; Higginson's _Book of American Explorers_
(N.Y., Longmans), cited as "_Explorers_"; Lodge and Roosevelt, _Hero
Tales from American History_, cited as "_Hero Tales_"; and Hart's
_Source-Book of American History_ (N.Y., Macmillan), cited as




Books for Study and Reading

References.--Parkman's _Pioneers of France_ (edition of 1887 or a
later edition); Irving's _Columbus_ (abridged edition).

Home Readings.--Higginson's _Tales of the Enchanted Islands of the
Atlantic_; Mackie's _With the Admiral of the Ocean Sea_ (Columbus);
Lummis's _Spanish Pioneers_; King's _De Soto in the Land of Florida_;
Wright's _Children's Stories in American History_; Barnes's _Drake and
his Yeomen_.



[Sidenote: Leif Ericson.]

1. Leif Ericson discovers America, 1000.--In our early childhood
many of us learned to repeat the lines:--

     Columbus sailed the ocean blue
     In fourteen hundred, ninety-two.

[Sidenote: Leif discovers America, 1000. _Higginson_, 25-30; _American
History Leaflets_, No. 3.]

We thought that he was the first European to visit America. But nearly
five hundred years before his time Leif Ericson had discovered the New
World. He was a Northman and the son of Eric the Red. Eric had already
founded a colony in Greenland, and Leif sailed from Norway to make him a
visit. This was in the year 1000. Day after day Leif and his men were
tossed about on the sea until they reached an unknown land where they
found many grape-vines. They called it Vinland or Wineland. They Then
sailed northward and reached Greenland in safety. Precisely where
Vinland was is not known. But it certainly was part of North America.
Leif Ericson, the Northman, was therefore the real discoverer
of America.


[Sidenote: Marco Polo, Cathay, and Cipango.]

2. Early European Travelers.--The people of Europe knew more of the
lands of Asia than they knew of Vinland. For hundreds of years
missionaries, traders, and travelers visited the Far East. They brought
back to Europe silks and spices, and ornaments of gold and of silver.
They told marvelous tales of rich lands and great princes. One of these
travelers was a Venetian named Marco Polo. He told of Cathay or China
and of Cipango or Japan. This last country was an island. Its king was
so rich that even the floors of his palaces were of pure gold. Suddenly
the Turks conquered the lands between Europe and the golden East. They
put an end to this trading and traveling. New ways to India, China, and
Japan must be found.

[Sidenote: Portuguese seamen.]

3. Early Portuguese Sailors.--One way to the East seemed to be
around the southern end of Africa--if it should turn out that there was
a southern end to that Dark Continent. In 1487 Portuguese seamen sailed
around the southern end of Africa and, returning home, called that point
the Cape of Storms. But the King of Portugal thought that now there was
good hope of reaching India by sea. So he changed the name to Cape of
Good Hope. Ten years later a brave Portuguese sailor, Vasco da Gama,
actually reached India by the Cape of Good Hope, and returned safely to
Portugal (1497).

[Sidenote: Columbus and his beliefs. _Higginson, 31-35; Eggleston, 1-3;
American History Leaflets_, No. 1.]

4. Columbus.--Meantime Christopher Columbus, an Italian, had
returned from an even more startling voyage. From what he had read, and
from what other men had told him, he had come to believe that the earth
was round. If this were really true, Cipango and Cathay were west of
Europe as well as east of Europe. Columbus also believed that the earth
was very much smaller than it really is, and that Cipango was only three
thousand miles west of Spain. For a time people laughed at the idea of
sailing westward to Cipango and Cathay. But at length Columbus secured
enough money to fit out a little fleet.

[Sidenote: Columbus reaches America, 1492. _Higginson, 35-37; Eggleston,

5. The Voyage, 1492.--Columbus left Spain in August, 1492, and,
refitting at the Canaries, sailed westward into the Sea of Darkness. At
ten o'clock in the evening of October 20, 1492, looking out into the
night, he saw a light in the distance. The fleet was soon stopped. When
day broke, there, sure enough, was land. A boat was lowered, and
Columbus, going ashore, took possession of the new land for Ferdinand
and Isabella, King and Queen of Aragon and Castile. The natives came to
see the discoverers. They were reddish in color and interested
Columbus--for were they not inhabitants of the Far East? So he called
them Indians.

[Illustration: SHIPS, SEA-MONSTERS, AND INDIANS. From an early Spanish
book on America.]

[Sidenote: The Indians, _Higginson, 13-24; Eggleston, 71-76_.]

[Sidenote: Columbus discovers Cuba.]

6. The Indians and the Indies.--These Indians were not at all like
those wonderful people of Cathay and Cipango whom Marco Polo had
described. Instead of wearing clothes of silk and of gold embroidered
satin, these people wore no clothes of any kind. But it was plain enough
that the island they had found was not Cipango. It was probably some
island off the coast of Cipango, so on Columbus sailed and discovered
Cuba. He was certain that Cuba was a part of the mainland of Asia, for
the Indians kept saying "Cubanaquan." Columbus thought that this was
their way of pronouncing Kublai Khan--the name of a mighty eastern
ruler. So he sent two messengers with a letter to that powerful monarch.
Returning to Spain, Columbus was welcomed as a great admiral. He made
three other voyages to America. But he never came within sight of the
mainland of the United States.

[Sidenote: John Cabot visits North America, 1497. _Higginson, 40-42;
Eggleston, 8-10; American History Leaflets_, No. 9.]

7. John Cabot, 1497.--While Columbus explored the West Indies,
another Italian sailed across the Sea of Darkness farther north. His
name was John Cabot, and he sailed with a license from Henry VII of
England, the first of the Tudor kings. Setting boldly forth from
Bristol, England, he crossed the North Atlantic and reached the coast of
America north of Nova Scotia. Like Columbus, he thought that he had
found the country of the Grand Khan. Upon his discovery English kings
based their claim to the right to colonize North America.

[Sidenote: Americus Vespucius, his voyages and books. _Higginson_,
37-38; _Eggleston_, 7-8.]

[Sidenote: The New World named America.]

8. The Naming of America.--Many other explorers also visited the
new-found lands. Among these was an Italian named Americus Vespucius.
Precisely where he went is not clear. But it is clear that he wrote
accounts of his voyages, which were printed and read by many persons. In
these accounts he said that what we call South America was not a part of
Asia. So he named it the New World. Columbus all the time was declaring
that the lands he had found were a part of Asia. It was natural,
therefore, that people in thinking of the New World should think of
Americus Vespucius. Before long some one even suggested that the New
World should be named America in his honor. This was done, and when it
became certain that the other lands were not parts of Asia, the name
America was given to them also until the whole continent came to be
called America.


[Sidenote: Balboa sees the Pacific, 1513.]

[Sidenote: Magellan's great voyage, 1520. _Eggleston_, 10-11.]

9. Balboa and Magellan, 1513, 1520.--Balboa was a Spaniard who came
to San Domingo to seek his fortune. He became a pauper and fled away
from those to whom he owed money. After long wanderings he found
himself on a high mountain in the center of the Isthmus of Panama. To
the southward sparkled the waters of a new sea. He called it the South
Sea. Wading into it waist deep, he waved his sword in the air and took
possession of it for his royal master, the King of Spain. This was in
1513. Seven years later, in 1520, Magellan, a Portuguese seaman in the
service of the Spanish king, sailed through the Straits of Magellan and
entered the same great ocean, which he called the Pacific. Thence
northward and westward he sailed day after day, week after week, and
month after month, until he reached the Philippine Islands. The natives
killed Magellan. But one of his vessels found her way back to Spain
around the Cape of Good Hope.



[Sidenote: Indian traditions.]

10. Stories of Golden Lands.--Wherever the Spaniards went, the
Indians always told them stories of golden lands somewhere else. The
Bahama Indians, for instance, told their cruel Spanish masters of a
wonderful land toward the north. Not only was there gold in that land;
there was also a fountain whose waters restored youth and vigor to the
drinker. Among the fierce Spanish soldiers was Ponce de Leon (Pon'tha da
la-on'). He determined to see for himself if these stories were true.

[Sidenote: De Leon visits Florida, 1513. _Higginson_, 42.]

[Sidenote: De Leon's death.]

11. Discovery of Florida, 1513.--In the same year that Balboa
discovered the Pacific Ocean, Ponce de Leon sailed northward and
westward from the Bahamas. On Easter Sunday, 1513, he anchored off the
shores of a new land. The Spanish name for Easter was La Pascua de los
Flores. So De Leon called the new land Florida. For the Spaniards were a
very religious people and usually named their lands and settlements from
saints or religious events. De Leon then sailed around the southern end
of Florida and back to the West Indies. In 1521 he again visited
Florida, was wounded by an Indian arrow, and returned home to die.

[Sidenote: Discovery of the Mississippi.]

[Sidenote: Conquest of Mexico.]

12. Spanish Voyages and Conquests.--Spanish sailors and conquerors
now appeared in quick succession on the northern and western shores of
the Gulf of Mexico. One of them discovered the mouth of the Mississippi.
Others of them stole Indians and carried them to the islands to work as
slaves. The most famous of them all was Cortez. In 1519 he conquered
Mexico after a thrilling campaign and found there great store of gold
and silver. This discovery led to more expeditions and to the
exploration of the southern half of the United States.

[Sidenote: Coronado sets out from Mexico, 1540.]

[Sidenote: The pueblo Indians. _Source Book_, 6.]

13. Coronado in the Southwest, 1540-42.--In 1540 Coronado set out
from the Spanish towns on the Gulf of California to seek for more gold
and silver. For seventy-three days he journeyed northward until he came
to the pueblos (pweb'-lo) of the Southwest. These pueblos were huge
buildings of stone and sun-dried clay. Some of them were large enough
to shelter three hundred Indian families. Pueblos are still to be seen
in Arizona and New Mexico, and the Indians living in them even to this
day tell stories of Coronado's coming and of his cruelty. There was
hardly any gold and silver in these "cities," so a great grief fell upon
Coronado and his comrades.

[Illustration: _By permission of the Bureau of Ethnology._ THE PUEBLO OF

[Sidenote: Coronado finds the Great Plains.]

14. The Great Plains.--Soon, however, a new hope came to the Spaniards,
for an Indian told them that far away in the north there really was a
golden land. Onward rode Coronado and a body of picked men. They crossed
vast plains where there were no mountains to guide them. For more than a
thousand miles they rode on until they reached eastern Kansas.
Everywhere they found great herds of buffaloes, or wild cows, as they
called them. They also met the Indians of the Plains. Unlike the Indians
of the pueblos, these Indians lived in tents made of buffalo hides
stretched upon poles. Everywhere there were plains, buffaloes, and
Indians. Nowhere was there gold or silver. Broken hearted, Coronado and
his men rode southward to their old homes in Mexico.

[Sidenote: De Soto in Florida, 1539. _Explorers_, 119-138.]

[Sidenote: De Soto crosses the Mississippi.]

15. De Soto in the Southeast, 1539-43.--In 1539 a Spanish army
landed at Tampa Bay, on the western coast of Florida. The leader of this
army was De Soto, one of the conquerors of Peru. He "was very fond of
the sport of killing Indians" and was also greedy for gold and silver.
From Tampa he marched northward to South Carolina and then marched
southwestward to Mobile Bay. There he had a dreadful time; for the
Indians burned his camp and stores and killed many of his men. From
Mobile he wandered northwestward until he came to a great river. It was
the Mississippi, and was so wide that a man standing on one bank could
not see a man standing on the opposite bank. Some of De Soto's men
penetrated westward nearly to the line of Coronado's march. But the two
bands did not meet. De Soto died and was buried in the Mississippi.
Those of his men who still lived built a few boats and managed to reach
the Spanish settlements in Mexico.

[Sidenote: Other Spanish explorers.]

[Sidenote: Attempts at settlement.]

16. Other Spanish Expeditions.--Many other Spanish explorers
visited the shores of the United States before 1550. Some sailed along
the Pacific coast; others sailed along the Atlantic coast. The Spaniards
also made several attempts to found settlements both on the northern
shore of the Gulf of Mexico and on Chesapeake Bay. But all these early
attempts ended in failure. In 1550 there were no Spaniards on the
continent within the present limits of the United States, except
possibly a few traders and missionaries in the Southwest.

[Sidenote: Verrazano's voyages, 1524. _Higginson_, 44-45; _Explorers_,

[Sidenote: Cartier in the St. Lawrence, 1534-36. _Explorers_ 99-117.]

17. Early French Voyages, 1524-36.--The first French expedition to
America was led by an Italian named Verrazano (Ver-rä-tsä'-no), but he
sailed in the service of Francis I, King of France. He made his voyage
in 1524 and sailed along the coast from the Cape Fear River to Nova
Scotia. He entered New York harbor and spent two weeks in Newport
harbor. He reported that the country was "as pleasant as it is possible
to conceive." The next French expedition was led by a Frenchman named
Cartier (Kar'-tya'). In 1534 he visited the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In
1535 he sailed up the St. Lawrence River to Montreal. But before he
could get out of the river again the ice formed about his ships. He and
his crew had to pass the winter there. They suffered terribly, and
twenty-four of them perished of cold and sickness. In the spring of 1536
the survivors returned to France.

[Sidenote: Ribault explores the Carolina coasts, 1562.]

[Sidenote: French colonists in Carolina. _Explorers_, 149-156.]

18. The French in Carolina, 1562.--The French next explored the
shores of the Carolinas. Ribault (Re'-bo') was the name of their
commander. Sailing southward from Carolina, he discovered a beautiful
river and called it the River of May. But we know it by its Spanish name
of St. Johns. He left a few men on the Carolina coast and returned to
France. A year or more these men remained. Then wearying of their life
in the wilderness, they built a crazy boat with sails of shirts and
sheets and steered for France. Soon their water gave out and then their
food. Finally, almost dead, they were rescued by an English ship.

[Sidenote: French colonists in Florida.]

19. The French in Florida, 1564-65.--While these Frenchmen were
slowly drifting across the Atlantic, a great French expedition was
sailing to Carolina. Finding Ribault's men gone, the new colony was
planted on the banks of the River of May. Soon the settlers ate up all
the food they had brought with them. Then they bought food from the
Indians, giving them toys and old clothes in exchange. Some of the
colonists rebelled. They seized a vessel and sailed away to plunder the
Spaniards in the West Indies. They told the Spaniards of the colony on
the River of May, and the Spaniards resolved to destroy it.

[Sidenote: Spaniards and Frenchmen.]

[Sidenote: End of the French settlement, 1565. _Explorers_, 159-166.]

20. The Spaniards in Florida, 1565.--For this purpose the Spaniards
sent out an expedition under Menendez (Ma-nen'-deth). He sailed to the
River of May and found Ribault there with a French fleet. So he turned
southward, and going ashore founded St. Augustine. Ribault followed, but
a terrible storm drove his whole fleet ashore south of St. Augustine.
Menendez then marched over land to the French colony. He surprised the
colonists and killed nearly all of them. Then going back to St.
Augustine, he found Ribault and his shipwrecked sailors and killed
nearly all of them. In this way ended the French attempts to found a
colony in Carolina and Florida. But St. Augustine remained, and is
to-day the oldest town on the mainland of the United States.



[Sidenote: Hawkins's voyages, 1562-67.]

21. Sir John Hawkins.--For many years after Cabot's voyage
Englishmen were too busy at home to pay much attention to distant
expeditions. But in Queen Elizabeth's time English seamen began to sail
to America. The first of them to win a place in history was John
Hawkins. He carried cargoes of negro slaves from Africa to the West
Indies and sold them to the Spanish planters. On his third voyage he was
basely attacked by the Spaniards and lost four of his five ships.
Returning home, he became one of the leading men of Elizabeth's little
navy and fought most gallantly for his country.

[Illustration: SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.]

[Sidenote: Drake on the California coast, 1577-78. _Source-Book_, 9.]

22. Sir Francis Drake.--A greater and a more famous man was
Hawkins's cousin, Francis Drake. He had been with Hawkins on his third
voyage and had come to hate Spaniards most vigorously. In 1577 he made a
famous voyage round the world. Steering through the Straits of Magellan,
he plundered the Spanish towns on the western coasts of South America.
At one place his sailors went on shore and found a man sound asleep.
Near him were four bars of silver. "We took the silver and left the
man," wrote the old historian of the voyage. Drake also captured vessels
loaded with gold and silver and pearls. Sailing northward, he repaired
his ship, the _Pelican_, on the coast of California, and returned home
by the way of the Cape of Good Hope.

[Sidenote: Ralegh and his colonies. _Eggleston_, 13-17; _Explorers_,

23. Sir Walter Ralegh.--Still another famous Englishman of
Elizabeth's time was Walter Ralegh. He never saw the coasts of the
United States, but his name is rightly connected with our history,
because he tried again and again to found colonies on our shores. In
1584 he sent Amadas and Barlowe to explore the Atlantic seashore of
North America. Their reports were so favorable that he sent a strong
colony to settle on Roanoke Island in Virginia, as he named that region.
But the settlers soon became unhappy because they found no gold. Then,
too, their food began to fail, and Drake, happening along, took them
back to England.

[Sidenote: Ralegh's last attempt, 1587. _Explorers_, 189-200.]

24. The "Lost Colony," 1587.--Ralegh made still one more attempt to
found a colony in Virginia. But the fate of this colony was most
dreadful. For the settlers entirely disappeared,--men, women, and
children. Among the lost was little Virginia Dare, the first English
child born in America. No one really knows what became of these people.
But the Indians told the later settlers of Jamestown that they had been
killed by the savages.

[Sidenote: Ruin of Spain's sea-power. _English History for Americans_,

25. Destruction of the Spanish Armada, 1588.--This activity of the
English in America was very distressing to the King of Spain. For he
claimed all America for himself and did not wish Englishmen to go
thither. He determined to conquer England and thus put an end to these
English voyages. But Hawkins, Drake, Ralegh, and the men behind the
English guns were too strong even for the Invincible Armada. Spain's
sea-power never recovered from this terrible blow. Englishmen could now
found colonies with slight fear of the Spaniards. When the Spanish king
learned of the settlement of Jamestown, he ordered an expedition to go
from St. Augustine to destroy the English colony. But the Spaniards
never got farther than the mouth of the James River. For when they
reached that point, they thought they saw the masts and spars of an
English ship. They at once turned about and sailed back to Florida as
fast as they could go.

       *       *       *       *       *



§§ 1-3.--a. To how much honor are the Northmen entitled as the
discoverers of America?

b. Draw from memory a map showing the relative positions of Norway,
Iceland, Greenland, and North America.

c. What portions of the world were known to Europeans in 1490? Explain
by drawing a map.

§§ 4-6.--a. State Columbus's beliefs about the shape and size of the

b. What land did Columbus think that he had reached?

c. What is meant by the statement that "he took possession" of the new

d. Describe the appearance of the Indians, their food, and their

§§ 7-9.--a. What other Italians sailed across the Atlantic before 1500?
Why was Cabot's voyage important?

b. Why was the New World called America and not Columbia?

c. Describe the discovery of the Pacific Ocean. Why was this discovery
of importance?


§§ 10-12.--a. What was the chief wish of the Spanish explorers?

b. How did they treat the Indians?

§§ 13-16.--a. Describe a pueblo. What do the existing pueblos teach us
about the Indians of Coronado's time?

b. Describe Coronado's march.

c. What other band of Spaniards nearly approached Coronado's men?
Describe their march.

d. What other places were explored by the Spaniards?

§§ 17-20.--a. Why did Verrazano explore the northeastern coasts?

b. Describe Cartier's experiences in the St. Lawrence.

c. Describe the French expeditions to Carolina and Florida.

d. What reason had the Spaniards for attacking the French?


§§ 21, 22.--a. Look up something about the early voyages of Francis

b. Compare Drake's route around the world with that of Magellan.

§§ 23-25.--a. Explain carefully Ralegh's connection with our history.

b. Was the territory Ralegh named Virginia just what is now the state of

c. What is sea-power?

d. What effect did the defeat of Spain have upon _our_ history?


a. Draw upon an Outline Map the routes of all the explorers mentioned.
Place names and dates in their proper places.

b. Arrange a table of the various explorers as follows, stating in two
or three words what each accomplished:--

 1492  |  Columbus |          |
 1497  |           |          |   Cabot.


a. Columbus's first voyage, Irving (abridged edition).

b. Coronado's expedition, Lummis's _Spanish Pioneers_.

c. Verrazano and Cartier, Higginson's _Explorers_.

d. The "Lost Colony," Higginson's _Explorers_.

e. The England of Elizabeth (a study of any small history of England
will suffice for this topic).


The teacher is recommended to study sources in preparing her work,
making selections where possible, for the pupil's use. Some knowledge of
European history (English especially) is essential for understanding our
early history, and definite work of this nature on the teacher's part,
at least, is earnestly advised.

Encourage outside reading by assigning subjects for individual
preparation, the results to be given to the class. Let the children keep
note books for entering the important points thus given.

Map study and map drawing should be constant, but demand correct
relations rather than finished drawings. Geographical environment should
be emphasized as well as the influence of natural resources and
productions in developing the country and in determining its history.

In laying out the work on this period the teacher should remember that
this part is in the nature of an introduction.



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Fiske's _United States for Schools_, 59-133;
Eggleston's _United States and its People_, 91-113 (for colonial life);
Parkman's _Pioneers_ (for French colonies); Bradford's _Plymouth
Plantation_ (extracts in "American History Leaflets," No. 29).

Home Readings.--Drake's _Making of New England_; Drake's _Making of
Virginia and the Middle States_; Eggleston's _Pocahontas and Powhatan_;
Dix's _Soldier Rigdale_ (Pilgrim children); Irving's _Knickerbocker
History_; Webster's _Plymouth Oration_; Longfellow's _Myles Standish_;
Moore's _Pilgrims and Puritans_.



[Sidenote: Settlement of Acadia, 1604.]

[Sidenote: Port Royal.]

26. The French in Acadia.--For nearly forty years after the
destruction of the colony on the River of May, Frenchmen were too busy
fighting one another at home to send any more colonists to America. At
length, in 1604, a few Frenchmen settled on an island in the St. Croix
River. But the place was so cold and windy that after a few months they
crossed the Bay of Fundy and founded the town of Port Royal. The country
they called Acadia.

[Sidenote: Champlain at Plymouth.]

[Sidenote: Quebec founded, 1608.]

[Sidenote: Champlain on Lake Champlain, 1609.]

[Sidenote: He attacks the Iroquois. _Explorers_, 269-278.]

27. Champlain and his Work.--The most famous of these colonists was
Champlain. He sailed along the coast southward and westward as far as
Plymouth. As he passed by the mouth of Boston harbor, a mist hung low
over the water, and he did not see the entrance. Had it been clear he
would have discovered Boston harbor and Charles River, and French
colonists might have settled there. In 1608 Champlain built a
trading-post at Quebec and lived there for many years as governor or
chief trader. He soon joined the St. Lawrence Indians in their war
parties and explored large portions of the interior. In 1609 he went
with the Indians to a beautiful lake. Far away to the east were
mountains covered with snow. To the south were other mountains, but with
no snow on their tops. To the lake the explorer gave his own name, and
we still call it in his honor, Lake Champlain. While there, he drove
away with his firearms a body of Iroquois Indians. A few years later he
went with another war party to western New York and again attacked
the Iroquois.

[Sidenote: French missionaries and traders.]

[Sidenote: They visit Lake Superior and Lake Michigan.]

28. The French on the Great Lakes.--Champlain was the first of many
French discoverers. Some of these were missionaries who left home and
friends to bring the blessings of Christianity to the Red Men of the
western world. Others were fur-traders, while still others were men who
came to the wilderness in search of excitement. These French discoverers
found Lake Superior and Lake Michigan; they even reached the headwaters
of the Wisconsin River--a branch of the Mississippi.

[Sidenote: The Jesuits and their work.]

29. The French Missionaries.--The most active of the French
missionaries were the Jesuits. built stations on the shores of the Great
Lakes. They made long expeditions to unknown regions. Some of them were
killed by those whom they tried to convert to Christianity. Others were
robbed and left to starve. Others still were tortured and cruelly
abused. But the prospect of starvation, torture, and death only made
them more eager to carry on their great work.


[Sidenote: The League of the Iroquois.]

[Sidenote: Their hatred of the French. Its importance.]

[Sidenote: The missionaries and the Iroquois.]

30. The Iroquois.--The strongest of all the Indian tribes were the
nations who formed the League of the Iroquois. Ever since Champlain
fired upon them they hated the sight of a Frenchman. On the other hand,
they looked upon the Dutch and the English as their friends. French
missionaries tried to convert them to Christianity as they had converted
the St. Lawrence Indians. But the Iroquois saw in this only another
attempt at French conquest. So they hung red-hot stones about the
missionaries' necks, or they burned them to death, or they cut them to
pieces while yet living. For a century and a half the Iroquois stood
between the Dutch and English settlers and their common enemies in
Canada. Few events, in American history, therefore, have had such great
consequences as Champlain's unprovoked attacks upon the Iroquois.



[Sidenote: New conditions of living in England.]

[Sidenote: The Virginia Company.]

31. The Virginia Company, 1606.--English people were now beginning
to think in earnest of founding colonies. It was getting harder and
harder to earn one's living in England, and it was very difficult to
invest one's money in any useful way. It followed, from this, that there
were many men who were glad to become colonists, and many persons who
were glad to provide money to pay for founding colonies. In 1606 the
Virginia Company was formed and colonization began on a large scale.

[Sidenote: The Virginia colonists at Jamestown, 1607. _Higginson_,
52, 110-117; _Eggleston_, 19-28; _Explorers_ 231-269.]

[Sidenote: Sickness and death.]

32. Founding of Jamestown, 1607. The first colonists sailed for
Virginia in December, 1606. They were months on the way and suffered
terrible hardships. At last they reached Chesapeake Bay and James River
and settled on a peninsula on the James, about thirty miles from its
mouth. Across the little isthmus which connected this peninsula with the
mainland they built a strong fence, or stockade, to keep the Indians
away from their huts. Their settlement they named Jamestown. The early
colonists of Virginia were not very well fitted for such a work. Some of
them were gentlemen who had never labored with their hands; others were
poor, idle fellows whose only wish was to do nothing whatever. There
were a few energetic men among them as Ratcliffe, Archer, and Smith. But
these spent most of their time in exploring the bay and the rivers, in
hunting for gold, and in quarreling with one another. With the summer
came fevers, and soon fifty of the one hundred and five original
colonists were dead. Then followed a cold, hard winter, and many of
those who had not died of fever in the summer, now died of cold. The
colonists brought little food with them, they were too lazy to plant
much corn, and they were able to get only small supplies from the
Indians. Indeed, the early history of Virginia is given mainly to
accounts of "starving times." Of the first thousand colonists not one
hundred lived to tell the tale of those early days.

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Dale.]

[Sidenote: His wise action.]

33. Sir Thomas Dale and Good Order.--In 1611 Sir Thomas Dale came
out as ruler, and he ruled with an iron hand. If a man refused to work,
Dale made a slave of him for three years; if he did not work hard
enough, Dale had him soundly whipped. But Sir Thomas Dale was not only a
severe man; he was also a wise man. Hitherto everything had been in
common. Dale now tried the experiment of giving three acres of land to
every one of the old planters, and he also allowed them time to work on
their own land.

[Sidenote: Tobacco.]

[Sidenote: Prosperity.]

34. Tobacco-growing and Prosperity.--European people were now
beginning to use tobacco. Most of it came from the Spanish colonies.
Tobacco grew wild in Virginia. But the colonists at first did not know
how to dry it and make it fit for smoking. After a few years they found
out how to prepare it. They now worked with great eagerness and planted
tobacco on every spot of cleared land. Men with money came over from
England. They brought many workingmen with them and planted large pieces
of ground. Soon tobacco became the money of the colony, and the whole
life of Virginia turned on its cultivation. But it was difficult to find
enough laborers to do the necessary work.

[Sidenote: White servants.]

[Sidenote: Criminals.]

[Sidenote: Negro slaves, 1619.]

35. Servants and Slaves.--Most of the laborers were white men and
women who were bound to service for terms of years. These were called
servants. Some of them were poor persons who sold their labor to pay for
their passage to Virginia. Others were unfortunate men and women and
even children who were stolen from their families and sold to the
colonists. Still others were criminals whom King James sent over to the
colony because that was the cheapest thing to do with them. In 1619 the
first negro slaves were brought to Virginia by a Dutch vessel. The
Virginians bought them all--only twenty in number. But the planters
preferred white laborers. It was not until more that twenty-five years
had passed away that the slaves really became numerous enough to make
much difference in the life of the colony.

[Sidenote: Sir Edwin Sandys.]

[Sidenote: The first American legislature, 1619.]

36. The first American Legislature, 1619.--The men who first formed
the Virginia Company had long since lost interest in it. Other men had
taken their places. These latter were mostly Puritans (p. 29) or were
the friends and workers with the Puritans. The best known of them was
Sir Edwin Sandys, the playmate of William Brewster--one of the Pilgrim
Fathers (p. 29). Sandys and his friends sent Sir George Yeardley to
Virginia as governor. They ordered him to summon an assembly to be made
up of representatives chosen by the freemen of the colony. These
representatives soon did away with Dale's ferocious regulations, and
made other and much milder laws.

[Sidenote: End of the Virginia Company, 1624.]

[Sidenote: Virginia a royal province.]

37. Virginia becomes a Royal Province, 1624.--The Virginians
thought this was a very good way to be governed. But King James thought
that the new rulers of the Virginia Company were much too liberal, and
he determined to destroy the company. The judges in those days dared not
displease the king for he could turn them out of office at any time. So
when he told them to destroy the Virginia charter they took the very
first opportunity to declare it to be of no force. In this way the
Virginia Company came to an end, and Virginia became a royal province
with a governor appointed by the king.

[Sidenote: Intolerance in Virginia.]

[Sidenote: Persecution of the Puritans.]

38. Religious Intolerance.--In 1625 King James died, and his son
Charles became king. He left the Virginians to themselves for the most
part. They liked this. But they did not like his giving the northern
part of Virginia to a Roman Catholic favorite, Lord Baltimore, with the
name of Maryland. Many Roman Catholics soon settled in Lord Baltimore's
colony. The Virginians feared lest they might come to Virginia and made
severe laws against them. Puritan missionaries also came from New
England and began to convert the Virginians to Puritanism. Governor
Berkeley and the leading Virginians were Episcopalians. They did not
like the Puritans any better than they liked the Roman Catholics. They
made harsh laws against them and drove them out of Virginia
into Maryland.

[Sidenote: Maryland given to Baltimore, 1632.]

[Sidenote: Settlement of Maryland. _Higginson_, 121-123; _Eggleston_,
50-53; _Source-book_, 48-51.]

39. Settlement of Maryland.--Maryland included the most valuable
portion of Virginia north of the Potomac. Beside being the owner of all
this land, Lord Baltimore was also the ruler of the colony. He invited
people to go over and settle in Maryland and offered to give them large
tracts of land on the payment of a small sum every year forever. Each
man's payment was small. But all the payments taken together, made quite
a large amount which went on growing larger and larger as Maryland was
settled. The Baltimores were broad-minded men. They gave their colonists
a large share in the government of the colony and did what they could to
bring about religious toleration in Maryland.

[Sidenote: Roman Catholics in England.]

[Sidenote: Roman Catholics and Puritans in Maryland.]

[Sidenote: The Toleration Act, 1649.]

40. The Maryland Toleration Act, 1649.--The English Roman Catholics
were cruelly oppressed. No priest of that faith was allowed to live in
England. And Roman Catholics who were not priests had to pay heavy fines
simply because they were Roman Catholics. Lord Baltimore hoped that his
fellow Catholics might find a place of shelter in Maryland, and many of
the leading colonists were Roman Catholics. But most of the laborers
were Protestants. Soon came the Puritans from Virginia. They were kindly
received and given land. But it was evident that it would be difficult
for Roman Catholics, Episcopalians, and Puritans to live together
without some kind of law to go by. So a law was made that any Christian
might worship as he saw fit. This was the first toleration act in the
history of America. It was the first toleration act in the history of
modern times. But the Puritan, Roger Williams, had already established
religious freedom in Rhode Island (p. 33).

[Sidenote: Tobacco and grain.]

[Sidenote: Commerce.]

[Sidenote: Servants and slaves.]

41. Maryland Industries.--Tobacco was the most important crop in
early Maryland. But grain was raised in many parts of the colony. In
time also there grew up a large trading town. This was Baltimore. Its
shipowners and merchants became rich and numerous, while there were
almost no shipowners or merchants in Virginia. There were also fewer
slaves in Maryland than in Virginia. Nearly all the hard labor in the
former colony was done by white servants. In most other ways, however,
Virginia and Maryland were nearly alike.



[Sidenote: The English Puritans.]

[Sidenote: Non-Conformists.]

[Sidenote: Separatists.]

42. The Puritans.--The New England colonies were founded by English
Puritans who left England because they could not do as they wished in
the home land. All Puritans were agreed in wishing for a freer
government than they had in England under the Stuart kings and in state
matters were really the Liberals of their time. In religious matters,
however, they were not all of one mind. Some of them wished to make only
a few changes in the Church. These were called Non-Conformists. Others
wished to make so many changes in religion that they could not stay in
the English State Church. These were called Separatists. The settlers of
Plymouth were Separatists; the settlers of Boston and neighboring towns
were Non-Conformists.

[Sidenote: The Scrooby Puritans. _Higginson, 55-56; Eggleston_, 34.]

[Sidenote: They flee to Holland.]

[Sidenote: They decide to emigrate to America.]

43. The Pilgrims.--Of all the groups of Separatists scattered over
England none became so famous as those who met at Elder Brewster's house
at Scrooby. King James decided to make all Puritans conform to the State
Church or to hunt them out of the land. The Scrooby people soon felt the
weight of persecution. After suffering great hardships and cruel
treatment they fled away to Holland. But there they found it very
difficult to make a living. They suffered so terribly that many of their
English friends preferred to go to prison in England rather than lead
such a life of slavery in Holland. So the Pilgrims determined to found a
colony in America. They reasoned that they could not be worse off in
America, because that would be impossible. At all events, their children
would not grow up as Dutchmen, but would still be Englishmen. They had
entire religious freedom in Holland; but they thought they would have
the same in America.

[Illustration: BREWSTER'S HOUSE AT SCROOBY. The Pilgrims held their
services in the building on the left, now used as a cow-house.]

[Sidenote: The voyage of the _Mayflower_, 1620.]

[Sidenote: The _Mayflower_ at Cape Cod.]

44. The Voyage across the Atlantic.--Brewster's old friend, Sir
Edwin Sandys, was now at the head of the Virginia Company. He easily
procured land for the Pilgrims in northern Virginia, near the Dutch
settlements (p. 41). Some London merchants lent them money. But they
lent it on such harsh conditions that the Pilgrims' early life in
America was nearly as hard as their life had been in Holland. They had a
dreadful voyage across the Atlantic in the _Mayflower_. At one time it
seemed as if the ship would surely go down. But the Pilgrims helped the
sailors to place a heavy piece of wood under one of the deck beams and
saved the vessel from going to pieces. On November 19, 1620, they
sighted land off the coast of Cape Cod. They tried to sail around the
cape to the southward, but storms drove them back, and they anchored in
Provincetown harbor.

[Sidenote: The Pilgrims Compact, 1620.]

45. The Mayflower Compact, 1620.--All the passengers on the
_Mayflower_ were not Pilgrims. Some of them were servants sent out by
the London merchants to work for them. These men said that as they were
outside of Virginia, the leaders of the expedition would have no power
over them as soon as they got on land. This was true enough, so the
Pilgrims drew up and signed a compact which obliged the signers to obey
whatever was decided to be for the public good. It gave the chosen
leaders power to make the unruly obey their commands.

[Illustration: map]

[Sidenote: The Pilgrims explore the coast. _Explorers_, 319-328.]

[Sidenote: Plymouth settled. _Higginson_,58-60; _Eggleston_, 35-38;
_Source-Book_, 39-41.]

[Sidenote: Sickness and death.]

46. The First Winter at Plymouth.--For nearly a month the Pilgrims
explored the shores of Cape Cod Bay. Finally, on December 21, 1620, a
boat party landed on the mainland inside of Plymouth harbor. They
decided to found their colony on the shore at that place. About a week
later the _Mayflower_ anchored in Plymouth harbor. For months the
Pilgrims lived on the ship while working parties built the necessary
huts on shore. It was in the midst of a cold New England winter. The
work was hard and food and clothing were not well suited to the worker's
needs. Before the _Mayflower_ sailed away in the spring one-half of the
little band was dead.

[Sidenote: The Pilgrims and the Indians. _Explorers_, 333-337.]

[Sidenote: Success of the colony.]

[Sidenote: New Plymouth colony.]

47. New Plymouth Colony.--Of all the Indians who once had lived
near Plymouth only one remained. His name was Squanto. He came to the
Pilgrims in the spring. He taught them to grow corn and to dig clams,
and thus saved them from starvation. The Pilgrims cared for him most
kindly as long as he lived. Another and more important Indian also came
to Plymouth. He was Massasoit, chief of the strongest Indian tribe near
Plymouth. With him the Pilgrims made a treaty which both parties obeyed
for more than fifty years. Before long the Pilgrims' life became
somewhat easier. They worked hard to raise food for themselves, they
fished off the coasts, and bought furs from the Indians. In these ways
they got together enough money to pay back the London merchants. Many of
their friends joined them. Other towns were settled near by, and
Plymouth became the capital of the colony of New Plymouth. But the
colony was never very prosperous, and in the end was added to

[Sidenote: Founders of Massachusetts.]

[Sidenote: _Explorers_ 341-361; _Source-book_ 45-48, 74-76.]

[Sidenote: Settlement of Massachusetts, 1630. _Higginson_, 60-64;
_Eggleston_, 39-41.]

48. The Founding of Massachusetts, 1629-30.--Unlike the poor and
humble Pilgrims were the founders of Massachusetts. They were men of
wealth and social position, as for instance, John Winthrop and Sir
Richard Saltonstall. They left comfortable homes in England to found a
Puritan state in America. They got a great tract of land extending from
the Merrimac to the Charles, and westward across the continent. Hundreds
of colonists came over in the years 1629-30. They settled Boston, Salem,
and neighboring towns. In the next ten years thousands more joined them.
From the beginning Massachusetts was strong and prosperous. Among so
many people there were some who did not get on happily with the rulers
of the colony.

[Sidenote: Roger Williams expelled from Massachusetts. _Higginson_,

[Sidenote: He founds Providence, 1636. _Source-book_, 52-54.]

49. Roger Williams and Religious Liberty.--Among the newcomers was
Roger Williams, a Puritan minister. He disagreed with the Massachusetts
leaders on several points. For instance, he thought that the
Massachusetts people had no right to their lands, and he insisted that
the rulers had no power in religious matters--as enforcing the laws as
to Sunday. He insisted on these points so strongly that the
Massachusetts government expelled him from the colony. In the spring of
1636; with four companions he founded the town of Providence. There he
decided that every one should be free to worship God as he or she
saw fit.

[Sidenote: Mrs. Hutchinson and her friends.]

[Sidenote: They settle Rhode Island, 1637.]

50. The Rhode Island Towns.--Soon another band of exiles came from
Massachusetts. These were Mrs. Hutchinson and her followers. Mrs.
Hutchinson was a brilliant Puritan woman who had come to Boston from
England to enjoy the ministry of John Cotton, one of the Boston
ministers. She soon began to find fault with the other ministers of the
colony. Naturally, they did not like this. Their friends were more
numerous than were Mrs. Hutchinson's friends, and the latter had to
leave Massachusetts. They settled on the island of Rhode Island (1637).

[Sidenote: The Connecticut colonists.]

[Sidenote: Founding of Connecticut, 1635-36. _Higginson_, 71-72.]

51. The Connecticut Colony.--Besides those Puritans whom the
Massachusetts people drove from their colony there were other settlers
who left Massachusetts of their own free will. Among these were the
founders of Connecticut. The Massachusetts people would gladly have had
them remain, but they were discontented and insisted on going away. They
settled the towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Weathersfield, on the
Connecticut River. At about the same time John Winthrop, Jr., led a
colony to Saybrook, at the mouth of the Connecticut. Up to this time
the Dutch had seemed to have the best chance to settle the Connecticut
Valley. But the control of that region was now definitely in the hands
of the English.

[Sidenote: Destruction of the Pequods, 1637.]

52. The Pequod War, 1637.--The Pequod Indians were not so ready as
the Dutch to admit that resistance was hopeless. They attacked
Wethersfield. They killed several colonists, and carried others away
into captivity. Captain John Mason of Connecticut and Captain John
Underhill of Massachusetts went against them with about one hundred men.
They surprised the Indians in their fort. They set fire to the fort, and
shot down the Indians as they strove to escape from their burning
wigwams. In a short time the Pequod tribe was destroyed.

[Illustration: JOHN WINTHROP, JR.]

[Sidenote: The Connecticut Orders of 1638-39.]

53. The First American Constitution, 1638-39.--The Connecticut
colonists had leisure now to settle the form of their government.
Massachusetts had such a liberal charter that nothing more seemed to be
necessary in that colony. The Mayflower Compact did well enough for the
Pilgrims. The Connecticut people had no charter, and they wanted
something more definite than a vague compact. So in the winter of
1638-39 they met at Hartford and set down on paper a complete set of
rules for their guidance. This was the first time in the history of the
English race that any people had tried to do this. The Connecticut
constitution of 1638-39 is therefore looked upon as "the first truly
political written constitution in history." The government thus
established was very much the same as that of Massachusetts with the
exception that in Connecticut there was no religious condition for the
right to vote as there was in Massachusetts.

[Sidenote: The New Haven settlers.]

[Sidenote: New Haven founded, 1638. _Higginson_, 72-73.]

54. New Haven, 1638.--The settlers of New Haven went even farther
than the Massachusetts rulers and held that the State should really be a
part of the Church. Massachusetts was not entirely to their tastes.
They passed only one winter there and then moved away and settled New
Haven. But this colony was not well situated for commerce, and was too
near the Dutch settlements (p. 41). It was never as prosperous as
Connecticut and was finally joined to that colony.

[Sidenote: Reasons for union.]

[Sidenote: Articles of Confederation, 1643.]

[Sidenote: New England towns. _Higginson_, 47-79.]

55. The New England Confederation, 1643.--Besides the settlements
that have already been described there were colonists living in New
Hampshire and in Maine. Massachusetts included the New Hampshire towns
within her government, for some of those towns were within her limits.
In 1640 the Long Parliament met in England, and in 1645 Oliver Cromwell
and the Puritans destroyed the royal army in the battle of Naseby. In
these troubled times England could do little to protect the New England
colonists, and could do nothing to punish them for acting independently.
The New England colonists were surrounded by foreigners. There were the
French on the north and the east, and the Dutch on the west. The
Indians, too, were living in their midst and might at any time turn on
the whites and kill them. Thinking all these things over, the four
leading colonies decided to join together for protection. They formed
the New England Confederation, and drew up a constitution. The colonists
living in Rhode Island and in Maine did not belong to the Confederation,
but they enjoyed many of the benefits flowing from it; for it was quite
certain that the Indians and the French and the Dutch would think twice
before attacking any of the New England settlements.

[Illustration: A CHILD'S HIGH CHAIR, ABOUT 1650.]

[Sidenote: Education.]

56. Social Conditions.--The New England colonies were all settled
on the town system, for there were no industries which demanded large
plantations--as tobacco-planting. The New Englanders were small farmers,
mechanics, ship-builders, and fishermen. There were few servants in New
England and almost no negro slaves. Most of the laborers were free men
and worked for wages as laborers now do. Above all, the New Englanders
were very zealous in the matter of education. Harvard College was
founded in 1636. A few years later a law was passed compelling every
town to provide schools for all the children in the town.



[Sidenote: The Dutch East India Company.]

57. The Dutch.--At this time the Dutch were the greatest traders
and shipowners in the world. They were especially interested in the
commerce of the East Indies. Indeed, the Dutch India Company was the
most successful trading company in existence. The way to the East
Indies lay through seas carefully guarded by the Portuguese, so the
Dutch India Company hired Henry Hudson, an English sailor, to search for
a new route to India.

[Sidenote: Henry Hudson.]

[Sidenote: He discovers Hudson's River, 1609. _Higginson_, 88-90;
_Explorers_, 281-296.]

[Sidenote: His death. _Explorers_ 296-302.]

58. Hudson's Voyage, 1609.--He set forth in 1609 in the
_Half-Moon_, a stanch little ship. At first he sailed northward, but ice
soon blocked his way. He then sailed southwestward to find a strait,
which was said to lead through America, north of Chesapeake Bay. On
August 3, 1609, he reached the entrance of what is now New York harbor.
Soon the _Half-Moon_ entered the mouth of the river that still bears her
captain's name. Up, up the river she sailed, until finally she came to
anchor near the present site of Albany. The ship's boats sailed even
farther north. Everywhere the country was delightful. The Iroquois came
off to the ship in their canoes. Hudson received them most kindly--quite
unlike the way Champlain treated other Iroquois Indians at about the
same time, on the shore of Lake Champlain (p. 20). Then Hudson sailed
down the river again and back to Europe. He made one later voyage to
America, this time under the English flag. He was turned adrift by his
men in Hudson's Bay, and perished in the cold and ice.

[Sidenote: The Dutch fur-traders.]

[Sidenote: Settle on Manhattan Island.]

[Sidenote: New Netherland.]

59. The Dutch Fur-Traders.--Hudson's failure to find a new way to
India made the Dutch India Company lose interest in American
exploration. But many Dutch merchants were greatly interested in
Hudson's account of the "Great River of the Mountain." They thought
that they could make money from trading for furs with the Indians. They
sent many expeditions to Hudson's River, and made a great deal of money.
Some of their captains explored the coast northward and southward as far
as Boston harbor and Delaware Bay. Their principal trading-posts were on
Manhattan Island, and near the site of Albany. In 1614 some of the
leading traders obtained from the Dutch government the sole right to
trade between New France and Virginia. They called this region New

[Sidenote: The Dutch West India Company, 1621. _Higginson_, 90-96;
_Explorers_, 303-307; _Source-book_, 42-44.]

[Sidenote: The patroons, 1628.]

60. The Founding of New Netherland.--In 1621 the Dutch West India
Company was founded. Its first object was trade, but it also was
directed "to advance the peopling" of the American lands claimed by the
Dutch. Colonists now came over; they settled at New Amsterdam, on the
southern end of Manhattan Island, and also on the western end of Long
Island. By 1628 there were four hundred colonists in New Netherland. But
the colony did not grow rapidly, so the Company tried to interest rich
men in the scheme of colonization, by giving them large tracts of land
and large powers of government. These great land owners were called
patroons. Most of them were not very successful. Indeed, the whole plan
was given up before long, and land was given to any one who would come
out and settle.


[Sidenote: Governor Kieft.]

[Sidenote: Kieft orders the Indians to be killed.]

[Sidenote: Results of the massacre.]

61. Kieft and the Indians, 1643-44.--The worst of the early Dutch
governors was William Kieft (Keeft). He was a bankrupt and a thief, who
was sent to New Netherland in the hope that he would reform. At first he
did well and put a stop to the smuggling and cheating which were common
in the colony. Emigrants came over in large numbers, and everything
seemed to be going on well when Kieft's brutality brought on an Indian
war that nearly destroyed the colony. The Indians living near New
Amsterdam sought shelter from the Iroquois on the mainland opposite
Manhattan Island. Kieft thought it would be a grand thing to kill all
these Indian neighbors while they were collected together. He sent a
party of soldiers across the river and killed many of them. The result
was a fierce war with all the neighboring tribes. The Dutch colonists
were driven from their farms. Even New Amsterdam with its stockade was
not safe. For the Indians sometimes came within the stockade and killed
the people in the town. When there were less than two hundred people
left in New Amsterdam, Kieft was recalled, and Peter Stuyvesant was sent
as governor in his stead.

[Sidenote: Peter Stuyvesant. _Higginson_, 97.]

62. Stuyvesant's Rule.--Stuyvesant was a hot-tempered, energetic
soldier who had lost a leg in the Company's service. He ruled New
Netherland for a long time, from 1647 to 1664. And he ruled so sternly
that the colonists were glad when the English came and conquered them.
This unpopularity was not entirely Stuyvesant's fault. The Dutch West
India Company was a failure. It had no money to spend for the defence of
the colonists, and Stuyvesant was obliged to lay heavy taxes on
the people.

[Sidenote: The Swedes on the Delaware. _Higginson_, 106-108.]

[Sidenote: Stuyvesant conquers them.]

63. New Sweden.--When the French, the English, and the Dutch were
founding colonies in America, the Swedes also thought that they might as
well have a colony there too. They had no claim to any land in America.
But Swedish armies were fighting the Dutchmen's battles in Europe. So
the Swedes sent out a colony to settle on lands claimed by the Dutch.
As long as the European war went on, the Swedes were not interfered
with. But when the European war came to an end, Stuyvesant was told to
conquer them. This he did without much trouble, as he had about as many
soldiers as there were Swedish colonists. In this way New Sweden became
a part of New Netherland.

[Sidenote: Summary.]

[Sidenote: The Chesapeake Colonies.]

[Sidenote: The New England Colonies.]

64. Summary.--We have seen how the French, the Dutch, the Swedish,
and the English colonies were established on the Atlantic seashore and
in the St. Lawrence valley. South of these settlements there was the
earlier Spanish colony at St. Augustine. The Spanish colonists were very
few in number, but they gave Spain a claim to Florida. The Swedish
colony had been absorbed by the stronger Dutch colony. We have also seen
how very unlike were the two English groups of colonies. They were both
settled by Englishmen, but there the likeness stops. For Virginia and
Maryland were slave colonies. They produced large crops of tobacco. The
New England colonists on the other hand were practically all free. They
lived in towns and engaged in all kinds of industries. In the next
hundred years we shall see how the English conquered first the Dutch and
then the French; how they planted colonies far to the south of Virginia
and in these ways occupied the whole coast north of Florida.



§§ 26, 27.--_a_. Mark on a map all the places mentioned in these

_b_. Describe Champlain's attacks on the Iroquois.

§§ 28-30.--_a_. Compare the reasons for the coming of the French and the

_b_. What work did the Jesuits do for the Indians?

_c_. Explain carefully why the hostility of the Iroquois to the French
was so important.


§§ 31, 32.--_a_. Give two reasons for the revival of English colonial

_b_. Describe the voyage and early experiences of the Virginia

_c_. Give three reasons for the sufferings of the Virginia colonists.

§§ 33-35.--_a_. What do you think of Sir Thomas Dale?

_b_. To what was the prosperity of Virginia due? Why?

_c_. What classes of people were there in Virginia?

§§ 36-38.--_a_. What is the meaning of the word "Puritan" (see § 43)?
Why is Sir Edwin Sandys regarded as the founder of free government in
the English colonies?

_b_. Describe the laws of Virginia as to Roman Catholics and Puritans.

§§ 39-41.--_a_. Describe Lord Baltimore's treatment of his settlers.
What do you think of the wisdom of his actions?

_b_. How were Roman Catholics treated in England?

_c_. What is meant by toleration? Who would be excluded by the Maryland
Toleration Act?

_d_. Describe the likenesses and the differences between Virginia and


§§ 42-47.--_a_. Describe the voyage of the _Mayflower_.

_b_. What was the object of the Mayflower Compact?

_c_. Describe the Pilgrims' search for a place of settlement.

_d_. Read Bradford's account of the first winter at Plymouth.

_e_. What did Squanto do for the Pilgrims?

§§ 48-50.--_a_. What advantages did the founders of Massachusetts have
over those of New Plymouth?

_b_. Look up the history of England, 1630-40, and say why so many
colonists came to New England in those years.

_c_. On what matters did Roger Williams disagree with the rulers of

_d_. How are Williams's ideas as to religious freedom regarded now?

_e_. Why was Mrs. Hutchinson expelled from Massachusetts?

§§ 51-54.--_a_. How did the Pequod War affect the colonists on the

_b_. What is a constitution? Why did the Connecticut people feel the
need of one? Why is the Connecticut constitution famous?

_c_. Why did the New Haven settlers found a separate colony?

§§ 55, 56.--_a_. What two parties were fighting in England?

_b_. Give all the reasons for the formation of the New England
Confederation. What were the effects of this union?

_c_. Compare the industries of New England with those of Virginia.


§§ 57-59.--_a_. Why did the Dutch East India Company wish a northern
route to India?

_b_. Describe Hudson's and Champlain's expeditions, and compare their
treatment of the Iroquois.

_c_. What attracted the Dutch to the region discovered by Hudson?

§§ 60-62.--_a_. What was the object of the Dutch West India Company?
What privileges did the patroons have?

_b_. Describe the career of Kieft. What were the results of his
treatment of the Indians?

_c_. What kind of a governor was Stuyvesant? Why was he unpopular?

§ 63.--_a_. In what European war were the Swedes and the Dutch engaged?

_b_. On what land did the Swedes settle?

_c_. Describe how New Sweden was joined to New Netherland.


_a_. Mark on a map in colors the lands settled by the different European

_b_. Note the position of the Dutch with reference to the English, and
explain the importance of such position.

_c_. Give one fact about each of the colonies, and state why you think
it important.

_d_. Give one fact which especially interests you in connection with
each colony, and explain your interest.

_e_. In which colony would you have liked to live, and why?


_a_. Champlain's place in American history (Parkman's _Pioneers_).

_b_. The First American Legislature and its work (Hart's
_Contemporaries_, I., No. 65).

_c_. Why did the Pilgrims come to America? (Bradford's _Plymouth_).

_d_. Arrange a table of the several settlements similar to that
described on page 18.

_e_. Write a composition on life in early colonial days (Eggleston's
_United States_, 91-113).


In treating this chapter aim to make clear the reasons for and
conditions of the settlement of each colony. Vividness can best be
obtained by a study of the writings of the time, especially of
Bradford's _History of Plymouth_. Use pictures in every possible way and
molding board as well.

Emphasize the lack of true liberty of thought, and lead the children to
understand that persecution was a characteristic of the time and not a
failing of any particular colony or set of colonists.


HISTORY, 1660-1760

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Fiske's _United States for Schools_ 133-180;
McMaster's _School History_, 93-108 (life in 1763); _Source-Book_, ch.
vii; Fisher's _Colonial Era_; Earle's _Child Life_.

Home Readings.--Parkman's _Montcalm and Wolfe_; Franklin's
_Autobiography_; Brooks's _In Leisler's Times_; Coffin's _Old Times in
the Colonies_; Cooper's _Last of the Mohicans_; Scudder's _Men and
Manners One Hundred Years Ago_.



[Sidenote: The Puritan in England. Higginson and Channing, _English
History for Americans_, 182-195.]

[Sidenote: The Colonies, 1649-60.]

65. The Puritans and the Colonists, 1649-60.--In 1649 Charles I was
executed, and for eleven years the Puritans were supreme in England.
During this time the New England colonists governed themselves, and paid
little heed to the wishes and orders of England's rulers. After some
hesitation, the Virginians accepted the authority of Cromwell and the
Puritans. In return they were allowed to govern themselves. In Maryland
the Puritans overturned Baltimore's governor and ruled the province for
some years.

[Sidenote: The Restoration, 1660. _English History for Americans_, 196.]

[Sidenote: The Navigation Laws.]

66. Colonial Policy of Charles II.--In 1660 Charles II became king
of England or was "restored" to the throne, as people said at the time.
Almost at once there was a great revival of interest in colonization,
and the new government interfered vigorously in colonial affairs. In
1651 the Puritans had begun the system of giving the English trade only
to English merchants and shipowners. This system was now extended, and
the more important colonial products could be carried only to
English ports.

[Sidenote: Charles II and Massachusetts.]

[Sidenote: Massachusetts and the Quakers. _Higginson_, 80-81.]

67. Attacks on Massachusetts.--The new government was especially
displeased by the independent spirit shown by Massachusetts. Only good
Puritans could vote in that colony, and members of the Church of England
could not even worship as they wished. The Massachusetts people paid no
heed whatever to the navigation laws and asserted that acts of
Parliament had no force in the colony. It chanced that at this time
Massachusetts had placed herself clearly in the wrong by hanging four
persons for no other reason than that they were Quakers. The English
government thought that now the time had come to assert its power. It
ordered the Massachusetts rulers to send other Quakers to England for
trial. But, when this order reached Massachusetts, there were no Quakers
in prison awaiting trial, and none were ever sent to England.

[Sidenote: Charters of Connecticut and Rhode Island, 1662-63.]

[Sidenote: New Haven absorbed by Connecticut.]

68. Connecticut and Rhode Island.--While the English government was
attacking Massachusetts it was giving most liberal charters to
Connecticut and to Rhode Island. Indeed, these charters were so liberal
that they remained the constitutions of the states of Connecticut and
Rhode Island until long after the American Revolution. The Connecticut
charter included New Haven within the limits of the larger colony and
thus put an end to the separate existence of New Haven.


[Sidenote: The English conquest of New Netherland, 1664. _Higginson_.

69. Conquest of New Netherland, 1664.--The English government now
determined to conquer New Netherland. An English fleet sailed to New
Amsterdam. Stuyvesant thumped up and down on his wooden leg. But he was
almost the only man in New Amsterdam who wanted to fight. He soon
surrendered, and New Netherland became an English colony. The Dutch
later recaptured it and held it for a time; but in 1674 they finally
handed it over to England.

[Sidenote: New Netherland given to the Duke of York and Albany.]

