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Title: Diego Collado's Grammar of the Japanese Language
Author: Collado, Diego, -1638
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Diego Collado's Grammar of the Japanese Language" ***

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[Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text. Page numbers {99} are those of Spear's
edition and are referenced in the Table of Contents, the Index and the list
of typographical errors. Page numbers (99 relate to the Latin original and
are referenced in the Introduction and Footnotes.

The reproduction of the Latin original _Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae_

This e-text contains some letters with unusual diacritics:
  ã ẽ ĩ õ ũ (tilde on any vowel)
  ǒ ǔ (hacek / caron)
  ō ū (macron)
If any of these characters do not display properly--in particular, if the
diacritic does not appear directly above the letter--you may have better
results with the Latin-1 version of this file.]

       *       *       *       *       *


DIEGO COLLADO'S
GRAMMAR OF THE
JAPANESE
LANGUAGE

Edited and Translated
by
Richard L. Spear

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, EAST ASIAN SERIES
RESEARCH PUBLICATION, NUMBER NINE

CENTER FOR EAST ASIAN STUDIES.
THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS.

       *       *       *       *       *

DEDICATED
TO
THE MEMORY OF
JOSEPH K. YAMAGIWA

       *       *       *       *       *


Table of Contents

  PREFACE

  I INTRODUCTION                                                     1
      The Grammatical Framework                                      3
      The Phonological System                                        6
      The Morphological System                                       8
      The Structure of Collado's and Rodriguez' Descriptions
  	    Contrasted                                              11
      Bibliography                                                  26
      Editorial Conventions                                         28
  II _Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae_
  III A GRAMMAR OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE                           105
      Prologue to the Reader                                       107
      The noun--Its Declension and its Gender                      111
      Pronouns                                                     118
      First Person Pronouns--Ego, etc.                             118
      Second Person Pronouns--Tu, tui, tibi, etc.                  119
      Third Person Pronouns--Ille, illa, illud.                    120
      Relative Pronouns                                            122
      The Formation of the Verb and its Conjugation                123
      The Preterit, Perfect, Imperfect, and Pluperfect             124
      The Future of the First Conjugation                          125
      The Imperative of the First Conjugation                      125
      The Optative of the First Conjugation                        126
      The Subjunctive of the First Affirmative Conjugation         127
      The Infinitive                                               129
      The First Negative Conjugation                               131
      The Second Affirmative Conjugation                           134
      The Second Negative Conjugation                              135
      The Third Affirmative Conjugation                            135
      The Third Negative Conjugation                               136
      The Conjugation of the Negative Substantive Verb             137
      The Conditional Particles                                    139
      The Potential Verb                                           140
      The Conjugation of Irregular Verbs                           141
      The Aforementioned Verbs--Their Formation and Diversity      143
      Certain Verbs Which of Themselves Indicate Honor             147
      Cautionary Remarks on the Conjugations of the Verb           148
      The Adverbs: First Section                                   156
      Adverbs of Place                                             156
      Adverbs of Interrogation and Response                        159
      Adverbs of Time                                              159
      Adverbs of Negation                                          160
      Adverbs of Affirmation                                       160
      Comparative Adverbs                                          161
      Superlative Adverbs                                          162
      Adverbs of Intensity and Exaggeration                        162
      Accumulative Adverbs                                         162
      Adverbs that Conclude and Claim Attention                    163
      The Case Prepositions                                        164
      Conjugation and Separation                                   166
      Interjections                                                167
      The Syntax and the Cases that are Governed by the Verbs      168
      Japanese Arithmetic and Numerical Matters Concerning Which
  	    Much Painful Labor Is Required                         174
      Some Rules on the Conjugation of the Verb in the Written
  	    Language                                               182
  IV WORKS CONSULTED                                               185
  V INDEX TO GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES                                187
  VI INDEX TO GRAMMATICAL ELEMENTS                                 189

       *       *       *       *       *


Preface

The purpose of this translation of Collado's _Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae
Linguae_ of 1632 is to make more readily available to the scholarly
community an annotated version of this significant document in the history
of both Japanese language study and grammatical description in general.

Collado's work, derived in all its significant features from the _Arte da
lingoa de Iapam_ completed in 1608 by João Rodriguez, is in a strict,
scholarly sense less valuable than its precursor. However, if used with the
_Arte_ as a simplified restatement of the basic structure of the language,
Collado's Grammar offers to the student of the Japanese language an
invaluable ancillary tool for the study of the colloquial language of the
early 17th Century.

While less extensive and less carefully edited than the _Arte_, Collado's
Grammar has much to recommend it as a document in the history of
grammatical description. It is an orthodox description attempting to fit
simple Japanese sentences into the framework established for Latin by the
great Spanish humanist Antonio Lebrija. Thus, as an application of
pre-Cartecian grammatical theory to the structure of a non-Indo-European
language, the _Ars Grammaticae_ is an important document worthy of careful
examination by those wishing insight into the origins of what three
centuries later was to become the purview of descriptive linguistics.

The present translation was begun with the able assistance of Ms. Roberta
Galli whose contribution to my understanding of the Latin text is most
gratefully acknowledged. For his continued encouragement in this
undertaking I am grateful to Professor Roy Andrew Miller. Thanks are also
due to the Graduate School of the University of Kansas for its support in
the preparation of the manuscript and to Ms. Sue Schumock whose capable
typing turned a scribbled, multi-lingual draft into a legible manuscript.
The imperfections are my own.

R.L.S.

  Lawrence, Kansas
  May, 1975

{1}

       *       *       *       *       *


Introduction

In 1632, as the Christian Century in Japan was drawing swiftly to a close,
three works pertaining to the Japanese language were being published at
Rome by the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. These works were
by the Spanish Dominican Father, Diego Collado (d. 1638), who had spent the
years from 1619 to 1622 in Japan. Their publication clearly reflects the
vitality of the missionary spirit in that age as well as the important
place reserved for language study in the propagation of the faith.

The first two works, whose manuscripts had been prepared in Madrid the year
before, were a grammar and a dictionary of Japanese. The third, prepared in
1631, while the larger works were being seen through the press, was a guide
to the taking of confession written in both Latin and Japanese.[1] The
grammar, drafted in Spanish, was published in Latin in 1632 under the title
_Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae_. It is this work that is translated
here. The dictionary, only at the last moment supplied with Latin glosses
to supplement those in Spanish, was published in the same year with the
title _Dictionarium sive Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae Compendium_.[2] Taken
together these three works by Collado constitute the final extant efforts
of those who studied the Japanese language first hand during the Christian
Century.[3]

Two other grammatical works must be mentioned here as central to the proper
assessment of Collado's Grammar. They are both by the great Jesuit scholar,
Father João Rodnguez (1561-1634);[4] the _Arte da Lingoa de Iapam_
(Nagasaki, 1604-8, hereafter the _Arte_), and the _Arte Breve da Lingoa
Iapoa_ (Macao, 1620, hereafter _Arte Breve_). The first {2} is by any
standards the greatest grammatical study of Japanese made during the
Christian Century. It is further, as we shall see, the primary source for
Collado's Grammar. The _Arte Breve_, on the other hand, is not directly
related to Collado's work. Indeed it is clear that Rodriguez' 1620 Macao
publication was unknown to Collado. Nevertheless, since the _Arte Breve_ is
an abbreviated version of the _Arte_ with a purpose similar to the _Ars
Grammaticae_, a comparison of these two books with respect to the way they
systematize the material from the _Arte_ is included in this introduction
to contribute some insight into the treatment of the Japanese language at
the beginning of the Tokugawa Period.

In presenting this translation two potential audiences are envisioned. The
first, and more restricted, group is that having an interest in the history
of the Japanese language. It is hoped that an English version of this work
will make more readily available this significant material pertaining to
the Japanese language as spoken in the early modern period. I use the word
significant here to avoid granting excessive value to a work which derives
such a large portion of its material and insight from Rodriguez' _Arte_.

The second, and wider group for whom this translation is intended is that
which has a need for an edited edition of an important document in the
history of grammatical description. In this area of scholarship Collado's
work is of more than moderate significance. It was accepted for publication
by the prestigious Propaganda Press; and, even if those more familiar with
Japanese than the editorial board of that Press might have had serious
reservations concerning the linguistic accuracy of the text, it is
reasonable to assume that the Press judged it to be a good example of
grammatical description. It thus represents a grammar of a non-European
language which suited the requirements of the day for publication at
Rome.[5]

{3}

In order to permit this translation of the _Ars Grammaticae_ to be of use
in both these areas of scholarship I have made an effort to reduce to a
minimum those places where a knowledge of either Japanese or Latin is
required for the comprehension of the translation. It is sincerely hoped
that the result is not an effort that is satisfying to neither, and thus to
no one.

Because of the derivative nature of the text, this translation has put
aside a number of important philological problems as better dealt with
within the context of Rodriguez' grammars. This decision has its most
obvious consequences in the section on the arithmetic, where innumerable
data require exposition. However, since a basic purpose of this translation
is within the context of the history of descriptive grammar, these
tantalizing side roads have been left unexplored. It is, nevertheless,
hoped that this translation will serve as a convenient tool for those
wishing to make a more detailed investigation into the philological
questions raised by the text. But I must caution those who would undertake
such an inquiry that they had best begin with a careful study of the works
of Father Rodriguez.

With its limitations acknowledged, the _Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae_
remains a document worthy of our interest, and I offer this translation in
order that Collado's work may more easily find its proper place in the
history of descriptive grammar.

_The Grammatical Framework_

Collado perceived his task to be the presentation of a grammar of Japanese
which would have sufficient scope to equip those dedicated to the
propagation of the faith with a knowledge of the proper spoken language of
his time. While he concludes his grammar with a brief, and rather
presumptuous, statement concerning the written language, his purpose is
clearly to train his students in the fundamentals of colloquial speech. His
sensitivity to this point is demonstrated by his carefully transforming
those examples presented by Rodriguez in the written language in the _Arte_
into correct colloquial expressions in his own grammar.

The description is, of course, prescriptive. But given its age and its
purpose this ought not to be construed in the contemporary, pejorative {4}
sense. Collado, as Rodriguez and indeed all the grammarians of the period,
felt obligated to train their students in those patterns of speech which
were appropriate to the most polite elements of society. Particularly as
they addressed themselves to missionaries, they wished to warn them away
from such illiteracies as might undermine their capacities to propagate the
faith.

The description further reflects the traditional process conceptualization
of language. This is particularly obvious in the treatment of the verb.
Thus:

    _Praesens subiunctiui fit ex praesenti indicatiui mutato_ u _in quo
    finitur in_ eba.... (The present subjunctive is formed from the present
    indicative by changing the _u_ in which it ends to _eba_....) [p. 23].

In general each of the verbal forms is conceived to be the result of a
specified alteration of a basic form. Likewise the nouns are treated within
the framework of the declension of cases.

The treatment of Japanese forms is based upon a semantic framework within
which the formal characteristics of the language are organized. For
example, given the construction _aguru coto aró_ (p. 31) and its gloss
'_Erit hoc quod ist offere: idest offeret_ (It will be that he is to offer,
or he will offer),' it is clear that the _aguru coto_ is classified as an
infinitive because of its semantic equivalence to _offere_. The same is
true of the latter supine. If the form in Latin is closely associated with
such constructions as 'easy to,' or 'difficult to,' the semantically
similar form which appears as the element _iomi_ in _iominicui_ 'difficult
to read,' must be classed as the latter supine. Rodriguez in his _Arte
Breve_ of 1620--unknown to Collado--makes an attempt to classify the
structural units of Japanese along more formal lines; but in Collado's
treatment the semantic, and for him logical and true, classes established
by the formal structure of Latin constitute the theoretical framework
through which the Japanese language is to be described.

Collado makes reference to two specific sources of influence upon his
grammar. The first is included in the title to the first section of the
grammar, Antonius Nebrissensis. It is to this great Spanish humanist, {5}
better known as Antonio Lebrija (1444-1522), that Collado turns for the
model of his description.

An examination of Lebrija's grammar, the _Introductiones Latinae_
(Salamanca, 1481), shows that from the basic outline of his presentation,
to the organization of subsections and the selection of terminology, there
is little departure by Collado from his predecessor.

Even in such stylistic devices as introducing the interrogatives by giving
the form, following it with "to which one responds," and then listing a
number of characteristic answers; Collado is faithful to the
_Introductiones_.

But it is from his Jesuit colleague, Father João Rodriguez, that Collado
receives his most significant influence. There is no section of his grammar
that does not reflect Rodriguez' interpretation of the raw linguistic data
of Japanese. On the basis of the innumerable examples taken from
Rodriguez--most of the substantive sentences are directly quoted from the
_Arte_--as well as the parallel listing of forms and identical descriptions
of certain grammatical phenomena, it is clear that the writing of the _Ars
Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae_ consisted to no small degree of abridging
the exhaustive material contained in Rodriguez' grammar and arranging it
within the framework of Lebrija's _Introductiones_.

To say that Collado followed Lebrija in the general structure of his
description is not to imply that he fell heir to all of his precursor's
virtues. The Salamanca grammar of 1481 is a masterpiece of orderly
presentation. Printed in _lettera formata_ with carefully indented
subdivisions, it offers the student a clear display of the conjugational
system as well as long columns of Latin examples of a given grammatical
structure, accompanied on the right side of the page with Spanish
equivalents. Collado makes little effort at copying this orderly display.
There are in his presentation no paradigms, but instead only loosely
connected sentences that talk the student through the various forms of the
conjugation; and there is no orderly array of examples. Add to this the
innumerable factual and typographical errors, and one is left with a
presentation that lacks most of the basic scholarly virtues of its
precursor.

A similar criticism may be leveled against the work from the point {6} of
view of Rodriguez' influence. Without matching the _Introductiones_ in
orderliness, the _Arte_ more than compensates for its casual format by
containing a mass of exhaustively collected and scrupulously presented
linguistic data.[6] There was available no better source than the _Arte_
from which Collado might have culled his examples of Japanese.

One doubt that remains in assessing Collado's use of Rodriguez' material is
that perhaps his presentation of the most readily understandable material
in the _Arte_ is not so much an effort on his part to simplify the learning
of Japanese for his students, as it is a reflection of his lack of adequate
familiarity with the language he was teaching.

_The Phonological System_

A study of the phonological data reveals the _Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae
Linguae_ to be of minimal historical value. Any student of the phonology of
early modern Japanese should turn to the far more reliable work of Father
Rodriguez. Nevertheless, certain aspects of Collado's transcription require
our attention.

The most obvious innovation in the representation of the language is
Collado's transcription with an _i_ of the palatal consonant which all his
contemporaries record with a _y_. Thus in the text we find _iomi_ and
_coie_ (terms for native words and Chinese borrowings) where Rodriguez
writes _yomi_ and _coye_. This change was affected while the text was being
translated from the Spanish manuscript which uses _y_; and Collado himself
must have felt the innovation to be of dubious value since he retained _y_
for the spellings in the _Dictionarium_.[7]

Collado's handling of the nasal sounds is too inconsistent to be a reliable
source for phonological data. Given his rather awkward specification that
nasalization is predictable before what we must assume he means to be the
voiced stops and affricates,[8] his grammar presents an uncomfortably
irregular pattern in the transcription of the phenomena. Thus, on page 39
we find _vo mõdori aró ca?_ as well as {7} _modori aró ca?_. Again, what he
presents as the ending _zũba_ in his description of the formation of the
negative conditional (p. 34) appears in _tovazunba_ in its only occurrence
in a sample sentence (p. 62). To further confound the issue such forms as
_tovazunba_ and _qinpen_ occur in contrast to _sambiacu_, _varambe_, and
_varãbe_.

In Chart 1 the traditional pattern of the _gojūonzu_ (chart of 50 sounds)
is followed as a convenient framework in which to display the
transcriptional system employed by Collado.

                             Chart 1

                 COLLADO'S TRANSCRIPTION SYSTEM

                     _The Simple Series_

        /#/ /k/ /g/ /s/ /z/ /t/ /d/ /n/ /φ/ /b/ /p/ /m/ /y/ /r/ /w/

  /a/    a  ca  ga  sa  za  ta  da  na    fa    ba  pa  ma  ia  ra  va
  /i/    i  qi  gui xi  ji  chi gi  ni    fi    bi  pi  mi  -   ri  -
  /u/    u  cu  gu  su  zu  tçu zzu nu    fu    bu  pu  mu  iu  ru  -
  /e/  [ie] qe  gue xe  je  te  de  ne    fe    be  pe  me  ie  re  -
  /o/  [vo] co  go  so  zo  to  do  no    fo    bo  po  mo  io  ro  vo

                      _The Long Series_

  /au/ [vó] có  gó  só  zó  tó  dó  nó    fó    bó (pó) mó  ió  ró  vó
  /uu/   ú  cú (gú)(sú) -  (tçú) -  -     fú   (bú)(pú) -   iú  rú  -
  /ou/ [vô] cô (gô) sô  zô  tô  dô  nô   (fô)  (bô) pô  mô  iô  rô  vô

                 _The Palatal and Labial Series_

       /ky/       /sy/    /ty/      /ny/      /by/      /my/       /kw/
            /gy/      /zy/     /dy/     /φy/   /py/       /ry/     /gw/

  /a/  (qua)(guia) xa  ja  cha  gia (nha) fia  bia  pia (mia) (ria) qua gua
  /u/   qui (guia) xu  ju (chu)(giu)(nhu)(fiu)  -    -  (miu) (riu)  -   -
  /o/   qio  guio  xo (jo) cho  gio (nho)(fio)(bio)  -  (mio) (rio)  -   -
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  /au/  qió  guió  xó  jó  chó  gió   -  (fió)(bió)  -   mió  (rió) quó guó
  /uu/ (qiú)(guiú)(xú) jú (chú) giú  nhú   -    -    -    -   (riú)  -   -
  /ou/  qiô (guiô) xô  jô  chô  giô  nhô  fiô (biô) piô (miô) (riô)  -   -
             gueô               geô  neô       beô             reô

In this chart the phonemic grid is presented in a broad phonetic {8}
notation while the underlined entries are in the form used by the text.
Dashes indicate sequences which do not occur in the Christian material;
while the forms in parentheses are sequences which do not occur in the text
but have been reconstructed on the basis of the overall system from
sequences attested to elsewhere. The forms _ie_, _vo_, _vó_, and _vô_ have
been placed in brackets to indicate that neither /e/, /o/, /oo/, or /au/
occur in the syllable initial position; and, where in the modern language
they do, the text regularly spells that with an initial _i_ or _v_. The
forms in _eô_ at the foot of the chart represent sequences that are
phonetically identical to the forms above them, but which are transcribed
differently to reflect morphological considerations; e.g., the form _agueô_
from the stem _ague_. The phonetic values of /au/, /uu/, and /ou/ are
[[IPA: Open-mid back rounded vowel]:], [u:], and [o:].

Two aspects of the usage of _q_ should be noticed. First, as in the _Arte_,
_c_ is changed to _q_ before _o_ and _u_, when the sequence occurs at a
morphological juncture; e.g., _ioqu_ 'well,' and _iqó_ 'I shall go.' (This
rule does not extend to _a_ in such contexts; cf., _iocatta_ 'was good.')
Second, in contrast to the system used by Rodriguez, Collado does not feel
compelled to follow _q_ with _u_ in all contexts. Thus what Rodriguez
spells as _queredomo_ Collado spells as _qeredomo_. Finally, the text
records one usage of the letter _h_ in the exclamation _ha_.

_The Morphological System_

Collado's treatment of the morphology contains one quite obvious difference
from those of his predecessors: he isolates the particles of the language
as separate elements of the structure. While his effort is more or less
carelessly maintained by the type setter, his attempt to establish a
division between the semantemes (_shi_) and the morphemes (_ji_) of
Japanese by establishing formal distance between his _verba_ and
_particula_, reflects his consciousness that the morphological elements in
Japanese are of a different order than those in Latin. At times, such as
when he describes the preterit subjunctive as _agueta raba_, his divisions
fly in the face of derivational history. But he can claim a reasonable
justification for his decision by citing Rodriguez' rule for the formation
of this form; "add _raba_ to the preterit of the verb" (_Arte_, 18v).
Perhaps it is a prejudice founded upon familiarity with {9} contemporary
romanizations, but I cannot help but consider this attempt to give greater
independence to the particles as an improvement in the representation of
the morphological system.

In all other significant facets of the morphology Collado follows the
principles established by Rodriguez with the one exception that in the
over-all systematization of the verbal formation and conjugation he follows
the classifications established in Lebrija's _Introductiones_ rather than
those which Rodriguez inherited from the _Institutiones_ of Alverez. The
most significant difference between the two systems is the use by Lebrija
of the term subjunctive in his description of the moods where Rodriguez
gives independent status to the conjunctive, conditional, concessive, and
potential. As we shall see, after presenting the conjugational system of
the verb within the framework of Lebrija, Collado breaks the expected
sequence of his description of the verb to interject a section on
conditional constructions and another on those of the potential.

In the treatment of the tenses Collado breaks with Rodriguez in not
attempting to establish an imperfect for Japanese, but he does follow him
in the overall classification of the conjugations. Thus:[9]

  1st Conjugation    verbs ending in _e_, _gi_, and     e.g., _ague, uru_
                       _ji_ (_xi_ and _maraxi_)
  2nd Conjugation    verbs ending in _i_                e.g., _iomi, u_
  3rd Conjugation    verbs ending in _ai_, _oi_, and    e.g., _narai, ó_
                       _ui_

To the description of this general system Collado adds the treatment of the
substantive verbs. This section in many respects is the weakest in his
grammar with a portion of his description lost in composing the final text.

Since Collado does not, as Rodriguez, present the conjugations in
paradigmatic form, I have extracted from his presentation the most
representative forms of the verb _ague, uru_ for each of the categories of
the system, and presented them in Chart 2 for reference.

                         CHART 2

                 THE CONJUGATIONAL SYSTEM

                   _Affirmative_         _Negative_

                      INDICATIVE MOOD

  Present           aguru                 aguenu
  Perfect           agueta                aguenanda
  {10}
  Pluperfect        aguete atta           aguenande atta
  Future            agueôzu               aguru mai
  Future perfect    aguete arǒzu          ----

                      IMPERATIVE MOOD

  Present           ague io               aguru na
  Future            agueôzu               aguru mai

                       OPTATIVE MOOD

  Present           avare ague io caxi    avare aguru na caxi
  Preterit          agueôzu mono vo       aguru mai mono vo
  Future            avare ague io caxi    avare aguru na caxi

                     SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

  Present           agureba               agueneba
  Perfect           agueta reba           aguenanda reba
  Pluperfect        aguete atta reba      ----
  Future            agueô toqi            aguru mai qereba

                PERMISSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

  Present           agueredomo            aguenedomo
  Preterit          agueta redomo         aguenanda redomo
  Future            agueôzu redomo        aguru mai qeredomo

                        INFINITIVE

  Present           aguru coto            aguenu coto
  Preterit          agueta coto           aguenanda coto
  Future            agueô coto            aguru mai coto

                      GERUND IN _DI_

  Present           aguru [jibun]         aguenu [jibun]
  Future            agueô [jibun]         aguru mai [jibun]

                      GERUND IN _DO_

  ----              aguete                agueĩde

                      GERUND IN _DUM_

  Present           aguru tame            aguenu tame
  Future            agueô tame            aguru mai tame

                      SUPINE IN _TUM_

  ----              ague ni               ----

                      SUPINE IN _TU_

  ----              ague                  ----

                        PARTICIPLE

  Present           aguru fito            aguenu fito
  Preterit          agueta fito           aguenando fito
  Future            agueô fito            aguru mai fito

  The forms treated separately are:

                       THE CONDITIONAL

  Present           agueba                aguezũba
  Preterit          agueta raba           aguenanda raba
  Future            agueô naraba          aguru mai naraba

                        THE POTENTIAL

  Present           aguru ró              aguenu coto mo arózu
  Preterit          aguetçu ró            aguenanzzu ró
  Future            agueôzu ró            aguru mail coto mo arózu

{11}

_The Structure of Collado's and Rodriguez' Descriptions Contrasted_

In every section of his description, Collado is indebted to the material
presented by Rodriguez in his _Arte da Lingoa de Iapam_. The structure of
the _Ars Grammaticae_, however, follows a much more simplistic design than
that of the _Arte_. As a consequence Collado found it necessary to assemble
his data from various sections of Rodriguez' description. In the paragraphs
which follow we will briefly sketch the structural relation between these
two grammars.

As he clearly states in his title to the main portion of the grammar
Collado bases his description on the _Introductiones_ of Antonio Lebriya,
and more specifically upon that portion of the great Latin grammar which
dealt with the parts of speech. Further, he limits himself to the spoken
language rather than attempting, as does Rodriguez, an integrated treatment
of both the spoken and written grammars.

Under these influences Collado's grammar takes on the following form:

  A Prologue (including the phonology)               3-5
  The Body of the Grammar (by parts of speech)       6-61
  A Brief Syntax                                    61-66
  A Treatment of the Arithmetic                     66-74
  A Note on the Written Language                    74-75

In contrast Rodriguez' _Arte_, prepared under the influence of Alvarez'
_Institutiones_, develops its description over the span of three books
which treat both the spoken and written grammar in progressively greater
detail. Thus:

  The Introduction                          iii-v

          BOOK I

  The Declensions                             1-2v
  The Conjugations                           2v-54
  The Parts of Speech (_Rudimenta_)          55-80v

          BOOK II

  The Syntax of the Parts of Speech          83-168
  Styles, Pronunciation, Poetics, etc.      168-184

          BOOK III

  The Written Language                     184v-206v
  Names, Titles, etc.                      206v-212v
  The Arithmetic                           212v-239

{12}

Given these differing formats[10] it is clear that Collado is unable to
cope adequately with the more complex aspects of the grammar, specifically
those syntactic constructions to which Rodriguez devotes almost an entire
book.

An analysis of Collado's description and a listing of the portions of
Rodriguez' grammar from which material was taken yields the following:

  _Collado_                        _Rodriguez_

  Phonology (3-5)             {Parts of Speech (55-58)
                              {Book III (173-179v)

  Nouns (6-13)                {Declensions (1-2v)
                              {Parts of Speech (59-61)

  Adjectives (9-11, 32-33)    {Declensions (2-2v)
                              {Conjugations (47-52)
                              {Parts of Speech (61-67)

  Pronouns (13-18)            {Declensions (2v)
                              {Parts of Speech (67-68)

  Verbs (18-49)               {Conjugations (6v-54v)
                              {Parts of Speech (69-73)
                              {Syntax (83v-112v)

  Adverbs (49-57)             {Parts of Speech (73v-77)
                              {Syntax (113-125)

  Prepositions (57-59)        {Parts of Speech (73-73v)
                              {Syntax (140-148v)

  Conjunctions (59-60)        {Parts of Speech (76-76v)
                              {Syntax (130-137)

  Exclamations (60-61)        {Parts of Speech (76-76v)
                              {Syntax (125-130)

  Syntax (61-66)               Book II (83-168)

  Arithmetic (66-75)           Book III (212v-239)

  Written Language (74-75)     Book III (184v-206v)

Two aspects of Japanese were not able to be described with any degree of
satisfaction by Collado; the adjectives (_adjectiva_) and the prepositions
(_praepositio_). His difficulties, attributable to the basic structural
difference between Latin and Japanese, were compounded by the fact that
Rodriguez too was unable to find a satisfactory solution to their
description.

With respect to the adjectives, Collado attempts to deal with their
functions in the manner appropriate to Latin, that is as a sub-class of
{13} nouns (pp. 9-11). He also recognizes their formal similarity to the
verb and treats them briefly as a sub-class of the substantive verb (pp.
32-33), but his heavy reliance upon the semantic categories of Latin does
not permit him to follow Rodriguez who is able more clearly to recognize
their formal as well as their functional distinctiveness.

Concerning prepositions, Collado was confronted with an all but
insurmountable taxonomic problem. Here too Rodriguez was unable to develop
a completely satisfactory descriptive framework. In the _Arte_ the term
_posposição_ is used for those particles which function in a manner similar
to the Latin prepositions; e.g., _tameni_, _taixite_, and _tomoni_ (cf.
73-73v and 140-148v); the term _artigo_ is used for those particles having
the functions of the inflectional endings of Latin; e.g., _ga_, _ye_, and
_ni_ (cf. 1-2, 78, and 137-140); and the general term _particula_ is used
to cover the broad spectrum of particles that include adverbs,
conjunctions, and exclamations, as well as those otherwise unaccounted for
elements which end phrases, clauses, and sentences; e.g., _no_, _nite_, and
_yo_ (cf. 77-78 and 144-154v).

Collado, rather than attempting to refine the system suggested by
Rodriguez, follows the _Arte_ in listing as _praepositio_ those elements
which translate the Latin prepositions (pp. 57-59) but uses the term
_particula_ to cover all the other particles of the language.

This tendency of Collado's to retreat from the challenging problems left
unresolved by Rodriguez constitutes the greatest weakness of his
description. Given concise grammatical descriptions on the one hand and
over-simplified versions of previous works on the other, the _Ars
Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae_ unfortunately falls among the latter.

In his shorter work, the _Arte Breve_ of 1620, Rodriguez retains the same
general format, but makes every effort to reduce the description to its
barest essentials. Thus:

                      BOOK I

  A General Note on the Language                   1-2
  An Essay on How to Learn the Language           2v-6
  The Orthography                                  6-8
  Composition of the Syllables                    8v-9v
  The Way to Write and Pronounce the Letters      10-12v
  The Declension of Nouns                         13-18
  The Conjugation and Formation of Verbs          18-52
  {14}

                      BOOK II

  The Rudimenta                                   52-59v
  The Syntax                                      59v-66v

                      BOOK III

  The Written Language                            67-75
  The Various Kinds of Names                     75v-98v

Of particular interest in the context of Collado's grammar is the manner in
which Rodriguez displays the verbal system. While the _Ars Grammaticae_
presents the verbal system as a series of alterational rules to be applied
to the base forms, the _Arte Breve_ goes even further than the _Arte_ to
differentiate the formational rules from the conjugational displays.
Rodriguez tries several devices to elucidate his material. For example,
Charts A and B below represent very early attempts to use a bordered format
for linguistic description.

In order to indicate the differences to be found between the descriptions
presented by Rodriguez and Collado, I have extracted the formational rules
from the _Arte Breve_ and, setting aside only two short appendices dealing
with variant forms, present them here in their entirety.

_THE CONJUGATION AND FORMATION OF THE TENSES AND MOODS OF THE VERBS_

_All the verbs of this language may be reduced _(se reduzem)_ to four
affirmative and three negative conjugations. This is because the negative
conjugation of the adjectival verb, which we discussed before,[11] agrees
with the second of the three conjugations; and the conjugation of the
substantive verb _Sǒrai_, _Sǒrǒ_, or _soro_, which is an abbreviated form
of _Samburai_, _samburǒ_[12] both in the affirmative and the negative is
reduced to the third conjugation. At this point we will treat the three
affirmative and three negative ordinary conjugations of the regular
personal verbs.[13] Following this, and on account of its particular usage
and formation, we will discuss the conjugation of the adjectival verb._

_The verbs of this language do not change _(naõ fẽ variedade)_ to show
person and number as do those of Latin; rather, one form _(voz)_ {15} is
used for all persons, singular and plural. Number and person are understood
according to the subject _(Naminativo [_sic_])_, or pronoun, which is
joined to the verb. The moods of the verb, which in this language have
distinct forms for the tenses, are indicative, imperative, conjunctive,
conditional, and preterit participle. The remaining moods are made up of
these forms joined to certain particles. Each mood has but three tenses
which have distinct forms; these are preterit, present, and future. These
forms are signified by the Japanese terms _(vocabulos)_ _Quaco_, _ghenzai_,
_mirai_. The preterit imperfect and pluperfect are made up of the present,
preterit, and preterit participle together with the substantive verb, as
will be seen below in the conjugations._

_Concerning the formation of the tenses and moods of the verbs in general,
one is reminded that to understand the actual root _(raiz)_ and the natural
formation of all the tenses and moods, both affirmative and negative, it is
extremely important to take notice of the usage of the _Goyn_,[14] which
are the five vowels _(cinco letras vogaes)_ in the syllables which are
below each aforementioned formation; and that it is also important to
understand _Canadzucai_,[15] which is the way to write with _Firagana_ as
well as the way one joins together syllables, or letters, to form other
words _(palauras)_, while noticing which syllable is changed by which, what
constitutes long, short, or diphthongal syllables, which combinations cause
contraction _(sincope)_, which cause augmentation _(incremento)_ of the
verb, whether one makes a syllable liquid _(liquescit)_[16] or not, and how
the tenses of the moods are written with the same _Cana_.[17] The term
_Goyn_, not only indicates the syllables, or _Cana_, which are transformed
to others, such as _Fa_, _Fe_, _Fi_, _Fo_, _Fu_, which are changed to the
closely related sounds _Ba_, _Be_, _Bi_, _Bo_, _Bu_ and _Pa_, _Pe_, _Pi_,
_Po_, _Pu_; but it also indicates another kind of change from one sound to
another in the same order _(ordem)_, as happens among the syllables _Fa_,
_Fe_, _Fi_, _Fo_, _Fu_. _Ba_, _Be_, _Bi_, _Bo_, _Bu_. _Ma_, _Me_, _Mi_,
_Mo_, _Mu_, {16} etc. where often by rule _(regna)_ _Ma_ is changed to
_Mi_; or to the contrary _Bu_ to _Ba_ and _Bi_ to _Ba_, and likewise for
others. The greater part of the formation of the tenses of each mood is
confined to such changes, as is clearly seen in the way one writes the
tense forms with _Cana_. It is to this that another change belongs. That
which exists among those syllables having a certain relationship and
rapport between them, as _Ma_, _Fa_, _Ba_, _Pa_; _Me_, _Fe_, _Be_, _Pe_;
_Mi_, _Fi_, _Bi_, _Pi_; _Mo_, _Fo_, _Bo_, _Po_; _Mu_, _Fu_, _Bu_, _Pu_;
with _Mu_ and _V_. Thus, what is written _Vma_ in _Cana_ is written _Muma_,
and _Mume_ written for _Vme_ in order to conform more closely to its
pronunciation.[18] Also _Mu_ is written for _Bu_[19] so that all the
harmony _(armonia)_ in the formations of this language are contained in the
rules for _Goyn_ and _Canadzucai_. Those who are informed see, as native
speakers, how the tenses are formed for any mood, and which letter, or
syllable, must be changed to another to affect a formation. Concerning this
matter there is a booklet[20] which teaches _Canadzucai_, and the general
rules on the subject. Teachers should have this booklet to teach more
easily and advantageously those students who are learning _Cana_. Lacking a
knowledge of _Goyn_ and _Canadzucai_, some of the rules which until now
have been used in the formation of verbs (some of which I have let remain
as they were), are not the original and natural rules as are the
_Goyn_.[21] They are rather devices, some forming affirmative tenses and
moods from negative forms and others forming them from yet other more
remote sources, which appear to correspond to formational rules, but for
which the proper rules are not known. The fact is that the affirmative as
well as negative are formed from the affirmative, beginning with the root,
as will be seen below._

_Speaking in general of the formation of the verb, the forms of the
indicative and imperative moods of all three conjugations are formed from
the root of the verb. The rest of the tenses in the other affirmative moods
are formed from either the indicative or imperative forms. In the same way,
the negative indicative present is formed from the root of the verb and the
other tenses of the indicative are formed from {17} the present form. The
other negative moods are formed from the indicative forms._

FORMATION OF THE TENSES FOR THE INDICATIVE AND IMPERATIVE MOODS OF THE
VERBS OF THE FIRST AFFIRMATIVE CONJUGATION

_The final syllables of the roots of the first affirmative conjugation, by
which the verbs conjugated here are known, and from which the tenses of the
indicative will be formed, end in _E_, with the exception of the verb "to
do," _Xi_, or _Ii_, with its compounds and certain other verbs which end in
_I_. The verbs which belong to the first conjugation, are as follows [in
Charts A & B]._

_The verb _Xi_ "to do," with its compounds ending in _Xi_ or _Ii_, follows
the formation of the verbs of the first conjugation. _Ii_ is _Xi_ which has
been changed _(alterado)_ to _Ii_ because it follows the letter _N_. _Xi_
conforms to the rules for the syllables which are changed _(se mudam)_ to
others. Thus:_

  Xi         _In the present change _Xi_ to    Suru, xita, xeô, ôzu, ôzuru,
             _Suru_. In the preterit add         xeyo, xenu, _or_ zu.
  Faixi      _Ta_ to the root. In the future   Faisuru, faixita, faixeô,
             change _Xi_ to _Xeô_. In the        faixeyo, faixenu.
  Tayxi[22]  imperative change _Xi_ to _Xe_    Tassuru, taxxita, taxxeò,
             and add _Yo_, _i_, or _sai_. In     taxxeyo, taxxenu.
  Gaxxi      the negative add _Nu_, or _zu_    Gassuru, gaxxita, gaxxeô,
             to _Xe_._                           gaxxeyo, gaxxenu.

  Zonji      _In the present _Ii_ is changed   Zonzuru, zonjita, zonjeô,
             to _Zuru_. In the preterit _Ta_     ôzu, ôzuru, zonjeyo,
             is added to the root. In the        zonjenu.
  Caronji    future _Ii_ is changed to _Ieô_,  Caronzuru, caronjita,
             etc._                               _etc._

  Vomonji                                   Vomonzuru, vomonjita.
  Sanji                                     Sanzuru, sanjita.
  Goranji                                   Goranzuru, goranjita.
  Soranji                                   Soranzuru, soranjita.
  Ganji                                     Canzuru, canjita.
  Manji                                     Manzuru, manjita.

