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´╗┐Title: Citizenship - A Manual for Voters
Author: Cromwell, Emma Guy
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Citizenship - A Manual for Voters" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

by The Kentuckiana Digital Library)




_Author of_


_Address_ EMMA GUY CROMWELL, _Frankfort, Ky_.




Realizing the need of a manual on citizenship for the new voters in
Kentucky, the author has endeavored to compile such information on the
government and its workings, as will be of use to all voters,
especially the ones just entering political life. A strong appeal is
made to the women voters of our nation to prepare themselves for
public life by keeping in touch with the issues of the day as well as
the functions of government. While it is a great privilege to take
part in public affairs, and study the questions of the day, so that we
can vote intelligently and criticize justly, let us not forget that
the home is the most sacred refuge of life, the nucleus around which
all pure and true civilization is formed, and that the chief end of
all good government is to improve and protect the home, the church and
the community.

Will you take part in building up your government and establishing
"High Ideals" and true democracy?

                                                    EMMA GUY CROMWELL,
                                                        Frankfort, Ky.



Good citizenship means doing well one's part as a member of the
community in which he lives, and carries with it certain privileges
and duties.

A citizen is one who has the rights and privileges of the inhabitants
of the community, state and nation, and as a duty should equip himself
so as to render the best citizenship possible.

There are two classes of citizens; native born, and naturalized.
Persons born in the United States and children born of American
parents while abroad are native born. Naturalized citizens are aliens
who through the process of naturalization have attained citizenship.
Naturalization itself does not give the right to vote, as that is
determined by the state laws. Most states give all citizens the right
to vote who have lived in the state for one year, and about eleven
states permit aliens to vote provided they declare their intention of
becoming citizens.

Congress has the power to decide the conditions upon which aliens may
become citizens.

Citizenship carries with it the enjoyment of civil rights, as the
protection of the home and property, freedom of speech, religion,
press, protection of the laws, etc. Wherever you go your citizenship
goes with you, protecting and defending you. If you are in a foreign
country you must abide by the laws of that country, but should you be
treated unjustly the United States would protect you.

Our country is a land of freedom and opportunity, and it is our duty
to help uplift the government, and as citizens we must study
conditions and know how to govern and be governed. We must be familiar
with our national and state Constitutions, for they are the
fundamental principles by which we are governed. We must know how to
make laws and how to have them executed. We must keep posted on the
issues of the day, and know something of the standing and character of
our public men and women.

The citizen who does not possess some knowledge of his government and
its workings will become a prey to the demagogue, or of individuals
who are anxious to advance their own interest at the expense of the

It is the duty of every man and woman under the protection of our flag
to give his or her best to the country and be willing to take upon
themselves the burden as well as the privilege of government, and
fully appreciate the inheritance our fathers left. "They built the
foundation in the days of Washington and Jefferson, and as a duty we
must safeguard the building."

Citizenship not only embraces civil rights, but political rights which
is the right of suffrage or voting.

While civil rights are enjoyed by all men, women and children,
political rights are enjoyed only by citizens twenty-one years old and
over who possess the necessary qualifications to vote. Civil rights
and political rights are not the same, for all citizens are not
voters, neither are all voters citizens in the United States, as some
states permit aliens to vote before they get their citizenship paper,
making them real citizens.

It is our duty to study our government and be posted on the issues of
the day. There are about 27,011,330 women voters in the United States.
We have the vote and let us not only count it a privilege but a duty
to do our part as citizens in establishing good government.

There are two principal parties in the United States, the Democratic
party and the Republican party.

The way to get good government is through the parties; that is one
reason women must choose their party and enter into the organization
of the party of their choice.

Parties are just what their constituents make them.


The word government means management or guidance and control.

When we speak of the government of the nation, state, city, town or
county we refer to the management of public affairs.

Government protects life and property, keeps an army and navy for our
defense, peace and order, regulates commerce and industry, supports
our public schools, keeps the roads and streets in good condition,
cares for public health, and many other things we enjoy.

Our courts are maintained by the government where justice may be

The laws of our nation are the rules made by the government to guide
our actions. They tell us what we are to do, and what we are not to
do. We must obey the laws of our country or else be punished. We must
study the government of our nation, state, city, town and county, and
be ready to do our part in establishing good government, by making
proper laws and seeing they are enforced. As far back as 500 B. C. we
find in Athens lawmakers, judges and executive officers.

The word government is derived from the Latin word gubernare, which
means to guide or "pilot a ship." Good government depends upon the
voters, and may our men and women of the United States pilot our ship
into a safe harbor.

The United States is both a Democracy and a Republic.

A Democracy is a government by the people in which the will of the
people prevails throughout the country. "This is the fundamental
principle of American government."

A Republic is a democracy where the people elect representatives to
carry on the government.


When the colonies became independent states each state drew up a
charter which recognized its people as authority in government.
Instead of calling this new instrument a charter they changed the name
and called it a "Constitution."

This Constitution is the foundation upon which our government is
built. After the thirteen original colonies had established their
independence they formed a central government known and expressed in
the Constitution of the United States which is our fundamental law.

In the preamble of the Constitution of the United States we find the
general purpose for which government is instituted:

"We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect
union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish
this Constitution for the United States of America."

The Constitution of the United States is our fundamental law and no
state constitution can conflict with our Federal Constitution.

There are now forty-eight states in the United States with forty-eight
constitutions framed upon the Federal Constitution. Each state has its
own constitution, which in no way conflicts with the Federal

The first Constitution of Kentucky was adopted April 3, 1792, at a
convention that met in Danville, and later on June 1st, 1792, Kentucky
was admitted into the union as a state.

Our government is conducted according to our National and State

In every constitution there is a provision for making a change. These
changes are called amendments. An amendment is a law passed by the
General Assembly and adopted by a majority of the voters.

An amendment to the Kentucky Constitution requires a three-fifths vote
of the members in both houses of the legislature to pass, and then it
is submitted by the General Assembly to the voters of the State, which
requires a majority of the voters to be adopted.

The legislature cannot repeal an amendment to the Constitution, or
pass laws contrary to its provision. The session of nineteen and
twenty in Kentucky passed two amendments pertaining to school matters.
One provides for the appointment of the Superintendent of Public
Instruction by the Governor, and the other amendment provides: "That
the General Assembly have the power to distribute the school funds."

At the next general election we will vote on these two amendments. If
the majority of the voters vote yes, this change will be made, and the
General Assembly will have the power to distribute the school funds
and the Governor will appoint the Superintendent of Public

The Federal Constitution may be amended by two-thirds vote of each
House of Congress, and if passed must be referred to the state
legislatures for ratification.

The amendments to the Constitution of the United States do not become
a part of the Constitution until ratified by three-fourths of the
States, which is now thirty-six states--there being forty-eight states
in the union.

There are now eighteen amendments to the Federal Constitution. The
nineteenth amendment on "Suffrage" is still pending, needing only one
more state to give universal suffrage to women.

An amendment to a constitution is simply changing some of its
provisions, but a revision is a recasting of the whole constitution.
Both require the consent of the voters of the State.

As we have said the revision usually takes place by means of a
convention of delegates elected for that purpose by the people.

"One of the most important parts of every state constitution is the
'Bill of Rights,' which is a statement of the rights which must not be
infringed on by the government."

In the revision of a state constitution the legislature submits to the
people the question of calling a convention to frame a new
constitution. If the voters are in favor of a convention they elect
delegates to the convention to assist in revising the constitution.
The revised constitution is nearly always submitted to the people to
vote upon.

The amendment known as the eighteenth amendment passed during
President Wilson's term of office and is one of great importance to
our nation in the protection of the home and humanity. This amendment
prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors, reads as

"Sec. 1. After one year from the ratification of this article, the
manufacture, sale and transportation of intoxicating liquors within,
the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof
for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

"Sec. 2. The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

There are now eighteen amendments to our Federal Constitution, and
there has never been an amendment repealed.

The nineteenth amendment known as the suffrage amendment passed both
houses of Congress on May 21st and June 4th, 1919, submitting to the
states a proposed amendment to the Federal Constitution extending
suffrage to women. The first state to take action was Wisconsin, whose
legislature, June 5th, 1919, ratified the amendment. Other state
ratifications were Michigan, June 10th, Kansas, New York and Ohio,
June 16th, Illinois, June 17th, Pennsylvania, June 24th,
Massachusetts, June 25th, Texas, June 28th, Iowa, July 2nd, Missouri,
July 3rd, Arkansas, July 28th, Montana, July 30th, Nebraska, August
1st, Minnesota, September 8th, New Hampshire, September 10th, Utah,
September 30th, California, November 1st, Maine, November 5th, North
Dakota, December 1st, South Dakota, December 4th, Kentucky, January
6th, 1920.

The proposed amendment reads as follows:

"Sec. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account
of sex.

"Sec. 2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate legislation, to
enforce the provisions of this article."

The following states had granted state wide woman's suffrage: Wyoming
1869, Colorado 1893, Utah 1896, Idaho 1896, Washington 1910,
California 1911, Kansas, Arizona and Oregon 1912, Territory of Alaska
1913, Montana and Nevada 1914, New York 1917, Michigan, Oklahoma,
South Dakota 1918.

Amendments to the Federal Constitution may be proposed by Congress by
two-thirds vote, then submitted to the states for ratification by at
least three-fourths of the states acting through their legislatures
(or through state conventions as Congress may indicate, or Congress
may call a national convention for this purpose).

As has been said eighteen amendments to the National Constitution have
been made since its adoption. The nineteenth amendment will soon be
adopted in full as it only needs one more state to make the
three-fourths or thirty-six states which will give us universal
suffrage throughout the United States.

