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Title: First Oration of Cicero Against Catiline - with Notices, Notes and Complete Vocabulary
Author: Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 106 BC-43 BC
Language: Latin
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  Classical Text-Book Series

  FIRST ORATION
    of
  CICERO AGAINST CATILINE

    with
  Notices, Notes And Complete Vocabulary.

    by
  =JOHN HENDERSON, M.A.=

  TORONTO:
  The Copp Clark Company, Limited,



Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada,
in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-six,
by THE COPP CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED, Toronto, Ontario,
in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.



CONTENTS [added by transcriber]

  Preface
  Cicero:
      I. Life of Cicero
     II. Life of Catiline
    III. Chronology of the Conspiracy
     IV. Summary of first oration
  FIRST CATILINARIAN ORATION
  Notes
  Proper Names
  Vocabulary



PREFACE.


It has been the aim of the Editor to explain what seemed to him
difficulties in the text. There are many points which might have been
noted, but which a judicious teacher will supply in the ordinary class
work.

References are made to the standard grammars of Zumpt, Madvig, Harkness,
Allen and Greenough.



LIFE OF CICERO.


I.

  [Sidenotes:
  Birth. --Removes to Rome, 92 B.C. --Early teachers. --Early works.
  --Assumes the toga virilis 89 B.C. --Serves his first campaign,
  88 B.C. --Studies philosophy. --Pleads his first cause pro Quinct.
  --Goes to Athens, Asia, and Rhodes. --Returns home. --Elected
  quaestor of Sicily. --Indicts Verres, 70 B.C. --Elected aedile,
  69 B.C. --Praetor, 66 B.C. --His first political speech. --Pro
  lege Manilia, 65 B.C. --Consul, 63 B.C. --Unpopularity of Cicero.
  --Causes of Exile. --Deserted by the Triumvirs. --Goes into exile,
  58 B.C. --Recall, 51 B.C. --Elected Augur, 53 B.C. --Proconsul,
  52 B.C. --Sides with Pompey. --Pharsalia, 48 B.C. --Pardoned by
  Caesar. --Gloom. --His Philippic Orations. --Antony, Octavianus,
  and Lepidus form the second triumvirate. --Killed at Caieta,
  43 B.C.]

=Marcus Tullius Cicero=, the greatest name in Roman literature, was
born near Arpinum, a town of Latium, January 3rd, 106 B.C. His father,
a man of large views and liberal culture, belonged to the _equites_, and
possessed an hereditary estate in the neighbourhood of the town. To give
his sons, Marcus and Quintus, that education which could not be obtained
at a provincial school, he removed to Rome, where the young Ciceros were
placed under the best teachers of the day. From Aelius they learned
philosophy; from Archias, the mechanism of verse, though not the
inspiration of poetry. A translation of the _Phaenomena_ and
_Prognostics_ of Aratus, and a mythological poem on the fable of
_Pontius Glaucus_ were the first fruits of Cicero’s genius. On assuming
the _toga virilis_, B.C. 89, Cicero attached himself to the jurist
Scaevola, who was then in the zenith of his fame. In the following year
he served a brief campaign in the Social War under Cn. Pompeius Strabo,
the father of Pompey the Great. Philosophical studies had, however, more
attractions for him than arms. Under Philo, the Academic, and Diodotus,
the Stoic, he laid the foundation of that Eclecticism which is so
observable in his philosophical works. At the age of 25 he pleaded his
first cause, and in the following year he defended Sextus Roscius of
Ameria, who had been accused of parricide by Chrysogonus, one of Sulla’s
favourites. In this cause he acquired the acquittal of his client, but
incurred the enmity of the dictator. With the ostensible object of
regaining his health he went to Athens, where he studied philosophy
under Antiochus, the Academic, and under Zeno and Phaedrus, both
Epicureans. From Athens he travelled through Asia Minor and finally
settled for a short time at Rhodes, attending there the lectures of
Molo, the rhetorician. Returning home, he at once entered on that
political career to which his commanding ability destined him, and was
elected _quaestor_ of Sicily. During his term of office he so endeared
himself to the inhabitants of the island by his integrity that they
selected him as their patron at Rome. In their behalf he subsequently
conducted the prosecution against Verres, who was charged with
extortion. His success in this cause, and his consequent popularity,
procured him the office of _curule aedile_. After the usual interval he
was chosen _praetor_, and, while holding this office, delivered the
first of his political harangues, in defence of the bill proposed by
C. Manilius to invest Pompey with supreme command in the Mithradatic
War. Two years afterwards he gained the _consulship_, the goal of his
ambition. His consulate is memorable for the bold attempt of Catiline to
subvert the government--an attempt which was frustrated by the patriotic
zeal of the consul. Cicero had quickly soared to the pinnacle of fame:
as quickly did he fall. In crushing the conspiracy of Catiline
questionable means had been employed. Clodius, his implacable enemy,
revived a law exiling all who had been guilty of putting to death Roman
citizens without a formal trial before the people. The Triumvirs, too,
were disgusted with the vanity of the man who was constantly reminding
the people that he was the “Saviour of Italy” and the “Father of His
Country.” Deserted by his friends, and exposed to the hatred of his
foes, Cicero went to Thessalonica into voluntary exile. The wanton
destruction of his villas and the insults offered to his wife and
children soon, however, produced a feeling of sympathy for the exiled
orator. His return to Rome was attended with all the pomp and
circumstance of a triumphant general. Henceforth his voice was little
heard in the Senate. After his return he was appointed to a seat in the
_College of Augurs_. In obtaining this office he had placed himself
under obligations to both Pompey and Caesar, and this may account for
his neutrality in the civil struggles of the time. He was subsequently
appointed, much against his will, proconsul of Cilicia, where his
administration was marked by the same integrity as he had displayed in
Sicily. Cicero arrived in Italy from Cilicia on the 4th of January,
B.C. 49, just after the breaking out of the civil war between Pompey and
Caesar. After some hesitation he decided to take the part of Pompey, but
his support was never cordial: it was a source of weakness rather than
of strength. When the battle of Pharsalia decided the fate of the Roman
world, he returned to Brundisium to await the arrival of the victorious
Caesar, who generously extended a full and frank pardon to the
vacillating orator. Cicero from this time withdrew from active public
life and devoted himself to philosophy, except during the period
immediately preceding his death. The loss of his daughter Tullia, the
divorce of his wife Terentia, and the unhappy marriage with Publilia
darkened the gloom which settled on his declining years. His high
exultation on the assassination of Caesar was of only momentary
duration, and was succeeded by dark forebodings of Marc Antony’s
designs. As soon as the plans of the scheming triumvir were evident,
Cicero attacked Antony’s character with all the powers of invective.
Again he was the idol of the people and the champion of senatorial
rights, but his popularity was only the last gasp of the dying liberties
of Rome. The second triumvirate was formed, and each member of it
sacrificed his friends to glut the vengeance of his colleagues; and to
appease the brutal Antony, Cicero was sacrificed by Octavianus. Refusing
to seek refuge in exile, he determined to die in the land he had saved,
and was slain at Caieta by the emissaries of the bloodthirsty triumvir.

  [Sidenote:
  Works.]

The works of Cicero are:--

(1) _Orations_: Of the eighty speeches composed by him we possess,
either entire or in part, fifty-nine. (See list).

(2) _Philosophical works_.

(3) _Correspondence_: Comprising _thirty-six_ books, _sixteen_ of which
are addressed to Athens, _three_ to his brother Quintus, _one_ to
Brutus, and _sixteen_ to his different friends.

(4) _Poems_: Consisting of the heroic poems, _Alcyones_, _Marcus_,
_Elegy of Tamelastis_, and _Translations_ of Homer and Aratus.


II.

LIFE OF CATILINE.

  [Sidenote:
  Birth. --His crimes. --Offices held. --First Conspiracy.
  --Catiline’s Proposals. --The Conspiracy divulged. --First Speech
  against Catiline.]

=L. Sergius Catilina= was a Roman patrician, born about 108 B.C. From
his father he inherited nothing but a noble name. In the turbulent
scenes of the Sullan rule, Catiline played a conspicuous part, to which
his undoubted ability, his undaunted courage, his iron constitution, his
depraved morals, and excessive cruelty notoriously fitted him. He
commenced his career by slaying, with his own hand, Q. Caecilius, his
own brother-in-law, and by torturing to death M. Marius Gratidianus,
a kinsman of Cicero. Though his youth was spent in open debauchery, and
reckless extravagance, though he made away with his first wife and his
son to marry the worthless and profligate Aurelia Orestilla, the guilty
crimes of Catiline do not seem to have been any barrier to his
advancement to political honors. He obtained the praetorship B.C. 68,
and in the following year was propraetor of Africa. He returned to Rome
B.C. 66 to press his suit for the consulship. The two consuls who had
the highest votes were P. Autronius Paetus and P. Cornelius Sulla, both
of whom were convicted of bribery, and their election was declared void.
Their places were filled by L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus.
Catiline was prevented from being a candidate in consequence of an
impeachment brought against him for mal-administration of his province
of Africa by P. Clodius Pulcher, afterwards the implacable enemy of
Cicero. Autronius and Catiline, exasperated by their disappointment,
formed a league with Cn. Calpurnius Piso to murder the consuls on the
first of January, to seize the _fasces_, and to occupy Spain. The plan
leaked out, and was postponed till the fifth of February. The scheme,
however, failed in consequence of Catiline giving the signal too soon.
Resolutions were passed by the Senate condemning the conspiracy, but
these were quashed by the intercession of a tribune. Some say that both
Caesar and Crassus were involved in this First Conspiracy of Catiline.
About this time, Catiline was acquitted of extortion (_res repetundae_),
but the trial rendered him penniless. About the beginning of June,
64 B.C., he began to plot more systematically to carry out his plans for
a general revolution. A meeting was called for all those interested in
the conspiracy. To this convention, eleven senators, four knights, and
many of the noted men from the provincial towns assembled to hear the
bold designs of the conspirator. Catiline proposed that all debts should
be cancelled (_novae tabulae_), that the wealthy citizens should be
proscribed, that offices of honor and emolument should be divided among
his friends, and that the leaders of the conspiracy should raise armies
in Spain and in Mauretania. Again he was a candidate for the consulship,
and again he was doomed to disappointment. Cicero and Antonius were
chosen, the latter, however, by only a few centuries over Catiline. This
defeat embittered the animosity between the two parties. The conspirator
raised large sums of money on his own security and on the credit of his
friends, sent arms to various parts of Italy, levied troops in Etruria,
and sent Manlius a veteran of Sulla to take command of the newly raised
forces. The slaves were to be armed, the buildings of the city set on
fire, the citizens indiscriminately massacred, and a reign of terror and
bloodshed was to be inaugurated. In the midst of all these schemes,
Catiline stood again for the consulship (63 B.C.), and was thwarted by
the wariness and exertions of Cicero, who checkmated his schemes at
every turn. One of the conspirators was Q. Curius, a man weak and
vacillating. This man had a mistress, Fulvia, who was the repository of
all his secrets. Alarmed at the audacious designs of the conspirators,
she imparted her secrets to some of her acquaintances, and through her
confidants the matter was betrayed to Cicero. After securing his
personal safety, and withdrawing Antonius from the side of Catiline, the
consul deferred the consular elections to lay before the Senate the
whole conspiracy. At a meeting of the Senate, October 21st, 63, he told
the Senators the danger that threatened the state. Many of those
complicated in the conspiracy fled. By virtue of a _decretum ultimum_,
which formula (_consules videant, ne quid detrimenti respublica capiat_)
gave the consuls absolute civil and military power, Catiline was in
danger of losing his life. Catiline, who was again a candidate for the
consulship for 62 B.C., was rejected. An impeachment of sedition was
also brought against him by L. Aemilius Paulus. On the 6th November,
Catiline summoned the conspirators to the house of M. Porcius Laeca, and
after accusing them of inactivity, he laid before him his plans. Cicero
was to be removed, and L. Vargunteius, a senator, and C. Cornelius,
a knight, were despatched to carry out the scheme, but were frustrated.
Cicero called the Senate on November 8th, and delivered his first speech
against Catiline, who, though overwhelmed with guilt, had still the
audacity to appear among the senators.

Altogether four speeches were delivered against Catiline. In the final
debate as to the sentence, it was decided to put the apprehended
conspirators to death. This sentence was carried out against some.
Catiline and most fell, however, in the field at Pistoria (62 B.C.),
fighting with a valour worthy of a better cause.


III.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE.

Date B.C. {Consuls.}

   |Life of Catiline.

   |   |Life of Cicero.

68 {L. Caecilius Metellus, P. Marcus Rex}

   |Catiline praetor

67 {Calpurnius Piso, M. Acilius Glabrio}

   |Catiline propraetor of Africa

66 {L. Volcatius Tullus, M. Aemilius Lepidus}

   |Catiline canvasses for the consulship: is accused of extortion by
    P. Clodius. Catiline defeated in suing for consulship: forms a
    league with Autronius and Piso. First conspiracy.

65 {L. Manlius Torquatus, L. Aurelius Cotta}

   |Catiline determines to slay the new consuls on the kalends of
    January: plan discovered and deferred to February: Catiline gives
    signal too soon and his plans frustrated.

64 {L. Julius Caesar, C. Marcus Figulus}

   |On the kalends of June, Catiline convenes his associates for a
    second conspiracy. Eleven senators, four knights, and many
    distinguished men assemble. Catiline again defeated for
    consulship.

63 {M. Tullius Cicero, C. Antonius Hybrida}

   |Catiline accused by Lucullus of murder. Catiline again candidate
    for consulship and defeated.

   |   |Cicero convenes Senate, Oct. 20; lays plans of conspirators
        before Senate: elections for consuls, which should take place
        Oct. 21st, deferred.

   |   |Oct. 21st: Letters brought by Crassus, threatening danger to
        the State: the Senate convened in the temple of Concord. The
        Senate passes _decretum ultimum_. On 22nd Oct. L. Licinius
        Murena and D. Junius Silanus elected consuls.

   |Oct. 23rd: Catiline accused under _Lex Plautia de vi_ by
    Lucius Paulus.

   |Oct. 27th: Manlius takes up arms in Etruria.

   |Oct. 28th: Day appointed by Catiline for the murder of the
    leading senators. (Cat. I., 3).

   |Nov. 1: Catiline endeavors to take Praeneste by a night attack.

   |Nov. 6th: Catiline assembles his friends at house of Laeca.

   |Nov. 7th: Vargunteius and Cornelius attempt to assassinate Cicero.

   |Nov. 8th: Catiline leaves Rome.

   |   |Nov. 8: Cicero invokes the Senate in the temple of Juppiter
        Stator. First Catilinarian oration delivered.

   |   |The _second Catilinarian oration_ delivered from the _rostra_
        to the people, Nov. 9th.

   |Nov. 20th: A decree passed declaring Catiline and Manlius public
    enemies.

   |Dec. 2nd: The ambassadors of the Allobroges are seized with
    documents proving conspiracy.

   |   |Dec. 3rd: The _third Catilinarian oration_ delivered from the
        rostra to the people. Rewards offered to all who would give
        information as to the conspiracy.

   |   |Dec. 5th: Fourth Catilinarian oration delivered in the temple
        of Concord. The Senate decrees that the death penalty should
        be inflicted on the conspirators. Five conspirators put to
        death.

62 {D. Junius Silanus, L. Licinius Murena}

   |Jan. 5th: Battle of _Pistoria_: defeat and death of Catiline.

   |   |Many Senators tried under the law _Lex Plautia de vi_ and
        exiled.



IV.

FIRST ORATION AGAINST CATILINE.


This speech may be divided into three parts:

I. In the introduction Cicero in impassioned language expresses
astonishment that Catiline should be so audacious as to come into the
Senate while plotting the destruction of his country. The orator reminds
Catiline that men less guilty have been slain in the earlier days of the
republic, and gives reasons why the penalty of death should be meted out
to the arch conspirator (I., II.).

II. In the next part, Cicero gives reasons why Catiline should leave
Rome and go to the camp of Manlius:

(_a_) That his nefarious plot was well known, that his personal
character was stained with many crimes, that his public life was
abhorred by all, that his native land, though silent, eloquently pleads
with Catiline to withdraw (III.-IX.).

(_b_) That Catiline should depart to the troops raised in Etruria,
whither he had sent Manlius to carry on the war, that the great delight
of Catiline was to make war on his native land, and to mingle in the
society of the conspirators.

(_c_) That such withdrawal would be more advantageous to the State than
the execution of the conspirators, that in the former case his abandoned
followers would accompany Catiline, and thus the seeds of the rebellion
would be extirpated.

III. The orator promises the co-operation of all patriotic citizens in
suppressing the conspiracy after Catiline and his associates had
withdrawn. Then beseeching Catiline and the other conspirators to remove
from Rome, the orator invokes the aid of Juppiter Stator to save Rome
from the nefarious schemes of abandoned men.



M. TULLII CICERONIS

ORATIO IN L. CATILINAM


PRIMA.

HABITA IN SENATU.


I.--1. [1]Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam diu
[2]etiam [3]furor iste tuus [4]eludet? [5]Quem ad finem sese effrenata
[6]jactabit audacia? [7]Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palatii, nihil
urbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum omnium,
nihil hic munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque
moverunt. Patere tua consilia non sentis? [8]Constrictam omnium horum
scientia teneri conjurationem tuam non vides? Quid [9]proxima, quid
superiore nocte egeris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii
ceperis, quem [10]nostrum ignorare arbitraris? 2. O tempora, O mores!
senatus haec intellegit, consul videt; hic tamen vivit.[1] Vivit? immo
vero etiam [2]in senatum venit, fit publici consilii particeps, [3]notat
et designat oculis ad caedem unum quemque nostrum. Nos autem, [4]viri
fortes, satis facere rei publicae [5]videmur, si istius furorem ac tela
[6]vitemus. [7]Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci jussu consulis jam pridem
oportebat, [8]in te conferri pestem istam, quam tu in nos machinaris.
3. [1]An vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus,
Ti. Gracchum, mediocriter labefactantem statum rei publicae, privatus
interfecit: Catilinam orbem terrae caede atque incendiis vastare
cupientem, nos consules perferemus? Nam [2]illa nimis antiqua praetereo,
quod C. [3]Servilius Ahala Sp. Maelium, [4]novis rebus studentem, manu
sua occidit. [5]Fuit, fuit ista quondam in hac re publica virtus, [6]ut
viri fortes acerbioribus suppliciis civem perniciosum quam acerbissimum
hostem coercerent. Habemus [7]senatus consultum in te, Catilina,
[8]vehemens et grave: non deest [9]rei publicae consilium neque
auctoritas hujus ordinis: [10]nos, nos, dico aperte, consules desumus.

II.--4. Decrevit [1]quondam senatus ut L. Opimius consul videret ne quid
res publica detrimenti caperet; nox nulla [2]intercessit; interfectus
est [3]propter quasdam seditionum suspiciones C. Gracchus, clarissimo
[4]patre, avo, majoribus: occisus est cum liberis[5] M. Fulvius
consularis. [6]Simili senatus consulto C. Mario et L. Valerio consulibus
est permissa res publica: [7]num unum diem postea L. Saturninum tribunum
plebis et C. Servilium praetorem mors ac rei publicae poena remorata
est? At vero nos [8]vicesimum jam diem patimur hebescere [9]aciei horum
auctoritatis. Habemus enim hujus modi senatus consultum, verum
[10]inclusum in tabulis tamquam in vagina reconditum,[11] quo ex senatus
consulto confestim interfectum te esse, Catilina, convenit. Vivis,
[12]et vivis non ad deponendam sed ad confirmandam audaciam. Cupio,
patres conscripti, me esse clementem, cupio in tantis rei publicae
periculis me non [13]dissolutum videri, sed jam me ipse [14]inertiae
nequitiaeque condemno. 5. [1]Castra sunt in Italia contra populum
Romanum in Etruriae faucibus collocata, crescit [2]in dies singulos
hostium numerus, eorum autem castrorum imperatorem ducemque hostium
intra moenia atque [3]adeo in senatu videmus intestinam aliquam cotidie
perniciem rei publicae molientem. Si te [4]jam, Catilina, comprehendi,
si interfici jussero, [5]credo, erit [6]verendum mihi, ne non potius hoc
omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius factum se dicat. Verum
ego hoc, quod jam pridem factum esse oportuit, [7]certa de causa nondum
adducor, ut faciam. Tum denique [8]interficiere, cum jam nemo tam
improbus, tam perditus, tam [9]tui similis inveniri poterit, [10]qui id
non jure factum esse fateatur. 6. Quam diu [1]quisquam erit qui te
defendere audeat, vives, sed vives ita, ut [2]vivis, multis meis et
firmis praesidiis oppressus, ne [3]commovere te contra rem publicam
possis. Multorum te etiam oculi et aures non sentientem, sicut adhuc
[4]fecerunt, speculabuntur atque custodient.

III.--[5]Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius [6]exspectes, si
neque nox tenebris obscurare [7]coeptus nefarios neque [8]privata domus
[9]parietibus continere [10]voces conjurationis tuae potest? Si
[11]inlustrantur, si erumpunt omnia? Muta jam [12]istam mentem, [13]mihi
crede! obliviscere caedis atque incendiorum. [14]Teneris undique: luce
sunt clariora nobis tua consilia omnia; quae jam mecum licet
[15]recognoscas. 7. [1]Meministine me [2]ante diem duodecimum Kalendas
Novembres dicere in senatu, fore in armis [3]certo die, qui dies futurus
esset ante diem sextum Kalendas Novembres, C. Manlium, [4]audaciae
satellitem atque administrum tuae? [5]Num me fefellit, Catilina, non
modo res tanta, tam atrox, tamque incredibilis, verum id quod multo
magis admirandum, dies? Dixi ego idem in senatu, [6]caedem te
[7]optimatium contulisse in ante diem quintum Kalendas Novembres, tum
cum multi principes civitatis Roma non tam [8]sui conservandi quam
tuorum consiliorum [9]reprimendorum causa profugerunt. Num infitiari
potes te illo die meis praesidiis, mea diligentia circumclusum commovere
te contra rem publicam non potuisse, cum te discessu ceterorum nostra
tamen, qui remansissemus, caede contentum esse dicebas? 8. [1]Quid? cum
tu [2]te Praeneste Kalendis ipsis Novembribus occupaturum nocturno
impetu esse confideres, [3]sensistine illam coloniam meo jussu meis
[4]praesidiis, custodiis vigiliisque esse munitam? [5]Nihil agis, nihil
moliris, nihil cogitas, quod non ego non modo audiam, sed etiam videam
planeque sentiam.


IV.--Recognosce mecum [6]tandem [7]noctem illam superiorem: [8]jam
intelliges multo me vigilare acrius ad salutem quam te ad perniciem rei
publicae. [9]Dico te [10]priore nocte venisse [11]inter falcarios--non
agam obscure [12]in M. Laecae domum: convenisse eodem [13]complures
ejusdem [14]amentiae scelerisque socios. Num negare audes? quid taces?
[15]convincam, si negas: video enim esse hic in senatu quosdam, qui
tecum una fuerunt. 9. O di immortales! [1]ubinam gentium sumus! quam rem
publicam habemus? in qua urbe vivimus? [2]Hic, hic sunt in nostro
numero, [3]patres conscripti, [4]in hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo
gravissimoque consilio, [5]qui de nostro omnium interitu, qui de hujus
urbis atque adeo de orbis terrarum exitio cogitent. Hosce ego video et
de re publica [6]sententiam rogo, et quos ferro trucidari oportebat, eos
nondum voce [7]vulnero. Fuisti [8]igitur apud Laecam illa nocte,
Catilina; [9]distribuisti partess Italiae; [10]statuisti quo quemque
proficisci placeret, [11]delegisti quos Romae relinqueres, quos tecum
educeres, [12]discripsisti urbis partes ad incendia, confirmasti te
ipsum jam esse exiturum, dixisti [13]paullulum tibi esse [14]etiam tum
morae, quod ego viverem. Reperti sunt [15]duo equites Romani, [16]qui te
ista cura liberarent et sese illa ipsa nocte paulo ante lucem me in meo
[17]lectulo interfecturos esse pollicerentur. 10. Haec ego omnia,
[1]vixdum etiam coetu vestro dimisso, comperi, domum meam majoribus
praesidiis munivi atque firmavi, exclusi eos, quos tu ad me [2]salutatum
[3]mane miseras, cum illi ipsi venissent, quos ego jam multis ac summis
viris ad me [4]id temporis venturos praedixeram.


V.--11. [1]Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, [2]perge quo coepisti, egredere
aliquando ex urbe: patent portae: proficiscere. Nimium diu te
imperatorem tua illa Manliana castra desiderant. Educ tecum etiam omnes
tuos, [3]si minus, quam plurimos: purga urbem. Magno me metu liberabis,
[4]dum modo inter me atque te murus intersit. Nobiscum versari jam
diutius non potes: [5]non feram, non patiar, non sinam. [6]Magna dis
immortalibus habenda est atque huic ipsi Jovi Statori, antiquissimo
custodi hujus urbis, gratia, [7]quod hanc tam taetram, tam horribilem
tamque infestam rei publicae pestem totiens jam effugimus. [8]Non est
saepius in uno homine summa salus periclitanda rei publicae. Quam diu
mihi, [9]consuli designato, Catilina, insidiatus es, non publico me
praesidio, sed privata diligentia defendi. Cum proximis comitiis
consularibus me consulem [10]in campo et [11]competitores tuos
interficere voluisti, [12]compressi conatus tuos nefarios amicorum
praesidio et copiis, nullo tumultu publice concitato: denique,
[13]quotienscumque me petisti, per me tibi obstiti, [14]quamquam videbam
[15]perniciem meam cum magna calamitate rei publicae esse conjunctam.
12. [1]Nunc jam aperte rem publicam universam petis: templa deorum
immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam [2]denique totam
ad exitium ac vastitatem vocas. [3]Quare quoniam id, quod est primum et
quod hujus imperii disciplinaeque majorum proprium est, facere nondum
audeo, faciam id, quod est [4]ad severitatem lenius et ad communem
salutem utilius. Nam si te interfici jussero, residebit in re publica
[5]reliqua conjuratorum manus: [6]sin tu, quod te jam dudum hortor,
exieris, [7]exhaurietur ex urbe tuorum comitum magna et perniciosa
sentina rei publicae. 13. Quid est, Catilina? num dubitas id
[1]imperante me facere, quod jam tua sponte [2]faciebas? Exire ex urbe
jubet [3]consul hostem. Interrogas me: [4]num in exilium? non jubeo,
sed, si [5]me consulis, suadeo.


VI.--Quid est enim, Catilina, [6]quod te jam in hac urbe delectare
possit? In qua nemo est [7]extra istam conjurationem perditorum hominum
qui te non metuat, nemo qui non oderit. [8]Quae nota domesticae
turpitudinis non inusta vitae tuae est? [9]Quod privatarum rerum dedecus
non haeret in fama? [10]Quae libido ab oculis, quod facinus a manibus
unquam tuis, quod flagitium a toto corpore abfuit? [11]Cui tu
adulescentulo, quem corruptelarum illecebris irretisses, non aut ad
audaciam ferrum aut ad libidinem facem praetulisti? 14. [1]Quid vero?
[2]Nuper, cum morte superioris uxoris novis nuptiis domum vacuefecisses,
nonne etiam alio incredibili scelere hoc scelus cumulasti? Quod ego
praetermitto et facile [3]patior sileri, ne in hac civitate [4]tanti
facinoris immanitas, aut exstitisse aut non vindicata esse videatur.
Praetermitto ruinas fortunarum tuarum, [5]quas omnes impendere tibi
proximis Idibus senties: ad illa venio, quae non ad privatam ignominiam
vitiorum tuorum, non ad domesticam tuam difficultatem ac turpitudinem,
sed ad summam rem publicam atque [6]ad omnium nostrum vitam salutemque
pertinent. 15. Potestne tibi haec lux, Catilina, aut hujus caeli
spiritus esse jucundus, [1]cum scias esse horum [2]neminem qui nesciat,
te [3]pridie Kalendas Januarias [4]Lepido et Tullo Consulibus stetisse
in [5]comitio cum telo? Manum consulum et principum civitatis
interficiendorum causa paravisse [6]sceleri ac furori tuo non mentem
aliquam aut timorem tuum, sed fortunam populi Romani obstitisse? Ac jam
illa omitto--[7]neque enim sunt aut obscura aut non multa commissa
postea:--quotiens tu me [8]designatum, quotiens consulem interficere
voluisti! quot ego tuas [9]petitiones [10]ita conjectas, ut vitari posse
non viderentur, parva quadam declinatione et, ut aiunt, corpore effugi!
nihil adsequeris, neque tamen conari ac velle desistis. 16. Quotiens
[1]tibi jam extorta est sica ista de manibus! quotiens [2]excidit aliquo
casu et elapsa est! [3]quae quidem quibus abs te initiata sacris ac
devota sit, nescio, quod eam necesse putas esse in consulis corpore
defigere.


