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Title: Color Value
Author: Clifford, C. R. (Chandler Robbins), 1858-1935
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Color Value" ***

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       *       *       *       *       *

               Color Value

           _By_ C. R. CLIFFORD

    _Published by_ CLIFFORD & LAWTON
       373 Fourth Avenue, New York

           Copyrighted, 1907
         By Clifford & Lawton

            Fourth Edition




Whatever is good in interior decoration is the result of consistent
relationship between Light, Color, Form, Proportion and Dimensions. The
choice of Color should be guided by the conditions of Light. The beauty
of Form and the symmetry of Proportion can exist only by a balance with

Therefore, apart from any knowledge of historic or period decoration,
effective or successful work must observe the technical laws governing


1. The white light of the sun is compounded of an almost innumerable
number of color elements, as shown by the phenomena of the rainbow or by
experimenting with the prism. (See ¶ 7.) When a ray of sunshine passes
through a glass prism it is decomposed or separated, and if the
prismatic colors are received upon a white screen you will find on the
spectrum among the colors generated a pure blue, a pure red and a pure
yellow. These are the primary colors, and it is necessary when thinking
color to bear these prismatic colors in mind as standards.

2. Color is an internal sensation originating in the excitation of the
optic nerve by a wave action which we call light.

3. The theory of light, the wave theory, is based upon the assumption
that throughout all space there is an infinitely thin medium called
ether. Scientists differ as to what this may be, but its movements
constitute light, a reflection from a luminous body.

4. Everything which we see is visible because it either emits light,
like a flame, or reflects light.

5. A piece of black cloth upon a white plate reflects but a small
proportion of the light. The plate reflects a large proportion. A piece
of black velvet reflects less light than black cloth and gives the
effect of absolute blackness, or an empty and dark space.

6. In practical demonstrations the study of color will be confusing
unless it is understood at the outstart that pure prismatic colors can
seldom be found in manufactured pigments, hence any demonstration of the
theory of color composition is usually unsatisfactory.

7. The theory which brings out of a ray of sunshine the disunited
prismatic colors carries with it the deduction that before separation
these colors constitute white light; but it must be manifest to even the
superficial reader that such colors are mere spectrum colors--vision
colors--and any amalgamation of material or pigment colors, so far from
producing white, produces almost black.

8. The theory that red and yellow make orange, and that a red and blue
make violet, is correct; but if one attempts to demonstrate the theory
with pigments, one is confronted not only by the lack of standard
manufactured colors but by impurities, adulterations and chemical
reaction in the pigments. The adulteration may not be perceptible in one
primary color, but it is manifest when that color is brought into action
with another primary, for it is seldom that a pure secondary results.


9. Color nomenclature includes primary, secondary and tertiary colors,
and innumerable hues, shades and tints. All these colors bear relations
to one another, either relations of analogy, or relations of contrast.
(See ¶ 18 and ¶ 19.)

The Circle Diagram I shows the manner in which the various colors are
formed. (See also Diagram III.)

 [Illustration: DIAGRAM I]

The third circle shows how slate, citrine and russet are made. For
instance, slate is one part of violet and one part of green. Hence, a
tertiary color is made of equal parts of two secondaries.

The outer circle, buff, sage and plum, can be analyzed in the same way.

This Diagram I is arranged to show not only component parts of a color,
but the parts that properly harmonize.


10. In music it is an established fact that certain notes used in
pleasing combination produce sounds we call harmonies. The moment that
more than one note is struck, there is danger of discord, and when ten
notes resound to the touch of the player, they must be the right notes,
or they jar upon the sensibilities. In the use of color the same
immutable law applies.

11. In Circle Diagram II the letters RV mean reddish violet, being a
violet having more red than blue in its composition. BV means bluish
violet, being a violet having more blue than red in its composition. BG
means bluish green, being a green having more blue than yellow in its
composition. YG means yellow green, being a green having more yellow
than blue in its composition. YO means yellowish orange, being an orange
having more yellow than red in its composition. RO means reddish orange,
being an orange having more red than yellow in its composition. Thus we
may advance from red to yellow by graduations almost imperceptible, by
the addition of yellow, to a reddish orange, and so on gradually to
orange, continuing on to yellowish orange, finally revealing pure

 [Illustration: DIAGRAM II]

12. The contrasting color at any stage may be determined by proceeding
in a direct line across the circle: Red has for its contrasting color
green; hence, reddish orange would have for its contrasting color a
bluish green, for the simple reason that if red contrasts with green
and orange contrasts with blue, the color between the red and the orange
would contrast with the color between the green and the blue. Let us
determine the contrasting color for crimson. Crimson is simply a red
slightly tinged with blue. If red contrasts with green, a shade a little
to the left of red slightly tinged with blue would contrast with a shade
a little to the right of green slightly tinged with yellow. In other
words, crimson, RV, would contrast with yellowish green, YG. Determine
at what point of the circle any color that you have in mind will come,
and the contrasting color would be immediately opposite.

 [Illustration: DIAGRAM III]

13. The harmony of analogy consists of the harmony of related colors or
tones of one color. (See ¶ 17.)

14. The harmony of contrast consists of colors in no way related. As an
example of the harmony of analogy, we would mention red and orange,
because both of these colors have ingredients in common, red being one
of the two component parts of orange. As an example of the harmony of
contrast, we suggest red and green, because there is nothing in common
between the two, red being a primary color, and green a secondary,
composed of the other two primaries, yellow and blue. (See ¶ 17.)

15. Green is called the complement of red. The complement of blue
would be orange, because orange is formed by combining the remaining
primaries, red and yellow; and the complement of yellow would be violet,
because violet is composed of blue and red, the other primaries.

16. In Diagram II we have arranged at opposite points the primaries 1,
the secondaries 2, the tertiaries 3, the quaternaries 4.

But Diagram III goes further into the subject.

It is easy to understand the composition of secondaries, but it is not
so easy to know the tertiaries and quaternaries. (See also Diagram I.)


17. Diagram III is of the utmost value to the colorist, illustrating not
only the composition of color, but showing the origin of each secondary
from the two primaries, the origin of each tertiary from two
secondaries, and of each quaternary from two tertiaries. It shows by
groupings the harmonies of analogy or related colors; also the harmonies
of contrast: By moving on the board one color on one line to another
color upon another line, like the moving of a knight in a game of chess,
and confining the moves always to adjoining lines, like yellow to
violet, violet to citrine, citrine to plum, plum to brown. Yellow and
violet are true contrasts, the one color having nothing in common with
the other. The citrine and the plum, however, are approximate contrasts.
For greater convenience, we have numbered the contrasting colors A's and
B's. Absolute contrast is where the two colors have nothing in common.
For composition purposes, however, citrine and violet may be considered
contrasts, or correctly speaking, contrast analogies. (See ¶ 19.)

18. A harmony of contrast means the utilization of a primary color with
its complementary, or a color in conjunction with another color in no
degree related: a primary with a secondary. But when we soften these
contrasting colors by the addition of white we have in the lighter tints
a scale of chroma that is a form of analogy.

19. All combinations of secondary and tertiary colors, while apparently
harmonies of contrast (the tertiary being made by the composition of two
secondaries), constitute, in fact, contrast analogies, because by
analysis we find that all tertiaries possess color components occurring
in the apparently contrasting secondaries. (See Diagram III.)

20. The harmony of contrast, literally, can only occur in the pure
primary colors juxtaposed to the pure secondary colors, for in no case
does the color formed by the combination of the two primaries have
anything in common with the third primary; while a tertiary composed of
two secondaries invariably has qualities possessed by the third

21. In a room which is small or dark, the light tints in harmonies of
analogy are advisable.


22. In the use of one color with another of contrasting character the
question frequently arises, what proportion of each should be used to
obtain the best effect? Illustrative color books show usually samples of
color of the same size, leading one unconsciously to the error that
contrasting colors should occupy the same surface dimensions.

23. In every room there must be a prevailing or dominant color, and the
use of a contrasting color must be limited to proportions which give
simply a pleasing emphasis. Let us assume that a room has a deep frieze
pronouncedly green. To treat the rest of the wall in red of a direct
contrast would be ineffective.

24. If a rule can be applied we would say that no strong normal color
should be used in large surfaces. If we were dealing with pigments we
would say that if one-sixth of a side-wall is devoted to a frieze in
green, the balance of the wall space should be treated with the same
amount of red, mixed with the same amount of gray.

25. For a room that is small and well lighted the fresh tints are not
as desirable as the gray shades or tertiaries in conjunction with


26. For a large room well lighted, yellow, red and orange in delicate
shades are not as desirable as orange, violet and russet in light
shades. This rule, however, may be reversed for a large room that is
dimly lighted.

A superabundance of light gives an uncomfortable glare.

27. One may mechanically obtain harmony of analogy in proper proportions
for the treatment of a room or a design by following the guidance of
Diagram I. It will be noted in this diagram that the inner circle is
blue, red and yellow, the primary colors.

The second circle is composed of the secondaries; the third circle, the
tertiaries, and the outer circle, the quaternaries.

There is a nice distinction in the combination of primaries for the
formation of secondaries, and exact proportions are quite necessary.

An orange, for instance, would be off shade if it did not consist of
half red and half yellow, but in the making of the quaternaries, which
are, at best, gray shades, exact proportions are not necessary.

Nevertheless, in Diagram I we have observed exact proportions in order
to make our demonstration clear.

The harmony of analogy is the combination of colors related, but the
relationship must be displayed in proportions consistent with the origin
of each and every color used.

Let us assume that the prevailing note in a room, in either the
side-wall or floor, is sage.

 [Illustration: DIAGRAM IA]

We can tell by drawing lines from the center of Diagram I to the
extremities of the space marked sage that there is a little blue and a
little yellow, some green and slate and citrine used in the composition
of sage, and hence the use of these colors constitutes the harmony of
relationship or analogy.


28. But to arrive at proportions we must reduce the circular table to a
geometrical table. We must straighten out the lines so that the exact
proportions are apparent. We need not confuse the reader by mathematics,
but to establish our theory we produce the Diagram IA, and it will be
here seen that the relative proportions existing in the segments of the
circles have been observed in the triangles.

Thus we have thirty-two right-angled triangles.

Sage occupies fourteen-thirty-seconds of the entire composition; slate
occupies five-thirty-seconds; citrine, five-thirty-seconds; green,
six-thirty-seconds; blue, one-thirty-second; yellow, one-thirty-second;
and these colors, to observe the proper harmony of analogy in a room,
should be used in the proportions above indicated.

Sage should be in the preponderance; citrine and slate should occupy
nearly one-sixth of the entire composition, green about one-fifth, and
the whole should be picked out with touches of sharp blue and sharp
yellow, representing each one-thirty-second.

Let us take, for instance, a room that is in white woodwork, and apply
the sage to the walls and the slate to the floor, and lighten the sage
with citrine and lighten the slate with violet, and intersperse orange
and green in a way permitted by the proportions at our command. When the
work is completed we find a harmony of analogy which can be then
relieved by touches of the primitive colors, blue and yellow, in the
proportions shown.