Let us remember that the Constitution of the United States is the
supreme law of the land, and no law will stand in our courts that is
in violation of our National Constitution.



For convenience the United States is divided into forty-eight states
and each state is divided into counties. Kentucky has one hundred and
twenty counties.

We have National, State, county, town and city government.


The Federal or National government, as in state government, is divided
into three parts. The legislative which makes the laws. The judicial
which interprets or explains the laws. The executive which enforces
the laws.

Legislative: The legislative department is called the Congress and is
composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

The members of the House of Representatives are elected every two

The number of representatives in a state is apportioned according to
population, and the congressional district from which a member is
elected is determined by the legislature of each state.

Kentucky has eleven congressional districts, therefore eleven
congressmen elected by the people.

To be a member of the House of Representatives in Congress the man or
woman must be twenty-five years old, a citizen of the United States at
least seven years, and a resident of the state from which he is
chosen. He receives a salary of $7,500 per year, and an allowance for
clerk, stationery and traveling expenses.

Every state is entitled to at least one representative. There are now
four hundred and thirty-five members in the House of Representatives
in Congress.

When the members of a new House of Representatives meet the clerk of
the previous House calls them to order and the roll is called by
states. If a quorum is present they elect a speaker from among the
members of the House who takes his seat immediately. The other
officers are elected as the clerk, sergeant-at-arms and doorkeeper.
The rules of the House define the duties of the speaker.

The work of the House of Representatives is done through committees.
When a bill is introduced it is referred to a committee and this
committee may report it back to the House either favorably or
unfavorably, or they may not report it at all. If reported favorably
it has a chance of receiving consideration.

Much of the work of Congress is done in the committee rooms. This is
why the selection of committees is so important.

When a bill is reported favorably by a committee it is placed upon the
calendar which is a register of bills. Then the fate of the bill rests
with the rules committee of the House.

The committee on rules, as other committees, is elected by the House.
The party in power usually determines the selection of this committee.

Impeachment: If a high official is charged with misconduct in office
the House of Representatives would impeach him and if found guilty,
the impeachment is carried to the Senate to be tried. The U. S. Senate
sits as a court of justice.

Six judges, one President and one Secretary of War have been impeached
by the House of Representatives.

Revenue: All bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of


The Senate has ninety-six members, two from every state in the union,
and are elected for six years, receiving a salary of $7,500 a year.
The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the
United States.

The United States Senators are elected by the direct voice of the
voters of the state according to the 17th amendment to the National
Constitution passed in 1913.

A United States Senator must be thirty years old, a citizen of the
United States for nine years, and must live in the state from which he
is elected.

The term of office of only one-third of the Senators expires at the
same time, so at least two-thirds of the Senate is not new.

The Senate must confirm all appointments made by the President and
must ratify all treaties made by him with a two-thirds vote.

Bills originate in the Senate in the same way as in the House,
referred to a committee and their course is directly the same. When
passed by both Houses the President has ten days to sign or veto them.
Without his signature they become a law, unless Congress by adjourning
prevents the return within ten days.

The committees of the Senate are elected by its members.

Bills are passed in Congress similar to that in the legislature of a
state. They are introduced by a member in either house and must pass
both houses, then signed by the presiding officers and clerks and go
to the President for his signature or veto.

The sessions are yearly, beginning on the first Monday in December,
and last until March 4th; this is known as the short session. The long
session occurs in odd numbered years and continues until it is
adjourned. The President has the power to call special sessions of


The Federal courts derive their powers and jurisdiction from the
Constitution and laws of the United States.

"The judicial powers of the United States shall be vested in one
Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time
to time establish."

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest and most
powerful judicial body in the world.

It holds its regular sessions at Washington, sitting from October to

The chief justice and eight associate justices constitute the Supreme
Court of the United States, and are appointed for life by the
President of the United States and confirmed by the United States

The salary of the chief justice is $15,000.00 per year, and of the
associate justices $14,000.00 per year.

Six judges must be present in the trial of a case and a majority is
necessary in rendering a decision.

The district judges receive a salary of $6,000.00 annually and the
judges of the appeals court $7,000.00 annually.

The judges cannot be removed except for cause, and then they are
impeached in the House of Representatives and tried in the United
States Senate.

The principal Federal courts that have been organized by Congress are:
The Supreme Court, the Circuit Court of Appeals, the Circuit Court,
the District Court.

A United States judge if he has served ten years may retire on full
salary when seventy years old.


The most important offices in the United States are the President and
Vice President. They are legally elected by electors chosen by the
voters of the forty-eight states.

The President of the United States must be a natural born citizen
living in this country for fourteen years at least, and must be
thirty-five years old.

He is elected for four years and receives a salary of $75,000.00
annually and residence. Congress makes other allowances for expenses.

The President is the Commander in Chief of the army and navy. He
appoints every administrative officer except the Vice President. He
may call extra sessions, and may veto bills, which Congress can pass
over his veto with a two-thirds majority in each House. He represents
the United States in all dealings with foreign powers.

The President appoints the members of his cabinet, but said
appointments must be approved by the United States Senate.

The Cabinet consist of a Secretary of State, Treasury, War, Navy,
Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Interior, the Attorney General and
Postmaster General.

Each member of the Cabinet receives a salary of $12,000.00 annually.

The Secretary of State is the first in rank among the Cabinet
officers, and in case of the death of the President and Vice President
would succeed to the office of President.

The financial manager of the national government is the Secretary of
the Treasury.

The Secretary of War has charge of the military affairs of the nation
under the direction of the President. He also looks after river and
harbor improvements, and all obstructions to navigation.

The Attorney General is the chief law officer of the government.

The Postmaster General has charge of the Post Office Department.

The Secretary of Navy has charge of the construction and equipment of
vessels of war.

The Secretary of Interior has charge of matters pertaining to the
internal welfare of the nation, as public lands, care of national
parks, the giving of patents for inventions, Indian affairs,
education, etc.

The Secretary of Agriculture promotes the general agricultural
interests of the country.

The Secretary of Commerce promotes the commercial interest of the

The Secretary of Labor promotes and develops the welfare of the wage
earner of the United States, by improving the working conditions and
advancing their opportunities for better employment.

The Vice President of the United States must have the same
qualifications as the President.

He receives a salary of $12,000.00 annually.


The framers of the National Constitution gave the United States Senate
two important executive powers especially--first, approving treaties.
Second, confirming appointments made by the President. All treaties in
order to be ratified must receive a two-thirds vote of the Senators
present when the vote was taken.

When a treaty has been drawn up the President consults with the
Committee on Foreign Relations and the Senate. "Treaties are
considered in secret session. The Senate may approve or reject a
treaty as a whole; or they may ratify it in part by recommending
additional articles as amendments, but the treaty does not become a
law until the President and the foreign power agree to the amendment."

While the Senate may approve, reject or change the terms of a treaty,
all changes must be agreed to by the President and the nation
interested. When accepted by both nations duplicate parchment copies
are made, and both copies are signed by the chief officers of each
country and then exchanged. This is called the "exchange of
ratification." Each nation secures an official copy of the treaty. The
President publishes the treaty followed by a proclamation.

The Constitution gives the President the power to negotiate treaties
and conventions with foreign countries. He conducts the negotiation
through the department of Secretary of State. The President keeps in
touch and consults with the Committee on Foreign Relations and with
the majority of the leaders in the Senate during negotiations.

"The President shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of
the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators
present concur."

The Federal Constitution makes treaties a part of the supreme law of
the land. Any conflicting provision of a state law or Constitution is

The League of Nations having failed to get the necessary two-thirds
vote in the United States Senate so far has not become a law. It is
opposed by a few senators which prevented it receiving the two-thirds


A great number of our offices of government are appointed and not
elected. Over 300,000 positions are filled under the national
government appointment. On January 16th, 1883, Congress passed the
Civil Service law which established a United States Civil Service
Commission composed of three members, of which not more than two
should belong to the same political party. The commission is appointed
by the President with the consent of the Senate.

The ordinary "Civil Service" examinations are held twice a year at
different places in the country designated by the commission.

This commission appoints boards of examiners who hold examinations at
least twice a year at Washington, D. C., and in the states and

The commission encourages efficiency by promotion from lower to higher
grades of public service. Some of the places that come under the civil
service system are clerks in Washington connected with the national
government, officials in the postal service, the letter carriers and
clerks in post offices and railway mail service, employees in custom
houses, government printing office, Indian service and revenue

Senators and representatives are not allowed to recommend any
applicant to the board of examiners appointed by the commission.

The examinations are practical and the questions pertain to the nature
of the work the applicant is to do.

Persons employed in such public service are under obligations not to
contribute to any political fund, or to render service to any
political party.



The state constitution adopted by the voters is the fundamental law of
the state.

A state Constitution cannot interfere with the Federal Constitution,
neither can the Federal Constitution interfere with the regulation of
the state. As has been said the Kentucky Constitution was adopted on
April 3, 1792, at a convention which met in Danville.

A state Constitution is a law made by the people and cannot be changed
by the legislature, but may be amended or revised by the voters.

Amendments are usually submitted to the legislature and then to the

The revision of the Constitution is by means of a convention of
delegates elected by the people.

The three departments of state governments are: The legislative, the
lawmaking power; the judicial, the law interpreting power; and the
executive, the law enforcing power.

All state governments are divided into these three classes, the
legislative, judicial and executive.

The legislature passes laws which govern people in their relation to
each other.

The Kentucky legislature convenes at the capital at Frankfort every
two years on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in January and
remains in session for sixty working days, not including Sundays and
national holidays.

It is composed of two houses, the House of Representatives, known as
the lower house with one hundred members, and the Senate, known as the
upper house with thirty-eight members.

