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Title: Genesis A - Translated from the Old English
Author: Cook, Albert S. (Albert Stanburrough), 1853-1927 [Editor], Mason, Lawrence, 1882-1939 [Translator]
Language: English
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Transcribers Note: Typographic errors in the original have been
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YALE STUDIES IN ENGLISH

ALBERT S. COOK, EDITOR

XLVIII

GENESIS A

TRANSLATED FROM THE OLD ENGLISH

BY

LAWRENCE MASON, PH.D.

INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH IN YALE COLLEGE

NEW YORK

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY

1915



PREFACE


The purpose of the translator in offering to the public this
version of the _Genesis_ is to aid in forwarding--be it by but one
jot or tittle--the general knowledge and appreciation of Old English
literature. Professed students in this department will always have
an incentive to master the language; but to the public at large the
strangeness of this medium will prove an insurmountable barrier, and
the general reader must therefore either remain in ignorance of our
older literary monuments or else employ translations. The present
contribution[1] to the growing body of such translations possesses,
perhaps, more than a single interest or appeal, in that it renders
accessible not only a poem of considerable intrinsic worth, a poem
associated with the earliest of the great names in English literary
history, and a forerunner and possible source of _Paradise Lost_, but
also an important example of a literary _genre_ once immensely popular,
though now quite fallen into abeyance--namely, the lengthy versified
Scriptural paraphrase. For some idea of the prominent part played by
this form, even so late as the seventeenth century, the reader is
referred to any comprehensive manual of English literature.

In this translation, prose has been employed instead of verse, for two
reasons. In the first place, no metrical form has yet been found which,
in the writer's judgment, at all adequately represents in modern English
the effect of the Old English alliterative verse, or stave-rime. And in
the second place, to the writer's thinking, no one but a poet should
attempt to write verse: and on that principle, translations would be few
and far between, unless prose were used.

But even granting the value of the _Genesis_ as a fit subject for
translation, and the necessity for the employment of prose, the reader
may still quarrel with the particular _kind_ of prose hereinbelow
essayed; so a brief explanation and, it is hoped, vindication of the
theory of translation here followed would seem desirable, inasmuch as
considerable divergence is intended from the methods adopted by the
various translators of the _Beowulf_, for example. First, Biblical
phraseology has been eschewed, partly because in a modern writer it
savors of affectation, but chiefly because his Bible was the point
of departure for the Old English author, and to return now in the
translation to our Bible would be a stultification of his purposes by a
sort of _argumentum in circulo_. Secondly, archaisms, poetic diction,
and unusual constructions (the "translation English" anathematized by
the Rhetorics) have been so far as possible avoided, contrary to the
practice of most translators from Old English poetry, because it is
felt strongly that such usages will not produce upon modern readers the
effect that this poetry produced originally upon the readers or hearers
for whom it was intended. For this poetry could not have seemed alien
or exotic to its original public: either through familiar poetic
convention, or owing to the staccato and ejaculatory character of
ordinary spoken language at the time, this spasmodic, apostrophic poetry
must have seemed natural and beautiful, in the seventh or eighth
century. But--

  Why take the style of those heroic times?
  For nature brings not back the mastodon,
  Nor we those times.

To translate is to modernize. This rendering, therefore, is not an
artificial, pseudo-antique hybrid, but frankly endeavors to convey its
original to modern readers in idiomatic modern literary English, devoid
of any conscious mannerisms whatsoever. The writer has aimed at the
utmost literal fidelity consistent with the observance of all the usages
of current standard English; he has not attempted, however, to convert
the explosive appositions, with prevailing asyndeton and excessive
synonymy, of his original into the easy, flowing sentences more familiar
to modern eyes and ears, for the change would sacrifice altogether too
much of the distinctive character and flavor of Old English poetry.

The text upon which this work is based is that of the Grein-Wülker
_Bibliothek der Angelsächsischen Poesie,_ 1894, save for a few minor
changes in punctuation and the few departures recorded in the Notes.
Grein's translation of the poem into modern German stave-rime, 1857, has
been frequently consulted, but the writer's real indebtedness to it is
felt to be slight. He takes great pleasure, finally, in acknowledging
his deep sense of obligation, on many grounds, to the general editor of
this series, Professor Albert S. Cook; the work was undertaken at his
suggestion, and he has been most kind in giving advice and criticism.

Lawrence Mason.

  YALE UNIVERSITY,
  _July 17, 1913._



TABLE OF CONTENTS

  With Specification of the Biblical Chapters and Verses
            represented in each Section of the Poem

                                                               PAGE

  PREFACE                                                 III (135)

  TABLE OF CONTENTS                                        VI (138)

  GENESIS A:

  Section I[2]                                              1 (141)
  Section II (Gen. 1.1-5)                                   3 (143)
  Section III (Gen. 1.4-10)                                 4 (144)
  Lines 169-234 (Gen. 1.28, 31; 2.10-14, 18, 21, 22)        5 (145)
  Lines 852-871 (Gen. 3.8-10)                               7 (147)
  Section X (Gen. 3.11-15)                                  7 (147)
  Section XI (Gen. 3.16, 17, 19, 21, 24; 4.1-5, 8)          9 (149)
  Section XII (Gen. 4.9-19, 21)                            11 (151)
  Section XIII (Gen. 4.22-26; 5.3-14)                      13 (153)
  Section XIV (Gen. 5.15-29, 32)                           15 (155)
  Section XV (Gen. 6.1-8, 11-19, 22)                       17 (157)
  Section XVI (Gen. 7.1-7, 11, 12, 16-23)                  18 (158)
  Section XVII (Gen. 8.1-4, 6-12)                          20 (160)
  Section XVIII (Gen. 8.15-18, 20; 9.1-9, 11-19)           22 (162)
  Section XIX (Gen. 9.20-28; 10.1, 2, 6, 8-10; 11.1)       24 (164)
  Section XX (Gen. 10.1, 20, 21; 11.2, 4-8, 10, 26, 27)    26 (166)
  Section XXI (Gen. 11.29-32; 12.1-8)                      28 (168)
  Section XXII (Gen. 12.8, 10-20; 13.1-4)                  30 (170)
  Section XXIII (Gen. 13.5-13)                             32 (172)
  Section XXIV (Gen. 14.1, 2, 4, 10-16)                    33 (173)
  Section XXV (Gen. 14.17-24; 15.1)                        37 (177)
  Section XXVI (Gen. 15.2-5, 7, 18; 16.1-6)                39 (179)
  Section XXVII (Gen. 16.6-12, 15, 16; 17.1, 2, 10-14, 19) 41 (181)
  Section XXVIII (Gen. 17.17-21, 23, 24, 27; 18.12-14)     43 (183)
  Section XXIX (Gen. 18.16, 17, 20-22)                     44 (184)
  Section XXX (Gen. 19.1-13, 18-26)                        45 (185)
  Section XXXI (Gen. 19.27-30, 33, 35-38)                  49 (189)
  Section XXXII (Gen. 20.1-10)                             50 (190)
  Section XXXIII (Gen. 20.11, 13-18; 21.1-4)               51 (191)
  Section XXXIV (Gen. 21.5, 8-14, 22-24, 27)               53 (193)
  Section XXXV (Gen. 21.33, 34; 22.1-13)                   55 (195)
  NOTES                                                    58 (198)



GENESIS A



I.


Ours is a great duty--to praise in word and love at
heart the heavens' Ruler, the glorious King of Hosts:
He is the substance of all power, the head of all high
things, the Lord Almighty. Origin or beginning was                     5
never made for Him, nor shall an end ever come to the
eternal God: but, on the contrary, He is for ever supreme
by His high puissance over the heavenly kingdoms;
just and mighty, He rules the mansions of the sky,                    10
which were established far and wide through the power
of God for the sons of glory, the keepers of souls.

These angelic hosts were wont to feel joy and rapture,
transcendent bliss, in the presence of their Creator:
their beatitude was measureless. Glorious ministers                   15
magnified their Lord, spoke his praise with zeal, lauded
the Master of their being, and were excellently happy
in the majesty of God. They had no knowledge of
working evil or wickedness, but dwelt in innocence                    20
forever with their Lord: from the beginning they wrought
in heaven nothing but righteousness and truth, until
a Prince of angels through pride strayed into sin: then
they would consult their own advantage no longer, but
turned away from God's lovingkindness. They had                       25
vast arrogance, in that by the might of multitudes they
sought to wrest from the Lord the celestial mansions,
spacious and heaven-bright. Then there fell upon
them, grievously, the envy, presumption, and pride
of the Angel who first began to carry out the evil plot,              30
to weave it and promote it, when he boasted by word--
as he thirsted for conflict--that he wished to own the
home and high throne of the heavenly kingdom to the
north. Thereupon God became angered and hostile                       35
towards the beings whom he had formerly exalted in
beauty and glory: he created for the traitors a marvelous
abode as penalty for their action, namely the pangs of
Hell, bitter afflictions; Our Lord called forth that                  40
abysmal joyless house of punishment to wait for the
outcast keepers of souls.[3] When he knew that it was
ready, he enveloped it in eternal night and equipped it
with torment, filling it with fire and fearful cold, with
fume and red flame: then he commanded the terrors
of suffering to increase throughout that hapless place.               45

They had committed a dire sin against God: on that
account dire punishment befell them. They asserted,
in fierce mood, that they wished to seize the kingdom
and could easily do so: but this presumption mocked
them when their Lord, the high King of heaven, lifted                 50
up his almighty hand against the throng. The mad
rebels, accursed ones, could not make head against God,
but the Highest troubled their spirits and humbled their
pride, for he was incensed; he stripped the sinners of                55
victory and might, of dominion and honor, and further
took from his foes happiness, peace, and all joys, as well
as bright glory, and finally, with his own exceeding power,
wreaked his wrath on his adversaries in mighty ruin.                  60
He was stern in mood, grimly embittered, and seized
upon his foes with resistless grasp and broke them in
his grip, enraged at heart, and deprived his opponents of
their native seat,[4] their bright abodes on high. For                65
our Creator dismissed and banished from heaven the
overweening band of angels: the Lord sent away on a
long journey the faithless multitude, the hateful host,
the miserable spirits; their pride was broken, their threat           70
overthrown, their glory shattered, and their beauty
dimmed; thenceforth they abode in desolation, because
of their dark exile. They did not dare to laugh aloud,
but lived wearied by the torments of hell and became
familiar with woes, bitterness, and sorrow; covered with              75
darkness, they bore their pain,--a heavy sentence,
because they had begun to battle against God.

Then, as formerly, true peace existed in heaven, fair
amity: for the Lord was dear to all, the Sovereign to his             80
servants; and the majesty of the joyful angelic hosts
increased, through the favor of the Almighty.



II.


So those who inhabited the sky, home of glory, were
at peace; hatred was gone, as well as sorrow and strife
among angels, ever since the rebellious hosts, bereft of the          85
light, had relinquished heaven. Behind them stood in
grandeur their seats rich in glorious workmanship, teeming
with blessings in God's kingdom, bright and perennially
bountiful,--but all devoid of occupants, ever since the               90
miserable spirits had gone to their place of punishment,
their vile prison. Then our Lord bethought him, in
meditative mood, how he might people again, and with
a better race, his high creation, the noble seats and glory-          95
crowned abodes which the haughty rebels had left
vacant, high in heaven. Therefore Holy God willed by
his plenteous power that under the circle of the firma-
ment the earth should be established, with sky above and             100
wide water, a world-creation in place of the foes whom
in their apostasy he hurled from bliss.

As yet there was nothing at all created here, except
shadows, but this broad earth stood deep and dim, idle               105
and useless, alien even to God himself; on it the King
whose purpose never falters turned his eyes and beheld
the place void of joy; he saw dark clouds, black under
the firmament, throng in the eternal night, dun and                  110
waste, until this world-creation came to pass through
the word of the King of Glory. First the everlasting
Lord, protector of all things, created heaven and earth;
as the almighty King put forth the firmament and with                115
victorious might established this ample world. The
earth was as yet unadorned by vegetation: the ocean
covered it far and wide, turbid waves in the eternal
night. Then was the glorious Spirit of heaven's guardian             120
borne over the sea with sovereign virtue. For the King
of the angels commanded Light, dispenser of life, to
come forth over the broad expanse: quickly was the
Arch-King's mandate fulfilled, and Holy Light appeared               125
over the waste spaces, as the Creator had ordained it.
The Wielder of Victory next sundered light from darkness,
shadow from radiance, over the surge of the sea. Then
he formed the two names of the dispensers of life: light
was first called "Day" by the word of the Lord, a                    130
beauteous creation. This period of creation greatly
pleased God, in the beginning: the first day saw the
dark shadows duskily flee away over the wide earth.



III.


Time now went forth over the frame-work of the                       135
world: after this shining splendor, the Lord our Creator
fashioned the first evening, but on its track rushed a
thronging welter of darkness which the Lord himself
called by the name of "Night." Our Saviour sundered                  140
these two: ever since then they have ceaselessly wrought
and fulfilled the will of the Lord over the earth.
Then the second day advanced, light after darkness;
and the Ruler of Life straightway commanded a glad                   145
sky-substance to appear in the midst of the flood: our
Master parted the waves and wrought there the found-
ations of the firmament: this the Mighty One, omnipotent
King, reared aloft from the earth through his own word.              150
The flood was divided under the high heavens by holy
power, the waters from the waters, and still they remain
so under the firmament which roofs all nations.