_Many of these verbs have another, less used, form made by adding _Ru_ to
the root; e.g., _Abi, abiru_; _Mochiy, mochiyru_; _xiy, xiyru_. Among these
are some that have only this second form and lack the first; e.g., _Mi,
miru_; _Ni, niru_; _Fi, firu_; _Cagammi, cagammiru_; _Ki, kiru_ "to dress,"
as distinct from _Ki, kuru_ "to come"; and _y, yru_._

{18}

                            CHART A

      [The Formation of First Conjugation Verbs Ending in _E_]

  ------------+---------+-----------------+-----------+------------
  _Syllables_ |_Roots_  |_Formation_      |_Present_  |_Preterit_
  ============+=========+=================+===========+============
              |Tate,    |_In the present  |Tatçuru.   |Tateta.
              |         |change _Te_ to   |           |
    Te,       |         |_Tçuru._ The     |           |
              |Fate,    |remainder are    |Fatçuru.   |Fateta.
              |         |from the root.   |           |
              |         |See above._      |           |
              |         |                 |           |
    Ie,       |Maje,    |_Change _Ie_ to  |Mazuru.    |Majeta.
              |         |_Zuru_ in the    |           |
              |         |present. The     |           |
              |         |remainder are    |           |
              |         |from the root.   |           |
              |         |See above._      |           |
              |         |                 |           |
              |Saxe,    |_In the present  |Sasuru.    |Saxeta.
    Xe,       |         |change _Xe_ to   |           |
              |         |Suru. The        |           |
              |Mairaxe, |remainder are    |Mairasuru. |Mairaxeta.
              |         |from the root.   |           |
              |         |See above._      |           |
  ============+=========+=================+===========+============

  ------------+---------+------------+-------------+-----------
  _Syllables_ |_Roots_  |_Future_    |_Imperative_ |_Negative_
  ============+=========+============+=============+===========
              |Tate,    |Tateô, ôzu, |Tateyo.      |Tatenu,
              |         |ôzuru.      |Tatei,       |_or_, zu.
    Te,       |         |            |tatesay.[23] |
              |Fate,    |Fateô, ôzu  |Fateyo,      |Fatenu,
              |         |ôzuru.      |_etc._       |_or_, zu.
              |         |            |             |
              |         |            |             |
    Ie,       |Maje,    |Majeô.      |Majeyo,      |Majenu,
              |         |            |_etc._       |_or_, zu.
              |         |            |             |
              |Saxe,    |Saxeô.      |Saxeyo.      |Saxenu,
    Xe,       |         |            |             |_or_, zu.
              |         |            |             |
              |Mairaxe, |Mairaxeô.   |Mairaxeyo,   |Mairaxenu,
              |         |            |_etc._       |_or_, zu.
              |         |            |             |
  ============+=========+============+=============+===========

{19}

                            CHART B

  ------------+---------+-----------------+------------+-----------
  _Syllables_ |_Roots_  |_Formation_      |_Present_   |_Preterit_
  ============+=========+=================+============+===========
    Be,       |Curabe,  |_In the present  |Curaburu.   |Curabeta.
              |         |tense of these   |            |
              |         |eight forms,     |            |
    Fe,       |Fe,      |change _E_ to    |Furu, _or_, |Feta.
              |         |Vru. _In the     |feru.       |
              |         |preterit add     |            |
    Ghe,      |Aghe,    |_Ta_ to the root.|Aghuru.     |Agheta.
              |         |In the future    |            |
              |         |_ô, ôzu, ôzuru_  |            |
    Ke,       |Tokoke,  |to the root.     |Todokuru.   |Todoketa.
              |         |In the Negative  |            |
    Me,       |Motome,  |present add      |Motomuru.   |Motometa.
              |         |_Nu_, or _zu_    |            |
    Ne,       |Fane,    |to the root._    |Fanuru.     |Faneta.
    Re,       |Fanare,  |                 |Fanaruru.   |Fanareta.
    Ye,       |Ataye,   |                 |Atayuru.    |Atayeta.
              +---------+-----------------+------------+-----------
              |De,      |_In the present  |Dzuru.      |Deta.
              |         |change _De_ to   |            |
              |Ide,     |_Dzuru_. The     |Idzuru.     |Ideta.
  [De,]       |         |other tenses     |            |
              |Mǒde,    |are formed, as   |Mǒdzuru.    |Mǒdeta.
              |         |above, from      |            |
              |Mede,    |the root._       |Medzuru.    |Medeta.
              |         |                 |            |
  ============+=========+=================+============+===========

  ------------+---------+------------+----------------+-----------
  _Syllables_ |_Roots_  |_Future_    |_Imperative_    |_Negative_
  ============+=========+============+================+===========
    Be,       |Curabe,  |Curabeô,    |Curabeyo,       |Curabenu,
              |         |ôzu, ôzuru. |ei, sai.        |_or_, Curabezu.
              |         |            |                |
    Fe,       |Fe,      |Feô, ôzu,   |Feyo, fei,      |fenu,
              |         |ôzuru.      |fesai.          |fezu.
              |         |            |                |
    Ghe,      |Aghe,    |Agheô,      |Agheyo,         |Aghenu,
              |         |_etc._      |_etc._          |_etc._
              |         |            |                |
    Ke,       |Tokoke,  |Todokeô.    |Todokeyo,       |Todokenu,
              |         |            |_etc._          |_etc._
    Me,       |Motome,  |Motoneô.    |Motomeyo,       |Motomenu,
              |         |            |_etc._          |_etc._
    Ne,       |Fane,    |Faneô.      |Faneyo.         |Fanenu.
    Re,       |Fanare,  |Fanareô.    |Fanareyo.       |Fanarenu.
    Ye,       |Ataye,   |Atayeô.     |Atayeyo.        |Atayenu.
              +---------+------------+----------------+-----------
              |De,      |Deô, ôzu,   |Deyo,           |Denu.
              |         |_etc._      |_etc._          |
              |Ide,     |Ideô, ôzu.  |Ideyo.          |Idenu.
  [De,]       |         |            |                |
              |Mǒde,    |_This verb is defective and lacks
              |         |other forms._
              |Mede,    |_This verb is defective and has no
              |         |other forms_.
  ============+=========+============+================+===========

{20}

FORMATION OF THE OPTATIVE, CONJUNCTIVE, AND CONDITIONAL MOODS, AND THE
PARTICIPLE

_The optative mood does not have forms of its own but compensates for this
in part by adding to the imperative certain particles which indicate
desire, in part by adding to the future indicative particles which show
regret for not doing something, and in part by circumlocutions with the
conditional mood and certain particles, as will be seen in the
conjugations._

_The conjunctive mood has two sorts of proper forms. The first is the
common and ordinary form ending in _Eba_, corresponding to the Latin _cum_.
The other ends in _Domo_, corresponding to the particle "although _(posto
que)_." The other verbs of this mood do not have their own forms, but are
expressed by circumlocutions as we shall see.[24]_

_The present tense of the first conjunctive is formed from the present
indicative by changing the final _Ru_ to _Reba_; e.g., _Motomureba_. For
the preterit _Reba_ is added to the preterit indicative; e.g.,
_Motometareba_. For the future the final _Ru_ of the third form of the
future indicative is changed to _Reba_; e.g., _Motomeôzureba_. For a second
form of the future the syllable _Rǒ_ is added to the indicative preterit
perfect; e.g., _Motometarǒ_. This particle is _Ran_ in the written
language; e.g., _Motometaran_.[25] An utterance _(oraçam)_ does not end in
this form, but must be followed by a noun.[26]_

_The present tense of the second conjunctive is formed by changing the
final _Ru_ of the present indicative to _Redomo_; e.g., _Motomuredomo_. For
the preterit _Redomo_ is added to the indicative preterit perfect; e.g.,
_Motometaredomo_. Strictly speaking this form is _Motomete aredomo_, losing
the _E_ of the participle. Furthermore, _Motometa_, together with the other
preterit forms in _Ta_ is from _Motometearu_ which is first elided to
_Motometaru_ and then by common usage _(pratica)_ to _Motometa_. All of
which is seen in its _Canadzucai_. For the future, the final _Ru_ of the
future indicative is changed to _Redomo_; e.g., _Motomeôzuredomo_._

_The conditional mood, for the present tense, is formed by adding the
syllable _Ba_ to the root of the verb and _Naraba_ or _Ni voiteua_ to the
{21} present tense form; e.g., _Motomeba_, _motomuru naraba_, and
_motomuruni voiteua_. For the preterit, _Raba_, _Naraba_, or _Ni voiteua_
are added to the indicative preterit; e.g., _Motometaraba_, which is in
reality _Motomete araba_, _motometa naraba_, and _motometani voiteua_. For
the future _Naraba_ or _Ni voiteua_ are added to the future forms; e.g.,
_Motomeô naraba_ and _motomeôni voiteua_. The present tense forms are also
used for the future._

VERBS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION THAT END IN I

_There are some irregular verbs ending in _I_ which follow the formational
rules of the first conjugation, both affirmative and negative. There are a
precise number of them. Those which have been found to date are shown
below. They are formed for the present indicative by changing _I_ to _Uru_,
for the preterit by adding _Ta_ to the root of the verb, and for the future
by adding long _û_, _ûzu_, or _ûzuru_ to the same root. For the present
conditional _Ba_ is added to the root, for the preterit _Raba_ is added to
the preterit indicative, and for the future _Naraba_ is added to the future
indicative. For the present conjunctive the _Ru_ of the present indicative
is changed to _Reba_, for the preterit _Reba_ is added to the same preterit
indicative, and for the future the final _Ru_ of the future is changed to
_Reba_. All the other forms are formed as has been stated for the formation
of the first conjugation. Thus:[27]_

        { Abi, aburu, abita, abiû, ûzu, ûzuru, abiyo, _or_ sai, abiba,
        {     taraba.
        { Cabi, caburu, cabita, cabiû, ûzu, ûzuru, biyo, sai, biba,
        {     bitaraba.
  Abi   { Carabi, caraburu, bita, biû, ûzu, ûzuru, biyo, sai, biba, taraba.
        { Sabi, saburu, sabita, sabiû, ûzu, ûzuru, sabiyo, bisai, biba,
        {     taraba.
        { Vabi, vaburu, vabita, vabiû, ûzu, ûzuru, yo, sai, biba,
        {     bitaraaba.

        { Nobi, buru, bita, biû, ûzu, ûzuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba.
        { Corobi, buru, bita, biû, biûzu, ûzuru, biyo, bisai, biba,
        {     bitaraba.
  Obi   { Forobi, buru, bita, biû, ûzu, ûzuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba.
        { Fitobi, bu, bita, biû, ûzu, ûzuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba.
        { Fokorobi, bu, bita, biû, ûzu, ûzuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba.

  Ubi   { Furubi, bu, bita, biû, ûzu, ûzuru, biyo, bisai, biba, bitaraba.

{22}

  Vochi,   { Chi _to_   } Votçuru, chita, chiû, chiyo, chiba, tçureba.
  Cuchi,   { Tçuru      } Cutçuru, chita, chiû, chiyo, chiba, tçureba.

  Fagi,    { _Change_   } Fadzuru, fagita, giû, giyo, giba, gitaraba.
  Vogi,    { Gi _to_    } Vodzuru, gita, giû, giyo, giba, gitaraba.
  Negi,    { Dzu        } Nedzuru, gita, giû, giyo, giba, gitaraba.

  Mochiy,  } _the_      { Mochiyuru, mochiyta, chiyû, yûzu, ûzuru, iyo,
           } _final_    { yba, yttaraba.
  Xiy,     } Y          { Xiyuru, xiyta, yû iyo, yba ytaraba.
  Mimixiy, } _to_       { Mimixiyta, mimixiyte, _Defective_.
  Mexiy,   } Yuru       { Mexiytaru, mexiyte, _Defective_.

  Y, yru, yta, yû, ûzu, ûzuru, yyo, yba, yreba. _To be_
  Ki, kiru, kita kiû, kiyo, _&c._ _To wear_
  Ki, kuru, kita, kô, kôzu, kôzuru, koyo _or_ koi. _To Come_
  Coru, coruru, corita, coriû, _&c._
  Furi, fururu, furita, furiû, _&c._
  Iki, ikuru, ikita, ikiû, _&c._
  Ideki, idekuru, idekita, idekiû, _&c._
  Deki, dekuru, dekita, dekiû, _&c._
  Voki, vokuru, vokita, vokiû, _&c._
  Tçuki, tçukuru, tçukita, tçukiû, _&c._
  Vori, voruru, vorita, voriû, _&c._
  Vrami, vramuru, vramita, vramiû, _&c._
  Cagammi, cagammiru, cagammita, cagammiû, _&c._
  Mi, miru, mita, miû, _&c._
  Ni, niru, nita, niû, _&c._
  Sughi, sughuru, sughita, sughiû, _&c._

FORMATION OF THE VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION

_All the roots of second conjugation verbs end in_ I. _There are eight
final syllables for these verbs; i.e._, Bi, Chi, Ghi, Ki, Mi, Ni, Ri, Xi.
_It is by these syllables that the verbs of the second conjugation (except
for those mentioned above as being in the first conjugation) are
recognized, and from which the tenses are formed._

_The roots ending in the syllables_ Bi, Ghi, Ki, Mi, _and_ Ri _change the_
I _to_ V _for the present tense; e.g._, Tobi, tobu; Coghi, coghu; Caki,
caku; Yomi, yomu; Kiri, kiru.

_Those ending in_ Chi _change to_ Tçu _for the present; e.g._, Mochi,
motçu; Cachi, catçu; Tachi, tatçu.

_Those ending in_ Ni _change to_ Nuru _for the present; e.g._, Xini,
xinuru; Yni, ynuru.[28]

{23}

_Those ending in _Xi_ change to _Su_ for the present; e.g., _Fanaxi,
fanasu_; _Cudaxi, cudasu_; _Taraxi, tarasu_._

_For the preterit those ending _Obi_ and _Omi_ change to _ôda_; e.g.,
_Yomi, yôda_; _Tobi, tôda_; _Yobi, yôda_; _Yorocobi, yorocôda_. _Tomi_
becomes _tonda_._

_Those ending in _Abi_ and _Ami_ change to _ǒda_; e.g., _Yerabi, yerǒda_;
_Vogami, vogǒda_; _Yami, yǒda_._

_Those ending in _Imi_ change to _ûda_; e.g., _Najimi, najǔda_; _Nijimi,
nijǔda_; _Ximi, xûda_.[29]_

_Those ending in _Umi_ and _Ubi_ change their endings to _Vnda_ or in some
instances _ûda_. While some have two forms others have only one form which
is seen in use, the more general is _Vnda_; e.g., _Musubi, musunda_;
_Susumi, susunda_ or _susûda_; _Nusumi, nusunda_ or _nusûda_; _Sumi, sunda_
or _sûda_; _Cumi, cunda_ only._

_Those ending in _Ebi_ and _Emi_ change to _Eôda_; e.g., _Sakebi, sakeôda_;
_Sonemi, soneôda_._

_Those ending in _Ghi_ change to _Ida_; e.g., _Auoghi, auoida_; _Voyoghi,
voyoida_; _Coghi, coida_._

_Those ending in _Ni_ change to _Inda_; e.g., _Xini, xinda_; _Yni, ynda_._

_Those ending in _Chi_ and _Ri_ change to _Tta_; e.g., _Machi, matta_;
_Cachi, catta_; _Tachi, tatta_; _Kiri, kitta_; _Chiri, chitta_; _Cari,
catta_._

_Those ending in _Ki_ and _Xi_ change to _Ita_; e.g., _Caki, caita_; _Faki,
faita_; _Nuki, nuita_; _Todoki, todoita_; _Sosoki, sosoita_; _Saxi, saita_;
_Fataxi, fataita_; _Maxi, maita_ or _maxita_; _Coxi, coita_ or _ oxita_.
The following add _Ta_ to the root; e.g., _Moxi, moxita_; _Muxi, muxita_;
_Fuxi, fuxita_; _Mexi, mexita_._

_The future can be formed in two ways. The first and more common way is to
change _I_ to _ǒ_, _ǒzu_, or _ǒzuru_; e.g., _Yomi, yomǒ, yomǒzu, yomǒzuru_;
_Yerabi, yerabǒ_, etc.; _Kiri, kirǒ_; _Xini, xinǒ_; _Auoghi, auogǒ_.[30]
Those ending in _Chi_ change to _Tǒ_; e.g., _Cachi, catǒ_, etc.; _machi,
matǒ_. Those ending in _Xi_ change to _Sǒ_; e.g., _Mǒxi, mǒsǒ_; _Nagaxi,
nagasǒ_; _Mexi, mesǒ_; _Coxi, cosǒ_, etc. The other way, which is easy too,
is to change the final _V_ of the present indicative to _ǒ_; e.g., _Yomu,
yomǒ_; _Kiku, kikǒ_; _Mǒsu, mǒsǒ_; _Mesu, mesǒ_. Those ending in {24} _çu_
change to _Tǒ_; e.g., _Tatçu, tatǒ_; _Catçu, catǒ_. Those ending in _Nuru_
change to _Nǒ_; e.g., _Xinuru, xinǒ_; _Ynuru, ynǒ_. This second rule seems
to be more naturally in accord with the rules for the Japanese language._

_The imperative changes the final _I_ of the root to _E_. Those ending in
_Chi_ change to _Te_; e.g., _Yome_; _Kike_; _Tamochi, tamote_; _Vchi, ute_;
_Machi, mate_._

_The present conjunctive is formed by adding _Ba_ to the imperative; e.g.,
_Yomeba_; _Tateba_.[31] For the preterit, _Reba_ is added to the preterit
indicative; e.g., _Yôdarebe_.[32] For the future the final _Ru_ of the
future indicative is changed to _Reba_; e.g., _Yomǒzureba_. The conjunctive
in _Domo_ is formed in the same manner; e.g., _Yomedomo, yôdaredomo,
yomǒzuredomo_._

_The conditional is formed from the future indicative by changing the _ǒ_
to _Aba_; e.g., _Yomaba_; _Tataba_.[33] The preterit is formed by adding
_Raba_ to the indicative preterit; e.g., _Yôdaraba_; _Tattaraba_.[34]_

_The preterit participle is formed from the preterit by changing the _A_ to
_E_; e.g., _Yôde_; _Kite_; _Tatte_. The present participle, in _Te_, is
formed by adding _Te_ ['hand'] to the root of any verb. This is properly a
substantive and thus governs the genitive as do the other substantives. It
does not indicate tense; e.g., _Yomite_; _Cakite_; _Machite_, etc._

_The negative present can be formed in two ways. The first, and that which
accords with the rules for _Canadzucai_, is formed by changing _I_ of the
root to _Anu_ or _Azu_; e.g., _Corobi, corobanu, corobazu_; _Yomi, yomanu_,
etc.; _Coghi, coghanu_; _Caki, cacanu_;[35] _Kiri, kiranu_; _ini, inanu_.
Those ending in _Chi_ change to _Tanu_; e.g., _Tachi, tatanu_. Those ending
in _Xi_ change to _Sanu_; e.g., _Fanasanu_. Another formation common to all
is made with the future indicative by changing _ǒ_ to _Anu_ or _Azu_; e.g.,
_Corobǒ, corobanu, corobazu_; _Yomǒ, yomanu_, etc.; _Coghǒ, coghanu_;
_Cakǒ, cakanu_; _Kirǒ, kiranu_; _Inǒ, inanu_; _Tatǒ, tatanu_; _Matǒ,
matanu_; _Fanasǒ, fanasanu_. This rule is common to all three conjugations
by changing the affirmative future indicative _ǒ_ to _Anu_ and the _ô_ {25}
and _û_ to _Nu_ or _Zu_;[36] e.g., _Todomeô, todomenu, todomezu_; _Saxeô,
saxenu_, etc.; _Tateô, tatenu_; _Miû, minu_; _Yomǒ, yomanu_; _Tatǒ,
tatanu_; _Fanasǒ, fanasanu_; _Narauǒ, narananu_; _Vomouǒ, vomouanu_;
_Furuuo, furuuanu_. For the second conjugation preterit, those in _Nu_ are
changed to _Nanda_: e.g., _Yomananda_. For the preterit participle _Da_ is
changed to _De_; e.g., _Yomanande_. For the second form of the negative
participle, the _Nu_ is changed to _Ide_; e.g., _Yomaide, Corobaide_,
_Tataide_, _Totonouaide_. For the future the particle _majij_[37] or _mai_
is added to the affirmative present indicative; e.g., _Yomumajij, yomumai_;
_Matçumajij, matçumai_._

FORMATION OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION AND THE ROOTS FROM WHICH THE TENSES ARE
FORMED

_The final syllables of the third conjugation are the diphthongs _Ai_,
_Oi_, _Vi_. By these syllables the verbs are known to belong to this
conjugation, and from them the tenses are formed. The present indicative is
formed by changing _Ai_ to _ǒ_, _Oi_ to _ô_, and _Vi_ to _û_; e.g., _Narai,
narǒ_; _Vomoi, vomô_; _furui, furû_. The preterit is formed by adding the
syllable _Ta_ to the present; e.g., _Narǒta_, _Vomôta_, _Furûta_. The
future is formed by changing the final _I_ of the root to _Vǒ, vǒzu,
vǒzuru_; e.g., _Narauǒ, narauǒzu_, etc.; _Vomouǒ, vomouǒzu_, etc.; _Furuuǒ,
furuuǒzu_, etc. The present imperative is formed by changing the final _I_
to _Ye_; e.g., _Naraye_, _Vomoye_, _Furuye_._

_For the present conjunctive _Ba_ or _Domo_ is added to the imperative;
e.g., _Narayeba, narayedomo_; _Vomoyeba, vomoyedomo_; _Furuyeba,
furuyedomo_. For the preterit _Reba_ or _Redamo_[38] is added to the
indicative preterit; e.g., _Narǒtareba, narǒtaredomo_; _Vomôtareba,
vomôtaredomo_; _Furûtareba, furûtaredomo_._

_The present conditional is formed by changing _ǒ_ of the future to _Aba_;
e.g., _Narauaba_, _Vomouaba_, _Furuuaba_. The preterit is formed by adding
_Raba_ to the indicative preterit; e.g., _Narǒtaraba_, _Vomôtaraba_,
_Furûtaraba_._

{26}

_The negative present is formed by changing the _I_ of the root to _Vanu_
or _vazu_; e.g., _Narai, narauanu, narauazu_; _Vomoi, vomouanu_, etc.;
_Furui, Furuuana_, etc. This form can also be formed from the future by
changing the _ǒ_ to _Anu_ or _azu_; e.g., _Narauǒ, narananu_, etc. For the
preterit the _Nu_ is changed to _Nanda_; e.g., _Narauananda_. For the
preterit participle the _Da_ is changed to _De_; e.g., _Narauanande_. For
the second form the _Nu_ of the present is changed to _Ide_; e.g.,
_Narauaide_, _Vomouaide_, _Furuuaide_. For the future the particle
_Majii_,[39] _maji_, or _mai_ is added to the affirmative present
indicative; _e.g._, _Narǒmajii, narǒmaji, narǒmai_; _Vomômajii, ji_, or
_mai_; _Furûmajii, ji_, or _mai_._

_The verb _Yy_ 'to speak' becomes _Yû, yûta, yuǒ, yye, yuanu_. _Yei_ or
_yoi_ 'to become sick' becomes _Yô, yôta, youǒ, yoye, yonanu_. The
substantive verb _Saburai_, which also belongs to this conjugation, becomes
_Saburǒ, saburauanu_; and _Sǒrai_ becomes _Sǒrǒ, soro, sǒraite, sǒraye,
sorouanu_._

Rodriguez follows these formational rules with a full display of all the
forms of the three conjugations. In his display he, like Alvarez before
him, recapitulates the appropriate rules for each form. Collado nowhere
presents his conjugational system as a paradigm but does, as we shall see,
include a full complement of example sentences in his description,
something which Rodriguez does not do in the _Arte Breve_.

_Bibliography_

In the examination of any portion of the Christian materials certain works
are indispensable. Father Johannes Laures, S.J., _Kirishitan Bunko_ (Tokyo,
1957) remains the basic bibliographic source for the study of all sources
of the Christian Century, while Hashimoto Shinkichi, _Kirishitan kyōgi no
kenkyū_ (Tokyo, 1929) and Doi Tadao, _Kirishitan gogaku no kenkyū_ (Tokyo,
1942) serve as indespensible guides to our understanding of the linguistic
aspects of the field. A later contribution to the general bibliography has
been made by Fukushima Kunimichi, _Kirishitan shiryō to kokugo kenkyū_
(Tokyo, 1973).

The basic grammatical study of the period, based upon the _shōmono_
materials, is Yuzawa Kōkichirō, _Muromachi jidai gengo no kenkyū_ {27}
(Tokyo, 1958). More closely related to the language reflected in the text
is his "Amakusabon Heike monogatari no gohō," in _Kyōiku ronbunshū_ (no.
539, Jan. 1929). An English treatment of the grammatical system of the
period is to be found in R. L. Spear, "A Grammatical Study of _Esopo no
Fabulas_," an unpublished doctoral thesis (Michigan, 1966). The phonology
has been carefully analyzed by Ōtomo Shin'ichi, _Muromachi jidai no kokugo
onsei no kenkyū_ (Tokyo, 1963), with a valuable contribution made in
English by J. F. Moran, "A Commentary on the _Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapao_
of João Rodriguez, S.J., with Particular Reference to Pronunciation," an
unpublished doctoral thesis (Oxford, 1971). This latter work presents an
exhaustive examination of the phonological system reflected in the _Arte
Breve_ of 1620 within the framework of Berhard Bloch's phonemic theory.

Two lexical works have been used as basic references in this translation.
The _Vocabulario de Lingoa de Iapam_ (hereafter the _Vocabulario_) produced
by the Jesuit Mission Press at Nagasaki in the years 1603 and 04. In a
carefully annotated version by Professor Doi, under the title _Nippo jisho_
(Tokyo, 1960), this work is the most important single source for the
vocabulary of the period. The second work is the _Dictionarium sive
Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae Compendium_ (hereafter the _Dictionarium_) which
is the companion piece to the present text. This dictionary has been
carefully edited and cross-referenced by Ōtsuka Mitsunobu, under the title
_Koriyaado Ra Su Nichi jiten_ (Tokyo, 1966). In this form it has served as
a constant aid to the translator in the determination of the proper glosses
for the lexical items in the text.

The aforementioned _Arte_ of 1604-08 by Rodriguez, has been the single most
frequently used tool in the preparation of this translation.[40] As the
most significant influence upon Collado's work and the source for most of
his material, both theoretical and practical, I have related the two works
at every point in the translation. In its Japanese version by Professor
Doi, _Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten_ (Tokyo, 1950), this work has been
invaluable in gaining a clearer understanding of many of the passages which
might have otherwise been obscure.

Rodriguez' _Arte Breve_ of 1620, while having no influence upon the
preparation of the _Ars Grammaticae_, is nevertheless of fundamental {28}
importance as a work against which Collado's treatment of Japanese grammar
is to be judged. This shorter grammar is as yet to be fully translated into
English--Moran having limited his study to the treatment of the phonology.

With respect to the text itself I have made this translation on the basis
of the facsimile edition published by the Tenri Central Library in 1972 as
part of its _Classica Japonica_ series. Ōtsuka Takanobu, _Koiyaado-cho
Nihongo bunten_ (Tokyo, 1934) and its revised edition under the title of
_Koriyaado Nihon bunten_ (Tokyo, 1957) have served as invaluable aids at
every step of the translation.

Ōtsuka's second edition is of invaluable scholarly importance because it
contains a cross-reference to the Spanish manuscript from which Collado
prepared the printed Latin edition as well as a concordance to the Japanese
vocabulary.[41] This translation attempts to supplement Ōtsuka's invaluable
contribution by relating the Latin text of this grammar with Rodriguez'
_Arte_.

_Editorial Conventions_

The Latin matrix of the text is printed in italic letters while the
Japanese is in roman. For this translation I have reversed the convention.
(In footnotes where the text is quoted the style of the original is
followed.) In making editorial corrections in the Japanese material the
corrected version is presented in brackets with periods to indicate the
general location;

    e.g., _mairu mai queredomo_ [... qeredomo]

(The only exception to this rule is the correcting of a missing open _o_,
q.v.) Sentences that have been taken from the _Arte_ are indicated by the
parenthetical recording of the leaf number of the citation immediately
after the sentence;

    e.g., _xô tame no chôqui gia_ (22) 'it is....

Shorter sentences and specific words that in all likelihood have been taken
from the _Arte_ are not listed if they are to be found in the section
elsewhere noted as being the source of the material covered. Any {29}
significant alteration in the form of the source is noted. Since the _Arte_
is numbered by the leaf, _v_ is added to the number to indicate the
_verso_.

All the corrections made by the _errata_ (on page 75 of the text) have been
applied to the text without notation unless the correction is itself in
error.

The punctuation follows the text with the following exceptions;

1. In translating from Latin the English follows modern rules of
punctuation.

2. Single quotes have been introduced into the text to mark glosses and
translations.

3. In transcribing the Japanese citations any alteration of the original
punctuation is noted.

4. The spacing of words in Japanese--a relatively casual matter in the
text--has been regularized on the basis of the predominant pattern.

5. Two specific rules, based upon Collado's more or less consistent usage,
are followed in the citing of verb forms:

    a. In the most frequent citation of verbs, where the root form is
    followed by the present indicative ending, a comma is used;

        e.g., _ari,u_; _ague,uru_; _mochi,tçu_

    b. In an alternate form of citation, where the two forms are given in
    their entirety, a colon is used;

        e.g., _ari:aru_; _ague:aguru_; _mochi:motçu_

Spelling and accentuation are treated in the following manner:

1. The _ſ_ in all instances is represented by _s_.

2. The usage of _v_ and _u_ has been regularized: the _v_ serves as the
consonant; and _u_ as the vowel, semi-vowel, and orthographic symbol; e.g.,
_vaga_, _uie_, _quan_, and _agueta_.

3. The predictable nasalization--marked by a tilde in the text--has not
been included in the translation unless the presence of nasalization is
morphologically significant; e.g., _tobu:tõda_. {30}

4. The accent grave--which appears in no discernible pattern--is not
transcribed in the translation.

5. The accent acute is used in the translation to mark the long _ú_ [u:]
and the long, open _ó_ [[IPA: Open-mid back rounded vowel]:], in those
places where the length is marked by Collado. Since the most frequent
typographical error in the text is the failure to mark the presence of
these long syllables, I follow the convention of correcting the absence of
this feature in the Latin text by using the inverted caret in the
translation. Thus, the appearance in the translation of _mósu_ indicates
that Collado recorded the length of this word, either by an accent acute
(e.g., _mósu_), or an inverted caret (e.g., _mǒsu_). The appearance of
_mǒsu_ indicates that he did not, and that its absence is being corrected.
The form _mǒsu_ in the translation is therefore the shorthand equivalent
for what would more regularly be _mosu_ [_mósu_].

6. The circumflex, which indicates the long, closed _ô_ [o:], is corrected
as other errors by placing the corrected version of the item in brackets;
e.g., _roppio_ [_roppiô_].

       *       *       *       *       *


ARS
GRAMMATICAE
IAPONICAE
LINGVAE

IN GRATIAM ET ADIVTORIVM
eorum, qui prædicandi Euangelij causa ad
Iaponiæ Regnum se voluerint conferre.

_Composita, & Sacræ de Propaganda Fide Congregationi
dicata à Fr. Didaco Collado Ordinis Prædicatorum
per aliquot annos in prædicto Regno
Fidei Catholicæ propagationis
Ministro._

[Illustration]

ROMÆ,
Typis & impensis Sac. Congr. de Propag. Fide.
MDCXXXII.
_SVPERIORVM PERMISSV_.

{105}

       *       *       *       *       *


A
Grammar
of the Japanese
Language

FOR THE SAKE AND HELP
of those who wish to go to the Kingdom of
Japan to preach the Gospel.

Composed and dedicated to the Blessed Congregation for the
Propagation of the Faith by Brother Didico Collado,
O.P., who was for many years in that Kingdom
as a Minister for the Propagation of
the Catholic Faith.

[Illustration]

Printed by the Blessed Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith.
1632
BY PERMISSION OF THE SUPERIORS.

{106}

       *       *       *       *       *


      It may be published if it please the Most Reverend Father,
          Master of the Holy Apostolic Palace.
              For the Archbishop of Umbria. The Vicar General.

  It may be published.

      Brother Nicolaus Riccardius, Master of the Holy Apostolic Palace,
          Order of Preachers.

{107}

       *       *       *       *       *


Prologue to the Reader

_With Some Advice on the Correct Pronunciation of the Japanese Language_

Long ago, at the beginning of the establishment of our orthodox faith in
the Japanese kingdom, a grammar of this language was made by Father Ioannus
Rodriguez of the Society of Jesus.[42] However, since things rarely turn
out perfect at first attempt, and, because of the passing years that have
made it difficult to find a copy of this grammar; I thought that it would
honor God and the ministers who preach the faith (which cannot be taught
without the use of language) if I were to select examples (and there are
many) that are useful to this language, neglect those not accepted by the
experts of the language, add, with the help of God (who gives words to the
evangelists), the words that I have learned from experience, practice, and
continuous reading, and by such means offer up a handbook of the Japanese
language in which I would bring together in a brief span these examples
with those precepts which the preachers (for whom I began this work) need
to learn of the Japanese language. This is done because examples are
necessary with the rules and precepts so that it is possible to demonstrate
the rule which has just been explained. Not only have these examples been
selected for the greater help and enjoyment of the students, but also their
explanation has been added in Latin (which is the language most common to
theologians); thus the teacher will have very little left to be desired.
Even if all the elements included in this grammar, as in the dictionary
(which with the help of God I plan to publish shortly),[43] are polished
enough and sure enough to be used with trust; I would still want them to be
submitted to the judgement of the reader so that the preaching of the
faith, carried on with a more correct language, may become more fruitful.

When two vowels follow each other in any Japanese word, they are not
pronounced as in the Latin word _valeo_ or in the Spanish, _vaca_, but each
is pronounced independently; _v_, _a_; _v_, _o_; _v_, _i_.

{108}

The letter _s_ is pronounced as _sç_; e.g., _susumuru_, _sçusçumuru_.

The letter _j_ is pronounced smoothly (_blande_), as in the Portuguese
_joaõ_ and _judeo_.

The letter _x_ is also pronounced smoothly, as in the Portuguese (4
_queixumes_.

When there is the sign ˆ over the letter _o_ it is pronounced _ou_ with the
lips almost closed and the mouth partly closed; e.g., _buppô_.

When there is the sign ˇ or ´ over the letter _o_ it is pronounced with the
mouth open as if there were two letters, _oo_; e.g., _tenxó_ or
_gacuxǒ_.[44]

If the signs we have just shown are over the letter _u_, it is pronounced
long as if there were two letters, _uu_; e.g., _taifú_ or _aiaǔ_.

When the sign ˜ is over the vowel, the sign should be pronounced like an
_n_, not strongly but swiftly (_cursim_) and softly (_leniter_); e.g.,
_vãga_.[45]

_Qe_ and _Qi_ are written without _u_, because when _u_ follows _q_ or _c_
both letters are pronounced as a _sinalepha_;[46] e.g., _quódai_ or
_quainin_.

When _u_ follows _g_ and immediately after the _u_ is the letter _e_ or
_i_, it should be pronounced as in the Spanish word _guenin_; but if the
letter _e_ or _i_ follows _g_ immediately without the _u_, it should be
pronounced as in the Italian word _giorno_; e.g., _xitãgi_.

The letter _z_ is pronounced with the same strength as in the Spanish word
_zumbar_; e.g., _mizu_.

But if there are two _zz_ then they are pronounced more strongly; _e.g._,
_mizzu_.

When there are two _tt_, _xx_, _zz_, _qq_, _cq_, _ij_, or _pp_[47] it is
important to persist in order to obtain perfect pronunciation and the exact
value of the word; for _mizu_ means 'honey' and _mizzu_ means 'water.'
Therefore, if the words are said with the same strength or the same
gentleness they can mean either 'water' or 'honey.'

When _ch_ comes before a vowel it is pronounced as in the Spanish
_chimera_; e.g., _fochó_.

{109}

But if _nh_ comes before a vowel it is pronounced as in the Spanish _maña_;
e.g., _nhuva_.

The letter _f_ is pronounced in various regions of Japan as it is in Latin.
In others it is pronounced as if it were an imperfect _h_. For both
pronunciations the lips and the mouth should be nearly, but not completely,
closed.

When _tç_ is in a word (and it appears quite frequently) the student should
pray that God have mercy on his pronunciation because the word is very
difficult, and its pronunciation is not to be found (5 in any other
language. It is not truly pronounced _tç_, nor as _s_, nor as _c_ alone,
but rather by striking the tongue violently against the teeth in order to
pronounce both _t_ and _ç_, but with more _ç_ than _t_ seeming to be
sounded; e.g., _tçutçumu_.

The letter _r_ is said smoothly and softly everywhere it is found, either
at the beginning or in the middle of a word; e.g., _ranguió_, or
_cutabiruru_.

_Ya_, _ye_, _yo_, and _yu_ are pronounced as in Spanish.[48]

When words ending in _i_ or _u_ are pronounced by the Japanese, the last
letter is almost not heard by the student. For instance, if he hears
_gozaru_ he will think he hears _gozar_, if he hears _fitotçu_ he will
believe he hears only _fitotç_, and when he hears _axi no fara_ he will
perceive only _ax no fara_.

When a word ending in a vowel is followed immediately by a consonant,
particularly _b_ or _s_,[49] between that vowel and consonant is pronounced
the letter _n_, not perfectly, but softly; e.g., _sonõ gotoqu._

I have given special care to the accenting of words.[50] This has been done
so that the signs that have been placed correctly over the accented letter
will allow the listener to understand the meaning of the words and the
sentences of the speaker. For instance, _qèixèi_ has the accent on both
_èè_; _fìbicàxi_ has it on the first _i_ and on the a.[51] This same {110}
arrangement will be respected in the dictionary, with the accent being
written with the same degree of correctness as is able to be achieved with
great attention. If at times I have made mistakes, I am prepared to correct
them immediately. Concerning what has been explained too briefly or left
out of this grammar and the dictionary, learned people will be able to do
that when they add a third dictionary and a third grammar, since it is easy
to supply this material. Because I wish neither to be criticized by the
Head of our Order (_pater familias_) and the Lord our God, nor do I wish
this knowledge to be wrapped up in a handkerchief;[52] I want by these two
works to help and to cooperate in the salvation of the Japanese not only by
preaching but also by offering to the preachers, if I can, the tools of the
language and chiefly the method by which they might better learn the
Japanese language, a task made very difficult by the persecutions in Japan.
Farewell, Reader, and be of good cheer. Madrid, 30 August 1631.

       *       *       *       *       *


{111} (6

IN THIS GRAMMAR WE HAVE FOR THE MOST PART OBSERVED THE ARRANGEMENT WHICH
ANTONIUS NEBRISSENSIS AND OTHERS HAVE FOLLOWED IN LATIN FOR THE TREATMENT
OF SENTENCES, NAMELY NOUNS, PRONOUNS, ETC.

_The Noun--Its Declension and Its Gender_

In the Japanese language there are no case declensions as there are in
Latin; but there are certain particles, which when suffixed to nouns,
determine the differences between the cases for both common and proper
nouns. The particles which form the nominative are five; _va_, _ga_,
_cara_, _no_, and _iori_. The particle _va_ is used when we want to give a
sort of reduplicative[53] and specific turn to the person or thing that is
signified by such a noun. It indicates either the first, second, or third
person; e.g., _Vatacuxi va mairanu_ 'I, or those related to me, will not
come.' The particle _no_ is suffixed to the second and third person,
especially if they are inferior in rank or in a sentence where there is a
relative construction which does not indicate a transitive action; e.g.,
_sonata no móxita coto_ 'that which you said.' The particle _no_ is also
used when some indefinite form is used; e.g., _iie no aru ca miió_ [...
_miio_] 'see if there are houses.' The particle _ga_ is used usually for
the first and third persons of inferior status as well as for the second
person when he is the most lowly or is to be humiliated; e.g., _Pedro ga
qita_ 'Peter came.' This particle is also used to indicate something
indefinite, as has been said of the particle _no_; e.g., _coco ni va iie ga
nai ca?_ 'aren't the houses here?' It is also used in sentences that have a
relative construction which does not indicate a transitive action. If the
reference is to something of inferior or humble status the particle _ga_ is
also used; e.g., _soregaxi ga caita fumi_ 'the letter which I wrote,'
_sochi ga iúta coto_ 'what you said.' The particles _cara_ and _iori_ are
used to form the {112} nominative case when the sentence shows a transitive
action, especially if the sentence contains a relative construction; e.g.,
_Deus iori cudasareta gracia_ 'the mercy which God gave,' _tono cara core
vo vôxe tçuqerareta_ 'the Lord taught this.' Sometimes the words are in the
nominative case without any particle; e.g., _Pedro Ioaõ vo iobareta_ 'Peter
called (7 John.' There are two particles for the genitive; i.e., _no_ and
_ga_. The particle _no_ is used for all persons of superior rank; e.g.,
_Padre no võ qiru mono_ 'the priest's clothes, or habit.' The particle _ga_
is used for people of inferior rank; e.g., _Pedro ga fumi_ 'Peter's
letter,' _sochi ga mono_ 'your thing,' _are ga cane_ 'your money,' _tono va
iocu ga fucai fito gia_ 'the Lord is of great cupidity, that is to say he
is very eager.' Sometimes the particle _to_ is suffixed to the genitive;
e.g., _Pedro no to degozaru_ 'it belongs to Peter.' But since this is not a
perfect way of speaking, it is better not to use it. I have cited it so
that if you hear it you will understand. When two nouns are joined to form
a single word, the one which is like an adjective does not require the
genitive particle; e.g., _cocuxu_ 'the Lord of the kingdom.' According to
the ordinary rule we should say _cocu no xu_. This way of forming the
genitive is very common in Japanese; e.g., _Maria coto_ 'Mary's thing.'

Two particles form the dative; i.e., _ni_ and _ie_. For example, _Pedro ni
móxita_ 'I told Peter,' _Padre ie ague maraxita_ 'I gave, or offered, it to
the priest.'

