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Title: Masters of Water-Colour Painting
Author: Cundall, H. M.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    [Illustration: Cover]

  With Introduction by H. M. Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A.

  Edited By Geoffrey Holme
  London: The Studio, Ltd., 44 Leicester Square, W.C.2


  Introduction by H. M. Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A.                1


  Bonington, Richard Parkes
      _Near Jumièges_                                       xxiv

  Cotman, John Sell
      _Classical Scene_                                     xiii

  Cox, David
      _Boys Fishing_                                       xviii

  Cozens, John Robert
      _Lake Nemi_                                              x

  Dayes, Edward
      _Furness Abbey, Lancashire_                            vii

  De Wint, Peter
      _St. Albans_                                           xvi

  Farington, R.A., Joseph
      _Scotch Landscape_                                       v

  Fielding, A. V. Copley
      _Lake Scene_                                          xvii

  Girtin, Thomas
      _Landscape_                                             xi

  Glover, John
      _View in North Wales_                                   xv

  Harding, James Duffield
      _Vico, Bay of Naples_                                   xx

  Hearne, Thomas
      _View of Gloucester_                                    iv

  Holland, James
      _A Shrine in Venice_                                  xxii

  Hunt, William Henry
      _Plucking the Fowl_                                    xxi

  Malton, Thomas, Jun.
      _Old Palace Yard, Westminster_                          vi

  Prout, Samuel
      _Palazzo Contarini Fasan
        on the Grand Canal, Venice_                          xix

  Pyne, James Baker
      _View in Italy_                                      xxiii

  Rooker, A.R.A., Michael (Angelo)
      _Village Scene_                                        iii

  Rowlandson, Thomas
      _Entrance to Vauxhall Gardens_                          ix

  Sandby, R.A., Paul
      _Windsor Castle: View of the Round
      and Devil’s Towers from the Black Rock_                  i

  Towne, Francis
      _On the Dart_                                           ii

  Turner, R.A., J. M. W.
      _Lucerne: Moonlight_                                   xii

  Varley, John
      _Hackney Church_                                       xiv

  Wheatley, R.A., Francis
      _Preparing for Market_                                viii

  The Editor desires to acknowledge
  his indebtedness to Mr. A. E.
  Hutton, Mr. R. W. Lloyd, Mr.
  Victor Rienaecker, Mr. G. Bellingham
  Smith and Messrs. Thos.
  Agnew & Sons who have kindly
  lent their drawings for reproduction
  in this volume.


The earliest form of painting was with colours ground in water. Egyptian
artists three thousand years B.C. used this method, and various mediums,
such as wax and mastic, were added as a fixative. It was what is now
known as tempera painting. The Greeks acquired their knowledge of the
art from the Egyptians, and later the Romans dispersed it throughout
Europe. They probably introduced tempera painting into this country for
decoration of the walls of their houses. The English monks visited the
Continent and learnt the art of miniature painting for illuminating
their manuscripts by the same process. Owing to opaque white being mixed
with the colours the term of painting in body-colour came in use.
Painting in this manner was employed by artists throughout Europe in
making sketches for their oil paintings.

Two such drawings by Albrecht Dürer, produced with great freedom in
the early part of the sixteenth century, are in the British Museum.
The Dutch masters also employed the same means. Holbein introduced the
painting of miniature portraits into this country, for although the
monks inserted figures in their illuminations, little attempt was made
in producing likenesses. As early as the middle of the seventeenth
century the term “water colours” came into use. In an inventory, in
manuscript, of the personal estate of Charles I, which was sold by an
Act of Parliament, numerous pictures are thus described.