Then swiftly came advancing over the world the third                 155
great morn. Nor were the spreading lands and ways
yet deemed needful by our Lord, but the earth stood
girt fast by water. Through his word, the Ruler of
the angels bade the waters be gathered together, which
now hold their course beneath the skies in an appointed              160
place. Then speedily the broad ocean stood all together
under heaven, as the Holy One commanded, for the
flood was sundered from the dry land. Thereupon
Life's Ruler looked upon the dry land, the Preserver of
mankind [found it] widely visible, and the King of                   165
Glory called it "Earth." He established a proper
channel for the waves, the broad flood, and fettered....

       *       *       *       *       *

(_Lacuna in MS._[5])

       *       *       *       *       *

The Ruler of Heaven did not think it fitting that                    170
Adam, the keeper of Paradise and shepherd of the new
creation, should be alone any longer: so the supreme
King, Ruler Almighty, made a companion for him--
created Woman, and gave this helpmate to his cherished               175
Man as the first and fruitful light of his life. He took his
material from Adam's body and skilfully removed a
rib from his side: the latter was deep in repose and
slumbered peacefully; he felt no pain, though a little               180
uneasiness, nor did a drop of blood come from the wound,
but the Prince of the Angels took from his body a living
bone while the man was unwounded. From this God
fashioned a noble woman, and put into her the breath
of life and an immortal soul: these two were like the                185
angels. Thus was Adam's bride[6] endowed with a
living spirit. They were both radiantly beautiful in their
youthfulness, in the world prepared by the might of
the Lord: they did not know how to undertake or                      190
work evil, but on the contrary there was in the breast
of each a burning love of God. Then the benign King,
Ruler of everyone born of the race of man, blessed these
first two creatures, father and mother, woman and
man. Thereafter he spoke these words:                                195

"Be fruitful now and increase; fill the verdant earth
with progeny, your race, both sons and daughters. Under
your sway shall be the salt water and all the created
world. Enjoy prosperous days, [ruling over] both                     200
the fishes of the deep and the fowls of the air. Into
your power are given the sacred herd and the wild beasts
and every living thing that walks the earth; all breath-
ing creatures, whatsoever the sea brings forth over the              205
whale-paths, all things belong to you two."

Then our Maker beheld the beauty of his works and
the fullness of his abundance, his new creations. Pa-
radise stood, good and holy, filled with blessings, ever-            210
lasting bounty. That kindly soil was beauteously
watered by the rushing seas and springing fountains;
for never yet had clouds dark with wind brought down
rains over the broad earth: but none the less the ground
stood crowned with its harvest. From this new Garden                 215
four noble river-streams have their outflow: these were
all partitioned out of one fair-shining water by the might
of the Lord, when he created the earth, and [were thus]              220
sent out into the world. Men dwelling on the earth,
the peoples of the nations, call one of these Fison, which
broadly girdles with its bright streams a quarter of the
earth beyond Hebeleac[7]: in that ancestral soil the sons            225
of men, nations near and far, find the best gold and
precious stones,[8] as the books tell us. Then the second
[river], whose name is Geon, girdles the land and govern-
ment of Ethiopia, an ample kingdom. The third is                     230
Tigris, a foaming stream which encircles the people of
Assyria. Such likewise is the fourth, which men among
many a nation now widely call Eufrates....[9]

       *       *       *       *       *

(_Genesis B intervenes here_.)

       *       *       *       *       *

Then the Almighty King, the great Lord, came forth
into the garden about mid-day, by his divine will; for               855
our Saviour and merciful Father wished to find out
what his children were doing: he knew that they were
sinful to whom he had given perfection. Bereft of
their beatitude and stricken in spirit, they avoided his
presence by retreating among the shadows of the trees;               860
they hid themselves in dark recesses, when they heard
the holy word of the Lord and feared him. Straight-
way the King of Heaven began to call for the keeper
of the [newly] created world; the mighty Lord bade
his son come to him forthwith. He answered him then,                 865
the wretched one himself, destitute of clothing, [and]
said:

"Lord of my life, I am hiding myself here because
unclothed; basely sinful, I am covering my shame with
leaves: my pain is cruel, most bitter in my heart. I dare            870
not now go forth before thy presence: I am all naked!"



X.[10]


To him then God at once replied:

"Tell me this, my son: why do you seek the shadows,
in shame? You certainly received no disgrace at my                   875
hands, but on the contrary delight in all things! How
come you to know evil and hide shame and behold sor-
row and cover your body with leaves and, saddened and
crushed by the woes of life, say that you need clothing,
unless you have tasted of an apple from the tree which               880
I forbade to you by express command?"

Adam then answered him again:

"The woman, my Lord, the fair woman gave into
my hand this fruit, which I accepted in sin against thee.            885
Now I bear this manifest sign in myself: I know so much
the more of sorrow!"

Then Almighty God asked Eve about this:

"Why did you forfeit these plenteous delights, daughter,
the new creations of paradise, abundant blessings, when              890
in your cupidity you seized on the trunk and took the
fruit from the branch of the tree and ate the accursed
thing in defiance of me, and gave of the apple to Adam,
when you both by my prohibition were so strictly for-                895
bidden to do so?"

Then the fair maiden, the woman overcome by shame,
answered him:

"The serpent tempted me and urgently prompted me
to sin; through fair words the worm goaded me into
accursed frowardness, until I basely performed the                   900
deadly act, committed the crime, and robbed the tree in
the grove, as it was not lawful to do, and ate the fruit."

Then our Saviour, the Lord Almighty, ordained wide
wanderings for the serpent, the venomous worm, and                   905
spoke further in these words:

"To far distant times shalt thou, an outcast, crawl
over the broad earth on thy breast, thy belly; without
feet shalt thou move about, so long as life and breath
remain in thee. Dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy              910
life, since thou hast accomplished so evil a deed here.
Thee the woman shall war against, and hate thee
[worse than anything else] under heaven, and shall tread
upon thine accursed head with her feet; thou shalt lie
in wait at her heels, in ever-new conflict: for there
shall be war between thy offspring and her offspring                 915
always, as long as the earth exists under the cloudy
skies. Now dost thou understand and know, baleful
destroyer of mankind, how thou shalt live!"



XI.


Then God wrathfully spoke to Eve:

"Depart now from bliss! Thou shalt be ever under
the sway of men; with fear of men cruelly oppressed,                 920
thou shalt sorrowfully endure the heinousness of thine
offence and wait for death, and with weeping and wailing
and great anguish bring into the world thy sons and
daughters!"

Likewise to Adam did the Eternal Lord, Source of                     925
Light and Life, declare a cruel edict:

"Thou shalt seek another country, a joyless dwelling-
place, and wander in exile, naked and needy, driven                  930
away from the blessings of paradise; the separation of
soul and body is now ordained for thee. Lo, thou hast
wickedly originated sin: therefore thou shalt toil, and
win thy sustenance on earth by thyself, acquire it by
the sweat of thy face, and thus eat thy bread so long                935
as thou livest here,--until ungentle disease, which thou
didst recently take to thyself with the apple, strikes
thee cruelly to the heart: then shalt thou die."

Behold, we learn thus how bitter afflictions and uni-                940
versal miseries came upon us.

Thereupon the Guardian of Glory, our Creator, girded
them with clothing; the Lord bade them cover their
nakedness with some simple garments, and bade them
set forth and depart from paradise into a harder life.
Behind them, by God's command, a holy angel with a                   945
fiery sword shut the gate of their blissful home of peace
and joy; nor may any guileful sin-stained man ever fare
thither again, for the warder has might and strength                 950
who keeps for the Lord that greater life rich in glories.
Yet the Almighty, our First Father, would not take
away all comforts from Adam and Eve, though they had
fallen away from him: but he still let the lofty roof                955
studded with holy stars stand as a solace for them, and
gave them ample possessions, and bade the seas and
land bring forth for the pair multitudes of each of the
young-producing species [necessary] for the sustenance               960
of this life. So, after their sin, they inhabited a more
sorrowful land, a dwelling and country less fertile in
every kind of blessing than their former abode had
been, from which they had been driven out after their
misdeed.

Then they began, by God's command, to produce                        965
children, as the Lord had charged them. To begin
with, by Adam and Eve were brought into the world
two fair first-born sons, Cain and Abel. The books
tell us how these first toilers, loving brothers, gained             970
their subsistence, riches and food: the one who was
elder born tilled the earth with his strength; the second
kept the flocks, helping his father, until a great number            975
of days passed. They both brought an offering to the
Lord: the Prince of the Angels, King of all things, looked
upon Abel's offering with [favorable] eyes, but would
not consider the sacrifice of Cain; that caused strong
indignation in the heart of the man: rage arose in the               980
youth's breast, livid hatred, and wrath by reason of
envy: then he wrought evil deeds with his hands, slew
his kinsman, his own brother, shed his blood,--yea,                  985
Cain [shed] Abel's. And the earth soaked up this blood
shed by murder, the life-blood of a man.

After this fatal blow woe was aroused, the long train
of afflictions: since then from this twig have hatefully
sprouted ever longer and stronger bitter branches: these             990
branches of calamity spread far and wide over the nations
of men: hardly and sorely did the twigs of misery strike
the sons of men (and so they still do), from which the
broad leaves of all suffering began to spring. We may                995
tearfully lament this account, this death-bringing fatal-
ity, and not in vain: but the fair woman injured us
[more] severely through the first sin which men dwelling
on earth ever committed against the Lord, since Adam                1000
was filled with the breath of life by the mouth of God!



XII.


Then the Master of Splendor asked Cain through his
word, where Abel was, upon the earth. Quickly there-
upon the wicked worker of slaughter answered him:                   1005

"I know not Abel's coming or going, my kinsman's
course: I was not my brother's keeper!"

Then the Prince of Angels, the Spirit rich in good
things, spoke to him again:

"Why didst thou cast that virtuous man, thy brother,                1010
on his death-bed with thy violent hands, and his blood
now calleth and crieth unto me? For this murder
shalt thou undergo punishment and wander in exile                   1015
accursed unto distant ages: nor shall the earth, fair
for all necessary sustenance, yield thee harvest, for it
drank sacred blood at thy hands: therefore the earth,
verdant in beauty, denies thee its bounties. Infamous,
thou shalt sorrowfully wander from thy native land,
because thou hast been Abel's murderer: thou shalt                  1020
go forth an outcast over a long road, hateful to all thy
relatives!"

Then Cain answered him[11]:

"Now I dare not hope for any grace in the kingdoms
of the world, for I have forfeited, O high King of heaven,          1025
thy favor as well as love and peace: therefore shall I
travel far ways in expectation of woes, whensoever any
one far or near shall find me, in my guilt, who may
remember my crime, my brother's murder: I shed his                  1030
blood, his life-blood on the ground. On this day thou
dost banish me from comfort and drive me from my
native land: someone of my foes shall be my murderer;
accursed, O God, shall I wander from thy sight."                    1035

Then the Lord of Victory spoke to him:

"Thou needst not as yet dread the terror of death
and murder, though thou shalt depart far from thy
friends, an outcast. If any man by his own hand                     1040
deprives thee of life, then shall come upon him sevenfold
vengeance for his sin, as penalty for his deed."

Our Ruler and glorious Lord set on him a sign, the                  1045
Master [set] a symbol of immunity, so that none of his
foes far or near might dare to approach him with warlike
intent; then he bade the wicked one leave forever his
mother and sons, all his family. Thereupon Cain set
out and departed sorrowing from before the face of God,             1050
a joyless exile, and built himself a dwelling to the east,
a habitation far from his fatherland: there a fair maiden,
a woman of the country, bore him offspring.

The eldest was called Enos, first-born of Cain; he                  1055
began at once to build a city, with his kinsfolk: that
was the first beneath the clouds of all the fortifications
which heroes and swordsmen have caused to be built.                 1060
Therein his offspring first arose, born of his wife in the
citadel: the eldest son of Enos was called Jared. Thence
arose the tribe of Cain, which increased the numbers                1065
of its race. Next to Jared, Malalehel was the keeper
of the heritage after his father, until he passed away.
Afterwards Mathusal shared the royal treasures with
his kinsfolk, with his brothers, scion after scion, until           1070
wise through length of days he had to consummate
his departure from the world and forsake life. After
his father's day, Lamech received the household
goods and domestic wealth: two wives, Ada and                       1075
Sella, women of the country, bore offspring to him: of
these one was Jabal by name, son of Lamech, who
through skilful cunning first of dwellers here below
awoke by his hands the song of the harp, that melo-                 1080
dious sound.



XIII.


Likewise, at this same time, there was in this family
a man called Tubal Cain, a son of Lamech, who through
the abundance of his skill was a master-smith, and first            1085
among men through the craft of his mind he was the
inventor of agricultural implements upon earth: since
then the sons of men dwelling in cities have known far
and wide how to use brass and iron.