70. New York.--Even before the colony was seized in 1664, Charles
II gave it away to his brother James, Duke of York and Albany, who
afterward became king as James II. The name of New Netherland was
therefore changed to New York, and the principal towns were also named
in his honor, New York and Albany. Little else was changed in the
colony. The Dutch were allowed to live very nearly as they had lived
before, and soon became even happier and more contented than they had
been under Dutch rule. Many English settlers now came in. The colony
became rich and prosperous, but the people had little to do with their
own government.

[Sidenote: Origin of New Jersey, 1664.]

[Sidenote: Settlement of New Jersey.]

71. New Jersey.--No sooner had James received New Netherland from
his brother than he hastened to give some of the best portions of it to
two faithful friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley. Their
territory extended from New York harbor to the Delaware River, and was
named New Jersey in honor of Carteret's defense of the island of Jersey
against the Puritans. Colonists at once began coming to the new province
and settled at Elizabethtown.

[Sidenote: East and West Jersey.]

[Sidenote: Prosperity.]

72. Later New Jersey.--Soon New Jersey was divided into two parts,
East Jersey and West Jersey. West Jersey belonged to Lord Berkeley and
he sold it to the Quakers. Not very many years later the Quakers also
bought East Jersey. The New Jersey colonists were always getting into
disputes with one another, so they asked Queen Anne to take charge of
the government of the province. This she did by telling the governor of
New York to govern New Jersey also. This was not what the Jersey people
had expected. But they had their own legislature. In time also they
secured a governor all to themselves and became a royal province
entirely separate from New York. Pennsylvania and New York protected the
Jersey people from the French and the Indians, and provided markets for
the products of the Jersey farms. The colonists were industrious and
their soil was fertile. They were very religious and paid great
attention to education. New Jersey became very prosperous and so
continued until the Revolution.

[Sidenote: Founding of Carolina, 1663. _Higginson_, 124-127.]

73. The Founding of Carolina.--The planting of New Jersey was not
the only colonial venture of Carteret and Berkeley. With Lord Chancellor
Clarendon and other noblemen they obtained from Charles land in southern
Virginia extending southward into Spanish Florida. This great territory
was named Carolina.

[Sidenote: Northern Carolina.]

[Sidenote: Southern Carolina.]

74. The Carolina Colonists.--In 1663, when the Carolina charter was
granted, there were a few settlers living in the northern part of the
colony. Other colonists came from outside mainly from the Barbadoes and
settled on the Cape Fear River. In this way was formed a colony in
northern Carolina. But the most important settlement was in the southern
part of the province at Charleston. Southern Carolina at once became
prosperous. This was due to the fact that the soil and climate of that
region were well suited to the cultivation of rice. The rice swamps
brought riches to the planters, they also compelled the employment of
large numbers of negro slaves. Before long, indeed, there were more
negroes than whites in southern Carolina. In this way there grew up two
distinct centers of colonial life in the province.

[Illustration: Southern Carolina.]

[Sidenote: Indian war.]

[Sidenote: Bacon's Rebellion, 1676.]

75. Bacon's Rebellion, 1676.--By this time the Virginians had
become very discontented. There had been no election to the colonial
assembly since 1660 and Governor Berkeley was very tyrannical. The
Virginians also wanted more churches and more schools. To add to these
causes of discontent the Indians now attacked the settlers, and Berkeley
seemed to take very little interest in protecting the Virginians. Led by
Nathaniel Bacon the colonists marched to Jamestown and demanded
authority to go against the Indians. Berkeley gave Bacon a commission.
But, as soon as Bacon left Jamestown on his expedition, Berkeley
declared that he was a rebel. Bacon returned, and Berkeley fled. Bacon
marched against the Indians again, and Berkeley came back, and so the
rebellion went on until Bacon died. Berkeley then captured the other
leaders one after another and hanged them. But when he returned to
England, Charles II turned his back to him, saying, "The old fool has
killed more men in Virginia than I for the murder of my father."

[Illustration: THE HOUSE IN WHICH NATHANIEL BACON DIED. From an original

[Sidenote: Greedy Governors.]

[Sidenote: Founding of William and Mary College, 1691.]

76. Virginia after Bacon's Rebellion.--The Virginians were now
handed over to a set of greedy governors. Some of them came to America
to make their fortunes. But some of them were governors whom the people
of other colonies would not have. The only event of importance in the
history of the colony during the next twenty-five years was the founding
of William and Mary College (1691) at Williamsburg. It was the second
oldest college in the English colonies.


[Sidenote: King Philip's War, 1675-76. _Higginson_, 137-138;
_Eggleston_, 81-89.]

77. King Philip's War, 1675-76.--It was not only in Virginia and
Maryland that the Indians were restless at this time. In New England
also they attacked the whites. They were led by Massasoit's son, King
Philip, an able and far-seeing man. He saw with dismay how rapidly the
whites were driving the Indians away from their hunting-grounds. The
Indians burned the English villages on the frontier and killed hundreds
of the settlers. The strongest chief to join Philip was Canonchet of
the Narragansetts. The colonial soldiers stormed his fort and killed a
thousand Indian warriors. Before long King Philip himself was killed,
and the war slowly came to an end.

[Sidenote: William Penn.]

[Sidenote: The Pennsylvania Charter, 1681.]

78. William Penn.--Among the greatest Englishmen of that time was
William Penn. He was a Quaker and was also a friend of Charles II and
James, Duke of York. He wished to found a colony in which he and the
Quakers could work out their ideas in religious and civil matters. It
chanced that Charles owed Penn a large sum of money. As Charles seldom
had any money, he was very glad to give Penn instead a large tract of
land in America. In this way Penn obtained Pennsylvania. James, for his
part, gave him Delaware.

[Sidenote: Settlement of Pennsylvania, 1682. _Higginson_, 101-105;
_Eggleston_, 57-60; _Source-Book_, 67-69.]

79. Founding of Pennsylvania, 1682.--William Penn had a great
reputation for honesty and fair dealing among the English Quakers and
among the Quakers on the continent of Europe as well. As soon as it was
known that he was to found a colony, great numbers of persons came to
Pennsylvania from England and from Germany. In a very short time the
colony became strong and prosperous. In the first place, the soil of
Pennsylvania was rich and productive while its climate was well suited
to the growth of grain. In the second place, Penn was very liberal to
his colonists. He gave them a large share in the government of the
province and he allowed no religious persecution. He also insisted on
fair and honest dealing with the Indians.

[Sidenote: Mason and Dixon's line.]

[Sidenote: Its importance in history.]

80. Mason and Dixon's Line.--In the seventeenth century the
geography of America was very little understood in Europe--and the
persons who drew up colonial charters understood it least of all.
Charter lines frequently overlapped and were often very indistinct. This
was particularly true of the Maryland and Pennsylvania boundaries. Penn
and Baltimore tried to come to an agreement; but they never could agree.
Years afterward, when they were both dead, their heirs agreed to have a
line drawn without much regard to the charters. This line was finally
surveyed by two English engineers, Mason and Dixon, and is always
called after their names. It is the present boundary line between
Pennsylvania and Maryland. In colonial days it separated the colonies
where slavery was the rule from those where labor was generally free. In
the first half of the nineteenth century it separated the free states
from the slave states. Mason and Dixon's line, therefore, has been a
famous line in the history of the United States.



[Sidenote: New policy of the Stuarts.]

[Sidenote: Reasons for the new policy.]

81. The Stuart Tyranny.--Instead of admiring the growth of the
colonies in strength and in liberty, Charles and James saw it with
dismay. The colonies were becoming too strong and too free. They
determined to reduce all the colonies to royal provinces, like
Virginia--with the exception of Pennsylvania which belonged to their
friend, William Penn. There was a good deal to be said in favor of this
plan, for the colonists were so jealous of each other that they would
not unite against the French or the Indians. If the governments were all
in the hands of the king, the whole strength of the British colonies
could be used against any enemy of England.

[Sidenote: End of the Massachusetts Company, 1684.]

[Sidenote: Governor Andros of New England, 1688.]

82. The Stuart Tyranny in New England.--The Massachusetts charter
was now taken away, and Sir Edmund Andros was sent over to govern the
colony. He was ordered to make laws and to tax the people without asking
their consent. He did as he was ordered to do. He set up the Church of
England. He taxed the people. He even took their lands from them, on the
ground that the grants from the old Massachusetts government were of no
value. When one man pointed to the magistrates' signatures to his grant,
Andros told him that their names were worth no more than a scratch with
a bear's paw. He also enforced the navigation laws and took possession
of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Plymouth. At the same time he was
also governor of New Hampshire and of New York.


[Sidenote: Flight of James II.]

[Sidenote: Rebellion against Andros, 1689.]

83. The "Glorious Revolution" in America, 1689.--By this time
Charles was dead, and James was King of England. The English people did
not like James any better than the New Englanders liked Andros. In 1688
they rebelled and made William of Orange and his wife Mary, James's
eldest daughter, King and Queen of England. On their part, the
Massachusetts colonists seized Andros and his followers and shut them up
in prison (April 18, 1689). The people of Connecticut and Rhode Island
turned out Andros's agents and set up their old governments. In New
York also Andros's deputy governor was expelled, and the people took
control of affairs until the king and queen should send out a governor.
Indeed, all the colonies, except Maryland, declared for William
and Mary.

[Sidenote: Policy of William and Mary.]

[Sidenote: The Massachusetts Province charter, 1691.]

84. The New Arrangements.--For a year or two William was very busy
in Ireland and on the continent. At length he had time to attend to
colonial affairs. He appointed royal governors for both Pennsylvania and
Maryland. William Penn soon had his colony given back to him; but the
Baltimores had to wait many years before they recovered Maryland. In New
York there was a dreadful tragedy. For the new governor, Slaughter, was
persuaded to order the execution of the leaders in the rising against
Andros. Massachusetts did not get her old charter back, but she got
another charter. This provided that the king should appoint the
governor, but the people should elect a House of Representatives. The
most important result of this new arrangement was a series of disputes
between the king's governor and the people's representatives. Maine and
New Plymouth were included in Massachusetts under the new charter. But
New Hampshire remained a royal province.

[Sidenote: Prosperity of the colonies, 1700-60.]

85. The Colonies, 1700-60.--During these years immigrants thronged
to America, and the colonies became constantly stronger. Commerce
everywhere developed, and many manufactures were established.
Throughout the colonies the people everywhere gained power, and had it
not been for the French and Indian wars they would have been happy.
Aside from these wars the most important events of these years were the
overthrow of the Carolina proprietors and the founding of Georgia.

[Illustration: Carolina Rice Fields.]

[Sidenote: Bad government of the Carolina proprietors.]

[Sidenote: Rebellion in Carolina, 1719.]

[Sidenote: North and South Carolina.]

86. North and South Carolina.--The Carolina proprietors and their
colonists had never got on well together. They now got on worse than
ever. The greater part of the colonists were not members of the
Established Church; but the proprietors tried to take away the right to
vote from all persons who were not of that faith. They also interfered
in elections, and tried to prevent the formation of a true
representative assembly. They could not protect the people against the
pirates who blockaded Charleston for weeks at a time. In 1719 the people
of Charleston rebelled. The king then interfered, and appointed a royal
governor. Later he bought out the rights of the proprietors. In this way
Carolina became a royal province. It was soon divided into two
provinces, North Carolina and South Carolina. But there had always been
two separate colonies in Carolina (p. 52).

[Sidenote: General Oglethorpe.]

[Sidenote: Grant of Georgia, 1732.]

87. Founding of Georgia, 1732.--In those days it was the custom in
England to send persons who could not pay their debts to prison. Of
course many of these poor debtors were really industrious persons whom
misfortune or sickness had driven into debt. General Oglethorpe, a
member of Parliament, looked into the prison management. He was greatly
affected by the sad fate of these poor debtors, and determined to do
something for them. With a number of charitable persons he obtained a
part of South Carolina for a colony, and named it Georgia for George II,
who gave the land. Parliament also gave money. For the government
thought it very desirable to have a colony between the rich plantations
of Carolina and the Spanish settlements in Florida.

[Sidenote: Settlement of Georgia, 1733. _Higginson_, 127-130;
_Eggleston_, 62-65; _Source-Book_, 71-73.]

[Sidenote: Progress of the colony.]

88. Georgia, 1733-52.--Naturally Oglethorpe had no difficulty in
getting colonists. For the poor debtors and other oppressed persons were
very glad to have a new start in life. Savannah was founded in 1733. The
Spaniards, however, were not at all glad to have an English colony
planted so near Florida. They attacked the Georgians, and Oglethorpe
spent years in fighting them. The Georgia colonists found it very
difficult to compete with the Carolina planters. For the Carolinians had
slaves to work for them, and the proprietors of Georgia would not let
the Georgians own slaves. Finally they gave way and permitted the
colonists to own slaves. But this so disheartened the Georgia
proprietors that they gave up the enterprise and handed the colony over
to the king. In this way Georgia became a royal province.



[Sidenote: Louis of France and William of Orange.]

89. Causes of the French Wars.--At the time of the "Glorious
Revolution" (p. 58) James II found refuge with Louis XIV, King of
France. William and Louis had already been fighting, and it was easy
enough to see that if William became King of England he would be very
much more powerful than he was when he was only Prince of Orange. So
Louis took up the cause of James and made war on the English and the
Dutch. The conflict soon spread across the Atlantic.

[Sidenote: Disadvantages of the English colonists.]

[Sidenote: Advantages of the French colonists.]

90. Strength of the Combatants.--At first sight it might seem as if
the English colonists were much stronger than the French colonists. They
greatly outnumbered the French. They were much more prosperous and
well-to-do. But their settlements were scattered over a great extent of
seacoast from the Kennebec to the Savannah. Their governments were more
or less free. But this very freedom weakened them for war. The French
colonial government was a despotism directed from France. Whatever
resources the French had in America were certain to be well used.


[Sidenote: King William's War, 1689-97. _Eggleston_, 122-123.]

91. King William's War, 1689-97.--The Iroquois began this war by
destroying Montreal. The next winter the French invaded New York. They
captured Schenectady and killed nearly all the inhabitants. Other bands
destroyed New England towns and killed or drove away their inhabitants.
The English, on their part, seized Port Royal in Acadia, but they failed
in an attempt against Quebec. In 1697 this war came to an end. Acadia
was given back to the French, and nothing was gained by all the
bloodshed and suffering.

[Sidenote: Queen Anne's War, 1701-13. _Higginson_, 143-147;
_Source-Book_, 98-100.]

92. Queen Anne's War, 1701-13.--In 1701 the conflict began again.
It lasted for twelve years, until 1713. It was in this war that the Duke
of Marlborough won the battle of Blenheim and made for himself a great
reputation. In America the French and Indians made long expeditions to
New England. The English colonists again attacked Quebec and again
failed. In one thing, however, they were successful. They again seized
Port Royal. This time the English kept Port Royal and all Acadia. Port
Royal they called Annapolis, and the name of Acadia was changed to
Nova Scotia.

[Sidenote: King George's War, 1744-48.]

93. King George's War, 1744-48.--From 1713 until 1744 there was no
war between the English and the French. But in 1744 fighting began again
in earnest. The French and Indians attacked the New England frontier
towns and killed many people. But the New Englanders, on their part, won
a great success. After the French lost Acadia they built a strong
fortress on the island of Cape Breton. To this they gave the name of
Louisburg. The New Englanders fitted out a great expedition and captured
Louisburg without much help from the English. But at the close of the
war (1748) the fortress was given back to the French, to the disgust of
the New Englanders.

[Sidenote: La Salle on the Mississippi, 1681.]

[Sidenote: _McMaster_, 62-65; _Source-book_, 96-98.]

94. The French in the Mississippi Valley.--The Spaniards had
discovered the Mississippi and had explored its lower valley. But they
had found no gold there and had abandoned the country. It was left for
French explorers more than one hundred years later to rediscover the
great river and to explore it from its upper waters to the Gulf of
Mexico. The first Frenchman to sail down the river to its mouth was La
Salle. In 1681, with three canoes, he floated down the Mississippi,
until he reached a place where the great river divided into three large
branches. He sent one canoe down each branch. Returning, they all
reported that they had reached the open sea.

[Sidenote: La Salle attempts to found a colony. _McMaster_, 79-80.]

[Sidenote: Louisiana settled, 1699.]

95. Founding of Louisiana.--La Salle named this immense region
Louisiana in honor of the French king. He soon led an expedition to
plant a colony on the banks of the Mississippi. Sailing into the Gulf of
Mexico, he missed the mouth of the Mississippi and landed on the coast
of Texas. Misfortune after misfortune now fell on the unhappy
expedition. La Salle was murdered, the stores were destroyed, the
Spaniards and Indians came and killed or captured nearly all the
colonists. A few only gained the Mississippi and made their way to
Canada. In 1699, another French expedition appeared in the Gulf of
Mexico. This time the mouth of the Mississippi was easily discovered.
But the colonists settled on the shores of Mobile Bay. It was not until
1718 that New Orleans was founded.

[Sidenote: The French on the Ohio, 1749. _McMaster_, 82-86.]

[Sidenote: The English Ohio Company, 1750.]

96. Struggle for the Ohio Valley.--At the close of King George's
War the French set to work to connect the settlements in Louisiana with
those on the St. Lawrence. In 1749 French explorers gained the Alleghany
River from Lake Erie and went down the Ohio as far as the Miami. The
next year (1750) King George gave a great tract of land on the Ohio
River to an association of Virginians, who formed the Ohio Company. The
struggle for the Ohio Valley had fairly begun. Governor Dinwiddie of
Virginia learned that the French were building forts on the Ohio, and
sent them a letter protesting against their so doing. The bearer of this
letter was George Washington, a young Virginia surveyor.

[Sidenote: George Washington. Scudder's _Washington; Hero Tales_ 1-15.]

[Sidenote: He warns the French to leave the Ohio.]

97. George Washington.--Of an old Virginia family, George
Washington grew up with the idea that he must earn his own living. His
father was a well-to-do planter. But Augustine Washington was the eldest
son, and, as was the custom then in Virginia, he inherited most of the
property. Augustine Washington was very kind to his younger brother, and
gave him a good practical education as a land surveyor. The younger man
was a bold athlete and fond of studying military campaigns. He was full
of courage, industrious, honest, and of great common sense. Before he
was twenty he had surveyed large tracts of wilderness, and had done his
work well amidst great difficulties. When Dinwiddie wanted a messenger
to take his letter to the French commander on the Ohio, George
Washington's employer at once suggested him as the best person to send
on the dangerous journey.

[Sidenote: The French build Fort Duquesne.]

[Sidenote: Washington's first military expedition, 1754.]

98. Fort Duquesne.--Instead of heeding Dinwiddie's warning, the
French set to work to build Fort Duquesne (Dü-kan') at the spot where
the Alleghany and Monongahela join to form the Ohio,--on the site of
the present city of Pittsburg. Dinwiddie therefore sent Washington with
a small force of soldiers to drive them away. But the French were too
strong for Washington. They besieged him in Fort Necessity and compelled
him to surrender (July 4, 1754).

[Illustration: BRADDOCK'S CAMPAIGN.]

[Sidenote: Braddock's expedition, 1755. _Higginson_, 152-154;
_Eggleston_, 129-131; _Source-book_, 103-105.]

99. Braddock's Defeat, 1755.--The English government now sent
General Braddock with a small army of regular soldiers to Virginia.
Slowly and painfully Braddock marched westward. Learning of his
approach, the French and Indians left Fort Duquesne to draw him into
ambush. But the two forces came together before either party was
prepared for battle. For some time the contest was even, then the
regulars broke and fled. Braddock was fatally wounded. With great skill,
Washington saved the survivors,--but not until four shots had pierced
his coat and only thirty of his three companies of Virginians were
left alive.

[Sidenote: The French and Indian War.]

[Sidenote: William Pitt, war minister, 1757.]

100. The War to 1759.--All the earlier French and Indian wars had
begun in Europe and had spread to America. This war began in America and
soon spread to Europe. At first affairs went very ill. But in 1757
William Pitt became the British war minister, and the war began to be
waged with vigor and success. The old generals were called home, and new
men placed in command. In 1758 Amherst and Wolfe captured Louisburg, and
Forbes, greatly aided by Washington, seized Fort Duquesne. Bradstreet
captured Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario. There was only one bad
failure, that of Abercrombie at Ticonderoga. But the next year Amherst
captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point and opened the way to Canada by
Lake Champlain.

[Illustration: WOLFE'S RAVINE. This shows the gradual ascent of the path
from the river to the top of the bluff.]

[Sidenote: Capture of Quebec, 1759. _Higginson_, 154-156; _Eggleston_,
137-139; _Source-Book_, 105-107.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Quebec.]

101. Capture of Quebec, 1759.--Of all the younger generals James
Wolfe was foremost. To him was given the task of capturing Quebec.
Seated on a high bluff, Quebec could not be captured from the river. The
only way to approach it was to gain the Plains of Abraham in its rear
and besiege it on the land side. Again and again Wolfe sent his men to
storm the bluffs below the town. Every time they failed. Wolfe felt that
he must give up the task, when he was told that a path led from the
river to the top of the bluff above the town. Putting his men into
boats, they gained the path in the darkness of night. There was a guard
at the top of the bluff, but the officer in command was a coward and ran
away. In the morning the British army was drawn up on the Plains of
Abraham. The French now attacked the British, and a fierce battle took
place. The result was doubtful when Wolfe led a charge at the head of
the Louisburg Grenadiers. He was killed, but the French were beaten.
Five days later Quebec surrendered. Montreal was captured in 1760, and
in 1763 the war came to an end.

[Sidenote: Peace of Paris, 1763.]

102. Peace of Paris, 1763.--By this great treaty, or set of
treaties, the French withdrew from the continent of North America. To
Spain, who had lost Florida, the French gave the island of New Orleans
and all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi. To Great Britain the
French gave up all the rest of their American possessions except two
small islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Spain, on her part, gave up
Florida to the British. There were now practically only two powers in
America,--the British in the eastern part of the continent, and the
Spaniards west of the Mississippi. The Spaniards also owned the island
of New Orleans and controlled both sides of the river for more than a
hundred miles from its mouth. But the treaty gave the British the free
navigation of the Mississippi throughout its length.



§§ 65, 66.--_a_. What government did England have after the execution of
Charles I? Give three facts about Cromwell.

_b_. How did the accession of Charles II affect the colonies?

_c_. What laws were made about the commerce of the colonies?

§ 67.--_a_. How did the new government of England regard Massachusetts?

_b_. Describe the treatment of the Quakers in Massachusetts.

§ 68.--_a_. Describe the charters given to Connecticut and Rhode Island.
Why did Connecticut need a charter when she already had a constitution?

_b_. What other colony was united with Connecticut?

§§ 69,70.--_a_. Why did England wish to conquer New Netherland? Why did
not the people of New Amsterdam wish to fight the English?

_b_. To whom did Charles give this territory?

§§ 71, 72.--_a_. Mark on a map the position of New Jersey.

_b_. Describe the division of New Jersey and its sale to the Quakers.

_c_. Why was the colony prosperous?

§§ 73, 74.--_a_. Describe the founding of Carolina.

_b_. Describe northern and southern Carolina, and note the differences
between them.

§§ 75, 76.--_a_. What complaints did the people of Virginia make? Was
Bacon a rebel?

_b_. Describe the later government of Virginia.

_c_. Why was the founding of William and Mary College important?

§ 77.--_a_. What was the cause of King Philip's War?

_b_. What were the results of the war?

§§ 78-80.--_a_. Find out three facts about the early life of William
Penn. Why did colonists come to Pennsylvania?

_b_. What trouble arose with Maryland about the boundary line?

_c_. How was Mason and Dixon's line famous later?


§§ 81-84.--_a_. Why did Charles and James dislike the growing liberty of
the colonies?

_b_. What changes did Andros make in New England?

_c_. Describe the "Glorious Revolution" in America.

_d_. What changes did William and Mary make in the colonial governments?

§§ 85-88.--_a_. How did the Carolina proprietors treat their colonists?
What was the result of their actions?

_b_. Explain the reasons for the founding of Georgia.


§§ 89,90.--_a_. Compare the strength of the English and French colonies.
What is a "despotism"?

_b_. Draw a map showing the position of the English and French colonies.

§§ 91-93.--_a_. Mark on a map all the places mentioned in the text.

_b_. Describe the expedition against Louisburg.

_c_. What was the result of these wars?

§§ 94-97.--_a_. Which country, England, France, or Spain, had the best
claim to the Mississippi valley? Why?

_b_. Follow route of La Salle on a map, marking each place mentioned.
Describe the settlement of Louisiana.

_c_. Why did the struggle between England and France begin in the Ohio

_d_. Describe Washington's early training.

§§ 98-101.--_a_. Where was Fort Duquesne? Why was its position
important? Describe Braddock's expedition and trace his route.

_b_. Mark on a map the important routes to Canada.

_c_. Describe the capture of Quebec. Why was it important?

§ 102.--_a_. What territory did England gain in 1763? What did Spain
gain? What did France lose?

_b_. What was the great question settled by this war?


_a_. Were the New England colonies difficult to govern? Why?

_b_. In what respects were the colonial governments alike? In what
respects were they unlike?

_c_. What events in any colony have shown that its people desired more


_a_. The Revolution of 1688 in England and America.

_b_. Write an account of the life of a boy or girl in any colony; tell
about the house, furniture, dress, school, and if a journey to another
colony is made, how it is made and what is seen on the way.

_c_. Arrange a table similar to that described on p. 18.


In this period the growing difficulties between England and the colonies
can be traced--especially in commercial affairs and in governmental
institutions. Thus many of the causes of the Revolution may be brought
out as well as the difficulties in the way of colonial union. This may
be emphasized by noting the difference between the English and
French colonies.

ACCORDING TO THE TREATY IN 1763, By Peter Bell, Geographer, 1772.]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Fiske's _War of Independence_, 39-86; Scudder's
_George Washington_; Lossing's _Field-Book of the Revolution; English
History for Americans_, 244-284 (English political history).

Home Readings.--Irving's _Washington_ (abridged edition); Cooke's
_Stories of the Old Dominion_; Cooper's _Lionel Lincoln_; Longfellow's
_Paul Revere's Ride_.



[Sidenote: England's early liberal colonial policy.]

[Sidenote: England's changed colonial policy.]

103. Early Colonial Policy.--At the outset, England's rulers had
been very kind to Englishmen who founded colonies. They gave them great
grants of land. They gave them rights of self-government greater than
any Englishmen living in England enjoyed. They allowed them to manage
their own trade and industries as they saw fit. They even permitted them
to worship God as their consciences told them to worship him. But, as
the colonists grew in strength and in riches, Britain's rulers tried to
make their trade profitable to British merchants and interfered in
their government. On their part the colonists disobeyed the navigation
laws and disputed with the royal officials. For years Britain's rulers
allowed this to go on. But, at length, near the close of the last French
war Mr. Pitt ordered the laws to be enforced.

[Sidenote: Difficulties in enforcing the navigation laws.]

[Sidenote: James Otis. _Eggleston_, 163. His speech against writs of
assistance, 1761.]

104. Writs of Assistance, 1761.--It was a good deal easier to order
the laws to be carried out than it was to carry them out. It was almost
impossible for the customs officers to prevent goods being landed
contrary to law. When the goods were once on shore, it was difficult to
seize them. So the officers asked the judges to give them writs of
assistance. Among the leading lawyers of Boston was James Otis. He was
the king's law officer in the province. But he resigned his office and
opposed the granting of the writs. He objected to the use of writs of
assistance because they enabled a customs officer to become a tyrant.
Armed with one of them he could go to the house of a man he did not like
and search it from attic to cellar, turn everything upside down and
break open doors and trunks. It made no difference, said Otis, whether
Parliament had said that the writs were legal. For Parliament could not
make an act of tyranny legal. To do that was beyond the power even of

[Sidenote: Patrick Henry. _Eggleston_, 162.]

[Sidenote: His speech in the Parson's Cause, 1763.]

105. The Parson's Cause, 1763.--The next important case arose in
Virginia and came about in this way. The Virginians made a law
regulating the salaries of clergymen in the colony. The king vetoed the
law. The Virginians paid no heed to the veto. The clergy men appealed to
the courts and the case of one of them was selected for trial. Patrick
Henry, a prosperous young lawyer, stated the opinions of the Virginians
in a speech which made his reputation. The king, he said, had no right
to veto a Virginia law that was for the good of the people. To do so was
an act of tyranny, and the people owed no obedience to a tyrant. The
case was decided for the clergyman. For the law was clearly on his side.
But the jurymen agreed with Henry. They gave the clergyman only one
farthing damages, and no more clergymen brought cases into the court.
The king's veto was openly disobeyed.

[Sidenote: Proclamation of 1763. _McMaster_, 110.]

106. The King's Proclamation of 1763.--In the same year that the
Parson's Cause was decided the king issued a proclamation which greatly
lessened the rights of Virginia and several other colonies to western
lands. Some of the old charter lines, as those of Massachusetts,
Connecticut, Virginia, and the Carolinas had extended to the Pacific
Ocean. By the treaty of 1763 (p. 69) the king, for himself and his
subjects, abandoned all claim to lands west of Mississippi River. Now in
the Proclamation of 1763 he forbade the colonial governors to grant any
lands west of the Alleghany Mountains. The western limit of Virginia and
the Carolinas was fixed. Their pioneers could not pass the mountains and
settle in the fertile valleys of the Ohio and its branches.



[Sidenote: George III.]

[Sidenote: George Grenville.]

[Sidenote: The British Parliament.]

107. George III and George Grenville.--George III became king in
1760. He was a narrow, stupid, well-meaning, ignorant young man of
twenty-one. He soon found in George Grenville a narrow, dull,
well-meaning lawyer, a man who would do what he was told. So George
Grenville became the head of the government. To him the law was the law.
If he wished to do a thing and could find the law for it, he asked for
nothing more. His military advisers told him that an army must be kept
in America for years. It was Grenville's business to find the money to
support this army. Great Britain was burdened with a national debt. The
army was to be maintained, partly, at least, for the protection of the
colonists. Why should they not pay a part of the cost of maintaining it?
Parliament was the supreme power in the British Empire. It controlled
the king, the church, the army, and the navy. Surely a Parliament that
had all this power could tax the colonists. At all events, Grenville
thought it could, and Parliament passed the Stamp Act to tax them.

[Sidenote: Taxation and representation.]

[Sidenote: Henry's resolutions, 1765. _Higginson_, 161-164; _McMaster_,

108. Henry's Resolutions, 1765.--The colonists, however, with one
voice, declared that Parliament had no power to tax them. Taxes, they
said, could be voted only by themselves or their representatives. They
were represented in their own colonial assemblies, and nowhere else.
Patrick Henry was now a member of the Virginia assembly. He had just
been elected for the first time. But as none of the older members of the
assembly proposed any action, Henry tore a leaf from an old law-book and
wrote on it a set of resolutions. These he presented in a burning
speech, upholding the rights of the Virginians. He said that to tax them
by act of Parliament was tyranny. "Caesar and Tarquin had each his
Brutus, Charles I his Cromwell, and George III"--"Treason, treason,"
shouted the speaker. "May profit by their example," slowly Henry went
on. "If that be treason, make the most of it." The resolutions were
voted. In them the Virginians declared that they were not subject to
Acts of Parliament laying taxes or interfering in the internal affairs
of Virginia.


[Sidenote: Opposition to the Stamp Act, 1765. _Higginson_, 164-165;
_McMaster_, 116.]

109. Stamp Act Riots, 1765.--Until the summer of 1765 the colonists
contented themselves with passing resolutions. There was little else
that they could do. They could not refuse to obey the law because it
would not go into effect until November. They could not mob the stamp
distributers because no one knew their names. In August the names of the
stamp distributers were published. Now at last it was possible to do
something besides passing resolutions. In every colony the people
visited the stamp officers and told them to resign. If they refused,
they were mobbed until they resigned. In Boston the rioters were
especially active. They detested Thomas Hutchinson. He was
lieutenant-governor and chief justice and had been active in enforcing
the navigation acts. The rioters attacked his house. They broke his
furniture, destroyed his clothing, and made a bonfire of his books
and papers.

[Sidenote: Colonial congresses.]

[Sidenote: Albany Congress, 1754.]

[Sidenote: Stamp Act Congress, 1765.]

110. The Stamp Act Congress, 1765.--Colonial congresses were no new
thing. There had been many meetings of governors and delegates from
colonial assemblies. The most important of the early congresses was the
Albany Congress of 1754. It was important because it proposed a plan of
union. The plan was drawn up by Benjamin Franklin. But neither the
king nor the colonists liked it, and it was not adopted. All these
earlier congresses had been summoned by the king's officers to arrange
expeditions against the French or to make treaties with the Indians. The
Stamp Act Congress was summoned by the colonists to protest against the
doings of king and Parliament.

[Illustration: PATRICK HENRY "I am not a Virginian, but an American."]

[Sidenote: Declaration of the Rights and Grievances of the Colonists,
1765. _McMaster_, 115.]

111. Work of the Stamp Act Congress.--Delegates from nine colonies
met at New York in October, 1765. They drew up a "Declaration of the
Rights and Grievances of the Colonists." In this paper they declared
that the colonists, as subjects of the British king, had the same rights
as British subjects living in Britain, and were free from taxes except
those to which they had given their consent. They claimed for themselves
the right of trial by jury--which might be denied under the Stamp Act.
But the most important thing about the congress was the fact that nine
colonies had put aside their local jealousies and had joined in
holding it.

[Sidenote: Benjamin Franklin.]

[Sidenote: Examined by the House of Commons.]

112. Franklin's Examination.--Born in Boston, Benjamin Franklin ran
away from home and settled at Philadelphia. By great exertion and
wonderful shrewdness he rose from poverty to be one of the most
important men in the city and colony. He was a printer, a newspaper
editor, a writer, and a student of science. With kite and string he drew
down the lightning from the clouds and showed that lightning was a
discharge of electricity. He was now in London as agent for Pennsylvania
and Massachusetts. His scientific and literary reputation gave him great
influence. He was examined at the bar of the House of Commons. Many
questions and answers were arranged beforehand between Franklin and his
friends in the House. But many questions were answered on the spur of
the moment. Before the passage of the Stamp Act the feeling of the
colonists toward Britain had been "the best in the world." So Franklin
declared. But now, he said, it was greatly altered. Still an army sent
to America would find no rebellion there. It might, indeed, make one. In
conclusion, he said the repeal of the act would not make the colonists
any more willing to pay taxes.

[Sidenote: Fall of Grenville.]

[Sidenote: Repeal of the Stamp Act, 1766.]

[Sidenote: The Declaratory Act, 1766.]

113. Repeal of the Stamp Act, 1766.--It chanced that at this moment
George III and George Grenville fell out. The king dismissed the
minister, and gave the Marquis of Rockingham the headship of a new set
of ministers. Now Rockingham and his friends needed aid from somebody to
give them the strength to outvote Grenville and the Tories. So when the
question of what should be done about the Stamp Act came up, they
listened most attentively to what Mr. Pitt had to say. That great man
said that the Stamp Act should be repealed wholly and at once. At the
same time another law should be passed declaring that Parliament had
power to legislate for the colonies in all cases whatsoever. The
Rockinghams at once did as Mr. Pitt suggested. The Stamp Act was
repealed. The Declaratory Act was passed. In the colonies Pitt was
praised as a deliverer. Statues of him were placed in the streets,
pictures of him were hung in public halls. But, in reality, the passage
of the Declaratory Act was the beginning of more trouble.

[Sidenote: The Chatham Ministry.]

[Sidenote: The Townshend Acts, 1767. _McMaster_, 117-118.]

114. The Townshend Acts, 1767.--The Rockingham ministers did what
Mr. Pitt advised them to do. He then turned them out and made a ministry
of his own. He was now Earl of Chatham, and his ministry was the Chatham
Ministry. The most active of the Chatham ministers was Charles
Townshend. He had the management of the finances and found them very
hard to manage. So he hit upon a scheme of laying duties on wine, oil,
glass, lead, painter's colors, and tea imported into the colonies. Mr.
Pitt had said that Parliament could regulate colonial trade. The best
way to regulate trade was to tax it. At the same time that Townshend
brought in this bill, he brought in others to reorganize the colonial
customs service and make it possible to collect the duties. He even
provided that offences against the revenue laws should be tried by
judges appointed directly by the king, without being submitted to a jury
of any kind.

[Sidenote: The Sugar Act.]

[Sidenote: Enforcement of the Navigation Acts.]

115. Colonial Opposition, 1768.--Many years before this, Parliament
had made a law taxing all sugar brought into the continental colonies,
except sugar that had been made in the British West Indies. Had this law
been carried out, the trade of Massachusetts and other New England
colonies would have been ruined. But the law was not enforced. No one
tried to enforce it, except during the few months of vigor at the time
of the arguments about writs of assistance. As the taxes were not
collected, no one cared whether they were legal or not. Now it was plain
that this tax and the Townshend duties were to be collected. The
Massachusetts House of Representatives drew up a circular letter to the
other colonial assemblies asking them to join in opposing the new taxes.
The British government ordered the House to recall the letter. It
refused and was dissolved. The other colonial assemblies were directed
to take no notice of the circular letter. They replied at the first
possible moment and were dissolved.

[Sidenote: Seizure of the sloop _Liberty_, 1768.]

116. The New Customs Officers at Boston, 1768.--The chief office of
the new customs organization was fixed at Boston. Soon John Hancock's
sloop, _Liberty_, sailed into the harbor with a cargo of Madeira wine.
As Hancock had no idea of paying the duty, the customs officers seized
the sloop and towed her under the guns of a warship which was in the
harbor. Crowds of people now collected. They could not recapture the
_Liberty_. They seized one of the war-ship's boats, carried it to the
Common, and had a famous bonfire. All this confusion frightened the
chief customs officers. They fled to the castle in the harbor and wrote
to the government for soldiers to protect them.


[Sidenote: Virginia Resolves, 1769.]

117. The Virginia Resolves of 1769.--Parliament now asked the king
to have colonists, accused of certain crimes, brought to England for
trial. This aroused the Virginians. They passed a set of resolutions,
known as the Virginia Resolves of 1769. These resolves asserted: (1)
that the colonists only had the right to tax the colonists; (2) that the
colonists had the right to petition either by themselves or with the
people of other colonies; and (3) that no colonist ought to be sent to
England for trial.

[Sidenote: Non-Importation Agreements, 1769.]

[Sidenote: Partial repeal of the Townshend Acts, 1770.]

118. Non-Importation Agreements, 1769.--When he learned what was
going on, the governor of Virginia dissolved the assembly. But the
members met in the Raleigh tavern near by. There George Washington laid
before them a written agreement to use no British goods upon which
duties had been paid. They all signed this agreement. Soon the other
colonies joined Virginia in the Non-Importation Agreement. English
merchants found their trade growing smaller and smaller. They could not
even collect their debts, for the colonial merchants said that trade in
the colonies was so upset by the Townshend Acts that they could not sell
their goods, or collect the money owing to them. The British merchants
petitioned Parliament to repeal the duties, and Parliament answered them
by repealing all the duties except the tax on tea.

[Illustration: THE "RALEIGH TAVERN"]



[Sidenote: The British soldiers at New York.]

[Sidenote: Soldiers sent to Boston, 1768.]

119. The Soldiers at New York and Boston.--Soldiers had been
stationed at New York ever since the end of the French war because that
was the most central point on the coast. The New Yorkers did not like to
have the soldiers there very well, because Parliament expected them to
supply the troops with certain things without getting any money in
return. The New York Assembly refused to supply them, and Parliament
suspended the Assembly's sittings. In 1768 two regiments came from New
York to Boston to protect the customs officers.

[Sidenote: The Boston Massacre, 1770. _Higginson_, 166-169; _McMaster_,

120. The Boston Massacre, 1770.--There were not enough soldiers at
Boston to protect the customs officers--if the colonists really wished
to hurt them. There were quite enough soldiers at Boston to get
themselves and the colonists into trouble. On March 5, 1770, a crowd
gathered around the soldiers stationed on King's Street, now State
Street. There was snow on the ground, and the boys began to throw snow
and mud at the soldiers. The crowd grew bolder. Suddenly the soldiers
fired on the people. They killed four colonists and wounded several
more. Led by Samuel Adams, the people demanded the removal of the
soldiers to the fort in the harbor. Hutchinson was now governor. He
offered to send one regiment out of the town. "All or none," said Adams,
and all were sent away.

[Sidenote: Town Committees of Correspondence.]

[Sidenote: Colonial Committees of Correspondence, 1769.]

121. Committees of Correspondence.--Up to this time the resistance
of the colonists had been carried on in a haphazard sort of way. Now
Committees of Correspondence began to be appointed. These committees
were of two kinds. First there were town Committees of Correspondence.
These were invented by Samuel Adams and were first appointed in
Massachusetts. But more important were the colonial Committees of
Correspondence. The first of these was appointed by Virginia in 1769. At
first few colonies followed Massachusetts and Virginia in appointing
committees. But as one act of tyranny succeeded another, other colonies
fell into line. By 1775 all the colonies were united by a complete
system of Committees of Correspondence.

[Sidenote: The tax on tea. _McMaster_, 119.]

122. The Tea Tax.--Of all the Townshend duties only the tax on tea
was left. It happened that the British East India Company had tons of
tea in its London storehouses and was greatly in need of money. The
government told the company that it might send tea to America without
paying any taxes in England, but the three-penny colonial tax would have
to be paid in the colonies. In this way the colonists would get their
tea cheaper than the people of England. But the colonists were not to be
bribed into paying the tax in any such way. The East India Company sent
over ship-loads of tea. The tea ships were either sent back again or the
tea was stored in some safe place where no one could get it.

[Sidenote: Boston Tea Party, 1773. _Higginson_, 171-173; _Eggleston_,
165; _Source-Book_, 137.]

123. The Boston Tea Party, 1773.--In Boston things did not go so
smoothly. The agents of the East India Company refused to resign. The
collector of the customs refused to give the ships permission to sail
away before the tea was landed. Governor Hutchinson refused to give the
ship captains a pass to sail by the fort until the collector gave his
permission. The commander at the fort refused to allow the ships to sail
out of the harbor until they had the necessary papers. The only way to
get rid of the tea was to destroy it. A party of patriots, dressed as
Indians, went on board of the ships as they lay at the wharf, broke open
the tea boxes, and threw the tea into the harbor.

[Sidenote: Repressive acts, 1774. _McMaster_, 120.]

124. Punishment of Massachusetts, 1774.--The British king, the
British government, and the mass of the British people were furious when
they found that the Boston people had made "tea with salt water."
Parliament at once went to work passing acts to punish the colonists.
One act put an end to the constitution of Massachusetts. Another act
closed the port of Boston so tightly that the people could not bring hay
from Charlestown to give to their starving horses. A third act provided
that soldiers who fired on the people should be tried in England. And a
fourth act compelled the colonists to feed and shelter the soldiers
employed to punish them.

[Sidenote: The colonists aid Massachusetts. _Higginson_, 174-177.]

[Sidenote: George Washington.]

125. Sympathy with the Bostonians.--King George thought he could
punish the Massachusetts people as much as he wished without the people
of the other colonies objecting. It soon appeared that the people of the
other colonies sympathized most heartily with the Bostonians. They sent
them sheep and rice. They sent them clothes. George Washington was now a
rich man. He offered to raise a thousand men with his own money, march
with them to Boston, and rescue the oppressed people from their
oppressors. But the time for war had not yet come although it was
not far off.

[Sidenote: The Quebec Act, 1774.]

126. The Quebec Act, 1774.--In the same year that Parliament passed
the four acts to punish Massachusetts, it passed another act which
affected the people of other colonies as well as those of Massachusetts.
This was the Quebec Act. It provided that the land between the Ohio, the
Mississippi, and the Great Lakes should be added to the Province of
Quebec. Now this land was claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut, New
York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. These colonies were to be deprived of
their rights to land in that region. The Quebec Act also provided for
the establishment of a very strong government in that province. This
seemed to be an attack on free institutions. All these things drove the
colonists to unite. They resolved to hold a congress where the leaders
of the several continental colonies might talk over matters and decide
what should be done.

[Sidenote: The First Continental Congress, 1774.]

127. The First Continental Congress, 1774.--The members of the
Continental Congress met in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, in
September, 1774. Never, except in the Federal Convention (p. 137), have
so many great men met together. The greatest delegation was that from
Virginia. It included George Washington, Patrick Henry, and Richard
Henry Lee. From Massachusetts came the two Adamses, John and Samuel.
From New York came John Jay. From Pennsylvania came John Dickinson. Of
all the greatest Americans only Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin
were absent.


[Sidenote: The American Association, 1774.]

128. The American Association, 1774.--It soon became clear that the
members of the Congress were opposed to any hasty action. They were not
willing to begin war with Great Britain. Instead of so doing they
adopted a Declaration of Rights and formed the American Association. The
Declaration of Rights was of slight importance. But the Association was
of great importance, as the colonies joining it agreed to buy no more
British goods. This policy was to be carried out by the Committees of
Correspondence. Any colony refusing to join the Association should be
looked upon as hostile "to the liberties of this country," and treated
as an enemy. The American Association was the real beginning of the
American Union.

[Sidenote: Resistance throughout the colonies 1774-75.]

129. The Association carried out, 1774-75.--It was soon evident
that Congress in forming the Association had done precisely what the
people wished to have done. For instance, in Virginia committees were
chosen in every county. They examined the merchants' books. They
summoned before them persons suspected of disobeying "the laws of
Congress." Military companies were formed in every county and carried
out the orders of the committees. The ordinary courts were entirely
disregarded. In fact, the royal government had come to an end in the
Old Dominion.

[Sidenote: Parliament punishes Massachusetts, 1774-75.]

130. More Punishment for Massachusetts, 1774-75.--George III and
his ministers refused to see that the colonies were practically united.
On the contrary, they determined to punish the people of Massachusetts
still further. Parliament passed acts forbidding the Massachusetts
fishermen to catch fish and forbidding the Massachusetts traders to
trade with the people of Virginia, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and all
foreign countries. The Massachusetts colonists were rebels, they should
be treated as rebels. General Gage was given more soldiers and ordered
to crush the rebellion.

[Sidenote: General Gage.]

[Sidenote: Opposed by the Massachusetts people.]

131. Gage in Massachusetts, 1774-75.--General Gage found he had a
good deal to do before he could begin to crush the rebellion. He had to
find shelter for his soldiers. He also had to find food for them. The
Boston carpenters would not work for him. He had to bring carpenters
from Halifax and New York to do his work. The farmers of eastern
Massachusetts were as firm as the Boston carpenters. They would not sell
food to General Gage. So he had to bring food from England and from
Halifax. He managed to buy or seize wood to warm the soldiers and hay to
feed his horses. But the boats bringing these supplies to Boston were
constantly upset in a most unlooked-for way. The colonists, on their
part, elected a Provincial Congress to take the place of the regular
government. The militia was reorganized, and military stores
gathered together.

PART IN THE ACTION. Reproduced through the courtesy of Rev. E.
G. Porter.]

[Sidenote: Lexington and Concord, 1775. _Higginson_, 178-183;
_McMaster_, 126-128; _Source-Book_, 144-146.]

132. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775.--Gage had said that
with ten thousand men he could march all over Massachusetts. In April,
1775, he began to crush the rebellion by sending a strong force to
Concord to destroy stores which his spies told him had been collected
there. The soldiers began their march in the middle of the night. But
Paul Revere and William Dawes were before them. "The regulars are
coming," was the cry. At Lexington, the British found a few militiamen
drawn up on the village green. Some one fired and a few Americans were
killed. On the British marched to Concord. By this time the militiamen
had gathered in large numbers. It was a hot day. The regulars were
tired. They stopped to rest. Some of the militiamen attacked the
regulars at Concord, and when the British started on their homeward
march, the fighting began in earnest. Behind every wall and bit of
rising ground were militiamen. One soldier after another was shot down
and left behind. At Lexington the British met reinforcements, or they
would all have been killed or captured. Soon they started again. Again
the fighting began. It continued until the survivors reached a place of
safety under the guns of the warships anchored off Charlestown. The
Americans camped for the night at Cambridge and began the siege
of Boston.



§ 103.--_a_. Name some instances which illustrate England's early policy
toward its colonies.

_b_. Explain the later change of policy, giving reasons for it.

§§ 104, 105.--_a_. What reasons did Otis give for his opposition to the
writs of assistance? Why are such writs prohibited by the Constitution
of the United States?

_b_. What is a veto? What right had the King of Great Britain to veto a
Virginia law? Which side really won in the Parson's Cause?

§ 106.--What colonies claimed land west of the Alleghany Mountains? How
did the king interfere with these claims?


§§ 107-109.--_a_. What reasons were given for keeping an army in

_b_. What is meant by saying that Parliament was "the supreme power in
the British Empire"?

_c_. Is a stamp tax a good kind of tax?

_d_. Explain carefully the colonists' objections to the Stamp Act of
1765. Do the same objections hold against the present Stamp tax?

§§ 110-113.--_a_. Explain the difference between the Stamp Act Congress
and the earlier Congress.

_b_. What did the Stamp Act Congress do?

_c_. Give an account of Franklin. What did Franklin say about the
feeling in the colonies?

_d_. Explain carefully the causes which led to the repeal of the Stamp

_e_. Can the taxing power and the legislative power be separated? What
is the case to-day in your own state? In the United States?

§§ 114-116.--_a_. How did Townshend try to raise money? How did this
plan differ from the Stamp tax?

_b_. What was the Massachusetts Circular Letter? Why was it important?

_c_. What was the result of the seizure of the _Liberty_?

§§ 117, 118.--_a_. What were the Virginia Resolves of 1769? Why were
they passed?

_b_. What were the Non-importation agreements?

_c_. What action did the British merchants take? What results followed?


§§ 119, 120.--_a_. Why were the soldiers stationed at New York? At

_b_. Describe the trouble at Boston. Why is it called a massacre?

§§ 121-123.--_a_. What was the work of a Committee of Correspondence?

_b_. What did the British government hope to accomplish in the tea
business? Why did the colonists refuse to buy the tea?

_c_. Why was the destruction of the tea at Boston necessary?

§§ 124-126.--_a_. How did Parliament punish the colonists of
Massachusetts and Boston? Which of these acts was most severe? Why?

_b_. What effect did these laws have on Massachusetts? On the other

_c_. Explain the provisions of the Quebec Act.

_d_. How would this act affect the growth of the colonies?

§§ 127-129.--_a_. What was the object of the Continental Congress?

_b_. Why was the Association so important?

_c_. How was the idea of the Association carried out?

_d_. What government did the colonies really have?

§§ 130-132.--_a_. What is a rebel? Were the Massachusetts colonists

_b_. Describe General Gage's difficulties.

_c_. What was the result of Gage's attempt to seize the arms at


_a_. Arrange, with dates, all the acts of the British government which
offended the colonists.

_b_. Arrange, with dates, all the important steps which led toward
union. Why are these steps important?

_c_. Give the chief causes of the Revolution and explain why you select


_a_. The early life of Benjamin Franklin _(Franklin's Autobiography)._

_b_. The early life of George Washington (Scudder's _Washington)._

_c_. The Boston Tea Party (Fiske's _War of Independence)._

_d_. The Nineteenth of April, 1775 (Fiske's _War of Independence;_
Lossing's _Field-Book)._


This section is not only the most important but the most difficult of
any so far considered. Its successful teaching requires more preparation
than any earlier section. The teacher is advised carefully to peruse
Channing's _Students' History_, ch. iv, and to state in simple, clear
language, the difference between the ideas on representation which
prevailed in England and in the colonies. Another point to make clear is
the legal supremacy of Parliament. The outbreak was hastened by the
stupid use of legal rights which the supremacy of Parliament placed in
the hands of Britain's rulers, who acted often in defiance of the real
public opinion of the mass of the inhabitants of Great Britain.



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Fiske's _War of Independence;_ Higginson's _Larger
History_, 249-293; McMaster's _With the Fathers._

Home Readings.--Scudder's _Washington_; Holmes's _Grandmother's Story of
Bunker Hill;_ Cooper's _Lionel Lincoln_ (Bunker Hill); Cooper's _Spy_
(campaigns around New York); Cooper's _Pilot_ (the war on the sea);
Drake's _Burgoyne's Invasion; _Coffin's _Boys of '76_; Abbot's _Blue
Jackets of '76_; Abbot's _Paul Jones_, Lossing's _Two Spies._



[Sidenote: Advantages of the British.]

133. Advantages of the British.--At first sight it seems as if the
Americans were very foolish to fight the British. There were five or six
times as many people in the British Isles as there were in the
continental colonies. The British government had a great standing army.
The Americans had no regular army. The British government had a great
navy. The Americans had no navy. The British government had quantities
of powder, guns, and clothing, while the Americans had scarcely any
military stores of any kind. Indeed, there were so few guns in the
colonies that one British officer thought if the few colonial gunsmiths
could be bribed to go away, the Americans would have no guns to fight
with after a few months of warfare.

[Illustration: GRAND UNION FLAG. Hoisted at Cambridge, January, 1776.
The British Union and thirteen stripes,]

[Sidenote: Advantages of the Americans.]

134. Advantages of the Americans.--All these things were clearly
against the Americans. But they had some advantages on their side. In
the first place, America was a long way off from Europe. It was very
difficult and very costly to send armies to America, and very difficult
and very costly to feed the soldiers when they were fighting in America.
In the second place, the Americans usually fought on the defensive and
the country over which the armies fought was made for defense. In New
England hill succeeded hill. In the Middle states river succeeded river.
In the South wilderness succeeded wilderness. In the third place, the
Americans had many great soldiers. Washington, Greene, Arnold, Morgan,
and Wayne were better soldiers than any in the British army.

[Sidenote: The Loyalists.]

135. Disunion among the Americans.--We are apt to think of the
colonists as united in the contest with the British. In reality the
well-to-do, the well-born, and the well-educated colonists were as a
rule opposed to independence. The opponents of the Revolution were
strongest in the Carolinas, and were weakest in New England.

[Illustration: THE SIEGE OF BOSTON.]

[Sidenote: Boston and neighborhood, 1775-76.]

[Sidenote: Importance of Dorchester and Charlestown.]

136. Siege of Boston.--It was most fortunate that the British army
was at Boston when the war began, for Boston was about as bad a place
for an army as could be found. In those days Boston was hardly more than
an island connected with the mainland by a strip of gravel. Gage built a
fort across this strip of ground. The Americans could not get in. But
they built a fort at the landward end, and the British could not get
out. On either side of Boston was a similar peninsula. One of these was
called Dorchester Heights; the other was called Charlestown. Both
overlooked Boston. To hold that town, Gage must possess both Dorchester
and Charlestown. If the Americans could occupy only one of these, the
British would have to abandon Boston. At almost the same moment Gage
made up his mind to seize Dorchester, and the Americans determined to
occupy the Charlestown hills. The Americans moved first, and the first
battle was fought for the Charlestown hills.


[Sidenote: Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775. _Higginson_, 183-188;
_McMaster_, 129-130.]

137. Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775.--When the seamen on the British
men-of-war waked up on the morning of June 17, the first thing they saw
was a redoubt on the top of one of the Charlestown hills. The ships
opened fire. But in spite of the balls Colonel Prescott walked on the
top of the breastwork while his men went on digging. Gage sent three or
four thousand men across the Charles River to Charlestown to drive the
daring Americans away. It took the whole morning to get them to
Charlestown, and then they had to eat their dinner. This delay gave the
Americans time to send aid to Prescott. Especially went Stark and his
New Hampshire men, who posted themselves behind a breastwork of fence
rails and hay. At last the British soldiers marched to the attack. When
they came within good shooting distance, Prescott gave the word to fire.
The British line stopped, hesitated, broke, and swept back. Again the
soldiers marched to the attack, and again they were beaten back. More
soldiers came from Boston, and a third time a British line marched up
the hill. This time it could not be stopped, for the Americans had no
more powder. They had to give up the hill and escape as well as they
could. One-half of the British soldiers actually engaged in the assaults
were killed or wounded. The Americans were defeated. But they were
encouraged and were willing to sell Gage as many hills as he wanted at
the same price.


[Sidenote: Washington takes command of the army, 1775. _Higginson_,

[Sidenote: Seizure of Ticonderoga and Crown Point.]

[Sidenote: Evacuation of Boston, 1776.]

138. Washington in Command, July, 1775.--The Continental Congress
was again sitting at Philadelphia. It took charge of the defense of the
colonies. John Adams named Washington for commander-in-chief, and he was
elected. Washington took command of the army on Cambridge Common, July
3, 1775. He found everything in confusion. The soldiers of one colony
were jealous of the soldiers of other colonies. Officers who had not
been promoted were jealous of those who had been promoted. In the winter
the army had to be made over. During all this time the people expected
Washington to fight. But he had not powder enough for half a battle. At
last he got supplies in the following way. In the spring of 1775 Ethan
Allen and his Green Mountain Boys, with the help of the people of
western Massachusetts and Connecticut, had captured Ticonderoga and
Crown Point. These forts were filled with cannon and stores left from
the French campaigns. Some of the cannon were now dragged by oxen over
the snow and placed in the forts around Boston. Captain Manley, of the
Massachusetts navy, captured a British brig loaded with powder.
Washington now could attack. He seized and held Dorchester Heights. The
British could no longer stay in Boston. They went on board their ships
and sailed away (March, 1776).

[Illustration: SITE OF TICONDEROGA.]

[Sidenote: The Canada expedition, 1775-76.]

[Sidenote: Assault on Quebec.]