The Kentucky General Assembly is composed of one hundred and
thirty-eight members elected by the voters of the State in the
counties and districts in which they reside.

The State is divided into senatorial and representative districts,
with a representation based upon population.

The term of office for Senators is four years. A Senator must be
thirty years old, a citizen of the United States for nine years and
must live in the State and district from which he is elected.

A State Senator in Kentucky receives $10.00 per day for his services
during the sitting of the legislature, mileage to and from home at the
rate of ten cents per mile, and stationery.

The Lieutenant Governor is the presiding officer of the Senate.

The Senate sits as a court and tries all impeachments.

The president pro tem. of the Senate is elected by the members of the
body, also the clerks, doorkeeper and pages.

The president pro tem. presides in the absence of the Lieutenant
Governor, and in case of vacancy to this office would become
Lieutenant Governor.

The president of the Senate appoints the standing committees, unless
the opposite party is in power, then the president pro tem. virtually
controls said appointments.

To be a member of the House of Representatives a person must be
twenty-four years old.

His term of office is only two years but he receives the same salary
as a Senator, $10.00 per day, mileage and stationery.

The body elects its speaker and other officers, and has the sole power
of impeachment.

The principal work in both houses are done through the committees
appointed by the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House.

A bill is prepared and introduced by a member of the Senate or House.
If it pertains to revenue and taxation, it must originate in the House
of Representatives.

When a bill is introduced the clerk of the body reads it by title
only. The President of the Senate or Speaker of the House then refers
it to the proper committee (of the body in which the bill originated).
It is numbered and ordered printed when referred to the committee. The
committee considers the bill and usually reports it back with
expression of opinion that it should or should not pass to the body in
which it originated. (The committee may pigeonhole it and not report
it, or may report it too late for action by the body.)

The bill and the report from the committee is printed and placed on
the calendar and takes its turn to be brought up for passage. (By
consent a bill is acted upon out of its turn.)

The bill is taken in its regular order from the calendar and read the
second time in full by the clerk. It is open to debate or amendment
unless the previous question is ordered, which if adopted cuts off
debate and amendment. Then the bill is read the third time by title
only. (Any member may demand the reading in full of the engrossed bill
if he desires.) It is then placed on its passage by the presiding
officer of the body, and if passed it is then transmitted to the
Senate by the House clerk, if a House bill. If a Senate bill, it is
taken by the Senate clerk to the House for consideration.

A bill goes through the same form in either body, after which it is
returned to the body in which it originated with or without
amendments. If the bill is passed it goes into possession of the clerk
of the body in which it originated. Then the enrolling clerk of the
body in which the bill originated enrolls it verbatim from the
original. After it is enrolled it is compared by the committee on
enrollment in each House. If found correctly enrolled the chairman of
each committee reports it to the body, and it is compared again by the
clerks of each body and signed by the clerk of the body in which it
originated, also signed by the President of the Senate and the Speaker
of the House. (The presiding officer of the House in which it
originated signs first.) Then the clerk of that body takes it to the
Governor for his approval. If the Governor approves it he does so with
his signature. It becomes a law at once if it has an emergency clause;
otherwise, in ninety days after its signature by the Governor. It is
then filed with the Secretary of State. Then later on the bills
passed during the session are compiled by the Attorney General and
known as the Acts of the General Assembly of that session. If the
Governor vetoes a bill while the Legislature is in session, it may be
taken up in the house in which it originated, and passed over his
veto, but must receive a two-thirds vote in each house.

The Governor is allowed ten days after the General Assembly adjourns
for approving bills, and if not signed within that time they become
the law without his signature.

The passage of a bill in all the states is about the same.



The state courts derive their powers and jurisdiction from the
Constitution and laws of the state. The courts in different states go
by different names, yet the jurisdiction is about the same.

The Court of Appeals is the highest court in Kentucky. It holds annual
sessions from about September fifteenth to about June twenty-second at
the State Capitol, Frankfort, Kentucky.

Seven judges and one commissioner constitute the Court of Appeals in
Kentucky, and each receives a salary of five thousand dollars per
year, a clerk or secretary and an office furnished in the new capitol

A person to be a member of the Court of Appeals must be thirty-five
years old and a citizen of the State for five years. He must have
resided two years in the judicial district from which he is elected.

The Court of Appeals or Supreme Court is the highest court of the
State. This court is the State court of last resort.

The judges of the Court of Appeals are elected by the people for a
term of eight years, commencing on the first Monday in January
succeeding their election.

The cases tried before the Court of Appeals are usually appealed to it
from the lower courts.

There are certain classes of cases that come before the Court of
Appeals for first trial in which is involved the question of official
action of State officers.


The circuit judge holds this court first in one county and then in
another until the circuit of the counties which compose his district
is completed.

Circuit court is held in the court house of the county seat two or
three times a year, presided over by the judge of that district
elected by the voters. (In case of a vacancy the Governor of the State
appoints some lawyer to fill his place.) The majority of important
cases are tried in this court, because a jury trial may always be had
in the circuit court.

The Constitution of the United States provides that every man or woman
shall have the right to trial by jury in all criminal cases, and in
civil cases involving a sum of more than $20.00.

Twelve citizens known as a grand jury usually meet at the time the
circuit court convenes. All violations of law are investigated, and
persons found guilty are indicted by the grand jury.


The county court is held at the county seat of every county and is
presided over by the county judge. The county judge is elected by the
voters of the county.

In this court civil suits are tried in which the sum involved is not
over $200.00. It tries the more important cases which do not come
before the justice of the peace court, or city police court.

The county judge's office is the most important office in the county.
He probates wills and appoints executors, administrators, and
guardians. He is the head of the fiscal court which looks after all
the material interests of the county, as construction of roads, care
of paupers and the general interest of the county.


The justice of the peace court is the lowest court and is held by a
justice of peace, called a magistrate, who is elected in that
magisterial district by the voters. Petty misdemeanors involving small
sums of money are tried in this court.

The justices' courts are found in every community for protection and
convenience to the people.

The magistrates are members of the fiscal court of the county.


The police courts in towns and cities are similar to the justices'
courts. They are necessary in every city to try the petty
misdemeanors. A police judge is elected by the voters of the city and
tries all petty cases under his jurisdiction.


The grand jury is selected by the court and is composed of not less
than twelve responsible and qualified citizens. It is their duty to
make a faithful inquiry into all wrongs and violations of the law.
They call witnesses before them and make an investigation, and upon
sufficient proof against a person they have them indicted. The
proceedings of a grand jury are secret.

The terms "jury" and trial by jury are quite different from a grand
jury. The grand jury investigates and inquires into all wrongs and
violations of the law and if the person accused is guilty returns an
indictment. Then the trial jury of twelve persons after hearing the
evidence given them in court returns their unanimous verdict one way
or other, otherwise a hung jury.

There is a difference between a trial by jury and a grand jury. The
petit jury or trial by jury is composed of twelve men, honest and
upright citizens living within the jurisdictional limits of the court,
drawn and selected by officers free from all biased opinion and sworn
to render a true verdict according to the law and evidence given them.
Every citizen is entitled to a fair trial, even though the accused is
known to be guilty. The Constitution of the United States gives this
right to all citizens.

The trial of all crimes shall be by jury except in impeachment. The
Constitution provides that the trial be held in the state where the
crime is committed, and if the crime is not committed in any of the
states Congress has the power to name a place of trial.

The jurors decide whether or not the party accused is guilty by a
unanimous vote, and if one or more vote against, it is called a hung

The judge of the court instructs the jurors on the law in the case.


The executive department of state government is the law enforcing

The governor of a state is the chief executive. His duty is to see
that the laws of his state are executed, to study the conditions and
needs of the state, and to prepare a message to the legislature
setting forth these needs and conditions. He is commander in chief of
the state militia.

He should fill all vacancies that come under his appointing power,
appoint certain state officers and boards, grant pardon to convicted
criminals when right, call a special session of the legislature when

The governor represents his state in its relation to the federal
government and to other states.

The Governor of Kentucky receives a salary of six thousand and five
hundred dollars per year, all expenses when on duty for the State, and
in addition, a mansion lighted, heated, and furnished, and three
thousand dollars per year for public entertaining. He is elected for
four years and cannot succeed himself for re-election.

Most of the states have the following state officials elected by the
voters of the state: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of
State, Treasurer, Auditor, Attorney General, Commissioner of
Agriculture and Superintendent of Public Instruction.

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Attorney General and the
Secretary of State compose the Board of Education.


The county is a political division created by the state to administer
local affairs, to act as agent for the state, to collect taxes, and
enforce state laws.

The county owns many of the public buildings such as the court house
and jail.

Every state is divided into counties, and every village, town or city
is located in some county. As has been said there are one hundred and
twenty counties in the State of Kentucky. The county seat of a county
is where the business of a county is transacted, and where the courts
of importance are held. It is really the capital of the county.

Some counties on account of size and population have two county seats.
While county government differs in many states there is a uniformity
in the organization of counties throughout the union.

A county judge is elected in every county by the people. He presides
over the county court which is held at the county seat.

Some of the other officers of the county elected by the voters are:
The sheriff, county superintendent of schools, circuit clerk, clerk of
the county court, coroner, prosecuting attorney, county attorney, tax


The government of a town is perhaps the nearest approach we have to a
direct government by the people themselves.

Towns as well as counties not only look after their local interest but
look after state interest within their boundaries.

A community of three hundred or more may upon petition of two-thirds
of its inhabitants, be incorporated as a town.

Towns as well as counties are organized and governed under general
laws passed by the legislature of its state.