29. Good examples of contrast color effects may be found in the
following series of combinations:


           Example No. 1.

 Blue-Green               60
 Greenish-Yellow           8
 Orange                    6
 Purple-Brown              6
 White                    20

               No. 2.

 Blue                     35
 Yellow                   30
 White                    15
 Dull Red                 10
 Black                    10

               No. 3.

 Blue                     60
 Deep Yellow              20
 Light Yellow             10
 White                    10

               No. 4.

 Pale Yellow              34
 Green                    27
 Blue                     25
 Red                       6
 Gold                      4
 Black                     2
 White                     2

               No. 5.

 Black                    63
 Yellow                   17
 Green                     9
 Red                       4
 Light Red                 3
 Blue                      3
 White                     1

               No. 6.

 Green                    36
 Blue-Green               24
 Yellow                   14
 Red                      11
 White                    10
 Dull Red                  3
 Black                     2

               No. 7.

 Green                    36
 Blue-Green               24
 Yellow                   14
 Red                      11
 White                    10
 Dull Red                  3
 Black                     2


30. We do not wish to be understood as stating that the work of the
colorist is solely mechanical; but we would emphasize that the
influences of color are very largely the result of studied proportions.
The basis upon which one operates must be soundly constructed upon the
theory of scale, and scale is mechanically determined. If red is
lightened by the addition of white, or darkened by the addition of
black, it is removed to another scale, and can only harmonize by
contrast with its complement by adding to green the same amount of white
or black that has changed the character of the red, and this should be
mathematically accurate.

31. To place white by the side of a color heightens or intensifies the
tone of that color. To put black beside a color has the opposite effect.
It weakens the color. Every woman looks better in white, hence white is
the universal wedding gown, the universal party dress for children, and,
wherever practical, the universal Summer dress for adults as well. White
is worn universally by men and women next to the face, in collars or in
neckwear, and the reason for it is that the contiguous white intensifies
whatever color they may possess. Black, on the other hand, lessens the
color or lowers its tone.

32. Gray is a medium between the two. While it renders an adjacent color
less brilliant, it takes to itself at the same time a tint that is a
complement of that adjacent color. In other words, gray by the side of
green appears faintly pinkish.

33. Black is always desirable as an associate with luminous colors.
Black does not associate as well with two colors, one of which is
luminous and the other sombre, as when associated with two luminous

    BLACK      BLACK      BLACK
    RED        ORANGE     RED

    BLACK      BLACK      BLACK

    _The green being yellowish and the violet reddish._

White is preferable when associated with a luminous and a sombre color.

    RED          ORANGE       RED       YELLOW
    WHITE        WHITE        WHITE     WHITE
    BLUE         BLUE         VIOLET    BLUE

    ORANGE       GREEN        GREEN     YELLOW
    WHITE        WHITE        WHITE     WHITE
    VIOLET       BLUE         VIOLET    VIOLET

    _The violet being bluish, the green yellowish._


34. The harmony of analogy is a subject that is little understood. It
may be color sequence, progression, development or succession.

 [Illustration: Showing Four-Color Combinations.

 As these twenty-one sections are arranged, one has the layout for a
 suite of seven rooms; following the top line across in a light scale,
 the harmony is complete; following the center line across in a normal,
 the harmony is complete; so also with the bottom line in a lower scale.
 Follow the colors diagonally and you find they are repeats, or very
 close to repeats--red, russet, red, for instance; violet, violet,
 violet; blue, slate, blue; green, green, green; yellow, citrine, yellow;
 orange, orange, orange. To the colorist the combinations here suggested
 are full of inspiration.]

Thus we may combine red, green and blue by starting with crimson and
maintaining the following sequence: Crimson, red, scarlet, orange,
yellow, greenish yellow, green, bluish green, blue, violet, and with
added red get back to crimson.

A room or a series of rooms may run to all colors and be still a harmony
of analogy if the sequence or succession is gradual.

35. No more delightful harmonies can be imagined than those provided by
nature. One may start with the brown of the earth and run into several
shades of green, and from that touch upon yellow, and from yellow to
orange, and from orange to red, and red to violet, and violet to the
blue of the sky. Or one may follow the colorings and the proportion of
colorings in flora and never go astray. (See ¶ 22.)

36. In the application of color to the home nothing is more pleasing
than the harmony of sequence; the coloring of all rooms must be in
sympathy with contiguous rooms. (Diagram VII.) (See ¶ 34.)

37. All rooms are subject to the influence of a north or a south light,
or much or little light, and the colorings must be considered
accordingly. The ceiling and the upper parts of a wall require more pale
colors where more light is needed. On the floor, however, where the
greatest light falls, a little black may be added to soften the tone.

38. Red and green are sharply contrasting colors; violet and yellow and
blue and orange sharply contrast, and while their combinations may be
used in adjoining rooms, it will be seen that in Diagram IV these
contrasting tones are not in contact, but by their arrangement form
analogies of contrast combinations.

39. Yellow, orange, red, violet, blue and green are related; orange,
russet, violet, slate, green and citrine are related; red, violet, blue,
green, yellow and orange are related. Viewing the ceilings, the
side-walls or the floor, there is the harmony of progression that we
observe in the tinting of a flower. Viewed collectively the harmony is
the same.

40. To illustrate further our point we would take the ceiling line. We
start with yellow, a primary color; orange possesses yellow; orange
likewise possesses red, the adjoining color; violet possesses red, and
it likewise possesses blue. On the side-wall, russet possesses orange,
and it also possesses violet; it is the tertiary color made of these two
secondaries. Slate is made of green and violet, and is thus also related
to citrine.

We do not wish it understood that these colors are to be applied flat,
but simply in the predominating expression. (See ¶ 27.)

41. The value of the diagram is obvious when one considers that in no
particular is there a break in the sequence; but if we wish a harmony of
analogy in a room, or a harmony of related parts, and wish the adjoining
room to be in absolute contrast, we simply adopt the red, violet and
blue for one room, and the green, citrine and orange for another; or the
orange, russet and violet for one room, and the blue, green and yellow
for the other. If, however, the sequence of color is desirable where we
move from one apartment to another, and the eye is pleased by a gradual
changing color, we can adopt any of these combinations in the order as

42. A vital point in the use of color, regarded usually with
indifference or totally misunderstood, is the Unity of Composition to be
preserved in the treatment of a series of _floors_ in a house; for on
each floor of a house the conditions of light vary. As we ascend the
stairs we find each floor requires an altered treatment, because of the
added light given from the skylight. (See ¶ 37.) Moreover, in the
arrangement of a floor the relation of one room to another is frequently
so influential that no one room should be treated without due
consideration to the adjacent apartment. (See Diagram VIII.)

Too frequently the whole question of color is dismissed when the matter
of north or south exposure is discovered, but the north room on the
lower floor of a house is by no means so well lighted as the north room
of the fourth or fifth floor, and the scale of color which would lend
warmth to such a room would be weak in a more exposed apartment.
(See ¶ 30.)

43. Where the artist has but one room to consider there is little scope
for his application of color knowledge. He must frequently compromise to
meet the conditions. But presuming that he must treat a floor
through, he should adopt a Unity which will apply harmoniously to all
the rooms and hallways.

 [Illustration: DIAGRAM VII]

 [Illustration: DIAGRAM VIII]

 [Illustration: DIAGRAM IX For Key to Numbers see Diagram VII.]


44. For the lower floor he must arrange his colors so that while they
moderate the direct glare of a sunny exposure or brighten the
cheerlessness of a north light, they will also form a composition that
pleases when seen from a point of common observation.

45. On the upper floors the scale of color should be gradually softened,
for the yellow or ivory tints that are pleasing on the first floor would
be harsh and glaring where there is greater light. Exterior conditions
must be borne always in mind.

46. Recalling that the primary colors are yellow, red and blue, and that
the secondary colors are orange, violet and green, and that the tertiary
colors are russet, slate and citrine, all with many tints and shades,
let us arrange a series of five rooms seriatim, so treating ceiling,
side-wall and floor (See Diagram IX) that in passing from one room to
another they will be in sequence of color harmony--each complete from
floor to ceiling and all in harmony along the ceiling lines, the wall
lines and the floor lines.

Let us take the suite of rooms suggested in Diagram IX. We must consider
desirable colorings in all of the rooms to be treated, and so far as
possible adjust the sequence of treatments, as shown in Diagram VIII, so
that the approach to each room will be in harmonious order as viewed
from any room. We have five rooms to treat. The library happens to be
on the north side, hence we wish to treat it in colorings that supply
the deficiency of sunshine. The hallway is rather dark. The living-room
has only one window, and requires more warmth of color than the
billiard-room and dining-room, which being sunshiny can be treated in
more sombre tones. Therefore we select combination 6 for the hallway.
The one room on the right we treat in No. 1. The rooms on the left we
treat in Nos. 5, 4 and 3. We have, therefore, as we stand in room No. 6,
treated in green, citrine and orange, a view to the right of yellow,
orange and red, which is in harmonious juxtaposition. To the left we
have a glimpse of rooms, the floors of which adjoining the orange floor
of the entrance hall, are yellow, green and blue. The wall spaces
adjoining the citrine wall space of the hall treatment are green, slate
and violet. The frieze lines adjoining the green of the hall treatment
are blue, violet and red--all juxtaposed harmonies. The floors of all
rooms are of one deep scale; the walls lighter scale; the friezes and
ceiling still lighter. If viewed from room 4 the harmonies are equally

47. Diagram VII is useful for many reasons. In its present shape it
shows the harmonies of analogy or related parts. To arrange harmonies of
contrast, combine the colors of the first room with the fourth room, the
colors of the second room with the fifth room, the colors of the third
room with the sixth room. (See ¶ 37.)


48. The floor should usually enter into the color scheme as the low
note in the scale. It is the background for the furniture, and should be
deeper than the dado or wainscoting. The wood trims--baseboard, doors,
plate-rails, and everything of that character, except the picture
molding--should be like the woodwork of the furniture. This brings the
woodwork into contrast with the wainscoting (unless the wainscoting be
wood) and into harmony with the side-walls, although the degree of
harmony is far removed. Thus, if the woodwork of the furniture is
mahogany, the wainscoting green, the side-walls pink and gray, we would
find the window trims of mahogany, or imitation mahogany, in harmony
with the side-walls. (See ¶ 51 and ¶ 52.)

49. I would lay down the rule that the wood trims of a room should
harmonize by analogy with the side-walls where such walls are provided
with a contrasting wainscoting; but if there is no wainscoting, or the
wainscoting be also of wood, then the wood trims and furniture contrast
with the side-wall.

Substitute green side-wall for the pink, ¶ 48.

White woodwork is always permissible. Study Diagram VI on page 22.

50. The picture molding may harmonize with the ceiling. Indeed, a white
picture molding frequently is better than one matching the general
woodwork (See ¶ 37); a dark upper molding, moreover, reduces the
apparent size of a room.