139. Invasion of Canada, 1775-76.--While the siege of Boston was
going on, the Americans undertook the invasion of Canada. There were
very few regular soldiers in Canada in 1775, and the Canadians were not
likely to fight very hard for their British masters. So the leaders in
Congress thought that if an American force should suddenly appear
before Quebec, the town might surrender. Montgomery, with a small army,
was sent to capture Montreal and then to march down the St. Lawrence to
Quebec. Benedict Arnold led another force through the Maine woods. After
tremendous exertions and terrible sufferings he reached Quebec. But the
garrison had been warned of his coming. He blockaded the town and waited
for Montgomery. The garrison was constantly increased, for Arnold was
not strong enough fully to blockade the town. At last Montgomery
arrived. At night, amidst a terrible snowstorm, Montgomery and Arnold
led their brave followers to the attack. They were beaten back with
cruel loss. Montgomery was killed, and Arnold was severely wounded. In
the spring of 1776 the survivors of this little band of heroes were
rescued--at the cost of the lives of five thousand American soldiers.

[Illustration: ARNOLD'S MARCH.]

[Sidenote: Strength of Charleston.]

[Sidenote: Fort Moultrie.]

[Sidenote: Attack on Fort Moultrie, 1776.]

[Sidenote: Success of the defense]

140. British Attack on Charleston, 1776.--In June 1776 a British
fleet and army made an attack on Charleston, South Carolina. This town
has never been taken by attack from the sea. Sand bars guard the
entrance of the harbor and the channels through these shoals lead
directly to the end of Sullivan's Island. At that point the Americans
built a fort of palmetto logs and sand. General Moultrie commanded at
the fort and it was named in his honor, Fort Moultrie. The British fleet
sailed boldly in, but the balls from the ships' guns were stopped by the
soft palmetto logs. At one time the flag was shot away and fell down
outside the fort. But Sergeant Jasper rushed out, seized the broken
staff, and again set it up on the rampart. Meantime, General Clinton had
landed on an island and was trying to cross with his soldiers to the
further end of Sullivan's Island. But the water was at first too shoal
for the boats. The soldiers jumped overboard to wade. Suddenly the water
deepened, and they had to jump aboard to save themselves from drowning.
All this time Americans were firing at them from the beach. General
Clinton ordered a retreat. The fleet also sailed out--all that could
get away--and the whole expedition was abandoned.

[Illustration: GENERAL MOULTRIE.]

[Sidenote: Defense of New York, 1776.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Long Island, 1776.]

[Sidenote: Escape of the Americans.]

141. Long Island and Brooklyn Heights, 1776.--The very day that the
British left Boston, Washington ordered five regiments to New York. For
he well knew that city would be the next point of attack. But he need
not have been in such a hurry. General Howe, the new British
commander-in-chief, sailed first to Halifax and did not begin the
campaign in New York until the end of August. He then landed his
soldiers on Long Island and prepared to drive the Americans away.
Marching in a round-about way, he cut the American army in two and
captured one part of it. This brought him to the foot of Brooklyn
Heights. On the top was a fort. Probably Howe could easily have captured
it. But he had led in the field at Bunker Hill and had had enough of
attacking forts defended by Americans. So he stopped his soldiers--with
some difficulty. That night the wind blew a gale, and the next day was
foggy. The British fleet could not sail into the East River. Skillful
fishermen safely ferried the rest of the American army across to New
York. When at length the British marched to the attack, there was no one
left in the fort on Brooklyn Heights.

[Sidenote: Retreat from New York.]

[Sidenote: Washington crosses the Delaware.]

142. From the Hudson to the Delaware, 1776.--Even now with his
splendid fleet and great army Howe could have captured the Americans.
But he delayed so long that Washington got away in safety. Washington's
army was now fast breaking up. Soldiers deserted by the hundreds. A
severe action at White Plains only delayed the British advance. The fall
of Fort Washington on the end of Manhattan Island destroyed all hope of
holding anything near New York. Washington sent one part of his army to
secure the Highlands of the Hudson. With the other part he retired
across New Jersey to the southern side of the Delaware River. The end of
the war seemed to be in sight. In December, 1776, Congress gave the sole
direction of the war to Washington and then left Philadelphia for a
place of greater safety.

[Sidenote: Battle of Trenton, 1776. _Higginson_, 203; _Hero Tales_,

143. Trenton, December 26, 1776.--Washington did not give up. On
Christmas night, 1776, he crossed the Delaware with a division of his
army. A violent snowstorm was raging, the river was full of ice. But
Washington was there in person, and the soldiers crossed. Then the storm
changed to sleet and rain. But on the soldiers marched. When the Hessian
garrison at Trenton looked about them next morning they saw that
Washington and Greene held the roads leading inland from the town.
Stark and a few soldiers--among them James Monroe--held the bridge
leading over the Assanpink to the next British post. A few horsemen
escaped before Stark could prevent them. But all the foot soldiers were
killed or captured. A few days later nearly one thousand prisoners
marched through Philadelphia. They were Germans, who had been sold by
their rulers to Britain's king to fight his battles. They were called
Hessians by the Americans because most of them came from the little
German state of Hesse Cassel.

[Illustration: Battle of Trenton.]

[Illustration: Battle of Princeton.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Princeton, 1777. _Source-Book_, 149-151.]

144. Princeton, January, 1777.--Trenton saved the Revolution by
giving the Americans renewed courage. General Howe sent Lord Cornwallis
with a strong force to destroy the Americans. Washington with the main
part of his army was now encamped on the southern side of the
Assanpink. Cornwallis was on the other bank at Trenton. Leaving a few
men to keep up the campfires, and to throw up a slight fort by the
bridge over the stream, Washington led his army away by night toward
Princeton. There he found several regiments hastening to Cornwallis. He
drove them away and led his army to the highlands of New Jersey where he
would be free from attack. The British abandoned nearly all their posts
in New Jersey and retired to New York.



[Sidenote: Rising spirit of independence, 1775-76.]

145. Growth of the Spirit of Independence.--The year 1776 is even
more to be remembered for the doings of Congress than it is for the
doings of the soldiers. The colonists loved England. They spoke of it as
home. They were proud of the strength of the British empire, and glad to
belong to it. But their feelings rapidly changed when the British
government declared them to be rebels, made war upon them, and hired
foreign soldiers to kill them. They could no longer be subjects of
George III. That was clear enough. They determined to declare themselves
to be independent. Virginia led in this movement, and the chairman of
the Virginia delegation moved a resolution of independence. A committee
was appointed to draw up a declaration.

[Illustration: FIRST UNITED STATES FLAG. Adopted by Congress in 1777.]

[Sidenote: The Great Declaration, adopted July 4, 1776. _Higginson_,
194-201; _McMaster_, 131-135; _Source-Book_, 147-149.]

[Sidenote: Signing of the Declaration, August 2, 1776.]

146. The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776.--The most
important members of this committee were Benjamin Franklin, John Adams,
and Thomas Jefferson. Of these Jefferson was the youngest, and the least
known. But he had already drawn up a remarkable paper called _A Summary
View of the Rights of British America._ The others asked him to write
out a declaration. He sat down without book or notes of any kind, and
wrote out the Great Declaration in almost the same form in which it now
stands. The other members of the committee proposed a few changes, and
then reported the declaration to Congress. There was a fierce debate in
Congress over the adoption of the Virginia resolution for independence.
But finally it was adopted. Congress then examined the Declaration of
Independence as reported by the committee. It made a few changes in the
words and struck out a clause condemning the slave-trade. The first
paragraph of the Declaration contains a short, clear statement of the
basis of the American system of government. It should be learned by
heart by every American boy and girl, and always kept in mind. The
Declaration was adopted on July 4, 1776. A few copies were printed on
July 5, with the signatures of John Hancock and Charles Thompson,
president and secretary of Congress. On August 2, 1776, the Declaration
was signed by the members of Congress.

[Illustration: Battle of Brandywine.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Brandywine 1777. _McMaster_, 137-138.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Germantown, 1777.]

147. The Loss of Philadelphia, 1777.--For some months after the
battle of Princeton there was little fighting. But in the summer of
1777, Howe set out to capture Philadelphia. Instead of marching across
New Jersey, he placed his army on board ships, and sailed to Chesapeake
Bay. As soon as Washington learned what Howe was about, he marched to
Chad's Ford, where the road from Chesapeake Bay to Philadelphia crossed
Brandywine Creek. Howe moved his men as if about to attempt to cross the
ford. Meantime he sent Cornwallis with a strong force to cross the creek
higher up. Cornwallis surprised the right wing of the American army,
drove it back, and Washington was compelled to retreat. Howe occupied
Philadelphia and captured the forts below the city. Washington tried to
surprise a part of the British army which was posted at Germantown. But
accidents and mist interfered. The Americans then retired to Valley
Forge--a strong place in the hills not far from Philadelphia.

[Sidenote: The army at Valley Forge, 1777-78.]

[Illustration: "The Glorious WASHINGTON and GATES." FROM TITLE-PAGE OF
AN ALMANAC OF 1778. To show condition of wood-engraving in the
Revolutionary era.]

[Sidenote: Baron Steuben.]

148. The Army at Valley Forge, 1777-78.--The sufferings of the
soldiers during the following winter can never be overstated. They
seldom had more than half enough to eat. Their clothes were in rags.
Many of them had no blankets. Many more had no shoes. Washington did all
he could do for them. But Congress had no money and could not get any.
At Valley Forge the soldiers were drilled by Baron Steuben, a Prussian
veteran. The army took the field in 1778, weak in numbers and poorly
clad. But what soldiers there were were as good as any soldiers to be
found anywhere in the world. During that winter, also, an attempt was
made to dismiss Washington from chief command, and to give his place to
General Gates. But this attempt ended in failure.

[Sidenote: Burgoyne's campaign, 1777. _Eggleston_, 178-179; _McMaster_,
139-140; _Source-Book_, 154-157.]

[Sidenote: Schuyler and Gates.]

149. Burgoyne's March to Saratoga, 1777.--While Howe was marching
to Philadelphia, General Burgoyne was marching southward from Canada.
It had been intended that Burgoyne and Howe should seize the line of the
Hudson and cut New England off from the other states. But the orders
reached Howe too late, and he went southward to Philadelphia. Burgoyne,
on his part, was fairly successful at first, for the Americans abandoned
post after post. But when he reached the southern end of Lake Champlain,
and started on his march to the Hudson, his troubles began. The way ran
through a wilderness. General Schuyler had had trees cut down across its
woodland paths and had done his work so well that it took Burgoyne about
a day to march a mile and a half. This gave the Americans time to gather
from all quarters and bar his southward way. But many of the soldiers
had no faith in Schuyler and Congress gave the command to General
Horatio Gates.

[Sidenote: Battle of Bennington, 1777. _Hero Tales_, 59-67.]

150. Bennington, 1777.--Burgoyne had with him many cavalrymen. But
they had no horses. The army, too, was sadly in need of food. So
Burgoyne sent a force of dismounted dragoons to Bennington in southern
Vermont to seize horses and food. It happened, however, that General
Stark, with soldiers from New Hampshire, Vermont, and western
Massachusetts, was nearer Bennington than Burgoyne supposed. They killed
or captured all the British soldiers. They then drove back with great
loss a second party which Burgoyne had sent to support the first one.

[Sidenote: Battle of Oriskany, 1777.]

151. Oriskany, 1777.--Meantime St. Leger, with a large body of
Indians and Canadian frontiersmen, was marching to join Burgoyne by the
way of Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley. Near the site of the present
city of Rome in New York was Fort Schuyler, garrisoned by an American
force. St. Leger stopped to besiege this fort. The settlers on the
Mohawk marched to relieve the garrison and St. Leger defeated them at
Oriskany. But his Indians now grew tired of the siege, especially when
they heard that Arnold with a strong army was coming. St. Leger marched
back to Canada and left Burgoyne to his fate.

[Sidenote: First battle of Freeman's Farm, 1777.]

[Sidenote: Second battle of Freeman's Farm, 1777.]

[Sidenote: Surrender of the British at Saratoga, 1777.]

152. Saratoga, 1777.--Marching southward, on the western side of
the Hudson, Burgoyne and his army came upon the Americans in a forest
clearing called Freeman's Farm. Led by Daniel Morgan and Benedict
Arnold the Americans fought so hard that Burgoyne stopped where he was
and fortified the position. This was on September 19. The American army
posted itself near by on Bemis' Heights. For weeks the two armies faced
each other. Then, on October 7, the Americans attacked. Again Arnold led
his men to victory. They captured a fort in the centre of the British
line, and Burgoyne was obliged to retreat. But when he reached the
crossing place of the Hudson, to his dismay he found a strong body of
New Englanders with artillery on the opposite bank. Gates had followed
the retiring British, and soon Burgoyne was practically surrounded. His
men were starving, and on October 17 he surrendered.

[Sidenote: The Treaty of Alliance, 1778.]

153. The French Alliance, 1778.--Burgoyne's defeat made the French
think that the Americans would win their independence. So Dr. Franklin,
who was at Paris, was told that France would recognize the independence
of the United States, would make treaties with the new nation, and give
aid openly. Great Britain at once declared war on France. The French
lent large sums of money to the United States. They sent large armies
and splendid fleets to America. Their aid greatly shortened the struggle
for independence. But the Americans would probably have won without
French aid.

[Sidenote: The British leave Philadelphia 1778.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Monmouth, 1778.]

154. Monmouth, 1778.--The first result of the French alliance was
the retreat of the British from Philadelphia to New York. As Sir Henry
Clinton, the new British commander, led his army across the Jerseys,
Washington determined to strike it a blow. This he did near Monmouth.
The attack was a failure, owing to the treason of General Charles Lee,
who led the advance. Washington reached the front only in time to
prevent a dreadful disaster. But he could not bring about victory, and
Clinton seized the first moment to continue his march to New York. There
were other expeditions and battles in the North. But none of these had
any important effect on the outcome of the war.

[Illustration: Clark's Campaign 1777-1778]

[Sidenote: Clark's conquest of the Northwest, 1778-79. _Hero Tales_,

155. Clark's Western Campaign, 1778-79.--The Virginians had long
taken great interest in the western country. Their hardy pioneers had
crossed the mountains and begun the settlement of Kentucky. The
Virginians now determined to conquer the British posts in the country
northwest of the Ohio. The command was given to George Rogers Clark.
Gathering a strong band of hardy frontiersmen he set out on his
dangerous expedition. He seized the posts in Illinois, and Vincennes
surrendered to him. Then the British governor of the Northwest came from
Detroit with a large force and recaptured Vincennes. Clark set out from
Illinois to surprise the British. It was the middle of the winter. In
some places the snow lay deep on the ground. Then came the early floods.
For days the Americans marched in water up to their waists. At night
they sought some little hill where they could sleep on dry ground. Then
on again through the flood. They surprised the British garrison at
Vincennes and forced it to surrender. That was the end of the contest
for the Northwest.

[Illustration: WEST POINT IN 1790.]

[Sidenote: Benedict Arnold.]

[Sidenote: His treason, 1780 _Higginson_, 209-211; _McMaster_, 144]

156. Arnold and André, 1780.--Of all the leaders under Washington
none was abler in battle than Benedict Arnold. Unhappily he was always
in trouble about money. He was distrusted by Congress and was not
promoted. At Saratoga he quarrelled with Gates and was dismissed from
his command. Later he became military governor of Philadelphia and was
censured by Washington for his doings there. He then secured the command
of West Point and offered to surrender the post to the British. Major
André, of Clinton's staff, met Arnold to arrange the final details. On
his return journey to New York André was arrested and taken before
Washington. The American commander asked his generals if André was a
spy. They replied that André was a spy, and he was hanged. Arnold
escaped to New York and became a general in the British army.



[Sidenote: Invasion of the South.]

[Sidenote: Capture of Charleston, 1780.]

157. Fall of Charleston, 1780.--It seemed quite certain that
Clinton could not conquer the Northern states with the forces given him.
In the South there were many loyalists. Resistance might not be so stiff
there. At all events Clinton decided to attempt the conquest of the
South. Savannah was easily seized (1778), and the French and Americans
could not retake it (1779). In the spring of 1780, Clinton, with a large
army, landed on the coast between Savannah and Charleston. He marched
overland to Charleston and besieged it from the land side. The Americans
held out for a long time. But they were finally forced to surrender.
Clinton then sailed back to New York, and left to Lord Cornwallis the
further conquest of the Carolinas.

[Sidenote: Battle of Camden, 1780.]

158. Gates's Defeat at Camden, 1780.--Cornwallis had little trouble
in occupying the greater part of South Carolina. There was no one to
oppose him, for the American army had been captured with Charleston.
Another small army was got together in North Carolina and the command
given to Gates, the victor at Saratoga. One night both Gates and
Cornwallis set out to attack the other's camp. The two armies met at
daybreak, the British having the best position. But this really made
little difference, for Gates's Virginia militiamen ran away before the
British came within fighting distance. The North Carolina militia
followed the Virginians. Only the regulars from Maryland and Delaware
were left. They fought on like heroes until their leader, General John
De Kalb, fell with seventeen wounds. Then the survivors surrendered.
Gates himself had been carried far to the rear by the rush of the
fleeing militia.

[Battle of King's Mountain, 1780. _Hero Tales_, 71-78.]

159. King's Mountain, October, 1780.--Cornwallis now thought that
resistance surely was at an end. He sent an expedition to the
settlements on the lower slopes of the Alleghany Mountains to get
recruits, for there were many loyalists in that region. Suddenly from
the mountains and from the settlements in Tennessee rode a body of armed
frontiersmen. They found the British soldiers encamped on the top of
King's Mountain. In about an hour they had killed or captured every
British soldier.


[Sidenote: General Greene.]

[Sidenote: Morgan's victory of the Cowpens, 1781.]

160. The Cowpens, 1781.--General Greene was now sent to the South
to take charge of the resistance to Cornwallis. A great soldier and a
great organizer Greene found that he needed all his abilities. His
coming gave new spirit to the survivors of Gates's army. He gathered
militia from all directions and marched toward Cornwallis. Dividing his
army into two parts, he sent General Daniel Morgan to threaten
Cornwallis from one direction, while he threatened him from another
direction. Cornwallis at once became uneasy and sent Tarleton to drive
Morgan away, but the hero of many hard-fought battles was not easily
frightened. He drew up his little force so skillfully that in a very few
minutes the British were nearly all killed or captured.


[Sidenote: Greene's retreat.]

[Sidenote: The Battle of Guilford, 1781.]

161. The Guilford Campaign, 1781.--Cornwallis now made a desperate
attempt to capture the Americans, but Greene and Morgan joined forces
and marched diagonally across North Carolina. Cornwallis followed so
closely that frequently the two armies seemed to be one. When, however,
the river Dan was reached, there was an end of marching, for Greene had
caused all the boats to be collected at one spot. His men crossed and
kept the boats on their side of the river. Soon Greene found himself
strong enough to cross the river again to North Carolina. He took up a
very strong position near Guilford Court House. Cornwallis attacked. The
Americans made a splendid defense before Greene ordered a retreat, and
the British won the battle of Guilford. But their loss was so great that
another victory of the same kind would have destroyed the British army.
As it was, Greene had dealt it such a blow that Cornwallis left his
wounded at Guilford and set out as fast as he could for the seacoast.
Greene pursued him for some distance and then marched southward
to Camden.

[Sidenote: Greene's later campaigns, 1871-83.]

162. Greene's Later Campaigns.--At Hobkirk's Hill, near Camden, the
British soldiers who had been left behind by Cornwallis attacked Greene.
But he beat them off and began the siege of a fort on the frontier of
South Carolina. The British then marched up from Charleston, and Greene
had to fall back. Then the British marched back to Charleston and
abandoned the interior of South Carolina to the Americans. There was
only one more battle in the South--at Eutaw Springs. Greene was defeated
there, too, but the British abandoned the rest of the Carolinas and
Georgia with the exception of Savannah and Charleston. In these
wonderful campaigns with a few good soldiers Greene had forced the
British from the Southern states. He had lost every battle. He had won
every campaign.

[Sidenote: Lafayette and Cornwallis, 1781.]

163. Cornwallis in Virginia, 1781.--There were already two small
armies in Virginia,--the British under Arnold, the Americans under
Lafayette. Cornwallis now marched northward from Wilmington and added
the troops in Virginia to his own force; Arnold he sent to New York.
Cornwallis then set out to capture Lafayette and his men. Together they
marched from salt water across Virginia to the mountains--and then they
marched back to salt water again. Cornwallis had called Lafayette "the
boy" and had declared that "the boy should not escape him." Finally
Cornwallis fortified Yorktown, and Lafayette settled down at
Williamsburg. And there they still were in September, 1781.

[Sidenote: The French at Newport, 1780.]

[Sidenote: Plans of the allies, 1781.]

164. Plans of the Allies.--In 1780 the French government had sent
over a strong army under Rochambeau. It was landed at Newport. It
remained there a year to protect the vessels in which it had come from
France from capture by a stronger British fleet that had at once
appeared off the mouth of the harbor. Another French fleet and another
French army were in the West Indies. In the summer of 1781 it became
possible to unite all these French forces, and with the Americans to
strike a crushing blow at the British. Just at this moment Cornwallis
shut himself up in Yorktown, and it was determined to besiege him there.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1783.]

[Illustration: The Siege of Yorktown.]

[Sidenote: The march to the Chesapeake.]

[Sidenote: Combat between the French and the British fleets.]

[Surrender of Yorktown, October 19, 1781. _Higginson_, 211-212.]

165. Yorktown, September-October, 1781.--Rochambeau led his men to
New York and joined the main American army. Washington now took command
of the allied forces. He pretended that he was about to attack New York
and deceived Clinton so completely that Clinton ordered Cornwallis to
send some of his soldiers to New York. But the allies were marching
southward through Philadelphia before Clinton realized what they were
about. The French West India fleet under De Grasse reached one end of
the Chesapeake Bay at the same time the allies reached the other end.
The British fleet attacked it and was beaten off. There was now no hope
for Cornwallis. No help could reach him by sea. The soldiers of the
allies outnumbered him two to one. On October 17, 1781, four years to a
day since the surrender of Burgoyne, a drummer boy appeared on the
rampart of Yorktown and beat a parley. Two days later the British
soldiers marched out to the good old British tune of "The world turned
upside down," and laid down their arms.

[Sidenote: Treaty of Peace, 1783.]

166. Treaty of Peace, 1783.--This disaster put an end to British
hopes of conquering America. But it was not until September, 1783, that
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay brought the negotiations
for peace to an end. Great Britain acknowledged the independence of the
United States. The territory of the United States was defined as
extending from the Great Lakes to the thirty-first parallel of latitude
and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Spain had joined the United
States and France in the war. Spanish soldiers had conquered Florida,
and Spain kept Florida at the peace. In this way Spanish Florida and
Louisiana surrounded the United States on the south and the west.
British territory bounded the United States on the north and the



§§ 134-136.--_a_. Compare the advantages of the British and the
Americans. Which side had the greater advantages?

_b_. Explain the influence of geographical surroundings upon the war.

_c_. Why were there so many loyalists?

§§ 137-139.--_a_. Mold or draw a map of Boston and vicinity and explain
by it the important points of the siege.

_b_. Who won the battle of Bunker Hill? What were the effects of the
battle upon the Americans? Upon the British?

_c_. Why was Washington appointed to chief command?

_d_. What were the effects of the seizure of Ticonderoga on the siege of

§§ 140, 141.--_a_. Why did Congress determine to attack Canada? _b_.
Follow the routes of the two invading armies. What was the result of the

_c_. Describe the harbor of Charleston. Why did the British attack at
this point?

_d_. What was the result of this expedition?

§§ 142, 143.--_a_. What advantage would the occupation of New York give
the British?

_b_. Describe the Long Island campaign.

_c_. Why did Congress give Washington sole direction of the war? Who had
directed the war before?

§§ 144, 145.--_a_. Describe the battle of Trenton. Why is it memorable?

_b_. Who were the Hessians?

_c_. At the close of January, 1777, what places were held by the


§§146, 147.--_a_. What had been the feeling of most of the colonists
toward England? Why had this feeling changed?

_b_. Why was Jefferson asked to write the Declaration?

_c_. What great change was made by Congress in the Declaration? Why?

_d_. What truths are declared to be self-evident? Are they still

_e_. What is declared to be the basis of government? Is it still the
basis of government?

_f_. When was the Declaration adopted? When signed?

§§ 148, 149.--_a_. Describe Howe's campaign of 1777.

_b_. What valuable work was done at Valley Forge?

§§ 150-153.--_a_. What was the object of Burgoyne's campaign? Was the
plan a wise one from the British point of view?

_b_. What do you think of the justice of removing Schuyler?

_c_. How did the battle of Bennington affect the campaign? What was the
effect of St. Leger's retreat to Canada?

_d_. Describe Arnold's part in the battles near Saratoga.

§§ 154, 155.--_a_. What was the effect of Burgoyne's surrender on Great
Britain? On France? On America?

_b_. What were the results of the French alliance?

_c_. Describe the battle of Monmouth. Who was Charles Lee?

§ 156.--_a_. Describe Clark's expedition and mark on a map the places
named. _b_. How did this expedition affect the later growth of the
United States?

§ 157.--_a_. Describe Arnold's career as a soldier to 1778. _b_. What is
treason? _c_. Was there the least injustice in the treatment of André?

Chapter 16

§§ 158, 159.--_a_. Why was the scene of action transferred to the South?
_b_. What places were captured? _c_. Compare the British and American
armies at Camden. What was the result of this battle?

§§ 160-163.--_a_. Describe the battle of King's Mountain. _b_. What was
the result of the battle of the Cowpens? _c_. Follow the retreat of the
Americans across North Carolina. What events showed Greene's foresight?
_d_. What were the results of the battle of Guilford? _e_. Compare the
outlook for the Americans in 1781 with that of 1780.

§§ 164-166. _a_. How did the British army get to Yorktown? _b_. Describe
the gathering of the Allied Forces. _c_. Describe the surrender and note
its effects on America, France, and Great Britain.

§ 167.--_a_. Where were the negotiations for peace carried on? _b_. Mark
on a map the original territory of the United States. _c_. How did Spain
get the Floridas?

General Questions

_a_. When did the Revolution begin? When did it end?

_b_. Were the colonies independent when the Declaration of Independence
was adopted?

_c_. Select any campaign and discuss its objects, plan, the leading
battles, and the results.

_d_. Follow Washington's movements from 1775-82.

_e_. What do you consider the most decisive battle of the war? Why?

Topics For Special Work

_a_. Naval victories.

_b_. Burgoyne's campaign.

_c_. Greene as a general.

_d_. Nathan Hale.

_e_. The peace negotiations.


The use of map or molding board should be constant during the study of
this period. Do not spend time on the details of battles, but teach
campaigns as a whole. In using the molding board the movements of armies
can be shown by colored pins.

The Declaration of Independence should be carefully studied, especially
the first portions. Finally, the territorial settlement of 1783 should
be thoroughly explained, using map or molding board.


The Critical Period, 1783-1789

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Higginson's _Larger History_, 293-308; Fiske's _Civil
Government_, 186-267; McMaster's _With the Fathers_.

Home Readings.--Fiske's _Critical Period_, 144-231, 306-345;
_Captain Shays: A Populist of 1786_.

Chapter 17

The Confederation, 1783-1787

[Sidenote: Disunion and jealousy. _Source-Book_, 161-163.]

167. Problems of Peace.--The war was over. But the future of the
American nation was still uncertain. Indeed, one can hardly say that
there was an American nation in 1783. While the war lasted, a sense of
danger bound together the people of the different states. But as soon as
this peril ceased, their old jealousies and self-seekings came back.
There was no national government to smooth over these differences and to
compel the states to act justly toward one another. There was, indeed,
the Congress of the Confederation, but it is absurd to speak of it as a
national government.

[Sidenote: Formation of the Articles of Confederation.]

[Sidenote: Weakness of the Confederation. _McMaster_, 163.]

168. The Articles of Confederation, 1781.--The Continental Congress
began drawing up the Articles of Confederation in June, 1776. But there
were long delays, and each month's delay made it more impossible to form
a strong government. It fell out in this way that the Congress of the
Confederation had no real power. It could not make a state or an
individual pay money or do anything at all. In the course of a few years
Congress asked the states to give it over six million dollars to pay the
debts and expenses of the United States. It received about a million
dollars and was fortunate to get that.

[Sidenote: Distress among the people.]

169. A Time of Distress.--It is not right to speak too harshly of
the refusal of the state governments to give Congress the money it asked
for, as the people of the states were in great distress and had no money
to give. As soon as peace was declared British merchants sent over great
quantities of goods. People bought these goods, for every one thought
that good times were coming now that the war was over. But the British
government did everything it could do to prevent the coming of good
times. The prosperity of the northern states was largely based on a
profitable trade with the West Indies. The British government put an end
to that trade. No gold and silver came to the United States from the
West Indies while gold and silver constantly went out of the country to
pay debts due to British merchants. Soon gold and silver grew scarce,
and those who had any promptly hid it. The real reason of all this
trouble was the lack of a strong national government which could have
compelled the British government to open its ports to American commerce.
But the people only saw that money was scarce and called upon the state
legislatures to give them paper money.

[Sidenote: Paper money.]

170. Paper Money.--Most of the state legislatures did what they
were asked to do. They printed quantities of paper money. They paid the
public expenses with it, and sometimes lent it to individuals without
much security for its repayment. Before long this paper money began to
grow less valuable. For instance, on a certain day a man could buy a bag
of flour for five dollars. In three months' time a bag of flour might
cost him ten dollars. Soon it became difficult to buy flour for any
number of paper dollars.

[Sidenote: Tender laws.]

171 Tender Laws.--The people then clamored for "tender laws." These
were laws which would make it lawful for them to tender, or offer, paper
money in exchange for flour or other things. In some cases it was made
lawful to tender paper money in payments of debts which had been made
when gold and silver were still in use. The merchants now shut up their
shops, and business almost ceased. The lawyers only were busy. For those
to whom money was owed tried to get it paid before the paper money
became utterly worthless. The courts were crowded, and the prisons were
filled with poor debtors.

[Sidenote: Stay laws.]

172. Stay Laws.--Now the cry was for "stay laws." These were laws
to prevent those to whom money was due from enforcing their rights.
These laws promptly put an end to whatever business was left. The only
way that any business could be carried on was by barter. For example, a
man who had a bushel of wheat that he did not want for his family would
exchange it for three or four bushels of potatoes, or for four or five
days of labor. In some states the legislatures passed very severe laws
to compel people to receive paper money. In one state, indeed, no one
could vote who would not receive paper money.

[Illustration: STATE STREET, BOSTON, ABOUT 1790. The Boston Massacre
occurred near where the two-horse wagon stands.]

[Sidenote: Disorder in Massachusetts.]

173. Shays's Rebellion, 1786-87.--In Massachusetts, especially, the
discontent was very great. The people were angry with the judges for
sending men to prison who did not pay their debts. Crowds of armed men
visited the judges and compelled them to close the courts. The leader in
this movement was Daniel Shays. He even threatened to seize the United
States Arsenal at Springfield. By this time Governor Bowdoin and General
Lincoln also had gathered a small force of soldiers. In the midst of
winter, through snowstorms and over terrible roads, Lincoln marched with
his men. He drove Shays from place to place, captured his followers, and
put down the rebellion. There were risings in other states, especially
in North Carolina. But Shays's Rebellion in Massachusetts was the most
important of them all, because it convinced the New Englanders that a
stronger national government was necessary.

[Illustration: CLAIMS AND CESSIONS.]

[Sidenote: Claims of the states to Western lands. _McMaster_, 155]

[Sidenote: _Hero Tales_, 19-28.]

[Sidenote: Opposition of Maryland and of other states.]

174. Claims to Western Lands.--The Confederation seemed to be
falling to pieces. That it did not actually fall to pieces was largely
due to the fact that all the states were interested in the settlement of
the region northwest of the Ohio River. It will be well to stop a moment
and see how this came about. Under their old charters Massachusetts,
Connecticut, Virginia, Carolina, and Georgia had claims to lands west of
the Alleghanies. Between 1763 and 1776 the British government had paid
slight heed to these claims (pp. 75, 89). But Daniel Boone and other
colonists had settled west of the mountains in what are now the states
of Kentucky and Tennessee. When the Revolution began the states having
claims to western lands at once put them forward, and New York also
claimed a right to about one-half of the disputed territory. Naturally,
the states that had no claims to these lands had quite different views.
The Marylanders, for example, thought that the western lands should be
regarded as national territory and used for the common benefit. Maryland
refused to join the Confederation until New York had ceded her claims to
the United States, and Virginia had proposed a cession of the territory
claimed by her.

[Sidenote: The states cede their claims to the United States.
_McMaster_, 159-160.]

175. The Land Cessions.--In 1784 Virginia gave up her claims to the
land northwest of the Ohio River with the exception of certain large
tracts which she reserved for her veteran soldiers. Massachusetts ceded
her claims in 1785. The next year (1786) Connecticut gave up her claims.
But she reserved a large tract of land directly west of Pennsylvania.
This was called the Connecticut Reserve or, more often, the Western
Reserve. South Carolina and North Carolina ceded their lands in 1787 and
1790, and finally Georgia gave up her claims to western lands in 1802.

[Sidenote: Reasons for the ordinance.]

[Sidenote: Passage of Ordinance of 1787. _McMaster_, 160-162;
_Source-Book_, 169-172.]

[Sidenote: Passage of Ordinance of 1787. _McMaster_, 160-162;
_Source-Book_, 169-172.]

176. Passage of the Ordinance of 1787.--What should be done with
the lands which in this way had come into the possession of the people
of all the states? It was quite impossible to divide these lands among
the people of the thirteen states. They never could have agreed as to
the amount due to each state. In 1785 Congress took the first step. It
passed a law or an ordinance for the government of the Territory
Northwest of the Ohio River. This ordinance was imperfect, and few
persons emigrated to the West. There were many persons who wished to
emigrate from the old states to the new region. But they were unwilling
to go unless they felt sure that they would not be treated by Congress
as the British government had treated the people of the original states.
Dr. Cutler of Massachusetts laid these matters before Congress and did
his work so well that Congress passed a new ordinance. This was in 1787.
The ordinance is therefore called the Ordinance of 1787. It was so well
suited to its purpose that nearly all the territories of the United
States have been settled and governed under its provisions. It will be
well to study this great document more at length.

[Sidenote: Provisions of the Ordinance of 1787.]

177. The Ordinance of 1787.--In the first place the ordinance
provided for the formation of one territory to be called the Territory
Northwest of the Ohio. But it is more often called the Northwest
Territory or simply the Old Northwest. At first it was to be governed by
the persons appointed by Congress. But it was further provided that when
settlers should arrive in sufficient numbers they should enjoy
self-government. When fully settled the territory should be divided into
five states. These should be admitted to the Confederation on a footing
of equality with the original states. The settlers in the territory
should enjoy full rights of citizenship. Education should be encouraged.
Slavery should never be permitted. This last provision is especially
important as it saved the Northwest to freedom. In this way a new
political organization was invented. It was called a territory. It was
really a colony; but it differed from all other colonies because in time
it would become a state on a footing of entire equality with the
parent states.

Chapter 18

Making Of The Constitution, 1787-1789

[Sidenote: Weakness of the Confederation.]

[Sidenote: Meeting of the Federal Convention, 1787.]

178. Necessity for a New Government.--At this very moment a
convention was making a constitution to put an end to the Confederation
itself. It was quite clear that something must be done or the states
soon would be fighting one another. Attempt after attempt had been made
to amend the Articles of Confederation so as to give Congress more
power. But every attempt had failed because the consent of every state
was required to amend the Articles. And one state or another had
objected to every amendment that had been proposed. It was while affairs
were in this condition that the Federal Convention met at Philadelphia
in May, 1787.

[Sidenote: James Madison.]

179. James Madison.--Of all the members of the Convention, James
Madison of Virginia best deserves the title of Father of the
Constitution. He drew up the Virginia plan which was adopted as the
basis of the new Constitution. He spoke convincingly for the plan in the
Convention. He did more than any one else to secure the ratification of
the Constitution by Virginia. He kept a careful set of _Notes_ of the
debates of the Convention which show us precisely how the Constitution
was made. With Alexander Hamilton and John Jay he wrote a series of
papers which is called the _Federalist_ and is still the best guide to
the Constitution.

[Illustration: JAMES MADISON.]

[Sidenote: Washington President of the Convention.]

[Sidenote: Franklin.]

180. Other Fathers of the Constitution.--George Washington was
chosen President of the Convention. He made few speeches. But the
speeches that he made were very important. And the mere fact that he
approved the Constitution had a tremendous influence throughout the
country. The oldest man in the Convention was Benjamin Franklin. His
long experience in politics and in diplomacy with his natural shrewdness
had made him an unrivaled manager of men. From all the states came able
men. In fact, with the exception of John Adams, Samuel Adams, Patrick
Henry, and Thomas Jefferson, the strongest men in political life were in
the Federal Convention. Never in the history of the world have so many
great political leaders, learned students of politics, and shrewd
business men gathered together. The result of their labors was the most
marvelous product of political wisdom that the world has ever seen.

[Illustration: THE OLD STATE HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA. Meeting place of the
Continental Congress and of the Federal Convention--now called
Independence Hall.]

[Sidenote: The Virginia plan.]

[Sidenote: Pinckney's plan.]

[Sidenote: Vote for a national government.]

181. Plans for a National Government.--As soon as the Convention
was in working order, Governor Randolph of Virginia presented Madison's
plan for a "national" government. Charles Pinckney of South Carolina
also brought forward a plan. His scheme was more detailed than was
Madison's plan. But, like it, it provided for a government with "supreme
legislative, executive, and judicial powers." On May 30 the Convention
voted that a "national government ought to be established, consisting of
a supreme Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary." It next decided that
the legislative department should consist of two houses. But when the
delegates began to talk over the details, they began to disagree.

[Sidenote: The New Jersey plan.]

182. Disagreement as to Representation.--The Virginia plan proposed
that representation in one branch of the new Congress should be divided
among the states according to the amount of money each state paid into
the national treasury, or according to the number of the free
inhabitants of each state. The Delaware delegates at once said that they
must withdraw. In June Governor Patterson of New Jersey brought forward
a plan which had been drawn up by the delegates from the smaller states.
It is always called, however, the New Jersey plan. It proposed simply to
amend the Articles of Confederation so as to give Congress more power.
After a long debate the New Jersey plan was rejected.

[Illustration: Benjamin Franklin. "He snatched the lightning from
Heaven, and the sceptre from tyrants."--TURGOT.]

[Sidenote: Representation in the House of Representatives. _McMaster_,

[Sidenote: Representation in the Senate.]

183. The Compromise as to Representation.--The discussion now
turned on the question of representation in the two houses of Congress.
After a long debate and a good deal of excitement Benjamin Franklin
and Roger Sherman proposed a compromise. This was, that members of the
House of Representatives should be apportioned among the states
according to their population and should be elected directly by the
people. In the Senate they proposed that each state, regardless of size,
population, or wealth, should have two members. The Senators,
representing the states, would fittingly be chosen by the state
legislatures. It was agreed that the states should be equally
represented in the Senate. But it was difficult to reach a conclusion as
to the apportionment of representatives in the House.

[Sidenote: The federal ratio.]

184. Compromise as to Apportionment.--Should the members of the
House of Representatives be distributed among the states according to
population? At first sight the answer seemed to be perfectly clear. But
the real question was, should slaves who had no vote be counted as a
part of the population? It was finally agreed that the slaves should be
counted at three-fifths of their real number. This rule was called the
"federal ratio." The result of this rule was to give the Southern slave
states representation in Congress out of all proportion to their voting

[Sidenote: Power of Congress over commerce.]

[Sidenote: Restriction as to slave-trade.]

185. Compromise as to the Slave-Trade.--When the subject of the
powers to be given to Congress came to be discussed, there was even
greater excitement. The Northerners wanted Congress to have power to
regulate commerce. But the Southerners opposed it because they feared
Congress would use this power to put an end to the slave-trade. John
Rutledge of South Carolina even went so far as to say that unless this
question was settled in favor of the slaveholders, the slave states
would "not be parties to the Union." In the end this matter also was
compromised by providing that Congress could not prohibit the
slave-trade until 1808. These were the three great compromises. But
there were compromises on so many smaller points that we cannot even
mention them here.

[Illustration: SIGNING OF THE CONSTITUTION, SEPTEMBER 17, 1787. From an
early unfinished picture. This shows the arrangement of the room and the
sun behind Washington's chair.]

[Sidenote: Franklin's prophecy.]

186. Franklin's Prophecy.--It was with a feeling of real relief
that the delegates finally came to the end of their labors. As they were
putting their names to the Constitution, Franklin pointed to a rising
sun that was painted on the wall behind the presiding officer's chair.
He said that painters often found it difficult to show the difference
between a rising sun and a setting sun. "I have often and often," said
the old statesman, "looked at that behind the President, without being
able to tell whether it was rising or setting; but now, at length, I
have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting sun."
And so indeed it has proved to be.

[Sidenote: Strength of the Constitution. _McMaster_, 168-169.]

187. The Constitution.--It will be well now to note some of the
points in which the new Constitution was unlike the old Articles of
Confederation. In the first place, the government of the Confederation
had to do only with the states; the new government would deal directly
with individuals. For instance, when the old Congress needed money, it
called on the states to give it. If a state refused to give any money,
Congress could remonstrate--and that was all. The new government could
order individuals to pay taxes. Any one who refused to pay his tax would
be tried in a United States court and compelled to pay or go to prison.
In the second place the old government had almost no executive powers.
The new government would have a very strong executive in the person of
the President of the United States.

[Sidenote: Interpretation of the Constitution.]

[Sidenote: John Marshall's decisions.]

188. The Supreme Court.--But the greatest difference of all was to
be found in the Supreme Court of the United States provided in the
Constitution. The new Congress would have very large powers of making
laws. But the words defining these powers were very hard to understand.
It was the duty of the Supreme Court to say what these words meant. Now
the judges of the Supreme Court are very independent. It is almost
impossible to remove a judge of this court, and the Constitution
provides that his salary cannot be reduced while he holds office. It
fell out that under the lead of Chief Justice John Marshall the Supreme
Court defined the doubtful words in the Constitution so as to give the
greatest amount of power to the Congress of the United States. As the
laws of the United States are the supreme laws of the land, it will be
seen how important this action of the Supreme Court has been.


[Sidenote: Opposition to the Constitution. _Source-Book_, 172-175.]

189. Objections to the Constitution.--The great strength of the
Constitution alarmed many people. Patrick Henry declared that the
government under the new Constitution would be a national government and
not a federal government at all. Other persons objected to the
Constitution because it took the control of affairs out of the hands of
the people. For example, the Senators were to be chosen by the state
legislatures, and the President was to be elected in a round-about way
by presidential electors. Others objected to the Constitution because
there was no Bill of Rights attached to it. They pointed out, for
instance, that there was nothing in the Constitution to prevent Congress
from passing laws to destroy the freedom of the press. Finally a great
many people objected to the Constitution because there was no provision
in it reserving to the states or to the people those powers that were
not expressly given to the new government.


[Sidenote: Opponents of the Constitution.]

[Sidenote: The first ten amendments.]

190. The First Ten Amendments.--These defects seemed to be so grave
that patriots like Patrick Henry, R.H. Lee, Samuel Adams, and John
Hancock could not bring themselves to vote for its adoption. Conventions
of delegates were elected by the people of the several states to ratify
or to reject the Constitution. The excitement was intense. It seemed as
if the Constitution would not be adopted. But a way was found out of the
difficulty. It was suggested that the conventions should consent to the
adoption of the Constitution, but should, at the same time, propose
amendments which would do away with many of these objections. This was
done. The first Congress under the Constitution and the state
legislatures adopted most of these amendments, and they became a part of
the Constitution. There were ten amendments in all, and they should be
studied as carefully as the Constitution itself is studied.

[Sidenote: Constitution adopted. _Higginson_, 216; _Source-Book_,

191. The Constitution Adopted, 1787-88.--In June, 1788, New
Hampshire and Virginia adopted the Constitution. They were the ninth and
tenth states to take this action. The Constitution provided that it
should go into effect when it should be adopted by nine states, that is,
of course, it should go into effect only between those states.
Preparations were now made for the organization of the new government.
But this took some time. Washington was unanimously elected President,
and was inaugurated in April, 1789. By that time North Carolina and
Rhode Island were the only states which had not adopted the Constitution
and come under the "New Roof," as it was called. In a year or two they
adopted it also, and the Union of the thirteen original states
was complete.



§§ 168, 169.--_a_. What were the chief weaknesses of the Confederation?
Why did not Congress have any real power?

_b_. How did some states treat other states? Why?

§§ 170-173.--_a_. Explain the distress among the people.

_b_. Describe the attitude of the British government and give some
reason for it.

_c_. Why did the value of paper money keep changing?

_d_. What were the "tender laws"? The "stay laws"?

_e_. Give some illustration of how these laws would affect trade.

§ 174.--_a_. Describe the troubles in Massachusetts.

_b_. What was the result of this rebellion?

§§ 175-178.--_a_. What common interest did all the states have?

_b_. What did Maryland contend? State carefully the result of Maryland's
action. Describe the land cessions.

_c_. How did the holding these lands benefit the United States?

_d_. Give the provisions of the Ordinance of 1787. What was the result
of the declaration as to slaves?

_e_. What privileges were the settlers to have? Why is this Ordinance so


§§ 179-181.--_a_. What difficulties in the United States showed the
necessity of a stronger government?

_b_. How could the Articles of Confederation be amended?

_c_. What was the important work of Madison?

_d_. What was the advantage of having Washington act as President of the

§§ 182, 183.--_a_. Explain fully the provisions of the Virginia plan.
What departments were decided upon?

_b_. Why did New Jersey and Delaware oppose the Virginia plan? What were
the great objections to the New Jersey plan?

§§ 184-186.--_a_. What is a compromise? What are the three great
compromises of the Constitution?

_b_. Explain the compromise as to representation. What does the Senate
represent? What the House?

_c_. Define apportionment. What do you think of the wisdom of the
compromise as to apportionment? What of its justice?

_d_. Why was there a conflict over the clause as to commerce? How was
the matter settled?

§§ 187-189.--_a_. What events at first seemed to disprove Franklin's

_b_. Compare the Constitution with the Articles of Confederation and
show in what respects the Constitution was much stronger.

_c_. Explain how the new government could control individuals.

_d_. What were some of the duties of the President? Of Congress? Of the
Supreme Court?

§§ 190-192.--_a_. What is the difference between a national and a
federal government? Was Henry's criticism true?

_b_. Study the first ten amendments and state how far they met the
objections of those opposed to the Constitution.

_c_. Repeat the Tenth Amendment from memory.

_d_. How was the Constitution ratified?

_e_. How did the choice of Washington as first President influence
popular feeling toward the new government?


_a_. Why should the people have shown loyalty to the states rather than
to the United States?

_b_. Analyze the Constitution as follows:--

                      | EXECUTIVE. | LEGISLATIVE. | JUDICIARY.
Method of Appointment |            |              |
or Election.          |            |              |
Term of Office.       |            |              |
                      |            |              |
Duties and Powers.    |            |              |
                      |            |              |


The career of any one man prominent in the Convention, as Madison,
Hamilton, Franklin, Washington, Robert Morris, etc. Write a brief


This period should be taught very slowly and very thoroughly, as it
demands much more time than any of the earlier periods. A clear
understanding of the Constitution is of the most practical value, not
merely to enable one to comprehend the later history, but also to enable
one to understand present duties. Note carefully the "federal ratio" and
the functions of the Supreme Court. Use the text of the Constitution and
emphasize especially those portions of importance in the later history.

This work is difficult. It should therefore be most fully illustrated
from recent political struggles. Let the children represent characters
in the Convention and discuss the various plans proposed. Encourage them
also to suggest transactions which might represent the working of the
tender laws, the commercial warfare between the states, the "federal
ratio" etc. Especially study the first ten amendments and show how they
limit the power of the general government to-day.

[Illustration: TERRITORIAL ACQUISITIONS 1783-1853. For later
acquisitions see Map facing page 397.]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Higginson's _Larger History_, 309-344; Eggleston's
_United States and its People_ ch. xxxiv (the people in 1790);
McMaster's _School History_, ch. xiv (the people in 1790).

Home Readings.--Drake's _Making of the West_; Scribner's _Popular
History_, IV; Coffin's _Building the Nation_; Bolton's _Famous
Americans_; Holmes's _Ode on Washington's Birthday_; Seawell's
_Little Jarvis_.



[Sidenote: The first way of electing President. Constitution, Art. II,
§I; _McMaster_, 170-171.]

[Sidenote: Washington and Adams.]

192. Washington elected President.--In the early years under the
Constitution the Presidents and Vice-Presidents were elected in the
following manner. First each state chose presidential electors usually
by vote of its legislature. Then the electors of each state came
together and voted for two persons without saying which of the two
should be President. When all the electoral votes were counted, the
person having the largest number, provided that was more than half of
the whole number of electoral votes, was declared President. The person
having the next largest number became Vice-President. At the first
election every elector voted for Washington. John Adams received the
next largest number of votes and became Vice-President.

[Illustration: FEDERAL HALL, 1797. Washington took the oath of office on
the balcony.]

[Sidenote: Washington's journey to New York. _Higginson_, 217-218.]

193. Washington's Journey to New York.--At ten o'clock in the
morning of April 14, 1789, Washington left Mt. Vernon and set out for
New York. Wherever he passed the people poured forth to greet him. At
Trenton, New Jersey, a triumphal arch had been erected. The school girls
strewed flowers in his path and sang an ode written for the occasion. A
barge manned by thirteen pilots met him at the water's edge and bore him
safely to New York.

[Sidenote: Washington inaugurated President, 1789. _Source-Book_,

[Sidenote: The oath of office.]

194. The First Inauguration, April 30, 1789.--Long before the time
set for the inauguration ceremonies, the streets around Federal Hall
were closely packed with sightseers. Washington in a suit of velvet with
white silk stockings came out on the balcony and took the oath of office
ordered in the Constitution, "I will faithfully execute the office of
President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Cannon roared forth a salute and Chancellor Livingston turning to the
people proclaimed, "Long live George Washington, President of the United
States." Reëntering the hall Washington read a simple and
solemn address.

[Sidenote: Jefferson, Secretary of State.]

[Sidenote: Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury. _Eggleston_, 215.]

[Sidenote: Knox, Secretary of War.]

[Sidenote: Randolph, Attorney-General.]

195. The First Cabinet.--Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of State. Since writing the Great Declaration, Jefferson had
been governor of Virginia and American minister at Paris. The Secretary
of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton. Born in the British West Indies,
he had come to New York to attend King's College, now Columbia
University. For Secretary of War, Washington selected Henry Knox. He had
been Chief of Artillery during the Revolution. Since then he had been
head of the War Department. Edward Randolph became Attorney General. He
had introduced the Virginia plan of union into the Federal Convention.
But he had not signed the Constitution in its final form. These four
officers formed the Cabinet. There was also a Postmaster General. But
his office was of slight importance at the time.


[Sidenote: Federal Officers.]

[Sidenote: Jay, Chief Justice.]

196. Appointments to Office.--The President now appointed the
necessary officers to execute the national laws. These were mostly men
who had been prominent in the Revolutionary War. For instance, John Jay
(p. 126) was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and General
Lincoln (p. 134) was appointed Collector of Customs at Boston. It was in
having officers of its own to carry out its laws, that the new
government seemed to the people to be so unlike the old government.
Formerly if Congress wanted anything done, it called on the states to do
it. Now Congress, by law, authorized the United States officials to do
their tasks. The difference was a very great one, and it took the people
some time to realize what a great change had been made.

[Sidenote: Titles. _Higginson_, 222.]

197. The Question of Titles.--The first fiercely contested debate
in the new Congress was over the question of titles. John Adams, the
Vice-President and the presiding officer of the Senate, began the
conflict by asking the Senate how he should address the President. One
senator suggested that the President should be entitled "His Patriotic
Majesty." Other senators proposed that he should be addressed as "Your
Highness, the President of the United States and Protector of their
Liberties." Fortunately, the House of Representatives had the first
chance to address Washington and simply called him "Mr. President of the
United States."

[Sidenote: Ceremonies. _Higginson_, 222-224.]

[Sidenote: Monarchical appearances.]

198. Ceremonies and Progresses.--Washington liked a good deal of
ceremony and was stiff and aristocratic. He soon gave receptions or
"levees" as they were called. To these only persons who had tickets were
admitted. Washington stood on one side of the room and bowed stiffly to
each guest as he was announced. When all were assembled, the entrance
doors were closed. The President then slowly walked around the room,
saying something pleasant to each person. In 1789 he made a journey
through New England. Everywhere he was received by guards of honor, and
was splendidly entertained. At one place an old man greeted him with
"God bless Your Majesty." This was all natural enough, for Washington
was "first in the hearts of his countrymen." But many good men were
afraid that the new government would really turn out to be a monarchy.

[Sidenote: Struggle over protection, 1789. _Source-Book_, 183-186.]

199. First Tariff Act, 1789.--The first important business that
Congress took in hand was a bill for raising revenue, and a lively
debate began. Representatives from New England and the Middle states
wanted protection for their commerce and their struggling manufactures.
Representatives from the Southern states opposed all protective duties
as harmful to agriculture, which was the only important pursuit of the
Southerners. But the Southerners would have been glad to have a duty
placed on hemp. This the New Englanders opposed because it would
increase the cost of rigging ships. The Pennsylvanians were eager for a
duty on iron and steel. But the New Englanders opposed this duty because
it would add to the cost of building a ship, and the Southerners opposed
it because it would increase the cost of agricultural tools. And so it
was as to nearly every duty that was proposed. But duties must be laid,
and the only thing that could be done was to compromise in every
direction. Each section got something that it wanted, gave up a great
deal that it wanted, and agreed to something that it did not want at
all. And so it has been with every tariff act from that day to this.

[Sidenote: The first census.]

[Sidenote: Extent of the United States, 1791.]

[Sidenote: Population of the United States, 1791.]

200. The First Census, 1791.--The Constitution provided that
representatives should be distributed among the states according to
population as modified by the federal ratio (p. 142). To do this it was
necessary to find out how many people there were in each state. In 1791
the first census was taken. By that time both North Carolina and Rhode
Island had joined the Union, and Vermont had been admitted as the
fourteenth state. It appeared that there were nearly four million people
in the United States, or not as many as one hundred years later lived
around the shores of New York harbor. There were then about seven
hundred thousand slaves in the country. Of these only fifty thousand
were in the states north of Maryland. The country, therefore, was
already divided into two sections: one where slavery was of little
importance, and another where it was of great importance.

[Sidenote: Vermont admitted, 1791.]

[Sidenote: _Higginson_ 229.]

[Sidenote: Kentucky admitted, 1792. _Higginson_, 224-230.]

201. New States.--The first new state to be admitted to the Union
was Vermont (1791). The land which formed this state was claimed by New
Hampshire and by New York. But during the Revolution the Green Mountain
Boys had declared themselves independent and had drawn up a
constitution. They now applied to Congress for admission to the Union as
a separate state. The next year Kentucky came into the Union. This was
originally a part of Virginia, and the colonists had brought their
slaves with them to their new homes. Kentucky, therefore, was a slave
state. Vermont was a free state, and its constitution forbade slavery.


[Sidenote: Origin of the National Debt. For details, see _McMaster_,

[Sidenote: Bonds.]

202. The National Debt.--The National Debt was the price of
independence. During the war Congress had been too poor to pay gold and
silver for what it needed to carry on the war. So it had given promises
to pay at some future time. These promises to pay were called by various
names as bonds, certificates of indebtedness, and paper money. Taken all
together they formed what was called the Domestic Debt, because it was
owed to persons living in the United States. There was also a Foreign
Debt. This was owed to the King of France and to other foreigners who
had lent money to the United States.

[Sidenote: Hamilton as a financier.]

[Sidenote: His plan.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

203. Hamilton's Financial Policy.--Alexander Hamilton was the
ablest Secretary of the Treasury the United States has ever had. To give
people confidence in the new government, he proposed to redeem the old
certificates and bonds, dollar for dollar, in new bonds. To this plan
there was violent objection. Most of the original holders of the
certificates and bonds had sold them long ago. They were now mainly held
by speculators who had paid about thirty or forty cents for each dollar.
Why should the speculator get one dollar for that which had cost him
only thirty or forty cents? Hamilton insisted that his plan was the only
way to place the public credit on a firm foundation, and it was
finally adopted.

[Illustration: ALEXANDER HAMILTON. "He smote the rock of the national
resources and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. He touched the
dead corpse of the public credit and it sprang upon its

[Sidenote: The state debts. _Source-Book_, 186-188.]

[Sidenote: Hamilton's plan of assumption.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

[Sidenote: Failure of the bill.]

204. Assumption of State Debts.--A further part of Hamilton's
original scheme aroused even greater opposition. During the
Revolutionary War the states, too, had become heavily in debt. They had
furnished soldiers and supplies to Congress. Some of them had undertaken
expeditions at their own expense. Virginia, for example, had borne all
the cost of Clark's conquest of the Northwest (p. 116). She had later
ceded nearly all her rights in the conquered territory to the United
States (p. 135). These debts had been incurred for the benefit of the
people as a whole. Would it not then be fair for the people of the
United States as a whole to pay them? Hamilton thought that it would. It
chanced, however, that the Northern states had much larger debts than
had the Southern states. One result of Hamilton's scheme would be to
relieve the Northern states of a part of their burdens and to increase
the burdens of the Southern states. The Southerners, therefore, were
strongly opposed to the plan. The North Carolina representatives reached
New York just in time to vote against it, and that part of Hamilton's
plan was defeated.