VII.--Nunc vero quae [4]tua est ista vita? Sic enim jam tecum loquar,
non ut odio permotus esse videar, quo debeo, [5]sed ut misericordia,
quae tibi [6]nulla debetur. Venisti [7]paulo ante in senatum. Quis te ex
hac tanta [8]frequentia, tot ex tuis amicis ac necessariis salutavit? Si
hoc [9]post hominum memoriam contigit nemini, [10]vocis exspectas
contumeliam, cum sis gravissimo judicio taciturnitatis oppressus?
[11]Quid? Quod [12]adventu tuo [13]ista subsellia vacuefacta sunt, quod
omnes consulares, [14]qui tibi persaepe ad caedem constituti fuerunt,
simul atque adsedisti, partem istam subselliorum [15]nudam atque inanem
reliquerunt, quo [16]tandem animo hoc tibi ferendum putas? 17. [1]Servi
[2]mehercule mei si me [3]isto pacto metuerent, ut te metuunt omnes
cives tui, domum meam relinquendam putarem: tu tibi [4]urbem nom
arbitraris? Etsi me meis civibus [5]injuria suspectum tam graviter atque
[6]offensum viderem, carere me aspectu civium quam [7]infestis oculis
omnium conspici mallem: tu cum conscientia scelerum tuorum [8]agnoscas
odium omnium justum et jam diu tibi debitum, [9]dubitas, quorum
[10]mentes sensusque vulneras, eorum aspectum praesentiamque vitare? Si
te parentes timerent atque odissent tui nec eos ulla ratione placare
posses, ut opinor, ab eorum oculis [11]aliquo concederes: [12]nunc te
patria [13]quae communis est parens omnium nostrum, odit ac metuit et
jam diu nihil te judicat nisi de parricidio suo cogitare: hujus tu neque
auctoritatem [14]verebere nec judicium sequere nec vim pertimesces?
18. [1]Quae tecum, Catilina, sic agit et quodam modo tacita loquitur:
[2]‘Nullum jam aliquot annis facinus exstitit nisi per te, nullum
flagitium sine te: tibi uni multorum civium [3]neces, tibi vexatio
direptioque [4]sociorum impunita fuit ac libera: [5]tu non solum ad
negligendas leges et quaestiones, verum etiam ad evertendas
perfringendasque valuisti. Superiora illa, quamquam ferenda non fuerunt,
tamen ut potui, tuli: nunc vero me totam esse in metu propter unum te,
quidquid increpuerit Catilinam timeri, nullum videri contra me consilium
iniri posse, quod a tuo scelere abhorreat, [6]non est ferendum.
Quamobrem discede atque hunc mihi timorem eripe, si est verus, [7]ne
opprimar, sin falsus, ut tandem aliquando timere desinam.’


VIII.--19. Haec si tecum, ut dixi, patria loquatur, nonne [1]impetrare
debeat, etiam si vim adhibere non possit? [2]Quid? Quod tu te ipse [3]in
custodiam dedisti? Quod vitandae suspicionis causa [4]apud M’. Lepidum
te habitare velle dixisti? A quo non receptus etiam ad me venire ausus
es, atque ut domi meae te adservarem rogasti. Cum a me quoque id
responsum tulisses, me nullo modo posse [5]isdem parietibus tuto esse
tecum, qui magno in periculo essem quod isdem moenibus contineremur, ad
[6]Q. Metellum praetorem venisti: a quo repudiatus ad sodalem tuum,
[7]virum optimum, M. Metellum demigrasti, quem tu [8]videlicet et ad
custodiendum diligentissimum et ad suspicandum sagacissimum et [9]ad
vindicandum fortissimum fore putasti. Sed quam longe videtur a carcere
atque vinculis abesse debere, [10]qui se ipse jam dignum custodia
judicarit? 20. [1]Quae cum ita sint, dubitas, si [2]emori aequo animo
non potes, abire in aliquas terras et vitam istam, multis suppliciis
justis debitisque ereptam, fugae solitudinique mandare? [3]Refer,
inquis, ad senatum; id enim postulas, et, si hic ordo [4]sibi placere
decreverit te ire in exilium, obtemperaturum te esse dicis. Non referam,
id quod [5]abhorret a meis moribus, et tamen faciam ut intelligas, quid
hi de te sentiant. Egredere ex urbe, Catilina, libera rem publicam metu
in exilium, [6]si hunc vocem exspectas, proficiscere. Quid est,
Catilina? Ecquid attendis, ecquid animadvertis horum silentium?
[7]Patiuntur, tacent. [8]Quid exspectas auctoritatem loquentium, quorum
voluntatem tacitorum perspicis? 21. At si hoc idem [1]huic adulescenti
optimo, P. Sestio, si fortissimo vero M. Marcello dixissem, jam mihi
consuli hoc ipso in templo jure optimo senatus [2]vim et manus
intulisset. De te autem, Catilina, cum [3]quiescunt, probant, cum
patiuntur, decernunt, cum tacent, clamant: neque hi solum, quorum
auctoritas est videlicet cara, vita vilissima, sed etiam equites Romani
honestissimi atque optimi viri, ceterique fortissimi [4]cives, qui stant
circum senatum, quorum tu et frequentiam videre et studia perspicere et
voces paulo ante exaudire potuisti. Quorum ego vix abs te jam diu manus
ac tela contineo, eosdem facile adducam ut te haec, quae jam pridem
vastare studes, relinquentem usque ad portas [5]prosequantur.

IX.--22. [1]Quamquam quid loquor? [2]Te ut ulla res frangat? Tu ut te
unquam corrigas? Tu ut ullam fugam meditere? Tu ut exilium cogites?
Utinam tibi istam mentem di immortales [3]duint! Etsi video, si mea voce
perterritus ire in exilium [4]animum induxeris, [5]quanta tempestas
invidiae nobis, si minus in praesens tempus, recenti memoria scelerum
tuorum, at in posteritatem impendeat. [6]Sed est tanti, dum modo ista
sit privata calamitas, et a rei publicae periculis sejungatur. Sed tu
[7]ut vitiis commoveare, ut legum poenas pertimescas, ut temporibus rei
publicae cedas, non est postulandum. Neque enim is es, Catilina, ut te
aut pudor unquam a turpitudine aut metus a periculo aut ratio a furore
revocaverit. 23. Quam ob rem, ut saepe jam dixi, proficiscere, ac, si
mihi inimico, ut praedicas, tuo [1]conflare vis invidiam, [2]recta perge
in exilium; [3]vix feram sermones hominum, si id feceris, vix molem
istius invidiae, si in exilium jussu consulis ieris, sustinebo. [4]Sin
autem servire meae laudi et gloriae mavis, egredere cum importuna
sceleratorum manu. Confer te ad Manlium, concita perditos cives, secerne
te a bonis, infer patriae bellum, [5]exsulta impio latrocinio, ut a me
non ejectus ad alienos, sed invitatus ad tuos esse videaris.
24. [1]Quamquam quid ego te invitem, a quo jam sciam esse praemissos,
[2]qui tibi ad Forum Aurelium praestolarentur armati? Cui sciam
[3]pactam et constitutam cum Manlio diem. A quo etiam [4]aquilam illam
argenteam, quam tibi ac tuis omnibus perniciosam esse confido ac
funestam futuram, [5]cui domi tuae sacrarium scelerum tuorum constitutum
fuit, sciam esse praemissam? [6]Tu ut illa diutius carere possis, quam
venerari ad caedem proficisens solebas, a cujus [7]altaribus saepe istam
impiam dexteram ad necem civium transtulisti.

X.--25. Ibis tandem aliquando, quo te jam pridem ista [1]cupiditas
effrenata ac furiosa rapiebat. Neque enim tibi haec res adfert dolorem,
sed [2]quandam incredibilem voluptatem. [3]Ad hanc te amentiam natura
peperit, voluntas exercuit, fortuna servavit. Nunquam tu [4]non modo
[5]otium, sed ne bellum quidem, nisi [6]nefarium concupisti. [7]Nanctus
es ex perditis atque ab omni non modo fortuna, verum etiam spe
derelictis [8]conflatam, improborum manum. 26. [1]Hic tu qua laetitia
perfruere! quibus gaudiis exsultabis! quanta in voluptate bacchabere,
cum in tanto numero tuorum neque audies virum bonum quemquam neque
videbis. [2]Ad hujus vitae studium meditati illi sunt qui feruntur
labores tui, jacere humi, non solum [3]ad obsidendum stuprum, verum
etiam [4]ad facinus obeundum, vigilare non solum insidiantem somno
maritorum, verum etiam bonis [5]otiosorum. [6]Habes, ubi ostentes,
illam tuam praeclaram patientiam famis, frigoris, inopiae verum omnium,
[7]quibus te brevi tempore conectum senties. 27. [1]Tantum profeci tum,
[2]cum te a consulatu reppuli, ut [3]exsul potius tentare quam consul
vexare rem publicam posses atque ut id, quod est abs te scelerate
susceptum, latrocinium potius quam bellum nominaretur.

XI.--Nunc ut a me, patres conscripti, quandam prope justam patriae
querimoniam [4]detester ac deprecer, percipite, [5]quaeso, diligenter
quae dicam, et ea penitus animis vestris mentibusque mandate. Etenim si
mecum patria, quae mihi vita mea multo carior est, si cuncta Italia, si
omnis res publica sic [6]loquatur; ‘M. Tulli, quid agis? [7]Tune eum,
quem esse hostem comperisti, quem ducem belli futurum vides, quem
exspectari imperatorem in castris hostium sentis, auctorem sceleris,
principem conjurationis, [8]evocatorem servorum et civium perditorum,
exire patiere, ut abs te non [9]emissus ex urbe, sed immisus in urbem
videatur? Nonne [10]hunc in vincula duci, non ad mortem rapi, non summo
supplicio [11]mactari imperabis? 28. Quid [1]tandem te impedit? Mosne
majorum? [2]At persaepe etiam privati in hac re publica perniciosos
cives morte multarunt. [3]An leges, quae de civium Romanorum supplicio
[4]rogatae sunt? At nunquam in hac urbe, qui a re publica defecerunt,
civium jura tenuerunt. An invidiam posteritatis times? [5]Praeclaram
vero populo Romano refers gratiam, qui te, [6]hominem per te cognitum,
nulla commendatione majorum tam mature ad summum imperium per omnes
honorum gradus extulit, si [7]propter invidiam aut alicujus periculi
metum salutem civium tuorum neglegis. 29. Sed si quis est invidiae
metus, [1]num est vehementius severitatis ac fortitudinis invidia quam
inertiae ac nequitiae pertimescenda? An cum bello vastabitur Italia,
vexabuntur urbes, tecta ardebunt, tum te non existimas invidiae incendio
conflagraturum?’

XII.--His ego sanctissimis rei publicae vocibus et eorum hominum, qui
hoc idem sentiunt, mentibus pauca respondebo. Ego, si hoc optimum
[2]factu [3]judicarem, patres conscripti, Catilinam morte multari,
[4]unius usuram horae [5]gladiatori isti, ad vivendum non dedissem.
[6]Etenim si [7]summi viri et clarissimi cives Saturnini et Gracchorum
et Flacci et superiorum complurium sanguine non modo se non
contaminarunt, sed etiam [8]honestarunt, certe verendum mihi non erat,
ne quid hoc parricida civium interfecto invidiae mihi in posteritatem
redundaret. Quodsi ea mihi maxime impenderet, tamen hoc animo fui
semper, ut invidiam virtute partam gloriam, non invidiam putarem.
30. [1]Quamquam nonnulli sunt in hoc ordine, [2]qui aut ea quae imminent
non videant, aut quae vident dissimulent: [3]qui spem Catilinae mollibus
sententiis aluerunt conjurationemque nascentem non credendo
corroboraverunt; quorum auctoritatem secuti multi, non solum improbi,
verum etiam imperiti, [4]si in hunc animadvertissem, crudeliter et regie
factum esse dicerent. Nunc intellego, si iste, quo intendit, in Manliana
castra [5]pervenerit, neminem tam stultum fore qui non videat
conjurationem esse factam, neminem tam improbum qui non fateatur. Hoc
autem uno interfecto intellego hanc rei publicae pestem [6]paulisper
reprimi, non in perpetuum comprimi posse. Quodsi [7]se ejecerit secumque
suos eduxerit et eodem [8]ceteros undique collectos naufragos
adgregaverit, exstinguetur atque delebitur non modo haec [9]tam adulta
rei publicae pestis, verum etiam stirps ac semen malorum omnium.

XIII.--31. Etenim [1]jam diu, patres conscripti, in his periculis
conjurationis insidiisque versamur, sed nescio quo pacto [2]omnium
scelerum ac veteris furoris et audaciae maturitas in nostri consulatus
tempus erupit. Quodsi [3]ex tanto latrocinio iste unus tolletur,
videbimur fortasse ad breve quoddam tempus cura et metu esse relevati,
periculum autem residebit et erit inclusum penitus in venis atque [4]in
visceribus rei publicae. Ut saepe homines aegri morbo gravi, [5]cum
aestu febrique jactantur, si aquam gelidam [6]biberunt, primo relevari
videntur, deinde multo gravius vehementiusque adflictantur, sic hic
morbus, [7]qui est in re publica, relevatus istius poena, [8]vehementius
vivis reliquis ingravescet. 32. Quare secedant improbi, secernant se a
bonis, unum in locum congregentur, muro denique, id quod saepe jam dixi,
discernantur a nobis: desinant insidiari domi suae consuli, circumstare
tribunal [1]praetoris urbani, [2]obsidere cum gladiis curiam,
[3]malleolos et faces ad inflammandam urbem comparare: sit denique
inscriptum in fronte unius cujusque, [4]quid de re publica sentiat.
Polliceor vobis hoc, patres conscripti, tantam in nobis consulibus fore
diligentiam, tantam in vobis auctoritatem, tantam in equitibus Romanis
virtutem, tantam in omnibus bonis consensionem, ut Catilinae profectione
[5]omnia patefacta, inlustrata, oppressa vindicata esse videatis.
33. [1]Hisce ominibus, Catilina, [2]cum summa rei publicae salute, cum
tua peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui se tecum omni scelere
parricidioque junxerunt, proficiscere ad impium bellum ac nefarium. Tum,
[3]tu, Juppiter, qui isdem quibus haec urbs [4]auspiciis a Romulo es
constitutus, quem [5]Statorem hujus urbis atque imperii vere nominamus,
hunc et hujus socios a tuis aris ceterisque templis, a tectis urbis ac
moenibus a vita fortunisque civium [6]arcebis, et homines bonorum
inimicos, hostes patriae, latrones Italiae, scelerum foedere inter se ac
nefaria societate conjunctos, aeternis suppliciis vivos mortuosque
mactabis.



NOTES.

[Transcriber’s Note:

This text has two traditional divisions, Chapters and Sections, which
do not always coincide. Sections that straddle two Chapters are shown
here as “6a” and “6b”:

  CHAPTER I:    Section 1, 2, 3
  CHAPTER II:   Section 4, 5, 6a
  CHAPTER III:  Section 6b, 7, 8a
  CHAPTER IV:   Section 8b, 9, 10
  CHAPTER V:    Section 11, 12, 13a
  CHAPTER VI:   Section 13b, 14, 15, 16a
  CHAPTER VII:  Section 16b, 17, 18
  CHAPTER VIII: Section 19, 20, 21
  CHAPTER IX:   Section 22, 23, 24
  CHAPTER X:    Section 25, 26, 27a
  CHAPTER XI:   Section 27b, 28, 29a
  CHAPTER XII:  Section 29b, 30
  CHAPTER XIII: Section 31, 32, 33]



CHAPTER I.

§ 1.--

1: _quousque--nostra?_ “How far, then, Catiline, will you trample upon
our patience?” The abrupt opening of the speech shows the feelings of
the orator whose indignation was naturally aroused when the conspirator
dared to appear in the Senate after being declared a public enemy
(_hostis patriae_). --_tandem_: “pray:” cp. δῆτα. --_abutere_: a future,
as shown by _eludet, jactabit_. Cicero prefers the more poetic
termination _-re_ to _-ris_ in the imperf. and fut. indic. and in the
pres. and impf. subj. pass. In the pres. indic. he rarely uses it.
Madvig. § 114.6. --_nostra_: Cicero includes the Senators and Consuls.

2: _etiam_: “still,” belongs to _quamdiu_.

3: _furor iste_: note the energy imparted by personifying _furor_ and
_audacia_. --_iste_ is strictly a pronoun demonstrative of the second
person: _iste locus_, “the place where you are standing:” _ista verba_:
“the words you utter.” It often had a contemptuous meaning in Cicero’s
orations.

4: _eludet_: “will turn us into mockery:” a gladiatorial term of
avoiding a thrust by the rapid movement of the body: hence, to baffle,
deceive, and, as here, to mock. --_Nos_ is omitted by some editors.

5: _quem--audacia_: “to what length will your unbridled audacity
proceed?” --_quem ad finem_ = _quousque_ or _quamdiu_. According to
Schultz _quousque_ puts the more general question of _time_ and
_degree_: _quamdiu_, the more special question, of _time_ only: _quem
ad finem_: of _degree_ only.

6: _jactabit_ = _insolenter se efferet: se jactare_, “to toss the head
contemptuously,” “to walk with a conceited swing.”

7: _nihilne--moverunt?_ “Have the guards nightly stationed on the
Palatine nothing daunted you? Nothing, the sentinels of the city;
nothing, the trepidation of the people; nothing, the thronging together
of all patriotic (citizens); nothing, this most impregnable place for
convening the Senate; nothing, the countenances and looks of these?”
Observe the emphatic position of _nihil_ in the beginning of successive
clauses (_anaphora_). --_Palatii_: the Palatine hill was adjacent to the
Forum. It was here that Augustus built a splendid mansion: hence our
word _palace_ from the residence of the emperor built on the _Palatium_.
In times of danger the Palatium, one of the most important military
posts of the city, was occupied by a guard. Originally the word meant
the “feeding place:” root _pal, pascere_: cp. _Pales, Palilia_. Varro
derives it from _pal_, “to wander:” cp. _palor_. It may have been the
“common” for cattle in early days. --_Vigiliae_: under the republic, on
emergencies, the _triumviri capitales, aediles_ or _tribuni plebis_
acting as a kind of police appointed night watches to keep order.
--_timor populi_: cp. Sallust. Cat.: C. 31: _immutata urbis facies erat:
ex summa laetitia atque lascivia ... repente omnes tristitia invasit_.
--_bonorum omnium_: with _bonus_: cp. ἀγαθός, often used in the sense of
“patriotic,” opposed to _malus civis_, κακός: “unpatriotic.” --_locus_:
the Senate was usually convened on the Kalends, Nones and Ides of each
month, and the meeting usually held in the Curia Hostilia. Extraordinary
meetings (_senatus indictus_) as the present one were convened in some
temple, or other place consecrated by the augurs. The present meeting
was held in the temple of Juppiter Stator, near the _via sacra_, at the
foot of the Palatine, which might be said to be _munitissimus_ from the
special guard there as well as from its position. --_ora vultusque_: the
former denotes the natural and habitual state, as expressed by the mouth
and the lower part of the face: while the latter indicates the temporary
and changing state, as expressed by the motion of the eye and brow.

8: _constrictam--vides_: “do you not see that your conspiracy has
already come within the privity of all these?” literally, “is held bound
by.” Orelli distinguishes between _non_ and _nonne_ in direct questions.
Where _non_ is used, the speaker, sure of his opinion, does not heed the
answer of the opponent; where _nonne_ is used, the speaker expects and
wishes that the person questioned will agree with him. --_constrictam
teneri_: the metaphor is taken from chaining a wild beast to which he
here compares the conspiracy.

9: _proxima_: this speech was delivered November 8th: so _nox proxima_
would be the night of 7th: --_nox superior_, the night of the 6th, also
called _nox prior_, § 8. On this occasion they were at the house of
M. Porcius Laeca. What they did on the _nox proxima_ we are not
informed. --_egeris, fueris, convocaveris, ceperis_: subjunctive of
dependent question: H. 529, I.

10: _nostrûm_: distinguish _nostrum_ used partitively and _nostri_ used
possessively.


§ 2.--

1: _vivit? immo vero_: Cicero often connects a word by putting that word
in the form of a question with or without _dicam_ and answering it by
_immo_. According to Madvig, (§ 454) _immo_ corrects a former statement
as being quite inaccurate, or too weak, though true as far as it goes.
--_immo vero_: “nay, indeed.”

2: _in senatum venit_: as _vir praetorius_ Catiline had a right to enter
the Senate.

3: _notat et designat_: a metaphor from the marking of the animals
appointed for sacrifice. Cicero often uses synonymous words to impress
the idea more strongly: “he marks and stamps each one of us for
slaughter:” cp. Leg. Man. 3, 7. _Cives Romanes necandos trucidandosque
denotavit._

4: _viri fortes_: ironical.

5: _videmur_, scil. _nobis_: “we fancy that we are doing our duty to the
state.”

6: _si--vitemus_: for the subj. in _protasis_, and indic. in _apodosis_,
see H. 511.

7: _ad mortem--opportebat_: “to death long ago, O Catiline, ought you to
have been dragged by the order of the consul?” Note the emphatic
position of _ad mortem. --duci_: for the present inf: see. H., 537, I.
--_jussu consulis_: the Senate had entrusted the safety of the State by
the _decretum ultimum_ (_videant consules, ne quid detrimenti respublica
capiat_). By the power vested in the consuls in consequence of this
decree they had the power to put Catiline to death.

8: _in te--machinaris_: “On you should that ruin long since have been
hurled which you for a long time have been plotting against us all.”
Join _jampridem_ from the previous clause with _conferri_. The present
tense in Latin with _jamdiu_ includes past tense: cf. πάλαι λέγω,
_jamdiu dico_: “I have long ago told you and do so still.”
--_machinari_; μηχανᾶσθαι, to plan by _artful_ and _secret_ means:
_moliri_, to plan by _strong_ effort.


§ 3.--

1: _An vero_: the original force of _an_ is “or,” and when used
interrogatively the sentence is elliptical. Here we may supply: “Am I
right in my conjecture or, in fact, did that illustrious man, P. Scipio,
chief pontiff, though filling no magistracy, slay Tiberius Gracchus when
slightly disturbing the settled order of the State.” We may conveniently
translate here _an vero_ by: “while, in fact.” The argument here is _a
minore ad majus_. P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica consul with D. Junius
Brutus 138 B.C. Cicero probably adds _pontifex maximus_ to remind his
hearers of the high dignity and prudence which a man gifted with this
office would possess. He also uses _privatus_ because in contrast to
_consules_, the office of _pontifex maximus_ not being a _magistratus_.
_Tiberium Gracchum_: see Proper Names --_mediocriter labefactantem_:
Cicero designedly extenuates the guilt of Gracchus to heighten the
crimes of Catiline. In fact, the orator represents the guilt of Gracchus
in different lights according to the exigencies of his cause: cp. De
Leg. Ag., 2, 5, 10: De Off. II., 12, 43. --_Catilinam_: emphatic
position: “Catiline, desiring to devastate the world with sword and fire
shall we consuls tolerate?” --_orbis terrae_: there is little difference
between _orbis terrae_ and _orbis terrarum_. --_caede atque incendiis_:
also _ferro et igni_.

2: _illa_: “the following instance:” though only the case of Ahala is
mentioned, the plural is probably used to intimate that other cases
might be adduced.

3: _C. Servilius Ahala_: see Proper Names.

4: _novis--studentem_: “aiming to overturn the government:” cp.
νεωτερίζειν.

5: _fuit-fuit_: note the emphatic repetition of the word (_epizeuxis_).
--_ista virtus_: here _ista_ = _illa_: “that well-known public spirit:”
We may take _virtus_ = _amor patriae_: “patriotism.”

6: _ut--coercerent_: “that brave men inflicted severer punishment on a
factious citizen then on the bitterest foe” --_suppliciis_: abl. means.

7: _senatus consultum_: the decree arming the consuls with civil and
military power. The formula was _videant consules ne quid respublica
detrimenti capiat_.

8: _vehemens et grave_: “full of force and severity.”

9: _rei publicae_: generally taken as a dative after _deest_: others
take it as a genitive depending on _consilium_, i.e., there is no lack
of precedents of the state, i.e., the state have many instances of
wicked citizens being punished. The state, according to Cicero, has
enough of wisdom (_consilium_) and determining authority (_auctoritas_),
but the executive power is weak.


CHAPTER II.

§ 4.--

1: _quondam_: 121 B.C.: see _C. Gracchus_, in Proper Names. In a decree
of this kind both consuls were named. The other, Q. Fabius, was at that
time in that part of Gaul known afterwards as Provincia, and his absence
from Rome may account for the omission of his name from the decree.

2: _intercessit_: i.e., between the passing of the decree and the death
of Gracchus.

3: _propter--suspiciones_: another case of extenuation to bring out more
vividly the guilt of Catiline. Distinguish _suspĭcĭo, suspīcĭo_.

4: _patre-majoribus_, scil. _ortus_: abl. of origin. The father of
C. Sempronius Gracchus was Tib. Sempronius Gracchus, who twice held the
consulship (177 B.C., and 163 B.C.), the censorship (169 B.C.), twice
enjoyed a triumph, once over the Celtiberians, 178 B.C., and once over
the Sardinians, 175 B.C. The mother of the Gracchi was Cornelia,
daughter of P. Scipio Africanus Major, who defeated Hannibal at Zama
202 B.C. Thus Gracchus united in himself two of the noblest families in
Rome.

5: _M. Fulvius_: one of the commissioners appointed to carry out the
_lex agraria_ of C. Gracchus. He was killed with his eldest son in the
fray in which Gracchus was slain. The youngest son was killed after the
conflict.

6: _simili-publica_: some omit the commas after _senatusconsulto_ and
_consulibus_ and thus make _Mario_, _Valerio_ datives; others retain the
commas and make these words ablative absolute. The event happened in the
sixth consulship of Marius, 102 B.C. Lucius Saturninus and C. Servilius
Glaucia were guilty of killing C. Memmius who was seeking the
consulship. Both Saturninus and Glaucia were driven into the Capitol and
put to death.

7: _num--est?_ “Did the punishment of death inflicted by the state cause
L. Saturninus, the tribune of the people, and C. Servilius, the praetor,
to wait for a single day?” --_mors ac rei publicae poena_ = _mortis
poena a re publica inflicta_.
--_at vero_: “but we assuredly.”

8: _vicesimum diem_: the 18th day since the _senatus consultum_ was
passed. The decree was passed Oct. 21st and this oration was delivered
Nov. 8th. The Romans, however, reckoned both days.