51. Where black furniture is used, or gold furniture, it will of course
be understood that the wood trims shall not be black or gold; but so
long as they are in harmony, that will be sufficient. White wood trims
are nearly always permissible as a substitute for colored wood.

52. Tones of gray with soft colorings (See ¶ 32), are always safe.

To summarize (Note ¶ 37):

53. In harmonies of contrast the side-walls, the furniture woodwork,
wood trimming, cove, ceiling and the curtains should be related.

54. The rugs, frieze, wainscoting or dado, furniture upholsterings and
the curtain borders should be related. (See ¶ 49.)

55. If the curtains have no borders, then the curtains contrast with the
wood trims.

56. Remember always cove and ceiling should be the palest tint of the
side-wall color, and the rug should be of the deepest contrast to the
side-wall, in harmony with the wainscoting, if there is a wainscoting.
Remember, also, that the colors here prescribed are never to be of the
same scale. The rug or carpet is of the deepest, and the ceiling of the
palest. While certain colors are to contrast, they are not to contrast
in the same scale. (See ¶ 37 and ¶ 40.)

57. If we find that the tone of color of the wainscoting, for instance,
is a bluish green, the side-wall should be of a reddish orange; for the
reason that if green contrasts with red, and if blue contrasts with
orange, a bluish green would contrast with a reddish orange.

58. Exception to ¶ 56. Only large or well-proportioned rooms can stand
the diminishing or reduction effects of contrast. In low ceiling rooms,
leave out the contrasting frieze, and let border, cornice and ceiling be
in receding colors. (See ¶ 89.)

59. We all know that a northern exposure gives a room a deficiency of
sunlight, and the wall treatment should supply this. A southern room, on
the other hand, gives so much sunlight that counteracting wall
treatments in cold color are permissible.

60. In the color treatment of a room one has either to adopt a harmony
of analogy or a harmony of contrast, and this is a matter which depends
upon so many conditions that it should be carefully considered.
(See ¶ 88 and ¶ 89.) Where a plate-rail is used one must remember that a
great deal of color may be furnished by the bric-à-brac, and that the wall
behind this plate-rail should be of a color in contrast to the contents
of the plate-rail.

61. When we follow a scheme of _contrast_ the borders should be usually
complements, and if the reader has studied our diagram he will very
readily understand how to determine the exact complementary color.


62. The wainscoting or dado should be the same as the top border or
frieze, but of a darker tone. The intermixture of white or black is
always permissible; thus a paper as a side-wall might have as its
frieze the complementary coloring with more white, while the wainscoting
or dado should be the complementary with black added.

63. The cornice should be lighter than the border, and its members may
show several tints, with the ceiling lighter still. (See ¶ 92.)

64. As a rule the color of the chair coverings should be the
complementary of the side-walls, and the color of the furniture frames
should be complementary to the wainscoting; so by following this rule we
find that the wainscoting serves as a contrasting background to the
chair frame.

65. Let us imagine a room wherein the side-walls are of a reddish tint;
the wainscoting, being a complementary color, is of a greenish cast. The
furniture is of mahogany, and in contrast to the wainscoting, while the
chair covering, being greenish in contrast to the chair frame, is also
in contrast to the side-wall. Here we have, then, the color relations of
side-wall, wainscoting, furniture-frames and covering; but it is
undesirable that these tones should be in the same scale. (See ¶ 62 and
¶ 92, also tables pages 42 and 43.)

      {         {         { _Furniture_: Large pieces, preserving broken
      {         {         {   heights.
      {         {         { _Designs_: On walls, draperies and furniture
      {         {         {   coverings follow rules of proportion.
      {         { HIGH    { _Color_: Subdued contrasts of somber tones
      {         { CEILING {   picked out in contrasts of gold, red
      {         {         {   and orange. Masses of luminous color are
      {         {         {   permissible in well-lighted rooms. Borders,
      {         {         {   friezes, dadoes and wainscotings may be
      {         {         {   used, and a bordered carpet or large rug
      { WELL    {         {   in the low tone of the color scheme.
      { LIGHTED {
      {         {         { _Furniture_: Avoid high pieces, excepting as
      {         {         {   relief to the use of many low pieces.
      {         {         { _Designs_: On walls, draperies and furniture
      {         {         {   coverings follow rule of proportion,
      {         { LOW     {   using perpendicular stripes to give height
      {         { CEILING {   effect on wall; avoid friezes, wainscoting,
      {         {         {   dadoes. Carpet borders may be safely used.
      {         {         { _Color_: Subdued contrast of somber tones
      {         {         {   picked out in bright effects; luminous
      {         {         {   masses permissible.
 ROOM {         {         { _Furniture_: Large pieces, preserving broken
      {         {         {   heights.
      {         {         { _Designs_: On walls, draperies and furniture
      {         {         {   coverings follow rules of proportion.
      {         { HIGH    { _Color_: Softly luminous, soft orange, yellow,
      {         { CEILING {   green, sunshiny colors to give artificial
      {         {         {   light, picked out  with contrasting color.
      {         {         {   Border, frieze and wainscoting may be used,
      {         {         {   also carpet or large rugs in the low tone
      { POORLY  {         {   of the color scheme.
      { LIGHTED {
      {         {         { _Furniture_: Low pieces relieved by some high
      {         {         {   pieces.
      {         {         { _Designs_: On walls, draperies and furniture
      {         {         {   coverings follow rule of proportion,
      {         { LOW     {   using perpendicular stripes to give wall
      {         { CEILING {   height; avoid friezes, wainscoting or
      {         {         {   dado; carpet borders may be safely used
      {         {         {   in the low tone of the color scheme.
      {         {         { _Color_: Softly luminous, soft orange, yellow,
      {         {         {   green, sunshiny colors to give artificial
      {         {         {   light, picked out with contrasting color.

      {         {         { _Furniture_: Small pieces, relieved by small
      {         {         {   high pieces.
      {         {         { _Designs_: Small, proportionate to the size
      {         {         {   of the room.
      {         { HIGH    { _Color_: Use harmonies of analogy or related
      {         { CEILING {   parts and of a receding character, blue
      {         {         {   or gray green, gray predominating; avoid
      {         {         {   orange or red, excepting in the
      { WELL    {         {   bric-à-brac. Small rugs. Horizontal
      { LIGHTED {         {   effects on walls.
      {         {         {
      {         {         { _Furniture_: Low pieces relieved by small high
      {         {         {   pieces.
      {         {         { _Designs_: Small on draperies and furniture
      {         { LOW     {   coverings; use perpendicular stripes to
      {         { CEILING {   give height effect on wall; avoid deep
      {         {         {   friezes, wainscoting, dado or borders.
      {         {         { _Color_: Use harmonies of analogy or related
      {         {         {   parts, of greens or blues, grays
      {         {         {   predominating; avoid luminous colors--yellow,
      {         {         {   orange or red, excepting in the
      {         {         {   bric-à-brac. Small rugs.
 ROOM {         {         { _Furniture_: Small pieces, relieved by small
      {         {         {   high pieces.
      {         {         { _Designs_: Small on wall and fabrics.
      {         {         {   Horizontal effects.
      {         { HIGH    { _Color_: White in the woodwork gives artificial
      {         { CEILING {   light; use pale gray colors on wall,
      {         {         {   slightly tinted green or yellow, faintly
      {         {         {   relieved by red or orange--the stronger
      {         {         {   colors only for the bric-à-brac. For the
      {         {         {   floor avoid bordered carpets; use small
      {         {         {   rugs.
      { POORLY  {
      { LIGHTED {         { _Furniture_: Low pieces.
      {         {         { _Designs_: Follow the rule of proportions,
      {         {         {   with perpendicular stripes on wall, to
      {         {         {   give height effect. Avoid borders on
      {         { LOW     {   wall; use small rugs on floor.
      {         { CEILING { _Color_: A preponderance of white in woodwork
      {         {         {   and fresh gray on wall with a touch of
      {         {         {   yellow and green in soft tones.
      {         {         {   Contrasting colors only in bric-à-brac
      {         {         {   and small details.


66. In small rooms harmonies of contrast are unsafe, because contrasts
must involve advancing colors, which make a room look smaller. (See ¶ 86
and ¶ 90.) Harmonies of analogy are far better; and as frieze,
wainscoting and dado are not recommended in the small room, we suggest
that the furniture woodwork and the wood trims should be of one color
note, unless it is desired that the wood trims should be white; and that
the side-walls, curtains and chair upholsterings should be of a note in
some degree related and of receding color, picked out with just a touch
of contrasting color. (See ¶ 90 and ¶ 91.)

This contrasting color may be introduced in the accessories, the
pictures, bric-à-brac, flowers (natural or artificial) or books.

 [Illustration: "... pronounced patterns must balance," etc.
 (See page 38.)]

 [Illustration: Broken heights. (See ¶ 75.)]



On the preceding pages we present a quick-reference chart of rules that
should be followed in furnishing rooms under various conditions of Light
and Proportion.

    67. A large room with high ceiling and well lighted.
    68. A large room with low ceiling and well lighted.
    69. A large room with high ceiling and poorly lighted.
    70. A large room with low ceiling and poorly lighted.
    71. A small room with high ceiling and well lighted.
    72. A small room with low ceiling and well lighted.
    73. A small room with high ceiling and poorly lighted.
    74. A small room with low ceiling and poorly lighted.

There are two considerations to bear uppermost in mind: Proportions
affected by Color and Proportions affected by Design.

75. It is easily understood that a large room may be safely furnished
with large pieces of furniture, but where there is a wide expanse of
floor space care must be exercised to secure broken heights: In a
high-ceilinged room the furniture must not be all high; in a
low-ceilinged room the furniture must not be all low.

Avoid straight line effects in the furniture heights and in the
wall-paper, which, if in pronounced patterns, must balance in
conspicuous wall members and show the broken junctures or bad matchings
in inconspicuous or obscure corners.


76. The wall and fabric designs must be of a size proportionate to the
size of the room. The color treatment of a well-lighted room must be
subdued to offset the glare of the natural illumination, and the natural
illumination be subdued to soften the color treatment; glare must be

77. Advancing colors are colors which contain red or yellow in the
ascendancy; _receding_ colors are those which contain blue in the
ascendancy. Green in its purity, being half yellow and half blue, is
almost neutral. In the same way violet, being made up of half red and
half blue, is theoretically neutral, although the blue tone is usually
more assertive than the red and makes the color recede. Any color or hue
possesses advancing or receding qualities according to the ascendancy of
red, blue or yellow in its composition.

78. Orange is an advancing color; so also is violet in the shades
approaching red; green in the shades approaching yellow.

79. Of the tertiary colors russet is an advancing color, because while
it contains some blue in the violet of its composition, it contains a
preponderance of red and orange.


