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Title: Practical Pointers for Patentees
Author: Cresee, Franklin
Language: English
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[Illustration: A GOOD PATENT, PROPERLY HANDLED, IS A STEPPING STONE TO
SUCCESS AND FORTUNE.]



PRACTICAL
POINTERS _for_ PATENTEES

CONTAINING VALUABLE INFORMATION
AND ADVICE ON THE SALE
OF PATENTS

AN ELUCIDATION OF THE BEST METHODS
EMPLOYED BY THE MOST SUCCESSFUL INVENTORS
IN HANDLING THEIR INVENTIONS

_By_
F. A. CRESEE, M.E.

Revised and Corrected, with New Forms and Tables of Population
of the United States in Accordance with the 1910 Census

[Illustration]

MUNN & CO., INC.
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OFFICE
361 Broadway
NEW YORK
1912

_Copyright, 1901, by the_
POTOMAC PUBLISHING COMPANY

_Copyright, 1902, by_
MUNN & COMPANY

_Copyright, 1906, by_
MUNN & COMPANY

_Copyright, 1912, by_
MUNN & CO., Inc.

New York
MACGOWAN & SLIPPER
30 Beekman Street



PREFACE


The original conception and working out of an invention is usually a
labor of love on the part of the inventor: having perfected his
invention in every detail, he finds able and skilled counsel waiting to
prepare and prosecute his application for patent before the Patent
Office Examiner. When the patent is allowed or issued, the patentee's
real work begins--that of turning the patent into money. This is the
business end of the inventor's work, which is generally to his interest
financially to undertake himself, or to have under his immediate
supervision.

The object of this little work, based upon the experience and
observation of the author and other successful inventors, is to give the
patentee such information and advice as will enable him to proceed more
intelligently, on the most successful and economical basis, to realize
from his invention.

The American Government issues annually over thirty-five thousand
patents, a large number of which are offered for sale by their
respective patentees, who in many cases have no definite lines to pursue
in negotiating their patents; many realizing little or nothing from
their inventions through careless or bad management, while others,
through incompetency, drift into the hands of unscrupulous
patent-selling agents only to be swindled.

The numerous inquiries from patentees seeking practical, reliable, and
up-to-date information as to the best and most successful methods of
realizing from the product of their ingenuity, has led the author, after
due deliberation, to prepare and present this work to the American
inventor, with a view of supplying a long-felt want, with the hope that
it will save them many expensive experiments in handling their patents,
and advance them on the road to success.

It has been the endeavor of the writer to cover briefly every subject
that is usually encountered by patentees in disposing of their patents,
not only in the matter of selling, but also in the equally important and
perplexing questions of arriving at the value of patents, legal forms,
statistics, etc., etc.

Realizing that the work may be deficient in many respects, the hope that
it will prove instructive, and the belief that it contains many
practical pointers for patentees is still entertained by

THE AUTHOR.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

DEMAND FOR INVENTIONS OF MERIT.
                                                                 PAGE
Monopoly in Patents--Industrial Progress Based upon
  the Patent System                                              9-12


CHAPTER II.

INCOME FROM INVENTIONS.

Independence through Successful Invention--Unprofitable
 Patents--Money in Patents--Business Capacity
 of the Inventor--Inventions as a Poor Man's Opportunity
 to Advance                                                     13-19


CHAPTER III.

SECURING CAPITAL.

Danger in an Undivided Interest--A Better Plan--Form
 of Agreement--Perfecting Inventions--Exhibit
 of Inventions--To Avoid Being "Squeezed"--Value
 of Record of Invention--Newspaper Notoriety                    20-29


CHAPTER IV.

HOW TO ARRIVE AT THE VALUE OF A PATENT.

Pecuniary Value--Commercial Value--Basis for
 Estimation--General Rules for Valuation--How Rating for
 Royalty Is Figured--Stock in Stock Companies--Prices
 for Territorial Rights--Valuation Tables                       30-40


CHAPTER V.

HOW TO CONDUCT THE SALE OF PATENTS.

Patent-selling Agencies--The Best Selling Agent--In
  Case the Patentee Cannot Undertake the Selling--Methods
  of Selling Patents--About Advertising--How
  to Write an Advertisement--Correspondence as
  a Means of Bringing Patents before Interested
  Parties--How to Correspond with
  Manufacturers--Circulars--Illustrations--About
  Getting up Circulars--Copies of Patents, How to
  Secure--Uses of Printed Copies--First
  Impressions All--important--Value of Models--Working
  Drawings                                                      41-54


CHAPTER VI.

HOW TO CONDUCT THE SALE OF PATENTS.--_Continued_.

Value of Personal Influence--Personal Solicitation
  Advisable--Selling Outright--Assigning an Undivided
  Interest--Dividing a Patent into Different Classes of
  Rights--Granting Licenses--Placing upon
  Royalty--Manufacturing and Forming Companies--To
  Organize Stock Companies--Trading as a Last Resort            55-72


CHAPTER VII.

CANADIAN PATENTS.

About Canadian Patents--Selling Canadian Patents--
  Population of Canadian Cities                                 73-78


CHAPTER VIII.

DECISIONS AND NOTES.

Assignments--Territorial Grants--Licenses--Patent
  Title--Rules of Practice--Assignments--Assignees--
  Grantees--Mortgages--Licensees--Must be Recorded--
  Conditional Assignments--State Laws on
  Selling Patents                                               79-91


CHAPTER IX.

THE TRANSFER OF PATENT RIGHTS.

Assignee, Grantee, and Licensee Defined--The Language
  of Law--Assignment of Entire Interest in
  Letters Patent--Assignment of an Undivided Interest--Grant
  of a Territorial Interest--License; Shop
  Right--License; Non-exclusive, with Royalty--License;
  Exclusive, with Royalty                                      92-105


CHAPTER X.

TABLES AND STATISTICS.

Map of the United States--Official Census of the United
  States by Counties for 1910--Population of
  Cities of the United States--Number, Acreage
  and Value of Farms, by States--Table of
  Occupations                                                 106-141


INDEX                                                         142-146



PRACTICAL POINTERS _for_ PATENTEES



CHAPTER I

DEMAND FOR INVENTIONS OF MERIT


That there is a demand for inventions of merit which can be readily
disposed of at a reasonable profit to the inventor, there can be no
doubt. There perhaps never was a time in the history of our country when
the demand for meritorious inventions was so great as the present. The
conveniences of mankind, in all his varied vocations and callings,
require continual changes and improvements in the apparatuses and
implements used in order to save time, labor, and expense, and to keep
pace with the never-ceasing progress of civilization.

At no time in the past has there been so deep an interest manifested by
the public generally in the inventions of our bright-minded men and
women, and at no time has capital been more readily interested and ready
to invest in any practical improvement which can offer a fair chance of
monopoly under the patent laws.

Business men, capitalists, and manufacturers are ever on the alert for
new and desirable inventions, which will supersede in utility those
which are already on the market. By purchasing such inventions, they
secure novelties which will not only enable them to avoid the keen
competition and to a great extent monopolize the trade in their own
respective lines of business, but also to make sales more easily, and
thus make their business more profitable.

[Sidenote: Monopoly in Patents.]

Every well-informed person knows that a monopoly is the desideratum of
business men. The monopoly or protection of an industry afforded by the
patent laws is, perhaps, the one monopoly that directly benefits the
world. Were it not for the protection and monopoly offered inventors by
governments, for a certain number of years, to disclose their
inventions, inventors would simply keep them secret, or if used at all,
would do so only in such a manner as would prevent the world at large
from learning of or utilizing them, thus debarring the public as a whole
from their benefits. This monopoly in patents has had much to do with
the material progress of the world during the century just ended.

Anyone having a monopoly of a good trade article is assured of a
fortune. If capitalists and manufacturers can secure the control of any
new invention of merit for their sole use and purposes, which can be
manufactured and sold more cheaply than those now on the market, and
which will perform its work in a quicker and better manner than the
devices now in use, they will be only too willing to pay patentees
handsomely for patents covering such inventions.

There are numerous staple articles of commerce whose manufacture is open
to all, and which every mercantile house in the country is handling at a
profit, notwithstanding the great number engaged in their manufacture
and sale in every section of the country. Now, if there can be supplied
some better or cheaper article in any line of industry, the firm or
person who secures the monopoly of its manufacture and sale, simply
controls the market, and human endurance and energy are the only limits
to the degree of profits such a firm or person can secure from the
manufacture and sale of such an article, if adequately protected by a
valid patent.

[Sidenote: Industrial Progress Based on the Patent System.]

In an official report the Commissioner of Patents clearly sets forth
that from six to seven eighths of the entire manufacturing capital of
the United States is either directly or indirectly based upon patents.
This vast amount of money, upward of six thousand millions of dollars,
continually employing great armies of people, in industries based upon
patents of every class, supplies the country with improved articles of
every description. It has been well said that, "Patents and trade go
hand in hand."

The largest and most opulent manufacturers in the country will be found
to be the heaviest owners of patents, developers of inventions, and
patrons of the Patent Office. While all inventions are not telegraphs,
telephones, sewing-machines, or electric lights; nor can all business
houses be Westinghouses, Hoes, McCormicks, Bells, or Edisons, yet all
over this country, and others as well, there are springing up a great
number of moderately large growing firms who, ever on the alert for
success, devise or secure control of some valuable patent, by which they
can successfully invade and control to a certain extent particular lines
of industry.

Nearly every leading factory in the world owes its commencement and
success to the prestige and protection afforded by the possession of a
good and valid patent.



CHAPTER II

INCOME FROM INVENTIONS


It has been aptly said that the products of all the gold, silver, and
diamond mines in the world would not equal in value the annual income of
American inventors. It has been carefully estimated that there are at
least fifty patents in the United States which yield over $1,000,000
annually, some 300 that yield over one-half million, from 500 to 800
which bring from $250,000 to $500,000, and between 15,000 and 20,000
that bring over $100,000 annuities. Besides these, there are thousands
upon thousands of patents which yield yearly more profit to their
fortunate possessors than could be accumulated in a lifetime by a
wage-earner.

[Sidenote: Independence through Successful Invention.]

There are thousands of patents sold outright every year by the patentees
of the United States for thousands of dollars; and, to the already long
list of successful inventors, each year adds many more, who have become
independent through the proper handling of the product of their
ingenuity. Indeed there can hardly be conceived a quicker way for the
average person to attain independence and wealth than by inventing
something of real worth and merit that can be quickly turned into money.
The inventive field is large, and each invention opens up a new field
for improvements, and it is the "improver," without question, that reaps
the greatest benefit from any invention. Owing to the ever forward
progress of civilization, there is no limit to the possible improvements
in the sciences, arts, and manufactures.

[Sidenote: Unprofitable Patents.]

It must, however, be borne in mind that all patents are not
remunerative, neither are all gold mines productive of fortunes, and one
may lose money in patents as well as in any other business. There are
thousands of patents, many having merit no doubt, which have never been
sufficiently brought before the public to test their merits, effect
their sale, or manufacture; this in many instances is owing to
incompetency, or bad management on the part of the patentee or his
agents. There are thousands of other patents that do not prove
remunerative because they do not supply a real want, while still others
are such slight improvements upon existing inventions that they
necessitate such narrow claims, which render the patent of little or no
value. One has only to look over the weekly issue of patents to see many
of the last class.

As before stated, while there are many thousands of patents that do not
pay--and many no doubt cause their owners disaster, as is the case in
any other business or investment; on the other hand, the far greater
proportion of patents granted are productive of handsome profits, if
properly managed.

[Sidenote: Money in Patents.]

That the majority of patents taken out prove lucrative is evident from
the fact that upward of seventy thousand applications for patents and
designs are filed each year in the United States Patent Office, and
approximately eight hundred are granted and issued each week. Probably
about one-fifth of these patentees obtain their patents with a definite
view of manufacturing their inventions, and the remainder obtain theirs
with a view of realizing from the sale of the rights to manufacture.

It may be said, as a general thing, there is more money in small
inventions than in larger ones, from the fact that they can be easily
manufactured anywhere with but little outlay of capital; they usually
fill a general need, and the profit derived from their manufacture is
large, besides the patent is more readily disposed of; while with larger
inventions it requires more money and ability in handling the patent,
and the invention must be unusually promising to justify the erection of
a plant costing thousands of dollars for its manufacture. However, when
large and complicated inventions do pay, they usually pay well.

[Sidenote: Business Capacity of the Inventor.]

It must be remembered that the actual cash value of a patent is not in
the patent itself, but in the sale or use of the monopoly it affords,
and the amount realized from any invention frequently depends upon the
business capacity of the inventor or his agents. Owing to his business
ability, one person may make a fortune out of an unpromising
improvement, while another, through bad or careless management, will
realize little or nothing from a brilliant invention.

Speaking along this line in an official report the chief examiner of the
Patent Office says: "A patent, if it is worth anything, when properly
managed, is worth and can easily be sold for from $1,000 to $50,000.
These remarks only apply to patents of ordinary or minor value. They do
not include such as the telegraph, the planing machine, and the rubber
patents, which are worth millions each. A few cases of the first kind
will better illustrate my meaning:

"A man obtained a patent for a slight improvement in straw cutters, took
a model of his invention through the Western States, and after a tour of
eight months returned with $40,000 in cash or its equivalent.

"Another inventor in about fifteen months made sales that brought him
$60,000, his invention being a machine to thrash and clean grain. A
third obtained a patent for a printing ink, and refused $50,000, and
finally sold it for about $60,000.

"These are ordinary cases of minor inventions embracing no very
considerable inventive powers and of which hundreds go out from the
Patent Office every year. Experience shows that the most profitable
patents are those which contain very little real invention, and are to a
superficial observer of little value."

Under the writer's personal observation has come many instances where
inventors have secured patents on improvements which to a casual
observer would appear insignificant, yet through shrewd management they
have been made to yield princely incomes. Among these one case worthy of
note is that of a young man in Pennsylvania who secured a patent on a
toy game which any person could have thought of, but few would have
considered worth protecting by letters patent. He was offered $1,000 for
the patent by one manufacturer at the outset which he refused, and
afterward he placed it on royalty with quite a number of large
manufacturers throughout the country. He receives but one cent on each
one manufactured, yet his income averages over $12,000 a year. Another
borrowed part of the money with which to obtain a patent on a railway
tie plate, which was bought by a corporation for $25,000, after having
manufactured it for two years on royalty. And many others, who have
realized from one to five thousand dollars on such slight improvements
on which few would have thought worth applying for a patent.

Patentees who would realize any considerable amount from their patents
must not sit down and expect the other fellow to make money out of their
inventions for them.

[Sidenote: Inventions as a Poor Man's Opportunity to Advance.]

Invention is sometimes called the "genius of the poor," and it is a
singular fact that there are a greater number of inventions made by men
and women of limited means than by those whose wealth, education, and
other advantages would seem to have especially fitted them for success
in a field dominated so completely by "brains." This may be explained in
a measure by the fact that people of moderate means are brought into
closer contact with the arts and manufactures, and are thus the first to
discover and improve their defects.

A self-made millionaire, recently speaking to the writer about patents,
said: "I know of no business or vocation requiring so small amount of
capital, and yielding such immense profits as that of invention.
Certainly no person of inventive genius can employ his time and
ingenuity to better or more profitable advantage than to invent
something that is really needed. Many poor men, through the art of
invention, have risen from poverty to reputation, fame, and honor, and
taken high places among noted men of all times.

Our moneyed kings may have enriched themselves by stock jobbing, but
this precarious procedure requires large capital, and the few enormous
fortunes accumulated are merely the monuments marking the graves of
thousands of foolhardy unfortunates caught in the vortex of
speculation."



CHAPTER III

SECURING CAPITAL


It is a curious but well demonstrated fact that people who have
inventive genius often lack the means to carry out their ideas. An
inventor who has ample means can secure his patent and proceed to turn
it into money without the necessity of being compelled to solicit
financial aid from anyone. This, unfortunately, is not generally the
case with inventors; indeed, many are often barely able to stand the
expense incident to taking out the patent. Patentees laboring under this
disadvantage are frequently tempted to part with a small interest in
their patents for the sake of securing sufficient funds to carry on the
promotion of their inventions and sale of the patent; and in doing this
the inexperienced patentee is apt to make the fatal mistake of assigning
to another an undivided interest in his invention.

[Sidenote: Danger in an Undivided Interest.]

Such an assignment may appear well enough on the face of it, and many
patentees have been misled, supposing that under the assignment the
proceeds from the patent should be divided _pro rata_, according to the
several interests. This, however, is not the case in such assignments,
and joint-ownership of a patent, or interest therein, does not of
itself, without an express agreement to that effect, make the parties
partners. They are merely tenants in common, each having the right to
separately make, use, or sell the invention so assigned without
liability to account to their co-owners for any part of the profits
derived from the invention through their own efforts.

In an assignment of an undivided interest, the assignee is afforded an
opportunity of manufacturing, using, and selling to others to be used
the article covered by the patent; also, to grant territorial grants,
such rights being unlimited by the terms of the assignment, and it is
actually of little consequence how small an interest is thus conveyed,
the assignee can proceed with the patent in much the same way as if he
were the sole owner; therefore, whenever it is intended that the
relation of co-partnership shall exist between the patentee and the
assignee of an undivided interest, and that the profits arising from the
invention shall be equitable, for their joint benefit, there must be an
express agreement between them to that effect, otherwise the assignee
will have a decided advantage over the inventor, if he is inclined to be
dishonorable, and there are numerous cases on record where patentees
have virtually lost their patents by such assignments. Patentees should
especially guard against strangers who offer to purchase an undivided
interest in their patents.

[Sidenote: A Better Plan.]

A better procedure to secure means necessary for the development,
introduction, and sale of an invention is to borrow the money from a
friend contingent on the sale of the patent, sell a State or county
right, or enter into a contract with a party willing to furnish the
means for a certain proportion of the proceeds derived from the
invention. Generally speaking, it will not be hard to find a party
willing to advance sufficient means to promote an invention which is
protected by a patent for a certain percentage of the net receipts
arising from its manufacture, sale, or territorial grants, and the
patentee will probably find a person among his own acquaintances who
will not only be glad to furnish the means necessary, but also be of
value to the patentee in realizing from his invention. In any case,
whatever is agreed upon should be put in the form of a contract, or an
agreement, couched in such terms as will leave no doubt as to the
understanding between the parties. The following form secures both
parties, and will be suggestive of others:

  [Sidenote: Form of Agreement.]

  _Whereas_ I, Richard Doe, of Philadelphia, County of
  Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented
  certain new and useful improvements in Telegraph Keys, for
  which I have obtained Letters Patent of the United States,
  bearing date January 1, 1901, and number 000,000, and
  whereas John Roe, of Camden, County of Camden, and State of
  New Jersey, is desirous of obtaining an interest in the net
  profits arising from the sale or working of the said
  invention covered by the said Letters Patent.

  Now, therefore, this indenture witnesseth, that for and in
  consideration of one dollar by each of the parties hereto
  paid to the other, the receipt of which is hereby
  acknowledged, it is stipulated and agreed as follows:

  First, That the said John Roe shall pay all moneys necessary
  to the construction of a suitable model to represent the
  said invention; that he shall pay all necessary expense in
  advertising and bringing said invention before interested
  parties (and such other clauses as may be deemed necessary
  and agreed upon, such as the expense of constructing a
  working model, or carrying out a process, etc.); that he
  shall make diligent effort to promote the said invention,
  its manufacture, and sale.

  Second, That the said Richard Doe, sole owner of said
  invention and Letters Patent, in consideration of the
  payment of the moneys above mentioned, agrees to pay the
  said John Roe twenty-five per cent. (or other amount agreed
  upon) of all the net receipts in any manner arising from
  the sale or working of the said Letters Patent, during the
  term for which said patent is granted.

  Witness our hands and seals this tenth day of January, A.D.
  1901.

                      RICHARD DOE,
                      JOHN ROE.

In the presence of:
  JOHN SMITH,
  THOS. JONES.



[Sidenote: Perfecting Inventions.]

Should an inventor defer the filing of his application until his
invention is fully developed as regards the detail construction and
arrangement of the parts? The best opinion seems to be in favor of the
prompt filing of the application. The final form of the details can best
be determined by the manufacturer and expert machinists and designers,
who appreciate the matter of economical manufacture, which is quite as
essential as the efficiency of the device or machine. Clearly,
therefore, the inventor cannot decide as to all the details; why then
should he delay his application?

The safest course for an inventor is to file his application for a
patent as soon as his invention is complete in its principal features,
so as to conform to the requirement of the Patent Law that an invention
be sufficiently complete to be theoretically operative. The mechanical
details are rarely of great importance as far as the patentable
features of the invention are concerned. Still, it is well to give the
attorney full particulars of whatever details the inventor has in mind.

[Sidenote: Exhibit of the Invention.]

Under the security thus afforded for the main features involved in his
idea, the inventor can proceed more deliberately in perfecting and
improving his invention, and can then file an additional application if
necessary, to secure special protection on particular improvements or
the improved invention as a whole. The early filing of an application
may turn out to be important in securing to the inventor his right of
priority. When the inventor comes to exhibit his invention, with the
idea of bringing it to the attention of the public in general, there is
no question that he should then have his invention in the best form he
can, and in as attractive shape as possible.

[Sidenote: To Avoid being "Squeezed."]

The patentee who proposes to realize from his invention should never let
it be known that he is in want; of course, in some cases he cannot help
himself, but he should endeavor to obtain the necessary assistance from
his acquaintances, and under no circumstances let those with whom he is
trying to deal get an insight into his financial condition, as
capitalists and others will very often take the advantage of an inventor
when known to be in straitened circumstances, and the patentee probably
would not realize as much from his patent as he otherwise could.
Therefore, it is advisable in all cases for the patentee to manifest no
impatience, remain silent as to his financial condition, and strive to
impress those with whom he is dealing that he is in no condition to be
"squeezed."

[Sidenote: Value of Record of Invention.]

Inventors, while working on a complicated machine, should not overlook
the value and importance of keeping a record of the progress of the
development, illustrating it with sketches, signing and dating them with
each new addition, and, when practical, having it witnessed by one or
more persons. This plan is preferred by many inventors to filing a
caveat. Such a record will be found very valuable in case of an
infringement, as it enables the inventor to ascertain the various steps
of his invention, and is a sort of evidence that cannot be impeached.
Such a record of a complicated invention, when the inventor has put much
time and study upon the subject in perfecting it, will also be found
valuable in effecting sales, and in fixing the price of the patent.

[Sidenote: Prejudice against Patents.]

It cannot be denied that at the present time there seems to be in many
sections of the country a strong prejudice against patents, which
sometimes makes it difficult to get people sufficiently interested to
take hold of any patent; especially is this true when the patentee
endeavors to sell his patent piecemeal; that is, by county, township,
shop, or farm rights. No matter how important or valuable the invention
may be, there seems to be a disposition on the part of the public to
look upon such rights as a fraud, and to be very cautious how they
invest in them.

The public is not wholly to blame for this, as in recent years there has
been a class of men who have canvassed the country with patent rights,
not caring what representations they made so long as they were able to
effect a sale; consequently, many people have been lured into purchasing
patent rights for a small territory which in many instances were
worthless or not as represented, causing them to be more or less
skeptical of all patents, as well as to bring this manner of selling
patents generally into ill repute. With manufacturers and capitalists,
this prejudice does not exist to any great extent, as with them the
patent rests solely upon its own merits.

[Sidenote: Newspaper Notoriety.]

Many inventors overlook the importance of interesting newspaper men in
their inventions. This is a matter of great consequence to the inventor
in exploiting his invention, and should be given some attention.
Newspapers desire items of interest of every description, and readers
are usually interested in brief accounts of any new invention
possessing novelty or merit; so that when the inventor once gets his
invention into the newspapers it is generally copied by other papers,
with the result that the invention gets a large amount of free
advertising and publicity. These items frequently attract the attention
of capitalists, manufacturers, and others, and at once put the invention
in a favorable position before the public as could be done possibly in
no other way--certainly in no cheaper way.

Many of the trade journals and other periodicals are also open to
receive technical descriptions of inventions of merit concerning
industrial improvements. Such articles should be written in good form,
containing not over five hundred or a thousand words, and if admitted to
this class of publications will be of the utmost value and importance in
creating favorable public opinion, and in advancing the inventor's
interests.

With hardly an exception, if an invention strikes editors favorably and
is adjudged to be of sufficient interest to form an article of news in
newspapers, or of sufficient merit to warrant a description in the trade
papers, it is pretty certain to prove a success and bring the inventor
large returns.

If the invention is of such a character as to strike newspaper men
unfavorably, the inventor can resort to the advertisement columns;
using the large daily papers, or such publications which in some way
relate to the industry to which the patent appertains, and such as have
the largest circulation among the class of people it is desired to
reach. See about advertising on page 46.



CHAPTER IV

HOW TO ARRIVE AT THE VALUE OF A PATENT


Most inventors are not concerned so much about the fame or honor their
inventions will bring them, or how much their inventions will advance
civilization, or build up a nation, or administer to the conveniences
and pleasures of mankind generally, as they are about how much it will
net them in dollars and cents; but the patentee should not lose sight of
the fact that the profits are in the exact proportion to the actual
usefulness of the invention, and its general adaptability. It is
immaterial whether the inventor himself intends to deal with the public,
or to deal with a man or set of men who are afterward to deal with the
public, the conditions are the same, and the profits must ultimately
come from the sale of the manufactured article.

[Sidenote: Pecuniary Value.]

It may seem superfluous to say that mere Letters Patent aside from an
invention is of no value, though many inventors are under the erroneous
impression that if an invention possesses patentability, it must also
necessarily have pecuniary value. To be of any pecuniary value
whatever, the invention must cover something for which there is a
demand, or for which there can be a demand created, for it cannot be
disputed, that if an invention will not bring in money by manufacturing
it, it is, in a financial sense, worthless; and the patent thereon is
therefore worth some seventy or eighty dollars less than nothing.

[Sidenote: Commercial Value.]