The incorporated township has a right to hold property and make


Cities like towns and counties receive their right of government
through the state by a charter granted by the state legislature. The
charter is the fundamental law of the city.

The chief executive officer of a city is the mayor who is generally
elected by the people.

The power of city government is vested in the mayor and the city

For convenience a city is divided into subdivisions called wards, and
for elections into certain voting precincts called election districts.

The board of aldermen or council is composed of one person chosen from
each ward by the voters. Their power is limited by the city charter.

Voters are responsible for their government and much of our happiness
depends upon the way our city is managed.

Many cities have adopted the commission form of government by electing
a non-partisan ticket composed of several commissioners. Each
commissioner is put in charge of a division of the city's
administration and held responsible for the work of his department.

The mayor of a city presides over the meetings of the council and
sometimes vetos measures passed. He is elected by the voters. The
chief duty of the mayor is to see that the laws and ordinances are

In large cities there is a system of courts extending from the police
court to the higher courts.

Appeals from the courts of the city are taken to the circuit court and
may go from there to the Supreme Court of the State.

Cities are divided into six classes in Kentucky:

    First class having a population of 100,000 or over.
    Second class, 20,000 to 100,000.
    Third class, 8,000 to 20,000.
    Fourth class, 3,000 to 8,000.
    Fifth class, 1,000 to 3,000.
    Sixth class, below 1,000.



The difference of opinion on national questions is the cause of a
number of political parties in the United States.

As long as men and women think for themselves we shall have political

It is really the product of a government by public opinion. Without
political organizations it would be almost impossible to govern the
policy and character of the country and control the affairs of the

The political parties are the agents through which organizations are

As a test of one's love of his country and its government is shown by
his work and aggressiveness.

Every citizen should study the ethics of his government, think for
himself, and form his own opinion.

A person with no opinion on public affairs is a coward and

Our nation depends largely upon moral and cultured people who will
study the issues of the day and express themselves in positive terms
on what they deem best for the nation and its government.

Organization is a number of people systematically united for some end.
It is through organization that political parties become effective.

Political parties arose after the adoption of the Constitution. They
are organized for national, state and local campaigns, and not
originally a part of the government, but as we grew and the population
became greater there arose different political parties. Every
district, village, town and city has its permanent local campaign
committees in elections, beside the state and national committees,
which make a very complete organization.

The duty of the permanent committees is to keep the machinery of the
party working. Really the permanent committees do the hard work in
politics. They organize political clubs, solicit funds, issue calls
for conventions, urge people to register and vote and in many other
ways keep up the interest of the party.

Since the adoption of the Constitution there have been two principal
parties advocating different principles.

The first parties were known as the Federalist and anti-Federalist.

The two great dominant parties now in the United States--the
Democratic and Republican parties.

Our Constitution did not provide us with laws as to the way of
selecting candidates for office, but just as soon as political parties
came into existence, nominations followed.


The Democratic party is the oldest. It goes back to the days of
Jefferson. It advocated "state rights," limiting the power of national
government, tariff for revenue only. These were some of the issues
discussed before the recent war, but other important issues in these
days of reconstruction have taken their place.


The Republican party was formed before the Civil War, when Abraham
Lincoln was elected President of the United States. It was originally
called the Federalist party.

The Republican party remained in control of the national government
until 1884 Grover Cleveland was elected for two terms, four years

This party originally advocated a high tariff.

The recent platforms of the two parties now in power will give the
issues of the present day.



The national committee of each party is formed of one member from each
state, who organizes the national convention of his party.

The chairman of this committee of each party calls a meeting of his
committee in the spring before the presidential election and decides
when and where they will hold the national convention.

This year the Democratic convention was held in San Francisco,
beginning on 28th of June.

The Republican convention was held in Chicago on the 8th of June.

Each convention adopted its own party platform.



The State Central Committee is the party organization in control of
the party in the State. It is composed of one man from each of the
eleven congressional districts elected by the people and a member at


State at Large--George B. Martin, Catlettsburg.

State Executive Committee from State at Large--J. A. Robinson,


    1st District--Arch Nelson                    Marshall Co. (Benton)

    2nd District--Ira D. Smith            Christian Co. (Hopkinsville)

    3rd District--T. P. Dickerson                 Barren Co. (Glasgow)

    4th District--W. C. Montgomery          Hardin Co. (Elizabethtown)

    5th District--Henry J. Tilford          Jefferson Co. (Louisville)

    6th District--Judge Otto Wolfe              Campbell Co. (Newport)

    7th District--Thos P. Middleton               Henry Co. (Eminence)

    8th District--J. H. Nichols                   Boyle Co. (Danville)

    9th District--Foster B. Cox          Jessamine Co. (Nicholasville)

    10th District--J. R. Johnson                  Pike Co. (Pikeville)

    11th District--Edward Gatcliff          Whitley Co. (Williamsburg)


    1st District--Thomas Turner                      Trigg Co. (Cadiz)

    2nd District--John L. Dorsey             Henderson Co. (Henderson)

    3rd District--Dr. Joe M. Ferguson          Muhlenberg (Greenville)

    4th District--Chas. Hubbard                Larue Co. (Hodgenville)

    5th District--Fred Forcht               Jefferson Co. (Louisville)

    6th District--W. N. Hind                    Kenton Co. (Covington)

    7th District--W. T. Klair                  Fayette Co. (Lexington)

    8th District--Dr. T. R. Welch        Jessamine Co. (Nicholasville)

    9th District--Dr. J. D. Whitaker           Morgan Co. (Whitesburg)

    10th District--Bailey P. Wooten                 Perry Co. (Hazard)

    11th District--Cecil Williams               Pulaski Co. (Somerset)

Chairman Democratic National Committee, Homer S. Cummings, Baltimore,



    Chas. H. Searcy, Chairman                          Louisville, Ky.

    R. W. Hunter, Vice Chairman                        Providence, Ky.

    Lilburn Phelps, Secretary                          Louisville, Ky.

    Mrs. Lillian Davis, Assistant Secretary            Louisville, Ky.

    Elliott Callahan, Treasurer                        Louisville, Ky.


    A. T. Hert                                         Louisville, Ky.

    At Large--Maurice L. Galvin                         Covington, Ky.

    At Large--R. W. Hunter                             Providence, Ky.

    At Large--Mrs. John W. Langley                      Pikeville, Ky.

    At Large--Ed. W. Chenault                           Lexington, Ky.

    1st District--W. L. Prince                             Benton, Ky.

    2nd District--Virgil Y. Moore                    Madisonville, Ky.

    3rd District--Clayton C. Curd                      Greenville, Ky.

    4th District--D. O. Burke                       Bradfordville, Ky.

    5th District--J. Matt Chilton                      Louisville, Ky.

    6th District--G. A. Seiler                          Covington, Ky.

    7th District--Clarence Miller                          Irvine, Ky.

    8th District--H. V. Bastin                          Lancaster, Ky.

    9th District--F. A. Field                             Ashland, Ky.

    10th District--Sam Collins                         Whitesburg, Ky.

    11th District--Chas. Finley                      Williamsburg, Ky.


The county committee consists of one man or woman from each elective
district in the county, and the city committee one from each ward or
election district in the city.


The voters of the county of the party they represent meet at the court
house at the county seat and elect a temporary chairman and the
delegates to represent the party at the State convention.

If the people of the county favor a certain man for President they may
instruct their delegates for this man in the State convention.

The fight at the convention is usually for chairman, who when elected
usually appoints a committee to draw resolutions and names the
delegates in the resolutions, which are reported back to the
convention for action.


The call for State convention is issued by the State Central Committee
of the party, and a copy of the call is sent to the chairman of each
local committee. The convention is called to order by the chairman of
the State Committee.

The secretary of the State Central Committee reads the call of the

The convention is opened with prayer.

Motions are made that the chair appoint a committee on credentials, on
permanent organization, and on resolutions.

A temporary chairman and secretary are elected.

The report of the committee on credentials is read, giving the number
of delegates present, and rendering a decision concerning contested

The report of the committee on organization is usually adopted at once
and names the permanent officers of the convention, which include a
permanent chairman, secretary, assistant secretaries, vice chairman
and sergeant-at-arms.

The chairman of the convention is generally a prominent party leader,
and when he takes his seat he delivers a speech upon the issues of the

The platform is read by the chairman of the committee on resolutions
and usually accepted without amendments. Then the convention takes up
the nomination of candidates. After the nominations are made the vote
is then taken by call of the counties by the secretary. When the
candidates receive the number necessary to elect, generally a majority
of all the votes cast, some one usually moves that his nomination be
made unanimous. They elect all the officers in the same way.



The National Convention is called to order about noon on the day
appointed in the official call, by the chairman of the national

The convention is opened with prayer.

The call is read, after which the national committee names a list of
temporary officers for the convention, temporary chairman, secretary,
clerks, sergeant-at-arms and stenographers.

The temporary chairman takes the chair and makes a formal speech on
the political situation.

A resolution is adopted making the rules of the preceding convention
the rules of the convention until otherwise ordered.

Motions are made for the appointment of committees on credentials,
permanent organization, rules and resolutions, each consisting of one
member from each state and territory.

Resolutions concerning contested seats are presented to the convention
and referred without debate to the committee on credentials. (Every
state is allowed double as many delegates as it has Senators and
Representatives in Congress. The four men corresponding to the
representation of the Senate are delegates at large, the others are
district delegates, which number twenty-two district delegates and
four delegates at large, making twenty-six delegates to the National
Convention from Kentucky.)

This ends the first session of the convention.

When the convention assembles for the second session, the first
business is the report of the credential committee.

In deciding contested seats, the committee on credentials gives each
side a chance to present its claims, and then decides between them,
generally in favor of the regular delegates, those endorsed by the
state and the district committee.