80. Citrine is an advancing color, because while it contains some blue
in the green of its composition, it contains a preponderance of yellow
and orange; slate is a receding color, because while it contains some
yellow in the green of its composition, it contains a preponderance of
blue; in the same way plum may be regarded as an advancing color,
because of its preponderance of red; buff is an advancing color, because
of its preponderance of yellow; sage is a receding color, because of its
preponderance of blue.

81. The carpet should always be in the low tone, and in a small room a
bordered carpet should be always tabooed. So also should one avoid the
use of one rug so placed that a border of woodwork shows around it,
because this gives the border effect and makes a small floor space look
still smaller. Better use small rugs. The use of a lot of narrow rugs
lengthwise along a narrow room will make the room look all the narrower,
but the same rugs placed crosswise would make a room look wider.

The diagrams which we have prepared will give even the man who
understands it all a quicker grasp of the points involved.

82. Width effect and distance effect are obtained best by arranging the
smaller pieces at the farthest points.

83. It is the same with pictures. While a room should be balanced, and
the pictures placed in a manner to give this result, it is best, where
possible, to keep the larger pictures, larger effects, always near the
eye. The crowding of large pieces at the farthest point diminishes the
apparent size of the room.



84. Continuous design in ceiling or carpet weakens the size effect;
hence rugs which break the continuity by being laid across the room
instead of lengthwise are preferable. (See Diagrams and ¶ 81.)

85. It is a safe rule to do a small or narrow room in harmonies of
analogy or related colors, colors of a light tone and of receding
character. Apart from any effect which color may possess decoratively or
pictorially, its value cannot be overestimated in its application to the
laws of proportion.


86. Borders may be safely used on the wall or on the carpet of any large
room with high ceiling, but wall friezes should be avoided where the
ceilings are low, for they foreshorten the height effect.

87. We would avoid borders on the floor of a small room to make it look
larger, and we would use wide borders in a large room with a low ceiling
so that the floor may be foreshortened.

88. One may utilize in a large, poorly lighted room masses of luminous
colors to give artificial sunlight to the room deficient therein, but in
the small, poorly lighted room this treatment should be avoided.


 (TN: left page of two page table)
               #B#                        #B#         COLORS       #B#
    #A#     #Drapery#       #A#                        #A#      #Furniture#
  #Floor#   #Border#    #Wood Trim#  #Wainscoting# #Side-Wall#  #Coverings#

 and gray
 tones)    (Full tones)(Wood tones)(Deep tones)(Soft tones)(Soft tones)

 Brown        Yellow     Mission       Green       Red         Green
 Deep oak
   brown      Orange     Mission       Blue        Orange      Blue
 Light oak    Green      Light oak     Violet      Yellow      Violet
 Deep olive   Blue       Oak           Red         Green       Red
   tones of   Violet     Mahogany      Orange      Blue        Orange
 Deep plum    Red        Violet toned  Yellow      Violet      Yellow
                         or tulip

 (TN: right page of two page table)

      #A#         #B#         #A#          #B#             #A#
  #Furniture#  #Frieze#   #Draperies#   #Ceiling#       #Cornice#

 (Wood tones)(Soft tones)(Full tones)(Pale wash tones)(Pale wash tones)

 Mahogany       Pale green    Red       Palest green     Pale yellow
 Deep oak       Blue          Orange    Palest blue      Pale green
 Gold, gray or  Violet        Yellow    Palest violet    Pale blue
 Walnut gray    Grayish red   Green     Palest red       Pale violet
 Mission brown  Gray orange   Blue      Palest orange    Pale orange
 Gold or violet Yellow        Violet    Palest yellow    Pale pink

Exception 1. The ceiling, where there is no pronounced cornice or cove,
should follow the wall tint.

Exception 2. Independent of rule, a low ceiling should be in receding

       *       *       *       *       *

It is impossible to tabulate directions for using color without an
understanding of the conditions, the size, light and height of a room.
(See pages 34 and 35.) The above tables relate only to normal

White woodwork can be used effectively in the trims of a room and give
greater light and size. The darker the wood trims the smaller the room
appears. We have left out of consideration the window treatments which,
as a rule, should be of white lace, perhaps overdraped in colored
stuffs. If the room is poorly lighted, it is obviously undesirable to
cut off any light from the window by even laces; the curtains,
therefore, in a poorly lighted room should be draped back. Colored
laces, grenadines or madras stuffs are frequently used to give period
style or color tone, and wherever they are used, such curtains should
harmonize with the wall. So also with the overdraperies to the lace

89. Luminous or advancing colors make a small room look all the smaller;
therefore in small rooms we suggest the use of white woodwork, and in
the color treatment we would avoid contrasts, but would suggest
harmonies of analogy in receding colors, soft grays, greens and blues.
These are not luminous colors and will make a small room look the
larger, while the white will give light effects, and if the room appears
a trifle somber it can be easily relieved by the bright colors of the
bric-à-brac and by a touch of gold here and there on the wall. (See ¶ 66
and ¶ 85.)

90. There are cases where a small room has a northern exposure, and
while apparently expedient to treat such a room in warm colors to supply
the deficiency of sunlight, such a course would make a room look

91. Under the circumstances treat the room in light hues, gray
preferred, and get the deficiency of sunlight through some warm isolated
details and in the lace curtains.


92. Our theory of color as applied to room furnishings provides always
that the side-wall is the keynote and this keynote is usually fixed for
practical reasons in sympathy with the furniture; above to the ceiling's
center the note ascends and below to the floor center it descends; it
goes into tints as it ascends and into deeper shades of gray and brown
as it descends.

If, for instance, blue is the keynote, by adding black you have drabs,
slates or grays for the floor, while if the keynote be red you have
écrus and browns for the floor light or gray, according to the color
scale of the keynote.

93. It must be understood that in designating a color we do not mean
that it shall be solid or pure, but merely that it prevails. (See ¶ 29.)

A side-wall may be treated in several colors, but as long as orange
prevails, it follows the conditions of the combination, pages 42 and
43. The factors included in the line designated A are all of one color
family. The factors indicated by B are also family colors. It will be
seen that the A or B colors taken by themselves form HARMONIES OF
ANALOGY; it is only by combining the A's with the B's that we have

If a room is to be done in harmonies of analogy, use the A colors alone
or the B colors alone, but never A and B together.


94. Whatever may be the charm conveyed by design there is a reason for
it. We can analyze it.

It has an inherent quality of beauty or historic interest, and there is
a definite and distinct reason for our liking it.

But the effect of color is exciting or disturbing, tranquilizing or
pleasing, inexplicable and inexpressible, affecting the senses like an
appeal to the passions or the appetite. One might as well explain the
love of sport, literature, art or vice. The sense of color is a nerve
sense, and this sense varies in the individual. We know that colors
which are strongest in direct sun rays, like red and orange, arouse the
normal senses, while the blues and violets quiet.

Nature provides vast fields of green because favorable in its effects
upon humanity. Experiments prove that men of extreme sensibility exposed
to the influences of red light finally show excitement which gives
muscular development fifty per cent. in excess of the power possessed by
the same subject when exposed for the same period under the influences
of blue light.


Color, like music, while subjected to positive rules of harmony, appeals
to natures according to the responsiveness of their nerve sense, and the
practical decorator in dealing with a customer should discover at the
outstart the character of that nerve sense. Some natures respond to the
normal colors, barbaric colors. Some respond to the softer tints and are
disturbed by the sharper tones. A dulled sense requires sharp contrasts;
a quickened sense is satisfied with the soft gray tones. Apart from any
question of propriety or environment the individual taste for color must
be determined before the individual taste can be pleased.

A demonstration of four examples in color may serve the purpose of
determining one's color sense.

First. Combinations of normal primary and secondary colors, (_a_)
arranged in contrasts, (_b_) in analogies.

Second. Combinations of tones of the above colors, (_a_) arranged in
contrasts, (_b_) in analogies.

Third. Combinations of tints of the above colors, (_a_) arranged in
contrasts, (_b_) in analogies.

Fourth. Combinations of the gray (tertiary) tones of the above colors,
(_a_) arranged in contrasts, (_b_) in analogies.

95. Do not allow your personal color-sympathies to dominate your work.
All colors have their usefulness, for there are occasions when it is
proper they should be used, apart from any question of harmony; one
must consider always the uses of colors, the lights, and the purpose of
the room under treatment.

96. Nature gives to the dark forest depths great brilliancy of
floriculture, and dark-skinned people indulge unconsciously the same
bright scale of color. But as we come out of the forest and advance in
civilization we use barbaric colorings more discriminately.

97. We employ gold, orange or yellow for the north room not for inherent
beauty, but for the sense of warmth which they convey to an atmosphere
chilled by the absence of sunlight. We employ receding colors in a small
room that the room may look larger. We employ cold colors in a sunny
room, especially in the summer home, for reasons psychological rather
than æsthetic.


98. If our furniture is white and gold, it is clearly evident that the
colorings of a room should be soft and harmonious. If we adopt the dark
teakwood of India or the deep brown of Flanders, our color scheme again
changes. The preponderance of white in Colonial rooms was due to
architectural conditions. White illuminates; and in the days when our
ceilings were no higher than seven and a half feet, and our windows were
small, the room needed an artificial light, and white supplied this.

99. In furnishing an Empire room, the decorators have, little by little,
led themselves to believe that what is known as Empire green is a
distinct shade of green. On the contrary, green was used in the period
of the Empire simply because it was in pleasing contrast with the
mahogany and brass so much used. If the mahogany is dark, a dark green
is desirable; if light, a light green.

100. Egyptian decoration was full of gold and brilliant coloring, and a
popular form of combination was the triad form:

    Black, yellow and red.
    Red, blue and white.
    Dark blue, light blue and white.
    Cream color, blue and black.
    Dark red, medium yellow and blue.

101. The Greek decorators, who painted in fresco, used white, red, blue,
yellow and black. Natural marbles were much used in green and red and
alabaster, and bronze, gold and silver.

We see the flat colors of the Greek, Etruscan and Pompeiian age and we
imagine they are typical of the period, but we must consider that the
examples of that period which we now possess are faded and emasculated,
and that the more authentic the example, the more aged it is, and hence
the more weakened in color character.

The Greeks loved color, and their embroideries were in gold and blue and
Tyrian purple.

Roman coloring was but a continuance of the Greek, characterized by dark
and rich backgrounds, which were frequently black, red or deep yellow
and dark blue, on which figures and landscapes, or animals, or groups
from still life, were executed in bright colorings of powerful
contrasts. Black and white were used, and later, when the Byzantine
artists and craftsmen found their way to Western Italy, they spread this
love of bold coloring, so that at the dawn of the Renaissance we find a
return to the Greek and Roman coloring, which, however, was modified in
England, Germany and Flanders, according to temperamental conditions.

102. We find, for instance, some forms of Florentine decoration, full of
yellow, red-yellow, blue-greens and light slate blues. Botticelli used
whites, creams, reds and citrine, with umber tones heightened by gold,
and if we examine carefully the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century
Italian brocades which are preserved in the museums, we discover a great
preponderance of yellow-green as an ornament on dark violet, or light
olive green on dark blue, or dull orange on crimson brown.