An invention, to have commercial value, as previously stated, must cover
something for which there is a demand, or for which there can be a
demand created. It may be an entirely new device, or it may be an
improvement upon an existing invention, but in any event it must contain
a certain degree of utility. In rare cases inventors are able to hit
upon an invention in an entirely new field; for these a demand has to be
created. For improvements, however, as a general thing, the demand
already exists; then the important question arises in determining the
commercial value of the patent. "Does the invention in question possess
sufficient merit to successfully compete with existing devices of the
same class?" In order to do this, it must be of a simpler or cheaper
construction, so that it can be manufactured and put on the market at a
lower figure; or, it must yield better results, work quicker and at less
expense, or economize power, labor, or time. A patented improvement
upon an article that can be sold more cheaply, or one which will yield
better results than those now selling well on the market, has a decided
commercial value and can easily be disposed of at a good price. If the
inventor be fortunate enough to combine both of these features in his
invention, the value is doubled and success certain.

[Sidenote: Basis for Estimation.]

Perhaps one of the hardest questions that confronts the patentee is how
to arrive at a just valuation of his patent, and to know just exactly
what he should receive for it. This is a very important question, and
one which should be looked into before undertaking negotiations.
Patentees should not, of course, undervalue their patents, or accept the
first small offer made for fear of not receiving another; at the same
time, they should not fall into the common error of asking a price that
cannot be obtained, which too frequently precludes all chances of a
sale. Many business men would rather lose the patent than waste their
time constantly dickering about an unreasonable price.

Inventors should be reasonable in their demands, and consider that the
purchaser must have a fair share of the profits. He cannot expect to
realize all there is in the patent himself. Indeed, patentees usually
find that men willing to establish a business on the basis of their
untried patents will require the greater bulk of the profits to be
derived from it.

[Sidenote: General Rules for Valuation.]

It is evident that only the most general rules for valuation can be
given, as each invention must be studied and valued strictly upon its
own merits. Undoubtedly, the best and most practical method of
ascertaining the value of any invention which is susceptible of being
manufactured on a small scale is to have a limited quantity of the
articles manufactured--say five hundred or a thousand--and try the
experiment of introducing them in a small territory; that is, in a
certain county, city, or town, taking great precaution in selecting a
person who is capable of carrying forward the business in a
business-like manner. This method demonstrates conclusively whether or
not the invention will meet with success, and with these figures at hand
the patentee will be prepared to prove, to the satisfaction of
interested parties, just what the patent is really worth.

This method of procedure not only enables the patentee to get a just
valuation of his patent, but also puts it in a more favorable position
to be sold; since the commercial value is known and established, it no
longer remains an experiment. Interested parties can take their
calculations from these figures, and the patentee can exact a price in
proportion to the success of the trial experiment.

In order to thus demonstrate the value of a patent, the patentee must
possess and advance the necessary means to carry it forward, though, if
the experiment prove at all successful, the profits derived from the
articles sold will in nearly all cases more than offset the expense
incurred. This is a very popular course with inventors, especially in
handling small inventions, known as novelty or specialty patents.

If the patentee have not the means to successfully demonstrate the value
of his patent by actual trial, as above outlined, then the next best
course would be to inquire among reliable manufacturers and ascertain
the lowest price for which the invention can be manufactured in large
quantities, and the highest price at which it will retail; and then, by
carefully studying the market, the patentee should be able to estimate
the amount of competition, cost of selling, probable number of sales,
interest on the investment, etc., and on these figures base the price he
should receive for the patent, being careful to allow the purchaser a
liberally fair profit.

While there are at present about ninety-five million inhabitants in the
United States, it is scarcely probable that any invention has yet or
ever will be made that will reach half this number of people. With an
article of the most general adaptability, including both sexes, the
inventor can hardly hope to reach more than a fourth of the entire
population, though, of course, the invention may be subject to regular
consumption, so that the people reached would naturally purchase the
article again a number of times during the course of a year.

The statistics in the last chapter are given with the view of assisting
patentees in determining what proportion of the population will likely
want their inventions, and to enable them to estimate prices. In
estimating the price to ask for a patent, patentees should not conceive
and hang their hopes upon fabulous prices and immediate wealth, which
too often dooms ambitious inventors to bitter disappointment; they
should rather endeavor to look at their inventions from the purchaser's
stand-point, and try to see it in the light in which others view it. It
may be well to remember that the million mark of patents issued in the
United States, including re-issues and designs, was passed in 1911, and
it is quite probable that any one inventor may not have the only good
thing in the line of patents.

[Sidenote: How Rating for Royalty Is Figured.]

Many patents are more profitable by being placed upon royalty than by
any other means, and quite often the patent can be placed this way when
it is not possible to sell outright at a satisfactory price. In
determining what royalty the patentee should receive, he should
carefully estimate, in connection with the probable number of sales,
what profit the manufacturer can probably make on each, or a number of
the articles containing the patented improvements, and should require
about twenty-five per cent. of the profits as royalty. Another method
used by some inventors is to ascertain the price at which the article
can be retailed, and figure the royalty at between one-twentieth and
one-tenth of the retail price. Either of the above should give the
approximate figure to ask for exclusive royalty contracts. For
non-exclusive rights the patentee should ask about one-half of that for
exclusive rights.

[Sidenote: Stock in Stock Companies.]

There is another class of patents that can be best realized from by
organizing the proper kind of joint stock companies, and manufacturing
the invention, the inventor taking a certain amount of the stock and
assigning the patent to the company. The patentee should receive between
one-fourth and one-half of the capital stock in consideration of his
assigning his patent and rights to the company.

The inventor should see that a good portion of the stock is subscribed
for and the amount actually paid into the treasury of the company before
making the assignment. As a rule, inventors' stock is full paid and
non-assessable.

[Sidenote: Prices for Territorial Rights.]

In calculating the prices for territorial rights, the application of the
invention to that section must be taken into consideration, as well as
the advancement in manufacturing, etc. If the invention belongs to that
class of inventions which may be generally adapted in all States alike,
such as domestic articles and articles of wearing apparel, then the
population will form a very satisfactory basis for valuation.

There are other inventions, however, that apply almost wholly to a
certain section of the country, while still others apply more to one
section than to another; thus, for instance, mechanical contrivances of
the higher order, such as writing machines, mathematical instruments,
etc., the North and East are the most valuable; for mining and
agricultural implements, etc., the West; while such as the cotton-gin,
seeders, and presses apply almost wholly to the South. States and
counties having large cities and large towns are also usually more
valuable than other States and counties of same population.

[Sidenote: Valuation Tables.]

The following tables are given as a general estimate of the relative
value of the different States and divisions in the majority of cases;
however, these tables are only arbitrary at best, and cannot be applied
to all classes of inventions satisfactorily, though they may serve to
materially aid the patentee in determining what price to put upon each
State in his own case. Having determined the value of the patent as a
whole, the aggregate of the State prices should be about two-thirds
more, as there are always some States that cannot be sold separately,
while others may have to be sold at a discount.


TABLES FOR ESTIMATING PRICES OF STATE RIGHTS

-----------------+--------------------------------------------------
   STATES AND    |             PRICE AS A WHOLE.
  TERRITORIES.   |---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
                 | $1,000  | $5,000  |  $10,000 | $15,000  | $20,000
-----------------+---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
Maine            |     35  |    175  |     350  |    500   |   700
New Hampshire    |     30  |    150  |     300  |    450   |   600
Vermont          |     30  |    150  |     300  |    450   |   600
Massachusetts    |     50  |    225  |     500  |    750   | 1,000
Rhode Island     |     20  |    100  |     200  |    300   |   400
Connecticut      |     35  |    175  |     350  |    500   |   700
New York         |     65  |    300  |     650  |    950   | 1,200
Pennsylvania     |     65  |    300  |     650  |    950   | 1,200
New Jersey       |     40  |    200  |     400  |    600   |   800
                 +---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
N. ATLANTIC      |   $370  | $1,775  |  $3,700  | $5,450   |$7,200
  DIVISION       |         |         |          |          |
-----------------+---------+---------+----------+----------+--------

TABLES FOR ESTIMATING PRICES OF STATE RIGHTS--_Continued_

-----------------+--------------------------------------------------
   STATES AND    |             PRICE AS A WHOLE.
  TERRITORIES.   |---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
                 | $1,000  | $5,000  |  $10,000 | $15,000  | $20,000
-----------------+---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
Delaware         |     20  |    100  |     200  |    300   |   400
Maryland         |     40  |    200  |     400  |    600   |   800
District of      |     15  |     75  |     150  |    200   |   300
  Columbia       |         |         |          |          |
Virginia         |     35  |    200  |     400  |    600   |   800
West Virginia    |     35  |    175  |     300  |    500   |   700
North Carolina   |     35  |    150  |     300  |    450   |   600
South Carolina   |     35  |    150  |     350  |    500   |   700
Georgia          |     40  |    200  |     400  |    600   |   800
Florida          |     15  |     75  |     150  |    200   |   300
                 +---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
S. ATLANTIC      |   $270  | $1,325  |  $2,700  |  $3,950  |$5,400
  DIVISION       |         |         |          |          |
                 |         |         |          |          |
Ohio             |     60  |    300  |     600  |     900  | 1,100
Indiana          |     55  |    275  |     550  |     800  | 1,000
Illinois         |     65  |    300  |     650  |     950  | 1,200
Michigan         |     45  |    200  |     350  |     600  |   800
Wisconsin        |     40  |    150  |     275  |     400  |   500
Minnesota        |     45  |    200  |     350  |     600  |   800
Iowa             |     40  |    175  |     350  |     500  |   700
Missouri         |     45  |    225  |     450  |     650  |   900
North Dakota     |     25  |     75  |     150  |     200  |   300
South Dakota     |     30  |    100  |     200  |     300  |   400
Nebraska         |     30  |    150  |     300  |     450  |   600
Kansas           |     40  |    175  |     300  |     500  |   700
                 +---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
N. CENTRAL       |   $485  | $2,325  |  $4,525  |  $6,850  |$9,000
   DIVISION      |         |         |          |          |
-----------------+---------+---------+----------+----------+--------

TABLES FOR ESTIMATING PRICES OF STATE RIGHTS--_Continued_

-----------------+--------------------------------------------------
   STATES AND    |             PRICE AS A WHOLE.
  TERRITORIES.   |---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
                 | $1,000  | $5,000  |  $10,000 | $15,000  | $20,000
-----------------+---------+---------+----------+----------+----------
Kentucky         |     40  |    200  |     375  |    600   |   700
Tennessee        |     30  |    175  |     350  |    500   |   700
Alabama          |     30  |    150  |     300  |    450   |   600
Mississippi      |     30  |    150  |     300  |    450   |   600
Louisiana        |     35  |    175  |     300  |    500   |   700
Texas            |     35  |    175  |     300  |    500   |   700
Oklahoma         |     20  |    100  |     200  |    300   |   400
Arkansas         |     20  |     75  |     150  |    200   |   300
                 +---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
S. CENTRAL       |   $230  | $1,200  |  $2,275  | $3,500   |$4,700
 DIVISION        |         |         |          |          |
                 |         |         |          |          |
Montana          |     15  |    100  |     175  |    250   |   300
Colorado         |     40  |    175  |     350  |    350   |   700
New Mexico       |     15  |     50  |     100  |    150   |   200
Arizona          |     15  |     50  |     100  |    150   |   200
Utah             |     15  |     50  |     100  |    150   |   200
Idaho            |     10  |     50  |      75  |    100   |   200
Washington       |     15  |     50  |     100  |    150   |   200
Oregon           |     20  |     75  |     125  |    200   |   300
California       |     50  |    250  |     450  |    700   |   900
                 +---------+---------+----------+----------+--------
WESTERN DIVISION |   $235  |   $975  |  $1,800  | $2,750   |$3,700
                 +=========+=========+==========+==========+========
   GRAND TOTAL   | $1,600  | $7,600  | $15,000  |$22,500   |$30,000
-----------------+---------+---------+----------+----------+--------



CHAPTER V

HOW TO CONDUCT THE SALE OF PATENTS


While the inventor may put much hard study upon his invention and make
many costly experiments, this part of his work is usually a pleasure;
and in securing the patent he invariably has able counsel in his
attorney with no anxiety on his part; but with the commercial proceeding
of selling his patent, which involves the greatest prudence and care in
managing, it is different, and here is where the inventor's real work
begins if he expects to reap the benefit of his invention.

[Sidenote: Patent-selling Agencies.]

For the benefit of unexperienced patentees it is deemed expedient to
give a word of warning here regarding the host of so-called
patent-selling agencies, which under various imposing titles, coupled
with an apparently honest and straightforward method of business, tempt
each patentee, upon the issue of his patent, to place the same in their
hands and authorize them to negotiate the sale thereof. Their
propositions are very attractive and temptingly prepared; their offers
appear to be "gilt edge"; their circulars are high-sounding and
rose-colored; their contracts are formal looking, and drawn up in an
impressive way, highly advantageous to the patentee; but it will be
noted in all cases that they will require the patentee to pay down a
certain sum under some pretence,--such as to cover the cost of
advertising the patent, to have circulars printed, to secure copies of
the patent for distribution, to have a cut made illustrating the
invention, or for membership fee, and so on, it matters not what, so
long as it is an advance fee. Many will also agree to sell both the
United States and Canadian patents, if the patentee will file the
Canadian application through them; it is evident, however, that this is
only a scheme to get the patentee to take out the Canadian patent
through them--they having no facilities for disposing of either of the
patents.

The writer is not prepared to say that there are no honestly conducted
patent-selling agencies, but from long experience and observation, has
never known where a patentee was ever materially benefited by placing
his interests in the hands of these concerns, and has yet to learn of
them ever making a sale solely through their own efforts. Very few of
these concerns have any facilities whatever for selling patents; all of
their time being taken up in mailing their weekly circulars to inventors
immediately upon the publication of the _Official Gazette_, and working
inventors up to the remitting point which usually ends the matter so
far as they are concerned, unless they believe they can get another fee
out of the patentee.

There may be exceptions, but patentees should fully satisfy themselves
as to the integrity of these firms before placing business in their
hands, as the Assistant Commissioner of Patents in his report in the
Webberburn case, 81 O. G., 191 K, clearly pointed out that the methods
of these concerns were such as to sell the patentees rather than their
patents.

[Sidenote: The Patentee the Best Selling Agent.]

That the patentee himself is the best selling agent there can be no
doubt, for he is familiar with the construction and operation of his
invention in every detail, and knows its merits and superior points far
better than anyone else, besides manufacturers and others wishing to
purchase patents invariably desire to deal with the patentee himself.
Business men, it may be said as a rule, do not think very much of an
invention which the inventor has abandoned to others to negotiate,
moreover the personal push of the inventor is, in nearly all cases,
essential to the successful termination of a sale.

Subtract the personal energy and presence of the inventor from the
successful inventions of the past and of to-day, and the chances are
that they would not have succeeded as they did. It is not only a
question of material interest, but also of enthusiasm and confidence,
and each patentee, having but one patent or a set of patents to push,
can lend thereto that individual attention which insures good work and
success.

[Sidenote: In Case the Patentee Cannot Undertake the Selling.]

However, if from any reason the patentee is unable to handle his own
invention and must engage the services of an agent or salesman, he
should select one from among his own acquaintances, in whom he has
confidence. He should if possible get a person who has had experience in
the line of the invention, as such a person would likely understand it
and the trade better than others. It is not really necessary that he
should have had experience in selling patents; if he is a good talker,
knows how to approach business men, and thoroughly understands the
invention, he will probably make money for the inventor and himself. The
patentee should have him submit all offers of value for his
consideration, and should not give the agent power to sign or collect.
The patentee should name a reasonable price for the patent, allowing the
agent a liberal commission upon the price, and encouraging the agent by
allowing him a certain percentage of all he may be able to get over and
above the price named. This will encourage the agent to work for the
highest price obtainable. The inventor should make every effort to be
able to personally attend to the details of selling, and keep the
business under his personal supervision.

[Sidenote: Methods of Selling Patents.]

There are a number of plausible methods to which the patentee may resort
in disposing of his patent without the aid of questionable selling
agents, and it is the purpose of the following pages and succeeding
chapter to set forth such methods as have in the past proved beneficial
to patentees; those along which success have been achieved, and such as
are employed by the most successful inventors of the present time in
handling their patents.

It is true that no definite method or system can be given that will
apply to all patents alike, as the method in each case will depend more
or less upon the character of the invention, and to the particular art
to which it belongs; however, from the following pages the patentee
should be able to judge what particular methods will best apply to his
individual case, and proceed along these lines.

There are many patents issued which the patentees thereof can as
successfully dispose of from the smallest hamlet in the United States as
from New York, Chicago, or any of our larger cities, while, of course,
there are others which only those directly connected with the largest
and wealthiest corporations can hope to dispose of successfully. The
main thing is not to become discouraged or give up until one succeeds
in making a sale.

[Sidenote: About Advertising.]

To make the merits and importance of an invention publicly known is, in
many cases, one of the best ways of bringing about the introduction and
sale of a patent. If the inventor has a patent on an invention that
manufacturers or others want, and can make its merits and superior
qualities known to them, negotiations will soon follow. There is no way
for patentees to place themselves in communication with prospective
investors quite equal to an advertisement in the proper medium. Here it
may be well to state that patentees who decide to advertise their
patents for sale or otherwise should place their advertisements in
publications of known standing, such as the leading daily newspapers. A
brief, well-worded advertisement in the "Business Opportunities" column
of these papers bring quick and good results, though, perhaps a better
class of inquiries may be obtained by advertising in the trade journals
of the class to which the invention relates, and while the trade
journals may not bring about as many inquiries as the dailies, those
that answer will be more apt to be interested and talk business. Either
of the above are good mediums, but in advertising patents for sale
patentees should carefully avoid those publications that are published
at uncertain intervals, and usually for the express purpose of
circulating among inventors for various purposes. They do not reach the
class of people that invest in patents. Inventors should know the class
of people that would be likely to become interested in their inventions,
and advertise in such mediums as have the largest circulation among that
class.

[Sidenote: How to Write an Advertisement.]

In the construction of an advertisement there is often too much waste by
using too much verbiage, too many unnecessary words or sentences,
sometimes too much display. Prudence in the arrangement, and care in
editing an advertisement, will save much expense. The size of an
advertisement of this class has really little to do with its pulling
qualities.

The statements should be assuming, and at the same time truthful, as any
deception in an advertisement is sure to work an injury. There should
not be more claimed in the advertisement than sounds reasonable, even
though it be stating facts; if an advertisement sounds unreasonable it
will not have the desired result. Inventors sometimes become so
enthusiastic over their inventions that they exaggerate unintentionally.
A good rule is for the inventor to read over the advertisement, and ask
himself, "If this statement was read by me, would I believe it; would it
convince me?" etc.

Putting one's self in the purchaser's place is always one of the best
factors in writing good advertisements. The inventor should put himself
in the place of the purchaser of the patent, and reason what would
induce him to investigate its merits; what would likely cause him to
take it up, and so on; he should think and write fully along these
general lines, incorporate these reasons into an advertisement; then
boil it down by cutting out the unnecessary words and sentences; prune,
remodel, and rewrite until he has a brief advertisement, clear, concise,
and to the point.

[Sidenote: Correspondence as a Means of Bringing Patents before
Interested Parties.]

While to advertise, as suggested in the foregoing pages, would require a
very moderate outlay, and be, perhaps, the better course to pursue:
however, in connection with it, or if the patentee does not feel that he
can afford the expense of advertising, a very good plan is for him to
secure copies of a number of the trade journals of the class to which
his invention relates, and carefully look over the advertisements
therein, and select a list of such manufacturers as would seem likely to
be induced to purchase the patent in question, or manufacture the
article on royalty. In this manner the patentee will probably get the
best up-to-date list obtainable, and it may be set down as a fact, with
very few exceptions, that if manufacturers and dealers who make and
handle just such articles as the patent calls for cannot be interested,
it is very hard to interest others not engaged in such line, except when
the invention is large, and requires a great deal of capital to work the
same.

[Sidenote: How to Correspond with Manufacturers.]

To each of the parties of the list thus selected, or to a number of
them, the inventor should write a well-composed and convincing letter
setting forth the invention in its best light, and stating just why it
would be to the interest of the parties solicited to investigate the
same. Some time should be spent on this letter before attempting to
write it, and the writer should weigh well in his own mind what would be
best to say, and the proper way of expressing it. He should be as brief
as possible, consistent with legibility. The statements should be
assuming, yet in every respect true. He should state in brief terms just
what the invention is, what it will do, the points and advantages it
has, and at the same time endeavoring to get the parties interested so
that they will inquire into the invention, rather than attempt to come
to terms in the first letter.

The letter should be brief and pointed, and plainly written upon
business-size paper; and if the inventor has a typewriter, or access to
one, he should use it. If he has printed circulars he should send one
with his first letter, which will enable him to make the letter briefer
and more business-like.

In correspondence it is well not to name a price until the parties are
interested, and first endeavor to get them to make an offer. The
patentee should be patient and should not expect to jump right into a
bargain at once. If the invention is a meritorious one there will be
more than one of the manufacturers to whom the patentee may write, who
will become interested, and when such a state exists, the patentee can
begin to be more exacting as to his demands since competition has been
created between the manufacturers.

[Sidenote: Circulars.]

A few dollars invested in circulars will frequently be found of great
value to the patentee if he intends to negotiate the sale of his patent
mainly by advertising and correspondence, as they will save a great deal
of writing and explaining as well as appear more business-like and
attractive, and may be the means of more readily effecting a sale.

[Sidenote: Illustrations.]

If the patentee can afford the additional expense of an illustration, it
will greatly increase the appearance of the circular, and make it more
readily understood and interesting. The cut should be neat and set forth
the invention in its best light. It would be better to entrust the
procuring of the cut to the printer, for he will know just what is
wanted and can secure the same at a better price. A sufficient number
of well printed circulars, with illustration, can be obtained of any
printer for a few dollars.

[Sidenote: About Getting up Circulars.]

The circulars should be attractive, convincing, and logical; nicely
arranged, and neatly printed upon good paper. A mistake is often made in
sending out trashy-looking circulars, poorly printed upon cheap paper;
they repel rather than attract, and do not have the desired effect.

The circular should have good head-lines so as to attract the attention
of its recipient at a glance, and his interest should be held by having
the uses and advantages of the invention well written.

Many of the pointers suggested in advertising and letter-writing will
equally apply to the writing and getting up of the circulars, and need
not be treated further here, except that the patentee should dwell
especially upon the merits of the invention, its uses, and advantages
over like articles. This should be done in the most interesting manner
possible, describing it so that its value will be fully understood.

[Sidenote: Uses of Printed Copies.]

It will be well for the patentee to order some printed copies of his
patent, as manufacturers and others usually ask for them if interested,
in order that they may examine the patent, or have an expert to examine
it, to ascertain its validity, novelty, and what protection is really
afforded by the patent. It cannot be denied that in either case the
invention will suffer a cold-blooded rigid examination, and must stand
or fall solely upon its merits. If, however, the invention is adjudged
to have real merit and properly protected by the Letters Patent,
business negotiations will likely begin, and the patentee will perhaps
speedily make a satisfactory deal.

[Sidenote: First Impressions All-Important.]

Some inventors use printed copies of their patents instead of circulars,
but, while they fully set forth the invention in a technical way, it
cannot be said that in all cases it is advisable to send copies of the
patent until called for. Many parties who become interested in patents
are not familiar with mechanical drawings and technical specifications,
and very often do not get a very favorable impression from a copy of the
patent; and it is very important that the first impressions should be
favorably created, for upon this much will depend. If parties become
sufficiently interested to fully investigate an invention, they are very
apt to form a favorable opinion of it.

[Sidenote: Value of Models.]

There is no way of so easily creating a favorable impression and gaining
the interest in an invention as by a neat and perfect working model of
the invention. Man never loses the child-love for toys, and a perfect
miniature machine of any description will attract more attention than
one of full size. With a model the inventor has the full and immediate
attention of his prospective purchasers at once. If the patentee, or his
agent, intends visiting manufacturers, or to sell the patent by
territorial rights, he will find a model of his invention almost
indispensable.

Inventors should be very careful about sending models to unknown
parties, and should mark the number of the patent and their name and
address upon the model. It should invariably be understood in advance
who is to pay the transportation charges, before sending a model with
any charges to collect.

While models are very helpful in setting forth an invention and making
sales, high prices exclude many inventors from their use. Model-makers
usually charge fifty cents per hour for each man working upon the model,
and market price for the material used; from these figures the inventor
may make a rough estimate of what a model of his invention will cost.

[Sidenote: Working Drawings.]

Working drawings are different from those forming a part of the patent
in that they are more detailed, giving the size of each piece and the
material of which it is constructed. While working drawings are not
quite as expensive as models, they do not show the invention to the
advantage that models do, and are of little value to those who do not
understand them. On the other hand, working drawings have the advantage
of being easily sent through the mails, and can be duplicated at small
cost. Manufacturers prefer working drawings to models in quoting prices
on manufacturing the invention in quantities.



CHAPTER VI

HOW TO CONDUCT THE SALE OF PATENTS--_Continued_


In conducting the sale of patents, the greatest difficulty is most
frequently experienced in getting manufacturers or others sufficiently
interested to look into the merits and possibilities of the invention.
If the inventor can get the parties to actually consent in their own
minds to the proposition of taking up the invention, the question of
terms and conditions can soon be arranged. Until the parties solicited
can see beyond a doubt that there is large profits in it for them, the
price of the patent is out of the question; therefore, the first step is
to demonstrate its merits and commercial value, and get the parties
thoroughly interested.

Patentees should not labor under the impression that because a patent is
offered at a very low price that it will be quickly snapped up as a
bargain; as before stated, if a patent will not bring in money by
manufacturing and selling the article, it is worthless; and its real
value is in exact proportion to the amount of profits that can be made
from its manufacture.

Should the patentee find that his patent has no commercial value, it is
almost useless to spend more time and money in trying to realize
anything from it; he had better start again, and endeavor to invent
something that has value and can be sold.

[Sidenote: Value of Personal Influence.]

Inventors should use the full extent of their personal influence to
spread particulars of their inventions as far as possible, for this
indirect work is often a leading factor in creating a favorable
impression that frequently results in the adaption of an invention.

However unacquainted he may be in a business way, every patentee can,
more or less, in his immediate neighborhood, consult with merchants,
friends, and others in the line of his invention, who can post him upon
the right parties to submit the patent to, and the best way to see them
about it, and perhaps go with him to visit such as might be interested
in the invention.

[Sidenote: Personal Solicitation Advisable.]

In nearly every case it is more satisfactory for the patentee to call on
the manufacturers or interested parties personally whenever it is
possible for him to do so. This brings about a more satisfactory
understanding between them. Many inventors, however, prefer opening up
communication by correspondence, and after the parties manifest a
willingness or desire to look into the invention more closely, then
arrange to visit them personally.