9: _aciei_: “the edge:” root _ac_: “sharp.”

10: _inclusum in tabulis_: “shut up among our records” i.e. a useless
decree unless carried into effect.

11: _quo--convenit_: “and in accordance with this decree, you,
O Catiline, should be at once put to death:” with _confestim_: cp.
_festino_.

12: _et vivis_: rhetorical for _et vivis quidem_ or _idque_.
--_cupio--cupio_: “I desire, on the one hand,--I am anxious, on the
other.” --The acc. of pronouns gives more prominence to the circumstance
wished by disconnecting it from the _cupio_.

13: _dissolutus_: “remiss,” “forgetful of duty.” Synonymous with
_neglegens_.

14: _inertiae nequitiaeque_: “of sloth and irresolution.”


§ 5.--

1: _castra--collocata_: “a camp is pitched,” at Faesulae (now
_Fiesole_), which lies on a spur of the western slope of the Appenines,
not far from Florence. At this place Manlius had collected a number of
soldiers who had served under Sulla.

The term _fauces_, literally “jaws,” is often used for a mountain pass:
cp. Scott: Lady of the Lake: “Led slowly through the pass’s jaws.”

2: _in dies singulos_: “daily,” always joined to some word of
comparative force and expressing daily increase or diminution:
_cottidie_, simply daily repetition. --_imperatorem ducemque:
imperator_, a military leader deriving his authority from the Senate:
_dux_, simply a leader.

3: _adeo in Senatu_: “in the very Senate,” or as Zumpt (§ 737) takes it,
“nay more,” “nay even in the Senate.”

4: _jam_: “now at once.” --_jussero_: the fut. pf. often represents the
speedy accomplishment of a fut. action.

5: _credo_: used ironically: cp. οἴομαι. Here the word may be equivalent
to _non erit verendum_.

6: _verendum mihi_, etc.: “I shall have to fear (i.e. I am convinced)
that all patriots will regard your death as occuring too late, rather
than as too severe and cruel,” or as Wilkins translates: “Certainly it
is more likely that all patriots will consider this action too late,
than that anyone should consider it too cruel.” Explain _quisquam_.

7: _certe--adducor_: “for a certain reason, I am not yet led to do:”
i.e. the fear of punishing Catiline before his guilt was fully
ascertained lest he might pass for an injured man with his sympathizers.
Cicero’s object was to cause Catiline and his associates to leave Rome.

8: _interficiere_: i.e. “you will be ordered to be put to death.” Others
read _interficiam te_.

9: _tui similis_: _similis_ in Cicero generally takes _genitive or
dative_ of persons: _dative_ of things.

10: _qui_ = _ut is_: “as not to confess that it was justly inflicted.”
--_id_, i.e. _te interficiam_ from _interficiere_ before.


§ 6.--

1: _quisquam_: for use, see H. 457.

2: _multis--oppressus_: “beset by many powerful guards placed by me:”
note the idiom. Cicero had guards placed not only in the capital, but
also throughout Italy.

3: _te commovere_: “to make any farther movement:” a metaphor taken from
the gladiatorial contests.

4: _fecerunt_ = _speculati sunt et custodiverunt_: the verb _facio_ in
Latin, and ποιέω in Greek, and _do_ in English, are often used as
substitutes for other verbs.


CHAPTER III.

5: _Etenim--potest?_ This gives a reason for the clause _sed
vives--possis_.

6: _exspectes_: H. 503, I.

7: _coeptus nefarios_: “your traitorous attempts:” another reading is
_coetus_.

8: _privata domus_: the house of M. Porcius Laeca.

9: _parietibus_: abl. means. Distinguish _moenia_ (root _mun_, to
defend: cp. ἀμύνειν), the walls of a city for defensive purposes:
_murus_ (= _mun-rus_), any kind of wall: _paries_ (root _par_, to
separate): the partition walls of a house: _maceria_, a garden wall.

10: _voces conjurationis_ = _voces conjuratorum_: “the voices of the
conspirators:” Cicero often uses abstract for concrete terms.

11: _inlustrantur_ opposed to _obscurare_ as _erumpunt_ to _domus ...
continet_.

12: _istam mentem_: “that resolve of thine,” i.e. of remaining in the
city to murder the people.

13: _mihi crede_ = _me sequere_: “follow my advice:” _mihi crede_ is the
common order in Cicero: _crede mihi_ in other writers.

14: _teneris undique_: “you are hemmed in (i.e. convicted) on every
hand.”

15: _quae--recognoscas_: “and these plans you may now review with me:”
Construe: _quae_ (= _et haec_, scil. _consilia_) _licit_ (_tibi ut_)
_recognoscas jam mecum_.


§ 7.--

1: _meministine_ = _nonne meministi_: the particle _-ne_ added to a verb
has sometimes in Cicero the force of _nonne_. Cp. Cat. Major, C. 10.
_videtisne_ = _nonne videtis_. So frequently in Terence, Plautus, and in
colloquial Latin: H. 396, II. I.

2: _ante-Novembres_: “on the 12th day before the Kalends of November,”
i.e. on October 21st. This anomolous mode of expression probably arose
from the transposition of _ante_. Having one written _ante die duodecimo
Kalendas_, they would easily be led to infer that _ante_ governed _die_
and so would write _ante diem duodecimum Kalendas_. For the method of
computation of time among the Romans, see H. 642.

3: _certo die, qui dies_: the repetition of the subst. after the
relation may be explained on the ground of clearness.

4: _audaciae--tuae_: “the partisan and agent of your audacious schemes.”
The words _satelles_ and _administer_ are synonymous, the former being
more poetical and explained by the latter, which is the more common.

5: _num--dies?_ “was I, O Catiline, ignorant not merely of an attempt so
enormous, so wicked, so surpassing belief, but, a thing which is more to
be wondered at, of the day?” --_me fallit_: cf. _latet me_, λανθάνει με.

6: _caedem--Novembres_: “that you had fixed the 28th October for the
slaughter of the nobles.” The construction is _in diem quintum ante
Kalendas Novembres_. Predetermination of future time is often expressed
by _in_ with acc.: as _in diem posterum senatum convocavit_, not “he
summoned the Senate _on_ the next day,” but “_for_ the next day.”

7: _optimatium_: is the only word, not a proper name, in _-at_, that
makes the gen. pl. in _-ium_. --_Roma_: Give rules for the construction
of the names of towns.

8: _sui conservandi_: _sui_ like _nostri, vestri_ is not a gen. pl. but
a gen. sing. of an adj. used collectively and abstractly: “not for
self-preservation:” Madvig, 297, b. c.: 417.

9: _reprimendorum_: here used in the sense of _impediendorum_: “of
preventing your plans being carried out.” This is probably a rhetorical
flourish on the part of Cicero, as no such fact is mentioned by Sallust.
Among those who fled, according to Plutarch, was M. Crassus.
--_num--dicebas?_ “Can you deny that on that very day, beset by the
guards I had placed, by my watchfulness, you could take not one step
against the state, when on the departure of the others you,
nevertheless, expressed yourself satisfied with the murder of us who
remained?” --_discessu ceterorum_: the ablative here supplies the place
of a participial abl. absol. --_nostra--caede--qui_: the relative is
made to refer to an antecedent implied in _nostra_: H. 445, 6, --_quum_:
is often used by Cicero in the impf. indic. when the bare notion of time
or of continuance is to be expressed. --_remansissemus_: virtual oblique
narrative: hence the subjunctive.


§ 8.--

1: _quid_: “further”: lit. “what shall I say?” scil. _dicam_.

2: _te--occupaturum_: “that you would anticipate us in seizing Praeneste
in an attack by night on the first of November.” With _occupare_: cp.
φθάνειν: no other writer mentions this fact. --_ipsis_: _ipse_ denotes
exactness in temporal expressions: _triginta ipsi dies_, “exactly thirty
days.”

3: _sensistisne_ = _nonne sensistis_: see note 1, § 7, above.

4: _praesidium_, a guard in a general sense: _custodiae_, watches on the
wall: _vigiliae_, night watches.

5: _nihil--nihil, nihil_: see note 7, § 1. “There is nothing you do,
nothing you plan, nothing you think which I do not hear only, but also
see or clearly perceive.” Some read _non modo_ for _non modo non_, which
the senses requires.


CHAPTER IV.

6: _tandem_: see note 1, § 1. The orator implies by this particle the
fulness of his knowledge.

7: _noctem illam superiorem_: “the events on the night preceding the
last:” i.e., the events on the night of the 6th November, when the
meeting was held at the house of M. Porcius Laeca. --_illam_ here does
duty for the definite article in English.

8: _jam--reipublicae_: “You shall presently perceive that I am much more
actively watchful for the safety of the state than you are for its
destruction” --_intelliges_: what compounds of _-lego_ have _lexi_ in
the perfect? --_acrius_?

9: _dico_: this passage is executed with fine skill. At first the orator
states the fact clearly and briefly. He notes the effect on the
conspirator and calls for an answer: after no reply is given, Cicero
goes into details.

10: _priore nocte_: “on the night preceding (the last)”: a change for
_superiore nocte_. Others say it means _initio noctis_.

11: _inter falcarios_, scil. _opifices_: “through the scythe makers’
street:” a street in Rome deriving its name from the occupation of its
inhabitants. Cp. Isocr. Areopag. § 48: ἐν ταῖς αὐλητρίσιν: Livy, 35, 43:
_inter lignarios_ “in the woodcutters’ street.”

12: _in--domum_: is the preposition necessary?

13: _complures_: Sallust (Cat. 17) gives the names of eleven senators
who were present on this occasion.

14: _amentiae_: distinguish _amentia_ and _dementia_.

15: _convincam_: “I will prove it.”


§ 9.--

1: _ubinam gentium sumus!_ This phrase is very much the same as ours,
“where in the world are we?” It is often used in rhetorical writings and
in the comic poets. For the partitive genitive, see H. 397, 4.

2: _hic, hic_: Epizeuxis: note the emphatic repetition.

3: _patres conscripti_: said to be for _patres et conscripti_. The
senators were called _patres_. In the wars of the early republic many
were killed. To fill the place of those slain some were summoned
(_conscripti_.) Hence the original senators--those summoned--were
addressed as _patres et conscripti_: afterwards the _et_ was omitted.

4: _in--consilio_: “in this most venerable and respectable assembly of
the whole world.” The term _sanctus_ applied to the senate may refer to
the building in which it was convened. The usual distinction between
_consilium_ and _concilium_, that the former means advice, plans, while
the latter means an assemblage, with regard to those who compose it,
does not hold good. The roots of these words are different, _consilium_:
from _con_, _sed_, to sit: cp. _sedes_, _solium_, ἕδος; for the change
of _d_ to _l_: cp. δάκρυ, lacrima; _olere_, _odere_. --_concilium_:
_con_, _cal_, to summon: cp. _Kalendae_, _calare_, καλεῖν.

5: _qui--cogitent_: “(are men so nefarious) as to plan the destruction
of every one of us, and the ruin of this city and further of the whole
world.” --_qui_ = _tales ut. --adeo_: literally, “up to this point:”
then, “in fact.”

6: _sententiam rogo_: supply _hos_ from the preceding. _Sententiam rogo_
is said of the presiding magistrate who, in proposing a _senatus
consultum_, asked individually the will of the senators.

7: _vulnero_: by mentioning their names publicly.

8: _igitur_: resumes (_analeptic_) the argument referring to the
question, _num rogare audes?_ Catiline had left this unanswered. Having
been interrupted by the outbreak of his indignation, the orator now
returns to the doings of the conspirators at the house of Laeca.

9: _distribuisti_: Sallust (C. 27) informs us that C. Manlius was sent
to Faesulae, and the adjoining territory of Etruria: Septimius, into the
Picene territory: C. Julius, into Apulia.

10: _statuisti--placeret_: scil: _locum_: “you appointed the place to
which it was agreed on that each should set out:” For subjunctive in
_placeret_, see H. 529, I.

11: _delegisti--educeres_: “you picked out those whom you were to leave
at Rome, whom you were to take with you.” Sallust (Cat. C. 43) says that
Statilius and Gabinius were to set fire to the city, and Cethegus was to
assassinate Cicero, and Lentulus to superintend the general massacre.

12: _discripsisti_: _discribo_ is used where the fundamental notion is
to map out, plan, arrange, put in order, as _distribuere_, _dividere_,
_disponere_: _describo_ is to write down, to compose. Sallust (Cat. C.
43) says that the conspirators were to fire twelve (Plutarch says a
hundred) parts of the city at one and the same time. For _discripsisti_:
cf. Cic. Pro Sulla, 8: _Tam Catilina dies exurendi tum caeteris manendi
conditio, tum discriptio totam per orbem caedis atque incendiorum
constituta est_.

13: _paullulum--morae_: “that you still had even now a slight cause of
delay.” _Paullulus_ is a dual diminutive for _paurululus_ = _paullulus_:
_u_ being omitted before the first _l_ and the _r_ assimilated: cp.
_sterula_ = _stella_. --_viverem_: subj.: giving the opinion of
Catiline.

14: _etiam tum_: is used to express the words of Catilina, not those of
Cicero.

15: _duo equites_: according to Cic. (Pro Sulla, 18, 52) one was
C. Cornelius: Sallust (Cat. C. 18) mentions the Senator L. Vargunteius
as the other.

16: _qui--liberarent_: “to free you from the fear you had:” _qui_ =
_tales ut_.

_illa ipsa nocte_: these knights were to pay their intended visit in the
morning, where the Roman magistrates and distinguished men held their
audiences and received their clients.

17: _lectulo_: the diminutive here has scarcely any force. There may be
a slight reference to its comfort: “my dear bed.”


§ 10.--

1: _vixdum--dimisso_: “when your meeting was hardly as yet broken up.”

_Comperi_: Cicero gained his knowledge from Curius and Fulvia (Sall.
Cat. C. 28). According to Merivale, Cicero used _comperio_ when he was
wont to indicate his knowledge of facts, though afraid of revealing the
sources of his information. The word does not always have this force.

2: _salutatum_: supine after a verb of motion. What different ways of
expressing a purpose in Latin?

3: _mane_: another form is _mani_: cp. _luci_, _heri_, locatives.

4: _id temporis_: for partitive genitive: H. 397, note 5.


CHAPTER V.

§ 11.--

1: _quae--sint_: “since these facts are so:” often used to sum up a
chain of facts founded on evidence.

2: _perge quo coepisti_, scil. _pergere_: “proceed as you have begun.”
Conjugate _pergere_.

_desiderant_: “feel the loss of.” _desiderare_, to feel the loss of an
object of love or sympathy: hence “to yearn after;” _requirere_: to feel
the loss of a thing, as an act of the understanding.

3: _si minus_ = _si non_. Construe: _si minus (educis omnes, educ) quam
plurimos (educere potes)_.

4: _dummodo--intersit_: cp. Plutarch (Cicero 16): “and Cicero arising
ordered him to leave the city; for while he himself carried on his
political contest by words and Catiline by arms, there must needs be a
city wall between them.”

5: _non--sinam_: note the _anaphora_. Cicero uses three synonymous verbs
to express the thought that he will not endure the conduct of Catiline
under any circumstances. We may translate: “I cannot, will not, shall
not endure it.”

6: _magna--urbis_: “much gratitude is due to the immortal gods and
especially (_atque_) to this Juppiter Stator, the most ancient guardian
of our city.” Distinguish _gratiam habere_, to feel thankful: _gratias
agere_, to return thanks in words: _gratiam referre_, to show oneself
thankful by deeds. Juppiter obtained the name Stator because he is said
to have stayed the flight of the Romans when they were hard pressed by
the Sabines. The place where the flight was arrested was marked by a
temple vowed by Romulus at the foot of the Palatine (Livy I. 12).

7: _quod--effugimus_: “because we have already escaped so often a pest
so cruel, so dreadful, so dangerous to the state” --_toties_: referring
to the earlier conspiracy of Catiline which failed.

8: _non--reipublicae_: “it must not again and again depend on one man
that the existence of the state should be in peril:” or, “the safety of
the state must not be often exposed to danger by one man.” A similar
expression is found: Cic. Pro. Rosc. Amer. 51. 148: _summa res publica
in hujus periculo tentatur_.

9: _consuli designato_: in the days of Cicero the consuls were elected
on the 22nd October, but did not formally enter upon their office till
January 1st. Between the time of their election and entering upon
office they were called _consules designati_. --_proximis comitiis
consularibus_: referring to Oct. 22nd.

10: _in campo_, scil. _Martio_: the consular elections were held in the
Campus Martius, a plain between the city and the Tiber.

11: _competitores_: D. Junius Silanus and L. Licinius Murena.

12: _compressi--copiis_: on the day of the consular elections, we are
told by Plutarch, Cicero put on a coat of mail and was attended by the
chief men of Rome and a great number of youths to the Campus Martius. He
there threw off his _toga_ and displayed his coat of mail to show the
danger to which he was exposed. The people were so angry with Catiline
that they chose Murena and Silanus as consuls.

13: _quotiescumque--obstiti_: “as often as you aimed at my life, by my
own resources did I oppose you:” _petere_ is a gladiatorial term, “to
aim a blow at an opponent.”

14: _quamquam videbam_: distinguish _quamquam_, introducing a conceded
fact and in good authors used with the indicative from _quamvis_
introducing a purely hypothetical case and used with the subjunctive.
H., 516, I. and II.

15: _perniciem--conjunctum_: “that my destruction was linked with the
signal downfall of the state” --_pernicies_: from _per-_ root _nec_: cp.
_nex_, _noceo_, hence utter destruction --_calamitas_: another form is
_cadamitas_: from _cado_, to fall: for the interchange of _d_ and _l_:
cp. _odere_, _olere_: _dingua_, _lingua_.


§ 12.--

1: _nunc jam_: emphatically, “now” --_jam nunc_: is “even now” (i.e.,
before the regular time), or “now at last.”

2: _denique_: “in a word.”

3: _quare--audeo_: “wherefore since I do not yet dare to pursue that
course which first presents itself and which is in accordance with the
power (I hold) and the principles of our ancestors” --_imperii_ genitive
after _proprium_. What cases may _proprius_ govern? _imperii_ refers to
the extraordinary power which he had by the decree _videant consules ne
quid detrimenti respublica capiat_. This decree (_decretum ultimum_)
armed the consuls with civil and military authority. Others say _imperii
proprium_ means, “in accordance with this government.”

4: _ad--lenius_: “milder as regards severity,” or “in point of
severity.” _Ad_ = _quoad, quoad attinet ad, si spectes_. He uses _ad
communem salutem utilius_ to balance _ad severitatem lenius_.

5: _reliqua--manus_: “a remnant of the conspirators.” Ernesti reads
_aliqua_ for _reliqua_.

6: _sin_: “if, on the other hand.”

7: _exhaurietur--reipublicae_: “there shall be drained off from the city
a great and destructive refuse of the state composed of your comrades.”
_Exhaurio_: cp. ἀντλέω properly to drain the bilge water (ἄντλος
_sentina_) out of the hold of a vessel. --_tuorum comitum_: this
secondary genitive is one of explanation (_expexegetical_).


§ 13.--

1: _imperante me_: abl. absolute.

2: _faciebas_ = _facere volebas_: Madvig, § 337, obs. I.

3: _consul hostem_: note the emphatic juxtaposition of these words.

4: _num--exilium_, scil. _jubes me exire_: “You do not order me to go
into exile, do you?” Distinguish _exilium_, _deportatio_, and
_relegatio_: see Antiquities.

5: _me consulis_: distinguish _me consulit_, _mihi consulit_, _in me
consulit_.


CHAPTER VI.

6: _quod--possit_: H., 503, I.

7: _extra--hominum_: “unconnected with that band of conspirators
composed of worthless men” --_conjuratio_: used in a concrete sense:
cp. _advocatio_, _servitium_. For subjunctive: H., 500, I.

8: _quae--est?_ “what stain of domestic infamy has not been branded on
your life?” Distinguish: _nŏtă, nōtă, nŏtā_. The expression _nota
domesticae turpitudinis_ differs in meaning from _privatarum rerum
dedecus_: the former relates to moral or immoral domestic life, the
latter to all private actions as opposed to those that affect a man’s
public character. _Nota_ is applied (1) to the brand on cattle; Virg.
Georg. 3, 158: (2) to the mark placed on a fugitive slave when retaken:
(3) to the mark placed by the censor (_nota censoria_) on revising the
list of citizens, opposite the name of the person degraded. According to
Plutarch, Catiline had slain his own brother and murdered his own son
that there might be no obstacle to his marrying Aurelia Orestilla.

9: _quod--fama_: “what scandal in private life does not cling to your
notorious acts?” Some read _infamiae_, a dat, after _haeret_, which is
sometimes found. Give the different constructions of _haerere_.

10: _quae--afuit_: “what act of impurity ever was strange to your eyes,
what enormity to your hands, what pollution to your whole body?”
--_libido_; licentiousness, in a general sense; _facinus_, a bold,
daring deed, in a bad sense, unless justified by some favourable
epithet: _flagitium_, a disgraceful, lustful excess.

11: _cui--praetulisti?_ “to what youth, after you had once entangled him
by the allurements of vice, did you not hand either a dagger to commit
some daring deed, or a torch to inflame his passion?” --_adulescentulo_:
the diminutive is used in a depreciatory sense, since many a weak youth
was misled by Catiline (Sallust Cat., c. 14). --_facem_: the figure
refers to the nightly revels and debauches of Catiline. Slaves carried
torches before their masters at night to show the way. The torch of
Catiline not merely showed the way to crimes, but served to inflame the
passions of lust.


§ 14.--

1: _quid vero?_ scil. _dicam_; “further:” lit. “what, indeed, shall I
say?”

2: _nuper--cumulasti?_ “When lately by the death of your first wife you
had rendered your home empty to contract a new marriage, did you not
aggravate this crime by committing another incredible act of guilt?” It
is said that Catiline poisoned his first wife and murdered his own son,
to marry Aurelia Orestilla.

3: _patior_: “I suffer myself:” a kind of middle form: cp. _glorior_,
_vescor_, _vertor_, _lavor_.

4: _tanti--immanitas_: “so enormous a crime.”

5: _quas--senties_: “which you will find wholly threaten you on the next
Ides.” On the _ides_ it was usual to pay interest on borrowed money, cp.
Hor. Ep. 2. The _ides_ (_idus_, from _iduare_, to divide) were on the
13th of each month, except in March, May, July, October, when they fell
on the 15th. As this oration was delivered on the 8th, Catiline had only
five days to prepare against bankruptcy. Decline _idus_? What words are
fem. of 4th decl.?

6: _ad--pertinent_: “to these I come, which concern not the personal
disgrace which attaches to your vices, (which concern) not the
embarassment and scandal of your home, but (which concern) the welfare
of the state and the life and safety of us all.” --_ignominiam_:
referring to his personal crimes. --_difficultatem_: his financial
difficulties.


§ 15.--

1: _cum scias_: for subjunctive: H. 522, II. 2.

2: _neminem_: decline this word.

3: _pridie--Januarias_: scil _ante_: “on the day before the Kalends of
January,” i.e. December 31st, Sallust gives an account of this earlier
conspiracy. The plan was to murder the consuls in the capitol, then
Catiline and Autronius were to seize the consular power. Suetonius says
that both Crassus and Caesar were partners in guilt, and that the scheme
failed because Crassus did not appear at the proper time. A second time
(5th February) an attempt was made, but this also failed in consequence
of Catiline having given the signal too soon before a sufficient number
of followers had arrived.

4: _Lepido et Tullo consulibus_: M. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Volcatius
Tullus were consuls 66 B.C. The _consules designati_ were P. Autronius
Paetus and P. Cornelius Sulla: but these were disqualified for bribery
and L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatius (their accusers)
obtained the consulship.

5: _comitio_: distinguish _comitium_ and _comitia_. Where was the
_comitium_? --_manum--paravisse?_ scil. _potestne--scias_: “that you
collected a gang to slay the consuls and leading men of the state?”

6: _sceleri--obstitisse?_ “that no reflection or fear of yours, but the
good luck of the state thwarted your wicked and frenzied attempt!” Is
_aliquis_ commonly used in negative clauses?

7: _neque--postea_: i.e., _nam quae post a te commissa sunt, ea neque
obscura sunt, neque panca_.

8: _Consulem designatum_: see note 9, § 11.

9: _petitiones_: see note 7, § 11.

10: _ita--effugi_: “aimed in such a way that they seemed impossible to
be parried have I avoided by a slight side movement, and, as they term
it, by (a deflection of) the body.” --_petitio_, _declinatio_, _corpus_,
_effugio_, are terms of the fencing school purposely used by Cicero to
show that Catiline was no better than a gladiator: cp. Cic. Cat. II. 2.
--_ut aiunt_: cp. ὡς ϕασί: “as the saying is.”


§ 16.--

1: _tibi_: ethical dative: H. 389. --_jam_: “ere now.” --_de manibus_ is
explanatory (_epexegetical_) to _tibi_.

2: _excidit_, distinguish _excīdit_, _excĭdit_.

3: _quae--defigere_: the position of the relative and the indirect
interrogation is foreign to our idiom, and must be avoided in
translation: _quae_ = _et haec_, scil. _sica_: “and I know not by what
(unhallowed) rites it has been consecrated and devoted to its purpose by
you that you deem it necessary to plunge it in the body of the consul.”
Cicero here refers to the fact that a human sacrifice took place at the
house of Catiline, and that the dagger used on that occasion was
dedicated to the purpose of slaying the consuls: cp. Sallust, Cat.
C. 23.


CHAPTER VII.

4: _tua--ista vita_: “that life that you lead.”

5: _sed ut_: construe _sed (tecum loquar) ut misericordia (permotus esse
videar)_.

6: _nulla_: stronger than _non_: “not at all,” “not a particle.”

7: _paullo ante_: “a moment ago.”

8: _frequentia_: “throng,”: cp. _frequens senatus_: “a crowded senate,”:
--_necessarii_: cp. ἀναγκαῖοι. --_salutavit_: among the Romans it was
customary when they saw their friends or eminent men approaching to rise
up, and salute or courteously address them.

9: _post--memoriam_: “within the memory of men”: cp. Thucy. I. 7: ἀϕ᾽ οὗ
Ἕλληνες μέμνηνται.

_contigit_: generally means, “it befalls” of fortunate occurences, but
not always.

10: _vocis--contumeliam ... judicio taciturnitatis_: Chiasmus.
--_vocis--taciturnitatis_ = _loquentium--tacitorum_: “are you waiting
for reproofs from those speaking, when you are overpowered by the most
solemn sentence of those, though they are silent.” The reference is to
the fact that the Senate had declared Catiline _patriae hostis_, and had
received him with silence on entering the Senate.

11: _quid?_ scil. _dicam_. We often find _quid? quod_ used by Cicero in
rapid rhetorical questions: Madvig., 479, d. obs. 1.

12: _adventu tuo_: see note 9, § 7: _abl. time_.

13: _ista subsellia_: “the benches near you.” The seats of the senators
(_subsellia_) were beneath that of the consul (_sella curulis_), which
was on a platform.

14: _qui fuerunt_: “who have been often destined for slaughter by you.”
--_tibi_: dat. for abl. with _abs_ = _abs te_. Distinguish _constituti
sunt_ and _constituti fuerunt_.

15: _nudam atque inanem_: “completely bare:” Cicero often uses two
epithets of nearly the same meaning to emphasize the idea to be
conveyed.

16: _tandem_: see note 1, § 1.


§ 17.--

1: _servi--arbitraris_: a fine example of the argument _a fortiori_. The
Latins call this _amplificatio_ (Quint. 8, 4, 9), the Greeks ἐνθύμημα,
a rhetorical conclusion, drawn from opposites.

2: _me hercule_: either (1) _me, Hercules juvet_, or (2) _me, Hercules,
juves_. We also find _me hercules_, _mehercle_, _mercule_, varieties of
the same oath. For the tendency to drop _s_ final: cp. Peile (Greek and
Latin Etymology, p. 355).