In some of the richest early Italian fabrics we find:

     Purple and sage-green ornaments on indigo ground; outlines in gold.

     Dull crimson, pale blue and chrome yellow ornaments on dark gray

     Pale yellow-green ornaments on deep amber ground.

     Dark blue-green and light greenish-yellow ornaments on deep crimson

     Pale greenish-blue ornaments on dark gray-blue ground, with white
     and gold picked out in small quantities.

     Emerald green and dull orange ornaments on dark gray-green ground
     outlined in gold.

103. The French Renaissance takes inspiration from the Roman and Greek.

The Louis XIV is a development of the Renaissance, with a conspicuous
use of gold.

The Louis XV is an elaboration along the same lines.

The Louis XVI is a simplification and a return to the classic.

The Georgian is largely Roman and Pompeiian.

104. The Adam style was taken directly from the Pompeiian, but in most
cases, instead of having the Pompeiian solid color background with
design lightly executed, the background is in the light color, and the
design dark. To follow strictly the Pompeiian palace style would be too
garish in our modern circumscribed environment.

105. It is a nice psychological problem to decorate the house in a way
to give true balance to the æsthetic sense. No matter how great one's
admiration for a thing, there is always a final point of satiety at
which the desire needs rest or balance. A woman may love flowers, for
example, but in the season of flowers, when all nature supplies an
over-abundance, the visual sense becomes satiated, and the house
interior that is furnished in cool tints and two-tones gives positive

106. On the other hand, floral decorations in the home are the balance
needed to the mind that craves them during the Winter period when there
is a lack of color without.

 [Illustration: Compare perpendicular and horizontal lines: The angles
 and curves which enclose them change their relative equality.]

       *       *       *       *       *


107. We very often notice a room which has been carefully carried out
but is utterly lacking in charm. The color seems right, and, considered
in detail, the furniture and the furnishings are appropriate, but the
room lacks effectiveness.

It is uninteresting.

It is like a doll face that is, perhaps, perfect in detail, but utterly
devoid of EXPRESSION.

The artist who paints a portrait is a failure without the ability to
give expression: hence in architecture the acute-angled spires or
arched roofs have the same expression that the "long face" carries.


If we smile, the mouth curves upward; if we grieve, the lines turn

108. In festival decorations, joy is expressed by loops, curves and

109. In serious decorations (libraries, studies, church or office work)
straight lines are used; curtains are gathered in plaits so that the
sags and drapes are all out of them; they are drawn. It is the same when
we say of a person: "He looks serious, his face is drawn; it is full of

110. The observation, "a broad smile on his face," means literally just
that; the lines extend outward and upward, giving an expression of
breadth and joy to the countenance.


111. A doorway looks wider that has at the top a drapery which crosses
in one complete curved sweep. A side-wall is larger apparently if along
the frieze line long, wide loops or festoons are arranged. The same wall
is more contracted and higher if treated in arrow-point forms of design.


The decorator should study these matters of illusion, for they are
vital to the success of his labor. (See ¶ 116.)

112. Perpendicular lines contract the wall space and extend the apparent
height of a room; horizontal lines shorten the apparent height of the
ceiling and lengthen the width of the room. (See exceptions, ¶ 119.)

These straight lines may be used where extremes are needed. (See pages
61 and 63.)

A short doorway, for instance, looks higher where the portière is hung
in straight folds; so also with a cottage window.


113. Every decorator who handles fabrics, every cabinetmaker who lays
out the woodwork of a room, every stained glass window maker, should
appreciate one fact: A line which is finished at the top or bottom, or
both, with acute angles appears longer than the line that is finished
top and bottom with an obtuse or right angle. It is the same with the
finish of a wall frieze.

If the wall frieze ends abruptly (Illustration A on page 57), it is
foreshortened; if it is finished by angles (Illustration B), the height
of the room is apparently greater. (See the illustration on page 51.)

114. It is the same way with curves; given two lines of equal length and
enclose one with convex and the other with concave curves, and the line
enclosed convex will appear longer.

 [Illustration: Treated for Broken Heights.]

115. In dress a collar brought down to an acute angle in the front of
the waist gives height effect, whereas a perfectly straight collar
around the neck reduces the apparent height and gives width effect.


116. The use of arches should be studied. A space that is arched looks
wider than it actually is, for the eye unconsciously follows the lines
of the arch, and a distance or width effect is the result. The same
space treated with a straight line is quickly bridged. The same space
treated with lines that come to an angle looks narrower, for the reason
that the eye becomes focused by the apex of the angle, and a height
effect, not a breadth effect, is the result. (See page 57.)

117. This illusion is best shown in the illustrations of the parallel
lines that are crossed diagonally, with the result that the lines no
longer look parallel because of the angles. Nevertheless, they are
parallel, and the lines running diagonally at the bottom of this page
are also parallel.


We present two practical illustrations of illusion in the use of lines.
(See ¶ 112.) They represent the side-walls of two rooms of the same
dimensions, but showing apparently different proportions, the
perpendicular lines making the side-wall look higher and the horizontal
lines making the side-wall look lower. (See page 59.)

 [Illustration: Illustration A.]

 [Illustration: Illustration B. (See ¶ 113.)]


The length of the wall space is shortened, moreover, by the
perpendicular lines and lengthened by the horizontal lines.

118. No period expresses more clearly the joy of curves as opposed to
the severity of straight lines than that voluptuous period of Louis XV
known as Rococo. It was a profligate era, an era of pleasure, and the
appended illustration of part of a frieze is in no way exaggerated, but
a true example of a common expression. (See page 60.)



119. Distinct perpendicular lines give height effect, but they also
narrow the apparent width of a wall space. It is best to have such line
effects indistinct unless they appear as in the illustration on page 63,
where they are intended to reduce the breadth effect of the pattern and
neutralize a squat tendency.

Indistinct perpendiculars give height effect, and do not reduce the wall

 [Illustration: (See ¶ 111.)]

 [Illustration: Perpendicular lines, giving height effect.]

 [Illustration: Perpendicular lines, giving height effect.]


120. In the study of color and its application authorities differ so
materially that it is not only impossible to reconcile their theories,
but the different terms used to express color thought create
inextricable confusion.

121. One authority fixes the neutrals as being black, gray and white;
another regards them as those hues or tones which lack definite color,
like quaternaries. Authorities differ, moreover, upon even the
fundamental principles. Chevreuil selects red, yellow and blue as the
primaries; Dr. Thomas Young selects red, green and violet. Helmholtz
selects carmine, pale green and blue-violet; Maxwell scarlet red,
emerald green and blue-violet; Professor Rood agrees with Maxwell;
Professor Church, of the Royal Academy of Arts, London, regards the
primaries as red, green and blue; George Hurst, the English authority,
fixes upon red, yellow and blue, the Brewsterian theory.

122. One must remember always in studying color that we are treating
with the material, not with the illusion. We are dealing with pigments,
not with prismatic phenomena, and it must be obvious that the only three
primary colors that can be used in a way to produce all other colors are
red, yellow and blue.

123. Whatever may be the spectrum theories of Sir Isaac Newton, Young or
Helmholtz, for practical reasons we prefer to follow an authority as
eminent as Chevreuil, for years the head of the National Gobelin Works
of France, and a man experienced in the practice as well as the theory
of color. Any effort to fix the character of color and describe it by
periods and epochs will always prove unsatisfactory, for the reason that
terms and expressions have changed with every period since the Egyptian,
4000 B.C.

124. We think we know purple until we discover that the purple of
royalty, the ermine and purple, the purple of the cardinals' robes,
frequently approximated what we now call carmine. Royal purple and
Venetian blue are mere trade terms. Practical men in the purchase of
things decorative soon discover that color terms convey only individual
impressions and no distinctive qualities that may be relied upon; so
that any effort to fix the color value by periods would be futile. We
may assume that in the age of oak, mahogany, white and gold or walnut
furniture, the fabric and wall colors harmonized with the wood colors,
and to that degree we may fix the period character of color. The moment
that the tone of the woodwork or the light conditions varied, color
character varied also.

125. We must also bear well in mind that colors which have come down to
us as examples of ancient times have been subjected to the changing
influences of centuries, and have faded and altered. The colors on the
walls of the historic rooms of European palaces have greatly altered.
The flat reds and the deadish blues of the Pompeiian frescoes have been
altered by chemical action during the 1,850 years' burial under the lava
of Vesuvius. We are not justified in judging of the colors of A.D. 79
by the restoration-examples in 1900. Hence the mere expressions
Pompeiian red, Pompeiian blue, can convey no definite, positive meaning.

 [Illustration: Fig. 1.]


126. In music, a tone which is formed by a certain number of vibrations
per second is the same the world over, and each and every tone has a
name; but in color no such standards exist. People have attempted to
formulate a system by denominating the primary colors, red, yellow and
blue, respectively as R, Y and B, and the combinations of these colors
as combinations of letters. For example, red, with varying degrees of
yellow added, is denominated by the letters R R O, or R O R, or O O R.
This system tends to confusion, and is inadequate to express tints and
shades. Various other systems have been devised. Color charts have been
made, and in each system arbitrary names have been assigned, so that
each color may be known by one of several names. The difficulty of
insuring accuracy under these circumstances becomes very evident.

127. In discussing color combinations, one is usually confused because
the subject is not a tangible expression that can be grasped like the
sound of a note in music. With color charts, every maker has a standard
of his own and the term "red" may mean anything within a wide range; a
yellow-red or a blue-red, the yellow-red perhaps being cherry, the
blue-red perhaps being carmine. An appreciation of the Harmonies of
Contrast or Harmonies of Analogy or Relationship is accompanied by great
confusion because of this lack of standardization.

128. There is only one true standard of color, and that is the standard
as shown in the prism, and expressed by the spectrum. It is within the
province of any man to determine the proper relationship of color if he
starts with the chart we here present. We fix definitely the three
primary and the three secondary colors, the primaries, red, yellow and
blue, being those indicated by the heavy black lines; the secondaries,
orange, green and violet, being indicated by the broad stipple lines.

All other lines are the tertiary or quaternary colors.

If we have clearly in our minds the appearance of the normal red and
yellow, and clearly in our minds the orange that is made up by combining
the two, we ought to be able to fix in our imagination the colors that
come midway between the red and the orange, or the colors that come
nearer the red or nearer the orange. Let us assume we are to select
colors in the harmony of _contrast_. Take a ruler and lay across the
chart and the contrasting colors are always opposite; the direct
contrast of red is green because green is composed of the other two
primary colors, yellow and blue; the contrast of blue is orange because
orange is a combination of the other two primaries, yellow and red; the
contrast of yellow is violet, a combination of blue and red.

Now, to determine the niceties of distinction, let us take a red that is
a little off shade, a little yellowish; one must determine in the mind's
eye about how much yellow there is in it and, to determine the true
contrast, carry your line across from the point which you think is
represented by the yellowish and you find that it is green with a little
blue added, or bluish-green.

