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Title: How to Add Ten Years to your Life and to Double Its Satisfactions
Author: Curry, S. S. (Samuel Silas), 1847-1921
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "How to Add Ten Years to your Life and to Double Its Satisfactions" ***

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AND TO DOUBLE ITS SATISFACTIONS***


HOW TO ADD TEN YEARS
TO YOUR LIFE
AND TO DOUBLE ITS SATISFACTIONS

by

S. S. CURRY, Ph.D., Litt.D.



    Can you wake as wake the birds?
      In their joy and singing share?
    Stretch your limbs as do the herds,
      And drink as deep the morning air?
    Quick as larks on upward wing,
      Can you shun the demon's wiles,
    Promptly as the robins sing,
      Can you change all frowns to smiles?
    Can you spurn fear's coward whine,
      Meet each day with joyous song?
    Then will angels guard your shrine,
      Joys be deep and life be long.


Boston
School of Expression
Book Department
Pierce Bldg., Copley Square

Copyright
by
S. S. Curry
1915



                   To Those Who
          Loyally Responded to The Dream
                And to Those Who
          By Thought, Word or Act Will Aid
              The School of Expression
    To Perform Its Important Function In Education.



QUI TRANSTULIT SUSTINET

    As ancient exile at the close of day,
        Paused on his country's farthest hills to view
        Those valleys sinking in the distant blue
    Where all the joys and hopes of childhood lay;
    So now across the years our thoughts will stray
        To those whose hearts were ever brave and true,
        Who gave the hope and faith from which we drew
    The strength to climb thus far upon our way.
    As he amid the rocks and twilight gray,
        Saw rocks and steeps transform to stairs, and knew
        He wandered not alone; so may we too
    See this, our tentless crag where wild winds play
        A Bethel rise, and we here wake to know
        That down and upward angels come and go.



CONTENTS


                                                  Page

  Why and Wherefore                                  7

  I.    Significance of Morning                     11

  II.   Supposed Secrets of Health and Long Life    24

  III.  What is an Exercise?                        43

  IV.   Program of Exercises                        54

  V.    How to Practice the Exercises               84

  VI.   Actions of Every Day Life                  102

  VII.  Work and Play                              109

  VIII. Significance of Night and Sleep            122



WHY AND WHEREFORE


When over eighty years of age, the poet Bryant said that he had added
more than ten years to his life by taking a simple exercise while
dressing in the morning. Those who knew Bryant and the facts of his life
never doubted the truth of this statement.

I have made inquiries lately among men who are eighty years of age, as
to their method of waking up. Almost without exception, I find that they
have been in the habit of taking simple exercise upon rising and also
before retiring.

While studying voice in Paris, over thirty years ago, my teacher was so
busy that he had to take me before breakfast at an hour which, to a
Parisian, was a very early one.

"Vocal exercises may be more difficult at this time," he said, "but it
is the best time. If we can start the day with the right exercise of the
voice, the use of it all through the day will be additional right
practice."

Later, when I studied with the elder Lamperti in Italy, I requested and
secured an early hour in the morning for my lessons.

In teaching I have always urged students to take their exercises the
first thing in the morning. Those who have taken my advice have later
been grateful for the suggestion.

If my own morning exercises are neglected, I feel as if I had missed a
meal or had lost much sleep. I was never what is called physically
strong; in fact, physicians have continually prophesied my downfall, yet
all my life I have performed about three men's work, and by the use of a
few exercises have probably doubled the length of my life.

The subject of human development has always been of great interest to
me. I have tried to investigate the various systems of gymnastics in all
countries; and, teaching, as I have, about ten thousand the use of the
voice and body in expression, I have studied training from a different
point of view from that of most men.

I have discovered that the voice cannot be adequately trained without
also improving the body; that the improvement of the voice can be doubly
accelerated if the body is considered a factor.

I have also found, what is more important, that true exercises are all
mental and emotional and not physical, and that both body and voice can
never be truly improved except by right thinking and feeling.

I, therefore, long ago came to certain conclusions which are not in
accordance with common views. My convictions, however, have been the
result, not only of experience, but of wide study and investigation.

This book embodies a few points about health; without going deeply into
the principles involved, a short programme is given, the practice of
which has already accomplished marvelous results. The book embodies my
own experiences, and obeys the scientific principles involved in
training.

It is meant to be a guide for home study and practice. The principles
are applicable to everyone. It requires at first, patience,
perseverance, and resolution at that moment in the day when we are most
liable to be indifferent and negative, if not irresolute and
discouraged. Whoever resolutely undertakes to obey the suggestions will
never regret doing so. In fact, it is not too much to claim that he will
not only lengthen his life but double its satisfactions.

Every reader of the book is requested to become a member of the Morning
League, and whosoever does so and makes a report or writes to me fully
about special weaknesses, habits, "besetting sins," or conditions will
receive a letter of suggestions.