There are five particles which form the accusative case; i.e., _vo_,
_voba_, _va_, _ie_, and _ga_. The first, _vo_, is the most used; e.g.,
_Pedro vo iobe_ 'call Peter.' _Va_ is used when one wishes to express in
particular a noun in the accusative; e.g., _niffon guchi va xiranu_[54] 'I
don't know Japanese.' The ending _voba_ is the same as _vo va_, changing
the second _v_ to _b_ they use it as _va_; e.g., _fune voba nori sutete;
cane bacari tori maraxita_ 'abandoning ship, I took only money, or gold,
with me.' _Ie_ is used to indicate the place to which one goes; e.g., _Roma
ie mairó_ 'I go to Rome.' _Ga_ is used for nouns which indicate non-living
or humble things; e.g., _are ie gozare, mono ga móxitai_ 'go there! I have
something to tell you.' The accusative is also formed without any particle,
as has {113} been shown in the example second before last, where the second
accusative is without a particle.

The vocative is formed with the particle _icani_. It is not suffixed to
words as are the other particles but it is prefixed instead; e.g., _icani
qimi core vo goronjerarei_ 'look at this, My Lord.'[55] Usually, however,
the vocative is formed without any particle; e.g., _Padre sama_ (8
_qicaxerareio_ 'listen, Reverend Father.'

There are three particles for the ablative; i.e., _iori_, _cara_, and _ni_.
The third indicates the place in which; e.g., _iglesia ni gozaru_ 'he is in
church.' Sometimes _ni_ is used after _no_; e.g., _sonata no ni xi aru ca?_
'are you going to make it yours, or take it for yours?' But this seems much
more a dative than an ablative. The particles _cara_ and _iori_ are more
common in the formation of the ablative; e.g., _Madrid cara maitta_ 'I came
from Madrid,' _Pedro iori corosareta_ 'he was killed by Peter.'

There are four particles used to form the plural. They are placed
immediately after the noun they pluralize and before the particles which
indicate case. These four particles are _tachi_, _xu_, _domo_, and _ra_.
The first, _tachi_, forms the plural of those noble things which one wishes
to honor; e.g., _tono tachi_ 'lords.' The particle _xu_ forms the plural
for noble things but not those of the highest rank; e.g., _samurai xu_
'nobles (_nobiles_), but not lords (_domini_).' The particle _domo_ is
suffixed to words which indicate humble things, either abstract, animate,
or inanimate; e.g., _fiacuxó domo_ 'farmer,' _ixi domo_ 'stones,' _mma
domo_ 'horses.' The particle _ra_ forms the plural of nouns which indicate
very low things which are to be despised; e.g., _Iudeo ra_ 'Jews.'[56] The
case particles which are required by the sentence are placed after the
pluralizing particles; e.g., _tono tachi no coto domo vo varú iú na_ 'don't
speak badly about the Lords' affairs.'

There are some words that are plural in themselves; e.g., _tomo gara_ means
'men,' _Nan ban mono_ 'European things,' _Nan ban mono vo fomuru na_ 'don't
praise European things.'

The particle _icani_, which as has been indicated above forms the vocative,
is not placed after but always before the pronouns which are {114} made
plural, while the particles which form the plural are placed after; e.g.,
_icani Padre tachi vo qiqi nasare io_ 'listen to the priests.'

But two of the four particles which form the plural, _domo_ and _ra_, are
with certain words singular. _Varera_ and _midomo_ mean 'I.' Sometimes both
are found together in the singular; e.g., _midomora_ 'I,' _midomora ga_
'my, or mine.' The particles _domo_ and _ra_ are also (9 suffixed to the
singular when one wishes to humiliate the thing mentioned; e.g., _hara domo
ga itai_ 'I have a stomach ache,' _asu domo va aru mai_ 'tomorrow will not
come,' _asu ra va naró mode_ 'tomorrow will perhaps not come.'

The particle _va_ is suffixed to singular and plural nouns which already
have a particle; e.g., _coco ie va mairanu_ 'he will not come here,' _coco
cara va denu_ 'he did not go out from here,' _coco ni va aru mai_ 'he will
not enter here.' Sometimes _va_ replaces the particles of the declension;
e.g., _fune de saie ióió tçuita ni, cachi va nacanaca naru mai_ (119v) 'I
arrived with such difficulty by ship: I would undoubtedly never have
arrived had I come by foot, or on foot.'[57] The particle _va_ here
replaces _cara_.

Japanese does not have the genders feminine, masculine, and neuter as Latin
does. There are, however, certain nouns which are feminine or masculine
because of their meaning. Other nouns are common to both these genders. For
things which do not have a proper gender _vo_ is placed before masculine
nouns and _me_ before feminine; e.g., _voivo_ means 'male fish' and _meivo_
'female fish,' _vojica_ means 'roe-buck,' _melica_ [_mejica_]
'roe-doe,'[58] _coma_ means 'horse,' _zoiacu_ 'mare,' _xô_ means 'male
hawk,' _dai_ 'female hawk,' _cotoi_ means 'bull,' _meuxi_ 'cow,' _votoco_
means 'man,' _vonago_, _nhóbó_, or _vonna_ 'woman.' All these words are
placed in the dictionary as they come to mind.

The nominal adjectives have no gender or declension but make use of the
same particles as the nouns. There are however many and diverse adjectives.
Certain ones end in _ai_ others in _oi_, _ei_, _ui_ and _ij_. There are
other, more proper adjectives, which are formed by adding _no_ to nouns.
When the first five types of adjectives are placed before nouns they are
then properly adjectives and do not in any way alter the composition of
{115} the sentence. But when they are placed after nouns they become more
like verbs and are in fact conjugated like them; e.g., _tacai iama_ 'a high
mountain,' _xiguei ideiri_ 'frequent comings and goings,' _caxicoi_ (10
_fito_ 'a wise man,' _cavaij mono_ 'a wretched thing,' _aiaui coto_ 'a
dangerous thing,' _umare tçuqi no cuchi_ 'one's natural, or mother tongue.'
There are also adjectives ending in _na_ which, when they are placed before
nouns, do not alter the construction; e.g., _qirei na coto_ 'a clean
thing.' All the adjectives, except those ending in _no_, change their form
in some way when they occur before verbs. Those that end in _ai_ change to
_ó_; e.g., _cono iama va tacó gozaru_ 'this mountain is lofty.' Those
ending in _ei_ change to _eô_; e.g., _cono iama va xigueô gozaru_ 'these
mountains are dense.' Those ending in _oi_ change to _ô_; e.g., _caxicô
gozaru_ 'he is wise.' Those ending in _ui_ change to _ú_; e.g., _xei no
ficú gozaru_ 'he is small in stature.' Those ending in _ii_ [_ij_] change
to _iú_; e.g., _caiú gozaru_ 'it itches.'[59] Among those adjectives ending
in _ij_ there are many which come from verbs; e.g., _nozomi,u_ means 'to
wish,' and from it comes _nozomaxij_ 'which is to be wished for.' Other
adjectives come from nouns; e.g., _varambe_ means 'a child, or infant,' and
from this comes _varamberaxij_ which means 'childish.' Other examples may
be found in the dictionary.

Adjectives which end in _na_ change the _na_ to _ni_ when they are placed
before verbs; e.g., _fuxin ni zonzuru_ 'I think it doubtful.' The
adjectives that end in _no_ sometimes change the _no_ to _na_; e.g., _bechi
no fito_ changes to _bechi na fito_ 'a different man.' Sometimes when it is
followed by a verb the _na_ changes to a _ni_; e.g., _bechi ni gozaru_ 'it
is different.' However, the meaning remains the same whether the word ends
in _na_ or _no_; e.g., _bechi no fito no cuhi cara qiita_ [... _cuchi_ ...]
is the same as _bechi na fito no cuchi cara qiita_ 'I heard it from the
mouth of a different person.'[60] The only difference in these forms is
that when the word ends in _no_ no change occurs as a consequence of what
follows. But, as has been said, those adjectives that end in _na_ change to
_ni_ when they come before a verb. If a substantive verb follows an
adjective, it is an elegant statement; e.g., _cono iami va tacó gozaru_
'this mountain is high.' But if this kind of verb does not follow, the
sense {116} is not altered since the adjective is used as a substantive
verb. But this is not used before superiors. To them we will not say _cono
iama va tacai_ but rather _cono iama va tacó gozaru_. The same is true for
the other adjectives.

Adjectives usually end in _i_ but infrequently these adjectives change to
_xi_ or to _qu_. _Ioi_, which means 'good,' changes to _ioqu_, or _ioxi_;
e.g., _ioqu dancó xite_, which has the meaning of 'offering good (11
council.'[61] There are innumerable nouns which become adjectives if _na_
is suffixed to them; e.g., _afo_ means 'ignorance' and from it comes the
word _afo na_ which means 'ignorant,' _jiiu_ means 'liberty' and _jiiu na_
means 'which is free.' Other examples are offered by the dictionary.

There are certain abstract nouns which become adjectives when they precede
a vocable (_vocabulis_) with the meaning of 'man'; e.g., _jifi_ means
'pity,' but when the word _jin_ is placed after it, it becomes _jifijin_ 'a
pitiable person.' _Fin_ means 'poverty,' but when the word _nin_ is
suffixed to it, it becomes _finnin_ 'a poor person.' In the same way, when
one suffixes _ja_ to _fin_, it makes _finja_, which also means 'a poor
person.' The word _ban_ means 'watch,' but if the word _ja_ is added to it,
it becomes _banja_ 'a careful person.' Many other examples can be found in
the dictionary.

There are in Japanese certain words which are borrowed from Chinese, called
_cobita_[62] or _coie_, and are written together to form by their union a
noun and an adjective. Thus, _ten_ mean 'heaven,' _xu_ means 'lord,' and
_tenxu_ means 'lord of heaven.'

The preterit of verbs (which will be taken up in their place) seem to have
the same strength and meaning as adjectives when they are used before
nouns; e.g., _iogoreta te_ 'dirty hands,' where _iogoreta_ is the preterit
of the verb _iogore,uru_ 'I became dirty.' _Caita qió_ means 'a written
book' and _caita_ is the preterit of the verb _caqi,u_ I write.' The
abstract (_abstracta_), or root from which the verb is formed, is itself a
noun which signifies the action of the verb in the abstract; e.g., {117}
_facari_ means 'measure,' and it comes from the verb _facari,u_ 'I measure'
while _fajime_ means 'beginning,' and comes from the verb _fajime,uru_ 'I
begin.' Others will be found in the dictionary. The prepositional particle
_mono_, when placed before an abstract or verbal noun, forms a noun which
indicates the subject who does the action; e.g., _mono_ before _caqi_ makes
_monocaqi_ 'one who writes.' This same particle when placed after a root
forms a noun which indicates the effect of an action; e.g., _caqimono_ 'a
writing.'

The particle _goto_ placed after these same roots forms a noun (12 which
means a thing which is worthy of the action indicated by the verb; e.g.,
_mi_ is the root of the verb _mi,uru_ 'I see,' and _migoto_ is 'a visible
thing, or a thing worthy of being seen'; while _qiqi_ is the root of the
verb _qiqi,u_ 'I hear,' and _qiqigoto_ means 'a thing which can be heard,
or is worthy of being heard.'

If we place certain substantive nouns after certain of the verbal nouns
about which we have been speaking, there is formed a noun which has the
meaning of the action; e.g., _foxi_ is the root of the verb _foxi,u_ 'to
dry under the sun'; but, if _ivo_ 'fish' is placed after it, the meaning of
the expression _foxiivo_ becomes 'fish dried in the sun.'

When the particle _dógu_ 'instrument' is placed after the root of a verb it
forms a noun meaning the cause or instrument of the action indicated by the
verb; e.g., _varaidógu_ 'the cause, or instrument of ridicule,' _caqidógu_
'a writing instrument, or an instrument for writing.'

The particle _me_ when suffixed to a verb forms a noun which indicates the
terminus of the action; e.g., _avaxe_ is the root of the verb _avaxe,uru_
'to unite or join two things,' and _avaxeme_ means 'junction.' The same is
true of other forms.

An abstract noun can be formed from those adjectives ending in _i_ if the
_i_ is changed to _sa_; e.g., _nagai_ means 'is long,' and _nagasa_ means
'length.' The adjectives ending in _na_ change the _na_ to _sa_ in order to
form abstract nouns; e.g., _aqiraca na_ which means 'clear' will become
_aqiracasa_ 'clarity.'

Sometimes from two nouns taken together, often with a change in the first
or last letter, there is formed a third noun, which is quasi-descriptive
(_quasi connotativus_), almost like an adjective or noun with a {118}
genitive; e.g., from _qi_ 'wood' and _fotoqe_ 'idol' there results
_qibotoqe_ 'wooden idol,' with the _f_ changed to _p_ [_b_]. But if the
prefixed noun ends in _e_, this _e_ is changed to _a_ in the attributive of
the compound; e.g., _tçumasaqi_ 'the tip of the nail,' _canacugui_ 'iron
nails.' A word which is placed second in these compounds may change its
first letter; if it is _f_ it becomes _b_ or _p_, if it is _s_ it becomes
_z_, if it is _c_ it becomes _g_, if it is _tç_ it becomes _zz_, if it is
_x_ it becomes _j_; e.g., _caribune_, _buppô_, (13 _nigorizaqe_,
_soragoto_, _qizzumari_, and _sorajeimon_. See the dictionary.

_Pronouns_

In the Japanese language there are no derivative pronouns, such as
_meus,a,um_, etc.; but the primitive pronouns, such as _mei_, _tui_, etc.,
are used. These primitive forms do not have declensions for case, but
rather use the particles which are common to both nouns and pronouns.

Certain particles (about which we will speak later) when added to a word
indicate honor and thereby form a pronoun or substitute for it in such
circumstances as pronouns would normally be used. Thus, if I say _von
fumi_, when speaking to someone else, it is immediately understood that I
am speaking about his letter and not mine; for if I were speaking about
mine I would not say _von fumi_ but only _fumi_, since the particle _von_,
which indicates honor, signifies 'your letter.' This is also true for such
particles as _mi_ which also attributes honor to the noun to which it is
joined.

_First Person Pronouns--Ego, etc._[63]

There are eight particles which signify 'I, mine, to me, etc.' They are
_vatacuxi_, _soregaxi_, _vare_, _mi_, _varera_, _midomo_, _midomora_,
_vare_.[64] The first four indicate a degree of superiority on the part of
those who use them. The others are more humble. Women use three other
particles _mizzucara_, _varava_, and _vagami_ which are not used by men.
The people in the countryside use two others, _vara_ [_vora_] and _vorara_,
while priests {119} when speaking of themselves use _gusô_, that is to say
'I, a worthless man of the cloth,' and old men when speaking of themselves
use _guró_, 'I, a worthless and despicable old man.' The king (_rex_) says
_chin_ or _maru_ which means 'I, the King.' (14

To form the plural of these pronouns the pluralizing particles _domo_ or
_ra_ are added; e.g., _midomo ga maitta toqi_ 'when we went.' To indicate
the difference between the cases, the endings about which we have spoken
are suffixed.

_Second Person Pronouns--Tu, tui, tibi, etc._[65]

There are many particles that form the second person pronoun. They are
differentiated to indicate those persons deserving no honor and respect,
those deserving some, moderate, great, or maximal honor and respect. In
speaking to inferiors there are three particles used for 'you'; _vare_,
_vonore_, and _sochi_. If _me_ or _mega_ is added as in _vareme_ or
_varemega_ it means we very much despise the person being spoken to. If we
speak to people who are on our own level, or just a little inferior, we use
one of the three particles _sonata_, _sonofǒ_, or _varesama_. If we speak
to a superior person, or someone on an equal level but with whom we must
speak elegantly, we use one of the seven particles _conata_, _qixo_,
_qifó_, _gofen_, _qiden_, _conatasama_, and _sonatasama_. When speaking to
persons of high rank, if we place the name of their office before _sama_,
it serves as a pronoun; e.g., _Padresama gozare_ 'will the Father come.'

_Conata_, _cochi_, and _conofǒ_ mean 'I, mine,' but in the distributive
sense of 'from me, or what concerns me.' In the same way _sochi_, _sonofó_,
and _sonata_ mean 'you, from you, or what concerns you.'

The plurals are formed by adding the particles listed above to the pronouns
according to the different degrees of honor. _Vonore domo_, _varera_, and
_sochira_ mean 'you' when speaking to inferiors. _Vare tachi_ and _sonata
domo_ mean 'you' with persons of the same rank. _Qifó tachi_, _vocatagata_,
and _vono vono_ mean 'you' to persons requiring honor. The declension of
these honorable expressions follows the declension (15 of common particles.

{120}

_Third Person Pronouns--Ille, illa, illud_[66]

The two particles _care care_ and _are are_ mean 'this (_ille, illa,
illud_)' when speaking of inferior things.[67] There are four particles;
_aitçu_, _aitçume_, _areme_, and _caitçume_ which mean 'this' when one
wants to show disrespect for the things being spoken about. This idea is
emphasized if one adds _ga_ to those forms that end in _me_; e.g.,
_aitçuga_ and _aitçumega_ 'this humble man.' _Cono_ means 'this (_hic,
haec, hoc_),' _sono_ means 'that (_iste, ista, istud_),' and _ano_ means
'that (_ille, illa, illud_).' These words require a noun after them; e.g.,
_cono fito_ 'this man' with _cono mono_ having the same meaning but not
being an honorific expression. _Sono coto_ means 'that thing,' _ano fito_
'that person,' _conata_ or _conofó_ 'here,' _sonata_ or _sonofó_ 'there,'
and _anofó_ 'there, yonder.' _Core_ means 'this (_hic_),' _sore_ 'that
(_istud_),' and _are_ 'that (_illud_).' These forms are in the neuter
gender and are not followed by nouns. Their plurals are _corera_, _sorera_,
and _arera_, while the others follow the common rules. _Cano_ means 'that
which we have mentioned'; e.g., _cano fito_ 'that person.' The pronoun 'a
certain (_quidam_)' is made with the particle _aru_; e.g., _aru fito_ 'a
certain person,' _aru tocoro ni_ 'in a certain place.'

The pronoun 'each (_unusquisque_)' is formed with the particles _men men_
and _sore sore_.

The pronoun 'each and every (_universi & singuli_)' is formed with _tare mo
mina_.

The pronoun 'anyone (_quicumque_)' is formed with _tare nite mo_, _tare
nite mo are_, and _tare nari tomo_.

The particle _tare mo_, when placed before a negative, forms the pronoun
'no one, or nobody'; e.g., _tare mo mairananda_ 'nobody went.' The particle
_nani taru coto nari tomo_ means 'whatever happens, or whichever thing
happens.' The particle _mei mei_ means 'to each, or everyone in
particular.'

The particle _goto_ makes the distributive pronoun meaning 'every.' This
form is used after vocables which are proper to the Japanese language;
i.e., _iomi_. The same results are achieved by placing the (16 particle
_mai_ before vocables which come from the Chinese language; i.e., {121}
_coie_. For example, _fi_ means 'day,' and _figoto ni_ means 'daily.' _Nen_
is a Japanese borrowing from a Chinese word meaning 'year,' and _mainen_
means 'every year, or all year.' The same result is obtained by the
repetition of the noun; e.g., _fito_ means 'person,' and _fitibito_ means
'all the people, or many people,' _fi_ means 'day,' and _fibi ni_ means
'all of the days, or every day.'

The indefinite pronoun 'some (_aliqui_)' is formed with _niiotte_; e.g.,
_toqi niiotte_ 'some times,' _fito niiotte_ 'some men.'

The pronoun 'the same (_idem_)' is formed with _vonaji_; e.g., _vonaji
tocoro cara_ 'from the same place.' The particle _dôjen_ means the same
thing but in the neuter ; e.g., _dôjen degozaru_ 'it is the same.' This
word is used in reply to some one who has congratulated you, etc.

The pronoun 'himself (_ipse_)' is formed with the particles _nuxi_, _sono
mi_, and _vaga_. The particle _vareto mi_ forms the pronoun 'himself
(_ipsemet_)'; e.g., _vareto mi ni ata vo nasu_ (96) 'he brings harm to
himself,' _mi vo vasurete; ta vo tasuquru_ 'he forgets himself and saves
others.' The particle _vatacuxi_ means 'a thing which belongs to oneself
(_re propria_)'; e.g., _vatacuxi no coto_ 'ones own thing,' _vatacuxi ni
ivareta_ 'he spoke for himself.'

The pronoun 'somebody (_aliquis_)' is made with the particles _tare zo_ and
_taso_; e.g., _tare zo maittaraba_ 'if somebody were to come,' _taso sacana
ga aru ca tói ni iqe_ [... _toi_ ...] 'let someone go and ask if there is
food.'

The neuter pronoun 'something (_aliquid_)' is formed with the particles
_nan zo_ and _nanica_; e.g., _nan zo ga araba cuvózu_ 'I would eat if there
were something,' _ima faia te ga jiiú ni gozaru fodo ni nanica caqi maraxô_
'I would write something if I were to have my hands free, or untied.'

The interrogative 'who (_quis_)' is translated with the three particles
_tare_, _taga_, and _taso_. The particles _taga_ or _tare no_ form the
genitive; e.g., _taga mono ca_ 'whose thing is this.' When someone comes to
the door and knocks, he says _mono mó_.[68] To this one responds _taso_,
_taga_, or _tare_ 'who is it?' _Nani_ means 'what (_quid_)'; e.g., _nani vo
suru_ (17 _ca_ or _nani goto vo suru ca?_ 'what are you doing?' _nani ni
sore vo totte iqu ca?_ 'for what reason do you bring this to me?'

{122}

_Relative Pronouns_

The relative pronoun is formed by placing the noun, in connection with
which there is a relative (_relativum_), after the verb; e.g., _ten ni
maximasu varera ga von voia_ 'Our Father who is in Heaven,' _deta tocoro
va_ 'the place from which he came out,' _te ni sumi no tçuita fito_ (88) 'a
man to whose hands ink is adhering.' If the sentence (_oratio_) requires a
nominative before the verb it must be formed with one of the particles
which indicate the nominative; _ga_, _no_, or _iori_. For example,
_vatacuxi ga caita fumi_ 'the letter which I wrote,' _conata no vôxerareta
coto_ 'the thing which Your Lordship says.' The third particle, _iori_, is
used when there is movement in the sentence; e.g., _Deus iori ataie
cudasareta gracia_ 'the grace which God provided, or gave,' _ano tocoro ni
amata no qió atta vo torareta_ (87v.) 'he brought what many books there
were in that place.' When two sentences containing a relation come together
the first is placed second by general rule,[69] and the second uses either
a past, present, or future particle according to what is required by the
sense of the sentence; e.g., _qesa Oracio vo móxita qió ga tçucuie no uie
ni aru vo motte coi_ 'bring the book which is on the desk (_sedila_) at
which I said my prayers this morning.' In this sentence _qió ga_, which is
the first relative, comes after the verb _móxita_; and the _vo_ which
stands for the second relative comes after the verb _aru_. When we want to
be more specific about that of which we are speaking we place the particle
_tocoro no_ between the thing itself and the verb; e.g., _vare to dôxin
xita tocoro no mono domo va mina buguen ni natta_ 'all those who agreed
with me became rich.' Sometimes the relative, because of the difficulty in
understanding it, is expressed by expositions (_per exponentes_). Thus, in
place of _ima corosareta Pedro no co va sonata no chijn gia_ which means
'the son of Peter who has just been killed was your friend,' we say _ima
Pedro corosareta sono co va sonata no chijn de gozaru_.

Sometimes they join two particles, as determined by the case, and form a
kind of relative pronoun which is placed before the relative; e.g., _sono
tocoro de no dancó_ 'the consultation at that place,' (18 _Marsella ie no
fune_ 'the ship to Marseille,' _maire to no móxi goto dearu_ [ ... _gia_]
'it is said that I should go.'

{123}

_Mairu mai to no dancó ni qivamatta_ 'it was resolved that he not go,'
_maitte nochi no dancó_ 'the consultation he arrived after,' _varambe cara
no catagui_ 'a custom from youth,' _xô tame no chôgui gia_ (22) 'this is
the plan (_ars_) according to which it will be done,' _anofito no vo toró_
'I shall take what belongs to that man.' This ends the note on relative
pronouns.

_The Formation of the Verb and Its Conjugation_[70]

The verbs in Japanese have no number or person. These distinctions are
indicated instead by the particles used in the formation of the plurals and
in the declensions. There are three affirmative conjugations and the same
number of negative.

The root (_radix_) of the verb does not by itself indicate tense. For this
reason it is necessary to conjugate the verb in order to show the tenses.

All the verbs of the first conjugation[71] end in e. Those ending in _gi_
or _ji_, together with _xi_ and _maraxi_, although they end in _i_, are
also in the first conjugation. If the root ends in _de_ or _gi_, the
present form is made by changing them to _zzuru_; e.g., _fagi_ forms its
present in _fazzuru_ and means 'to blush,' _de_ becomes _zzuru_ and means
'to leave.' If the root ends in _je_ or _ji_ it changes in the present to
_zuru_; e.g., _maje:mazuru_ 'to mix,' _anji:anzuru_ 'to consider.' If they
end in _xe_ they change to _suru_; e.g., _avaxe:avasuru_ 'to join.' _Xi_
and _maraxi_, which (as we have said) are in the first conjugation,[72]
change _xi_ to _suru_; e.g., _xi:suru_ 'to do,' _maraxi:marasuru_ which
also means 'to do.' If the root ends in _te_ it changes to _tçuru_; e.g.,
_sodate:sodatçuru_ 'to nourish, or support.' The remaining roots which end
in _e_ change, in their separate ways, the _e_ to _uru_; e.g., _ague:aguru_
'to offer,' _nigue:niguru_ 'to run away.'

There are certain verbal preterits which have present tense meanings. They
are those which are passive in form but active in (19 meaning; e.g.,
_cocoroieta_ 'to understand,' _qicoieta_ 'to hear,' _voboieta_ 'to
remember,' _qiqiieta_ 'to understand,' _zonjita_ 'to know,' and there may
{124} be many others. The verbs which follow belong to the first
conjugation even though their roots do not end as previously stated.[73] If
the present tense of these forms does not change the _i_ to _uru_ they are
exceptional; e.g., _abi,uru_ 'to wash oneself,' _fotobi,uru_ 'to become
soft,' _focorobi,uru_ 'to become unstitched,' _cabi_ [_cabi,uru_] 'to be
moldy,'[74] _sabi_ [_sabi,uru_] 'to rust,' _deqi_ [_deqi,uru_] 'to be
finished, or ended,' _cuchi:cutçuru_ 'to rot,' _michi:mitçuru_ 'to be
filled in by the sea,' _ini,uru_ 'to leave,' _nobi:nobiru_ or _noburu_ 'to
be spread out,' _tçuqi,uru_ 'to be used,' _vori:uru_ 'to descend from
above,' _xij:xijru_[75] 'to invite to dine, by compulsion,' _ni:niru_ 'to
resemble,' _mochij:mochiiuru_ 'to evaluate,' _ni:niru_ 'to cook,' _mi:miru_
'to look at,' _cori,uru_ 'to correct,' _vochi:votçuru_ 'to fall,' _i:iru_
'to exist, or be present,' _fugui,uru_ 'to pass, as time passes,'
_vabi,uru_ 'to beg for mercy,' _carabi,uru_ 'to become dry,' _iqi:iquru_
'to live,' _fi:firu_ 'to become dry,' _qi:quru_ 'to come,' _qi:qiru_ 'to
dress oneself,' _voqi,uru_ 'to get out of bed.' The following four verbs
have irregular, as well as regular, present tenses;[76] _ataie_ has _atóru_
'to give,' _vaqimaie_ has _vaqimǒru_ 'to discriminate,' _tonaie_ has
_tonóru_ 'to bless,' _sonaie_ has _sonóru_ 'to place in a high position.'

_The Preterit, Perfect, Imperfect, and Pluperfect_

In Japanese there is no imperfect. In its place the perfect is used. The
perfect is formed in two ways. The first is by suffixing _ta_ to the root
of a verb ; e.g., _agueta_ is the preterit of the verb _ague,uru_ 'to
offer.' The second is by suffixing _te_ to the root and to that adding
_gozari,u_ or _ari,u_ which is then conjugated in the present or the
preterit of the second conjugation; e.g., _aguete gozaru_ or _aguete
gozatta_, or _aguete aru_ or _aguete atta_ 'offered, or had offered.' If
the particle _fáia_ [_faia_] is placed before the verb the expression is
strengthened; e.g., (20 _fáia aguete gozatta_ [_faia_ ...] 'I had already
offered it.' When the verb _ari,u_ is suffixed to the perfect it is not as
elegant a way of speaking as {125} when _gozari,u_ is used. Therefore when
speaking one must be careful about what one says, or in front of whom one
speaks, so as to give each person the honor he deserves.

_The Future of the First Conjugation_

If the root of the verb ends in _te_ this syllable is changed to _teô_ or
_chô_ to form the future; e.g., _tate,uru_ will become _tateô_ or _tachô_
'I shall build.'[77] If the root ends in _ji_ the future is formed by
changing _ji_ to _jô_; e.g., _xenji_ becomes _xenjô_ 'I shall prepare, or
brew, the medicine.' If the root ends in _xe_ [_xi_] it changes to _xô_;
e.g., _xi_ becomes _xô_, and _maraxi_ becomes _maraxô_ 'I shall do.' If it
ends in _ie_ it is changed to _io_ [_iô_]; e.g., _voxiie_ becomes _voxiio_
[_vaxiiô_] 'I shall teach.' The remaining roots ending in _e_ suffix the
particles _ô_, _ôzu_, or _ôzuru_; e.g., _agueô_, _agueôzu_, or _agueôzuru_
'I shall offer.' These endings are used for the first conjugation[78] even
when the roots end in _i_; e.g., _deqiôzu_ 'I shall be finished.'

The future is also formed by taking the syllable _nu_ from the negative
present (see below) and putting in its place the particle _baia_. Thus, by
taking _nu_ away from _aguenu_ and putting in its place _baia_, we obtain
_aguebaia_ 'I will offer.' For _minu_ if you take away the _nu_ and put in
its place _baia_ it will become _mibaia_ 'I will see, or behold.'

The future perfect is formed by suffixing the particles _te arózu_ or
_tarózu_ to the root; e.g., _aguete arózu_ or _aguetarózu_ 'I shall already
have offered.' The same results are obtained if _faia_ is placed before the
simple future; e.g., _faia agueôzu_.

(21

_The Imperative of the First Conjugation_

The imperative of the first conjugation is formed with the root of the verb
alone, or with the addition of the particle _io_; e.g., _ague_ or _ague io_
'offer!'[79] The future of the imperative is the future absolute _agueô_ or
_agueôzu_. This is a more elegant and polite way of speaking than giving a
command with the regular imperative. The imperative is also formed by
taking the _nu_ from the negative present (see below) and {126} putting in
its place the particle _sai_. Thus, if one takes the _nu_ from _aguenu_ and
replaces it with _sai_ it becomes _ague sai_ which means 'offer!' If the
particle _tai_ is placed after the root there is formed a kind of future or
optative by which the wish of the speaker is expressed. It is therefore an
elegant imperative; thus _mizzu fitotçu nomitai_ 'I would like to have a
drink of water' is the same as 'give me some water to drink.' When a
relative [clause] concerns a precept, rule, admonition, or prohibition the
imperative is expressed word for word in whatever the conjugation,
affirmative or negative; e.g., _Christiani naru na to no xógun no fatto ga
aru_ [_Christian ni_ ...] 'it is the law of the Shōgan (_imperator_) that
no one should become a Christian,' _Padre core vo coxiraie io to voxerareta
niiotte_ [... _vôxerareta_ ...] 'because the Priest told me to do it.'

_The Optative of the First Conjugation_

The optative, both present and future, is the present tense of the
imperative with the particles _negavacu va_ or _avare_ placed before it and
the particles _gana_ or _caxi_ placed after it. Sometimes it is formed by
adding the particle _gana_ without any prefix; e.g., _negavacu va ague io
caxi?_ or _avare aguei gana_[80] 'would that you were to offer?' _avare
icanaru tengu, bangue mono nari tomo vare vo totte, fiie no iama ni noboxe
io caxi!_ (15v)[81] 'Oh! if there were some one, either devil or
soothsayer, who could make me ascend the mountain called Hie.' The particle
_gana_ when it is placed after a noun indicates a wish for the thing
specified by the noun; e.g., _saqe gana_ 'oh! sake'; and if (22 one is
asked if he would like something to drink, the answer is _nani gana_ 'would
that I had some.'

The perfect of the optative is the second form of the future followed by
the particle _mono vo!_; e.g., _niqueozu mono vo!_ [_nigueôzu_ ...] 'would
that I had fled!' The same is achieved by _niguetaraba iocaró mono vo_.
Sometimes they say only _niguetaró va_ or _niguete aró ni va iocaró mono
vo_.

{127}

_The Subjunctive of the First Affirmative Conjugation_

The present tense of the subjunctive is formed by changing the _u_ in which
the present indicative ends to _eba_; e.g., _aguru_ becomes _agureba_
'since I offer.' It is also formed from the present by adding _ni_, _de_,
_vo_, or _va_ to the particle _tocoro_ according to the case requirements
of the verb that follows, with the first verb being controlled by the noun;
e.g., _aru toqi Pedro chinsui xite iraruru tocoro ie fito ga qite_
(16v)[82] 'since a certain man came to the place where Peter was when he
was drunk,' _nhóbó ni tachi vacarete iru tocoro ni_ (16v)[83] 'since they
were separated and divorced,' _có aru tocoro ni_ 'since things are this
way,' _ioso ie zzuru tocoro va fito ni corosareta_ (16v)[84] 'when he went
outside, he was killed by someone,' _go misa vo asobaruru tocoro vo uchi
coroita_ (121)[85] 'he killed him while he was celebrating mass.' This is a
general rule which applies to all conjugations.

The perfect and the pluperfect of the subjunctive are formed from these
same tenses in the indicative with the addition of the particle _reba_;
e.g., _agueta reba_ 'since he had offered.' It is also formed by taking
away _gozaru_ from the preterit pluperfect and putting in its place _atta
reba_ or _atta_; but, when _atta_ is used, the particles _ni_, _vo_, _va_,
or _ie_ must be added according to the requirements of the following verb,
just as with _tocoro_ in the present tenses; e.g., _aguete atta reba_ or
_aguete atta ni_, _vo_, _va_, or _ie_ 'since I had already offered it.'

The future of the subjunctive is formed by adding the particle _toqi_ to
the future indicative; e.g., _agueô toqi_ 'since he would offer it later.'

The pluperfect subjunctive, with all the expressions (_vox_) which signify
that which comes after a completed action, is formed by (23 placing _cara_,
_nochi_, or _igo_ after the pluperfect indicative, minus _gozaru_; {128}
e.g., _aguete cara, nochi_, or _igo, mairó_ 'I shall leave after he has
offered it.' This is like _aguetaró toki mairó_ 'I shall leave after he has
already offered it.' _Agueôzuru ni_ or _agueôzuru tocoro ni_ means 'since
he was already prepared to offer it.' _Agueôzuru coto no saqi ni_ means 'a
little while before he offered it.'

The present tense of the permissive subjunctive is formed in two ways. The
first is by changing the _u_ of the present indicative to _edomo_; e.g.,
_aguredomo_ 'although I could offer it.'

The preterit of the permissive subjunctive is formed by adding _redomo_ to
the preterit indicative; e.g., _agueta redomo_ 'although he had offered
it.' The future permissive is formed by adding _redomo_ to the second form
of the future indicative; e.g., _agueôzu redomo_ 'although he would be able
to offer it.' The second form of the permissive subjunctive is formed by
adding the particle _tomo_ to the present indicative; e.g., _aguru tomo_
'although he could offer it.' The particles _mamaio_ or _madeio_ may also
be added to the present tense; e.g., _sore vo voxiiuru mamaio_ or _sore vo
voxiiuru madeio_ 'although he could teach this.'

The preterit of the second permissive is formed by suffixing _ritomo_ to
the preterit indicative; e.g., _agueta ritomo_ 'although he had offered
it.' The same meaning is achieved by adding the particles _mamaio_ or
_madeio_ to the preterit indicative; e.g., _agueta mamaio_ or _agueta
madeio_; or by adding _tote_ to the preterit subjunctive; e.g., _aguetareba
tote_.

The future permissive is formed by adding _tomo_ to the second form of the
future indicative; e.g., _agueozu tomo_ [_agueôzu tomo_ 'although he would
offer it']. It is also formed by adding _mamaio_ or _madeio_ to the same
future form. If the particle _tatoi_ is placed before the forms of the
permissive subjunctive great strength is added to the sentence; e.g.,
_tatoi vôxeraruru tomo_ 'even though you may state this.' The same meaning
is obtained by removing the verbs _gozaru_ or _aru_ from the pluperfect
indicative and replacing it with the particle _mo_; e.g., _aguete mo_
'although he may offer it.' The same _mo_ when placed after the present
indicative gives the same meaning; e.g., _doco de qiqi marasuru mo, sono
sata va mósanu_ 'although he hears that everywhere, he does not pay any
attention.' The same meaning is obtained by the sentences _ague mo xeio
caxi?_, _aguete mo xô madeio_, and _nanto mo ague caxi?_ {129} [... _aguei
caxi?_][86] 'although he offers.' _Aguru ni saxerarei_, (24 _agueta ni
saxerarei_, or _agueo ni saxerarei_ [_agueô_ ...] have the meanings of
'although he could have offered, although he could offer, or although he
would offer'; or one might say 'let us offer' or 'let us give.'

_The Infinitive_

The present infinitive is formed by adding _coto_ or _to_ to the present
indicative; e.g., _aguru coto_ or _aguru to_ 'to offer.'

The preterit infinitive is formed by adding the same particles to the
preterit indicative; e.g., _agueta coto_ or _agueta to_ 'to have offered.'
The future infinitive is formed by adding the same particles to the future
indicative; e.g., _agueô coto_ or _agueô to_ 'to be about to offer.' The
same meaning is obtained by adding _ióni_ to the present, preterit, or
future indicative; e.g., _nai nai guioi ni caqerareô ióni va vare mo
zonzuru fitobito mo zonjita_ (22v) 'I think and others believed me to have
been favored by you with many benefits,' _qeccu vare ni voxiie marasuru
ióni gozaru_ (117v) 'he is truly able to teach me,' _agueta ióni gozaru_
'he is said to have offered it.'

To ask or answer a question the infinitive is often subordinate to the verb
which follows; e.g., _nhóbógata ni vochita coto ga atta ca?_ 'did you fall
into the sin of adultery with this woman? is this what happened?' etc. All
the tenses of the infinitive are used in the same way.

Sometimes the preterit infinitive is replaced by the pluperfect with
_gozaru_ or _aru_ removed; e.g., _Deus no minori vo firomete iocaró_ 'it is
good to spread the Gospel.' Sometimes the present or preterit indicative
plus _ga_ replaces the present or preterit of the infinitive; e.g., _sore
vo vôxeraruru ga varú gozaró_ 'it will be bad to say that,' _maitta ga maxi
gia_ (21) 'it is better to have come, or it was better to come.'

When the substantive verb follows the infinitive, the particle _coto_ is
not required; e.g., _cosacazzuqi de va saqe vo nomu devanai_ (23) 'to drink
sake from a small glass is not to drink sake,' _core coso caqu de gozare_
'this we are able to say, or better, write,' _caqu de gozatte coso_ 'this
is not the way for it to be written,' _sore va aguru devanai_ 'that is not
to offer it.' Some of these examples are taken from other (25 conjugations
but the general rule applies to all. The idea of the {130} infinitive is
also obtained by the following means of expression; _ague va_, _aguredomo_
'although I offered, or even if I made it so that it was offered.' Because
this is a general rule for all the conjugations, they also say _qiqi va
tçucamatçure domo gatten xenu_ 'although I have listened, or done
everything necessary to hear; I still don't understand.' They also say
_aguru vo motte_ 'by offering, or with the fact that he is to offer,'
_aguru iori_ 'from the fact that he is to offer,' _aguru nitçuite_ 'about
the fact that he is to offer.'