129. One must also determine the scale of color. The parallel circular
lines on the chart designate four scales, or four grades, of each color,
growing lighter by adding white, to the center; as you add more and more
white the tint becomes more and more light. In determining contrast, be
careful to stick to your scale. Contrasts, to be in harmony, must be
colors of the same scale.

130. Harmony of analogy or relationship is clearly expressed in the
chart. The family relations of red are the things which go with red. We
may have a harmony of analogy in violet which includes the relations of
red and blue. We must not attempt to carry the family relationship too
far. There is a wide range of variety in these combinations of analogy
because they may include not only all scales of each color from the
darkest tones to the lightest tints but they include tertiaries and

Each man must establish his own standard, and by establishing it he
forms unconsciously a very comprehensive understanding of color. It has
never been possible to print a true colored chart because no two copies
of the sheet off the press would be alike. A little more ink or a little
less ink, or a little lighter or a little heavier impression, changes
the values.

The chart illustrates contrasts of all of the primaries and secondary
colors and the broken colors or hues. In the same way the tertiary or
quaternary colors may be arranged, but for convenience we show the
contrasts as follows:


    32 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue
    31 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 17 parts Blue
    30 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 18 parts Blue
    29 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 19 parts Blue
    28 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 20 parts Blue
    27 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 21 parts Blue
    26 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 22 parts Blue
    25 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 23 parts Blue


   32 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow
   31 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 17 parts Yellow
   30 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 18 parts Yellow
   29 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 19 parts Yellow
   28 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 20 parts Yellow
   27 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 21 parts Yellow
   26 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 22 parts Yellow
   25 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 23 parts Yellow


    32 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 16 parts Red
    31 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 17 parts Red
    30 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 18 parts Red
    29 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 19 parts Red
    28 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 20 parts Red
    27 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 21 parts Red
    26 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 22 parts Red
    25 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 23 parts Red


    24 parts Blue, 16 parts Red, 24 parts Yellow
    25 parts Yellow, 23 parts Blue, 16 parts Red
    26 parts Yellow, 22 parts Blue, 16 parts Red
    27 parts Yellow, 21 parts Blue, 16 parts Red
    28 parts Yellow, 20 parts Blue, 16 parts Red
    29 parts Yellow, 19 parts Blue, 16 parts Red
    30 parts Yellow, 18 parts Blue, 16 parts Red
    31 parts Yellow, 17 parts Blue, 16 parts Red


    24 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue, 24 parts Red
    25 parts Red, 23 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue
    26 parts Red, 22 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue
    27 parts Red, 21 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue
    28 parts Red, 20 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue
    29 parts Red, 19 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue
    30 parts Red, 18 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue
    31 parts Red, 17 parts Yellow, 16 parts Blue


    24 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow, 24 parts Blue
    25 parts Blue, 23 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow
    26 parts Blue, 22 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow
    27 parts Blue, 21 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow
    28 parts Blue, 20 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow
    29 parts Blue, 19 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow
    30 parts Blue, 18 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow
    31 parts Blue, 17 parts Red, 16 parts Yellow


131. One who attempts to make color compositions with no more reliable
guide than taste can expect to accomplish no more than he who in music
possesses a good ear but no musical training.

132. The note of discord in color is best avoided by an infallible
guide, as the discord in music is best avoided by thorough training in
the law of harmony. The color chart on page 73 has been so arranged that
each of the shades is in exact harmony with the shade directly opposite.

133. For example, to ascertain the color that is in harmony with the
shade denominated Red-Orange, it is necessary simply to lay a ruler
across the diagram to find the corresponding harmony, which is

134. We know that the primary colors are red, yellow and blue, and that
the combination of any two of these gives a secondary color. The
secondary color is the complement of the remaining third color; thus
yellow and blue form green, and green is the complement or contrasting
harmony of red. Red and yellow form orange, and orange is the complement
of blue. Blue and red form violet, and violet is the complement of
yellow. These are facts we all know. Now, if red is the complement or
contrasting harmony of green, and yellow contrasts with violet, then red
with one, two or three degrees of yellow added will contrast with green
with one, two or three degrees of blue added.

Assume, for example, that a decorator dealing with a red side-wall
wishes upholsterings in the correct shade of green. He knows he has a
red wall, he knows also that he wishes to use some shade of green, but
without some fixed standard it is impossible for him to do more than
approximate the correct shade of green to use. If, however, he could
compare the red of his wall with his color chart and determine exactly
which of the many shades of red, or which of the many yellow reds, or
blue reds, the wall is toned in, it is a simple process to ascertain the
exact green harmonizing with this red.

The second great use of the color chart is then an infallible guide to
color harmony, whether analagous or contrasting.

NEW   | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |   5  | 6 | 7 | 8 |   9  | 10| 11| 12|  13 | 14| 15|
SYSTEM|RED|R 7|R 6|R 5|ORANGE|R 3|R 2|R 1|YELLOW|Y 7|Y 6|Y 5|GREEN|Y 3|Y 2|
      |   |Y 1|Y 2|Y 3|      |Y 5|Y 6|Y 7|      |B 1|B 2|B 3|     |B 5|B 6|
  H[A]|   |56R|48R|40R|  32R |40Y|48Y|56Y|      |56Y|48Y|40Y| 32Y |40B|48B|
NORMAL| 64|   |   |   |      |   |   |   |  64  |   |   |   |     |   |   |
 LINE |   | 8Y|16Y|24Y|  32Y |24R|16R| 8R|      | 8B|16B|24B| 32B |24Y|16Y|
  I[B]|56R|49R|42R|35R|  28R |35Y|42Y|49Y|  50Y |49Y|42Y|35Y| 28Y |35B|42B|
      |   | 7Y|14Y|21Y|  28Y |21R|14R| 7R|      | 7B|14B|21B| 28B |21Y|14Y|
      | 8W| 8W| 8W| 8W|   8W | 8W| 8W| 8W|   8W | 8W| 8W| 8W|  8W | 8W| 8W|
     J|48R|42R|36R|30R|  24R |30Y|36Y|42Y|  48Y |48Y|36Y|30Y| 24Y |30B|36B|
      |   | 6Y|12Y|18Y|  24Y |18R|12R| 6R|      | 6B|12B|18B| 24B |18Y|12Y|
      |16W|16W|16W|16W|  16W |16W|16W|16W|  16W |16W|16W|16W| 16W |16W|16W|
     K|40R|35R|30R|25R|  20R |25Y|30Y|40Y|  40Y |35Y|30Y|35Y| 20Y |25B|30B|
      |   | 5Y|10Y|15Y|  20Y |15R|10R| 5R|      | 5B|10B|15B| 20B |15Y|   |
      |  W|24W|24W|24W|  24W |24W|24W|24W|  16W |24W|24W|24W| 24W |   |   |
     L|32R|28R|24R|20R|  16R |20Y|24Y|28Y|  32Y |28Y|24Y|20Y|     |   |   |
      |   | 4Y| 8Y| 8Y|  16Y |12R| 8R| 4R|      | 4B| 8B|   |     |   |   |
      |32W|32W|32W|32W|  32W |32W|32W|32W|  32W |32W|   |   |     |   |   |
     M|24R|21R|18R|15R|  12R |15Y|18R|21Y|  24Y |   |   |   |     |   |   |
      |   | 3Y| 6Y| 9Y|  12Y | 9R| 6R|   |      |   |   |   |     |   |   |
      |40W|40W|40W|40W|  40W |40W|   |   |      |   |   |   |     |   |   |

A color is indicated by the intersection lines perpendicular and

  [A] This line shows the colors of the normal scale running from Red (R)
  to Yellow (Y) to Blue (B) to Red (R).

  [B] This line and all below it show the same primary and secondary
  colors lightened by added white.


135. In considering artificial light, we will avoid all efforts to
analyze the different forms of energy, magnetic energy, electric energy,
heat energy, mechanical momentum, radiating energy, and deal with result
rather than with cause and effect. It will be sufficient to state as the
deduction of the scientist that certain waves or vibrations which affect
the fibers of the optic nerve are transmitted by the brain into color.
(¶ 3.) Self-luminous bodies are bodies which produce light. Illuminated
bodies shine by borrowed light, and are distinguished by the different
amounts and quantities of light which they reflect. A dense cloud which
appears nearly black when between the observer's eye and the sun, owing
to the degree of density with which it intercepts the light, may become
brilliantly white when the sun's rays fall upon its constituent
particles, for the light which cannot penetrate the cloud is continually
reflected to and from the surface of its minute parts. Thus it happens
that the lower part of a cloud seen against a background of dark
mountain may appear white, while the upper part may appear dull gray. In
the alteration of reflection we have an alteration of color. A stick of
sealing wax will show in some positions white reflected light, while in
other positions we see only the red. A polished plane furnishes one kind
of reflection, a piece of chalk another.

136. The decorator has for years past been disposed to defer to the
illuminating engineer in the artificial lighting of a home. But while
the technical man or engineer may have a knowledge of power and energy,
he has not studied the decorative value of lighting. His problem has
been economic rather than psychologic. The illuminating engineer cannot
be expected to appreciate fully the harmonies of color in decoration.

137. It is the decorator's province to consider not only the power of
light in the furnishing of a house, but the character of the light--not
only its color influence, but the structural character of its
introduction, as affecting these furnishings. It is beyond his province
to determine whether carbon should be replaced by tantalum, osmium or
tungsten to get higher efficiency, but he must understand the effects of
these lights and prescribe accordingly.


138. The architect who designates the number and location of outlets for
the lighting sources, and specifies the candle-power of the lamps, knows
nothing of the ultimate decoration of the house. Very often the
specifications are finished before the color scheme has been decided
upon, and as a result the degree of illumination either falls short of
what is needed in case of dark-colored interiors, or proves excessive
with light-tinted rooms. The architect works from one point, economy,
the decorator from another, æsthetic; while the householder, the
consumer who pays the illuminating bills, cannot comprehend why his
lighting bills increase as his taste for luminous or dark-colored
furnishings is gratified. Many houses are left in the white plaster for
a year or more until the plaster settles. In this condition a small unit
of light is sufficient, but when the decorator completes his work,
adding fabrics and wall-papers which absorb and diminish the light, the
householder, unaware of the cause, notices a material increase in his
bills for illumination. These facts must be understood to be remedied,
and it remains for the illuminating engineer to determine by direct
experiment the value of any light as it affects and influences color, as
well as the value of color as it affects light. It may be assumed
without danger that the softest light is that of the candle, but we are
not living in the candle age, and have to deal with either gas or
electricity as the main illuminating agents.

139. We have to consider the mercury arc light, the yellow flame carbon,
the white magnetite and titanium arc--all of high efficiency, giving
orange yellow in the flame-carbon to yellow and yellow white in the
acetyline of the tungsten filaments. Then we have the greenish yellow of
the Welsbach mantle, the bluish green of the mercury arc, the yellowish
white of the carbon arc, as well as the clear white of the titanium

140. The subject may be divided into three heads: Quality, or
approximation to natural light. Quantity, as demanded by reflection or
absorption. Installation, diffusion or mechanical distribution.