This book and its companion, "The Smile," are published as a part of the
great work undertaken by the friends of the School of Expression; the
net receipts from the sale will go to the Endowment Fund of the
institution.



HOW TO ADD TEN YEARS TO YOUR LIFE



I

SIGNIFICANCE OF MORNING


    "The year's at the spring
    And day's at the morn;
    Morning's at seven;
    The hill-side's dew-pearled;
    The lark's on the wing;
    The snail's on the thorn;
    God's in his heaven--
    All's right with the world!"

        Song from "Pippa Passes"
        Robert Browning

Browning's "Pippa Passes" is a parable or allegory of human life.

Though called a drama by its author, it embodies, like all plays of the
highest type, other than dramatic elements. In exalted poetry the
allegoric, lyric, epic and dramatic seem to be blended. An effort to
separate them often seems academic and mechanical.

Pippa, a poor little silk-winding girl, who has never known father or
mother, opens the poem. It is the early morning and she wakes with
joyous anticipation of her holiday, her only one. She goes forth, and we
hear her singing and we see her influencing, from her humble position in
the background, "Asolo's four happiest ones," who are brought by the
action of the drama into the foreground.

Her character and that of the other persons of the play are
well-defined; but the real theme of the poem is the unconscious
influence that she exerts upon others. The primary element of dramatic
art is the meeting of people and the influence they exert upon each
other. There is no direct influence seemingly exerted upon Pippa herself
save at one point and even that is scarcely a conscious one.

We feel that she is a type of the human soul. Specific scenes, though
intensely dramatic, are entirely separated from one another.

Accordingly if it is a drama, it is a drama of an unusual type. It
regards the events of only one day; still that day is not literal; it is
a symbol of the life of everyone. It is New Year's Day, but every day is
the beginning of a new year. It is a holiday, yet all life, when
normally lived, is dominated by love and sympathetic service, and is
full of happiness.

Pippa sings as everyone should sing with the spirit of thanksgiving and
love. She welcomes the day with joy as everyone should welcome life and
its opportunities. She lies down to sleep at night, as we all do; her
sun drops into a "black cloud" and she knows nothing of what she has
really accomplished or of the revelation that is coming on the morrow.

Moreover, observe that the link of unity in the play is found in the
songs of Pippa. One might easily conceive her beautiful character as
embodying the very soul of lyric poetry. Hence, in reading the poem, we
are impressed from the first with allegoric, lyric and epic, as well as
dramatic elements.

Observe more closely her awakening. Note the beautiful description, the
gradually lengthening lines, indicative of the coming morning. [See page
16.]

She expresses joy as she meditates over her New Year's hymn. Into this
devotional lyric Browning has breathed the spirit of all true life and
service.

      "Now wait!--even I already seem to share
    In God's love: what does New-year's hymn declare?
    What other meaning do these verses bear?

        All service ranks the same with God:
        If now, as formerly he trod
        Paradise, his presence fills
        Our earth, each only as God wills
        Can work--God's puppets, best and worst,
        Are we; there is no last nor first.

        Say not "a small event!" Why "small"?
        Costs it more pain that this, ye call
        A "great event," should come to pass,
        Than that? Untwine me from the mass
        Of deeds which make up life, one deed
        Power shall fall short in, or exceed!

      And more of it, and more of it! oh, yes--
      I will pass each, and see their happiness,
      And envy none--being just as great, no doubt,
      Useful to men, and dear to God, as they!
      A pretty thing to care about
      So mightily, this single holiday!

      But let the sun shine! Wherefore repine?
      --With thee to lead me, O Day of mine,
      Down the grass path grey with dew,
      Under the pine-wood, blind with boughs,
      Where the swallow never flew
      Nor yet cicala dared carouse--
      No, dared carouse!"

           From "Pippa Passes"
              Robert Browning

As Pippa leaves her room in the full spirit of this hymn, full of joy,
hope and love, she passes into the street. We hardly catch a glimpse of
her until the close of the day, when she comes back and lies down to
sleep: but we hear her songs and see the influence which she
unconsciously exerts. This is the real theme of the poem.

Browning's poetic play reveals to us in four scenes the other side of
life, the happier people to whom Pippa referred in her soliloquy. We
look first into the interior of the old house of which Pippa has spoken
with a kind of awe, and see the proud Ottima who owns the mills where
Pippa is but a poor worker. In the dark gloom of one of the rooms Ottima
has become the sharer in a murder, and, under the influence of Pippa's
song, which is heard outside, she and her companion realize their guilt
and are overcome with remorse.