3: _isto pacto_: “in the way.” --_isto_ here does duty for the article
or may be = _eodem_.

_omnes_: the fellow-conspirators are no longer regarded as citizens by
Cicero.

4: _urbem_: scil., _relinquendam_.

5: _injuria_: “without any just cause.”

6: _offensum_ = _invisum_, _odiosum_.

7: _infestis_: another form is _infensis_: “menacing.”

8: _agnoscas_: distinguish _agnosco_, _ignosco_, _cognosco_,
_recognosco_, in meaning.

9: _dubitas--vitare_: when _dubito_ means “to doubt:” _non dubito_ is
properly construed with _quin_ and the subjunctive, rarely with the
infinitive. But when _dubito_ means “to scruple,” “to hesitate,” and the
sentence following contained the same subject, _non dubito_ is generally
construed with the infinitive.

10: _mentes sensusque_: “souls and senses.”

11: _aliquo_: “to some place or other.”

12: _nunc_ = νῦν δέ, “but now, as it is,” used to contrast _actual_ and
_imagined_ condition.

13: _jamdiu--cogitare_: “and for a long time has it come to the
conclusion that you have been planning nothing but her ruin.” --_nihil =
de nulla re_. --_parricidio_ = _interitu_, because _patria_ is regarded
_communis parens_. According to Roman law _parricidium_ included the
murder of intimate friends as well as of parents.

14: _verebere_: _vereor_, a religious reverence due to a superior:
_pertimesco_, an excessive dread of impending calamity.


§ 18.--

1: _quae--loquitur_: a fine personification. Note the _oxymoron_ in
_tacita--loquitur_.

2: _nullum_: note the emphatic positions of _nullum--nullum_.

3: _neces_: alluding to the murders which Catiline perpetrated as a
partisan of Sulla, during the dictatorship of the latter.

4: _sociorum_: in 67 B.C. Catiline was propraetor of Africa. In 65 B.C.
he was accused by P. Clodius Pulcher, the inveterate enemy of Cicero,
for cruel oppression of the provincials, but he succeeded in buying off
the accuser, and the persecution came to nothing.

5: _tu--valuisti_: “you had power enough not only to disregard the
judicial trials, but also to subvert them and weaken their power.”
Distinguish _jus_, what the law ordains, or the obligations it imposes,
from _lex_, a written statute or ordinance. --_quaestiones_: the
_praetor urbanus_ and _praetor peregrinus_ dispensed justice in private
and less important cases. In case of any magnitude the people acted as
jury themselves, or appointed one or more to preside at the trial. Those
appointed were called _quaesitores_ or _quaestores_. In 150 B.C. _four_
permanent praetors were appointed to aid the _praetor urbanus_ and
_praetor peregimus_. One had charge of all cases of extortion; another,
of bribery; another, of treason; another, of frauds against the public
treasury. These four classes of trials were called _quaestiones
perpetuae_.

_superiora_: “former acts of yours.”

6: _nunc--ferendum_: “but now that I should be wholly on your account
the slave of fear, that in every, even the least rumour, Catiline should
be dreaded, that no plot seems possible to be entered into, in which
your villany has no share (these things, I say), are not to be endured.”
--_totam_: fem: referring to _patriam_.

7: _ne--opprimar_: scil. _discede, atque hunc mihi timorem eripe_.


CHAPTER VIII.

§ 19.--

1: _Impetrare_: “to obtain its request:” i.e. _ut ex urbe exeas_.

2: _quid? quod_: see note 11, § 16.

3: _custodiam_: when a person of rank was suspected of any treasonable
act, he generally surrendered himself into the hands of some responsible
person, to be guarded until his guilt or innocence was established. This
was called _custodia libera._

4: _apud M’_: another reading is _ad M._ The person was Manius (not
Marcus) Lepidus who held the office of consulship with Volcatius Tullus
B.C. 68.

_domi meae_: would _domi_ with other adjectives be allowable?

5: _isdem parietibus_: here the idea of _means_ is combined with that of
place: H. 425, II., 1.1.

_qui--essem = quippe qui--essem_: “inasmuch as I was in great danger.”

_quod--contineremur_: when does _quod_ take the indicative and when the
subjunctive: H. 516, I., II.?

6: _sodalem_: “your boon companion:” distinguish _socius_ (root _sec_,
to follow, hence _sequor_), a follower: _consors_, a partner in lot:
_comes_, a companion on a journey: _sodalis_, a boon companion.

7: _virum optimum_: probably ironical: nothing is known of him, except
that he was weak and simple.

8: _videlicet_ and _scilicet_: “no doubt”: both introduce an explanation
with the difference, that the former generally indicates the true, the
latter, the wrong explanation, though sometimes, as in the present
passage, the meanings are reversed. Z. 345.

9: _ad vindicandum_: “in bringing you to punishment.”

_a vinculis_: the state prison which was used to detain prisoners, not
for penal imprisonment in opposition to (_custodia libera_) private
custody.

10: _qui_ = _quippe qui_: H., 517.


§ 20.--

1: _quae cum ita sint_: see note.

2: _emori_: another reading is _morari_, antithetical to _abire_.

3: _refer ad senatum_: “bring up (the matter scil. _rem_) before the
Senate.” --_referre_ is the technical term to express the laying of the
subject for debate before the Senate, which was done by the consul or
presiding magistrate: _deferre_, denotes the simple announcement of
anything: _placere_, is the usual term to express the decision of the
Senate. The aristocratic party had advised Catiline to go into exile,
preferring that he should take this course rather than that they should
have an open conflict with him.

4: _sibi--decreverit_: “shall decree by their vote.” The senators voted
“yea” or “nay” by saying _placet_ or _non placet_.

5: _abhorret--moribus_: “is inconsistent with my character.” The fact is
the Senate could not pass a sentence of exile.

6: _si--expectas_: “if it is this word (exile) you are waiting for.”

7: _patiuntur--tacent_: i.e., they suffer me to use this bold language
to you and still they raise no word on your behalf.

8: _quid--perspicis?_ “why do you wait for the sentence of these in
words, where will you perceive, though they are silent?”


§ 21.--

1: _huic_: “who is present.” P. Sestius Gallus was quaestor to the
consul Antonius who as _tribunus plebis_ in 57 B.C. was active for
Cicero’s recall from banishment. Cicero defended him in 56 B.C. in an
action _de vi_.

2: _vim--intulisset_: “would have laid violent hands on me:” a species
of hendiadys. Even his dignity as consul, and the sacred shrine of
Juppiter Stator would not have shielded him.

3: _quiescunt probant_: _patiuntur_, _decernunt_: _tacent_, _clamant_:
note these examples of _oxymoron_.

4: _cives_, scil. _idem faciunt_ i.e. _silentio probant_. The _equites_
formed the second or middle order of the Roman State.

5: _prosequantur_: those who went into voluntary exile were often
accompanied to the gates by their friends. An escort is promised
Catiline to express the delight in getting rid of him.


CHAPTER IX.

§ 22.--

1: _quamquam_: cp. καίτοι; “and yet,” used here as a corrective
particle.

2: _te_; scil. _sperandumne sit fore ut_: “is it to be expected that
anything will break your resolve?” Note the emphatic positions of _te_,
_tu_, _tu_, _tu_. What feelings do these interrogations express?

3: _duint_ = _dent_: often used in religious formulas. Give the
construction of _utinam_: H., 483, I.

4: _animum induxeris_: Cicero uses the form _animum inducere_ (except in
Pro Sulla, 30, 83) and Livy always _in animum in pucere_.

5: _quanta--impendeat_: “what a storm of unpopularity threatens me, if
not at present, on account of the memory of your crimes being fresh,
still in the future time.” --_recenti_ = _memoria_: abl. of cause. --_in
posteritatem_ = _in posterum tempus_. _impendeat_: indirect question.

6: _sed--sejungatur_: “but (the unpopularity you threaten) willingly
will I undergo (literally, pays me well) provided the loss which you
forbode is confined to myself and does not involve danger to the State.”
--_tanti_: genitive of price. The subject of _est_ is _invidiam istam
mihi impendere_.

7: _ut--ut--ut_: these three clauses are explained by the three
beginning with _aut, aut, aut_. --_pudor_ = αἰδώς; “a sense of shame,
or modesty.”


§ 23.--

1: _conflare_: a metaphor taken from metals: literally, “to smelt
together:” hence “to heap upon.”

2: _recta_, scil. _via_: “straightway.”

3: _vix--vix_: note the emphatic positions: “hard will it be for me to
bear the weight of the unpopularity caused by you, if you go into exile
by the order of the consul,” --_sermones_: “the censure:” cp. our
expression “to be the talk of the town.” _feceris_: see note 4, § 6.

4: _sui--mavis_: “but if, however, you prefer to consult my praise and
glory.” _laus--gloria_ are originally derived from the same root CLU,
“to hear:” _laus_ = _(c)lau(d)s_: _gloria = clu-oria_.

5: _exsulta--latrocinio_: “triumph in your impious bandit war.” _latro_:
properly a mercenary soldier who serves for pay (λατρεία): afterwards,
“a brigand.” _impio_: as being against his native land: cp. _pietas erga
patriam_, “patriotism.”


§ 24.--

1: _quamquam_: see note 1, § 22. _invitem_: rhetorical question: H. 529.

2: _qui--armati?_ “to wait for you arms near Forum Amelium.” _ad_
before the name of towns denotes (1) direction; (2) proximity, as in
this passage. Towns were called _Fora_, by the Romans, where the praetor
held his circuits for administering justice and where markets were
established. The town mentioned here was in Etruria between the Armenta
(_Fiora_) and Marta, not from the sea. It is now called _Monte Alto_. It
derived its name from one Aurelius, who built the _Via Aurelia_ from
Rome to Pisa.

_praestolarentur_: the word _praestolari_, is “to wait for” said of a
subordinate who performs some services for a superior.

3: _pactam--diem_: from what verb is _pactam_? --_dies_, in the sense of
a “fixed day” is usually feminine.

4: _aquilam_: the same that Marius carried in his Cimbric war. Catiline
fell beside it at Pistoria (Gall. Cat. C. 59). A silver eagle with
extended wings, and on the top of a spear was the ensign of the whole
legion. The _signa_ were the standards of the _manipuli_ and the
_vexillum_ is the standard of the cavalry.

5: _cui--fuit_: “for which the secret place where you concocted your
crimes was prepared in your house.” The eagle was usually kept in a part
of the _praetorium_ which was consecrated (_sacrarium_).

6: _tu--solebas_: scil. _credendumne sil fore_: “is it to be believed
that you could any longer be without this, to which you when setting out
to slaughter were wont to pay your vows?”

7: _altaribus_: only plural in classical Latin.


CHAPTER X.

§ 25.--

1: _haec res_: i.e. _hoc bellum contra patriam, haec civium caedes_.

2: _quandam--voluptatem_: “a kind of delight, (really) inconceivable.”

3: _ad--servavit_: “it was for this mad career that nature gave you
being, inclination trained you, fate reserved you:” distinguish
_amentia_, and _dementia_.

4: _non modo_, for the omission of _non_ after _non modo_, see Madvig.,
§ 461, C. When the sentence is negative, _non modo = non modo non_, the
second _non_ being omitted, if both sentences have the same verb, and if
the verb is contained in the second sentence, for the negative is thus
considered to belong conjointly to both sentences. Z. 724., b.

5: _otium_: “peace,” opposed to _bellum_.

6: _nefarium_: “unhallowed,” as involving _impietas contra patriam_.

7: _nanctus es_: “you have got together.” --The orator is _atque (ex)
derelictis ab non modo omni fortuna, verum etiam (a) spe_.

8: _conflatam_: a metaphor taken from metals, “smelted together,” hence
“collected.”


§ 26.--

1: _hic_: i.e. _inter ejusmodi hominum gregem_. --_qua--perfruere_:
“what gratification will you experience.” Notice the climax in this
sentence.

2: _ad--tui_: “it was for the earnest prosecution of this life that
these feats of endurance, which are made so much of, were practised.”
--_meditari_: is used passively: as _abominatus, amplexus, confessus,
detestatus, dimensus, exsecratus, moderatus, suetus_. M. 153. With
_meditari_: cp. μελετᾶν.

3: _ad--stuprum_: “to watch for an opportunity to commit an act of
debauchery.” = _ad tempus stupro opportunum observandum_. The infinitive
clauses _jacere, vigilare_, are in opposition with _labores_.

4: _ad--obeundum_: “to execute some daring deed.”

5: _otiosorum_: “the peaceable citizens.” Another reading is
_occisorum_.

6: _habes--omnium_: “you have (now) an opportunity of showing the
renowned endurance you have for withstanding hunger, cold, (and) a need
of all things:” cp. Sallust, Cat. C., 5: _corpus potiens inediae,
vigiliae, algoris, supra quam unquam credibile est_.

7: _quibus_: to be referred to _famis, frigoris, inopiae_, not to
_omnium rerum_.


§ 27.--

1: _tantum confeci_: “this much, I gained.”

2: _quum--reppuli_: at the last election, Cicero adopted these measures
especially aimed at Catiline: a bill to increase the penalty against
bribery (_ambitus_); by disarranging the plans of Catiline in putting
off the elections, and appearing in the Campus Martius in armour.

3: _exul--consul: latrocinium--bellum_: note the _paronomasia_.


CHAPTER XI.

4: _detester ac deprecer_: both these words mean “to seek to remove
anything from one, such as blame, &c., by calling the gods to witness
(_testari deos_) and by imploring (_precari_) their aid.” Note the
middle force of these deponents.

5: _quaeso_: conjugate this verb.

6: _loquatur_: see § 18.

7: _tune_: join with _exire patiere_.

8: _evoratorum servorum_: Catiline, however, refused the help of slaves
(Sallust, Cat. C., 56), though Lentulus urged him to use these.

9: _emissus--immissus_: paronomasia.

10: _hunc--duci_: what is the usual construction of _imperari_? H.
498, I. The infinitive with _imperare_ is always passive.

11: _mactari_: the official word of sacrifice, “to slay a victim.” It is
connected with old verb _magere_: probably “to strike:” cp. μάχη, hence
“to kill.”


§ 28.--

1: _tandem_: cp. note 1, § 1. Cicero shews that neither precedent, nor
laws, nor the judgment of future generations deter Catiline.

2: _At_: introduces the objection of an opponent: “Yes, but.” Cicero
refers here to the case of P. Scipio Nasica who headed the nobility
against Tib. Gracchus.

3: _an leges?_ Principally the _leges Valeriae_, and _leges Porciae_.
The former were proposed by (1) P. Valerius Poplicola 509 B.C. which
enacted that no Roman magistrate should put to death or flog a Roman
citizen if he had appealed to the people: (2) in 449 B.C. L. Valerius
Potitus enacted that no magistracy should be held with an exemption from
appeal: (3) in 300 B.C. M. Valerius Corvus brought in a bill sanctioning
the other laws on the subject of appeal. The _leges Porciae_ were
proposed by three of the _Porcii_, and exempted from stripes the persons
of Roman citizens, and imposed heavy fines on any one who should scourge
or kill a Roman citizen.

4: _rogatae sunt_: “have been passed.” The people at the _comitia_ were
_asked_ to pass a law by the presiding magistrate in the words
“_velitis, jubeatis, Quirites_.” Hence _rogare legem_, “to pass a bill.”
When the people voted _two_ ballots were usually given them, one marked
with the letters U R (i.e. _uti rogas_ or “yea”), and the other with A
(i.e. _antiquo, antiqua probo_, “I annul”).

5: _praeclaram gratiam_: “a fine return:” strongly ironical.

6: _hominem--cognitum_: i.e. _hominem novum_: the Romans applied the
term (_novus homo_) to the first of a family who had raised himself to a
consul office, _tam mature_: the _lex annalis_ enacted that no one could
obtain the _quaetorship_ till he was 31; the _aedileship_ till 37; the
_praetorship_ till 41; and the _consulship_ till 43. Cicero means that
he obtained these offices as soon as he was eligible to hold them.

7: _propter invidiam_: “because of too disquieting fear of
unpopularity.”


§ 29.--

1: _num--pertimescenda?_ “Is the ill-will arising from a strict and a
firm discharge of duty to be feared rather than that arising from
indolence and indifference.”


CHAPTER XII.

2: _factu_: give rules for the use of the supines: H. 547.

3: _judicarem_: this tense in the _protasis_ with the plupf. in the
_apodosis_, denotes that the action is going on simultaneously.

4: _unius--horae_: “the enjoyment of a single hour.” _Usura_: properly
“interest” paid for the _use_ of capital.

5: _gladiatori isti_: contemptuously.

6: _etenim_: “and (well may I make this assertion), for:” cp. καὶ γάρ.

7: _summi viri_: referred to the _magistratus; clarissimi cives_, to the
_viri privati_.

8: _honestarunt_=_decoraverunt_: “graced.”


§ 30.--

1: _quamquam_ = καίτοι, corrective: “and yet.”

2: _qui--dissimulent_: “of such a character that they either are blind
to those evils which threaten us, or profess blindness in regard to the
things they see.” _Qui_ = _tales ut_: H. 501: this explains this
subjunctive.

3: _qui--aluerunt_ = _hi--aluerunt_: not to be connected with _nonnulli
sunt_, as this would require _aluerint_.

4: _si--animadvertissem_: “if I had punished him,”: with such a meaning
understand _supplicio_: the preposition _in_ is necessary when the
meaning is “to punish with an authoritative and steady hand.” _regie_:
“in a tyrannical manner.”

5: _pervenerit_: fut. perf.

6: _paulisper--posse_: “may for a season be repressed, but cannot for
ever be suppressed”; _reprimo_: to hold in check merely for a short
time; _comprimo_: to completely check.

7: _se ejecerit_ scil. _ex urbe_.

8: _ceteros naufragos_: “the rest of his shipwrecked band of followers”:
i.e., shipwrecked in character and fortune by reason of their excesses.

9: _tam adulta pestis_: “this fully developed plague-poison”: _adulta_:
from root _ul, ol, al_, “high.”


CHAPTER XIII.

§ 31.--

1: _jamdiu_: for the space of three years from the consulate of Lepidus
and Tullus, 66 B.C.; _nescio quo pacto_: “in some way or other”:
literally, “I know not on what terms”: cp. οὐκ οἶδα ὅντινα τρόπον,
_nescio quo modo_.

2: _omnium--erupit_: a pregnant construction as if he had meant: “all
these crimes have been a-ripening up to, and the continued career of
frenzy and boldness have burst forth in, the time of my consulship.” The
metaphor is probably borrowed from an ulcer, bursting when ripe.

3: _ex tanto latrocinio_ = _ex tot latronum numero_, _latrocinium_ =
_latrones_, cp. _servitium_ = _servi_: _conjuratio_ =
_conjurati--residebit_: the metaphor is taken from a subtle poison in
the system. The state is looked upon by the orator as the body, the
conspiracy as the fever, and the execution of Catiline as the draught of
cool water which momentarily refreshes.

4: _visceribus_: _viscera_ were the upper vitals, including the heart,
lungs, liver, &c: _intestina_, were the liver vitals. Observe the force
of _atque_ and the repetition of the preposition.

5: _cum--jactantur_: there is no hendiadys here, but merely an
accumulation of synonymous terms. Observe the middle force of
_jactantur_: “toss themselves about.”

6: _biberint_: Madvig reads _biberunt_.

7: _qui est_: “which exists.” --_relevatus_: “mitigated.”

8: _vehementius--ingravescet_: “shall become more chronic if the others
are allowed to live”: _vivis reliquis_: abl. abs.


§ 32.--

1: _praetoris urbani_: L. Valerius Flaccus was _Praetor Urbanus_ at this
time, and the partisans of Catiline thronged around his _tribunal_ to
intimidate him when delivering judgment in cases of debt.

2: _obsīdĕre--curiam_: “to beset the senate house in arms.” Romulus
divided the people into three tribes (_tribus_) and each tribe was
divided into ten wards (_curiae_). Each _curia_ had a temple for the
performance of its religious rites and for holding political meetings:
the root is _cur_: “to be powerful;” cp. Quirites, hence, “the powerful
men”: κύριος, κοίρανος-- _cum gladiis_ = _armati_.

3: _malleolos_: properly _malleolus_, is “a hammer,” the tranverse head
of which was formed for holding pitch and tow. These latter were set on
fire and thrown slowly that they might not be extinguished, to ignite
houses and other buildings. Translate “fire-darts.”

4: _quid--sentiat_: “what his sentiments are respecting the state:” dep.
quest. --_polliceor--fore_: what verbs are construed with the future
infinitive?

5: _patefacta--oppressa_: note the balancing of these words, and the
_asyndeton_.


§ 33.--

1: _hisce ominibus_: “with these prophetic words”: a kind of abl.
absolute.

2: _cum--exitio_: “with the best interests of the republic (fully
established), and with your own calamity and ruin (fully assured) and
with the destruction of these”: _cum_ here denotes an accompanying
circumstance as a result or consequence of an action: z, 472.

3: _tu_: addressing the statue of Juppiter in the temple of Juppiter
Stator.

4: _auspiciis_: not only temples but also statues were consecrated, by
taking auspices.

5: _statorem_: “the flight staying”: see note 6, § 11. A kind of
rhetorical exaggeration, as the temple was only viewed by Romulus and
built much later; Livy x. 37.

6: _arcebis_: with a softened imperative force: so also _mactabis_.



PROPER NAMES.


A

=Ahāla, -ae=: m.: _Caius Servilius Ahala_ was master of the horse to the
dictator Cincinnatus, 439 B.C. Spurius Maelius, one of the _Equites_,
bought corn at a low rate and distributed it gratuitiously to the poor.
By this he gained the favour of the plebeians, but incurred the enmity
of the patricians. When he was summoned by the dictator to appear on the
charge of aiming at royal power, he refused, and Ahala, with an armed
band, rushed into the crowd where he was standing, and slew him. Cicero
often praises the deed of Ahala, but it is doubtful whether it can be
defended.

E

=Etrūrĭa, -ae=: f.: a large district of Italy, lying west and north of
the Tiber. This part of Italy was generally favorable to Catiline. In it
were _Faesulae_, and _Pistoria_, where Catiline fell, 62 B.C.

F

=Faesulae, ārum=: f.: now _Fiesole_, near Florentia (_Florence_), in
Etruria. Here Catiline raised the standard of rebellion.

=Fŏrum Aurēlĭum, Fŏri Aurēlĭi=: n.: a town of Etruria, on the Aurelian
way; now _Monte Alto_.

=Flaccus, -i=: m.: _M. Fulvius Flaccus_ was charged with the execution
of the Agrarian law of the Gracchi, and aided Tib. Gracchus to gain for
all the Italians the rights of Roman citizenship. He was cited along
with the consul Opimius to render an account of his conduct with regard
to the revolutionary measures then proposed. This he refused to obey,
and was slain along with his eldest son.

=Fulvius, -i=: m.: see preceding.

G

=Gracchus, -i=: m.: _Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus_ and _Caius Sempronius
Gracchus_ were sons of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and of Cornelia,
Daughter of Scipio Africanus Major. The object of both brothers was to
have the public lands divided and given to the poor, by allowing no one
to hold more than 500 _jugera_ of land. The state was to compensate the
wealthy for all the loss. Both brothers fell in the sedition that arose
out of their revolutionary schemes: Tiberius in 132 B.C., and Caius in
122 B.C.

I

=Itălĭa, -ae=: f.: Italy, a country of Southern Europe.

J

=Jānŭārĭus, -a, -um=: adj.: of or belonging to _January_.

=Juppĭter, Jŏvis=: m.: Juppiter, the supreme god of Roman mythology.

L

=Laeca, -ae=: m.: _M. Porcius Laeca_, an accomplice of Catiline, who
convened at his house the leading members of the conspiracy.

=Lĕpĭdus, -i=: m.: _M’. Lepidus_, consul with L. Volcatius Tullus
67 B.C.

=Lĕpĭdus, -i=: m.: _M. Lepidus_, consul with Catulus 79 B.C.

M

=Maelĭus, -i=: m.: _Spurius Maelius_, a Roman _Eques_, who attempted to
gain regal power at Rome by securing the favour of the plebeians 449
B.C. This he tried to do by supplying corn at a low rate. He was
summoned to appear before Cincinnatus, the dictator, but refused, and
was slain by Ahala.

=Manlĭānus, -a, -um=: adj.: of or belonging to Manlius.

=Manlĭus, -i=: m.: _Caius Manlius_, an accomplice of Catiline, and sent
to Etruria to collect troops. He commanded the right wing of Catiline’s
army at Pistoria, and “foremost fighting fell.”

=Marcellus, -i=: m.: _Marcus Marcellus_, an accomplice and intimate
friend of Catiline.

=Mĕtellus, -i=: m.: _Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer_, praetor in 63 B.C. He
was despatched by Cicero into the Gallic and Picene districts to raise a
force against Catiline. He was consul 61 B.C., and poisoned by his wife
Clodia 59 B.C.

N

=Nŏvembris, -e=: adj.: belonging to November.

O

=Opīmĭus, -i=: m.: _Lucius Opimius_ was consul in 122 B.C. He opposed
the designs of C. Gracchus.

P

=Pălātĭum, -i=: n.: the Palatine hill was the largest of the seven hills
on which Rome was built. Romulus laid here the foundation of the city,
and here in the imperial period were the residences of the Roman
emperors.

=Praeneste, -is=: n.: now _Palestrina_, an ancient city of Latium, 23
miles S.E. of Rome. Its citadel was remarkable for the strength of its
position.

R

=Rōma, -ae=: f.: Rome, a celebrated town on the Tiber.

=Rōmānus, -a, -um=: adj.: of or belonging to Rome: _Roman_.

=Rōmŭlus, -i=: m.; the founder of Rome and king of the city from
753-715 B.C.

S

=Sāturnīnus, -i=: m.: _L. Saturninus_, a tribune of the people and a
violent partisan of Marius, who abetted him in his numerous misdeeds. He
is said to have caused the death of C. Memmius 102 B.C. At length, after
many cruel acts, the people became aroused against him, and he was slain
in the forum.

=Scīpĭo, -ōnis=: m.: _P. Cornelius Scipio Nasīca_ was consul 138 B.C.
His character was held in the highest estimation by his countrymen. He
opposed the measures of Gracchi. After the death of Tiberius Gracchus,
unpopularity overtook Scipio, and he was sent to Asia, where he died of
chagrin.

=Servilius, -i=: m.: _C. Servilius Glaucia_, a seditious and profligate
individual, put to death 121 B.C.

=Stator=: “the flight staying:” an epithet of Juppiter.

T

=Tullĭus, -i=: m.: _M. Tullius Cicero_. See Introduction.

=Tullus, -i=: m.: See _M’. Lepidus_.

V

=Vălērĭus, -i=: m.: _L. Valerius_ a partner of Marius in the consulship,
121 B.C.



ABBREVIATIONS.

  a. _or_
    act. ....... active.
  abl. ......... ablative.
  acc. ......... accusative.
  adj. ......... adjective.
  adv. ......... adverb.
  cp. .......... compare.
  com. gen. .... common gender.
  comp. ........ comparative degree.
  conj. ........ conjunction.
  dat. ......... dative.
  def. ......... defective.
  dem. ......... demonstrative.
  dep. ......... deponent.
  dim. ......... diminutive.
  f. ........... feminine.
  fr. .......... from.
  fut. ......... future.
  freq. ........ frequentative.
  gen. ......... genitive.
  Gr. .......... Greek.
  imperat. ..... imperative.
  impers. ...... impersonal.
  inc. ......... inceptive.
  inch. ........ inchoative.
  ind. ......... indicative.
  indecl ....... indeclinable.
  indef. ....... indefinite.
  inf. ......... infinitive.
  intens. ...... intensive.
  interj. ...... interjection.
  interrog. .... interrogative.
  m. ........... masculine.
  n. ........... neuter.
  nom. ......... nominative.
  num. ......... numeral.
  part. ........ participle.
  pa. .......... participal adjective.
  pass. ........ passive.
  perf. ........ perfect.
  pl. .......... plural.
  pluperf. ..... pluperfect.
  pos. ......... positive degree.
  poss. ........ possessive.
  prep. ........ preposition.
  pres. ........ present.
  pret. ........ preteritive.
  pron. ........ pronoun.
  rel. ......... relative.
  semi-dep. .... semi-deponent.
  sing. ........ singular.
  subj. ........ subjunctive.
  sup. ......... superlative degree.
  voc. ......... vocative.
  = ............ equal to.