[Illustration: AN OLD STAGECOACH. The house was built in Lincoln County,
Kentucky, in 1783.]

[Sidenote: Question of the site of the national capital.]

[Sidenote: Jefferson and Hamilton.]

[Sidenote: The District of Columbia.]

205. The National Capital.--In these days of fast express trains it
makes little difference whether one is going to Philadelphia or to
Baltimore--only a few hours more or less in a comfortable railroad car.
But in 1791 it made a great deal of difference whether one were going to
Philadelphia or to Baltimore. Traveling was especially hard in the
South. There were few roads or taverns in that part of the country, and
those few were bad. The Southerners were anxious to have the national
capital as far south as possible. They were also opposed to the
assumption of the state debts by the national government. Now it
happened that the Northerners were in favor of the assumption of the
debts and did not care very much where the national capital might be. In
the end Jefferson and Hamilton made "a deal," the first of its kind in
our history. Enough Southerners voted for the assumption bill to pass
it. The Northerners, on their part, agreed that the temporary seat of
government should be at Philadelphia, and the permanent seat of
government on the Potomac. Virginia and Maryland at once ceded enough
land to form a "federal district." This was called the District of
Columbia. Soon preparations were begun to build a capital city
there--the city of Washington.


[Sidenote: Hamilton's plan for a United States bank. _McMaster_, 201]

[Sidenote: Jefferson's argument against it.]

[Sidenote: The bank established.]

206. The First Bank of the United States.--Two parts of Hamilton's
plan were now adopted. To the third part of his scheme there was even
more opposition. This was the establishment of a great Bank of the
United States. The government in 1790 had no place in which to keep its
money. Instead of establishing government treasuries, Hamilton wanted a
great national bank, controlled by the government. This bank could
establish branches in important cities. The government's money could be
deposited at any of these branches and could be paid out by checks sent
from the Treasury. Furthermore, people could buy a part of the stock of
the bank with the new bonds of the United States. This would make people
more eager to own the bonds, and so would increase their price. For all
these reasons Hamilton thought the bank would be very useful, and
therefore "necessary and proper" for the carrying out of the powers
given by the Constitution to the national government. Jefferson,
however, thought that the words "necessary and proper" meant necessary
and not useful. The bank was not necessary according to the ordinary use
of the word. Congress therefore had no business to establish it. After
thinking the matter over, Washington signed the bill and it became a
law. But Jefferson had sounded the alarm. Many persons agreed with him,
many others agreed with Hamilton. Two great political parties were
formed and began the contest for power that has been going on
ever since.



[Sidenote: Formation of the Federalist party. _McMaster_, 202.]

207. The Federalists.--There were no political parties in the
United States in 1789. All the leading men were anxious to give the new
Constitution a fair trial. Even Patrick Henry supported Washington. Many
men, as Alexander Hamilton and Gouverneur Morris, believed a monarchy to
be the best form of government. But they saw clearly that the American
people would not permit a monarchy to be established. So they supported
the Constitution although they thought that it was "a frail and
worthless fabric." But they wished to establish the strongest possible
government that could be established under the Constitution. This they
could do by defining in the broadest way the doubtful words in the
Constitution as Hamilton had done in the controversy over the bank
charter (p. 162). Hamilton had little confidence in the wisdom of the
plain people. He believed it would be safer to rely on the richer
classes. So he and his friends wished to give to the central government
and to the richer classes the greatest possible amount of power. Those
who believed as Hamilton believed called themselves Federalists. In
reality they were Nationalists.

[Sidenote: Formation of the Republican party.]

208. The Republicans.--Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Albert
Gallatin, and their friends entirely disagreed with the Federalists on
all of these points. They called themselves Republicans. In the Great
Declaration Jefferson had written that government rested on the consent
of the governed. He also thought that the common sense of the plain
people was a safer guide than the wisdom of the richer classes. He was
indignant at the way in which Hamilton defined the meaning of phrases in
the Constitution. He especially relied on the words of the Tenth
Amendment. This amendment provided that "all powers not delegated to the
United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states are
reserved to the states respectively or to the people." Jefferson thought
that phrases like "not delegated" and "necessary and proper" should be
understood in their ordinary meanings. He now determined to arouse
public opinion. He once declared that if he had to choose between having
a government and having a newspaper press, he should prefer the
newspaper press. He established a newspaper devoted to his principles
and began a violent and determined attack on the Federalists, calling
them monarchists. These disputes became especially violent in the
treatment of the questions which grew out of the French Revolution.

[Sidenote: The French Revolution, 1789.]

209. The French Revolution.--In 1789 the French people rose against
their government. In 1792 they imprisoned their king and queen. In 1793
they beheaded them, and set up a republic. The monarchs of Europe made
common cause against this spirit of revolution. They made war on the
French Republic and began a conflict which soon spread to all parts of
the world.

[Sidenote: Effect of the French Revolution on American politics.
_McMaster_, 206-207.]

[Sidenote: Federalists and Republicans.]

210. The French Revolution and American Politics.--Jefferson and
his political friends rejoiced at the overthrow of the French monarchy
and the setting up of the Republic. It seemed as if American ideas had
spread to Europe. Soon Jefferson's followers began to ape the manners of
the French revolutionists. They called each other Citizen this and
Citizen that. Reports of French victories were received with rejoicing.
At Boston an ox, roasted whole, bread, and punch were distributed to the
people in the streets, and cakes stamped with the French watchwords,
Liberty and Equality, were given to the children. But, while the
Republicans were rejoicing over the downfall of the French monarchy, the
Federalists were far from being happy. Hamilton had no confidence in
government by the people anywhere. Washington, with his aristocratic
ideas, did not at all like the way the Republicans were acting. He said
little on the subject, but Lady Washington expressed her mind freely and
spoke of Jefferson's followers as "filthy Democrats."

[Sidenote: Genet at Charleston.]

[Sidenote: His contest with the government.]

211. Citizen Genet.--The new French government soon sent an agent
or minister to the United States. He was the Citizen Genet. He landed at
Charleston, South Carolina. He fitted out privateers to prey on British
commerce and then set out overland for Philadelphia. Washington had
recently made a tour through the South. But even he had not been
received with the enthusiasm that greeted Genet. But when Genet reached
Philadelphia, and began to confer with Jefferson about getting help from
the government, he found little except delay, trouble, and good advice.
Jefferson especially tried to warn Genet not to be over confident. But
Genet would not listen. He even appealed to the people against
Washington, and the people rallied to the defense of the President. Soon
another and wiser French minister came to the United States.

[Sidenote: The Treaty of Alliance of 1778.]

[Sidenote: The Neutrality Proclamation, 1793.]

212. The Neutrality Proclamation, 1793.--Washington and his
advisers had a very difficult question to settle. For the Treaty of 1778
with France (p. 115) gave to French ships the use of United States
ports in war time, and closed those ports to the enemies of France. The
treaty might also oblige the United States to make war on Great Britain
in order to preserve the French West India Islands to France. It was
quite certain, at all events, that if French warships were allowed to
use American ports, and British warships were not allowed to do so,
Great Britain would speedily make war on the United States. The treaty
had been made with the King of France. Could it not be set aside on the
ground that there was no longer a French monarchy? Washington at length
made up his mind to regard it as suspended, owing to the confusion which
existed in France. He therefore issued a Proclamation of Neutrality. In
this proclamation he warned all citizens not to aid either of the
fighting nations. It was in this way that Washington began the policy of
keeping the United States out of European conflicts (p. 224).

[Sidenote: Internal revenue taxes.]

[Sidenote: The Whiskey Rebellion, 1794. _McMaster_, 203-204.]

213. The Whiskey Insurrection, 1794.--The increasing expenses of
the government made new taxes necessary. Among the new taxes was an
internal revenue tax on whiskey. It happened that this tax bore heavily
on the farmers of western Carolina and western Pennsylvania. The farmers
of those regions could not take their grain to the seaboard because the
roads were bad and the distance was great. So they made it into whiskey,
which could be carried to the seaboard and sold at a profit. The new tax
on whiskey would make it more difficult for these western farmers to
earn a living and to support their families. They refused to pay it.
They fell upon the tax collectors and drove them away. Washington sent
commissioners to explain matters to them. But the farmers paid no heed
to the commissioners. The President then called out fifteen thousand
militia-men and sent them to western Pennsylvania, under the command of
Henry Lee, governor of Virginia. The rebellious farmers yielded without
fighting. Two of the leaders were convicted of treason. But Washington
pardoned them, and the conflict ended there. The new government had
shown its strength, and had compelled people to obey the laws. That in
itself was a very great thing to have done.

[Sidenote: Relations with Great Britain. _McMaster_, 207-209;
_Source-Book_, 188-190.]

[Sidenote: Jay's Treaty, 1794.]

214. Jay's Treaty, 1794.--Ever since 1783 there had been trouble
with the British. They had not surrendered the posts on the Great Lakes,
as the treaty of 1783 required them to do. They had oppressed American
commerce. The American states also had broken the treaty by making laws
to prevent the collection of debts due to British subjects by American
citizens. The Congress of the Confederation had been too weak to compel
either the British government or the American states to obey the treaty.
But the new government was strong enough to make treaties respected at
home and abroad. Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London to
negotiate a new treaty. He found the British government very hard to
deal with. At last he made a treaty. But there were many things in it
which were not at all favorable to the United States. For instance, it
provided that cotton should not be exported from the United States, and
that American commerce with the British West Indies should be greatly

[Sidenote: Contest over ratification of Jay's Treaty, 1795.]

215. Ratification of Jay's Treaty, 1795.--After a long discussion
the Senate voted to ratify the treaty without these two clauses. In the
House of Representatives there was a fierce debate. For although the
House has nothing to do with ratifying treaties, it has a great deal to
do with voting money. And money was needed to carry out this treaty. At
last the House voted the necessary money. The British surrendered the
posts on the Great Lakes, and the debts due to British subjects were
paid. Many people were very angry with Jay and with Washington for
making this treaty. Stuffed figures of Jay were hanged, and Washington
was attacked in the papers as if he had been "a common pickpocket"--to
use his own words.


[Sidenote: Treaty with Spain, 1795.]

[Sidenote: Right of deposit.]

216. The Spanish Treaty of 1795.--France and Great Britain were
not the only countries with which there was trouble. The Spaniards held
posts on the Mississippi, within the limits of the United States and
refused to give them up. For a hundred miles the Mississippi flowed
through Spanish territory. In those days, before steam railroads
connected the Ohio valley with the Eastern seacoast, the farmers of
Kentucky and Tennessee sent their goods by boat or raft down the
Mississippi to New Orleans. At that city they were placed on sea-going
vessels and carried to the markets of the world. The Spaniards refused
to let this commerce be carried on. In 1795, however, they agreed to
abandon the posts and to permit American goods to be deposited at New
Orleans while awaiting shipment by sea-going vessels.

[Sidenote: Washington declines a third term.]

[Sidenote: His Farewell Address.]

217. Washington's Farewell Address.--In 1792 Washington had been
reëlected President. In 1796 there would be a new election, and
Washington declined another nomination. He was disgusted with the tone
of public life and detested party politics, and desired to pass the
short remainder of his life in quiet at Mt. Vernon. He announced his
intention to retire in a Farewell Address, which should be read and
studied by every American. In it he declared the Union to be the main
pillar of independence, prosperity, and liberty. Public credit must be
carefully maintained, and the United States should have as little as
possible to do with European affairs. In declining a third term as
President, Washington set an example which has ever since been followed.



[Sidenote: Hamilton's intrigues against Adams.]

[Sidenote: Adams elected, President, 1796.]

218. John Adams elected President, 1796.--In 1796 John Adams was
the Federalist candidate for President. His rival was Thomas Jefferson,
the founder and chief of the Republican party. Alexander Hamilton was
the real leader of the Federalists, and he disliked Adams. Thomas
Pinckney was the Federalist candidate for Vice-President. Hamilton
suggested a plan which he thought would lead to the election of Pinckney
as President instead of Adams. But Hamilton's scheme did not turn out
very well. For by it Jefferson was elected Vice-President. Indeed, he
came near being President, for he had only three less electoral votes
than Adams.

[Sidenote: Relations with France, 1796-97. _McMaster, 210-212;
Source-Book_, 191-194.]

[Sidenote: The French government declines to receive an American

219. More Trouble with France.--France was now (1796-97) governed
by five chiefs of the Revolution, who called themselves "the Directory."
They were very angry when they heard of Jay's Treaty (p. 168), for they
had hoped that the Americans would make war on the British. James Monroe
was then American minister at Paris. Instead of doing all he could to
smooth over this difficulty, he urged on the wrath of the Directory.
Washington recalled Monroe, and sent in his stead General Charles
Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina. The Directory promptly refused to
receive Pinckney, and ordered him to leave France. News of this action
of the Directory reached Philadelphia three days after Adams's

[Sidenote: Adams's message, 1797.]

[Sidenote: A commission sent to France, 1797.]

[Sidenote: The X.Y.Z. Affair, 1797-98.]

220. The X.Y.Z. Affair, 1797-98.--Adams at once summoned Congress
and addressed the members in stirring words. He denied that the
Americans were a "degraded people, humiliated under a colonial sense of
fear ... and regardless of national honor, character, and interest." It
seemed best, however, to make one more effort to avoid war. Adams
therefore sent John Marshall, a Virginia Federalist, and Elbridge Gerry,
a Massachusetts Republican, to France. They were to join Pinckney and
together were to negotiate with the French Directory. When they reached
Paris three men came to see them. These men said that America (1) must
apologize for the President's vigorous words, (2) must lend money to
France, and (3) must bribe the Directory and the Minister of Foreign
Affairs. These outrageous suggestions were emphatically put aside. In
sending the papers to Congress, the three men were called Mr. X., Mr.
Y., and Mr. Z., so the incident is always known as the "X.Y.Z. Affair."

[Sidenote: Excitement in America.]

221. Indignation in America.--Federalists and Republicans joined in
indignation. "Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute," was the
cry of the day. French flags were everywhere torn down. "Hail Columbia"
was everywhere sung. Adams declared that he would not send another
minister to France until he was assured that the representative of the
United States would be received as "the representative of a great,
free, powerful, and independent state."

[Sidenote: Washington appointed Commander-in-chief. Hamilton and Adams.]

[Sidenote: The navy.]

[Sidenote: Naval warfare, 1798-99. _McMaster_, 213-214.]

222. War with France, 1797-98.--The organization of a provisional
army was now at once begun. Washington accepted the chief command on
condition that Hamilton should have the second place. There were already
a few vessels in the navy. A Navy Department was now organized. The
building of more warships was begun, and merchant vessels were bought
and converted into cruisers. French privateers sailed along the American
coasts and captured American vessels off the entrances of the principal
harbors. But this did not last long. For the American warships drove the
privateers to the West Indies and pursued them as they fled southward.
Soon the American cruisers began to capture French men-of-war. Captain
Truxton, in the _Constellation_, captured the French frigate
_L'Insurgent_. Many other French vessels were captured, and preparations
were made to carry on the naval war even more vigorously when a treaty
with France was signed.

[Sidenote: Another commission sent to France.]

[Sidenote: The treaty of 1800.]

223. Treaty with France, 1800.--This vigor convinced the French
that they had been hasty in their treatment of the Americans. They now
said that if another minister were sent to France, he would be honorably
received. Adams wished to send one of the American ministers then in
Europe, and thus end the dispute as soon as possible. But the other
Federalist leaders thought that it would be better to wait until France
sent a minister to the United States. Finally they consented to the
appointment of three commissioners. Napoleon Bonaparte was now the ruler
of France. He received the commissioners honorably, and a treaty was
soon signed. On two points, however, he refused to give way. He declined
to pay for American property seized by the French, and he insisted that
the treaty of 1778 (pp. 115, 166) was still binding on both countries.
It was finally agreed that the Americans should give up their claims for
damages, and the French government should permit the treaty to be
annulled. John Adams always looked upon this peaceful ending of the
dispute with France as the most prudent and successful act of his whole
life. But Hamilton and other Federalists thought it was treachery to the
party. They set to work to prevent his reëlection to the presidency.

[Sidenote: Repressive Laws. _McMaster_, 211-212.]

[Sidenote: The naturalization act.]

[Sidenote: The alien acts.]

[Sidenote: The Sedition Act.]

224. Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798.--The Federalists, even if they
had been united, would probably have been defeated in the election of
1800. For they had misused their power to pass several very foolish
laws. The first of these laws was the Naturalization Act. It lengthened
the time of residence in the United States from five to fourteen years
before a foreign immigrant could gain the right to vote. This law bore
very harshly on the Republicans, because most of the immigrants were
Republicans. Other laws, called the Alien Acts, were also aimed at the
Republican immigrants. These laws gave the President power to compel
immigrants to leave the United States, or to live in certain places that
he named. The worst law of all was the Sedition Act. This was aimed
against the writers and printers of Republican newspapers. It provided
that any one who attacked the government in the press should be severely
punished as a seditious person. Several trials were held under this law.
Every trial made hundreds of persons determined to vote for the
Republican candidate at the next election.

[Sidenote: Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1798-99. _McMaster_,

[Sidenote: Jefferson and Madison on the Constitution.]

[Sidenote: The Kentucky Resolutions of 1799.]

225. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798-99.--In the exciting
years before the Revolutionary War the colonial legislatures had passed
many resolutions condemning the acts of the British government (see pp.
77, 84). Following this example Jefferson and Madison now brought it
about that the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures passed resolutions
against the Alien and Sedition Acts. They declared that the Constitution
was a compact between the states. It followed from this that any state
could determine for itself whether any act of Congress were
constitutional or not. It followed from, this, again, that any state
could refuse to permit an Act of Congress to be enforced within its
limits. In other words, any state could make null or nullify any Act of
Congress that it saw fit to oppose. This last conclusion was found only
in the Kentucky Resolutions of 1799. But Jefferson wrote to this effect
in the original draft of the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798. The Virginia
and Kentucky Resolutions called the voter's attention to the Federalist
abuse of power and did much to form public opinion.

[Sidenote: Death of Washington, 1799.]

226. Death of Washington, 1799.--In the midst of this excitement
George Washington died. People forgot how strongly he had taken the
Federalist side in the last few years, and united to do honor to his
memory. Henry Lee spoke for the nation when he declared that Washington
was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his
countrymen." To this day, we commemorate Washington's birthday as we do
that of no other man, though of late years we have begun to keep
Lincoln's birthday also.

[Sidenote: Election of 1800. _McMaster_, 215.]

[Sidenote: Jefferson and Burr.]

[Sidenote: The election in the House of Representatives.]

227. Election of 1800.--It was for a moment only that the noise of
party conflict was hushed by the death of America's first President. The
strife soon began anew. Indeed, the election of 1800 was fought with a
vigor and violence unknown before, and scarcely exceeded since. John
Adams was the Federalist candidate, and he was defeated. Jefferson and
Burr, the Republican candidates, each received seventy-three electoral
votes. But which of them should be President? The Republican voters
clearly wished Jefferson to be President. But the Federalists had a
majority in the House of Representatives. They had a clear legal right
to elect Burr President. But to do that would be to do what was morally
wrong. After a useless struggle the Federalists permitted Jefferson to
be chosen, and he was inaugurated on March 4, 1801.

[Illustration: PRESIDENT WASHINGTON, 1790. "Observe good faith and
justice towards all nations."--_Farewell Address._]



§§ 192-194.--_a_. Describe the method of electing President employed at

_b_. Describe Washington's journey to New York and the inaugural
ceremonies, and compare them with the inauguration of the last

§§ 195, 196.--_a_. In whose hands do appointments to federal offices

_b_. What was the great difference mentioned in § 196? Why was the
difference so great?

§§ 197, 198.--_a_. Why was Washington "stiff and aristocratic"?

_b_. Would Washington have accepted the title of king? Give the reasons
for your answer.

§§ 199-202.--_a_. Give the reasons for the different views expressed in
Congress as to customs duties. What are customs duties?

_b_. Explain how slavery influenced the views of the Southern members.

_c_. Compare the extent and population of the United States in 1791 with
the extent and population to-day.

_d_. What two new states were admitted in 1791-92? What was their
attitude on slavery? What changes would their admission make
in Congress?

§§ 203, 204.--_a_. Explain carefully Hamilton's plan. What were its
advantages? What is meant by the phrase "public credit"?

_b_. What is meant by the phrase "assumption of the state debts"?

§§ 205, 206.--_a_. What question arose concerning the site of the
national capital? How was it settled? Was this a good way to settle
important questions?

_b_. Why did Hamilton want a Bank of the United States? Was this bank
like one of the national banks of to-day?


§§ 207, 208.--_a_. Compare carefully the principles of the Federalists
and the Republicans. Which party would you have joined had you lived
then? Why? Which ideas prevail to-day?

_b_. Discuss Jefferson's views as to the value of newspapers.

§§ 209-212.--_a_. Why did the Republicans sympathize with the French

_b_. How was the action of the Republicans regarded by Washington? By

_c._ Why did Washington issue the Proclamation of Neutrality?

§ 213.--_a_. What is the difference between a tax laid by a tariff on
imported goods and an internal revenue tax?

_b_. How was the rebellion suppressed? Compare this with Shays's

§§ 214-216.--_a_. State the reasons for the trouble with Great Britain.
How was the matter settled?

_b._ Explain the trouble over the traffic on the Mississippi.

_c_. How was this matter settled?

§ 217.--_a_. Why did Washington decline a third term?

_b_. What are the important points in his Farewell Address?

_c_. How far has later history proved the truth of his words?


§ 218.--_a_. How did Hamilton set to work to defeat Adams? Do you think
his action justifiable?

_b_. What was the result of Hamilton's intrigues?

§§ 219-221.--_a_. To what was the refusal to receive Pinckney
equivalent? Describe the X. Y. Z. Affair.

_b_. What is a bribe? How must bribery in political life affect a

_c_. How was the news of this affair received in America? What does this
show about the feeling of both parties toward the government?

§§ 222, 223.--_a_. Describe the preparations for war. Why was a Navy
Department necessary?

_b_. Why was France wise to make peace with the United States?

_c_. How was the matter finally settled?

§§ 224, 225.--_a_. Describe the Naturalization Act.

_b_. What power did the Alien Act give the President? What danger is
there in such power?

_c_. What is sedition? Compare the Sedition Act with the First

_d_. What were the theories on which the Kentucky and Virginia
Resolutions were based?

§§ 226, 227.--_a_. What position does Washington hold in our history?
Why is it deserved? _b_. Describe the election of 1800. Why was it
fought so bitterly? _c_. Why should disputes as to elections for
President go to the House? _d_. How was it known that Jefferson's
election was the wish of the voters?


_a_. Write an account of life in the United States about 1790, or life
in Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston.

_b_. Prepare a table of the two political parties mentioned, with dates
and account of origin. As you go on, note upon this table changes in
these parties and the rise of new ones.

_c_. On an Outline Map color the thirteen original states and then fill
in, with dates, new states as they are admitted. Write on each state F.
for free or S. for slave, as the case may be.


_a_. Early life of Washington, John Adams, Jefferson, or Hamilton.

_b_. Washington's Farewell Address.


In this period we meet two questions, which are still important, tariff
legislation and political parties. In connection with the Tariff Act of
1789 (§ 200), touch upon the industries of the different sections of the
country and explain how local interests affected men's actions. Show how
compromise is often necessary in political action.

It is a good plan to use Outline Maps to show the important lines of
development, as the gradual drifting apart of the North and the South on
the slavery question.

Illustrate by supposed transactions the working of Hamilton's financial
measures. By all means do not neglect a study of Washington's Farewell
Address. Particular attention should be given to the two views of
constitutional interpretation mentioned in § 207, and considerable time
should be spent on a study of §§ 224 and 225.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1800.]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Higginson's _Larger History_, 344-365; Scribner's
_Popular History_, IV, 127-184; Schouler's _Jefferson_.

Home Reading.--Coffin's _Building the Nation;_ Drake's _Making the
Ohio Valley States;_ Hale's _Man Without a Country_ and _Philip
Nolan's Friends._



[Sidenote: Area.]

[Sidenote: Population.]

228. Area and Population, 1800.--The area of the United States in
1800 was the same as at the close of the Revolutionary War. But the
population had begun to increase rapidly. In 1791 there were nearly four
million people in the United States. By 1800 this number had risen to
five and one-quarter millions. Two-thirds of the people still lived on
or near tide-water. But already nearly four hundred thousand people
lived west of the Alleghanies. In 1791 the centre of population had been
east of Baltimore. It was now eighteen miles west of that city (p. 157).

[Sidenote: Philadelphia.]

[Sidenote: New York.]

[Sidenote: The new capital.]

229. Cities and Towns in 1800.--Philadelphia was the largest city
in the United States. It had a population of seventy thousand. But New
York was not far behind Philadelphia in population. Except these two, no
city in the whole United States had more than thirty thousand
inhabitants. The seat of government had been removed from Philadelphia
to Washington. But the new capital was a city only in name. One broad
long street, Pennsylvania Avenue, led from the unfinished Capitol to the
unfinished White House. Congress held its sessions in a temporary wooden
building. The White House could be lived in. But Mrs. Adams found the
unfinished reception room very convenient for drying clothes on rainy
Mondays. A few cheaply built and very uncomfortable boarding-houses
completed the city.

[Sidenote: Roads, coaches, and inns.]

[Sidenote: Traveling by water.]

230. Traveling in 1800.--The traveler in those days had a very hard
time. On the best roads of the north, in the best coach, and with the
best weather one might cover as many as forty miles a day. But the
traveler had to start very early in the morning to do this. Generally he
thought himself fortunate if he made twenty-five miles in the
twenty-four hours. South of the Potomac there were no public coaches,
and the traveler generally rode on horseback. A few rich men like
Washington rode in their own coaches. Everywhere, north and south, the
inns were uncomfortable and the food was poor. Whenever it was possible
the traveler went by water. But that was dangerous work. Lighthouses
were far apart, there were no public buoys to guide the mariner, and
almost nothing had been done to improve navigation.

[Illustration: THE "CLERMONT," 1807.]

[Sidenote: The first steamboat]

[Sidenote: Fulton's steamboat, 1807. _Higginson_, 241-242.]

231. The Steamboat.--The steamboat came to change all this. While
Washington was still President, a queer-looking boat sailed up and down
the Delaware. She was propelled by oars or paddles which were worked by
steam. This boat must have been very uncomfortable, and few persons
wished to go on her. Robert Fulton made the first successful steamboat.
She was named the _Clermont_ and was launched in 1807. She had paddle
wheels and steamed against the wind and tide of the Hudson River. At
first some people thought that she was bewitched. But when it was found
that she ran safely and regularly, people began to travel on her. Before
a great while steamboats appeared in all parts of the country.

[Sidenote: Western pioneers.]

[Sidenote: Settlements on the Ohio. _Eggleston_, 232-234; _Higginson_,

232. Making of the West.--Even before the Revolutionary War
explorers and settlers had crossed the Alleghany Mountains. In
Washington's time pioneers, leaving Pittsburg, floated down the Ohio
River in flatboats. Some of these settled Cincinnati. Others went
farther down the river to Louisville, in Kentucky, and still others
founded Wheeling and Marietta. In 1811 the first steamboat appeared on
the Western rivers. The whole problem of living in the West rapidly
changed. For the steamboat could go up stream as well as down stream.
Communication between the new settlements, and New Orleans and
Pittsburg, was now much safer and very much easier.

[Sidenote: Cotton growing.]

[Sidenote: Beginning of exportation, 1784.]

233. Cotton Growing in the South.--Cotton had been grown in the
South for many years. It had been made on the plantations into a rough
cloth. Very little had been sent away. The reason for this was that it
took a very long time to separate the cotton fiber from the seed. One
slave working for a whole day could hardly clean more than a pound of
cotton. Still as time went on more cotton was grown. In 1784 a few bags
of cotton were sent to England. The Englishmen promptly seized it
because they did not believe that so much cotton could be grown in
America. In 1791 nearly two hundred thousand pounds of cotton were
exported from the South. Then came Whitney's great invention, which
entirely changed the whole history of the country.

[Illustration: THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. As designed by Thomas

[Sidenote: Eli Whitney.]

[Sidenote: His cotton gin, 1793. _McMaster_, 195-196.]

234. Whitney's Cotton Gin, 1793.--Eli Whitney was a Connecticut
schoolmaster. He went to Georgia to teach General Greene's children. He
was very ingenious, and one day Mrs. Greene suggested to him that he
might make a machine which would separate the cotton fiber from the
cotton seed. Whitney set to work and soon made an engine or gin, as he
called it, that would do this. The first machine was a rude affair. But
even with it one slave could clean one hundred pounds of cotton in a
day. Mrs. Greene's neighbors promptly broke into Whitney's shop and
stole his machine. Whitney's cotton gin made the growing of cotton
profitable and so fastened slavery on the South. With the exception of
the steam locomotive (p. 241) and the reaper (p. 260), no invention has
so tremendously influenced the history of the United States.

[Sidenote: Early manufactures.]

235. Colonial Manufactures.--Before the Revolutionary War there
were very few mills or factories in the colonies. There was no money to
put into such undertakings and no operatives to work the mills if they
had been built. The only colonial manufactures that amounted to much
were the making of nails and shoes. These articles could be made at home
on the farms, in the winter, when no work could be done out of doors.

[Sidenote: New manufactures established.]

[Sidenote: Invention of cotton spinning machinery.]

236. Growth of Manufactures, 1789-1800.--As soon as the new
government with its wide powers was established, manufacturing started
into life. Old mills were set to work. While the Revolution had been
going on in America, great improvements in the spinning of yarn and the
weaving of cloth had been made in England. Parliament made laws to
prevent the export from England of machinery or patterns of machinery.
But it could not prevent Englishmen from coming to America. Among the
recent immigrants to the United States was Samuel Slater. He brought no
patterns with him. But he was familiar with the new methods of
spinning. He soon built spinning machinery. New cotton mills were now
set up in several places. But it was some time before the new weaving
machinery was introduced into America.



[Sidenote: Jefferson's political ideas. _Higginson_ 239; _McMaster_,

[Sidenote: Republican simplicity.]

237. President Jefferson.--Thomas Jefferson was a Republican. He
believed in the republican form of government. He believed the wisdom of
the people to be the best guide. He wished the President to be simple
and cordial in his relations with his fellow-citizens. Adams had ridden
to his inauguration in a coach drawn by six cream-colored horses.
Jefferson walked with a few friends from his boarding house to the
Capitol. Washington and Adams had gone in state to Congress and had
opened the session with a speech. Jefferson sent a written message to
Congress by a messenger. Instead of bowing stiffly to those who came to
see him, he shook hands with them and tried to make them feel at ease in
his presence.

[Sidenote: Proscription of Republicans by the Federalists.]

[Sidenote: Adams's midnight appointments.]

238. The Civil Service.--One of the first matters to take
Jefferson's attention was the condition of the civil service. There was
not a Republican office-holder in the government service. Washington, in
the last years of his presidency, and Adams also had given office only
to Federalists. Jefferson thought it was absolutely necessary to have
some officials upon whom he could rely. So he removed a few Federalist
officeholders and appointed Republicans to their places. Adams had even
gone so far as to appoint officers up to midnight of his last day in
office. Indeed, John Marshall, his Secretary of State, was busy signing
commissions when Jefferson's Attorney General walked in with his watch
in hand and told Marshall that it was twelve o'clock. Jefferson and
Madison, the new Secretary of State, refused to deliver these
commissions even when Marshall as Chief Justice ordered Madison to
deliver them.

[Sidenote: The Judiciary Act, 1801.]

[Sidenote: Repealed by Republicans]

[Sidenote: Jefferson and appointments.]

239. The Judiciary Act of 1801.--One of the last laws made by the
Federalists was the Judiciary Act of 1801. This law greatly enlarged the
national judiciary, and Adams eagerly seized the opportunity to appoint
his friends to the new offices. The Republican Congress now repealed
this Judiciary Act and "legislated out of office" all the new judges.
For it must be remembered that the Constitution makes only the members
of the Supreme Court sure of their offices. Congress also got rid of
many other Federalist officeholders by repealing the Internal Revenue
Act (p. 167). But while all this was done, Jefferson steadily refused to
appoint men to office merely because they were Republicans. One man
claimed an office on the ground that he was a Republican, and that the
Republicans were the saviors of the republic. Jefferson replied that
Rome had been saved by geese, but he had never heard that the geese were
given offices.

[Illustration: THOMAS JEFFERSON.] "Honest friendship with all nations,
entangling alliances with none, ... economy in the public expense, the
honest payment of our debts, and sacred preservation of the public
faith."--_Jefferson's First Inaugural._

[Sidenote: Expenses diminished.]

[Sidenote: Internal taxes repealed.]

[Sidenote: Army and navy reduced.]

[Sidenote: Part of the debt paid. _McMaster_, 217-218.]

240. Paying the National Debt.--Jefferson was especially anxious to
cut down the expenses of the government and to pay as much as possible
of the national debt. Madison and Gallatin worked heartily with him to
carry out this policy. The repeal of the Internal Revenue Act took much
revenue from the government. But it also did away with the salaries of a
great many officials. The repeal of the Judiciary Act also put an end to
many salaries. Now that the dispute with France was ended, Jefferson
thought that the army and navy might safely be reduced. Most of the
naval vessels were sold. A few good ships were kept at sea, and the rest
were tied up at the wharves. The number of ministers to European states
was reduced to the lowest possible limit, and the civil service at home
was also cut down. The expenses of the government were in these ways
greatly lessened. At the same time the revenue from the customs service
increased. The result was that in the eight years of Jefferson's
administrations the national debt shrank from eighty-three million
dollars to forty-five million dollars. Yet in the same time the United
States paid fifteen million dollars for Louisiana, and waged a series of
successful and costly wars with the pirates of the northern coast
of Africa.

[Sidenote: The Spaniards in Louisiana and Florida. _McMaster_, 218-219.]

[Sidenote: France secures Louisiana.]

241. Louisiana again a French Colony.--Spanish territory now
bounded the United States on the south and the west. The Spaniards were
not good neighbors, because it was very hard to make them come to an
agreement, and next to impossible to make them keep an agreement when
it was made. But this did not matter very much, because Spain was a weak
power and was growing weaker every year. Sooner or later the United
States would gain its point. Suddenly, however, it was announced that
France had got back Louisiana. And almost at the same moment the Spanish
governor of Louisiana said that Americans could no longer deposit their
goods at New Orleans (p. 170). At once there was a great outcry in the
West. Jefferson determined to buy from France New Orleans and the land
eastward from the mouth of the Mississippi.


[Illustration: ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON.]

[Sidenote: Napoleon's policy.]

[Sidenote: He offers to sell Louisiana.]

242. The Louisiana Purchase, 1803.--When Napoleon got Louisiana
from Spain, he had an idea of again founding a great French colony in
America. At the moment France and Great Britain were at peace. But it
soon looked as if war would begin again. Napoleon knew that the British
would at once seize Louisiana and he could not keep it anyway. So one
day, when the Americans and the French were talking about the purchase
of New Orleans, the French minister suddenly asked if the United States
would not like to buy the whole of Louisiana. Monroe and Livingston, the
American ministers, had no authority to buy Louisiana. But the purchase
of the whole colony would be a great benefit to the United States. So
they quickly agreed to pay fifteen million dollars for the whole of

[Sidenote: Louisiana purchased, 1803. _Higginson_, 244-245; _Eggleston_,
234; _Source-Book_, 200-202.]

[Sidenote: Importance of the purchase.]

243. The Treaty Ratified.--Jefferson found himself in a strange
position. The Constitution nowhere delegated to the United States power
to acquire territory (p. 164). But after thinking it over Jefferson felt
sure that the people would approve of the purchase. The treaty was
ratified. The money was paid. This purchase turned out to be a most
fortunate thing. It gave to the United States the whole western valley
of the Mississippi. It also gave to Americans the opportunity to
explore and settle Oregon, which lay beyond the limits of Louisiana.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1803.]

[Sidenote: Lewis and Clark, 1804-6. _Higginson_, 245-247; _McMaster_,
219-221;_Source-Book_, 206-209.]

[Sidenote: The mouth of the Oregon.]

244. Lewis and Clark's Explorations.--Jefferson soon sent out
several expeditions to explore the unknown portions of the continent.
The most important of these was the expedition led by two army officers,
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, brother of General George Rogers
Clark (p. 116). Leaving St. Louis they slowly ascended the muddy
Missouri. They passed the site of the present city of Omaha. They passed
the Council Bluffs. The current of the river now became so rapid that
the explorers left their boats and traveled along the river's bank. They
gained the sources of the Missouri, and came to a westward-flowing
river. On, on they followed it until they came to the river's mouth. A
fog hung low over the water. Suddenly it lifted. There before the
explorers' eyes the river "in waves like small mountains rolled out in
the ocean." They had traced the Columbia River from its upper course to
the Pacific. Captain Gray in the Boston ship _Columbia_ had already
entered the mouth of the river. But Lewis and Clark were the first white
men to reach it overland.

[Sidenote: Amendment as to the election of President.]

[Sidenote: The Twelfth Amendment, 1804.]

245. The Twelfth Amendment, 1804.--Four presidential elections had
now been held under the method provided by the Constitution. And that
method had not worked well (pp. 171, 176). It was now (1804) changed by
the adoption of the Twelfth Amendment which is still in force. The old
machinery of presidential electors was kept. But it was provided that
in the future each elector should vote for President and for
Vice-President on separate and distinct ballots. The voters had no more
part in the election under the new system than they had had under the
old system. The old method of apportioning electors among the states was
also kept. This gives to each state as many electors as it has Senators
and Representatives in Congress. No matter how small its territory, or
how small its population, a state has at least two Senators and one
Representative, and, therefore, three electors. The result is that each
voter in a small state has more influence in choosing the President than
each voter in a large state. Indeed, several Presidents have been
elected by minorities of the voters of the country as a whole.

[Sidenote: Jefferson reëlected, 1804.]

[Sidenote: Strength of the Republicans.]

246. Reëlection of Jefferson, 1804.--Jefferson's first
administration had been most successful. The Republicans had repealed
many unpopular laws. By the purchase of Louisiana the area of the United
States had been doubled and an end put to the dispute as to the
navigation of the Mississippi. The expenses of the national government
had been cut down, and a portion of the national debt had been paid. The
people were prosperous and happy. Under these circumstances Jefferson
was triumphantly reëlected. He received one hundred and sixty-two
electoral votes to only fourteen for his Federalist rival.

[Illustration: STEPHEN DECATUR.]



[Sidenote: The African pirates. _Higginson_, 237-239; _Eggleston_,

[Sidenote: Tribute paying.]

[Sidenote: Jefferson ends this system.]

[Sidenote: _Hero Tales_, 103-113.]

247. The North Africa Pirates.--Stretching along the northern
shores of Africa from Egypt westward to the Atlantic were four states.
These states were named Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, and Morocco. Their
people were Mohammedans, and were ruled over by persons called Deys or
Beys, or Pachas. These rulers found it profitable and pleasant to attack
and capture Christian ships. The cargoes of the captured vessels they
sold at good prices, and the seamen and passengers they sold at good
prices too--as slaves. The leading powers of Europe, instead of
destroying these pirates, found it easier to pay them to let their ships
alone. Washington and Adams also paid them to allow American ships to
sail unharmed. But the pirates were never satisfied with what was paid
them. Jefferson decided to put an end to this tribute paying. He sent a
few ships to seize the pirates and shut up their harbors. More and more
vessels were sent, until at last the Deys and Beys and Pachas thought it
would be cheaper to behave themselves properly. So they agreed to
release their American prisoners and not to capture any more American
ships (1805). In these little wars American naval officers gained much
useful experience and did many glorious deeds. Especially Decatur and
Somers won renown.

[Sidenote: European fighters attack American commerce. _McMaster_,

248. America, Britain, and France.--Napoleon Bonaparte was now
Emperor of the French. In 1804 he made war on the British and their
allies. Soon he became supreme on the land, and the British became
supreme on the water. They could no longer fight one another very
easily, so they determined to injure each other's trade and commerce as
much as possible. The British declared continental ports closed to
commerce, and Napoleon declared all British commerce to be unlawful. Of
course under these circumstances British and Continental ships could not
carry on trade, and American vessels rapidly took their places. The
British shipowners called upon their government to put an end to this
American commerce. Old laws were looked up and enforced. American
vessels that disobeyed them were seized by the British. But if any
American vessel obeyed these laws, Napoleon seized it as soon as it
entered a French harbor.

[Sidenote: Impressment. _Eggleston_, 240.]

249. The Impressment Controversy.--With the British the United
States had still another cause of complaint. British warships stopped
American vessels and took away all their seamen who looked like
Englishmen. These they compelled to serve on British men-of-war. As
Americans and Englishmen looked very much alike, they generally seized
all the best-looking seamen. Thousands of Americans were captured in
this way and forced into slavery on British men-of-war. This method of
kidnaping was called impressment.

[Sidenote: The embargo, 1807. _Eggleston_, 241; _McMaster_, 226-227,

[Sidenote: Failure of the embargo. _Source-Book_, 209-211.]

250. The Embargo, 1807-1809.--Jefferson hardly knew what to do. He
might declare war on both Great Britain and on France. But to do that
would surely put a speedy end to all American commerce. In the old days,
before the Revolutionary War, the colonists had more than once brought
the British to terms by refusing to buy their goods (pp. 84, 85).
Jefferson now thought that if the people of the United States should
refuse to trade with the British and the French, the governments both of
Great Britain and of France would be forced to treat American commerce
properly. Congress therefore passed an Embargo Act. This forbade vessels
to leave American ports after a certain day. If the people had been
united, the embargo might have done what Jefferson expected it would do.
But the people were not united. Especially in New England, the
shipowners tried in every way to break the law. This led to the passing
of stricter laws. Finally the New Englanders even talked of seceding
from the Union.


[Sidenote: Outrage on the _Chesapeake_, 1807. _McMaster_, 227.]

251. The Outrage on the _Chesapeake_, 1807.--The British now added
to the anger of the Americans by impressing seamen from the decks of an
American warship. The frigate _Chesapeake_ left the Norfolk navy yard
for a cruise. At once the British vessel _Leopard_ sailed toward her and
ordered her to stop. As the _Chesapeake_ did not stop, the _Leopard_
fired on her. The American frigate was just setting out, and everything
was in confusion on her decks. But a coal was brought from the cook's
stove, and one gun was fired. Her flag was then hauled down. The British
came on board and seized four seamen, who they said were deserters from
the British navy. This outrage aroused tremendous excitement. Jefferson
ordered all British warships out of American waters and forbade the
people to supply them with provisions, water, or wood. The British
offered to restore the imprisoned seamen and ordered out of American
waters the admiral under whose direction the outrage had been done. But
they would not give up impressment.

[Sidenote: Madison elected President, 1808.]

252. Madison elected President, 1808.--There is nothing in the
Constitution to limit the number of times a man may be chosen President.
Many persons would gladly have voted a third time for Jefferson. But he
thought that unless some limit were set, the people might keep on
reëlecting a popular and successful President term after term. This
would be very dangerous to the republican form of government. So
Jefferson followed Washington's example and declined a third term,
Washington and Jefferson thus established a custom that has ever since
been followed. The Republicans voted for James Madison, and he was
elected President (1808).


[Sidenote: Non-Intercourse Act, 1809.]

253. The Non-Intercourse Act, 1809.--By this time the embargo had
become so very unpopular that it could be maintained only at the cost of
civil war. Madison suggested that the Embargo Act should be repealed,
and a Non-Intercourse Act passed in its place. Congress at once did as
he suggested. The Non-Intercourse Act prohibited commerce with Great
Britain and with France and the countries controlled by France. It
permitted commerce with the rest of the world. There were not many
European countries with which America could trade under this law. Still
there were a few countries, as Norway and Spain, which still maintained
their independence. And goods could be sold through them to the other
European countries. At all events, no sooner was the embargo removed
than commerce revived. Rates of freight were very high and the profits
were very large, although the French and the British captured many
American vessels.

[Sidenote: The Erskine treaty.]

[Sidenote: The British minister Jackson. _Source-Book_, 212-213]

254. Two British Ministers.--Soon after Madison's inauguration a
new British minister came to Washington. His name was Erskine, and he
was very friendly. A treaty was speedily made on conditions which
Madison thought could be granted. He suspended non-intercourse with
Great Britain, and hundreds of vessels set sail for that country. But
the British rulers soon put an end to this friendly feeling. They said
that Erskine had no authority to make such a treaty. They refused to
carry it out and recalled Erskine. The next British minister was a
person named Jackson. He accused Madison of cheating Erskine and
repeated the accusation. Thereupon Madison sent him back to London. As
the British would not carry out the terms of Erskine's treaty, Madison
was compelled to prohibit all intercourse with Great Britain.

[Sidenote: Still another policy. _McMaster_, 229-230.]

[Sidenote: French trickery.]

[Sidenote: British trickery.]

255. British and French Trickery.--The scheme of non-intercourse
did not seem to bring the British and the French to terms much better
than the embargo had done. In 1810, therefore, Congress set to work and
produced a third plan. This was to allow intercourse with both Great
Britain and France. But this was coupled with the promise that if one of
the two nations stopped seizing American ships and the other did not,
then intercourse with the unfriendly country should be prohibited.
Napoleon at once said that he would stop seizing American vessels on
November 1 of that year if the British, on their part, would stop their
seizures before that time. The British said that they would stop seizing
when Napoleon did. Neither of them really did anything except to keep on
capturing American vessels whenever they could get a chance.

[Sidenote: Indians of the Northwest. _Eggleston_, 242.]

[Sidenote: Tecumthe.]

256. Indian Troubles, 1810.--To this everlasting trouble with Great
Britain and France were now added the horrors of an Indian war. It came
about in this way. Settlers were pressing into Indiana Territory west of
the new state of Ohio. Soon the lands which the United States had bought
of the Indians would be occupied. New lands must be bought. At this time
there were two able Indian leaders in the Northwest. These were
Tecumthe, or Tecumseh, and his brother, who was known as "the Prophet."
These chiefs set on foot a great Indian confederation. They said that no
one Indian tribe should sell land to the United States without the
consent of all the tribes of the Confederation.

[Sidenote: Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811.]

257. Battle of Tippecanoe.--This determined attitude of the Indians
seemed to the American leaders to be very dangerous. Governor William
Henry Harrison of Indiana Territory gathered a small army of regular
soldiers and volunteers from Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. He marched to
the Indian settlements. The Indians attacked him at Tippecanoe. He beat
them off and, attacking in his turn, routed them. Tecumthe was not at
the battle. But he immediately fled to the British in Canada. The
Americans had suspected that the British were stirring up the Indians to
resist the United States. The reception given to Tecumthe made them feel
that their suspicions were correct.


[Sidenote: Henry Clay.]

[Sidenote: John C. Calhoun.]

258. The War Party in Congress.--There were abundant reasons to
justify war with Great Britain, or with France, or with both of them.
But there would probably have been no war with either of them had it not
been for a few energetic young men in Congress. The leaders of this war
party were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Clay was born in Virginia,
but as a boy he had gone to Kentucky. He represented the spirit of the
young and growing West. He was a true patriot and felt angry at the way
the British spoke of America and Americans, and at the way they acted
toward the United States. He was a very popular man and won men to him
by his attractive qualities and by his energy. Calhoun was a South
Carolinian who had been educated in Connecticut. He was a man of the
highest personal character. He had a strong, active mind, and he was
fearless in debate. As with Clay so with Calhoun, they both felt the
rising spirit of nationality. They thought that the United States had
been patient long enough. They and their friends gained a majority in
Congress and forced Madison to send a warlike message to Congress.

[Sidenote: Madison's war message, 1812. _McMaster>_, 231;
_Source-Book_, 214-216.]

259. Madison's Reasons for War, 1812.--In his message Madison
stated the grounds for complaint against the British as follows: (1)
they impressed American seamen; (2) they disturbed American commerce by
stationing warships off the principal ports; they refused to permit
trade between America and Europe; (4) they stirred up the western
Indians to attack the settlers; (5) they were really making war on the
United States while the United States was at peace with them. For these
reasons Madison advised a declaration of war against Great Britain, and
war was declared.



§§ 228, 229.--_a_. Draw a map showing the states and territories in

_b_. How and why had the center of population changed since 1791? Where
is it now?

_c_. Why did so many people live near tide water? Do the same reasons
exist to-day?

§§ 230-232.--_a_. What were the "best roads" in 1800?

_b_. Describe the dangers and discomforts of traveling in 1800.

_c_. What were the early steamboats like?

§§ 233, 234.--_a_. What fact hindered the growth of cotton on a large
scale in colonial times?

_b_. How did Whitney's cotton gin change these conditions?

§§ 235, 236.--_a_. Why had manufacturing received so little attention
before the Revolution?

_b_. How did the new government encourage manufacturing?


§ 237.--_a_. How did Jefferson's inauguration illustrate his political

_b_. Compare his method of opening Congress with that employed by
Washington and Adams. Which method is followed to-day?

§§ 238.--_a_. What is the Civil Service? How had Washington and Adams
filled offices? Was their action wise?

§§ 239.--_a_. Explain the Judiciary Act of 1801.

_b_. What power has Congress over the Judiciary? (Constitution, Art.

§§ 240.--_a_. What was Jefferson's policy toward expenses? How did he
carry it out? What was the result of these economies?

_b_. Was the reduction of the navy wise? What conditions make a large
navy necessary?

§§ 241-244.--_a_. When and how had Louisiana changed hands since its
settlement? Why were the Spaniards poor neighbors?

_b_. How did the United States acquire Louisiana?

_c_. Trace on a map the boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase. Compare
its value to-day with the price paid.

_d_. What important discoveries did Lewis and Clark make?

§§ 245, 246.--_a_. Give instances which illustrate the disadvantages of
the old way of electing the President and Vice-President.

_b_. Explain carefully the changes made by the Twelfth Amendment, and
show how a President may be elected by a minority of the voters.


§§ 247.--_a_. Describe the doings of the African pirates. Why had
Washington and Adams paid them?

_b_. Describe Jefferson's action and state the results.

§§ 248, 249.--_a_. Compare the power of France and Great Britain at this

_b_. How did they try to injure one another? How did they treat American

_c_. Explain the impressment of sailors by the British.

§§ 250, 251.--_a_. Describe the difficulties of Jefferson's position.

_b_. Give instances of refusal to buy British goods and the results.

_c_. Explain the Embargo Act. Why was it a failure?

_d_. Describe the outrage on the _Chesapeake_. Was the offer of the
British government enough? What more should have been promised?

§§ 252, 253.--_a_. What were Jefferson's objections to a third term?
What custom was established by these early Presidents?

_b_. Where have we found Madison prominent before?

_c_. Explain the difference between the Embargo Act and the
Non-Intercourse Act.

§§ 254, 255.--_a_. Describe the attempt to renew friendly intercourse
with Great Britain.

_b_. What do you think of Napoleon's treatment of the United States?

§§ 256.--_a_. What caused the trouble with the Indians?

_b_. Describe Harrison's action. How were the British connected with
this Indian trouble?

§§ 257-259.--_a_. How did all these affairs affect the relations between
the United States and Great Britain?

_b_. Explain the attitude of Clay and Calhoun.

_c_. What is meant by the "rising spirit of nationality"?

_d_. Illustrate, by facts already studied, the reasons given in
Madison's message.


_a_. How has machinery influenced the history of the United States?

_b_. Draw a map showing the extent of the United States in 1802 and

_c_. What were the four most important things in Jefferson's
administrations? Why do you select these?


_a_. Robert Fulton or Eli Whitney.

_b_. Exploration of the Northwest.

_c_. War with the African pirates.

_d_. Life and manners in 1800.


The purchase of Louisiana and the early development of the West are
leading points in this period. With the latter must be coupled the
important inventions which made such development possible. Commercial
questions should receive adequate attention and should be illustrated by
present conditions.

Jefferson's attitude toward both the Louisiana Purchase and the
enforcement of the Embargo Act is an illustration of the effect which
power and responsibility have on those placed at the head of the
government. This can also be illustrated by events in our own time.


WAR AND PEACE, 1812-1829

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Higginson's _Larger History, _365-442; Scribner's
_Popular History, _IV; Lossing's _Field-Book of the War of 1812;
_Coffin's _Building the Nation, _149-231.

Home Readings.--Barnes's _Yankee Ships; _Roosevelt's _Naval War of
1812; _Seawell's _Midshipman Paulding; _Holmes's _Old Ironsides;
_Goodwin's _Dolly Madison._



[Sidenote: American plan of campaign, 1812.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

260. Plan of Campaign, 1812.--The American plan of campaign was
that General Hull should invade Canada from Detroit. He could then march
eastward, north of Lake Erie, and meet another army which was to cross
the Niagara River. These two armies were to take up the eastward march
and join a third army from New York. The three armies then would capture
Montreal and Quebec and generally all Canada. It was a splendid plan.
But there were three things in the way of carrying it out: (i) there was
no trained American army; (2) there were no supplies for an army when
gathered and trained; and (3) there was a small, well-trained and
well-supplied army in Canada.

[Illustration: DETROIT, ABOUT 1815.]

[Sidenote: Hull's march to Detroit.]

[Sidenote: His misfortunes.]

[Sidenote: He surrenders Detroit, 1812.]

261. Hull's Surrender of Detroit, 1812.--In those days Detroit was
separated from the settled parts of Ohio by two hundred miles of
wilderness. To get his men and supplies to Detroit, Hull had first of
all to cut a road through the forest. The British learned of the actual
declaration of war before Hull knew of it. They dashed down on his
scattered detachments and seized his provisions. Hull sent out
expedition after expedition to gather supplies and bring in the
scattered settlers. Tecumthe and the other Indian allies of the British
captured one expedition after another. The British advanced on Detroit,
and Hull surrendered. By this disaster the British got control of the
upper lakes. They even invaded Ohio.

[Illustration: PERRY'S BATTLE FLAG.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Lake Erie 1813. McMaster, 234-235.]

[Sidenote: Battle of the Thames, 1813.]

262. Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, 1813.--But the British triumph
did not last long. In the winter of 1812-13 Captain Oliver Hazard Perry
built a fleet of warships on Lake Erie. They were built of green timber
cut for the purpose. They were poor vessels, but were as good as the
British vessels. In September, 1813, Perry sailed in search of the
British ships. Coming up with them, he hoisted at his masthead a large
blue flag with Lawrence's immortal words, "Don't give up the ship" (p.
212), worked upon it. The battle was fiercely fought. Soon Perry's
flagship, the _Lawrence_, was disabled and only nine of her crew were
uninjured. Rowing to another ship, Perry continued the fight. In fifteen
minutes more all the British ships surrendered. The control of Lake Erie
was now in American hands. The British retreated from the southern side
of the lake. General Harrison occupied Detroit. He then crossed into
Canada and defeated a British army on the banks of the river Thames
(October, 1813).

[Illustration: THE "CONSTITUTION." From an early painting of the escape
of the _Constitution_ from the British fleet. The men in the boat are
preparing to carry out a small anchor.]

[Sidenote: The _Constitution_.]

[Sidenote: Chased by a British fleet, 1812.]

[Sidenote: She escapes.]

263. The Frigate _Constitution_.--One of the first vessels to get
to sea was the _Constitution_, commanded by Isaac Hull. She sailed from
Chesapeake Bay for New York, where she was to serve as a guard-ship. On
the way she fell in with a British squadron. The _Constitution_ sailed
on with the whole British fleet in pursuit. Soon the wind began to die
away. The _Constitution's_ sails were soaked with water to make them
hold the wind better. Then the wind gave out altogether, Captain Hull
lowered his boats and the men began to tow the ship. But the British
lowered their boats also. They set a great many boats to towing their
fastest ship, and she began to gain on the _Constitution_. Then Captain
Hull found that he was sailing over shoal water, although out of sight
of land, so he sent a small anchor ahead in a boat. The anchor was
dropped and men on the ship pulled in the anchor line. This was done
again and again. The _Constitution _now began to gain on the British
fleet. Then a sudden squall burst on the ships. Captain Hull saw it
coming and made every preparation to take advantage of it. When the rain
cleared away, the _Constitution_ was beyond fear of pursuit. But she
could not go to New York, so Captain Hull took her to Boston. The
government at once ordered him to stay where he was; but, before the
orders reached Boston, the _Constitution_ was far away.

[Sidenote: _Constitution_ and _Guerrière_, 1812.]

[Sidenote: Reasons for the victory.]

264. _Constitution_ and _Guerrière_, 1812.--For some time Hull
cruised about in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. One day he sighted a British
frigate--the _Guerrière_--one of the ships that had chased the
_Constitution_. But now that Hull found her alone, he steered straight
for her. In thirty minutes from the firing of the first gun the
_Guerrière_ was a ruinous wreck. All of her masts and spars were shot
away and most of her crew were killed or wounded. The _Constitution_ was
only slightly injured, and was soon ready to fight another British
frigate, had there been one to fight. Indeed, the surgeons of the
_Constitution_ went on board of the _Guerrière_ to help dress the wounds
of the British seamen. The _Guerrière_ was a little smaller than the
_Constitution_ and had smaller guns. But the real reason for this great
victory was that the American ship and the American guns were very much
better handled than were the British ship and the British guns.

[Sidenote: _Wasp_ and the _Frolic_]

[Sidenote: Effect of these victories.]