At noon we are introduced to a young artist, Jules, who is just bringing
home his bride, Phene, whom he has married thinking her a princess, but
who is really a poor, ignorant child. She has been employed
unconsciously, to herself, and innocently used by some degraded artists
as a means of rebuking the idealist, Jules. By this cruel trick they
mean to crush him and reduce him to their own sensual level. Even
letters which Jules has received from the supposed princess have been
written by these perversions of human beings--who call themselves
artists.

In her lovely innocence Phene is thrilled by Jules' tenderness. Her
intuition tells her that something is wrong as she falters in rendering
the lines the cruel painters have given her to read to Jules.

We see the blow fall upon the young dreamer as he makes the fearful
discovery. In the agony of his disappointment he is about to renounce
Phene forever as the artists, waiting outside to sneer at him, expect.
The poor, innocent being, in whom his kindness and tenderness have
stirred to life for the first time her womanly nature, is about to be
cast out to a life of degradation and misery, when Pippa passes,
singing. Her song awakens Jules to a higher feeling, to a more human and
heroic determination; and the painters, waiting outside, are
disappointed.

In the evening Pippa passes Luigi, an Italian patriot. He is meditating
over the afflictions of his country and upon a plan to help it, while
his mother is trying to dissuade him from the daring undertaking. The
police and spies are waiting outside. If he goes he will not be
arrested; if he stays they have orders to arrest him at once. At the
moment of his wavering, when he is almost ready to obey his mother,
Pippa's song arouses anew his patriotic being, and he resolutely goes
forth to do a true heroic deed for his country. Thus Pippa saves him
from imprisonment and death.

Night brings the last scene in the dramatic events of the world
influenced by Pippa's songs. A room of the "palace by the Dome," of
which Pippa seems to stand in so much awe, opens before us. Here we look
into the face of the Monsignor, for whom she expressed reverence in the
morning, and we find that the Monsignor and the dead brother whose home
he comes to bless, are in reality Pippa's own uncles. The poor little
girl, with only a nickname, is a child of an older brother and the real
heir to the Palace, though of this she has never had the remotest
dream. We see an insinuating villain tempting the Monsignor to allow
him to do away with Pippa in a most horrible manner, and thus leave the
Monsignor in sole possession of his brother's property.

During an intense moment Pippa passes and her singing outside causes her
uncle to throttle the villain and call for help.

Then we see, at the close of the day, the little girl, unconscious of
her share in the life of others, come back to her room and fall asleep
murmuring her New Year's hymn which, in spite of appearances, she still
trusts. We are left with the hope that she will awaken next day to
realize who she is and come into her own.

Thus journey we all through life often forgetting that there is nothing
small, that "there is no last nor first." We are conscious of noble
aims, but oblivious of the real work we are doing and of our own
identity.

What, do you ask, has such a poetic drama to do with such a commonplace
subject as health or the prolonging of life?

The question implies a misconception. Human development is not a
material thing but is poetic and exalted. It has to do not merely with
physical conditions but primarily with spiritual ideals. Let us observe
more closely how Browning wakes Pippa up. When she comes to
consciousness she utters a cry of joy and thanksgiving;

    "Day!
    Faster and more fast,
    O'er night's brim, day boils at last."

The joyous thanksgiving of this first moment is the key to Pippa's life
and to her influence through the whole day. Such was the right
beginning to her day and such is the right beginning for us all to every
day of our lives. Her faith and her hymn revealed the true ideals of
this strange journey we call life.

There is an old proverb: "Guard beginnings." If a stream is poisoned at
its head it will carry the deadly taint through its whole course.

The most significant moment of life is the moment of awakening.

The importance of morning has been more or less realized in the instinct
of the human heart in every age.

Many of the myths of the early Greeks refer to the miracle of the
morning. Aurora mirrors to us in a mystic way the significance of this
hour to the Greeks. Athene was born by the stroke of the hammer of
Hephæstus on the forehead of Zeus, and thus the stroke of fire upon the
sky became the symbol or myth of all civilization. Even Daphne, pursued
by Apollo, and turned into a tree, is doubtless the darkness fleeing
before dawn until the trees stand out clearly defined in the morning
light.

The dawn of day has always been considered a prophecy of the time when
all ignorance will vanish before the light of truth.

When we remember that men of the early ages had no other light but that
of the sun, we can see how naturally the coming of morning impressed
primitive peoples, and it is not much wonder that they adored and
worshiped the dawn and the rising sun.

We still speak of the dawn of a new civilization. Morning is still the
most universal figure of progress, the type of a new life. More than
all other natural occurrences it is used as a symbol of something
higher.

May we not, accordingly, discover that from a psychological as well as a
physiological point of view, for reasons of health and development,
morning is the most significant and important time of the day!

No human being at the first moment of awakening is gloomy or angry.
Everyone awakes in peace with all the world. It is a time of freedom. A
moment later memory may bring to the mind some scene or picture that
leads to good or bad thought, followed by emotion. This first moment of
consciousness is the critical and golden moment of human life. How often
has it been said to a child: "You must have gotten out of the wrong side
of bed this morning."