_N.B._--Where the etymology is not given, the word is of very uncertain
or unknown origin.



VOCABULARY.

[Transcriber’s Note:

Most verbs are given in a non-standard order, with the present active
infinitive placed _after_ the other principal parts. Exceptions are
mainly irregular verbs such as _eo_, _ferre_, _fio_, _volo_ and their
compounds.]


A

ā, ab, abs, prep. with abl. (a, only before consonants; ab, before
vowels and consonants). _From, away from; by_ [akin to Gr. ἀπ-ό].

ab-eo, īre, īi, ĭtum, v. n. [ab, “away;” ĕo, “to go”] _To go away,
depart._

ab-horreo, horrui, no sup., horrēre, n. and a. [ab, “from;” horreo, “to
dread”] _To be averse_ or _disinclined to; to be free from._

ab-sum, esse, fui, n. irreg. _To be away from; to be absent._

ab-ūtor, ūsus sum, uti, dep. n. [ab, “away from,” hence “wrongly;” utor,
“I use”] _To misuse, abuse._

ac, conj. (used before consonants). _And._

ācer, ācris, ācre, adj. [AC, “to sharpen”] _Sharp, severe._

āc-erb-us, a, um, adj. (ac-er) _Unripe, sour; violent._

āc-ĭes, iēi, f. (ac-er) _An edge, point._

ācr-ĭter, adv. (ācer) _Strongly, sharply, keenly._

ad, prep. with acc.
  Locally: (a) _To, towards_. --(b) _Before_ a place.
  --_Up to_ a certain time.
  --With Gerunds or Gerundives: _For, for the purposes of._

ad-dūco, duxi, ductum, dūcĕre, a. [ad, “to;” duco, “I lead”] _To lead
to; induce, lead._

ad-eo, adv. _So far; so long; so much._

ad-fero, ferre, attuli, allātum, irr. a. (ad; fero) _To bring to,
bring._

adflic-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a., intens. (for adflig-to, fr. adflig-o).
_To greatly trouble, harass, annoy._

ad-grego: see aggrego.

ad-hibeo, hibui, hibitum, hĭbēre, a. (ad; habeo) _To apply to, to use,
employ._

ad-huc, adv. _Thus far, up to this time._

ad-minister, tri, m. [ad, “to;” ministro, “to serve”] _A servant,
assistant._

ad-mīror, mīratus sum; mīrari [ad, “to;” miror, “to wonder at”] dep. _To
wonder at, admire._

ad-sĕquor, secūtus (quūtus), sequi, dep. a. _To follow, pursue._

ad-servo, servāvi, servātum, servāre [ad, “to;” servo, “to keep”] _To
preserve, protect._

ad-sĭdĕo, sēdi, sessum, sĭdēre [ad, “near;” sedeo, “to sit”] n. (ad;
sedeo) _To sit by_ or _near._

ădŭlesc-ens, entis, m. and f. [ad, “to;” ŏlesco, “to grow;” the root
assumes the form of AL, OL, UL, in Latin as _altus, sub-oles, adultus_]
_A young man_ (from the 15th or 17th until past the 30th year).

ădŭlescent-ulus, i, m., dim. (adulescens) _A young man; stripling._

ădul-tus, a, um, part. (adol-esco) _Grown up, adult, full-grown._

adven-tus, ūs, m. [ad, “to;” venio, “to come”] _A coming, arrival._

aeger, gra, grum, adj. _Weak, sick._

aequus, a, um, adj. [root IK, “to make even:” cp. aequor] _Plain,
smooth, even;_ aequo animo, _with great composure._

aes-tus, ūs, m. [for aed-tus: root AED, “to burn:” cp. aestas; αἴθω]
_Heat._

aet-ernus, a, um, adj. [for ae (vi) ternus: root AIV, a lengthened form
of I, “to go;” cp. αἰών] _Eternal, everlasting._

ag-grĕgo, grĕgāvi, grĕgātum, gregare, v. a. [ad; grex, _to lead to a
flock_] _To assemble, collect together._

a-gnosco, gnōvi, gnĭtum, gnoscĕre, a. (for ad-gnosco, gnosco = nosco)
_To recognize, to discern._

ăgo, ĕgi, actum, ăgĕre [AG, “to set in motion”] a. _To drive; to do,
perform, effect; to treat; plead._

aio, def. [root AGH, “to say”] _To speak; to say “yes;” to affirm._

ălĭ-ēnus, a, um, adj. (ali-us, belonging to the) _Belonging to another,
foreign; unfriendly._

ălĭqu-ando, adv. (aliquis, _of time, past, future, and present. At some
time or other; at length._

ălĭ-qui, qua, quod, indef. pron. adj, (ali-us; qui) _Some, any._

ălĭquid, adv. (adverbial neut. acc. of aliquis) _In some degree,
somewhat._

ălĭ-quis, aliquid [fem. sing, and fem. and neut. plur. not used; alius;
quis, root AL, “another:” cp. alter, ἄλλος: Eng. else], indef. pron.
subst. _Some one, any one; something._

ălĭquo, adv. (adverbial abl. of aliquis) _Some whither, to some place._

ălĭ-quot, indef. num. adj., indecl. (alius; quot) _Some, several._

ălĭus, a, ud, adj, (gen. sing. alĭus, dat. alii) _Another, other_; alius
... alius, _one ... another._

ălo, ălŭi, ălĭtum, or altum, alĕre, a. _To nourish; to foster._

altārĭa, ium, n. (alt-um, things pertaining to the; hence) _An altar._

āmentĭa, ae, f. [a, prio, mens, “mind”] _Madness._

am-īcus, i, m. (amo) _A friend._

ampl-ĭus, comp. adv. _More; longer._

am-plus, a, um, adj. [am = ambi, “around;” root PLE, “to fill;” hence
_plebs, pleo, plenus_] _Abundant, full; illustrious, noble._

an, conj. _Or, whether._

ănĭm-adverto, verti, versum, advertĕre, a. (animus; adverto) _To attend
to; to consider, perceive_;
  animadvertere in aliquem, _to inflict punishment on one._

ănĭmus, i, m. [root AU, “to breathe”] _The mind; disposition, thought._

annus, i, m. [perhaps for amnus; root AM, “to go round”] _A year._

ante, prep. with acc. _Before, in front of;_ as adverb, _before,
previously._

ant-īquus, a, um, adj. [ant-e, “before”] _Ancient, old._

ăperte, adv. (apertus) _Openly._

ăpud, prep. with acc. (obs. apo, _to seize_) _Near, at, by, with._

ăqua, ae, f. _Water._

ăquĭla, ae, f. [AC, “sharp,” or “swift”] _The eagle; the standard of the
legion._

arbĭtr-or, ātus sum, ari, v. dep. a. [ar = ad, “to;” bito, “to go:”
hence one who approaches a cause to enquire into it] _To judge, think._

arcĕo, arcŭi, no sup., arcēre [root ARC, “to protect:” cp. arcus,
ἀρκεῖν] a. _To shut up; to keep_ or _hold off._

ardĕo, arsi, arsum, ardēre, n. _To burn, blaze._

argent-ĕus, a, um, adj. (argentum, pertaining to) _Of silver._

arma, ōrum, n. pl. [root AR, “to fit:” hence all things fitted on]
_Arms, weapons._

armā-tus, i, m. _An armed man, a soldier._

arm-o, āvi, ātum, āre. _To furnish with arms; to arm._

aspec-tus, tūs, m. (aspic-io) _A seeing, sight._

at [old form _ast_: cp. ἀτ-άρ], conj. _But, yet_ (to introduce a reason
for a supposed objection), _but certainly, but consider._

atque or āc (the latter only before consonants), conj. _And also, and
especially._

ātrox, ōcis, [a, intens.: trux, “cruel”] adj. _Horrid, terrible,
frightful._

at-tendo (3), tendi, tentum, a. (ad; tendo) _To apply the mind to; to
consider._

auctor, ōris, m. (augeo) _An author, contriver._

auctōrĭtas, ātis, f. (auctor) _Authority._

audā-cĭa, ae, f. (audax, the quality of the) _Audacity, insolence._

audĕo, ausus sum, audēre, semidep. _To dare._

audĭo, audĭvi, audītum, audīre [AV, “to hear”] a. _To hear._

aur-is, is, f. (audio, _the hearing thing_) _The ear._

auspĭc-ĭum, ii, n. (auspex, _a bird inspector, diviner_, one who marks
the flight and cries of birds, and then gives predictions] _Augury from
birds, auspices._

aut, conj. _Or_; aut ... aut, _either ... or._

autem, conj. _But, moreover._

avus [AV, “to hear,” hence “to obey,” cp. obedio], i, m. _A
grandfather._


B

bacch-or (1), dep. n. (Bacch-us) _To revel._

b-ellum (old form du-ellum), i, n. (duo, _a contest between two
parties_) _War, warfare._

bĭbo, bibi, no sup., bĭbĕre [root PO, “to drink;” cp. poto, πίνω], a.
_To drink._

bŏnum, i, n. _A good thing_; in pl., _goods._

bŏnus, a, um, adj. (comp. melior, sup. optimus) _Good, well-disposed._

brĕvis, e, adj. [root FRAG, “to break”] _Little, small, short._


C

caedes, is, f. [root CAD, “to fall:” cp. cado] _Slaughter._

caelum, i, n. [for cavillum; fr. cavus, “hollow”] _Heaven._

calamitas, ātis, f. [for cadamitas; root CAD, “to fall”] _Loss,
calamity, disaster._

campus, i, m. [root SCAP, “to dig:” cp. κῆπος] _A plain, field._

căpĭo, cēpi, captum, căpĕre [root CAP, “to hold”] a. _To take_;
consilium capere, _to form a plan_.

carcer, ĕris, m. [root ARC, “to enclose:” cp. ark] _A prison._

cărĕo, ŭi, ĭtum, ēre, n. _To be without._

cārus, a, um, adj. [for camrus: cam, “to love:” amare = (c)amare] _Dear,
precious._

castrum, i, n. [for scadtrum: SCAD, “to cover:” Eng. shed] _A castle,
fort_; in pl., castra, ōrum, n. _a camp_.

cā-sus, sūs, um. (for cad-sus, fr. cad-o, “to fall”) _Accident, chance._

causa, ae, f. _A cause, reason._

cēdo, cessi, cessum, cēdĕre, n. _To go; to yield._

certē, adv. (certus) _Certainly._

cer-tus, a, um, adj. (cer-no) _Decided, fixed, definite._

cēterus, a, um, (the nom. sing, masc. not in use), adj. _The other, the
rest, the remainder._

circum-clūdo, clūsi, clūsum, clūdĕre (circum; claudo). _To shut in,
enclose._

circum-sto, steti, no sup., stāre, n. or a. _To stand around._

cīvis, is, com. gen. [root CI, “to lie,” or “dwell:” hence “a dweller”]
_A citizen._

cīv-itas, ātis, f. (id., the condition or state of the; gen. pl., ium
and um) _Citizenship; a state._

clāmo, clāmāvi, clāmātum, clāmăre [root CAL, “to shout”] n. and a. _To
call, shout aloud._

clārus, a, um, adj. [root KAL. “to call”] _Clear, renowned._

clē-mens, mentis, adj. (clino, _to bend_; mens, _having the heart bent_)
_Mild, kind._

coepi, coepisse, a. or n. def. (contracted fr. co-apio, fr. con; apo,
_to seize_) _To begin._

co-erceo, ui, itum, ercere, a. (con; arceo, _to shut up_) _To surround,
restrain, check._

coe-tus, tūs, m. [con, “together:” eo, “to go”] _A coming together; an
assemblage, company._

cō-gito, gitāvi, gĭtātum, gĭtăre [co = con, “together:” agito, “to set
in motion”] _To weigh thoroughly in the mind; to think over; reflect
upon; plan._

co-gnosco, gnōvi, gnitum, gnoscĕre, a. [co (= cum), in augmentative
sense; gnosco = nosco, “to become acquainted with”] _To know._

col-ligo, lēgi, lectum, lĭgĕre [col (= cum), in an augmentative sense;
lego, “to gather”] _To gather or collect together._

col-loco, a. (con; loco) _To lay, place._

cŏlōn-ĭa, ae, f. [root COL, “to till;” cp. colo] _A colony, settlement._

cŏm-e-s, ĭtis, com. gen. (con; eo, _one who goes with another_) _A
companion._

cŏm-ĭ-tĭum, ii, n. (con; i, root of eo, _a coming together_) _The
Comitium_, i.e. the place where the Romans assembled to vote; in pl.,
_the comitia_, i.e. _the assembly itself_, hence _election_.

commendā-tĭo, tĭōnis, f. (commend[a]-o) _A recommendation, praise._

com-mitto, mīsi, missum, mittĕre, a. (con; mitto, _to cause to go
together_) _To commit._

com-mŏvĕo, mōvi, mōtum, mŏvēre, a. (con; moveo) _To move, rouse._

com-mūnis, e, adj. [com = cum; munis, “serving”] _Common, general._

com-păro, părāvi, părātum, părārĭ, v. a. [com = cum; paro, “to prepare”]
_To make ready._

com-pĕrio, pĕri, pertum, perīre, a. (cum; root per, akin to perior, _to
go through_) _To discover._

compĕt-ītor, ōris, m. [com = cum; peto, “to seek;” hence to seek office]
_A rival, competitor._

com-plūres, a, and ia, adj. (con; plus) _Several together, very many._

com-prĕhendo, prĕhendi, prĕhensum, prehendere [com = cum; intensive:
prehendo, “to seize”] _To lay hold of, arrest._

com-prĭmo, pressi, pressum, primĕre, a. (con; premo) _To press together;
to hinder, check._

cōnā-tus, tūs, m. _An attempt._

con-cēdo, cessi, cessum, cēdĕre, n. or a. _To depart, withdraw._

concĭ-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. intens. (conci-eo, _to urge_) _To rouse
up, excite._

con-cŭpi-sco, cŭpīvi or cŭpii, cŭp-ītum, cŭpiscĕre, a. inch, (con;
cupi-o) _To be very desirous of; to long for._

concur-sus, sūs, m. [for concurr-sus, fr. concurr-o, the action of) _A
running, flocking together; a concourse._

con-demno, demnāvi, demnātum, demnāre, v. a. [con = cum, intensive;
damnum, “loss”] a. (con; damno) _To condemn._

con-fĕro, ferre, tŭli, lātum, a. [con = cum, intensive; fero, “to bring”
or “bear”] _To bring; to carry; to direct; to arrange._

confes-tim, adv. _Immediately._

con-ficio, fēci, fectum, fĭcĕre, a, (con; facio) _To prepare, complete;
to exhaust._

con-fīdo, fīsus sum, fīdĕre, n. or a. semi-dep. _To trust; to believe
certainly._

con-firmo, firmāvi, firmātum, firmāre. _To strengthen; to assure._

con-flāgro, flāgrāvi, flāgrātum, flāgrāre [con = cum, in an
augmentative; FLAG, “to burn;” cp. flamma (= flag-ma)] _To be on fire,
to burn up._

con-flo, flāre, flāvi, flātum. _To blow together, kindle; to excite._

con-grĕgo, grĕgāvi, grĕgātum, grĕgāre, a. (con; grex) _To flock
together, assemble, unite._

con-jĭcĭo, jēci, jectum, jĭcĕre, a. (con; jacio) _To hurl, send, cast._

con-jungo, junxi, junctum, jungĕre, a. _To join together, unite,
associate._

conjūrā-tĭo, ōnis, f. (conjūr[a]-o, the action of) _An agreement;
conspiracy, plot._

conjūrā-tus, m. (id.) _A conspirator._

conl: see coll.

cōnor, ātus sum, āri, dep. _To undertake, attempt._

conscĭentia, ae, f. (consciens, _conscious_) _Consciousness, knowledge_

con-scrībo, scripsi, scriptum, scrībĕre, a. _To write together_ (in a
list); _to enroll._


con-scrībo, scripsi, scriptum, scrĭbĕre, a. _To write together_ (in a
list); _to enroll._

conscrip-tus, a, um, part. (for scrib-tus, fr. conscrib-o) As noun, m.
(sc. pater) _a senator_; patres conscripti, _the old senators together
with those who were afterwards admitted_ (enrolled) _into its ranks_;
originally, patres et conscripti, _senators_.

consen-sĭo, ōnis, f. (con-sentio) _Unanimity, agreement._

consensus, ūs, m. [id.] _Unanimity, agreement._

con-servo, servāvi, servātum, servāre, a. _To preserve._

consĭliŭm, ii, n. _Deliberation, counsel; plan, purpose; council._

con-spĭcĭo, spexi, spectum, spĭcĕre, a. (con; specio, _to look_) _To
observe, behold._

con-stĭtŭo, stĭtŭi, stĭtūtum, stĭtŭere, a. (con; statuo) _To place; to
erect; to arrange, settle, agree upon; to appoint._

con-stringo, strinxi, strictum, stringĕre, a. _To draw, bind together;
to hold, hold fast._

consul, ŭlis, m. _A consul_, one of the two chief magistrates of the
Roman state, chosen yearly after the expulsion of the kings.

consŭl-āris, e, adj. (consul) _Of_ or _pertaining to a consul;
consular_; as noun, m., _ex-consul; one of the rank of consul._

consŭl-ātus, ūs, m. (consul) _The consulship._

consŭl-o, ŭi, tum, ĕre, n. or a. _To consider, consult_; consulere
alicui, _to take counsel for some one_; consulere aliquem, _to ask the
advice of some one_.

consul-tum, i, n. (con-sulo) _A decree, decision._

con-tā-mĭno, a. (for con-tag-mino; fr. con; tag, root of tango) _To
defile, contaminate._

conten-tus, a, um, part. (contineo) _Contented, satisfied._

con-tĭnĕo, tĭnŭi, tentum, tĭnēre, a. (con; tene) _To hold together; to
keep in, restrain, confine._

con-tingo, tĭgi, tactum, tingĕre, a. (con; tango) _To touch, take hold
of; to happen._

contrā, adv. and prep. with acc. _Against, contrary to._

contumēl-ĭa, ae, f. (obsolete contumēl-us, _swelling greatly_) _Abuse,
insult, disgrace; reproach._

con-vĕnĭo, vēni, ventum, vĕnīre, n. or a. _To assemble_; used
impersonally, _it is suitable, proper_.

con-vinco, vīci, victum, vincĕre, a. _To convict._

con-vŏco, vŏcāvi, vŏcātum, vŏcāre, a. [con, “together;” voco, “to call”]
_To convoke, assemble._

cō-p-ĭa, ae, f. (contracted fr. co-op-ia, fr. con; ops) _Abundance;
wealth, riches; forces, troops_ (generally in plural with the latter two
meanings).

corpus, ŏris, n. _A body, corpse._

cor-rĭgo, rexi, rectum, rīgĕre, a. (con; rego) _To make straight; to
improve, correct._

cor-rōbŏro, a. (con; rōbŏro, _to strengthen_) _To strengthen; to
corroborate, support._

corrupt-ēla, ae, f. (corru[m]po) _That which corrupts; a corruption,
seduction: seductive arts._

cot-ī-dīē, adv. (quot; (i); die, abl. of dies) _Daily._

crēdo, dĭdi, dĭtum, crēdĕre n. or a. _To trust in, believe; to think,
suppose._

cresco, crēvi, crētum, crescĕre, n. [root CRE, “to make grow;” cp. creo]
_To grow, increase._

crūdēlĭ-ter, adv. (crudēlis, _cruel_) _Cruelly._

cum, prep, with abl. _With._

cum. _When, since, though._

cŭmŭl-o, a. (cumul-us) _To accumulate; to complete; to increase._

cunctus, a, um, adj. (contracted from conjunctus) _The whole, all._

cupīd-ĭtas, ātis, f. (cupidus) _Desire; passion; eagerness; avarice._

cŭp-ĭdus, a, um, adj. (cup-io) _Longing, desirous._

cŭpĭo, īvi or ii, ītum, cŭpĕre, a. and n. _To long for, desire._

cur, adv. _Why?_

cur-a, ae, f. (for caer-a, fr. caero, old form of quaero) _Trouble,
care._

cūrĭa, ae, f. [root CUR, “to be strong;” cp. κύριος, κυρεῖν]
_Senate-house._

custōdĭ-a, ae, f. (custod-io) _Watch, guard, custody._

custōd-ĭo, īvi, ītum, īre, a. (cus-tos) _To watch, guard._

custos, ōdis, com. gen. _A guard, protector._


D

de, prep, with abl. _From; concerning, on account of._

dē-bĕo, bŭi, bĭtum, bēre, a. (de; habeo) _To have from; to owe; to be in
duty bound to, ought, must._

dē-cerno, crēvi, crētum, cernĕre, a. _To decide, decree._

dēclīnā-tĭo, ōnis, f. (declin[a]-o) _A turning aside; a departure; an
avoiding, shunning._

dĕ-dĕcus, ŏris, n. _Disgrace, dishonor._

dē-fendo, fendi, fensum, fendĕre, a. _To ward off; to defend, guard._

dē-fĭcĭo, fēci, fectum, fĭcĕre, a. or n. (de: facio) _To leave; to
desert, revolt._

dē-fīgo, fixi, fixum, fīgĕre, a. _To fix down; to drive; to plunge._

de-inde, adv. _After this, next, then._

dēlec-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. intens. (dēlic-io, _to allure_) _To
delight, please._

dēlĕo, ēvi, ētum, ēre, a. _To destroy, annihilate._

dē-lĭgo, lēgi, lectum, lĭgĕre, a. (de; lego) _To choose out, select._

dē-migro, migrāvi, migrātum, migrāre, n. _To migrate from; to emigrate;
to depart._

dēnĭque, adv. _At length, finally; in a word, briefly._

dē-pōno, pŏsŭi, pŏsĭtum, pōnĕre, a. _To lay down; to lay aside._

dē-prĕcor, prĕcātus sum, prĕcāre, dep. (de; precor, _to pray_) _To avert
by prayer; to avert._

dē-rĕlinquo, līqui, lictum, rĕlinquĕre, a. _To abandon, desert._

dē-scrībo, scripsi, scriptum, scrībĕre, a. _To mark off, to divide._

dē-sīdĕro, sīdĕrāvi, sīdĕrātum, sīdĕrāre, v. a. _To long for, desire; to
miss; to regret, require._

dē-signo, signāvi, signātum, signāre, v. a. (de; signo, _to mark_) _To
mark out, designate; to elect._

dē-sĭno, sīvi or sĭi, sĭtum, sĭnĕre, a. and n. _To leave off, cease.._

dē-sisto, stĭti, stĭtum, n. _To desist._

dē-sum, esse, fŭi. n. _To be away, to fail, be wanting._

dē-testor, testātus sum, testāri, dep. (de; testor, _to be a witness_)
_To curse; to deprecate._

dētrī-mentum, i, n. (for deter-[i]mentum fr. deter-o, _that which rubs
off_) _Loss, damage._

deus, i, m. _A god._

dē-vŏvĕo, vōvi, vōtum, vŏvĕre, a. _To vow, devote._

dexter, tĕra, tĕrum, and tra, trum, adj. _Right, on the right_; dextra,
ae, f., _the right hand_.

dīco, dixi, dictum, dīcĕre, a. [DIC, “to point out”] _To say, assert._

dĭes, ēi, m. (in sing. sometimes f.) _A day_; in dies, _from day to day,
daily_ (with an idea of increase).

diffĭcul-tas, ātis, f. (for difficil-tas, fr. difficil-is, the state or
condition of) _Difficulty, perplexity._

dignus, a, um, adj. [root DIC, “to point out”] _Worthy._

dīlĭg-ens, entis, part, (dilig-o) _Careful, diligent._

dīlĭgen-ter, adv. (diligens) _Attentively, diligently, earnestly._

dīligent-ĭa, ae, f. (diligens, the quality of the) _Diligence._

dī-mitto, mīsi, missum, mĭttĕre, a. _To dismiss._

dīrep-tĭo, ōnis, f. (for dirap-tio. fr. dirap, true root of dirip-io)
A _plundering, pillaging._

dis-cēdo, cessi, cessum, cēdĕre, n. _To depart._

dis-cerno, crēvi, crētum, cernĕre, a. _To separate, divide._

disces-sus, sus, m. (for disced-sus, fr. disced-o, the action of) _A
departure._

discĭpl-īna, ae, f. (for discipul-ina, fr. discipul-us, a thing
pertaining to the) _Instruction; science, skill; custom, method,
discipline._

dissĭmŭl-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (dissimil-is) _To pretend a thing is not
what it is; to dissemble._

dissŏlū-tus, a, um, part. (for dissolv-tus, fr. dissolv-o) _Lax, remiss,
negligent._

dis-trĭbŭo, tribui, tribūtum, trĭbŭĕre, a. _To distribute._

dĭ-u, adv. (di-es) _A long time, long._

do, dăre, dĕdi, dătum, a. _To give, give up._

dŏl-or, ōris, m. (dol-eo) _Pain, sorrow._

dŏmes-tĭcus, a, um, adj. (dom-s) _Domestic, private._

dŏmus. ūs and i (domi, loc.), f. _A house, abode_; domi, _at home_.

dŭb-ĭto, ĭtāvi, ĭtātum, ĭtāre, n. intens. (primitive form du-bo, fr.
du-o, _to vibrate to and fro_) _To doubt, hesitate._

dūco, duxi, ductum, dūcĕre, a. _To lead, conduct._

dum, conj. _While, as long as, until, if._

dŭo, ae, o, card. num. adj. _Two._

dŭodĕcĭm-us, a, um, ord. num. adj. (duodecim) _The twelfth._

dux, dŭcis, com. gen. (dūco) _A leader, commander, general._


E

ē, prep, with abl.; see ex.

ec-quis, quod (ec = e; quis), inter. subst. pron. _Whether any? any one?
any thing?_

ēd-ūco, duxi, ductum, dūcĕre, a. _To lead forth._

ef-fĕro, ferre, extŭli, ēlātum, a. irr. (ex; fero) _To bring forth; to
lift up, exalt._

effrēnā-tus, a, um, part, (effren[a]-o, _to unbridle_) _Unbridled._

ef-fŭgĭo, fūgi, no sup., fŭgĕre, (ex; fugio), n. or a. _To flee away;
escape, avoid._

ĕgo, pers. pron. I.

ē-grĕdĭor, gressus sum, grĕdi, dep. (ex; gradior) _To go out._

ē-jĭcĭo, jēci, jectum, jĭcĕre, a. (e; jacio) _To drive out; to expel,
banish._

ē-lābor, lapsus sum, lābi, dep. _To slip_ or _glide away._

ē-lūdo, lūsi, lūsum, lūdĕre, a. _To delude, deceive, cheat._

ē-mitto, mīsi, missum, mittĕre, a. _To send forth._

ē-mŏrĭor, mortuus sum, mŏri, dep. _To die quite; to perish._

ĕnim, conj. _For_; etenim, _for, you see_.