265. The _Wasp_ and the _Frolic_, 1812.--At almost the same time
the American ship _Wasp_ captured the British brig _Frolic_. The _Wasp_
had three masts, and the _Frolic_ had only two masts. But the two
vessels were really of about the same size, as the American ship was
only five feet longer than her enemy, and had the lighter guns. In a few
minutes after the beginning of the fight the _Frolic_ was a shattered
hulk, with only one sound man on her deck. Soon after the conflict a
British battleship came up and captured both the _Wasp_ and her prize.
The effect of these victories of the _Constitution_ and the _Wasp_ was
tremendous. Before the war British naval officers had called the
_Constitution_ "a bundle of sticks." Now it was thought to be no longer
safe for British frigates to sail the seas alone. They must go in pairs
to protect each other from "Old Ironsides." Before long the
_Constitution_, now commanded by Captain Bainbridge, had captured the
British frigate _Java_, and the frigate _United States_, Captain
Decatur, had taken the British ship _Macedonian_. On the other hand, the
_Chesapeake_ was captured by the _Shannon_. This victory gave great
satisfaction to the British. But Captain Lawrence's last words, "Don't
give up the ship," have always been a glorious inspiration to
American sailors.

[Sidenote: Plan of campaign, 1814.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Lundy's Lane, 1814.]

266. Brown's Invasion of Canada, 1814.--In the first two years of
the war the American armies in New York had done nothing. But abler men
were now in command. Of these, General Jacob Brown, General Macomb,
Colonel Winfield Scott, and Colonel Ripley deserve to be remembered.
The American plan of campaign was that Brown, with Scott and Ripley,
should cross the Niagara River and invade Canada. General Macomb, with a
naval force under McDonough, was to hold the line of Lake Champlain. The
British plan was to invade New York by way of Lake Champlain. Brown
crossed the Niagara River and fought two brilliant battles at Chippewa
and Lundy's Lane. The latter battle was especially glorious because the
Americans captured British guns and held them against repeated attacks
by British veterans. In the end, however, Brown was obliged to retire.

[Sidenote: Invasion of New York.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Plattsburg, 1814.]

267. McDonough's Victory at Plattsburg, 1814.--General Prevost,
with a fine army of veterans, marched southward from Canada, while a
fleet sailed up Lake Champlain. At Plattsburg, on the western side of
the lake, was General Macomb with a force of American soldiers. Anchored
before the town was McDonough's fleet. Prevost attacked Macomb's army
and was driven back. The British fleet attacked McDonough's vessels and
was destroyed. That put an end to Prevost's invasion. He retreated back
to Canada as fast as he could go.

[Illustration: FORT McHENRY.]

[Sidenote: Burning of Washington, 1814.]

[Sidenote: "The Star-Spangled Banner."]

268. The British in the Chesapeake, 1814.--Besides their operations
on the Canadian frontier, the British tried to capture New Orleans and
the cities on Chesapeake Bay. The British landed below Washington. They
marched to the capital. They entered Washington. They burned the
Capitol, the White House, and several other public buildings. They then
hurried away, leaving their wounded behind them. Later on the British
attacked Baltimore and were beaten off with great loss. It was at this
time that Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner." He was
detained on board one of the British warships during the fight. Eagerly
he watched through the smoke for a glimpse of the flag over Fort McHenry
at the harbor's mouth. In the morning the flag was still there. This
defeat closed the British operations on the Chesapeake.

[Illustration: FLAG OF FORT McHENRY. Fifteen stars and fifteen
stripes--one of each for each state.]

[Sidenote: Jackson's Creek campaign, 1814.]

269. The Creek War.--The Creek Indians lived in Alabama. They saw
with dismay the spreading settlements of the whites. The Americans were
now at war. It would be a good chance to destroy them. So the Creeks
fell upon the whites and murdered about four hundred. General Andrew
Jackson of Tennessee commanded the American army in the Southwest. As
soon as he knew that the Creeks were attacking the settlers, he gathered
soldiers and followed the Indians to their stronghold. He stormed their
fort and killed most of the garrison.

[Illustration: BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. From a sketch by one of Jackson's

[Sidenote: Battle of New Orleans, 1815.]

[Sidenote: _Hero Tales_, 139-147.]

270. Jackson's Defense of New Orleans, 1814-15.--Jackson had
scarcely finished this work when he learned of the coming of a great
British expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River. He at once
hastened to the defense of New Orleans. Below the city the country
greatly favored the defender. For there was very little solid ground
except along the river's bank. Picking out an especially narrow place,
Jackson built a breastwork of cotton bales and rubbish. In front of the
breastwork he dug a deep ditch. The British rushed to the attack. Most
of their generals were killed or wounded, and the slaughter was
terrible. Later, they made another attack and were again beaten off.

[Sidenote: Naval combats, 1814.]

271. The War on the Sea, 1814.--It was only in the first year or so
of the war that there was much fighting between American and British
warships. After that the American ships could not get to sea, for the
British stationed whole fleets off the entrances to the principal
harbors. But a few American vessels ran the blockade and did good
service. For instance, Captain Charles Stewart in the _Constitution_
captured two British ships at one time. But most of the warships that
got to sea were captured sooner or later.

[Sidenote: The privateers. _Hero Tales_, 129-136.]

272. The Privateers.--No British fleets could keep the privateers
from leaving port. They swarmed upon the ocean and captured hundreds of
British merchantmen, some of them within sight of the shores of Great
Britain. In all, they captured more than twenty-five hundred British
ships. They even fought the smaller warships of the enemy.

[Sidenote: Treaty of peace, 1814.]

273. Treaty of Ghent, 1814.--The war had hardly begun before
commissioners to treat for peace were appointed by both the United
States and Great Britain. But they did nothing until the failure of the
1814 campaign showed the British government that there was no hope of
conquering any portion of the United States. Then the British were ready
enough to make peace, and a treaty was signed at Ghent in December,
1814. This was two weeks before the British disaster at New Orleans
occurred, and months before the news of it reached Europe. None of the
things about which the war was fought were even mentioned in the treaty.
But this did not really make much difference. For the British had
repealed their orders as to American ships before the news of the
declaration of war reached London. As for impressment, the guns of the
_Constitution_ had put an end to that.

[Illustration: THE OLD STATE HOUSE. Where the Hartford Convention met.]

[Sidenote: New England Federalists.]

[Sidenote: Hartford Convention, 1814.]

274. The Hartford Convention, 1814.--While the New commissioners
were talking over the treaty of peace, other debaters were discussing
the war, at Hartford, Connecticut. These were leading New England
Federalists. They thought that the government at Washington had done
many things that the Constitution of the United States did not permit it
to do. They drew up a set of resolutions. Some of these read like those
other resolutions drawn up by Jefferson and Madison in 1798 (p. 175).
The Hartford debaters also thought that the national government had not
done enough to protect the coasts of New England from British attacks.
They proposed, therefore, that the taxes collected by the national
government in New England should be handed over to the New England
states to use for their defense. Commissioners were actually at
Washington to propose this division of the national revenue when news
came of Jackson's victory at New Orleans and of the signing of the
Treaty of Ghent. The commissioners hastened home and the Republican
party regained its popularity with the voters.


[Sidenote: Gains of the war.]

[Sidenote: The American nation.]

275. Gains of the War.--The United States gained no territory after
all this fighting on sea and land. It did not even gain the abolition of
impressment in so many words. But what was of far greater importance,
the American people began to think of itself as a nation. Americans no
longer looked to France or to England as models to be followed. They
became Americans. The getting of this feeling of independence and of
nationality was a very great step forward. It is right, therefore, to
speak of this war as the Second War of Independence.

[Illustration: JAMES MONROE.]



[Sidenote: Monroe elected President, 1816, 1820.]

[Sidenote: Characteristics of the Era of Good Feeling. _McMaster_, 260.]

276. The Era as a Whole.--The years 1815-24 have been called the
Era of Good Feeling, because there was no hard political fighting in all
that time--at least not until the last year or two. In 1816 Monroe was
elected President without much opposition. In 1820 he was reëlected
President without any opposition whatever. Instead of fighting over
politics, the people were busily employed in bringing vast regions of
the West under cultivation and in founding great manufacturing
industries in the East. They were also making roads and canals to
connect the Western farms with the Eastern cities and factories. The
later part of the era was a time of unbounded prosperity. Every now and
then some hard question would come up for discussion. Its settlement
would be put off, or the matter would be compromised. In these years the
Federalist party disappeared, and the Republican party split into
factions. By 1824 the differences in the Republican party had become so
great that there was a sudden ending to the Era of Good Feeling.

[Sidenote: Hard times, 1816-18.]

[Sidenote: Emigration to the West, 1816-18. _McMaster_, 241, 266-273.]

[Sidenote: Four states admitted, 1816-1819]

[Sidenote: Maine and Missouri apply for admission.]

277. Western Emigration.--During the first few years of this period
the people of the older states on the seacoast felt very poor. The
shipowners could no longer make great profits. For there was now peace
in Europe, and European vessels competed with American vessels. Great
quantities of British goods were sent to the United States and were sold
at very low prices. The demand for American goods fell off. Mill owners
closed their mills. Working men and women could find no work to do. The
result was a great rush of emigrants from the older states on the
seaboard to the new settlements in the West. In the West the emigrants
could buy land from the government at a very low rate, and by working
hard could support themselves and their families. This westward movement
was at its height in 1817. In the years 1816--19, four states were
admitted to the Union. These were Indiana (1816), Mississippi (1817),
Illinois (1818), and Alabama (1819). Some of the emigrants even crossed
the Mississippi River and settled in Missouri and in Arkansas. In 1819
they asked to be admitted to the Union as the state of Missouri, or
given a territorial government under the name of Arkansas. The people of
Maine also asked Congress to admit them to the Union as the state
of Maine.

[Sidenote: Objections to the admission of Missouri.]

278. Opposition to the Admission of Missouri.--Many people in the
North opposed the admission of Missouri because the settlers of the
proposed state were slaveholders. Missouri would be a slave state, and
these Northerners did not want any more slave states. Originally slavery
had existed in all the old thirteen states. But every state north of
Maryland had before 1819 either put an end to slavery or had
adopted some plan by which slavery would gradually come to an end.
Slavery had been excluded from the Northwest by the famous Ordinance of
1787 (p. 135). In these ways slavery had ceased to be a vital
institution north of Maryland and Kentucky. Why should slavery be
allowed west of the Mississippi River? Louisiana had been admitted as a
slave state (1812). But the admission of Louisiana had been provided for
in the treaty for the purchase of Louisiana from France. The Southerners
felt as strongly on the other side. They said that their slaves were
their property, and that they had a perfect right to take their
property and settle on the land belonging to the nation. Having founded
a slave state, it was only right that the state should be admitted to
the Union.

[Illustration: (Map) Missouri Compromise of 1820]

[Sidenote: This Missouri Compromise, 1820. _Higginson_, 254-256;
_Eggleston_, 258-261.]

[Sidenote: Both states admitted, 1820. _McMaster_,274-276.]

279. The Missouri Compromise, 1820.--When the question of the
admission of Maine and Missouri came before Congress, the Senate was
equally divided between the slave states and the free states. But the
majority of the House of Representatives was from the free states. The
free states were growing faster than were the slave states and would
probably keep on growing faster. The majority from the free states in
the House, therefore, would probably keep on increasing. If the free
states obtained a majority in the Senate also, the Southerners would
lose all control of the government. For these reasons the Southerners
would not consent to the admission of Maine as a free state unless at
the same time Missouri was admitted as a slave state. After a long
struggle Maine and Missouri were both admitted--the one as a free state,
the other as a slave state. But it was also agreed that all of the
Louisiana purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri, with the
single exception of the state of Missouri, should be free soil
forever. This arrangement was called the Missouri Compromise. It was the
work of Henry Clay. It was an event of great importance, because it put
off for twenty-five years the inevitable conflict over slavery.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1820]

[Sidenote: Reasons for the purchase of Florida.]

[Sidenote: Jackson invades Florida, 1818.]

[Sidenote: The Florida purchase, 1819.]

280. The Florida Treaty, 1819.--While this contest was going on,
the United States bought of Spain a large tract of land admirably suited
to negro slavery. This was Florida. It belonged to Spain and was a
refuge for all sorts of people: runaway negroes, fugitive Indians,
smugglers, and criminals of all kinds. Once in Florida, fugitives
generally were safe. But they were not always safe. For instance, in
1818 General Jackson chased some fleeing Indians over the boundary. They
sought refuge in a Spanish fort, and Jackson was obliged to take the
fort as well as the Indians. This exploit made the Spaniards more
willing to sell Florida. The price was five million dollars. But when it
came to giving up the province, the Spaniards found great difficulty in
keeping their promises. The treaty was made in 1819, but it was not
until 1821 that Jackson, as governor of Florida, took possession of the
new territory. Even then the Spanish governor refused to hand over the
record books, and Jackson had to shut him up in prison until he became
more reasonable.


[Sidenote: Formation of the Holy Alliance.]

[Sidenote: It interferes in Spanish affairs.]

[Sidenote: The Spanish Americans colonists rebel against Spain.]

[Sidenote: Russian attempts at colonization.]

281. The "Holy Alliance."--Most of the people of the other Spanish
colonies were rebelling against Spain, and there was a rebellion in
Spain itself. There were rebellions in other European countries as well
as in Spain. In fact, there seemed to be a rebellious spirit nearly
everywhere. This alarmed the European emperors and kings. With the
exception of the British king, they joined together to put down
rebellions. They called their union the Holy Alliance. They soon put the
Spanish king back on his throne. They then thought that they would send
warships and soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to crush the rebellions
in the Spanish colonies. Now the people of the United States sympathized
with the Spanish colonists in their desire for independence. They also
disliked the idea of Europeans interfering in American affairs. "America
for Americans," was the cry. It also happened that Englishmen desired
the freedom of the Spanish colonists. As her subjects Spain would not
let them buy English goods. But if they were free, they could buy goods
wherever they pleased. The British government therefore proposed that
the United States and Great Britain should join in a declaration that
the Spanish colonies were independent states. John Quincy Adams, son of
John Adams, was Monroe's Secretary of State. He thought that this would
not be a wise course to follow, because it might bring American affairs
within European control. He was all the more anxious to prevent this
entanglement, as the Czar of Russia was preparing to found colonies on
the western coast of North America and Adams wanted a free hand to
deal with him.

[Sidenote: The Monroe Doctrine, 1822. _McMaster_, 262-265]

[Sidenote: Action of Great Britain. End of European interference in

282. The Monroe Doctrine, 1823.--It was under these circumstances
that President Monroe sent a message to Congress. In it he stated the
policy of the United States as follows: (1) America is closed to
colonization by any European power; (2) the United States have not
interfered and will not interfere in European affairs; (3) the United
States regard the extension of the system of the Holy Alliance to
America as dangerous to the United States; and (4) the United States
would regard the interference of the Holy Alliance in American affairs
as an "unfriendly act." This part of the message was written by Adams.
He had had a long experience in diplomacy. He used the words "unfriendly
act" as diplomatists use them when they mean that such an "unfriendly
act" would be a cause for war. The British government also informed the
Holy Allies that their interference in American affairs would be
resented. The Holy Alliance gave over all idea of crushing the Spanish
colonists. And the Czar of Russia agreed to found no colonies south of
fifty-four degrees and forty minutes north latitude.

[Sidenote: Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine.]

283. Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine.--The ideas contained in
Monroe's celebrated message to Congress are always spoken of as the
Monroe Doctrine. Most of these ideas were not invented by Monroe or by
Adams. Many of them may be found in Washington's Neutrality
Proclamation, in Washington's Farewell Address, in Jefferson's Inaugural
Address, and in other documents. What was new in Monroe's message was
the statement that European interference in American affairs would be
looked upon by the United States as an "unfriendly act," leading to war.
European kings might crush out liberty in Europe. They might divide Asia
and Africa among themselves. They must not interfere in
American affairs.



[Sidenote: End of Monroe's administrations.]

284. End of the Era of Good Feeling.--The Era of Good Feeling came
to a sudden ending in 1824. Monroe's second term as President would end
in 1825. He refused to be a candidate for reëlection. In thus following
the example set by Washington, Jefferson, and Madison, Monroe confirmed
the custom of limiting the presidential term to eight years. There was
no lack of candidates to succeed him in his high office.

[Sidenote: J.Q. Adams]

285. John Quincy Adams.--First and foremost was John Quincy Adams
of Massachusetts. He was Monroe's Secretary of State, and this office
had been a kind of stepping-stone to the presidency. Monroe had been
Madison's Secretary of State; Madison had been Jefferson's Secretary of
State; and Jefferson had been Washington's Secretary of State, although
he was Vice-President when he was chosen to the first place. John Quincy
Adams was a statesman of great experience and of ability. He was a man
of the highest honor and intelligence. He was nominated by the
legislatures of Massachusetts and of the other New England states.

[Illustration: John C. Calhoun.]

[Sidenote: W.H. Crawford.]

[Sidenote: Tenure of Office Act.]

[Sidenote: The Crawford machine.]

286. William H. Crawford.--Besides Adams, two other members of
Monroe's cabinet wished to succeed their chief. These were John C.
Calhoun and William H. Crawford. Calhoun soon withdrew from the contest
to accept the nomination of all the factions to the place of
Vice-President. Crawford was from Georgia and was Secretary of the
Treasury. As the head of that great department, he controlled more
appointments than all the other members of the cabinet put together. The
habit of using public offices to reward political friends had begun in
Pennsylvania. Washington, in his second term, Adams, and Jefferson had
appointed to office only members of their own party. Jefferson had also
removed from office a few political opponents (p. 187). But there were
great difficulties in the way of making removals. Crawford hit upon the
plan of appointing officers for four years only. Congress at once fell
in with the idea and passed the Tenure of Office Act, limiting
appointments to four years. Crawford promptly used this new power to
build up a strong political machine in the Treasury Department, devoted
to his personal advancement. He was nominated for the presidency by a
Congressional caucus and became the "regular" candidate.

[Sidenote: Henry Clay.]

[Sidenote: Andrew Jackson.]

287. Clay and Jackson.--Two men outside of the cabinet were also
put forward for Monroe's high office. These were Andrew Jackson of
Tennessee and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Clay and Calhoun had entered
politics at about the same time. They had then believed in the same
policy. Calhoun had abandoned his early ideas. But Clay held fast to
the policy of "nationalization." He still favored internal improvements
at the national expense. He still favored the protective system. He was
the great "peacemaker" and tried by means of compromises to unite all
parts of the Union (p. 222). He loved his country and had unbounded
faith in the American people. The legislatures of Kentucky and other
states nominated him for the presidency. The strongest man of all the
candidates was Andrew Jackson, the "Hero of New Orleans." He had never
been prominent in politics. But his warlike deeds had made his name and
his strength familiar to the voters, especially to those of the West. He
was a man of the people, as none of his rivals were. He stood for
democracy and the Union. The legislatures of Tennessee and other states
nominated Jackson for the presidency.

[Sidenote: The election of 1824.]

[Sidenote: It goes to the House of Representatives.]

[Sidenote: The House chooses Adams.]

288. Adams chosen President, 1824.--The election was held. The
presidential electors met in their several states and cast their votes
for President and Vice-President. The ballots were brought to Washington
and were counted. No candidate for the presidency had received a
majority of all the votes cast. Jackson had more votes than any other
candidate, next came Adams, then Crawford, and last of all Clay. The
House of Representatives, voting by states, must choose one of the first
three President. Clay, therefore, was out of the race. Clay and his
friends believed in the same things that Adams and his friends believed
in, and had slight sympathy with the views of Jackson or of Crawford.
So they joined the Adams men and chose Adams President. The Jackson men
were furious. They declared that the Representatives had defeated the
"will of the people."

[Illustration: JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.]

[Sidenote: Adams appoints Clay Secretary of State.]

[Sidenote: Charges of a bargain.]

[Sidenote: Weakness of Adams's administration.]

289. Misfortunes of Adams's Administration.--Adams's first mistake
was the appointment of Clay as Secretary of State. It was a mistake,
because it gave the Jackson men a chance to assert that there had been a
"deal" between Adams and Clay. They called Clay the "Judas of the West."
They said that the "will of the people" had been defeated by a "corrupt
bargain." These charges were repeated over and over again until many
people really began to think that there must be some reason for them.
The Jackson men also most unjustly accused Adams of stealing the
nation's money. The British government seized the opportunity of Adams's
weak administration to close the West India ports to American shipping.

[Sidenote: Early tariff laws.]

[Sidenote: The tariff of 1816.]

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1824.]

290. Early Tariffs.--Ever since 1789 manufactures had been
protected (p. 155). The first tariff rates were very low. But the
Embargo Act, the non-intercourse law, and the War of 1812 put an end to
the importation of foreign goods. Capitalists invested large amounts of
money in cotton mills, woolen mills, and iron mills. With the return of
peace in 1815, British merchants flooded the American markets with cheap
goods (p. 220). The manufacturers appealed to Congress for more
protection, and Congress promptly passed a new tariff act (1816). This
increased the duties over the earlier laws. But it did not give the
manufacturers all the protection that they desired. In 1824 another law
was drawn up. It raised the duties still higher. The Southerners opposed
the passage of this last law. For they clearly saw that protection did
them no good. But the Northerners and the Westerners were heartily in
favor of the increased duties, and the law was passed.

[Sidenote: Agitation for more protection, 1828.]

[Sidenote: Scheme of the Jackson men.]

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1828.]

291. The Tariff of Abominations, 1828.--In 1828 another
presidential election was to be held. The manufacturers thought that
this would be a good time to ask for even higher protective duties,
because the politicians would not dare to oppose the passage of the law
for fear of losing votes. The Jackson men hit upon a plan by which they
would seem to favor higher duties while at the same time they were
really opposing them. They therefore proposed high duties on
manufactured goods. This would please the Northern manufacturers. They
proposed high duties on raw materials. This would please the Western
producers. But they thought that the manufacturers would oppose the
final passage of the bill because the high duties on raw materials would
injure them very much. The bill would fail to pass, and this would
please the Southern cotton growers. It was a very shrewd little plan.
But it did not work. The manufacturers thought that it would be well at
all events to have the high duties on manufactured goods--perhaps they
might before long secure the repeal of the duties on raw materials. The
Northern members of Congress voted for the bill, and it passed.

[Sidenote: Election of 1828.]

[Sidenote: Jackson elected President. _McMaster_, 301.]

292. Jackson elected President, 1828.--In the midst of all this
discouragement as to foreign affairs and this contest over the tariff,
the presidential campaign of 1828 was held. Adams and Jackson were the
only two candidates. Jackson was elected by a large majority of
electoral votes. But Adams received only one vote less than he had
received in 1824. The contest was very close in the two large states of
Pennsylvania and New York. Had a few thousand more voters in those
states cast their votes for Adams, the electoral votes of those states
would have been given to him, and he would have been elected. It was
fortunate that Jackson was chosen. For a great contest between the
states and the national government was coming on. It was well that a man
of Jackson's commanding strength and great popularity should be at the
head of the government.



§§ 260-262.--_a_. Explain by a map the American plan of campaign and
show its advantages and disadvantages.

_b_. Describe Perry's victory. How did this turn the scale of war?

§§ 263-265.--_a_. Describe the escape of the _Constitution_ from the
British fleet. Describe the destruction of the _Guerrière_ and of the
_Frolic_. What was the reason for the American successes?

_b_. Why was the effect of these victories so great?

_c_. Why did the capture of the _Chesapeake_ cause so much delight in
England? Why are Lawrence's words so inspiring?

§§ 266, 267.--_a_. Compare the second plan for the invasion of Canada
with the earlier one.

_b_. Discuss the events of Brown's campaign and its results.

_c_. Compare Prevost's campaign with Burgoyne's. Why was it

_d_. What do Perry's and McDonough's victories show?

§§ 268.--_a_. Why were the British attacks directed against these three
portions of the country?

_b_. Describe the attack on Washington. Was the burning of the public
buildings justifiable?

_c_. Read the "Star-Spangled Banner" and explain the allusions.

§§ 269, 270.--_a_. Describe Jackson's plans for the defense of New
Orleans. Why were they so successful?

_b._ Why did not this success of the Americans have more effect on the
peace negotiations?

§§ 271, 272.--_a._ Why were most of the naval conflicts during the first
year of the war? What is a blockade? What is a privateer?

_b._ What work did the privateers do?

§ 273.--_a._ Why was so little advance made at first toward a treaty of

_b._ Why was the news of the treaty so long in reaching Washington?

_c._ What was settled by the war?

§ 274.--_a._ Were the Federalists or the Republicans more truly the
national party?

_b._ What propositions were made by the Hartford Convention? If such
proposals were carried out, what would be the effect on the Union?

_c._ Compare the principles underneath these resolutions with those of
the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

§275.--_a._ Note carefully the effect of this war.

_b._ Why is it called the Second War of Independence?


§§ 276, 277.--_a._ What is meant by the Era of Good Feeling? Is this
period more important or less important than the period of war which
preceded it? Why?

_b._ What matters occupied the attention of the people?

_c._ What shows the sudden increase in Western migration?

§§ 278, 279.--_a._ State carefully the objections to the admission of
Missouri on the part of the Northerners. Why did the Southerners object
to the admission of Maine?

_b._ Trace on a map the line between the free states and the slave
states. Why was slavery no longer of importance north of this line? Why
was it important south of this line?

_c._ Why were the free states gaining faster than the slave states?

_d._ Explain the Missouri Compromise. How did the Compromise postpone
the conflict over slavery?

§ 280.--_a._ Why was Florida a danger to the United States?

_b._ What people in the United States would welcome the purchase of

_c._ What does this section show you as to Jackson's character?

§ 281.--_a_. Why was the Holy Alliance formed? What did the allies
propose as to America?

_b_. How was this proposal regarded by Americans? Why?

_c_. How was it regarded by Englishmen? Why?

§§ 282, 283.--_a_. Explain carefully the four points of Monroe's

_b_. Were these ideas new? What is an "unfriendly act"?

_c_. What action did Great Britain take? What was the result of the
declarations of the United States and Great Britain.

_d_. What was the new point in Monroe's message?

_e_. Do we still keep to the Monroe Doctrine in all respects?


§§ 284-288.--_a_. Who were the candidates for President in 1824?
Describe the qualities and careers of each of them. For whom would you
have voted had you had the right to vote in 1824?

_b_. How were these candidates nominated? What is a caucus?

_c_. Describe the Tenure of Office Act. Should a man be given an office
simply because he has helped his party?

_d_. In what respects was Jackson unlike the early Presidents?

_e_. What was the result of the election? Who was finally chosen? Why?
If you had been a Representative in 1824, for whom would you have voted?
voted? Why?

_f_. What is a majority? A plurality?

§ 289.--_a_. Why was the appointment of Clay a mistake?

_b_. What charges were made against Adams?

_c_. Describe the misfortunes of Adams's administration.

§§ 290, 291.--_a_. How are manufactures protected?

_b_. Why were the protective tariffs of no benefit to the Southerners?

_c_. Why was an attempt for a higher tariff made in 1828?

_d_. Explain the plan of the Jackson men. Why did the plan fail?

§ 292.--_a_. Describe the election of 1828.

_b_. How was Jackson fitted to meet difficulties?


_a_. Why was the navy better prepared for war than the army?

_b_. Why did slaveholders feel the need of more slave territory in the

_c_. Jackson has been called "a man of the people." Explain this title.


_a_. Early life of Andrew Jackson (to 1828).

_b_. A battle of the War of 1812, e.g. Lake Erie, Lundy's Lane,
Plattsburg, New Orleans, or a naval combat.

_c_. The frigate _Constitution_.

_d_. The career of Clay, of Calhoun, of J.Q. Adams, or of Monroe.


The results of the War of 1812 should be carefully studied and compared
with the proposals of the Hartford Convention. These last can be taught
by comparison with the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.

To the Missouri Compromise much time and careful explanation should be
given. Touch upon the economic side of slavery, and explain how the
continued supremacy of the slave power was threatened.

The Monroe Doctrine is another difficult topic; but it can be explained
by recent history.

The election of 1824 can be carefully employed to elucidate the mode of
electing President, and the struggle over the tariffs can be illustrated
by recent tariff contests.

[Illustration: FLAG ADOPTED IN 1818. A star for each state and a stripe
for each of the original states.]

[Illustration: UNITED STATES IN 1830]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, IV; Lodge's _Webster_;
Coffin's _Building the Nation_, 251-313.

Home Readings.--Roosevelt's _Winning of the West_; Hale's _Stories
of Inventions_; Wright's _Stories of American Progress_.



[Sidenote: Changes in conditions.]

293. A New Race.--Between the election of President Jefferson and
the election of President Jackson great changes had taken place. The old
Revolutionary statesmen had gone. New men had taken their places. The
old sleepy life had gone. Everywhere now was bustle and hurry. In 1800
the Federalists favored the British, and the Republicans favored the
French. Now no one seemed to care for either the British or the French.
At last the people had become Americans. The Federalist party had
disappeared. Every one now was either a National Republican and voted
for Adams, or a Democratic Republican and voted for Jackson.

[Sidenote: Population, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Area, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the cities.]

[Sidenote: Settlement of the West.]

294. Numbers and Area.--In 1800 there were only five and one-half
million people in the whole United States. Now there were nearly
thirteen million people. And they had a very much larger country to live
in. In 1800 the area of the United States was about eight hundred
thousand square miles. But Louisiana and Florida had been bought since
then. Now (1830) the area of the United States was about two million
square miles. The population of the old states had greatly increased.
Especially the cities had grown. In 1800 New York City held about sixty
thousand people; it now held two hundred thousand people. But it was in
the West that the greatest growth had taken place. Since 1800 Ohio,
Indiana, Illinois, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Missouri had all
been admitted to the Union.

[Sidenote: Difficulties of transport over the Alleghanies. _McMaster_,
252, 280-282.]

[Sidenote: The Cumberland Road.]

295. National Roads.--Steamboats were now running on the Great
Lakes and on all the important rivers of the West. The first result of
this new mode of transport was the separation of the West from the East.
Steamboats could carry passengers and goods up and down the Mississippi
and its branches more cheaply and more comfortably than people and goods
could be carried over the Alleghanies. Many persons therefore advised
the building of a good wagon road to connect the Potomac with the Ohio.
The eastern end of this great road was at Cumberland on the Potomac in
Maryland. It is generally called, therefore, the Cumberland Road. It was
begun at the national expense in 1811. By 1820 the road was built as far
as Wheeling on the Ohio River. From that point steamboats could steam to
Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, or New Orleans. Later on, the road was
built farther west, as far as Illinois. Then the coming of the railroad
made further building unnecessary.

[Sidenote: The Erie Canal, 1825. _McMaster_, 282-284.]

[Sidenote: De Witt Clinton.]

[Sidenote: Results of the building of the Erie Canal.]

296. The Erie Canal.--The best way to connect one steamboat route
with another was to dig a canal. The most famous of all these canals was
the one connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, and called the Erie
Canal. It was begun in 1817 and was completed so that a boat could pass
through it in 1825. It was De Witt Clinton who argued that such a canal
would benefit New York City by bringing to it the produce of the
Northwest and of western New York. At the same time it would benefit the
farmers of those regions by bringing their produce to tide water cheaper
than it could be brought by road through Pennsylvania. It would still
further benefit the farmers by enabling them to buy their goods much
cheaper, as the rates of freight would be so much lower by canal than
they were by road. People who did not see these things as clearly as De
Witt Clinton saw them, spoke of the enterprise most sneeringly and
called the canal "Clinton's big ditch." It very soon appeared that
Clinton was right. In one year the cost of carrying a ton of grain from
Lake Erie to the Hudson River fell from one hundred dollars to fifteen
dollars. New York City soon outstripped all its rivals and became the
center of trade and money in the United States. Other canals, as the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, were marvels of skill. But they were not so
favorably situated as the Erie Canal and could not compete with it


[Sidenote: The first railroads. _McMaster_, 285-289.]

297. Early Railroads.--The best stone and gravel roads were always
rough in places. It occurred to some one that it would be better to lay
down wooden rails, and then to place a rim or flange on the wagon wheels
to keep them on the rails. The first road of this kind in America was
built at Boston in 1807. It was a very rude affair and was only used to
carry dirt from the top of a hill to the harbor. The wooden rails soon
wore out, so the next step was to nail strips of iron on top of them.
Long lines of railroads of this kind were soon built. Both passengers
and goods could be carried on them. Some of them were built by private
persons or by companies. Others were built by a town or a state. Any one
having horses and wagons with flanged wheels could use the railway on
the payment of a small sum of money. This was the condition of affairs
when the steam locomotive was invented.

[Illustration: AN EARLY LOCOMOTIVE.]

[Sidenote: Invention of the locomotive, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Hardships of early railroad travel.]

298. The Steam Locomotive.--Steam was used to drive boats through
the water. Why should not steam be used to haul wagons over a railroad?
This was a very easy question to ask, and a very hard one to answer.
Year after year inventors worked on the problem. Suddenly, about 1830,
it was solved in several places and by several men at nearly the same
time. It was some years, however, before the locomotive came into
general use. The early railroad trains were rude affairs. The cars were
hardly more than stagecoaches with flanged wheels. They were fastened
together with chains, and when the engine started or stopped, there was
a terrible bumping and jolting. The smoke pipe of the engine was very
tall and was hinged so that it could be let down when coming to a low
bridge or a tunnel. Then the smoke and cinders poured straight into the
passengers' faces. But these trains went faster than canal boats or
steamboats. Soon the railroad began to take the first place as a means
of transport.

[Illustration: A LOCOMOTIVE OF TO-DAY.]

[Sidenote: Use of hard coal.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the cities.]

299. Other Inventions.--The coming of the steam locomotive hastened
the changes which one saw on every side in 1830. For some time men had
known that there was plenty of hard coal or anthracite in Pennsylvania.
But it was so hard that it would not burn in the old-fashioned stoves
and fireplaces. Now a stove was invented that would burn anthracite, and
the whole matter of house warming was completely changed. Then means
were found to make iron from ore with anthracite. The whole iron
industry awoke to new life. Next the use of gas made from coal became
common in cities. The great increase in manufacturing, and the great
changes in modes of transport, led people to crowd together in cities
and towns. These inventions made it possible to feed and warm large
numbers of persons gathered into small areas. The cities began to grow
so fast that people could no longer live near their work or the shops.
Lines of stagecoaches were established, and the coaches were soon
followed by horse cars, which ran on iron tracks laid in the streets.

[Illustration: AN EARLY HORSE CAR.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the school system.]

[Sidenote: Webster's "Dictionary."]

[Sidenote: American men of letters.]

[Sidenote: American men of science.]

300. Progress in Letters.--There was also great progress in
learning. The school system was constantly improved. Especially was this
the case in the West, where the government devoted one thirty-sixth part
of the public lands to education. High schools were founded, and soon
normal schools were added to them. Even the colleges awoke from their
long sleep. More students went to them, and the methods of teaching were
improved. Some slight attention, too, was given to teaching the
sciences. In 1828 Noah Webster published the first edition of his great
dictionary. Unfortunately he tried to change the spelling of many words.
But in other ways his dictionary was a great improvement. He defined
words so that they could be understood, and he gave the American meaning
of many words, as "congress." American writers now began to make great
reputations. Cooper, Irving, and Bryant were already well known. They
were soon joined by a wonderful set of men, who speedily made America
famous. These were Emerson, Lowell, Longfellow, Holmes, Hawthorne,
Prescott, Motley, Bancroft, and Sparks. In science, also, men of mark
were beginning their labors, as Pierce, Gray, Silliman, and Dana. Louis
Agassiz before long began his wonderful lectures, which did much to make
science popular. In short, Jackson's administration marks the time when
American life began to take on its modern form.

[Illustration: NOAH WEBSTER.]



[Sidenote: Jackson's early career.]

[Sidenote: His "kitchen cabinet".]

301. General Jackson.--Born in the backwoods of Carolina, Jackson
had early crossed the Alleghanies and settled in Tennessee. Whenever
trouble came to the Western people, whenever there was need of a stout
heart and an iron will, Jackson was at the front. He always did his
duty. He always did his duty well. Honest and sincere, he believed in
himself and he believed in the American people. As President he led the
people in one of the stormiest periods in our history. Able men gathered
about him. But he relied chiefly on the advice of a few friends who
smoked their pipes with him and formed his "kitchen cabinet." He seldom
called a regular cabinet meeting. When he did call one, it was often
merely to tell the members what he had decided to do.

[Sidenote: Party machines.]

[Sidenote: The Spoils System.]

302. The Spoils System.--Among the able men who had fought the
election for Jackson were Van Buren and Marcy of New York and Buchanan
of Pennsylvania. They had built up strong party machines in their
states. For they "saw nothing wrong in the principle that to the victors
belong the spoils of victory." So they rewarded their party workers with
offices--when they won. The Spoils System was now begun in the national
government. Those who had worked for Jackson rushed to Washington. The
hotels and boarding-houses could not hold them. Some of them camped out
in the parks and public squares of the capital. Removals now went
merrily on. Rotation in office was the cry. Before long Jackson removed
nearly one thousand officeholders and appointed political partisans in
their places.

[Sidenote: The North and the South. _McMaster_, 301-304.]

303. The North and the South.--The South was now a great
cotton-producing region. This cotton was grown by negro slaves. The
North was now a great manufacturing and commercial region. It was also a
great agricultural region. But the labor in the mills, fields, and ships
of the North was all free white labor. So the United States was really
split into two sections: one devoted to slavery and to a few great
staples, as cotton; the other devoted to free white labor and to
industries of many kinds.

[Sidenote: The South and the tariff, 1829.]

[Sidenote: Calhoun's "Exposition."]

304. The Political Situation, 1829.--The South was growing richer
all the time; but the North was growing richer a great deal faster than
was the South. Calhoun and other Southern men thought that this
difference in the rate of progress was due to the protective system. In
1828 Congress had passed a tariff that was so bad that it was called the
Tariff of Abominations (p. 231). The Southerners could not prevent its
passage. But Calhoun wrote an "Exposition" of the constitutional
doctrines in the case. This paper was adopted by the legislature of
South Carolina as giving its ideas. In this paper Calhoun declared that
the Constitution of the United States was a compact. Each state was a
sovereign state and could annul any law passed by Congress. The
protective system was unjust and unequal in operation. It would bring
"poverty and utter desolation to the South." The tariff act should be
annulled by South Carolina and by other Southern states.

[Illustration: DANIEL WEBSTER, 1833.]

[Sidenote: Hayne's speech, 1830.]

[Sidenote: Webster's reply to Hayne.]

305. Webster and Hayne, 1830.--Calhoun was Vice-President and
presided over the debates of the Senate. So it fell to Senator Hayne of
South Carolina to state Calhoun's ideas. This he did in a very able
speech. To him Daniel Webster of Massachusetts replied in the most
brilliant speeches ever delivered in Congress. The Constitution, Webster
declared, was "the people's constitution, the people's government; made
by the people and answerable to the people. The people have declared
that this constitution ... shall be the supreme law." The Supreme Court
of the United States alone could declare a national law to be
unconstitutional; no state could do that. He ended this great speech
with the memorable words, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1832.]

[Sidenote: "Nullified" by South Carolina, 1833.]

[Sidenote: Jackson's warning.]

[Sidenote: He prepares to enforce the law.]

[Sidenote: The Force Bill, 1833.]

306. Nullification, 1832-33.--In 1832 Congress passed a new tariff
act. The South Carolinians decided to try Calhoun's weapon of
nullification. They held a convention, declared the act null and void,
and forbade South Carolinians to obey the law. They probably thought
that Jackson would not oppose them. But they should have had no doubts
on that subject. For Jackson already had proposed his famous toast on
Jefferson's birthday, "Our federal Union, it must be preserved." He now
told the Carolinians that he would enforce the laws, and he set about
doing it with all his old-time energy. He sent ships and soldiers to
Charleston and ordered the collector of that port to collect the duties.
He then asked Congress to give him greater power. And Congress passed
the Force Bill, giving him the power he asked for. The South
Carolinians, on their part, suspended the nullification ordinance and
thus avoided an armed conflict with "Old Hickory," as his admirers
called Jackson.

[Sidenote: Tariff of 1833.]

307. The Compromise Tariff, 1833.--The nullifiers really gained a
part of the battle, for the tariff law of 1832 was repealed. In its
place Congress passed what was called the Compromise Tariff. This
compromise was the work of Henry Clay, the peacemaker. Under it the
duties were to be gradually lowered until, in 1842, they would be as low
as they were by the Tariff Act of 1816 (p. 231).

[Sidenote: Second United States Bank, 1816.]

[Sidenote: Jackson's dislike of the bank.]

308. The Second United States Bank.--Nowadays any one with enough
money can open a national bank under the protection of the government at
Washington. At this time, however, there was one great United States
Bank. Its headquarters were at Philadelphia and it had branches all over
the country. Jackson, like Jefferson (p. 163), had very grave doubts as
to the power of the national government to establish such a bank. Its
size and its prosperity alarmed him. Moreover, the stockholders and
managers, for the most part, were his political opponents. The United
States Bank also interfered seriously with the operations of the state
banks--some of which were managed by Jackson's friends. The latter urged
him on to destroy the United States Bank, and he determined to
destroy it.

[Sidenote: Jackson, Clay, and the bank charter.]

[Sidenote: Constitution, Art. I, sec. 7, par. 3.]

[Sidenote: Reëlection of Jackson, 1832.]

309. Struggle over the Bank Charter.--The charter of the bank would
not come to an end until 1836, while the term for which Jackson had been
elected in 1828 would come to an end in 1833. But in his first message
to Congress Jackson gave notice that he would not give his consent to a
new charter. Clay and his friends at once took up the challenge. They
passed a bill rechartering the bank. Jackson vetoed the bill. The Clay
men could not get enough votes to pass it over his veto. The bank
question, therefore, became one of the issues of the election of 1832.
Jackson was reflected by a large majority over Clay.

The people were clearly on his side, and he at once set to work to
destroy the bank.

[Sidenote: The bank and the government.]

[Sidenote: Removal of the deposits, 1833. _McMaster_, 305-308.]

310. Removal of the Deposits.--In those days there was no United
States Treasury building at Washington, with great vaults for the
storing of gold, silver, and paper money. There were no sub-treasuries
in the important commercial cities. The United States Bank and its
branches received the government's money on deposit and paid it out on
checks signed by the proper government official. In 1833 the United
States Bank had in its vaults about nine million dollars belonging to
the government. Jackson directed that this money should be drawn out as
required, to pay the government's expenses, and that no more government
money should be deposited in the bank. In the future it should be
deposited in certain state banks. The banks selected were controlled by
Jackson's political friends and were called the "pet banks."

[Illustration: ANDREW JACKSON, 1815. "Our Federal union, it must be
preserved."--Jackson's toast at the Jefferson dinner.]

[Sidenote: Speculation in Western lands. _McMaster_, 309.]

[Sidenote: The specie circular, 1836.]

311. Jackson's Specie Circular, 1836.--The first result of the
removal of the deposits was very different from what Jackson had
expected. At this time there was active speculation in Western lands.
Men who had a little spare money bought Western lands. Those who had no
money in hand, borrowed money from the banks and with it bought Western
lands. Now it happened that many of the "pet banks" were in the West.
The government's money, deposited with them, tempted their managers to
lend money more freely. This, in turn, increased the ease with which
people could speculate. Jackson saw that unless something were done to
restrain this speculation, disaster would surely come. So he issued a
circular to the United States land officers. This circular was called
the Specie Circular, because in it the President forbade the land
officers to receive anything except gold and silver and certain
certificates in payment for the public lands.

[Illustration: A SETTLER'S CABIN.]

[Sidenote: Payment of the national debt. _McMaster_, 309-310.]

312. Payment of the Debt, 1837.--The national debt had now all been
paid. The government was collecting more money than it could use for
national purposes. And it was compelled to keep on collecting more money
than it could use, because the Compromise Tariff (p. 248) made it
impossible to reduce duties any faster than a certain amount each year.
No one dared to disturb the Compromise Tariff, because to do so would
bring on a most bitter political fight. The government had more money in
the "pet banks" than was really safe. It could not deposit more
with them.

[Sidenote: Distribution of the surplus.]

[Sidenote: Van Buren elected President, 1836.]

313. Distribution of the Surplus, 1837.--A curious plan was now hit
upon. It was to loan the surplus revenues to the states in proportion to
their electoral votes. Three payments were made to the states. Then the
Panic of 1837 came, and the government had to borrow money to pay its
own necessary expenses. Before this occurred, however, Jackson was no
longer President. In his place was Martin Van Buren, his Secretary of
State, who had been chosen President in November, 1836.



[Sidenote: Causes of the Panic.]

[Sidenote: Hard times, 1837-39.]

314. The Panic of 1837.--The Panic was due directly to Jackson's
interference with the banks, to his Specie Circular, and to the
distribution of the surplus. It happened in this way. When the Specie
Circular was issued, people who held paper money at once went to the
banks to get gold and silver in exchange for it to pay for the lands
bought of the government. The government on its part drew out money from
the banks to pay the states their share of the surplus. The banks were
obliged to sell their property and to demand payment of money due them.
People who owed money to the banks were obliged to sell their property
to pay the banks. So every one wanted to sell, and few wanted to buy.
Prices of everything went down with a rush. People felt so poor that
they would not even buy new clothes. The mills and mines were closed,
and the banks suspended payments. Thousands of working men and women
were thrown out of work. They could not even buy food for themselves or
their families. Terrible bread riots took place. After a time people
began to pluck up their courage. But it was a long time before "good
times" came again.

[Sidenote: The national finances.]

[Sidenote: The Sub-Treasury plan.]

[Sidenote: Independent Treasury Act, 1840.]

315. The Independent Treasury System.--What should be done with the
government's money? No one could think of depositing it with the state
banks. Clay and his friends thought the best thing to do would be to
establish a new United States Bank. But Van Buren was opposed to that.
His plan, in short, was to build vaults for storing money in Washington
and in the leading cities. The main storehouse or Treasury was to be in
Washington, subordinate storehouses or sub-treasuries were to be
established in the other cities. To these sub-treasuries the collectors
of customs would pay the money collected by them. In this way the
government would become independent of the general business affairs of
the country. In 1840 Congress passed an act for putting this plan into
effect. But before it was in working order, Van Buren was no longer

[Sidenote: New parties.]

[Sidenote: The Democrats.]

[Sidenote: The Whigs.]

316. Democrats and Whigs.--In the Era of Good Feeling there was but
one party--the Republican party. In the confused times of 1824 the
several sections of the party took the names of their party leaders: the
Adams men, the Jackson men, the Clay men, and so on. Soon the Adams men
and the Clay men began to act together and to call themselves National
Republicans. This they did because they wished to build up the nation's
resources at the expense of the nation. The Jackson men called
themselves Democratic Republicans, because they upheld the rights of the
people. Before long they dropped the word "Republican" and called
themselves simply Democrats. The National Republicans dropped the whole
of their name and took that of the great English liberal party--the
Whigs. This they did because they favored reform.

[Illustration: Log Cabin Song Book.]

[Sidenote: "A campaign of humor." _Higginson_, 269; _McMaster_,

[Sidenote: Harrison and Tyler elected, 1840.]

317. Election of 1840.--General William Henry Harrison was the son
of Benjamin Harrison of Virginia, one of the signers of the Declaration
of Independence. General Harrison had moved to the West and had won
distinction at Tippecanoe, and also in the War of 1812 (pp. 202, 209).
The Whigs nominated him in 1836, but he was beaten. They now renominated
him for President, with John Tyler of Virginia as candidate for
Vice-President. Van Buren had made a good President, but his term of
office was associated with panic and hard times. He was a rich man and
gave great parties. Plainly he was not a "man of the people," as was
Harrison. A Democratic orator sneered at Harrison, and said that all he
wanted was a log cabin of his own and a jug of cider. The Whigs eagerly
seized on this description. They built log cabins at the street corners
and dragged through the streets log cabins on great wagons. They held
immense open-air meetings at which people sang songs of "Tippecanoe and
Tyler Too." Harrison and Tyler received nearly all the electoral votes
and were chosen President and Vice-President.

[Sidenote: Death of Harrison, 1841.]

318. Death of Harrison, 1841.--The people's President was
inaugurated on March 4, 1841. For the first time since the establishment
of the Spoils System a new party came into control of the government.
Thousands of office-seekers thronged to Washington. They even slept in
out-of-the-way corners of the White House. Day after day, from morning
till night, they pressed their claims on Harrison. One morning early,
before the office-seekers were astir, he went out for a walk. He caught
cold and died suddenly, just one month after his inauguration. John
Tyler at once became President.

[Sidenote: President Tyler.]

[Sidenote: His contest with the Whigs.]

319. Tyler and the Whigs.--President Tyler was not a Whig like
Harrison or Clay, nor was he a Democrat like Jackson. He was a Democrat
who did not like Jackson ideas. As President, he proved to be anything
but a Whig. He was willing to sign a bill to repeal the Independent
Treasury Act, for that was a Democratic measure he had not liked; but he
refused to sign a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States.
Without either a bank or a treasury, it was well-nigh impossible to
carry on the business of the government. But it was carried on in one
way or another. Tyler was willing to sign a new tariff act, and one was
passed in 1842. This was possible, as the Compromise Tariff (p. 248)
came to an end in that year.

[Sidenote: Northeastern boundary dispute.]

[Sidenote: The Ashburton Treaty, 1842.]

320. Treaty with Great Britain, 1842.--Perhaps the most important
event of Tyler's administration was the signing of the Treaty of 1842
with Great Britain. Ever since the Treaty of Peace of 1783, there had
been a dispute over the northeastern boundary of Maine. If the boundary
had been run according to the plain meaning of the Treaty of Peace, the
people of Upper Canada would have found it almost impossible to reach
New Brunswick or Nova Scotia in winter. At that time of the year the St.
Lawrence is frozen over, and the true northern boundary of Maine ran so
near to the St. Lawrence that it was difficult to build a road which
would be wholly in British territory. So the British had tried in every
way to avoid settling the matter. It was now arranged that the United
States should have a little piece of Canada north of Vermont and New
York and should give up the extreme northeastern corner of Maine. It was
also agreed that criminals escaping from one country to the other should
be returned. A still further agreement was made for checking the slave
trade from the coast of western Africa.

[Illustration: JOHN TYLER.]


[Sidenote: The Morse code.]

[Sidenote: First telegraph line, 1844.]

[Sidenote: Usefulness of the telegraph, _McMaster_, 372.]

321. The Electric Telegraph.--Benjamin Franklin and Joseph Henry
made great discoveries in electricity. But Samuel F. B. Morse was the
first to use electricity in a practical way. Morse found out that if a
man at one end of a line of wire pressed down a key, electricity could
be made at the same moment to press down another key at the other end of
the line of wire. Moreover, the key at the farther end of the line could
be so arranged as to make an impression on a piece of paper that was
slowly drawn under it by clockwork. Now if the man at one end of the
line held his key down for only an instant, this impression would look
like a dot. If he held it down longer, it would look like a short dash.
Morse combined these dots and dashes into an alphabet. For instance, one
dash meant the letter "t," and so on. For a time people only laughed at
Morse. But at length Congress gave him enough money to build a line from
Baltimore to Washington. It was opened in 1844, and proved to be a
success from the beginning. Other lines were soon built, and the Morse
system, greatly improved, is still in use. The telegraph made it
possible to operate long lines of railroad, as all the trains could be
managed from one office so that they would not run into one another. It
also made it possible to communicate with people afar off and get an
answer in an hour or so. For both these reasons the telegraph was very
important and with the railroads did much to unite the people of the
different portions of the country.


[Sidenote: Problems of what growing.]

[Sidenote: The McCormick reaper, 1831. _McMaster_, 31-372.]

[Sidenote: Results of this invention.]

322. The McCormick Reaper.--Every great staple depends for its
production on some particular tool. For instance, cotton was of slight
importance until the invention of the cotton gin (p. 185) made it
possible cheaply to separate the seed from the fiber. The success of
wheat growing depended upon the ability quickly to harvest the crop.
Wheat must be allowed to stand until it is fully ripened. Then it must
be quickly reaped and stored away out of the reach of the rain and wet.
For a few weeks in each year there was a great demand for labor on the
wheat farms. And there was little labor to be had. Cyrus H. McCormick
solved this problem for the wheat growers by inventing a horse reaper.
The invention was made in 1831, but it was not until 1845 that the
reaper came into general use. By 1855 the use of the horse reaper was
adding every year fifty-five million dollars to the wealth of the
country. Each year its use moved the fringe of civilization fifty miles
farther west. Without harvesting machinery the rapid settlement of the
West would have been impossible. And had not the West been rapidly
settled by free whites, the whole history of the country between 1845
and 1865 would have been very different from what it has been. The
influence of the horse reaper on our political history, therefore, is as
important as the influence of the steam locomotive or of the cotton gin.

[Illustration: MODERN HARVESTER.]



§§ 293, 294.--Compare the condition of the United States in 1830 and
1800 as to (1) extent, (2) population, (3) interests and occupation of
the people. Illustrate these changes by maps, diagrams, or tables.

§§ 295, 296.--_a_. How had the use of steamboats increased?

_b_. Why had this led to the separation of the West and the East? How
was it proposed to overcome this difficulty?

_c_. Do you think that roads should be built at national expense? Give
your reasons.

_d_. Mark on a map the Erie Canal, and show why it was so important.
Describe the effects of its use.

§§ 297, 298.--_a_. Do you think that railroads should be carried on by
the state or by individuals? Why?

_b_. What influence has the railroad had upon the Union? Upon people's
minds? Upon the growth of cities? (Take your own city or town and think
of it without railroads anywhere.)

§§ 299, 300.--_a_. Explain how one discovery or invention affected other
industries (as shown, for instance, in the use of anthracite coal).

_b_. How did these inventions make large cities possible?

_c_. Why is the education of our people so important?

_d_. What were the advantages of Webster's "Dictionary"?


§§ 301, 302.--_a_. Why is this chapter called the "Reign of Andrew
Jackson"? Do you think that a President should "reign"?

_b_. In what respects was Jackson fitted for President?

_c_. What is meant by his "kitchen cabinet"?

_d_. What is a "party machine"? How was it connected with the "spoils

_e_. Did the "spoils system" originate with Jackson?

§§ 303, 304.--_a_. Compare carefully the North and the South. Why was
the North growing rich faster than the South?

_b_. Where have you already found the ideas expressed in Calhoun's
_Exposition_? Why was this doctrine so dangerous? Are the states
"sovereign states"?

§ 305.--_a_. What view did Webster take? How does his speech show the
increase of the love of the Union?

_b_. What is the "supreme law of the land"? Whose business is it to
decide on the constitutionality of a law? Is this wise?

§§ 306, 307.--_a_. How did South Carolina oppose the Act of 1832?

_b_. How did Jackson oppose the South Carolinians?

_c_. Would a state be likely to nullify an act of Congress now? Give
your reasons.

§§ 308, 309.--_a_. Was the United States Bank like the national banks of
the present day?

_b_. Why did Jackson dislike and distrust the United States Bank?

_c_. If a bill is vetoed by the President, how can it still be made a

§§ 310.--_a_. Where did the United States government keep its money?

_b_. How did Jackson try to ruin the United States Bank?

§§ 311-313.--_a_. Why did people wish to buy Western lands? How did the
favoring the "pet banks" increase speculation?

_b_. What was done with the surplus? What was the effect of this

_c_. How did Jackson try to stop speculation?


§§ 314, 315.--_a_. Why did "prices go down with a rush"?

_b_. Describe the Independent Treasury plan. Where is the nation's money
kept to-day?

§§ 316, 317.--_a_. State briefly the reasons for the split in the
Republican party. Had you lived in 1840, for whom would you have voted?
voted? Why?

_b_. Give an account of the early life of Harrison.

_c_. Describe the campaign of 1840, and compare it with the last
presidential campaign.

§§ 318, 319.--_a_. What party came into power in 1841? Under the spoils
system what would naturally follow?

_b_. To what party did Tyler belong?

_c_. Why was it difficult for the government to carry on its business
without a bank or a treasury?

§§ 320.--_a_. What dispute had long existed with Great Britain?

_b_. Why did the British object to the boundary line laid down in the
Treaty of 1783? Show on a map how the matter was finally settled.

§§ 321, 322.--_a_. Explain carefully the application of electricity made
by Morse. Of what advantage has the telegraph been to the United States?

_b_. How did the McCormick reaper solve the difficulty in wheat growing?
What were the results of this invention?

_c_. Compare its influence upon our history with that of the cotton gin.


_a_. Why is the period covered by this division so important?

_b_. Give the principal events since the Revolution which made Western
expansion possible.

_c_. Explain, using a chart, the changes in parties since 1789.

_d_. What were the good points in Jackson's administration? The


_a_. Select some one invention between 1790 and 1835, describe it,
explain the need for it, and the results which have followed from it.

_b_. The Erie Canal.

_c_. The career of Webster, Clay, or Calhoun.

_d_. Life and works of any one of the literary men of this period.

_e_. The Ashburton Treaty, with a map.


The personality of Andrew Jackson, representing as he does a new element
in social and political life, deserves a careful study. The financial
policy of his administration is too difficult for children. With brief
comparisons with present-day conditions the study of this subject can be
confined to what is given in the text. Jackson's action at the time of
the nullification episode may well be compared with Buchanan's inaction
in 1860-61. The constitutional portions of Webster's great speeches are
too hard for children, but his burning words of patriotism may well be
learned by the whole class. The spoils system may be lightly treated
here. It can best be studied in detail later in connection with civil
service reform.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1859.]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, IV; _McMaster's_ _With
the Fathers_, Coffin's _Building the Nation_, 314-324.