Having determined upon a visit, the patentee should endeavor to get a
friend known by the parties to go with him to make their acquaintance.
If the friend cannot go with the patentee, he will probably give him a
note of introduction. It may happen that his friend does not know the
parties whom the patentee wishes to see, in that event he may know of
someone who does, to whom he can introduce the patentee and who in turn
may either go with him or arrange to make him known to the parties
solicited. An introduction, of course, is not absolutely necessary, but
it invariably has a good effect and is generally worth the effort.

The patentee should be prepared to make a straightforward, business-like
presentation of his invention by means of a suitable model or drawings;
carefully explaining its merits and advantages, showing as clearly as
possible just what the value of the invention is and what can be made
out of it, and giving tangible reasons why it would be to the interest
of the parties solicited to invest in the patent. If the patentee is
dealing with a manufacturer it is well to point out not only the
possible advantage he may have by securing the control of the patent,
but also the possible loss that his business may suffer by allowing one
of his competitors to obtain its control. Many businesses have been
hopelessly crippled by an enterprising firm securing control of a good
patent and introducing a like article that can be sold cheaper, or one
that will do its work in a better and more satisfactory manner.

[Sidenote: Selling Outright.]

Many inventors prefer to sell their patents outright; that is, in
consideration of a specified sum of money the patentee assigns his
entire interest in the patent, in the same manner that a person would
sell a piece of real estate. This is a very good method and one of the
quickest ways for the patentee to turn his invention into money, though
it must be remembered that to sell a patent outright is usually for a
very much smaller sum than could be realized if handled by other
methods.

The day for obtaining enormous sums or fortunes from the sale of a
patent outright is past; at present to realize any considerable amount,
the patentee generally has to share in the risks as well as the profits,
unless the invention is very highly developed, and even then he cannot
expect to get as much out of an outright assignment as he could by
sharing in the success of the invention commercially. If, however, the
patentee is content to take the utmost cash his patent will bring him
outright, he is assured of a principal or lump sum, free from any
chances of the article not selling well when placed upon the market.

Before signing and delivering the assignment, the patentee will, of
course, see that he has the consideration, or its equivalent, for which
the assignment is made. If the transaction is made through
correspondence he should send the assignment duly executed to the
purchaser through the bank or express C. O. D. for the amount.

[Sidenote: Assigning an Undivided Interest.]

In a preceding chapter, the dangers and disadvantages of an undivided
interest are set forth, and it cannot be considered a wise course under
any consideration to part with any undivided interest in the
proprietorship of the patent, unless unusually well paid, or there
exists an agreement of copartnership between the patentee and the
assignee. By such an assignment, no matter how small, the patentee loses
control of his patent.

[Sidenote: Dividing a Patent into Different Classes of Rights.]

Many patents, from the nature of the invention, can be subdivided into
different classes of rights, and each class sold or granted separately
as the patentee may choose. Thus, the patentee of a tire, or other
appliances for a bicycle, could license one party to make the same for
bicycles and another for automobiles. In like manner a car-coupler could
be divided between those who build railway equipments and those who
build street-cars, and so on.

Goodyear, the inventor of the process of vulcanizing rubber, divided
his patent up into many different rights, licensing one company for
manufacturing rubber combs, licensing another for hose pipes, another
for shoes, another for clothing, and a number of other different rights,
for which each company or partner paid a tariff. Lyall, inventor of the
continuous loom, also divided his patent into many different rights; one
company weaving carpets, another corsets, another bags, another
sheeting, etc.

In every case where the invention covers articles not in the same line
of manufacture, the patentee should not fail to divide the rights into
different classes, granting each party only such rights as they may be
interested in. In this way the patentee can quite often double or treble
the receipts from his invention.

The patentee may, if he desires, have his machines built and require the
purchasers to pay him a regular annual rental on each machine, or a
tariff upon the goods produced, in addition to the price of the machine.
Companies are sometimes organized to manufacture an invention, and
employ travelling men to place the article on annual rental instead of
selling.

[Sidenote: Selling by Territorial Rights.]

Another method is to sell State and county rights. This consists of a
license whereby the patentee, in consideration of a certain sum of money
paid him, grants unto another person or persons the exclusive right to
make and sell the invention, and to authorize others to make and sell
the same, within a specified territory, during the life of the patent.
This plan of disposing of a patent has often been highly profitable, but
it must be said that these territorial sales have been conducted in such
a manner in the past, as to bring the whole system of selling patent
rights into disrepute, and in recent years patentees have found some
difficulty in making sales in this way, unless the device is of unusual
great novelty and attraction to householders or the general public.

Occasionally, however, there are patents issued for meritorious
inventions that are susceptible of this mode of procedure, and which can
be disposed of to the greatest advantage by territorial grants. Such
inventions as household novelties possessing great merit and utility
have been most successfully placed upon this plan, but it must be
remembered that the value of the system rests upon its capabilities of
effecting sales of the manufactured article to a vast proportion of the
people.

In selling territorial rights it is a mistake to begin with the small
places with the idea of working the business up and effecting larger
sales on the basis of the smaller ones; it is better to shove the sales,
as much as possible in the start, and after the more valuable portion
of the territory is disposed of, proceed with the balance until it
ceases to be profitable.

Experience teaches that it is usually advisable to accept any reasonable
offer made for a small right, even if it does not come up to the
patentee's estimate of its value, as he has plenty of other territory
left, and may lose much time and money in finding another in the same
territory willing to pay more; besides, the purchaser of such a right
may, by his energy and good judgment, advertise the invention in such a
way as to greatly benefit the patentee in making further sales.

Some patentees employ good and reliable special agents to travel and
dispose of the patent rights; others advertise for and appoint State
agents to sell their respective county rights. In either case these
agents expect to make money by the operation, and require a liberal
proportion of the proceeds for their remuneration; generally speaking,
they will require about one-third the selling price, unless the patentee
can show that the rights will sell readily, in which case the rating can
be made lower.

[Sidenote: Granting Licenses.]

The patentee may also sell licenses under his patent; that is, in
consideration of a certain sum, the patentee licenses a manufacturer to
make the invention at his own place of business; it being a personal
privilege and is not transferable unless its terms so state.

Unless there are a great many manufacturers in the line of industry to
which the patent relates, and unless the invention has real merit so
that it will be readily adapted by the manufacturers, the patentee
cannot hope to realize any considerable amount from selling shop-rights
alone. As a general thing, patents for mechanical inventions can be
disposed of to better advantage by other means, or by selling
shop-rights in connection with other methods; for example, if the
patentee was selling his patent by territorial grants, he might grant
shop-rights in such territory as he has not sold; or if he is placing
the patent upon non-exclusive royalty contracts, he could grant
shop-rights in such portions of the territory as he does not contemplate
using otherwise.

Some inventions, such as methods or processes, as a general rule, have
to ultimately be sold by licenses. Such patents can be employed most
profitably by selling licenses, county and State rights; thus, in the
case of a method of constructing fences, the patentee could sell State
and county rights to parties, who in turn could grant farm rights, etc.

[Sidenote: Placing upon Royalty.]

The license and royalty plan is perhaps the best and most popular method
with inventors for realizing from their inventions. This, in effect,
involves a contract between the patentee and the manufacturer, by which
the latter in consideration of a license to manufacture the article
covered by the patent, agrees to pay the patentee a certain specified
sum as royalty for each article manufactured or sold bearing the
patented improvement.

Placing a patent on royalty is ordinarily taking chances, but if the
patentee has full confidence in his article selling well, he should by
all means take royalty in preference to selling the patent in its
entirety. Many valuable patents are sold by their owners for from $1,000
to $10,000, which yield the purchasers, when the article is on the
market and selling well, as much as $25,000 annually in profits. This
calls to the author's mind a patent for which at the outset was
doubtfully offered $3,000, but before the negotiations terminated, the
patentee succeeded in placing it upon an exclusive royalty basis. The
royalties paid to the patentee during the first four years amounted to
over $50,000, and the manufacturers subsequently made an offer of
$100,000, for the patent.

In making royalty contracts with parties, the patentee should
investigate the standing, rating, and capabilities of the manufacturer,
and, above all, should be certain that the parties have the right motive
in view, and that the contract is so drawn that it will fully protect
his own interests. Many patentees have been caught by manufacturers
offering large royalties for the sole purpose of gaining possession of
the patent, that they might pigeon-hole it, in order to keep the article
out of the market, so that the sale of some similar article in which
they are interested would not be interfered with by the introduction of
a similar or better article, such as the patent anticipates.

There are others who propose and make royalty contracts with patentees
with no other object than that of making the special tools, patterns,
dies, etc., for which they charge the patentee an extortionate price.

The best and safest way for the patentee to guard against having his
patent tied up is to bind the parties to do certain things in the way of
pushing the sales, making the necessary tools at their own expense, and
commencing its manufacture within a reasonable time, paying an advance
royalty, or annexing some such condition to the agreement by which they
will be the loser should they fail to push the inventor's interests.

Unless it cannot be otherwise arranged, the patentee should not transfer
his rights merely in consideration of receiving a certain sum on each
article sold, as however sterling the character of the manufacturer,
there would be no certainty of the sales being pushed. The patentee
should endeavor to get the manufacturer to guarantee that the royalties
shall amount to at least a certain pre-stipulated sum each year, or
within a period of time, and that such sum shall absolutely be paid to
him by the manufacturer, irrespective of sales. This insures that the
manufacturer will be obliged to push the sales of the article, and do it
justice, since if he neglects his duty purposely, or from lack of
energy, he is out of pocket, and the patentee is sure of a certain
income, with the addition of a possible fortune that unprecedented sales
may yield him. However, manufacturers are not always willing to agree to
this condition, unless the guaranteed amount is exceedingly reasonable;
they will usually simply agree to do their best, and if the sales do not
reach a certain figure each year, the patentee shall have the option of
cancelling the agreement, and receiving back the patent free and clear.

Royalty licenses can either be exclusive or non-exclusive; that is, with
an exclusive contract the manufacturer has the exclusive right to
manufacture the article, excluding all others; non-exclusive is simply a
shop-right, in consideration of which the manufacturer agrees to pay the
patentee or owner of the patent a stipulated price or percentage upon
each article made or sold. The license can also be exclusive in a
certain section, county, State, or a number of States, as may be agreed
upon.

Any number of conditions that may be agreed upon may be annexed to and
form a part of the contract, and such an agreement should be drawn up in
compliance with the terms and conditions agreed upon by a competent
attorney, or one skilled in matters of this kind.

[Sidenote: Manufacturing and Forming Companies.]

If the patentee has a really good invention, often he cannot do better
than to retain the patent and work it himself, in case he has the
ability to do so. If he cannot conduct the manufacturing alone, he may
be able to secure a partner with just sufficient funds, and equal common
sense and business acumen, to add the necessary elements to the firm to
achieve success.

In some cases, if the patentee does not wish to retain the whole patent
for his own use, an excellent plan is to commence the manufacture of the
invention in a suitable locality, and after the business is so far under
way as to show progress and profit, then sell out the business with
license under the patent. To illustrate: a gentleman in Illinois, having
obtained a patent on a farming implement, succeeded in interesting a
party in his own neighborhood to join with him in its manufacture, which
soon proved successful and remunerative, and in a short time he was able
to sell out his interest in the business to his partner, with license
under the patent, after which the patentee started its manufacture in a
number of places elsewhere, and, at the same time, granting licenses and
selling territory in still other sections, where he was unable to work
the invention. In this way he made a fair fortune from his invention,
realizing about as much from each business established as he could have
probably obtained for the entire patent if sold outright at first.

In this manner the patentee, with a valuable patent on an article of
general usefulness, could go on and establish its manufacture in any
number of places, and sell out with license under the patent. If the
first experiment is successful, it is an easy matter to carry the method
out in other places, and the business can be readily disposed of
anywhere, if it can be shown to be on a paying basis.

[Sidenote: To Organize Stock Companies]

In recent years many inventors have been quite successful in organizing
stock companies on the basis of their patents. This is considered one of
the best ways for handling patents for large and promising inventions,
and it is a method that any patentee, with ordinary business ability,
should be able to carry out successfully, providing his invention is of
sufficient merit and importance to form a suitable basis for a
successful stock company.

Many stock companies are incorporated under the laws of New Jersey, but
it is believed the State of West Virginia is also very favorable to
corporations. The entire expense for incorporating a company under the
laws of the latter State should not exceed $150. The company can be
incorporated for any amount; large or small, one hundred dollars or five
millions, cost and fees being the same. The incorporators need not be
residents of the State. No annual statements required. The meetings of
the directors can be held at any place, and need not be held in the
State where the charter is granted.

Before applying for a charter for a corporation or stock company, the
patentee should mention his plan to some of his friends and get five
persons who will promise to subscribe for one or more shares of the
stock and act as incorporators of the company.

Next he should secure the services of a reliable attorney, familiar with
corporation laws, to prepare the necessary articles of incorporation and
legal papers. The attorney will advise the patentee how to proceed
properly in organizing his company, and as to the securing of the stock
certificates, subscription blanks, seal, etc. These, including the
attorney's fee, should not cost the patentee more than $50.

It is well to have some stationery printed with the proposed name of the
company and business displayed thereon; and also a prospectus
published, setting forth the invention and the plans of the company for
introducing it, etc.

Quite often the patentee can find enough idle capital in his immediate
neighborhood to float a good portion of the stock. Capital is more
easily secured by the formation of a stock company than by any other
means, as people can subscribe for small or large amounts, and they
often prove good investments.

In soliciting subscriptions for stock, it is desirable to get as many
prominent and influential men to buy one or more shares at first to head
the list--their names will be a great aid in making further sales.
Ordinarily the promoter only collects ten per cent, of the amount
subscribed, the balance being subject to the call of the board of
directors.

After it is ascertained that the shares or stock are being rapidly
subscribed for and selling fully up to expectation, the patentee can
have the incorporators sign the charter application and have the
attorney file it with the proper State authorities. This will cost the
patentee about $100 more, for State tax, attorney fees, etc.

When sufficient stock has been subscribed for, a meeting of the
stockholders should be called to elect directors, and to transact such
other business as may be deemed necessary in regard to locating and
building the plant and getting the company in shape.

The patentee should receive about one-half the capital stock in
consideration of his transferring his rights and franchises to the
corporation, the remainder of the stock is sold for the benefit of the
company to create a working capital. The patentee may sell a portion of
his stock, if he desires, but should also retain a good portion of it to
show his own confidence in the business.

After the meeting of the stockholders, the direction of the business
will probably be taken out of the hands of the inventor, and the control
will lie in the board of directors of the company. As a rule it is
better that the inventor does not take an active part in the management
of the company's affairs, unless he is specially fitted for the
position.

If the company is provided with ample capital, and if the business
manager is a competent man, there is little chance of failure if the
invention has real merit.

[Sidenote: Trading as a Last Resort.]

Patentees are sometimes offered securities or other property in trade
for a patent. It is not deemed a wise course by most inventors to
consider any proposition for a trade, especially in the early life of a
patent. Only as a last resort, after failing to realize from a patent by
any other means, is it advisable to trade a patent; and, before finally
agreeing upon a trade, the patentee should have a reputable attorney to
look fully into the value and title of the property offered. He should
also insist upon receiving an abstract of title, or a title guarantee
from a reliable title insurance company.

Unless known to himself, the patentee should never engage the services
of an attorney or broker recommended by the parties offering the trade
to look into the value and title of the property. Inventors should be on
the lookout for a set of sharpers who make a business of offering
worthless securities and property in exchange for patents.



CHAPTER VII

ABOUT CANADIAN PATENTS


The geographical nearness of Canada to the United States, and the
intimate commercial relations existing between the two countries, render
Canada, in one sense, a part of the industrial market of America; and
owing to its liberal patent laws, which are based closely upon our own,
inventors generally find it advantageous to protect their interests in
this country, which can be done from time to time by a very small
outlay, and thus giving the inventor the advantage of disposing of his
patent or dropping it if not found remunerative, before expending the
total cost of the patent.

The commercial and manufacturing interests of Canada are extensive,
increasing yearly, and are closely knit with our own. If the invention
is not protected in Canada, it is sometimes manufactured there and sent
here without paying royalty to the inventor.

Copies of the "Rules and Forms of the Canadian Patent Office" and "The
Patent Act" can be obtained upon application to the Hon. Commissioner of
Patents, Ottawa, Canada. Section 8 of the Patent Act, revised May, 1898,
provides:

"Any inventor who elects to obtain a patent for his invention in a
foreign country before obtaining a patent for the same invention in
Canada, may obtain a patent in Canada, if the same be applied for
within one year from the date of the issue of the first foreign patent
for such invention; and,

"If within three months after the date of the issue of a foreign patent,
the inventor give notice to the Commissioner of his intention to apply
for a patent in Canada for such invention, then no other person having
commenced to manufacture the same device in Canada during such period of
one year, shall be entitled to continue the manufacture of the same
after the inventor has obtained a patent therefor in Canada, without the
consent or allowance of the inventor."

The Patent Act as amended does not now require a Canadian patent to
expire at the earliest date at which a foreign patent for the same
invention expires.

Under the section just cited the patentee has three months, after the
issue of his patent, within which to protect his interests in Canada. If
within these three months he has not sufficiently demonstrated the
commercial value of his home patent, and the advisability of taking out
a Canadian patent, he is advised to give notice to the Commissioner of
Patents, Ottawa, of his intention of doing so, which will fully protect
his interests for one year, as under the above provision; and if the
patentee fail to give this formal notice, he cannot obtain redress from
any person who has commenced to manufacture his invention in Canada
during the year.

There is also an advantage sometimes in giving this formal notice within
three months and delaying the grant of the patent for one year, as the
patentee is allowed to import the patented article into Canada during
one year only, after the grant of the Canadian patent.

The construction or manufacturing of the invention in Canada must be
commenced within two years from the date of the patent, and continuously
carried on from that time, though the extension of this time may be
secured upon timely application to the Commissioner, giving any good and
proper reason. The time for importation is also sometimes extended upon
proper application.

Canadian patents are granted originally for a term of eighteen years,
the Government fee being $60 for the eighteen years, but at the election
of the patentee this fee may be divided into three payments of $20 each,
as follows: $20 at the time of the grant, $20 at the expiration of the
sixth year, if the owner desires to keep the patent alive, if not he can
allow the patent to become forfeited; and at the end of the twelfth
year, if it is still desired to maintain the patent, the remaining fee
of $20 may be paid. If the patentee in the meantime assigns his patent,
the assignee will pay the required government fees at the end of the
sixth and twelfth years, if it is desired to maintain its validity.

The Canadian patent covers and affords full protection in the following
provinces:

------------------------+----------+-------------
           PROVINCES.   |  Area    | Population
                        |Sq. Miles.|    1911
------------------------+----------+-------------
Alberta                 |  253,000 |   372,919
British Columbia        |  390,000 |   362,768
Manitoba                |   72,870 |   454,691
New Brunswick           |   28,000 |   351,815
Nova Scotia             |   20,600 |   461,847
Ontario                 |  222,000 | 2,519,902
Prince Edward Island    |    2,000 |    93,722
Quebec                  |  347,000 | 2,000,697
Saskatchewan            |  250,000 |   453,508
Northwest Territories   |1,922,750 |    10,000
Yukon                   |  200,000 |      ----
                        |----------+------------
            TOTAL       |3,708,220 | 7,081,869
------------------------+----------+------------

[Sidenote: Selling Canadian Patents.]

In selling Canadian patents, the patentee will proceed in much the same
way as in the United States, though he cannot expect, nor should he ask,
more than about one-third as much for the Canadian patent as he
receives, or expects, from the United States patent. Patents are not as
readily sold in Canada as here, but if the inventor has a useful
invention of merit, which is being manufactured profitably in the United
States, he will have no trouble in disposing of his Canadian patent at a
satisfactory price.

It is in nearly all cases advisable for the inventor to first put his
invention upon the market in the United States before trying to realize
from his Canadian interests, as it will be found difficult to interest
Canadian capital in a patent that has not been first put into practice
here; and if the patentee be able to dispose of his Canadian patent at
all, it is usually for a very insignificant sum; whereas, on the other
hand, if the patentee fully protects his interests there, and proceeds
to put the invention upon the home market, he will not only be able to
present his Canadian patent in a more favorable and forcible way by
proving its commercial value, but he will undoubtedly get better offers,
and realize full value for his Canadian interests, in exact proportion
to the success of his invention in the United States.

POPULATION OF CANADIAN CITIES

(_Compiled from the Census of 1911_)

Montreal         406,197 | New Westminster   13,394
Toronto          376,240 | Stratford         12,929
Winnipeg         135,440 | Owen Sound        12,555
Vancouver        100,333 | St. Catharines    12,460
Ottawa            86,340 | Saskatoon         12,002
Hamilton          81,897 | Verdun            11,622
Quebec            78,067 | Moncton           11,319
London            46,177 | Port Arthur       11,216
Halifax           46,081 | Lachine           10,778
Calgary           43,736 | Chatham           10,760
St. John          42,363 | Galt              10,299
Victoria          31,620 | Sault Ste. Marie  10,179
Regina            30,210 | Sarnia             9,936
Edmonton          24,882 | Belleville         9,850
Brantford         23,046 | St. Hyacinthe      9,797
Kingston          18,815 | Valleyfield        9,447
Maissonneuve      18,674 | Brockville         9,372
Peterboro         18,312 | Woodstock          9,321
Windsor           17,819 | Niagara Falls      9,245
Sydney Town       17,617 | Sorel              8,419
Hull              17,585 | Nanaimo            8,305
Glace Bay         16,561 | Lethbridge         8,048
Fort William      16,498 | Vancouver, North   7,781
Sherbrooke        16,495 | North Bay          7,718
Vancouver, South  16,021 | St. Boniface       7,717
Berlin            15,192 | Sydney Mines       7,464
Guelph            15,148 | Levis              7,448
St. Thomas        14,050 | Oshawa             7,433
Brandon           13,837 | Collingwood        7,077
Moose Jaw         13,824 | Fredericton        7,028



CHAPTER VIII

DECISIONS AND NOTES


The following digest will be found to contain much useful information
for the patentee, it being a carefully selected list of decisions
affecting assignments, territorial grants, licenses, State laws, etc.;
including those rendered by the Supreme Court of the United States, the
Circuit Court of Appeals, State Courts, and of various Commissioners of
Patents, all of which decisions enunciate well-settled and controlling
principles of Patent Law.

[Sidenote: Assignments.]

Assignments of patents are not required to be under seal. The statutes
simply provide that "every patent, or any interest therein shall be
assignable in law by an instrument in writing." (_Gottfried_ vs.
_Miller, U. S. S. C. Decided Jan. 23, 1882._)

A contract assigning a patent and all future improvements thereon is
enforceable against assignees of such improvements who take notice of
the contract. (_Westinghouse Air Brake Co._ vs. _Chicago Brake and Mfg.
Co., 85 F. R., 786._)

Each co-owner of a patent may use his right without the concurrence of
the others and license at will. (_Washburn & Moen Co._ vs. _Chicago Wire
Fence Co., 109 Ill., 71._)

Owners of a patent are tenants in common, and each, as an incident of
his ownership, has the right to use the patent or manufacture under it.
But neither can be compelled by his co-owner to join in such use or
work, or be liable for the losses which may occur, or to account for the
profits which may arise from such use. (_De Witt_ vs. _Elmira Nobles
Mfg. Co., 12 N. Y. Spur., 301._)

Joint owners of a patent, right are not copartners, and in the absence
of any express contract each is at liberty to use his moiety as he may
think fit, without any liability to or accounting to the other for
profits or losses. (_Vose_ vs. _Singer, 4 Allen (Mass.), 226; vide Pitt
vs. Hall, 3 Blatch., 201._)

Although an assignment of patent is not recorded within three months, it
is binding on the assignor, and he cannot sell the patent again. (_Ex
parte Waters, Com. Dec., 1899, p. 42._)

A verbal license or interest in an invention has no effect as against a
subsequent assignee without notice of such verbal license or interest.
(_U. S. S. C., Gates Iron Works_ vs. _Fraser et al., 1894, C. D., 304._)

An assignment to assign future patents, in consideration of the
assignee's paying the expense of taking them out, is broken by his
refusal to pay for and take out a particular patent when requested, and
a subsequent assignment to another conveys a perfect title. (_Buck_ vs.
_Timony, 78 Fed. Rep., 487._)

Any assignment which does not convey to the assignee the entire and
unqualified monopoly which the patentee holds in the territory
specified, or an undivided interest in the entire _monopoly,_ is a mere
license. (_Sanford_ vs. _Messer, 2 O. G., 470._)

When a party does license, grant, and convey any invention which he may
hereafter make, this gives only an equitable right to have an assignment
made, and this right may be defeated by assignment of the patent to a
purchaser for value without notice of this equity. (_Regan Vapor Engine
Co._ vs. _Pacific Gas Engine Co. (Nineth Cir.), 7 U. S., App., 73._)

[Sidenote: Territorial Grants.]

A territorial grantee cannot be restrained from advertising and selling
within his territory, even though the purchasers may take the patented
article outside the vendor's territory. (_Hatch_ vs. _Hall, 22 Fed.
Rep., 483._)

One who buys patented articles of manufacture from an assignee for a
specified territory becomes possessed of an absolute property in such
articles, unrestricted in time or place. (_U. S. S. C., Keller et al._
vs. _Standard Folding Bed Co., 71 O. G., 451._)

The sale of a patented machine by one authorized to sell, conveys the
whole ownership to the purchaser, who may sell it again to another.
(_Morgan Envelope Co._ vs. _Albany Perforated Wrapping Paper Co., 152 U.
S. 425._)

[Sidenote: Licenses.]