ĕo, īre, ĭvi or ĭi, ĭtum, n. _To go._

ĕōdem, dat. of idem, used adverbially. _To the same place._

ĕqu-e-s, ĭtis, m. (for equ-i-[t]-s, fr. equ-us) _A horseman; a horse
soldier_; in pl., _cavalry_; equites, the order of _knights_.

ē-rĭpiŏ, rĭpŭi, reptum, rĭpĕre, a. (e; rapio) _To snatch; to remove,
take away._

ē-rumpo, rūpi, ruptum, rumpĕre, n. _To break out, sally forth._

et, conj. _And_; et ... et, _both ... and, not only ... but also_.

ĕtĕnim: see enim.

ĕtĭam, conj. _And also, besides; and even, yet, indeed._

ē-verto, verti, versum, vertĕre, a. _To overthrow; to subvert, destroy._

ēvŏcā-tor, ōris, m. (evoc[a]o) _The one who calls forth_ (to arms);
_summoner_.

ēx or ē (e only before consonants). _Out of, from; immediately after; on
account of._

exaudĭo, audīvi, audītum, audīre, a. _To hear distinctly._

ex-cĭdo, cidi, no sup., cĭdĕre, n. (ex-cado) _To fall out_ or _down_;_
to slip out_.

ex-clūdo, clūsi, clūsum, clūdĕre, a. (ex; claudo) _To exclude._

ex-ĕo, īre, ĭi, ĭtum, n. _To go forth, depart._

ex-ercĕo, ŭi, ĭtum, ercēre, a. (ex; arceo) _To drive on, exercise._

ex-haurĭo, hausi, haustum, haurīre, a. _To draw out; take away; to
drain._

ex-īstimo, istĭmāvi, istĭmātum, istĭmāre. _To judge, consider._

exĭ-tĭum, ii, n. (exi, true root of exeo) _Destruction, ruin._

exslĭ-ĭum, ii, n. (for exsul-ium, fr. exsul, the condition of an)
_Banishment, exile._

ex-sisto, stĭti, stĭtum, sistĕre, n. _To step forth; to appear; to be,
exist._

ex-specto, spectāvi, spectātum, spectāre, a. _To await, expect._

ex-stinguo, stinxi, stinctum, stingĕre, a. (ex; stinguo, _to
extinguish_) _To put out; extinguish, destroy._

ex-sul, ŭlis, com. gen. (ex; solum; _one who is banished from his native
soil_) _An exile._

ex-sulto, tāvi, tātum, tāre, n. intens. (for ex-salto, fr. exsal, true
root of exsil-io) _To leap; exult, rejoice._

ex-torqueo, torsi, tortum, torquēre, a. _To wrench out, wrest away_.

extrā, adv. and prep. with acc. _Outside of, beyond._


F

făcĭl-e, adv. (facil-is) _Easily, readily._

făc-ĭnus, ŏris, n. (fac-io, _the thing done_) _A deed; a bad deed._

făc-ĭo, fēci, factum, făcĕre, a.; pass., fīo, fieri, factus sum. _To
make, do, perform; to cause._

falc-ārĭus, ĭi, m. (falx) _A scythe-maker._

fallo, fĕfelli, falsum, fallĕre, a. _To deceive; to escape the notice._

fal-sus, a, um, part. (for fall-sus, fr. fall-o) _Deceptive; false,
untrue._

fāma, ae, f. _Report, rumour; fame, reputation; infamy, ill-fame._

fāmes, is, f. _Hunger, famine._

fă-tĕor, fassus sum, fătēri, dep. a. (f[a]-or) _To confess._

fauces, ĭum, f. pl. _The throat; a narrow way, defile,_

fax, făcis, f. _A torch._

fēbris, is, f. [ferveo, “to burn”] _Fever._

fĕro, ferre, tŭli, lātum, a. irreg. [roots are FER and TUL. The second
root has the form TOL, TLA, TAL. The supine _latum_ = _tlatum_ is from
this latter root] _To bear, carry; to get, receive; to suffer, endure;
to say, report, relate._

ferrum, i, n. _Iron, an iron weapon, a sword._

fīnis, is [for fidnis; root FID, root of findo, “to divide”] m. and f.
_A limit, end._

fīo (pass, of facio), fieri, factus sum. _To be done; to become._

firm-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (firmus) _To make firm; to strengthen._

firmus, a, um, adj. _Strong._

flāgĭt-ĭūm, ii, n. (flagit-o) _A shameful or disgraceful act; shame_

foed-us, ĕris, n. (for fidus, fr. fido; _a trusting_) _A league,
treaty._

fŏre = futurus esse.

fort-as-se, adv. (for forte; an; sit) _Perhaps._

fortis, e, adj. _Courageous, brave._

fort-ĭtūdo, ĭnis, f. (fortis) _Firmness, courage, resolution._

fort-ūna, ae, f. (fors, that which belongs to) _Chance, fortune_; in
pl., _property_.

fŏrum, i, n. [akin to root PER, POR, “to go through;” cp. πόρος] _The
marketplace; Forum_, which was a long open space between the Capitoline
and Palatine Hills, surrounded by porticoes and the shops of bankers; _a
market town, mart_.

frango, frēgi, fractum, frangĕre, a. [root FRAG, “to break”] _To break;
to subdue._

frĕquent-ĭa, ae, f. [root FARC, “to cram”] _An assembly, multitude,
concourse._

frīgus, ŏris, n. _Cold._

frons, frontis, f. _The forehead, brow._

fŭg-a, ae, f. (fug-io) _Flight._

fūnes-tus, a, um, adj. (for funer-tus; fr. funus, _death_) _Causing
death; fatal, destructive._

fŭrĭ-ōsus, a, um, adj. (furi-ae) _Full of madness; raging, furious._

fŭr-or, ōris, m. (fur-o) _A raging, madness._


G

gaudĭum, ĭi, n. (gaudeo) _Gladness, delight, pleasure._

gĕl-ĭdus, a, um, adj. (gel-o, _to freeze_) _Icy cold._

gen-s, tis, f. (gen-o = gigno, _to beget; that which is begotten_) _A
clan; a tribe, nation._

glădĭ-ātor, ōris, m. (gladi-us, one using a) _A swordsman; a gladiator._

glădiŭs, ĭi, m. _A sword._

glōr-ĭa, ae, f. (akin to clarus) _Glory._

grād-us, ūs, m. (grad-ior, _to walk_) _A step; a degree._

grāt-ĭa, ae, f. (grat-us, the quality of the) _Regard, love; gratitude;
thanks._

grăvis, e, adj. _Heavy; severe; grave, impressive; venerable._

grăv-ĭter, adv. _Violently, severely._


H

hăbĕo, ŭi, ĭtum, hăbēre, a. _To have, hold; to do, perform, make; to
give._

hăb-ĭto, ĭtāvi, ĭtātum, ĭtāre, intens., a. and n. (hab-eo) _To inhabit;
live; to stay._

haereo, haesi, haesum, haerēre, n. _To stick, adhere._

hebe-sco, no perf., no sup., scĕre, n. inch. (hebe-o, _to be blunt_) _To
be dull._

hīc, haec, hoc, pron. demonstr. _This._

hic-ce, intensive form of hic.

hīc, adv. _Here._

hŏmo, ĭnis, com. gen. _A human being; man or woman; person._

hŏnest-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To adorn; to honor._

hones-tus, a, um, adj. (for honor-tus, fr. honor) _Regarded with honor;
honored, noble._

hŏnor (os), ōris. m. _Honor; official dignity, office._

hōra, ae, f. _An hour._

horr-ĭbĭlis, e, adj. (horr-eo, _to be trembled at_) _Terrible, fearful,
horrible._

hortor, ātus sum, āre, dep. _To strongly urge, exhort._

hostis, is, com. gen. _An enemy._

hŭmus, i, f. _The ground_; humi (loc.), _on the ground_.


I

īdem, eadem, idem, pron. (root i, suffix dem) _The same._

īdūs, uum, f. pi. _The Ides._

ĭgĭtur, conj. _Then; therefore, accordingly; well then._

i-gnōmin-ia. ae, f. (for in-gno-min-ia; fr. in, gnomen = nomen, _a
depriving of one’s good name_) _Disgrace, ignominy._

i-gnō-ro, a. (for in-gno-ro; fr. in, _not_; GNO, root of gnosco = nosco)
_Not to know, to be ignorant of._

ille, a, ud, pron. demonstr. _That; he, she, it._

illĕc-ĕbra, ae, f. (for illac-ebra, fr. illac, true root of illic-o, _to
allure_) _An enticement, allurement._

illust-ro, a. [in, LUC, “to shine:” cp. lux] _To light up, illumine; to
make clear._

immān-ĭtas, ātis, f. (immanis, _huge_) _Hugeness, enormity._

im-minĕo, no perf., no sup. mĭnēre, n. (in, mineo, _to hang over_) _To
border upon, be near, impend._

im-mitto, mīsi, missum, mittĕre, a. (in; mitto) _To send into; to let
loose._

immo, adv. (etym. dub.) _On the under side, on the reverse; on the
contrary; no indeed, by no means; yes indeed._

im-mortālis, e, adj. (in; mortalis, _mortal_) _Immortal._

impĕd-ĭo, īvi, ītum, īre, a. (in; pes, _to get the feet in something_)
_To hinder, prevent._

im-pendĕo, no perf., no sup., pendēre, n. (in; pendeo, _to hang_) _To
hang over; to impend, threaten._

impĕrā-tor, ōris, in. (imper-[a]-o) _A general; chief._

im-pĕrītus, a, um, adj. (in; perītus, _skilled_) _Inexperienced,
ignorant._

impĕr-ĭum, i, n. (imper-o) _Authority, power, empire, government._

im-pĕro, pĕrāvĭ, pĕrātum, pĕrāre. a. (in; patro, _to bring, to pass_)
_To accomplish; obtain._

impĕtus, ūs, m. (impeto, _to attack_) _An attack._

im-pĭus, a, um, adj. (in; pius, _pious_) _Not pious, irreverent,
unpatriotic._

im-portū-nus, a, um, adj. (for _in-portu-nus_, fr. in; portus)
_Unsuitable; savage; dangerous._

im-prŏbus, a, um, adj. (in; probus) _Wicked, base._

im-pūnītus, a, um, adj. (in; punitus, _punished_) _Not punished;
unpunished._

in, prep, with acc. and abl. _In, into, against_; of time, _up to, for,
into, through_; with ablative, _in, upon, on_.

ĭnānis, e, adj. _Empty, void._

incend-ĭum, ii, n. (incend-o) _A burning, conflagration, fire._

in-clūdo, clūsi, clūsum, clūdĕre, a. _To shut up; to include._

in-crēdĭbilis, e, adj. _Incredible, extraordinary._

increpo, (āvi) ui, (ātum) ĭtum, āre, n. and a. _To make a noise._

in-dūco, duxi, ductum, dūcĕre, a. _To introduce; to lead into,
persuade._

in-ĕo, īre, ĭi, ĭtum, n. or a. _To go into, enter; begin._

inert-ĭa, ae, f. (inners, the quality of the) _Want of skill;
inactivity._

in-fĕro, ferre, intūi, illātum, a. irr. _To produce, make; to bring,
put_, or _place upon_.

infestus, a, um, adj. _Hostile, dangerous._

infiti-or, dep. (infiti-ae, _denial_) _To deny._

in-flammo, flammāvi, flammātum, flammāre, a. _To set on fire._

in-grăvesco, no perf., no sup., grăvescĕre, n. _To grow heavy; to grow
worse._

ĭn-ĭmīcus, a, um, adj. (in; amicus) _Unfriendly_; as noun, m., _a
private enemy_.

ĭnĭtĭ-o, a. (initi-um) _To begin, to initiate, consecrate._

injūrĭ-a, ae, f. (injuri-us, _injurious_) _Injury, wrong_; injuriâ, as
adv., _unjustly_.

inl: see ill.

ĭnŏp-ĭa, ae, f. (inops) _Need._

inquam, def. verb. _To say._

inr: see irr.

inscrībo, scripsi, scriptum, scrībĕre, a. _To write upon; to inscribe;
to impress upon._

insĭd-ĭae, ārum, f. pl. (insid-eo, _to sit in_) _An ambush, ambuscade;
plot treachery._

insĭdĭ-or, atus sum, ari, dep. (insidiae) _To wait for, expect; to plot
against._

intel-lego, lexi, lectum, lĕgĕre, a. (inter: lego, _to choose between_)
_To perceive, understand._

in-tendo, tendi, tentum, tendĕre, and tensum, a. _To stretch out; to
strive; to aim at._

inter, prep, with acc. _Between, among._

inter-cēdo, cessi, cessum, cēdĕre, n. _To go_ or _come between; to
intervene_.

inter-fĭcĭo, fēci, fectum, fĭcĕre, a. (inter; facio) _To destroy; to
kill._

intĕrĭ-tus, ūs, m. (intereo) _Destruction; death._

inter-rŏgo, rŏgāvi, rŏgātum, rŏgāre, a. _To ask, inquire._

inter-sum, esse, fui, n. irr. _To be between; to differ_; interest,
impers., _it interests_.

intes-tīnus, a, um, adj. (for intus-tinus, fr. intus) _Internal;
intestine, civil._

intrā, prep, with acc. _Within, in._

in-ūro, ussi, ustum, ūrĕre, a. _To burn into; to brand._

in-vĕnio, vēni, ventum, vĕnīre, a. _To come upon, find._

invĭd-ĭā, ae, f. (invid-us, _an envier_) _Envy, jealousy, unpopularity._

invīto, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To ask, invite, summon._

i-pse, a, um, pron. demonstr. (for i-pse; fr. is and suffix pse)
_Himself, herself, itself; he, she, it; very._

ir-rētĭ-o, vi, ītum, īre, a. (for in-ret-io, fr. in; ret-e, _a net_) _To
ensnare, captivate._

is, ea, id. pron. demonstr. _This, that; he, she, it; such._

is-te, ta, tud, pron. demonstr. (is; suffix te) _This of yours; this,
that; that fellow, that thing_ (used with contempt).

ĭta, adv. _In this way; so, thus._


J

jăcĕo, ui, jacĭtum, ēre, n. _To lie; to lie down._

jac-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. freq. (jac-io) _To throw; to toss about;
to boast, vaunt._

jam, adv. _Now, already_; jamdūdum, _a long time since, long ago_ (with
a present tense, giving the force of the perfect brought down to the
present time); jam-prīdem, adv. _long time ago, for a long time_.

jŭbĕo, jussi, jussum, jŭbēre, a. _To command, order, bid._

jū-cundus, a, um, adj. (for juv-cundus, fr. juv-o) _Pleasant, agreeable,
pleasing._

jūdĭc-ĭum, ii, n. (judic-o) _A judging; a judgment; a sentence._

jū-dico, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (jus; dĭco) _To judge; to think._

jungo, junxi, junctum, jungĕre, a. _To join, unite._

jū-s, jūris, n. (akin to root ju, _to join_) _Law, right, justice_;
jure, _justly_.

jus-sū, m. (only in abl. sing.; jubeo) _By command._

jus-tus, a, um, adj. (for jur-tus, fr. jus) _Just, right._


L

lābefac-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. intens. (labefacio) _To cause to
totter; to injure, ruin; to imperil._

lăbor, ōris, m. _Labor, toil._

laet-ĭtĭa, ae, f. (laet-us) _Joy, gladness._

lātro, (a short or long), ōnis, m. _A robber, highwayman._

latrōcīn-ĭum, ii, n. (latro) _Highway robbery, plundering._

laus, laudis, f. _Praise, fame, honor._

lectŭ-lus, i, m. dim. (for lecto-lus, fr. lecto, stem of lectus) _A
little couch, bed._

lēnis, e, adj. _Soft, gentle, mild._

lex, lēgis, f. (= leg-s, fr. lēg-o; _that which is read_) _A law._

līber, ĕra, ĕrum, adj. _Free, unrestrained._

lībĕr-i, ōrum, m. pl. (liber) _Children._

lībĕr-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (id.) _To make free; to free._

lib-īdo, ĭnis, f. (lib-et) _Desire; passion, lust._

lĭcet, ŭit, itum est, ēre, imp. _It is permitted; one may_ or _can_.

lŏcus, i, m. _A place_ (in pl., loci or loca).

long-e, adv. (long-us) _Far off; greatly, much; by far._

lŏquor, lŏcūtus sum, lŏqui, dep. _To speak, say._

lux, lūcis, f. (= luc-s, fr. luc-eo, _to shine_) _Light; the light of
day, daylight._


M

māchĭn-or, ātus sum, āri, dep. (machin-a, _a device_) _To contrive,
devise; to plot._

mac-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. intens. (for mag-to, fr. obsolete mag-o,
of same root as found in mag-nus) _To venerate, honor; to kill, slay; to
immolate; to destroy._

mă-gis, adv. _More._

mag-nus, a, um, adj. (comp. major, sup. maximus; root mag) _Great_;
majores, _ancestors_.

māj-or, us, adj. comp. (magnus)

mallĕŏ-lus, i, m. dim. (malleus, _a hammer_) _A small hammer; a kind of
fire-dart._

mā-lo, malle, mālŭi, a. irr. (contracted fr. mag-volo, fr. root mag;
volo, _to have a great desire for_) _To prefer._

măl-um, i, n. (malus) _An evil._

man-do, dāvi, dātum, dāre, a. (man-us; do, _to put into one’s hand_) _To
order; to commend, consign, intrust; to lay up_; se fugae mandare, _to
take to flight_.

mănus, ūs, f. _A hand; band of troops._

mārīt-us, a, um, adj. (marit-a, mas) _Matrimonial, conjugal_; as noun,
m. (sc. vir), _a husband_.

mātūr-ē, adv. (matur-us) _Seasonably, at the proper time; soon._

mātūr-ĭtas, ātis, f. (matur-us) _Ripeness, maturity, perfection._

maxĭm-ē, adv. (maxim-us) _In the highest degree, especially._

mĕdĭocr-ĭter, adv. (mediocris) _Moderately._

mĕdĭtor, ātus sum, āri, dep. _To think, consider, meditate upon; to
practise._

mehercŭle, mehercle, mehercules, adv. _By Hercules._

mĕmĭni, isse, a. and n., dep. _To remember, recollect._

mĕmŏria, ae, f. (memor, _mindful_) _Memory._

mens, mentis, f. _The mind; thought, purpose._

mĕtŭ-o, ŭi, ūtum, a. and n. (metu-s) _To fear._

mĕtus, ūs, m. _Fear._

mĕ-us, a, um, pron. pers. (me) _My, mine._

mĭn-us, adv. (min-or) _Less, not._

mĭsĕrĭcord-ĭā, ae, f. (miseri-cors, _pitiful_) _Pity, compassion._

mitto, mīsi, missum, mittĕre, a. _To let go, send._

mŏdo, adv. _Only_; non modo ... sed etiam, _not only; ... but also_.

mŏdus, i, m. _A measure; limit; manner; kind._

moenĭa, ium, n. pl. _Defensive walls; ramparts; city walls._

mōles, is, f. _A huge mass; greatness, might._

mōl-ĭor, ītus sum, īri, dep., n. and a. (mol-es) _To endeavor, strive;
to undertake; to plot; to prepare._

mol-lis, e, adj. (for mov-lis, fr. mov-eo, _that may_ or _can be moved_)
_Weak, feeble; gentle; mild._

mŏra, ae, f. _A delay._

morbus, i, m. _A sickness, disease._

mor-s, tis, f. (mor-ior) _Death._

mor-tŭus, a, um, part. (mor-ior) _Dead._

mos, mōris, m. [for meors; from meo, are, “to go”] _Usage, custom,
practice._

mŏvĕo, mōvi, mōtum, mŏvēre, a. _To move; to affect._

mult-ō, adv. (mult-us) _Much, greatly._

mult-o (mulcto), āvi, ātum, āre (mult-a, _a fine_) _To fine; to punish._

multus, a, um, adj. _Much_; in pl., _many_.

mūn-ĭo, īvi, ītum, īre, a. (moenia) _To fortify._

mūnī-tus, a, um, part. (muni-o) _Fortified, secure._

mūrus, i, m. [for mun-rus; root MUN, “to defend”] _A wall._

mū-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. intens. (for mov-to, fr. mov-eo) _To move;
to alter, change._


N

nam, conj. _For._

nanciscor, nanctus and nactus sum, nancisci, dep. _To get; to find._

nascor, nātus sum, nasci, dep. _To be born; to spring forth; to grow._

nā-tūra, ae, f. (na-scor; _a being born_) _Birth; nature._

nau-frăgus, a, um, adj. (nav-frag-us; navis; frag, root of frango) _That
suffers shipwreck; wrecked._

nē, adv. and conj. _No, not_; ne ... quidem, _not even; that not, lest_.

-nĕ, interrog. and enclitic particle, in direct questions with the ind.
asking merely for information; in indirect questions with the subj.
_Whether._

nec, conj.: see neque.

nĕcess-ārĭus, a, um, adj. (ne-cess-e) _Unavoidable, necessary_; as noun,
m., _a relative, friend_.

nĕ-ces-se, neut. adj. (found only in nom. and acc. sing., for ne-ced-se,
fr. ne; ed-o, _not yielding_) _Unavoidable, necessary._

nĕfār-ĭus, a. um, adj. (for nefas-ius, fr. nefas) _Impious, nefarious._

nēg-lĕg-o, lexi, lectum, lĕgĕre, a. (nec; lego, _not to gather_) _To
neglect, disregard._

nĕgo, nĕgāvi, nĕgātum, nĕgāre, n. and a. _To say “no;” to deny._

nē-mo, ĭnis, m. and f. (ne; homo) _No person, no one, nobody._

nĕ-que or nec, adv. _Not_; conj., _and not_; neque ... neque, nec ...
nec, _neither ... nor_.

nēqu-ĭtĭa, ae, f. (nequ-am) _Badness; inactivity, negligence._

ne-scĭo, scīvi, scītum, scīre, a. _Not to know, to be ignorant of._

nex, nĕcis, f. (= nec-s, fr. nec-o) _Death; murder, slaughter._

nĭhil, n. indecl. (nihilum, by apocope) _Nothing; not at all._

nĭmis, adv. _Too much; too._

nĭmĭ-um, adv. (nimi-us) _Too much; too._

nĭ-si, conj. _If not, unless._

noct-urnus, a, um, adj. (nox) _Belonging to the night, nocturnal._

nōmĭn-o (1), a. (nomen) _To name._

nōn, adv. _Not, no._

non-dum, adv. _Not yet._

non-ne, inter. adv. (expects answer “yes”) _Not?_

non-nullus, a, um, adj. (not one) _Some, several._

noster, tra, trum, poss. pron. (nos) _Our, our own, ours_; in plur., as
noun, m., _our men_.

nŏta, ae, f. (nosco) _A mark, sign; a brand._

nŏt-o, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. (not-a) _To mark, designate._

nŏvus, a, um, adj. _New._

nox, noctis, f. _Night._

nūdus, a, um, adj. _Naked, bare._

n-ullus, a, um, adj. (ne; ullus) _None, no._

num, inter. particle, used in direct questions expecting the answer
“no;” in indirect questions, _Whether_.

nŭmĕrus, i, m. _A number._

nunc, adv. _Now, at present._

n-unquam (numquam), adv. (ne; unquam) _Never._

nūper, adv. (for nov-per, fr. nov-us) _Newly, lately._

nupt-ĭae, ārum, f. pl. (nupt-a, _a married woman_) _Marriage, nuptials._


O

O, interj. _O! Oh!_

ob, prep, with acc. _On account of._

ŏbĕo, īre, ĭi, ĭtum, n. _To engage in, execute._

oblĭviscor, oblītus sum, oblivisci, dep. _To forget._

obscūr-ē, adv. (obscur-us) _Indistinctly, secretly._

obscūr-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (obscurus) _To obscure._

ōbscūrus, a, um, adj. _Dark; unknown._

ob-sĭdĕo, sēdi, sessum, sĭdēre, a. (ob; sedeo, _to sit_) _To sit down
at_ or _before; to invest; to watch for_.

ob-sīdo, no perf., no sup., sĭdēre, a. _To sit down over_ or _against;
to invest, besiege_.

ob-sisto, stĭti, stĭtum, sistĕre, n. _To oppose, resist._

ob-sto, stĭti, stātum, stāre, n. _To oppose._

ob-tempĕro, āvi, ātum, āre, n. _To comply with, obey._

oc-cīdo, cīdi, cīsum, cīdĕre, a. (ob; caedo, _to strike against_) _To
strike down; to kill._

oc-cŭp-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (for ob-cap-o, fr. ob; capio) _To take,
seize; to occupy._

ŏcŭlus, i, m. _An eye._

ōdi, odisse, a., defective. _To hate._

ŏd-ĭum, ii, n. (odi) _Hatred._

of-fendo, fendi, fensum, fendĕre, a. _To hit; to offend._

of-fensus, a, um, adj. _Odious_

ōmen, ĭnis, n. _An omen._

o-mitto, mīsi, missum, mittĕre, a. (ob; mitto) _To let go; to pass over,
omit._

omnis, e, adj. _Every, all._

ŏpīn-or, ātus sum, āri, dep. (opin-us, _thinking_) _To think, suppose,
imagine._

ŏport-et, ŭit, ēre, impers. _It is necessary._

op-prĭmo, pressi, pressum, prĭmĕre, a. (ob; premo) _To overwhelm,
subdue, overpower; to cover._

optĭm-as, ātis, adj. (optim-us) _Aristocratic_; as noun (sc. homo), _an
aristocrat_.

opt-ĭmus, a, um, adj. (super. of bonus) _Best, very good._

orbis, is, m. _A circle; the world, the universe._

ord-o, ĭnis, m. (ord-ior, _to begin_) _Order; class, degree._

ōs, ōris, n. _The mouth; the face, countenance._

osten-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. intens. (for ostend-to, fr. ostend-o)
_To show; to display._

ōtĭ-ōsus, a, um, adj. (oti-um, full of) _At leisure; quiet; calm,
tranquil._

ōtĭum, ii, n. _Leisure._


P

pa-ciscor, pactus sum, pacisci, dep., n. and a. _To contract; to agree,
bargain._

pac-tum, i, n. (pac-iscor) _An agreement, compact; manner, way._

pango, pang-ĕre, panxi, pactum. _To agree._

par-ens, entis, m. and f. (par-io) _A parent._

părĭes, ietis, m. _A wall._

părĭo, pĕpĕri, părĭtum, părĕre and partum, a. _To bring forth; to
obtain._

păr-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To make, get ready, prepare._

parrĭ-cīda, ae, m. (for patr-i-caed-a, fr. pater; [i]; caedo) _The
murderer of one’s father; parricide._

parricīd-ĭum, ii, n. (parricid-a) _Parricide, murder, treason._

pars, partis, f. _A part, portion._

part-ĭ-cep-s, cĭpis, adj. (for part-i-cap-s, fr. pars; [i]; cap-io)
_Sharing, partaking_; as noun, _a sharer, partaker_.

parvus, a, um, adj. _Small, little, slight._

pat-e-făcĭo, fēci, factum, făcĕre, a. (pateo; facio) _To disclose,
expose, bring to light._

pătĕo, ŭi, no sup., pătēre, n. _To stand_ or _lie open; to be clear,
plain_.

păter, tris, m. _A father._

pătĭent-ĭa, ae, f. (patior) _Patience._

pătr-ĭus, a, um (a long or short), adj. (pater) _Paternal, fatherly_; as
noun, f. (sc. terra), _native land, country_.

paucus, a, um, adj. _Small, little_; as noun, pl. m., _few, a few_.