Home Readings.--Wright's _Stories of American Progress_; Bolton's
_Famous Americans_; Brooks's _Boy Settlers_; Stowe's _Uncle Tom's
Cabin_; Lodge's _Webster_.



[Sidenote: Antislavery sentiments of the Virginians.]

[Sidenote: Slavery in the far South.]

[Sidenote: _Source-book_, 244-248, 251-260.]

323. Growth of Slavery in the South.--South of Pennsylvania and of
the Ohio River slavery had increased greatly since 1787 (p. 136).
Washington, Jefferson, Henry, and other great Virginians were opposed to
the slave system. But they could find no way to end it, even in
Virginia. The South Carolinians and Georgians fought every proposition
to limit slavery. They even refused to come into the Union unless they
were given representation in Congress for a portion at least of their
slaves. And in the first Congress under the Constitution they opposed
bitterly every proposal to limit slavery. Then came Whitney's invention
of the cotton gin. That at once made slave labor vastly more profitable
in the cotton states and put an end to all hopes of peaceful
emancipation in the South.

[Sidenote: Proposal to end slavery with compensation.]

[Sidenote: The _Liberator_.]

324. Rise of the Abolitionists.--About 1830 a new movement in favor
of the negroes began. Some persons in the North, as, for example,
William Ellery Channing, proposed that slaves should be set free, and
their owners paid for their loss. They suggested that the money received
from the sale of the public lands might be used in this way. But nothing
came of these suggestions. Soon, however, William Lloyd Garrison began
at Boston the publication of a paper called the _Liberator_. He wished
for complete abolition without payment. For a time he labored almost
alone. Then slowly others came to his aid, and the Antislavery Society
was founded.

[Sidenote: Anti-abolitionist sentiment in the North. _Higginson_, 268.]

[Sidenote: Disunion sentiment of abolitionists.]

[Sidenote: The Garrison riot, 1835. _Source-Book_, 248-251.]

325. Opposition to the Abolitionists.--It must not be thought that
the abolitionists were not opposed. They were most vigorously opposed.
Very few Northern men wished to have slavery reestablished in the North.
But very many Northern men objected to the antislavery agitation
because they thought it would injure business. Some persons even argued
that the antislavery movement would bring about the destruction of the
Union. In this idea there was a good deal of truth. For Garrison grew
more and more outspoken. He condemned the Union with slaveholders and
wished to break down the Constitution, because it permitted slavery.
There were anti-abolitionist riots in New York, New Jersey, and New
Hampshire. In Boston the rioters seized Garrison and dragged him about
the streets (1835).

[Sidenote: Nat Turner's Rebellion, 1831.]

[Sidenote: Incendiary publications in the mails. _McMaster_, 313-314.]

326. Slave Rebellion in Virginia, 1831.--At about the time that
Garrison established the _Liberator_ at Boston, a slave rebellion broke
out in Virginia. The rebels were led by a slave named Nat Turner, and
the rebellion is often called "Nat Turner's Rebellion." It was a small
affair and was easily put down. But the Southerners were alarmed,
because they felt that the Northern antislavery agitation would surely
lead to more rebellions. They called upon the government to forbid the
sending of the _Liberator_ and similar "incendiary publications" through
the mails.

[Sidenote: Right of petition.]

[Sidenote: J.Q. Adams and antislavery petitions, 1836. _Hero Tales_,

[Sidenote: The "gag-resolutions." _McMaster_, 314-315.]

327. The Right of Petition.--One of the most sacred rights of
freemen is the right to petition for redress of grievances. In the old
colonial days the British Parliament had refused even to listen to
petitions presented by the colonists. But the First Amendment to the
Constitution forbade Congress to make any law to prevent citizens of the
United States from petitioning. John Quincy Adams, once President, was
now a member of the House of Representatives. In 1836 he presented
petition after petition, praying Congress to forbid slavery in the
District of Columbia. Southerners, like Calhoun, thought these petitions
were insulting to Southern slaveholders. Congress could not prevent the
antislavery people petitioning. They could prevent the petitions being
read when presented. This they did by passing "gag-resolutions." Adams
protested against these resolutions as an infringement on the rights of
his constituents. But the resolutions were passed. Petitions now came
pouring into Congress. Adams even presented one from some negro slaves.

[Sidenote: Growth of antislavery feeling in the North.]

328. Change in Northern Sentiment.--All these happenings brought
about a great change of sentiment in the North. Many people, who cared
little about negro slaves, cared a great deal about the freedom of the
press and the right of petition. Many of these did not sympathize with
the abolitionists, but they wished that some limit might be set to the
extension of slavery. At the same time the Southerners were uniting to
resist all attempts to interfere with slavery. They were even determined
to add new slave territory to the United States.



[Sidenote: The Mexican Republic, 1821.]

[Sidenote: Texas secedes from Mexico, 1836, _McMaster_, 320-322; _Hero
Tales_, 173-181.]

329. The Republic of Texas.--The Mexicans won their independence
from Spain in 1821 and founded the Mexican Republic. Soon immigrants
from the United States settled in the northeastern part of the new
republic. This region was called Texas. The Mexican government gave
these settlers large tracts of land, and for a time everything went on
happily. Then war broke out between the Mexicans and the Texans. Led by
Samuel Houston, a settler from Tennessee, the Texans won the battle of
San Jacinto and captured General Santa Anna, the president of the
Mexican Republic. The Texans then established the Republic of Texas
(1836) and asked to be admitted to the Union as one of the
United States.

[Sidenote: Question of the admission of Texas to the Union.]

330. The Southerners and Texas.--The application of Texas for
admission to the Union came as a pleasant surprise to many Southerners.
As a part of the Mexican Republic Texas had been free soil. But Texas
was well suited to the needs of the cotton plant. If it were admitted to
the Union, it would surely be a slave state or, perhaps, several slave
states. The question of admitting Texas first came before Jackson. He
saw that the admission of Texas would be strongly opposed in the North.
So he put the whole matter to one side and would have nothing to do with
it. Tyler acted very differently. Under his direction a treaty was made
with Texas. This treaty provided for the admission of Texas to the
Union. But the Senate refused to ratify the treaty. The matter,
therefore, became the most important question in the presidential
election of 1844.

[Illustration: JAMES K. POLK.]

[Sidenote: Candidates for the presidency, 1844.]

[Sidenote: The Liberty party.]

[Sidenote: Polk elected.]

331. Election of 1844.--President Tyler would have been glad of a
second term. But neither of the great parties wanted him as a leader.
The Democrats would have gladly nominated Van Buren had he not opposed
the acquisition of Texas. Instead they nominated James K. Polk of
Tennessee, an outspoken favorer of the admission of Texas. The Whigs
nominated Henry Clay, who had no decided views on the Texas question. He
said one thing one day, another thing another day. The result was that
the opponents of slavery and of Texas formed a new party. They called it
the Liberty party and nominated a candidate for President. The Liberty
men did not gain many votes. But they gained enough votes to make Clay's
election impossible and Polk was chosen President.

[Sidenote: Texas admitted by joint resolution, 1845. _McMaster_, 325.]

332. Acquisition of Texas, 1845.--Tyler now pressed the admission
of Texas upon Congress. The two houses passed a joint resolution. This
resolution provided for the admission of Texas, and for the formation
from the territory included in Texas of four states, in addition to the
state of Texas, and with the consent of that state. Before Texas was
actually admitted Tyler had ceased to be President. But Polk carried out
his policy, and on July 4, 1845, Texas became one of the United States.

[Sidenote: Southern boundary of Texas.]

[Sidenote: Taylor on the Rio Grande.]

[Sidenote: War declared, 1846. Lowell in _Source-Book_, 271-276.]

333. Beginning of the Mexican War, 1846.--The Mexicans had never
acknowledged the independence of Texas. They now protested against its
admission to the United States. Disputes also arose as to the southern
boundary of Texas. As no agreement could be reached on this point,
President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to march to the Rio Grande
and occupy the disputed territory. Taylor did as he was ordered, and the
Mexicans attacked him. Polk reported these facts to Congress, and
Congress authorized the President to push on the fighting on the ground
that "war exists, and exists by the act of Mexico herself."

[Sidenote: The three parts of the Mexican War.]

[Sidenote: Taylor's campaign. _McMaster_, 326-327.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Buena Vista, 1847.]

334. Taylor's Campaigns.--The Mexican War easily divides itself
into three parts: (1) Taylor's forward movement across the Rio Grande;
(2) Scott's campaign, which ended in the capture of the City of Mexico;
and (3) the seizure of California. Taylor's object was to maintain the
line of the Rio Grande, then to advance into Mexico and injure the
Mexicans as much as possible. The battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la
Palma (May 8, 9, 1846) were fought before the actual declaration of war.
These victories made Taylor master of the Rio Grande. In September he
crossed the Rio Grande. So far all had gone well. But in the winter
many of Taylor's soldiers were withdrawn to take part in Scott's
campaign. This seemed to be the Mexicans' time. They attacked Taylor
with four times as many men as he had in his army. This battle was
fought at Buena Vista, February, 1847. Taylor beat back the Mexicans
with terrible slaughter. This was the last battle of Taylor's campaign.

[Sidenote: Scott's campaign. _Eggleston_, 284-286; _McMaster_, 327-328.]

[Sidenote: He captures City of Mexico, 1847.]

335. Scott's Invasion of Mexico.--The plan of Scott's campaign was
that he should land at Vera Cruz, march to the city of Mexico,--two
hundred miles away,--capture that city, and force the Mexicans to make
peace. Everything fell out precisely as it was planned. With the help of
the navy Scott captured Vera Cruz. He had only about one-quarter as many
men as the Mexicans. But he overthrew them at Cerro Gordo, where the
road to the City of Mexico crosses the coast mountains (April, 1847).
With the greatest care and skill he pressed on and at length came within
sight of the City of Mexico. The capital of the Mexican Republic stood
in the midst of marshes, and could be reached only over narrow causeways
which joined it to the solid land. August 20, 1847, Scott beat the
Mexicans in three pitched battles, and on September 14 he entered the
city with his army, now numbering only six thousand men fit for
active service.

[Illustration: THE BEAR FLAG.]

[Sidenote: California.]

[Sidenote: The "Bear Republic," 1846.]

[Sidenote: California seized by American soldiers.]

336. Seizure of California.--California was the name given to the
Mexican possessions on the Pacific coast north of Mexico itself. There
were now many American settlers there, especially at Monterey. Hearing
of the outbreak of the Mexican War, they Set up a republic of their own.
Their flag had a figure of a grizzly bear painted on it, and hence their
republic is often spoken of as the Bear Republic. Commodore Stockton
with a small fleet was on the Pacific coast. He and John C. Frémont
assisted the Bear Republicans until soldiers under Colonel Kearney
reached them from the United States by way of Santa Fé.

[Illustration: JOHN C. FRÉMONT.]

[Sidenote: Mexican cessions, 1848.]

[Sidenote: The Gadsden Purchase, 1853. _McMaster_, 334.]

337. Treaty of Peace, 1848.--The direct cause of the Mexican War
was Mexico's unwillingness to give up Texas without a struggle. But the
Mexicans had treated many Americans very unjustly and owed them large
sums of money. A treaty of peace was made in 1848. Mexico agreed to
abandon her claims to Texas, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and
Colorado. The United States agreed to withdraw its armies from Mexico,
to pay Mexico fifteen million dollars, and to pay the claims of American
citizens on Mexico. These claims proved to amount to three and one-half
million dollars, In the end, therefore, the United States paid eighteen
and one-half million dollars for this enormous and exceedingly valuable
addition to its territory. When the time came to run the boundary line,
the American and Mexican commissioners could not agree. So the United
States paid ten million dollars more and received an additional strip of
land between the Rio Grande and the Colorado rivers. This gave the
United States its present southern boundary. This agreement was made in
1853 by James Gadsden for the United States, and the land bought is
usually called the Gadsden Purchase.

[Sidenote: Oregon.]

[Sidenote: Joint occupation by United States and Great Britain.]

338. The Oregon Question.--It was not only in the Southwest that
boundaries were disputed; in the Northwest also there was a long
controversy which was settled while Polk was President. Oregon was the
name given to the whole region, between Spanish and Mexican California
and the Russian Alaska. The United States and Great Britain each
claimed to have the best right to Oregon. As they could not agree as to
their claims, they decided to occupy the region jointly. As time went on
American settlers and missionaries began to go over the mountains to
Oregon. In 1847 seven thousand Americans were living in the Northwest.

[Sidenote: "All Oregon or none."]

[Sidenote: Division of Oregon, 1846.]

339. The Oregon Treaty, 1846.--The matter was now taken up in
earnest. "All Oregon or none," "Fifty-four forty or fight," became
popular cries. The United States gave notice of the ending of the joint
occupation. The British government suggested that Oregon should be
divided between the two nations. In 1818 he boundary between the United
States and British North America had been fixed as the forty-ninth
parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. It was now
proposed to continue this line to the Pacific. The British government,
however, insisted that the western end of the line should follow the
channel between Vancouver's Island and the mainland so as to make that
island entirely British. The Mexican War was now coming on. It would
hardly do to have two wars at one time. So the United States gave way
and a treaty was signed in 1846. Instead of "all Oregon," the United
States received about one-half. But it was a splendid region and
included not merely the present state of Oregon, but all the territory
west of the Rocky Mountains between the forty-second and the forty-ninth
parallels of latitude.



[Sidenote: Should Oregon and Mexican cessions be free soil?]

[Sidenote: The Wilmot Proviso. _McMaster_, 324.]

340. The Wilmot Proviso, 1846.--What should be done with Oregon and
with the immense territory received from Mexico? Should it be free soil
or should it be slave soil? To understand the history of the dispute
which arose out of this question we must go back a bit and study the
Wilmot Proviso. Even before the Mexican War was fairly begun, this
question came before Congress. Every one admitted that Texas must be a
slave state. Most people were agreed that Oregon would be free soil. For
it was too far north for negroes to thrive. But what should be done with
California and with New Mexico? David Wilmot of Pennsylvania thought
that they should be free soil. He was a member of the House of
Representatives. In 1846 he moved to add to a bill giving the President
money to purchase land from Mexico a proviso that none of the territory
to be acquired at the national expense should be open to slavery. This
proviso was finally defeated. But the matter was one on which people
held very strong opinions, and the question became the most important
issue in the election of 1848.

[Illustration: ZACHARY TAYLOR.]

[Sidenote: Candidates for the presidency, 1848.]

[Sidenote: "Squatter sovereignty."]

[Sidenote: Free Soil party. _McMaster_, 334-335.]

[Sidenote: Taylor and Fillmore elected.]

341. Taylor elected President, 1848.--Three candidates contested
the election of 1848. First there was Lewis Cass of Michigan, the
Democratic candidate. He was in favor of "squatter sovereignty," that
is, allowing the people of each territory to have slavery or not as they
chose. The Whig candidate was General Taylor, the victor of Buena Vista.
The Whigs put forth no statement of principles. The third candidate was
Martin Van Buren, already once President. Although a Democrat, he did
not favor the extension of slavery. He was nominated by Democrats who
did not believe in "squatter sovereignty," and by a new party which
called itself the Free Soil party. The abolitionists or Liberty party
also nominated a candidate, but he withdrew in favor of Van Buren. The
Whigs had nominated Millard Fillmore of New York for Vice-President. He
attracted to the Whig ticket a good many votes in New York. Van Buren
also drew a good many votes from the Democrats. In this way New York was
carried for Taylor and Fillmore. This decided the election, and the Whig
candidates were chosen.

[Illustration: THE SITE OF SAN FRANCISCO IN 1847. From an original

[Sidenote: Discovery of gold in California, 1848.]

[Sidenote: The "rush" to California, 1849. _McMaster_, 337-338;
_Source-Book_, 276-279.]

342. California.--Before the treaty of peace with Mexico was
ratified, even before it was signed, gold was discovered in California.
Reports of the discovery soon reached the towns on the western seacoast.
At once men left whatever they were doing and hastened to the hills to
dig for gold. Months later rumors of this discovery began to reach the
eastern part of the United States. At first people paid little attention
to them. But when President Polk said that gold had been found, people
began to think that it must be true. Soon hundreds of gold-seekers
started for California. Then thousands became eager to go. These first
comers were called the Forty-Niners, because most of them came in the
year 1849. By the end of that year there were eighty thousand immigrants
in California.

[Sidenote: California constitutional convention, 1849.]

[Sidenote: Slavery forbidden.]

343. California seeks Admission to the Union.--There were eighty
thousand white people in California, and they had almost no government
of any kind. So in November, 1849, they held a convention, drew up a
constitution, and demanded admission the Union as a state. The peculiar
thing about this constitution was that it forbade slavery in California.
Many of the Forty-Niners were Southerners. But even they did not want
slavery. The reason was that they wished to dig in the earth and win
gold. They would not allow slave holders to work their mining claims
with slave labor, for free white laborers had never been able to work
alongside of negro slaves. So they did not want slavery in California.

[Sidenote: Divisions on the question of the extension of slavery.
_McMaster_, 335-336.]

344. A Divided Country.--This action of the people of California at
once brought the question of slavery before the people. Many Southerners
were eager to found a slave confederacy apart from the Union. Many
abolitionists were eager to found a free republic in the North. Many
Northerners, who loved the Union, thought that slavery should be
confined to the states where it existed. They thought that slavery
should not be permitted in the territories, which belonged to the people
of the United States as a whole. They argued that if the territories
could be kept free, the people of those territories, when they came to
form state constitutions, would forbid slavery as the people of
California had just done. They were probably right, and for this very
reason the Southerners wished to have slavery in the territories. So
strong was the feeling over these points that it seemed as if the Union
would split into pieces.

[Sidenote: Taylor's policy.]

[Sidenote: California demands admission.]

345. President Taylor's Policy.--General Taylor was now President.
He was alarmed by the growing excitement. He determined to settle the
matter at once before people could get any more excited. So he sent
agents to California and to New Mexico to urge the people to demand
admission to the Union at once. When Congress met in 1850, he stated
that California demanded admission as a free state. The Southerners were
angry. For they had thought that California would surely be a
slave state.

[Sidenote: Clay's compromise scheme, 1850. _McMaster_, 339-341;
_Source-Book_, 279-281.]

346. Clay's Compromise Plan.--Henry Clay now stepped forward to
bring about a "union of hearts." His plan was to end all disputes
between Northerners and Southerners by having the people of each section
give way to the people of the other section. For example, the
Southerners were to permit the admission of California as a free state,
and to consent to the abolition of the slave trade in the District of
Columbia. In return, the Northerners were to give way to the Southerners
on all other points. They were to allow slavery in the District of
Columbia. They were to consent to the organization of New Mexico and
Utah as territories without any provision for or against slavery. Texas
claimed that a part of the proposed Territory of New Mexico belonged to
her. So Clay suggested that the United States should pay Texas for this
land. Finally Clay proposed that Congress should pass a severe Fugitive
Slave Act. It is easily seen that Clay's plan as a whole was distinctly
favorable to the South. Few persons favored the passage of the whole
scheme. But when votes were taken on each part separately, they all
passed. In the midst of the excitement over this compromise President
Taylor died, and Millard Fillmore, the Vice-President, became President.

[Illustration: MILLARD FILLMORE.]

[Sidenote: Art. IV, sec. 2.]

[Sidenote: Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.]

[Sidenote: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. _McMaster_, 341-343.]

[Sidenote: Results of passage of this act. _Higginson_, 281;
_Source-Book_, 282-284.]

[Sidenote: The "Underground Railway." _Source-Book_, 260-263.]

347. The Fugitive Slave Act.--The Constitution provides that
persons held to service in one state escaping into another state shall
be delivered up upon claim of the person to whom such service may be
due. Congress, in 1793, had passed an act to carry out this provision of
the Constitution. But this law had seldom been enforced, because its
enforcement had been left to the states, and public opinion in the North
was opposed to the return of fugitive slaves. The law of 1850 gave the
enforcement of the act to United States officials. The agents of slave
owners claimed many persons as fugitives. But few were returned to the
South. The important result of these attempts to enforce the law was to
strengthen Northern public opinion against slavery. It led to redoubled
efforts to help runaway slaves through the Northern states to Canada. A
regular system was established. This was called the "Underground
Railway." In short, instead of bringing about "a union of hearts," the
Compromise of 1850 increased the ill feeling between the people of the
two sections of the country.

[Sidenote: "Uncle Tom's Cabin."]

[Sidenote: Effects of this book.]

348. "Uncle Tom's Cabin."--It was at this time that Mrs. Harriet
Beecher Stowe wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin." In this story she set forth the
pleasant side of slavery--the light-heartedness and kind-heartedness of
the negroes. In it she also set forth the unpleasant side of
slavery--the whipping of human beings, the selling of human beings, the
hunting of human beings. Of course, there never was such a slave as
Uncle Tom. The story is simply a wonderful picture of slavery as it
appeared to a brilliant woman of the North. Hundreds of thousands of
copies of this book were sold in the South as well as in the North.
Plays founded on the book were acted on the stage. Southern people when
reading "Uncle Tom" thought little of the unpleasant things in it: they
liked the pleasant things in it. Northern people laughed at the pretty
pictures of plantation life: they were moved to tears by the tales of
cruelty. "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and the Fugitive Slave Law convinced the
people of the North that bounds must be set to the extension of slavery.



[Sidenote: Campaign of 1852.]

[Sidenote: Pierce elected President.]

349. Pierce elected President, 1852.--It was now Campaign time for
a new election. The Whigs had been successful with two old soldiers, so
they thought they would try again with another soldier and nominated
General Winfield Scott, the conqueror of Mexico. The Democrats also
nominated a soldier, Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, who had been in
northern Mexico with Taylor. The Democrats and Whigs both said that they
would stand by the Compromise of 1850. But many voters thought that
there would be less danger of excitement with a Democrat in the White
House and voted for Pierce for that reason. They soon found that they
were terribly mistaken in their belief.

[Sidenote: The Nebraska bill, 1854. _Source-Book, 284-287._]

[Sidenote: Douglas asserts Compromise of 1820 to be repealed.]

350. Douglas's Nebraska Bill.--President Pierce began his term of
office quietly enough. But in 1854 Senator Douglas of Illinois brought
in a bill to organize the Territory of Nebraska. It will be remembered
that in 1820 Missouri had been admitted to the Union as a slave state.
In 1848 Iowa had been admitted as a free state. North of Iowa was the
free Territory of Minnesota. Westward from Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota
was an immense region without any government of any kind. It all lay
north of the compromise line of 1820 (p. 222), and had been forever
devoted to freedom by that compromise. But Douglas said that the
Compromise of 1820 had been repealed by the Compromise of 1850. So he
proposed that the settlers of Nebraska should say whether that territory
should be free soil or slave soil, precisely as if the Compromise of
1820 had never been passed. Instantly there was a tremendous uproar.

[Illustration: FRANKLIN PIERCE.]

[Sidenote: The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854.]

[Sidenote: Antislavery senators attack the bill.]

[Sidenote: The Independent Democrats.]

351. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854.--Douglas now changed his bill
so as to provide for the formation of two territories. One of these he
named Kansas. It had nearly the same boundaries as the present state of
Kansas, except that it extended westward to the Rocky Mountains. The
other territory was named Nebraska. It included all the land north of
Kansas and between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. The
antislavery leaders in the North attacked the bill with great fury.
Chase of Ohio said that it was a violation of faith. Sumner of
Massachusetts rejoiced in the fight, for he said men must now take sides
for freedom or for slavery. Some, independent Democrats published "An
Appeal." They asked their fellow-citizens to take their maps and see
what an immense region Douglas had proposed to open to slavery. They
denied that the Missouri Compromise had been repealed. Nevertheless, the
bill passed Congress and was signed by President Pierce.

[Illustration: Territory opened to slavery.]

[Sidenote: Abraham Lincoln, _Hero Tales_, 325-335.]

[Sidenote: Aroused by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.]

352. Abraham Lincoln.--Born in Kentucky, Abraham Lincoln went with
his parents to Indiana and then to Illinois. As a boy he was very poor
and had to work hard. But he lost no opportunity to read and to study.
At the plow or in the long evenings at home by the firelight he was ever
thinking and studying. Growing to manhood he became a lawyer and served
one term in Congress. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act aroused
his indignation as nothing had ever aroused it before. He denied that
any man had the right to govern another man, be he white or be he black,
without that man's consent. He thought that blood would surely be shed
before the slavery question would be settled in Kansas, and the first
shedding of blood would be the beginning of the end of the Union.

[Sidenote: Seward's challenge to the Southerners. _McMaster_, 347-351.]

[Sidenote: The Sons of the South.]

[Sidenote: Fraudulent election. _Source-Book_, 287-289.]

353. Settlement of Kansas.--In the debate on the Kansas-Nebraska
bill Senator Seward of New York said to the Southerners: "Come on,
then.... We will engage in competition for the soil of Kansas, and God
give the victory to the side that is strong in numbers as it is in
right." Seward spoke truly. The victory came to those opposed to the
extension of slavery. But it was a long time in coming. As soon as the
act was passed, armed "Sons of the South" crossed the frontier of
Missouri and founded the town of Atchison. Then came large bands of
armed settlers from the North and the East. They founded the towns of
Lawrence and Topeka. An election was held. Hundreds of men poured over
the boundary of Missouri, outvoted the free-soil settlers in Kansas, and
then went home. The territorial legislature, chosen in this way, adopted
the laws of Missouri, slave code and all, as the laws of Kansas. It
seemed as if Kansas were lost to freedom.

[Sidenote: Free-state constitution.]

[Sidenote: The Senate refuses to admit Kansas.]

354. The Topeka Convention.--The free-state voters now held a
convention at Topeka. They drew up a constitution and applied to
Congress for admission to the Union as the free state of Kansas. The
free-state men and the slave-state men each elected a Delegate to
Congress. The House of Representatives now took the matter up and
appointed a committee of investigation. The committee reported in favor
of the free-state men, and the House voted to admit Kansas as a free
state. But the Senate would not consent to anything of the kind. The
contest in Kansas went on and became more bitter every month.

[Sidenote: Origin of the Republican party. _McMaster_, 352-355.]

[Sidenote: Anti-Nebraska men.]

355. The Republican Party.--The most important result of the
Kansas-Nebraska fight was the formation of the Republican party. It was
made up of men from all the other parties who agreed in opposing
Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska policy. Slowly they began to think of
themselves as a party and to adopt the name of the old party of
Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe--Republican.

[Sidenote: Presidential candidates, 1856.]

[Sidenote: Buchanan.]

[Sidenote: Frémont.]

356. Buchanan elected President, 1856.--The Whigs and the
Know-Nothings nominated Millard Fillmore for President and said nothing
about slavery. The Democrats nominated James Buchanan of Pennsylvania
for President and John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for Vice-President.
They declared their approval of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and favored a
strict construction of the Constitution. The Republicans nominated John
C. Frémont. They protested against the extension of slavery and declared
for a policy of internal improvements at the expense of the nation. The
Democrats won; but the Republicans carried all the Northern states
save four.

[Sidenote: Dred Scott decision, 1857. _McMaster_, 355-357;
_Source-Book_, 290-291]

[Sidenote: Opinions of the judges.]

357. The Dred Scott Decision, 1857.--The Supreme Court of the
United States now gave a decision in the Dred Scott case that put an end
to all hope of compromise on the slavery question. Dred Scott had been
born a slave. The majority of the judges declared that a person once a
slave could never become a citizen of the United States and bring suit
in the United States courts. They also declared that the Missouri
Compromise was unlawful. Slave owners had a clear right to carry their
property, including slaves, into the territories, and Congress could not
stop them.

[Sidenote: Lincoln's policy.]

[Sidenote: His debates with Douglas. _McMaster_, 388-389; _Source-Book_,

358. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates, 1858.--The question of the
reëlection of Douglas to the Senate now came before the people of
Illinois. Abraham Lincoln stepped forward to contest the election with
him. "A house divided against itself cannot stand," said Lincoln. "This
government cannot endure half slave and half free.... It will become all
one thing or all the other." He challenged Douglas to debate the issues
with him before the people, and Douglas accepted the challenge. Seven
joint debates were held in the presence of immense crowds. Lincoln
forced Douglas to defend the doctrine of "popular sovereignty." This
Douglas did by declaring that the legislatures of the territories could
make laws hostile to slavery. This idea, of course, was opposed to the
Dred Scott decision. Douglas won the election and was returned to the
Senate. But Lincoln had made a national reputation.

[Illustration: HARPER'S FERRY.]

[Sidenote: Civil war in Kansas. _McMaster_, 357.]

[Sidenote: John Brown.]

[Sidenote: The slave constitution.]

[Sidenote: Douglas opposes Buchanan.]

359. "Bleeding Kansas."--Meantime civil war had broken out in
Kansas, Slavery men attacked Lawrence, killed a few free-state settlers,
and burned several buildings. Led by John Brown, an immigrant from New
York, free-state men attacked a party of slave-state men and killed five
of them. By 1857 the free-state voters had become so numerous that it
was no longer possible to outvote them by bringing men from Missouri,
and they chose a free-state legislature. But the fraudulent slave-state
legislature had already provided for holding a constitutional convention
at Lecompton. This convention was controlled by the slave-state men and
adopted a constitution providing for slavery. President Buchanan sent
this constitution to Congress and asked to have Kansas admitted as a
slave state. But Douglas could not bear to see the wishes of the
settlers of Kansas outraged. He opposed the proposition vigorously and
it was defeated. It was not until 1861 that Kansas was admitted to the
Union as a free state.

[Sidenote: John Brown's Raid, 1859. _Higginson_, 286-289;
_Source-Book_, 294-296.]

[Sidenote: He seizes Harper's Ferry.]

[Sidenote: His execution, 1859.]

360. John Brown's Raid, 1859.--While in Kansas John Brown had
conceived a bold plan. It was to seize a strong place in the mountains
of the South, and there protect any slaves who should run away from
their masters. In this way he expected to break slavery in pieces within
two years. With only nineteen men he seized Harper's Ferry, in Virginia,
and secured the United States arsenal at that place. But he and most of
his men were immediately captured. He was executed by the Virginian
authorities as a traitor and murderer. The Republican leaders denounced
his act as "the gravest of crimes." But the Southern leaders were
convinced that now the time had come to secede from the Union and to
establish a Southern Confederacy.



§ 323.--_a_. Why were the people of South Carolina so opposed to any
limitation of slavery? How did they show their opposition?

_b_. Had slavery disappeared in the North because people thought that it
was wrong?

§§ 324, 325.--_a_. What suggestions were made by some in the North for
the ending of slavery? What do you think of these suggestions?

_b_. For what did Garrison contend, and how did he make his views known?
Why were these views opposed in the North?

§ 326.--_a_. Why were the Southerners so alarmed by Nat Turner's

_b_. What power had Congress over the mails? How would you have voted on
this question?

§§ 327, 328.--_a_. Why is the right of petition so important? How is
this right secured to citizens of the United States?

_b_. Why should these petitions be considered as insulting to

_c_. Why were the Southerners so afraid of any discussion of slavery?


§§ 329, 330.--_a_. Show by the map the extent of the Mexican Republic.

_b_. Why did Texas wish to join the United States? What attitude had
Mexico taken on slavery?

§§ 331, 332.--_a_. Explain carefully how the Texas question influenced
the election of 1844.

_b_. What was the Liberty party? How did its formation make the election
of Polk possible?

_c_. What is a "joint resolution"?

§ 333.--How did the Mexicans regard the admission of Texas? What dispute
with Mexico arose? Did Mexico begin the war?

§§ 334, 335.--_a_. What was the plan of Taylor's campaign? Of Scott's

_b_. Mention the leading battles of Taylor's campaign. Of Scott's

§§ 336, 337.--_a_. What action did the American settlers in California
take? With what result?

_b_. Explain by a map the Mexican cessions of 1848 and 1853.

§§ 338, 339.--_a_. What was the extent of Oregon in 1845?

_b_. How was the dispute finally settled? Explain by a map.

_c_. What was the extent of Oregon in 1847? Is it the same to-day?

_d_. Of what value was this region to the United States?


§§ 340, 341.--_a_. Why was there little question whether Oregon would be
slave or free?

_b_. Explain carefully Wilmot's suggestion. What would be the arguments
in Congress for and against this "proviso"?

_c_. What is meant by "squatter sovereignty"? What do you think of the
wisdom and justice of such a plan?

§§ 342, 343.--_a_. Describe the discovery of gold in California and the
rush thither. What difference did _one year_ make in the population of

_b_. What attitude did California take on the slavery question? Why?

§§ 344, 345.--_a_. How had the question of slavery already divided the

_b_. What extreme parties were there in the North and the South?

_c_. Why was the question about the territories so important?

_d_. What action did President Taylor take? Why? What do you think of
the wisdom of this policy?

§§ 346, 347.--_a_. State the provisions of Clay's compromise plan. Which
of these favored the North? The South?

_b_. What law had been made as to fugitive slaves? Why had it not been
enforced? Why was the change made in 1850 so important?

_c_. How would you have acted had you been a United States officer
called to carry out the Fugitive Slave Law?

§ 348.--_a_. Who was Mrs. Stowe? What view did she take of slavery?

_b_. Were there any good points in the slave system?

_c_. Why is this book so important?


§§ 349-351.--_a_. Who were the candidates in 1852? Who was chosen? Why?

_b_. What doctrine did Douglas apply to Kansas and Nebraska?

_c_. Why did Chase call this bill "a violation of faith"?

_d_. Was Douglas a patriot? Chase? Sumner? Pierce?

§ 352.--_a_. Give an account of the early life and training of Abraham

_b_. What did he think of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

§§ 353, 354.--_a_. What effect did the Kansas-Nebraska Act have on the
settlement of Kansas?

_b_. Describe the election. Do you think that laws made by a legislature
so elected were binding?

_d_. Explain the difference in the attitude of the Senate and House on
the Kansas question.

§§ 355, 356.--_a_. How was the Republican party formed? _b_. Were its
principles like or unlike those of the Republican party of Jefferson's
time? Give your reasons.

§ 357.--_a_. What rights did the Supreme Court declare a slave could not
possess? Was a slave a person or a thing?

_b_. What power does the Constitution give Congress over a territory?
(Art. IV, Sec. 3.)

§ 358.--_a_. Explain carefully the quotations from Lincoln's speeches.

_b_. Was the doctrine of popular sovereignty necessarily favorable to
slavery? Give illustrations to support your reasons.

_c_. Was Douglas's declaration in harmony with the decision of the
Supreme Court?

§§ 359, 360.--_a_. Compare the attitude of Douglas and Buchanan upon the
admission of Kansas.

_b_. Describe John Brown's raid. Was he a traitor?


_a_. Give, with dates, the important laws as to slavery since 1783.

_b_. What were the arguments in favor of the extension of slavery?
Against it?

_c_. Find and learn a poem against slavery by Whittier, Lowell, or

_d_. Make a table of elections since 1788, with the leading parties,
candidates, and principal issues. Underline the name of the
candidate elected.


_a_. John Brown in Kansas or at Harper's Ferry.

_b_. The career, to this time, of any man mentioned in Chapters 33 and

_c_. Any one fugitive slave case: Jerry McHenry in Syracuse (A.J. May's
_Antislavery Conflicts_), Shadrach, Anthony Burns.


Preparation is especially important in teaching this period. The teacher
will find references to larger books in Channing's _Students' History._

Show how the question of slavery was really at the basis of the Mexican
War. Geographical conditions and the settlement of the Western country
should be carefully noted. A limited use of the writings and speeches of
prominent men and writers is especially valuable at this point.

Have a large map of the United States in the class room, cut out and
fasten upon this map pieces of white and black paper to illustrate the
effects of legislation under discussion, and also to illustrate the
various elections.

The horrors of slavery should be but lightly touched. Emphasize
especially the fact that slavery prevented rather than aided the
development of the South, and was an evil economically as well
as socially.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1860.]


SECESSION, 1860-1861

Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, IV, 432-445; McMaster's
_School History_, chap. xxvi (industrial progress, 1840-60).

Home Readings.--Page's _The Old South_.



[Sidenote: Area of the United States, 1860.]

[Sidenote: Population, 1860.]

361. Growth of the Country.--The United States was now three times
as large as it was at Jefferson's election. It contained over three
million square miles of land. About one-third of this great area was
settled. In the sixty years of the century the population had increased
even faster than the area had increased. In 1800 there were five and a
half million people living in the United States. In 1860 there were over
thirty-one million people within its borders. Of these nearly five
millions were white immigrants. More than half of these immigrants had
come in the last ten years, and they had practically all of them settled
in the free states of the North. Of the whole population of thirty-one
millions only twelve millions lived in the slave states, and of these
more than four millions were negro slaves.

[Sidenote: New states. _McMaster_, 365-368.]

362. Change of Political Power.--The control of Congress had now
passed into the hands of the free states of the North. The majority of
the Representatives had long been from the free states. Now more
Senators came from the North than from the South. This was due to the
admission of new states. Texas (1845) was the last slave state to be
admitted to the Union. Two years later the admission of Wisconsin gave
the free states as many votes in the Senate as the slave states had. In
1850 the admission of California gave the free states a majority of two
votes in the Senate. This majority was increased to four by the
admission of Minnesota in 1858, and to six by the admission of Oregon in
1859. The control of Congress had slipped forever from the grasp of the
slave states.

[Sidenote: The cities.]

[Sidenote: New York.]

[Sidenote: Chicago.]

363. The Cities.--The tremendous increase in manufacturing, in
farming, and in trading brought about a great increase in foreign
commerce. This in turn led to the building up of great cities in the
North and the West. These were New York and Chicago; and they grew
rapidly because they formed the two ends of the line of communication
between the East and the West by the Mohawk Valley (p. 239). New York
now contained over eight hundred thousand inhabitants. It had more
people within its limits than lived in the whole state of South
Carolina. The most rapid growth was seen in the case of Chicago. In
1840 there were only five thousand people in that city; it now contained
one hundred and nine thousand inhabitants. Cincinnati and St. Louis,
each with one hundred and sixty thousand, were still the largest cities
of the West, and St. Louis was the largest city in any slave state. New
Orleans, with nearly as many people as St. Louis, was the only large
city in the South.

[Sidenote: The North and the South.]

[Sidenote: Growth of the Northwest.]

[Sidenote: Density of population, 1860.]

364. The States.--As it was with the cities so it was with the
states--the North had grown beyond the South. In 1790 Virginia had as
many inhabitants as the states of New York and Pennsylvania put
together. In 1860 Virginia had only about one-quarter as many
inhabitants as these two states. Indeed, in 1860 New York had nearly
four million inhabitants, or nearly as many inhabitants as the whole
United States in 1791 (p. 156). But the growth of the states of the
Northwest had been even more remarkable. Ohio now had a million more
people than Virginia and stood third in population among the states of
the Union. Illinois was the fourth state and Indiana the sixth. Even
more interesting are the facts brought out by a study of the map showing
the density of population or the number of people to the square mile in
the several states. It appears that in 1860 Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and
Massachusetts each had over forty-five inhabitants to the square mile,
while not a single Southern state had as many as forty-five inhabitants
to the square mile. This shows us at once that although the Southern
states were larger in extent than the Northern states, they were much
less powerful.

[Illustration: DENSITY OF POPULATION IN 1860.]

[Sidenote: Improvements in living.]

365. City Life.--In the old days the large towns were just like the
small towns except that they were larger. Life in them was just about
the same as in the smaller places. Now, however, there was a great
difference. In the first place the city could afford to have a great
many things the smaller town could not pay for. In the second place it
must have certain things or its people would die of disease or be killed
as they walked the streets. For these reasons the streets of the
Northern cities were paved and lighted and were guarded by policemen.
Then, too, great sewers carried away the refuse of the city, and
enormous iron pipes brought fresh water to every one within its limits.
Horse-cars and omnibuses carried its inhabitants from one part of the
city to another, and the railroads brought them food from the
surrounding country.

[Illustration: AN OMNIBUS]

[Sidenote: Growth of the railroad systems.]

366. Transportation.--Between 1849 and 1858 twenty-one thousand
miles of railroad were built in the United States, In 1860 there were
more than thirty thousand miles of railroad in actual operation. In 1850
one could not go from New York to Albany without leaving the railroad
and going on board a steamboat. In 1860 one continuous line of rails ran
from New York City to the Mississippi River. Traveling was still
uncomfortable according to our ideas. The cars were rudely made and
jolted horribly. One train ran only a comparatively short distance. Then
the traveler had to alight, get something to eat, and see his baggage
placed on another train. Still, with all its discomforts, traveling in
the worst of cars was better than traveling in the old stagecoaches.
Many more steamboats were used, especially on the Great Lakes and the
Western rivers.

[Illustration: HORACE GREELEY]

[Sidenote: Schools.]

[Sidenote: Newspapers.]

[Sidenote: Horace Greeley.]

367. Education.--The last thirty years had also been years of
progress in learning. Many colleges were founded, especially in the
Northwest. There was still no institution which deserved the name of
university. But more attention was being paid to the sciences and to the
education of men for the professions of law and medicine. The newspapers
also took on their modern form. The _New York Herald_, founded in 1835,
was the first real newspaper. But the _New York Tribune_, edited by
Horace Greeley, had more influence than any other paper in the country.
Greeley was odd in many ways, but he was one of the ablest men of the
time. He called for a liberal policy in the distribution of the public
lands and was forever saying, "Go West, young man, go West." The
magazines were now very much better than in former years, and America's
foremost writers were doing some of their best work.


[Sidenote: The telegraph.]

[Sidenote: The Howe sewing machine.]

[Sidenote: Agriculture machinery.]

[Sidenote: Stagnation in the South.]

368. Progress of Invention.--The electric telegraph was now in
common use. It enabled the newspapers to tell the people what was going
on as they never had done before. Perhaps the invention that did as much
as any one thing to make life easier was the sewing machine. Elias Howe
was the first man to make a really practicable sewing machine. Other
inventors improved upon it, and also made machines to sew other things
than cloth, as leather. Agricultural machinery was now in common use.
The horse reaper had been much improved, and countless machines had been
invented to make agricultural labor more easy and economical. Hundreds
of homely articles, as friction matches and rubber shoes, came into use
in these years. In short, the thirty years from Jackson's inauguration
to the secession of the Southern states were years of great progress.
But this progress was confined almost wholly to the North. In the South,
living in 1860 was about the same as it had been in 1830, or even in
1800. As a Southern orator said of the South, "The rush and whirl of
modern civilization passed her by."


SECESSION, 1860-1861

[Illustration: WILLIAM H. SEWARD.]

[Sidenote: Candidates for the Republican nomination 1860.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln nominated. The platform.]

369. The Republican Nomination, 1860.--Four names were especially
mentioned in connection with the Republican nomination for President.
These were Seward, Chase, Cameron, and Lincoln. Seward was the best
known of them all. In the debates on the Compromise of 1850 he had
declared that there was "a higher law" than the Constitution, namely,
"the law of nature in men's hearts." In another speech he had termed the
slavery contest "the irrepressible conflict." These phrases endeared him
to the antislavery men. But they made it impossible for many moderate
Republicans to follow him. Senator Chase of Ohio had also been very
outspoken in his condemnation of slavery. Senator Cameron of
Pennsylvania was an able political leader. But all of these men were
"too conspicuous to make a good candidate." They had made many enemies.
Lincoln had spoken freely. But he had never been prominent in national
politics. He was more likely to attract the votes of moderate men than
either of the other candidates. After a fierce contest he was nominated.
The Republican platform stated that there was no intention to interfere
with slavery in the states where it existed; but it declared the party's
opposition to the extension of slavery. The platform favored internal
improvements at the national expense. It also approved the
protective system.

[Sidenote: The Charleston convention, 1860. _McMaster_, 360-361.]

[Sidenote: The Douglas Democrats.]

[Sidenote: The Breckinridge Democrats.]

370. The Democratic Nominations.--The Democratic convention met at
Charleston, South Carolina. It was soon evident that the Northern
Democrats and the Southern Democrats could not agree. The Northerners
were willing to accept the Dred Scott decision and to carry it out. But
the Southerners demanded that the platform should pledge the party
actively to protect slavery in the territories. To this the Northerners
would not agree. So the convention broke up to meet again at Baltimore.
But there the delegates could come to no agreement. In the end two
candidates were named. The Northerners nominated Douglas on a platform
advocating "popular sovereignty." The Southerners nominated John C.
Breckinridge of Kentucky. In their platform they advocated states'
rights, and the protection of slavery in the territories by the federal

[Sidenote: The Constitutional Union party.]

371. The Constitutional Union Party.--Besides these three
candidates, cautious and timid men of all parties united to form the
Constitutional Union party. They nominated Governor John Bell of
Tennessee for President. In their platform they declared for the
maintenance of the Constitution and the Union, regardless of slavery.


[Sidenote: The campaign of 1860.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln elected.]

372. Lincoln elected President, 1860.--With four candidates in the
field and the Democratic party hopelessly divided, there could be little
doubt of Lincoln's election. He carried every Northern state except
Missouri and New Jersey. He received one hundred and eighty electoral
notes. Breckenridge carried every Southern state except the "border
states" of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and received seventy-two
electoral votes. Bell carried the three "border" Southern states and
Douglas carried Missouri and New Jersey. There was no doubt as to
Lincoln's election. He had received a great majority of the electoral
votes. But his opponents had received more popular votes than he had
received. He was therefore elected by a minority of the voters.

[Illustration: LINCOLN'S BOOKCASE. From the Keyes-Lincoln Memorial
Collection, Chicago.]

[Sidenote: Weakness of the Republicans.]

[Sidenote: Southern fears.]

373. The North and the South.--Lincoln had been elected by a
minority of the people. He had been elected by the people of one
section. Other Presidents had been chosen by minorities. But Lincoln
was the first man to be chosen President by the people of one section.
The Republicans, moreover, had not elected a majority of the members of
the House of Representatives, and the Senate was still in the hands of
the Democrats. For two years at least the Republicans could not carry
out their ideas. They could not repeal the Kansas-Nebraska Act. They
could not admit Kansas to the Union as a free state. They could not
carry out one bit of their policy. In their platform they had declared
that they had no intention to interfere with slavery in the states.
Lincoln had said over and over again that Congress had no right to
meddle with slavery in the states. The Southern leaders knew all these
things. But they made up their minds that now the time had come to
secede from the Union and to establish a Southern Confederacy. For the
first time all the southernmost states were united. No matter what
Lincoln and the Republicans might say, the Southern slaveholders
believed that slavery was in danger. In advising secession, many of them
thought that by this means they could force the Northerners to accept
their terms as the price of a restored Union. Never were political
leaders more mistaken.

[Sidenote: Southern conventions.]

374. Threats of Secession, November, 1860.--The Constitution
permits each state to choose presidential electors as it sees fit. At
the outset these electors had generally been chosen by the state
legislatures. But, in the course of time, all the states save one had
come to choose them by popular vote. The one state that held to the old
way was South Carolina. Its legislature still chose the state's
presidential electors. In 1860 the South Carolina legislature did this
duty and then remained in session to see which way the election would
go. When Lincoln's election was certain, it called a state convention to
consider the question of seceding from the United States. In other
Southern states there was some opposition to secession. In Georgia,
especially, Alexander H. Stephens led the opposition. He said that
secession "was the height of madness." Nevertheless he moved a
resolution for a convention. Indeed, all the southernmost states
followed the example of South Carolina and summoned conventions.

[Sidenote: Buchanan's compromise plan.]

[Crittenden's plan of compromise. _McMaster_, 380-381.]

[Sidenote: It fails to pass Congress.]

375. The Crittenden Compromise Plan.--Many men hoped that even now
secession might be stopped by some compromise. President Buchanan
suggested an amendment to the Constitution, securing slavery in the
states and territories. It was unlikely that the Republicans would
agree to this suggestion. The most hopeful plan was brought forward in
Congress by Senator Crittenden of Kentucky. He proposed that amendments
to the Constitution should be adopted: (1) to carry out the principle of
the Missouri Compromise (p. 222);(2) to provide that states should be
free or slave as their people should determine; and (3) to pay the slave
owners the value of runaway slaves. This plan was carefully considered
by Congress, and was finally rejected only two days before Lincoln's

[Sidenote: South Carolina secedes, 1860. _Eggleston_, 304-305.]

[Sidenote: Six other states secede.]

376. Secession of Seven States, 1860-61.--The South Carolina
convention met in Secession Hall, Charleston, on December 17, 1860.
Three days later it adopted a declaration "that the union now subsisting
between South Carolina and other states, under the name of the United
States of America, is hereby dissolved." Six other states soon joined
South Carolina. These were Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia,
Louisiana, and Texas.

[Sidenote: Confederate states constitution]

[Sidenote: Views of Jefferson Davis.]

377. The "Confederate States of America."--The next step was for
these states to join together to form a confederation. This work was
done by a convention of delegates chosen by the conventions of the seven
seceding states. These delegates met at Montgomery, Alabama. Their new
constitution closely resembled the Constitution of the United States.
But great care was taken to make it perfectly clear that each member of
the Confederacy was a sovereign state. Exceeding care was also taken
that slavery should be protected in every way. Jefferson Davis of
Mississippi was chosen provisional president, and Alexander H. Stephens
provisional vice-president.


[Sidenote: Views of Jefferson Davis.]

[Sidenote: Views of Alexander H. Stephens. _Source-Book_, 296-299.]

378. Views of Davis and Stephens.--Davis declared that Lincoln had
"made a distinct declaration of war upon our (Southern) institutions."
His election was "upon the basis of sectional hostility." If "war must
come, it must be on Northern and not on Southern soil.... We will carry
war ... where food for the sword and torch awaits our armies in the
densely populated cities" of the North. For his part, Stephens said the
new government's "foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the
great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man."

[Sidenote: "Let the erring sisters" go in peace.]

[Sidenote: Greeley's opinions.]

[Sidenote: Buchanan's opinions.]

379. Hesitation in the North.--At first it seemed as if Davis was
right when he said the Northerners would not fight. General Scott,
commanding the army, suggested that the "erring sisters" should be
allowed to "depart in peace," and Seward seemed to think the same way.
The Abolitionists welcomed the secession of the slave states. Horace
Greeley, for instance, wrote that if those states chose to form an
independent nation, "they had a clear moral right so to do." For his
part, President Buchanan thought that no state could constitutionally
secede. But if a state should secede, he saw no way to compel it to come
back to the Union. So he sat patiently by and did nothing.



§§ 361, 362.--_a_. Compare the area and population of the United States
in 1800 and in 1860.

_b_. Compare the white population of the North and the South. Were all
the Southern whites slave owners?

_c_. Why had the control of the House passed to the free states? Did a
white man in the North and in the South have proportionally the same
representation in the House? Why?

_d_. What change in the control of the Senate had taken place? Why? Why
was this change so important?

§§ 363, 364.--_a_. What had caused the growth of the Northern cities?
Why were there so few large cities in the slave states?

_b_. How had the population of the states changed since 1790? What had
caused the growth of the Northwest?

_c_. Where was there the greatest density of population? Why?

§§ 365, 366.--_a_. Describe the change of life in the cities. What
arrangements were made for the comfort and health of the people?

_b_. How had railroads increased, and what improvements had been made?

§§ 367, 368.--_a_. Of what use are newspapers? How do they influence
the opinions of the people? What policy did Horace Greeley uphold? Why?

_b_. Who were some of the important writers? Mention two works of each.

_c_. What influence did the telegraph have? Was this important?

_d_. Describe some of the other inventions.

_e_. Why had this progress been confined mainly to the North?


§ 369.--_a_. Who were the leading Republican candidates?

_b_. Why was Lincoln nominated? What is the meaning of the phrase "too

_c_. What did Seward mean by saying that there was a "higher law" than
the Constitution? Why was the slavery contest "irrepressible"?

_d_. What declaration was made by the Republican party as to slavery?
Compare this policy with the Wilmot Proviso.

§§ 370, 371.--_a_. What divisions took place in the Democratic party?

_b_. What candidates were named? What policy did each uphold?

_c_. How had the demands of the Southerners concerning slavery

_d_. What third party was formed? By whom? What does the name show?

§§ 372, 373.--_a_. What was the result of the election?

_b_. What was there peculiar in Lincoln's election?

_c_. Were the Southern states in any particular danger?

_d_. Why should the Southerners have felt so strongly about this
election? What was their hope in threatening secession?

§§374, 375.--_a_ Give arguments for and against secession. In what other
question similar to this had South Carolina led?

_b_. Were the people of the South generally in favor of secession?

_c_. What compromise did Buchanan suggest? What do you think of the
wisdom of the plan?

_d_. Explain carefully the points in Crittenden's plan. Discuss its

§§ 376, 377.--_a_ Could one state dissolve the Union? _b_. What other
states followed South Carolina?

_c_. What government was formed by them? What two points were
especially emphasized in their constitution? Why these?

§§ 378, 379.--_a_. What statement did Davis make as to Lincoln? Was it
true or false? Give your reasons.

_b_. Why did Davis advocate war on Northern soil?

_c_. Why was there such hesitation in the North? State the opinions of
Scott, Greeley, and Buchanan.

_d_. What would Jackson probably have done had he been President?


_a_. Was the South justified in thinking that the North would yield?
Give illustrations to support your view.

_b_. Were the years 1857-61 more or less "critical" than the years
1783-87? Why?

_c_. How was the South dependent upon the North?


_a_. Comparison between the North and the South.

_b_. Any invention mentioned in this part.

_c_. Some writer of this period.

_d_. The condition of your own state (or town or city) in 1860.


The first chapter of this part should be taught very slowly, and at each
point the contrast between the North and the South should be
pointed out.

In Chapter 36 the changed attitude of the Southern politicians should be
noted and their demands clearly set forth. The fact that the slave
owners while a minority in the South dominated public opinion should be
pointed out.

In considering the question of secession it will be well to review the
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the
Nullification episode. The weakness of Pierce and Buchanan may be
contrasted with the strength of Jackson, and will serve as an
introduction to the study of Lincoln's character.



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Dodge's _Bird's-Eye View_; Scribner's _Popular
History_, IV and V; McMaster's _School History_. chap, xxix (the cost of
the war); Lincoln's _Inaugurals_ and _Gettysburg Address_.

Home Readings.--_Battles and Leaders of the Civil War_ (composed
largely of articles that had previously appeared in the _Century
Magazine_; Whittier's _Barbara Frietchie; _Coffin's _Winning his Way_
and other stories; Soley's _Sailor Boys of '61_; Trowbridge's _Drummer
Boy_ and other stories; Read's _Sheridan's Ride_; Champlin's _Young
Folks' History of the War for the Union_).



[Sidenote: Lincoln's inaugural address, March 4, 1861.]

380. Lincoln's Inauguration.--On March 4, 1861, President Lincoln
made his first inaugural address. In it he declared: "The Union is much
older than the Constitution.... No state upon its own motion can
lawfully get out of the Union.... In view of the Constitution and the
laws the Union is unbroken ... I shall take care that the laws of the
Union be faithfully executed in all the states." As to slavery, he had
"no purpose ... to interfere with the institution of slavery in the
states where it exists." He even saw no objection to adopt an amendment
of the Constitution to prohibit the Federal government from interfering
with slavery in the states. But he was resolved to preserve, protect,
and defend the Constitution of the United States.



[Sidenote: Fort Sumter. _Source-Book_, 299-302.]

[Sidenote: The call to arms, April 15, 1861.]

381. Fall of Fort Sumter, April, 1861.--The strength of Lincoln's
resolve was soon tested. When South Carolina seceded, Major Anderson,
commanding the United States forces at Charleston, withdrew from the
land forts to Fort Sumter, built on a shoal in the harbor. He had with
him only eighty fighting men and was sorely in need of food and
ammunition. Buchanan sent a steamer, the _Star of the West, _to
Charleston with supplies and soldiers. But the Confederates fired on
her, and she steamed away without landing the soldiers or the supplies.
Lincoln waited a month, hoping that the secessionists would come back to
the Union of their own accord. Then he decided to send supplies to Major
Anderson and told the governor of South Carolina of his decision.
Immediately (April 12) the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter. On
April 14 Anderson surrendered. The next day President Lincoln issued a
proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand volunteers.

[Sidenote: The Northern volunteers. _McMaster_, 386-387; _Source-Book_,

[Sidenote: Douglas, Buchanan, and Pierce]

[Sidenote: Progress of secession.]

382. Rising of the North.--There was no longer a question of
letting the "erring sisters" depart in peace. The Southerners had fired
on "Old Glory." There was no longer a dispute over the extension of
slavery. The question was now whether the Union should perish or should
live. Douglas at once came out for the Union and so did the former
Presidents, Buchanan and Franklin Pierce. In the Mississippi Valley
hundreds of thousands of men either sympathized with the slaveholders or
cared nothing about the slavery dispute. But the moment the Confederates
attacked the Union, they rose in defense of their country and
their flag.

[Sidenote: West Virginia.]

383. More Seceders.--The Southerners flocked to the standards of
the Confederacy, and four more states joined the ranks of secession.
These were Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. In
Virginia the people were sharply divided on the question of secession.
Finally Virginia seceded, but the western Virginians, in their turn,
seceded from Virginia and two years later were admitted to the Union as
the state of West Virginia. Four "border states" had seceded; but four
other "border states" were still within the Union. These were Delaware,
Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.

[Sidenote: Kentucky and Maryland saved to the Union.]

[Sidenote: Missouri saved to the Union. _Eggleston_, 310.]