Wenceslaus Hollar, a native of Prague, came to England in 1637, and
became drawing-master to the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York. The
painting of landscapes was first introduced by him into this country. He
made topographical drawings with a reed pen, and afterwards added slight
local colours. The earliest Englishman known to follow this style was
Francis Barlow. He is principally noted for his drawings with a pen,
slightly tinted, of animals and birds, with landscapes in the
background. Later, Peter Monamy, a marine painter who was born in
Jersey, produced drawings in a similar manner. Early in the eighteenth
century Pieter Tillemans came to England, and painted hunting scenes,
race-horses and country-seats. He worked in a free style in washes of
colour without any outlines with a pen or underlying grey tints. To a
“Natural History of Birds,” by George Edwards, library keeper to the
Royal College of Physicians, published in 1751, is added an appendix,
entitled, “A Brief and General Idea of Drawing and Painting in Water
Colours: Intended for the amusement of the curious rather than the
instruction of artists.” In it he states, “There are two ways of
painting in water colours: one by mixing white with your colours and
laying on a thick body; the other is only washing your paper or vellum
with a thin water tinctured with colour.” After giving details of the
methods to be employed he adds, “the former method of using water
colours is called painting and the other washing or staining.” During
the latter half of the century it became a fashion for landed gentry to
have engravings made of their country seats, and antiquarian
publications with illustrations were produced. These created a demand
for topographical draughtsmen to assist the engravers. In the catalogues
of the Exhibitions of the Society of Artists, the first of which was
held in 1760, the drawings by these men are styled as being “stained,”
“tinted,” or “washed.”

The English School of Water-Colour Painting was now firmly established,
and several artists have been claimed to be the “father” of it. Amongst
them were William Tavener, an amateur painter, whose drawings were never
topographically correct, as he exaggerated buildings to give them a
classic appearance; Samuel Scott, a marine painter and styled the
English Canaletto, he was called by Horace Walpole “the first painter of
the age--one whose works will charm any age,” and was also a friend of
Hogarth; also Alexander Cozens, born in Russia and the reputed son of
Peter the Great, but lately it has been suggested that Richard Cozens,
a ship-builder, who went to Russia in 1700, may have been his father.
He was sent to Italy to study art, and afterwards came to England. He
professed to teach amateurs how to produce pictures without study.
Edwards, in his “Anecdotes of Painting,” describes his process as
dashing out a number of accidental large blots and loose flourishes from
which he selected forms and sometimes produced very grand ideas. Dayes
called him “Blotmaster-general to the town.”

The painter, however, who is most generally regarded as being the father
of water-colour painting was Paul Sandby, R.A. He first obtained
employment in the Military Drawing Office of the Tower of London.
Afterwards he resided with his elder brother, Thomas Sandby, at Windsor.
At first he painted in the usual tinted manner of the period, but later
he worked with body-colour, by which manner he added considerable
richness to his drawings. _Windsor Castle: View of the Round and Devil’s
Towers from the Black Rock_ (Plate I) is an admirable example of his
latter method. The drawing has been acquired through the Felton Bequest
Fund, and now hangs in the National Gallery of Victoria. Paul Sandby was
for many years the chief drawing-master at the Royal Military Academy at
Woolwich. He was also appointed by George III to give instruction in
drawing to his sons.

The work of Francis Towne has only of recent years come to be
appreciated. He belonged to a Devonshire family, but the exact place of
his birth is not known. He became a friend of William Pars, A.R.A., from
whom he received some instruction in drawing, and also went with him to
Rome in 1780. Although he spent considerable time on the Continent,
numerous drawings by him exist of scenes in his native country. _On the
Dart_ (Plate II) is a good example of his delicate method of painting.
His special skill lay “in the management of even pen-line and in a
subtle modulation of colour upon a flat surface.”

Amongst the early topographical men was Michael (Angelo) Rooker, A.R.A.
The additional Christian name is said to have been given to him by Paul
Sandby, under whom he studied for some time. He made pedestrian tours
through England, and executed a large number of drawings, which are
remarkable for their accuracy and delicate treatment, such as the
_Village Scene_ (Plate III).