Once on a time Lamech himself made in words a wicked                1090
confession to his two wives, his dear bed-fellows, Ada
and Sella:

"In murder I have slain a certain one among my near
relations; I stained my hands with the gory death of                1095
Cain, destroyed with my hands the father of Enos, the
slayer of Abel, and poured on the ground the life-blood
of a man. Well knew I that for this shall come at last
the sevenfold vengeance of the King of Truth, great                 1100
according to the crime: my fall and destruction shall
be more sternly meted out, with grim horror, when I
depart!"--

Now, there came to Adam in Abel's place another                     1105
heir born in legal wedlock, an upright son, whose name
was Seth: he was happy and contributed greatly to the
comfort of his parents, Adam and Eve, his father and
mother, and took Abel's place in worldly affairs.                   1110

Then the first of men spoke these words:

"The Eternal Lord of Victory and Ruler of Life has
given me a son in place of the dear one whom Cain
slew, and our God has driven my grievous sorrow from                1115
my heart with this man-child: to Him be praise for this!"
When he began again to raise up another son to him-
self by his wife, to be his heir, Adam the vigorous cham-
pion had [numbered] 130 winters of this life in the world.          1120
The Scriptures tell us that on earth here for 800 years
after that, Adam increased his family with maidens
and youths: in all he had 930[12] winters, when he had to           1125
give over this world through the departure of his spirit.
After him Seth ruled over the people,[13] the son held
the heritage after the parents, and took unto himself               1130
a wife: he counted 105 winters when he first began to
increase the numbers of his family by sons and daughters.
The eldest son of Seth was called Enos: he first of all             1135
the children of man called upon God,[14] since Adam
stepped upon the green grass, endowed with the spirit
of life. Seth was happy, and afterwards begot sons
and daughters for 807 winters: in all he had 912, when              1140
the time was fulfilled that he should accomplish his
departure.

After him, when he departed out of the world, Enos
held the heritage, after the earth had received the body            1145
of Seth, fruitful in the Lord. He was dear to God, and
lived here 90 winters before he begot children here by
his wife through intercourse: to him then was Cainan
first born, an heir in his ancestral home. Afterwards               1150
for 815 winters[15] in the peace of God, the wise hero
begot offspring, sons and daughters: he died, the sage
patriarch, when he had [fulfilled] 905 [years].

After Enos, Cainan was chieftain, keeper, and leader                1155
of his race: he had [numbered] 70 winters before a son
was born to him: when an heir was born for the patri-
mony, this son of Cainan was called Malalehel. There-               1160
after for 840 [years] he increased the number of his
family by [begetting] children. In all, the son of Enos
had [lived] 910 winters, when he left this world, when              1165
the number of his appointed days under the expanse of
the skies was fulfilled.



XIV.


After him Malalehel kept the land and inheritance for
many seasons. The chieftain had [lived] 65 winters,                 1170
when he began to beget children by his wife. His wife
brought a son to him, the woman to the man: this son
in his childhood, as I have heard, the man-child in his
youth, was called Jared. After this Malalehel lived                 1175
long and rejoiced in [his] blessings, [all] the delights of
men here below and worldly treasures: 895 winters had
he numbered when he departed; to his son he left the                1180
land and the government.

After him for a long while Yeared dispensed gold to
the people; the chieftain was noble, a pious hero, and a
ruler dear to his subjects; 165 expectant winters he                1185
lived his life in this world, when his happiness arrived,
for his wife brought a son into the world: this son was
called Enoch, his fair first-born. But the father still
added descendants to the number of his race, for 800                1190
[years]: in all he had [counted] 965 [years] by night-
reckoning when he departed, the ancient patriarch,
when he gave up this world. And Yeared left land and                1195
government to his wise [son], the dear leader.

After this Enoch raised aloft the sovereignty, the sagaci-
ous leadership of the people: in no wise did he let fall the
dominion and authority[16] while he was guardian of his             1200
kinsfolk: he enjoyed days of happiness, and begot sons,
for 300 winters; the Lord, the Ruler of the Skies, was
gracious to him. From this world the hero sought in
the body the joy and bliss of the Lord; in no wise did              1205
he die the death of this earth, as men [ordinarily] do
here, young and old, when God takes away from them
their possessions and substance, [all] earth's treasures,
and their life as well: but while living he set forth with          1210
the King of Angels out of this transitory life into bliss,[17]
[clad] in the robes which his spirit received before his
mother brought him forth to men. He left the people
to his to his eldest son, his first-born; 365 winters had he        1215
[numbered] when he left the world.

For some time after him, his son Mathusal held the
inheritance, who for the longest space of time enjoyed              1220
the pleasures of the world in this body: he begot a
multitude of sons and daughters, before the day of his
death. When he had to depart from among men, the
venerable hero had [enjoyed] 970 winters.

After him, his son Lamech held the government: for                  1225
a long time thereafter he ruled over the world; he had
[lived] 102 winters when the season came for the chief-
tain to begin to beget noble heirs, sons and daughters.

After this the lord and chief of the people lived 595               1230
[years], enjoyed many a winter under the skies, ruled
the race well, and begot children: youths and maidens
arose as heirs to him. The eldest of them he named
Noe, who reigned over the land among men after Lamech               1235
departed.

This sage ruler of the noblemen was 500 years old
when he first began to beget children, as the books tell.
The eldest son of Noe was called Sem, the next Cham,                1240
the third Jafeth.

The people multiplied widely under the skies: the
race of men increased in number over the earth, by                  1245
[the birth of] sons and daughters. Now the descendants
of Seth, that beloved leader of the people, were still
very much cherished, dear to the Lord and prosperous.



XV.


But when the sons of God began to seek brides among
the race of Cain, the accursed folk, and chose wives                1250
from among them against the will of God, the children
of men from among the sinful maidens, beautiful and
bright, then the Ruler of the heavens pronounced his
wrath against mankind and spoke these words:

"The men of Cain's race have not been absent from                   1255
my mind, but that stock has sorely offended me. Now
the sons of Seth renew my wrath and take to themselves
the maidens of my enemies as wives: the fairness of the             1260
women, the maidens' faces, and the eternal Fiend have
shamefully captivated the multitude of men who were
formerly in peace."

After that, for 120 winters, duly numbered, exile
afflicted the accursed race in this world; then the Lord            1265
wished to inflict punishment upon the covenant-breakers,
and to smite with death the doers of evil, the giant folk
unloved by God, the great and sinful foes hateful to the
Lord, when the Wielder of Victory himself saw what                  1270
was man's wickedness on earth, and how they all were
bold in crime and utterly vicious. He thought to
punish rigorously the races of men, to seize upon the               1275
peoples grimly and sorely, with cruel might: he repented
exceedingly that he had ever created the author of the
nations, the source of the peoples, when he fashioned
Adam. He said that on account of the sins of men he
would utterly blot out all that there was on earth,                 1280
destroy every one of the bodies in whose bosom the
breath of life was concealed: all that came near to the
sons of men, the Lord determined to annihilate.

Noe, the son of Lamech, just and honorable, was dear                1285
to God, the Preserver. The Lord knew that the virtue
of the true man prevailed in the innermost thoughts of
his breast; therefore the Lord, holy in helpfulness, Pro-           1290
tector of all men, told him by revelation what he pur-
posed inflicting upon the wicked ones: for he saw the
earth full of unrighteousness, the broad plains laden
with sin, polluted with foulness. Then spoke the Al-                1295
mighty, our Saviour, and said to Noe:

"I am resolved to destroy humanity by means of a
deluge, and also every kind of living thing that the air
and waters produce and support, both beast and bird:
but thou shalt have shelter, with thy sons, when the                1300
dark waters, the black floods of death, destroy mankind,
the vile sinners. Begin to build thee a ship, a mighty
sea-house, in which thou shalt give a place of refuge
to many a one and a safe home to every species on earth,            1305
after thine own. Build partitions in the midst of the
ship. Make the boat fifty cubits wide, thirty high,
three hundred long, and joint it stoutly against the                1310
assault of the waves. There shall be a creature of every
living species, a scion of every race on earth, led within
that wooden fortress; so must the Ark be the greater!"

Noe did as the Lord commanded him, obeyed the                       1315
holy King of Heaven, began at once to build that Ark,
the mighty sea-chest; he told his kinsmen that there
was a horrible thing impending over the people, dire
punishment: but they heeded this not at all. Then,                  1320
after several winters, the Changeless Lord saw that the
vast sea-house, Noe's vessel, towered up in readiness,
strengthened within and without with the best earth-
lime, against the waves; it is unique in its kind: the
harder the fierce waters of the dark billows beat it, the           1325
stouter does it ever become.



XVI.


Then our Preserver spoke to Noe: "I give thee my
pledge for this, O dearest of mankind, that thou mayst
now take up thy course with the creatures of all kinds              1330
which thou shalt bear across the deep water for many
days, in the bosom of thy vessel. Lead on board the
Ark, as I bid thee, thy sons, the three first-born, and
your four wives. And do thou take into the sea-house                1335
seven [members] duly counted of each of the species that
live to [supply] nourishment for men, and two of each
of the others: likewise take on the Ark some of all plants
growing on earth used for food by the people who are                1340
to sail over the floods with thee. Feed freely the differ-
ent species of animals, until I shall prepare a place under
heaven by my Word for those who are saved from this
watery journey. Depart now with thy household into                  1345
the Ark, with the multitude of dependent things; I know
thee for a good and true man: thou art worthy of
safety and mercy, with thy sons. In seven nights now I
shall let the deadly rain fall from above upon the face             1350
of the broad earth. For forty days will I set my ven-
geance against mankind, and with a deluge blot out all
the possessions and possessors that are beyond the sides
of the Ark, when the black storm begins to descend."                1355

Then Noe left him, as our Preserver commanded, in
order to lead his children on board the Ark, men and their
wives together on the great ship; and all that God Al-
mighty wished to preserve for perpetuating their spe-
cies, went on board to their food-giver, as the Almighty            1360
Lord of Hosts bade them through his word. With his
own hands, the Guardian of Heaven, Wielder of Victory,
locked the entrance of the sea-house behind them, and               1365
our Saviour blessed [all] within the Ark with his own
grace. Noe, the son of Lamech, had 600 winters when
he embarked with his sons, at God's command,--that                  1370
wise man, with the young people, his dear kinsfolk.

The Lord sent rain from heaven, and likewise let
the springs from every source rush upon the world far
and wide, [let] the dark ocean-streams burst forth in               1375
tumult: the seas rose up over the boundaries of the
shore. Strong and stern was He who ruled the waters,
for he covered and shrouded with wan waters the accursed
wickedness of the sons of the earth and devastated the              1380
land and homes of men: the Lord wreaked [his fury]
upon men for their offences. The sea cruelly gripped
the wretched folk for forty days, and nights as many
bitter was the suffering then, cruelly fateful to men.
The waves of the King of Glory drove the souls of the               1385
vicious ones forth from their bodies. The flood covered
everything; turbid under the sky [it covered] the high
mountains over the broad earth, and on its crest raised
the Ark aloft from the ground, and its noble crew with it,
[the Ark] which the Lord Himself, our Creator, blessed,             1390
when he locked the ship. Thereafter this best of ships
rode widely under the skies over the circle of the sea,
fared [forth] with its freight: the terrors of the flood            1395
would have seized them with violence in the sea-traver-
sing vessel, but the Holy God led and preserved them.
Fifteen ells deep, by man's measure, stood the deluge
over the hills. That is a memorable occurrence: there               1400
was nothing at hand for [the Ark] but destruction,
except that it was raised aloft into the upper air when
the inundation killed all creatures upon earth other than
those whom the Lord of Heaven saved on board the Ark,
when the Holy God everlasting, the steadfast King, let              1405
[the flood] rise up with ever-increasing[18] stream.



XVII.


Then God, Wielder of Victory, was mindful of those
floating on the deep, the son of Lamech and all his                 1410
family, whom the Source of Light and Life had locked
up against the water in the bosom of the ship. The
Lord of mankind led the heroes by his Word over far
lands. Soon the flood began to abate; the deluge ebbed,
dark under the sky: the true God had turned back again              1405
the foaming waves, for his children; the Glorious One
[had] stilled the cataracts of rain. For 150 nights under
the skies the foamy ship floated, from the time when
the well-nailed sides of this best of boats first arose
upon the flood until this number of days of dire time               1420
had passed. Then the Ark of Noe, greatest of ocean-
homes, settled on high with its burden on the hills which
are called Armenia: there the pious son of Lamech                   1425
awaited the sure promises for a long time, when the
Keeper of Life, the Almighty King, gave him relief from
the perilous chances which he had long undergone,
when the dark waves bore him abroad on the deep over                1430
far countries.