Two full contesting delegations from the same state, sometimes seats
are given to both, each delegate being entitled to one-half vote.

After the credential committee arrives at a decision concerning
contested seats, its report including a list arranged by the states of
all delegates entitled to seats is usually accepted by the convention
with very little debate.

Then the committee on organization make their report, which consists
of a list of permanent officers of the convention--previously arranged
to some extent by the national committee. (This report is usually
arranged beforehand and therefore adopted without much trouble, if
any.) A committee is appointed to escort the permanent chairman to the
platform, who usually delivers a speech on the issues of the coming

The chair calls for the committee on rules first, for their report.

Two rules of great importance in a Democratic Convention are: First--A
rule requiring for the nomination of candidates two-thirds of the
whole number of votes in the convention. The Republican requires only
a majority.

Second Rule--The so-called unit rule under which a majority of each
state delegation is allowed to cast the entire vote to which the state
is entitled even against the protest of a minority of the delegation.
These two rules are strictly adhered to in the Democratic party only.

While waiting on the resolution committee's report, miscellaneous
business is disposed of, such as the election of national committees
and of committees on notification. Such committees usually consist of
one delegate from each state and territory, the members being
designated by the respective delegations.

About the third day the resolution committee is ready to report the

This platform is a formal statement of the party's attitude upon the
public questions of the day; next to the nomination of candidates it
is the most important work of the convention.

The platform of any party is usually adopted as read.

Nominations for candidates are next in order, and these begin with the
roll call of the states arranged alphabetically for the presentation
of candidates for the presidential nomination. Several candidates are
often nominated. The delegation from any state when called in its
turn may pass its right of nomination to any other delegation not yet

Some good and influential speaker will nominate the candidate from his
state, and it is usually seconded by a good speaker from some state
that has not a candidate.

After roll call for nominations is completed the convention proceeds
to the first ballot.

The chairman of the delegation from his state when the state is called
by the secretary of the convention, arises and announces the vote of
his state. Sometimes a candidate is nominated by acclamation, but
usually many ballots are necessary to decide the contest.

If a candidate is not nominated on the first few ballots, a dark horse
sometimes receives the nomination, but this is seldom the case.

As soon as a candidate receives the number of votes necessary to
nominate, which is two-thirds of the delegates in a Democratic
convention and a majority in a Republican convention, usually some one
moves that the nomination be made unanimous, which is adopted with
great applause.

After the nomination for President is over the convention proceeds in
the same way to nominate a candidate for Vice President.

At the national convention of each party a new national committee is
appointed to carry on the campaign and act until the next convention.

The platform adopted at the national convention of either party is an
expression of the principles of the party.

Sometimes a plank is put in to catch voters. On some questions the
plank may not be plain, but may straddle the issues.

The national platform gives the principles to which the party is
committed and its attitude on important public questions.



In all cities where registration of the voters is required, men and
women register on the same day in the ward or precinct in which they

For the purpose of registration the polls open from 6 o'clock a. m. to
9 o'clock p. m.

There are four election officers who have a book in which are
registered the names of all the legal voters in their precinct. Two of
these officers are called judges; one is a sheriff and the other is a

A person desiring to register enters the voting place and announces
his or her intention to register. The judge takes the name, residence,
party affiliation and citizenship, and may also inquire as to any
other matter that would affect his or her right to vote at an

If found to be qualified, that is 21 years of age and a resident of
the state for one year, a resident of the county for six months, and a
resident of the precinct for sixty days, they may register unless in a
class prohibited by law from exercising the right to vote.

The clerk then writes the name and address in the registration book
entering also color and political affiliation. When this is done the
registration is completed, and the elector is qualified to exercise
the right of suffrage in all subsequent elections, special elections
and primary elections for one year. The officers of the election give
him or her a certificate of registration signed by all four officers
of the registration, and if they lose this certificate they cannot
vote at the regular election unless they get a duplicate certificate
from the county clerk, which costs 50 cents.

In the different class cities there are some differences as to the
method and time of registering, but in Kentucky the general
registration is usually on the first Tuesday of October, in all cities
and towns of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth classes. The
hours for registration are from six o'clock a. m. to nine o'clock p.

Special registrations are held thereafter as follows: One special
registration may be held by order of the city authorities, which will
be conducted exactly as the first registration above referred to, and
during the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday next preceding the general
election day those persons who were absent or sick, or unable to
attend and register on the regular registration days, may appear
before the county court clerk at his office in the court house, and
register, to have the same effect as if the registration had taken
place in the manner above referred to, also on the day before the
election and on election day, public officers of the state, and the
United States government, traveling salesmen and certain ministers of
religion may apply before the county court clerk in the court house
and be registered if they will make oath that they were not present in
their city or town during any of the previous registration days.
Persons that have become eligible to vote at the general primary
election, which occurs on the first Saturday in August may register
two weeks before the election in the county court clerk's office as
above described, provided such persons were not in the city on any of
the previous regular registration days, or who were not then qualified
to register and may vote in the primary election in the same manner as
other qualified electors.

The primary election is conducted in the same manner as any other

When you register the clerk gives you a certificate of registration,
which you keep to show the election officers when you go to vote, that
you have registered.

Persons living in the country and small towns do not have to register.

    Name of voter __________________  Consecutive number _____________

    Residence     __________________

                              UNITED STATES

         [Illustration: Rooster]         [Illustration: Log cabin]

                  -----                            -----
                 /     \                          /     \
                 |     |                          |     |
                 \     /                          \     /
                  -----                            -----

            DEMOCRATIC PARTY                  REPUBLICAN PARTY

    For Presidential Electors        For Presidential Electors

                              +--+                             +--+
    _________________________ |  |   _________________________ |  |
                              +--+                             +--+

                              +--+                             +--+
    _________________________ |  |   _________________________ |  |
                              +--+                             +--+

    For Vice-Presidential Electors   For Vice-Presidential Electors

                              +--+                             +--+
    _________________________ |  |   _________________________ |  |
                              +--+                             +--+

                              +--+                             +--+
    _________________________ |  |   _________________________ |  |
                              +--+                             +--+

The names of all candidates are arranged in columns, under the party
device to which they belong. A voter by putting a cross mark in the
circle under the rooster votes for all the Democratic nominees of his
party. In the circle under the log cabin votes for the Republican
nominees of his party.

This does not require a knowledge to even read, only to be able to
distinguish between the pictures of a rooster and a log cabin.


Candidates in the United States are usually nominated either in a
party primary or a nominating convention.

Primaries are conducted like elections. The name of the party running
for an office is put on the ballot of his party with the names of
others who have filed similar petitions. On the day set for the
primary the voters go to the polls and cast their vote as at a general
election. The candidate who receives the largest number of votes is
the nominee of the party for that office.

Primaries cost more than conventions--they are like elections--you
have to advertise extensively and meet the voters. In a few months the
election follows and you practically go over the same.

Only the voters who can vote in the party primary are those who
registered for the previous election as members of that party.

Certificates and petitions of nomination must be filed with the
Secretary of State not more than seventy-five days and not less than
forty-five days, before the day fixed by law for the election of the
persons in nomination, also certificates and petitions are directed to
be filed with the clerk of the county court not more than seventy-five
and not less than forty-five days before the election.

The primary elections are conducted in the same manner as any other

The two methods of making nominations are by a caucus or convention
system, and the primary election system.

The qualifications for a voter at a primary are the same as election.
On the first Saturday in August each year from 6 o'clock a. m. to 4
o'clock p. m. there shall be held at the regular polling places in
each election precinct a primary election for the nomination of
candidates for office by political parties, to be voted for at the
next November election. You do not register to vote in the primary,
and a citizen not of age at the time of the primary, but will be
twenty-one before the November election can vote in the primary.

Primaries are conducted similar to elections--about same laws and


After all the political parties have nominated their candidates then
the struggle for election begins.

The period of a few months between the nominations and elections is
spent by each party in trying to get votes for its candidate.

Every voter must be twenty-one years old, a resident of the state for
one year, of the county six months, and of the precinct sixty days.

On election day the voter goes to the polling place and appears before
the election officers, who will probably be the same ones who presided
at the registration. You give your name and residence, and if you live
in a city where registration is required you must produce your
registration certificate and one of the judges may consult the
registration book to see if you have registered. If found to be
registered, the clerk will write your name and address upon the stub
of the ballot book and endorse his own name on the back of the ballot,
and remove the ballot from the book leaving the stub (called the
primary stub) in the book.

The voter will go into a voting booth with the ballot folded, then
unfold the ballot, take the stencil, press it on the ink pad and if
you desire to vote a straight party ticket place the stencil mark in
the circle immediately underneath the device of the party whose
candidates you desire to vote for. If you desire to vote for
candidates irrespective of any party affiliation you will place the
stencil mark in the small square immediately following the name of
each candidate for whom you desire to vote.

When the ballot is thus completed you lay the stencil aside, fold the
ballot in exactly the same manner as when you received it from the
clerk and then return it to the judge of the election, who removes the
secondary stub from the ballot and deposits the ballot itself in the
ballot box. If any voter spoils or defaces a ballot by mistake so that
it cannot be used he may return it, and get another, and the fact
noted by the clerk by writing the word "spoiled" on the stub and
spoiled ballot.

No person except the election officers shall remain within fifty feet
of the polls, except when voting.

It shall be the duty of the sheriff in each county before an election
to secure in each precinct of the county a suitable room in which to
hold the election, and have sufficient booths in which electors shall
mark their ballots, screened from observation.

Our laws concerning elections are more stringent in the past few
years. Every precaution is taken to insure honesty of elections.

No officer of election shall do any electioneering on election day.