384. The Border States.--The people of Maryland and of Kentucky
were evenly divided on the question of secession. They even tried to set
up as neutral states. But their neutrality would have been so greatly to
the advantage of the seceders that this could not be allowed. Lincoln's
firm moderation and the patriotism of many wise leaders in Kentucky
saved that state to the Union. But Maryland was so important to the
defense of Washington that more energetic means had to be used. In
Missouri, a large and active party wished to join the Confederacy. But
two Union men, Frank P. Blair and Nathaniel Lyon, held the most
important portions of the state for the Union. It was not until a year
later, however, that Missouri was safe on the Northern side.

[Sidenote: Southern sentiment in Washington.]

[Sidenote: Southern Unionists.]

[Sidenote: First bloodshed, April 19, 1861.]

385. To the Defense of Washington.--The national capital was really
a Southern town, for most of the permanent residents were Southerners,
and the offices were filled with Southern men. In the army and navy,
too, were very many Southerners. Most of them, as Robert E. Lee, felt
that their duty to their state was greater than their duty to their
flag. But many Southern officers felt differently. Among these were two
men whose names should be held in grateful remembrance, Captain David G.
Farragut and Colonel George H. Thomas. The first soldiers to arrive in
Washington were from Pennsylvania; but they came unarmed. Soon they were
followed by the Sixth Massachusetts. In passing through Baltimore this
regiment was attacked. Several men were killed, others were wounded.
This was on April 19, 1861,--the anniversary of the battles of
Lexington and Concord. It was the first bloodshed of the war.




[Sidenote: The field of war.]

386. Nature of the Conflict.--The overthrow of the Confederate
states proved to be very difficult. The Alleghany Mountains cut the
South into two great fields of war. Deep and rapid rivers flowed from
the mountains into the Atlantic or into the Mississippi. Each of these
rivers was a natural line of defense. The first line was the Potomac and
the Ohio. But when the Confederates were driven from this line, they
soon found another equally good a little farther south. Then again the
South was only partly settled. Good roads were rare, but there were many
poor roads. The maps gave only the good roads. By these the Northern
soldiers had to march while the Southern armies were often guided
through paths unknown to the Northerners, and thus were able to march
shorter distances between two battlefields or between two
important points.

[Sidenote: Plan of campaign.]

[Sidenote: Disaster at Bull Run, July, 1861. _Source-Book_, 305-308.]

387. The Bull Run Campaign, July, 1861.--Northern soldiers crossed
the Potomac into Virginia and found the Confederates posted at Bull Run
near Manassas Junction. Other Northern soldiers pressed into the
Shenandoah Valley from Harper's Ferry. They, too, found a Confederate
army in front of them. The plan of the Union campaign is now clear:
General McDowell was to attack the Confederates at Bull Run, while
General Patterson attacked the Confederates in the Valley, and kept them
so busy that they could not go to the help of their comrades at Bull
Run. It fell out otherwise, for Patterson retreated and left the
Confederate general, Johnston, free to go to the aid of the sorely
pressed Confederates at Bull Run. McDowell attacked vigorously and broke
the Confederate line; but he could not maintain his position. The Union
troops at first retreated slowly. Then they became frightened and fled,
in all haste, back to Washington. The first campaign ended in disaster.

[Illustration: GENERAL MCCLELLAN.]

[Sidenote: The Army of the Potomac, 1862.]

388. The Army of the Potomac.--While the Bull Run campaign was
going on in eastern Virginia, Union soldiers had been winning victories
in western Virginia. These were led by General George B. McClellan. He
now came to Washington and took command of the troops operating in front
of the capital. During the autumn, winter, and spring he drilled his men
with great skill and care. In March, 1862, the Army of the Potomac left
its camps a splendidly drilled body of soldiers.

[Sidenote: Southern preparations. _Source-Book_, 308-311.]

[Sidenote: Richmond.]

[Sidenote: Army of Northern Virginia.]

389. The Army of Northern Virginia.--Meantime the government of the
Confederacy had gathered great masses of soldiers. There were not nearly
as many white men of fighting age in the South as there were in the
North. But what men there were could be placed in the fighting line,
because the negro slaves could produce the food needed by the armies and
do the hard labor of making forts. The capital of the Confederacy was
now established at Richmond, on the James River, in Virginia. The army
defending this capital was called the Army of Northern Virginia. It was
commanded by Joseph E. Johnston; but its ablest officers were Robert E.
Lee and Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson).

[Sidenote: McClellan's plan of campaign, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

390. Plan of the Peninsular Campaign.--The country between the
Potomac and the James was cut up by rivers, as the Rappahannock, the
Mattapony, and Pamunkey, and part of it was a wilderness. McClellan
planned to carry his troops by water to the peninsula between the James
and the York and Pamunkey rivers. He would then have a clear road to
Richmond, with no great rivers to dispute with the enemy. Johnston would
be obliged to leave his camp at Bull Run and march southward to the
defense of Richmond. The great objection to the plan was that Johnston
might attack Washington instead of going to face McClellan. General
Jackson also was in the Shenandoah Valley. He might march down the
Valley, cross the Potomac, and seize Washington. So the government kept
seventy-five thousand of McClellan's men for the defense of the
Federal capital.

[Illustration: THE "MONITOR."]

[Sidenote: The _Monitor_ and the _Merrimac_. _Hero Tales_, 183, 195.]

391. The _Monitor_ and the _Merrimac_.--On March 8 a queer-looking
craft steamed out from Norfolk, Virginia, and attacked the Union fleet
at anchor near Fortress Monroe. She destroyed two wooden frigates, the
_Cumberland_ and the _Congress_, and began the destruction of the
_Minnesota_. She then steamed back to Norfolk. This formidable vessel
was the old frigate _Merrimac_. Upon her decks the Confederates had
built an iron house. From these iron sides the balls of the Union
frigates rolled harmlessly away. But that night an even stranger-looking
ship appeared at Fortress Monroe. This was the _Monitor_, a floating
fort, built of iron. She was designed by John Ericsson, a Swedish
immigrant. When the _Merrimac_ came back to finish the destruction of
the _Minnesota_, the _Monitor_ steamed directly to her. These two
ironclads fought and fought. At last the _Merrimac_ steamed away and
never renewed the fight.

[Sidenote: Battle of Fair Oaks, May, 1862.]

[Sidenote: The Seven Days.]

[Sidenote: Malvern Hill.]

392. The Peninsular Campaign, 1862.--By the end of May McClellan
had gained a position within ten miles of Richmond. Meantime, Jackson
fought so vigorously in the Shenandoah Valley that the Washington
government refused to send more men to McClellan, although Johnston had
gone with his army to the defense of Richmond. On May 31 the Army of the
Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia fought a hard battle at Fair
Oaks. Johnston was wounded, and Lee took the chief command. He summoned
Jackson from the Valley and attacked McClellan day after day, June 26
to July 2, 1862. These terrible battles of the Seven Days forced
McClellan to change his base to the James, where he would be near the
fleet. At Malvern Hill Lee and Jackson once more attacked him and were
beaten off with fearful loss.

[Sidenote: Lee's plan of campaign.]

[Sidenote: Second battle of Bull Run, August, 1862.]

393. Second Bull Run Campaign.--The Army of the Potomac was still
uncomfortably near Richmond. It occurred to Lee that if he should strike
a hard blow at the army in front of Washington, Lincoln would recall
McClellan. Suddenly, without any warning, Jackson appeared at Manassas
Junction (p. 317). McClellan was at once ordered to transport his army
by water to the Potomac, and place it under the orders of General John
Pope, commanding the forces in front of Washington. McClellan did as he
was ordered. But Lee moved faster than he could move. Before the Army of
the Potomac was thoroughly in Pope's grasp, Lee attacked the Union
forces near Bull Run. He defeated them, drove them off the field and
back into the forts defending Washington (August, 1862).

[Sidenote: Lee invades Maryland.]

[Sidenote: Antietam, September, 1862. _Hero Tales_, 199-209.]

394. The Antietam Campaign, 1862.--Lee now crossed the Potomac into
Maryland. But he found more resistance than he had looked for. McClellan
was again given chief command. Gathering his forces firmly together, he
kept between Lee and Washington, and threatened Lee's communications
with Virginia. The Confederates drew back. McClellan found them strongly
posted near the Antietam and attacked them. The Union soldiers fought
splendidly. But military writers say that McClellan's attacks were not
well planned. At all events, the Army of the Potomac lost more than
twelve thousand men to less than ten thousand on the Confederate side,
and Lee made good his retreat to Virginia. McClellan was now removed
from command, and Ambrose E. Burnside became chief of the Army of
the Potomac.


[Sidenote: Battle of Fredericksburg, December, 1862.]

395. Fredericksburg, December, 1862.--Burnside found Lee strongly
posted on Marye's Heights, which rise sharply behind the little town of
Fredericksburg on the southern bank of the Rappahannock River. Burnside
attacked in front. His soldiers had to cross the river and assault the
hill in face of a murderous fire--and in vain. He lost thirteen thousand
men to only four thousand of the Confederates. "Fighting Joe" Hooker now
succeeded Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac. We must now
turn to the West, and see what had been doing there in 1861-62.

[Sidenote: General Grant.]

[Sidenote: He seizes Cairo.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Mill Springs, January, 1862.]

396. Grant and Thomas.--In Illinois there appeared a trained
soldier of fierce energy and invincible will, Ulysses Simpson Grant. He
had been educated at West Point and had served in the Mexican War. In
September, 1861, he seized Cairo at the junction of the Ohio and the
Mississippi. In January, 1862, General George H. Thomas defeated a
Confederate force at Mill Springs, in the upper valley of the Cumberland
River. In this way Grant and Thomas secured the line of the Ohio and
eastern Kentucky for the Union.

[Illustration: THE BRIDGE AT ANTIETAM. Burnside's soldiers charged over
the bridge from the middle foreground.]

[Sidenote: Capture of Fort Henry, February, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Fort Donelson.]

397. Forts Henry and Donelson, February, 1862.--In February, 1862,
General Grant and Commodore Foote attacked two forts which the
Confederates had built to keep the Federal gunboats from penetrating the
western part of the Confederacy. Fort Henry yielded almost at once, but
the Union forces besieged Fort Donelson for a longer time. Soon the
Confederate defense became hopeless, and General Buckner asked for the
terms of surrender. "Unconditional surrender," replied Grant, and
Buckner surrendered. The lower Tennessee and the lower Cumberland were
now open to the Union forces.

[Sidenote: The lower Mississippi.]

[Sidenote: Admiral Farragut.]

398. Importance of New Orleans.--New Orleans and the lower
Mississippi were of great importance to both sides, for the possession
of this region gave the Southerners access to Texas, and through Texas
to Mexico. Union fleets were blockading every important Southern port.
But as long as commerce overland with Mexico could be maintained, the
South could struggle on. The Mississippi, too, has so many mouths that
it was difficult to keep vessels from running in and out. For these
reasons the Federal government determined to seize New Orleans and the
lower Mississippi. The command of the expedition was given to Farragut,
who had passed his boyhood in Louisiana. He was given as good a fleet as
could be provided, and a force of soldiers was sent to help him.

[Illustration: A RIVER GUNBOAT.]

[Sidenote: Capture of New Orleans, April, 1862. _Higginson_, 303-304;
_Source-Book_, 313-315.]

399. New Orleans captured, April, 1862.--Farragut carried his fleet
into the Mississippi, but found his way upstream barred by two forts on
the river's bank. A great chain stretched across the river below the
forts, and a fleet of river gunboats with an ironclad or two was in
waiting above the forts. Chain, forts, and gunboats all gave way before
Farragut's forceful will. At night he passed the forts amid a terrific
cannonade. Once above them New Orleans was at his mercy. It surrendered,
and with the forts was soon occupied by the Union army. The lower
Mississippi was lost to the Confederacy.

[Illustration: A WAR-TIME ENVELOPE.]

[Sidenote: Shiloh, April, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Corinth, May, 1862.]

400. Shiloh and Corinth, April, May, 1862.--General Halleck now
directed the operations of the Union armies in the West. He ordered
Grant to take his men up the Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing and there
await the arrival of Buell with a strong force overland from Nashville.
Grant encamped with his troops on the western bank of the Tennessee
between Shiloh Church and Pittsburg Landing. Albert Sidney Johnston, the
Confederate commander in the West, attacked him suddenly and with great
fury. Soon the Union army was pushed back to the river. In his place
many a leader would have withdrawn. But Grant, with amazing courage,
held on. In the afternoon Buell's leading regiments reached the other
side of the river. In the night they were ferried across, and Grant's
outlying commands were brought to the front. The next morning Grant
attacked in his turn and slowly but surely pushed the Confederates off
the field. Halleck then united Grant's, Buell's, and Pope's armies and
captured Corinth.

[Sidenote: General Bragg invades Kentucky.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Perryville, October, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Murfreesboro', December, 1862. _Eggleston_, 331.]

401. Bragg in Tennessee and Kentucky.--General Braxton Bragg now
took a large part of the Confederate army, which had fought at Shiloh
and Corinth, to Chattanooga. He then marched rapidly across Tennessee
and Kentucky to the neighborhood of Louisville on the Ohio River. Buell
was sent after him, and the two armies fought an indecisive battle at
Perryville. Then Bragg retreated to Chattanooga. In a few months he was
again on the march. Rosecrans had now succeeded Buell. He attacked Bragg
at Murfreesboro'. For a long time the contest was equal. In the end,
however, the Confederates were beaten and retired from the field.



[Sidenote: The blockade.]

402. The Blockade.--On the fall of Fort Sumter President Lincoln
ordered a blockade of the Confederate seaports. There were few
manufacturing industries in the South. Cotton and tobacco were the
great staples of export. If her ports were blockaded the South could
neither bring in arms and military supplies from Europe, nor send cotton
and tobacco to Europe to be sold for money. So her power of resisting
the Union armies would be greatly lessened. The Union government bought
all kinds of vessels, even harbor ferryboats, armed them, and stationed
them off the blockaded harbors. In a surprisingly short time the
blockade was established. The Union forces also began to occupy the
Southern seacoast, and thus the region that had to be blockaded steadily
grew less.

[Sidenote: Effect of the blockade.]

403. Effects of the Blockade.--As months and years went by, and the
blockade became stricter and stricter, the sufferings of the Southern
people became ever greater. As they could not send their products to
Europe to exchange for goods, they had to pay gold and silver for
whatever the blockade runners brought in. Soon there was no more gold
and silver in the Confederacy, and paper money took its place. Then the
supplies of manufactured goods, as clothing and paper, of things not
produced in the South, as coffee and salt, gave out. Toward the end of
the war there were absolutely no medicines for the Southern soldiers,
and guns were so scarce that it was proposed to arm one regiment with
pikes. Nothing did more to break down Southern resistance than
the blockade.

[Sidenote: Hopes of the Southerners.]

404. The Confederacy, Great Britain, and France.--From the
beginning of the contest the Confederate leaders believed that the
British and the French would interfere to aid them. "Cotton is king,"
they said. Unless there were a regular supply of cotton, the mills of
England and of France must stop. Thousands of mill hands--men, women,
and children--would soon be starving. The French and the British
governments would raise the blockade. Perhaps they would even force the
United States to acknowledge the independence of the Confederate states.
There was a good deal of truth in this belief. For the British and
French governments dreaded the growing power of the American republic
and would gladly have seen it broken to pieces. But events fell out far
otherwise than the Southern leaders had calculated. Before the supply of
American cotton in England was used up, new supplies began to come in
from India and from Egypt. The Union armies occupied portions of the
cotton belt early in 1862, and American cotton was again exported. But
more than all else, the English mill operatives, in all their hardships,
would not ask their government to interfere. They saw clearly enough
that the North was fighting for the rights of free labor. At times it
seemed, however, as if Great Britain or France would interfere.

[Sidenote: Southern agents sent to Europe.]

[Sidenote: Removed from the _Trent_.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln's opinion.]

[Sidenote: Action of Great Britain.]

405. The Trent Affair, 1861.--As soon as the blockade was
established, the British and French governments gave the Confederates
the same rights in their ports as the United States had. The Southerners
then sent two agents, Mason and Slidell, to Europe to ask the foreign
governments to recognize the independence of the Confederate states.
Captain Wilkes of the United States ship _San Jacinto_ took these agents
from the British steamer _Trent_. But Lincoln at once said that Wilkes
had done to the British the very thing which we had fought the War of
1812 to prevent the British doing to us. "We must stick to American
principles," said the President, "and restore the prisoners." They were
given up. But the British government, without waiting to see what
Lincoln would do, had gone actively to work to prepare for war. This
seemed so little friendly that the people of the United States were
greatly irritated.

[Sidenote: The war powers of the President.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln follows Northern sentiment.]

406. Lincoln and Slavery.--It will be remembered that the
Republican party had denied again and again that it had any intention to
interfere with slavery in the states. As long as peace lasted the
Federal government could not interfere with slavery in the states. But
when war broke out, the President, as commander-in-chief, could do
anything to distress and weaken the enemy. If freeing the slaves in the
seceded states would injure the secessionists, he had a perfect right to
do it. But Lincoln knew that public opinion in the North would not
approve this action. He would follow Northern sentiment in this matter,
and not force it.

[Sidenote: The contrabands.]

407. Contrabands of War.--he war had scarcely begun before slaves
escaped into the Union lines. One day a Confederate officer came to
Fortress Monroe and demanded his runaway slaves under the Fugitive Slave
Act (p. 281). General Butler refused to give them up on the ground that
they were "contraband of war." By that phrase he meant that their
restoration would be illegal as their services would be useful to the
enemy. President Lincoln approved this decision of General Butler, and
escaping slaves soon came to be called "Contrabands."

[Illustration: A WAR-TIME ENVELOPE.]

[Sidenote: Abolition with compensation.]

408. First Steps toward Emancipation, 1862.--Lincoln and the
Republican party thought that Congress could not interfere with slavery
in the states. It might, however, buy slaves and set them free or help
the states to do this. So Congress passed a law offering aid to any
state which should abolish slavery within its borders. Congress itself
abolished slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation to the
owners. It abolished slavery in the territories without compensation.
Lincoln had gladly helped to make these laws. Moreover, by August, 1862,
he had made up his mind that to free the slaves in the seceded states
would help "to save the Union" and would therefore be right as a "war
measure." For every negro taken away from forced labor would weaken the
producing power of the South and so make the conquest of the
South easier.

[Sidenote: Lincoln's warning, September, 1862.]

[Sidenote: Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863. _Higginson_,
304-305; _Source-Book_, 315-318, 327-329.]

409. The Emancipation Proclamation, 1863.--On September 23, 1862,
Lincoln issued a proclamation stating that on the first day of the new
year he would declare free all slaves in any portion of the United
States then in rebellion. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation
Proclamation. This proclamation could be enforced only in those portions
of the seceded states which were held by the Union armies. It did not
free slaves in loyal states and did not abolish the institution of
slavery anywhere. Slavery was abolished by the states of West Virginia,
Missouri, and Maryland between 1862 and 1864. Finally, in 1865, it was
abolished throughout the United States by the adoption of the Thirteenth
Amendment (p. 361).

[Sidenote: Northern friends of secession.]

[Sidenote: Suspension of _habeas corpus._]

410. Northern Opposition to the War.--Many persons in the North
thought that the Southerners had a perfect right to secede if they
wished. Some of these persons sympathized so strongly with the
Southerners that they gave them important information and did all they
could to prevent the success of the Union forces. It was hard to prove
anything against these Southern sympathizers, but it was dangerous to
leave them at liberty. So Lincoln ordered many of them to be arrested
and locked up. Now the Constitution provides that every citizen shall
have a speedy trial. This is brought about by the issuing a writ of
_habeas corpus_, compelling the jailer to bring his prisoner into court
and show cause why he should not be set at liberty. Lincoln now
suspended the operation of the writ of _habeas corpus_. This action
angered many persons who were quite willing that the Southerners should
be compelled to obey the law, but did not like to have their neighbors
arrested and locked up without trial.

[Illustration: THE DRAFT.]

[Sidenote: The draft.]

[Sidenote: Riots in the North.]

411. The Draft Riots.--At the outset both armies were made up of
volunteers; soon there were not enough volunteers. Both governments then
drafted men for their armies; that is, they picked out by lot certain
men and compelled them to become soldiers. The draft was bitterly
resisted in some parts of the North, especially in New York City.



[Sidenote: Position of the armies.]

412. Position of the Armies, January, 1863.--The Army of the
Potomac, now under Hooker, and the Army of Northern Virginia were face
to face at Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock. In the West Rosecrans was
at Murfreesboro', and Bragg on the way back to Chattanooga. In the
Mississippi Valley Grant and Sherman had already begun the Vicksburg
campaign. But as yet they had had no success.

[Sidenote: Grant's Vicksburg Campaign, 1863. _Hero Tales_, 239-248.]

413. Beginnings of the Vicksburg Campaign.--Vicksburg stood on the
top of a high bluff directly on the river. Batteries erected at the
northern end of the town commanded the river, which at that point ran
directly toward the bluff. The best way to attack this formidable place
was to proceed overland from Corinth. This Grant tried to do. But the
Confederates forced him back.

[Sidenote: Siege of Vicksburg. _Source-Book_, 320-323.]

[Sidenote: Surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.]

414. Fall of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863.--Grant now carried his whole
army down the Mississippi. For months he tried plan after plan, and
every time he failed. Finally he marched his army down on the western
side of the river, crossed the river below Vicksburg, and approached the
fortress from the south and east. In this movement he was greatly aided
by the Union fleet under Porter, which protected the army while crossing
the river. Pemberton, the Confederate commander, at once came out from
Vicksburg. But Grant drove him back and began the siege of the town from
the land side. The Confederates made a gallant defense. But slowly and
surely they were starved into submission. On July 4, 1863, Pemberton
surrendered the fortress and thirty-seven thousand men.

[Sidenote: Port Hudson surrendered.]

[Sidenote: Opening of the Mississippi.]

415. Opening of the Mississippi.--Port Hudson, between Vicksburg
and New Orleans, was now the only important Confederate position on the
Mississippi. On July 8 it surrendered. A few days later the freight
steamer _Imperial_ from St. Louis reached New Orleans. The Mississippi
at last "flowed unvexed to the sea." The Confederacy was cut in twain.

[Sidenote: Chancellorsville, May, 1863. _Hero Tales_, 213-223.]

[Sidenote: Lee invades Pennsylvania.]

[Sidenote: Meade in command.]

416. Lee's Second Invasion, 1863.--"Fighting Joe Hooker" was now in
command of the Army of the Potomac. Outwitting Lee, he gained the rear
of the Confederate lines on Marye's Heights, But Lee fiercely attacked
him at Chancellorsville and drove him back across the Rappahannock. Then
Lee again crossed the Potomac and invaded the North. This time he
penetrated to the heart of Pennsylvania. Hooker moved on parallel lines,
always keeping between Lee and the city of Washington. At length, in the
midst of the campaign, Hooker asked to be relieved, and George G. Meade
became the fifth and last chief of the Army of the Potomac.


[Sidenote: Lee retires.]

[Sidenote: Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863.]

417. Gettysburg, July 1, 1863.--Meade now moved the Union army
toward Lee's line of communication with Virginia. Lee at once drew
back. Both armies moved toward Gettysburg, where the roads leading
southward came together. In this way the two armies came into contact on
July i, 1863. The Southerners were in stronger force at the moment and
drove the Union soldiers back through the town to the high land called
Cemetery Ridge. This was a remarkably strong position, with Culp's Hill
at one end of the line and the Round Tops at the other end. Meade
determined to fight the battle at that spot and hurried up all
his forces.

[Illustration: MAP: Battle of Gettysburg.]

[Sidenote: The second day.]

418. Gettysburg, July 2, 1863.--At first matters seemed to go badly
with the Union army. Its left flank extended forward from Little Round
Top into the fields at the foot of the ridge. The Confederates drove
back this part of the Union line. But they could not seize Little Round
Top. On this day also the Confederates gained a foothold on Culp's Hill.

[Sidenote: The third day. _Source-Book_, 323-327.]

[Sidenote: Pickett's charge. _Hero Tales_, 227-236.]

[Sidenote: It fails.]

[Sidenote: Lee retreats, July 4, 1863.]

419. Gettysburg, July 3, 1863.--Early on this morning the Union
soldiers drove the Confederates away from Culp's Hill and held the whole
ridge. Now again, as at Malvern Hill (p. 321), Lee had fought the Army
of the Potomac to a standstill. But he would not admit failure. Led by
Pickett of Virginia, thirteen thousand men charged across the valley
between the two armies directly at the Union center. Some of them even
penetrated the Union lines. But there the line stopped. Slowly it began
to waver. Then back the Confederates went--all who escaped. The battle
of Gettysburg was won. Lee faced the Army of the Potomac for another day
and then retreated. In this tremendous conflict the Confederates lost
twenty-two thousand five hundred men killed and wounded and five
thousand taken prisoners by the Northerners--a total loss of
twenty-eight thousand out of eighty thousand in the battle. The Union
army numbered ninety-three thousand men and lost twenty-three thousand,
killed and wounded. Vicksburg and Gettysburg cost the South sixty-five
thousand fighting men--a loss that could not be made good. We must now
turn to eastern Tennessee.

[Sidenote: Rosecrans and Bragg, 1863.]

[Sidenote: Chickamauga, September, 1863.]

[Sidenote: Thomas and Sheridan.]

[Sidenote: Grant in command in the West.]

420. Chickamauga, September, 1863.--For six months after
Murfreesboro' (p. 326) Rosecrans and Bragg remained in their camps. In
the summer of 1863 Rosecrans, by a series of skillful marchings, forced
Bragg to abandon Chattanooga. But Bragg was now greatly strengthened by
soldiers from the Mississippi and by Longstreet's division from Lee's
army in Virginia. He turned on Rosecrans, and attacked him at
Chickamauga Creek. The right wing of the Union army was driven from the
field. But Thomas, "the Rock of Chickamauga," with his men stood fast.
Bragg attacked him again and again, and failed every time, although he
had double Thomas's numbers. Rosecrans, believing the battle to be
lost, had ridden off to Chattanooga, but Sheridan aided Thomas as well
as he could. The third day Thomas and Bragg kept their positions, and
then the Union soldiers retired unpursued to Chattanooga. The command of
the whole army at Chattanooga was now given to Thomas, and Grant was
placed in control of all the Western armies.

[Illustration: GENERAL THOMAS.]

[Sidenote: Sherman's attack.]

[Sidenote: Hooker's attack.]

[Sidenote: Thomas's attack.]

[Sidenote: Rout of the Confederates, November, 1863.]

421. Chattanooga, November, 1863.--The Union soldiers at
Chattanooga were in great danger. For the Confederates were all about
them and they could get no food. But help was at hand. Hooker, with
fifteen thousand men from the Army of the Potomac, arrived and opened a
road by which food could reach Chattanooga. Then Grant came with
Sherman's corps from Vicksburg. He at once sent Sherman to assail
Bragg's right flank and ordered Hooker to attack his left flank. Sherman
and his men advanced until he was stopped by a deep ravine. At the
other end of the line Hooker fought right up the side of Lookout
Mountain, until the battle raged above the clouds. In the center were
Thomas's men. Eager to avenge the slaughter of Chickamauga, they carried
the first Confederate line of defenses. Then, without orders, they
rushed up the hillside over the inner lines. They drove the Southerners
from their guns and seized their works. Bragg retreated as well as he
could. Longstreet was besieging Knoxville. He escaped through the
mountains to Lee's army in Virginia.


THE END OF THE WAR, 1864-1865

[Sidenote: Grant in chief command.]

[Sidenote: Sherman commands in the West.]

422. Grant in Command of all the Armies.--The Vicksburg and
Chattanooga campaigns marked out Grant for the chief command. Hitherto
the Union forces had acted on no well-thought-out plan. Now Grant was
appointed Lieutenant General and placed in command of all the armies of
the United States (March, 1864). He decided to carry on the war in
Virginia in person. Western operations he intrusted to Sherman, with
Thomas in command of the Army of the Cumberland. Sheridan came with
Grant to Virginia and led the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac. We
will first follow Sherman and Thomas and the Western armies.

[Illustration: GENERAL SHERMAN.]

[Sidenote: Sherman's army.]

[Sidenote: The march to Atlanta.]

[Sidenote: Hood attacks Sherman.]

423. The Atlanta Campaign, 1864.--Sherman had one hundred thousand
veterans, led by Thomas, McPherson, and Schofield. Joseph E. Johnston,
who succeeded Bragg, had fewer men, but he occupied strongly fortified
positions. Yet week by week Sherman forced him back till, after two
months of steady fighting, Johnston found himself in the vicinity of
Atlanta. This was the most important manufacturing center in the South.
The Confederates must keep Atlanta if they possibly could. Johnston
plainly could not stop Sherman. So Hood was appointed in his place, in
the expectation that he would fight. Hood fought his best. Again and
again he attacked Sherman only to be beaten off with heavy loss. He then
abandoned Atlanta to save his army. From May to September Sherman lost
twenty-two thousand men, but the Confederates lost thirty-five thousand
men and Atlanta too.

[Sidenote: Problems of war.]

[Sidenote: Plan of the March to the Sea.]

424. Plans of Campaign.--Hood now led his army northward to
Tennessee. But Sherman, instead of following him, sent only Thomas and
Schofield. Sherman knew that the Confederacy was a mere shell. Its heart
had been destroyed. What would be the result of a grand march through
Georgia to the seacoast, and then northward through the Carolinas to
Virginia? Would not this unopposed march show the people of the North,
of the South, and of Europe that further resistance was useless? Sherman
thought that it would, and that once in Virginia he could help Grant
crush Lee. Grant agreed with Sherman and told him to carry out his
plans. But first we must see what happened to Thomas and Hood.

[Sidenote: Hood in Tennessee.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Franklin, November, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Thomas destroys Hood's army, December, 1864.]

425. Thomas and Hood, 1864.--Never dreaming that Sherman was not in
pursuit, Hood marched rapidly northward until he had crossed the
Tennessee. He then spent three weeks in resting his tired soldiers and
in gathering supplies. This delay gave Thomas time to draw in recruits.
At last Hood attacked Schofield at Franklin on November 30, 1864.
Schofield retreated to Nashville, where Thomas was with the bulk of his
army, and Hood followed. Thomas took all the time he needed to complete
his preparations. Grant felt anxious at his delay and ordered him to
fight. But Thomas would not fight until he was ready. At length, on
December 15, he struck the blow, and in two days of fighting destroyed
Hood's whole army. This was the last great battle in the West.

[Sidenote: The March to the Sea, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Fall of Savannah, December, 1864.]

426. Marching through Georgia.--Destroying the mills and factories
of Atlanta, Sherman set out for the seashore. He had sixty thousand men
with him. They were all veterans and marched along as if on a holiday
excursion. Spreading out over a line of sixty miles, they gathered
everything eatable within reach. Every now and then they would stop and
destroy a railroad. This they did by taking up the rails, heating them
in the middle on fires of burning sleepers, and then twisting them
around the nearest trees. In this way they cut a gap sixty miles long in
the railroad communication between the half-starved army of northern
Virginia and the storehouses of southern Georgia. On December 10, 1864,
Sherman reached the sea. Ten days later he captured Savannah and
presented it to the nation as a Christmas gift. Sherman and Thomas
between them had struck a fearful blow at the Confederacy. How had it
fared with Grant?

[Sidenote: Grant's plan of campaign, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Objections to it.]

427. Grant in Virginia, 1864.--Grant had with him in Virginia the
Army of the Potomac under Meade, the Ninth Corps under Burnside, and a
great cavalry force under Sheridan. In addition General Butler was on
the James River with some thirty thousand men. Lee had under his orders
about one-half as many soldiers as had Grant. In every other respect the
advantage was on his side. Grant's plan of campaign was to move by his
left from the Rappahannock southeastwardly. He expected to push Lee
southward and hoped to destroy his army. Butler, on his part, was to
move up the James. By this plan Grant could always be near navigable
water and could in this way easily supply his army with food and
military stores. The great objection to this scheme of invasion was that
it gave Lee shorter lines of march to all important points. This fact
and their superior knowledge of the country gave the Confederates an
advantage which largely made up for their lack in numbers.

[Sidenote: Battle of the Wilderness, May, 1864.]

428. The Wilderness, May, 1864.--On May 4 and 5 the Union army
crossed the Rapidan and marched southward through the Wilderness. It
soon found itself very near the scene of the disastrous battle of
Chancellorsville (p. 335). The woods were thick and full of underbrush.
Clearings were few, and the roads were fewer still. On ground like this
Lee attacked the Union army. Everything was in favor of the attacker,
for it was impossible to foresee his blows, or to get men quickly to any
threatened spot. Nevertheless Grant fought four days. Then he skillfully
removed the army and marched by his left to Spotsylvania Court House.

[Illustration: GENERAL GRANT. From a photograph taken in the field,
March, 1865. "Strong, simple, silent, ... such was he Who helped us in
our need."--LOWELL.]

[Sidenote: Spotsylvania, May, 1864.]

429. Spotsylvania, May, 1864.--Lee reached Spotsylvania first and
fortified his position. For days fearful combats went on. One point in
the Confederate line, called the Salient, was taken and retaken over and
over again. The loss of life was awful, and Grant could not push Lee
back. So on May 20 he again set out on his march by the left and
directed his army to the North Anna. But Lee was again before him and
held such a strong position that it was useless to attack him.

[Sidenote: Cold Harbor.]

[Sidenote: Blockade of Petersburg.]

430. To the James, June, 1864.--Grant again withdrew his army and
resumed his southward march. But when he reached Cold Harbor, Lee was
again strongly fortified. Both armies were now on the ground of the
Peninsular Campaign. For two weeks Grant attacked again and again. Then
on June 11 he took up his march for the last time. On June 15 the Union
soldiers reached the banks of the James River below the junction of the
Appomattox. But, owing to some misunderstanding, Petersburg had not been
seized. So Lee established himself there, and the campaign took on the
form of a siege. In these campaigns from the Rapidan to the James, Grant
lost in killed, wounded, and missing sixty thousand men. Lee's loss was
much less--how much less is not known.


[Sidenote: Importance of Petersburg.]

431. Petersburg, June-December, 1864.--Petersburg guarded the roads
leading from Richmond to the South. It was in reality a part of the
defenses of Richmond. For if these roads passed out of Confederate
control, the Confederate capital would have to be abandoned. It was
necessary for Lee to keep Petersburg. Grant, on the other hand, wished
to gain the roads south of Petersburg. He lengthened his line; but each
extension was met by a similar extension of the Confederate line. This
process could not go on forever. The Confederacy was getting worn out.
No more men could be sent to Lee. Sooner or later his line would become
so weak that Grant could break through. Then Petersburg and Richmond
must be abandoned. Two years before, when Richmond was threatened by
McClellan, Lee had secured the removal of the Army of the Potomac by a
sudden movement toward Washington (p. 321). He now detached Jubal Early
with a formidable force and sent him through the Shenandoah Valley to

[Illustration: GENERAL SHERIDAN.]

[Sidenote: Confederate attack on Washington, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Sheridan in the Valley. _Hero Tales_, 263-290.]

[Sidenote: Confederate disaster, October, 1864.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln reëlected, November, 1864. _McMaster_, 425-426.]

432. Sheridan's Valley Campaigns, 1864.--The conditions now were
very unlike the conditions of 1862. Now, Grant was in command instead of
McClellan or Pope. He controlled the movements of all the armies without
interference from Washington, and he had many more men than Lee.
Without letting go his hold on Petersburg, Grant sent two army corps by
water to Washington. Early was an able and active soldier, but he
delayed his attack on Washington until soldiers came from the James. He
then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley. Grant now gave Sheridan forty
thousand infantry and fifteen thousand cavalry, and sent him to the
Valley with orders to drive Early out and to destroy all supplies in
the Valley which could be used by another Southern army. Splendidly
Sheridan did his work. At one time, when he was away, the Confederates
surprised the Union army. But, hearing the roar of the battle, Sheridan
rode rapidly to the front. As he rode along, the fugitives turned back.
The Confederates, surprised in their turn, were swept from the field and
sent whirling up the Valley in wild confusion (October 19, 1864). Then
Sheridan destroyed everything that could be of service to another
invading army and rejoined Grant at Petersburg. In the November
following this great feat of arms, Lincoln was reëlected President.

[Sidenote: Mobile Bay, 1864. _Hero Tales_, 303-322.]

[Sidenote: _Kearsarge_ and _Alabama_.]

433. The Blockade and the Cruisers, 1863-64.--The blockade had now
become stricter than ever. For by August, 1864, Farragut had carried his
fleet into Mobile Bay and had closed it to commerce. Sherman had taken
Savannah. Early in 1865 Charleston was abandoned, for Sherman had it at
his mercy, and Terry captured Wilmington. The South was now absolutely
dependent on its own resources, and the end could not be far off. On the
open sea, with England's aid a few vessels flew the Confederate flag.
The best known of these vessels was the _Alabama._ She was built in
England, armed with English guns, and largely manned by Englishmen. On
June 19, 1864, the United States ship _Kearsarge_ sank her off
Cherbourg, France. Englishmen were also building two ironclad
battleships for the Confederates. But the American minister at London,
Mr. Charles Francis Adams, said that if they were allowed to sail, it
would be "war." The English government thereupon bought the vessels.

[Illustration: ADMIRAL FARRAGUT.]

[Sidenote: Sherman's northern march, 1865.]

434. Sherman's March through the Carolinas, 1865.--Early in 1865
Sherman set out on the worst part of his great march. He now directed
his steps northward from Savannah toward Virginia. The Confederates
prepared to meet him. But Sherman set out before they expected him, and
thus gained a clear path for the first part of his journey. Joseph E.
Johnston now took command of the forces opposed to Sherman and did
everything he could to stop him. At one moment it seemed as if he might
succeed. He almost crushed the forward end of Sherman's army before the
rest of the soldiers could be brought to its rescue. But Sherman's
veterans were too old soldiers to be easily defeated. They first beat
back the enemy in front, and when another force appeared in the rear
they jumped to the other side of their field breastworks and defeated
that force also. Night then put an end to the combat, and by morning the
Union force was too strong to be attacked. Pressing on, Sherman reached
Goldsboro' in North Carolina. There he was joined by Terry from
Wilmington and by Schofield from Tennessee. Sherman now was strong
enough to beat any Confederate army. He moved to Raleigh and completely
cut Lee's communications with South Carolina and Georgia, April, 1865.

[Sidenote: Condition of Lee's army.]

[Sidenote: _Higginson_, 317.]

[Sidenote: Surrender of the Southern armies, April 1865. _Source-book_,

435. Appomattox, April, 1865.--The end of the Confederacy was now
plainly in sight. Lee's men were starving. They were constantly
deserting either to go to the aid of their perishing families or to
obtain food from the Union army. As soon as the roads were fit for
marching, Grant set his one hundred and twenty thousand men once more in
motion. His object was to gain the rear of Lee's army and to force him
to abandon Petersburg. A last despairing attack on the Union center only
increased Grant's vigor. On April 1 Sheridan with his cavalry and an
infantry corps seized Five Forks in the rear of Petersburg and could not
be driven away. Petersburg and Richmond were abandoned. Lee tried to
escape to the mountains. But now the Union soldiers marched faster than
the starving Southerners. Sheridan, outstripping them, placed his men
across their path at Appomattox Court House. There was nothing left save
surrender. The soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia, now only
thirty-seven thousand strong, laid down their arms, April 9, 1865. Soon
Johnston surrendered, and the remaining small isolated bands of
Confederates were run down and captured.

[Sidenote: Murder of Lincoln, April 14, 1865. _Higginson_, 322-323;
_Source-book_, 333-335.]

436. Lincoln murdered, April 14, 1865.--The national armies were
victorious. President Lincoln, never grander or wiser than in the moment
of victory, alone stood between the Southern people and the Northern
extremists clamoring for vengeance. On the night of April 14 he was
murdered by a sympathizer with slavery and secession. No one old enough
to remember the morning of April 15, 1865, will ever forget the horror
aroused in the North by this unholy murder. In the beginning Lincoln
had been a party leader. In the end the simple grandeur of his nature
had won for him a place in the hearts of the American people that no
other man has ever gained. He was indeed the greatest because the most
typical of Americans. Vice-President Andrew Johnson, a war Democrat from
Tennessee, became President. The vanquished secessionists were soon to
taste the bitter dregs of the cup of defeat.

[Illustration: MAYOR'S OFFICE, APRIL 15th, 1865, Death notice of
Abraham Lincoln]


[Use maps constantly while studying this period. The maps provided in
Dodge's _Bird's-Eye View _are admirably adapted to this purpose.]


§ 380.--_a_. What did Lincoln say about the Union? What did he say about
slavery? What oath did Lincoln take?

_b_. Was his inaugural conciliatory to the South?

§§ 381, 382.--_a_. What was the result of Buchanan's attempt to send
supplies to Fort Sumter?

_b_. Why did Lincoln inform the governor of South Carolina of his
determination to succor Fort Sumter?

_c_. What was the effect on Northern opinion of the attack on Fort

_d_. Could the Southerners have done otherwise than fire on the flag?

§§ 383-385.--_a_. Why were the Virginians so divided? What resulted from
this division?

_b_. What were the "border states"? Could these states have been

_c_. Describe the especial importance of Maryland.

_d_. What oath had the officers of the United States army and navy
taken? Did Lee and other officers who resigned necessarily believe in
the right of secession? Give your reasons.


§§ 386, 387.--_a_. State the advantages of the Southerners from the
geographical point of view.

_b_. Explain how rivers were lines of defense.

_c_. Describe carefully the plan of the Bull Run campaign.

_d_. Why was the Shenandoah Valley so important?

§§ 388-390.--_a_. Why was McClellan placed in command of the Army of the

_b_. Of what advantage to the South were the negroes?

_c_. Describe the plan of the Peninsular Campaign. What was the great
objection to it?

§ 391.--_a_. Describe the _Merrimac_, the _Monitor_. Compare them with
the _Congress_.

_b_. What effect did the _Monitor-Merrimac_ fight have on McClellan's

§§ 392, 393.--_a_ Describe the Peninsular Campaign. Why were not more
soldiers sent to McClellan?

_b_. What is meant by the phrase "change of base"?

_c_. How did Lee secure the removal of McClellan's army from the James?

§§ 394, 395.--_a_ Why did Lee invade Maryland? _b_. Describe the battle
of Antietam, of Fredericksburg. What was the result of each of
these battles?

§§ 396, 397.--_a_. Give an account of the early life and training of
Grant and of Thomas.

_b_. Why were the seizures of Cairo and Paducah and the battle of Mill
Springs important?

_c_. What is meant by the phrase "unconditional surrender"?

§§ 398, 399.--_a_. Explain carefully the importance to the South of New
Orleans and the lower Mississippi.

_b_. Give an account of Farragut's early life. How did it fit him for
this work?

_c_. Describe the operations against New Orleans.

§ 400.--_a_. Explain carefully the plan of the campaign to Corinth Why
was Corinth important?

_b_. What quality in Grant was conspicuous at Shiloh?

§ 401.--_a_. What was Bragg's object in invading Kentucky? How far did
he succeed? Why was Chattanooga important?


§§ 402, 403.--_a_. What is a blockade? What was the effect of the
blockade on the South?

_b_. Had sea power been in Southern hands, could the Union have been

_c_. Why was Charleston so difficult to capture? (Compare with the
Revolutionary War.)

§§ 405, 406.--_a_. What help did the Southerners hope to obtain from
Great Britain and France? Why? How were their hopes disappointed?

_b_. What do you think of the action of the English mill operatives?

_c_. Describe the Trent Affair. What do you think of Lincoln's action?
Did the British government act wisely?

§§ 406, 407.--_a_. What had the Republican party declared about slavery
in the states? What had Lincoln said in his inaugural?

_b_. How had the war altered Lincoln's power as President?

_c_. Why was it necessary for Lincoln to follow Northern sentiment?

_d_. What is contraband of war? How were the slaves contraband?

§§ 408, 409.--_a_. What steps had already been taken by Congress toward
freeing the slaves?

_b_. How was the Emancipation Proclamation justified? Upon what would
its enforcement depend?

_c_. What slave states were not affected by this proclamation?

_d_. How was slavery as an institution abolished throughout the United

§§ 410, 411.--_a_. Why was not the North united upon this war?

_b_. What is the force of the writ of _habeas corpus_? Why is it so

_c_. What was the "draft," and why was it necessary?


§§ 412-415.--_a_. Explain the position of the armies at the beginning of

_b_. Why was the conquest of Vicksburg so difficult? How was it finally

_c_. What effect did the control of the Mississippi have upon the

§ 416.--_a_. What was Lee's object in invading Pennsylvania?

_b_. What position did the Union army keep as regards the Confederates?

§§ 417-419.--_a_. Describe the battle-field of Gettysburg. Why was the
battle so important?

_b_. Describe in detail the principal events of each day of the battle.

_c_. Learn Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." How was this ground
hallowed? What was the great task before the people?

§§ 420, 421.--_a_. Describe the battle of Chickamauga. Review Thomas's
services up to this time.

_b_. Describe the three parts of the battle of Chattanooga.


§§ 422, 423.--_a_. How had Grant shown his fitness for high command? Was
it wise to have one man in command of all the armies? Why?

_b_. Review Sherman's career up to this time. Why did Grant impose trust
in him?

_c_. What was the result of Hood's attacks?

§§ 424-426.--_a_. What was the real object of Sherman's march to the

_b_. Describe the destruction of Hood's army. What does it show as to
Thomas's ability?

_c_. What did Sherman's army accomplish on its way to the sea?

§§ 427-430.--_a_. Compare the conditions of the two armies in Virginia.
Explain the advantages of the Confederates.

_b_. Describe the battle of the Wilderness, noting the conditions
favorable to the Confederates.

_c_. Describe the movement to the James. What advantages had Grant not
possessed by McClellan?

§§ 431, 432.--_a_. Why was Petersburg important?

_b_. How did Lee try to compel the withdrawal of Grant? Why did he not

_c_. Describe Sheridan's work in the Shenandoah Valley. Read a short
account of Sheridan's career to 1865, and state his services to the
Union cause.

§§ 433.--_a_. How had Sherman's victories affected the blockade?

_b_. What aid had Great Britain given to the Confederates? Why did she
not give more assistance?

§§ 434, 435.--_a_. How did Sherman's occupation of Raleigh affect Lee?

_b_. Describe the condition of Lee's army. How was its capture

§ 436.--_a_. Why was Lincoln's death a terrible loss to the South?

_b_. Why is he the greatest of all Americans?


_a_. Review the steps which led to the war for the Union.

_b_. What were Lincoln's personal views as to slavery? Why could he not
carry them out?

_c_. What were Lincoln's leading characteristics? Give illustrations to
support your view.

_d_. Study Grant's military career and try to find out why he succeeded
where others failed.

_e_. Arrange a table of the leading campaigns, giving dates, leaders,
end to be attained, important battles, and result.

_f_. Give the two most important battles of the war. Why do you select


_a_. Life in Southern prisons.

_b_. The Shenandoah Valley in the war.

_c_. Any important battle or naval action, or leading general, or naval

_d_. The part played by your own state or town in the war, or the
history of one of your state regiments.


A few days spent upon a study of the field of war will save a great deal
of time. Channing's _Students' History_ will enable the teacher to
indicate the most important strategic points. Maps have been sparingly
provided in this book, as the simple plans in Dodge's _Bird's-eye View_
can easily be reproduced on the blackboard. In general, campaigns should
be studied rather than battles.

Pictures relating to this period are easily obtainable and may be freely
used. It is an excellent plan to ask some veteran to describe his
experiences, and the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic will
often lend material aid in making the war real to the pupils. Grant's
career should be especially studied, and the reasons for his successes
carefully noted.

Indeed, the study of this period may well center around Lincoln and
Grant. Lincoln's inaugurals are too difficult to be studied thoroughly.
But the teacher can easily select portions, as the last paragraph of the
second inaugural. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address should be learned by
every pupil, and his letter to Greeley _(Students' History, _p. 539)
will throw a flood of light on Lincoln's character. In studying this
period, as well as other periods, it is better to dwell on the
patriotism and heroism of our soldiers, sailors, and statesmen than to
point out their mistakes and personal faults.

Literature is so rich in reference to this time that nothing more than
the mention of the works of Lowell, Whittier, Holmes, and Longfellow
is needed.

[Illustration: THE PRESENT FLAG, 1900.]



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, V; McMaster's _School
History_, chs. xxx-xxxiii; Andrews's _Last Quarter-Century._

Home Readings.--Hale's _Mr. Merriam's Scholars._



[Sidenote: Position of the seceded states.]

[Sidenote: Lincoln's policy of reconstruction. _McMaster_, 427-428.]

437. Lincoln's Reconstruction Policy.--The great question now
before the country was what should be done with the Southern states and
people. And what should be done with the freedmen? On these questions
people were not agreed. Some people thought that the states were
"indestructible"; that they could not secede or get out of the Union.
Others thought that the Southern states had been conquered and should be
treated as a part of the national domain. Lincoln thought that it was
useless to go into these questions. The Southern states were out of the
"proper practical relations with the Union." That was clear enough. The
thing to do, therefore, was to restore "proper practical relations" as
quickly and as quietly as possible. In December, 1863, Lincoln had
offered a pardon to all persons, with some exceptions, who should take
the oath of allegiance to the United States, and should promise to
support the Constitution and the Emancipation Proclamation. Whenever
one-tenth of the voters in any of the Confederate states should do these
things, and should set up a republican form of government, Lincoln
promised to recognize that government as the state government. But the
admission to Congress of Senators and Representatives from such a
reconstructed state would rest with Congress. Several states were
reconstructed on this plan. But public opinion was opposed to this quiet
reorganization of the seceded states. The people trusted Lincoln,
however, and had he lived he might have induced them to accept his plan.

[Sidenote: Andrew Johnson President, 1865.]

[Sidenote: His ideas on reconstruction. _McMaster_, 428.]

438. President Johnson's Reconstruction Plan.--Johnson was an able
man and a patriot. But he had none of Lincoln's wise patience. He had
none of Lincoln's tact and humor in dealing with men. On the contrary,
he always lost his temper when opposed. Although he was a Southerner, he
hated slavery and slave owners. On the other hand, he had a Southerner's
contempt for the negroes. He practically adopted Lincoln's
reconstruction policy and tried to bring about the reorganization of the
seceded states by presidential action.

[Sidenote: Force of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.]

[Sidenote: Abolition of slavery, 1865.]

439. The Thirteenth Amendment, 1865.--President Lincoln's
Emancipation Proclamation (p. 331) had freed the slaves in those states
and parts of states which were in rebellion against the national
government. It had not freed the slaves in the loyal states. It had not
destroyed slavery as an institution. Any state could reestablish slavery
whenever it chose. Slavery could be prohibited only by an amendment of
the Constitution. So the Thirteenth Amendment was adopted, December,
1865. This amendment declares that "neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for crime, ... shall exist within the
United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." In this way
slavery came to an end throughout the United States.

[Illustration: HORSE CAR.]

[Sidenote: Forced labor in the South. _McMaster_, 429.]

[Sidenote: The Freedmen's Bureau. _Source-book_, 339-342.]

440. Congress and the President, 1865-66.--Unhappily many of the
old slave states had passed laws to compel the negroes to work. They had
introduced a system of forced labor which was about the same thing as
slavery. In December, 1865, the new Congress met. The Republicans were
in the majority. They refused to admit the Senators and Representatives
from the reorganized Southern states and at once set to work to pass
laws for the protection of the negroes. In March, 1865, while the war
was still going on, and while Lincoln was alive, Congress had
established the Freedmen's Bureau to look after the interests of the
negroes. Congress now (February, 1866) passed a bill to continue the
Bureau and to give it much more power. Johnson promptly vetoed the bill.
In the following July Congress passed another bill to continue the
Freedmen's Bureau. In this bill the officers of the Bureau were given
greatly enlarged powers, the education of the blacks was provided for,
and the army might be used to compel obedience to the law. Johnson
vetoed this bill also.

[Sidenote: Civil Rights Bill, 1866.]

[Sidenote: It is passed over Johnson's veto.]

[Sidenote: The Fourteenth Amendment, 1866.]

441. The Fourteenth Amendment.--While this contest over the
Freedmen's Bureau was going on, Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill to
protect the freedmen. This bill provided that cases concerning the civil
rights of the freedmen should be heard in the United States courts
instead of in the state courts. Johnson thought that Congress had no
power to do this. He vetoed the bill, and Congress passed it over his
veto. Congress then drew up the Fourteenth Amendment. This forbade the
states to abridge the rights of the citizens, white or black. It further
provided that the representation of any state in Congress should be
diminished whenever it denied the franchise to any one except for taking
part in rebellion. Finally it guaranteed the debt of the United States,
and declared all debts incurred in support of rebellion null and void.
Every Southern state except Tennessee refused to accept this amendment.

[Illustration: ANDREW JOHNSON.]

[Sidenote: Elections of 1866.]

[Sidenote: Tenure of Office Act, 1867.]

[Sidenote: The Reconstruction Acts, 1867.]

[Sidenote: Process of reconstruction. _Source-Book_, 344-346.]

442. The Reconstruction Acts, 1867.--The Congressional elections of
November, 1866, were greatly in favor of the Republicans. The Republican
members of Congress felt that this showed that the North was with them
in their policy as to reconstruction. Congress met in December, 1866,
and at once set to work to carry out this policy. First of all it passed
the Tenure of Office Act to prevent Johnson dismissing Republicans from
office. Then it passed the Reconstruction Act. Johnson vetoed both of
these measures, and Congress passed them both over his veto. The
Reconstruction Act was later amended and strengthened. It will be well
to describe here the process of reconstruction in its final form. First
of all the seceded states, with the exception of Tennessee, were formed
into military districts. Each district was ruled by a military officer
who had soldiers to carry out his directions. Tennessee was not included
in this arrangement, because it had accepted the Fourteenth Amendment.
But all the other states, which had been reconstructed by Lincoln or by
Johnson, were to be reconstructed over again. The franchise was given to
all men, white or black, who had lived in any state for one
year--excepting criminals and persons who had taken part in rebellion.
This exception took the franchise away from the old rulers of the South.
These new voters could form a state constitution and elect a legislature
which should ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. When all this had been
done, Senators and Representatives from the reconstructed state might be
admitted to Congress.

[Sidenote: Charges against Johnson.]

[Sidenote: He is impeached.]

[Sidenote: But not convicted.]

443. Impeachment of Johnson, 1868.--President Johnson had vetoed
all these bills. He had declared that the Congress was a Congress of
only a part of the states, because Representatives from the states
reconstructed according to his ideas were not admitted. He had used
language toward his opponents that was fairly described as indecent and
unbecoming the chief officer of a great nation. Especially he had
refused to be bound by the Tenure of Office Act. Ever since the
formation of the government the Presidents had removed officers when
they saw fit. The Tenure of Office Act required the consent of the
Senate to removals as well as to appointments. Among the members of
Lincoln's cabinet who were still in office was Edwin M. Stanton. Johnson
removed him, and this brought on the crisis. The House impeached the
President. The Senate, presided over by Chief Justice Chase, heard the
impeachment. The Constitution requires the votes of two-thirds of the
Senators to convict. Seven Republicans voted with the Democrats against
conviction, and the President was acquitted by one vote.

[Sidenote: Napoleon's plans.]

[Sidenote: Action of the United States.]

[Sidenote: Withdrawal of the French, 1868.]

444. The French in Mexico.--Napoleon III, Emperor of the French,
seized the occasion of the Civil War to set the Monroe Doctrine at
defiance and to refound a French colonial empire in America. At one
time, indeed, he seemed to be on the point of interfering, to compel the
Union government to withdraw its armies from the Confederate states.
Then Napoleon had an idea that perhaps Texas might secede from the
Confederacy and set up for itself under French protection. This failing,
he began the establishment of an empire in Mexico with the Austrian
prince, Maximilian, as Emperor. The ending of the Civil War made it
possible for the United States to interfere. Grant and Sheridan would
gladly have marched troops into Mexico and turned out the French, but
Seward said that the French would have to leave before long anyway. He
hastened their going by telling the French government that the sooner
they left the better. They were withdrawn in 1868. Maximilian insisted
on staying. He was captured by the Mexicans and shot. The Mexican
Republic was reestablished.

[Sidenote: Purchase of Alaska, 1867.]

[Sidenote: The fur seals.]

[Sidenote: Boundary controversy.]

445. The Purchase of Alaska, 1867.--In 1867 President Johnson sent
to the Senate, for ratification, a treaty with Russia for the purchase
of Russia's American possessions. These were called Alaska, and
included an immense tract of land in the extreme Northwest. The price to
be paid was seven million dollars. The history of this purchase is still
little known. The Senate was completely taken by surprise, but it
ratified the treaty. Until recent years the only important product of
Alaska has been the skins of the fur seals. To preserve the seal herds
from extinction, the United States made rules limiting the number of
seals to be killed in any one year. The Canadians were not bound by
these rules, and the herds have been nearly destroyed. In recent years
large deposits of gold have been found in Alaska and in neighboring
portions of Canada. But the Canadian deposits are hard to reach without
first going through Alaska. This fact has made it more difficult to
agree with Great Britain as to the boundary between Alaska and Canada.

[Sidenote: Grant nominated for the presidency.]

[Sidenote: The Democrats.]

[Sidenote: Grant elected, 1868.]

446. Grant elected President, 1868.--The excitement over
reconstruction and the bitter contest between the Republicans in
Congress and the President had brought about great confusion in
politics. The Democrats nominated General F. P. Blair, a gallant
soldier, for Vice-President. For President they nominated Horatio
Seymour of New York. He was a Peace Democrat. As governor of New York
during the war he had refused to support the national government. The
Republicans nominated General Grant.