The flood was sinking; the sea-farers, the heroes and
their wives, longed [for the time] when they might
venture to step out of their straitened quarters over the
well-nailed side out on the bank, and take their goods              1435
out of their crowded home. So the guardian of the ship
tried to find out whether the waters were still sinking
under the clouds: accordingly, after many days from the
time the high mountain-sides received the possessions               1440
and persons of the races of earth, the son of Lamech
let a black raven fly out of the Ark over the high flood.
Noe believed that if it found no land in its flight, it             1445
would zealously seek him again on the ship over the wide
water. But this hope failed him; for the evil [bird]
alighted upon a floating corpse: the dark-feathered fowl
would not seek [further]. Then again after a week he sent
from the Ark a purple dove to fly over the high water               1450
after the dark raven, for the purpose of finding out
whether the foamy sea, the ocean, had given up any
portion of the green earth, as yet. Widely she sought               1455
her desired object, and flew afar: nowhere did she find
a resting-place, since she could not settle on land on foot
because of the flood, nor alight on a leaf of a tree
because of the waves; for the steep mountain-sides were             1460
hidden by the waters. The wild bird set out in the
evening to seek the Ark over the dusky flood, and sank
weary and famished in the hands of the pious hero.
Then after a week the wild-dove was again sent out                  1465
from the Ark: she flew far, until greatly rejoicing she
found a fair place for rest and settled with her feet on
a tree; she exulted glad at heart, because exceedingly
weary [as she was] she could sit in the bright branches             1470
of a tree: she shook out her wings and started to fly
back again with her gift, [for she] brought in her flight
an olive twig, green leaves, into the hands of one [on
board]. Then quickly the leader of the voyagers per-                1475
ceived that solace had come, relief from their perilous
experience. So again after a third week the happy
man sent out a wild dove; it did not come flying back
to the ship, for it found land, green groves: the glad              1480
creature did not wish to show itself ever again under the
pitch-smeared roof on the Ark, when there was no need.



XVIII.


Then to Noe spoke our Preserver, Ruler of Heaven,
with holy voice:

"For you is a dwelling-place again appointed, fair                  1485
on the dry land, joys on earth and rest after your voyage.
Depart in peace out of the Ark, and lead forth upon the
bosom of the earth out of this lofty structure your com-
panions and all the creatures which I mercifully preserved          1490
from the peril of the flood, while the deluge held sway
[and] covered your home with its abundance.[19]"

He did so, and obeyed the Lord, stood forth upon the
strand, as the Voice bade him, and with great joy led               1495
out of the ship the survivors of these perils.

Then Noe began to institute a sacrifice to our Preserver,
and immediately took a part of all his possessions which
the Lord had given to him for his comfort, and then,                1500
zealous for the offering, even to God Himself, King of
the Angels, the clear-souled man proffered the sacrifice.
Certainly our Saviour let it be known, when he blessed              1505
Noe and his sons too, that [the patriarch] had given Him
this offering acceptably and in his youth had merited
by his good deeds that Almighty God, Glorious in
Splendor, should be gracious to him with all blessings.             1510
Then again the Lord, Ruler of Glory, spoke a word to
Noe:

"Increase now and multiply, enjoy your honor, with
the gladness of peace: fill the earth, make all things teem.
Into your possession is given a noble heritage, the produce         1515
of the sea, the fowls of heaven, and the wild beasts,--
the verdant earth and every treasure. You shall
never dishonorably procure your food through bloodshed,             1520
sinfully stricken in its life-blood. Each one first of all
injures himself in the riches of the spirit, who with the
edge of the sword takes the life of another: nor shall
he dare to rejoice in thought over the spoils, for I will
avenge a man's death all the more severely upon the                 1525
slayer and upon the fratricide, in proportion as blood-
shed, the slaughter of a man with weapons, or murder by
[violent] hands, seems to succeed. Man was first created
in the likeness of God: every man has the form of the               1530
Lord and of the Angels, whose virtues follow my holy
will. Increase and multiply, enjoy riches and honor on
earth. Fill the countries of the world with people, your
offspring, sons and daughters. I will set up for you this           1535
my pledge, that I will never again let loose the floods
upon the earth, the waters over the broad lands: you
may see this witness frequently upon the clouds, when               1540
I show my rainbow, [as proof] that I will certainly keep
this bond with men, while the world lasts."

Thus was the prudent son of Lamech, the keeper of
the heritage, disembarked from his ship after the flood             1545
with his three sons; and their four wives were named
Percoba, Olla, Olliva, and Ollivani,[20] saved from the
waters by the true God. The stout-minded heroes,                    1550
the sons of Noe, were called Sem and Cham, and the third
Iafeth: from these warriors the nations sprang and all
this earth was filled with the children of men.



XIX.


Then for the second time Noe began to establish his                 1555
home, with his kinsfolk, and to till the earth for food;
he struggled and toiled, planted a vineyard, sowed many
seeds and tended them carefully, so that the green                  1560
earth, with its fertile boon, brought him fair harvests.

Then it befell once that the blessed man was in his
dwelling, drunken with wine; weary of feasting he slept,
and thrust the robe from his body, as was not fitting, and          1565
lay there with naked limbs: little he noticed that it went
so ill with him in his hall, when intoxication in his breast
gripped his heart in the holy house. In this torpor his             1570
intelligence was cruelly crippled, so that he could not
call to mind [the necessity for] covering himself with his
clothing and concealing his nakedness, as was ordained
for men and women, ever since the minister of Glory                 1575
locked the native abode of life behind our [first father]
and mother, with a fiery sword. Now Cam, the son
of Noe, chanced to come in where his father lay bereft
of consciousness: thereupon would he dutifully no honor             1580
show to his own father nor at least conceal the dis-
grace from his kinsmen; but laughing aloud he told
his brothers how the patriarch rested in the house.
They repaired thither speedily, their faces carefully               1585
veiled under cloaks, so that they bore aid to the dear
man: they were both good men, Sem and Iafeth.

Then the son of Lamech awoke from his sleep and
soon perceived that Cham would not show him, the nobly              1590
born, any affection and duty, when honor was due him.
That was bitter to the heart of the holy man, and he
began to curse his son with [harsh] words: he said that
Ham should be humbled under the heavens, the servant                1595
of his kinsfolk on earth: on him and his race those
baneful words have fallen heavily, ever since. Then
Noe enjoyed his broad heritage with his sons, free men,
for 350 winters of this life after the flood: then he passed        1600
away.

After that his sons dispensed the treasures: they
begot children: great was their wealth. Thus to Iafeth
was progeny born, a pleasing family of promising young              1605
ones, sons and daughters. He was a good man [and]
ever prosperously held his patrimony, [sharing his]
abundance with his children, until the treasure of his
breast, his spirit longing for release, was summoned to             1610
the judgment of God: thereupon Geomor, Iafeth's son,
shared his father's property with his friends, dear ones,
and relatives; with his descendants was filled by genera-
tion no small portion of the earth.--

Sons of Cham were born, likewise, heirs for the pa-                 1615
trimony: the eldest were called Chus and Cham, very
noble of soul, the first-born of Cham. Chus was the
chief of the leaders, dispenser of treasure and worldly             1620
riches to his brothers, the private property of his father,
after Cham fared forth from the body when death fell
to his lot. This leader of the people delivered judgments           1625
for his race until the number of his days had run: then
the hero yielded up this world's goods and sought another
life. After that, the son of Chus, first-born of the
brothers, ruled the paternal[21] heritage, a widely known           1630
man. So the Scriptures tell us, that he had the greatest
might and strength of all mankind, in those days: he
was a prince of the Babylonian Empire, and first of the
nobles raised, spread, and exalted its fame. At that                1635
time one tongue was still common to all dwellers on
earth.



XX.


Likewise from Cam's stock sprang many descendants,
and to these numerous people great families were born.--

Furthermore many sons and daughters were born into                  1640
the world to Sem, noble folk, before the ruler of men
took to his death-bed, in the course of years. In this
family were good men, of whom one was called Eber, a                1645
son of Sem: from this chief sprang a multitude of people,
whom all nations and earth-dwellers now call Hebrews.

They set out then to take their posssesions from the
eastward, live-stock and treasure; the people were un-              1650
animous: the vigorous heroes sought a less crowded land,
until the migrating folk in great multitudes came where
their noble leaders firmly took possession. The rulers              1655
of the people settled with their dear followers in Sennar,
ample and broad; in the years of their life the fields
were ever verdant and the earth fair for the people at
that time, with increasing abundance of each [kind of]      1661
treasure.

Then many a man argued with his dear friend, one
resolute hero with another, that for their greater glory,
before the masses of the people should scatter again over           1665
the earth, numbers of the nation in search of land, they
should build a city and raise up a tower to the stars of
heaven as a sign that they had sought Sennar fields because
the mighty fore-fathers of the race, the patriarchs, long           1670
lived there with pleasure: with craft the people wrought,
in labor and industry, until in arrogance and rashness they
showed their skill, built a fortress and raised aloft scaling-      1675
ladders towards heaven, mightily erected a solid stone wall
beyond man's measure, eager for glory:--[all this did] the
heroes with their hands. Then Holy God came to inspect
the work of the race of men, the fortress of the warriors,          1680
and that beacon-tower likewise which the sons of Adam
began to rear up to the skies; and the steadfast King
achieved the prevention of this evil design, when in
wrath he distributed different languages among the                  1685
inhabitants of earth, so that they no longer had control
of their speech. They found then multitudes at the
tower with victorious strength, leaders of work in vast
battalions: but not one of the tribes understood what               1690
another was saying. It could not be, that they should
build up the stone wall further; but they wretchedly
parted in bands separated by their speech: one had
become to another a strange race, after the Lord by the             1695
fullness of his might had confused the speech of men.
The disunited sons of the patriarchs then parted in
four directions to seek land: behind them, both the                 1700
mighty tower of stone and the lofty city stood on Sennar
[plain] together, half-finished.

Then the race of Sem increased and multiplied under
the clouds, until a man arose in the number of that
kingly people, a sagacious man, prudent in habit. To                1705
this nobleman sons were born, two free children were
born in Babylon, and these chieftains, strong-minded
heroes, were called Abraham and Aaron. The Sovereign                1710
of the Angels was friend and guide to both these leaders.
Then to Aaron was born a son, upright in life, whose
name was Loth. Thereafter the righteous heroes,
Abraham and Loth, throve nobly in the Lord's sight, as              1715
the inheritance in the kingdom came to them from their
parents; therefore they widely glorified the sons of men
with gifts.



XXI.


Now the period of time had come when Abraham                        1720
brought a wife, a fair and free-born bride to his house,
where he possessed a dwelling: the woman was named
Sarra, as the books tell us. They enjoyed life thus for
many winters, held the property together in peace for               1725
many years. But it was not vouchsafed to Abraham
as yet that his bright-faced bride should bring into the
world a guardian for his heritage, that Sarra [should
bear] sons and daughters to Abraham.

Then Abraham's father set out with his family and                   1730
[all] his substance to pass through the Caldean country:
he wisely wished to seek the land of Canan, with his
household. The cousins chosen by the Lord, Abraham
and Loth, went with him out of their heritage. Then                 1735
the nobly-born sons of the patriarchs took up their
dwelling in Carran, the men with their wives. In his
home here Abraham's father departed this life, the                  1740
steadfast worthy: he had told 205 winters, in all, when
he fared forth ripe in years to meet his fate.

Then the holy Guardian of the heavenly kingdom, the                 1745
Eternal Lord, spoke to Abraham:

"Set forth now, and take thy movable possessions and
fertile herds with thee. Give up Carran, thy father's
dwelling-place. Depart, as I bid thee, O dearest of
men, and heed well my instructions, and seek the land               1750
which I shall show thee, a broad verdant country. Thou
shalt live blessed under my protection: if any of the
dwellers on earth greet thee with evil, I will set upon             1755
them my curse and my hatred, long-lasting affliction;
and I shall give favors, abundance of blessings, to those
who treat thee well. Through thee shall all earth-
dwellers, sons of man, receive peace and friendship,                1760
my grace and blessing, in this world. Far spreading
under the sun shall be the number of thy race by [the
birth of] sons and daughters, until many a region of the            1765
earth shall be filled with thy progeny."

Then Abraham, preëminently upright, rich, and blessed
with gold and silver, set out to take his flocks and
possessions from Carran into the country of Egipt, as               1770
the Warder of Victory, our Ruler, bade him through his
Word: they sought the land and nation of Canan. Thus
the man dear to God came to lead his wife, his dear bed-            1775
fellow, and his nephew's wife, into this inheritance, into
happiness. He had [numbered] 75 winters when he
had to fare forth, to give up Carran and his kinsfolk.
So Abraham set out, mindful of the instructions of the              1780
Father Almighty, to look for the broad land beyond
these nations, at his Lord's command, until prospering
in his journey the courageous man came to Siem, of the
Cananite race. Then the Lord and King of the Angels,
Sovereign of men, manifested himself to Abraham and                 1785
said:

"This is the country, verdant and bright and adorned
with fruits, that I intend to give into the power of thy
descendants, an ample kingdom!"                                     1790

Then the good man built an altar and offered sacrifice
to the Ruler of Life and Source of Light, the Protector
of souls. Thereupon Abraham traveled still further from
the east in order to search with his eyes for the choicest          1795
of lands (he remembered the favors, God's promises,
which the King of Victory Himself truthfully declared
to him through his holy word), until the people came with
their possessions to the place where the town is called
Bethlem: the glad-hearted chieftain and his brother's               1800
son, pious men, went forward over the storied land from
the east, with their possessions, over the precipitous
mountain-sides, and chose a dwelling-place for them-
selves where the fields seemed bright and fair to them.             1805



XXII.