In all elections in Kentucky the voting shall be by ballot.

The ballot boxes are opened and inspected before voting begins to see
that they are empty.

Electioneering is forbidden within one hundred feet of the polls.

Twice as many official ballots are provided for every polling place as
there are registered voters in the district.

If a person is illiterate he is allowed assistance in marking his

An inspector may challenge a person's vote, but if they swear they are
eligible their vote is recorded and marked challenged.

A person cannot vote who is not naturalized for at least ninety days
before election. Also a person convicted of bribery or an infamous
crime, a deserter from the army or navy, and one who bets on that
election cannot vote.

The Governor of the State may restore one to citizenship so that they
can vote.

In registration polls are opened from 6 a. m. to 9 p. m., but in
election polls are opened from 6 a. m. to 4 p. m.

When the polls are closed the ballots are counted by the election
officers and announced and placed in ballot box, which is locked by
officers, who then take the ballot box, poll books, certificates,
etc., to the county clerk who unlocks the box in the presence of the
election officers to see if the packages containing the ballots are
properly sealed, and if so, the county clerk issues his receipt for
the box and ballots--one to the judge, and one to the sheriff.

The county clerk within a certain time sends the ballots to a
canvassing board which examines them and makes an official
announcement of the number of votes cast for each candidate, and gives
them a certificate of their election. The successful candidates are
notified and later installed into office.


Amendments to the Constitution are handled in the same way as an
election. The ballot contains the amendment proposed with "Yes" or
"No" printed at the side. The party voting crosses out one of these
words, puts the ballot in the blank envelope and returns it as in an


Voting by mail is often a great convenience.

The world is becoming more democratic and the right to vote for
representation is now arranged so that all eligible citizens of the
United States, twenty-one and over, may have a part in governing his
or her country.

If a voter is out of the state or county and holds his residence in
the same place as when he voted last--or calls home--he or she can
vote by mail. He must first register, which is also done by mail.

A printed ballot with return envelope is sent to him. The ballot is
marked by placing a cross opposite the name of the candidate voted
for, then put in a blank envelope, sealed and enclosed in an envelope
addressed to the secretary or clerk of the county or chairman of the

This envelope must be signed by the one voting. The blank envelope
containing the ballot is opened and the ballot deposited in the ballot

The one voting must take an oath before a notary public that he or she
is eligible.


When the voters go to the polls on election day to vote for President
and Vice President every four years on the first Tuesday after the
first Monday in November they really cast their ballots for the
electors who were nominated at the state convention. The names of the
state electors of each party are printed on the ballots under the
party name. The ones receiving the most votes are elected, and are
morally bound to vote for the candidate of the party that elected

The campaign continues until the election on the first Tuesday after
the first Monday in November. The electors elected in November meet at
their state capital in January and vote for President and Vice
President. The result of this vote is dispatched at once to the
President of the Senate at Washington, D. C. The electors of the
different states meet at Washington on the morning of the second
Monday in January after their election, and give their vote at or
after twelve o'clock according to law.

On the second Wednesday in February succeeding the meeting of the
electors, the Senate and House of Representatives meet in the Hall of
Representatives at 1 o'clock p. m. with the President of the Senate

Two tellers are appointed in each House to whom shall be handed, as
they are opened by the President of the Senate, all the certificates
and papers purporting to be certificates of the ---- electoral voters,
which certificates and papers shall be opened, presented and acted
upon in alphabetical order of the states; said tellers having then
read the same in the presence and hearing of the two Houses, shall
make a list of the voters as they shall appear from the said
certificates, and the votes having been ascertained and counted,
according to law; the result of the same shall be delivered to the
President of the Senate, who shall announce the result of the vote,
which announcement shall be deemed a sufficient declaration of the
persons elected President and Vice President of the United States, and
together with the list of voters be entered on the journals of the two

If no one receives a majority of all the electoral votes the
Constitution provides that the House of Representatives shall choose a
President and the Senate a Vice President. (Article XII, National

The President and Vice President are inaugurated on March 4th
succeeding the election.

They take the oath of office on a platform on the east front of the
Capitol. The President delivers an address outlining his policies,
then returns to the White House.



The national government is supported by taxation in various ways, and
it requires a great amount of money to carry on the business of our
country even in times of peace--over $2,000,000,000. This money is
raised through a system of taxation of two kinds--direct and indirect.

A direct tax is a tax on real property or a poll tax.

An indirect tax is a tax on one individual, but is indirectly paid by
another. (Taxes assessed on merchandise are indirect, as the consumer
pays them.)

Most of the money is raised by import duties and excise taxes.

Import duties are taxes on imported goods.

Excise tax is a tax levied on goods manufactured in this country.

Duties are taxes on goods imported from foreign countries. The
consumer on imported goods indirectly pays the duty assessed by the

There are two kinds of duties--specific and ad valorem.

Specific duties are fixed amounts levied on certain commodities as the
yard, pound and gallon.

Ad valorem duties are levied at a certain rate per cent on the value
of the articles taxed.

Duties are leviable on either imports or exports.

Imports relate only to goods brought into the country from abroad.

Exports relate to goods sent out of a country.

There is a special system for the collection of import duties, by
naming many places along the coast to be used as "ports of entry,"
where custom houses in charge of collectors have been established.
"Each custom house has a collector and the government has employed a
large force of officers and special agents to overtake any
dishonesty--attempting to smuggle goods through without paying duty."

The state legislature levies the state tax, the city council the city
tax, and the taxes to keep up the national government are levied by

The law making power of Congress and state legislatures not only have
the power of passing laws, raising money by taxation, but also the
right and power of saying how that money shall be spent.

There are several kind of taxes collected for the benefit of the
county, town, city and state, viz.: Poll tax, income, inheritance,
franchise, property.

Poll tax: This is a tax on the person and not on property. A male
citizen twenty-one and over must pay a poll tax of $1.00 even if he
has no property. He must pay this tax before he can vote. In Kentucky
the poll tax is one dollar.

Income Tax: There is an income tax levied on the income one receives
and not on the amount of property he has. It is levied on salaries or
profits upon business. Unmarried persons with an income of over
$1,000.00 and married persons with an income of over $2,000.00 must
pay an income tax.

Inheritance Tax: Many states have an inheritance tax levied on
property inherited. This tax is really designated to reach wealthy
people, and is easily collected since probate court records state the
amounts. Kentucky has an inheritance tax, drawn and introduced by L.
F. Johnson, of Frankfort, in 1906.

Franchise Tax: The government or state gives to a person or
corporation special privileges, the rights to use the streets of a
city for railway, water, lighting, gas plants, etc., is considered
valuable property in the right vested in them by their franchise. This
is really a source of income and should be taxed.

Property Tax: Property owners pay a large part of the money raised by
taxation. Personal property which includes bonds, stocks, mortgages,
household goods, jewels, etc.

Real estate which includes houses, lots, lands and building.

While taxes are levied upon real estate there are some kinds of
property exempt from taxation, viz.: public institutions and
libraries, cemeteries, school houses, churches, and other public

A great amount of revenue is derived by state and local governments
from licenses, fees and special assessments. Men and women engaged in
certain kinds of business must pay to the national, state and local
governments a license or fees, as merchants, peddlers, manufacturers,
pawnbrokers, etc.

A fee is a sum paid to an officer of the government, state, city or
county for performing some public service or for a license in
business. If you wanted to get a deed to land recorded you would have
to pay the officer a fee.

The expense of our government is enormous, but the paying of taxes is
one way in which all must take part.


While the acquisition of new territory has increased the expenses of
our nation, yet it has made us the greatest nation in the world.

We have expanded by acquisition of new possessions which Congress
organized under the direct control of the "Federal Government," but
giving them limited powers of self government, through legislation of
their own. When their population is sufficient they will be admitted
as states.

Today our national flag contains forty-eight stars, and no part of the
United States except Alaska and Hawaii remains under a territorial
form of government.

Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867.

The President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the
Senate, appoints the governor and judges of the courts.

They have a legislature composed of two houses whose members are
elected by the people. A delegate to Congress with the right to take
part in debates but not to vote is also elected by the people.

Hawaii: Hawaii is a regularly organized territory and is governed like
Alaska; President appointing the governor with the consent of the
Senate, etc.

Possessions: The Philippines, Porto Rico, and other islands are
possessions rather than territories of the United States.

Philippines: The Governor General and eight commissioners appointed by
the President with the advice and consent of the Senate are at the
head of the general government of the Philippines.

"Five members of the commission are heads of the executive departments
as well as having legislative powers. The other four members have only
legislative power."

Commission: The nine members of the commission appointed by the
President constitute the Upper House of the Legislature known as the

Lower House: The members of the Lower House of Representatives are
elected by the people of the various civilized districts.

The nine commissioners represent the legislative body and have control
of that part of the island not civilized.

Courts: They have a system of courts in which the judges of the
Supreme Court are appointed by the President, and the judges of the
lower courts are appointed by the Governor General with the approval
of the commission.

Commissioners: There are two resident commissioners sent to the
United States from the Philippines with seats in the House of
Representatives, but cannot vote, only taking part in the debates.

Provinces: The islands are divided into provinces "each of which is
governed by a provincial board of three members, and each province has
its own city or town with its local government." Two of the members of
the boards are elected by the people, and the third, who is the
treasurer, is appointed by the Governor General, but usually a


Under President Wilson's administration "The new organic law granted
the people of Porto Rico a greater self government than they had ever

They have a Governor appointed by the President, a legislature of two
Houses elected by the people, and a system of courts.

"There are seventy-six cities and towns which enjoy some local

They send as their representative to Congress, a resident
commissioner. While these new possessions are expensive they add great
wealth and power to our nation.