141. Normal light is the light of general diffusion in daylight, and
when we can find an artificial light that has the character of natural
light we will have what is obviously the best illuminant for the home.
Bear in mind that natural light as it appears out of doors is materially
altered when indoors by the presence of different planes and angles,
which cast and receive various depths of shadow; the quality required is
that which will provide illumination without glare. The sun's rays are
softened and mellowed by the depth of air through which they pass, and
it is this mellowness that is the chief requisite in illumination.

Good decorative illumination does not mean illumination that reveals
every hidden corner of a room. We need shadows to betray form, relieve
monotony and give depth to the _ensemble_. If in an illuminated area
light is of a uniform intensity, we have a bad effect. The variation of
tone in a fabric is due to the light reaching it from a given point.
Differences in intensity make shadows and tones.

142. The illuminating engineer treats the home as he treats a public
hall. He ignores the individuality of the room; the ball-room and the
sickroom are lighted alike. He does not always consider the diminished
force of light as it passes through a refracting surface, for it must be
borne in mind that any method of indirect lighting by refraction is apt
to cause a loss of volume. The use of various kinds of globes or lamp
shades must all be considered. A light-colored wall reflects
illumination, a dark-colored wall absorbs it; hence the amount of
illumination is increased or diminished by the color of the walls.


143. To illuminate a city, with the dull grim environment of streets and
houses, a soft yellow glow will give warmth and tone; the greenish
yellow of the Welsbach or the blue green of the mercury arc may even be
desirable, but the same green or violet rays are ghastly in a house, and
should never be permitted.

144. The warm glow of the yellow light, while pleasing to the
complexion, is, however, objectionable as disturbing the color
composition of dress or furnishings. A gaslight sends a yellow glow over
all that it reaches, and has the same effect as the introduction of
yellow into every color tint in the room. The walls that are red take on
a scarlet hue; the scarlet ones are yellowed to orange; the blues become

145. In order that the decorator may more readily grasp the subject, we
have arranged a table showing the color changes effected by rays of
yellow, blue, green and violet:

 Orange rays falling on white make it appear orange.
   "            "     red it appears reddish-orange.
   "            "     orange it appears deeper orange.
   "            "     yellow it appears orange-yellow.
   "            "     green it appears dark yellow-green.
   "            "     blue it appears dark reddish-gray.
   "            "     violet it appears dark purplish-gray.
   "            "     black it appears brownish-black.

 Yellow rays falling on white make it appear yellow.
   "            "     red make it appear orange-brown.
   "            "     orange make it appear orange-yellow.
   "            "     yellow make it appear deeper yellow.
   "            "     green make it appear yellowish-green.
   "            "     blue make it appear slaty-gray.
   "            "     violet make it appear purplish-gray.
   "            "     black make it appear olive-black.

 Green rays falling on white make it appear green.
   "            "     red make it appear yellowish-brown.
   "            "     orange make it appear grayish-leaf-green.
   "            "     yellow make it appear yellowish-green.
   "            "     green make it appear deeper green.
   "            "     blue make it appear bluish-green.
   "            "     violet make it appear bluish-gray.
   "            "     black make it appear dark greenish-gray.

 Blue rays falling on white make it appear blue.
   "            "     red make it appear purple.
   "            "     orange make it appear plum-brown.
   "            "     yellow make it appear yellowish-gray.
   "            "     green make it appear bluish-green.
   "            "     blue make it appear deeper blue.
   "            "     violet make it appear bluer.
   "            "     black make it appear bluish-black.

 Violet rays falling on white make it appear violet.
   "            "     red make it appear purple.
   "            "     orange make it appear reddish-gray.
   "            "     yellow make it appear purplish-gray.
   "            "     green make it appear bluish-gray.
   "            "     blue make it appear bluish-violet.
   "            "     violet make it appear deeper violet.
   "            "     black make it appear violet-black.

146. The pale tints of electric lights, which make every face in a room
look ghastly, will affect quite as disastrously every soft color in the
furnishings. In ordinary gaslight a pair of white gloves looks yellow,
and we have seen Welsbach lamps which threw out a violet-blue
illumination, depressing in the extreme. Under a yellow glow, blues,
greens, violets and purples are greatly changed. Under a violet glow,
yellows and greens are ruined. To see all colors in about the same value
that they possess by daylight one must have a light in which no color
tone is apparent.

The question as to the disposition and intensity of the lights is of
vital importance, and must be considered with the requirements of each
particular room in mind.

147. For the drawing-room and reception-room it is desirable that all
parts of the room be evenly lighted, without a pronounced glare in any
particular part of the room. One of the most effective ways of
accomplishing this is by distributing the lights around the room, either
on the ceiling, in the cove or above a wide molding, so that the ceiling
acts as a reflecting agent, and distributes an even tone of light to all


148. For the dining-room and living-room a different plan must be used,
because of the different requirements. The table is usually in such
rooms the chief feature of the furnishings, and it is customary to focus
upon it the main body of light. While this is obviously necessary, the
surroundings must not be ignored; neither is it possible to raise the
center light to such a height that its radiation may reach all parts of
the room, because in so doing the light reaches the eye at an extremely
unpleasant angle. The drop fixture should be low enough to effectively
light all parts of the table, while at the same time its shade should
screen the light from the eyes of the room's occupants. To illuminate
the surrounding parts of the room other lights should be distributed
where they will most effectively supply what further illumination is

149. For the bedroom or boudoir the location of the lights should also
be subordinated to the purposes of the room, and in addition to
providing sufficient illumination to the entire area, special
illumination should be provided for the mirrors and the dressing-table.
The lights for the mirrors should be planned to illuminate the person
and not the image.

150. For large reception-rooms in hotels and public institutions the
plan is frequently adopted of having all light provided by small table
lamps with opalescent shades. These provide a medium glow throughout the
entire room that is pleasing, and avoid entirely the garishness usually
associated with such rooms. One of the mistakes of the day is the use of
high-power lights, which are so intense that they require to be screened
or shaded, involving waste of light and concentrating an unnecessary
amount of illumination upon a narrow sphere.


The following table will give an idea of the percentage of light
reflected from ordinary wall-hangings and papers:

                                        Per Cent.

    White blotting-paper                   .82
    White cartridge-paper                  .80
    Ordinary foolscap                      .70
    Ordinary newspaper              .50 to .70
    Chrome yellow paper                    .62
    Orange paper                           .50
    Yellow wall-paper                      .40
    Yellow painted wall (clean)            .40
    Tracing cloth, pale blue               .35
    Light pink paper                       .36
    Blue paper                             .25
    Emerald green                          .18
    Dark brown paper                       .13
    Vermilion paper                        .12
    Blue green paper                       .12
    Cobalt blue paper                      .12
    Black paper                            0.5
    Deep chocolate paper                   0.4
    French ultramarine blue paper          3.5
    Black cloth                            1.2
    Black velvet                           0.4

151. It is very difficult to select practical artificial illuminants,
because of the various color properties possessed by each. A Welsbach
mantle, which gives a greenish tint, is pretty sure to alter the
character of any color other than green. Incandescent electric light, as
well as ordinary gaslight, contains a yellow tint.


152. In planning or matching colors for a room, it is best to consider
the purpose for which the room is to be used, and match the colors under
the same light conditions that will prevail in the finished room.

Deep, full colors are less affected by the shadings in artificial
illuminants than lighter tones of the same color.

    ILLUMINANT.                        COLOR.

 Sun (high in sky)             White.
 Sun (near horizon)            Orange red.
 Sky light                     Bluish white.
 Electric arc (short)          White.
 Electric arc (long)           Bluish white to violet.
 Nernst lamp                   White.
 Incandescent (normal)         Yellow-white.
 Incandescent (below voltage)  Orange to orange-red.
 Acetyline flame               Nearly white.
 Welsbach light                Greenish white.
 Gaslight (Siemens burner)     Nearly white, faint yellow tinge.
 Gaslight (ordinary)           Yellowish white to pale orange.
 Kerosene lamp                 Yellowish white to pale orange.
 Candle                        Orange yellow.


153. The introduction of light by the medium of a wire, which may be
carried to any point in a room, encourages so many possibilities for
comfort and effect that it behooves us to forget traditional customs
which were established during the gaslight period. The introduction of
gaslight through tubes was a rather complex problem, and the carrying of
the pipes into the room through a main chandelier was the most
advisable constructive form. But we have no need for such cumbersome
fixtures in this day of wiring.

A mere cord takes the place of an inch pipe. Modern German and Austrian
lighting fixtures frequently are mere pendants, with the cord frankly in
evidence. In this way the lights may be placed wherever needed--at the
head of the lounge, so one may read more clearly by it; close by the
piano; over the tea-table. In fact, supplementary lights to the general
illumination are a convenience that the decorator should consider.

154. The lighting of a house is a matter so dependent upon æsthetic
conditions that it is never within the scope of the electrician. It is a
problem for a decorator alone to solve. Intense and glaring lights of
unusual power must be avoided. Luminants of low intrinsic brilliancy are

155. The floor is the least important surface for illumination, and has
no reflecting power of value. The walls vary in value according to their
color and surface. With lights radiating upward, however, the ceiling
possesses definite power, and should be considered.

156. Dark colors absorb light, while white and light colors reflect, and
this must always be remembered; for upon the character of the
decorations and furnishings of various rooms the quantity as well as the
quality of light has serious influence.


157. While the list which we give herewith is based largely upon area,
it may be taken as a basis of calculation for lighting equipment.

It is estimated that 300 square feet of a hallway requires four
sixteen-candlepower, or eight eight-candlepower units.

In a room 20 x 20 feet, with furnishings of mahogany and green, broken
up by bookcases and other furniture producing heavy shadows, it is
estimated that twelve eight-candlepower lights are sufficient if worked
into the frieze, and that a reading lamp of not less than
thirty-two-candlepower be used as a drop light.

Assuming a room is 15 x 15 feet, and furnished in light tones, four
eight-candlepower lamps are ample.

A living-room 20 x 25 feet, in light tones of color, requires two
thirty-two-candlepower lights, centrally located, and about twelve
eight-candlepower lights. This should provide brilliant illumination.

A room 15 x 20 feet, in dark wood and hangings, needs eight
eight-candlepower reflector lamps, backed up by six more
eight-candlepower lamps.

Bedrooms 15 x 15 feet in size, where they are not furnished in deep
colors, should be equipped with two sixteen-candlepower lights.