There Abraham for the second time built an altar:
there he called upon God with noble words, and offered
sacrifice to the Lord of his life. Not at all sparingly
did God, through His own hand, give him reward for
this,--rich bounty, in the very place of sacrifice.                 1810

There for a while the wise leader dwelt in his home
and enjoyed happiness, the hero with his bride, until a
frightful calamity began to press upon the Cananite
race, cruel hunger, deadly to home-staying men. Then                1815
the wise Abraham, chosen by the Lord, went into Egypt
to seek sustenance; the sage fled before evil: the plague
was too strong. Abraham spoke,--for he saw the white                1820
pinnacled halls of Egypt and the tall cities shining
brightly,--and then the ruler, the sagacious man, began
to instruct his wife, in these words:

"When many haughty Egyptians shall gaze with
their eyes upon thy countenance, then should the nobly-             1825
born chieftains suppose, O woman fair as a goddess, that
thou art my bright bed-fellow whom some one of the
warriors will wish to have for himself, then I may well
fear for myself lest some one of my foes may deprive                1830
me of life with the edge of his sword by reason of his
amorous desire. Say then, Sarra, that thou art my
sister, my blood-relation, when the strange men ask
thee what degree of familiarity may exist between us                1835
two foreigners, who come from so far away: hold fast
true speech from them, and thus thou shalt preserve
my life,--if the Lord of Peace, our Almighty Ruler,
grant me longer life in this world, as he did before, who           1840
ordained these travels for us in order that we might seek
aid and secure sustenance for ourselves in Egipt."

Thereupon Abraham, the vigorous leader, proceeded                   1845
with his possessions into Egypt, where the people were
strange to him, and friends unknown. Many haughty
men spoke of the beauty of his wife in their remarks,
men distinguished by their wealth: to many high-spirited            1850
men, vassals of the king, his wife seemed noble in counte-
nance. They brought the news to their liege-lord, and[22]
few women did they repute fairer before the king, but
they lauded exceedingly Sarra's countenance for its                 1855
great beauty, until he bade them bring the lovely woman
to his own hall. The ruler of the people and chief of
the nobles bade them enrich Abraham with treasures.
But the Lord God became aggrieved and incensed against              1860
Farao for his love of the woman: the joy of his house-
hold[23] bore this wrath hardly with his intimates. How-
ever, the ruler of the people perceived what the Lord
was sending upon him for punishment: urged on by                    1865
fear, the king of Egipt called Abraham to him and gave
him his bride, [returned] his wife into his keeping, bade
him seek friends elsewhere, noblemen of another race.
Then the ruler of the country ordered his vassals and               1870
ministers to escort him out of their land again, honor-
ably, uninjured in any respect, so that he might be in
peace.

Then Abraham took [all his] possessions out of the
country of Egypt: these worthy heroes took their wives,             1875
both brides and rings, while they brought their flocks
to Bethlem, a familiar dwelling-place, [brought] their
womenfolk and treasures and their worldly goods.                    1880
Then they began to build there, and to erect their city
and settle their homes, and renew their prosperity.
The men built an altar in the meadows near the one that
Abraham had formerly reared to his Lord, when he
came to this western land: there the fortunate man                  1885
exalted the Name of the Eternal Lord once more; the
high-minded ruler offered sacrifice to the King of the
Angels, thanked exceedingly the Source of Light and
Life for his happiness and honor.



XXIII.


Abraham and Loth lived in these dwellings and had                   1890
abundance of prosperity, ruled over their heritage, until
they could not enjoy plenty together any longer in that
land and keep the possessions of both there, but the
worthy warriors had to seek broader seats elsewhere.                1895
There were often dissensions among the followers of the
steadfast heroes, quarrels among the herdsmen. Then
the blessed Abraham, mindful of their honor, began to
speak fairly to Loth:                                               1900

"I am thy father's born brother, thou art my nephew;
quarrels shall not wax great between us, nor anger
grow: may God forbid that! But we are blood-re-
lations: between us shall nothing be except, most fit-              1905
tingly, long-enduring love. Now bethink thee, Loth,
that about our borders dwell mighty men, powerful
peoples with lords and vassals, the Cananite and Feretite
nations, with energetic warriors: their landed property             1910
will not make any more room for us. Therefore shall
we remove our differences from this place and seek
broader dwelling-places for ourselves: I speak what is
best for us both, son of Aron, a true saying. I leave               1915
the choice to thee, dear friend. Ponder with thyself
and consider in thy heart in which direction thou wilt
take thy departure, go forth with thy herds: now I have
yielded thee the choice!"

Then Loth left him to seek land by the Iordan, fertile              1920
country: it was refreshed with waters and enriched with
fruits, bright with rivers, and like to the earthly par-
adise of God, until God the Saviour because of men's                1925
sins gave Sodoma and Gomorra to destruction, to the
dark flames. So the son of Aron chose his dwelling-
place there, a settlement in the city of Sodoma, and
brought[24] thither all his possessions, rings and private          1930
property from Bethlem, goods, and wrought gold. For
many years thereafter he dwelt by the Iordan: fair
dwelling-places were there, but vicious men also, hateful
to the Lord. The people of Sodoma were bold in sin,                 1935
shameful in their deeds: they brought upon themselves
eternal woe. Loth would never adopt the customs of
the country, but he always eschewed the habits of this
people, [their] evil and sin, even though he had to live            1940
in their land, and kept himself pure, virtuous, and pa-
tient, even in this nation, just as if--mindful of [his
Lord's] teaching--he did not know what these people
were doing.

Abraham dwelt by the habitations of the Cananites:                  1945
the King of the Angels, Lord of mankind, held him under
his protection, with abundance of good things and
worldly treasures, love and joy; therefore the races of             1950
men, children of baptism, sing his praise widely under
the clouds. Pious and prudent, he freely obeyed the
Lord in his land as long as he enjoyed the heritage:
never need a defenceless human being ever become in
any way a terrified and fearful man before the Lord,                1955
if he will always, until his departure from life, thank
Him heedfully in speech and in heart, by word and deed,
with wise mind after every favor.[25]



XXIV.


Then I found that the king of the Elamites, Orlahomar,              1960
a pious leader, made an expedition: in aid of him Am-
brafel set forth from Sennar with a great multitude.
Four kings then set out with mighty power to seek                   1965
Sodoma and Gomorra, southward from there. Then was
the country of the men by Iordan widely besieged by
warriors, the land [was surrounded] by foes. Many
a terrified pale-cheeked maiden would have to go trem-              1970
bling to the embrace of a stranger: the defenders of
the brides and rings would fall, weak with wounds.
Against them with warlike zeal five kings came forth                1975
from the south, with their armies, who wished to rid
the city of Sodoma of its foes: for twelve winters before
of necessity they had had to yield tribute and pay
indemnity to the men of the north, until the people
no longer would enrich the king of the Elamites with                1980
their own treasures, but revolted from him.

In rage the slaughter-hordes came together: the jav-
elins were loud; the dark fowl sang among the flying
weapons, the dewy-feathered [raven] looked for the slain.           1985
The warriors rushed on in cohorts with unfaltering cour-
age, until the nations' armies had come together widely,
from south and north, protected by their helmets. There
was bitter struggle, exchanges of deadly spears, great              1990
tumult of war, loud din of conflict. The heroes drew
from the sheath with their hands the ring-mailed sword,
keen of edge. Then was booty easy to find for the
chieftain who before this was not readily sated with                1995
battle! The northern men were fatal to the southern
men: the men of Sodoma and Gomorra, dispensers of
gold, were bereft of their dear allies at the shield-clash-
ing. They went forth from their homesteads to save                  2000
themselves by flight; behind them the youths of the race
fell, slain by the sword, [and] their allies [were] cleft with
the edge. The leader of the army of the Elamites had                2005
victory in battle, was master of the battlefield. The
survivors of the weapons fled to seek fastnesses. The
enemy seized upon gold, robbed with devastation the
treasure-cities of the people, Sodoma and Gomorra. Then
misery requited the great strongholds; the maidens,                 2010
wives, and widows, deprived of friends, departed from
their homesteads. The enemy led out with them from
the city of Sodoma, with their spoils, the kinsman of
Abraham.

We may now relate this true history further, as to
what was the fate of the war-wolves after the battle,               2015
who carried off Loth and the goods of the people, the
treasures of the southlanders, [and] exulted in victory.

A warrior, a survivor of the sword who was spared
in battle, escaped from them suddenly, to seek Abraham:             2020
he reported to the Ebrew chieftain the outcome of the
fray,--the people of Sodoma sorely stricken, the nation's
wealth, and Loth's situation. Thereupon Abraham re-
ported the evil tidings to his friends; the steadfast hero          2025
requested aid of his favorite companions, Aner, Mamre,
and thirdly Escol, saying that it would be gall to his
heart and bitterest grief if his nephew should have to              2030
suffer slavery: bade the warriors famed in battle think of
some plan so that his dear kinsman might be freed, the
hero with his bride. In reply the three brothers, famed
in war, with great readiness assuaged his grief by their            2035
hardy words, and pledged their troth to Abraham that
they would avenge his injury upon his foes, with him,
or else fall in battle.

Then the holy man bade his companions take their                    2040
weapons: he found there 318 spear-bearing warriors,
loyal to their ruler, of whom he knew that every one
could well support the tawny linden-shield in an onset.             2045
So Abraham set out with the three chieftains who had
just pledged their troth to him, and the band of their
followers. He wished to rescue his kinsman at least,
Loth, from suffering.[26] These warriors were famous:
they bore their shields forth boldly on the march. The              2050
war-wolves, [meanwhile], had nearly reached their
camping-place: then the prudent man, the son of Thare,
spoke to his war-leaders in these words, (great was his
need!), that they[27] should advance on the enemy in two            2055
divisions with grim conflict and hard swordplay: said,
[further], that the Holy Lord Everlasting might easily
give him success in the spear-fight.

Then I heard how under the cover of night the heroes                2060
ventured on into battle: the din of shields and shafts
arose in their sleeping-quarters, the slaughter of archers
and impact of battle-arrows; sharp swords smote hate-
fully under the breast of men, and the bodies of foes               2065
fell thickly, where the exulting heroes and comrades
were bringing together the spoil. Victory, men's glory
in war, turned aside again from the battle of the north-
men. Abraham gave armed conflict and not in any                     2070
wise wrought gold, as ransom for his nephew; he slew
and felled the enemy in fair fight: to aid him, the Guard-
ian of the heavenly kingdom took [a part in the fray].
The four armies were put to flight, [with] the kings and
leaders of the people: behind them pressed the joyful               2075
band and [there] the heroes were slain; the others were
given over to flight,--those who had stolen the gold of
Sodom and Gomorra, and robbed the stewards: fiercely did            2080
the uncle of Loth requite them for it. The noble leaders
of the Elamites were fleeing, bereft of power, until they
were not far from Domascus. Then Abraham set out on                 2085
the war-track to see the retreat of the wicked men. Lot
was freed, the chieftain with his possessions, [while] the
women [and] wives were restored to joy. Far and wide
they saw the birds of prey rending the murderers of free-
men in sword-slaughter. Abraham brought back again                  2090
the treasure and brides of the southlanders, the children
of the nobles nearer their homes, the maidens to their
families. Of all men living here [on earth], no one ever
achieved a more worthy military expedition with a                   2095
small force which was attacking so great a multitude.



XXV.


Then the people of Sodoma was southward from
there, to bear the news as to what rout of their fierce
foes had occurred. Forthwith the king of the people,
bereft of his nobles and stripped of friends, went out to
meet Abraham; he brought with him the master of the                 2100
treasure of Solomia: that was the great Melchisedec,
bishop of the people. He came with gifts to greet fairly
the prince of the warriors, [to approach] Abraham honor-            2105
ably, and he pronounced upon him the blessing of God
and spoke thus:

"Highly wert thou exalted among the number of heroes
before the eyes of Him who gave thee the glory of the ash-
spear in battle: that is God himself, who mightily de-
stroyed the forces of the hostile armies and let thee with          2110
thy weapons hew out bloody paths broadly [through the
foe], regain the booty, and fell the warriors. They were
encamped by the way: nor could the withdrawing army
prevail in hand-to-hand conflict, but God put it to flight,         2115
who with His own hands preserved thee with thy warriors
in the fight, against the terror of superior numbers, and
[so likewise] the sacred pledge [preserved thee] which thou
rightfully holdest with the Keeper of the skies."

With his own hand the hero gave him a return for this               2120
blessing, and Abraham bestowed upon the bishop of God
the value of every tenth part of the army's booty. Then
spoke the war-king, ruler of Sodoma, bereft of his people,
to Abraham, (to him mercy was needful):                             2125

"Give me back the maidens of my people, whom thou
by the might of thy army hast snatched from the deadly
bonds of the foe. Keep thou the wrought gold which
formerly was the property of our people, [keep] the                 2130
herds and the treasure. Only let me lead back again
in freedom, to their hearths and desolated homes, the
children of the people, the wives and boys and wretched
widows. The young men, my companions, who should have               2135
held the borders with me, are dead, [all] but a very few."