Every person who pays the patentee for a license to use his process
becomes the owner of the product, and may sell it to whom he pleases, or
apply it to any purpose, unless he binds himself by covenants to
restrict his rights of making and vending certain articles that may
interfere with the special business of some other licensee. (_Met.
Washing Machine Co._ vs. _Earl, 2 Fish., 203; 2 Wall., Jr., 230._)

A license is not forfeitable for non-payment of royalties in the absence
of express provisions to that effect. (_Wagner Typewriter Co._ vs.
_Watkins, 84 Fed. Rep., 57; 1898._)

A shop right is a personal license and is not assignable. (_Gibbs_ vs.
_Hoefner, 19 Fed. Rep., 323; 22 Blatch., 36._)

A license to a person to use an invention only "at his own
establishment" does not authorize a use at an establishment owned by him
and others. (_Rubber Co._ vs. _Goodyear, 9 Wallace, 788._)

A license is not transferable unless its terms so state. (_Olmer_ vs.
_Rumford Chemical Co., 109 U. S., 75._)

A license merely to make and not to sell does not impair the patent
owner's right to sue for infringement outside of the license; and the
purchaser of the licensee's tools and materials would not carry the
right to sell the product made thereon. (_American Graphophone Co._ vs.
_Walcut, 87 Fed. Rep., 556; 1898._)

A license to use a machine carries with it the right to repair the
machine, and replace worn parts until the essential original parts of
the machine have disappeared. (_Robinson on Patents, Sec. 827._)

A lawful sale of a patented article by a patentee or grantee, within his
own territory, carries with it the right to use such article throughout
the whole United States. (_Adams_ vs. _Burke, 5 O.G., 118_; _Hobbie_ vs.
_Smith. 27 Fed. Rep., 636._)

When an applicant in certain instruments assigned his right, title, and
interest in an invention, retaining for himself the exclusive right to
employ the invention in the manufacture of a certain class of machines,
Held, that such instruments do not convey the entire interest in the
invention or any undivided part thereof, and they are construed to be
nothing more than licenses. (_Ex parte Rosback, 89 O. G., 705. Decided
Oct. 5, 1899._)

An implied license to use a patented improvement without payment of any
royalties during the continuance of employment of the inventor, and
thereafter, on the same terms and royalties fixed for other parties, is
shown where the inventor applies the patent to his employer's work
without any agreement for compensation for its use further than a notice
that he would require pay after his employment terminated. (_Keys_ vs.
_Eureka Consol. Min. Co., U. S. S. C., 158 U. S., 150._)

A breach of a covenant in a license does not work a forfeiture of the
license unless it is so expressly agreed. (_Consol. Middlings Purifier
Co._ vs. _Wolf, 37 O. G., 567._)

[Sidenote: Patent Title.]

A patent right, like any other personal property, is understood by
Congress to vest in the executors and administrators of the patentee, if
he dies without having assigned it. (_Shaw Relief Valve Co._ vs. _City
of New Bedford, 19th Fed. Rep., 758._)

A patent to a dead man at the time of its grant is not void for the want
of a grantee, but vests in his heirs or assigns. (_U. S. S. C, De La
Vergne Ref. Machine Co._ vs. _Featherstone, 1893, C. D., 181._)

A court of equity may direct a sale of an inventor's interest in his
patent to satisfy a judgment against him, and will require the patentee
to assign as provided in Rev. Stat., Sec. 4898, and if he refuses, will
appoint a trustee to make the assignment. (_Murray_ vs. _Ager, 20 O. G.,
1311._)

A patent right cannot be seized and sold on execution. (_Carver_ vs.
_Peck, 131 Mass., 291._)

A receiver cannot, under his general powers, convey the legal title to a
patent (_Adams_ vs. _Howard, 23 Blatch., 27_), but a court may compel an
insolvent to assign his patent to a trustee or receiver. (_Pacific Bank_
vs. _Robinson, 20 O. G., 1314_; _Murray_ vs. _Ager, 20 O. G., 1311._)

A patentee who assigns his patent cannot, when sued for infringement,
contest the validity thereof. (_Griffith_ vs. _Shaw, 89 Fed. Rep.,
313._)


RULES OF PRACTICE

The following from the "Rules of Practice in the United States Patent
Office" may be perused with interest to the patentee; a copy of which,
together with a copy of the "Patent Laws," will be mailed free to any
person upon addressing the Hon. Commissioner of Patents, Washington,
D. C., requesting the same; these being the only books or pamphlets
published by the Office for gratuitous distribution.

[Sidenote: Assignments.]

Every patent or any interest therein shall be assignable in law by an
instrument in writing; and the patentee or his assigns or legal
representatives may, in like manner, grant and convey an exclusive right
under the patent to the whole or any specified part of the United
States. Interests in patents may be vested in assignees, in grantees of
exclusive sectional rights, in mortgagees, and in licensees.

[Sidenote: Assignees.]

An assignee is a transferee of the whole interest of the original patent
or of an undivided part of such whole interest, extending to every
portion of the United States. The assignment must be written or printed
and duly signed.

[Sidenote: Grantees.]

A grantee acquires by the grant the exclusive right under the patent to
make and use and to grant to others the right to make and use, the thing
patented within and throughout some specified part of the United States,
excluding the patentee therefrom. The grant must be written or printed
and be duly signed.

[Sidenote: Mortgages.]

A mortgage must be written or printed and duly signed.

[Sidenote: Licensees.]

A licensee takes an interest less than or different from either of the
others. A license may be oral, written, or printed, and if written or
printed, must be duly signed.

[Sidenote: Must be Recorded.]

An assignment, grant, or conveyance of a patent will be void as against
any subsequent purchaser or mortgagee for a valuable consideration
without notice unless recorded in the Patent Office within three months
from the date thereof. If any such assignment, grant, or conveyance of
any patent shall be acknowledged before any notary public of the several
States or territories, or the District of Columbia, or any commissioner
of the United States Circuit Court, or before any secretary of legation,
or consular officer authorized to administer oaths or perform notarial
acts under Section 1750 of the Revised Statutes, the certificate of such
acknowledgment, under the hand and official seal of such notary or other
officer, shall be _prima facie_ evidence of the execution of such
assignment, grant, or conveyance.

No instrument will be recorded which does not, in the judgment of the
Commissioner, amount to an assignment, grant, mortgage, lien,
encumbrance, or license, or which does not affect the title of the
patent or invention to which it relates. Such instruments should
identify the patent by date and number; or, if the invention is
unpatented, the name of the inventor, the serial number, and date of the
application should be stated.

[Sidenote: Conditional Assignments.]

Assignments which are made conditional on the performance of certain
stipulations, as the conditional payment of money, if recorded in the
office are regarded as absolute assignments until cancelled with the
written consent of both parties, or by the decree of a competent court.
The office has no means for determining whether such conditions have
been filled. (_Rev. Stat., Sec. 4898._)

STATE LAWS ON SELLING PATENTS

In some States, laws have been passed by which attempts have been made
to regulate or prevent the sale of patent rights within their borders,
by imposing upon patentees or their agents certain State restrictions,
such as requiring the filing of copies of patents, making and filing
proofs, taking out licenses, procuring certificates, complying with
forms, or prescribing the terms of a note to be given for a patent.

While it has never been squarely brought before the United States
Supreme Court, with the result that much conflicting legislation has
been enacted by the different States, it may be said, as a general
proposition, that a State or municipality, through the medium of its
Legislature or officials, has no constitutional right to make or enforce
laws which in any way affect or control the transfer, sale, or other
disposition of United States Letters Patent; or to interfere in any
manner with the patentee going into the open market anywhere to sell his
rights conferred by the patent.

It is a well-established principle of law that Congress has exclusive
right and power to legislate on the subjects specially assigned to it by
the Constitution, while power is delegated to the several States to
legislate on those subjects not thus expressly placed within the
control of Congress. It would seem clear that there can be no State
interference with the rights which are incident to the grant of Letters
Patent and expressly conferred thereby.

Ohio was the first State attempting to place restrictions upon the
handling of patent rights, which, in 1868, passed an act requiring any
person, before offering for sale a patent right in any county, to submit
the patent to the Probate Judge of the county, and make affidavit before
said judge that the patent was in force, and that the applicant had the
right to sell, and also requiring that any written obligation taken on
the sale of such right should bear on its face the words, "Given for a
Patent Right."

The portion of the Ohio statute relating to the making and filing proofs
was subsequently made the law in Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana, Nebraska,
and Kansas, while the requirement that written obligations given for a
patent right should bear such statement written upon its face was made
the law in Vermont, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, New York,
Connecticut, and Arkansas.

In view of the decisions rendered by the Supreme Court of the United
States in the cases of _ex parte_ Robinson, 2 Bissel, 309, and Webber
_vs._ Virginia, 103 U. S., 347; 20 O. G., 136, some of the States
repealed their statutes relating to the filing of proofs, while others
did not--notably Indiana and Kansas, where the statute still remains in
force.

While the Supreme Court in the above cases did not decide the
constitutionality of the State statutes, it was clearly indicated that
property in inventions existed by virtue of the laws of Congress, and
that no State had any right to interfere with its enjoyment, or to annex
conditions to the grant, and that the patentee had a right to go into
the open market anywhere in the United States and sell his property. It
also established the proposition that a State may require the taking out
of a license for the sale of the manufactured article covered by the
patent; and the patentee should keep in mind the distinction between
selling patents, or patent privileges, and the selling of goods or
manufactured articles, as all who sell goods, whether patented or not,
must conform with the local and State laws relating to same.

The statute requiring the insertion in written obligations of the words,
"Given for a Patent Right," has been declared unconstitutional by the
higher State Courts in Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Nebraska, and
by the Circuit Courts in the southern district of Ohio, and in the
district of Indiana; while its validity has been sustained by the courts
of last resort in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas.
Therefore, the validity of the State statutes on the point referred to
may be regarded as finally established in the last-named States until
brought before the Supreme Court of the United States.



CHAPTER IX


THE TRANSFER OF PATENT RIGHTS


It frequently occurs to the patentee that a knowledge of the legal
requirements of the transfer of patent rights would save him much time
and trouble. Patentees should carefully scrutinize all papers offered by
the parties in whose favor they are drawn, and, if possible, he should
have his attorney to examine them.

There are three classes of persons in whom the patentee can vest an
interest of some kind. They are an assignee, a grantee of an exclusive
sectional right, and a licensee.

[Sidenote: Assignee, Grantee, and Licensee Defined.]

"An _assignee_ is one who has transferred to him in writing the whole
interest in the original patent, or any undivided part of such whole
interest in every portion of the United States. And no one, unless he
has such an interest transferred to him, is an assignee.

"A _grantee_ is one who has transferred in writing the exclusive right
under the patent, to make and use, and to grant to others to make and
use, the thing patented, within and throughout some specified part or
portion of the United States. Such right must be an exclusive sectional
right, excluding the patentee therefrom.

"A _licensee_ is one who has transferred to him in writing, or orally, a
less or different interest than either the interest in the whole patent,
or an undivided part of such whole interest, or an exclusive sectional
interest." (_Potter_ vs. _Holland, 1 Fish, 327._)

[Sidenote: The Language of Law.]

If a man were to give another an orange he would simply say, "I give you
this orange"; but if the transaction be intrusted to a lawyer to draw up
according to the requirements of law, says the _Observer_, he would most
probably put it in the following language: "I hereby give, grant, and
convey to you all my interest, right, title, and advantage of and in
said orange, together with its rind, skin, juice, pulp, and pits, and
all right and advantage therein with full power to bite, suck, cut, or
otherwise eat the same or to give the same away, as fully and
effectually as I, the said A. B., am now entitled to cut, bite, or
otherwise eat the same, or give away the same with or without the rind,
skin, juice, pulp, or pits; anything hereinbefore or hereafter or in any
other deed or deeds, instruments of nature or kind whatsoever to the
contrary in anywise notwithstanding."

It is always better and more satisfactory to have assignments, royalty
contracts, agreements, etc., drawn up specially to accord with the
facts, details, and covenants of each particular case; and there is no
one probably better able to do this than the attorney who secured the
patent. However, if in the case the parties to the transaction cannot
well delay proceedings to have the papers prepared by an attorney, by
adhering to the following forms in any such transactions, both the
purchaser and seller may rest assured that their rights are protected.


ASSIGNMENT OF ENTIRE INTEREST IN LETTERS PATENT

  _Whereas_, I, Richard Doe, of Columbus, County of Franklin,
  State of Ohio, did obtain Letters Patent of the United
  States for an improvement in Typewriting Machines, which
  Letters Patent are numbered 000,000, and bear date January
  1, 1901; and whereas I am now sole owner of said patent, and
  of all rights under the same; and whereas the Ohio
  Typewriter Company, a corporation, of Cincinnati, County of
  Hamilton, and State of Ohio, is desirous of acquiring an
  interest in the same:

  _Now, therefore_, to all whom it may concern, be it known,
  that for and in consideration of the sum of five thousand
  dollars to me in hand paid by the aforesaid corporation, the
  receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, I, the said
  Richard Doe have sold, assigned, and transferred, and by
  these presents do sell, assign, and transfer unto the said
  Ohio Typewriter Company, its successors and assigns, the
  entire right, title and interest in and to said Letters
  Patent and the invention therein patented; the same to be
  held and enjoyed by the said corporation for its own use and
  behoof, and for the use and behoof of its successors and
  assigns, to the full end of the term for which said Letters
  Patent are or may be granted, as fully and entirely as the
  same would have been held and enjoyed by me had this
  assignment and sale not been made.

  _In testimony whereof_, I have hereto set my hand and
  affixed my seal, at Columbus, County and State aforesaid,
  this tenth day of January, A.D. 1901.

                                RICHARD DOE. (_Seal._)

  In presence of
     JOHN SMITH,
    THOS. JONES.
   STATE OF OHIO,      }_ss._:
   COUNTY OF FRANKLIN, }

    Subscribed and acknowledged before me this tenth day of
    January, A.D. 1901.

  _Seal._                     JOHN RICE, _Notary Public_.



If it is the intention of the assignor to convey to the assignee the
right to recover for past infringement of the patent, a clause like the
following should be added:

And for the same consideration, I do hereby sell, assign and transfer
unto the aforesaid corporation, all claims and demands, both at law and
in equity, which may have accrued to me by reason of the infringement of
the aforesaid Letters Patent with the right to sue and recover therefor
in its own name and for its own use and behoof.


ASSIGNMENT OF AN UNDIVIDED INTEREST

  _Whereas_, I, Richard Doe, of Philadelphia, County of
  Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania, did obtain Letters
  Patent of the United States for improvements in Locomotive
  Headlights, which Letters Patent are numbered 000,000, and
  bear the date of June 26, 1900; and whereas, John Roe, of
  Philadelphia, County of Philadelphia and State of
  Pennsylvania, is desirous of acquiring an interest in the
  same: _Now, therefore_, this indenture witnesseth, that for
  and in consideration of the sum of one thousand dollars to
  me in hand paid by said John Roe, the receipt of which is
  hereby acknowledged, I do hereby sell, assign, and transfer
  unto the said John Roe, his heirs and assigns, one undivided
  one-half interest in and to the aforesaid Letters Patent
  and the invention therein patented; the same to be held and
  enjoyed by the said John Roe, his heirs and assigns to the
  full end of the term for which said Letters Patent are or
  may be granted as fully and entirely as the same would have
  been held and enjoyed by me if this assignment and sale had
  not been made.

  And I do hereby declare that I have not conveyed to any
  other party the rights and interest herein transferred to
  the said John Roe.

  Witness my hand and seal this tenth day of January, A.D.
  1901,

                        RICHARD DOE.

  In presence of
    JOHN SMITH,
    THOS. JONES.

  STATE OF PENNA.,       } _ss._:
  COUNTY OF PHILADELPHIA,}

  Subscribed and sworn before me this tenth day
  of January, A.D. 1901.

   _Seal._                 JOHN RICE,
                          _Notary Public._



GRANT OF A TERRITORIAL INTEREST

  _Whereas_, I, Richard Doe, of Dayton, County of Montgomery,
  State of Ohio, did obtain Letters Patent of the United
  States for improvements in Corn-Cultivators, which Letters
  Patent are numbered 000,000, and bear date the first day of
  January, 1901, and whereas, I am now the sole owner of said
  patent, and of all rights under the same in the
  below-recited territory; and whereas, John Roe, of
  Indianapolis, County of Marion, State of Indiana, is
  desirous of acquiring an interest in the same;

  _Now, therefore_, to all whom it may concern, be it known,
  that for and in consideration of the sum of one thousand
  dollars to me in hand paid, by the said John Roe, the
  receipt of which is hereby acknowledge, I, the said Richard
  Doe, have sold, assigned, and transferred, and by these
  presents do sell, assign and transfer unto the said John
  Roe, his heirs and assigns, the entire right, title and
  interest in and to said Letters Patent, and in and to the
  invention therein patented for the States of Indiana and
  Illinois, and in no other place or places; the same to be
  held and enjoyed by the said John Roe, his heirs and
  assigns, within and throughout the above specified
  territory, but not elsewhere, to the full end of the term
  for which said Letters Patent are or may be granted, as
  fully and entirely as the same would have been held and
  enjoyed by me had this assignment and sale not been made.

  _In testimony whereof_, I have hereunto set my hand and
  affixed my seal this tenth day of January, A.D. 1901, in the
  presence of the subscribing witnesses.

                             RICHARD DOE.

  In presence of
       JOHN SMITH,
      THOS. JONES.
  STATE OF INDIANA,       }_ss._:
  COUNTY OF MARION,       }

  On this tenth day of January, A.D. 1901, personally appeared
  before me Richard Doe, to me known and known to me to be the
  individual who executed the foregoing instrument, and who
  acknowledged to me that he executed the same for the purpose
  therein expressed.

  _Seal._                    JOHN RICE,
                          _Notary Public._



LICENSE:--SHOP-RIGHT

  _In consideration_ of the sum of two hundred dollars to me
  paid by The John Roe Company, a corporation of Pennsylvania,
  located in the city of Pittsburg, I do hereby license and
  empower said company to make and use at its foundry and
  machine shop in said Pittsburg, and in no other place or
  places, in connection with its own business only, or that of
  its successors and assigns, the improvements in Lathes, for
  which Letters Patent of the United States No. 000,000, were
  granted to me January 1, 1901, to the full end of the term
  for which said Letters Patent are granted.

  Signed and delivered at Pittsburg, in the County of
  Allegheny, State of Pennsylvania, this tenth day of January,
  A. D. 1901.

                            RICHARD DOE.

  TO JOHN ROE COMPANY,
            Pittsburg, Pa.



LICENSE:--NON-EXCLUSIVE--WITH ROYALTY

  _This agreement_, made this tenth day of January, 1901,
  between Richard Doe, of Wilmington, County of New Castle,
  State of Delaware, party of the first part, and the Metallic
  Railway Tie Company, of Chicago, in the County of Cook, and
  State of Illinois, party of the second part,

  _Witnesseth_, that whereas Letters Patent of the United
  States, No. 000,000, for an improvement in Metallic
  Railroad-Ties, were granted to the party of the first part
  January 1, 1901; and whereas the party of the second part is
  desirous of manufacturing Metallic Railroad-Ties containing
  the said patented improvements:

  _Now, therefore_, the parties hereto have agreed as follows:

  I. The party of the first part hereby licenses and empowers
  the party of the second part to manufacture, subject to the
  conditions herein named, at their plant in Chicago, and in
  no other place or places, to the end of the term for which
  said Letters Patent were granted, Metallic Railroad-Ties
  containing the patented improvements, and to sell the same
  within the United States.

  II. The party of the second part agrees to make full and
  true returns to the party of the first part, under oath,
  upon the first days of January and July in each year, of all
  Metallic Railroad-Ties containing said patented improvements
  manufactured by them.

  III. The party of the second part agrees to pay the party of
  the first part five dollars as a license fee upon each and
  every thousand Metallic Railroad-Ties manufactured by the
  party of the second part containing the patented
  improvements: provided, that if the said fee be paid upon
  the days provided herein for semi-annual returns, or within
  ten days thereafter, a discount of fifty per cent, shall be
  made from said fee for prompt payment.

  IV. The party of the second part agrees to put forth their
  best efforts and use due diligence in the manufacture and
  sale of the Metallic Railroad-Ties containing the said
  patented improvements, and if the royalties do not amount to
  five hundred dollars semi-annually, the party of the first
  part may terminate this license by serving a written notice
  upon the party of the second part.

  V. Upon the failure of the party of the second part to make
  returns or to make payment of license fees, as herein
  provided, for thirty days after the days herein named, the
  party of the first part may terminate this license by
  serving a written notice upon the party of the second part;
  but the party of the second part shall not thereby be
  discharged from any liability to the party of the first part
  for any license fees due at the time of the service of such
  notice.

  _In witness whereof_, the parties above named have hereto
  set their hands the day and year first above written, at
  Chicago, County of Cook, and State of Illinois.

                              RICHARD DOE,
            _Metallic Railway Tie Company_,
                     Per John Roe, President.



LICENSE:--EXCLUSIVE--WITH ROYALTY

  _This agreement_, made this tenth day of January, 1901,
  between Richard Doe, of Boston, State of Massachusetts,
  party of the first part, and the Roe Vending Machine
  Company, a corporate body under the laws of the State of New
  Jersey, located and doing business at the city of New York,
  in the State of New York, party of the second part,

  _Witnesseth_, that whereas, Letters Patent of the United
  States, No. 000,000, were, on the first day of January,
  1901, granted to the said party of the first part, for
  improvements in Coin-Controlled Machines, and whereas said
  party of the second part is desirous of manufacturing and
  selling said patented article: Now, therefore, the parties
  hereto have agreed as follows:

  I. The party of the first part gives to the party of the
  second part the exclusive right to manufacture and sell the
  said patented improvements, to the end of the term of said
  patent, subject to the conditions hereinafter named.

  II. The party of the second part agrees to make full and
  true returns, on the first days of January and July in each
  year, of all machines manufactured and sold by them
  containing the said patented improvements in the six
  calendar months next preceding the date of any such notice;
  and if the party of the first part shall not be satisfied in
  any respect with any such return, then shall the party of
  the first part have the right, either by himself or by his
  attorney, to examine any and all books of account of said
  party of the second part concerning any items, charges,
  memoranda, or information relating to the manufacture or
  sale of said patented Coin-Controlled Machines; and upon
  request made, said party of the second part shall produce
  all such books for said examination.

  III. The party of the second part agrees to pay the party of
  the first part five dollars as a license fee upon every one
  of the said patented Coin-Controlled Machines manufactured
  by them, the whole of said license fee for each term of six
  months to be due and payable on the days hereinabove
  provided for semi-annual returns; provided, that if said fee
  be paid upon the days herein provided, or within fifteen
  days thereafter, a discount of fifty per cent, shall be made
  from said fee for prompt payment.

  IV. The party of the second part agrees to pay the party of
  the first part at least two thousand dollars, less discount,
  as said license fee upon each of the semi-annual terms, even
  though they should not make enough of said patented machines
  to amount to that sum at the regular royalty of five dollars
  each.

  V. The party of the second part shall cast, or otherwise
  permanently place, upon every such machine made under this
  license the word "Doe," and in close relation thereto the
  word "Patented," and the number and date of said patent.

  VI. The party of the second part shall not, during the life
  of this license, make or sell any article which can compete
  in the market with said Coin-Controlled Machines.

  VII. Upon the failure of the party of the second part to
  keep each and all of the conditions of this license and
  agreement, the party of the first part may, at his option,
  terminate this license, and such termination shall not
  release said party of the second part from any liability due
  at such time to the party of the first part.

  _In witness whereof_, the above-named parties (the said Roe
  Vending Machine Company, by its president) have hereto set
  their hands the day and year first above written,

                              RICHARD DOE,
              _Roe Vending Machine Company_,
                       By John Roe, President.



No general legal forms should be relied upon too implicitly as suiting
particular cases, and an inventor, in order to fully protect his
interests, should consult a reliable patent attorney, and have the forms
properly prepared to suit his individual case.

[Illustration: Map of Continental USA]



CHAPTER X

TABLES AND STATISTICS

OFFICIAL CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES, BY COUNTIES, FOR 1910

(_From the Bulletin of the Director of the Census_)

ALABAMA.--Area, 51,998 square miles.

Autauga          20,038 | Dallas           53,401 | Marengo          39,923
Baldwin          18,178 | Dekalb           28,261 | Marion           17,495
Barbour          32,728 |                         | Marshall         28,553
Bibb             22,791 | Elmore           28,245 | Mobile           80,854
Blount           21,456 | Escambia         18,889 | Monroe           27,155
                        | Etowah           39,109 |
Bullock          30,196 | Fayette          16,248 | Montgomery       82,178
Butler           29,030 | Franklin         19,369 | Morgan           33,781
Calhoun          39,115 |                         | Perry            31,222
Chambers         36,056 | Geneva           26,230 | Pickens          25,055
Cherokee         20,226 | Greene           22,717 | Pike             30,815
                        | Hale             27,883 |
Chilton          23,187 | Henry            20,943 | Randolph         24,659
Choctaw          18,483 | Houston          32,414 | Russell          25,937
Clarke           30,987 |                         | St. Clair        20,715
Clay             21,006 | Jackson          32,918 | Shelby           26,949
Cleburne         13,385 | Jefferson       226,476 | Sumter           28,699
                        | Lamar            17,487 |
Coffee           26,119 | Lauderdale       30,936 | Talladega        37,921
Colbert          24,802 | Lawrence         21,984 | Tallapoosa       31,034
Conecuh          21,433 |                         | Tuscaloosa       47,559
Coosa            16,634 | Lee              32,867 | Walker           37,013
Covington        32,124 | Limestone        26,880 | Washington       14,454
                        | Lowndes          31,894 |
Crenshaw         23,313 | Macon            26,049 | Wilcox           33,810
Cullman          28,321 | Madison          47,041 | Winston          12,855
Dale             21,873 |                         |

     TOTAL                                                        2,138,093

ARIZONA.--Area, 113,956 square miles.

Apache            9,196 | Maricopa         34,488 | Santa Cruz        6,766
Cochise          34,591 | Mohave            3,773 | Yavapai          15,996
Coconino          8,130 | Navajo           11,491 | Yuma              7,733
Gila             16,780 | Pima             22,818 |
Graham           23,547 | Pinal             9,045 |

     TOTAL                                                          204,354

ARKANSAS.--Area, 53,335 square miles.