Even animals and birds feel the significance of morning. Who has not, at
early dawn, heard a robin or some other bird begin to sing--"at first
alone," as Thomas Hardy says, "as if sure that morning has come, while
all the others keep still a moment as if equally sure that he is
mistaken." Soon, however, voice after voice takes up the song until the
whole woodland is ringing with joyous tones. Who, in such an hour, has
not been deeply moved with the spirit and beauty of all life and the
harmony and deep significance of all of nature's processes?

If we observe the awaking of birds and animals more carefully, however,
we find something besides songs.

All the higher animals go through certain exercises on first waking.
There seems a universal instinct which teaches that certain stretches,
expansions and deep breathings are necessary at this time. In fact,
these actions are so deeply implanted in the instinct of animals that
they seem a kind of sacred acceptance of life, a species of thanksgiving
for all that life brings.

If we accept "Pippa Passes" as a parable of human life and Pippa as a
typical human being, may we not in her awakening find an example of this
universal instinct? May we not find her first thoughts and feelings
worthy of study and her example one to be followed? Do we not, in fact,
find here a beautiful illustration of the proper mode of meeting the
sacredness of dawn?

As a matter of fact, how do we actually greet the morning? Do we awake
as Pippa did, with a joyous song of praise? Do we pour out our hearts in
gratitude that it brings a new day, a new life? Do we give thanks for
the new opportunities given us, the new possibilities of enjoyment, the
new share in the life of the world?

Usually we have no thought about these things. Most of us entirely
forget the significance of the way or "the side we get out of bed."

Attention is rarely paid to the spirit in which we awaken children. It
is often by means of an angry demand or an indulgent whine. They rise
with the impression that it is a sin to awaken them and they begin the
day with the feeling that the world is cruel.

If we could spend the first few moments of every morning as Pippa spent
her first moments, the character of the whole life would be determined.
It is the most important time of every day. Is it not also the time when
we are most apt to be tempted?

Has not man seemingly lost the significance of this sacred hour? Why do
so many, on waking up, begin to worry over the difficulties of the day?
How many look back with regret to the preceding day and forward with a
frown to the one newly born! Why not smile as Pippa smiled and meet our
blessings with thanksgiving?

There are certain physiological reasons why people feel so sluggish on
first awaking:--the position in bed is cramped, the limbs are
contracted, the circulation is impeded and the breathing is greatly
hindered. When lying down, all the functions of the vital organs are
lessened.

Many people are entirely too careless regarding the air of the room. It
needs to be even purer and fresher during one's hours of repose than in
those of waking.

Certain simple movements are taken by practically every animal on
awaking under normal conditions. Among these are yawning, deep
breathing, expansion and stretching. These exercises form a part of the
process of awaking. It is the change from the position of lying down to
that of standing up. But we find that man rarely takes these exercises.
Between the moment of awakening and standing erect man possibly takes
more time, whines more and does less than any other animal.

Of all the provisions of nature to meet this crucial moment in animal
life the stretch seems to be most important. Why men neglect the stretch
is curious. Man seems to lack something of the vigor of the animal
instinct on awakening. He lives a more rational life, and it is
necessary for him at this time to make certain decisions and exert
firmness and resolution.

Science has carefully explained the stretch, but men seem to refuse to
take the lesson. The stretch extends the body so that the veins, where
congestion is most liable to take place and where pressure of blood is
weakest, are so elongated that the blood flows more easily from the
arteries, where the pressure is strongest, through the veins back to the
heart and circulation is equalized and stimulated.

The beneficial effects of the stretch can be felt by anyone who will
take the pains on waking up in the morning to stretch easily, for a few
minutes, then rest a few moments and note the effect. He will feel a
great exhilaration all through the body. He will feel a sense of
harmony. Thanksgiving seems to arise from every cell at the fresh blood
and life.

The yawn is similar to the stretch. The yawn is a stretch of the lungs
as the stretch is a yawn of the muscles. Both of these exercises express
a hunger for oxygen. Whenever anyone is sitting in a cramped position or
even in one position for a long time, the stretch or yawn is
instinctive. The extension of the muscles of the body as illustrated in
the stretch is one of the most necessary steps in normal adjustment. To
speak of only one point: when a man sits his knees are bent, and the
muscles in front of the leg are elongated and the muscles back of the
knee are shortened. A stretch means simply the extension of these
shortened muscles.

All over the body we find a tendency to elongate certain muscles too
much. This is true in the chest; true also of the face, at the corners
of the mouth. The active use of the too elongated muscles will produce
extension in those that are too much shortened. By doing this we bring
about certain normal conditions and relations of parts.