Thomas Hearne was a contemporary with Rooker. It was a custom at this
period for topographical artists to travel abroad with British Embassies
to foreign countries and with Governors to Colonial possessions.
Photography had not yet been invented, and the drawings by these artists
were the only means by which the majority of inhabitants of this island
were able to obtain some idea of places beyond the sea. Hearne went to
the Leeward Isles, as draughtsman to the Governor, and produced records
of the scenery there. Afterwards he executed a number of drawings in
this country, some of which were engraved in “Antiquities of Great
Britain.” _View of Gloucester_ (Plate IV) is an example of his accurate
drawing, though somewhat weak in colouring. Joseph Farington, R.A.,
received instruction in drawing from Wilson, and his paintings show
slight evidence of it, as may be seen from the _Scotch Landscape_ (Plate
V), but he simply copied Nature without enduing his work with any of his
master’s poetic reeling. Thomas Malton, Junr., was noted for the
accuracy with which he drew architectural views, many of them being
street scenes in London, and they are of considerable value as records.
_Old Palace Yard, Westminster_ (Plate VI) is interesting as showing
buildings on the north side of Henry VII’s Chapel of the Abbey, which
have long since been demolished. He published works aquatinted by
himself, including _Westminster_, which appeared in 1792. He held
classes at which Girtin and Turner attended. The latter used to say, “My
early master was Tom Malton.” Edward Dayes was a versatile artist; he
painted architectural subjects, into which he frequently introduced
figures, such as _Furness Abbey_ (Plate VII), executed miniatures and
engraved in mezzotint. He also wrote several works on art. _Buckingham
House, St. James’s Park_, in which a number of the _beau monde_ are seen
promenading in the park, is one of his best paintings. An engraving of
it by F. D. Soiron, produced in 1793, under the title of _Promenade in
St. James’s Park_, was very popular.

Francis Wheatley, R.A., was a topographical artist, but is better known
as a painter of _genre_ subjects, especially by the engravings after
“The Cries of London.” _Preparing for Market_ (Plate VIII) is a good
example of his latter work, which was somewhat insipid.

The reputation of Thomas Rowlandson, who could paint landscapes with
great ability, rests upon his caricatures, which were usually drawn in
outline and tinted. He lived a somewhat dissipated life, and possessed
an abundant sense of humour, as displayed in the _Entrance to Vauxhall
Gardens_ (Plate IX), the noted place of amusement and rendezvous of the
fashionable set in the early part of the last century.

John Robert Cozens, the son of Alexander Cozens, was the first artist
at this period “to break away from the trammels of topography, and to
raise landscape painting in water colours to a branch of fine art.” He
travelled abroad and studied principally in Italy and Switzerland. The
lake of Nemi, situated in the Campagna, some sixteen miles west of Rome,
and reached by the famous Via Appia, has always been a favourite subject
with both poets and artists. Near the north rim of the worn-out crater,
in which the lake is situated, is the village of Nemi, surmounted by a
fine old castle, which passed through the hands of many noble families.
Pope, Byron, and others have sung the praises of the lake. Turner has
left at least five drawings of it, one of which is engraved in
Hakewell’s “Italy.” William Pars, Richard Wilson and other artists of
the early landscape school also painted the scene. Cozens made many
drawings of Nemi and the vicinity. Two are in the Victoria and Albert
Museum and another is in the Whitworth Institute, Manchester. The
painting (Plate X), belonging to Mr. R. W. Lloyd, shows the lake with
Palazzo Cesarini on a height by its side, and the Campagna in the
distance. It is a fine example of Cozens’ work treated in his poetic
manner, and into which more colour than usual has been introduced.
Cozens’ last visit to Italy was made in 1782 in company with the noted
William Beckford, the author of “Vathek.” On his return he gradually
lost his reason. It is pathetic to think such was the sad end of a man
inspired with such artistic talents. As it has already been stated, he
was the pioneer in exalting water-colour painting to a fine art. His
footsteps were quickly followed by Girtin and Turner. The history of
these two artists, how during their early struggles they were befriended
by that art patron, Dr. Thomas Monro, a capable water-colour painter
himself, and well qualified to give advice, is too well known to need