The gerund in _Di_ is the present or future indicative followed by the
particle _jibun_, or less frequently some other particle meaning 'time';
e.g., _aguru jibun_ 'the time for offering,' _agueô ni qivamatta_ 'he made
the decision that it be offered,' _niguru jibun gia_ 'it is time to flee,'
_corosareôzuru ni aisadamatte arǒzu_ (13) 'it will have been decided that
he will be killed, or will have to be killed.'

The gerund in _Do_ is formed in two ways. The first is by adding the
particles _ni_ or _tote_ to the present indicative; e.g., _aguruni_ or
_agurutote iurusareta_ 'I was freed by it being offered.' The second way is
by removing the verb _gozaru_ from the pluperfect; e.g., _aguete
cutabireta_ 'I became tired by offering, or raising up,' that is to say,
'from the action of presenting, or raising up, I suffered the result of
becoming tired.' There is also another elegant, and frequently used, way to
form the gerund in _Do_. It is done by placing the root of the verb in
front of another verb making a compound; e.g., _fiqi iosuru_ 'to approach,
pulling.' The roots which are used in this way do not change with respect
to their function. The gerund in _Do_ is also used to express purpose
_taixó to xite_ 'since he was a commander (_dux_), or was fulfilling the
function of a commander,' _von rei to xite_ 'giving thanks,' _rǒtai nomi ni
xite_ 'since he was an old man,' _tçucai xite ivaruru_ 'he said it as a
messenger.'

The gerund in _Dum_ is formed by adding the particles _tame_ or _tote_ to
the present or future indicative; e.g., _aguru tame_ or _agueo tote_
[_agueô tote_] 'in order to offer.' The same meaning is obtained by _aguru
ni fatto ga aru_ 'there is a law about offering,' unless this should be
considered a gerund in ni [_Di_].

The supine in _Tum_ is formed in two ways. The first is by adding _ni_ to
the root. The second is by adding _tameni_ to the present indicative; {131}
e.g., _tazzune ni maitta_ or _tazzunuru tameni maitta_ 'I came in order to
obtain it.'

The supine in _Tu_ is the root of the verb alone. To obtain the same
meaning they also use _mósu ni voiobanu_ 'it is not necessary to (26
speak.'

The present, preterit, and future participles are formed by adding the
particles _fito_ or _mono_ to the indicative. When _fito_ is used the
result is a more honorable way of speaking; e.g., _aguru fito_ or _aguru
mono_ 'he who offers,' _agueta fito_ 'he who offered,' _agueô mono_ 'he who
will offer,' _Buppôgacu suru tomogara ni voite va_ (73v) 'as for those who
devote themselves to the study of the laws of idolatry,' _von vo xiru vo
fito to va iúzo; von vo xiranu voba chicuxó to coso iie_ (96v). In this
last sentence the _vo_ takes the place of the participle, and the sentence
therefore means 'those who know kindness (_beneficia_) are correctly called
men; those who do not know it are truly called beasts.' This is a general
rule for all the conjugations and therefore the example contains a verb
from the second conjugation. The participle is also made by adding _te_
['hand'] to the root of the verb; e.g., _aguete_ 'one who offers.'

_The First Negative Conjugation_

The negative root is formed by adding _zu_ to the affirmative root; e.g.,
_aguezu_.

The present tense is formed with _nu_ instead of _zu_; e.g., _aguenu_ 'I do
not offer.' This is a general rule no matter how the root ends. The only
exceptions are _xi_ and _maraxi_ which form the negative present in _xenu_
and _maraxenu_ 'I do not do.' The roots that end in _ji_ change the _ji_ to
_je_ and then suffix the particle _nu_ to the present; e.g., _zonji_ in the
negative present becomes _zonienu_ [_zonjenu_] 'I do not know.' In some
areas of Japan they form the negative by removing the final _u_ from the
negative root and adding _ari,u_, which is then conjugated according to the
required tense; e.g., _aguezaru_ 'I do not offer,' _aguezatta_ 'I did not
offer,' _aguezatta reba_ 'since I did not offer.' They also say _aguezu
xite_ 'by not offering.'[87]

{132}

The negative of the preterit is formed in like manner by adding the
particle _nanda_ instead of _nu_; e.g., _aguenanda_ 'I did not offer,'
_zonjenanda_ 'I did not know,' _vorinanda_ 'I did not descend.'

The pluperfect is formed by changing the last _a_ of the preterit to _e_
and adding the verb _gozaru_ in the present and _gozatta_ in the preterit;
e.g., _aguenande gozaru_ or _aguenande gozatta_ 'I have not offered.' It is
also formed by adding _ide gozaru_ or _ide gozatta_ instead of (27 _nande
gozaru_; e.g., _agueide gozaru_ or _agueide gozatta_ 'I had not offered,'
_zonzeide gozaru_ [_zonjeide_ ... ][88] 'I had not known,' _vochiide
gozatta_ 'I had not fallen.'

The negative future is formed by adding _mai_ or _maji_ to the affirmative
root or the affirmative present tense; e.g., _ague mai_ or _aguru maji_
'you will not offer.'

The imperative is formed by placing _na_ after the present indicative;
_aguru na_ 'do not offer.'

It is also formed by placing _na_ before the root and _so_ after it; e.g.,
_na ague so_ 'do not offer.'

It is also formed by placing _na_ after the root; e.g., _ague na_ 'do not
offer,' _mixe na_ 'do not show,' _mesare na_ 'do not do.' The roots which
end in _xi_ or _ji_, but are in the first conjugation,[89] change the _i_
to _e_ to form the negative imperative; e.g., _sǒ xe na_ or _só maraxe na_
'do not do that,' _sǒ zonze na_ [_só zonje na_] 'do not think that.'

The optative is formed by placing _negavacuva_ or _avare_ before the
negative imperative and placing _caxi_ or _gana_ after it; e.g., _avare
aguru na caxi_ 'oh! if only you would not offer,' and _negavacuva na ague
so gana_ with the same meaning.

The preterit of the optative is formed by placing _mono vo_ after the
negative future; e.g., _aguru mai mono vo_ 'oh! if only you would not have
offered.'

The negative subjunctive is formed by changing the _u_ which ends the
negative present to _eba_; e.g., _agueneba_ 'since he did not offer.'

The preterit of the subjunctive is formed by adding _reba_ to the negative
preterit of the indicative; e.g., _aguenanda reba_ 'since he had not
offered.'

{133}

The future of the subjunctive is formed by adding _qereba_ to the negative
future; e.g., _niguru mai qereba_ 'since he is not going to escape.'

The permissive subjunctive is formed by adding _domo_ to the negative
present after changing the final _u_ of the verb to _e_; e.g., _aguenedomo_
'although he cannot offer.' They also say, and this usage is preferred,
_aguenaidemo_ or _agueidemo_ 'even if he not offer.'[90]

The preterit of the permissive subjunctive is formed by placing _redomo_
after the negative preterit; e.g., _aguenanda redomo_ 'although he had not
offered.' _Aguenaidemo_ or _agueidemo_ 'although he would not be allowed to
offer,' is also said.

The permissive future is formed by adding _qeredomo_ to the negative
future; e.g., _aguru mai qeredomo_ 'although he is not going to be allowed
to offer.' (28

Another way of forming the permissive subjunctive is to place the particle
_tomo_ after the negative root; e.g., _aguezu tomo_ 'although he is not
going to be able to offer.' It is also formed by placing _tote_ after the
[negative] present subjunctive; e.g., _agueneba tote_. A third way is to
add _mamaio_ or _madeio_ to the negative present; e.g., _aguenu mamaio_ or
_aguenu madeio_ 'although he cannot offer.'

The preterit is formed by placing _ritomo_ after the negative preterit;
e.g., _aguenanda ritomo_ 'although he had not offered.' It is also formed
by placing _tote_ after the negative preterit of the subjunctive; e.g.,
_aguenanda reba tote_, or better, _aguenaidemo_ or _agueidemo_ 'although he
does not offer, or had not offered.'

The future is formed by placing _tomo_ after the negative future; e.g.,
_aguemai tomo_ 'although he is not going to offer,' _vochiidemo_ 'although
he will not fall.'

The present, preterit, and future infinitives are the present, preterit,
and future negative indicative present tenses followed by _coto_ or _to_;
e.g., _aguenu coto_ 'not to offer,' _aguenanda coto_ 'not to have offered,'
_aguru mai coto_ 'not to be going to offer.'

Sometimes they use the negative present instead of the preterit in all the
conjugations; e.g., _mi maraxenu_ 'I did not see.'

{134}

The negative gerund in _Di_ is the same as the negative present or future;
e.g., _aguenu_ or _aguru mai_ 'of not offering.'

The gerund in _Do_ is formed by placing _ni_ after the negative root or the
negative present tense; e.g., _aguezuni_ or _aguenuni_ 'by not offering.'
The same meaning is obtained with _agueide_, _aguenaide_ or _aguezu xite_.

The gerund in _Dum_ is formed by placing _tote_ or _tame_ after the
[negative] present or future of the indicative; e.g., _aguenu tame_ or
_aguru mai tote_ 'in order not to offer.'

The present, preterit, and future participles are formed by adding _fito_
or _mono_ to the negative of the present, preterit, and future indicatives;
e.g., _aguenu fito_ 'he who is not offering,' _aguenanda mono_ 'he who did
not offer,' _aguru mai mono_ 'he who will not offer,' _aguenaide cara_ or
_agueide nochi_ 'after he had not offered, after they did not offer, or
after it was not offered.'

(29

_The Second Affirmative Conjugation_

All the roots of the second conjugation end in _i_ and form their present
tense by changing _i_ to _u_; e.g., _iomi:iomu_ 'I read.' If the root ends
in _chi_ it changes its ending to _tçu_ e.g., _machi:matçu_ 'I wait.' If
the root ends in _xi_ it changes to _su_; e.g., _coroxi:corosu_ 'I kill.'

For the preterit, if the root ends in _ami_ it changes to _óda_; e.g.,
_cami:códa_ 'I ate, or chewed.' If it ends in _ebi_ or _emi_ it changes to
_eôda_; e.g., _saqebi:saqeôda_ 'I am injured,' _sonemi:soneoda_ [_soneôda_]
'I envied, or I had envy.' If it ends in _obi_ or _omi_ it changes to
_ôda_; e.g., _corobi:corôda_ 'he fell,' _comi:côda_ 'it enclosed itself.'
If it ends in _umi_ it changes to _únda_ [_unda_]; e.g., _casumi:casunda_
'it is cloudy.' The same change is made for roots ending in _imi_; e.g.,
_canaximi:canaxúnda_ [_canaxunda_] 'he became sad.' If it ends in _gui_ it
changes to _ida_; e.g., _fegui:feida_ 'it is divided.' _Xini,uru_ has the
preterit _xinda_ 'he is dead,' and _ini:uru_ has the preterit _inda_ 'he
left.' While in this respect they [_xini_ and _ini_] are in the second
conjugation, in the other tenses they are in the first. A root ending in
_chi_ or _ri_ changes in the preterit to _tta_; e.g., _mochi:motçu_ in the
preterit becomes _motta_ 'he received,' _chiri,u:chitta_ 'it is scattered.'
Those which end in _xi_ or _qi_ change to _ita_; e.g., _coroxi,u:coroita_
'he killed,' _qiqi,u:qiita_ 'he heard,' _xiqi,u:xiita_ 'he stretched it
out.' {135}

The future is formed by changing the _i_ in which the root ends to _ó, ǒzu,
ózuru_; e.g., _iomó_, _iomǒzu_, or _iomózuru_ 'you will read.' If the root
ends in _chi_ it changes to _tó_; e.g., _machi:mató_ 'I shall wait.' A root
ending in _xi_ changes to _só_; e.g., _móxi,u:mósó_ 'I shall say, or
speak.'

The imperative is formed by changing the _i_ in which the root ends to _e_;
e.g., _iomi:iome_ 'read! or may you read.' If the root ends in _chi_ it
changes to _te_; e.g., _machi:mate_ 'wait!' The imperative is also formed
by changing the _nu_ in which the negative present ends to _ai_; if you
remove the _nu_ from _iomanu_ and replace it with _ai_ it gives you _yomai_
'read!'[91] This is a common rule for the third conjugation, but this
imperative is used only when addressing inferiors.

The future of the imperative is the future absolute; e.g., (30 _iomó_ 'you
will read.' This is used when addressing very low people.

The remaining tenses of the optative, subjunctive, gerund, and infinitive
are formed in the same way and with the same particles as are used for each
in the first conjugation.

_The Second Negative Conjugation_

The root of the negative second conjugation is made by changing _i_, in
which the affirmative root ends, to _azu_; e.g., _iomi:iomazu_ 'not
reading.'

If the root ends in _chi_ the present tense is formed by changing it to
_tanu_; e.g., _machi:matanu_ 'I do not wait.' If it ends in _xi_ it changes
to _sanu_; e.g., _coroxi:corosanu_ 'I do not kill.' If they end in any
other way change _i_ to _anu_; e.g., _corobi:corobanu_ 'I do not fall.'

The preterit is formed by changing the _nu_ of the present tense to
_nanda_; e.g., _corobanu:corobananda_ 'I did not fall,' _iomananda_ 'I did
not read.' The other tenses are formed in the same way as the negative
first conjugation.

_The Third Affirmative Conjugation_

The roots of the third conjugation end in _ai_, _oi_, or _ui_. Those ending
in _ai_ change to _ó_ to form the present; e.g., _narai:naró_ 'I learn.'
Those {136} ending in _oi_ change to _ô_; e.g., _vomoi:vomô_ 'I think.'
Those ending in _ui_ change to _ú_; e.g., _cui:cú_ 'I eat.'

The preterit is formed by adding _ta_ to the present tense; e.g., _naróta_
'I learned,' _vomôta_ 'I thought,' _cúta_ 'I ate.'

The pluperfect is formed by changing the final _a_ of the preterit to _e_
and adding the verb _gozaru_ in the present and _gozatta_ in the past, in
the same way as we have described for the first conjugation; e.g., _naróte
gozaru_ or _narǒte gozatta_ 'I have already learned.'

The future is formed by changing the final _i_ of the root to _vó_, _vózu_,
or _vózuru_; e.g., _naravó_, _naravǒzu_, or _naravózuru_ 'I shall learn.'
If the root ends in _oi_ it is changed to _vô_, _vôzu_, or _vôzuru_ [_vǒ_,
_vǒzu_, (31 or _vǒzuru_]; e.g., _vomoi:vomouô_, _vomovozu_, or _vomovôzuru_
[_vomoi:vomovǒ_, _vomovǒzu_, or _vomovǒzuru_] 'I shall think.'[92]

The imperative is formed by placing _e_ after the root; e.g., _naraie_
'learn!' _toie_ 'ask!' _cuie_ 'eat!'[93] It is also formed by removing the
syllable _nu_ from the negative present tense and replacing it with the
letter _i_; e.g., _naravai_ 'learn!' _tovai_ 'ask!' _cuvai_ 'eat!' This
form is used when addressing inferiors, as are those of the other
conjugations.

_The Third Negative Conjugation_

The root of the third negative conjugation is formed by changing the _i_ of
the affirmative root to _vazu_; e.g., _naravazu_, _tovazu_, and _cuvazu_.
The present tense is formed by changing the _i_ to _vanu_; e.g., _naravanu_
'I do not learn,' _tovanu_ 'I do not ask,' _cuvanu_ 'I do not eat.'

The preterit is formed by changing the _i_ of the root to _vananda_; e.g.,
_naravananda_ 'I did not learn,' _tovananda_ 'I did not ask,' _cuvananda_
'I did not eat.'

The pluperfect is formed by changing the final _a_ of the preterit to _e_
and adding the verb _gozaru_ or _gozatta_; e.g., _cuvanande gozatta_ 'I had
{137} not eaten,' or _naravanande gozaru_ 'I had not learned.' The
remaining forms are like the other conjugations.[94]

If the substantive verb is placed after the gerund in _Do_ for all the
affirmative and negative conjugations, it means that the action signified
by the gerund is or is not done; e.g., _aguete aró_ 'it will already be
offered,' _cono qió ga caite gozaranu_ 'this book is not written,' _agueide
arózu_ 'he will not yet have offered.' The substantive verbs are
_gozaru:gozaranu_, _voru:vori nai_, _dea_ or _gia:devanai_, _aru:aranu_ or
_gozaranu_, _voru:voranu,_ and each of these verbs follows the general
rules for its conjugation.[95]

If the substantive verb from any of the conjugations is placed after the
infinitive form it means that whatever is signified by the infinitive is,
was, or will be; or the negative thereof; e.g., _aguru coto aró_ 'it will
be that he offers,' that is to say 'he will offer,' _naróta coto gozaru
mai_ 'he will not learn.' All these substantive verbs are conjugated in the
second conjugation to which they belong by virtue of the fact that their
(32 roots end in _i_; _ari,u:gozari,u_.

_The Conjugation of the Negative Substantive Verb_

The negative substantive verb is _nai_, _gozanai_, or _vori nai_ which
means 'not to be.' Its root is _naqu_, _gozanaqu_, or _vori naqu_.

The preterit is formed by changing the _i_ in which the present tense ends
to _c_ and then adding the preterit of _ari,u_ which is _atta_; e.g.,
_nacatta_ or _gozanacatta_ 'he was not.' The other tenses are conjugated,
as is _ari,u_, in the second conjugation.

The imperative is _nacare_, _nanaiso_, or _nai na_ 'be not!'

{138}

The subjunctive is formed by changing the _i_ of the present tense to
_qereba_; e.g., _naqereba_ or _gozanaqereba_ 'if it be not.'

The permissive subjunctive is formed by changing the _i_ of the present to
_qeredomo_; e.g., _gozanaqeredomo_ 'although he is not.'

The preterit of the subjunctive is formed by adding _redomo_ to the
preterit of the indicative; e.g., _nacatta redomo_ 'although he was not.'

The substantive [verb] with the particle _tomo_ is formed with the root;
e.g., _naqu tomo_ 'even if it were not.' The gerund is _nó_, _nóte_, _naqu
xite_, or _nacatte_ 'since it is not.' The remaining are formed as above,
with the verb _ari,u_ added, and are conjugated in the second conjugation.

Adjectives, when they do not precede verbs, are conjugated in the same way
as the negative substantive verb. The adjectives, which have been said
above to end in _ai_, _ei_, _oi_, _ui_, and _ij_, form their roots by
changing the final _i_ to _qu_; e.g., _fucaqu_ is the root of 'deep,'
_ioqu_ the root of 'good,' _xiguequ_ the root of 'dense,' _varuqu_ the root
of 'bad,' and _vonajiqu_ the root of 'the same.'

The present tense is the form (_vox_) of the adjective itself; e.g., _ioi_
'good,' _fucai_ 'deep,' _varui_ 'bad,' _vonaji_ 'the same.'[96]

The preterit is formed by changing the _i_ of the adjective to _c_ or _q_
and adding _ari,u_. This form is then conjugated according to (33 the tense
required by the sentence.

The permissive subjunctive with _tomo_ is _fucaqu tomo_ or _fucai tomo_
'although deep.'

The gerund in _Do_ is _fucóte_ 'since it was deep,' _ióte_ 'since it was
good,' _canaxiúte_ [_canaxúte_][97] 'since it was sad,' _xingueote_
[_xigeôte_][98] 'since it was dense.' It also takes the form of _fucó
xite_, _fucaqu xite_, or _fucacatte_, or again _iô xite_, _ioqu xite_, or
_iocatte_.

The adjectives which end in _na_ are not conjugated. There is, however, a
gerund in _Do_. For example, _aqiracana_ has for its gerund _aqiracani
xite_ 'since it was clear,' and with the same meaning there is _aqiraca
de_. _Arisóna_ has _arisǒni xite_ 'since it became apparent, or easy to
believe.' _Ióna_ has _ióni_ as in _ióni xite_ 'since it is in a good way,
or since it has a good manner.' _Cava ga fucóte vatarananda_ 'because the
{139} river was deep, I did not cross it,' _xebǒte irarenu_ 'since it was
narrow, he was unable to enter,' _varúte cuvarenu_ 'it is inedible, or it
cannot be eaten, because it is bad.' The other tenses of the adjective, as
has been said, are formed with the verb _ari,u_ and conjugated according to
the requirements of the sentence. The negative conjugation is also formed
with _ari,u_; e.g., if the root is _fucacarazu_ the present tense is
_fucacaranu_ 'it is not deep.' The preterit is _fucacarananda_ 'it was not,
etc.'

_The Conditional Particles_[99]

There are five particles which make an utterance (_oratio_) conditional;
_naraba_, _ni voite va_, _raba_, _va_, and _ba_. When the first two are
placed after any verb, affirmative or negative, present, preterit, or
future, the result is that the verb becomes conditional. For example;
_niguru naraba_ 'if you flee,' _iôda ni voite va_ 'if you had read,'
_naravó naraba_ 'if you will learn,' _cuvazu ni voite va_[100] 'if you do
not eat.' Sometimes _voi_ [_voite_] is removed from _ni voite va_; _agueô
ni va_ 'if you would offer,' _aguetaró ni va_ 'if you would have offered.'
Sometimes _voite_ [_voite va_] is removed, leaving only _ni_; e.g., _mairó
ni coso, nen goro ni mǒsǒzure_ (19) 'if I go, or if I shall have gone, I
will tell him so in a friendly way,' _xitaró ni coso, saisocu tçuqu maji
qere_ (19) 'if I (34 had done it, it would not have been done with
diligence and persuasion.'

The particle _raba_ is placed after the preterit;[101] e.g., _naróta raba_
'if I would have learned,' _naravananda raba_ 'if I would not have
learned.'

The particle _va_ is added to the negative roots of all three conjugations;
e.g., _aguezu va_ 'if I not offer,' _iomazu va_ 'if I not read,' _naravazu
va_ 'if I not learn,' _naqu va_ 'if it not be,' _fucacarazu va_ 'if it be
not deep.'

The particle _ba_ has the same effect and is, like _va_, joined to the
root; _aguezũba_, _iomazũba_, _naravazũba_.[102] If the particle _ba_
replaces the negative _zu_, an affirmative conditional is formed; e.g.,
_agueba_, 'if I offer,' _iomaba_ 'if I read,' _naravaba_ 'if I learn,' and
_iocaraba_ 'if it be good.' The particle _va_ is not only added to the
negative roots of adjectives, but also to the affirmative; e.g., _fucaqu
va_ 'if it be deep,' _vonajiqu va_ 'if it be the same.' Sometimes they use
this expression to give the idea 'if it be not {140} too troublesome, will
you do it.' They also say _aguemajiqu va_ 'if you would not offer.'

The particle _ni voite va_ is joined to nouns in such a way as to
substitute for the substantive verb; e.g., _jójó ni voite va uqe toró_
(121v)[103] 'I shall get it, if it be very good, or the best,'
_curuxicarazaru gui ni voite va_ 'if it would not have been unpleasant, or
if it had not been an unpleasant thing.'

If the particle _saie_ is placed in a clause (_oratio_) in which there is
already a conditional particle, it adds strength to the meaning; e.g.,
_fune saie mairu naraba_ 'if only a ship were to come,' _sonata saie
vocutabire naku va_ (118) 'if he be not tired,' or it might be said 'as for
me, or as far as it depends upon me, I am not tired.'

The particle _saie_ alone sometimes forms a conditional; e.g., _Niffon no
xôcocu ni saie caióna coto gozaru fodo ni_ [_Nifon_ ...] (118) 'if in the
small kingdom of Japan things of this kind be found, or exist,' that is to
say 'how much more there will be in a large one,' _coco moto no tocai ni
saie meivacu itasu ióni gozaru fodoni, etc._ (118) 'on the voyage here I
suffered very much, and so ...,' _fito saie côquai suru mono vo iurusu ni
ivan ia, Deus ni voite voia?_ [... _va?_] (118v) 'if one forgives one who
repents, how much more will God,' _core fodo xei vo iruru saie coto
naricanuru ni; ucato xite va, incadeca banji canavǒzo?_ [... _icadeca_ ...]
(119) 'if gathering all one's strength this can be done only with
difficulty, how could it be done if it were done without any strength?,'
_core saie xinicui ni_ 'if this be difficult to do,' _fune de saie ioio
tçuita_ (35 _ni, cachi va nananaca naru mai_ [... _nacanaca naru mai_]
(119v) 'if I arrived by ship with such difficulties, without doubt I could
not have done it on foot.'

_The Potential Verb_[104]

The placing of the particle rǒ[105] after the present or future tense makes
a potential; e.g., _aguru rǒ_ 'he perhaps offers,' _nigueozurǒ_
[_nigueôzurǒ_] 'he will perhaps escape.'

The preterit is made by changing _ta_ to _tçu_ and adding rǒ; e.g., {141}
_aguetçurǒ_ 'he perhaps offered.' But if it is added to the negative
preterit, the _da_ must be changed to _zzu_; e.g., _aguenanzzurǒ_ 'it has
perhaps not been offered, etc.'

The present potential is also formed by adding _arǒzu_ [_mo arǒzu_] or
other future verbs to the infinitive; e.g., _aguru coto mo arǒzu_ or _ague
mo xôzu_ 'he will perhaps offer.'

The preterit is formed by adding this same future to the preterit
infinitive; e.g., _agueta coto mo arǒzu_ 'he perhaps offered.'

The future is _agueô coto mo arǒzu_ 'he will perhaps offer.' The negative
is formed in the same way; e.g., _aguenu_, _aguenanda_, or _aguru mai coto
mo arǒzu_ 'he perhaps does not offer, he perhaps did not offer, or he will
perhaps not offer.' When we wish to say that something is perhaps the case
we use _mono_ instead of _coto_; e.g., _noxenanda mono de arózu_ 'they
perhaps did not place it aboard ship,' _iqi chigǒta mono de arǒzu_ 'they
seem not to have met along the way,' _moreqicoieta mono de gozarǒ ca to
zonzuru_ 'I believe it is perhaps as it has been said.'

To express the meaning 'become' the verb _nari,u_ is added to the adjective
and then conjugated according to the requirements of the adjective taken
adverbally; e.g., _fucǒ naru_ 'it becomes deep,' _varǔ natta_ 'it became
bad.' Also they say _fucǒ aru_ 'it is deep,' and sometimes _fucǒ nai_ 'it
is not deep.' They obtain this same meaning by conjugating _nai_ according
to the tense required by the sentence. They also use _fucǒ nai coto mo
arǒzu_ 'perhaps it will be that this is not deep.' (36

_The Conjugation of Irregular Verbs_[106]

The verb _qi,uru_ 'to come' has _quru_ 'I come,' _qita_ 'I came,' _côzu_ 'I
shall come,' _coi_ or _coio_ 'come!' _qitareba_ 'since he will have come,
or would have come,' _qitaredomo_ 'although he came.' The negative root is
_côzu_ [_cozu_] and the negative present is _conu_ 'I do not come.' _Mede_,
which is the root of the verb meaning 'to enjoy,' has a present in
_mezzuru_ and its gerund in _Do_ is _medete_ 'by enjoying.' _Cui_, which is
the root of the verb meaning 'to be mournful,' has its present in _cuiuru_.
{142} Its gerund in _Do_ is _cuite_ 'by mourning,' its negative root is
_cuizu_, and its negative present is _cuinu_. _Araie_, which is the root of
the verb 'to be,'[107] has a present in _araiuru_ or _arǒru_ 'it is.'
_Furi_, which is the root of the verb 'to become old,' has a preterit in
_furita_ 'he became old,' and a gerund in _Do_ which is _furite_ 'by
becoming old.' _Fe_, the root of the verb meaning 'to cross over,' has a
present in _furu_ 'he crosses over,' and a preterit in _feta_ 'he crossed
over.' _Tari,u_ is a verb which signifies that a thing is complete or
entire. It has a present in _taru_ 'it is complete,' a preterit in _tatta_
'it was complete,' and a future in _tari maraxo_ [_maraxô_] 'it will be
complete.' Its negative root is _tarazu_, its negative present is _taranu_,
its preterit is _tarananda_ 'it was not complete,' its future is _taru mai_
'it will not be complete,' and its imperfect subjunctive is _taraneba_
'since it has not been completed.'

The [negative] permissive is _taranedomo_, the infinitive is _taranu coto_,
and the gerund in _Do_ is _taraide_ or _tarazu xite_. The verb _taxi:tasu_,
which means 'to complete, or finish,' has a future in _taxi maraxô_ 'I
shall finish.' _Tasanu_ is the negative present. _Tari_ [_Tarai_] is the
root of the verb _tarǒ_ which has the meaning 'to be completed.' In the
negative the preterit is _taravananda_ 'it was not completed,' the
subjunctive is _taravaneba_ 'since it is not completed,' the permissive is
_taravanedomo_, the infinitive is _taravanu coto_, and the gerund in _Do_
is _taravaide_ or _taravaxu xite_ [_taravazu xite_]. _Vocotari_ is the root
of the verb _vocotaru_ 'to be negligent.' It has an infinitive in _vocotaru
coto_, a negative root in _vocotarazu_, and a negative present in
_voicotaranu_ [_vocotaranu_]. _Voi_ is the root of a verb which has a
preterit in _voita_ 'he was old.' (37 _Voitaru_ has the same meaning. The
negative present is _voinu_ and the gerund in _Do_ is _voite_. _Urei_ is
the root of the verb 'to be sad.' It has a present in _ureô_, an imperative
in _ure io_ [_ureie io_][108] an infinitive in _ureoru coto_ [_ureôru_
...].[109] Its gerund in _Do_ is _ureite_. _Tomi_ is the root of the verb
_tomu_ or _tomeru_ 'to become rich.' Its preterit is _tonda_, its gerund in
_Do_ is _tonde_, and its negative root is _tomazu_. _Saiguiri,u_ means 'to
go before, or anticipate.' Its preterit is _saiguitta_ and its gerund in
_Do_ is _saiguitte_.

{143}

_The Aforementioned Verbs--Their Formation and Diversity_[110]

In this language there are simple active, causative active, passive,
neutral, and impersonal verbs.[111] All are conjugated by the three
conjugations according to the way in which their roots terminate.

From certain adjectives come (_procedo_) certain verbs; e.g., from _catai_
'hard' comes _catame,uru_ 'I make hard' which is active, _catamari,u_ 'I
become hard' which is neutral, _catamerare,uru_ 'I am made hard' which is
passive. From the adjective _canaxii_ 'sad' comes _canaximi,u_ which means
'to be sad.'

The causative verbs (_verba faciendi facere_) are formed with the particles
_saxe_ or _xe_. The first is added to the roots of verbs in the first
conjugation,[112] while the second is [not] added to the roots of the
second and third conjugation, but rather to the negative present after the
_nu_ has been removed; e.g., _aguesaxe,uru_ 'I make him offer,'
_iomaxe,uru_ 'I make him read,' _naravaxe,uru_ 'I make him learn.' All of
these forms are in the first conjugation because the particles end in e.
Sometimes, but rarely, _saxe_ follows verbs of the second and third
conjugation, but this is to make the verbs more elegant. It is used with
the particle _rare_ to honor someone; e.g., _iomasaxe rare,uru_ ['he makes
him read']. _Padre va dojucu ni cathecismo vo naravasaxeraruru_ 'the priest
orders his servant to learn his cathecism,'[113] _mono no fon vo fito ni_
(38 _iomasaxeraruru_ (162v.) 'he makes him read his book.'

The passive verbs (_verba passiva_) are made with the particles _rare_ and
_re_. The particle _rare_ is added to the active verbs, according to the
way explained before, after removing the _nu_ from the negative form; e.g.,
_aguerare,uru_ 'I am offered it,' _iomare,uru_ 'I am read to,'
_naravare,uru_ 'I am taught.' They use these passive forms to mean 'to be
read to by someone,' or 'to be, or not to be legible.' There are other
passive forms which come from neutral verbs or verbs which have neutral
meanings. They are also formed with the particles _rare_ and _re_, but when
they are so formed they do not govern the cases common to {144} the passive
(for which see below) but rather the cases of the verbs from which they
come; e.g., from _agari,u_ comes _agarare,uru_; and, since _agari,u_ 'I
ascend' requires the accusative, this verb also requires the accusative.
For example; _cono iama ie agararenu_ (102) 'it is not possible to climb
this mountain, or this mountain is unable to be climbed,' _xiro cara
derarenu_ (102) 'it is not possible to leave the castle,' _xebóte irarenu_
(102) 'it is not possible to penetrate because it is too narrow, or
confined,' _cono michi va arucarenu_ (102) 'it is not possible to walk this
street,' _natçu va coco ni irare mai_ 'it will not be possible to live here
during the summer,' _cono fude de va cacarenu_ (102) 'it cannot be written
with this pen,' _fima ga nóte cacarenanda_ (102) 'it cannot be written
because of the lack of time,' _cono bun ni coso cacaruru mono de gozare_
(69v) 'it will indeed be well written in this way,' _axi ga itóte
arucarenu_ (102) 'it is impossible to walk because of painful feet.' All of
these passive verbs are of the first conjugation.[114] The neutral verbs
(_verba neutra_) are those which have a neutral meaning; i.e., being
initiated by oneself, and not by others. For example; _ivo ga toruru_ 'the
fish are caught,' _caje ga toruru_ 'the wind ceases,' _ito ga qiruru_ 'the
string is cut,' _ji ga iomuru_ (100) 'the letter [Chinese character] is
well read,' _aqi,u_ 'I am uncovered.' _Qiri,u_ 'I cut' is active,
_qirare,uru_ is passive, and _qire,uru_ 'I am cut' is neutral. This last
form is used when a sword cuts well because it is sharp. _Qiraxe,uru_ is a
causative verb which means 'I make someone cut.' _Ague,uru_ means 'I
raise,' _aguerare,uru_ 'I am raised' passively, _aguesaxe,uru_ 'I make
someone raise,' _agari,u_ 'I am raised' neutrally, _agarare,uru_ 'to be
ascendable,' _agaraxe,uru_ 'I cause something to be raised, or I cause him
or it to raise himself or itself.' If to these verbs are added the
particles which indicate honor (see below) other combinations are made. The
adjectives when they are conjugated have a neutral meaning; e.g., _fidarui_
'I am thirsty,' _fucacatta_ 'it was deep.'

The impersonal verbs (_verba impersonalia_) do not name or refer to a
person; e.g., _mi vo fatasu tomo itçuvari vo ivanu mono gia_ (39 (69v)
'even if one were to die, one should not tell a lie,' _mono mo tabezu saqe
mo nomaide ichinichi fataraqu mono ca?_ (69v) 'is it possible to work all
day without eating anything or drinking any wine?', _xujin no_ {145} _maie
de sono ióna coto vo iú mono ca?_ 'is it possible to speak this way in
front of ones lord?' Concerning the conjugations for these verbs they
follow the rules according to their roots.

The root of any verb of whatever conjugation can be taken from its
conjugation and changed to another conjugation by adding one of the
particles of honor (_honor_). The resulting form will belong to the
conjugation determined by the final letter of the particle. These particles
are: _maraxi,uru_, _ari,u_, _saxerare,uru_, _xerare,uru_, _nasare,uru_,
_saxemaxi,u_, _tamai,ó_, _rare_ and _re_.[115]

The particle _maraxi_ does not add honor to that which is talked about, but
rather it is used to speak honorably to those in front of us. For example;
_cui,u_ means 'I eat,'[116] but a servant in front of his master will not
say _nezumi ga cúta_ 'the mice ate the cheese'; he will rather say _nezumi
ga cui maraxita_. By itself _cui,u_ is in the third conjugation because its
root ends in _ui_, but if _maraxi_ is added it becomes a verb in the first
conjugation. When we refer to something about a people (_natio_) we do not
show honor to that word but only pay attention to the person we are
speaking to by adding _maraxi_ or not. For example, if we are addressing an
inferior we say _Nan ban jin va core vo cuvanu_; but if we are addressing a
person of nobility we say _Nan ban jin va core vo cui maraxenu_ 'Europeans
do not eat this.' When _ari,u_ is added to the root of any verb it attaches
a middling (_mediocris_) degree of honor; e.g., _modori aró ca?_ 'are you
going to come back?' If you add _vo_ in front of the verb it is honored
moderately (_satis_); e.g., _vomodori aró ca?_ 'Your Lordship is going to
come back?' _Tono sama vo xini atta toqi_ 'when the master died,' _Deus
cono xecai vo gosacu atta_ 'God created the world.'[117] We use these
particles when we are speaking with honored persons whom we like and with
whom we are on friendly terms.

The particle _nasare,uru_ gives the highest (_supremus_), or moderately
great (_satis magnus_) honor and is placed after the root of the verb;
e.g., _Deus cono xecai vo gosacu nasareta_ 'God created the world.'

The particles _rare_ and _re_ add a middling and not a great amount {146}
of honor to the verbs to which they are added. The particle _rare_ is added
mainly when we are talking about someone who is absent. It is formed by
taking the _nu_ from the negative present and replacing (40 it with this
particle; e.g., _aguerare,uru_ means 'I offer' when the person to whom the
offering is made requires a middling degree of honor and respect
(_reverentia_). This verb coincides letter for letter with the passive but
is distinguished from it by the cases which it governs. The particle _re_
is placed after verbs of the second and third conjugation only; e.g.,
_iomare,uru_ 'to read' and _naravare,uru_ 'to learn,' said of a person
having a good reputation. We speak in this way when speaking of those who
are equal to us and the servants of our lord, but not of other servants, or
nobles.

The particles _saxemaxi_ and _xemaxi_ give the same degree of honor as
_ari,u_ and _rare_ or _re_. These particles are added to the root of a
first conjugation verb,[118] or to the negative present from which the _nu_
has been removed; _aguesaxemasu_ 'he offers.' _Maxi,u_ [_Xemaxi,u_] is
added to the negative present of the second and third conjugation verbs
after taking away _nu_; e.g., _iomaxemasu_ 'he reads,' and _naravaxemasu_
'he learns.'

The particles _saxerare,uru_ and _xerare,uru_ attribute great honor. The
first is added to the negative present of verbs in the first
conjugation[119] after the _nu_ is removed, and the second is added to the
[other] negatives in the same way; e.g., _aguesaxeraruru_ 'I offer,'
_iomaxeraruru_ 'I read,' _naravaxeraruru_ 'I learn.' Because these forms
coincide letter for letter with the honorific causative, the particle
_ari,u_ may be placed after the verb and the particle _vo_ may be placed
before to avoid confusion; e.g., _yomaxe aru_ [_vo iomaxe aru_] 'I read'
and _naravaxe aru_ [_vo naravaxe aru_] 'I learn.'

The passive verb, concerning which see below, also permits the particle
_saxerare,uru_; e.g., _viamavaresaxeraruru_ (99v) 'I am honored.'

The particle _tamai,ó_ bestows the highest honor. We use it when speaking
of God, saints, kings, or generals. It is added to the roots of verbs and
conjugated in the third conjugation. It is placed after the root of the
passive form when referring to God; e.g., _Deus filio, umare_ {147} _tamǒ
toqi_ 'when the son of God was born,' _Deus agamerare tamǒ_ 'God is
honored.'

The particle _tate matçuri,u_ makes the meaning of the verb to which it is
added humble. It is placed after the root of affirmative verbs; e.g., _Deus
vo gotaixet ni zonji tate matçuru coto va ichi sugureta jen gia_ 'to love
God is the supreme virtue.' This particle permits some degree of honor if
_re_ is added to it after the final _e_ [_i_] has been changed to a. Thus,
when speaking of the saints in respect to God, one says, (41 _Sancto
Domingo, Deus vo gotaixet ni zonji tatematçurareta_ 'St. Dominic loved
God.'

The particle _maraxi_ [_mairaxi_][120] is able to elevate to honor the
particle _rare_; e.g., _tono iori cono coto vo Padre ni
vataximairaxerareta_ 'the lord gave it to the priest.'