Then Abraham answered him straightway, in the pres-
ence of the chieftains exalted in valor, power, and vic-
tory, and nobly said:

"Ruler of the people, I pledge to thee this my word,                2140
before the Holy One who is sole Master of heaven and
this earth: there is no worldly treasure that I will take
for my own, neither riches nor money of thine which I
have rescued from the [hostile] bowmen, O great king,
protector of thy nobles, lest thou oft hereafter say that           2145
I became rich on earth through the treasure and former
wealth of the kingdom of Sodom;[28] but thou shalt
take hence the booty which I regained for thee in battle,           2150
all except the shares of these noble warriors, Aner, and
Mamre, and Escol. I am unwilling to deprive these
warriors of their rights: for they stood by me in the
combat, and fought in your behalf. Go now and take
home the wrought gold and the beloved maidens, the                  2155
womenfolk of thy people. Thou needst not fear for
a while the attack of the hostile warriors, the battle
of the northmen, for the birds of prey sit all smeared
with blood, among the fastnesses of the mountains, well             2160
gorged with the slaughter of the armies."

So the king set out on his return home with the spoils
which the pious lord of the Hebrews, regardful of honor,
gave up to him.

Then again to Abraham the High-King of Heaven                       2165
showed himself, with holy speech comforted the wise-
hearted man, and spoke to him thus:

"Great are thy rewards. Let not now thy heart
grow idle, thou steadfast [doer] of my will. Nor needst
thou fear anyone, while thou heedest my commandment,
for with my own hands will I shelter and shield thee                2170
during thy life-time here against every woe: thou
needst not be fearful."



XXVI.


Then Abraham, famed for his deeds, answered his
Lord and asked Him, in the fullness of his days:

"O Ruler of spirits, what dost thou give me for free-               2175
men's solace, now that I am thus solitary? I have no
need to found an ancestral seat for any sons of mine, but
after me shall my distant kinsmen dispose of my goods;
thou hast not given me a son, and therefore sorrows
weigh upon me very heavily in my heart; I myself can                2180
not devise any counsel. My steward goes rejoicing in
his sons, and is firmly persuaded in his thoughts that
after me his sons shall be the keepers of the heritage:
they see that no children are born to me of my bride."

To him then at once God answered:                                   2185

"Never shall thy steward possess the heritage of thy
sons: but thine own children shall hold the treasure,
when thy flesh lies [in the grave]. Behold the sky. Count
those jewels, the stars of heaven, which now freely scatter         2190
their glorious radiance far and wide to shine brilliantly
over the broad surface of the sea. Such shall be the
multitude of thy descendants, rich in progeny. Let not
thy heart be bound by sorrow. A son shall yet be born               2195
to thee, a child born of thy wife by ordinary birth, who
after thee shall be the keeper of the inheritance, rich in
property. Grieve no more: I am the Lord, who many
winters ago led thee out of the stronghold of Caldea                2200
with but few followers, and promised thee a broad
dwelling-place for thy possession: I give thee now my
pledge, man of the Hebrews, that many a broad land
on this earth shall be peopled with thy progeny, regions            2205
of the world as far as Eufrates even from the borders
of Egypt, as many men and as wide a kingdom as the
Nile cuts off and the sea bounds: all this shall thy sons           2210
own, each of the countries, as these three waters sur-
round with their streams the lofty cities of stone, the
foamy floods [surround] the refuge of the people."

Then Sarra was grieved at heart that no son had come                2215
to Abraham through their wedlock, a free-born heir for
their solace; so the sorrowful one began to speak to her
husband in these words:

"The Ruler of heaven has denied me this, that I                     2220
might augment the number of thy family under the
skies with sons of thine own. Now I am hopeless that
an heir will ever be given us together: I am too old, in
my misery. My lord, do as I bid thee. Here is a                     2225
woman, a fair damsel, an Egiptian maid in our possession:
bid her now repair to thy bed forthwith, and see if
the Lord will allow any heir for thy goods to come into             2230
the world through this woman!"

Then the holy man yielded to the advice of his wife,
and bade the handmaiden go to his couch as a bride.[29]             2235
Her spirit exalted itself, when she had become pregnant
with a man-child by Abraham; stiff-necked in scorn she
began to despise her mistress, showed insolence, was
overweening, and was unwilling to endure servitude but              2240
boldly began to resist Sarra strongly.

Then I heard how the wife spoke to her husband in the
sorrow of her heart, with these words; sad in mind she
spoke, and said bitterly:

"Thou dost not deal properly and rightfully with me.                2245
Thou hast hitherto allowed it to happen that my hand-
maiden afflict me every day by deed and word, ever
since Agar entered thy bed in place of thy wife, as was
my entreaty: she shall pay for this mercilessly, if I               2250
may still control mine own before thee, dear Abraham;
of this may the Almighty Lord of Lords be judge
between us two!"

The wise-minded man then answered her at once in                    2255
these words:

"Never shall I leave thee without honor, while we
both live; but thou must manage thine own maid as
pleases thy heart!"



XXVII.


Then Abraham's queen became unkind, wrathful in                     2260
heart towards her serving-maid, hard and cruel, spoke
bitter insults to the woman. Thereupon the latter fled
from threat and thraldom: she would not endure evil
and retribution for what she had formerly done to Sarra,            2265
but went forth on a journey to go into the wilderness.
There a servant of glory, an angel of the Lord, found her
sorrowing; he eagerly asked her:

"Whither do you intend to push your journey, my                     2270
poor woman? Sarre owns thy service!"

She answered him at once:

"Deprived of every pleasure, jeered out of the house
by the hatred of my mistress, I have fled from woes,
afflictions, and injuries. Now with tear-stained cheek
must I await my fate[30] in the wilderness, [the time]              2275
when hunger or a wolf removes life and sorrow together
from my heart."

Then the angel answered her:

"Seek not thou in flight far hence to avoid thy con-                2280
cubinage, but return again, earn honor for thyself, begin
submissively to cultivate dutifulness, become dear to
thy master. Thou shalt, Agar, bring a son into the world
to Abraham: with my word I tell thee now that this                  2285
man-child shall be called Ismahel, among men. He
shall be rough, warlike, hostile to the races of men and
to his own kinsfolk: many a one shall struggle against              2290
him in wrath, with assault of arms. From this prince
nations shall spring, numberless peoples. Depart now
to seek thy master again: live with those who own thee!"

In accordance with the angel's command, she at once
returned to her lord, as the holy spirit-messenger of God           2295
bade her, in sapient speech. Thus was Ismael born to
Abraham, even when he had [lived] 86 winters in the
world. The son grew and flourished, as the angel, the               2300
true minister of peace, had promised to the woman by
his own word.

About thirteen years after that, the Lord and Ever-
lasting King spoke with Abraham:

"Dear man, as I command thee, so do thou keep well
our covenant: I will to all time exalt thee in blessings.           2305
Be thou zealously observant of my will in thy deeds:
I will still further confirm with truth the pledge which
I gave to thee as earnest of comfort, when thy spirit
grieved. Thou shalt hallow thy household: set a true                2310
sign of victory on each one of the male sex, if thou wilt
have in me a Master or dear Friend of thy race. I shall
[always] be keeper and sustainer of this people, if thou            2315
dost obey me in thy innermost thoughts and art willing
to fulfil my commands. In his infancy shall every
individual of the male sex in this race, about seven nights
after he comes into the world, be marked for me with                2320
the sign of victory, or from the face of the earth be
driven far through my hostility, thrust out from his
possessions. Do as I bid: I will be true to you all, if
ye bear that sign with true faith. Thou shalt possess               2325
a son, a child by thy wife, whom men shall all call Isaac.
Nor needst thou be ashamed of this son: but I will give
to this man-child my divine gifts, by the might of the
spirit, abundance of friends, with prosperity. He shall             2330
receive my grace and blessing, love and favor. From
this prince shall come broad nations, shall arise many
famous warriors, keepers of kingdoms, world-kings widely            2335
renowned."



XXVIII.


Then Abraham in haste laid his cheek on the earth,
and with scorn turned over these words in his mind, the
thoughts of his heart: at that period of time he himself            2340
did not believe that Sarra, his grey-haired bride, could
bring a son into the world to him; he knew well that his
wife had already numbered at least one hundred winters,
by actual reckoning. So then, wise in years, he spoke               2345
thus to the Lord:

"May Ismael live according to Thy commandments,
Lord, and give thee thanks with wise and steady mind
and stout heart, doing Thy will day and night in word               2350
and deed!"

Then the Almighty King and Everlasting Lord an-
swered him fairly:

"Though much worn in years, Sarra shall bring a son
into the world to thee; the future shall truly proceed in           2355
accordance with these words here pronounced. I will now
bless with my grace Ismael, as thou art petitioner, for
thy first born, so that he may dwell many days in the
kingdom of this world with spreading progeny; be thou               2360
sure of that! But Isaac thy son, the young child who
has not yet come into the world, I will distinguish ex-
ceedingly with abundance of joys and every kind of
riches, in his days, and certainly leave in his heart my            2365
pledge and holy faith, and be kind to him."

Abraham did as the Eternal bade him, set the sign
of peace on his son, by the Lord's command, and bade                2370
every one of his household of the male sex bear that
high sign,--wise in heart, and mindful of the pledge
which God had given him as assurance of good faith,--
and then himself received the exalted sign. The Lord                2375
and Just King continually advanced his glory in the
kingdom of this world, with blessings: He wrought this
for him as soon as he might first perform the will of his
Master in [every] expedition....[31]

Then the woman laughed at the Lord of Mankind not                   2380
at all mirthfully, but full of years she laid away this
promise in her mind with much scorn: she did not
believe it true that the fulfilment of this promise was to
follow. But when the Ruler of Heaven heard that the                 2385
wife of Abraham had given way to hopeless laughter,
in her bower, then the Holy God said:

"Sarra will not believe in the truth of my word:
nevertheless this decree shall be fulfilled, as I promised          2390
thee at first. I tell thee truth, at this very season a son
shall be born of thy wife: when I return to this same
dwelling another time, then shall my promise of increase
be fulfilled: thou shalt look upon a son, thine own child,          2395
dear Abraham!"



XXIX.


Then at once, after this speech, they departed with
speed, eager to be gone; from the place of the confer-
ence, the holy spirits made their way (the power[32] of             2400
light itself was in their midst!) until they could look
upon Sodom, the lofty city: they saw palaces tower up
above treasures, halls above red gold. Then the right-
eous Ruler of the skies began to speak with Abraham,                2405
gave him no little information.

"In this city I hear tumult, the din of sinners ex-
ceedingly loud, the vain-glory of those drunk with ale;
evil speech have the people, behind their walls: for the            2410
sins of the race, of the treacherous apostates, are heavy.
I will now find out what the men are doing, O man of
the Hebrews, [to see] whether they [actually] commit
sins so grossly in their habits and thoughts as they
perversely speak of crimes and vices: sulphur and black             2415
flame, sorely and grimly, hotly and vehemently, shall
avenge this on the heathenish people."



XXX.


The men with their wives were approaching their
punishment, sufferings within their walls: arrogant in
riches, they requited the Lord for their prosperity with            2420
insult, until the Protector of spirits, the Source of Light
and Life, would tolerate their offence no longer: but to
them the steadfast King sent two strong messengers
of his, who arrived at eventide at the fortress of Sodoma,          2425
in their traveling. At the city-gate they found the
warrior, the son of Aron, sitting by himself, so that they
appeared before the eyes of the wise man as young men.
Then the servant of the Lord arose before the spirits,              2430
went forward to greet the strangers civilly, thought their
demeanor very proper and agreeable, and invited the
men to be his guests for the night. The noble messengers
of our Preserver answered him thus:

"For the courtesy which you have extended to us,                    2435
accept our thanks. In this street we expect quietly
to wait for the time when the Lord shall let the sun
[go] forth again for the morning."

Then humbly Loth[33] bowed at the feet of the strangers             2440
and eagerly offered them the repose and refreshments
and shelter and service of his dwelling. They accepted
thankfully the benevolence of the good man, and followed
him forthwith inside his walls, as the Hebrew chieftain
invited them. There in his hall the generous wise-                  2445
souled man gave them fair hospitality, until twilight
departed: then came night, after the close of day, and
veiled with darkness the lake-streams, seas, and broad              2450
land, and [all] the pomp of this life. Then the men of
Sodoma came, young and old, hateful to God, to demand
the strangers, with a great throng so that they surrounded          2455
Loth and his guests by the multitude of their force;
they bade [him] lead out of the lofty hall the holy mess-
engers [and put] the men in their power; they said
openly in words that they would have intercourse with
the men shamefully, and had no regard for decency. Then             2460
Loth, who often knew what was best, quickly arose in his
house, and went out at once; and the son of Aron, mindful
of his cunning, spoke thus over all the mass of people:

"Here are within two spotless [maidens], my daughters:              2465
neither of these damsels knows intercourse as yet through
sleeping with a man: do then as I bid you, and cease
from this sin. I give them both to you, before you
commit this vileness against nature, heinous evil against           2470
the sons of men. Receive these maidens and let my
guests go free, since I will defend them against you as
well as I can, before God!"