Girtin, during his short career, had no selfish ideas of keeping his
knowledge of painting to himself. It was mainly due to his initiation
that a club was started amongst a small body of young artists for the
study of landscape painting. They met at each other’s houses in
rotation. One of its prominent members was Sir Robert Ker Porter,
a painter, traveller and author, who afterwards married a Russian
princess. He was living, at the time, at 16, Great Newport Street, which
had formerly been a residence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and subsequently
that of Dr. Samuel Johnson. It was in this house that the first meeting
of the club was held “for the purpose of establishing by practice a
School of Historic Landscape, the subjects being designs from poetick
passages.” Writing in _The Somerset House Gazette_, in 1823, W. H. Pyne,
under the pseudonym of Ephraim Hardcastle, states “this artist (Girtin)
prepared his drawings on the same principle which had hitherto been
confined to painting in oil, namely, with local colour, and shadowing
the same with the individual tint of its own shadow. Previous to the
practice of Turner and Girtin, drawings were shadowed first entirely
throughout, whatever their component parts--houses, castles, trees,
mountains, fore-grounds, middle-grounds, and distances, all with black
or grey, and these objects were afterwards stained or tinted, enriched
and finished, as is now the custom to colour prints. It was this new
practice, introduced by these distinguished artists, that acquired for
designs in water colour upon paper the title of paintings: a designation
which many works of the existing school decidedly merit, as we lately
beheld in the Exhibition of the Painters in Water Colours, where
pictures of this class were displayed in gorgeous frames, bearing out in
effect against the mass of glittering gold as powerfully as pictures in
oil.” Girtin had a partiality for painting in a low tone of colour and
frequently on rough cartridge paper, which assisted in giving a
largeness of manner to his work. The _Landscape_ (Plate XI) is, however,
rendered in a brighter key than his usual practice.

As limitation of space will not admit of giving any account of the life
of Turner, already well known, it may be sufficient to say that
_Lucerne: Moonlight_ (Plate XII) was painted in 1843, and was originally
in the collection of Mr. H. A. J. Munro of Novar. Ruskin, who calls it a
noble drawing in his “Notes on his Drawings by the late J. M. W.
Turner,” makes a mistake in the title and describes it as _Zurich by
Moonlight_. John Sell Cotman, a member of the Norwich School, was
another pioneer who did much for the advancement of water-colour
painting. Unfortunately, his work was not appreciated during his career.
If he had lived in the twentieth century he would have had no cause for
the fits of depression to which he was subject during the greater part
of life. It can be well recognised that in the first half of last
century the public, who were mainly accustomed to carefully drawn
topographical scenes, failed to appreciate such paintings as the
_Classical Scene_ (Plate XIII), executed with such freedom and vigour.
It was recently exhibited at the Special Exhibition of Cotman’s
Paintings at the Tate Gallery, when five other classical landscape
compositions were also shown. Cotman’s work was not understood. His
paintings, both in oil and water colour, often only realised less than a
pound apiece. He was compelled to resort to teaching in order to support
his family. Eventually, through the influence of his friend, Lady
Palgrave, and the strong support of Turner, he obtained the post of
drawing-master at King’s College School, London. His position then
became more secure. Still, teaching boys in the underground rooms of
Somerset House could not have been inspiriting to one who yearned to
seek Nature in the open air. He could not exclaim, like “Old” Crome,
when he with his pupils was once met on the banks of the Yare, “This is
our academy.” He died of a broken heart. At the beginning of the
nineteenth century there was a feeling amongst the artists who worked
solely in water colours that they were not being fairly treated by the
Royal Academy. They were ineligible to be elected members of that body,
and they were of opinion that their works were never placed in a
prominent position on the walls of the galleries. William Frederick
Wells, a friend of Turner and said to have suggested to him the idea of
producing his “Liber Studiorum,” proposed to his fellow artists that
they should form a separate society for the promotion of water-colour
painting. After considerable negotiations, ten artists met together in
November, 1804, and founded the Society of Painters in Water Colours.
The first exhibition was held in the Spring of the following year at
rooms in Lower Brook Street. After various vicissitudes and many changes
of abode this society, known in later years as the “Old” Society,
eventually obtained a lease of the premises in Pall Mall East. Thus,
after much roving for seventeen years, a permanent home was secured, and
the centenary of the occupation of these galleries has just been
completed. Varley and Glover were two of the original members. De Wint,
Copley Fielding, David Cox and Samuel Prout were subsequently elected
Associates, and afterwards became full members.