Taxes are contributions that the people are required by the government
to pay in order to meet the expenses of our nation.

We are not patriotic unless we respond to the call of our government.


Some states have the referendum and initiative power of helping to
make laws.

If a state legislature passes a law that the people do not approve of
a petition may be signed by a certain number of voters which will
require the law to be referred to the people for their approval or

Referendum means referring a law passed by the legislature back to the
voters for their approval or disapproval.

"If five per cent of the voters of a state and two-thirds of the
congressional districts do not approve of a bill passed by the General
Assembly they sign a petition and file it with the Secretary of State
in ninety days after the General Assembly adjourns." The question
involved is then submitted to the voters at the next election for
their approval or disapproval.

The initiative is the right of the voters to start legislation. The
object of the initiative and the referendum is to compel legislative
bodies to act and respect the will of the people whom they represent.

The initiative petition must be filed four months before the regular
election with the Secretary of State.


The District of Columbia, including Washington, the Capital of the
United States, is governed by Congress and by judicial and executive
officers appointed by the President of the United States. The people
have no power of self government.

The Constitution gives Congress the exclusive right of government in
the District of Columbia.

It is governed by three commissioners appointed by the President. One
must be an officer of the army and the other two appointed from civil

Congress keeps a watch over the District, and devotes certain days to
considering the business of the District.

The courts of the district are Court of Appeals, Supreme Court, police
court, justices of the peace.

The judicial officers are appointed by the President.

The District of Columbia has no representative in Congress.


The Panama Canal Zone is under the control of a governor who is
appointed by the President of the United States.

"It is neutral and open to vessels of commerce and war of all nations,
but war vessels must pass through without delay and while in the canal
cannot load or unload troops or munitions of war."

The cost of the construction of the canal was about $400,000,000. It
shortens the voyage from New York to San Francisco 8,000 miles.


These islands are naval stations and are governed by the naval
officers stationed there.


Commerce is divided between the state and Federal governments. We have
interstate commerce, foreign commerce and commerce with the Indians.
Congress regulates commerce.

Interstate commerce is carried on in the United States, as when goods
are shipped from one state to another, or one place in a state to
another, either by land or water. The Interstate Commerce Commission
provided for by Congress is composed of nine men appointed by the
President, and regulates interstate commerce. The members of this
commission receive a salary of $10,000.00 annually.


Foreign commerce is commerce carried on with foreign countries.
Certain regulations are prescribed for vessels engaged in foreign
commerce, "Enter" and "Clear" ports.

All vessels registered in the United States are protected by the
government in any part of the world. Only vessels can be registered by
a citizen of the United States. No foreign vessel can register.

Congress regulates commerce with foreign nations and among the states,
and Indian tribes.


The government looks after the interest of "Indian affairs." There are
about 300,000 Indians on 150 reservations in different states and
territories all under the protection of the United States.


The national government has set aside several large tracts of land for
National Parks. The Yellowstone National Park is about half as large
as Massachusetts and is the most beautiful and interesting park in the



To vote is an expression of choice for this man or woman for an
office. The ballot is the only efficient way to express public opinion
and should be regarded as a sacred trust.

Every person in the state is either a citizen or alien.

"An alien is a person born in a foreign country who lives here, but is
still a subject of some other country."

An alien may become a citizen of the United States after he has lived
in this country for five years and in the state one year. He must be
able to read and write his name, to speak English and be of moral

Only white persons and negroes may become naturalized.

"Chinese, Japanese and East Indians cannot become citizens unless born
in the United States."

Unmarried women can become citizens like the men.

A married woman is a citizen if her husband is a citizen. She cannot
become naturalized by herself. A woman born in the United States who
marries an alien ceases to be an American citizen and becomes a
subject of the country to which her husband belongs.

The wife of a man not a citizen of the United States cannot vote in
this country.

If a resident of the United States she resumes her citizenship at the
death of her husband, or if she is divorced.

A foreign born woman who marries a citizen becomes a citizen.

An American born may live abroad for many years and not lose his or
her citizenship.

An alien enjoys the same protection of the law as does the citizen.


A citizen is a person born in the United States and subject to the
jurisdiction thereof.

We are living in a democratic government which is a priceless heritage
and a great blessing to mankind.

Democracy demands a sense of responsibility, personal interest in the
affairs of government and respect for human rights.

As citizens we must become more conscious and appreciative of the
inheritance our forefathers left us. This great inheritance is a
wonderful land of opportunity and freedom.

To be an intelligent and desirable citizen we must have a knowledge of
our Constitution, and know by whom and how our country is governed.

The man or woman who does not possess some knowledge of how the
country is governed--as has been said--may easily become a prey of
persons who are anxious to advance their own interests at the expense
of the people.

The things needed for the use and protection of the people are
provided by the people through their government.

As a part of the community you enjoy the good roads, streets, schools,
libraries and many other things; therefore, you have no right to shirk
your duty in not helping to maintain your government. If we enjoy the
good things in this life without doing our part to have them we are

To live in a country and enjoy its freedom, peace and comforts and not
do our part toward maintaining such peace and comforts we have failed
to do our duty toward our fellowman and government, and may be called
a sponger, a coward and a shirker if we fail to vote and do our part
toward maintaining our government.

It is not only our duty to vote but we should study and understand
public questions so that we can vote intelligently on the issues of
the day. We should be interested in the ballot for it is one way in
which public opinion may be expressed.

Every man or woman under the protection of our government should feel
obligated to give his or her best to make our government one of high

Plato said: "Only that state is healthy and can thrive which
unceasingly endeavors to help the individuals who constitute it."

The United States is both a democracy and a republic.

A democracy means a government by the people.

A republic is a democracy in which the people elect representatives to
carry on the government for them.


The United States is a great republic composed of more than
100,000,000 citizens under the protection of one flag with forty-eight
stars which represent the forty-eight states of the union.

"A citizen might be termed a member of a large society called the
United States."

Every man, woman and child is a member of this society, unless an
alien, an idiot, or convicted of some infamous crime.

The members of this great society when they reach the age of
twenty-one have a duty to perform which should be a sacred one. In
this society citizenship is defined in the national Constitution in
the fourteenth amendment. "All persons born or naturalized in the
United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of
the United States and of the state wherein they reside."

One of the first duties of a citizen is to vote. If we fail to vote we
have no right to complain of the condition of affairs, and how our
government is managed.

It is a privilege to be a citizen of this great country and a member
of this great "society called the United States." It should be a
greater privilege to cast our vote in every election and know we are
doing our part to keep up the government.

There are four ways which we, as citizens, can help maintain our

"First: Vote at every election, read and be interested in public

"Second: Help to manage public affairs and be ready to hold an office,
if you are the choice of the people.

"Third: Try to understand public questions, so you can vote
intelligently and criticize justly.

"Fourth: Remember to pay your share of the expense of doing the work."

There are now over 27,011,330 voting women in the United States, soon
to take part in all elections, and share the responsibility as well as
the privilege of suffrage.

In maintaining this great government of ours two parties are necessary
to keep the wheels moving. As has been said, the two dominant parties
now in existence are the Democratic party and Republican party.

We have learned that parties are means of securing united action among
the voters who think alike. It was Washington who said: "The spirit of
party unfortunately is inseparable from our nature, having its root in
the strongest passions of the human mind."

There must be organization under the direction of leaders to secure
united action.

Let the women of our country come forward and identify themselves with
the party of their choice and organize under competent leaders,
showing to the world we not only deem it a great privilege to vote,
but are willing to share the responsibility of making our government
the best in the world.

Will you do your bit to keep this great machinery moving onward and



It is important that every woman who possesses the constitutional and
statutory qualifications should exercise her right to vote; because it
is only in this way that there can be a fair expression of the
political sentiment of the qualified voters on any question.

Another reason is that the right to vote is not only a privilege but a
duty that is imposed by law, and where one is entitled to exercise
that privilege, the failure to so exercise it is a failure to perform
a duty on the part of the voter.

Then, if only a small per cent of the women were to vote, and a large
per cent of the men were to vote, it would always be problematical as
to what effect the consensus of the women's opinion would have had in
the result, if a full vote had been polled; and this questionable
result of an election is one of the dangers incident to the exercise
of the right of suffrage. If the women manifest anything approaching a
unanimous desire to participate in the exercise of this governmental
function, it will have the effect to increase the public confidence in
this government and its institutions.

Men and women without regard to race, color or social condition, must
take their turn exactly alike at the polling place. Each ballot has
exactly the same weight in the election, and the ballot of the poorest
man counts just as much as the ballot of the most influential citizen.
The voting place is the leveling place, and when women realize that
the exercise of suffrage gives not only the equal right to vote, but
also allows equal expression of opinion, then the better purpose of
woman suffrage will have been accomplished. This equality is not a
condescension on the part of women, but it is the exercise of a right
under the law, to call for the fair expression of opinion from all
the people of every social and political standard, without reference
to mental ability, social standing or business prominence. Therefore,
it is the duty of every intelligent woman to vote and use her
influence to get the women interested in voting and doing their part
in keeping up the government. We know that the lower classes will all
vote and many floaters will be found in such classes, so it behooves
the intelligent women to do their part. The vote is the equal right of
every one who is qualified under the law, and every qualified person
has one vote, and that one vote from each one is the thing which the
Constitution is most zealous to secure and safeguard.

We appeal to every intelligent woman of the United States and
especially in Kentucky to take part in the coming campaign. Organize
under competent leaders and let your organization extend into every
precinct. See that the voters register on the first Tuesday in
October, or the special registration days, then on 2nd day of November
go to the polls and vote for President and Vice President of the
United States.