Again we find that the stretch is activity of the extensor muscles. It
is the action of the extensor muscles upon which health especially
depends. At any rate, the extensor muscles are much more important to
bring about the right relation of all parts and the right balance of
sensitive muscles and the equalization of circulation than the activity
of the flexor muscles. Normal emotions, as we shall find later, are
expressed through activity of the extensor muscles. Abnormal emotions,
such as anger, affect the flexor muscles of the body more.

Since nature has provided the stretch seemingly as the antidote for
abnormal position, and especially abnormal position during sleep, in the
programme of exercises it would seem most necessary to centre around
some careful and scientific use of stretches.

Have you ever noticed a dog or cat wake up? Observe their instinctive
movements: the gradual but vigorous stretch in every direction, the deep
breathing, the sympathetic extension and staying of the limbs at the
climax, then the gradual giving up of the activity and the moment of
restful satisfaction.

Stretching in this way is one of the primitive instincts in all animals.
He who will observe the animals will feel that the time for practicing
the exercises is on awakening, and the primary exercise to be taken is
the stretch.

How can we best occupy a part at least of the half hour or more that is
usually wasted in worrying and fretting or in sluggish indifference,
between the time when we first awake and the time we begin to dress?
With all the knowledge of the human organism which has been revealed to
us by modern science, with our truer understanding of the nature of men,
of the effect of the mind upon the body, with our observation of the
instinctive actions of the animals at such an hour, why can we not so
occupy a few of these most precious moments of the day as to add to our
vitality and enjoyment?

At this moment of awakening, when your mind is free, you can so direct
your attention as to receive joy instead of gloom, love instead of hate.
You can exclude the thought of evil or you can yield and allow the
tempter to desecrate your shrine. Whichever choice you make, these first
moments of your day's living will color the whole course of the coming
hours. The feeling first accepted and welcomed will more or less
continue and form a background to all your ideas and determine your
point of view toward human events.

The chief aim of this book is to present a simple programme giving, not
only some exercises for this hour, but certain explanations which will
inspire a sense of the importance of this hour and these movements.

Most people have no conception of the possibilities of human nature, of
the fact that progress is the highest characteristic of a human being.
No matter how old we are, we can always begin to climb upward; the main
thing is our willingness to climb. Do we understand how to use the least
actions and the most neglected movements for the development of
character and the satisfactions of life?

The principles and exercises advocated in this book are not extravagant.
Again and again their benefits have been proven and many thereby have
doubled life's satisfactions and its length.



II

SUPPOSED SECRETS OF HEALTH AND LONG LIFE


Before laying down a simple programme which will give one a common sense
method of keeping well, living long, and making the very most of life,
it may be well to study some of the innumerable theories regarding long
life.

If all the discussions upon health and long life, from the earliest time
to the present, could be adequately chronicled they would form an
interesting, if not an amusing history. In many of these, however, we
should find the same serious thoughts which we may well consider and
find by comparison a few points in which all agree as to what is
necessary to health, happiness and length of days. Note the theories
that have been seriously advocated and which have had vogue among
certain classes for a time,--such as the use of cold water every day as
a remedy for all diseases. The cold water cure advocated wet sheet packs
for fevers, and water, in some form, for all ailments. To live long some
physicians have advised sleeping on the right side, others have
advocated the use of raw food or food that has been cooked very
slightly. Some have contended that scientific food is the complete food
found in Nature, such as nuts; still others have advocated whole wheat
bread!

In our own time a method has been emphasized which has been called
"Fletcherizing." This, of course, is taken from the name of the
gentleman, who has made it so illustrious by his books and his
discussions of the subject. Mr. Fletcher's principle consists in holding
or masticating the food until it is in a fluid form; even a liquid must
be held in the mouth until it is of the same temperature as that of the
body.

Many consider that the chief advantage of Fletcherizing is that it makes
a person eat less. This may be a part of the advantage.

I once had the honor of sitting at dinner by the side of Mr. Fletcher
and observed his methods. He did not eat more than one-third of the
amount, for example, of ice-cream that the rest ate, but he stopped when
the others did, and said, with a smile:--"I have had enough; what I have
eaten will give me more nourishment than a larger amount would and it
will not give me any trouble."

There is great truth in some of these theories. We should eat less meat
and more grain. We should not bolt the best food elements out of wheat;
we should not bleach rice and take out its nutritious element.
Certainly, our lives are very unscientific. Most men live merely by
accident. The shortness of life is not surprising to one who understands
how irrationally most of us live.

Others say, breathe deeply, naturally and constantly.

Still others have urged active life out of doors or an active
participation in business. It is a well-known fact that many men have
not lived long after retiring from their occupations.