paul-isper, adv. (paul-us, _little_) _For a little while._

paul-ō adv. (id., _little_) _By a little, a little._

paul-um, adv. (paul-us) _By a little, a little._

paul-us, a, um, adj. _A little, small._

pĕnĭ-tus, adv. (root pen) _From within; deeply._

per, prep, with acc. _Through; by, by means of; on account of._

per-cĭpĭ-o, cēpi, ceptum, cĭpĕre, a. (per; capio) _To take possession
of, seize; to comprehend, perceive, learn._

perd-ĭtus, a, um, part. (perd-o) _Ruined, desperate, abandoned._

per-do, dĭdi, dĭtum, dĕre, a. _To destroy, ruin._

per-fĕro, ferre, tŭli, lātum, a. irr. _To bear, endure._

per-fringo, frēgi, fractum, fringĕre, a. (per; frango) _To break
through; to violate, infringe._

per-frŭor, fructus sum, frŭi, dep. _To enjoy fully._

per-go, perrexi, perrectum, pergĕre, a. and n. (for per-rego, _to make
quite straight_) _To proceed, go on._

pĕrīcl-ītor, ītātus sum, tari, dep., a. and n. (perīcl-um) _To try; to
endanger, risk; to venture, hazard._

pĕrī-cŭlum (clum), i, n. (peri-or [obsolete], _to go through_) _A trial;
hazard, danger, peril._

per-mitto, mīsi, missum, mittere, a. _To send through; to give up,
intrust, surrender._

per-mŏvĕo, mōvi, mōtum, mŏvēre, a. _To move thoroughly; to excite,
arouse._

pernĭc-ĭes, ĭēi, f. (pernec-o, _to kill utterly_) _Destruction._

pernĭcĭ-ōsus, a, um, adj. (per-nici-es, full of) _Very destructive,
ruinous, pernicious._

perpĕtŭus, a, um, adj. _Continuous; constant, perpetual._

per-saepe. _Very often, very frequently._

per-spĭcĭo, spexi, spectum, spĭcĕre, a. (per; specio, _to look_) _To
look through; to perceive, note._

per-terrĕo, ŭi, ĭtum, terrēre, a. _To terrify thoroughly._

per-tĭme-sco, tĭmŭi, no sup., tĭmescĕre, a. and n. inch. (pertimeo) _To
fear or dread greatly._

per-tĭn-ĕō, tĭnŭi, tentum, tĭnēre, n. (per; teneo) _To stretch; to
concern; to pertain to._

per-vĕnĭo, vēni, ventum, vĕnīre, n. _To arrive at, reach._

pestis, is, f. _Ruin, plague._

pĕt-ītĭo, ōnis, f. (pet-o) _An attack, thrust._

pĕto, pĕtīvi, pĕtītum, pĕtĕre, a. _To seek; to attack, thrust at._

plăcĕo, ŭi, ĭtum, plăcēre, n. _To please_; placet, impers., _it seems
good; it is resolved upon; it is determined_.

plāco, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To quiet, calm, reconcile._

plān-ē, adv. (plan-us) _Simply, clearly._

plēbes, ei, f. or plebs, plēbis, f. _The common people, the plebeians._

plū-rĭmus, a, um, sup. adj. (multus) _Very much_; in pl., _the largest_
or _smaller number_; with quam, _as many as possible_.

poena, ae, f. _Punishment._

pol-lĭcĕor, licitus sum, lĭcērĭ, dep. (pot, root of pot-is, _powerful_,
and liceor, _to bid_) _To promise._

pontĭfex, fĭcis, m. _The high priest, pontiff._

pŏpŭlus, i, m. _A people, nation, multitude._

porta, ae, f. _A gate; passage._

pos-sum, posse, pŏtŭi, no sup., n. irr. (for pot-sum, fr. pot, root of
pot-is, _able_, and sum) _To be able._

post, adv. and prep. with acc. _Behind; after; next to, since._

post-ĕā, adv. _After this; afterwards._

postĕr-ĭtas, ātis, f. (poster-us) _Futurity; posterity._

postŭlo, a. _To ask, demand, request._

pŏtĭus, adv. (adv. neut. of potior, comp. of potis) _Rather, more._

prae-clārus, a, um, adj. _Splendid, excellent; distinguished._

prae-dĭco, dĭcāvi, dĭcātum, dĭ-cāre, a. _To publish, state, declare._

prae-dīco, dixi, dictum, dīcĕre, a. _To say beforehand; to predict._

prae-fĕro, ferre, tŭli, lātum, a. irr. _To bear before; to display, to
exhibit._

prae-mitto, mīsi, missum, mittĕre, a. _To send forward._

prae-s-ens, entis, adj. (prae; sum) _Present._

praesent-ĭa, ae, f. (praesens) _Presence._

praesĭd-ĭum, ii, n. (praesid-eo) _A guarding, defence, aid; a garrison,
guard._

prae-stōlor (1), dep. n. and a. _To wait for._

praetĕr-ĕo, īre, ii, ĭtum, n. and a. irr. _To pass over, omit._

praeter-mitto, mīsi, missum, mittĕre, a. _To pass over, omit._

prae-tor, ōris, m. (for praei-tor, fr. praeeo) _A leader; a praetor_, an
officer next to consul in rank.

prī-dem, adv. (for prae-dem, fr. prae; suffix dem) _A long time ago,
long since._

prī-diē, adv. (for prae-die, fr. prae; dies) _On the day before._

prī-mō, adv. (primus) _At first._

pri-mus, a, um, sup. adj. (for prae-mus, fr. prae, with superlative
suffix mus) _The first, first._

prin-cep-s, cĭpis, adj. (for prim-caps, fr. prim-us; cap-io) _First_; as
noun, m. and f., _chief, leader_.

prĭ-or, us, gen. ōris, comp. adj. (for prae-or, fr. prae; comparative
suffix or) _Former._

prīvā-tus, a, um, part. (prīv-[a]-o, _to deprive_) _Private_; as noun,
m., _a private citizen_.

prob-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To try; to approve._

perfec-tĭo, ōnis, f. (for profac-tio, fr. profic-iscor) _A setting out,
departure._

prō-fĭcĭo, fēci, fectum, fĭcĕre, n. and a. (pro; facio) _To accomplish,
effect._

pro-fĭc-iscor, fectus sum, fĭcisci, dep. n. inch, (for pro-fac-iscor,
fr. pro; fac-io) _To set out._

prō-fŭgĭo, fūgi, fŭgitum, fŭgĕre, a. and n. _To flee._

prŏpe, adv. and prep, with acc. _Nearly, almost._

prŏprĭus, a, um, adj. _One’s one; proper, peculiar, suited to._

prop-ter, prep. with acc. (prop-e) _Near; on account of._

pro-sĕquor, sĕcūtus sum, sĕqui, dep. _To follow, accompany._

proxĭmus, a, um, adj. (proc-simus, for prop-simus, fr. prop-e, and sup.
ending simus) _The nearest, next; the last._

publĭc-ē, adv. (public-us) _In behalf of the state, in the name of the
state._

publ-ĭcus, a, um, adj. (populus) _public, common_.

pŭd-or, ōrĭs, m. (pudet) _Shame, modesty._

pur-go, a. (pūr-us) _To clean, cleanse; purify._

pŭt-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (put-us, _cleansed_) _To make clean; to
reckon, think._


Q

quaero (quaeso), quaesīvi, ii, quaesītum, quaerĕre, a. _To seek; demand,
ask._

quaeso: see quaero.

quaēs-tio, ōnis, f. (quaes-o) _A seeking; a judicial investigation._

quam, adv. (adverbial acc. of quis) _In what manner, how; as much, as;
than_; with superlatives, _as_ (much as) _possible_, e.g. quam primum,
_as soon as possible_.

quam-dĭu, adv. _How long, as long as._

quam-ob-rem, rel. adv. _On which account, wherefore._

quam-quam, conj. _Although._

quantus, a, um, adj. _How great, how much._

quā-rē, adv. (quis; res) _From what cause? wherefore?_

-que, enclitic conj. _And_; que ... que, _both ... and_.

quĕr-ĭmōnĭa, ae, f. (queror) _A complaint._

quĕror, questus sum, quĕri, dep. a. and n. _To complain of, lament,
bewail._

quī, quae, quod, rel. pron. _Who, which, what, that._

quī-dam, quaedam, quoddam, indef. pron. _Some, some one, a certain one._

quĭdem, adv. _Indeed, at least_; ne ... quidem, _not even_.

quĭe-sco, quĭēvi, quĭētum, quĭescĕre, n. inch, (for quiet-sco, fr.
quies) _To keep quiet._

quin-tus, a, um, ord. num. adj. (quinqu-tus, fr. quinque) _The fifth._

quis, quae, quid, interrog. pron. (quis, quae, quod, used adjectively)
_Who? which? what?_ quid, _how? why? wherefore?_ preceded by ne, si,
nisi, num, becomes an indefinite pron., _any, some_.

quis-quam, quae-quam, quic-quam (quod-quam), indef. pron. _Any, any
one._

quis-que, quae-que, quod-que (and as noun, quic-que; quid-que), indef.
pron. _Each, every_.

quis-quis, quod-quod or quic-quid or quid-quid, indef. pron. _Whatever,
whatsoever_; as noun, _whoever, whosoever_.

quō, adv. (qui) _Where; whither._

quod, conj. (acc. neut. fr. qui) _That, in that, because_; quod si, _but
if_.

quon-dam, adv. (for quom-dam, fr. quom, old form of quem) _Once,
formerly._

quŏn-ĭam, conj. (for quom-iam, fr. quom = cum and jam) _Since._

quŏque, conj. _Also, too_ (placed after the word it emphasizes).

quot, num. adj. indecl. _How many, as many._

quŏtīd-ĭe, cotidie. _Daily._

quot-ĭes, iens, adv. (xuot) _How often._

quŏtĭes-cumque, adv. _How often soever; as often as._

quo-usque, adv. (for quom; usque, fr. quom, old form of quem; usque)
_Until what time; how long._


R

răpĭo, ŭi, raptum, răpĕre, a. _To match_ or _draw away_.

ră-tĭo, ōnis, f. (reor) _A calculation; judgment, reason; course,
manner._

rĕcens, ntis, adj. _Fresh, recent._

rĕ-cĭpĭo, cēpi, ceptum, rĕcĭpĕre, a. (re; capio) _To take back; to
accept, receive._

rĕ-cognosco, cognōvi, cognitum, cognoscĕre, a. _To know again,
recognize; to examine, review._

rĕ-condo, condĭdi, condĭtum, condĕre, a. _To put back again; to sheath_
(of a sword); _to lay up; bury_.

rec-tus, a, um, part, (for reg-tus, fr. reg-o) _Right; straight._

red-und-o, āvi, ātum, āre, n. _To overflow; to abound._

re-fĕro, ferre, tŭli, lātum, a. irr. _To carry, bring_, or _give back;
to return, pay back_.

rēgĭ-ē, adv. (regi-us) _Royally, tyrannically._

rĕ-lĕvo, lĕvāvi, lĕvātum, lĕvāre, a. _To make light; to relieve._

rĕ-linquo, līqui, lictum, linquĕre, a. (re; linquo, _to leave_) _To
leave behind, leave._

rĕlĭqu-us, a, um, adj. (reli[n]qu-o) _Remaining; the remainder of,
rest._

rĕmănĕo, mansi, no sup., mănēre, n. _To remain behind._

rĕ-mŏror, mŏrātus sum, mŏrāri, dep., n. and a. _To stay, delay, to
detain._

re-pello, pŭli, pulsum, a. _To reject, repel._

rĕ-pĕrio, rĕpĕri, rĕpertum, pĕrīre, a. (re; par-o) _To find._

re-primo, pressi, pressum, a. (re; premo) _To check, restrain._

rĕpŭdĭ-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (repudi-um, _a casting off_) _To cast off;
to reject._

rēs, rĕi, f. _A thing, matter_; res publica, _the commonwealth, the
state_.

rĕ-sĭdĕo, sēdi, no sup., sĭdēre, n. (re; sedeo) _To remain; to remain
behind._

rē-spondĕo, spondi, sponsum, spondēre, a. (re; spondeo, _to promise_)
_To answer, reply._

respon-sum, i, n. (for respond-sum, fr. respond-eo) _An answer, reply._

rēs-publĭcā, rĕi-publĭcae, f.; see res.

rĕ-vŏco, a. _To call back, to recall._

rŏgo, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To ask_; rogare legem, _to propose a law_.

rŭ-īna, ae, f. (ru-o) _A falling; ruin._


S

sacr-ārĭum, ii (a long or short), n, (sacr-um) _A place for keeping holy
things; a shrine._

sacrum, i (a long or short), n. (sacer) _A sacred thing; a religious
rite, ceremony._

saep-e, adv. (saep-is, _frequent_) _Often, frequently._

săg-ax, ācĭs, adj. (sagio, _to perceive quickly_) _Sagacious,
keen-scented._

sălū-s, ūtis, f. (for salvit-s; fr. salv-eo, _to be well_) _Health;
safety, prosperity._

sălūt-o, āvi, ātum, āre, a. (salus) _To greet, salute._

sanc-tus, a, um, adj. (sancio) _Sacred, holy, venerable._

sanguis, inis, m. _Blood._

sătelles, ĭtis, com. gen. _An attendant; an accomplice, partner._

sătĭs (sat), adv. _Enough._

sătis-făcĭo, fēci, factum, făcĕre, a. _To give satisfaction; satisfy,
content._

scĕlĕrāt-ē, adv. (scelerat-us) _Impiously, wickedly._

scĕlĕrā-tus, a, um, part. (sceler[a]-o, _to pollute_) _Polluted, bad_;
as noun, m., _a wretch_.

scĕlus, ĕris, n. _An evil deed; a crime, guilt._

scio, scīvi, scītum, scīre, a. _To know, perceive._

sē-cēdo, cessi, cessum, cēdĕre, n. _To go apart; to go away._

sē-cerno, crēvi, crētum, cernĕre, a. _To put apart, separate._

sed, conj. _But, yet, but also_; non solum ... sed etiam, _not only_ ...
_but also_.

sēd-ĭ-tĭo, ōnis, f. (sed = sine; i, root of eo, _a going apart_)
_Sedition, strife._

sē-jungo, junxi, junctum, jungĕre, a. _To disjoin; to separate._

sē-men, ĭnis, n. (for sā-men, fr. sa, true root of sero) _the sown
thing. Seed_.

semper, adv. _Ever, always._

sĕn-ātus, ūs, m. (senex) _The council of the elders, the senate._

sĕnātūs-consultum, i, n. _A decree of the senate._

sen-sus, ŭs, m. (for sent-sus, fr. sent-io) _Perception, feeling._

sentent-ĭa, ae, f. (for sentient-ia, fr. sentiens, _thinking_) _An
opinion, sentiment; sentence, vote._

sentīna, ae, f. _Bilge-water; the lowest of the people, rabble; mob._

sentĭo, sensi, sensum, sentire, a. _To feel, see; to perceive._

sequor, sĕcutus sum, sĕqui, dep. _To follow, to comply with, conform
to._

sermo, ōnis, m. _A speaking; talk, conversation._

sēr-ō, adv. (ser-us) _Late, too late._

serv-ĭo, ivi, itum, ire, n. (serv-us) _To be a slave; to serve,_

servo, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To save, preserve, protect._

sērvus, i, m. _A slave._

sēsē, reduplicated form of acc. or abl. of sui.

sĕvēr-itas, ātis, f. (severus) _Strictness, severity._

sex-tus, a, um, ord. num. adj. (sex) _The sixth._

si, conj. _If, whether._

sīc, adv. _In this manner, so thus._

sīca, ae, f. _A dagger, poniard._

sīc-ut or sīc-uti, adv. _So as, just as._

sĭlent-ĭum, ii, n. (silens, _silent_) _Silence._

sĭlĕo, ui, no sup., n. _To be noiseless, still_, or _silent_.

sĭmĭlĭs, e, adj. (with gen. and dat.) _Like, similar._

sĭmul, adv. _Together, at once_; simul-ac _or_ atque, _as soon as_.

sī-n, conj. (si; ne) _But if._

sine, prep. with abl. _Without._

sing-ŭli, ae, a, num. distrib. adj. _One to each, separate, single,
each, every._

sĭno, sīvi, sĭtum, sĭnăre, a. _To let, suffer, allow._

sŏcĭ-etas, ātis, f. (soci-us) _Fellowship, association, society;
a league, an alliance._

socius, ii, m. _A partner, companion; ally, confederate._

sŏdālis, is, com. gen. _A boon companion._

sŏlĕo, sŏlĭtus sum, n. semi-dep. _To be wont, be accustomed._

sōl-ĭtūdo, īnĭs, f. (sol-us) _Loneliness, aolitude; a desert,
wilderness._

sōl-um, adv. (sōl-us) _Alone, only._

somnus, i, m. _Sleep, slumber._

spĕcŭl-or, dep. a. and n. (specula, _a watch-tower_) _To watch, observe,
explore._

spe-s, spĕi, f., gen., dat., and abl. pl. not found in good writers (for
sper-s, fr. spēr-o) _Hope._

spīr-ĭtus, ūs, m. (spir-o) _A breathing; a breath._

spon-te, abl., and spontis, gen. of the noun spons, f. (for spond-te,
fr. spond-eo, _to pledge_) _Of one’s own accord, willingly._

stā-tor, ōris, m. _A supporter, stayer._

stătŭ-o, ui, ūtum, ĕre, a. (status) _To put, place; to decide,
determine._

stā-tus, ūs, m. (sto) _Condition, situation, state._

stirps, stirpis, f. _A stock, stem; source, origin._

sto, stĕti, stātum, stāre, n. _To stand._

stŭdĕo, ŭi, no sup., ēre, n. and a. _To be eager; to pursue, be devoted
to._

stŭd-ĭum, ii, n. (stud-eo) _Assiduity, zeal._

stultus, a, um, adj. _Foolish, simple._

stuprum, i (u long or short), n. _Debauchery, lewdness._

suādeo, suāsi, suāsum, suādēre, n. and a. _To advise, recommend._

sub-sell-ĭum, ii, n. (sub; sell-a) _A bench, judge’s seat._

sŭi, sibi, se or sese, pron. reflex. _Of himself, herself, itself_, or
_themselves_.

sum, esse, fŭi, no sup., n. irr. _To be, exist._

summus, a, um, sup. adj. (superus) _The highest, greatest, very great;
the most important; the top of, the summit of._

sŭpĕr-ĭor, ĭus, comp. adj. (super) _Higher; earlier, former._

supplĭc-ĭum, ii, n. (supplic-o) _A humble petition; punishment._

sus-cĭpĭo, cēpi, ceptum, cĭpĕre, a. _To undertake._

suspec-tus, a, um, part. (suspic-io, through true root suspec)
_Mistrusted, suspected._

su-spĭcĭo, spexi, spectum, spĭcere, a. and n. (sub; specio, _to look_)
_To look at from under; to mistrust, suspect._

suspīc-ĭo, ōnis, f. (suspic-or) _Mistrust, suspicion._

suspĭc-or, ātus sum, āri, dep. (suspic-io) _To suspect._

suspitio: see suspicio.

sus-tĭneo, tĭnŭi, tentum, tĭnēre, a. _To support, sustain._

sŭ-us, a, um, poss. pron. (su-i) _Of_ or _belonging to himself, herself,
itself_, or _themselves; his own, her own, its own, their own_.


T

tăbŭla, ae, f. _A board; a writing-tablet._

tăcĕo, ŭi, ĭtum, tăcēre, n. _To be silent._

tăciturn-ĭtas, ātis, f. (taciturnus, _quiet_) _Silence._

tăc-ĭtus, a, um, adj. (taceo) _Silent._

tae-ter, tra, trum, adj. (for taed-ter, fr. taed-et) _Foul, shameful,
disgraceful._

tam, adv. _So, so far, so very, so much._

tămen, adv. _Nevertheless, however, still._

tăm-etsi, conj. (contracted fr. tamen-etsi) _Although, though._

tan-dem, adv. (tam) _At length_; in questions, _pray_.

tam-quam, adv. (tam; quam) _As much as; just as, like as, as if, as it
were._

tantus, a, um, adj. _So great, so large, so many._

tec-tum, i, n. (for teg-tum, fr. teg-o) _A roof, house._

tēlum, i, n. _A spear; weapon._

tempes-tas, ātis, f. (for tempor-tas, fr. tempus) _A space of time;
a time; weather_ (both good and bad), hence _a storm, tempest_.

templum, i, n. _A temple, shrine._

temp-to, tāvi, tātum, tāre, a. intens. (also written ten-to, fr. teneo)
_To handle; to try; to try the strength of; to attack._

tempus, ŏris, n. _A portion of time; a time; a critical moment,
circumstances._

tĕnĕbrae, ārum, f. pl. _Darkness._

tĕnĕo, tĕnŭi, tentum, a., tĕnēre. _To hold, keep, have, guard._

terra, ae, f. _The earth, land_; orbis terrarum, _the world; country_.

tĭmĕo, ūi, no sup., tĭmēre, a. and n. _To fear._

tĭm-or, ōris, m. _Fear._

tollo, sustŭli, sublătum, tollĕre, a. _To lift up; to destroy, take
away._

tot, num. adj. indecl. _So many._

tŏt-ĭes, (iens) num. adv. (tot) _So often, so many times._

tōtus, a, um, adj. _All, all the; the whole_; in adverbial force,
_altogether, wholly_.

trans-fĕro, ferre, tŭli, lātum, a. _To bear ucross; to transport,
transfer._

tribūn-al, ālis, n. (tribunus) _A judgment-seat, tribunal._

trib-ūnus, i, m. (trib-us) _A tribune._

tru-cīdo, a. (for truc-caedo, fr. trux [_savage_]; caedo) _To
slaughter._

tū, tui, pers. pron. _Thou, you_ (sing.)

tum, adv. _Then, at that time._

tŭmultus, ūs, m. _Disturbance, tumult._

turp-ĭtūdo, inis, f. (turpis) _Baseness, infamy._

tū-tus, a, um, (tu-eor) _Safe, secure._

tŭ-us, a, um, poss. pron. (tu) _Thy, thine, your, yours._


U

ŭbi, adv. (akin to qui) _Where; when_; ubinam, _where, pray?_

ul-lus, a, um, adj. dim. (for un-lus, fr. unus) _Any, any one._

umquam: see unquam.

ūnā, adv. (adverbial abl. of unus) _At the same time, in company,
together._


V

vir-tus, ūtis, f. (vir) _Manliness, manhood; courage; worth, merit._

vis, vis, f. _Strength, force._

viscus, ĕris, n. (mostly in pl.) _The inwards; the viscera._

vĭ-ta, ae, f. (for viv-ta, fr. viv-o) _Life._

vĭtĭum, ii, n. _Fault, blemish, error, crime, vice._

vīto, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To shun, avoid._

vīvo, vixi, victum, vīvĕre, n. _To live._

vīv-us, a, um, adj. (vīv-o) _Alive._

vix, adv. _With difficulty, hardly, scarcely_; vixdum, _scarcely_.

vŏco, āvi, ātum, āre, a. _To call; summon._

volnĕr-o, āvi, ātus sum, āre, a. (volnus) _To wound._

volo, velle, volŭi, no sup., a. irr. _To will, wish, desire._

voltus: see vultus.

volun-tas, ātis, f. (for volent-tas, fr. volens) _Will, wish, desire,
inclination._

volup-tas, ātis, f. (volup, _agreeable_) _Enjoyment, pleasure, delight._

vox, vōcis, f. (for voc-s, fr. voc-o, _that which calls out_) _A voice;
a word_; in pl., _language, sayings, words_.

vul-tus, ūs, m. (for vol-tus, fr. vol-o) _The countenance; looks,
aspect._


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TEXT ALONE

I.--1. Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? Quam diu
etiam furor iste tuus eludet? Quem ad finem sese effrenata jactabit
audacia? Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palatii, nihil urbis vigiliae,
nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum omnium, nihil hic
munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt.
Patere tua consilia non sentis? Constrictam omnium horum scientia teneri
conjurationem tuam non vides? Quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris,
ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, quem nostrum
ignorare arbitraris?

2. O tempora, O mores! senatus haec intellegit, consul videt; hic tamen
vivit. Vivit? immo vero etiam in senatum venit, fit publici consilii
particeps, notat et designat oculis ad caedem unum quemque nostrum. Nos
autem, viri fortes, satis facere rei publicae videmur, si istius furorem
ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci jussu consulis jam pridem
oportebat, in te conferri pestem istam, quam tu in nos machinaris.

3. An vero vir amplissimus, P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, Ti. Gracchum,
mediocriter labefactantem statum rei publicae, privatus interfecit:
Catilinam orbem terrae caede atque incendiis vastare cupientem, nos
consules perferemus? Nam illa nimis antiqua praetereo, quod C. Servilius
Ahala Sp. Maelium, novis rebus studentem, manu sua occidit. Fuit, fuit
ista quondam in hac re publica virtus, ut viri fortes acerbioribus
suppliciis civem perniciosum quam acerbissimum hostem coercerent.
Habemus senatus consultum in te, Catilina, vehemens et grave: non deest
rei publicae consilium neque auctoritas hujus ordinis: nos, nos, dico
aperte, consules desumus.

II.--4. Decrevit quondam senatus ut L. Opimius consul videret ne quid
res publica detrimenti caperet; nox nulla intercessit; interfectus est
propter quasdam seditionum suspiciones C. Gracchus, clarissimo patre,
avo, majoribus: occisus est cum liberis M. Fulvius consularis. Simili
senatus consulto C. Mario et L. Valerio consulibus est permissa res
publica: num unum diem postea L. Saturninum tribunum plebis et
C. Servilium praetorem mors ac rei publicae poena remorata est? At vero
nos vicesimum jam diem patimur hebescere aciei horum auctoritatis.
Habemus enim hujus modi senatus consultum, verum inclusum in tabulis
tamquam in vagina reconditum, quo ex senatus consulto confestim
interfectum te esse, Catilina, convenit. Vivis, et vivis non ad
deponendam sed ad confirmandam audaciam. Cupio, patres conscripti, me
esse clementem, cupio in tantis rei publicae periculis me non dissolutum
videri, sed jam me ipse inertiae nequitiaeque condemno.

5. Castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum in Etruriae faucibus
collocata, crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus, eorum autem
castrorum imperatorem ducemque hostium intra moenia atque adeo in senatu
videmus intestinam aliquam cotidie perniciem rei publicae molientem. Si
te jam, Catilina, comprehendi, si interfici jussero, credo, erit
verendum mihi, ne non potius hoc omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam
crudelius factum se dicat. Verum ego hoc, quod jam pridem factum esse
oportuit, certa de causa nondum adducor, ut faciam. Tum denique
interficiere, cum jam nemo tam improbus, tam perditus, tam tui similis
inveniri poterit, qui id non jure factum esse fateatur.

6. Quam diu quisquam erit qui te defendere audeat, vives, sed vives ita,
ut vivis, multis meis et firmis praesidiis oppressus, ne commovere te
contra rem publicam possis. Multorum te etiam oculi et aures non
sentientem, sicut adhuc fecerunt, speculabuntur atque custodient.

III.--Etenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectes, si neque
nox tenebris obscurare coeptus nefarios neque privata domus parietibus
continere voces conjurationis tuae potest? Si inlustrantur, si erumpunt
omnia? Muta jam istam mentem, mihi crede! obliviscere caedis atque
incendiorum. Teneris undique: luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia
omnia; quae jam mecum licet recognoscas.

7. Meministine me ante diem duodecimum Kalendas Novembres dicere in
senatu, fore in armis certo die, qui dies futurus esset ante diem sextum
Kalendas Novembres, C. Manlium, audaciae satellitem atque administrum
tuae? Num me fefellit, Catilina, non modo res tanta, tam atrox, tamque
incredibilis, verum id quod multo magis admirandum, dies? Dixi ego idem
in senatu, caedem te optimatium contulisse in ante diem quintum Kalendas
Novembres, tum cum multi principes civitatis Roma non tam sui
conservandi quam tuorum consiliorum reprimendorum causa profugerunt. Num
infitiari potes te illo die meis praesidiis, mea diligentia circumclusum
commovere te contra rem publicam non potuisse, cum te discessu ceterorum
nostra tamen, qui remansissemus, caede contentum esse dicebas?