Women as well as men in Kentucky can vote for President and Vice
President if twenty-one years old and over, unless an alien, idiot or
have committed some infamous crime. We have suffrage so far, whether
we want it or not, and let us, as intelligent women, not forget the
duty it carries with it. We love our government and the good things it
gives, as schools, good roads, protection of life and property and the
many other things. Should we not be willing to do our part to get
these things, or must we be a sponger, a coward, or shirker and let
our fellow man do all? Should we fail to vote and help maintain our
government we certainly will come under one of these heads, that is if
we are able to go to the polls and register and vote, and fail to do
it. If you are absent from the county or state you can vote by mail.
There is no way to escape our duty unless providentially hindered.

In Kentucky there are 1,201,185 voters, of which 663,454 are men and
537,731 are women. The white female voters are 477,731. The negro
female voters are 60,000.

There are 13,225 foreign born white males of voting age, that have
been naturalized.

Let us train ourselves for good citizenship and serve our nation,
state, county, city and town in every way possible to make our
government one of high ideals and the best in the world.




    Aliens, Definition of--to vote,                                 56

    Aliens--may become citizens,                                    57

    Amendments to Constitution,                         10, 11, 13, 46

    Amendment--extending suffrage,                              12, 13

    Ad Valorem--duty,                                               49

    Acquisition of new territory,                                   51

    Alaska,                                                         51

    Amendment to Kentucky Constitution,                             10

    Amendment, 18th and 19th,                                   11, 12

    Amendment to change Superintendent of Public Instruction,       11

    Amendment to change school funds of Kentucky,                   11

    Attorney General of U. S.,                                      18

    Agriculture, Secretary of,                                      18


    Bill of Rights,                                                 11

    Bill--reported favorably or unfavorably,                        23

    Bills passed in congress and State--how,                22, 23, 24

    Bills, legislative--how enacted,                            22, 23

    Ballot--picture of,                                             42

    Ballots--counted,                                           45, 46


    Citizenship,                                                     7

    Citizen--definition of,                                      7, 57

    Classes of Citizens,                                             7

    Civil rights,                                                 7, 8

    Constitution,                                                    9

    Charter,                                                     9, 30

    Constitution--amendment of,                                     10

    Constitution--revision,                                         11

    Constitution--supreme law,                                      13

    Committee--work of,                                             15

    Committee on Rules--Congress,                                   15

    Cabinet, U. S.--appointment of,                                 18

    Cabinet Officers--named,                                        18

    Court of Appeals,                                               24

    Circuit Court,                                                  24

    County Court,                                                   26

    Court of Justice of Peace,                                      26

    County Government,                                              29

    City Government,                                                30

    City Council,                                                   30

    Commission form government,                                     30

    Committee--national,                                            38

    Convention--national,                                           37

    Committee--county,                                              35

    Convention--county,                                             35

    Convention--state,                                              35

    Convention--national,                                   37, 38, 39

    Committee--credential,                                      37, 38

    Convention--contested seats,                                37, 38

    Civil Service,                                                  20

    Congressional Districts,                                        14

    Commander-in-Chief of National Army,                            17

    Commerce--secretary of,                                         18

    Cities--classes of,                                             30

    Committees--how formed,                                         33

    Columbia, District of,                                          54

    Commerce,                                                   54, 55

    Congressman--qualification,                                     14

    Congressmen--number from Kentucky,                              14


    Duty as a citizen,                                          56, 57

    Democracy,                                                       9

    Departments of State,                                           21

    Democratic party,                                               32

    Democratic convention,                                      37, 38

    Democratic State Central Committee,                         33, 34

    Democratic State Executive Committee,                           34

    District Judges of U. S.,                                       17

    Direct tax,                                                     49


    Executive Department--national,                             17, 18

    Elections,                                                      44

    Elections--laws of,                                         44, 45

    Electioneering--forbidden,                                      45

    Election--polls open and closed,                                45

    Electors--President and Vice President,                         47

    Excise Tax,                                                     49

    Exports,                                                        49

    Exchange of Ratification,                                       19

    Executive Department of State,                                  28


    Federal Constitution,                                           13

    Federal or National Government,                                 14

    Federal Courts--kinds,                                          17

    Franchise Tax,                                                  50

    Fee,                                                            51

    Foreign Voters,                                                 62

    Foundation of Government,                                       10

    Foreign Commerce,                                               55


    Government,                                                   8, 9

    Government--derivation of,                                       9

    Government--kinds of,                                           14

    Government--branches of,                                        14

    Grand Jury,                                                     41

    Governor--duties of, salary, etc.,                          24, 28

    Government--county,                                             29

    Government--town,                                               29

    Government--city,                                               30

    Government--state,                                              21

    Government--national,                                           14

    Grand Juries,                                                   27

    General Assembly--convenes, when and where,                     21

    Guam and Samoan Islands,                                        54

    Government--helped, four ways,                              58, 59


    Hawaii,                                                         51


    Impeachment,                                                    15

    Inauguration of President, Vice President,                      48

    Indirect Tax,                                                   49

    Import Duties,                                                  49

    Income Tax,                                                     50

    Inheritance Tax,                                                50

    Initiative,                                                     53

    Interior--Secretary of,                                         18

    Indian Tribes,                                                  55


    Judicial Department--Federal,                                   16

    Judicial Department--State,                                     24

    Justices of Peace Court,                                        26

    Juries,                                                         27

    Judges of Court of Appeals--qualification and salary,           24

    Judges of Supreme Court of United States--appointment
    and salary--term of office,                                     17


    Kentucky Legislature,                                           21

    Kinds of Government,                                            14


    Legislative Department--National and State,             14, 21, 22

    Legislative Department--National,                               14

    Law making power,                                       21, 22, 50

    License,                                                        51

    League of Nations,                                              19

    Lieutenant Governor,                                            22

    Labor--Secretary of,                                            18


    Mayor--chief executive--city,                                   30


    Naturalized citizen,                                             7

    Native born citizen,                                             7

    Nominations,                                                    43

    Naturalized--kind of persons,                                   56

    Naturalized--manner of,                                         56

    National convention,                                            38

    National convention--rules of,                                  38

    Negro female voters--number of,                                 62

    Navy--Secretary of,                                             18

    National parks,                                                 55


    Organization,                                               31, 59

    Organization--definition of,                                    31


    Political rights,                                                8

    Platform,                                                   38, 39

    Polls open,                                                 40, 45

    Primary election,                                               43

    Ports of entry,                                                 49

    Poll tax,                                                       50

    Property tax,                                                   50

    Property exempt from taxation,                                  50

    Possessions,                                                    51

    Philippines,                                                    52

    Philippines--how governed,                                      52

    Philippine commissioners,                                       52

    Philippines--Provinces,                                         52

    Porto Rico,                                                     52

    Parties,                                                         8

    President concerning treaties, power, etc.,                     19

    Postmaster General,                                             18

    Police court,                                                   27

    Petit jury,                                                     27

    Preamble,                                                       10

    President, U. S.--qualifications, salary, etc.,                 17

    President--term of office, salary,                              17

    President of U. S.--duties of,                                  17

    President--pro tem. Senate,                                     22

    Police court,                                                   27

    Party organization,                                             31

    Political parties--origin of,                                   31

    Parties--two principal,                                     31, 32

    Party--oldest,                                                  32

    Party--ballot, picture of,                                      42

    Primaries,                                                      43

    Poll tax,                                                       50

    Philippines--how governed,                                      52

    Porto Rico--how governed,                                       52

    Panama Canal Zone,                                              54

    President and Vice President inaugurated,                       48

    Principal parties in United States,                              8


    Qualification of voters,                                        44


    Republic,                                                        9

    Revision of National Constitution and State,                11, 21

    Representatives--how proportioned,                              14

    Representatives in Congress--qualification of,                  14

    Revenue--raising of,                                            15

    Republican party,                                               32

    Republican State Central Committee,                         34, 35

    Registration,                                                   40

    Real estate,                                                    50

    Referendum,                                                     53

    Representatives in State,                                       21

    Registration--special,                                          41

    Rules of importance in Democratic convention,                   38

    Restoration of citizenship,                                     46


    Senators, U. S.--number of,                                     15

    Senators, U. S.--how elected,                                   15

    Senators--qualification of,                                     16

    Sessions of Congress,                                           16

    Supreme Court of U. S.,                                         16

    Salaries of Judges, Supreme Court,                              17

    Supreme Judges--retirement,                                     17

    State government,                                               21

    State Constitution,                                             21

    State government--departments of,                               21

    State Senator--qualification, salary, etc.,                     22

    State Senate--presiding officer of,                             22

    State courts,                                           24, 25, 26

    Supreme Court of the State,                                 16, 17

    State officials,                                                28

    Special registration,                                           41

    Specific duties,                                                49

    State Representative--qualification, salary, etc.,              22

    Secretary of United States--duties of,                          18

    Senate--duties of,                                              22


    Town government,                                                29

    Taxation,                                                       49

    Treaties,                                                       19


    Unit rule,                                                      38

    United States--a democracy and republic,                         9

    United States Senate,                                           15

    United States Senators--qualification of,                       16

    United States as a society,                                     58


    Vice President, U. S.--qualification and salary,                18

    Veto--power of President,                                       24

    Voters--qualification of,                                       44

    Voting--manner of,                                      44, 45, 46

    Vote--challenged,                                               45

    Voting--by mail,                                                46

    Voters--duty as citizen,                                        56

    Vote necessary to ratify a treaty,                              19


    Women as voters,                                        60, 61, 62

    Women voters in United States,                                   8

    Women voters in Kentucky--white,                                62

    Women voters in Kentucky--colored,                              62

    War--Secretary of,                                              18

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