Arkansas         16,103 | Garland          27,271 | Newton           10,612
Ashley           25,268 | Grant             9,425 | Ouachita         21,774
Baxter           10,389 | Greene           23,852 | Perry             9,402
Benton           33,389 | Hempstead        28,285 | Phillips         33,535
Boone            14,318 | Hot Spring       15,022 | Pike             12,565
                        |                           |
Bradley          14,518 | Howard           16,898 | Poinsett         12,791
Calhoun           9,894 | Independence     24,776 | Polk             17,216
Carroll          16,829 | Izard            14,561 | Pope             24,527
Chicot           21,987 | Jackson          23,501 | Prairie          13,853
Clark            23,686 | Jefferson        52,734 | Pulaski          86,751
                        |                           |
Clay             23,690 | Johnson          19,698 | Randolph         18,987
Cleburne         11,903 | Lafayette        13,741 | St. Francis      22,548
Cleveland        13,481 | Lawrence         20,001 | Saline           16,057
Columbia         23,820 | Lee              24,252 | Scott            14,302
Conway           22,729 | Lincoln          15,118 | Searcy           14,825
                        |                           |
Craighead        27,627 | Little River     13,597 | Sebastian        52,278
Crawford         23,942 | Logan            26,350 | Sevier           16,616
Crittenden       22,447 | Lonoke           27,983 | Sharp            11,688
Cross            14,042 | Madison          16,056 | Stone             8,946
Dallas           12,621 | Marion           10,203 | Union            30,723
                        |                           |
Desha            15,274 | Miller           19,555 | Van Buren        13,509
Drew             21,960 | Mississippi      30,468 | Washington       33,889
Faulkner         23,708 | Monroe           19,907 | White            28,574
Franklin         20,638 | Montgomery       12,455 | Woodruff         20,049
Fulton           12,193 | Nevada           19,344 | Yell             26,323

     TOTAL                                                        1,574,449

CALIFORNIA.--Area, 158,297 square miles.

Alameda         246,131 | Glenn             7,172 | Marin            25,114
Alpine              309 | Humboldt         33,857 | Mariposa          3,956
Amador            9,086 | Imperial         13,591 | Mendocino        23,929
Butte            27,301 | Inyo              6,974 | Merced           15,148
Calaveras         9,171 | Kern             37,715 | Modoc             6,191
                        |                         |
Colusa            7,732 | Kings            16,230 | Mono              2,042
Contra Costa     31,674 | Lake              5,526 | Monterey         24,146
Del Norte         2,417 | Lassen            4,802 | Napa             19,800
Eldorado          7,492 | Los Angeles     504,131 | Nevada           14,955
Fresno           75,657 | Madera            8,368 | Orange           34,436
                        |                         |
Placer           18,237 | San Mateo        26,585 | Sutter            6,328
Plumas            5,259 | Santa Barbara    27,738 | Tehama           11,401
Riverside        34,696 | Santa Clara      83,539 | Trinity           3,301
Sacramento       67,806 | Santa Cruz       26,140 | Tulare           35,440
San Benito        8,041 | Shasta           18,920 | Tuolumne          9,979
                        |                         |
San Bernadino    56,706 | Sierra            4,098 | Ventura          18,347
San Diego        61,665 | Siskiyou         18,801 | Yolo             13,926
San Francisco   416,912 | Solano           27,539 | Yuba             10,042
San Joaquin      50,731 | Sonoma           48,394 |
San Luis Obispo  19,383 | Stanislaus       22,522 |

     TOTAL                                                        2,377,549

COLORADO.--Area, 103,948 square miles.

Adams             8,892 | Garfield         10,144 | Morgan            9,577
Arapahoe         10,263 | Gilpin            4,131 | Otero            20,201
Archuleta         3,302 | Grand             1,862 | Ouray             3,514
Baca              2,516 | Gunnison          5,897 | Park              2,492
Bent              5,043 | Hinsdale            646 | Phillips          3,179
                        |                         |
Boulder          30,330 | Huerfano         13,320 | Pitkin            4,566
Chaffee           7,622 | Jackson           1,013 | Prowers           9,520
Cheyenne          3,687 | Jefferson        14,231 | Pueblo           52,223
Clear Creek       5,001 | Kiowa             2,899 | Rio Blanco        2,332
Conejos          11,285 | Kit Carson        7,483 | Rio Grande        6,563
                        |                         |
Costilla          5,498 | La Plate         10,812 | Routt             7,561
Custer            1,947 | Lake             10,600 | Saguache          4,160
Delta            13,688 | Larimer          25,270 | San Juan          3,063
Denver          213,381 | Las Animas       33,643 | San Miguel        4,700
Dolores             642 | Lincoln           5,917 | Sedgwick          3,061
                        |                         |
Douglas           3,192 | Logan             9,549 | Summit            2,003
Eagle             2,985 | Mesa             22,197 | Teller           14,351
El Paso          43,321 | Mineral           1,239 | Washington        6,002
Elbert            5,331 | Montezuma         5,029 | Weld             39,177
Fremont          18,181 | Montrose         10,291 | Yuma              8,499

     TOTAL                                                          799,024

CONNECTICUT.--Area, 4,965 square miles.

Fairfield       245,322 | Middlesex        45,637 | New London       91,253
Hartford        250,182 |                         | Tolland          26,459
Litchfield       70,260 | New Haven       337,282 | Windham          48,361

     TOTAL                                                        1,114,756

DELAWARE.--Area, 2,370 square miles.

Kent             32,721 | Newcastle       123,188 | Sussex           46,413

     TOTAL                                                          202,322

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.--Area, 70 square miles.

The District                                                        331,069

FLORIDA.--Area, 58,666 square miles.

Alachua          34,305 | Hillsboro        78,374 | Osceola           5,507
Baker             4,805 | Holmes           11,557 | Palm Beach        5,577
Bradford         14,090 | Jackson          29,821 | Pasco             7,502
Brevard           4,717 | Jefferson        17,210 |
Calhoun           7,465 |                         | Polk             24,148
                        | Lafayette         6,710 | Putnam           13,096
Citrus            6,731 | Lake              9,509 | St. John         13,208
Clay              6,116 | Lee               6,294 | St. Lucie         4,075
Columbia         17,689 | Leon             19,427 | Santa Rosa       14,897
Dade             11,933 | Levy             10,361 |
De Soto          14,200 |                         | Sumter            6,696
                        | Liberty           4,700 | Suwanee          18,603
Duval            75,163 | Madison          16,919 | Taylor            7,103
Escambia         36,549 | Manatee           9,550 | Volusia          16,510
Franklin          5,201 | Marion           26,941 | Wakulla           4,802
Gadsden          22,198 | Monroe           21,563 |
Hamilton         11,825 |                         | Walton           16,460
                        | Nassau           10,525 | Washington       16,403
Hernando          4,997 | Orange           19,107 |

     TOTAL                                                          752,619

GEORGIA.--Area, 59,265 square miles.

Appling          12,318 | Clayton          10,453 | Forsyth          11,940
Baker             7,973 | Clinch            8,424 | Franklin         17,894
Baldwin          18,354 | Cobb             28,397 | Fulton          177,733
Banks            11,244 | Coffee           21,953 | Gilmer            9,237
Bartow           25,388 | Colquitt         19,789 | Glascock          4,669
                        |                         |
Ben Hill         11,863 | Columbia         12,328 | Glynn            15,720
Berrien          22,772 | Coweta           28,800 | Gordon           15,861
Bibb             56,646 | Crawford          8,310 | Grady            18,457
Brooks           23,832 | Crisp            16,423 | Greene           18,512
Bryan             6,702 | Dade              4,139 | Gwinnett         28,824
                        |                         |
Bulloch          26,464 | Dawson            4,686 | Habersham        10,134
Burke            27,268 | Decatur          29,045 | Hall             25,730
Butts            13,624 | Dekalb           27,881 | Hancock          19,189
Calhoun          11,334 | Dodge            20,127 | Haralson         13,514
Camden            7,690 | Dooly            20,554 | Harris           17,886
                        |                         |
Campbell         10,874 | Dougherty        16,035 | Hart             16,216
Carroll          30,855 | Douglas           8,953 | Heard            11,189
Catoosa           7,184 | Early            18,122 | Henry            19,927
Charlton          4,722 | Echols            3,309 | Houston          23,609
Chatham          79,690 | Effingham         9,971 | Irwin            10,461
                        |                         |
Chattahoochee     5,586 | Elbert           24,125 | Jackson          30,169
Chattooga        13,608 | Emanuel          25,140 | Jasper           16,552
Cherokee         16,661 | Fannin           12,574 | Jeff Davis        6,050
Clarke           23,273 | Fayette          10,966 | Jefferson        21,379
Clay              8,960 | Floyd            36,736 | Jenkins          11,520
                        |                         |
Johnson          12,897 | Paulding         14,124 | Tift             11,487
Jones            13,103 | Pickens           9,041 | Toombs           11,206
Laurens          35,501 | Pierce           10,749 | Towns             3,932
Lee              11,679 | Pike             19,495 | Troup            26,228
Liberty          12,924 | Polk             20,203 | Turner           10,075
                        |                         |
Lincoln           8,714 | Pulaski          22,835 | Twiggs           10,736
Lowndes          24,436 | Putnam           13,876 | Union             6,918
Lumpkin           5,444 | Quitman           4,594 | Upson            12,757
McDuffie         10,325 | Rabun             5,562 | Walker           18,692
McIntosh          6,442 | Randolph         18,841 | Walton           25,393
                        |                         |
Macon            15,016 | Richmond         58,886 | Ware             22,957
Madison          16,851 | Rockdale          8,916 | Warren           11,860
Marion            9,147 | Schley            5,213 | Washington       28,174
Meriwether       25,180 | Screven          20,202 | Wayne            13,069
Miller            7,986 | Spalding         19,741 | Webster           6,151
                        |                         |
Milton            7,239 | Stephens          9,728 | White             5,110
Mitchell         22,114 | Stewart          13,437 | Whitfield        15,934
Monroe           20,450 | Sumter           29,092 | Wilcox           13,486
Montgomery       19,638 | Talbot           11,696 | Wilkes           23,441
Morgan           19,717 | Taliaferro        8,766 | Wilkinson        10,078
                        |                         |
Murray            9,763 | Tattnall         18,569 | Worth            19,147
Muscogee         36,227 | Taylor           10,839 |
Newton           18,449 | Telfair          13,288 |
Oconee           11,104 | Terrell          22,003 |
Oglethorpe       18,680 | Thomas           29,071 |

     TOTAL                                                        2,609,121

IDAHO.--Area, 84,313 square miles.

Ada              29,088 | Cassia            7,197 | Lemhi             4,786
Bannock          19,242 | Custer            3,001 | Lincoln          12,676
Bear Lake         7,729 |                         | Nez Perce        24,860
Bingham          23,306 | Elmore            4,785 | Oneida           15,170
Blaine            8,387 | Fremont          24,606 | Owyhee            4,044
                        | Idaho            12,384 |
Boise             5,250 | Kootenai         22,747 | Shoshone         13,963
Bonner           13,588 | Latah            18,818 | Twin Falls       13,543
Canyon           25,323 |                         | Washington       11,101

     TOTAL                                                          325,594

ILLINOIS.--Area, 56,665 square miles.

Adams            64,588 | Christian        34,594 | Douglas          19,591
Alexander        22,741 | Clark            23,517 | Dupage           33,432
Bond             17,075 | Clay             18,661 | Edgar            27,336
Boone            15,481 | Clinton          22,832 | Edwards          10,049
Brown            10,397 | Coles            34,517 | Effingham        20,055
                        |                         |
Bureau           43,975 | Cook          2,405,233 | Fayette          28,075
Calhoun           8,610 | Crawford         26,281 | Ford             17,096
Carroll          18,035 | Cumberland       14,281 | Franklin         25,943
Cass             17,372 | Dekalb           33,457 | Fulton           49,549
Champaign        51,829 | Dewitt           18,906 | Gallatin         14,628
                        |                         |
Greene           22,363 | McHenry          32,509 | Rock Island      70,404
Grundy           24,162 | McLean           68,008 | St. Clair       119,870
Hamilton         18,227 | Macon            54,186 | Saline           30,204
Hancock          30,638 | Macoupin         50,685 | Sangamon         91,024
Hardin            7,015 | Madison[*]       89,847 | Schuyler         14,852
                        |                         |
Henderson         9,724 | Marion           35,094 | Scott            10,067
Henry            41,736 | Marshall         15,679 | Shelby           31,693
Iroquois         35,543 | Mason            17,377 | Stark            10,098
Jackson          35,143 | Massac           14,200 | Stephenson       36,821
Jasper           18,157 | Menard           12,796 | Tazewell         34,027
                        |                         |
Jefferson        29,111 | Mercer           19,723 | Union            21,856
Jersey           13,954 | Monroe           13,508 | Vermilion        77,996
Jo Daviess       22,657 | Montgomery       35,311 | Wabash           14,913
Johnson          14,331 | Morgan           34,420 | Warren           23,313
Kane             91,862 | Moultrie         14,630 | Washington       18,759
                        |                         |
Kankakee         40,752 | Ogle             27,864 | Wayne            25,697
Kendall          10,777 | Peoria          100,255 | White            23,052
Knox             46,159 | Perry            22,088 | Whiteside        34,507
Lake             55,058 | Platt            16,376 | Will             84,371
Lasalle          90,132 | Pike             28,622 | Williamson       45,098
                        |                         |
Lawrence         22,661 | Pope             11,215 | Winnebago        63,153
Lee              27,750 | Pulaski          15,650 | Woodford         20,506
Livingston       40,465 | Putnam            7,561 |
Logan            30,216 | Randolph         29,120 |
McDonough        26,887 | Richland         15,970 |

     TOTAL                                                        5,638,591

INDIANA.--Area, 36,354 square miles.

Adams            21,840 | Fayette          14,415 | Johnson          20,394
Allen            93,386 | Floyd            30,293 | Knox             39,183
Bartholomew      24,813 | Fountain         20,439 | Kosciusko        27,936
Benton           12,688 | Franklin         15,335 | Lagrange         15,148
Blackford        15,820 | Fulton           16,879 | Lake             82,864
                        |                         |
Boone            24,673 | Gibson           30,137 | Laporte          45,797
Brown             7,975 | Grant            51,426 | Lawrence         30,625
Carroll          17,970 | Greene           36,873 | Madison          65,224
Cass             36,368 | Hamilton         27,026 | Marion          263,661
Clark            30,260 | Hancock          19,030 | Marshall         24,175
                        |                         |
Clay             32,535 | Harrison         20,232 | Martin           12,950
Clinton          26,674 | Hendricks        20,840 | Miami            29,350
Crawford         12,057 | Henry            29,758 | Monroe           23,426
Daviess          27,747 | Howard           33,177 | Montgomery       29,296
Dearborn         21,396 | Huntington       28,982 | Morgan           21,182
                        |                         |
Decatur          18,793 | Jackson          24,727 | Newton           10,504
Dekalb           25,054 | Jasper           13,044 | Noble            24,009
Delaware         51,414 | Jay              24,961 | Ohio              4,329
Dubois           19,843 | Jefferson        20,483 | Orange           17,192
Elkhart          49,008 | Jennings         14,203 | Owen             14,053
                        |                         |
Parke            22,214 | Scott             8,323 | Vermilion        18,865
Perry            18,078 | Shelby           26,802 | Vigo             87,930
Pike             19,684 | Spencer          20,676 | Wabash           26,926
Porter           20,540 | Starke           10,567 |
Posey            21,670 |                         | Warren           10,899
                        | Steuben          14,274 | Warrick          21,911
Pulaski          13,312 | Sullivan         32,439 | Washington       17,445
Putnam           20,520 | Switzerland       9,914 | Wayne            43,757
Randolph         29,013 | Tippecanoe       40,063 | Wells            22,418
Ripley           19,452 | Tipton           17,459 |
Rush             19,349 |                         | White            17,602
                        | Union             6,260 | Whitley          16,892
St. Joseph       84,312 | Vanderburg       77,438 |

     TOTAL                                                        2,700,876

IOWA.--Area, 56,147 square miles.

Adair            14,420 | Franklin         14,780 | Monroe           25,429
Adams            10,998 |                         | Montgomery       16,604
Allamakee        17,328 | Fremont          15,623 | Muscatine        29,505
Appanoose        28,701 | Greene           16,023 |
Audubon          12,671 | Grundy           13,574 | O'Brien          17,262
                        | Guthrie          17,374 | Osceola           8,956
Benton           23,156 | Hamilton         19,242 | Page             24,002
Blackhawk        44,865 |                         | Palo Alto        13,845
Boone            27,626 | Hancock          12,731 | Plymouth         23,129
Bremer           15,843 | Hardin           20,921 |
Buchanan         19,748 | Harrison         23,162 | Pocahontas       14,808
                        | Henry            18,640 | Polk            110,438
Buena Vista      15,981 | Howard           12,920 | Pottawattamie    55,832
Butler           17,119 |                         | Poweshiek        19,589
Calhoun          17,090 | Humboldt         12,182 | Ringgold         12,904
Carroll          20,117 | Ida              11,296 |
Cass             19,047 | Iowa             18,409 | Sac              16,555
                        | Jackson          21,258 | Scott            60,000
Cedar            17,765 | Jasper           27,034 | Shelby           16,552
Cerro Gordo      25,011 |                         | Sioux            25,248
Cherokee         16,741 | Jefferson        15,951 | Story            24,083
Chickasaw        15,375 | Johnson          25,914 |
Clarke           10,736 | Jones            19,050 | Tama             22,156
                        | Keokuk           21,160 | Taylor           16,312
Clay             12,766 | Kossuth          21,971 | Union            16,616
Clayton          25,576 |                         | Van Buren        15,020
Clinton          45,394 | Lee              36,702 | Wapello          37,743
Crawford         20,041 | Linn             60,720 |
Dallas           23,628 | Louisa           12,855 | Warren           18,194
                        | Lucas            13,462 | Washington       19,925
Davis            13,315 | Lyon             14,624 | Wayne            16,184
Decatur          16,347 |                         | Webster          34,629
Delaware         17,688 | Madison          15,621 | Winnebago        11,914
Des Moines       36,145 | Mahaska          29,860 |
Dickinson         8,137 | Marion           22,995 | Winneshiek       21,729
                        | Marshall         30,279 | Woodbury         67,616
Dubuque          57,450 | Mills            15,811 | Worth             9,950
Emmet             9,816 |                         | Wright           17,951
Fayette          27,919 | Mitchell         13,435 |
Floyd            17,119 | Monona           16,633 |

     TOTAL                                                        2,224,771

KANSAS.--Area, 82,158 square miles.

Allen            27,640 | Greeley           1,335 | Osborne          12,827
Anderson         13,829 | Greenwood        16,060 | Ottawa           11,811
Atchison         28,107 | Hamilton          3,360 | Pawnee            8,859
Barber            9,916 | Harper           14,748 | Phillips         14,150
Barton           17,876 | Harvey           19,200 | Pottawatomie     17,522
                        |                         |
Bourbon          24,007 | Haskell             993 | Pratt            11,156
Brown            21,314 | Hodgeman          2,930 | Rawlins           6,380
Butler           23,059 | Jackson          16,861 | Reno             37,853
Chase             7,527 | Jefferson        15,826 | Republic         17,447
Chautauqua       11,429 | Jewell           18,148 | Rice             15,106
                        |                         |
Cherokee         38,162 | Johnson          18,288 | Riley            15,783
Cheyenne          4,248 | Kearny            3,206 | Rooks            11,282
Clark             4,093 | Kingman          13,386 | Rush              7,826
Clay             15,251 | Kiowa             6,174 | Russell          10,800
Cloud            18,388 | Labette          31,423 | Saline           20,338
                        |                         |
Coffey           15,205 | Lane              2,603 | Scott             3,047
Comanche          3,281 | Leavenworth      41,207 | Sedgwick         73,095
Cowley           31,790 | Lincoln          10,142 | Seward            4,091
Crawford         51,178 | Linn             14,735 | Shawnee          61,874
Decatur           8,976 | Logan             4,240 | Sheridan          5,651
                        |                         |
Dickinson        24,361 | Lyon             24,927 | Sherman           4,549
Doniphan         14,422 | McPherson        21,521 | Smith            15,365
Douglas          24,724 | Marion           22,415 | Stafford         12,510
Edwards           7,033 | Marshall         23,880 | Stanton           1,034
Elk              10,128 | Meade             5,055 | Stevens           2,453
                        |                         |
Ellis            12,170 | Miami            20,030 | Sumner           30,654
Ellsworth        10,444 | Mitchell         14,089 | Thomas            5,455
Finney            6,908 | Montgomery       49,474 | Trego             5,398
Ford             11,393 | Morris           12,397 | Wabaunsee        12,721
Franklin         20,884 | Morton            1,333 | Wallace           2,759
                        |                         |
Geary            12,681 | Nemaha           19,072 | Washington       20,229
Gove              6,044 | Neosho           23,754 | Wichita           2,006
Graham            8,700 | Ness              5,883 | Wilson           19,810
Grant             1,087 | Norton           11,614 | Woodson           9,450
Gray              3,121 | Osage            19,905 | Wyandotte       100,068

     TOTAL                                                        1,690,949

KENTUCKY.--Area, 49,598 square miles.

Adair            16,503 | Boyle            14,668 | Carroll           8,110
Allen            14,882 | Bracken          10,308 | Carter           21,966
Anderson         10,146 | Breathitt        17,540 | Casey            15,479
Ballard          12,690 | Breckinridge     21,034 | Christian        38,845
Barren           25,293 | Bullitt           9,487 | Clark            17,987
                        |                         |
Bath             13,988 | Butler           15,805 | Clay             17,789
Bell             28,447 | Caldwell         14,063 | Clinton           8,153
Boone             9,420 | Calloway         19,867 | Crittenden       13,296
Bourbon          17,462 | Campbell         59,369 | Cumberland        9,846
Boyd             23,444 | Carlisle          9,048 | Daviess          41,020
                        |                         |
Edmonson         10,469 | Knox             22,116 | Ohio             27,642
Elliott           9,814 | Larue            10,701 | Oldham            7,248
Estill           12,273 | Laurel           19,872 | Owen             14,248
Fayette          47,715 | Lawrence         20,067 | Owsley            7,979
Fleming          16,066 | Lee               9,531 | Pendleton        11,985
                        |                           |
Floyd            18,623 | Leslie            8,976 | Perry            11,255
Franklin         21,135 | Letcher          10,623 | Pike             31,679
Fulton           14,114 | Lewis            16,887 | Powell            6,268
Gallatin          4,697 | Lincoln          17,897 | Pulaski          35,986
Garrard          11,894 | Livingston       10,627 | Robertson         4,121
                        |                         |
Grant            10,581 | Logan            24,977 | Rockcastle       14,473
Graves           33,539 | Lyon              9,423 | Rowan             9,438
Grayson          19,958 | McCracken        35,064 | Russell          10,861
Green            11,871 | McLean           13,241 | Scott            16,956
Greenup          18,475 | Madison          26,951 | Shelby           18,041
                        |                         |
Hancock           8,512 | Magoffin         13,654 | Simpson          11,460
Hardin           22,696 | Marion           16,330 | Spencer           7,567
Harlan           10,566 | Marshall         15,771 | Taylor           11,961
Harrison         16,873 | Martin            7,291 | Todd             16,488
Hart             18,173 | Mason            18,611 | Trigg            14,539
                        |                         |
Henderson        29,352 | Meade             9,783 | Trimble           6,512
Henry            13,716 | Menifee           6,153 | Union            19,886
Hickman          11,750 | Mercer           14,063 | Warren           30,579
Hopkins          34,291 | Metcalfe         10,453 | Washington       13,940
Jackson          10,734 | Monroe           13,663 | Wayne            17,518
                        |                           |
Jefferson       262,920 | Montgomery       12,868 | Webster          20,974
Jessamine        12,613 | Morgan           16,259 | Whitley          31,982
Johnson          17,482 | Muhlenberg       28,589 | Wolfe             9,864
Kenton           70,355 | Nelson           16,830 | Woodford         12,571
Knott            10,791 | Nicholas         10,601 |

     TOTAL                                                        2,289,905

LOUISIANA.--Area, 48,506 square miles.

Acadia           31,847 | East Carroll     11,637 | Natchitoches     36,455
Ascension        23,887 | East Feliciana   20,055 | Orleans         339,075
Assumption       24,128 | Franklin         11,989 | Ouachita         25,830
Avoyelles        34,102 | Grant            15,958 | Plaquemines      12,524
Bienville        21,776 | Iberia           31,262 | Pointe Coupee    25,289
                        |                         |
Bossier          21,738 | Iberville        30,954 | Rapides          44,545
Caddo            58,200 | Jackson          13,818 | Red River        11,402
Calcasieu        62,767 | Jefferson        18,247 | Richland         15,769
Caldwell          8,593 | La Salle          9,402 | Sabine           19,874
Cameron           4,288 | Lafayette        28,733 | St. Bernard       5,277
                        |                         |
Catahoula        10,415 | Lafourche        33,111 | St. Charles      11,207
Claiborne        25,050 | Lincoln          18,485 | St. Helena        9,172
Concordia        14,278 | Livingston       10,627 | St. James        23,009
De Soto          27,689 | Madison          10,676 | St. John the
East Baton Rouge 34,580 | Morehouse        18,786 |   Baptist        14,338
                        |                         | St. Landry       66,661
                        |                         |
St. Martin       23,070 | Terrebonne       28,320 | Webster          19,186
St. Mary         39,368 | Union            20,451 | West Baton Rouge 12,636
St. Tammany      18,917 | Vermilion        26,390 | West Carroll      6,249
Tangipahoa       29,160 | Vernon           17,384 | West Feliciana   13,449
Tensas           17,060 | Washington       18,886 | Winn             18,357

     TOTAL                                                        1,656,388

MAINE.--Area, 33,040 square miles.

Androscoggin     59,822 | Kennebec         62,863 | Piscataquis      19,887
Aroostook        74,664 | Knox             28,981 | Sagadahoc        18,574
Cumberland      112,014 | Lincoln          18,216 | Somerset         36,301
Franklin         19,119 | Oxford           36,256 | Waldo            23,383
Hancock          35,575 | Penobscot        85,285 | Washington       42,905
                        |                         | York             68,526

     TOTAL                                                          742,371

MARYLAND.--Area, 12,327 square miles.

Allegany         62,411 | Charles          16,386 | Prince Georges   36,147
Anne Arundel     39,553 | Dorchester       28,669 | Queen Annes      16,839
Baltimore       122,399 |                         | St. Marys        17,030
Baltimore City  558,485 | Frederick        52,673 | Somerset         26,455
Calvert          10,325 | Garrett          20,105 |
                        | Hartford         27,965 | Talbot           19,620
Caroline         19,216 | Howard           16,106 | Washington       48,671
Carroll          33,934 | Kent             16,957 | Wicomico         26,815
Cecil            23,759 |                         | Worcester        21,841

     TOTAL                                                        1,294,450

MASSACHUSETTS.--Area, 8,266 square miles.