_Certain Verbs Which of Themselves Indicate Honor_[121]

_Mesare,uru_ indicates any act which can be done, or which is properly done
by a noble person (_persona nobilis_). This includes such things as eating,
drinking, sailing, riding a horse, etc. _Vôxerare,uru_ means that a noble
person speaks. _Vomaraxi,uru_ and _vomaraxi ari,u_ mean that a noble person
gives. _Voxe,uru_ [_Vôxe,uru_] and _vôxe ari,u_ mean that a middling person
(_persona mediocris_) says or declares.

Verbs preceded by _vôxe_ or _mexi_ are given the same degree of honor by
either; e.g., _vôxe tçuqerare,uru_ 'I declare,' _mexi tçucavare,uru_ 'I
serve,' which have the same meanings as _tçuqerare,uru_ and
_tçucavare,uru_. To call someone we use _coi_ with an inferior, with
someone not quite as inferior we use _iorai_, with someone a little better
we use _vaxei_, while _vogiare_ is the superior way to call. _Gozare_,
which means that your Lordship should come, and _gozarǒ_ in the future
tense are even more honorable ways to indicate the imperative. _Voide
nasarei_, _voide nasareô_, or _voide nasarei caxi_ mean 'might your
Lordship come,' or 'Oh! would that your Lordship come.' _Cudasare,uru_
means that a noble person gives. _Tamavari,u_ means that a noble person
gives to an inferior. _Tamóri,u_ means that a middling person gives. _Mizzu
vo nomaxete tamǒre_ 'Give me a drink of water.' _Cudasare,uru_ and
_tamóri,u_ mean {148} that a humble person eats honoring his food.
_Coximexi,u_ and _qicoximexi,u_ mean that a noble person eats and hears.
_Voboximexi,u_ and _voboximesare,uru_ mean that a noble person thinks.
_Saxerare,uru_ means that a noble person does. _Nasare,uru_, _asobaxi,u_,
and _asobasare,iuru_ [_asobasare,uru_] mean that a noble person does what
is proper to him such as hunting, writing, reading, or reciting. _Ii,ú_ is
used when the person addressed is humbler than the person or thing spoken
to; (42 and _mexi,u_ [_móxi,u_] means the person or the thing spoken to is
addressed with honor. Therefore I would be incorrect were I to say _mi ni
móxe_ 'tell me!' I should rather say _mi ni iie_. I should not say _tono ni
iie_ 'tell it to the lord,' but rather _tono ni móxe_. _Mairi,u_ means to
go to a place to which honor should be shown; e.g., _iglesia ie maire_ 'go
to church!' _Cure,uru_ and _toraxe,uru_ mean to give in a way that humbles
the person to whom the thing is given. _Cui,ú_ means 'to eat' without
showing respect (_respectus_); _mexi,u_ also means 'to eat' but it is
cultivated (_urbanum_); e.g., in addressing those deserving respect I will
not say _mexi vo cui maraxita_ but rather _mexi vo tabe maraxita_ 'I ate.'
_Mairi,u_ or _vomairari,u_ [_vomairi ari,u_] means that a middling person
eats, while _agaraxerare,uru_ and _voagari ari,u_ are nobler ways to say
this. _Qiqi,u_ means to hear and _uqetamavari,u_ and _uqetamóri,u_ mean to
hear in a way which honors the person heard; e.g., _goiqen vo uqetamǒtta_
'I heard your advice.' _Móxi ague,uru_ means to speak in a way which
humbles oneself while bestowing honor on the person being addressed. _Móxi
ire,uru_ means to speak between equals (_equales_). _Chómon xi,uru_ means
to listen to the word of God. _Goranji,zuru_ or _goranjerare,uru_ is to
look at a noble thing. _Xi,uru_ means to do in common way, _itaxi,u_ means
to do in a cultivated way, and _tçucamatçuri,u_ means to do in a humble
way.

_Cautionary Remarks on the Conjugations of the Verb_[122]

The particle _nama_ placed before any verb in any tense means that the
action has been done poorly or in an incomplete manner; e.g., _nama aró_ 'I
wash poorly,' _nama iaqu_ 'I am incompletely broiled.'

{149}

If the particles _tçui_, _cai_, _uchi_, _faxe_, _voi_, _ai_, and
_tori_[123] are placed in front of a verb they do not change the meaning,
but they add emphasis; e.g., _uchi cobosu_ has the same meaning as _cobosu_
'I pour,' _faxe noboru_ is the same as _noboru_ 'I ascend,' _voxi comi,u_
is the same as _comi,u_ 'I enclose,' _ai cavari,u_ is the same as
_cavari,u_ 'I am changed,' _tçui mavari,u_ is the same as _mavari,u_ 'I go
around,' and _tori firogue,uru_ is the same as _firogue,uru_ 'I spread
out.'

The particle _qitte_ is the gerund in _Do_ for the verb _qiri,u_ and when
it is placed after the roots of certain verbs it gives them great emphasis;
e.g., _tanomiqitte_ 'imploring with great prayers,' _vomoiqitte_ (43
'assuming a strong resolution.' The verbs _tanomiqiri,u_ and _vomoiqiri,u_
are also used.

The particle _ma_, when placed in front of certain verbs and nouns, gives
them a stronger meaning; e.g., _mamucai_ 'quite present,' _macuroi_
'completely black.'

The particle, or better root of the verb, _macari,u_, when placed before
verbs of motion, makes the verbs modest and a bit more cultivated; e.g.,
_macari noboru_ 'I ascend,' _macari cudari,u_ 'I descend,' and _macari
i,iru_ 'I am present.'

The particle _va_ placed after a sentence confirms what has been said
before, as one might boast of making a prediction; e.g., _fune va
cuchinotçu ie iru va_ 'the ship calls at Kuchinotsu; and, if he says so or
not, I say so,' _aru va_ 'see if it is not as I have said.'

The particle _aidani_ means 'between' in the sense of the time consumed in
performing an action; e.g., _agura aidani_ [_aguru aidani_] 'while
offering,' _iôda aidani_ 'while he read,' _naravózuru aidani_ 'while he
will learn.'

The particle _ga_ means 'but;' _só iú ga; nanto aró ca?_ 'they say so, but
will it be so?' or 'it may be so, but I don't know for certain,' _furi va
furu mai ga, fune no dasu coto naró ca xiranu_ 'it's not raining any more,
but I still don't know if it will be possible to launch the boat or not,'
_sono qinpen ni va gozaru mai ga; doco cara toraxeraruru zo?_ (20)[124]
'there are probably none in the neighborhood, or in the surroundings, so
from where can they be gotten?'

{150}

The particle _gotoqu_ is added to the present, preterit, and future tenses
meaning 'in the same way'; e.g., _coxiraiuru gotoqu_ 'in the same way as
you furnish or carry out,' _qiita gotoqu_ 'as I heard.' The form is
sometimes _ga gotoqu_; e.g., _móxita ga gotoqu_ 'as he said,' _caracavózu
ga gotoqu_ 'as in jest I will tease or laugh at.' This same meaning is
obtained with _iǒni_; _Nifon no catagui vo xirareta iǒni, vôxeraruru_
(122v) 'he speaks as one who knows the customs of Japan,'[125] _mósu ióni_
'as I say.' The particle _furi_ is also used for the same purpose; e.g.,
_toza no chijocu vo nogareôzuru tameni catana vo saita furi vo mixerareta_
(123) 'he showed himself wearing his sword in order to avoid the danger of
infamy.' _minu furi vo saxerareta_ (123) 'he made it known that he did not
see.'

The particle _saie_ is used [with the negative] to mean 'not at all'; e.g.,
_mma saie nacatta_ (118)[126] 'there are not any horses at all,' _cotoba
saie xiranu mono_ (118) 'he does not know how to speak at all,' _ji saie
mixiranu mono_ 'he does not know any letters at all.' This same particle is
used for emphasis; e.g., _qiden to saie mǒxeba_ (119) 'it would (44 suffice
if you were to say that you are,' _Padre no tçucavaruru to saie móxeba_ 'if
only he had said that this was useful to the priest,' or one might say 'it
would suffice if, etc.'

The particle _qere_ is a confirmative particle which comes at the end of a
sentence with the meaning 'therefore'; e.g., _maitta qere_ 'therefore he
came,' _sate só aru qere_ 'finally this is the situation.'[127]

The particle _coso_ is of great importance among the Japanese for they use
it first in an adversative sense (_in sensu adversativo_); _core coso ió
gozare_ [... _iô_ ...] 'he is truly good.'[128] If the sentence in which
this particle is found ends in a verb, that verb ends in _e_, as in the
example above. If the verb is in the preterit it ends in _re_; e.g., _yô
coso gazattare!_ (117) 'you are welcome! (_bene veneris!_).' The exceptions
to this rule are when the sentence does not end in a verb or an adjective;
e.g., _core coso xixó yô_ [... _io_] (116) 'he is a true teacher,' when
after the particle _coso_ there is in the sentence a gerund in _e_, a
permissive in _tomo_, or a {151} potential preterit in _tçuró_ or
_zzuró_;[129] e.g., _vare coso iro iro xinro tçucamatçutte cutatireba
toxiiórini nari maraxita_ [... _cutabireba toxiiorini_ ...] (117)
'suffering many and various hardships, I became an old man,' _vare coso
corosaruru tomo_ 'if I be killed,' _fara coso tattçurǒ_ (117) 'he was
perchance quite angry,' _sato chicaqereba coso fi ga miiure_ (116) 'the
fire is already seen because the village is so near.' This [last] sentence
ends in _e_ because it does not contain an exception to the rule.
_Vóxerareta coto domo vo go côquai de coso gozarózure_ (97) 'without doubt
you will do penance for what you have said,' _catajiqe nǒ coso gozare_ (97)
'I congratulate you very much and thank you.' If someone says, 'Who did
that?' the answer is _Patre coso_ [_Padre coso_] 'the Priest did.' If
someone asks, 'is there anyone who did that?' and if he does not hear, or
does not understand the answer, and asks again, the person who answered
will say _Juan coso_ 'I have already said it was John.'

When someone is careless about what was said, or when he has not heard
something and asks again, the answer is; e.g., _tovoru na to iieba_ 'I have
already told you not to pass through,' _iome to iieba_ 'I have already told
you to read,' _Padre coso to iieba_ 'I have already told you that it is the
Priest.'

Adding the particles _maieni_ and _saqini_ to the negative present tense
makes the construction affirmative; e.g., _iglesia ie mairanu maieni_
(141v) 'before he goes to church.' They are also added to the affirmative
future tense; e.g., _mairǒzuru tote no saqini_ 'a little before (45 I
come.'

The particle _tocoro_ signifies the time during which the action indicated
by the verb is done. It is placed after the verb; _taburu tocoro ni_ 'when
I was eating,' _tabeta tocoro ni_ 'after dinner,' _tabeôzuru tocoro ni_ or
_tabeôzuru ni_ 'when I will be eating.' It also serves as a reduplicative
particle which denotes a reduplication to the degree possible; e.g., _jesu
christo humanidad no von tocoro va_ (121v)[130] 'Jesus Christ in so far as
he was a man,' _vonore ga foxxezaru tocoro vo fodocosu coto nacare_ (121)
'as you do not want done to you, do not do to others,' _fudai no tocoro vo
vo iurusu_ [... _tocoro vo iurusu_] (120v) 'I gave him his freedom,' _fito
no acu no tocoro ni va dôxin xenu_ (121v) 'I do {152} not consent to the
sins of man,' _utagó tocoro mo nai_ (120v) 'there remains no place to
doubt, or for doubt,' _nocoru tocoro mo nai_ 'it does not remain any more,'
_tçuini, sono tocoro ie mairózu_ (121v) 'finally he will arrive at this
place,' _fumbet ni voiobanu tocoro gia_ (121v) 'there are some things which
are not understood, or to which one's comprehension does not extend,' _nani
mo nai tocoro vo iô qicoximexe_ (120v) 'will your Lordship kindly eat from
this littleness which is nothing.' From these examples it is possible to
see the force of this particle.

The particles _tocoro_, _made_, and _made de gozaru_ are often added to an
utterance (_cadentia_). They do not have any special meaning and are the
same as _coto de gozaru_; e.g., _naranu made_ or _naranu coto de gozaru_
mean the same as _naranu_ 'it is not possible.' _Guijet tçucamatçurǒ to
zonzuru coto va cacugo itasanu coto gia_ (10v) 'the breaking of this
friendship does not come to mind.' Here the _itasanu coto gia_ is the same
as _itasanu_ alone.

The particle _madeio_ is used to confirm what has been said; e.g., _caita
madeio_ 'that which I wrote, I wrote.'

The particle _toqi_ when added to the present tense, forms a preterit
imperfect; e.g., _jennin tachi va saigo ni voiobi tamó toqi va buji ni
gozatta_ 'when saints arrive at the time of their death, they are peaceful
and quiet.'

Changing the _ta_ of the preterit to _tçu_ and the _da_ of the negative to
_zzu_[131] the meaning becomes 'I do it this way and then that way'; e.g.,
_mono vo caitçu, iôzzu, nando xite curasu bacari gia_ 'I spend my life
reading, writing and doing other things,' _tattçu itçu vocu iori zaxiqi ie
ide zaxiqi iori vocu ie iri xitten battǒ xeraruru_ (11v) 'standing and
sitting, entering and departing, he stands up and falls down.' The particle
_ri_ gives the same meaning after the preterit; e.g., _xeqen no mono va
netari voqitari nǒdari curasu bacari gia_ (11) 'men of the world spend
their lives sleeping, arising, and drinking,' _mazzu_ (46 _ite niva vo mo
facaxetari, cusa vo mo ficaxetari iroiro no xigoto vo ategǒte cosó
mairǒzure_ [... _coso_ ...] (10v) 'I shall go and sweep out the courtyard
(_atrium_), pull up the weeds, and then having dispensed with these things
I shall go,' _ima cono io fuqe iuqeba nome ia, utaie ia fito bito motçu,
utǒtçu sacamori suru_ (129) 'when it already is late at {153} night, urging
themselves on to drink and sing, the men enjoy themselves dancing and
singing.'

The particle _ie_, which is the root of the verb _ie iuru_ [_ie:uru_][132]
'I can,' signifies, when placed before negative verbs, that the action
expressed by the verb cannot be done; e.g., _ie iomanu_ 'I cannot read.'
This particle is also placed after the infinitive; e.g., _iomanu coto vo
ienu_ 'I cannot read.' _Iomi va ieide_, or _iomi mo ieide_ 'since I could
not read, or not being able to read' is also said. The infinitive sometimes
acts as a substitute verb (_suppositum verbum_); e.g., _xinuru coto va
vosoroxij_ 'it is terrible to die.'

The particle _tai_ 'I want' is added to the roots of verbs and signifies
the desire to do the thing indicated by the verb; e.g., _mizzu vo nomi
tai_[133] 'I want to drink some water,' _mizzu vo nomi tó gozaru_ or _mizzu
vo nomi tó zonzuru_, but these last two forms are more noble. Here is an
example of the noble form in the negative, _tǒ mo nai_; e.g., _mizzu vo
nomi tǒ mo nai_ 'I do not want to drink water,' and _mizzu vo nomi tǒ mo
gozaranu_. _Mairu tó mo zonjenu_ means 'I do not want to go.' When the
particle _tai_ is added to adjectives, or verbs indicating a sensory act
(_actionem sensitiuam_) in the first person,[134] the _i_ is changed to
_c_; and the verb _ari,u_ is added and conjugated in the tense required by
the sentence; e.g., _cuitacatta_ 'I wanted to eat.' If the verb is in the
second or third person, the _i_ is changed to _g_ and again the verb
_ari,u_ is added, or an honorific particle depending upon what the person
deserves, or without it as an absolute form. But if the person is inferior,
the _i_ is changed to _c_ as said before.

The particle _de_ sometimes gives a subjunctive sense when it is added to
nouns; e.g., _varãbe de xinda_ 'he died a child, or when he was a child,'
_vare ga buchófó de tofó mo gozanai_ (163v)[135] [... _buchôfó_ ...] 'since
I am clumsy and not careful, nothing will work out in a way that will be
harmonious.'

The particle _ió_ 'way' is added to the roots of verbs and also to the
{154} verbs themselves. When the root governs the genitive, the verb
governs the same case; e.g., _cono qiǒ no iomi ió va_ 'the way of (47
reading this book,' or _cono qió vo iomu iǒ va_. In the first sentence
_qiǒ_ is in the genitive with the particle _no_; in the second sentence it
is in the accusative with _vo_ because _yomu_ governs this case. _Tei_
signifies an extraordinary and marvelous way of doing something; e.g.,
_machicanuru tei vo goron jerarei_ (122)[136] 'might your Lordship observe
the way that they are expectant.' Also, _arisama_ means 'way,' _me mo
aterarenu arisama gia_ 'it is a way, or a form (_figura_), which is unable
to be seen.'

_Sama_ indicates the time of the action of the verb to which it is added
while governing the case required by the verb. It is added to the root of
the verb; e.g., _saqe vo nomi sama ni_ (105) 'when he actually drank the
wine,' _iado ie caieri sama ni_ (105) 'when he returned home,' _fune iori
agari sama ni_ (105) 'when he actually disembarked from the ship,' _fune ni
nori sama ni_ 'when he actually boarded the ship.'

When there are in a sentence two verbs whose actions form a single action,
the first verb is put into the form of the gerund in _Do_; e.g., _mizzu vo
motte coi_ 'bring some water, or come bringing water,' _fune vo voite coi_
'bring the boat here, or come poling the boat,' _core vo totte iqe_ 'take
this, or carry this and go.'

The gerund in _Do_ when added to verbs of asking, giving, or doing, means
that one is asking to know or to acquire the thing which is indicated by
the verb to which it is added; e.g., _nifon guchi vo voxiiete cure io_
'teach me Japanese,' _sǒ voxerarete cudasaruru na_ [_sǒ vôxerarete_ ...]
'your Lordship ought not say that,' _Deus no coto vo catatte tamǒre_ 'do me
the favor of relating to me those things which pertain to God.'

The particle _mo_ placed after the gerund in _Do_, whether it ends in _te_
or _de_, means 'although'; e.g., _sǒ mǒxite mo_ 'although you say so,' _ica
fodo susumete mo, corobu mai_ 'no matter how much you try to persuade me, I
will not deny the faith.' They also use _sǒ mǒxeba atte mo_ 'even if you
say that,' _dǒxitemo cǒxitemo_ (134v) 'what ever you do.'

If the particle _coso_ (see above) is added to the affirmative gerund in
_Do_; and, if the sentence ends in this particle, the sentence becomes
{155} negative; e.g., _mite coso_ 'I did not see anything,' _atte coso_
'there is no way.' But if the sentence does not end in _coso_, it becomes
affirmative (48 and emphatic; e.g., _mite coso gozare_ (116) 'I certainly
saw.' The verb ends in _e_ according to the rule explained above when the
particle _coso_ was being discussed.

When the negative gerund in _Do_, which ends in _e_, is followed by _va_,
_naranu_, or _canavanu_ it expresses necessity or the impossibility of the
contrary; e.g., _mairaide canavanu_ (106v)[137] 'it is necessary to go,'
_ivaide va no coto naredomo, nanto xô ca?_ 'and if the thing which is said
to be necessary happens, what shall I do?' _xitagavaide naranu_ 'it is
necessary to obey.' The same meaning, but with less strength, is obtained
with the future of the affirmative or negative infinitive and the
permissive subjunctive in _domo_; e.g., _mairǒ coto de gozatta redomo_
(18)[138] 'although I should have gone,' _mairu mai queredomo_ [...
_qeredomo_] (18)[139] 'although I should not be going,' _mairǒ coto de
gozanacatta redomo_ (18) 'although I did not have to go.' They also use the
negative gerund in _Do_ to obtain the meaning of 'if not'; e.g., _òracio vo
mǒsaide cú na_ 'do not eat unless you have said your prayers.'

The gerund in _e_ indicates an action already done; e.g., _mexi cúte coi_
'come after eating!' _cono qió ga caite gozaru_ 'this book was written,'
_chichi ni fumi vo cacaide cuiaxiú gozaru_ [... _cuiaxú_ ...] 'I am ashamed
that I did not send a letter to your father,' _cono qió ga caite gozaranu_
'this book was not written.'

The particle _nagara_, when added to the root of a verb, forms a gerund in
_Do_ if it is followed by a verb indicating a repugnant or contrary action;
e.g., _toganin Deus iori bacutai no go von, o uqetatematçuri nagara;
caietta somuqi tatematçuru_ [... _go von vo uqe_ ...][140] 'sinners
receiving, or even if sinners receive, benefits from God, they will offend
him rather than be grateful,' _Jesu Cristo Deus de gozari nagara, fito ni
taixite cruz ni cacaraxerareta_ 'while Jesus Christ was a God, he was
crucified for man.' _Nagara_ is also added to nouns; e.g., _quantai nagara_
(136v) 'although there was some lack of education,' _sannin nagara_ (137)
'three at the same time, or even if there are three' _aqiraca_ {156}
_nagara_ (136v) 'although he is famous.' In this instance _aqiraca na_
loses its _na_ as do all the other adjectives that end in _na_.

The particle _iasui_ is added to the roots of active and passive verbs to
form the supine in _Tu_; e.g., _iomi iasui_ 'easy to read,' _corosare
iasui_ 'easy to be killed.' The same thing is achieved by the following way
of speaking; _iúte va vosoroxij_ 'it is terrible to say,' _mite va_ (49
_fuxiguina_ 'it is admirable to see,' _iú vo mo vosoroxij_ 'it is terrible
to say.'

The Adverbs

_First Section_[141]

Adverbs are formed from adjectives ending in _ai_ by changing the _ai_ to
_ó_; e.g., _fucó_ 'deeply,' for those ending in _oi_ by changing the _oi_
to _ô_; e.g., _caxico_ [_caxicô_] 'wisely,' for those ending in _ei_ by
changing the _ei_ to _eô_; e.g., _xigueo_ [_xigueô_] 'densely,' for those
ending in _ui_ by changing the _ui_ to _ú_; e.g., _aiǔ_ 'in danger,' and
for those ending in _ij_ by changing the _ij_ to _iú_; e.g., _cavaiú_
'unhappily.'

_Adverbs of Place_[142]

The interrogative pronouns are eight in number; _izzucu_[?], _izzucata_[?],
_donata_[?], _doco?_, _dochi?_, _dochira?_, _dono tocoro_[?], and _dono
fǒ?_, and they signify 'which place?' To these adverbs are added the
particles _va_, _no_, _ni_, _ie_, _vo_, _cara_, and _iori_ according to the
case required, such as 'from where,' 'whither,' 'through which place,' 'in
what place,' etc. _Made_ can also be added to them with the meaning of 'to
the limit of which'; _doco made ie iqó ca_[?] 'up to where will you go?'
The interrogative particle, _ca?_ or _zo_[?], is added to these questions
but it is better to use _zo_ rather than _ca_ in sentences with an
interrogative particle; e.g., _izzuru ie maitta zo_ 'where did you go,'
_dono tocoro vo tovotta zo_ 'at which place did you cross,' _doco iori itta
zo_ 'through where did he enter,' _dochi cara qita zo?_ 'from where did he
come?', {157} _donata va Pedro no iado zo_[?] 'which is Peter's house?',
_doco ni voru zo_[?] 'where, or in what place is he?' One may respond in
many ways; _cono tocoro_, _coto moto_, [_coco moto_], _core_, _conata_,
_cochi_, _cochira_, _coco_, _cocora_, _cono cata_, _cono fǒ_, which mean
'here (_hic_)'; _sono tocoro_, _soco moto_, _sore_, _sonata_, _sochi_,
_sochira_, _soco_, _socora_, _sono cata_, _sono fǒ_ (50 which mean 'there
(_istic_)'; _ano tocoro_, _asoco moto_, _are_, _anata_, _achi_, _achira_,
_asoco_, _asocora_, _ano cata_, _anofó_, which mean 'there (_illic_).' To
these particles are added the case particles. The interrogative adverbs
with the case particles and _mo_ added mean 'everywhere,' 'through every
place,' or 'to every place,' e.g., _dono tocoro ie mo tovorǒ_ 'I shall go
everywhere,' _doco ni mo_ 'everywhere,' _doco cara mo_ 'from everywhere.'
However, if, instead of _mo_, _nari tomo_ is added the meaning becomes 'any
place,' in a distributive sense; e.g., _doco ie nari tomo mairǒ_ 'I shall
go to each place individually.' The same meaning is obtained by _doco zo_
with the case particles placed between the _doco_ and the _zo_; e.g., _doco
ni zo aru fodo ni_ 'if someone is any place.' _Coco caxico_ means 'here and
there.' _Doco mo caxico mo_ means 'the whole place.' The case particles are
placed before _mo_; e.g., _doco ni mo caxico ni mo_ 'in the whole place,'
but after the adverb; e.g., _coco caxico ni_ 'here and there,' _coco caxico
ie doco_, _caxico iori_ [_coco caxico ie_ 'to here and there,' _coco caxico
iori_ 'from here and there'], etc.[143]

The particle _uie_ means 'above.' The genitive case is placed before it;
e.g., _fandai no uie ni voqe_ 'place it on the table,' _cono uie va gozaru
mai_ 'it will not be above this,' that is to say 'it will not be better
than this,' _sono uie ni_ 'about that,' _sono uie no sata vo catari are_
'tell me about that,' _core va izzure iori mo uie de gozaru_ 'one will not
discover anything better than his,' that is to say 'this is the best.'
_Xita_ means 'below.' It governs the genitive; e.g., _fandai no xita ni
voqe_ 'place it under the table,' _micotoba no xita iori_ (141v) 'when the
king finishes speaking,' _voxita vo cudasarei_ (141v) 'would your Lordship
be so kind as to give to me that which remains of your drink.'

The particle _soba_ means 'side' and governs the genitive; e.g., _fito no
soba vo fanaruru_ 'he separates himself from the side of another.'

The particle _maie_ means 'before' and governs the genitive; e.g., _fito no
maie vo tovoru_ 'I pass in front of someone else,' _cacugo no maie_ {158}
(141v) 'according to ones disposition,' _funbet no maie_ (141v) 'as I
believe, or think, or according to the sense (_iuxta sensum_).'

The particle _mavari_ means 'around' and governs the genitive; e.g.,
_iglesia no mavari ni tçuchi vo nague sutçuru na_ 'do not put earth around
the church.'

The particle _uchi_ means 'within,' and the noun which precedes it must be
in the genitive; e.g., _iglesia no uchi_ 'in the church,' _ano fito va,
fito no uchi de va nai_ 'that man is not among men,' that is (51 to say 'he
is not a man,' _futacuchi cúta coto va, cúta uchi de va nai_ (142v)[144]
'to eat two mouthfuls is not to eat.'

The particle _foca_ means 'outside,' and the genitive is placed before it;
e.g., _igelsia no foca ni_ 'outside the church,' _foca ie iqe_ 'go out, or
go outside.' Sometimes the genitive particle is replaced by _iori_; e.g.,
_Deus vonago ichinin iori foca tçucuri tamavanu_ (142v)[145] 'God did not
create but one woman,' that is to say 'he created just one,' _Tengu fito ni
acu vo susumuru iori foca va, nai_ (142v) 'the Devil does nothing if he is
not persuaded by man to sin,' _goxǒ vo tasucaru tame baptismo vo sazzucaru
iori foca bechi no michi ga nai_ 'there is no other way to save men than by
baptism,' that is to say 'without baptism we cannot be saved.' _Deus no
gracia iori foca_ 'without the grace of God.'

The particle _naca_ means 'in the middle.' It is used when the material is
either dense or defuse; e.g., _qi no naca ni_ 'in the wood,' _fito no naca
ni_ 'among the men.'

The particle _nacaba_ means 'in the midst of things' when referring to a
sequence. It follows the genitive; e.g., _dangui no nacaba ni_ 'in the
midst of the sermon,' _sore vo qijte, nacaba va vosore; nacaba va aqirete
ita_ (145v) 'hearing that, he feared and was afraid,' that is to say 'he
spent most of his time being afraid.'

The particle _ato_ means 'behind' and governs the genitive; e.g., _sonata
no ato cara mairǒ_ 'I shall come after you' that is to say 'I shall follow
you.'

The particle _vaqi_ means 'near' and governs the genitive; e.g., _Pedro no
vaqi_ 'near Peter,' _misa no vaqi_ 'the mass is ended,' _cono vaqi_ 'in the
last few days.' All of these adverbs require after them the cases that are
required by the verb which follows.

{159}

_Adverbs of Interrogation and Response_[146]

There are many ways to ask 'why?' or 'for what reason[?]'; e.g.,
_najeni_[?], _najoni_[?], _nani xini?_, _nani tote ca?_, _nani no iuie
ni?_, _nanto xita coto ni?_, _nani no xisai ni iotte?_. The question 'how?'
is said; _nanto xite?_, _nanto iǒ ni_[?], _icani to xite?_ The answer is
'because' or 'for the reason that'; e.g., _sono iuie va_, _najeni to iúni_.
'Because' is also said; _tocoro de_, _fodo ni_, _ni iotte_, or _sacai ni_.
The first expresses (52 the greatest degree of causality, the second not so
much, and the third the least.

_Uie va_ means 'since (_cum_ or _si quidem_)'; e.g., _toganai uie va
qizzucai ga nai_ (40v)[147] 'I am not afraid because I have no fault.' The
same meaning is achieved by the particle _cara_; e.g., _caiǒ ni iro vo
misuru cara va; cacusu coto va iranu_ 'since you have thus shown your
feelings (_iro_), you can't hide them.' 'Since (_si quidem_)' means
approximately the same as _toqi va_ and _xicaru toqi va_. _Sari nagara_
means 'but,' _sari tote va_ means 'until,' _saru tote va_ means 'since the
thing is this way,' _saru tote va, qicoienu coto gia_ 'since it is so, it
is unbearable.'

_Adverbs of Time_[148]

One asks 'when' with _itçu_ or _itçugoro_. One asks 'from what day' with
_icca saqi_ or _icca maie_, 'from what month' with _icutçuqi saqi_, and
'from what year' with _nannen maie_. Usually _ni_ is added when it is
required by the verb, and the interrogatives _ca_ or _zo_ are always put at
the end of the sentence, with _zo_ preferred.

One answers 'now' with _ima_ or _tada ima_, and 'already' with _mǒ_, e.g.,
_mǒ iqe_ 'be already gone!' 'Sometimes' is said with _toqi ni iotte_ or
_jibun ni iotte_. 'Afterwards' is _nochi_. _Sore cara_ or _sore iori_ means
'after that,' _core cara_ or _core iori_ means 'after this,' and _are iori_
or _are cara_ means 'after that.' 'Immediately' is said with _iagate_.
'Afterwards' or 'again' is _ima iori nochi_, _ima iori xite va_, or _ima
iori igo_. 'This morning' is said with _qesa_. _Connichi_ or _qio_ [_qiô_]
is 'today,' and _asu_ or _miônichi_ [_miónichi_][149] is 'tomorrow.'
'Tomorrow morning' is _asa_, _axitatô_, or {160} _asatocu_, and 'tomorrow
night' is _mionia_ [_miǒia_]. 'Before' is _ijen_ or _saqi ni_. 'Yesterday'
is _qinô_ or _sacujit_. 'The day before yesterday' is _vototoi_ or _futçuca
saqi ni_. 'Several days in the past' is _cono giǔ_. _Cono fodo_ and
_xenjit_ have the same meaning, as does _xendo_. _Condo_ means 'several
days in the future.' 'The day after tomorrow' is _asatte_ or _miógonichi_.
'Three days hence' is _xiasatte_ or _miómiógonichi_. _Qiônen_ [_Qionen_] or
_cozo_ means 'last year.' 'This year' is _cotoxi_. 'Two years ago' is
_vototoxi_ or _votodoxi_. 'Three years ago' is _sanuruvotodoxi_ [_sannuru
votodoxi_].[150] 'Immediately' is _tachimaqi_ [_tachimachi_] (53 or _socuij
ni_ [_socuji ni_]. _Sunavachi_ is also 'immediately.' _Tanteqi_ is 'in a
moment.'

_Itçumade?_ means 'until when?' _Itçumademo_ means 'always.' _Itçu cara_
means 'after what time.' _Itçu iori_ means 'from what time.'

_Adverbs of Negation_[151]

_Iia_ or _iia_ [_iia iia_][152] means 'not.' _Só devanai_ means 'it is not
so.' _Iccana_ or _iccanagueni_ means 'by no means,' _iume iume_ means 'not
even in a dream,' _sarani_, _ichiien_, _catçute_, or _catçute motte_ means
'in no way,' and _io_, _iomo_, or _iomo iomo_ means 'without thinking';
e.g., _catçute mairu mai_ 'in no way shall I come,' _iomo só va gozaru mai_
(117v) 'it will in no way come to mind why it will be so.' When affirmative
verbs are added to these adverbs they become negative; e.g., _iomo iomo to
mǒxitareba vo mairi atta_ (117v) 'although you said you would not go, you
went,' _io mairó_ 'in no way shall I go.'

_Adverbs of Affirmation_[153]

_Nacanaca_ means 'it is so,' _vó_ means 'so,' when one agrees. _Gueni_ or
_gueni gueni_ means 'it is thus'; e.g., _gueni gueni só mo aró_ 'without
doubt the situation is thus.' _Chódo_ means 'at all.' _Saiǒni_, _sono bun_,
_sono gotoqu_, _sǒ de gozaru_, _sore sore_, _massǒ gia_, or _xicato_ means
'it is so.' _Mottomo_ means that something is reasonably said. _Guioi no
gotoqu_ means 'as your Lordship believes, or says.' _Mochiron_ indicates
that a thing does not come in to doubt or discussion. _Nacanaca naru_ {161}
_coto de gozaranu_ means 'truly it is not possible.' _Nacanaca no coto_
indicates a thing with which it is possible to agree. _Macotoni_ means
'truly,' as does _xinjit_ or _xinjitni_. _Xeimon_ means 'I affirm by oath.'
_Isasaca_ or _isasaca motte_ means 'not even a little,' and _issai_ or
_ixxet_ means 'in no way, or by no means,' and when these particles are
added to the affirmative they mean 'truly.'

(54

_Comparative Adverbs_[154]

_Iori_, _iori mo_, and _iori mo navo_ mean 'more' in a comparison. The
person compared is in the nominative case and the person to whom he is
compared is in the ablative with one of the particles which we have listed
above; e.g., _Pedro va juan iori mo gacuxó de gozaru_ 'Peter is wiser than
John,' _soco ie noboru iori va; mairanu ga maxi gia_ 'it is better not to
go than to climb up there.' _Gotoqu_, _mama_, and _iǒni_ are adverbs of
similitude (_adverbia similitudinis_) and require the genitive for the
thing with which the comparison is made. If the particle is preceded by a
verb, no genitive is required; e.g., _no iama ie nari tomo qitai mama ni
qite, nurureba, nugui suteraruru_ (124v) 'if they were to go to the
mountains or the plains wearing such clothes as they want to wear, they
will have to take them off when they become wet on account of the water.'
_Vomô mama ni, vomô gotoqu_, and _vomô iǒni_, mean 'as I think,' _cono mi
no mama ni_ 'according to his desires, or his pleasure.' _Fodo_ means 'to
such a degree as (_tantum_),' or 'just as (_quasi_)'; e.g., _qifen ano fito
fodo no gacuxó de gozaru_[155] 'you are as wise as he,' _fara ga cudaru
fodo ioi_ 'he will recover as soon as he has a bowel movement,' _michi vo
aruqu fodo cutabiruru_ (123v) 'as I walk so I get tired,' _acai fodo ioi_
'the redder the better,' _xinuru fodo no vazzurai de va nai_ 'this disease
is not strong enough to cause death,' _fune ni mesaruru fodo naraba vare mo
norózu_ (124) 'if Your Lordship would take up the task of boarding the
ship, so shall I,' _tamexi mo nai fodo ni atta to mǒsu_ (124v) 'they say it
was as if it had never been,' _voquru fodo araba sore ie mairǒzu_ (124) 'if
I am able to arrive at the state where I can get up from bed, I shall come
to you,' _chicara no fodo vo mite_ 'seeing the degree of his strength,'
_fodo nó tçuita_ 'he arrived in {162} an instant,' _core fodo_ 'as this,'
_sore fodo_ 'as that,' _are fodo_ 'as that,' _vovoi fodo_ 'while more,'
_sucunai fodo_ 'while less.'

(55

_Superlative Adverbs_[156]

_Uie_ means 'the highest'; e.g., _christian no voxiie va izzure iori mo uie
de gozaru_ 'the doctrine and faith of Christianity are supreme, or above
all,' _cono saqe no uie va nai_ 'there is no better wine than that.' _Ichi_
or _daiichi_ means 'supreme, or unique'; e.g., _gacuxǒ no uchi ni Sancto
Thomas daiichi de gozatta_ 'among wise men Saint Thomas was the best,'
_core va are iori uie_ 'this is superior to that.' The particle _xita_ has
the opposite meaning of 'inferior, or the lowest'; e.g., _xiqitai va anima
iori xita de gozaru_ (141) 'the body is inferior to the soul.'

_Adverbs of Intensity and Exaggeration_[157]

_Ichidan_, _chicagoro_, and _iccǒ_ mean 'intensely (_valde_)'; e.g.,
_chicagoro no vo cocoro gaqe de gozaru_ 'this is the greatest care and
diligence,' _sore va icco varui coto gia_ 'this is extremely bad.'
_Bexxite_ means 'chiefly,' _tori vaqe_ means 'especially,' _coto no foca_
means 'rarely, or extraordinarily,' _icanimo_ means 'intensely,' and
_amarini_ means 'too much.' As has been said, adverbs are formed from
adjectives according to the rules above, and these adverbs mean adverbially
what the adjectives mean adjectivally; e.g., _fucai_ means 'deep,' and
_fucó_ means 'deeply.' _Icani mo xizzucani_ means 'extremely quietly,'
_tani coto ni_ means 'extraordinarily,' and _xitatacani_ or _guiósanni_
means 'in a way that is to be feared' that is to say 'too much.' See the
dictionary.[158]

_Accumulative Adverbs_[159]

_Voxinabete_ means 'universally'; _sôbet_ means 'generally,' as do
_tçuneni_ and _sojite_ [_sôjite_]; _feijeini_ means 'regularly'; and
_voioso_, _tabun_, _vocata_, _ioppodoni_ mean 'for the most part,' and
_qeccu_ or _caiette_ (56 means 'after all.' _Tennen_ means 'perhaps,' as do
_xijen_ and _icasama_. _Sadamete_ means 'probably,' _canarazu_ means
'without doubt,' _moxi xijien_ [_moxi xijen_] means 'perhaps,' _xǒtocu_
means 'naturally,' _jinen_ {163} means 'by chance,' _xidai vidai ni_ or
_jen jen ni_ means 'gradually,' and _vonozzucara_ means 'by oneself.'

_Adverbs that Conclude and Claim Attention_[160]

_Ficqiǒ_ and _tçuini_ mean 'finally, or in conclusion.' _Tçugǒ_ means 'in
summary.' _Nǒ nǒ_ means 'is it not so?' e.g., _nǒ nǒ icani qicaxeruru ca?_
'do you hear me then?' _Moxi_[161] means 'ho there (_heus_),' but it is an
elegant word; e.g., _moxi Padre sama_ 'ho there, Reverend Father.' _Iare_
also means 'ho there,' but with inferiors; e.g., _iare tarǒ quaja to iieba_
'saying "Ho there, Tarōkaja."' _Iai_ means 'ho there' with very low people;
e.g., _iai sochi ga motta mono va nani zo?_ 'hey! what is it that you
bring?' _Ia_ has the same meaning; e.g., _ia vo tono bara domo va nani vo
savagu zo?_ (128) 'hey! you soldiers and good men, why do you quarrel?' The
particle _ai_ has the same meaning but it is placed after the sentence;
e.g., _izzure mo mina qiqe ai_ (129) 'hey! all of you listen.'