Amongst the founders the name of John Varley stands out beyond the
others. He was born at Hackney (see Plate XIV) in 1778. Receiving but
little instruction in art besides the assistance given to him by Dr.
Monro, he became a teacher of considerable reputation. Amongst his
pupils were many who afterwards became famous. To mention only a few,
there were William Mulready, who married his sister, Copley Fielding,
who espoused his wife’s sister, W. Turner (of Oxford), David Cox,
William H. Hunt, Oliver Finch and John Linnell. Varley was a prolific
worker, and contributed more than seven hundred drawings to the “Old”
Society, averaging about forty works annually. His style was broad and
simple, with tints beautifully laid, without resort to stippling. He
wrote some works on drawing and perspective. He also was an enthusiast
in astrology, and compiled a “Treatise on Zodiacal Physiognomy.” John
Glover was a landscape painter and produced works, both in oil and in
water colours, into which he frequently introduced cattle. His father
having been a small farmer may account for this partiality for animals.
In water-colour painting he followed the methods of William Payne, the
inventor of a grey tint known as Payne’s grey, in producing foliage by
splitting the hairs of his brush in order to give a feeling of
lightness, and he was partial to sunlight effects (see Plate XV). He was
President of the “Old” Society on two occasions, but he resigned his
membership, so as to become eligible for election to the Royal Academy.
He failed in his object and joined the Society of British Artists.
Glover suddenly left England in 1831, and went to the Swan River
Settlement in Australia. Afterwards he removed to Tasmania, where he

Peter De Wint, a descendant of an old merchant family of Amsterdam, like
Glover, painted in oils and water colours, but his work was far
superior. He selected broad and open country for his scenes, which were
executed in a rich tone with a tendency to heavy uniform green. The
neighbourhood of Lincoln, where his wife, a sister of W. Hilton, R.A.,
was born, had special attractions to him. _St. Albans_ (Plate XVI) shows
the abbey in the ruinous state it had become from the time of the
Reformation. Its restoration was not commenced until 1856, under the
direction of Sir Gilbert Scott, and completed later by Lord Grimthorpe.
Anthony Vandyke Copley Fielding belonged to an artistic family. His
father was a painter and three of his brothers all practised art with
success. He was one of the most fashionable drawing-masters of his day,
and a strong supporter of the “Old” Society. After being treasurer and
next secretary, he was appointed president in 1831, which post he
retained during his life. He was a most prolific worker and contributed
about seventeen hundred drawings to the Society’s exhibitions, besides
showing at the Royal Academy and Royal Institution. At first his
favourite subjects were lake and mountain scenery (see Plate XVII).
After he took up his residence at Brighton he turned his attention to
marine painting and depicted many storms at sea. It has been
exaggeratedly said that Copley Fielding was “perhaps the greatest artist
after Turner for representations of breadth and atmosphere.” Ruskin also
praised his work. Owing, however, to his very rapid method of execution
there was a considerable sameness in his work.