Barnstable       27,542 | Franklin         43,600 | Norfolk         187,506
Berkshire       105,259 | Hampden         231,369 | Plymouth        144,337
Bristol         318,573 | Hampshire        63,327 | Suffolk         731,388
Dukes             4,504 | Middlesex       669,915 | Worcester       399,657
Essex           436,477 | Nantucket         2,962 |

     TOTAL                                                        3,366,416

MICHIGAN.--Area, 57,980 square miles.

Alcona            5,703 | Berrien          53,622 | Delta            30,108
Alger             7,675 | Branch           25,605 | Dickinson        20,524
Allegan          39,819 | Calhoun          56,638 | Eaton            30,499
Alpena           19,965 | Cass             20,624 | Emmet            18,561
Antrim           15,692 | Charlevoix       19,157 | Genesee          64,555
                        |                         |
Arenac            9,640 | Cheboygan        17,872 | Gladwin           8,413
Baraga            6,127 | Chippewa         24,472 | Gogebic          23,333
Barry            22,633 | Clare             9,240 | Grand Traverse   23,784
Bay              68,238 | Clinton          23,129 | Gratiot          28,820
Benzie           10,638 | Crawford          3,934 | Hillsdale        29,673
                        |                         |
Houghton         88,098 | Mackinac          9,249 | Ontonagon         8,650
Huron            34,758 | Macomb           32,606 | Osceola          17,889
Ingham           53,310 |                         | Oscoda            2,027
Ionia            33,550 | Manistee         26,688 | Otsego            6,552
Iosco             9,753 | Marquette        46,739 | Ottawa           45,301
                        | Mason            21,832 |
Iron             15,164 | Mecosta          19,466 | Presque Isle     11,249
Isabella         23,029 | Menominee        25,648 | Roscommon         2,274
Jackson          53,426 |                         | Saginaw          89,290
Kalamazoo        60,427 | Midland          14,005 | St. Clair        52,341
Kalkaska          8,097 | Missaukee        10,606 | St. Joseph       25,499
                        | Monroe           32,917 |
Kent            159,145 | Montcalm         32,069 | Sanilac          33,930
Keweenaw          7,156 | Montmorency       3,755 | Schoolcraft       8,681
Lake              4,939 |                         | Shiawassee       33,246
Lapeer           26,033 | Muskegon         40,577 | Tuscola          34,913
Leelanau         10,608 | Newaygo          19,220 | Van Buren        33,185
                        | Oakland          49,576 |
Lenawee          47,907 | Oceana           18,379 | Washtenaw        44,714
Livingston       17,736 | Ogemaw            8,907 | Wayne           531,590
Luce              4,004 |                         | Wexford          20,769

     TOTAL                                                        2,810,173

MINNESOTA.--Area, 84,628 square miles.

Aitkin           10,371 | Isanti           12,615 | Polk             36,001
Anoka            12,493 |                         | Pope             12,746
Becker           18,840 | Itasca           17,208 | Ramsey          223,675
Beltrami         19,337 | Jackson          14,491 |
Benton           11,615 | Kanabec           6,461 | Red Lake         15,940
                        | Kandiyohi        18,969 | Redwood          18,425
Bigstone          9,367 | Kittson           9,669 | Renville         23,123
Blue Earth       29,337 |                         | Rice             25,911
Brown            20,134 | Koochiching       6,431 | Rock             10,222
Carlton          17,559 | Lac qui Parle    15,435 |
Carver           17,455 | Lake              8,011 | Roseau           11,338
                        | Le Sueur         18,609 | St. Louis       163,274
Cass             11,620 | Lincoln           9,874 | Scott            14,888
Chippewa         13,458 |                         | Sheburne          8,136
Chisago          13,537 | Lyon             15,722 | Sibley           15,540
Clay             19,640 | McLeod           18,691 |
Clearwater        6,870 | Mahnomen          3,249 | Stearns          47,733
                        | Marshall         16,338 | Steele           16,146
Cook              1,336 | Martin           17,518 | Stevens           8,293
Cottonwood       12,651 |                         | Swift            12,949
Crow Wing        16,861 | Meeker           17,022 | Todd             23,407
Dakota           25,171 | Mille Lacs       10,705 |
Dodge            12,094 | Morrison         24,053 | Traverse          8,049
                        | Mower            22,640 | Wabasha          18,554
Douglas          17,669 | Murray           11,755 | Wadena            8,652
Faribault        19,949 |                         | Waseca           13,466
Fillmore         25,680 | Nicollet         14,125 | Washington       26,013
Freeborn         22,282 | Nobles           15,210 |
Goodhue          31,637 | Norman           13,446 | Watonwan         11,382
                        | Olmsted          22,497 | Wilkin            9,063
Grant             9,114 | Otter Tail       46,036 | Winona           33,398
Hennepin        333,480 |                         | Wright           28,082
Houston          14,297 | Pine             15,878 | Yellow Medicine  15,406
Hubbard           9,831 | Pipestone         9,553 |

     TOTAL                                                        2,075,708

MISSISSIPPI.--Area, 46,865 square miles.

Adams            25,265 | Itawamba         14,526 | Pearl River      10,593
Alcorn           18,159 | Jackson          15,451 | Perry             7,685
Amite            22,954 | Jasper           18,498 |
Attala           28,851 |                         | Pike             37,272
Benton           10,245 | Jefferson        18,221 | Pontotoc         19,688
                        | Jefferson Davis  12,860 | Prentiss         16,931
Bolivar          48,905 | Jones            29,885 | Quitman          11,593
Calhoun          17,726 | Kemper           20,348 | Rankin           23,944
Carroll          23,139 | Lafayette        21,883 |
Chickasaw        22,846 |                         | Scott            16,723
Choctaw          14,357 | Lamar            11,741 | Sharkey          15,694
                        | Lauderdale       46,919 | Simpson          17,201
Claiborne        17,403 | Lawrence         13,080 | Smith            16,603
Clarke           21,630 | Leake            18,298 | Sunflower        28,787
Clay             20,203 | Lee              28,894 |
Coahoma          34,217 |                         | Tallahatchie     29,078
Copiah           35,914 | Leflore          36,290 | Tate             19,714
                        | Lincoln          28,597 | Tippah           14,631
Covington        16,909 | Lowndes          30,703 | Tishomingo       13,067
De Soto          23,130 | Madison          33,505 | Tunica           18,646
Forrest          20,722 | Marion           15,599 |
Franklin         15,193 |                         | Union            18,997
George            6,599 | Marshall         26,796 | Warren           37,488
                        | Monroe           35,178 | Washington       48,933
Greene            6,050 | Montgomery       17,706 | Wayne            14,709
Grenada          15,727 | Neshoba          17,980 | Webster          14,853
Hancock          11,207 | Newton           23,085 |
Harrison         34,658 |                         | Wilkinson        18,075
Hinds            63,726 | Noxubee          28,503 | Winston          17,139
                        | Oktibbeha        19,676 | Yalobusha        21,519
Holmes           39,088 | Panola           31,274 | Yazoo            46,672
Issaquena        10,560 |                         |

     TOTAL                                                        1,797,114

MISSOURI.--Area, 69,420 square miles.

Adair            22,700 | Cape Girardeau   27,621 | Daviess          17,605
Andrew           15,282 | Carroll          23,098 | Dekalb           12,531
Atchison         13,604 | Carter            5,504 | Dent             13,245
Audrain          21,687 | Cass             22,973 | Douglas          16,664
Barry            23,869 | Cedar            16,080 | Dunklin          30,328
                        |                         |
Barton           16,747 | Chariton         23,503 | Franklin         29,830
Bates            25,869 | Christian        15,832 | Gasconade        12,847
Benton           14,881 | Clark            12,811 | Gentry           16,820
Bollinger        14,576 | Clay             20,302 | Greene           63,831
Boone            30,533 | Clinton          15,297 | Grundy           16,744
                        |                         |
Buchanan         93,020 | Cole             21,957 | Harrison         20,466
Butler           20,624 | Cooper           20,311 | Henry            27,242
Caldwell         14,605 | Crawford         13,576 | Hickory           8,741
Callaway         24,400 | Dade             15,613 | Holt             14,539
Camden           11,582 | Dallas           13,181 | Howard           15,653
                        |                         |
Howell           21,065 | Montgomery       15,604 | St. Clair        16,412
Iron              8,563 |                         | St. Francois     35,738
Jackson         263,522 | Morgan           12,863 | St. Louis        82,417
Jasper           89,673 | New Madrid       19,488 |
Jefferson        27,878 | Newton           27,136 | St. Louis City  587,029
                        | Nodaway          28,833 | Ste. Genevieve   10,607
Johnson          26,297 | Oregon           14,681 | Saline           29,448
Knox             12,403 |                         | Schuyler          9,062
Laclede          17,363 | Osage            14,283 | Scotland         11,869
Lafayette        30,154 | Ozark            11,926 |
Lawrence         26,583 | Pemiscot         19,559 | Scott            22,372
                        | Perry            14,898 | Shannon          11,443
Lewis            15,514 | Pettis           33,913 | Shelby           14,864
Lincoln          17,033 |                         | Stoddard         27,807
Linn             25,253 | Phelps           15,796 | Stone            11,559
Livingston       19,453 | Pike             22,556 |
McDonald         13,539 | Platte           14,429 | Sullivan         18,598
                        | Polk             21,561 | Taney             9,134
Macon            30,358 | Pulaski          11,436 | Texas            21,458
Madison          11,273 |                         | Vernon           28,827
Maries           10,088 | Putnam           14,308 | Warren            9,123
Marion           30,572 | Ralls            12,913 |
Mercer           13,355 | Randolph         26,182 | Washington       13,378
                        | Ray              21,451 | Wayne            15,181
Miller           16,717 | Reynolds          9,592 | Webster          17,377
Mississippi      14,557 |                         | Worth             8,007
Moniteau         14,375 | Ripley           13,099 | Wright           18,315
Monroe           18,304 | St. Charles      24,695 |

     TOTAL                                                        3,293,338

MONTANA.--Area, 146,572 square miles.

Beaverhead        6,446 | Gallatin         14,079 | Powell            5,904
Broadwater        3,491 | Granite           2,942 | Ravalli          11,666
Carbon           13,962 | Jefferson         5,601 | Rosebud           7,985
Cascade          28,833 | Lewis and Clark  21,853 | Sanders           3,713
Chouteau         17,191 | Lincoln           3,638 | Silver Bow       56,848
                        |                         | Sweet Grass       4,029
Custer           14,123 | Madison           7,229 |
Dawson           12,725 | Meagher           4,190 | Teton             9,546
Deer Lodge       12,988 | Missoula         23,596 | Valley           13,630
Fergus           17,385 | Park             10,731 | Yellowstone      22,944
Flathead         18,785 |                         |

     TOTAL                                                          376,053

NEBRASKA.--Area, 77,520 square miles.

Adams            20,900 | Butler           15,403 | Dakota            6,564
Antelope         14,003 | Cass             19,786 | Dawes             8,254
Banner            1,444 | Cedar            15,191 | Dawson           15,961
Blaine            1,672 | Chase             3,613 | Deuel             1,786
Boone            13,145 | Cherry           10,414 | Dixon            11,477
                        |                         |
Boxbutte          6,131 | Cheyenne          4,551 | Dodge            22,145
Boyd              8,826 | Clay             15,729 | Douglas         168,546
Brown             6,083 | Colfax           11,610 | Dundy             4,098
Buffalo          21,907 | Cuming           13,782 | Fillmore         14,674
Burt             12,726 | Custer           25,668 | Franklin         10,303
                        |                         |
Frontier          8,572 | Kimball           1,942 | Richardson       17,448
Furnas           12,083 | Knox             18,358 | Rock              3,627
Gage             30,325 | Lancaster        73,793 | Saline           17,866
Garden            3,538 | Lincoln          15,684 |
Garfield          3,417 |                         | Sarpy             9,274
                        | Logan             1,521 | Saunders         21,179
Gosper            4,933 | Loup              2,188 | Scotts Bluff      8,355
Grant             1,097 | McPherson         2,470 | Seward           15,895
Greeley           8,047 | Madison          19,101 | Sheridan          7,328
Hall             20,361 | Merrick          10,379 |
Hamilton         13,459 |                         | Sherman           8,278
                        | Morrill           4,584 | Sioux             5,599
Harlan            9,578 | Nance             8,926 | Stanton           7,542
Hayes             3,011 | Nemaha           13,095 | Thayer           14,775
Hitchcock         5,415 | Nuckolls         13,019 | Thomas            1,191
Holt             15,545 | Otoe             19,323 |
Hooker              981 |                         | Thurston          8,704
                        | Pawnee           10,582 | Valley            9,480
Howard           10,783 | Perkins           2,570 | Washington       12,738
Jefferson        16,852 | Phelps           10,451 | Wayne            10,397
Johnson          10,187 | Pierce           10,122 | Webster          12,008
Kearney           9,106 | Platte           19,006 |
Keith             3,692 |                         | Wheeler           2,292
                        | Polk             10,521 | York             18,721
Keyapaha          3,452 | Redwillow        11,056 |

     TOTAL                                                        1,192,214

NEVADA.--Area, 110,690 square miles.

Churchill         2,811 | Eureka            1,830 | Nye               7,513
Clark             3,321 | Humboldt          6,825 | Ormsby            3,089
Douglas           1,895 | Lander            1,786 | Storey            3,045
Elko              8,133 | Lincoln           3,489 | Washoe           17,434
Esmeralda         9,695 | Lyon              3,568 | White Pine        7,441

     TOTAL                                                           81,875

NEW HAMPSHIRE.--Area, 9,341 square miles.

Belknap          21,309 | Grafton          41,652 | Rockingham       52,188
Carroll          16,316 |                         | Strafford        38,951
Cheshire         30,659 | Hillsboro       126,072 | Sullivan         19,337
Coos             30,753 | Merrimack        53,335 |

     TOTAL                                                          430,572

NEW JERSEY.--Area, 8,224 square miles.

Atlantic         71,894 | Hudson          537,231 | Passaic         215,902
Bergen          138,002 | Hunterdon        33,569 | Salem            26,999
Burlington       66,565 |                         | Somerset         38,820
Camden          142,029 | Mercer          125,657 | Sussex           26,781
Cape May         19,745 | Middlesex       114,426 | Union           140,197
                        | Monmouth         94,734 |
Cumberland       55,153 | Morris           74,704 | Warren           43,187
Essex           512,886 | Ocean            21,318 |
Gloucester       37,368 |                         |

     TOTAL                                                        2,537,167

NEW MEXICO.--Area, 122,634 square miles.

Bernalillo       23,606 | Luna              3,913 | Sandoval          8,579
Chaves           16,850 |                         | Santa Fe         14,770
Colfax           16,460 | McKinley         12,963 |
Curry            11,443 | Mora             12,611 | Sierra            3,536
Dona Ana         12,893 | Otero             7,069 | Socorro          14,761
                        | Quay             14,912 | Taos             12,008
Eddy             12,400 | Rio Arriba       16,719 | Torrance         10,119
Grant            14,813 |                         | Union            11,404
Guadalupe        10,927 | Roosevelt        12,064 |
Lincoln           7,822 | San Juan          8,504 | Valencia         13,320
                        | San Miguel       22,930 |

     TOTAL                                                          327,396

NEW YORK.--Area, 49,204 square miles.

Albany          173,666 | Herkimer         56,356 | Rensselaer      122,276
Allegany         41,412 | Jefferson        80,382 | Richmond         85,969
Broome           78,809 | Kings         1,634,351 | Rockland         46,873
Cattaraugus      65,919 | Lewis            24,849 | St. Lawrence     89,005
Cayuga           67,106 | Livingston       38,037 | Saratoga         61,917
                        |                         |
Chautauqua      105,126 | Madison          39,289 | Schenectady      88,235
Chemung          54,662 | Monroe          283,212 | Schoharie        23,355
Chenango         35,575 | Montgomery       57,567 | Schuyler         14,004
Clinton          48,230 | Nassau           83,930 | Seneca           26,972
Columbia         43,658 | New York      2,762,522 | Steuben          83,362
                        |                         |
Cortland         29,249 | Niagara          92,036 | Suffolk          96,138
Delaware         45,575 | Oneida          154,157 | Sullivan         33,808
Dutchess         87,661 | Onondaga        200,298 | Tioga            25,624
Erie            528,985 | Ontario          52,286 | Tompkins         33,647
Essex            33,458 | Orange          116,001 | Ulster           91,769
                        |                         |
Franklin         45,717 | Orleans          32,000 | Warren           32,223
Fulton           44,534 | Oswego           71,664 | Washington       47,778
Genesee          37,615 | Otsego           47,216 | Wayne            50,179
Greene           30,214 | Putnam           14,665 | Westchester     283,055
Hamilton          4,373 | Queens          284,041 | Wyoming          31,880
                        |                         |
                        |                         | Yates            18,642

     TOTAL                                                        9,113,614

NORTH CAROLINA.--Area, 52,426 square miles.

Alamance         28,712 | Burke            21,408 | Clay              3,909
Alexander        11,592 | Cabarrus         26,240 | Cleveland        29,494
Alleghany         7,745 | Caldwell         20,579 | Columbus         28,020
Anson            25,465 | Camden            5,640 | Craven           25,594
Ashe             19,074 | Carteret         13,776 | Cumberland       35,284
                        |                         |
Beaufort         30,877 | Caswell          14,858 | Currituck         7,693
Bertie           23,039 | Catawba          27,918 | Dare              4,841
Bladen           18,006 | Chatham          22,635 | Davidson         29,404
Brunswick        14,432 | Cherokee         14,136 | Davie            13,394
Buncombe         49,798 | Chowan           11,303 | Duplin           25,442
                        |                         |
Durham           35,276 | Lincoln          17,132 | Robeson          51,945
Edgecombe        32,010 | McDowell         13,538 | Rockingham       36,442
Forsyth          47,311 | Macon            12,191 | Rowan            37,521
Franklin         24,692 |                         | Rutherford       28,385
Gaston           37,063 | Madison          20,132 | Sampson          29,982
                        | Martin           17,797 |
Gates            10,455 | Mecklenburg      67,031 | Scotland         15,363
Graham            4,749 | Mitchell         17,245 | Stanly           19,909
Granville        25,102 | Montgomery       14,967 | Stokes           20,151
Greene           13,083 |                         | Surry            29,705
Guilford         60,497 | Moore            17,010 | Swain            10,403
                        | Nash             33,727 |
Halifax          37,646 | New Hanover      32,037 | Transylvania      7,191
Harnett          22,174 | Northampton      22,323 | Tyrrell           5,219
Haywood          21,020 | Onslow           14,125 | Union            33,277
Henderson        16,262 |                         | Vance            19,425
Hertford         15,436 | Orange           15,064 | Wake             63,229
                        | Pamlico           9,966 |
Hyde              8,840 | Pasquotank       16,693 | Warren           20,266
Iredell          34,315 | Pender           15,471 | Washington       11,062
Jackson          12,998 | Perquimans       11,054 | Watauga          13,556
Johnston         41,401 |                         | Wayne            35,698
Jones             8,721 | Person           17,356 | Wilkes           30,282
                        | Pitt             36,340 |
Lee              11,376 | Polk              7,640 | Wilson           28,269
Lenoir           22,769 | Randolph         29,491 | Yadkin           15,428
                        | Richmond         19,673 | Yancey           12,072

     TOTAL                                                        2,206,287

NORTH DAKOTA.--Area, 70,837 square miles.

Adams             5,407 | Griggs            6,274 | Pierce            9,740
Barnes           18,066 | Hettinger         6,557 | Ramsey           15,199
Benson           12,681 | Kidder            5,962 | Ransom           10,345
Billings         10,186 | Lamoure          10,724 | Richland         19,659
Bottineau        17,295 | Logan             6,168 | Rolette           9,558
                        |                         |
Bowman            4,668 | McHenry          17,627 | Sargent           9,202
Burleigh         13,087 | McIntosh          7,251 | Sheridan          8,103
Cass             33,935 | McKenzie          5,720 | Stark            12,504
Cavalier         15,659 | McLean           14,578 | Steele            7,616
Dickey            9,839 | Mercer            4,665 | Stutsman         18,189
                        |                         |
Dunn              5,302 | Mountrail         8,491 | Towner            8,963
Eddy              4,800 | Morton           25,289 | Traill           12,545
Emmons            9,796 | Nelson           10,140 | Walsh            19,491
Foster            5,313 | Oliver            3,577 | Ward             42,185
Grand Forks      27,888 | Pembina          14,749 | Wells            11,814
                        |                         |
                        |                         | Williams         20,249

     TOTAL                                                          577,056

OHIO.--Area, 41,040 square miles.

Adams            24,755 | Auglaize         31,246 | Champaign        26,351
Allen            56,580 | Belmont          76,856 | Clark            66,435
Ashland          22,975 | Brown            24,832 | Clermont         29,551
Ashtabula        59,547 | Butler           70,271 | Clinton          23,680
Athens           47,798 | Carroll          15,761 | Columbiana       76,619
                        |                         |
Coshocton        30,121 | Jefferson        65,423 | Pike             15,723
Crawford         34,036 | Knox             30,181 | Portage          30,307
Cuyahoga        637,425 | Lake             22,927 | Preble           23,834
Darke            42,933 | Lawrence         39,488 | Putnam           29,972
Defiance         24,498 | Licking          55,590 | Richland         47,667
                        |                         |
Delaware         27,182 | Logan            30,084 | Ross             40,069
Erie             38,327 | Lorain           76,037 | Sandusky         35,171
Fairfield        39,201 | Lucas           192,728 | Scioto           48,463
Fayette          21,744 | Madison          19,902 | Seneca           42,421
Franklin        221,567 | Mahoning        116,151 | Shelby           24,663
                        |                         |
Fulton           23,914 | Marion           33,971 | Stark           122,987
Gallia           25,745 | Medina           23,598 | Summit          108,253
Geauga           14,670 | Meigs            25,594 | Trumbull         52,766
Greene           29,733 | Mercer           27,536 | Tuscarawas       57,035
Guernsey         42,716 | Miami            45,047 | Union            21,871
                        |                         |
Hamilton        460,732 | Monroe           24,244 | Van Wert         29,119
Hancock          37,860 | Montgomery      163,763 | Vinton           13,096
Hardin           30,407 | Morgan           16,097 | Warren           24,497
Harrison         19,076 | Morrow           16,815 | Washington       45,422
Henry            25,119 | Muskingum        57,488 | Wayne            38,058
                        |                         |
Highland         28,711 | Noble            18,601 | Williams         25,198
Hocking          23,650 | Ottawa           22,360 | Wood             46,330
Holmes           17,909 | Paulding         22,730 | Wyandot          20,760
Huron            34,206 | Perry            35,396 |
Jackson          30,791 | Pickaway         26,158 |

     TOTAL                                                        4,767,121

OKLAHOMA.--Area, 70,057 square miles.

Adair            10,535 | Dewey            14,132 | Logan            31,740
Alfalfa          18,138 | Ellis            15,375 | Love             10,236
Atoka            13,808 | Garfield         33,050 | McClain          15,659
Beaver           13,631 | Garvin           26,545 | McCurtain        20,681
Beckham          19,699 | Grady            30,309 | McIntosh         20,961
                        |                         |
Blaine           17,960 | Grant            18,760 | Major            15,248
Bryan            29,854 | Greer            16,449 | Marshall         11,619
Caddo            35,685 | Harmon           11,328 | Mayes            13,596
Canadian         23,501 | Harper            8,189 | Murray           12,744
Carter           25,358 | Haskell          18,875 | Muskogee         52,743
                        |                         |
Cherokee         16,778 | Hughes           24,040 | Noble            14,945
Choctaw          21,862 | Jackson          23,737 | Nowata           14,223
Cimarron          4,553 | Jefferson        17,430 | Okfuskee         19,995
Cleveland        18,843 | Johnston         16,734 | Oklahoma         85,232
Coal             15,817 | Kay              26,999 | Okmulgee         21,115
                        |                         |
Comanche         41,489 | Kingfisher       18,825 | Osage            20,101
Craig            17,404 | Kiowa            27,526 | Ottawa           15,713
Creek            26,223 | Latimer          11,321 | Pawnee           17,332
Custer           23,231 | Le Flore         29,127 | Payne            23,735
Delaware         11,469 | Lincoln          34,779 | Pittsburg        47,650
                        |                         |
Pontotoc         24,331 | Seminole         19,964 | Tulsa            34,995
Pottawatomie     43,595 | Sequoyah         25,005 | Wagoner          22,086
Pushmataha       10,118 | Stephens         22,252 | Washington       17,484
Roger Mills      12,861 | Texas            14,249 | Washita          25,034
Rogers           17,736 | Tillman          18,650 | Woods            17,567
                        |                         |
                        |                         | Woodward         16,592

     TOTAL                                                        1,657,155

OREGON.--Area, 96,699 square miles.

Baker            18,076 | Hood River        8,016 | Multnomah       226,261
Benton           10,663 | Jackson          25,756 | Polk             13,469
Clackamas        29,931 | Josephine         9,567 |
Clatsop          16,106 |                         | Sherman           4,242
Columbia         10,580 | Klamath           8,554 | Tillamook         6,266
                        | Lake              4,658 | Umatilla         20,309
Coos             17,959 | Lane             33,783 | Union            16,191
Crook             9,315 | Lincoln           5,587 | Wallowa           8,364
Curry             2,044 | Linn             22,662 |
Douglas          19,674 |                         | Wasco            16,336
Gilliam           3,701 | Malheur           8,601 | Washington       21,522
                        | Marion           39,780 | Wheeler           2,484
Grant             5,607 | Morrow            4,357 | Yamhill          18,285
Harney            4,059 |                         |

     TOTAL                                                          672,765

PENNSYLVANIA.--Area, 45,126 square miles.