Andrew Carnegie said recently that he attributed his long life, health
and strength to his activity. The story is told that he walked the floor
of his room with deep anxiety and consternation the night after his
offer was accepted to sell the Carnegie Steel Works. He had not thought
it possible that his price would be accepted, and he kept speaking to
his old friend about the amount of money paid and the greatness of the
responsibility. Fortunately he did not retire, as most men do, but took
an interest in every phase of modern life. He has used his money, as a
sacred trust, according to his own best judgment, building libraries and
giving organs, pensioning teachers who have given their lives for truth
rather than for making money, and has furthered many other causes.

One of the most common opinions is that long life depends upon "our
constitution,"--upon what we receive from our ancestors. That is, long
life is a gift, not an attainment. And we are in the habit of blaming
our ancestors, near and remote, for our lack of strength and vitality.

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes once made the remark that if one wished to
live a long life he should be afflicted with some incurable disease.
This was thought to be merely a joke, but it has foundation in fact.
Many men with poor constitutions live to a very advanced age. They study
themselves and live simply. They realize that they are not strong and
they do not indulge themselves, but reach out for health and strength in
all ways.

Among all the practices which men have adopted through different ages
for prolonging life we find many which are universally believed, though
possibly not practiced. Some discussion of these may give us courage and
enable us to realize how unscientifically, how carelessly, most men
live, and how indifferent we really are to our well-being.

And yet we find wide-spread doubt as to the advisability of being too
fastidious. Some of the extravagant ideas have naturally given rise to
such scepticism.

On hardly any subject have men had such extreme views as they have
regarding health or the prolongation of their own lives.

I know one lady who ate a raw carrot every morning because it was
yellow, and, as yellow is a spiritual color, this practice, it was
advocated, would free one from materiality and, consequently, from all
disease.

I have known others who condemned all attention to proper food,
exercise, and even to expression, because such attention would lead to
faith in material means.

Webster said, "Truth is always congruous, and agrees with itself; every
truth in the universe agrees with every other truth in the universe;
whereas falsehoods not only disagree with truth but usually quarrel
among themselves."

In accordance with this principle as a rule the untruthfulness of any
view is seen in its failure to recognize anything else as true.

No one will advocate any extreme and irrational habit. Too much
attention to food, too much attention to the care of the body and
exercise will degrade even character. The morning exercises which are
here recommended should be taken even as one washes his hands, as a
matter of course. Man is spiritual, and character is developed
spiritually, and mere attention to the body does not secure health and
strength.

There is a great and easily demonstrated truth in the fact that people
who believe in a spiritual life have endured untold hardships and have
faced all kinds of conditions without injury. The power of mind over
body, of spirit over matter, is too well attested to be doubted.

However, man is slow and progress must be made gradually. The first step
must be taken before the last can be taken. Extravagant and wrong views
prevent a great many people from doing anything.

If we examine all the rules for securing health and the leading secrets
of long life, we find that one of the earliest is temperance.

A noted instance is Socrates. During the great plague, when at least
one-third of the population of Athens died, Socrates went about with
impunity. This was no doubt due to the cheerfulness and temperance of
his life. We know of his cheerfulness from accounts by Zenophon and
Plato.

Possibly the most illustrious example, which has been recounted of the
preservation of health and the prolonging of life through temperance, is
Luigi Cornaro, who was born in Venice in 1464. After having, according
to Gamba, wasted his youth, his health was so broken and his habits so
fixed that "upon passing the age of thirty-five he had nothing left to
hope for but that he might end in death the suffering of a worn-out
life."

This man, by resolution and temperance, battled with his perverted
habits and became strong and vigorous and happy, and lived to be over
one hundred years of age. "The good old man," said Graziani, "feeling
that he drew near the end, did not look upon the great transit with
fear, but as though he were about to pass from one house into another.
He was seated in his little bed--he used a small and very narrow
one--and, at its side, was his wife, Veronica, almost his equal in
years. In a clear and sonorous voice he told me why he would be able to
leave this life with a valiant soul.... Feeling a little later the
failure of vital force, he exclaimed, 'Glad and full of hope will I go
with you, my good God!' He then composed himself; and having closed his
eyes, as though about to sleep, with a slight sigh, he left us forever."

A new edition of Cornaro's discourses on the temperate life, by William
F. Butler of Milwaukee, has recently been issued under the title of "The
Art of Living Long." The first of these discourses was written at the
age of eighty-three, the second at eighty-six, the third at ninety-one,
and the fourth at ninety-five. His treatises have been popular for all
these centuries.

He held that the older a man grows the wiser he becomes and the more he
knows; and if he will, by temperance and regularity of life and
exercise, preserve his strength, his powers of enjoyment will grow, as
his own did, every year until the end.