Thereupon the crowd, the shameless race, answered                   2475
him through common consent:

"It seems very right and fitting that thou shouldst
depart out of this neighborhood, thou who bereft of
friends and with the step of an exile soughtest this people
from afar, in thy need: wilt thou, if thou mayst, be our            2480
ruler here, the teacher of the people?"

Then I heard of Loth how the heathen masses gripped
him with their hands, with hostile grasp: his guests
aided him well and the righteous strangers drew him                 2485
out of the clutches of the enemy back within the walls,
and then speedily closed fast the eyesight of every one
of the people of Sodoma standing around: the whole                  2490
crowd of citizens forthwith became blind; nor could
they, in their evil rage, break into the house after the
guests, as they intended, but the messengers of God
were [too] active for them; the stranger had power, irre-           2495
sistible vigor, and was very severe upon the people in
[inflicting] punishment. Then the dear ministers of
peace spoke fairly to Loth, in these words:

"If thou hast a son, or dear relative, or any friend
among these people besides these maidens whom we see                2500
here, lead out of this city those who are dear to thee, with
great haste, and save thine own life, lest thou perish
with these law-breakers. For the Lord has commanded
us, because of the people's sins, to give over Sodoma and           2505
Gomorra to black flame and fire, and to slay these people,
[striking] the race in their cities with deadly horrors,
and so wreak His wrath [upon them]. It has nearly
reached the appointed time. Set out on thy way, to
save thy life: the Lord is merciful to thee...."[34]                2510

Loth then hastily answered them:

"I cannot, with these womenfolk, seek my safety
so far from here in a journey on foot. You manifest
to me kindness and fair friendship, you grant me grace              2515
and good-will. I know a lofty town near here, a little
fortress: leave me there, in honor and peace, so that we
may seek safety above, in Sigor. If you will protect that           2520
lofty fastness from the fire, we can abide in that place
unharmed, in safety, and so preserve our lives."

Then the righteous angels answered him benevol-                     2525
ently:

"Thou shalt be successful in this petition, now thou
speakest about that city: withdraw immediately to that
fastness. We shall keep thee in peace and safety. We
must not wreak the wrath of God upon these law-                     2530
breakers and destroy the sinful race, before thou hast
led thy children and wife likewise into Sægor."

Then the kinsman of Abraham set out for the fastness:
the chieftain did not spare the pace for his womenfolk,             2535
but he pushed his steps most hastily until he had brought
his wife and children to the citadel of Sægor. When the
sun rose, [when] the peaceful luminary of the nations
went forth, then, I have heard, the Master of Glory sent            2540
sulphur out of heaven, and swart flame for the punish-
ment of men, swelling fire, since they had offended the
Lord for a long period in former days: thus the Ruler of
spirits gave them retribution. Utmost terror seized upon            2545
the heathen race: tumult arose in the city, the outcry
of the accursed race over shameful death, just beginning.
The flame seized upon all that it found green, in the rich
city, just as around outside no small portion of the broad          2550
earth was filled with conflagration and terror: trees
and earth's harvests turned to ashes and embers, even
as far as the avenging curse direly extended over the               2555
broad country of the people. The devastating fire
rushing on in tumult devoured all things together, far
and wide, that men had owned in the cities of Sodoma
and Gomorra: all this, together with the people, God                2560
the Lord destroyed.

When Loth's wife, his bride in the city, heard the din
of fire, the death of the people, then she looked back-
ward [to see] this devastation. The Scriptures tell us
that she immediately turned into the likeness of a pillar
of salt: ever since then this statue has stood there                2565
motion less (this is a strange story), where she incurred
this severe penalty because she would not obey the
ministers of glory in their commands: now, stiff and
erect, she will have to await her doom in that place, at            2570
the Lord's Judgment Day, when the world has com-
pleted its [allotted] number of years. This is one of
the miracles which the King of Glory has wrought.



XXXI.


Then Abraham went forth alone, at dawn, so that he                  2575
again stood in the place where the pious leader had
formerly spoken with his Lord in words. He saw the
reek of death and destruction ascending widely from
the earth. Riches and feasting preoccupied [the people]
to such an extent that they had become bold in wicked               2580
deeds, eager for sin: they forgot the Truth and God's
commandments, and who had given them prosperity
and wealth in their cities; therefore the King of the
Angels sent his fervid fire to punish them. Our faithful            2585
Lord then remembered Abraham mercifully, the dear
man, as he often had done, and saved his kinsman, Loth,
when the multitude perished. The [latter] hero, famed
for his deeds, did not dare to tarry longer in the strong-          2590
hold for fear of the Lord, but Loth departed from the
city with his children to seek a dwelling-place far from
the place of slaughter, until they found a cave in the
side of a high dune: there the pious Loth, dear to his              2595
Lord, dwelt in righteousness for a great number of days,
with his two daughters....[35]

They did thus with the drunken man: ... the elder
of the two went first to her father's bed. Nor did the              2600
venerable man know when the two maidens ... were
with him in the manner of a bride, fast bound [as he
was] in heart, mind, and memory, drunken with wine,                 2605
so that he could not escape the enterprise of the maidens.
The young women became pregnant, and the devoted
sisters brought men-children into the world, sons to
their old father. One of these noble children was called
Moab by his mother, that daughter of Loth who was the               2610
elder in years of life; the Scriptures tell us, the sacred
Books, that the younger called her son Ammon. From
these princes sprang numberless people, the glories of              2615
two nations: one of these nations all earth-dwellers call
Moabites, a widely famed race; the other, men and
sons of heroes call Ammonites.



XXXII.


Then the brother of Aron set out with his wife to take              2620
his possessions and his household to Abimelech. Abra-
ham told all men that Sarra was his sister, [and] thus
preserved his life by his words: he knew very well that             2625
he had few relatives and friends among that people.
Then the king sent his ministers and bade them bring
to him [the wife of Abraham].[36] Thus for the second
time in a foreign land, the wife of Abraham was taken               2630
from her husband to the embrace of a stranger. Then
the eternal Lord assisted him, as he had often done:
our Preserver came himself by night to where the king
lay drunken with wine. Thereupon the Lord of Truth                  2635
began to speak to the king through a dream, and threat-
ened him in wrath:

"Thou hast taken Abraham's wife, his bride from the
hero; for that deed death shall tear thy soul from thy
breast!"

To him thus the sinner, gorged with feasting, replied               2640
in his sleep:

"What! Wilt Thou ever, High King of the Angels,
through thy wrath let him be deprived of life who lives             2645
here in righteous habits, [who] in his counsel is upright
in mind, and who asks mercy of Thyself? In her own
words, unasked, this woman told me first that she was               2650
Abraham's sister. I have not sinned against her, nor
wrought any evil at all, up to this time!"

Then again the Eternal Lord and True God spoke to
him straightway through that dream:

"Give back this woman to Abraham, his wife, into                    2655
his possession, if thou wishest for life any longer in this
world, as protector of the nobles. He is good and wise,
and may himself speak with [God] and see the King of
Glory. Thou shalt die, with thy flocks and thy sub-
stance, if thou deniest his wife to the warrior: if he will         2660
at once honestly and patiently prefer to me thy earnest
wishes, he may obtain his request that I yet allow thee
living to enjoy pleasures and prosperity in thy days,               2665
[allow thee] in sound health [to enjoy thy] riches."

Then the keeper of the people broke forth from sleep,
bade his councillors come to him; shaken with terror,
Abimeleh quickly told the nobles the word of the Master.
The men dreaded [as retribution] for this deed, blows               2670
from the hand of the Lord in accordance with the dream.
The king himself bade them bring Abraham before him,
in great haste. Then the ruler of the kingdom spoke:

"Man of the Ebrews! this wilt thou now tell me in                   2675
words: what have I done that, since thou broughtest
thy possessions into this country among us, Abraham,
thou hast thus bitterly contrived a plot against me?
Thou, a foreigner, wouldst deceive us in this country               2680
with evil and pollute us with sin: thou saidest in plain
words that Sarra was thy sister, thy blood relation;
through that woman thou wouldst have foully put upon
me sin, measureless evil! We received thee honorably,               2685
and in friendship gave thee a dwelling-place among this
people, land at thy pleasure: now thou makest return
and thankest us [most] ungratefully for our favors!"



XXXIII.


Abraham then answered:                                              2690

"I did that, not for evil nor for hostility nor for any
woe that I might bring upon thee. But by this strat-
agem, O ruler of men, I protected myself against blows
of the fierce sword, far from my kinsfolk [as I was]
Since the Holy One[37] first led me from the family of              2695
the prince, my father, I have sought out many peoples,
strange allies, and this woman with me, destitute of
friends: I always kept this peril in mind, when some foe            2700
should deprive me--a stranger--of my life, who wished
to have this woman for his own. Therefore I have told
warriors in plain words that Sarra was my sister, wher-             2705
ever on this earth we have had to contend against
foreigners in our exile. I did the same thing in this
country, great king, after I chose thy protection: nor
was there any knowledge in my heart as to whether                   2710
the fear of God Almighty was in this race, when I first
came here; therefore I concealed from thy ministers and
from thyself as well as possible the true statement that
Sarra was wont to enter my bed with me as my wife."                 2715

Then Abimæleh began to enrich Abraham with worldly
treasures and returned his wife to him: he gave him
to boot, when he received his wife, live stock and bright
silver and serving-folk. The protector of the nobles                2720
spoke further to Abraham, in these words:

"Dwell with us and choose thee a dwelling-place in
this land, a noble site where it is most to thy liking: I
must have thee; be a faithful friend to us; we will give            2725
thee riches."

Then quickly the dispenser of treasure spoke further
to Sarra, in other words:

"Nor need Abraham, thy lord and master, set it in
reproach against thee that thou hast trodden the ways
of my dwelling, O woman goddess-fair: for I have richly             2730
repaired thine offence with him, with white silver. Do
not trouble yourselves to seek riches and strange friends
away from this land, but dwell here."

Abraham did as his king bade him, and at the ruler's                2735
behest accepted friendship, love, and peace. He was
dear to God: therefore he enjoyed tranquility happily
and proceeded under the shadow of his Creator, covered              2740
by His protecting wings, while he lived. But God
was still angry at Abimeleh for the sin which he had
committed against Sarra and Abraham, when he sepa-
rated these two loving ones, the wife and the husband.              2745
He received a severe penalty for this deed: for neither
free nor slave women could reward[38] the men their
masters with children, for the Lord prevented it, until
the holy Abraham began to pray Eternal God for grace                2750
in behalf of his king. The Protector of the Angels granted
him his prayer, and restored to the king the fertility
of the free and the enslaved, men and women; again
the Ruler of the skies allowed the number of their off-             2755
spring to increase, their prosperity and possessions: the
Almighty Keeper of Mankind became mild in heart
towards Abimeleh, as Abraham entreated Him.

Then the Almighty Lord came to Sarra, as He Himself                 2760
promised: Our Master, the Ruler of Life, had fulfilled His
promise to the dear man and woman. A son was be-
gotten of Abraham upon his wife, whom the Prince of
the Angels named Isaac even before the mother was great             2765
with child by the chieftain. Abraham with his own hand
set the sign upon him, as the Lord glorious in splendor
bade him, about a week from the time when his mother                2770
brought him into the world to mankind.



XXXIV.


The boy grew and throve, inasmuch as noble [traits]
were native to him from his ancestors. Abraham had
[numbered] 100 years when, to his joy, his wife bore him
a son: he had waited for this for a long time, since the            2775
Lord first through His own word foretold this day of
happiness. Now the matter so happened that his wife
once saw Ismael playing before Abraham where they
were both seated at a banquet, holy in heart, and all               2780
their household retainers were drinking and singing.
Then the noble woman spoke, as wife to husband:

"Forgive me, my dear lord, keeper of the ring! But
bid Agar depart elsewhere, and take Ismael with her.                2785
We should no longer be together, for my pleasure, if I
might have my way. Never shall Ismael share the
heritage with Isaac, my own son, after thee, when thou
yieldest up thy spirit from the body."                              2790

Then was Abraham heavy at heart, because he must
drive away his own son into exile; then speedily the
True God came to his aid, for He knew that the heart
of the man was in dire straits. The King of the Angels,             2795
the Eternal Lord, spoke to Abraham:

"Let the sorrow and heart-felt grief slip from thy
breast, and obey the woman, thy wife. Bid both Agar
and Ismael to go away, [send] the boy from thy home.                2800
I will make his race far-spreading and powerful in the
number of its sons, prosperous in blessings, as I promised
thee by my word."