158. Mechanical lighting is so easily undertaken that it predisposes one
to extravagance. Properly applied, artificial light adds materially to
the charm of a room, but with illumination secured by the mere twist of
the wrist one is prone to ignore the value of shadows and kill the
beauty of light and shade by throwing illumination into the remotest
corners. The danger to good decoration is not only in overlighting, but
in overdecorating, and commercialism naturally encourages this tendency.
The floor is frequently best treated if not entirely covered with a
one-pattern treatment; the walls are frequently most pleasing if done in
several papers instead of one. The most effective room is the one
lighted in various degrees of strength, and while the decorator
unconsciously follows this idea and avoids superabundance of pattern by
using panels, friezes and wainscotings, we believe that each and every
section or part of a room should be treated separately, observing, of
course, a consistent spirit of design, preserving the period style and
the general color effect; we would vary the actual shade of coloring and
the size of pattern according to the dimensions of the wall space it
occupies. The large patterns and the strong colorings which may be
appropriate to an exposed wall are all out of proportion in narrow or
darkened confines. Dark and deep recesses should obviously be treated
differently to advanced or conspicuous spaces.

159. At a recent meeting of the Illuminating Engineering Society, D.
McFarlan Moore made the following observations: "A few years ago there
was practically no way of changing the colors of the various forms of
lamps, that is, the candle had its color perforce; such a thing as
modifying it was not dreamed of. The oil lamp had its color; the open
burner gas flame its color, the incandescent lamp its color, and the
arc lamp its color. At the present time there are only two ways widely
in use of varying the color; that is, if a person wishes to have a light
of a different color, there are two main ways of getting it. One way is
to get another light source, and the other way is to use a diffusion
globe of some kind, which in any instance is extremely unscientific and
inefficient. Some of the most recent advances in this line are connected
with the flaming arc lamp. There we have an instance where the first
step, at least, was taken toward scientifically controlling the color
value. I refer to placing different chemicals in the carbon and thereby
obtaining a color which can, to a very great extent, be determined
previously. But still it by no means can be said that by means of the
flaming arc lamp the color factor is under perfect control. However, it
is possible now to have the color value under perfect control, and this
is obtained by utilizing a vacuum tube, and by changing the various
gases used in the tube to change the color. This has many advantages,
and from a scientific standpoint it cannot be criticised, as can the
other methods which have been used. For example, if you use a properly
regulated vacuum tube and feed it with air only, a pink light results;
if you feed it with nitrogen a yellow light results, and such a light
can be used for a great many purposes; in fact its range of usefulness
so far as the color is concerned, is about the same as that of the
ordinary incandescent lamp, and therefore can be used by florists or by
clothing merchants, and the distortion is not any worse than that of
the ordinary incandescent lamp. However, it is not by any means claimed
that when a tube is fed nitrogen, that the color is at all near
daylight; it is simply a color which appears about the same as that
produced by the ordinary incandescent lamp. Due to the enormous
radiating surfaces of the tube, the color in day time looks considerably
redder than that of the incandescent lamp because the lamp is extremely
small as compared with the tube. When such a tube is fed with carbon
dioxide at a definite pressure, and at a definite intensity, a light is
obtained that undoubtedly is closer to average daylight color values
than any light which has ever been produced before, and we can almost
say that it is entirely satisfactory. For instance, experts in matching
colors in the largest dye works of this country, men who have tried all
other forms of light, and found them not at all suitable for their uses,
have matched their colors under a vacuum tube supplied with carbon
dioxide and have found after months of practical use that they could not
detect any difference between most delicate lavender shades, when they
are matched at night time under the tube and in day time by daylight,
not direct sunlight."


160. The nerves of the eye, exhilarated by any pronounced color,
unconsciously observe the complement of that color when turned from it.
The eye accustomed to the red of a woman's dress, unconsciously sees a
greenish cast in the face that is naturally pale, and in the same way
the pallor of a woman's face takes on a tint of red as the complement
or contrast of a green dress. As one's appetite for the thing that is
sweet becomes exhausted by a superabundance of sweets, so the eye
resting upon a mass of red in the dress of a woman fails to appreciate
the red tint in the face, and the face thus juxtaposed becomes pallid. A
red-faced woman often wears brighter red in dress, so that her face may
appear less red. The blue dress gives yellow to the face; the yellow
dress gives blue; these results are altered materially by the
intervention of white between the face and the dress. White intensifies
color. If there is a tinge of pink in the face white brings it out. If
there is sallowness in the face white accentuates it. It is for this
reason that many women wear yellow instead of white at the neck, so that
the yellow of the face becomes less conspicuous by contrast. (See ¶ 31.)

161. It is dangerous, however, in matters of dress to strictly apply
this rule, because color has a temperamental influence apart from the
purely visual. Some women are positively depressed by certain colors;
such colors are to be avoided, no matter what the deductions of theory.
(See ¶ 94.)

162. The black dress will make a woman look pale, for the reason that
the black absorbs whatever color there may be in her face. A dark color
has also absorbent characteristics. The lighter the color, the less
absorbent. Hence light greens are preferable to bring out the color in
the face than dark greens, assuming that we are to consider only this
point, which is all that is necessary to consider in house decoration.
Therefore light greens as a background to theater boxes or as a wall
background are always desirable.

 [Illustration: Lighting by wires. See ¶ 153.]


 BROKEN COLOR. Color changed by the addition of black,
    white or gray.

 CHROMA. Color.

 COLD COLORS are colors containing very little, if any, red or

 CONTRAST ANALOGIES. Apparent contrasts of secondary and
    tertiary colors which have constituent parts that are
    related. Thus compositions of citrine and plum are apparent
    contrasts, citrine being one of the three tertiary
    colors, russet, slate and citrine, and plum being composed
    of russet and slate, but in both citrine and plum
    there is red, yellow and blue; hence related. There can
    be no true contrasts excepting between primaries and

 GRAY. Normal gray is black and white mixed, but quaternary
    colors are also called grays, or colors of the dull or
    neutral scale.

 HARMONY OF ANALOGY is produced by using related colors.

 HARMONY OF CONTRAST. The juxtaposition of a primary
    color, for example, with a secondary made of the other
    two primaries. Thus of the primaries red, yellow and
    blue, the contrasts would be red and green. Of the two
    colors thus forming contrast the one is said to be the
    COMPLEMENTARY of the other.

 HUE. Applied to the predominating color in a composition.

 INTENSE OR SATURATED COLORS. Colors that are pure, having
    no tint or shade.

 NEUTRAL COLORS. Applied to black, gray and quaternary

 NORMAL. Intense colors of the prism. Colors of the natural

 PRISMATIC COLORS are the colors viewed through a prism.

 QUATERNARY COLORS. Made by combining two tertiary colors.
    Quaternary colors are plum, sage and buff.

 SCALE. Relates to colors of the same degree of tone.

 SECONDARY COLORS. Orange, green and violet, each a combination
    of two primaries.

 SHADE. Produced by the addition of black to a normal color.

 SOMBRE COLORS. Blue, violet and the subdued tones of luminous

 SPECTRUM. The illusion of color produced by means of the

 TERTIARY COLORS. Made by combining two secondary colors;
    tertiary colors are slate, russet and citrine.

 TINT. Produced by the addition of white to a normal color.

 TONES are the gradations of color by adding either black or

 WARM COLORS or luminous colors are those having normal
    yellow or red in the preponderance.

 ADVANCING COLORS. Reds and bright yellow arouse the nerve
    sense more quickly than blue or tones of color predominating
    in blue. Hence they are called advancing colors.

 RECEDING COLORS. Blue colors or colors in which blue predominate
    or the exciting influences of yellow or red are
    subjugated, are cold or receding colors.

       *       *       *       *       *


                                       Paragraph.    Page.

 Adjoining Rooms                         38 to 47
 Advancing Colors              77, 78, 79, 80, 89
 Angles, Illusion of           113, 114, 115, 117
 Artificial Light, Colors of                            86

 Balance of Pattern                        75, 76
 Borders                           61, 62, 81, 86
 Bric-à-brac                               60, 89
 Black, The Use of                             33

 Color Nomenclature                             9
 Complexion                                   160
 Contrasting Colors                  12, 14 to 24
 Contrast Analogies                      17 to 20
 Ceiling                           37, 42, 43, 93
 Curtains                                53 to 56
 Cove and Ceiling                              56
 Cornice                                       63
 Chair Coverings                               64
 Colors that Give Size to a Room (See Receding Colors)
 Carpet                                        81
 Color Sympathies                              95
 Curves, The Use of  107, 108, 111, 114, 116, 118
 Color Terms                           120 to 134
 Chart                                        127

 Dress, Depressing Influences                 161
 Dress, Woman's                               160
 Decorative Illumination                      141
 Definitions                                          89
 Draperies                                        42, 43
 Decorative Proportions                               37

 Exciting Colors                          94, 160

 Frieze, The Use of (See Wall Proportions, also Room Combinations)
 Floors                        42, 81, 84, 86, 87   42, 43

 Gray, The Use of                      32, 91, 92
 Guide to Color Harmony                       127

 Harmonies Mechanically Determined            132
 Height Effects                            75, 76
 Harmony of Analogy                13, 17, 27, 93
 Harmonies                                     10

 Illusion in the Use of Lines          107 to 119
 Intensification of Color             31, 33, 159

 Joy in Lines (See Curves)

 Lights and Shadows                          158
 Lighting a Room, Candle-power Needed        157
 Light Installation                                     84
 Light, Effect on Color                                 82
 Luminous Colors (See Advancing Colors)
 Large Room, Dark                                       34
 Low-Ceiling Rooms                            58
 Large Rooms                                  58
 Large, Well-Lighted Rooms                    26        34
 Light                                      1, 8

 Mixing Colors                                 8

 Neutrals                                    121
 National Types of Color                            47, 48
 Nature Colors                            35, 96
 North Light                      37, 59, 90, 91

 Proportions in Color
     Contrast             22 to 24, 28 to 30, 35
 Pigments, The Use of                         22
 Proportions Effected by Design (See Decorative Proportions)
 Proportions Effected by Color                 77
 Period Uses of Color                               47, 48
 Psychology of Color                           94
 Picture Moldings                              50
 Plate-Rails                             48 to 59
 Progression of Color                      34, 39
 Prismatic Colors                         6, 7, 8

 Room Combinations                                23 to 28
 Rugs                                      81, 84
 Rooms Under Normal Conditions                      42, 43
 Receding Colors                       77, 80, 89
 Reflection                      5, 135, 155, 156

 Spectrum                                       1
 Small Dark Rooms                              21       35
 Small Well-Lighted Rooms                      25       35
 Sequence of Color                 34, 35, 36, 41
 South Light                               37, 59
 Side-wall                           48 to 57, 92
 Small Room, High Ceiling                               35
 Small Room, Low Ceiling                                35
 Side-wall as Keynote                          92
 Straight Lines, Effect of 107, 109, 111-113, 115-117, 119
 Seriousness in Lines (See Straight Lines)
 Spectrum Theories                       121, 122

 Trade Terms Meaningless                 124, 125
 Taste in Color, to Determine                  94

 White, The Use of   31, 33, 88, 89, 98, 159, 160
 Wood Trims                              48 to 59
 Wainscoting                     48 to 57, 62, 93   42, 43
 Width Effects                       82 to 85, 87
 Wall Proportions                                 33 to 34

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