The particles _ca_ and _zo_, as has been said above, are used as
interrogatives. The particles _ia_ and _caia_ have the same function but
they are more humble; e.g., _are va tare caia?_ 'who is he?', _core ia_[?]
'this?', _io fuqete tare ca va tazzuneô zo?_ (89v) 'when it becomes late at
night, who will be able to visit?', _sore de arǒ ca to iú coto gia_ 'I
said, "will it be this?"'

_No?_ asks for agreement; e.g., _gozarǒ ca no?_ 'will he come?'[162] _mairǒ
to voxerareta no?_ [... _vôxerareta no?_] 'did he say that he will come?'
_no Pedro dono?_ 'isn't that so, Peter?' _Na_[?] means the same thing, but
it is used with inferiors; e.g., _sǒ qiita na?_ 'didn't you hear so?'
Sometimes, in a sentence containing _zo_, _baxi_, which is a dubitive
particle (_particula dubitandi_), is placed; e.g., _nanto xita xisai de
baxi gozaru zo?_ (122v)[163] 'for what reason did this happen?', _sate
nanto iú voqiacu de baxi gozaru zo_[?] (123) 'what is the name of your
guest?', _goiô baxi gozaru ca?_ 'isn't there something of use to you?'

_Io_ and _zo_ strengthen or give cadence to the sentence; e.g., _caita zo_
{164} 'he truly wrote,' _maitta io_ 'he certainly came,' _sono toqi vare_
(57 _va ichi dan varui tçucai vo xiraruite gozaru io_ [... _siaruite_ ...]
(95) 'at that time I was following bad advice.' _Bacari_ means 'only, or in
only one way,' _sore ni caguitte_ means 'that only,' _core ni caguirazu_
'not only this.' _Bacari_ also means 'more or less'; e.g., _fiacu bacari_
'there were a hundred,' _fiacunin bacari corosareta_ 'about one hundred men
were killed.' _Nó_, _nóte_, _naqu xite_, and _naqute_ mean 'without'; e.g.,
_raxxi mo nó_ 'without reason or order,' _cacugo nó_ 'without any
preparation.'

The adverbs of sound (_adverbia sonus_) are many and vary in accordance
with the way that the Japanese perceive the sound. The particle _to_ is
added to them; e.g., _va va to xite_ 'vociferously saying _wa wa_,' and if
they add _meqi,u_, it means to make even a louder noise; e.g., _va meqi,u_
'to shout saying _wa_.'

_The Case Prepositions_[164]

_Tame_ or _ni_ means 'concerning';[165] e.g., _sonata no tame_ 'for you
(_tibi_).' It governs the genitive which precedes it; _nan no tame_ 'for
what,' _nani ni naru ca?_ 'for what is it?', _nani ni xô ca?_ 'what do you
do that for?', _nani no iô ni tatçu ca?_ (171v) 'for what is it needed, or
useful?', _maitte no iô va?_ (130) 'what's the use of going?'

_Tai xite_ means 'on account of' or 'against'; e.g., _tengu ni tai xite
teqito_ 'to fight against the devil, or resist him,' _Deus ni tai xite
cuguio vo coraiuru_ 'I endure the pain (_labor_) because of God.' _Uie
iori_ also means 'because'; e.g., _von jifi no uie iori_ (167) 'because of
his mercy.'

_Ni iotte_ signifies the reason for which; e.g., _Deus iori fito no jento
acu ni iotte go fempô vo ataiesaxerareozu_ [... _ataiesaxerareôzu_] (146v)
'God gives to man according to his virtues and vices.' This form is derived
from the verb _iori,u_.

_Ni tçuite_ means 'around, or about' and is derived from the verb
_tçuqi,u_; e.g., _core ni tçuite_, _core ni tçuqi_, or _core ni tçuqete_
means 'about that.' _Sono gui ni voite va zonjenu_ (120) 'I do not know
anything about this matter,' _Vôxe va mottomo naredomo vagami ni totte va
canai gatai_ (120) 'Your Lordship speaks well but what concerns me is that
(58 {165} it is difficult to do.' _Dai quan ni itatte va ichinin bacari
sadame io_ (120)[166] 'decide that which concerns the steward only.'
_Itatte_ and _totte_[167] are the gerunds of verbs just as the preceding.
They also say _Padre coto va_ 'the things belonging to the priest,' _varera
coto va_ 'about my things, or those things which belong to me.' _Xitagatte_
or _xitagǒte_ means 'near' and is the gerund of the verb _xitagari,u_ or
_xitagai,ó_. As with the other verbs it governs the dative case; e.g.,
_guioi ni xitagatte_ or _xitagǒte_ 'according to Your Lordship's
understanding.' _Xidai_ has the same meaning; e.g., _conata xidai_
'according to your wishes.' Sometimes it is added to the roots of verbs;
e.g., _mairi xidai_ 'according to when he comes, or according to his
coming.'

_Ni_ indicates the place in which. _Ni voite_ has the same meaning but
indicates permanence; e.g., _fatto va fuximi ni voite vôxeidasareta_ 'he
established the law while he was in Fushimi,' _Bungo funai ni itatte_ 'in
the city of Funai in the kingdom of Bungo,' _iglesia ni uoru_ 'he is in
church.'

_De_ indicates the place of an action; e.g., _michi de Pedro ni vǒta_ 'I
met Peter in the street.' The same particle _de_, together with _vo motte_,
indicate the instrument with which an action is done; e.g., _bo vo motte
Pedro vo uchi coroita_ 'he killed Peter with a stick,' _Padre sama
catarareta de navo qicoieta_ 'from what the Reverend Father told me, it
became easier to understand,' _necqi de xinda_ 'he died of a fever.'

_Cara_ or _iori_ indicate the place from which; e.g., _iglesia cara_ 'from
church.' They also say _fune cara maitta_ 'he came by ship' and _cachi cara
maitta_ 'he came on foot.' _Fune de maitta_ is the same as _fune cara
maitta_ and _fune ni notte maitta_. _Fana cara me cara miguruxij mono gia_
'it is unpleasant to the nose and the eyes.' _Iori_ indicates the place
through which; e.g., _sama iori faitta_ 'he entered through the window.'

_Tomo ni_ means 'at the same time'; e.g., _sonata to tomo ni mairǒzu_ I
shall go at the same time as you,' _mǒsu to tomo ni_ 'at the same time as
he spoke.'

_Ie_ indicates the place to which; e.g., _achi ie mairǒ_ 'I shall go
directly to court (_curia_),' _miiaco no cata ie noboru_ 'he went up to
court' and also _miiaco no fǒ ie noboru_. They also say _miiaco no iori_,
{166} _miiaco sama_, or _miiaco no gotoqu noboru_, but this is not a good
way of speaking and is more characteristic of a rustic (_rusticus_).

_De_ indicates the material from which; e.g., _tçuchi de cavara_ (59 _vo
tçuquru_ 'to make bricks out of earth or mud,' _nande core vo tçuquru ca?_
'from what is this made?'

_Uie_ means 'concerning'; e.g., _zuibun codomo no uie vo fito ni mo naxi
marasuru iǒni to cocoro gaqe marasuru_ 'with great diligence I took care of
my sons so as to make them men.' _Sonata no fiquan no vo saiban mesare io_
[... _no uie vo_ ...] (141) 'take care of your servants.'

_Made_ means 'until'; _asu made_ 'until morning,' _inochi vo uxinǒ made aru
mai_ 'he will not lose his life, or he will not arrive at the loss of his
life,' _sore made vomoi mo ioranu gui gia_ 'it will not come to my mind,'
_cocoro zaxi areba canavanu made mo xei vo iruru_ 'when something is wished
for, one uses his strength up to the point of impossibility,' _mǒsu made mo
nai_ 'it is not necessary to say,' _cono tocoro made maitta_ 'I came to
this place.'

_Conjunction and Separation_[168]

_To_ means 'and'; e.g., _Pedro to juan to Nagasaqi ie ita_ 'Peter and John
went to Nagasaki,' _core to, are to vo toru_ 'I take this and that.' _Mo_
has the same meaning; e.g., _Pedro mo juan mo Nagasaqi cara modotta_ 'Peter
and John returned from Nagasaki,' _naqu mono mo ari, varó mono mo aru_
'there are those who cry and those who laugh. _Mo_ is often placed before
negative verbs; e.g., _nanigoto mo gazaranu ca?_ 'is that not something
new?'

_Mata_ means 'and,' whether it is found between nouns or verbs. _Ca_ means
'or'; e.g., _Pedro ca; juan ca coi to iie_ 'tell Peter or John to come.'
_Arui va_ also means 'or'; e.g., _arui va Pedro, arui va juan_ 'either
Peter or John,' _arui va iomu, arui va caqu_ 'I either read or write.'
_Moxi va_ means 'if in fact,' and it is used in the middle of a sentence;
e.g., _moxi va cane ga nai naraba_ 'if in fact you were to have no money.'

_Mata va_ is used to bind the sentences more tightly together (_ad
orationem contexturam_). It means 'besides that, or besides'; e.g., (60
_arui va iamai ga vocoru ca, mata va isogui no fumi qitaru ca etc._ [...
_ca_, etc.] (135) 'either some sickness occurs, or besides that some urgent
letter arrives.'

{167}

_Xicareba_ means 'since things are this way,' _sari nagara_ means 'but,'
_sǒ aru tocoro de_ means 'since it is thus,' _saraba_ means 'since it is
so,' and _sareba sareba_ means 'since then.' _Ca?_ means 'if'; e.g.,
_maitta ca mi io_ 'see if he came, or went,' _maitta ca xiranu_ 'I don't
know if he went.' _Iara_ means 'if,' but distributively (_divisive_); e.g.,
_fito iara chicuxǒ iara xiranu_ 'I don't know if it's man or beast,' _nani
iara to mǒxita_ 'I wonder what he said.'

Some disjunctive and emphatic particles are formed from _nanica_ and
_tocacu_ with the addition of other particles; e.g., _nani ia ca ia?_
'which thing?' The same meaning is expressed by _nani iara ca iara?_ and
_nanto iara cato iara?_ _Nanto xite_, _cato xite_ means 'how,' _nanto mo
cato mo_ means 'in no way,' and _nani mo ca mo_ means 'nothing.' _Nanigoto
mo cagoto mo, mina içtuvari naru zo_ [... _itçuvari_ ...] 'when all is said
and done they are all lies.' _Nani no ca no_, and _nanto xite_, _cato xite_
are ways to excuse oneself. _Nani no ca no to iúte_ means 'saying this and
that.' _Domo como_ means 'in whatever way it is,' as does _dǒ xite mo cǒ
xite mo_. _Dǒ xite cǒ xite_ means 'doing this and that differently.' _Dǒ xô
cǒ xô_ means 'I shall do this and that.'

_Tomo cacumo_ means 'all the same,' as do _toni cacuni_, _tonimo cacunimo_,
and _totemo cacutemo_. _Core to ij; care to ij_ means 'saying this and
that, or making excuses.' _Care core_ means 'this and that,' _coco caxico_
means 'here and there (_hic and illic_).' _Vomoxirô, vocaxu_[169]
[_vomoxirovocaxǔ_] is used when accommodating oneself almost to flattery.

If the particle _motte_ is added to the particles _catçute_, _isasaca_,
_tomoni_, _nani_, and _nani nani iori_ [... and _nani iori_] it adds
strength and force; e.g., _catçute motte sǒ aru mai_ 'the situation will
not be this way at all.'

_Interjections_[170]

_Sate_, _sate sate_, [_satemo_,] and _satemo satemo_ are interjections of
admiration; e.g., _satemo Deus no voqinaru vonjifi cana_ 'oh! great mercy
of God!'

{168}

_Avare_ is the interjection for pity; e.g., _avare mutçucaxij io no naca
cana_ 'oh! world replete with misery!'

_Ha!_[171] is the interjection of penetence; e.g., _ha faxi demo_ (61
_vomoxiroi ga; tocoro ni iote qicoie canuru_ [... _ni iotte_ ...] (127v)
'ah, the workmanship of the sound and the harmony of the singing is most
graceful, but it is not able to be heard well.'

_Iara!_ is the interjection for joy and pain; e.g., _iara iara medeta ia_
(128) 'oh! how much I rejoice.' _Ia_ is also used; e.g., _satemo iiaxii
iatçubara ia_ (129)[172] 'oh! how vile and despicable,' _gongo dǒdan
fuxigui na xisai cana_ (128v) 'oh! how rare and ridiculous a reason.' _Iei_
is the interjection of wonder; e.g., _iei Padre sama cochi gozaru io_ 'oh!
here is the Reverend Father.'

_Hat_ is the interjection that indicates that one is repentent; e.g.,
_Benqei core vo mite hat coto naxi to zonjite, sono mama niva ni bǒ vo
voraxi,_ etc. (127v) 'Benkei seeing this,' etc.[173]

_The Syntax and the Cases that are Governed by the Verbs_[174]

The nominative is placed at the beginning of the sentence and the verb at
the end: the remaining elements are placed according to the cadence
(_cadentia_) of the sentence; e.g., _Pedro va Nagasaqi de xutrai xita iqi
iqi ni tçuite juan vo coroita_ 'Peter killed John because of an argument
that took place in Nagasaki.' In certain sentences of serious import a
substitute verb (_verbum suppositum_) is placed after the verb, but this is
rare; e.g., _tare mo canavanu futari no qimi ni tçucǒru coto va_ (84)[175]
'no one can serve two masters.' In this sentence the substitute verb is
_tçucǒru coto va_. _Core ni iote tanomi tatematçuru itçumo virgen_ [_Core
ni iotte_ ...] (84) 'therefore I pray to the ever virgin [Mary].'

Clauses (_orationes_) in the absolute or permissive subjunctive,
infinitive, conditional, and causative are always placed before clauses
that are in the indicative or imperative, even if it does not make sense
{169} in Latin or any other European language; e.g., _achi cara tomeraruru
tomo; tomaru na_ 'do not stay, even if they want you to remain,' _sore vo
qiitareba, fara vo tatete modotta_ 'when he heard that, he came back very
angry,' _taxicani uqetamotta ni iotte coso, móxi ague maraxitare_ 'I
listened carefully, and then I spoke,' _faiǒ gozatta raba vo mexi vo xinjô
mono vo_ 'if you had come earlier, I would have offered you food.'

When there are two verbs in the same sentence, the first will (62 be in the
gerund form and the other will be in the tense that is required by the
sense of the sentence; e.g., _core vo totte giqi ni mi ga comono ni vataxe_
'take this and give it to my servant at once.'

When there are two or more clauses which have the same subject or tense,
only the last verb will be in the tense that is required by the sense of
the sentence. The other verbs will be in the root form, while still others
will be in the gerund in _e_ form; e.g., _tovazunba cotaiezu, voxe raba
tçuxxinde qiqi_ [_tovazũba_ ... _vôxe_ ... _qiqe_] (85v)[176] 'if they
don't ask don't answer: if they speak listen carefully,' _Deus no vo coto
vo macoto ni uqe, go voqite mo camavaide, sono mama inferno ni vochita_ 'he
did not believe in God, and he did not respect His precepts; therefore, he
fell into Hell.'

Verbs are always placed in the third person to indicate honor. No one
honors himself except the king when he is speaking of himself; e.g.,
_iorocobi ni voboximesu_ 'I am enjoying it very much.'

When there are many adjectives in a sentence, they will all be in the
adverbial form except the last; e.g., _qe nangǒ, iro curô, icanimo
utçucuxij mono_ [_qe nagǒ_ ...][177] 'a very beautiful person with long,
black hair.'

The particle _to_ is placed before verbs of understanding, believing, and
hearing, takes the place of the verb 'to be,' and means 'that'; _fito to
zonjita_ 'I thought, or believed that he was a man,' _qixó vo jennin to
vomovô ca?_ [_qixo_ ... _vomovǒ ca?_] 'shall I believe that you are a
saint?' _Amata no fito xini no fonovo ni moiuru vo misaxerareô_ (20)[178]
'you {170} will see many men burning in the flames of indignation.' Here
one has replaced _to_ with _moiuru vo_, which is a substitute verb. When
_mo_ is added to _to_ it strongly affirms what is said; e.g., _mairó to mo_
'I shall certainly go, or I will be going.'

The particle _to_, in the first meaning, is sometimes replaced by _iǒni_;
e.g., _agueta iǒni gozaru_ 'they say that he offered it,' _ica iǒna fito to
va xiranu_ 'I did not know what kind of a man he was.' Sometimes the
substantive verb takes the place of the particle _to_; e.g., _mairó de
gozatta_ 'he said that he would come,' _xô de va naqeredomo_ 'although I
did not say that I would do it.'

_Qiuzo core vo mite, ima vo saigo no coto de areba_ (97)[179] 'seeing this,
Kiso believed that the hour of death was present, etc.' Here the
substantive verb replaces _to_ and serves as an active verb governing the
accusative _ima vo_, which also replaces _to_. The particles _sǒna_ and
_guena_ mean 'it seems.' _Sǒna_ is added to the roots of verbs; e.g.,
_deqi_ (63 _sǒna_ 'it seems that it is finished.' If a substantive verb is
placed after this particle the _a_ is changed to _i_; e.g., _deqi sǒni
gozaru_ 'it seems that he will finish,' _deqi sǒni mo zonjenu_ 'I believe
that it will not be finished.'[180] _Sǒna_ is also added to adjectives in
_i_, and when it is the _i_ is lost; e.g., _io sǒna_ 'it seems good, or it
seems that it is good,' _xigue sǒna_ 'it seems dense,' and _aiau sǒna_ 'it
seems that I am in danger.' If this particle is added to adjectives in
_na_, the _na_ is lost; e.g., _aqiraca sǒna_ 'it seems that it is clear.'

The particle _guena_ is added to the nouns and verbs previously formed;
e.g., _maitta guena_ 'I believe that he has come.' If a substantive verb is
added to this particle the _a_ changes to _i_; e.g., _maitta gueni gozaru_
'I believe that he has come.' _Sǒna_ means 'it seems,' and _guena_ means 'I
believe,' but either of these forms may occasionally be used in any of the
examples given.

When a sentence has two preterits, the first may be in the preterit and the
second in the future; e.g., _qesa cara sǒ vôxerareta raba mo faia de
maraxô_ 'If you would have said that this morning, I would have already
left.'

When reporting what someone else has said, it is said this way; {171}
_Padre mósaruru va: iagate sonata ie mairó to mǒsaruru_ 'the priest said
that he was going to come.' Sometimes when one is excusing himself he will
use _no_ in place of _to_; e.g., _asu no, raiguat no, nando to noburu na_
'don't spread around that it is tomorrow, next month, or whenever.'

When _vo_ follows _n_ it loses its _v_; e.g., _go von o uqetatematçutta_ 'I
received benefits.'[181]

Adverbs are always placed before their verbs except for the adverbs of time
which are placed at the beginning of the sentence; e.g., _sore vo qijte
iccó xicari maraxita_ 'hearing that he was very angry,' _qiô nen espana
cara vatatta toqi_ [_qio nen_ ...] 'when I sailed from Spain last year.'
Each verb requires before it a subject in the nominative case, either
expressed or understood; e.g., _vare iqe_ or _iqe_ 'come!', where the
_vare_ is understood. In some sentences this rule is not respected; e.g.,
_xisai voba core ni mósare maraxozu_ [... _maraxôzu_] 'he will explain, or
give the reason for this.' In the following case we do not see the
nominative, but rather _are ni va_, which is in the dative or ablative;
_are ni va, navo voixri atta_ [... _voxiri atta_] 'he knows better.' In
this sentence the _are ni va_ ought to be in the nominative. _Cacaru vo ni
va cogane no cusari vo icusugi mo tçuqeta dógu de gozaru_ (138v) 'for a
necklace (_torques_) he had a chain of gold with many links.'

_Core ni va gozonji aru mai_ 'Your Lordship does not know (64 about this.'
Here the _core ni va_ replaces the accusative which is governed by
_zonji,uru_.

The impersonal verb or the infinitive requires a nominative before it;
e.g., _Pedro va maitta to mósu_ 'they say that Peter came.'

The verb _iri,u_, which means 'to need,' governs two nominatives, one for
the thing and the other for the person in need; e.g., _vatacuxi va cono
cane ga iru_ 'I need, or I have a necessity for this money.' It also
governs the dative for the person; e.g., _sono tame ni va cane ga iranu_
'he does not need any gold, or money.'

The active verb requires the accusative before it; e.g., _cane vo motanu_
'I have no money.'

Certain _cobita_ or _coie_ nouns, as we have said above, are borrowed from
Chinese and govern the same cases as the Japanese verbs to which {172} they
correspond; e.g., _niva vo qenbut no aida ni mexi vo coxiraie io_ 'prepare
the food while we visit the garden.' The noun _qenbut_ requires the
accusative _niva vo_. The same is true with _fito ni guenzan suru_ (97)
which is like _fito ni vó_ 'I meet the man.' The _guenzan_ governs the
dative just as does the verb _ai,ó_.

When a borrowed word (_vocabulum cobitum_)[182] is a compound of two
elements it is possible to determine if it is a verb by seeing if the first
part has the meaning of a verb; e.g., _jóten_ is a verb which means 'to
ascend to heaven' with the _jǒ_ meaning to 'go up.' _Tenjǒ_ is a noun in
which the _jǒ_ is placed after the _ten_ and means 'heaven.'

The passive verb has the ablative for its agent (_persona agente_); e.g.,
_Pedro cara corosareta_ 'he was killed by Peter,' but it is better that it
govern the dative; e.g., _Pedro ni corosareta_, or _Pedro va nusubito ni
cane vo torareta_ 'Peter had his money stolen by thieves.'

There are also certain neutral verbs which govern the accusative as if they
were active verbs; e.g., _xiqitai vo fanaruru_ 'to depart from the body, or
to die,' _axi vo vazzuró_ 'to have a pain in the foot.' This is also true
for _nigue,uru_ 'to escape,' _nogare,uru_ 'to evade,' _de,uru_ 'to go out,'
_noqe,uru_ 'to retreat,' _tovori,u_ 'to go across,' _nori,u_ 'to sail,' as
in _caixǒ vo noru_ 'I sail the sea,' _iuqi,u_ 'to walk,' as in _michi vo
iuqu_ 'I walk the streets,' _vovari,u_ 'to finish,' _mairi,u_ as in _xogui
vo mairu_ 'I play chess (_tabula laterucularia_),' _iorocobi,u_ as in
_cocoro vo iorocobu_ 'I gladden the heart,' _abi,uru_, as in _mizzu vo
abiru_[183] 'I wash myself with water, or I pour water on myself,'
_avaremi,u_ 'I am sad,' (65 _canaximi,u_ 'I am unhappy,' _coie,uru_ 'to
cross over,' _fabacari,u_ 'to be shy,' _facarai,ǒ_ 'to take care of,'
_faxiri,u_ 'to sail,' as in _caixǒ, vo, faxiru_ [_caixǒ vo faxiru_] 'I sail
the sea,' _fagi,zzuru_ 'to be ashamed,' _fedate,tçuru_ 'to separate,'
_fe,uru_ 'to spend,' as in _ficazu vo furu_ 'I spend many days,'
[_fumaie,uru_ 'to be based on,' as in] _dori vo fumaiuru_ 'to be based on
reason, or to have reason as a basis,' _itami,u_ 'to be sick,' _mavari,u_
'to go around,' as in _cono cotovari vo móxi mavatta_ 'he goes around and
spreads the news here and there,' _meguri,u_ has the same meaning,
_nagusami,u_ 'to please,' as in _cocoro vo nagusamu_ 'I make the heart
{173} happy,' _naqi,u_ 'to weep,' _tasucari,u_ 'to be saved,' as in _inochi
vo tasucaru_ 'I am saved from the dangers of life,' or _goxǒ vo tasucaru_
'to be saved for a future life,' _tachi,tçu_ 'to go away from,' as in
_tocoro vo tatçu_ 'I go away from this place,' _tomurai,ó_ 'to make a
funeral for the dead,' _ucagai,ó_ 'to inquire with hesitation,' _voximi,u_
'to value,' _urami,u_ 'to enquire,' _xinobi,u_ 'to wait in hiding, almost
insidiously,' as in _fito no me vo xinobu_ 'I am careful lest someone see
me.'[184] A few of these verbs which require the accusative of location
admit to the use of the ablative with the particles _cara_ or _iori_; e.g.,
_tocoro vo tatçu_ is the same as _tocoro iori tatçu_ 'I leave the place.'

There are some active verbs which require two accusative cases; e.g.,
_fori,u_, _daxi,u_, _fanaxi,u_, _tate,tçuru_. For example, _Pedro vo soco
vo voi idaita_ 'they led Peter away from that place.' It is possible that
it governs the ablative of location; e.g., _Pedro vo soco cara voi daita_
[... _voi idaita_]. Some take either the dative or the accusative; e.g.,
_fito vo_, or _fito ni fanare,uru_ 'to go away from the men,' _Deus vo_, or
_Deus ni somuqi,u_ 'to offend God.' Verbs of this kind are generally verbs
of fearing, offending, or going away.[185]

Many verbs of helping, harming, damning, obeying, recognizing as superior
or inferior, being subjugated, being victorious, and similar verbs govern
the dative; e.g., _chiie saicacu iǒni coieta_ 'he is superior to others in
wisdom and industry.'[186]

Verbs of giving, promising, and the like, govern the accusative for the
thing and the dative for the person; e.g., _fito ni cane vo cururu_ 'to
give money to someone.'[187]

There are many verbs which permit before themselves the roots of other
verbs without change, letting the roots take on the function of an
infinitive; e.g., _qiqi fajime,uru_ 'to begin to hear.' Some of these verbs
are: _nare,uru_ 'to become accustomed,' _tçuqe,uru_ with the same (66
meaning, _fate,tçuru_ 'to finish,' _narai,ó_ 'to learn,' _some,uru_ 'to
begin,' _todoqe,uru_ 'to continue,' _ate,tçuru_ 'to direct,' _atari,u_ 'to
find by chance,' _vaqe,uru_ 'to divide,' _cane,uru_ 'to be able to do with
difficulty,' _soconai,ǒ_ 'to be wrong,' _sumaxi,u_ 'to finish,' _sugoxi,u_
'to exceed,' _fague maxi,u_ {174} 'to work much and intensely,' _aqi,u_ 'to
become bored,' _tai_ 'to want,' and _tǒ mo nai_ 'to not want.'[188] If the
roots of verbs are placed before certain adjectives ending in _i_, they
form a kind of supine in _Tu_; e.g., _iomi iasui_ (92) 'easy to read
(_facile lectu_),' etc.

A numeral, if a substantive noun is placed after it, must be in the
genitive case; e.g., _fitotçu no toga_ 'one sin.' The same is true with the
particle _fodo_ when it means 'all'; e.g., _aru fodo no fito_ 'how so ever
many.' The same is true with _iori_; e.g., _Nanban iori no mono_ 'things
from Europe.' But this is a relative formation (_relatiuum_). The genitive
is also required with nouns that mean much or little; e.g., _amata no fito_
'many men.' These nouns are; _bechi_ 'other,' _fon_ 'one's own,' _cazucazu_
'many,' _sama zama_ 'many ways.' _Iro iro_ 'much' is the same as _iorozzu_
and _izzure_. _Issai_ means 'all,' as does _vono vono_, _cotogotoqu_, and
_reqi reqi_ for a noble person, _igue_ 'that which follows,' _nocori_ 'that
which remains,' _itçumo_ 'always,' _itçumo no coto_ 'that which always is,'
_tçune_ 'usual,' _ima_ 'now.' _Isasaca_ means 'a little,' as does _soto_ or
_sucoxi_, _xotocu_ 'natural,' _sono foca_ 'others.'[189] These nouns are in
the genitive if they are followed by a substantive noun, but when they are
not followed by a noun they must be taken as adjectives. If they are
followed by a verb rather than a noun, they do not require the genitive;
e.g., _iorozzu dancǒ xite iocarǒ_ 'it will be good if you all confer.'

Japanese Arithmetic and Numerical Matters
Concerning Which Much Painful
Labor Is Required

There are two ways to count in Japanese.[190] The first is with the
ordinary numerals which are called _iomi_. With these one is able to count
to ten; e.g., _fitotçu_ means 'one,' which is also used to (67 say 'a
little,' as in _saqe fitotçu nomaxite tamǒre_ 'give me a little sake to
drink.' _Futatçu_ means 'two,' _mitçu_ 'three,' _iotçu_ 'four,' _itçutçu_
'five,' _mutçu_ 'six,' _nanatçu_ 'seven,' _iatçu_ 'eight,' _coconotçu_
'nine,' and _tovo_ {175} 'ten.' _Icutçu_ means 'what?' and is used when one
does not have the proper number.

The second way of counting is with the _coie_ vocables which are borrowed
from Chinese. These numbers are not used by themselves to count to ten; but
are rather used when counting things which are represented by Chinese, and
not Japanese vocables. These bound numerals (_termini numerales_) are:
_ichi_ 'one,' _ni_ 'two,' _san_ 'three,' _xi_ 'four,' _go_ 'five,' _rocu_
'six,' _xichi_ 'seven,' _fachi_ 'eight,' _cu_ 'nine,' _jú_ 'ten.' The
numbers eleven and above are made by joining these numbers together. Thus,
'eleven' is _jǔichi_; _júni_ is 'twelve,' _júsan_ 'thirteen,' _júcu_
'ninteen.' The tens are obtained by placing one of the numbers in front of
ten; e.g., _nijú_ 'twenty,' _sanjú_ 'thirty,' _sanjǔichi_ 'thirty-one,'
_cujǔ_ 'ninety.' _Fiacu_ means 'hundred,' _fiacu ichi_ 'one hundred and
one,' _fiacu jǔ_ 'one hundred and ten,' _fiacu sanjǔ_ 'one hundred and
thirty,' _ni fiacu_ 'two hundred,' _sambiacu_ 'three hundred.' _Xen_ means
'thousand,' and _xen roppiacu sanjǔ ichi_ is 'sixteen thirty-one.'

By placing the Japanese numerals in front of Japanese vocables, which are
called _iomi_, and by removing the _tçu_ of the aforementioned numbers
before they are joined to nouns or verb stems, one is able to enumerate
those things which are indicated by the vocable; e.g., _fito cotoba_ 'one
word,' _futa cotovari_ 'two reasons,' _mi ami_ 'three nets, or three casts
of the net,' _iocama_ 'to bake something four times in an oven,' _itçu
caqe_ 'five attacks,' _mu casane_ 'six robes, or covers,' _nana catana_
'seven wounds by a sword,' _ia catague_ 'eight loads,' _cu cavari_[191]
'nine changes,' _to cusa_ 'ten varieties.' Above the number ten this way of
counting is not used, instead they say _iro júichi_ or _júichi no iro_ for
'eleven colors.' The interrogative is _icutçu_. If the thing being
questioned is placed after the interrogative the particle _no_ is added;
e.g., _itçucu no qi zo_ [_icutçu_ ...] 'how many trees are there?' To such
a question the answer is _futatçu_ 'two,' _mitçu_ 'three,' etc. If the
_tçu_ is removed from _icutçu_, one may place it in front of the thing
being asked about; e.g., _icu tocoro_ 'how many places?' _icu toqi_ 'how
many hours?'; also _fito fanaxi_ 'one sermon, or conversation,' _futa sugi_
'two treads,' _io te_ 'four hands, as in a fight,' _itçu tçubu_ 'five
grains,' _mu tocoro_ 'six (68 places,' _ia mavari_ 'six [eight] circuits,'
_cu ninai_ 'nine loads, carried in {176} the Japanese fashion on a stick
with the load in front,' _to vatari_ 'ten crossings.' It is possible to
count the same thing in different ways. Thus, _mu tocoro_ is also _mutçu no
tocoro_ and _tocoro mutçu_ 'six places.' _Fito ie_ means 'one plain thing,'
_futa ie_ 'doubled, or duplicate,' _mi ie_ 'triplicate,' etc. In the same
way one may add Chinese numerals to Chinese vocables, or _coie_. Usually in
this way of counting a [phonetic] change occurs in either the number or the
thing counted. Sometimes this change is in the first part, sometimes in the
second, and at other times in both. This is particularly true with the
first, second, third, sixth, tenth, and one hundredth numbers. With the
items below, if nothing is noted, it is an indication that nothing is
changed.

When asking about men one says _icutari?_ 'how many men?' The response is
made by adding _nin_ to the Chinese numeral; e.g., _ichi nin_ 'one man,'
_ni nin_ 'two men,' _iottari_ 'four men'; this is because _xinin_ means
'dead person.'

When asking about days one says _icca_ 'how many days?' The response is _fi
fitoi_,[192] because _ichi nichi_ means 'one entire solar day,' _futçuca_
'two days,' _micca_ 'three days,' _iocca_ 'four days,' _itçuca_ 'five
days,' _muica_ 'six days,' _nanuca_ 'seven days,' _iǒca_ 'eight days,'
_coconoca_ 'nine days,' _toca_[193] 'ten days,' _fatçuca_ 'twenty days.'
The remaining days are counted with _coie_ numerals.

When counting nights _ia_ is added to the _coie_ numerals; e.g., _ichi ia_
'one night,' _ni ia_ 'two nights,' etc. It is also possible to add _io_
which means 'night' in Japanese to the _iomi_ numeral; e.g., _icu io_ 'how
many nights?' _futa io_ 'two nights,' _nana io_ 'seven nights,' etc.

When enumerating the months of the year _guat_ is added to the _coie_
numeral, with the exception that the first month is called _xóguat_. The
second is _niguat_, the third is _saguat_,[194] the fourth is _xiguat_, the
eleventh is _ximotçuqi_, and the twelfth and last is _xi vasu_. When
counting months the _tçu_ is removed from the _iomi_ numeral and the word
_tçuqi_, which means 'month,' is added. _Icutçuqi?_ means 'how many
months.' In response one says _fitotçuqi_ 'one month,' up to ten which is
_totçuqi_, and from there on one counts with _coie_ numerals; e.g.,
_júichiguat_ 'eleven months.' If one wants to ask what month it is, {177}
January, February, one says _nanguat_. The first month of the (69 Japanese
year is March.

In the enumeration of the years _nen_ is placed after the _coie_ numeral.
In asking how many, _nen_ [_nan_] is placed before _nen_; e.g., _nannen_
'how many years?' In response one says _ichinen_ 'one year,' _ionen_ 'four
years,' _sanganen_ 'three years,' _sǒ ionen_[195] 'three or four years,'
_sǒ xijúnen_ 'thirty or forty years,' _fatachi_ means 'twenty years of
age,' as does _nijǔnen_, _nijǔ no toxi_, or _toxi niju_. They ask with
_icutoxi_ or _toxi icutçu_ 'how old are you.' They count the age of men and
animals such as cattle and horses by adding _sai_ to the _coie_ numeral;
e.g., _issai_ 'one,' _nisai_ 'two,' _sanzai_ 'three.'

In counting turns (_visis_) _do_ is added to the _coie_ numerals; e.g.,
_nando_ 'how many times,' _ichido_ 'once,' _iodo_ 'four times,' _godo_
'five times,' _sai san_ 'twice or thrice.'

In the enumeration of ships _sô_ is placed after the _coie_ numeral; e.g.,
_nanzo_ [_nanzô_] 'how many ships,' to which one answers _issô_ 'one ship,'
_niso_ [_nisô_] 'two,' _sanzô_ 'three,' _fassô_ 'eight,' _jússô_ [_jissô_]
'ten.'

_Ichiren_ 'one string,' _niren_ 'two,' _saren_ 'three,' as in figs or
pearls.

When enumerating sermons, homilies (_tractatus_), or repetitions of things,
_fen_ is placed after the numeral; e.g., _ippen_ 'one sermon,' _nifen_
'two,' _sanben_ 'three,' _ave maria fiacu gojippen_ 'one hundred and fifty
Hail Mary's.'

In counting gold currency _momme_ is placed after the numeral; e.g., _ichi
momme_ 'one _momme_,' _ni momme_ 'two,' _san mome_ [_san momme_] 'three.'
When a _momme_ is divided into tenths it is called an _ippun_ [_fun_].
Thus, _ippun_ means one tenth part of a _momme_, _nifun_ means 'two
tenths,' _gofun_ means half the basic unit (_media dragma_), _roppun_ means
'six tenths of a _momme_.'

When the tenth part of a _momme_ is divided again into ten parts it is
counted as _ichirin_, _nirin_, _sarin_, _iorin_, _gorin_, _rocurin_,
_xichirin_, _fachirin_, and _curin_. Then comes _ippun_, which is one tenth
of a _momme_. _Fiacu me_ means 'one hundred _momme_,' _fiacu ichi momme_
'one hundred and one,' _icquan me_ means 'one thousand _momme_,'
_jicquanme_ means 'ten thousand.' There are other coins of silver which are
counted by placing _mai_ or _mon_ after the numeral; e.g., _ichi mon_ means
one of {178} that unit, _ni mon_ is 'two,' _San mai_ is three hundred
_mon_. They no longer produce a coin which is one half of the gold coin,
but one thousand of these coins make _icquan_, while _jicquan_ is 'ten (70
thousand _quan_.'[196]

_Core va ica fodo ni suru_ 'how much is this worth?' or _ica fodo ni uru_
'at what price will you sell this?' _Ni momme suru_ 'I consider it worth
two _momme_,' or _ni momme ni iasui_ 'I can sell this for more than two
_momme_, or at two _momme_ this is cheap.'

The enumeration of liquid measurements is done by placing the particle _xô_
in front of the liquid quantity; e.g., _ixxo_ [_ixxô_] 'one _xô_,' _nixo_
[_nixô_] 'two,' _sango_ [_sanjô_] 'three.' Ten _xô_ are _itto_ which is the
particle _to_ placed after the numeral; _nito_ means 'twenty _xô_,' _sando_
'thirty.' For one tenth of a _xô_ one places the particle _go_ after the
numeral; e.g., _Ichigo_ 'one _go_,' _nigo_ 'two,' _sango_ 'three,' _ixxô
gogo_ 'one and one half _xô_.' _Fatto_ is eighty _xô_. One hundred _xô_
make _ichi cocu_. By placing the _cocu_ after numerals one obtains _ni
cocu_ 'two hundred _xô_,' _sangocu_ 'three hundred,' _jiccocu_ 'one
thousand,' _xencocu_ 'ten thousand,' _ichi mangocu_ 'one hundred thousand.'

The enumeration of the measurements of human height is achieved by placing
_fito_ [_firo_] after the _iomi_ numerals; e.g., _fito firo_ 'one _firo_,'
_futa firo_ 'two,' _jippiro_ 'ten.' The measurement of a span (_palmus_) is
made by adding _xacu_ to the _coie_ numerals; e.g., _ixxacu_ 'one span, or
three spans by the Spanish measuring system,'[197] _sanjaku_ 'three.'
_Goxacu_ is the same as _fito firo_ which is a measurement we have referred
to before. Six _xacu_ make up a measurement called _icqen_ 'one _qen_,'
_nicqen_ [_niqen_] 'two,' _jicqen_ 'ten,' and _sanguen_ 'three.' From sixty
of these measurements one makes a measurement called _icchó_, that is 'one
mountain path,' _nicchǒ_ [_nichǒ_] 'two,' _jichiǒ [jicchǒ]_ 'ten,' _sangiǒ_
'three.' From sixty-three [thirty-six] _chô_, as measured in the northern
part of Japan, one obtains _ichiri_ which is one league or one miliar. One
enumerates by adding _ri_ to the _coie_ numerals; e.g., _niri_ 'two,'
_sanri_ 'three,' _gori_ 'five,' _júri_ 'ten'; _iori_ is 'four,' because
_xiri_ means anus.[198] _Fan michi_ {179} means 'a half of a league.' They
say; _ioco fan miqi tate ichiri_ [... _michi_ ...] 'a half a _ri_ wide and
one _ri_ long,' _faba icqen_ 'the width is one _qen_,' _iofǒ futa firo_
'two _hiro_ on all sides.'