"Men are, as a rule," says Cornaro, "very sensual and intemperate, and
wish to gratify their appetites and give themselves up to the commission
of innumerable disorders. When, seeing that they cannot escape suffering
the unavoidable consequences of such intemperance as often as they are
guilty of it, they say--by way of excuse--that it is preferable to live
ten years less and to enjoy life. They do not pause to consider what
immense importance ten years more of life, and especially of healthy
life, possess when we have reached mature age, the time, indeed, at
which men appear to the best advantage in learning and virtue--two
things which can never reach their perfection except with time. To
mention nothing else at present, I shall only say that, in literature
and in the sciences, the majority of the best and most celebrated works
we possess were written when their authors had attained ripe age, and
during these same ten latter years for which some men, in order that
they may gratify their appetites, say they do not care."

We see not only in this passage but in many other places evidence of the
fact that Cornaro lived a cheerful, contented life. The reform was
evidently not merely in his eating and drinking but fully as much in the
inner thought of his life. This is shown in many passages from his
discourses.

He says: "Although reason should convince them that this is the case,
yet these men refuse to admit it, and pursue their usual life of
disorder as heretofore. Were they to act differently, abandoning their
irregular habits and adopting orderly and temperate ones, they would
live to old age--as I have--in good condition. Being, by the grace of
God, of so robust and perfect a constitution, they would live until they
reached the age of a hundred and twenty, as history points out to us
that others--born, of course, with perfect constitutions--have done, who
led the temperate life.

"I am certain I, too, should live to that age had it been my good
fortune to receive a similar blessing at my birth; but, because I was
born with a poor constitution, I fear I shall not live much beyond a
hundred years."

According to the census of the United States not one man in twenty
thousand attains the age of one hundred years. If we figure out
carefully from these statistics, we find the average is only about
one-third of this period of life.

One of the social customs is that we must eat an extraordinary
meal,--far more than we need, as if life's enjoyment depended on the low
sense of taste,--as if every contract or matter of important business
must have this as an introduction. Theoretically speaking, many people
believe in low living and high thinking, but it is very rare that we
find one who practices it.

The two simple rules of Cornaro deserve our attention: to eat only what
he wanted, that is, what he actually needed for the sustenance of his
body, and to eat only those things which really agreed with him, that
is, those which were really helpful to the sustenance of his life. If we
should consider eating merely as a means and not an end, Cornaro's idea
that the normal age of a human being was one hundred and twenty years
would not be such a wild dream.

Another almost universally recognized requisite is exercise in the open
air, or regular, systematic, simple and vigorous activity of some kind.

The necessity of thoroughly pure air must be emphasized from first to
last. Some think that the dullness felt by many people in the early
morning is due to the impure air of cities, and to the failure to open
windows. A lady once said to me, "When I am in the country I always
sleep out of doors. Then I have not the slightest disinclination to get
up. I do it as naturally and as gladly as the animals."

It is to be hoped that the rapid transit and the automobile will enable
people to live farther out in the country, farther from air poisoned by
smoke and gases. Even in cities, however, one may have open windows and
greater circulation of air than is common.

Some have gone so far as to place exercise over against temperance in
eating, saying that if you take enough exercise you may eat and drink
what you please. While there is some truth in this there is really no
antagonism between them; in fact, they are usually found together.

Another view almost universally advocated, is to avoid drugs. The
importance of this and its union with right exercise have been
demonstrated in the impressive language of fable.

"There is a story in the 'Arabian Nights' Tales'," says Addison, "of a
king who had long languished under an ill habit of body, and had taken
abundance of remedies to no purpose. At length, says the fable, a
physician cured him by the following method: he took a hollow ball of
wood, and filled it with several drugs; after which he closed it up so
carefully that nothing appeared. He likewise took a mallet, and, after
having hollowed the handle and that part which strikes the ball, he
inclosed in them several drugs after the same manner as in the ball
itself. He then ordered the sultan, who was his patient, to exercise
himself early in the morning with these rightly prepared instruments,
till such time as he should sweat; when, as the story goes, the virtue
of the medicaments perspiring through the wood, had so good an influence
on the sultan's constitution, that they cured him of an indisposition
which all the compositions he had taken inwardly had not been able to
remove.

"This Eastern allegory is finely contrived to show us how beneficial
bodily labor is to health, and that exercise is the most effectual
physic."

Another illustration is furnished us by Sir William Temple:--

"I know not," he says, "whether some desperate degrees of abstinence
would not have the same effect upon other men, as they had upon Atticus;
who, weary of his life as well as his physicians by long and cruel pains
of a dropsical gout, and despairing of any cure, resolved by degrees to
starve himself to death; and went so far, that the physicians found he
had ended his disease instead of his life."

Of all the methods advocated, possibly one of the most universally
recognized is joyousness,--a hopeful attitude toward life, a cheerful,
kindly relationship with one's kind.

According to Galen, Æsculapius wrote comic songs to promote circulation
in his patients.