8. Quid? cum tu te Praeneste Kalendis ipsis Novembribus occupaturum
nocturno impetu esse confideres, sensistine illam coloniam meo jussu
meis praesidiis, custodiis vigiliisque esse munitam? Nihil agis, nihil
moliris, nihil cogitas, quod non ego non modo audiam, sed etiam videam
planeque sentiam.


IV.--Recognosce mecum tandem noctem illam superiorem: jam intelliges
multo me vigilare acrius ad salutem quam te ad perniciem rei publicae.
Dico te priore nocte venisse inter falcarios--non agam obscure in
M. Laecae domum: convenisse eodem complures ejusdem amentiae scelerisque
socios. Num negare audes? quid taces? convincam, si negas: video enim
esse hic in senatu quosdam, qui tecum una fuerunt.

9. O di immortales! ubinam gentium sumus! quam rem publicam habemus? in
qua urbe vivimus? Hic, hic sunt in nostro numero, patres conscripti, in
hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo gravissimoque consilio, qui de nostro
omnium interitu, qui de hujus urbis atque adeo de orbis terrarum exitio
cogitent. Hosce ego video et de re publica sententiam rogo, et quos
ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum voce vulnero. Fuisti igitur apud
Laecam illa nocte, Catilina; distribuisti partess Italiae; statuisti quo
quemque proficisci placeret, delegisti quos Romae relinqueres, quos
tecum educeres, discripsisti urbis partes ad incendia, confirmasti te
ipsum jam esse exiturum, dixisti paullulum tibi esse etiam tum morae,
quod ego viverem. Reperti sunt duo equites Romani, qui te ista cura
liberarent et sese illa ipsa nocte paulo ante lucem me in meo lectulo
interfecturos esse pollicerentur.

10. Haec ego omnia, vixdum etiam coetu vestro dimisso, comperi, domum
meam majoribus praesidiis munivi atque firmavi, exclusi eos, quos tu ad
me salutatum mane miseras, cum illi ipsi venissent, quos ego jam multis
ac summis viris ad me id temporis venturos praedixeram.


V.--11. Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, perge quo coepisti, egredere
aliquando ex urbe: patent portae: proficiscere. Nimium diu te
imperatorem tua illa Manliana castra desiderant. Educ tecum etiam omnes
tuos, si minus, quam plurimos: purga urbem. Magno me metu liberabis, dum
modo inter me atque te murus intersit. Nobiscum versari jam diutius non
potes: non feram, non patiar, non sinam. Magna dis immortalibus habenda
est atque huic ipsi Jovi Statori, antiquissimo custodi hujus urbis,
gratia, quod hanc tam taetram, tam horribilem tamque infestam rei
publicae pestem totiens jam effugimus. Non est saepius in uno homine
summa salus periclitanda rei publicae. Quam diu mihi, consuli designato,
Catilina, insidiatus es, non publico me praesidio, sed privata
diligentia defendi. Cum proximis comitiis consularibus me consulem in
campo et competitores tuos interficere voluisti, compressi conatus tuos
nefarios amicorum praesidio et copiis, nullo tumultu publice concitato:
denique, quotienscumque me petisti, per me tibi obstiti, quamquam
videbam perniciem meam cum magna calamitate rei publicae esse
conjunctam.

12. Nunc jam aperte rem publicam universam petis: templa deorum
immortalium, tecta urbis, vitam omnium civium, Italiam denique totam ad
exitium ac vastitatem vocas. Quare quoniam id, quod est primum et quod
hujus imperii disciplinaeque majorum proprium est, facere nondum audeo,
faciam id, quod est ad severitatem lenius et ad communem salutem
utilius. Nam si te interfici jussero, residebit in re publica reliqua
conjuratorum manus: sin tu, quod te jam dudum hortor, exieris,
exhaurietur ex urbe tuorum comitum magna et perniciosa sentina rei
publicae.

13. Quid est, Catilina? num dubitas id imperante me facere, quod jam tua
sponte faciebas? Exire ex urbe jubet consul hostem. Interrogas me: num
in exilium? non jubeo, sed, si me consulis, suadeo.


VI.--Quid est enim, Catilina, quod te jam in hac urbe delectare possit?
In qua nemo est extra istam conjurationem perditorum hominum qui te non
metuat, nemo qui non oderit. Quae nota domesticae turpitudinis non
inusta vitae tuae est? Quod privatarum rerum dedecus non haeret in fama?
Quae libido ab oculis, quod facinus a manibus unquam tuis, quod
flagitium a toto corpore abfuit? Cui tu adulescentulo, quem
corruptelarum illecebris irretisses, non aut ad audaciam ferrum aut ad
libidinem facem praetulisti?

14. Quid vero? Nuper, cum morte superioris uxoris novis nuptiis domum
vacuefecisses, nonne etiam alio incredibili scelere hoc scelus
cumulasti? Quod ego praetermitto et facile patior sileri, ne in hac
civitate tanti facinoris immanitas, aut exstitisse aut non vindicata
esse videatur. Praetermitto ruinas fortunarum tuarum, quas omnes
impendere tibi proximis Idibus senties: ad illa venio, quae non ad
privatam ignominiam vitiorum tuorum, non ad domesticam tuam
difficultatem ac turpitudinem, sed ad summam rem publicam atque ad
omnium nostrum vitam salutemque pertinent.

15. Potestne tibi haec lux, Catilina, aut hujus caeli spiritus esse
jucundus, cum scias esse horum neminem qui nesciat, te pridie Kalendas
Januarias Lepido et Tullo Consulibus stetisse in comitio cum telo? Manum
consulum et principum civitatis interficiendorum causa paravisse sceleri
ac furori tuo non mentem aliquam aut timorem tuum, sed fortunam populi
Romani obstitisse? Ac jam illa omitto--neque enim sunt aut obscura aut
non multa commissa postea:--quotiens tu me designatum, quotiens consulem
interficere voluisti! quot ego tuas petitiones ita conjectas, ut vitari
posse non viderentur, parva quadam declinatione et, ut aiunt, corpore
effugi! nihil adsequeris, neque tamen conari ac velle desistis.

16. Quotiens tibi jam extorta est sica ista de manibus! quotiens excidit
aliquo casu et elapsa est! quae quidem quibus abs te initiata sacris ac
devota sit, nescio, quod eam necesse putas esse in consulis corpore
defigere.


VII.--Nunc vero quae tua est ista vita? Sic enim jam tecum loquar, non
ut odio permotus esse videar, quo debeo, sed ut misericordia, quae tibi
nulla debetur. Venisti paulo ante in senatum. Quis te ex hac tanta
frequentia, tot ex tuis amicis ac necessariis salutavit? Si hoc post
hominum memoriam contigit nemini, vocis exspectas contumeliam, cum sis
gravissimo judicio taciturnitatis oppressus? Quid? Quod adventu tuo ista
subsellia vacuefacta sunt, quod omnes consulares, qui tibi persaepe ad
caedem constituti fuerunt, simul atque adsedisti, partem istam
subselliorum nudam atque inanem reliquerunt, quo tandem animo hoc tibi
ferendum putas?

17. Servi mehercule mei si me isto pacto metuerent, ut te metuunt omnes
cives tui, domum meam relinquendam putarem: tu tibi urbem nom
arbitraris? Etsi me meis civibus injuria suspectum tam graviter atque
offensum viderem, carere me aspectu civium quam infestis oculis omnium
conspici mallem: tu cum conscientia scelerum tuorum agnoscas odium
omnium justum et jam diu tibi debitum, dubitas, quorum mentes sensusque
vulneras, eorum aspectum praesentiamque vitare? Si te parentes timerent
atque odissent tui nec eos ulla ratione placare posses, ut opinor, ab
eorum oculis aliquo concederes: nunc te patria quae communis est parens
omnium nostrum, odit ac metuit et jam diu nihil te judicat nisi de
parricidio suo cogitare: hujus tu neque auctoritatem verebere nec
judicium sequere nec vim pertimesces?

18. Quae tecum, Catilina, sic agit et quodam modo tacita loquitur:
‘Nullum jam aliquot annis facinus exstitit nisi per te, nullum flagitium
sine te: tibi uni multorum civium neces, tibi vexatio direptioque
sociorum impunita fuit ac libera: tu non solum ad negligendas leges et
quaestiones, verum etiam ad evertendas perfringendasque valuisti.
Superiora illa, quamquam ferenda non fuerunt, tamen ut potui, tuli: nunc
vero me totam esse in metu propter unum te, quidquid increpuerit
Catilinam timeri, nullum videri contra me consilium iniri posse, quod a
tuo scelere abhorreat, non est ferendum. Quamobrem discede atque hunc
mihi timorem eripe, si est verus, ne opprimar, sin falsus, ut tandem
aliquando timere desinam.’


VIII.--19. Haec si tecum, ut dixi, patria loquatur, nonne impetrare
debeat, etiam si vim adhibere non possit? Quid? Quod tu te ipse in
custodiam dedisti? Quod vitandae suspicionis causa apud M’. Lepidum te
habitare velle dixisti? A quo non receptus etiam ad me venire ausus es,
atque ut domi meae te adservarem rogasti. Cum a me quoque id responsum
tulisses, me nullo modo posse isdem parietibus tuto esse tecum, qui
magno in periculo essem quod isdem moenibus contineremur, ad Q. Metellum
praetorem venisti: a quo repudiatus ad sodalem tuum, virum optimum,
M. Metellum demigrasti, quem tu videlicet et ad custodiendum
diligentissimum et ad suspicandum sagacissimum et ad vindicandum
fortissimum fore putasti. Sed quam longe videtur a carcere atque
vinculis abesse debere, qui se ipse jam dignum custodia judicarit?

20. Quae cum ita sint, dubitas, si emori aequo animo non potes, abire in
aliquas terras et vitam istam, multis suppliciis justis debitisque
ereptam, fugae solitudinique mandare? Refer, inquis, ad senatum; id enim
postulas, et, si hic ordo sibi placere decreverit te ire in exilium,
obtemperaturum te esse dicis. Non referam, id quod abhorret a meis
moribus, et tamen faciam ut intelligas, quid hi de te sentiant. Egredere
ex urbe, Catilina, libera rem publicam metu in exilium, si hunc vocem
exspectas, proficiscere. Quid est, Catilina? Ecquid attendis, ecquid
animadvertis horum silentium? Patiuntur, tacent. Quid exspectas
auctoritatem loquentium, quorum voluntatem tacitorum perspicis?

21. At si hoc idem huic adulescenti optimo, P. Sestio, si fortissimo
vero M. Marcello dixissem, jam mihi consuli hoc ipso in templo jure
optimo senatus vim et manus intulisset. De te autem, Catilina, cum
quiescunt, probant, cum patiuntur, decernunt, cum tacent, clamant: neque
hi solum, quorum auctoritas est videlicet cara, vita vilissima, sed
etiam equites Romani honestissimi atque optimi viri, ceterique
fortissimi cives, qui stant circum senatum, quorum tu et frequentiam
videre et studia perspicere et voces paulo ante exaudire potuisti.
Quorum ego vix abs te jam diu manus ac tela contineo, eosdem facile
adducam ut te haec, quae jam pridem vastare studes, relinquentem usque
ad portas prosequantur.

IX.--22. Quamquam quid loquor? Te ut ulla res frangat? Tu ut te unquam
corrigas? Tu ut ullam fugam meditere? Tu ut exilium cogites? Utinam tibi
istam mentem di immortales duint! Etsi video, si mea voce perterritus
ire in exilium animum induxeris, quanta tempestas invidiae nobis, si
minus in praesens tempus, recenti memoria scelerum tuorum, at in
posteritatem impendeat. Sed est tanti, dum modo ista sit privata
calamitas, et a rei publicae periculis sejungatur. Sed tu ut vitiis
commoveare, ut legum poenas pertimescas, ut temporibus rei publicae
cedas, non est postulandum. Neque enim is es, Catilina, ut te aut pudor
unquam a turpitudine aut metus a periculo aut ratio a furore
revocaverit.

23. Quam ob rem, ut saepe jam dixi, proficiscere, ac, si mihi inimico,
ut praedicas, tuo conflare vis invidiam, recta perge in exilium; vix
feram sermones hominum, si id feceris, vix molem istius invidiae, si in
exilium jussu consulis ieris, sustinebo. Sin autem servire meae laudi et
gloriae mavis, egredere cum importuna sceleratorum manu. Confer te ad
Manlium, concita perditos cives, secerne te a bonis, infer patriae
bellum, exsulta impio latrocinio, ut a me non ejectus ad alienos, sed
invitatus ad tuos esse videaris.

24. Quamquam quid ego te invitem, a quo jam sciam esse praemissos, qui
tibi ad Forum Aurelium praestolarentur armati? Cui sciam pactam et
constitutam cum Manlio diem. A quo etiam aquilam illam argenteam, quam
tibi ac tuis omnibus perniciosam esse confido ac funestam futuram, cui
domi tuae sacrarium scelerum tuorum constitutum fuit, sciam esse
praemissam? Tu ut illa diutius carere possis, quam venerari ad caedem
proficisens solebas, a cujus altaribus saepe istam impiam dexteram ad
necem civium transtulisti.

X.--25. Ibis tandem aliquando, quo te jam pridem ista cupiditas
effrenata ac furiosa rapiebat. Neque enim tibi haec res adfert dolorem,
sed quandam incredibilem voluptatem. Ad hanc te amentiam natura peperit,
voluntas exercuit, fortuna servavit. Nunquam tu non modo otium, sed ne
bellum quidem, nisi nefarium concupisti. Nanctus es ex perditis atque ab
omni non modo fortuna, verum etiam spe derelictis conflatam, improborum
manum.

26. Hic tu qua laetitia perfruere! quibus gaudiis exsultabis! quanta in
voluptate bacchabere, cum in tanto numero tuorum neque audies virum
bonum quemquam neque videbis. Ad hujus vitae studium meditati illi sunt
qui feruntur labores tui, jacere humi, non solum ad obsidendum stuprum,
verum etiam ad facinus obeundum, vigilare non solum insidiantem somno
maritorum, verum etiam bonis otiosorum. Habes, ubi ostentes, illam tuam
praeclaram patientiam famis, frigoris, inopiae verum omnium, quibus te
brevi tempore conectum senties.

27. Tantum profeci tum, cum te a consulatu reppuli, ut exsul potius
tentare quam consul vexare rem publicam posses atque ut id, quod est abs
te scelerate susceptum, latrocinium potius quam bellum nominaretur.

XI.--Nunc ut a me, patres conscripti, quandam prope justam patriae
querimoniam detester ac deprecer, percipite, quaeso, diligenter quae
dicam, et ea penitus animis vestris mentibusque mandate. Etenim si mecum
patria, quae mihi vita mea multo carior est, si cuncta Italia, si omnis
res publica sic loquatur; ‘M. Tulli, quid agis? Tune eum, quem esse
hostem comperisti, quem ducem belli futurum vides, quem exspectari
imperatorem in castris hostium sentis, auctorem sceleris, principem
conjurationis, evocatorem servorum et civium perditorum, exire patiere,
ut abs te non emissus ex urbe, sed immisus in urbem videatur? Nonne hunc
in vincula duci, non ad mortem rapi, non summo supplicio mactari
imperabis?

28. Quid tandem te impedit? Mosne majorum? At persaepe etiam privati in
hac re publica perniciosos cives morte multarunt. An leges, quae de
civium Romanorum supplicio rogatae sunt? At nunquam in hac urbe, qui a
re publica defecerunt, civium jura tenuerunt. An invidiam posteritatis
times? Praeclaram vero populo Romano refers gratiam, qui te, hominem per
te cognitum, nulla commendatione majorum tam mature ad summum imperium
per omnes honorum gradus extulit, si propter invidiam aut alicujus
periculi metum salutem civium tuorum neglegis.

29. Sed si quis est invidiae metus, num est vehementius severitatis ac
fortitudinis invidia quam inertiae ac nequitiae pertimescenda? An cum
bello vastabitur Italia, vexabuntur urbes, tecta ardebunt, tum te non
existimas invidiae incendio conflagraturum?’

XII.--His ego sanctissimis rei publicae vocibus et eorum hominum, qui
hoc idem sentiunt, mentibus pauca respondebo. Ego, si hoc optimum factu
judicarem, patres conscripti, Catilinam morte multari, unius usuram
horae gladiatori isti, ad vivendum non dedissem. Etenim si summi viri et
clarissimi cives Saturnini et Gracchorum et Flacci et superiorum
complurium sanguine non modo se non contaminarunt, sed etiam
honestarunt, certe verendum mihi non erat, ne quid hoc parricida civium
interfecto invidiae mihi in posteritatem redundaret. Quodsi ea mihi
maxime impenderet, tamen hoc animo fui semper, ut invidiam virtute
partam gloriam, non invidiam putarem.

30. Quamquam nonnulli sunt in hoc ordine, qui aut ea quae imminent non
videant, aut quae vident dissimulent: qui spem Catilinae mollibus
sententiis aluerunt conjurationemque nascentem non credendo
corroboraverunt; quorum auctoritatem secuti multi, non solum improbi,
verum etiam imperiti, si in hunc animadvertissem, crudeliter et regie
factum esse dicerent. Nunc intellego, si iste, quo intendit, in Manliana
castra pervenerit, neminem tam stultum fore qui non videat conjurationem
esse factam, neminem tam improbum qui non fateatur. Hoc autem uno
interfecto intellego hanc rei publicae pestem paulisper reprimi, non in
perpetuum comprimi posse. Quodsi se ejecerit secumque suos eduxerit et
eodem ceteros undique collectos naufragos adgregaverit, exstinguetur
atque delebitur non modo haec tam adulta rei publicae pestis, verum
etiam stirps ac semen malorum omnium.

XIII.--31. Etenim jam diu, patres conscripti, in his periculis
conjurationis insidiisque versamur, sed nescio quo pacto omnium scelerum
ac veteris furoris et audaciae maturitas in nostri consulatus tempus
erupit. Quodsi ex tanto latrocinio iste unus tolletur, videbimur
fortasse ad breve quoddam tempus cura et metu esse relevati, periculum
autem residebit et erit inclusum penitus in venis atque in visceribus
rei publicae. Ut saepe homines aegri morbo gravi, cum aestu febrique
jactantur, si aquam gelidam biberunt, primo relevari videntur, deinde
multo gravius vehementiusque adflictantur, sic hic morbus, qui est in re
publica, relevatus istius poena, vehementius vivis reliquis ingravescet.

32. Quare secedant improbi, secernant se a bonis, unum in locum
congregentur, muro denique, id quod saepe jam dixi, discernantur a
nobis: desinant insidiari domi suae consuli, circumstare tribunal
praetoris urbani, obsidere cum gladiis curiam, malleolos et faces ad
inflammandam urbem comparare: sit denique inscriptum in fronte unius
cujusque, quid de re publica sentiat. Polliceor vobis hoc, patres
conscripti, tantam in nobis consulibus fore diligentiam, tantam in vobis
auctoritatem, tantam in equitibus Romanis virtutem, tantam in omnibus
bonis consensionem, ut Catilinae profectione omnia patefacta,
inlustrata, oppressa vindicata esse videatis.

33. Hisce ominibus, Catilina, cum summa rei publicae salute, cum tua
peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui se tecum omni scelere
parricidioque junxerunt, proficiscere ad impium bellum ac nefarium. Tum,
tu, Juppiter, qui isdem quibus haec urbs auspiciis a Romulo es
constitutus, quem Statorem hujus urbis atque imperii vere nominamus,
hunc et hujus socios a tuis aris ceterisque templis, a tectis urbis ac
moenibus a vita fortunisque civium arcebis, et homines bonorum inimicos,
hostes patriae, latrones Italiae, scelerum foedere inter se ac nefaria
societate conjunctos, aeternis suppliciis vivos mortuosque mactabis.


       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *

ERRATA (noted by transcriber):

General:

_The shift from “Antony” (“Life of Cicero” section) to “Antonius”
(remainder of the book) is unchanged. Date format has been regularized
to “(year) B.C.”; in the original, about a quarter of the dates were
in the reversed form “B.C. (year)”. A few cases of “scil,” with comma have been silently changed to “scil.” Four occurrences of “æ”--three
of them on the same page--have been regularized to “ae”._

_In the Notes and Vocabulary sections, minor punctuation errors were silently corrected._

Life of Cicero:

  Chrysogonus, one of Sulla’s favourites  [Sylla’s]
  Molo, the rhetorician  [rhetorican]
  Marc Antony’s designs  [Anthony’s, and see above]
  Sidenote: Antony, Octavianus, and Lepidus  [Sepidus]
  The works of Cicero are:--  [Circero]

Oratio

_A number of typographical errors in the main text were corrected by
hand, generally to agree with the form used in the Notes._

  I. 3. C. [3]Servilius Ahala
    [_“Serviliusi”, with “i” crossed out by hand_]
  viri fortes acerbioribus suppliciis  [supplicus]
  II. 4. Vivis, [12]et vivis non ad
    [_“Visis” corrected by hand to “Vivis”_]
  II. 5. eorum autem castrorum  [castorum]
  III. 6. obscurare ... continere
    [_“-ari”, “-eri” corrected by hand to “-are”, “-ere”_]
  III. 7. contentum esse dicebas
    [_“se” corrected by hand to esse_]
  IV. 9. sententiam rogo, et quos ferro trucidari oportebat
    [_“et” added by hand_]
  partes Italiae  [partesJ taliae]
  [10]statuisti quo
    [_“loco” added by hand before “quo”: see “scil.” ff. in Notes_]
  V. 11. ... periclitanda rei ... Catilina,
    [_printed at consecutive line-ends as
    “... periclitanda re” and “... Catilinai”_]
  V. 12. magna et perniciosa sentina
    [_omitted word “sentina” supplied from Notes and other editions_]
  rei publicae  [_printed as one word_]
  VII. 16. Sic enim  [enam]
  VII. 17. Etsi me meis civibus  [Esti]
  VII. 18. esse in metu propter unum te  [matu]
  IX. 22. a rei publicae periculis sejungatur  [pablicae]
  concita perditos cives,  [_, missing_]
  X.--25.  [_text has “23” (without period) for “25.”_]
  X. 26. in tanto numero tuorum  [turorum]
  X. 27. vexare rem publicam posses  [publiciam]
  XI. 27. principem conjurationis  [principem, conjurationis]
  XI. 29. incendio conflagraturum?’  [_close quote missing_]
  XII. 30. verum etiam strips
    [_“strips” corrected by hand to “stirps”_]
  XIII. 33. Hisce ominibus, Catilina,
    [_“omnibus” changed by hand to “ominibus” to agree with Notes:
    both readings are possible_]

Footnote Tags

  I. 2. [6]  [7]
  I. 3. [10]  [_There is no note corresponding to this tag_]
  II. 5 [4]  [_missing_]
  III. 8 [4]  [_missing_]
  V. 11. [8], [9]  [_numbers reversed_]
  VIII. 21. [5]prosequantur.  [6]
  IX. 22. [2]Te ut ulla res frangat?  [_missing_]
  X. 26. [5]  [_missing; following two tags numbered 5 and 6_]
  XI. 28. supplicio [4]rogatae sunt?  [_missing_]

Notes

[Long dashes were changed to hyphens in contexts such as “_-re_ to
_-ris_” and “compounds of _-lego_”.]

  I. 1. 1. quo usque--nostra?  [quosque]
  I. 1. 6. “to toss the head contemptuously,”  [ontemptuously]
  I. 1. 10. used partitively  [uses]
  II. 4. 4:  [5]
  II. 5. 1:  [_text has extraneous header “§ 7.--”_]
  II. 5. 4:  [_printed as part of note 3_]
  II. 5. 6: or as Wilkins translates  [Wilkin’s]
  II. 5. 8: ... “you will be ordered to be put to death.”
    [_first “be” added by transcriber_]
  II. 6. 4: ... and ποιέω in Greek  [ποιεώ]
  III. 6. 9: ... (root _mun_, to defend: cp. ἀμύνειν)
    [_close parenthesis missing_]
  III. 7. 9: here used in the sense of _impediendorum_:
    [_impediendorum_:” with superfluous close quote]
  ---- _num--dicebas?_ [_printed ? for !_]
  IV. 6. 7:  [_Note number missing_]
  IV. 9. 6: _Sententiam rogo_ is said  [vogo]
  V. 12. 7: (ἄντλος _sentina_)  [ἀντλος]
  VI. 14. 4: _tanti--immanitas_  [_printed as part of note 3_]
  VI. 16. 1: --_de manibus_ is explanatory  [mauibus]
  VII. 18. 4: the persecution came to nothing  [came so]
  VII. 18. 5: _praetor peregrinus_
    [_printed as “_praetor_ peregrinus” (wrong word, not italicized)_]
  VIII. 19. 2: _quid? quod_: see note 11, § 16.  [16, § 11]
  VIII. 20. 5: _deferre_, denotes the simple announcement  [deferee]
  IX. 24. 2: 2: _qui--armati?_ “to wait for you arms
    [_Text given as printed: missing words after “you”?_]
  X. 26. 3: 3: _ad--stuprum_:  [struprum]
  XI. 27. 4: by imploring (_precari_) their aid.”
    [_close quote missing_]
  XI. 28. 3: _an leges?_  [au]
  XII. 30. 2: this explains this subjunctive.  [suhjunctive]
  XII. 30. 6: but cannot for ever be suppressed
    [_printed “can-/for ever” at line break_]
  XIII. 31. 1: _jamdiu_:  [jamdia]
  ---- οὐκ οἶδα ὅντινα τρόπον  [οντινα]
  XIII. 33. 2: “with the best interests  [_open quote missing_]
  ---- z, 472  [_error for Z = Zumpt?_]
  XIII. 33. 6: _arcebis_:  [_Note number missing_]

Vocabulary

The word “invisible” means that there is an appropriately sized
empty space in the text.

  ădŭlescent-ulus ... A young man;  [youn]
  ălĭqu-ando, adv. (aliquis ...  [_No closing parenthesis_]
  compĕt-ītor, ōris, m. [com = cum;  [[com = bum]
  con-cŭpi-sco  [can-]
  conjūrā-tĭo, ōnis, f. (conjūr[a]-o,
    [_“co jūr[a]-o” with invisible n_]
  custōdĭ-a, ae, f. (custod-io)  [eustod-io]
  dē-bĕo ... in duty bound  [dutg]
  moenĭa, ium ... Defensive wall  [Defeusive]
  nēqu-ĭtĭa, ae, f. (nequ-am)  [_Open parenthesis missing_]
  pătr-ĭus, a, um ... as noun, f. (sc. terra)
    [_“te ra” with invisible r_]
  pĕnĭ-tus ... From within;  [withiu]
  prae-dīco .. To say beforehand  [sag]
  quis, quae, quid ... preceded by ne, si, nisi,  [nisl]
  rĕ-linquo, līqui, lictum, linquĕre,  [liuquĕre]
  rĕlĭqu-us, a, um, adj. (rel[n]qu-o)
    [_Text shown as printed: error for “reli[n]qu-o”?_]
  sē-men, ĭnis, n. (for sā-men, fr. sa, true root of sero)
    [_; for close parenthesis_]
  sum, esse ... To be  [Te be]
  tăcĕo, ŭi, ĭtum, tăcēre, n. _To be silent._
    [_Infinite displaced to previous entry:
    “tăciturn-ĭtas, ātis, tăcēre,”_]
  temp-to ... (also written ten-to, fr. teneo)  [ten-td]
  tĭmĕo, ūi, no sup., tĭmēre,  [tĭnēre]
  trans-fĕro ... To bear across  [ucross]
  volnĕr-o, āvi, ātus sum,  [volnĕr-o, āvi, ātissu,]





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