He received three hundred thousand more votes than Seymour. Of the two
hundred and ninety-four electoral votes, Grant received two hundred
and fifteen.



[Sidenote: The Fifteenth Amendment, 1870.]

447. The Fifteenth Amendment.--In February, 1869, just before
Grant's inauguration, Congress proposed still another amendment,
providing that neither the United States nor any state could abridge the
rights of citizens of the United States on account of race, color, or
previous condition of servitude. The state legislatures hastened to
accept this amendment, and it was declared in force in March, 1870.

[Sidenote: Progress of reconstruction.]

[Sidenote: Reunion, 1870.]

448. End of Reconstruction.--Three states only were still
unreconstructed. These were Virginia, Texas, and Mississippi. In 1869
Congress added to the conditions on which they could be readmitted to
the Union the acceptance of the Fifteenth Amendment. Early in 1870 they
all complied with the conditions and were readmitted. The Union was now
again complete. Since 1860 four states had been added to the Union.
These were Kansas, West Virginia, Nevada, and Nebraska. There were now
thirty-seven states in all.

[Sidenote: The carpetbaggers. _McMaster_, 439-414.]

[Sidenote: The Ku-Klux-Klan.]

[Sidenote: The Force Acts.]

449. The Southerners and the Negroes.--The first result of the
Congressional plan of reconstruction was to give the control of the
Southern states to the freedmen and their white allies. Some of these
white friends of the freedmen were men of character and ability, but
most of them were adventurers who came from the North to make their
fortunes. They were called the "carpetbaggers," because they usually
carried their luggage in their hands. The few Southern whites who
befriended the negroes were called "scalawags" by their white neighbors.
Secret societies sprang into being. The most famous was the
Ku-Klux-Klan. The object of these societies was to terrorize the
freedmen and their white friends and to prevent their voting. This led
to the passage of the Force Acts. These laws provided severe penalties
for crimes of intimidation. They also provided that these cases should
be tried in United States courts. Federal soldiers, stationed in the
South, could be used to compel obedience to the law.

[Sidenote: Relations with Great Britain.]

[Sidenote: Treaty of Washington, 1871. _Source-Book_, 355-358.]

[Sidenote: The Geneva Award.]

450. The Alabama Claims.--During the Civil War vessels built in
British shipyards, or refitted and supplied with coal at British ports,
had preyed upon American commerce. The most famous of these vessels was
the _Alabama_. The claims for losses caused by these vessels which the
United States presented to Great Britain were therefore called the
"Alabama Claims." There also were disputes with Great Britain over the
fisheries and over the western end of the Oregon boundary. In 1871 the
United States and Great Britain made an arrangement called the Treaty of
Washington. By this treaty all these points of dispute were referred to
arbitration. The Oregon boundary was decided in favor of the United
States, but the fishery dispute was decided in favor of Great Britain.
The "Alabama Claims" were settled by five arbitrators who sat at Geneva
in Switzerland. They decided that Great Britain had not used "due
diligence" to prevent the abuse of her ports by the Confederates. They
condemned her to pay fifteen and one-half million dollars damages to the
United States.

[Sidenote: The Chicago fire, 1871.]

451. The Chicago Fire, 1871.--Early one morning in October, 1871, a
Chicago woman went to the barn to milk her cow. She carried a lighted
kerosene lamp, for it was still dark. The cow kicked over the lamp. The
barn was soon ablaze. A furious gale carried the burning sparks from one
house to another. And so the fire went on spreading all that day and
night and the next day. Nearly two hundred million dollars' worth of
property was destroyed. The homes of nearly one hundred thousand persons
were burned down. In a surprisingly short time the burnt district was
rebuilt, and Chicago grew more rapidly than ever before.

[Sidenote: Rings. _Source-Book_, 352-355.]

[Sidenote: Bribery.]

452. Corruption in Politics.--New York City had no two hundred
million dollar fire. But a "ring" of city officers stole more than one
hundred and fifty million dollars of the city's money. In other cities
also there was great corruption. Nor were the state governments free
from bribery and thieving. Many officers in the national government were
believed to be mixed up in schemes to defraud the people. The truth of
the matter was that the Civil War had left behind it the habit of
spending money freely. A desire to grow suddenly rich possessed the
people. Men did not look closely to see where their money came from.

[Illustration: CHICAGO IN 1832.]

[Sidenote: Objections to Grant.]

[Sidenote: Liberal Republicans.]

[Sidenote: Horace Greeley.]

[Sidenote: Grant reëlected, 1872.]

453. Election of 1872.--In fact, this condition of the public
service made many persons doubtful of the wisdom of reëlecting President
Grant. There was not the slightest doubt as to Grant's personal honesty.
There were grave doubts as to his judgment in making appointments.
Reconstruction, too, did not seem to be restoring peace and prosperity
to the South. For these reasons many voters left the Republican party.
They called themselves Liberal Republicans and nominated Horace Greeley
for President. He had been one of the most outspoken opponents of
slavery. The Democrats could find no better candidate, so they, too,
nominated Greeley. But many Democrats could not bring themselves to vote
for him. They left their party for the moment and nominated a third
candidate. The result of all this confusion was the reëlection of
Grant. But the Democrats elected a majority of the House of


[Sidenote: Rebellion in Cuba, 1867.]

[Sidenote: Spanish cruelty.]

[Sidenote: The _Virginius_ affair.]

[Sidenote: Spanish promises end rebellion, 1877.]

454. The Cuban Rebellion, 1867-77.--When the other Spanish-American
colonies won their independence (p. 223), Cuba remained true to Spain.
But by 1867 the Cubans could no longer bear the hardships of Spanish
rule. They rebelled and for ten years fought for freedom. The Spaniards
burned whole villages because they thought the inhabitants favored the
rebels. They even threatened to kill all Cuban men found away from their
homes. This cruelty aroused the sympathy of the Americans. Expeditions
sailed from the United States to help the Cubans, although the
government did everything it could to prevent their departure. One of
these vessels carrying aid to the Cubans was named the _Virginius_. The
Spaniards captured her, carried her to Santiago, and killed forty-six of
her crew. There came near being a war with Spain over this affair. But
the Spaniards apologized and saluted the American flag. In 1877
President Grant made up his mind that the war had lasted long enough. He
adopted a severe tone toward Spain. The Spanish government made terms
with the rebels, and the rebellion came to an end.

[Sidenote: The Credit Mobilier.]

[Sidenote: The Whiskey Ring.]

455. Scandals in Political Life.--In 1872 the House of
Representatives made a searching inquiry into the charges of bribery in
connection with the building of the Pacific railroads. Oakes Ames of
Massachusetts was the head of a company called the "Credit Mobilier."
This company had been formed to build the Union Pacific Railway. Fearing
that Congress would pass laws that might hurt the enterprise, Ames gave
stock in the company to members of Congress. But nothing definite could
be proved against any members, and the matter dropped. Soon after the
beginning of Grant's second term, many evil things came to light. One of
these was the Whiskey Ring, which defrauded the government of large sums
of money with the aid of the government officials. Grant wished to have
a thorough investigation, and said, "Let no guilty man escape." The
worst case of all, perhaps, was that of W. W. Belknap, Secretary of
War. But he escaped punishment by resigning.


[Sidenote: Failure of reconstruction. _Source-Book_, 349-351.]

456. Anarchy in the South.--Meantime reconstruction was not working
well in the South. This was especially true of Louisiana, Arkansas, and
South Carolina. In Louisiana, and in Arkansas also, there were two sets
of governors and legislatures, and civil war on a small scale was going
on. In South Carolina the carpetbaggers and the negroes had gained
control. They stole right and left. In other Southern states there were
continued outrages on the negroes. President Grant was greatly troubled.
"Let us have peace," was his heartfelt wish. But he felt it necessary to
keep Federal soldiers in the South, although he knew that public opinion
in the North was turning against their employment. It was under these
circumstances that the election of 1876 was held.

[Sidenote: Election of 1876. _Higginson_, 331-334.]

[Sidenote: The electoral commission.]

[Sidenote: Hayes inaugurated, 1877.]

457. Election of 1876.--The Republican candidate was Rutherford B.
Hayes of Ohio. He was a gallant soldier of the Civil War, and was a man
of the highest personal character. His Democratic opponent was Samuel J.
Tilden of New York--a shrewd lawyer who had won distinction as governor
of the Empire State. When the electoral returns were brought in, there
appeared two sets of returns from each of three Southern states, and the
vote of Oregon was doubtful. The Senate was Republican, and the House
was Democratic. As the two houses could not agree as to how these
returns should be counted, they referred the whole matter to an
electoral commission. This commission was made up of five Senators, five
Representatives, and five justices of the Supreme Court. Eight of them
were Republicans and seven were Democrats. They decided by eight seven
that Hayes was elected, and he was inaugurated President on March
4, 1877.

[Sidenote: Southern politics _Higginson_, 334-335.]

[Sidenote: Troops withdrawn.]

458. Withdrawal of the Soldiers from the South.--The People of the
North were weary of the ceaseless political agitation in the South. The
old Southern leaders had regained control of nearly all the Southern
states. They could not be turned out except by a new civil war, and the
Northern people were not willing to go to war again. The only other
thing that could be done was to withdraw the Federal soldiers and let
the Southern people work out their own salvation as well as they could.
President Hayes recalled the troops, and all the Southern states at once
passed into the control of the Democrats.


[Sidenote: Panic and hard times.]

[Sidenote: The Pittsburgh riots, 1877.]

459. Strikes and Riots, 1877.--The extravagance and speculation of
the Civil War, and the years following its close, ended in a great panic
in 1873. After the panic came the "hard times." Production fell off. The
demand for labor diminished. Wages were everywhere reduced. Strikes
became frequent, and riots followed the strikes. At Pittsburg, in
western Pennsylvania, the rioters seized the railroad. They burned
hundreds of railroad cars and locomotives. They destroyed the railroad
buildings. At last the riot came to an end, but not until millions of
dollars' worth of property had been destroyed.

[Sidenote: The Stalwart Republicans.]

[Sidenote: Garfield elected President, 1880.]

460. Election of 1880.--At the beginning of his administration
Hayes had declared that he would not be a candidate for reëlection. Who
should be the Republican standard bearer? Grant's friends proposed to
nominate him for a third term. The politicians who advocated a third
term for Grant were opposed to the candidacy of James G. Blaine. They
were called the Stalwart Republicans. In the convention they voted
steadily and solidly for Grant. Finally their opponents, with the cry of
"Anything to beat Grant," suddenly turned to an entirely new man, whose
name had been little mentioned. This was James A. Garfield of Ohio. He
had won distinction in the Civil War and had served with credit in
Congress. For Vice-President the Republicans nominated Chester A.
Arthur, a New York banker. The Democrats, on their part, nominated one
of the most brilliant and popular soldiers of the Army of the Potomac,
General Winfield Scott Hancock. The campaign was very hotly contested.
In the end Garfield won.

[Sidenote: Garfield murdered, 1881.]

[Sidenote: President Arthur.]

[Sidenote: Civil Service Reform. _Source-Book_, 363-365.]

461. Garfield murdered; Civil Service Reform.--President Garfield
took the oath of office on March 4, 1881. On July 2 he was shot in the
back by a disappointed office-seeker. Week after week he endured
terrible agony. At length, on September 19, the martyred President died.
Now at last the evils of the "Spoils System" were brought to the
attention of the American people. Vice-President Arthur became President
and entered heartily into projects of reform. A beginning was soon made.
But it was found to be a very difficult thing to bring about any lasting
reform. The Constitution gives the President the appointment of
officers, subject to the confirmation of the Senate. No act of Congress
can diminish the constitutional powers of the President except so far as
he consents, and one President cannot bind succeeding Presidents. Any
scheme of reform also costs money, which must be voted annually by
Congress. It follows, therefore, that the consent of every President and
of both Houses of every Congress is necessary to make the reform of the
civil service permanent. Nevertheless the reform has made steady
progress until now by far the greater part of the civil service is
organized on the merit system.

[Sidenote: J.G. Blaine]

[Sidenote: The Mugwumps.]

[Sidenote: Grover Cleveland.]

[Sidenote: Cleveland elected President, 1884.]

[Sidenote: Tariff reform.]

462. Election of 1884.--In 1884 the Republicans nominated James G.
Blaine of Maine for President. He was a man of magnetic address and had
made many friends, but he also had made many enemies. Especially many
Republican voters distrusted him. They felt that he had used his
position for private gain, although nothing was proved against him.
These Republicans were called "Mugwumps." They "bolted" the nomination
and supported the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland. As mayor of
Buffalo, Cleveland had done very well. He had then been elected governor
of New York by a very large majority. The campaign of 1884 was conducted
on lines of personal abuse that recall the campaigns of 1800 and of
1828. Cleveland carried four large Northern states and the "solid South"
and was elected.

[Illustration: GROVER CLEVELAND.]

463. Cleveland's Administration, 1885-89.--The great contest of
Cleveland's first term was a fierce struggle over the tariff. The
government's need of money during the Civil War had compelled Congress
to raise large sums by means of internal revenue taxes. These taxes in
turn had brought about a great increase in the tariff rates on goods
imported from foreign countries. The internal revenue taxes had been
almost entirely removed, but the war tariff substantially remained in
force. In 1887 Cleveland laid the whole question before Congress. For a
time it seemed probable that something would be done. But the opposition
in Congress was very active and very strong. It fell out, therefore,
that nothing important was done. The real significance of Cleveland's
first administration lay in the fact that the Southerners were once
again admitted to a share in the government of the nation. It marked,
therefore, the reunion of the American people.



§§437, 438.--_a_. Explain carefully Lincoln's plan for reconstruction.
How was it affected by his death?

_b_. What was Johnson's attitude toward reconstruction? Precisely what
is meant by "reconstruction"?

§§439-441.--_a_. What was the force of the Emancipation Proclamation?
How was the institution of slavery abolished?

_b_. Explain the reasons for the establishment of the freedmen's bureau.
What do you think of the provision relating to the use of the army?

_c_. How was Congress able to pass a bill over the President's veto?

_d_. Explain carefully the Fourteenth Amendment. What do you think of
the provision as to debts?

§§442, 443.--_a_. Why were the elections of 1866 important?

_b_. What was the force of the Tenure of Office Act, and why was it

_c_. Describe the actual process of reconstruction.

_d_. Why was Johnson impeached? Why did the impeachment fail?

§§444, 445.--_a_. How did this act of Napoleon's set the Monroe Doctrine
at defiance?

_b_. What action did the government take? With what result?

_c_. What advantage has Alaska been to the United States?

§446.--_a_. What were the issues in the campaign of 1868?

_b_. What had Blair done for the Union?

_c_. What did the election of Grant show?


§§447-449.--_a_. What were the provisions of the Fifteenth Amendment?

_b_. Under what conditions were the remaining seceded states readmitted?

_c_. What was the Force Act? Why was it passed?

§450.--_a_. How was the injury to our shipping during the Civil War
connected with Great Britain?

_b_. What is meant by "arbitration"? Is it better to settle disputes by
arbitration or by war?

§§451-452.--_a_. Describe the Chicago fire and its results.

_b_. Why was there so much bribery and corruption at this time?

_c_. Should city governments be conducted as business enterprises?

§453.--_a_. Why was there so much opposition to Grant's reëlection?

_b_. Why did the Democrats nominate Greeley? What was the result of the

§454.--_a_. What trouble broke out in Cuba? Why?

_b_. Describe the _Virginius_ affair. How did the Cuban rebellion come
to an end?

§§455, 456.--_a_. What scandal arose in connection with the Union
Pacific Railway?

_b_. What was the "Whiskey Ring"? What was Grant's wish?

_c_. What troubles arose in the South? Could they have been avoided?

§§457, 458.--_a_. Why was there a dispute about the election of 1876?
How was it settled?

_b_. Was it wise to let the Southerners work out their questions for
themselves or not? Why?

§§459, 460.--_a_. Compare the panic of 1873 with that of 1877 explaining
the likenesses and differences.

_b_. Why was opposition to the nomination of Grant so strong?

_c_. Who were nominated? Who was elected?

§§461.--_a_. What was the cause of Garfield's murder?

_b_. Why is Civil Service Reform so difficult?

_c_. What is meant by the "Merit System"? Do you consider such a system
better or worse than the Spoils System? Why?

§§462, 463.--_a_. Why was Blaine so strongly opposed? Who were the
"Mugwumps"? How did their action influence the election?

_b_. What is the difference between internal revenue taxes and customs

_c_. What was the real significance of Cleveland's first election?


_a_. Give all the treaties with Great Britain, with dates, reason for
the treaty, and results.

_b_. Why were there no executions for treason at the close of the Civil

_c_. What two methods does the Constitution provide for its amendment?
Which method has always been followed?

_d_. What were the chief difficulties in the way of reconstruction?

_e_. What are the important duties of citizens? Why do you select these?


_a_. Impeachment of Johnson.

_b_. The Chicago fire.

_c_. Civil Service Reform.

_d_. Industrial activity in the South.


The importance of the topics treated in Part XIV can hardly be
overestimated. The opportunities to impress the pupils with their public
duties are many and important. Reconstruction should be broadly treated
and not discussed in a partisan spirit. It is better to dwell on our
duties to the negroes than to seek out Northern blunders and Southern
mistakes. In connection with the amendments the whole question of the
suffrage can be discussed in the responsibility devolving upon the voter
fully set forth. Questions of municipal organizations also arise and can
be illustrated by local experience.



Books for Study and Reading

References.--Scribner's _Popular History_, V, 579-659;
McMaster's _School History_, chs. xxxiv, xxxv.

Home Readings.--Any short, attractive account of the Spanish



[Sidenote: Benjamin Harrison elected President, 1888.]

464. Benjamin Harrison elected President, 1888.--In 1888 the
Democrats put forward Cleveland as their candidate for President. The
Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. Like Hayes and
Garfield, he had won renown in the Civil War and was a man of the
highest honor and of proved ability. The prominence of the old Southern
leaders in the Democratic administration, and the neglect of the
business interests of the North, compelled many Northern Republicans who
had voted for Cleveland to return to the Republican party. The result
was the election of Harrison and of a Republican majority in the House
of Representatives.

[Sidenote: The McKinley tariff, 1890.]

[Sidenote: Reciprocity.]

465. The McKinley Tariff, 1890.--One of the questions most
discussed in the campaign of 1888 was the reform of the tariff. There
seem to have been two sets of tariff reformers. One set of reformers
proposed to reform the tariff by doing away with as much of it as
possible. The other set of reformers proposed to readjust the tariff
duties so as to make the protective system more consistent and more
perfect. Led by William McKinley, the Republicans set to work to reform
the tariff in this latter sense. This they did by generally raising the
duties on protected goods. The McKinley Tariff Act also offered
reciprocity to countries which would favor American goods. This offer
was in effect to lower certain duties on goods imported from Argentina,
for instance, if the Argentine government would admit certain American
goods to Argentina on better terms than similar goods imported from
other countries.


[Sidenote: Gold and Silver]

[Sidenote: Sherman Silver Law.]

466. The Sherman Silver Law, 1890.--In the Civil War gold and
silver had disappeared from circulation. But after the close of the war
a gradual return was made to specie payments. In the colonial days the
demand for silver, as compared with the demand for gold, outran the
supply. The consequence was that silver was constantly becoming worth
more in comparison with gold. In the nineteenth century the supply of
silver has greatly outstripped the demand, with the result that silver
has greatly declined in value as compared with gold. In 1871 the
government decided to use silver for small coins only, and not to allow
silver to be offered in payment of a larger sum than five dollars. This
was called the "demonetization of silver." In 1878 a small but earnest
band of advocates of the free coinage of silver secured the passage of
an act of Congress for the coinage of two million silver dollars each
month. The silver in each one of these dollars was only worth in gold
from ninety to sixty cents. In 1890, Senator John Sherman of Ohio
brought in a bill to increase the coinage of these silver dollars which,
in 1894, were worth only forty nine cents on the dollar in gold.

[Sidenote: Business depression.]

[Sidenote: Cleveland elected President, 1892.]

467. Election of 1892.--One result of this great increase in the
silver coinage was to alarm business men throughout the country.
Business constantly declined. Every one who could lessened his expenses
as much as possible. Mill owners and railroad managers discharged their
workers or reduced their wages. Harrison and Cleveland were again the
Republican and Democratic candidates for the presidency. As is always
the case, the party in power was held to be responsible for the hard
times. Enough voters turned to Cleveland to elect him, and he was
inaugurated President for the second time (March 4, 1893).

[Sidenote: Scarcity of money.]

[Sidenote: Repeal of the Sherman Law.]

[Sidenote: Wilson tariff.]

468. Silver and the Tariff.--In the summer of 1893 there was a
great scarcity of money. Thousands of people withdrew all the money they
could from the banks and locked it up in places of security. But
Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Law and put an end to the
compulsory purchase of silver and the coinage of silver dollars. This
tended to restore confidence. The Democrats once more overhauled the
tariff. Under the lead of Representative Wilson of West Virginia they
passed a tariff act, lowering some duties and placing many articles on
the free list.

[Sidenote: Chicago Exhibition, 1893.]

469. The Chicago Exhibition, 1893.--The four hundredth anniversary
of the Columbian discovery of America occurred in October, 1892.
Preparations were made for holding a great commemorative exhibition at
Chicago. But it took so long to get everything ready that the exhibition
was not held until the summer of 1893. Beautiful buildings were erected
of a cheap but satisfactory material. They were designed with the
greatest taste, and were filled with splendid exhibits that showed the
skill and resources of Americans, and also with the products of foreign
countries. Hundreds of thousands of persons from all parts of the
country visited the exhibition with pleasure and great profit. No more
beautiful or successful exhibition has ever been held.


[Sidenote: William McKinley.]

[Sidenote: W.J. Bryan.]

[Sidenote: McKinley elected President, 1896.]

470. Election of 1896.--In 1896 the Republicans held their
convention at St. Louis and nominated William McKinley of Ohio for
President. They declared in favor of the gold standard, unless some
arrangement with other nations for a standard of gold and silver could
be made. They also declared for protection to home industries. The
Democrats held their convention at Chicago. The men who had stood by
Cleveland found themselves in a helpless minority. William Jennings
Bryan of Nebraska was nominated for President on a platform advocating
the free coinage of silver and many changes in the laws in the
direction of socialism. The Populists and the Silver Republicans also
adopted Bryan as their candidate. Now, at last, the question of the gold
standard or the silver standard was fairly before the voters. They
responded by electing McKinley and a Republican House of

[Illustration: WILLIAM MCKINLEY.]

[Sidenote: The Dingley tariff, 1897.]

471. The Dingley Tariff, 1897.--The Republicans, once more in
control of the government, set to work to reform the tariff in favor of
high protection. Representative Dingley of Maine was chairman of the
committee of the House that drew up the new bill, and the act as finally
passed goes by his name. It raised the duties on some classes of goods
and taxed many things that hitherto had come in free. Especially were
duties increased on certain raw materials for manufactures, with a view
to encourage the production of such materials in the United States. The
reciprocity features of the McKinley tariff (P. 383) were also restored.



[Sidenote: The Cubans rebel, 1894.]

[Sidenote: Spanish cruelties, _Source-book_, 374-379.]

472. The Cuban Rebellion, 1894-98.--The Cubans laid down their arms
in 1877 (p. 372) because they relied on the promises of better
government made by the Spaniards. But these promises were never carried
out. Year after year the Cuban people bore with their oppression. But at
last their patience was worn out. In 1894 they again rebelled. The
Spaniards sent over an army to subdue them. Soon tales of cruelty on the
part of the Spaniards reached the United States. Finally the Spanish
governor, General Weyler, adopted the cruel measure of driving the old
men, the women, and the children from the country villages and huddling
them together in the seaboard towns. Without money, without food, with
scant shelter, these poor people endured every hardship. They died by
thousands. The American people sent relief, but little could be done to
help them. The Cubans also fitted out expeditions in American ports to
carry arms and supplies to the rebels. The government did everything in
its power to stop these expeditions, but the coast line of the United
States is so long that it was impossible to stop them all, especially as
large numbers of the American people heartily sympathized with the
Cubans. Constant disputes with Spain over the Cuban question naturally
came up and gave rise to irritation in the United States and in Spain.

[Illustration: THE "MAINE."]

[Sidenote: Destruction of the _Maine_, 1898.]

[Sidenote: Cuban independence recognized.]

473. The Declaration of War, 1898.--On January 5, 1898, the
American battleship _Maine_ anchored in Havana harbor. On February 15
she was destroyed by an explosion and sank with two hundred and
fifty-three of her crew. A most competent Court of Inquiry was
appointed. It reported that the _Maine_ had been blown up from the
outside. The report of the Court of Inquiry was communicated to the
Spanish government in the hope that some kind of apology and reparation
might be made. But all the Spanish government did was to propose that
the matter should be referred to arbitration. The condition of the
Cubans was now dreadful. Several Senators and Representatives visited
Cuba. They reported that the condition of the Cubans was shocking. The
President laid the whole matter before Congress for its determination.
On April 19, 1898, Congress recognized the independence of the Cuban
people and demanded the withdrawal of the Spaniards from the island.
Congress also authorized the President to compel Spain's withdrawal and
stated that the United States did not intend to annex Cuba, but to leave
the government of the island to its inhabitants. Before these terms
could be formally laid before the Spanish government, it ordered the
American minister to leave Spain.

[Illustration: THE "OLYMPIA." From a photograph by Irving Underhill.]

[Sidenote: Battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898.]

474. The Destruction of the Spanish Pacific Fleet.--Admiral Dewey,
commanding the American squadron on the Asiatic station, had
concentrated all his vessels at Hong Kong, in the belief that war was at
hand. Of course he could not stay at Hong Kong after the declaration of
war. The only thing that he could do was to destroy the Spanish fleet
and use Spanish ports as a naval base. The Spanish fleet was in Manila
Bay. Thither sailed Dewey. In the darkness of the early morning of May
1, Dewey passed the Spanish forts at the entrance of the bay. The fleet
was at anchor near the naval arsenal, a few miles from the city of
Manila. As soon as it was light Dewey opened fire on the Spaniards. Soon
one Spanish ship caught fire, then another, and another. Dewey drew off
out of range for a time while his men rested and ate their breakfasts.
He then steamed in again and completed the destruction of the enemy's
fleet. Not an American ship was seriously injured. Not one American
sailor was killed. This victory gave the Americans the control of the
Pacific Ocean and the Asiatic waters, as far as Spain was concerned. It
relieved the Pacific seacoast of the United States of all fear of
attack. It made it possible to send soldiers and supplies to Manila,
without fear of attack while on the way. And it was necessary to send
soldiers because Dewey, while he was supreme on the water and could
easily compel the surrender of Manila, could not properly police the
town after its capture.

[Sidenote: Defense of the Atlantic seaboard.]

[Sidenote: Blockade of Cuba.]

475. The Atlantic Seacoast and the Blockade.--No sooner did war
seem probable than the people on the Atlantic seacoast were seized with
an unreasoning fear of the Spanish fleets. For the Spaniards had a few
new fast ships. The mouths of the principal harbors were blocked with
mines and torpedoes. The government bought merchant vessels of all kinds
and established a patrol along the coast. It also blockaded the more
important Cuban seaports. But the Cuban coast was so long that it was
impossible to blockade it all. As it was, great suffering was inflicted
on the principal Spanish armies in Cuba.

[Sidenote: The Spanish-Atlantic fleet.]

[Sidenote: The American fleet.]

476. The Atlantic Fleets.--Before long a Spanish fleet of four new,
fast armored cruisers and three large sea-going torpedo-boat destroyers
appeared in the West Indies. The Spanish admiral did not seem to know
exactly where to go. But after sailing around the Caribbean Sea for a
time, he anchored in Santiago harbor--on the southern coast of Cuba. In
the American navy there were only two fast armored cruisers, the _New
York _and the _Brooklyn_. These with five battleships--the _Oregon,
Iowa, Indiana, Massachusetts_, and _Texas_--and a number of smaller
vessels were placed under the command of Admiral Sampson and sent to
Santiago. Another fleet of sea-going monitors and unarmored cruisers
maintained the Cuban blockade.

[Sidenote: The _Oregon's_ voyage.]

477. The Oregon's Great Voyage.--When the _Maine_ was destroyed,
the _Oregon_ was at Puget Sound on the northwest coast. She was at once
ordered to sail to the Atlantic coast at her utmost speed. Steadily the
great battleship sped southward along the Pacific coast of North
America, Central America, and South America. She passed through Magellan
Straits and made her way up the eastern coast of South America. As she
approached the West Indies, it was feared that she might meet the whole
Spanish fleet. But she never sighted them. She reached Florida in
splendid condition and at once joined Sampson's squadron.

[Sidenote: Santiago.]

[Sidenote: Sinking of the _Merrimac_]

478. The Blockade of the Spanish Fleet.--Santiago harbor seemed to
have been designed as a place of refuge for a hard-pressed fleet. Its
narrow winding entrance was guarded by huge mountains strongly
fortified. The channel between these mountains was filled with mines and
torpedoes. The American fleet could not go in. The Spanish fleet must
not be allowed to come out unseen. Lieutenant Hobson was ordered to take
the collier _Merrimac_ into the narrow entrance and sink her across the
channel at the narrowest part. He made the most careful preparations.
But the _Merrimac_ was disabled and drifted by the narrowest part of the
channel before she sank. The Spanish admiral was so impressed by the
heroism of this attempt that he sent a boat off to the American squadron
to assure them that Hobson and his six brave companions were safe.

[Sidenote: Destruction of the Spanish Fleet.]

[Sidenote: Lessons of the victory.]

479. Destruction of the Spanish Fleet.--As the American vessels
could not enter Santiago harbor to sink the Spanish ships at their
anchors, it became necessary to send an army to Santiago. But the
Spaniards did not wait for the soldiers to capture the city. On Sunday
morning, July 3, the Spanish fleet suddenly appeared steaming out of the
harbor. The _Massachusetts_ was away at the time, getting a supply of
coal, and the _New York_ was steaming away to take Admiral Sampson to a
conference with General Shafter. But there were enough vessels left. On
came the Spaniards. The American ships rushed toward them. The Spaniards
turned westward and tried to escape along the coast. Soon one of them
was set on fire by the American shells. She was run on shore to prevent
her sinking. Then another followed her, and then a third. The
torpedo-boat destroyers were sunk off the entrance to the harbor. But
one ship now remained afloat. Speedily, she, too, was overtaken and
surrendered. In a few hours the whole Spanish fleet was destroyed;
hundreds of Spanish seamen were killed, wounded, or drowned, and sixteen
hundred Spanish sailors captured. The American loss was one man killed
and two wounded. The American ships were practically ready to destroy
another Spanish fleet had one been within reach. At Manila Bay and off
Santiago the American fleets were superior to the enemy's fleets. But
the astounding results of their actions were due mainly to the splendid
manner in which the American ships had been cared for and, above all,
to the magnificent training and courage of the men behind the guns.
Years of peace had not in any way dimmed the splendid qualities of the
American sea-fighters.

[Sidenote: Military preparations.]

[Sidenote: The volunteers.]

480. The American Army.--Meantime the American soldiers on shore at
Santiago were doing their work under great discouragement, but with a
valor and stubbornness that will always compel admiration. While the
navy was silently and efficiently increased to be a well-ordered force,
the army was not so well managed at first. Soldiers there were in
plenty. From all parts of the Union, from the South and from the North,
from the West and from the East, from the cattle ranches of the plains
and the classrooms of the great universities, patriots offered their
lives at their country's call. But there was great lack of order in the
management of the army. Sickness broke out among the soldiers. Volunteer
regiments were supplied with old-fashioned rifles. It seemed to be
difficult to move one regiment from one place to another without dire
confusion. When the Spanish fleet was shut up in Santiago harbor, a
force of fifteen thousand soldiers under General Shafter was sent to
capture Santiago itself and make the harbor unsafe for the ships.


[Sidenote: The landing.]

[Sidenote: La Guasimas. _Source-Book_, 380-382.]

[Sidenote: San Juan and Caney.]

[Sidenote: Fall of Santiago.]

481. The Santiago Expedition.--On June 22 and 23 the expedition
landed not far to the east of the entrance to Santiago harbor. Steep and
high mountains guard this part of the coast. But no attempt was made to
prevent the landing of the Americans. Dismounted cavalrymen of the
regular army and Roosevelt's Rough Riders, also on foot, at once pushed
on toward Santiago. At La Guasimas the Spaniards tried to stop them. But
the regulars and the Rough Riders drove them away, and the army pushed
on. By June 28 it had reached a point within a few miles of the city.
The Spaniards occupied two very strong positions at San Juan (San Huan)
and Caney. On July 1 they were driven from them. The regulars and the
volunteers showed the greatest courage and heroism. They crossed long
open spaces in the face of a terrible fire from the Spaniards, who were
armed with modern rifles. The rains now set in, and the sufferings of
the troops became terrible. On July 3 the Spanish fleet sailed out of
the harbor to meet its doom from the guns of the American warships.
Reinforcements were sent to Shafter, and heavy guns were dragged over
the mountain roads and placed in positions commanding the enemy's
lines. The Spaniards surrendered, and on July 17 the Americans entered
the captured city.


[Sidenote: The Porto Rico expedition.]

482. The Porto Rico Campaign.--The only other important colony
still remaining to Spain in America was Porto Rico. General Nelson A.
Miles led a strong force to its conquest. Instead of landing on the
northern coast near San Juan, the only strongly fortified position on
the seacoast, General Miles landed his men on the southern coast near
Ponce (Pon-tha). The inhabitants received the Americans with the
heartiest welcome. This was on August 1. The American army then set out
to cross the island. But before they had gone very far news came of the
ending of the hostilities.

[Sidenote: Fall of Manila.]

483. Fall of Manila.--When the news of Dewey's victory (p. 390)
reached the United States, soldiers were sent to his aid. But this took
time, for it was a very long way from San Francisco to the Philippines
and vessels suitable for transports were not easily procured on the
Pacific coast. General Wesley Merritt was given command of the land
forces. Meantime, for months Dewey with his fleet blockaded Manila from
the water side, while Philippine insurgents blockaded it from the land
side. Foreign vessels, especially the German vessels, jealously watched
the operations of the American fleet and severely taxed Dewey's
patience. On August 17 Merritt felt strong enough to attack the city. It
was at once surrendered to him.

[Illustration: THE UNITED STATES IN 1900.]

[Illustration: DEPENDENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES. All on same scale as
United States, 1900.]

[Sidenote: Treaty of Peace, 1898.]

[Sidenote: Hawaii.]

484. End of the War.--The destruction of the Spanish Atlantic fleet
and the fall of Santiago convinced the Spaniards that further resistance
was useless. So it was agreed that the fighting should be stopped. This
was in July, 1898. But the actual treaty of peace was not made
until the following December. The conditions were that Spain should
abandon Cuba, should cede to the United States Porto Rico, the
Philippines, and some smaller islands, and should receive from the
United States twenty million dollars. For many years American
missionaries, merchants, and planters had been interested in the
Hawaiian Islands. The war showed the importance of these islands to the
United States as a military and naval station, and they were annexed.

485. Prosperity.--The years 1898-1900 have been a period of
unbounded prosperity for the American people. Foreign trade has
increased enormously, and the manufactures of the United States are
finding a ready market in other countries. A rebellion has been going on
in the Philippines, but it seems to be slowly dying out
(February, 1900).



§§ 464, 465.--_a_. Why was Harrison chosen President?

_b_. What is "tariff reform"? What is "reciprocity"? Do you consider
such a method wise or not? Why?

§§ 466, 467.--_a_. Why was silver demonetized? What is meant by the word

_b_. What was the Sherman Silver Law? What effect did it have upon

_c_. Was there any reason for the fear on the part of business men?

_d_. Why was Harrison defeated in 1892?

§§ 468, 469.--_a_. Why did money become scarce in the summer of 1893?

_b_. How did the repeal of the Sherman Law affect confidence in the
future of business?

_c_. Describe the Chicago Exhibition. What is the advantage of such an

§§ 470, 471.--_a_. Who were the leading candidates for the presidency in
1896? What principles did they stand for?

_b_. Explain the provisions of the Dingley Tariff.

_c_. Ask some business man what he thinks of the wisdom of changing the
tariff very often.


§§ 472, 473.--_a_. What promises had the Spaniards made to the Cubans
and how had they kept them?

_b_. What do you think of Weyler's policy?

_c_. Could the Spanish war have been avoided?

§ 474.--_a_. Why could not Admiral Dewey remain at Hong Kong?

_b_. Describe the battle of Manila Bay. What were the results of this

§§ 475-477.--_a_. Why were the American people on the Atlantic seacoast
alarmed? Were the harbors well defended?

_b_. Compare the American and the Spanish Atlantic fleets. Why was the
voyage of the _Oregon_ important?

§§ 478, 479.--_a_. Describe the harbor of Santiago. What advantages did
it possess for the Spaniards?

_b_. How did Hobson try to prevent the escape of the Spanish fleet?

_c_. Describe the encounter between the two fleets.

_d_. To what was this great success due?

§§ 480-482.--_a_. From what parts of the country did the volunteers

_b_. Why was there so much confusion in the army?

_c_. Describe the Santiago campaign and the suffering of the soldiers.

_d_. Describe the Porto Rico expedition. Why did General Miles land on
the southern coast?

§§ 483-485.--_a_. Why were the soldiers needed after Dewey's victory?

_b_. Give the conditions of peace. Exactly what was the condition as to

_c_. Why are the Hawaiian Islands important to the United States?


_a_. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a tariff?

_b_. What important matters have been definitely settled during the past
one hundred years?

_c_. What are some of the problems now before the American people?

_d_. Should the United States be a "world power"?


_a_. Present condition of any part of the United States or dependent

_b_. Any campaign or battle of the Spanish War.

_c_. Present political parties and their principles.


Interesting constitutional questions will inevitably arise in teaching
this section, but the events are too recent to admit of dogmatizing on
lines of policy. The Spanish War and the Philippine trouble are too near
to be properly judged, and the facts only should be taught. The duties
and responsibilities resting upon the United States through its closer
connection with all parts of the world can, however, be emphasized
without the display of partisan spirit. Furthermore, the causes of
present prosperity and the industrial advantages of the United States
may well demand attention. Throughout every part of this section, also,
the importance of good citizenship, in the broadest sense of the word,
should receive special emphasis.




WE THE PEOPLE of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect
Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the
common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings
of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish
this CONSTITUTION for the United States of America.


SECTION. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House
of Representatives.

SECTION. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members
chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the
Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for
Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the
Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State
in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several
States which may be included within this Union, according to their
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole
Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of
Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other
Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after
the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every
subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law
direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every
thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire
shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

SECTION. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six
Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first
Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes.
The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the
Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of
the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth
Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if
Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the
Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary
Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then
fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of
thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he
shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the
Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro
tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise
the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When
sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the
President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall
preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two
thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to
removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office
of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party
convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial,
Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

SECTION. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for
Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the
Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or
alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such
Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by
Law appoint a different Day.

SECTION. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and
Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall
constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn
from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of
absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House
may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its
Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two
thirds, expel a member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to
time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment
require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on
any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be
entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the
Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other
Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

SECTION. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except
Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest
during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and
in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in
either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was
elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the
United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof
shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any
Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during
his Continuance in Office.

SECTION. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House
of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments
as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the
Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of
the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall
return it, with his Objections, to that House in which it shall have
originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal,
and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds
of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together
with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be
reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall
become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be
determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and
against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House
respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within
ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him,
the same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless
the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it
shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate
and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of
Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States;
and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or
being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate
and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations
prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

SECTION. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes,
Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common
Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties,
Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States,
and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the
subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix
the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and
current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for
limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their
respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas,
and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules
concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use
shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the
Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and
for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the
United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of
the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the
discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such
District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of
particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of
the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over
all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in
which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals,
dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;--And To make all Laws which
shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing
Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the
Government of the United States, or in any Department or
Officer thereof.

SECTION. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the
States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited
by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight,
but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten
dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may
require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion
to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to
the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound
to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties
in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of
Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the
Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from
time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no
Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without
the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office,
or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

SECTION. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit
Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in
Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law
impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or
Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary
for executing its inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and
Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use
of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject
to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any
Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or
engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as
will not admit of delay.


SECTION, 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the
United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of
four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same
Term, be elected, as follows Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as
the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the
whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be
entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person
holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be
appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot
for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the
same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the
Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the
Government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate
and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes
shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes
shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number
of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such
Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of
Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for
President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest
on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But
in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the
Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this
Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the
States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.
In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the
greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.
But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day
on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same
throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United
States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be
eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty
five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death,
Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said
Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress
may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or
Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what
Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act
accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall
be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a
Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the
Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive
within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any
of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the
following Oath or Affirmation:--

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the
Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my
Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the
United States."

SECTION. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and
Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States,
when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require
the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the
executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their
respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and
Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate,
to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur;
and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the
Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls,
Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United
States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and
which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the
Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the
President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen
during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall
expire at the End of their next Session.

SECTION. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information
of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such
Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on
extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in
Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of
Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper;
he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take
Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the
Officers of the United States.

SECTION. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the
United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and
Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.


SECTION. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in
one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and
inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and
shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation,
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in Office.

SECTION. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and
Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States,
and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to
all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to
all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to
which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two
or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another
State;--between Citizens of different States,--between Citizens of the
same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between
a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens
or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls,
and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have
original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the
supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress
shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by
Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes
shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the
Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law
have directed.

SECTION. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in
levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them
Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the
Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in
open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but
no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture
except during the Life of the Person attainted.


SECTION. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the
public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And
the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such
Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

SECTION. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who
shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand
of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered
up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall
be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour
may be due.

SECTION. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;
but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of
any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more
States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of
the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules
and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to
the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so
construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any
particular State.

SECTION. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this
Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them
against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the
Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against
domestic Violence.


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the
Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States,
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case,
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this
Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the
several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one
or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress;
Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first
and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that
no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage
in the Senate.


All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under
this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made
in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made,
under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of
the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any
Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of
the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers,
both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by
Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test
shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust
under the United States.


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient
for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so
ratifying the Same.



Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free
State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be


No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without
the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
prescribed by law.


The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,
supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in
actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be
subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or
limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal Case to be witness against
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
without just compensation.


In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and
cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against
him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his favor,
and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.


In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the
United States, than according to the rules of the common law.


Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.


The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively,
or to the people.


The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend
to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the
United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects
of any Foreign State.


The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot
for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an
inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their
ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists
of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the
Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the
votes shall then be counted;--The person having the greatest number of
votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a
majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person
have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not
exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House
of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President.
But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the
representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the
states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.
And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President
whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth
day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional
disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of
votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be
a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person
have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the
Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of
the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person
constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible
to that of Vice-President of the United States.


SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their

SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.


SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States
and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce
any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of
the United States: nor shall any State deprive any person of life,
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SECTION 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of
persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right
to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and
Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the
Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the
Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such
State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States,
or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other
crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the
whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

SECTION 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress,
or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of
the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution
of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But
Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such

SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States,
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and
bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall
not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall
assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or
emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims
shall be held illegal and void.

SECTION 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of this article.


SECTION 1. The right citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of
race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

SECTION 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
appropriate legislation.

[1] Reprinted from the text issued by the State Department.


Adams, John; Vice-President; President; his administration.
Adams, John Quincy, portrait; and the Monroe Doctrine; President,
  his administration; and the right of petition.
Adams, Samuel.
Alabama claims.
Alaska, purchase of; map of.
Albany Congress.
Algerine War.
Alien and Sedition Acts.
Allen, Ethan.
America, discovery of; naming of.
American Association.
Americus Vespucius, see Vespucius.
André, Major.
Andros, Sir Edmund.
Antietam, battle of.
Antislavery agitation.
Appomattox, surrender at.
Arnold, Benedict, at Quebec; in Burgoyne's campaign; treason of.
Arthur, C.A., Vice-President; President.
Articles of Confederation.
Atlanta Campaign.

Bacon's Rebellion.
Balboa discovers Pacific Ocean.
Baltimore, Lord.
Bank of the United States, the First; the Second.
Bennington, battle of.
Blaine, J.G., candidate for the Presidency.
Blair, F.P.
Blockade of Confederate seaports.
"Border States" in Civil War.
Boston, founded; massacre at; destruction of tea at; closing of the
  port of; siege of; map of siege.
Braddock, British general.
Bragg, Confederate general.
Brandy wine, battle of.
Breckinridge, John C., Vice-President; defeated for Presidency.
Brown, General Jacob, invades Canada.
Brown, John, in Kansas; at Harper's Ferry; executed.
Buchanan, James, President; comes out for the Union.
Buell, General.
Bull Run, battles of.
Bunker Hill, battle of.
Burgoyne's campaign.
Burnside, General A.E.

Cabot, John, discovers North America.
Calhoun, John C., portrait; in Congress; Vice-President;
  his _Exposition_.
California, Drake on the coast of; seized by Americans;
  discovery of gold in; seeks admission to the Union.
Camden, battle of.
Canada, conquest of; invasion of 1775; in War of 1812.
Carolina, settlement of; rebellion in 1719;
  separated into two provinces.
Cartier (kar'tia').
Cass, Lewis, defeated for the Presidency.
Champlain, Samuel de.
Champlain, Lake.
Chancellorsville, battle of.
Charles II, his colonial policy.
Charleston, S.C., attacked; captured; in Civil War.
Chattanooga, battle of.
"Chesapeake," outrage on the.
Chicago, growth of; great fire at.
Columbian Exhibition.
Chickamauga, battle of.
Civil Service under Washington and Adams; under Jefferson;
  "Spoils System" in the; reform of the.
Clark, General G.R., conquers the Northwest.
Clay, Henry, portrait; in Congress; and the Missouri Compromise;
  defeated for the Presidency; and the Compromise of 1850.
Cleveland, Grover, portrait; President; reëlected President.
Clinton, British general.
Columbus discovers America.
Committees of Correspondence.
Compromises of the Constitution; of 1820; of 1850.
Concord, battle of.
Confederate States.
Confederation of New England.
Confederation of the United States, Articles of.
Connecticut, settlement of; charter of.
Constitution, formation of the; facsimile of first lines;
  first ten amendments; text of, Appendix.
"Constitution," the frigate, chased by a British fleet;
  and the "Guerrière."
Constitutional Union Party.
Continental Congress, first; second.
Coronade, in the Southwest.
Cotton gin.
Cowpens, battle of.
Crawford, William H., defeated for the Presidency.
Creek War.
Critical Period.
Crittenden Compromise.
Cromwell, Oliver, and the colonies.
Cuba, rebellions in (1867-77); (1894-98).

Dale, Sir Thomas.
Davis, Jefferson.
Decatur, Stephen, portrait; in Algerine War.
Declaration of Independence.
Declaratory Act.
Democratic Party.
Detroit, surrender of.
Dewey, Admiral.
Dickinson, John.
Douglas, Stephen A., Kansas-Nebraska Act; debate with Lincoln;
  defeated for Presidency; comes out for the Union.
Draft Riots.
Drake, Sir Francis, his great voyage.
Dred Scott Decision.
Duquesne, Fort.
Dutch Colonies.

Elections, presidential, of 1800; of 1824; of 1840; of 1844;
  of 1848; of 1852; of 1856; of 1860; of 1868; of 1872;
  of 1876; of 1880; of 1884; of 1888; of 1892; of 1896.
Electoral Commission.
Embargo, Jefferson's.
Era of Good Feeling.
Ericson, Leif (Life er'ik-son).
Ericsson, John.
Erie Canal.

Farragut, Admiral D.G., portrait; at New Orleans.
Federal Ratio.
Federalist Party.
Fifteenth Amendment.
Fillmore, Millard, portrait; chosen Vice-President; becomes President.
Florida, discovered; settled; purchased.
Fourteenth Amendment.
France, explorers and colonists of; colonists conquered by British;
  recognizes independence of the United States;
  influence of revolution in, on America; controversy.
Franklin, Benjamin, portrait; early life of; examined by House of
  Commons; Minister to France; in Federal Convention.
Fredericksburg, battle of.
Free Soil Party.
Freeman's Farm, battles of.
Frémont, John C.; portrait; in California; defeated for the Presidency.
Fugitive Slave Act.
Fulton, Robert.

Gadsden Purchase.
Gag Resolutions.
Gage, British general.
Gama, da (dä gä'mä).
Garfield, J. A.; elected President; murdered.
Garrison, W. L.
Gates, General; in Burgoyne's campaign; defeated at Camden.
Genet, French Minister.
Georgia, settlement of.
Gettysburg, battle of.
Ghent, Treaty of.
Grant, General U.S.; portrait; seizes Cairo; captures Fort Donelson;
  at Shiloh; captures Vicksburg; at Chattanooga; Lieutenant-General;
  his Virginia Campaign; elected President; reëlected President.
Great Britain; Treaty of 1783; Jay's Treaty; Treaty of Ghent;
  Treaty of 1842; Oregon Treaty; Alabama claims.
Greeley, Horace; portrait; on secession; defeated for Presidency.
Greene, General, his Southern Campaigns.
Grenville, George.
Guilford, battle of.

Hamilton, Alexander; Secretary of the Treasury; his financial policy;
  his constitutional ideas; intrigues against Adams.
Harrison, Benjamin, elected President.
Harrison, General W.H.; at Tippecanoe; elected President; his death.
Hartford Convention.
Harvester, the.
Hawaii annexed.
Hawkins, Sir John.
Hayes, R.B., elected President.
Henry, Patrick; portrait; Parson's Cause; his Stamp Act Resolutions;
  in Continental Congress; opposes Constitution.
Hood, Confederate general.
Hooker, General Joseph.
Hudson, Henry.


Jackson, General Andrew; portrait; a Creek War; defends New Orleans;
  candidate for Presidency; elected President; his administration.
Jamestown, founded.
Jay, John.
Jay's Treaty.
Jefferson, Thomas; portrait; writes Declaration of Independence;
  Secretary of State; his constitutional ideas; Vice-President;
  writes Kentucky Resolutions; elected President; his administrations.
Johnson, Andrew; portrait; President; his reconstruction policy;
Johnston, Confederate general.
Judiciary Act of 1801.

Kansas, struggle for.
Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Kentucky Resolutions.
Kieft, Dutch governor.
King Philip's War.
King's Mountain, battle of.

Lake Erie, battle of.
La Salle, his explorations.
Lee, R. E., Confederate general.
Lee, R. H.
Leon, Ponce de.
Lewis and Clark.
Lexington, battle of.
"Liberty," the, seized.
Lincoln, Abraham; portrait; early life; Debate with Douglas;
  elected President; first inaugural; Emancipation Proclamation;
  murdered; reconstruction policy.
Livingston, R. R.; portrait; negotiates Louisiana Purchase.
Locomotive invented.
Louisiana; settlement of; ceded to Spain; returned to France;
  purchased by United States.
Lundy's Lane, battle of.

Madison, James; portrait; in Federal convention;
  writes Virginia Resolutions; President; his war message.
Magellan, his great voyage.
"Maine," destruction of the.
Manhattan Island.
Manila Bay, battle of.
Manila, captured.
Maryland Toleration Act.
Mason and Dixon's Line.
Massachusetts Circular Letter.
Mayflower compact.
McClellan, General G.B.; portrait; Peninsular Campaign; at Antietam.
McCormick, C.H., invents horse reaper.
McKinley, William; portrait; President.
Meade, General G.G.
Menendez (mä-nen'deth).
Mexico; War with; the French in.
Missouri Compromise.
"Monitor" and "Merrimac."
Monmouth, battle of.
Monroe Doctrine.
Monroe, James; portrait; negotiates Louisiana Purchase; President.
Morgan, General D..
Morse, S.F.B.
Moultrie, General.
Murfreesboro', battle of.

Nashville, battle of.
National debt; origin of; Jefferson and the.
Neutral commerce.
Neutrality Proclamation.
New Amsterdam.
New England colonies, settlement of.
New England Confederation.
New Jersey.
New Netherland.
New Orleans; defended by Jackson; captured by Farragut.
New Sweden.
New York City; in 1800; in 1830; in 1860.
Non-Importation agreements.
Non-Intercourse Act.
North Carolina.

Oglethorpe, General.
Ordinance of 1787.
Oregon; claims to; divided.
Oriskany, battle of.
Otis, James.

Pacific Ocean, discovered.
Panic; of 1837; of 1873.
Paris; Peace of (1763); (1783).
Parson's cause.
Parties, political, formation of.
Peninsular Campaign.
Penn, William.
Pennsylvania, settlement of.
Pequod War.
Perry, Commodore.
Petersburg, blockade of.
Petition, right of.
Pierce, Franklin; portrait; President; comes out for the Union.
Pitt, William.
Plattsburg, battle of.
Plymouth, settlement of.
Polk, James K.; portrait; President.
Polo, Marco.
Pope, General John.
Porto Rico, occupied.
President, how chosen.
Princeton, battle of.
Proclamation of 1763.
Providence, founded.
Puritans, the.

Quebec Act.
Quebec; founded; captured.

Railroads, growth of.
Ralegh, Sir Walter.
Reaper, the horse.
Reconstruction Acts.
Republican Party; of Jefferson; of Lincoln.
Revolutionary War, campaigns of.
Rhode Island, settlement of.
Ribault (re'bo'), French explorer.
Rockingham Ministry.
Rosecrans, General.

St. Augustine, founded.
Sampson, Admiral.
Sandys, Sir Edwin.
Saratoga, Burgoyne's surrender at.
Schuyler. General.
Scott, General Winfield; his Mexican campaign; defeated for Presidency;
  views on secession.
Seward, W.H.; portrait; on Kansas.
Shays's Rebellion.
Sheridan, General Philip; portrait; at Chickamauga; in Virginia;
  his Valley Campaigns.
Sherman, General W.T.; portrait; at Chattanooga; captures Atlanta;
  the march through Georgia; the march through the Carolinas.
Shiloh, battle of.
Slavery; in Virginia; compromises; Missouri Compromise;
  petitions in Congress; Compromise of 1850; abolished.
Soto, de (dä so'to) in the Southeast.
South Carolina; settlement of; nullification in; secession of.
Spain; pioneers of; Treaty with (1795); War with.
Spotsylvania, battle of.
"Squatter Sovereignty."
Stamp Act.
Stamp Act Congress.
Stark, General.
Steamboat, the.
Stephen, A. H.
Steuben, Baron.
Stowe, Mrs. H.B.
Stuart Tyranny in the colonies.
Stuyvesant, Dutch governor.
Sumter, fall of Fort.

Tariffs; 1789; of 1816, 1824, 1828; the Compromise; McKinley; Dingley.
Taylor, General Zachary; portrait; his Mexican Campaign; President;
Tea Tax.
Tecumseh or Tecumthe.
Telegraph, the.
Tenure of Office Acts; Crawford's; of 1867.
Texas; Republic of; admitted to the Union.
Thirteenth Amendment.
Thomas, General George H.; portrait; his services.
Tippecanoe, battle of.
Townshend Acts, the.
Treaties; 1778 (with France); 1783 (with Great Britain); Jay's Treaty;
  1795 (with Spain); 1800 (with France); Louisiana Purchase; of Ghent;
  Florida Purchase; 1842 (with Great Britain); Oregon Treaty;
  1848 (with Mexico); Gadsden Purchase; 1898 (with Spain).
Trent Affair.
Trenton, battle of.
Twelfth Amendment.
Tyler, John; portrait; Vice-President; President.

United States, area and population of; in 1800; in 1830; in 1860.

Van Buren, Martin; President; defeated for Presidency.
Verrazano (ver-rä-tsä'no).
Vespucius, Americus; portrait; his voyages.
Vicksburg, Campaign of.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
Virginia Resolves of 1769.
Virginia, settlement of.

War of 1812.
Washington, George; portrait; his early life; first campaign;
  on the Boston Post Act; in Continental Congress;
  in Revolutionary War; in Federal Convention; President;
  his neutrality proclamation; farewell address; death.
Washington City.
Webster, Daniel; portrait; his reply to Hayne.
Webster, Noah, portrait; his Dictionary.
Whig Party, the.
Whiskey Insurrection.
Wilderness, battle of the.
Williams, Roger.
Wilmot Proviso.
Wolfe, General.
Writs of Assistance.
X.Y.Z. Affair.
Yorktown, capture of.


_In Congress, July 4, 1776_,


When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people
to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another,
and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal
station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a
decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should
declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to
secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any
Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of
the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government,
laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in
such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long
established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and
accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to
suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train
of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a
design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is
their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for
their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these
Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter
their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of
Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for
the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing
importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should
be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to
attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of
Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and
formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual,
uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records,
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with
his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with
manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others
to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise;
the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of
invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that
purpose obstructing the Laws of Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing
to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the
conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent
to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their
offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of
Officers to harass our People, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the
Consent of our legislature.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to
the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to
our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to
their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders
which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging
its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument
for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and
altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves invested
with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection
and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and
destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to
compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with
circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most
barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to
bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their
friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to
bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages,
whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all
ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in
the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by
repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act
which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free People.

Nor have We been wanting in attention to our Brittish brethren. We have
warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend
an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the
circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to
their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the
ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would
inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have
been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must,
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation,
and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in
Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in
General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world
for the rectitude of our intentions, do in the Name, and by Authority
of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That
these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent
States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown,
and that all political connection between them and the State of Great
Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and
Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace,
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and
Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of
this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine
Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and
our sacred Honor.















[2] This arrangement of the names is made for convenience. The States
are not mentioned in the original.

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