The cardinal numbers first, second, etc. are made by adding _ban_ to the
_coie_ numerals; e.g., _ichi ban_ 'first,' _ni ban_ 'second.' To these are
also added _me_, as said before; e.g., _xi ban me_ 'fourth.' One may also
make the cardinal numbers by placing _dai_ in front of the _coie_ (71
numerals; e.g., _daiichi_ 'first,' _daini_ 'second,' etc.

The enumeration of multiples is done by adding _bai_ to the numbers; e.g.,
_ichibai_ 'double,' _nibai_ 'triple,' _sanbai_ 'quadruple,'[199] _fiacu
zobai_ 'one hundred fold.'

The enumeration of the parts from the whole is done by placing _buichi_
after the numeral; e.g., _ni buichi_ 'one from two parts,' _san buichi_
'one from three parts.'

To indicate one tenth _vari_ is placed after the numeral; e.g., _ichi vari_
'one from ten parts,' _xi vari gobu_ 'four and one half from ten parts.'
_Jú buichi_ is the same as _ichi vari_.

The enumeration of oars, muskets, and long things made of wood is done by
placing _chó_ after the numerals; e.g., _icchó_ 'one oar,' _nichó_ 'two,'
_sangiǒ_ 'three,' _jichó_ [_jicchó_] 'ten.'

The enumeration of fish and fire wood is done by placing _con_ after the
numerals;[200] e.g., _iccon_, 'one fish,' _sangon_ 'three,' _jiccon_ 'ten,'
_fiaccon_ 'one hundred,' _fiacu gojǔ sangon_ 'one hundred and fifty-three.'
This is the amount Saint Peter caught, and even though he caught that
number the net did not tear.

The enumeration of leaves of paper and sheets of gold, etc. is done by
placing _mai_ after the numeral; e.g., _ichimai_ 'one leaf,' _cami gomai_
'five leaves of paper.'

The enumeration of the stories of a house is done by placing _cai_ after
the numeral; e.g., _nicai_ 'the first floor,' _sangai_ 'the second,'
_xigai_ 'the third,' _gocai_ 'the fourth,' when counted as in a house in
Madrid.

The enumeration of utensils and cups for drinking is done by placing _fai_
after the numeral; e.g., _ippai_ 'one drink, or one draught,' _nifai_
'two,' _sanbai_ 'three,' _jippai_ 'ten.'

{180}

The enumeration of rolls of silk or the like is done by placing _tan_ after
the numeral; e.g., _ittan_ 'one roll,' _nitan_ 'two,' _sandan_ 'three,'
_jittan_ 'ten.' _Xichitan bune_ is a ship with a sail seven _tan_ wide.

This is also said by adding _mai_ to the numeral; e.g., _gomai_ 'five,' as
in _gomai bune_ 'a ship having a sail five _mai_ wide.'

The enumeration of four-footed animals is done by placing _fiqi_ after the
numeral; e.g., _ippiqi_ 'one animal,' _nifiqi_ 'two,' _sanbiqi_ 'three,'
_roppiqi_ 'six,' _jippiqi_ 'ten,' _fiappiqi_ 'one hundred,' _xenbiqi_ 'one
thousand.'

The enumeration of images, pictures, and medicines is done (72 by placing
_fucu_ after the numeral; e.g., _ippucu_ 'one item,' _nifucu_ 'two,'
_sanbucu_ 'three,' _roppucu_ 'six,' _jippucu_ 'ten.' Needles are also
counted this way.

The enumeration of pounds (_libra_) is done by placing _qin_ after the
numeral; e.g., _icqin_ 'one pound,' _niqin_ 'two,' _sanguin_ 'three,'
_rocqin_ 'six,' _jicqin_ 'ten,' _fiacqin_ 'one hundred,' _xenqin_ 'one
thousand.'

The enumeration of masses and congregations of men is done by placing _za_
after the numeral; e.g., _ichiza_ 'one congregation,' _niza_ 'two,' _sanza_
'three,' _jǔza_, or better _toza_ 'ten.'

The enumeration of sacks of rice, wheat, and the like, is done by placing
_fiô_ after the numeral; e.g., _ippiô_ 'one sack,' _nifiô_ 'two,' _sanbiô_
'three,' _xifio_ [_xifiô_] 'four,' _roppio_ [_roppiô_] 'six,' _jippio_
[_jippiô_] 'ten,' _fiiappio_ [_fiappiô_] 'one hundred,' _xembiô_ [_xenbiô_]
'one thousand.'

The enumeration of pieces of wood, reeds, and needles is done by placing
_fon_ after the numeral; e.g., _ippon_ 'one item,' _nifon_ 'two,' _sanbon_
'three,' _roppon_ 'six,' _jippon_ 'ten,' _fiappon_ 'one hundred,' _xenbon_
'one thousand.'

The enumeration of bundles (_fasciculus_) is done by placing _va_ after the
numeral; e.g., _ichiva_ 'one bundle,' _niva_ 'two,' _sanba_ 'three,'
_jippa_ 'ten,' _júichiva_ 'eleven,' _ni jippa_ 'twenty.'

The enumeration of burdens or the packs that horses carry is done by
placing _só_ after the numeral; e.g., _issó_ 'one burden,' _nisǒ_ 'two,'
_sanzó_ 'three,' _jissǒ_ 'ten.' In the same way one counts those
furnishings called _biǒbu_; two or a pair from a set is called _issó_, etc.

The enumeration of that which in the vernacular is called a quire of paper
(_mano de papel_) is done by placing _giô_ after the numeral; e.g.,
_ichigio_ [_ichigiô_] 'one quire,' _nigio_ [_nigiô_] 'two,' _sangiô_
'three,' so on {181} to ten. Units of ten are counted by adding _socu_ to
the numeral; e.g., _issocu_ 'ten quires, or what in the vernacular is
called a half ream (_media resma_),' _nisocu_ 'twenty, or an entire ream.'
With this particle _socu_ added to numerals one also counts pairs of shoes;
e.g., _issocu_ 'a pair of shoes.'

The enumeration of substance (_substantia_) is done by placing _tai_ after
the numeral; e.g., _ittai_ 'one substance,' _nitai_ 'two,' _sandai_
'three.' _Deus no von tocoro va goittai de gozaru_ 'God as God is of one
substance and one essence.'

The enumeration of the divisions in a writing (_capitulum_) is done by
placing _cagiô_ after the numeral; e.g., _iccagiô_ 'one chapter,' (73
_nicagio_ [_nicagiô_] 'two,' _sangagio_ [_sangagiô_] 'three,' _roccagio_
[_roccagiô_] 'six,' _fiaccagio_ [_fiaccagiô_] 'one hundred.'

The enumeration of drops is done by placing _teqi_ after the numeral; e.g.,
_itteqi_ 'one drop,' _jitteqi_ 'ten.' The same meaning is obtained by
adding _xizzucu_ to the _iomi_ numeral; e.g., _fito xizzucu_ 'one drop,'
etc. In this case the _tçu_ must be removed from the numeral.

The enumeration of the pairs of small sticks (_paxillus_) with which they
eat is done by placing _tçui_ after the numeral; e.g., _itçui_ [_ittçui_]
'one pair,' _jittçui_ 'ten.'

The enumeration of bundles is done by placing _ca_ after the numeral; e.g.,
_icca_ 'one bundle,' _nica_ 'two,' _sanga_ 'three.'

The enumeration of books is done by placing _quan_ after the numeral; e.g.,
_icquan_ 'one book,' _niquan_ 'two,' _sanguan_ 'three,' _roquan_
[_rocquan_] 'six,' _jiquan_ [_jicquan_] 'ten.'

With the interrogative _nan_, when it is placed before one of these nouns,
it changes it in the same way as does the number three; e.g., _ano mmadomo
va nanbiki zo?_ 'how many horses are there?'

The enumeration of kingdoms (_regnum_) is done by placing _cacocu_ after
the numeral; e.g., _iccacocu_ 'one kingdom,' _nicacocu_ 'two,' _sangacocu_
'three,' _jiccacocu_ 'ten.' Kingdoms are divided into provinces or
districts called _gun_, and this word also is placed after the numeral;
e.g., _ichigun_ 'one province,' _nigun_ 'two,' _sangun_ 'three,' etc.

Sermons and exhortations are enumerated by placing _dan_ after the numeral;
_ichidan_ 'one sermon, or assembly.' Words are enumerated by {182} placing
_gon_ or _guen_ after the numeral; e.g., _ichigon_ 'one word,' _sanguen_
'three words.'

Placing the particle _zzutçu_ after either _coie_ or _iomi_ numerals gives
the meaning of 'each'; e.g., _ichinin ni uxi sanbiki zzutçu vo toraxeta_
'he let the men have three oxen each,' _ichinin zzutçu saqe sanbai zzutçu
vo nomareta_ 'each man drank three sake each.'

In speaking of two or three things separately, they join the two numbers;
e.g., _xigonin_ 'four or five men,' from which others may be copied.

The honorific particles are four; _vo_, _von_, _go_, and _mi_.[201] The
first two are joined to _iomi_ vocables. The last two are joined to _coie_,
or Chinese vocables. The last is the most honorific and is used when
speaking of things divine; e.g., _midexi tachi_ 'disciples of Christ the
Lord,' _goichinin vocoite cudasarei_ 'please send one from among the
Lords.'

The words which follow have honorific particles that have (74 been added by
the speaker. However, the honor is shown to the person addressed or to
those related to him; e.g., _go focô_ [_go fôcô_] 'a duty,' _von furu mai_
'a banquet,' _von cotoba_ 'a word, or a sermon,' _von mono gatari_ 'a
conversation,' _von natçucaxij_ or _von nocori vovoi_ which mean the same
as what the Portuguese call _saudades_ (nostalgia) and the Spanish call
_carino_ (affection), _von tori avaxe_ 'intercession,' _von mi mai_ 'a
visit,' _von cha_ 'that which one drinks when they invite you,' _go dancó_
'a consultation or congregation for the purpose of obtaining advice,' _von
rei_ 'an act of gratitude,' _von busata_ 'a lapse of good manners,' _vo
motenaxi_ 'to treat well and elegantly,' _go chiso_ [_go chisô_] 'esteem,'
_go iqen_ 'an opinion,' e.g., _fabacari nagara go iqen vo mǒxitai_ 'forgive
me but I would like to give you some advice,' etc.

Some Rules on the Conjugation of the Verb
in the Written Language

If the final _u_ is removed from the negative present it becomes an
affirmative verb; e.g., _oracio vo tçutomen toqi va_ 'when I say my
prayers,' {183} _xosa no tçutomen tame ni va_ 'in order to execute the
work,' _michibiqi tamavan to voboximexi_ 'thinking of leading forth.'[202]

For the affirmative future _beqi_ is added to the affirmative form with the
_ru_ removed; for the future negative _becarazu_ is added to the
affirmative form; e.g., _mǒsu beqi_ 'you will speak,' _mósu becarazu_ 'you
will not speak.' When the sentence ends in the future, _beqi_ is changed to
_bexi_.

The infinitive for the future is formed by adding _coto_ to the future
tense; e.g., _iomu beqi coto_. The subjunctive is formed by adding _qereba_
to the root of the verb; e.g., _sugure qereba_.

The gerund in _Do_ is formed by adding _te_ to the root of the verb; e.g.,
_qiqi tamaite_.

The substantive verb in the written language is _nari,u_ or _qeri,u_. If it
comes at the end of the sentence it takes the root form;[203] e.g., _sadame
naqi io no ixei nari_ 'it is the dignity of a world without stability.'

The preterit is formed by adding _ari,u_ [_tari,u_] to the root; e.g.,
_suguretaru_. If the form comes at the end of a sentence _ari,u_ (75
[_tari,u_] is retained in the root form; e.g., _suguretari_.

The pluperfect is formed by placing _nari_ after the present tense; e.g.,
_ague tamǒ nari_ 'they had shown respect.'

Even though there are other rules for the written language, if the reader
knows Japanese well enough to read books, he will be able to progress in
the language without difficulty.

_PRAISE BE TO GOD_

       *       *       *       *       *


{185}

Works Consulted

Alvarez, Manuel (Emmanuel Alvarus), _De Institutione Grammatica, Libri
III_, Lisbon, 1572. (Also Amakusa, 1594. Cf. _Laures_ #14.)

Collado, Diego, O.P., _Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae_, Rome, 1632.
(Trans. by Ōtsuka Takanobu as _Koiyaado-chō Nippon bunten_, 1934 and
revised as _Koryaado Nihon bunten_, 1957. Cf. _Laures_ #54.)

Collado, Diego, O.P., _Dictionarium sive Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae
Compendium_, Rome, 1632. (Edited by Ōtsuka Mitsunobu as _Koryaado
Ra-Su-Nichi jiten_, 1966. Cf. _Laures_ #56.)

Collado, Diego, O.P., _Niffon no cotõba ni yô confesion_, Rome, 1632.
(Transcribed by Ōtsuka Mitsunobu as _Koryaado zangeroku_, 1957. Cf.
_Laures_ #56.)

Doi Tadao [Japanese], _Kirishitan gogaku no kenkyū_ [Japanese], Tokyo,
1971.

Doi Tadao [Japanese], "Koryaado Nihon bunten no seiritsu [Japanese],"
_Nihon gogaku shinkō iinkai kenyū hōkoku_, #3, 1941.

Doi Tadao [Japanese], ed., _Nippo jisho_ [Japanese], Tokyo, 1960. (Japanese
edition of the _Vocabulario_.)

Doi Tadao [Japanese], trs., _Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten_ [Japanese] Tokyo,
1955. (Trans. of Rodriguez' _Arte_.)

Fukushima Kunimichi [Japanese], _Kirishitan Shiryō to kokugo kenkyū_
[Japanese], Tokyo, 1973.

Hashimoto Shinkichi [Japanese], _Kirishitan kyōgi no kenkyū_ [Japanese],
Tokyo, 1928.

Iwai Yoshio [Japanese], _Nihongohō-shi: Muromachi-jidai hen_ [Japanese]
Tokyo, 1973.

Laures, Johannes, S.J., _Kirishitan Bunko_, Tokyo, 1957.

Lebrija, Antonio (Antonius Nebrissensis), _Introductiones Latinae_,
Salamanca, 1481.

Moran, Joseph F., _A Commentary on the Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa of João
Rodriguez, S.J.: With Particular Reference to Pronunciation_, Unpublished
doctoral thesis, Oxford, 1971.

Ōtomo Shin'ichi [Japanese], _Muromachi-jidai no kokugo-onsei no kenkyū_
[Japanese], Tokyo, 1963.

Ōtsuka Mitsunobu [Japanese], ed., _Koryaado Ra-Su-Nichi jiten_ [Japanese],
Tokyo, 1966. (Japanese edition of Collado's _Dictionarium_.)

Ōtsuka Mitsunobu [Japanese], ed., _Koryaado zangeroku_ [Japanese], Tokyo,
1957. (Japanese edition of Collado's _Confesion_.)

{186} Ōtsuka Takanobu [Japanese], tr., _Koiyaado-chō Nihongo bunten_
[Japanese], Tokyo, 1934. (Revised as _Koryaado Nihon bunten_ [Japanese],
Tokyo, 1957. Translation of Collado's _Ars Grammaticae_.)

Rodriguez, João, S.J., _Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa_, Macao, 1620. (Cf.
_Laures_ #35.)

Rodriguez, João, S.J., _Arte da Lingoa de Iapam_, Nagasaki, 1604-1608.
(Translated by Doi Tadao as _Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten_, 1955. Cf.
_Laures_ #28.)

Rodriguez, João, S.J., ed., _Vocabulario da Lingoa de Iapam_, Nagasaki,
1603-1604. (Edited by Doi Tadao as _Nippo Jisho_, 1960. Cf. _Laures_ #27.)

Thurot, Charles, _Extraits de divers manuscrits Latins pour servir a
l'historie des doctrines grammaticales au moyen-age_, Paris, 1869.

Yuzawa Kōkichirō [Japanese], _Muromachi-jidai gengo no Kenkyū_ [Japanese],
Tokyo, 1958.

       *       *       *       *       *


{187}

Index To Grammatical Categories

The list which follows refers to the location of the general categories
defined by Collado's description of Japanese. A broader classification of
the grammar will be found in the table of contents while the specific
grammatical elements are listed in the index which follows.

  ablative (_see_ cases)
  accusative (_see_ cases)
  adjectival roots 114, 116, 138, 139
  adjectives  114-117, 138, 139
  adjectives, conditional 139
    gerund 138
    negative 138, 139
    permissive 138
  adverbial roots 115, 139, 162
  adverbs 156-164
  adverbs, accumulative 162
    affirmative 160
    comparative 161
    conclusive 163
    exaggerative 162
    exclamatory 163
    intensifying 162
    interrogative 159
    locational 156
    negative 160
    superlative 162
    temporal 159
  adversitive (_see_ particles)
  alternative (_see_ particles)
  arithmetic 174-182
  auxiliaries 145-147, 149
  auxiliaries, emphatic 149
    humble 147
    honorific 145, 146, 147

  cases 111-113
  cases, ablative 113
    accusative 112
    dative 112
    genitive 112, 174
    nominative 111
    vocative 113
  causative (_see_ verbs)
  conditional (_see_ moods)
  confirmation (_see_ particles)
  conjugations 166, 167
  comparatives 161
  copulas 137
  copulas, negative 137

  dative (_see_ cases)
  deciderative (_see_ particles)
  disjunctive (_see_ particles)
  disjunctive constructions 167
  distributive (_see_ particles)
  dubitive (_see_ particles)

  emphatic (_see_ particles)
  exclamatory (_see_ adverbs, particles)

  future tense (_see_ verbs)

  genitive (_see_ cases)
  gerund (_see_ verbs)

  honorific (_see_ auxiliaries, particles, verbs)

  imperative (_see_ moods)
  imperfect aspect (_see_ verbs)
  infinitive (_see_ verbs)
  intensifier (_see_ particles)
  interjections 126, 132, 167, 168
  interrogative (_see_ particles)
  irregular verbs (_see_ verbs)

  moods 125-142
  moods, conditional 139, 140
    imperative 125, 126, 132, 135-137
    optative 126, 132
    permissive 127-129, 133, 138, 139, 155
    potential 140, 141
    subjunctive 127, 128, 131-133, 138, 153

  negative (_see_ verbs)
  neutral (_see_ verbs)
  nominalizers (_see_ particles)
  nominative (_see_ cases)
  nouns 111-118

  optative (_see_ moods, particles)

  participle (_see_ verbs)
  particles 113-120, 148-156, 164-168, 182
  particles, adversative 150, 153, 154
    alternative 152
    deciderative 126, 153
  {188}
    disjunctive 167
    distributive 120, 157
    dubitive 162, 163
    emphatic 124, 125, 149, 167, 150
    exclamatory 163
    honorific 118, 119, 146, 147, 182
    intensive 120, 148, 149, 162, 163, 164
    interrogative 156, 159, 163, 168
    nominalizing 117
    optative 126, 132
    pejorative 119, 120
    permissive 128, 133
    pluralizing 113, 114, 118, 119
    presumptive 170
    quotative 168, 170, 171
    temporal 149, 154, 159
  particles of manner 153, 154
  particles of possibility 153
  particles of similarity 149, 150, 161
  passive (_see_ verbs)
  perfect aspect (_see_ verbs)
  pejorative (_see_ particles)
  permissive (_see_ moods, particles)
  pluralizers (_see_ particles)
  pluperfect tense (_see_ verbs)
  possibility (_see_ particles)
  potential (_see_ moods, verbs)
  prepositions 164, 165, 166
  present tense (_see_ verbs)
  presumptive (_see_ particles)
  preterit tense (_see_ verbs)
  pronouns 118-122
  pronouns, first person 118, 119
    second person 119
    third person 120, 121

  quotative (_see_ particles)

  relative constructions 122

  subjunctive (_see_ moods, particles)
  substantive verbs (_see_ copulas)
  superlatives 162
  supine (_see_ verbs)
  syntax 168-174

  temporal (_see_ particles, adverbs)

  verbal roots 123, 131, 134-136
  verbs 123-156
  verbs, causative 143
    future 125, 135-137
    gerund 129, 130, 134, 138, 154, 155, 174, 183
    honorific 145-147
    imperfect 152
    infinitive 128-130, 133
    irregular 141, 142
    negative, future 132, 133, 141
      pluperfect 132, 136
      present 131, 136
      preterit 131
    neutral 172
    participle 131, 134
    passive 143, 172
    perfect 124, 137
    pluperfect 125
    potential 144
    present 123, 134, 135
    preterit 124, 134-137
    supine 130, 131, 156

  vocative (_see_ cases)

  written style 182, 183

       *       *       *       *       *


{189}

Index to Grammatical Elements

There follows a list of those elements which Collado describes in his
grammar. To a certain degree I have regularized his morphophonological
analysis. For example, the preterit permissive form, described by Collado
as _redomo_ after a preterit verb, is cross-listed as _-ta redomo_ in order
to bring together morphologically similar forms. All forms occurring in the
text with the honorific _gozaru_, etc. are indexed as _aru_, etc. For
example, the element found in _aguenande gozaru_ 'I have not offered' will
be indexed under _-nande aru_. As a general rule in this index items
beginning with a hyphen are classified as endings, while the remaining
items are particles.

The spelling used in this index is that of the original. Those readers more
familiar with the modified Hepburn system of romanization, as reflected in
Kenkyūsha's Dictionary, will find the following simplified chart of help.
Syllables presented in _Kenkyūsha_ as beginning with the following initial
letters will have the corresponding spellings in Collado's grammar:

  _e = ie_  |  _k = ca, qi, cu, qe, co_
  _o = vo_  |  _s = sa, xi, su, xe, so_
  ----------|  _z = za, ji, zu, je, zo_
  _h = f_   |  _t = ta, chi, tçu, te, to_
  _y = i_   |  _d = da, gi, zzu, de, do_
  _w = v_   |

The citations are numbered according to their location in the translation
and are limited to those places where the element is explained or used to
demonstrate a grammatical point.

The following abbreviations are used:

  abl.    ablative        excl.   exclamatory     part.   participle
  adj.    adjective       fut.    future          perf.   perfect
  adv.    adverb          gen.    genitive        perm.   permissive
  advers. adversitive     ger.    gerund          pot.    potential
  acc.    accusative      hon.    honorific       plup.   pluperfect
  aff.    affirmative     imp.    imperative      prep.   preposition
  alt.    alternative     ind.    indicative      pres.   present
  aux.    auxiliary verb  inf.    infinitive      pret.   preterit
  concl.  conclusive      interj. interjection    pron.   pronoun
  cond.   conditional     interr. interrogative   quot.   quotative
  conj.   conjunction     intens. intensive       subj.   subjunctive
  const.  construction    irr.    irregular       temp.   temporal
  cop.    copula          loc.    locative        v.      verb
  dat.    dative          n.      noun            voc.    vocative
  disj.   disjunctive     neg.    negative        writ.   written style
  dist.   distributive    nom.    nominative      1st     1st conjugation
  dub.    dubitive        opt.    optative        2nd     2nd conjugation
  emph.   emphatic        p.      particle        3rd     3rd conjugation

{190}

  _-aba_ (cond., 2nd) 139
  _-ai_ (adj.) 114, 138
  _-ai_ (imp.) 135, n. 91
  _-ai_ (v. root, 3rd) 135
  _ai_ (emph.) 149
  _ai_ (hort.) 163
  _aidani_ (temp.) 149
  _-ananda_ (neg. pret., 2nd) 135
  _-anu_ (neg. pres., 2nd) 135
  _arisama_ (p. of manner) 154
  _ari,u_ (hon. aux.) 145, 146
  _arui va_ (conj.) 166
  _avare_ (interj.) 168;
    (w. opt.) 126, 132
  _-azu_ (neg. root, 2nd) 135

  _-ba_ (cond.) 139
  _-ba atte mo_ (advers.) 153
  _bacari_ (intens.) 164
  _-baia_ (w. fut.) 125
  _-ba tote_ (perm.) 133
  _baxi_ (dub.) 163
  _becarazu_ (neg. fut., writ.) 183
  _beqi_ (fut., writ.) 183
  _beqi coto_ (fut. inf., writ.) 183
  _bexi_ (fut., writ.) 183

  _ca_ (interr.) 156, 163;
    (temp.) 159;
    (conj.) 167
  _cai-_ (intens.) 149
  _caia_ (interr.) 163
  _cana_ (interj.) 168
  _canavanu_ (w. const. showing necessity) 155
  _cara_ (nom.) 111;
    (abl.) 113;
    (w. subj.) 127;
    (w. neutral v.) 172;
    (w. passive v.) 172
  _-carananda_ (neg. pret. adj.) 139
  _-caranu_ (neg. pres. adj.) 139
  _-carazu_ (neg. adj. root) 139
  _-catte_ (neg. adj. ger.) 138
  _caxi_ (w. opt.) 126, 132;
    (w. subj.) 128
  _coso_ (advers.) 150;
    (w. ind. ending in _-e_) 150;
    (neg. meaning w. aff. ger.) 154
  _coto_ (w. inf.) 129, 133;
    (w. pot.) 154
  _coto gia_ (p. w. no special meaning) 152
  _coto mo arózu_ (w. pot.) 141

  _-da_ (see _-ta_)
  _-dari_ (see _-tari_)
  _-de_ (see _-te_)
  _de_ (prep.) 165, 166;
    (w. subj.) 127, 153
  _-demo_ (see _-temo_)
  _dógu_ (nominalizer) 117
  _-domo_ (perm.) 127, 133, 138
  _domo_ (p. of necessity) 155
  _domo_ (n. pluralizer) 113, 114, 119

  _-e_ (ind. w. _coso_) 150
  _-e_ (see _-te_)
  _-e_ (v. root, 1st) 123
  _-e_ (imp.) 135, 136, 137
  _-eba_ (pres. cond., 1st) 139
  _-edomo_ (see _redomo_)
  _-ei_ (adj.) 114, 138
  _-enu_ (neg. pres., 1st) 131
  _-eô_ (adv.) 115, 156
  _-eô_ (fut., 1st) 125
  _-eôda_ (pret., 1st) 135
  _-ezu_ (neg. v. root, 1st) 131

  _faia_ (emph.) 124, 125
  _faxi-_ (intens.) 149
  _fito_ (w. part.) 131, 134
  _fodo_ (w. gen.) 174
  _furi-_ (p. of similarity) 150

  _ga_ (nom.) 111;
    (gen.) 112;
    (acc.) 112;
    (w. inf.) 129;
    (in relative const.) 122
  _ga_ (intens. w. pron.) 120
  _ga_ (conj.) 148
  _ga gotoqu_ (p. of similarity) 149
  _gana_ (w. opt.) 126, 132
  _go_ (hon.) 182
  _goto_ (dist.) 120
  _goto_ (nominalizer) 117
  _gotoqu_ (p. of similarity) 150, 161
  _guena_ (presumptive) 170

  _ha_ (interj.) 168
  _hat_ (interj.) 168

  _-i_ (adj.) 116
  _-i_ (imp.) 135, 136
  {191}
  _-i_ (v. root, 2nd) 134
  _-i_ (irr. v. root, 1st) 123
  _ia_ (excl.)    163
  _ia_ (interj.)    168
  _iai_ (excl.)    163
  _iara_ (interj.)    168;
    (w. disj. const.)    167
  _iare_ (excl.)    163
  _-iasui_ (w. supine)    156
  _icani_ (voc.)    113;
    (w. plurals)    113
  _-i caxi_ (perm.)    129
  _-ide_ (neg. ger.)    134
  _-ide arózu_ (neg. plup. showing completed action)    137
  _-ide aru_ (neg. plup.)    132
  _-ide atta_ (neg. plup.)    132
  _-ide canavanu_ (ending showing necessity)    155
  _-idemo_ (neg. fut. perm.)    133, 154
  _-ide naranu_ (ending showing necessity)    155
  _-ide nochi_ (neg. ger.)    134
  _-ide va_ (ending showing necessity)   155
  _ie_ (acc.)    112;
    (dat.)    112;
    (prep.)    165;
    (w. subj.)    127
  _ie_ (w. neg. possibility)    153
  _ie,uru_ (aux. of neg. possibility)    152
  _iei_ (interr.)    168
  _igo_ (w. subj.)    127
  _-ij_ (adj.)    114, 138
  _io_ (intens.)    163
  _io_ (imp.)    125
  _ió_ (p. of manner)    153
  _io caxi_ (w. opt.)    126
  _ióni_ (w. inf.)    129;
    (w. quot.)    170
  _iori_ (nom.)    111;
    (abl.)    113;
    (w. inf.)    130;
    (w. ger.)    174;
    (w. comparative const.)    161;
    (w. relative const.)    122
  _iori mo_ (w. comparative const.)    161
  _iori mo nao_ (w. comparative const.)    161
  _-i tomo_ (perm. adj.)    138
  _-iú_ (adv.)    115, 156

  _jibun_ (w. ger.)    130

  _ma-_ (v. intensifier)    149
  _macari-_ (p. showing modesty)    149
  _made_ (prep.)    166
  _made gia_ (p. w. no special meaning)    152
  _madeio_ (w. perm.)    128, 133;
    (p. of confirmation)    152
  _mai_ (dist.)    120
  _mai_ (neg. fut.)    132
  _mai coto_ (neg. fut. inf.)    133
  _mai coto mo arózu_ (neg. fut. pot.)    141
  _maieni_ (w. neg. v.)    133
  _mai mono_ (neg. ger.)    134
  _mai mono vo_ (neg. opt.)    132
  _mai qereba_ (neg. subj.)    133
  _mai qeredomo_ (neg. perm.)    133, 155
  _mairaxi,u_ (hon. aux.)    147
  _mai tomo_ (neg. fut. perm.)    133
  _mai tote_ (neg. ger.)    134
  _maji_ (neg. fut., cf. _mai_)    132
  _maji qere_ (neg. cond.)    139
  _majiqu va_ (neg. cond.)    140
  _mamaio_ (w. perm.)    128, 133
  _maraxi,u_ (hon. aux.)    145
  _mata_ (conj.)    166
  _mata va_ (conj.)    166
  _me_ (pejorative, w. pron.)    119, 120
  _me_ (p. showing terminus of action)    117
  _me-_ (feminine)    114
  _mega_ (pejorative, w. pron.)    119, 120
  _mexi-_ (hon.)    147
  _mi-_ (hon.)    118, 182
  _mo_ (conj.)    166;
    (dist.)    157;
    (advers. w. ger.)    154;
    (w. subj.)    128
  _mono_ (p. showing performer of action)    117
  _mono_ (w. part.)    131, 134;
    (w. pot.)    141
  _mono de arózu_ (w. cond.)    141
  _mono vo_ (w. opt.)    126, 132
  _motte_ (emph.)    167
  _moxi_ (excl.)    163
  _moxi va_ (conj.)    166

  _-n_ (pres., writ.)    182
  _na_ (concl.)    163
  _na_ (neg. imp.)    132, 137
  {192}
  _na_ (adj.) 115, 117, 138
  _na caxi_ (neg. opt.) 132
  _-nagara_ (ger.) 155
  _nal coto mo arózu_ (neg. pot. w. adj.) 141
  _-naide_ (neg. ger.) 134
  _-naide cara_ (neg. ger.) 134
  _-naidemo_ (neg. perf. perm.) 133
  _nama_ (p. showing incomplete action) 148
  _-nanda_ (neg. pret.) 132
  _-nanda coto_ (neg. pret. inf.) 133
  _-nanda mono_ (neg. ger.) 134
  _-nanda mono de arózu_ (neg. perf. pot.) 141
  _-nandaraba_ (neg. perf. cond.) 139
  _-nanda reba_ (neg. perf. subj.) 133
  _-nanda reba tote_ (neg. perf. perm.) 133
  _-nanda redomo_ (neg. perf. subj.) 133
  _-nanda ritomo_ (neg. perf. perm.) 133
  _-nanda to_ (neg. perf. inf.) 133
  _-nande aru_ (neg. plup.) 132
  _-nande atta_ (neg. plup.) 132
  _-nanzzu ró_ (neg. perf. pot.) 141
  _-naraba_ (cond.) 139
  _naranu_ (w. const. showing necessity) 155
  _nari,u_ (pot. aux. w. adj.) 141
  _nasare,uru_ (hon. aux.) 145
  _na ... so_ (neg. imp.) 132, 137
  _-neba_ (neg. subj.) 132
  _-neba tote_ (neg. perm.) 133
  _-nedomo_ (neg. perm.) 133
  _negavacu va_ (w. opt.) 126, 132
  _ni_ (dat.) 112;
    (abl.) 113;
    (prep.) 164, 165;
    (w. ger.) 130, 134;
    (w. cond.) 138;
    (w. subj.) 127;
    (w. supine) 130, 131;
    (w. passive v.) 172;
    (adv. form of _na_) 121
  _ni iotte_ (prep.) 164;
    (w. indefinite pron.) 121
  _ni itatte_ (prep.) 165
  _ni tai xite_ (prep.) 164
  _ni tçuite_ (prep.) 164;
    (w. inf.) 130
  _ni totte_ (prep.) 165
  _ni va_ (w. cond.) 139
  _ni voite va_ (prep.) 165;
    (w. cond.) 139, 140
  _ni xitagatte_ (prep.) 165
  _ni xitagóte_ (see _ni xitagatte_)
  _ni xite_ (w. ger.) 130, 138
  _no_ (nom.) 111;
    (gen.) 112;
    (w. quote.) 171;
    (to form adj.) 114;
    (in relative const.) 122
  _nó_ (p. of confirmation) 163
  _nochi_ (w. subj.) 127
  _no gotoqu_ (prep., dialect) 166
  _no iori_ (prep.) 165
  _-nu_ (neg. pres., 1st) 131
  _-nu madeio_ (neg. pres. perm., 1st) 133
  _-nu maie ni_ (w. aff. meaning) 151
  _-nu mamaio_ (neg. pres. perm., 1st) 133

  _o_ (form of _vo_ after _n_) 171
  _-ó_ (pres., 3rd) 135
  _-ó_ (fut., 2nd) 135;
    (fut. imp., 2nd) 135
  _-ó_ (adv.) 115, 156
  _-ô_ (pres., 3rd) 136
  _-ô_ (fut., 1st) 125;
    (fut. imp., 1st) 125
  _-ô_ (adv.) 115, 156
  _-ô coto_ (fut. inf., 1st) 129
  _-ô coto mo arózu_ (fut. pot., 1st) 141
  _-óda_ (pret., 2nd) 134
  _-ôda_ (pret., 2nd) 134
  _-ô fito_ (fut. part., 1st) 131
  _-oi_ (adj.) 114, 138
  _-oi_ (v. root, 3rd) 135
  _-ô mono_ (fut. part., 1st) 131
  _-ô ni_ (ger., 1st) 130
  _-ô tame_ (ger., 1st) 130
  _-óte_ (adj. ger.) 138
  _-ôte_ (adj. ger.) 138
  _-ô to_ (fut. inf., 1st) 129
  _-ô toqi_ (fut. subj., 1st) 127
  _-ô tote_ (ger., 1st) 130
  _-ó xite_ (adj. ger.) 138
  _-ôzu_ (fut., 2nd) 135
  _-ôzu_ (imp., 1st) 125
  _-ôzu mono vo_ (perf. opt., 1st) 126
  _-ôzure_ (fut., 1st, w. _coso_) 151
  _-ôzuru_ (fut., 2nd) 135
  {193}
  _-ôzuru_ (fut., 1st)    125
  _-ôzuru coto no saqi ni_ (plup. subj., 1st)    128
  _-ôzuru ni_ (plup. subj., 1st)    128
  _-ôzuru tocoro ni_ (plup. subj., 1st)    128
  _-ôzu tomo_ (fut. perm., 1st)    128

  _qere_ (p. of confirmation)    150
  _qereba_ (w. subj.)    133, 138
  _qeredomo_ (w. perm.)    133, 139
  _-qi_ (adj.)    116
  _qiri,u_ (emph. aux.)    149
  _-qu_ (adj. root)    138
  _-qu tomo_ (adj. perm.)    138
  _-qu va_ (adj. cond.)    139
  _-qu xite_ (adj. ger.)    138

  _ra_ (pluralizer)    113, 114, 118, 119
  _-raba_ (cond.)    139
  _-rare,uru_ (pot., 1st)    144;
    (hon., 1st)    145;
    (passive, 1st)    143
  _-re,uru_ (pot., w. 2nd & 3rd) 144;
    (hon., w. 2nd & 3rd) 145, 147;
    (passive, w. 2nd & 3rd) 143
  _-re_ (pret. ending after _coso_, see _-tare_) 150
  _-reba_ (subj., 1st)    127
  _reba_ (w. perf. subj.)    132;
    (w. cop.)    138
  _-redomo_ (perm., 1st)    128
  _redomo_ (w. perf. perm.)    133;
    (w. inf.)    130;
    (w. cop.)    138
  _-ri_ (alt.)    152
  _ritomo_ (w. perf. perm.)    128, 133
  _ró_ (pot.)    140
  _-ru_ (see _-uru_)

  _sa_ (nominalizer for adj.)    117
  _sai_ (imp.)    126
  _saie_ (emph.)    150;
    (w. cond.)    140;
    (w. neg. const.)    150
  _sama_ (prep., dialect)    166
  _sama_ (temp.)    154
  _sama_ (hon.)    119
  _saqini_ (w. neg. v.)    151
  _saraba_ (conj.)    167
  _sareba sareba_ (conj.)    167
  _sari nagara_ (conj.)    167
  _satemo_ (interj.)    167
  _satemo satemo_ (interj.)    167
  _sate sate_ (interj.)    167
  _-saxe,uru_ (causative)    143
  _saxemaxi,u_ (hon. aux.)    145
  _-saxerare,uru_ (hon.)    146
  _só aru tocoro de_ (conj.)    167
  _sóna_ (p. of presumption)    170

  _-ta_ (pret., 1st)    124, 134, 136;
    (w. adj. function)    116
  _-tacatta_ (pret. of _-tai_)    153
  _tachi_ (pluralizer)    113, 119
  _-ta coto_ (pret. inf., 1st)    129
  _-ta fito_ (pret. part., 1st)    131
  _-tagari,u_ (2nd & 3rd person deciderative)    153
  _-tai_ (deciderative)    153;
    (w. imp. meaning)    126
  _-ta madeio_ (per. perm., 1st)    128
  _tamai,ó_ (hon. aux.)    145
  _-ta mamaio_ (perf. perm., 1st)    128
  _tame_ (prep.)    164;
    (w. ger.)    130, 134
  _tameni_ (w. supine)    130
  _-ta mono_ (pret. part., 1st)    131
  _-ta mono de arózu_ (perf. pot., 1st)    141
  _-taraba_ (perf. cond., 1st)    139
  _-taraba iocaró mono va_ (perf. opt., 1st)    126
  _-tare_ (pret. ending w. _coso_)    150
  _-ta reba_ (perf. subj., 1st)    127
  _-ta reba tote_ (perf. perm., 1st)    128
  _-ta redomo_ (perf. perm., 1st)    128
  _-tari_ (pret. writ.)    183
  _-tari_ (alt.)    152
  _-ta ritomo_ (perf. perm., 1st)    128
  _-taró ni va_ (perf. cond., 1st)    139
  _-taró va_ (perf. opt.)    126
  _-tarózu_ (plup., 1st)    125
  _tate matçuri,u_ (humble aux.)    147
  _-ta to_ (pret. inf., 1st)    129
  _tatoi_ (w. perm.)    128
  _-tçu_ (alt.)    152
  _tçui-_ (intens.)    148
  _-tçu ró_ (perf. pot., 1st)    140, 151
  _-te_ (ger.)    129, 130, 155, 183;
    (inf.)    129
  _-te_ (part.)    131
  _-te aranu_ (neg. pret., completed action)    137
  _-te aró_ (fut., completed action)    137
  {194}
  _-te aró ni va iocaró mono vo_ (perf. opt.)    126
  _-te arózu_ (perf.) 124, 137
  _-te atta_ (perf.)  124, 137;
    (w. perf. subj.)    127
  _-te atta reba_ (plup. subj.)    127
  _-te cara_ (plup. subj.)    127
  _-te coso_ (w. neg. meaning)    154
  _tei_ (p. of manner)    154
  _-te igo_ (plup. subj.)    127
  _-te mo_ (subj.)    128;
    (w. advers.)    154
  _-te nochi_ (plup. subj.)    127
  _to_ (gen.)    112
  _to_ (conj.)    166
  _to_ (w. inf.)    129, 133
  _to_ (quot.)    168;
    (w. adv. of sound)    163
  _tocacu_ (disj.)    167
  _tocoro_ (w. subj.)    127;
    (p. of completed action)    151
  _tocoro gia_ (p. w. no special meaning)    151
  _tocoro no_ (w. relative const.)    122
  _-tomo_ (w. perm.)    128, 133, 138, 150
  _to mo_ (quot.)    170
  _-tó mo nai_ (neg. of _-tai_)    153
  _toqi_ (w. subj.)    127;
    (w. pret. imperfect)    152
  _tori-_ (intens.)    149
  _tote_ (w. perm.)    128, 133;
    (w. ger.)    134
  _to tomo ni_ (prep.)    165
  _to xite_ (w. ger.)    130
  _-tta_ (pret., 2nd)    134

  _-u_ (pres., 2nd)    134
  _-ú_ (adv.)    115, 156
  _-ú_ (pres., 3rd)    136
  _uchi-_ (intens.)    149
  _-ui_ (adj.)    115, 138
  _-ui_ (v. root, 3rd)    135
  _uie_ (prep.)    166
  _uie iori_ (prep.)    164
  _-unda_ (pret., 2nd)    134
  _-ureba_ (pres. cond.)    139
  _-uru_ (pres., 1st)    123
  _-uru fito_ (pres. part., 1st)    131
  _-uru iori_ (pres. inf., 1st)    130
  _-uru jibun_ (ger., 1st)    130
  _-uru madeio_ (pres. perm., 1st)    128
  _-uru mamaio_ (pres. perm., 1st)    128
  _-uru mo_ (fut. perm., 1st)    128
  _-uru mono_ (pres. part., 1st)    131
  _-uru ni_ (ger., 1st)    130
  _-uru ni tçuite_ (pres. inf., 1st)   130
  _-uru tame_ (ger., 1st)    130
  _-uru tameni_ (supine, 1st)    130
  _-uru tomo_ (fut. perm., 1st)    128
  _-uru tote_ (ger., 1st)    130
  _-uru vo motte_ (pres. inf., 1st)    128

  _va_ (nom.)    111;
    (acc.)    112;
    (w. subj.)    127;
    (w. inf.)    130;
    (w. cond.)    139;
    (w. other p.)    114;
    (replacing other p.)    114;
    (w. const. showing necessity)    155
  _va_ (p. of confirmation)    149
  _-vaba_ (cond., 3rd)    139
  _-vananda_ (neg. pret., 3rd)    136
  _-vanande aru_ (neg. pret., 3rd)    136
  _-vanande atta_ (neg. pret., 3rd)    136
  _-vanu_ (neg. pres., 3rd)    136
  _-vazu_ (neg. root, 3rd)    136
  _vo_ (acc.)    113;
    (w. subj.)    127;
    (w. neutral v.)    172;
    (becomes _o_ after _n_)    171
  _vo-_ (hon.)    146, 182
  _vo-_ (masculine)    114
  _-vó_ (fut., 3rd)    136
  _voba_ (acc.)     112
  _voi-_ (intens.)    149
  _vo motte_ (prep.)    165;
    (w. inf.)    130
  _von-_ (hon.)   118, 182
  _vôxe-_ (hon.)    147
  _-vózu_ (fut., 3rd)    136
  _-vózuru_ (fut., 3rd)    136

  _-xe,uru_ (causative)    143
  _xemaxi,u_ (hon. aux.)    145
  _-xerare,uru_ (hon.)    146
  _-xi_ (adj.)    116
  _xicareba_ (conj.)    167
  _xidai_ (prep.)    165
  _xite_ (w. neg. ger.)    131, 134
  _xu_ (n. pluralizer)    113

  _-zaru_ (neg. pres., dialect)    131
  {195}
  _-zatta_ (neg. pret., dialect)    131
  _-zatta reba_ (neg. perf. subj. dialect)    131
  _zo_ (interr.)    156, 159, 163;
    (temp.)    159;
    (dub.)    162;
    (intens.)    162
  _-zu_ (neg. v. root, 1st)    131
  _-zũba_ (neg. cond.)    139
  _-zumba_ (see _zũba_)
  _-zu tomo_ (neg. perf. perm., 1st)    133
  _-zu va_ (neg. cond.)    139
  _-zu xite_ (neg. ger., 1st)    131, 134
  _-zzu_ (alt.)    152
  _-zzu ró_ (perf. pot.)    140, 151

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes

[1] Diego Collado, O.P., _Niffon no Cotoba no Yô Confesion_, etc. (Rome,
1632). For further bibliographic data cf. Johannes Laures, _Kirishitan
Bunko_ (Tokyo, 1957). Cf. also Ōtsuka Mitsunobu, _Koriyaado zangeroku_
(Tokyo, 1967), for a Japanese transliteration and concordance. It should be
noted that the material in this work had no direct influence upon the
concurrently written grammar. The only example in the _Ars Grammaticae_
which might have been borrowed from the _Confesion_ is on p. 23 where we
find _doco de qiqi marasuru mo, sono sata va mósanu_ 'although this is
heard everywhere, I have heard nothing of it.' which parallels the
_Confesion_, p. 6, l. 18; _docu _[_sic_]_ de qiqi marasuru mo; sono sata ga
gozaranu_ 'one hears about this everywhere; but, it doesn't seem to be so.'