The drawings by David Cox, although executed in an apparently careless
manner, give a greater rendering of atmospheric qualities and of
irradiation of light with a feeling of more movement than can be found
in the works of Fielding. Cox’s early drawings were executed in a
somewhat stiff and restrained manner, with a delicate finish, but
afterwards his style became broad and he produced those breezy effects
which are almost unrivalled. _Boys Fishing_ (Plate XVIII) is an
excellent example of his later work. When Cox returned to his native
town, Birmingham, he devoted his attention to working in oils, and the
City Art Gallery possesses a superb collection of his paintings in this
medium. He was for the greater part of his life a teacher of drawing,
and he published a “Treatise on Landscape Painting and Effect in Water
Colours,” in which his views are clearly stated.*

  [Footnote *: The “Treatise” has recently been republished as the
  Special Autumn Number of _The Studio_.]

Samuel Prout, one of the numerous Devonshire painters, also derived a
great part of his income by giving instruction in drawing and painting.
Numerous drawing copies for students were produced by him by means of
soft-ground etching. He was at first employed by John Britton, the
author of “The Beauties of England and Wales,” in making topographical
drawings for this work. In 1819 he went to Normandy for the benefit of
his health. There he turned his attention to producing those paintings
of cathedrals and picturesque buildings for which he is noted. Later he
travelled through Germany and Switzerland to Italy, and visited Rome and
Venice (see Plate XIX). Afterwards he published facsimiles of many of
the drawings executed during these tours on the Continent. They were
produced in lithography by himself on the stone, an art in which he
greatly excelled. The architectural drawings by Prout are remarkable for
their picturesque treatment, rather than for correctness of
construction. Details are sparsely indicated by the use of a reed pen.
Bright effects of light and shade are, however, given, and the
introduction of groups of figures add brilliancy to these paintings.

James Duffield Harding, like Prout, from whom he received some lessons,
also excelled in lithography. Many of his paintings were reproduced by
him in a publication entitled “Sketches at Home and Abroad.” He visited
Italy on two occasions. _Vico, in the Bay of Naples_, between
Castellamare and Sorrento (Plate XX), is an example of his free manner
of painting. An engraving of it appeared in the “Landscape Annual” in
1832. He was a member of the “Old” Society, and also painted in oils.
William Henry Hunt, familiarly called “Old” or “Billy” Hunt in his
latter years by his fellow artists, to distinguish him from William
Holman Hunt, was an artist with a style peculiar to himself. He painted
figures, especially young rustics, with a sense of humour, but he is
chiefly noted for his exquisite fruit and flower pieces, which were
executed with great delicacy and with a remarkable power of rendering
the effects of light and shade on the surface of the objects. To obtain
these he would roughly pencil out, say, a group of plums, and thickly
coat each one with Chinese white, which would be left to harden. On this
ground he afterwards painted his colours with a sure hand. By this means
he would obtain a brilliant effect. Further, to enhance it, he would
make free use of the knife on the various surroundings to give a
contrast, and at the same time to produce a feeling of texture on the
various surfaces, so as not to have a monotonous and flat appearance.
This method of scraping up portions of the surface of the paper is
clearly shown in _Plucking the Fowl_ (Plate XXI).

James Holland commenced his artistic career by painting flowers on
pottery at the factory of James Davenport at Burslem. He came to London
and continued to paint flowers. After a visit to Paris he devoted
himself to landscapes. Subsequently he visited Venice, and produced, in
both oils and water colours, some excellent paintings remarkable for
their brilliant colouring (see Plate XXII).