Adams            34,319 | Erie            115,517 | Northampton     127,667
Allegheny     1,018,463 |                         | Northumberland  111,420
Armstrong        67,880 | Fayette         167,449 | Perry            24,136
Beaver           78,353 | Forest            9,435 |
Bedford          38,879 | Franklin         59,775 | Philadelphia  1,549,008
                        | Fulton            9,703 | Pike              8,033
Berks           183,222 | Greene           28,882 | Potter           29,729
Blair           108,858 |                         | Schuylkill      207,894
Bradford         54,526 | Huntingdon       38,304 | Snyder           16,800
Bucks            76,530 | Indiana          66,210 |
Butler           72,689 | Jefferson        63,090 | Somerset         67,717
                        | Juniata          15,013 | Sullivan         11,293
Cambria         166,131 | Lackawanna      259,570 | Susquehanna      37,746
Cameron           7,644 |                         | Tioga            42,829
Carbon           52,846 | Lancaster       167,029 | Union            16,249
Center           43,424 | Lawrence         70,032 |
Chester         109,213 | Lebanon          59,565 | Venango          56,359
                        | Lehigh          118,832 | Warren           39,573
Clarion          36,638 | Luzerne         343,186 | Washington      143,680
Clearfield       93,768 |                         | Wayne            29,236
Clinton          31,545 | Lycoming         80,813 | Westmoreland    231,304
Columbia         48,467 | McKean           47,868 |
Crawford         61,565 | Mercer           77,699 | Wyoming          15,509
                        | Mifflin          27,785 | York            136,405
Cumberland       54,479 | Monroe           22,941 |
Dauphin         136,152 |                         |
Delaware        117,906 | Montgomery      169,590 |
Elk              35,871 | Montour          14,868 |

     TOTAL                                                        7,665,111

RHODE ISLAND.--Area, 1,248 square miles.

Bristol          17,602 | Newport          39,335 | Washington       24,942
Kent             36,378 | Providence      424,417 |

     TOTAL                                                          542,674

SOUTH CAROLINA.--Area, 30,989 square miles.

Abbeville        34,804 | Dillon           22,615 | Marion           20,596
Aiken            41,849 | Dorchester       17,891 | Marlboro         31,189
Anderson         69,568 | Edgefield        28,281 | Newberry         34,586
Bamberg          18,544 | Fairfield        29,442 | Oconee           27,337
Barnwell         34,209 | Florence         35,671 | Orangeburg       55,893
                        |                         |
Beaufort         30,355 | Georgetown       22,270 | Pickens          25,422
Berkeley         23,487 | Greenville       68,377 | Richland         55,143
Calhoun          16,634 | Greenwood        34,225 | Saluda           20,943
Charleston       88,594 | Hampton          25,126 | Spartanburg      83,465
Cherokee         26,179 | Horry            26,995 | Sumter           38,472
                        |                         |
Chester          29,425 | Kershaw          27,094 | Union            29,911
Chesterfield     26,301 | Lancaster        26,650 | Williamsburg     37,626
Clarendon        32,188 | Laurens          41,550 | York             47,718
Colleton         35,390 | Lee              25,318 |
Darlington       36,027 | Lexington        32,040 |

     TOTAL                                                        1,515,400

SOUTH DAKOTA.--Area, 77,615 square miles.

Armstrong           647 | Fall River        7,763 | Minnehaha        29,631
Aurora            6,143 | Faulk             6,716 |
Beadle           15,776 | Grant            10,303 | Moody             8,695
Bonhomme         11,061 |                         | Pennington       12,453
Brookings        14,178 | Gregory          13,061 | Perkins          11,348
                        | Hamlin            7,475 | Potter            4,466
Brown            25,867 | Hand              7,870 | Roberts          14,897
Brule             6,451 | Hanson            6,237 |
Buffalo           1,589 | Harding           4,228 | Sanborn           6,607
Butte             4,993 |                         | Schnasse            292
Campbell          5,244 | Hughes            6,271 | Spink            15,981
                        | Hutchinson       12,319 | Stanley          14,975
Charles Mix      14,899 | Hyde              3,307 | Sterling            252
Clark            10,901 | Jerauld           5,120 |
Clay              8,711 | Kingsbury        12,560 | Sully             2,462
Codington        14,092 |                         | Tripp             8,323
Corson            2,929 | Lake             10,711 | Turner           13,840
                        | Lawrence         19,694 | Union            10,676
Custer            4,458 | Lincoln          12,712 | Walworth          6,488
Davison          11,625 | Lyman            10,848 |
Day              14,372 | McCook            9,589 | Yankton          13,135
Deuel             7,768 |                         | Pine Ridge Indian
Dewey             1,145 | McPherson         6,791 |   Reservation     6,607
                        | Marshall          8,021 | Rosebud Indian
Douglas           6,400 | Meade            12,640 |   Reservation     3,960
Edmunds           7,654 | Miner             7,661 |

     TOTAL                                                          583,888

TENNESSEE.--Area, 42,022 square miles.

Anderson         17,717 | Hancock          10,778 | Morgan           11,458
Bedford          22,667 | Hardeman         23,011 | Obion            29,946
Benton           12,452 |                         | Overton          15,854
Bledsoe           6,329 | Hardin           17,521 | Perry             8,815
Blount           20,809 | Hawkins          23,587 | Pickett           5,087
                        | Haywood          25,910 |
Bradley          16,336 | Henderson        17,030 | Polk             14,116
Campbell         27,387 | Henry            25,434 | Putnam           20,023
Cannon           10,825 |                         | Rhea             15,410
Carroll          23,971 | Hickman          16,527 | Roane            22,860
Carter           19,838 | Houston           6,224 | Robertson        25,466
                        | Humphreys        13,908 |
Cheatham         10,540 | Jackson          15,036 | Rutherford       33,199
Chester           9,090 | James             5,210 | Scott            12,947
Claiborne        23,504 |                         | Sequatchie        4,202
Clay              9,009 | Jefferson        17,755 | Sevier           22,296
Cocke            19,399 | Johnson          13,191 | Shelby          191,439
                        | Knox             94,187 |
Coffee           15,625 | Lake              8,704 | Smith            18,548
Crockett         16,076 | Lauderdale       21,105 | Stewart          14,860
Cumberland        9,327 |                         | Sullivan         28,120
Davidson        149,478 | Lawrence         17,569 | Sumner           25,621
Decatur          10,093 | Lewis             6,033 | Tipton           29,459
                        | Lincoln          25,908 |
Dekalb           15,434 | Loudon           13,612 | Trousdale         5,874
Dickson          19,955 | McMinn           21,046 | Unicoi            7,201
Dyer             27,721 |                         | Union            11,414
Fayette          30,257 | McNairy          16,356 | Van Buren         2,784
Fentress          7,446 | Macon            14,559 | Warren           16,534
                        | Madison          39,357 |
Franklin         20,491 | Marion           18,820 | Washington       28,968
Gibson           41,630 | Marshall         16,872 | Wayne            12,062
Giles            32,629 |                         | Weakley          31,929
Grainger         13,888 | Maury            40,456 | White             5,420
Greene           31,083 | Meigs             6,131 | Williamson       24,213
                        | Monroe           20,716 |
Grundy            8,322 | Montgomery       33,672 | Wilson           25,394
Hamblen          13,650 | Moore             4,800 |
Hamilton         89,267 |                         |

     TOTAL                                                        2,184,739

TEXAS.--Area, 265,896 square miles.

Anderson         29,650 | Bastrop          25,344 | Brazos           18,919
Andrews             975 | Baylor            8,411 | Brewster          5,220
Angelina         17,705 | Bee              12,090 | Briscoe           2,162
Aransas           2,106 | Bell             49,186 | Brown            22,935
Archer            6,525 | Bexar           119,676 | Burleson         18,687
                        |                         |
Armstrong         2,682 | Blanco            4,311 | Burnet           10,755
Atascosa         10,004 | Borden            1,386 | Caldwell         24,237
Austin           17,699 | Bosque           19,013 | Calhoun           3,635
Bailey              312 | Bowie             4,827 | Callahan         12,973
Bandera           4,921 | Brazoria         13,299 | Cameron          27,158
                        |                         |
Camp              9,551 | Gaines            1,255 | Knox              9,625
Carson            2,127 | Galveston        44,479 | La Salle          4,747
Cass             27,587 | Garza             1,995 | Lamar            46,544
Castro            1,850 | Gillespie         9,447 | Lamb                540
Chambers          4,234 | Glasscock         1,143 | Lampasas          9,532
                        |                         |
Cherokee         29,038 | Goliad            9,909 | Lavaca           26,418
Childress         9,538 | Gonzales         28,055 | Lee              13,132
Clay             17,043 | Gray              3,405 | Leon             16,583
Cochran              65 | Grayson          65,996 | Liberty          10,686
Coke              6,412 | Gregg            14,140 | Limestone        34,621
                        |                         |
Coleman          22,618 | Grimes           21,205 | Lipscomb          2,634
Collin           49,021 | Guadalupe        24,913 | Live Oak          3,442
Collingsworth     5,224 | Hale              7,566 | Llano             6,520
Colorado         18,897 | Hall              8,279 | Loving              249
Comal             8,434 | Hamilton         15,315 | Lubbock           3,624
                        |                         |
Comanche         27,186 | Hansford            935 | Lynn              1,713
Concho            6,654 | Hardeman         11,213 | McCulloch        13,405
Cooke            26,603 | Hardin           12,947 | McLennan         73,250
Coryell          21,703 | Harris          115,693 | McMullen          1,091
Cottle            4,396 | Harrison         37,243 | Madison          10,318
                        |                         |
Crane               331 | Hartley           1,298 | Marion           10,472
Crockett          1,296 | Haskell          16,249 | Martin            1,549
Crosby            1,765 | Hays             15,518 | Mason             5,683
Dallam            4,001 | Hemphill          3,170 | Matagorda        13,594
Dallas          135,748 | Henderson        20,131 | Maverick          5,151
                        |                         |
Dawson            2,320 | Hidalgo          13,728 | Medina           13,415
De Witt          23,501 | Hill             46,760 | Menard            2,707
Deaf Smith        3,942 | Hockley             137 | Midland           3,464
Delta            14,566 | Hood             10,008 | Milam            36,780
Denton           31,258 | Hopkins          31,038 | Mills             9,694
                        |                         |
Dickens           3,092 | Houston          29,564 | Mitchell          8,956
Dimmit            3,460 | Howard            8,881 | Montague         25,123
Donley            5,284 | Hunt             48,116 | Montgomery       15,679
Duval             8,964 | Hutchinson          892 | Moore               561
Eastland         23,421 | Irion             1,283 | Morris           10,439
                        |                         |
Ector             1,178 | Jack             11,817 | Motley            2,396
Edwards           3,768 | Jackson           6,471 | Nacogdoches      27,406
El Paso          52,599 | Jasper           14,000 | Navarro          47,070
Ellis            53,629 | Jeff Davis        1,678 | Newton           10,850
Erath            32,095 | Jefferson        38,182 | Nolan            11,999
                        |                         |
Falls            35,649 | Johnson          34,460 | Nueces           21,955
Fannin           44,801 | Jones            24,299 | Ochiltree         1,602
Fayette          29,796 | Karnes           14,942 | Oldham              812
Fisher           12,596 | Kaufman          35,323 | Orange            9,528
Floyd             4,638 | Kendall           4,517 | Palo Pinto       19,506
                        |                         |
Foard             5,726 | Kent              2,655 | Panola           20,424
Fort Bend        18,168 | Kerr              5,505 | Parker           26,331
Franklin          9,331 | Kimble            3,261 | Parmer            1,555
Freestone        20,557 | King                810 | Pecos             2,071
Frio              8,895 | Kinney            3,401 | Polk             17,459
                        |                         |
Potter           12,424 | Sherman           1,376 | Val Verde         8,613
Presidio          5,218 | Smith            41,746 |
Rains             6,787 | Somervell         3,931 | Van Zandt        25,651
Randall           3,312 |                         | Victoria         14,990
Reagan              392 | Starr            13,151 | Walker           16,061
                        | Stephens          7,980 | Waller           12,138
Red River        28,564 | Sterling          1,493 | Ward              2,389
Reeves            4,392 | Stonewall         5,320 |
Refugio           2,814 | Sutton            1,569 | Washington       25,561
Roberts             950 |                         | Webb             22,503
Robertson        27,454 | Swisher           4,012 | Wharton          21,123
                        | Tarrant         108,572 | Wheeler           5,258
Rockwall          8,072 | Taylor           26,293 | Wichita          16,094
Runnels          20,858 | Terrell           1,430 |
Rusk             26,946 | Terry             1,474 | Wilbarger        12,000
Sabine            8,582 |                         | Williamson       42,228
San Augustine    11,264 | Throckmorton      4,563 | Wilson           17,066
                        | Titus            16,422 | Winkler             442
San Jacinto       9,542 | Tom Green        17,882 | Wise             26,450
San Patricio      7,307 | Travis           55,620 |
San Saba         11,245 | Trinity          12,768 | Wood             23,417
Schleicher        1,893 |                         | Yoakum              602
Scurry           10,924 | Tyler            10,250 | Young            13,657
                        | Upshur           19,960 | Zapata            3,809
Shackelford       4,201 | Upton               501 | Zavalla           1,889
Shelby           26,423 | Uvalde           11,233 |

     TOTAL                                                        3,896,542

UTAH.--Area, 84,990 square miles.

Beaver            4,717 | Kane              1,652 | Tooele            7,924
Boxelder         13,894 | Millard           6,118 | Uinta             7,050
Cache            23,062 | Morgan            2,467 | Utah             37,942
Carbon            8,624 | Piute             1,734 | Wasatch           8,920
Davis            10,191 | Rich              1,883 | Washington        5,123
                        |                         |
Emery             6,750 | Salt Lake       131,426 | Wayne             1,749
Garfield          3,660 | San Juan          2,377 | Weber            35,179
Grand             1,595 | Sanpete          16,704 |
Iron              3,933 | Sevier            9,775 |
Juab             10,702 | Summit            8,200 |

     TOTAL                                                          373,351

VERMONT.--Area, 9,564 square miles.

Addison          20,010 | Franklin         29,866 | Rutland          48,139
Bennington       21,378 | Grand Isle        3,761 | Washington       41,702
Caledonia        26,031 | Lamoille         12,585 | Windham          26,932
Chittenden       42,447 | Orange           18,703 | Windsor          33,681
Essex             7,384 | Orleans          23,337 |

     TOTAL                                                          355,956

VIRGINIA.--Area, 42,627 square miles.

Accomac          36,650 | Amherst          18,932 | Bland             5,154
Albemarle        29,871 | Appomattox        8,904 | Botetourt        17,727
Alexandria       10,231 | Augusta          32,445 | Brunswick        19,244
Alleghany        14,173 | Bath              6,538 | Buchanan         12,334
Amelia            8,720 | Bedford          29,549 | Buckingham       15,204
                        |                         |
Campbell         23,043 | Highland          5,317 | Prince Edward    14,266
Caroline         16,596 | Isle of Wight    14,929 | Prince George     7,848
Carroll          21,116 | James City        3,624 |
Charles City      5,253 | King and Queen    9,576 | Prince William   12,026
Charlotte        15,785 | King George       6,378 | Princess Anne    11,526
                        |                         | Pulaski          17,246
Chesterfield     21,299 | King William      8,547 | Rappahannock      8,044
Clarke            7,468 | Lancaster         9,752 | Richmond          7,415
Craig             4,711 | Lee              23,840 |
Culpeper         13,472 | Loudoun          21,167 | Roanoke          19,623
Cumberland        9,195 | Louisa           16,578 | Rockbridge       21,171
                        |                         | Rockingham       34,903
Dickenson         9,199 | Lunenburg        12,780 | Russell          23,474
Dinwiddie        15,442 | Madison          10,055 | Scott            23,814
Elizabeth City   21,225 | Mathews           8,922 |
Essex             9,105 | Mecklenburg      28,956 | Shenandoah       20,942
Fairfax          20,536 | Middlesex         8,852 | Smyth            20,326
                        |                         | Southampton      26,302
Fauquier         22,526 | Montgomery       17,268 | Spotsylvania      9,935
Floyd            14,092 | Nansemond        26,886 | Stafford          8,070
Fluvanna          8,323 | Nelson           16,821 |
Franklin         26,480 | New Kent          4,682 | Surry             9,715
Frederick        12,787 | Norfolk          52,744 | Sussex           13,664
                        |                         | Tazewell         24,946
Giles            11,623 | Northampton      16,672 | Warren            8,589
Gloucester       12,477 | Northumberland   10,777 | Warwick           6,041
Goochland         9,237 | Nottoway         13,462 |
Grayson          19,856 | Orange           13,486 | Washington       32,830
Greene            6,937 | Page             14,147 | Westmoreland      9,313
                        |                         | Wise             34,162
Greenesville     11,890 | Patrick          17,195 | Wythe            20,372
Halifax          40,044 | Pittsylvania     50,709 | York              7,757
Hanover          17,200 | Powhatan          6,099 |
Henrico          23,437 |                         |
Henry            18,459 |                         |

     TOTAL                                                        2,061,612

WASHINGTON.--Area, 69,127 square miles.

Adams            10,920 | Grant             8,698 | Pierce          120,812
Asotin            5,831 | Island            4,704 | San Juan          3,603
Benton            7,937 |                         | Skagit           29,241
Chehalis         35,590 | Jefferson         8,337 | Skamania          2,887
Chelan           15,104 | King            284,638 | Snohomish        59,209
                        | Kitsap           17,647 |
Clallam           6,755 | Kittitas         18,561 | Spokane         139,404
Clarke           26,115 | Klickitat        10,180 | Stevens          25,297
Columbia          7,042 |                         | Thurston         17,581
Cowlitz          12,561 | Lewis            32,127 | Wahkiakum         3,285
Douglas           9,227 | Lincoln          17,539 | Walla Walla      31,931
                        | Mason             5,156 |
Ferry             4,800 | Okanogan         12,887 | Whatcom          49,511
Franklin          5,153 | Pacific          12,532 | Whitman          33,280
Garfield          4,199 |                         | Yakima           41,709

     TOTAL                                                        1,141,990

WEST VIRGINIA.--Area, 24,170 square miles.

Barbour          15,858 | Kanawha          81,457 | Pocahontas       14,740
Berkeley         21,999 |                         | Preston          26,341
Boone            10,331 | Lewis            18,281 | Putnam           18,587
Braxton          23,023 | Lincoln          20,491 |
Brooke           11,098 | Logan            14,476 | Raleigh          25,633
                        | McDowell         47,856 | Randolph         26,028
Cabell           46,685 | Marion           42,794 | Ritchie          17,875
Calhoun          11,258 |                         | Roane            21,543
Clay             10,233 | Marshall         32,388 | Summers          18,420
Doddridge        12,672 | Mason            23,019 |
Fayette          51,903 | Mercer           38,371 | Taylor           16,554
                        | Mineral          16,674 | Tucker           18,675
Gilmer           11,379 | Mingo            19,431 | Tyler            16,211
Grant             7,838 |                         | Upshur           16,629
Greenbrier       24,833 | Monongalia       24,334 | Wayne            24,081
Hampshire        11,694 | Monroe           13,055 |
Hancock          10,465 | Morgan            7,848 | Webster           9,680
                        | Nicholas         17,699 | Wetzel           23,855
Hardy             9,163 | Ohio             57,572 | Wirt              9,047
Harrison         48,381 |                         | Wood             38,001
Jackson          20,956 | Pendleton         9,349 | Wyoming          10,392
Jefferson        15,889 | Pleasants         8,074 |

     TOTAL                                                        1,221,119

WISCONSIN.--Area, 56,066 square miles.

Adams             8,604 | Iowa             22,497 | Polk             21,367
Ashland          21,965 |                        | Portage          30,945
Barron           29,114 | Iron              8,306 | Price            13,795
Bayfield         15,987 | Jackson          17,075 |
Brown            54,098 | Jefferson        34,306 | Racine           57,424
                        | Juneau           19,569 | Richland         18,809
Buffalo          16,006 | Kenosha          32,929 | Rock             55,538
Burnett           9,026 |                         | Rusk             11,160
Calumet          16,701 | Kewaunee         16,784 | St. Croix        25,910
Chippewa         32,103 | La Crosse        43,996 |
Clark            30,074 | Lafayette        20,075 | Sauk             32,869
                        | Langlade         17,062 | Sawyer            6,227
Columbia         31,129 | Lincoln          19,064 | Shawano          31,884
Crawford         16,288 |                         | Sheboygan        54,888
Dane             77,435 | Manitowoc        44,978 | Taylor           13,641
Dodge            47,436 | Marathon         55,054 |
Door             18,711 | Marinette        33,812 | Trempealeau      22,928
                        | Marquette        10,741 | Vernon           28,116
Douglas          47,422 | Milwaukee       433,187 | Vilas             6,019
Dunn             25,260 |                         | Walworth         29,614
Eau Claire       32,721 | Monroe           28,881 | Washburn          8,196
Florence          3,381 | Oconto           25,657 |
Fond du Lac      51,610 | Oneida           11,433 | Washington       23,784
                        | Outagamie        49,102 | Waukesha         37,100
Forest            6,782 | Ozaukee          17,123 | Waupaca          32,782
Grant            39,007 |                         | Waushara         18,886
Green            21,641 | Pepin             7,577 | Winnebago        62,116
Green Lake       15,491 | Pierce           22,079 |
                        |                         | Wood             30,583

     TOTAL                                                        2,333,860

WYOMING.--Area, 97,914 square miles.

Albany           11,574 | Fremont          11,822 | Sheridan         16,324
Bighorn           8,886 | Johnson           3,453 | Sweetwater       11,575
Carbon           11,282 | Laramie          26,127 | Uinta            16,982
Converse          6,294 | Natrona           4,766 | Weston            4,960
Crook             6,492 | Park              4,909 | National Park
                        |                         |   Reservation       519

     TOTAL                                                          145,935



POPULATION OF CITIES

OF THE

UNITED STATES

_Census of 1910_

Cities of over 100,000 population

Albany, N. Y.           100,253 | Minneapolis, Minn.      301,408
Atlanta, Ga.            154,839 | Nashville, Tenn.        110,364
Baltimore, Md.          558,485 | Newark, N. J.           347,469
Birmingham, Ala.        132,685 | New Haven, Conn.        133,605
Boston, Mass.           670,585 | New Orleans, La.        339,075
                                |
Bridgeport, Conn.       102,054 | New York, N. Y.       4,766,883
Buffalo, N. Y.          423,715 | Oakland, Cal.           150,174
Cambridge, Mass.        104,839 | Omaha, Neb.             124,096
Chicago, Ill.         2,185,283 | Paterson, N. J.         125,600
Cincinnati, Ohio        364,463 | Philadelphia, Pa.     1,549,008
                                |
Cleveland, Ohio         560,663 | Pittsburgh, Pa.         533,905
Columbus, Ohio          181,548 | Portland, Ore.          207,214
Dayton, Ohio            116,577 | Providence, R. I.       224,326
Denver, Colo.           213,381 | Richmond, Va.           127,628
Detroit, Mich.          465,766 | Rochester, N. Y.        218,149
                                |
Fall River, Mass.       119,295 | St. Louis, Mo.          687,029
Grand Rapids, Mich.     112,571 | St. Paul, Minn.         214,744
Indianapolis, Ind.      233,650 | San Francisco, Cal.     416,912
Jersey City, N. J.      267,779 | Scranton, Pa.           129,867
Kansas City, Mo.        248,381 | Seattle, Wash.          237,194
                                |
Los Angeles, Cal.       319,198 | Spokane, Wash.          104,402
Louisville, Ky.         223,928 | Syracuse, N. Y.         137,249
Lowell, Mass.           106,294 | Toledo, Ohio            168,497
Memphis, Tenn.          131,105 | Washington, D. C.       331,069
Milwaukee, Wis.         373,857 | Worcester, Mass.        145,986


Cities of from 25,000 to 100,000 population

Akron, Ohio              69,067 | Auburn, N. Y.            34,668
Allentown, Pa.           51,913 | Augusta, Ga.             41,040
Altoona, Pa.             52,127 | Aurora, Ill.             29,807
Amsterdam, N. Y.         31,267 | Austin, Tex.             29,860
Atlantic City, N. J.     46,150 | Battle Creek, Mich.      25,267

Bay City, Mich.          45,166 | Hoboken, N. J.           70,324
Bayonne, N. J.           55,545 | Holyoke, Mass.           57,730
Berkeley, Cal.           40,434 | Houston, Tex.            78,800
Binghamton, N. Y.        48,443 | Huntington, W. Va.       31,161
Bloomington, Ill.        25,768 | Jackson, Mich.           31,433
                                |
Brockton, Mass.          56,878 | Jacksonville, Fla.       57,699
Brookline, Mass.         27,792 | Jamestown, N. Y.         31,297
Butte, Mont.             39,165 | Johnstown, Pa.           55,482
Camden, N. J.            94,538 | Joliet, Ill.             34,670
Canton, Ohio             50,217 | Joplin, Mo.              32,073
                                |
Cedar Rapids, Iowa       32,811 | Kalamazoo, Mich.         39,437
Charleston, S. C.        58,833 | Kansas City, Kans.       82,331
Charlotte, N. C.         34,014 | Kingston, N. Y.          25,908
Chattanooga, Tenn.       44,604 | Knoxville, Tenn.         36,346
Chelsea, Mass.           32,452 | La Crosse, Wis.          30,417
                                |
Chester, Pa.             38,537 | Lancaster, Pa.           47,227
Chicopee, Mass.          25,401 | Lansing, Mich.           31,229
Clinton, Iowa            25,577 | Lawrence, Mass.          85,892
Colorado Springs, Colo.  29,078 | Lewiston, Me.            26,247
Columbia, S. C.          26,319 | Lexington, Ky.           35,099
                                |
Council Bluffs, Iowa     29,292 | Lima, Ohio               30,508
Covington, Ky.           53,270 | Lincoln, Nebr.           43,973
Dallas, Tex.             92,104 | Little Rock, Ark.        45,941
Danville, Ill.           27,871 | Lorain, Ohio             28,883
Davenport, Iowa          43,028 | Lynchburg, Va.           29,494
                                |
Decatur, Ill.            31,140 | Lynn, Mass.              89,336
Des Moines, Iowa         86,368 | Macon, Ga.               40,665
Dubuque, Iowa            38,494 | McKeesport, Pa.          42,694
Duluth, Minn.            78,466 | Madison, Wis.            25,531
Easton, Pa.              28,523 | Malden, Mass.            44,404
                                |
East Orange, N. J.       34,371 | Manchester, N. H.        70,063
East St. Louis, Ill.     58,547 | Meriden, Conn.           27,265
El Paso, Tex.            39,279 | Mobile, Ala.             51,521
Elgin, Ill.              25,976 | Montgomery, Ala.         38,136
Elizabeth, N. J.         73,409 | Mount Vernon, N. Y.      30,919
                                |
Elmira, N. Y.            37,176 | Muskogee, Okla.          25,278
Erie, Pa.                66,525 | Nashua, N. H.            26,005
Evansville, Ind.         69,647 | Newark, Ohio             25,404
Everett, Mass.           33,484 | New Bedford, Mass.       96,652
Fitchburg, Mass.         37,826 | New Britain, Conn.       43,916
                                |
Flint, Mich.             38,550 | Newburgh, N. Y.          27,805
Fort Wayne, Ind.         63,933 | Newcastle, Pa.           36,280
Fort Worth, Tex.         73,312 | Newport, Ky.             30,309
Galveston, Tex.          36,981 | Newport, R. I.           27,149
Green Bay, Wis.          25,236 | New Rochelle, N. Y.      28,867
                                |
Hamilton, Ohio           35,279 | Newton, Mass.            39,806
Harrisburg, Pa.          64,186 | Niagara Falls, N. Y.     30,445
Hartford, Conn.          98,915 | Norfolk, Va.             67,452
Haverhill, Mass.         44,115 | Norristown, Pa.          27,875
Hazleton, Pa.            25,452 | Ogden, Utah              25,580

Oklahoma City, Okla.     64,205 | South Omaha, Nebr.       26,259
Orange, N. J.            29,630 | Springfield, Ill.        51,678
Oshkosh, Wis.            33,062 | Springfield, Mass.       88,926
Pasadena, Cal.           30,291 | Springfield, Mo.         35,201
Passaic, N. J.           54,773 | Springfield, Ohio.       46,921
                                |
Pawtucket, R. I.         51,622 | Stamford, Conn.          25,138
Peoria, Ill.             66,950 | Superior, Wis.           40,384
Perth Amboy, N. J.       32,121 | Tacoma, Wash.            83,743
Pittsfield, Mass.        32,121 | Tampa, Fla.              37,782
Portland, Me.            58,571 | Taunton, Mass.           34,259
                                |
Portsmouth, Va.          33,190 | Terre Haute, Ind.        58,157
Poughkeepsie, N. Y.      27,936 | Topeka, Kans.            43,684
Pueblo Colo.             44,395 | Trenton, N. J.           96,815
Quincy, Ill.             36,587 | Troy, N. Y.              76,813
Quincy, Mass.            32,642 | Utica N. Y.              74,419
                                |
Racine, Wis.             38,002 | Waco, Tex.               26,425
Heading, Pa.             96,071 | Waltham, Mass.           27,834
Roanoke, Va.             34,874 | Warwick, R. I.           26,629
Rockford, Ill.           45,401 | Waterbury, Conn.         73,141
Sacramento, Cal.         44,696 | Waterloo, Iowa           26,693
                                |
Saginaw, Mich.           50,510 | Watertown, N. Y.         26,730
St. Joseph, Mo.          77,403 | West Hoboken, N. J.      35,403
Salem, Mass.             43,697 | Wheeling, W. Va.         41,641
Salt Lake City, Utah     92,777 | Wichita, Kans.           52,450
San Antonio, Tex.        96,614 | Wilkes-Barre, Pa.        67,105
                                |
San Diego, Cal.          39,578 | Williamsport, Pa.        31,860
San Jose, Cal.           28,946 | Wilmington, Del.         87,411
Savannah, Ga.            65,064 | Wilmington, N. C.        25,748
Schenectady, N. Y.       72,826 | Woonsocket, R. I.        38,125
Sheboygan, Wis.          26,398 | Yonkers, N. Y.           79,803
                                |
Shenandoah, Pa.          25,774 | York, Pa.                44,750
Shreveport, La.          28,015 | Youngstown, Ohio         79,066
Sioux City, Iowa         47,828 | Zanesville, Ohio         28,026
Somerville, Mass.        77,236 |
South Bend, Ind.         53,684 |


NUMBER, ACREAGE, AND VALUE OF FARMS, BY STATES: 1910.