[2] The bibliographical data on these and other works directly related to
the study of Collado's Grammar will be found in the section on bibliography
which follows.

[3] Other works by Collado have come down to us; cf. a memorial by him
published in 1633 (Laures, _Kirishitan Bunko_, item 411). Such material is,
however, only peripherally related to the study of language.

[4] For a brilliantly written biography see Michael Cooper, S.J.,
_Rodrigues the Interpreter: An Early Jesuit in Japan and China_ (Tokyo,
1974).

[5] The Press of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith was
founded in 1626 when the Congregation was at the height of its activity.
Grammars of the major non-European languages published during this period
are:

  _Date_   _Language_  _Grammarian_

   1628     Syrian      Abraham Ecchell
   1630     Ethiopian   V. M. Rearino
   1631     Arabic      Thomas Obicini
   1632     Japanese    Diego Collado
   1636     Coptic      A. Kircher
   1637     Arabic      Germano de Silesia
   1642     Arabic      P. Guadagnoli
   1643     Georgian    F. M. Maggio
   1645     Armenian    Clemente Galano
   1647     Syrian      J. Acurense
   1650     Arabic      Antonio de Aguila
   1661     Persian     Ignazio de Jesu

[6] Rodriguez' own work is strongly influenced by the format found in
Manuel Alvarez (1526-1582), _De Institutione Grammatica, Libri III_
(Lisbon, 1572). So much a part of the training in the Society of Jesus was
this work that an edition was printed in 1594 as one of the earliest
products of the Mission Press at Amakusa.

[7] The palatal semi-vowel is represented, as in most the Christian
materials, by a number of transcriptional devices such as _i_, _e_, _h_,
and palatal consonants; e.g., _fiacu_, _agueô_, _cha_, and _xô_.

[8] See the translation, p. [82], n. 8.

[9] Collado's and Rodriguez' analyses agree in classifying the _ni-dan_
verbs and _suru_ into one conjunction, the _yo-dan_ verbs into a second,
and the _ha-gyō_ of the _yo-dan_ into a third.

[10] It should be recalled that the _Ars Grammaticae_ is numbered by the
page and the _Arte_ by the leaf.

[11] See p. 14, under _Dos nomes adiectivos_, where the initial distinction
is drawn between nominal and verbal adjectives.

[12] Rodriguez does not treat the substantive verb in _Arte Breve_, but
refers the reader to his earlier work for its description.

[13] _Verbo pessoal_ as contrasted with _verbo substantivo_ and _verbo
adjectivo_.

[14] Rodriguez defines this term elsewhere (_Arte_, 56) as the vowels, _A_,
_I_, _V_, _Ye_, _Vo_, in that order. See also the introduction to the
_Vocabulario_.

[15] This term, not found in the _Arte_, is applied to the entire complex
of "spelling" rules which Rodriguez introduces into his description. While
no clear-cut influences can be established, it is generally held by Doi and
others that these rules are based upon _Kanazukai no chikamichi_ or some
similar work. See _Kokugogaku taikei_, Vol. 9 (Tokyo, 1964), pp. 69-77.

[16] Latin _liquesco_, "to become fluid, or melt." Used here as a term to
describe the palatal and labial series.

[17] This last phrase is to be understood in the context of the following
passages which deal with euphonic change in the absence of a devise,
_nigori ten_, to show voicing.

[18] Rodriguez used _Vma_ regularly in the _Arte_, but notes the variant
_Muma_ on 178v.

[19] Presumably a reference to such variants as _Samurô_ for _Saburô_.

[20] _Liurinho_, presumably a treatise such as the _Kanazukai no
chikamichi_, by Ichijō Kanera.

[21] In this passage Rodriguez is suggesting that certain European
grammarians, out of ignorance of native grammatical theory, have
misinterpreted the formational rules; and that, perhaps for pedogogical
convenience, he has retained some of these "unnatural" rules in his
description.

[22] Read _Taxxi_.

[23] Read _tatesai_. The punctuation _Tateyo_. _Tatei_, _tatesai_, is in
all likelihood a typesetter's error for _Tateyo_, _tatei_, _tatesai_.

[24] The conjugational display (27v) lists _motomuruni_ and
_motomurutocoroni_.

[25] Rodriguez is here confusing the usage of the classical particle _ran,
ramu_ with the construction _te + ara + mu_.

[26] In the conjugational charts we find:

  _motomeô_        }
  _motometarǒ_  } _toki_
  _motomeôzuru_    }

[27] The following notes are necessary to correct the printer's errors that
occur in this listing:

a. In the perfect conditional of _Vabi_ read _bitaraba_ for _bitaraaba_.

b. The form _Fitobi_ should in all likelihood read _Fotobi_ 'to be wet.'

c. The forms _Fotobi_, _Fokorobi_, and _Fusabi_ are all given present
indicatives in _bu_. There seems to be no reason for the ending appropriate
to the classical _shūshikei_ to be used for these particular verbs and the
_bu_ is taken as a misprint of _buru_. The _Arte_ (28) lists these forms as
regular.

d. In the perfect conditional of _Mochiy_ read _ytaraba_ for _yttaraba_.

e. The form _Coru_ should read _Cori_.

f. It will be noticed in the final segment of this listing, beginning with
Y, Rodriguez makes no effort to distinguish among _Kami-ichidan_,
_kami-nidan_, and the irregular verb _Ki_ 'to come.'

[28] By this single rule Rodriguez brings the two _na-hen_ verbs into the
second conjugation.

[29] Read _najûda_ and _nijûda_.

[30] Although the spelling _auoghǒ_ would contain a redundancy it would
agree with such forms as _aghuru_, _coghanu_ and _coghǒ_ found elsewhere.

[31] This use of the imperative reflects a purely formal solution to the
morphological problem.

[32] Read _Yôdareba_.

[33] This rule, which consciously or unconsciously associates the future
and the conditional, is also applied to the third conjugation, while the
first conjugation uses the root.

[34] The future is the same as the present.

[35] This spelling of the final root consonant with a _c_ is irregular for
verbs. Cf. _cakanu_ just below.

[36] The association of the negative with the future, and by extension with
the conditional, suggests a keen awareness of the underlying system,
particularly since the _Canadzucai_ rules to which he refers require the
formation be made from the present. It should be noted that this rule is
significantly more elegant than that which derives the negative from the
root.

[37] The _ij_ in the original is the digraph _ij_, as elsewhere.

[38] Read _Redomo_.

[39] _Majij_ with the digraph would be more regular.

[40] A photostatic copy of the entire text has been made available by Shima
Shōzō, _Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten_ (Tokyo, Bunka Shobō, 1969).

[41] Ōtsuka's comparison of the Spanish manuscript with the printed version
of the text suggests that many of the typographical errors found in our
text are the result of material being too hastily transcribed from a more
correct original while the work was being translated from Latin.

[42] This Reference is to _Arte_ of 1604-8. The _Arte Breve_, printed in
1620 in Macao, was not available to Collado.

[43] The _Dictionarium sive Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae_, which was in fact
published at the same time.

[44] See the Introduction for the regularized usage of these symbols in the
translation. (The transcription of _gacuxǒ_, and the _aiaǔ_ below, are at
variance with the rule for the translation and are here transcribed as
printed.)

[45] This convention is not transcribed in the translation (cf.
Introduction).

[46] More regularly _synaloephy_--the contraction of two syllables into
one.

[47] The geminates that actually appear in the text are; _tt_, _xx_, _zz_,
_cq_, _ij_ & _pp_, as well as _cc_ (_cch_), _mm_, _nn_, and _ss_. Two
appear initially _mm_, as in _mma_ 'horse,' and _zz_, as in _zzuru_ 'to
leave.' The form _qq_ which would be phonetically equivalent to _cq_ is not
recorded.

[48] This sequence is not used in the body of the grammar, rather the less
phonetically accurate _ia_, _ie_, etc. It should be noted that the
_Dictionarium_, which was written contemporaniously, does use _y_ for the
semivowel.

[49] For _s_ read _g_. The _Arte_ (177v) discusses this phenomenon as being
characteristic of vowels before _d_, _dz_, and _g_.

[50] Since in fact the accent has been carelessly recorded in the text--in
places added in an almost random fashion by either the author, his helpers,
or the printer--we have not included its marking in the translation. (Cf.
Introduction.)

[51] The _Dictionarium_ has the spelling _fibicàxi_ in one entry and in the
only other it is transcribed as above.

[52] Acts, 19:20. Referring to the servant in the parable of the pounds who
is condemned for keeping his money "laid away in a napkin."

[53] The text uses _reduplicatiuus_, with the grammatical meaning of plural
singular; e.g., the singular I with the meaning of myself and those around
me.

[54] Both the _Dictionarium_ and the _Vocabulario_ have either _Nifon_ or
_Nippon_, but do not record this form. It seems not to be a simple
typographical error since the spelling is used in the title of the
companion piece to this work, the _Confesion_, and since the text itself
has _niffion_ and it is changed to _niffon_ in the _errata_. _Nifon_
appears on page 43.

[55] The _Arte_ and the _Vocabulario_ use the forms _goran_ and _gorǒ_ in
free variation. Collado here and in the _Dictionarium_ uses what appears to
be the less phonetically accurate transcription. The Spanish manuscript has
_goranjerarei_.

[56] May I submit this as a candidate for the most exotic bit of
anti-semitism in Christendom.

[57] The text reads _funè-de_, and apparently Collado is attempting to
indicate both accent and nasalization at the same time. He does not
continue this practice.

[58] The text has _caper silvester_ 'the wild he-goat' presumably the
_capreolus capreolus_ which is similar in appearance to the Japanese deer,
_cervus sika_.

[59] While this rule is operative for _caij_, it creates difficulties after
_x_. Rodriguez' rule is _ij_ becomes _ǔ_ with the example of _ataraxǔ_.
Collado's rule would create _ataraxiú_. (Cf. p. 33.)

[60] Neither Collado nor Rodriguez make a clear distinction between the
quantitative function of _no_ and the qualitative function of _na_.

[61] Collado usually make a clear distinction between colloquial and
literary forms. He apparently is suggesting that these non-colloquial forms
are heard in the spoken language. Here, not only is the style left
unexplained, but the translation _faciendo bonam consultationem_ is less
than ellucidating. Here the _ioqu_ is in fact adverbial.

[62] From _kobu_ 'to flatter.' An abbreviation of _kobita kotoba_, and used
to indicate refined speech; i.e., that speech containing Chinese
borrowings. See Doi Tadao, _Kirishitan gogaku no kenkyū_ (Tokyo, 1942, pp.
67-70). The term is also found in the introduction to the _Vocabulario_ in
the expression _palauras Cobitas_.

[63] The text reads _De pronomine secundae personae_....

[64] This list, unquestionably derived from the _Arte_ (67v), has been in
several ways confounded. The _mi_ is out of order and the second _vare_ is
clearly in error. If we put aside the genitive forms from Rodriguez' list,
the first four forms should be _vare_, _varera_, _vatacuxi_, and
_soregaxi_. Rodriguez' second set consists of _mi_, _midomo_, and
_midomora_. We would suggest that Collado meant to include _ura_, which is
listed by Rodriguez as the genitive form _vraga_. I offer _vatacuxi_,
_soregaxi_, _vare_, _varera_, _mi_, _midomo_, _midomora_, and _ura_ as the
intended list, with the order of _mi_ and _varera_ reversed to accommodate
the sentence which follows.

[65] The forms for the second person are derived from the _Arte_ (68).
Throughout this section the accent marks are quite erratic. In several
places, for example, Collado has _sónata_ and even _sónatá_.

[66] In the material which follows Collado has brought together items from
several sections of the _Arte_; for the interrogatives see (65-65v), the
indefinites (66), and the demonstratives (68).

[67] These reduplicated forms are not derived from Rodriguez' description
and are apparently misstatements of the forms _care_ and _are_ which would
otherwise be missing.

[68] An abbreviated form of _monomósu_; cf. _Arte_ (139v).

[69] Collado is here speaking with reference to the normal order in Latin.

[70] The treatment of the verbal system by Collado follows in a general way
the _Arte_ (6v-54v). In the material that follows specific references will
be made when a comparison of the two works is suggested.

[71] The text has _secundae coniugationis_. This error, which is repeated
throughout the text, is not present in the Spanish manuscript.

[72] The text again has _secundae coniugationis_.

[73] This list covering the _Kami-ichidan_ and _Kami-nidan_ verbs is
derived from a similarly defined sub-group of the first conjugation in the
_Arte_ (28). Since the verbs _cabi_, _sabi_, and _deqi_ are in no way
indicated as extraordinary in Rodriguez' presentation, I have amended the
text to include their present tense form.

[74] The text reads for this gloss _fucore afficior_. The proper word is
_mucore_ 'mould,' with the literal translation being 'I am affected by
mould.'

[75] The _Dictionarium_ has this verb listed as _kami-nidan_, _xij_, _uru_,
and therefore not exceptional.

[76] Cf. _Arte_ (7) where a similar list is presented.

[77] For the source of Collado's description of the future tense cf. _Arte_
(7v).

[78] The text reads _secundae coniugationis_.

[79] Rodriguez more correctly has this rule as the root plus _i_ or _yo_;
e.g., _aguei_ or _agueyo_. The form _aguei_ is used by Collado in the
construction of the optative below.

[80] This form is correct but does not follow his rule for the formation of
the imperative (see note 79).

[81] Rodriguez has _baquemono_ 'evil spirit' and the Spanish manuscript
_baqemono_, rather than _banguemono_ 'soothsayer.'

[82] Extracted from Rodriguez' version of a sentence in the Amakusa edition
of Esop's Fables (p. 417). The original reads, _Arutoqi Xantho chinsui xite
yraruru tocoroye, fitoga qite daicaino vxiuouo fitocuchino nomi tçucusaruru
michiga arǒcato tôni_,... 'One time when Xantho [Esop's master] was drunk,
a man came and asked if there was a way to drink all the waters of the
ocean in one swallow....' it is abbreviated by Collado in such a way as to
obscure the construction.

[83] Also apparently extracted from the _Esopo_ (p. 477). The original has,
... _riǒbǒni tachiuacarete yru tocoroni qitçunega yosocara coreuo mite,
futatçuno nacani vocareta fittçu jiuo totte curǒta_, 'when they [two lions]
had gone their separate ways, the fox, seeing this from afar, took the
sheep which had been between the two of them and ate it.' By changing
_riǒbǒ_ to _nhóbó_ Collado created a less than satisfactory example.

[84] Modeled on _Iyeuo idzuru tocorouo cubiuo quiri votoita_ 'when he went
outside his head was cut off.'

[85] Modeled on _Missauo asobasaruru tocoroye vôjei faxe atçumatta_ 'when
mass was being celebrated, many came running and gathered around.'

[86] Apparently modelled after _Arte_ (20v) _nantomo voxiare caxi_
'whatever you say,' with the imperative formation again confounded.

[87] Rodriguez (25v) specifies the location of this usage as Chūgoku,
Bungo, Hakata, and other _Ximo_ districts.

[88] This example, together with _so zonze na_ below, reflects the loss of
a distinction between _z_ and _j_ which was taking place during this
period.

[89] The text has _secundae coniugationis_.

[90] The _Arte_ (27) records here _aguenedomo_, _aguenuto mǒxedomo_,
_aguezutomo_, _aguenebatote_, and _agueidemo_. Neither _aguenaidemo_ nor
the participle _aguenaide_, below, are found in the _Arte_, though they are
attested to elsewhere. Cf. Yuzawa Kōkichirō, _Edo kotoba no kenkyū_ (Tokyo,
1954), p. 626.

[91] This rule, derived from Rodriguez (_Arte_, 29), is misformulated by
Collado. Rodriguez' rule is correct; change the _nu_ of the negative
present to _i_. It is formulated correctly for the third conjugation,
below.

[92] Collado's rule clearly confuses the formulation of the present with
that of the future. Significantly in the _Arte_ Rodriguez never refers to
the future forms of any verb other than his model _narai_. If Collado had
had access to the _Arte Breve_ he would have found (41) the following
principal parts for _vomoi_; _ vomoi_, _vomô_, _vomôta_, _vomovǒ_,
_vomoye_. The only other use in the _Ars Grammaticae_ of this form is on
page 62 where Collado has the incorrect form _vomovô_. The manuscript does
not record this form.

[93] Although Collado's transcription permits this rule to yield the
appropriate forms, it obscures the fact that the final _i_ of the root is a
vowel, while the _i_ of the imperative is a semivowel. Rodriguez'
transcription better reflects the phonological facts; _naraye_, _vomoye_,
and _cuye_.

[94] This completes Collado's treatment of the third negative conjugation.
The two paragraphs which follow are part of his treatment of the
substantive verb. There is no section heading for the affirmative
substantive verb; and clearly a portion of the text has been deleted. The
Spanish manuscript (cf. Ōtsuka's 1957 edition, p. 45) includes a new
section which begins by recording the following substantive verb forms;
_ari:aru_, _gozari:gozaru_, _i:iru_, and _vori:voru_.

[95] Collado's presentation of the substantive verbs is obscure. The text
reads: _Verba verò substantiua sunt_, gozaru, gozaranu, voru, uori nai, dea
_vel_ gia: deuanai, aru:aranu, _vel_, gozaranu uoru ùôrinai, _&_ .... The
translation attempts to punctuate the list to reflect the contrast between
affirmative and negative forms. The main confusion is the apparent effort
to contrast _voru_ and _vorinai_. _Voru_ (glossed by the supplement of the
_Vocabulario_ as _estar_, and used in the _Dictionarium_ as the gloss for
_existo_, _etc._) is not used by Rodriguez in the _Arte_. _Vorinai_
(unglossed in the dictionaries) is clearly defined by Rodriguez as the
negative of the polite verb _voriaru_, which is derived by him from _von
iri+aru_ (_Arte_, 165v). Possibly Collado had intended to contrast _voru_
with _voranu_ and _voriaru_ with _vorinai_ but confounded the two pairs and
then repeated his error at the end of the list; or again he may, in the
absence of Rodriguez' guidance, have simply misunderstood the matter.
Putting the alternative forms aside, the list should read
_gozaru:gozaranu_, _vori aru:vori nai_, _gia:devanai_, _aru:aranu_, and
_voru:voranu_. Collado's treatment is patterned only loosely after the
_Arte_ (2v-6v).

[96] Collado seems to be unaware of the irregularity of _vonaji_.

[97] Collado is following the general rule established on p. 10 for such
forms as _caij_. He might better have followed Rodriguez who would
transcribe _canaxǔte_, as do we.

[98] The missing 'closed o' aside, Collado's transcription of this form
with an _n_ is indicative of the clarity with which he perceived the
nasalization in this context.

[99] Cf. _Arte_ (18v-19v).

[100] The text reads _cú vaau ni voite va_, with the errata changing the
verb to _cuvazu_.

[101] This historically inaccurate rule is derived from the _Arte_ (18v).

[102] In the one example of this construction, on page 62, Collado has the
form _tovazunba_.

[103] The original is in the _soro_ style; _Iǒjǒni voiteua uquetori
mǒsubequ soro._

[104] Cf. _Arte_ (19v).

[105] Here and throughout the section Collado transcribes as _ro_ the
potential particle which should correctly be written _ró_ (cf. _Arte_,
11v). It will be noticed that all but one instance of the 'open o' on p. 35
of the text has been left unmarked.

[106] Collado has derived this list from the _Arte_ (45-47). His
terminology is, however, rather misleading. What he classifies as _verba
irregularia_ are those which Rodriguez considers deponent, that is _verbo
defectiuo_, with the term _verbo irregular_ being used by Rodriguez for the
adjective. Given this misunderstanding Collado begins his list with an
explanation of the irregularities of _qi,uru_. This verb is on Rodriguez'
list only because "it lacks certain forms in the affirmative" (45v).
Rodriguez has a list of 43 deponent verbs, beginning with _tari_, from
which Collado has selected the first 14 and then a few from the remainder.

[107] In the restricted context of an adjectival; cf. modern _arayuru
koto_.

[108] Cf. _Arte_ (45v) where Rodriguez transcribes _vreyeyo_.

[109] Loc. cit. Rodriguez presents _vreôru_ as an alternative form for
_vreô_ in the present tense and then selects that variant for the
infinitive.

[110] Formation (_formatio_) is to be understood here in the sense of
derivation, and diversity (_differentia_) in the sense of class membership.

[111] The opening paragraphs of this section follow the _Arte_ (68-70 and
96-108v). The list of particles, beginning with _maraxi_, follows 160-168.

[112] The text, here and in the next sentence, reads _secundae
coningationis_.

[113] The form _dojucu_ is incorrect. It is taken by Ōtsuka to be _dōshuku_
'a person living in the same house.' The _Vocabulario_ records the item
_dôjucu_ 'a young boy who serves a priest.' _Dôjucu_ best fits Collado's
translation.

[114] The text again reads _secundae coniugationis_.

[115] Cf. _Arte_ (160-164) from which this list and the following material
have been derived.

[116] Throughout his treatment of the respect language Collado glosses his
verb forms in the first person, even though that translation might be
inappropriate to any context.

[117] Rodriguez (_Arte_, 162v) specifies the distribution of _vo_ and _go_,
using _gosacu atta_ as his example of the construction in context of a
Chinese vocabulary item. Collado does not refer to this distinction.

[118] The text reads _secundae coniugationis_.

[119] The text reads _secundae coniugationis_.

[120] Ōtsuka (1957) suggests _maraxi_ is correct and alters the example.
Since the list begins with _maraxi_, I assume the error to be in the
citation.

[121] The material for this section is derived from the _Arte_ (164v-168).

[122] While the material for this section is drawn from various sections of
the _Arte_, the bulk of the particles and their descriptions are derived
from Rodriguez' treatment of postpositional (73-77) and adverbial
constructions (112v-125).

[123] Rodriguez' list (77v) runs as follows; _vchi_, _voi_, _faxe_, _ai_,
_tori_, _mexi_, _tçui_, and _voxi_. On the basis of Collado's examples
_voxi_ should have been included in his list.

[124] Collado's transcription _qinpen_ is phonemically correct while being
phonetically less accurate than Rodriguez' _quimpen_.

[125] Collado has altered Rodriguez' version from _Nippon_, even though the
_Dictionarium_ glosses _consuetudo japonica_ as _Nippon catagui_.

[126] Collado, in the _Dictionarium_ and here, prefers _mmu_ to _uma_.

[127] This particle is not described in the _Arte_.

[128] Rodriguez (_Arte_, 116) records _Core coso yocarǒzure_ and states
that in this context _coso_ has the same meaning as _Queccu_ and _Cayette_.

[129] Cf. the _Arte_ (117) where the list is given as _Reba_, _Ni_, _Tomo_,
the potential, and _Te_.

[130] Rodriguez' version runs _Iesu Christo fitono vontocoroua_. (For
Collado's use of _reduplicatiuus_ see note 53.)

[131] As the first example indicates, the _zzu_ variant is not restricted
to the negative preterit, but is the form which appears for _da_ in all
contexts, as here with the preterit of _iomu_.

[132] In the absence of other examples it is not possible to determine if
Collado assumed the present tense form to be _iuru_ or _uru_. The
correction here follows the spelling used consistently in the _Arte_.

[133] Both Collado and Rodriguez agree that verbs ending in _tai_ govern
the accusative case; cf. _Nanigaxiuo yobitai_ (_Arte_, 14v).

[134] The text reads _secunda persona_.

[135] Rodriguez has _Vatacuxiua nantomo buchôfôde tofǒ ga gozanai_ [...
_buchôfǒde_ ...].

[136] Rodriguez uses the transcription _gorǒjerarei_ in the example from
which this sentence is derived. (The ten other occurrences in the _Arte_
have _goran_.) The _Dictionarium_ uses only _goron_, while the
_Vocabulario_ lists both _goran_ and _goron_. The Spanish manuscript has
_goran_.

[137] Rodriguez has _mairade canauanu_.

[138] The _Arte_ has the plain form _mairǒcotode attaredomo_.

[139] The _Arte_ has _mairumajiqueredomo_.

[140] Perhaps an attempt to follow the rule, established in the syntax
below, that states the _v_ of the accusative particle is lost after _n_. If
this is the intent, the comma is in error.

[141] Rodriguez treats adverbs in two sections of the _Arte_; under the
parts of speech (73v-77), and under the syntax (113-125). As has been
observed in the introduction, there is little consistancy of classification
between Rodriguez and Collado in this area of grammatical description.

[142] The interrogatives are derived from the _Arte_ (110v) and are
presented in substantially the same order. The adverbial particles which
begin with _uie_ are taken from (140-148v) and classified by Rodriguez as
_posposiçao_.

[143] The errata has; page 50, line 10, _doco_ read _coco_. This would
require the _doco zo_ above to read _coco zo_. It seems that the errata
should have read; page 50, line 16, which would have corrected this error.
The punctuation is not corrected by the errata.

[144] Rodriguez has the complete version; _Fitocuchi futacuchi cǔ cotoua
cǔta vchideua nai_.

[145] Rodriguez uses _vonna_ for _vonago_.

[146] The material for this section is derived from the _Arte_ (74v and
76v).

[147] Rodriguez has _Ayamari nai vyeua_, ...

[148] For the temporal interrogatives cf. _Arte_ (89v-90v) and for the
remaining forms 107-107v.

[149] Cf. the _Dictionarium_ under _cras_.

[150] The _Vocabulario_ has _sãnuru_ and _sannuru_ as the _ombin_ form of
the attributive perfective _sarinuru_.

[151] Cf. _Arte_ (74v).

[152] The Spanish manuscript has _iya iya_.

[153] Cf. _Arte_ (74v).

[154] Cf. _Arte_ (75, 94v, and 123v-124v).

[155] Cf. _Arte_ (94v) _Quixoua ano fito fodono gacuxǒdeua nai._

[156] Cf. _Arte_ (95 and 141).

[157] Cf. _Arte_ (75).

[158] The _Dictionarium_ has a selection of a dozen intensifying adverbs
listed under _valde_.

[159] Cf. _Arte_ (74v, 75, and 76).

[160] Cf. _Arte_ (74, 75, and 75v).

[161] The _Dictionarium_ also has the spelling _moxi_ which suggests that
Collado perceived a different vowel quantity than Rodriguez who has _mǒxi_,
as does the _Vocabulario_.

[162] The Latin particle is _nonne_, which expects an affirmative answer.

[163] Rodriguez, and consequently Doi (_Nihon daibunten_, p. 449), have
_xidai_ for _xisai_. The original source is the _Esopo no Fabulas_ where on
p. 493 the form is _xisai_.

[164] While the material for this section has been drawn from various
portions of the _Arte_, Rodriguez handles the bulk of the matters dealt
with here on 106v-108v and 140-148v.

[165] The text is not clear at this point. It reads: Tame, _significat ni
vel erga: v.g._ ... where one would expect: Tame _vel_ ni _significat erga:
v.g._ ... Ōtsuka translates this passage as if it were the later, as do I.

[166] Collado has recast into the colloquial a quote from the _Shikimoku_.
Rodriguez records: _Mata daiquanni itatteua ichininnomi sadamubequi nari_.

[167] The text reads: itatte _v.g._ totte.... where the _v.g._ is clearly a
misprint of _vel_.

[168] Cf. _Arte_ (130-137).

[169] This item is the only one in this paragraph which Rodriguez does not
list as a _casane cotoba_ on 134v of the _Arte_. Collado is apparently
interpreting this construction as a repetition of two adverbs, as for
example _coco caxico_. If so, the form should be spelled _vomoxirô_,
_vocaxiú_ (if we follow his rule for the formation of adverbs from _ij_
ending adjectives). However, the form which he seems to be recording is
more likely the compound adverb which is listed in the _Vocabulario_ as
_vomoxirovocaxǔ_ and glossed as _contemporizando de boa maneira_
'temporizing in a carefree manner.' The spelling that we suggest is derived
from the attested lexical item without the application of Collado's
formational rules.

[170] Cf. _Arte_ (125-130v).

[171] This interjection, together with _hat_ below, are the only uses of
initial _h_ found in the description. Rodriguez transcribes the latter item
as _at_ or _vat_ (_Arte_, 127) which suggests a close relationship between
the labial and glottal aspirates.

[172] Rodriguez has _Benquei satemo yasaxij yatçubaraya_.

[173] Rodriguez has: ... _nituaye bǒno saxivorosu_. The entire passage
would be, 'Benkei, seeing this, thought, "Oh, this isn't very important,"
and dropped the stick into the garden.' which Rodriguez explains to mean
being sorry for not paying sufficient attention to a matter.

[174] The material for this section is derived from various sections in
Book II of the _Arte_.

[175] Matthew, 6:24.

[176] Rodriguez has the spelling _touazumba_. In transcribing the form
Collado failed to follow the rule he established in his treatment of
conditional constructions.

[177] The model for this sentence appears to be _Arte_ (62): _Ichidan
medzuraxij yenoco, que nagǒ, uquino gotoqu xirǒ_ [_sic_], _me curô, cauo
icanimo airaxijuo cureta._ If this is the source of Collado's example, he
is clearly demonstrating his sensitivity to the nasalization of such items
such as _nagǒ_. The _Dictionarium_ under _longus_ has _nagai_.

[178] Collado's transcription is unable accurately to express the proper
phonological, or morphological, form of _shin'i_ 'indignation.' He would
have been well advised to follow Rodriguez' model and transcribe this item
as _xiny_ with the specification that consonant plus _y_ indicates a
morphological juncture.

[179] Rodriguez has the spelling _Quiso_, which agrees with the _Amakusaban
Heike_ (p. 239), the ultimate source of the sentence. Collado's spelling in
the translation is _quiuzo_. The Spanish manuscript has _Kiso_.

[180] One might expect the more literal 'I do not believe that it will be
finished,' but Collado has _credo quod non finietur_.

[181] This rule, which might more appropriately have been included with the
phonology, is not followed in Collado's description, with the possible
exception of p. 48 where the same construction is apparently used.

[182] Collado here demonstrates the absorbitive capacity of Latin as he
creates an accusative singular adjective from the past attributive of the
verb _kobu_.

[183] The use of _abiru_, where one would expect _aburu_, may be a simple
typographical error or evidence that Collado accepted the shift from
_ni-dan_ to _ichi-dan katsuyō_ as unworthy of notice. Rodriguez (_Arte_,
101v) has _midzuuo aburu_.

[184] This list is derived from the _Arte_ (101v-102v). From _abi,uru_ on,
the list is in the same order as that made by Rodriguez. _Fanaruru_,
_zzuru_, _nosquru_, _noru_, _vovaru_, and _mairu_ are Collado's
contributions.

[185] Cf. _Arte_ (101v).

[186] Cf. _Arte_ (100).

[187] Cf. _Arte_ (98).

[188] Cf. _Arte_ (104).

[189] Cf. _Arte_ (64 and 79).

[190] The material presented in this section is gleaned from the exhaustive
treatment of the numerical system which makes up the last 20 leaves of
Rodriguez' grammar.

[191] This compound does not follow the rule, since _cu_ is not a _iomi_
numeral. See also _cu ninai_ below.

[192] Rodriguez has _fitoi_ or _fifitoi_ (Arte, 228v).

[193] While this form fits the general rule for combining counters and
days, Rodriguez (_Arte_, 228v) has _tǒca_, which is a misprint for _tôca_,
cf. Doi, _Daibunten_, p. 818.

[194] Spelled with a tilde, _sãguat_, as are all the other forms before
_guat_.

[195] For the _sǒ_ and _sa_ allomorph of _san_ cf. _Arte_ (173v).

[196] Rodriguez gives the following equivalents in the monetary system on
217-217v of the _Arte_: ... ten _Rin_ in one _Fun_, ten _Fun_ in one
_Momme_, one thousand _Momme_ in one _Quamme_.

[197] The text is confused at this point. It runs: Ixxacu, _unus palmus seu
tertia quam Hispania vocant_ sanjacu. _tres_, ...

[198] The text has _culus_ 'posterior,' but the errata changes the word to
_anus_. The original seems closer to the Japanese.

[199] The examples here lag one behind the glosses.

[200] Here and elsewhere Collado combines homophonous enumerators which
Rodriguez keeps distinct. Cf. _Arte_ (220-223v) for an extensive list of
enumerators.

[201] Cf. _Arte_ (159-159v).

[202] This rule, apparently an invention of Collado's, has no precedent in
Rodriguez or in linguistic derivation. The _n_ in this construction is the
contracted form of the classical _mu_, the source for what Collado calls
the future.

[203] These forms might better have been presented as _nari,i_ and _qeri,i_
to indicate that the sentence-ending forms are _nari_ and _qeri_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

p. 14. `BOOK II. The Rudamenta' corrected to `Rudimenta'.

Ib. `While the Arts Grammaticae presents ...' corrected to `Ars
Grammaticae'.

p. 16. `booklet which teaches Canaduzcai' changed to much other uses as
`Canadzucai'.

p. 17. `Tassuru, taxxita, taxxeò ...' the last amended to match the
paradigm `taxxeô'.

p. 19. `Motoneô.' in future column, amended to fit the paradigm `Motomeô'.

p. 20. Heading, `Conjuctive' corrected to `Conjunctive'.

p. 21. Table of irregular verbs, the left hand column has separate entries
`A' and `Bi', these appear to mean a single entry `Abi'.

p. 24. `Those ending in çu change to Tǒ' - `to' omitted in text.

Ib. `thus governs the genative' corrected to `genitive'.

p. 116. `There are ennumerable nouns' corrected to `innumerable'.

p. 117. `a visable thing' corrected to `visible'.

p. 118. `primative pronouns' corrected to `primitive'.

p. 132. `I did not decend.' corrected to `descend'.

p. 136. `vomi:vomô', from the context and other references (and the Latin
text) the root should be `vomoi'.

p. 179. `xi ban me forth' corrected to `fourth'.

Footnote 27 a is applied to `Nobi', this should be `Vabi'.

Footnote 62. `The term is also found in the introduction to the
Vorabulario', corrected to `Vocabulario'.

Footnote 106. `verbo defectino' (from Portuguese text) corrected to
`defectiuo' as a more likely corruption than from `defectivo'.

Footnote 109. `selects that varient' corrected to `variant'.

Footnote 131. `the zzu varient' corrected to `variant'.

Footnote 169. `temperizing in a carefree manner' corrected to
`temporizing'.

Footnote 169. `Spelled with a tilda' corrected to `tilde'.





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