James Baker Pyne, born at Bristol, was a self-taught artist. He also is
noted for his brilliant colouring, but there is a want of solidity in
his painting. He visited the Continent and travelled as far as Italy
(see Plate XXIII). His landscapes were chiefly river and lake subjects.
He published “The English Lake District” and “The Lake Scenery of
England,” illustrated with lithographs of his works. He was a member of
the Society of British Artists, and became a vice-president. Like
Girtin, the illustrious young painter Richard Parkes Bonington was cut
off in life at the early age of twenty-seven. He was born at Arnold,
near Nottingham. Whilst still a boy he was taken by his parents to
Calais, where he received some instruction in water colours from
Francia. Later the family settled in Paris. Here Bonington resided the
greater part of his life. He made a few visits to England, and on the
last occasion he was taken ill and died of consumption. He practised at
the Louvre and the _Institut_, and also received instruction from Baron
Gros. His paintings, in oil and water colours, were almost entirely
executed in France; he, however, made one visit to Italy. In Paris his
works were chiefly architectural with street scenes, admirably executed,
whilst his landscapes with fine atmospheric effects (see Plate XXIV)
display great freedom in execution. It is somewhat remarkable that after
Cotman and Bonington had, in the first part of the nineteenth century,
developed a style so greatly appreciated at the present time, so many of
the landscape painters in water colours in the early Victorian era
should still have adhered to the old restricted methods. Constable
exercised considerable influence on the French landscape painting in
oil, whilst Bonington showed the French artists the capabilities of
water colours, which they did not fail to appreciate.

    H. M. Cundall.

  Plate I
  by Paul Sandby, R.A.
  (Size, 11¾ x 17¼ in.)
  (_Acquired by the National Art Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne_)

  Plate II
  by Francis Towne
  (Size, 7 x 9¾ in.)
  (_In the possession of A. E. Hutton, Esq._)

  Plate III
  by Michael (Angelo) Rooker, A.R.A.
  (Size, 14½ x 18¼ in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq_.)

  Plate IV
  by Thomas Hearne
  (Size, 7½ X 10½ in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq._)

  Plate V
  by Joseph Farington, R.A.
  (Size, 20¾ x 33¾ in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq._)

  Plate VI
  by Thomas Malton, Jun.
  (Size, 13 x 19 in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate VII
  by Edward Dayes
  (Size, 27½ X 20¾ in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq_.)

  Plate VIII
  by Francis Wheatley, R.A.,
  (Size, 14 x 10 in.)
  (_In the possession of Messrs. Thos. Agnew & Sons_)

  Plate IX
  by Thomas Rowlandson
  (Size, 9 X 12⅞ in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq._)

  Plate X
  by John Robert Cozens
  (Size, 14½ X 21 in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XI
  by Thomas Girtin
  (Size, 12¼ X 20½ in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XII
  by J. M. W. Turner, R.A.
  (Size, 11½ x 18¾ in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XIII
  by John Sell Cotman
  (Size, 11½ x 8¼ in.)
  (_In the possession of G. Bellingham Smith, Esq._)

  Plate XIV
  by John Varley
  (Size, 11 X 15 in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XV
  by John Glover
  (Size, 16⅛ x 23 in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq._)

  Plate XVI
  by Peter De Wint
  (Size, 9¾ X 14½ in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XVII
  by A. V. Copley Fielding
  (Size, 12¼ x 16⅛ in.)
  (_In the Possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq._)

  Plate XVIII
  by David Cox
  (Size, 10½ x 14½ in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XIX
  by Samuel Prout
  (Size, 16⅞ x 11½ in.)
  (_In the Victoria and Albert Museum_)

  Plate XX
  by James Duffield Harding
  (Size, 8½ x 11¾ in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq._)

  Plate XXI
  by William Henry Hunt
  (Size, 13¾ x 14½ in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XXII
  by James Holland
  (Size, 9¾ x 6½ in.)
  (_In the possession of Victor Rienaecker, Esq._)

  Plate XXIII
  by James Baker Pyne
  (Size, 10¾ x 17 in.)
  (_In the possession of R. W. Lloyd, Esq._)

  Plate XXIV
  by Richard Parkes Bonington
  (Size 8¾ x 12¼ in.)
  (_In the possession of Messrs. Thos. Agnew & Sons_)

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

Erratum (noted by transcriber)

  Ephraim Hardcastle  [Ephriam]

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Masters of Water-Colour Painting" ***

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