-------+---------+-----------+---------------+--------------+--------------
       |  NUMBER |   LAND    |   VALUE OF    |   VALUE OF   |  IMPLEMENTS
       |    OF   |    IN     |    FARMS.     |    FARMS.    |   AND
 STATE.|  FARMS. |   FARMS.  |    (LAND.)    | (BUILDINGS.) |  MACHINERY.
       |         |  (ACRES.) |               |              |
-------+---------+-----------+---------------+--------------+--------------
The United       |           |               |              |
States |6,398,491| 75,788,000|$28,457,789,000|$6,302,777,000|$1,270,528,000
Alabama   262,720| 20,713,000|    216,510,000|    71,163,000|    16,279,000
Arizona     8,078|  1,242,000|     42,116,000|     4,918,000|     1,779,000
Arkansas  214,275| 17,377,000|    245,137,000|    62,992,000|    16,806,000
California 87,670| 27,883,000|  1,315,718,000|   132,842,000|    36,393,000
Colorado   45,839| 13,448,000|    361,680,000|    45,335,000|    12,761,000
Connecticut      |           |               |              |
       |   26,431|  2,176,000|     71,527,000|    65,094,000|     6,865,000
Delaware   10,800|  1,037,000|     34,810,000|    18,117,000|     3,202,000
District of      |           |               |              |
 Columbia     214|      6,000|      5,466,000|       835,000|        62,000
Florida    49,834|  5,231,000|     93,288,000|    24,335,000|     4,429,000
Georgia   290,499| 26,866,000|    369,120,000|   108,483,000|    20,883,000
Idaho  |   30,741|  5,269,000|    219,346,000|    25,074,000|    10,459,000
Illinois  250,853| 32,471,000|  3,081,564,000|   429,630,000|    73,533,000
Indiana   214,741| 21,264,000|  1,325,475,000|   264,750,000|    40,880,000
Iowa   |  216,807| 33,905,000|  2,799,025,000|   454,694,000|    95,273,000
Kansas |  177,299| 43,261,000|  1,534,552,000|   199,101,000|    48,244,000
Kentucky  258,742| 22,159,000|    483,127,000|   150,655,000|    20,793,000
Louisiana 120,270| 10,519,000|    189,071,000|    49,611,000|    18,951,000
Maine  |   59,773|  6,291,000|     85,923,000|    72,753,000|    14,476,000
Maryland   48,769|  5,051,000|    163,023,000|    77,751,000|    11,845,000
Massachusetts    |           |               |              |
       |   36,512|  2,870,000|    104,273,000|    87,025,000|    11,512,000
Michigan  206,376| 18,913,000|    612,143,000|   284,914,000|    49,771,000
Minnesota 155,759| 27,623,000|  1,016,889,000|   242,621,000|    52,243,000
Mississippi      |           |               |              |
       |  273,820| 18,419,000|    250,715,000|    79,580,000|    16,726,000
Missouri  276,081| 34,516,000|  1,441,529,000|   268,976,000|    50,769,000
Montana    25,946| 13,499,000|    225,819,000|    24,666,000|    10,522,000
Nebraska  129,419| 38,553,000|  1,613,077,000|   198,480,000|    44,215,000
Nevada |    2,660|  2,585,000|     34,876,000|     4,277,000|     1,558,000
-------+---------+-----------+---------------+--------------+--------------

NUMBER, ACREAGE, AND VALUE OF FARMS, BY STATES: 1910.--Continued

-------------+--------+-----------+--------------+-------------+-----------
             | NUMBER |   LAND    |  VALUE OF    |  VALUE OF   | IMPLEMENTS
             |   OF   |    IN     |   FARMS.     |   FARMS.    |  AND
   STATE.    | FARMS. |   FARMS.  |  (LAND.)     |(BUILDINGS.) | MACHINERY.
             |        |  (ACRES.) |              |             |
-------------+--------+-----------+--------------+-------------+-----------
New Hampshire|  26,913|  3,242,000|   $44,327,000|  $41,215,000| $5,870,000
New Jersey   |  33,161|  2,562,000|   122,357,000|   90,784,000| 12,955,000
New Mexico   |  35,032| 11,225,000|    98,496,000|   12,934,000|  4,101,000
New York     | 214,650| 21,998,000|   703,214,000|  473,008,000| 83,330,000
North        |        |           |              |             |
  Carolina   | 253,425| 22,400,000|   342,545,000|  113,170,000| 18,415,000
North Dakota |  74,165| 28,392,000|   729,896,000|   92,139,000| 43,887,000
Ohio         | 271,383| 24,074,000| 1,283,827,000|  366,919,000| 51,115,000
Oklahoma     | 189,438| 28,717,000|   647,178,000|   89,295,000| 27,002,000
Oregon       |  45,128| 11,628,000|   409,949,000|   43,622,000| 13,135,000
Pennsylvania | 218,394| 18,556,000|   627,185,000|  408,115,000| 70,547,000
Porto Rico   |  58,371|  2,085,000|    73,968,000|    8,752,000|  8,711,000
Rhode Island |   5,191|    442,000|    14,837,000|   12,619,000|  1,753,000
South        |        |           |              |             |
Carolina     | 176,180| 13,469,000|   267,931,000|   63,902,000| 14,067,000
South Dakota |  77,314| 25,952,000|   901,134,000|  102,317,000| 33,762,000
Tennessee    | 245,509| 20,011,000|   370,783,000|  108,823,000| 21,260,000
Texas        | 416,377|109,226,000| 1,613,513,000|  209,200,000| 56,533,000
Utah         |  21,426| 33,540,000|    98,891,000|   17,987,000|  4,451,000
Vermont      |  32,598|  4,653,000|    58,255,000|   54,072,000| 10,162,000
Virginia     | 183,762| 19,476,000|   393,837,000|  137,081,000| 18,079,000
Washington   |  55,744| 11,663,000|   515,918,000|   54,224,000| 16,653,000
West Virginia|  95,876|  9,961,000|   205,610,000|   56,848,000|  6,962,000
Wisconsin    | 176,546| 21,012,000|   909,462,000|  288,096,000| 52,783,000
Wyoming      |  10,980|  8,543,000|    88,877,000|    8,983,000|  3,765,000
-------------+--------+-----------+--------------+-------------+-----------



TABLE OF OCCUPATIONS

_Census of 1890_

ALL OCCUPATIONS (persons engaged in)               22,735,861


AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES, AND MINING, total, 9,013,336

Agricultural labore                                 3,004,061
Apiarists                                               1,778
Dairymen and dairywomen                                17,895
Farmers, planters, and overseers                    5,281,557
Fishermen and oystermen                                60,162
Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, and vine growers      72,601
Lumbermen and raftsmen                                 65,866
Miners (coal)                                         208,545
Miners (not otherwise specified)                      141,047
Quarrymen                                              37,656
Stock raisers, herders, and drovers                    70,729
Wood choppers                                          33,697
Other agricultural pursuits                            17,747


PROFESSIONAL SERVICE, 944,333

Actors                                                  9,728
Architects                                              8,070
Artists and teachers of art                            22,496
Authors and literary and scientific persons             6,714
Chemists, assayers, and metallurgists                   4,503
Clergymen                                              88,203
Dentists                                               17,498
Designers, draughtsmen, and inventors                   9,391
Engineers (civil, mechanical, electrical, and
  mining and surveyors)                                43,239
Journalists                                            21,849
Lawyers                                                89,630
Musicians and teachers of music                        62,155
Officers of the United States army and navy             2,926
Officials (Government)                                 79,664
Physicians and surgeons                               104,805
Professors in colleges and universities                 5,393
Teachers                                              341,952
Theatrical managers, showmen, etc.                     18,055
Veterinary surgeons                                     6,494
Other professional service                              1,569

DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE, 4,360,577

Barbers and hairdressers                               84,982
Bartenders                                             55,806
Boarding and lodging house keepers                     44,349
Engineers and firemen (not locomotive)                139,765
Hotel keepers                                          44,076
Housekeepers and stewards                              92,036
Hunters, trappers, guides, and scouts                   2,534
Janitors                                               21,556
Laborers (not specified)                            1,913,373
Launderers and laundresses                            248,463
Nurses and midwives                                    47,586
Restaurant keepers                                     19,283
Saloon keepers                                         71,385
Servants                                            1,454,791
Sextons                                                 4,982
Soldiers, sailors, and marines (United States)         27,819
Watchmen, policemen, and detectives                    74,629
Other domestic and personal service                    13,063


TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION, 3,326,122

Agents (claim, commission, real estate, insurance,
  etc.) and collectors                                174,582
Auctioneers                                             3,205
Bankers and brokers (money and stocks)                 30,008
Boatmen and canalmen                                   16,716
Bookkeepers and accountants                           159,374
Brokers (commercial)                                    5,960
Clerks and copyists                                   557,358
Commercial travellers                                  58,691
Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc                      368,499
Foremen and overseers                                  36,084
Hostlers                                               54,036
Hucksters and pedlers                                  59,083
Livery stable keepers                                  26,757
Locomotive engineers and firemen                       79,463
Merchants and dealers in drugs and chemicals
  (retail)                                             46,375
Merchants and dealers in drygoods (retail)             42,527
Merchants and dealers in groceries (retail)           114,997
Merchants and dealers in wines and liquors (retail)    10,078
Merchants and dealers in wines and liquors
  (wholesale)                                           3,643
Merchants and dealers not specified (retail)          446,262
Merchants and dealers (wholesale), importers and
  shipping merchants                                   27,443
Messengers, and errand and office boys                 51,355
Newspaper carriers and newsboys                         5,288
Officials of banks and insurance, trade,
  transportation, trust and other companies            39,900
Packers and shippers                                   24,946
Pilots                                                  4,259
Porters and helpers (in stores and warehouses)         24,356
Sailors                                                55,899
Salesmen and saleswomen                               264,394
Steam railroad employés (not otherwise specified)     382,750
Stenographers and typewriters                          33,418

TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION.--_Continued_.

Street railway employés                                37,434
Telephone and telegraph operators                      52,314
Telephone and telegraph linemen and electric
  light and power company employés                     11,134
Undertakers                                             9,891
Weighers, gaugers, and measurers                        3,860
Other persons in trade and transportation               3,883


MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES. 5,091,393

Agricultural implement makers (not otherwise
  classified)                                           3,755
Apprentices (blacksmiths')                              4,244
Apprentices (boot and shoe makers')                     1,031
Apprentices (carpenters and joiners')                   6,760
Apprentices (carriage and wagon makers')                  852
Apprentices (dressmakers')                              4,340
Apprentices (leather curriers', etc.)                     421
Apprentices (machinists')                               9,738
Apprentices (masons')                                   1,927
Apprentices (milliners')                                1,204
Apprentices (painters')                                 2,321
Apprentices (plumbers')                                 4,624
Apprentices (printers')                                 4,635
Apprentices (tailors')                                  2,625
Apprentices (tinsmiths')                                2,037
Apprentices (not otherwise specified )                 35,698
Artificial flower makers                                3,046
Bakers                                                 60,197
Basket makers                                           5,225
Blacksmiths                                           205,337
Bleachers, dyers, and scourers                         14,210
Bone and ivory workers                                  1,691
Bookbinders                                            23,858
Boot and shoe makers and repairers                    213,544
Bottlers and mineral and soda-water makers              7,230
Box makers (paper)                                     17,757
Box makers (wood)                                      10,883
Brass workers (not otherwise specified)                17,265
Brewers and maltsters                                  20,362
Brick and tile makers and terra cotta workers          60,214
Britannia workers                                         904
Broom and brush makers                                 10,115
Builders and contractors                               45,988
Butchers                                              105,456
Butter and cheese makers                               11,211
Button makers                                           2,601
Cabinetmakers                                          35,915
Candle, soap, and tallow makers                         3,450
Carpenters and joiners                                611,482
Carpet makers                                          22,302
Carriage and wagon makers (not otherwise
  classified)                                          34,538
Charcoal, coke, and lime burners                        8,704
Chemical works employés                                 3,628
Clock and watch makers and repairers                   25,252
Compositors                                            30,060
Confectioners                                          23,251

MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES.--_Continued_.

Coopers                                                47,486
Cooper workers                                          3,384
Corset makers                                           6,533
Cotton mill operatives                                173,142
Distillers and rectifiers                               3,314
Door, sash, and blind makers                            5,041
Dressmakers                                           289,164
Electroplaters                                          2,756
Electrotypers and stereotypers                          1,471
Engravers                                               8,320
Fertilizer makers                                         732
Fish curers and packers                                 1,279
Gas works employés                                      5,224
Glass workers                                          34,382
Glove makers                                            6,416
Gold and silver workers                                20,263
Gunsmiths, locksmiths, and bell hangers                 9,158
Hair workers                                            1,254
Harness and saddle makers and repairers                43,480
Hat and cap makers                                     24,013
Hosiery and knitting mill operatives                   29,555
Iron and steel workers                                144,921
Lace and embroidery makers                              5,256
Lead and zinc workers                                   4,616
Leather curriers, dressers, finishers, and tanners     39,332
Machinists                                            177,090
Manufacturers and officials of manufacturing
  companies                                           101,610
Marble and stone cutters                               61,070
Masons (brick and stone)                              158,918
Meat and fruit packers, canners, and preservers         5,830
Mechanics (not otherwise specified)                    15,485
Metal workers (not otherwise specified)                16,694
Mill and factory operatives (not specified)            93,596
Millers (flour and grist)                              52,841
Milliners                                              60,842
Model and pattern makers                               10,300
Moulders                                               66,289
Musical instrument makers (not otherwise specified)       652
Nail and tack makers                                    4,583
Oil well employés                                       9,147
Oil works employés                                      5,624
Painters, glaziers, and varnishers                    219,912
Paper hangers                                          12,369
Paper mill operatives                                  27,817
Photographers                                          20,840
Piano and organ makers and tuners                      14,683
Plasterers                                             39,002
Plumbers and gas and steam fitters                     56,607
Potters                                                14,928
Powder and cartridge makers                             1,385
Printers, lithographers, and pressmen                  86,893
Print works operatives                                  6,701
Publishers of books, maps, and newspapers               6,284
Roofers and slaters                                     7,043
Rope and cordage makers                                 8,001
Rubber factory operatives                              16,162
Sail, awning, and tent makers                           3,257
Salt works employés                                     1,765
Saw and planing mill employés                         133,637

MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES.--_Continued_.

Seamstresses                                          150,044
Sewing machine makers (not otherwise classified)          880
Sewing machine operators                                7,126
Ship and boat builders                                 22,951
Shirt, collar, and cuff makers                         21,097
Silk mill operatives                                   34,855
Starch makers                                             746
Steam boiler makers                                    21,339
Stove, furnace, and grate makers                        8,932
Straw workers                                           3,666
Sugar makers and refiners                               2,616
Tailors and tailoresses                               185,400
Tinners and tinware makers                             55,488
Tobacco and cigar operatives                          111,385
Tools and cutlery (not otherwise specified)            17,985
Trunk, valise, leather case, and pocket-book makers     6,297
Umbrella and parasol makers                             3,403
Upholsterers                                           25,666
Well borers                                             4,854
Wheelwrights                                           12,856
Whitewashers                                            3,996
Wire workers                                           12,319
Wood workers (not otherwise specified)                 67,360
Woolen mill operatives                                 84,109
Other persons in manufacturing and mechanical
  industries                                           76,714



INDEX.


A Better Plan,                                             22

About Advertising,                                         46
  "   Canadian Patents,                                    73
  "   Getting Up Circulars,                                51

Acreage of Farms by States,                               135

Advertisements, How to Write,                              47

Agreement, Form of,                                        22

Assignee, Grantee, and Licensee Defined,                   92

Assigning an Undivided Interest,                           58

Assignments,                                               79
      "      Conditional,                                  87


Basis for Estimation,                                      32

Business Capacity of the Inventor,                         16


Canadian Cities, Population of,                            78
    "    Patents, About,                                   73
    "       "     Selling,                                 76

Capital, Securing,                                         20

Circulars,                                                 50
    "      About Getting Up,                               51

Cities in the United States, Population of,               132

Classes of Rights, Dividing a Patent into,                 59

Commercial Value,                                          31

Companies, Forming, and Manufacturing,                     67
    "      Stock in Stock,                                 36
    "      To Organize Stock,                              68

Conditional Assignments,                                   87

Correspondence as a Means of Bringing Patents Before
                                       Interested Parties, 48

Danger in an Undivided Interest,                           26

Decisions and Notes,                                       79
    "     Assignments,                                     79
    "     Licenses,                                        82
    "     Patent Title,                                    84
    "     Territorial Grants,                              76

Demand for Inventions of Merit,                             9

Dividing Patents into Classes of Rights,                   59

Drawings, Working,                                         53


Estimating Prices for State Rights,                        38

Estimation, Basis for,                                     32

Exhibit of Inventions,                                     25


Farms in Each State, Number, Acreage and Value of,        135

First Impressions All-important,                           52

Form, Assignment of an Undivided Interest,                 96
  "        "     of Entire Interest,                       94
  "   Grant of a Territorial Interest,                     97
  "   License, Exclusive With Royalty,                    102
  "      "     Non-exclusive With Royalty,                100
  "      "     Shop-right,                                 99
  "   of Agreement (Securing Capital),                     22

Forming Companies, and Manufacturing,                      67

Forms, Legal, of Value to Patentees,                       92


General Rules for Valuation,                               33

Grantee,                                                   86

Granting Licenses,                                         62

Grants, Territorial,                                       81


How Rating for Royalty Is Figured,                         33
 "  to Arrive at the Value of a Patent,                    30
 "  "  Conduct the Sale of Patents,                    41, 55
 "  "  Correspond with Manufacturers,                      49
 "  "  Write an Advertisement,                             47


Illustrations for Circulars,                               50

In Case the Patentee Cannot Undertake Selling,             44

Income from Inventions,                                    13

Independence Through Successful Invention,                 13

Industrial Progress Based upon Patent System,              11

Inventions as a Poor Man's Opportunity,                    18
    "      Exhibit of,                                     25
    "      Income from,                                    13
    "      of Merit, Demand for,                            9
    "      Perfecting,                                     24
    "      Value of Record of,                             26

Inventor, Business Capacity of the,                        16


Law, the Language of,                                      93

Laws, State, on Selling Patents,                           88

Legal Forms of Value to Patentees,                         92

Licensee,                                                  86

Licenses, Decisions,                                       82
    "     Granting,                                        62


Manufacturers, How to Correspond with,                     49

Manufacturing, and Forming Companies,                      67

Map of the United States,                                 106

Methods of Selling Patents,                                45

Models, Value of,                                          52

Money in Patents,                                          15

Monopoly in Patents,                                       10

Mortgages,                                                 86

Must Be Recorded (Transfer of Patents),                    86


Newspaper Notoriety,                                       27

Number of Farms in Each State,                            135


Occupations, Table of,                                    137

Official Census of the United States for 1910,            107

Organizing Stock Companies,                                68

Outright Assignments,                                      58


Patent, How to arrive at the Value of a,                   30
   "    Selling Agencies,                                  41
   "    System, Industrial Progress Based upon,            11
   "    Title,                                             79

Patents, Canadian,                                         73
   "     Copies, How to Secure,                            51
   "     How to Conduct the Sale of,                   41, 55
   "     Money in,                                         15
   "     Monopoly in,                                      10
   "     Prejudice against,                                26
   "     State Laws on,                                    88
   "     Unprofitable,                                     14

Pecuniary value,                                           30

Perfecting Inventions,                                     24

Personal Influence, Value of,                              56
    "    Solicitation Advisable,                           56

Pigeon-holing Patents,                                     65

Placing upon Royalty,                                      64

Population of Canadian Cities,                             78
    "      "  Cities of the United States, 1910,          132
    "      "  Counties of Each State, 1910,               107

Prejudice against Patents,                                 26

Prices of Territorial Rights,                              37

Printed Copies of Patents, Uses of,                        51


Recorded, Must Be (Transfer of Patents),                   86

Royalty, How Rating for, Is Figured,                       35
   "     Placing upon,                                     64

Rules for Valuation, General,                              33
  "   of Practice,                                         85
  "   "      "     Assignees,                              86
  "   "      "     Assignments,                            85
  "   "      "     Conditional Assignments,                87
  "   "      "     Licensees,                              86
  "   "      "     Grantees,                               86
  "   "      "     Mortgages,                              86
  "   "      "     Must Be Recorded,                       86


Sale of Patents, How to Conduct,                       41, 55

Securing Capital,                                          20

Selling Agencies, Patent,                                  41
   "    Agent, The Patentee the Best,                      43
   "    by Territorial Rights,                             61
   "    Canadian Patents,                                  76
   "    In Case Patentee Cannot Undertake the,             44
   "    Outright,                                          58
   "    Patents, Methods of,                               45

Solicitation, Personal, Advisable,                         56

State Laws on Selling Patents,                             88
  "   Rights, Table for Estimating Prices of,              38

Statistics and Tables,                                    107

Stock Companies, To Organize,                              68
  "   in Stock Companies,                                  36

"Squeezed," To Avoid Being,                                25


Table of Occupations,                                     137

Tables, Statistics and,                                   107
   "    Valuation,                                         37

Territorial Grants,                                        81
     "      Rights, Prices for,                            37
     "         "    Selling by,                            61

The Language of Law,                                       92
 "  Patentee the Best Selling Agent,                       43

Title, Patent,                                             84

To Avoid Being "Squeezed",                                 25

To Organize Stock Companies,                               68

Trading as a Last Resort,                                  71


Uses of Printed Copies (Patents),                          51

Undivided Interest, Assigning an,                          59
    "         "     Dangers in an,                         20

United States, Map of the,                                106
   "      "    Population of Cities of the,               132
   "      "         "     "  by Counties, 1910,           107

Unprofitable Patents,                                      14


Valuation, General Rules for,                              33
    "      Tables,                                         37

Value, Commercial,                                         31
  "    of Farms, by States, 1910,                         135
  "    "  Models,                                          52
  "    "  Patent, How to Arrive at the,                    30
  "    "  Personal Influence,                              56
  "    "  Record of Invention,                             26
  "    "  Pecuniary,                                       30


Working Drawings,                                          54



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The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Formulas

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 +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
 | Transcriber's Note.                                             |
 |                                                                 |
 | Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully |
 | as possible, including obsolete and variant spellings and other |
 | inconsistencies.                                                |
 |                                                                 |
 | Minor punctuation and printing errors have been corrected.      |
 |                                                                 |
 | [*] Madison (Illinois), p. 122. The original has a footnote     |
 | anchor, but no corresponding footnote appears in the text.      |
 +-----------------------------------------------------------------+





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