Then the man obeyed his Master and drove from his
home the sad-minded pair, [drove] from his patrimony                2805
the woman and his own son....[39]

"Clear it is and manifest that the True God, the King
of Glory, is on thy side, since he gives thee the victory,
with wise power, and strengthens thy heart[40] with                 2810
divine gifts. Therefore thou hast succeeded hitherto
in whatsoever thou hast begun to perform against
friend or foe, in word or deed. The Lord our Master
thrusteth forward thy desires with His own hands:
that is widely known among men. I pray thee now,                    2815
chief of the Ebrews, by my words, to give me a faithful
assurance of thy pledge that thou wilt be a true friend
to me, in return for the good things which I have given             2820
for thy glory, since thou camest solitary from afar into
this country with the tread of an exile. Requite me
now with thy favor, so that I may not be sparing of land
and pleasure to thee. Be propitious now to this people              2825
and city of mine, if Our Almighty Lord who holdeth the
fates will grant that thou mayst further distribute riches
and pleasing treasures, and set up thy landmarks, among             2830
the warriors in this country."

Then Abraham gave pledges to Abimeleh that he would
[do] thus.



XXXV.


After this the holy son of Thare, chief of the Ebrews,
was a dweller in the Filistine nation for a long time,              2835
alone amid strangers. The Lord of the Angels showed
him a dwelling-place which the men dwelling in the city
called the land of Bersaba. There the pious man built
a high hall, constructed a place of shelter and planted             2840
a grove, erected an altar and on the sacrificial stone
made an offering, an oblation, at once, to his Master
who had given him a prosperous life under the sky.

Then the powerful King began to try this hero,                      2845
tested stringently what the noble one's fortitude was,
and spoke to him in stern words with his voice:

"Go forth now speedily, Abraham, hasten thy steps,                  2850
and take with thee thine own child. Thou shalt thyself
offer up Isaac to me, thy son as a sacrifice. After thou
ascendest on foot the steep dune, the bordering circle of
that high land which I shall show thee from here, there             2855
thou shalt prepare a funeral pyre, the death-pile of thy
son, and then thyself sacrifice thy son with the edge
of the sword and then burn his dear body with black
flame, and thus make offering to me."

He did not decline the expedition, but straightway
began to hasten the procedure: the word of the King                 2860
of Angels was sacred to him, and his Master was beloved.
Then the pious Abraham forsook his nightly repose,
with no resistance at all to the command of the Saviour,
but the holy man girded himself with his grey sword                 2865
and declared that the fear of the Keeper of Spirits
dwelt in his breast. Worn with age, the dispenser of
gold began to harness his asses, and bade two young men
go with him: his own son was the third and he himself
the fourth. Without delay he then set out to lead Isaac             2870
from his own home, the ungrown child, as the Lord
bade him; hastened exceedingly and hurried forth on
the way, as the Lord showed him the paths over the
wastes, until the glorious beginning of the third day               2875
arose across deep water. There the worthy man saw
a high dune rise, as the King of Glory had foretold to
him. So Abraham spoke to his servants:

"My men! Remain ye here in this place. We shall                     2880
return, after we have offered to the King of Spirits what
was entrusted to us both."

The noble man then departed with his own son toward                 2885
the designated spot which the Lord showed him, striding
through the forest; the son bore the wood, the father
fire and sword. Then the man young in years began
to ask Abraham about the affair, in these words:

"We have here fire and sword, my lord: where is the                 2890
noble victim that you expect to bring as a burnt-offering
to God?"

Abraham replied (he had once for all decided that he
would do as the Lord directed him):

"That the True King, Guardian of mankind, will                      2895
himself provide, as it seemeth to him meet."

Then with unfaltering purpose he ascended the steep
dune, with his son, as the Eternal had bidden him, until
he stood on the crest of the high land, on the [spot][41]
which the mighty, faithful Lord had shown him in his                2900
words. Forthwith he began to build the funeral-pyre
and kindle the fire, and he bound his son hand and foot,
and then laid young Isaac on the pile, and then straight-
way grasped the sword by the hilt: he was resolved to               2905
kill his son with his own hands and allay the flames with
his child's blood.

At that moment a minister of God, one of the angels,
called Abraham from above, with a loud voice. Motion-
less he answered the angel and awaited the herald's                 2910
speech. To him then forthwith God's glorious spirit-
messenger spoke from above, out of heaven, in these
words:

"Beloved Abraham! Do not slay thine own son, but
take the boy alive from the pile, thy child. The God                2915
of Glory has spared him. Prince of the Ebrews, through
the holy hand of the King of Heaven thou shalt thyself
receive recompense and true rewards of victory, ample
gifts: the Keeper of Spirits will enrich thee with blessings,       2920
because his peace and favor were dearer to thee than
thine own child."

The pyre stood there blazing. The Lord of mankind
had made joyful the breast of Abraham, kinsman of
Loth, when he gave him back his son, Isaac, alive. Then             2925
the holy hero looked about over his shoulder, and there
not far from him the brother of Aron beheld a ram
standing alone, caught fast in the thorn-bushes. Abra-
ham took this and laid it on the pyre with great zeal,              2930
in place of his own son, brandished the sword, and dec-
orated the burnt-offering, the smoking altar, with the
blood of the ram, offered that oblation to God, [and fin-
ally] gave thanks for these blessings and for all those[42]
mercies which, late and early, the Lord had bestowed                3935
upon him....[43]



NOTES


[Footnote 1: Thorpe's translation of the _Genesis_, published with his
edition, in 1828, was not accessible to the present writer and
presumably will not be accessible to the general public, so that on the
mere score of availability it seems high time for the appearance of
another translation; moreover, in the last eighty-five years critical
scholarship has produced a greatly improved text of the poem.]

[Footnote 2: Aside from necessary omissions made for _Genesis B_, the
Sections are numbered consecutively in this translation (regardless of
vagaries in the original MS. numbering), on the assumption that each
illuminated capital in the MS. was intended to indicate the beginning of
a new Section. After the excision of _Genesis B_, the numbering has been
resumed with X instead of XV, because the XIII at line 440 in the MS.
must really represent VIII.--Cf. Note 8, page 59, inf. (page 199, inf.)]

[Footnote 3: ll. 39b-41a. _Wræcna_, gen. pl. with _bidan_, = _outcasts_; I
take _weardas_ as in apposition with it (the acc. being either a scribal
error or an anacoluthon), and then translate _wræcna_ as an adjective
for the sake of idiomatic fluency. For _gasta weardas_ as an epithet for
angels, though then unfallen, cf. line 12a, sup.--The passage has given
scholars much trouble and is unsatisfactory, at best.]

[Footnote 4: line 63b. I take æðele as a form of æðelu = nobilitas,
principatus, natales, origo, genus, etc. Grein's _Sprachschatz_, 1.52.]

[Footnote 5: line 168a. Three pages seem to be missing in the MS.
Doubtless the remaining events of the third day, with those of the
fourth, fifth, and perhaps first part of the sixth, days, including the
creation of man, (i.e., apparently the contents of Gen. 1.11-2.17,
incl.) were retold in these pages.]

[Footnote 6: line 186b. This line is apparently imperfect, metrically,
for the second hemistich seems to be wanting. As the sense is complete,
without emendation, I have not followed the various scholars who would
insert after "Adam's bride" some such clause as, "Whom God named Eve."]

[Footnote 7: ll. 221-224a. The text here is corrupt and scholars differ
widely in their conjectural emendations and interpretations. Since none
of their versions is satisfactory or convincing, I venture upon an
independent reading. _Hebeleac_, of course, is the Scriptural Havilah
(Gen. 2.11); _Fison_ is obviously Pison, and _Geon_, 230b inf., is
Gihon.]

[Footnote 8: ll. 226, 227a. I construe _the best_ with _gold and gems_,
rather than with _sons of men_, because of Gen. 2.12.]

[Footnote 9: ll. 235-851. After line 234 there is a break in the MS.
Sievers has shown that the following 617 lines, called _Genesis B_, were
written and interpolated later, by a different hand, and have Old Saxon
affiliations. _Genesis B_ describes the Fall of Man and also gives a new
version of the revolt and overthrow of Satan. _Genesis A_ begins again,
at line 852, with the conversation between Adam and Eve and Jehovah
(Gen. 3.8 ff.).]

[Footnote 10: line 872. I follow the divisions of the MS. This line
begins with the tenth large decorative initial, the others having
occurred at ll. 1, 82, 135, 246, 389, 442, 547, 684, and 821. Where the
editors so widely disagree as to the proper subdivisions of the poem, it
seems safer to follow the original initializing (but not the marginal
numbering of the original MS.: this skips from VII to XIII at line
440--doubtless accidentally substituting X for V--and is otherwise
irregular). Cf. footnote, page vi, sup.--For lines 869-70, cf. _Jour.
Eng. Germ. Phil._, 12.257.]

[Footnote 11: line 1022. A hemistich seems to be missing here,
metrically.]

[Footnote 12: line 1125. A hemistich seems to be missing here,
metrically.]

[Footnote 13: line 1128. I here adopt Grein's emendation, reading _leod_
for _leof_.]

[Footnote 14: line 1137. Cf. Gen. 4.26, with cross-references,
alternative translation, etc.]

[Footnote 15: line 1150. I follow Grein in supplying _wintra_ to
complete a metrically imperfect line.]

[Footnote 16: line 1199. A hemistich seems to be missing here,
metrically; and surely the sense requires the interpolation of several
lines, to record the birth of Methuselah in Enoch's 65th year. Cf. Gen.
5.21.]

[Footnote 17: line 1211. We may restore the last word of this line,
_fan_ in the MS., either as tautological _frean_, with Dietrich, or as
tautological _feran_, with Grein.]

[Footnote 18: line 1405. I follow Dietrich in reading
_edniowe = self-renewing_, for the meaningless _edmonne_ in the MS.]

[Footnote 19: line 1492. This difficult passage may be clarified by
reading _ðryðe = strength, copious power_, in place of the meaningless
_ðridda = third_, in the MS., and at the same time making _þrymme_ the
object of _hæfde_ (reading _þrymmas_, if necessary).]

[Footnote 20: line 1549. At least one line is missing, in the MS. here.
I have healed the breach by altering the case of _wærfæst metod_, in
preference to supplying conjectural material.]

[Footnote 21: line 1628a. The difficulty here may be obviated, with
slight emendation, by letting _Fæderne_ modify _yrfestole_, and changing
_breðer_, as a genitive plural, to _broðra_.]

[Footnote 22: ll. 1852b-1853. I follow Dietrich, who seems to me to make
the best of this bad business.]

[Footnote 23: line 1862b. _Hægstealdra wyn_ refers to Pharaoh, of
course.]

[Footnote 24: line 1929a. A hemistich is missing here, in the MS., and a
verb must be supplied; I adopt Grein's suggestion, _lædde_.]

[Footnote 25: line 1956b. The alliteration is defective, unless a word
be supplied; but the sense may be preserved, without emendation, by
construing _æfter_ with _sped_.]

[Footnote 26: line 2047a. Metrically, a hemistich seems to be missing.]

[Footnote 27: line 2055a. Metrically, a word or two seem to be missing.]

[Footnote 28: line 2148b. Metrically, a hemistich seems to be missing.]

[Footnote 29: line 2234b. _Larum_ here seems to be tautological, perhaps
a scribal error. It might be taken with _bryde_, in an absolute
construction: _after the example_, or _in the manner, of a bride_. The
reading _lastum_ is supported by line 2715a.]

[Footnote 30: line 2275b. I take _witodes_ here as equivalent to
_wyrdes_: cf. Sievers' "OE. Grammar," ed. A.S. Cook, 1903, 269, N. 5.]

[Footnote 31: line 2379. Grein remarks that a page is missing here from
the MS.]

[Footnote 32: line 2400b. I read here _mægn_ for _mæg_;--cf. line 2494b.
Or, retaining _mæg_, the line might be translated: "The Father of Light
Himself was" etc. Cf. Gen. 18.1, 16.]

[Footnote 33: line 2439b. Defective metre and sense, owing to the loss
of a hemistich, but the sense is complete. Grein's suggestion, _feoll on
foldan_, adds nothing to the following _hnah_.]

[Footnote 34: line 2510. A passage is missing here in the MS. Cf.
2568b-2569a; and the XXXVII at 2574, after the XXXV at 2417.]

[Footnote 35: lines 2597, 2598, 2601b-2602a. There are several lacunae
here, in the MS.]

[Footnote 36: line 2628b. Some words are evidently missing here. In the
brackets I give the emendation supported by most scholars.]

[Footnote 37: line 2695b. I follow most of the editors in taking _hyrde_
as _family_ and _frean_ as an appositive with _fæder_.]

[Footnote 38: line 2747b. Whatever the precise form of emendation to be
adopted, this is certainly the sense of the word and passage.]

[Footnote 39: line 2805. A passage is missing here, in the MS.]

[Footnote 40: line 2810b. A hemistich is missing here, metrically.]

[Footnote 41: line 2899a. This word (_stowe_) is Dietrich's obviously
correct emendation.]

[Footnote 42: line 2934a. Grein's emendation, _sælða_ = _prosperity_,
helps the metre but not the sense. I do not adopt it.]

[Footnote 43: line 2935. In the MS., _Genesis_ ends here and _Exodus_
follows at once; as 28 Chapters of the Biblical Genesis are passed over,
it seems probable that several pages in the MS. of the poem have been
lost or were not transcribed.]





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