"A physician," says Hippocrates, "should have a certain ready wit, for
sadness hinders both the well and the sick."

We know, too, that Apollo was not only the god of music and poetry but
also of medicine. The poet, John Armstrong, has explained this:

    "Music exalts each joy, allays each grief,
    Expels disease, softens every pain;
    And hence the wise of Ancient days adored
    One power of physic, melody and song."

Sir Charles Clark, one of the greatest physicians of modern times,
exercised a most exhilarating influence over his patients by his
cheerfulness and jollity. It was probably one of the chief means of his
wonderful success.

"Cheerfulness," says Sir John Byles, "is eminently conducive to health
both in body and mind."

A recent writer says of Professor Charles Eliot Norton that he was "not
of a rugged constitution, yet he did an enormous amount of work and
lived to a beautiful old age." This is attributed to the fact that he
was never "blue." The cheerful kindliness of his face, his genial smile
and kind words were sources of great inspiration to me when a teacher at
Harvard, and to all who met him.

The more we investigate the theories of long life the more do we become
impressed with a universal longing for a length of days. We find a deep,
underlying instinct "that men do not live out half their days."
Everywhere, too, we find a certain expectation of "finding the fountain
of youth," a hope in some way to conquer sickness and death.

This desire is normal and natural. It may, sometime in future history,
be realized.

As we examine these theories we find, however wild they may seem at
first, certain common sense views at the heart of all of them. No one
need make a hobby of any one of them. Temperance, regularity, repose,
patience, and above all, cheerfulness, do not exclude each other, they
rather imply one another. In many instances one can hardly be practiced
without some of the others. The practice of one would unconsciously
bring up the others.

If we study carefully these theories, and especially if we study the
lives of those who have not only professed theories but have faithfully
practiced their principles and attained great health and age, we always
find a combination of various methods.

There is no doubt, for example, that Cornaro completely reformed his
life.

The character of Socrates was the secret of his good health. Temperance
to the Greek did not mean total abstinence. It meant lack of
extravagance; it meant what we mean by patience, by an unruffled
temper,--it meant the right use of all the faculties and powers.

What new hobby, you may ask, is the theme of this book? Nothing that
will interfere with the fundamental elements of the best ideas of all
ages. First of all it is advocated that we go down deeper into all
theories. Temperance should not be applied merely to food and drink but
must cover self-control, repose of life, purity and depth of thought,
and a harmonious development of human nature. The book tries to draw
attention to many important things which are usually overlooked or not
considered necessary to health and life.

The study of expression, to choose only one example, reveals to us, the
necessity of a right poise of the body. One of the leading teachers of
science in this country, after fighting tuberculosis for three years,
changing climates and using all the help that science has provided,
determined at last to go back to his work and to do his best even though
he lost his life.

Making a constant and careful study of himself he again began his life
as a teacher. He met with one with great knowledge of the human body,
one who had studied it from many points of view. He was surprised when
that expert said to him:--"Your dieting will not do you much good, that
is not your trouble. You do not sit right nor stand right, your chest is
too low, it not only cramps your breathing but what is still more
important, it cramps your stomach and all the other vital organs." The
scientist eagerly asked what he could do to recover his strength, and he
received a few valuable suggestions, which he followed, and in six
months he was stronger than ever.

As a student and teacher of human expression for nearly forty years, I
have found most important connections between man's mind, body and
voice. The right use of the voice is next to impossible unless a man
stands properly. There are certain inter-relations between the simple
conditions and actions of the body, and the conditions and the true use
of the voice are determined by the way a man thinks and feels.

A man must not only have right feeling but must express it. He cannot
get right expression without right thinking. Health, itself, is one of
man's mental and emotional conditions.

This book is an endeavor to study human unfoldment from an all-sided
observation of the whole nature of man. Man is a unity, and an endeavor
to establish health from a mere material point of view has always
failed. Expression is a study from a higher point of view. The organism
is studied from the point of view of its mental function. Expression
implies the subordination of the body to the actions of the mind. This
gives a truer point of view for an all-sided human development.

It also implies a study of the especial significance and use of certain
primary acts of our lives:--such as the way we wake up in the morning
and certain movements which are taken at that time by animals and normal
beings. The stretches, yawnings and breathings, peculiar to that moment,
are never lost by animals, but human beings, with their higher
possibilities but greater power of perversion, lose the significance
and helpfulness of this primarily instinctive movement.

The study of expression also reveals to us that certain emotions are
normal or positive and develop health and strength, while certain other
emotions are negative and destructive of vitality as well as of manhood.
We also find that the emotions we choose to express become our own and,
therefore, we should choose normal conditions of mind and emotions, and
express these consciously and deliberately, especially at the most
negative time in the morning, when we first wake up.

Expression is one of the necessary elements of human development. We
control emotions and control their expression. We welcome noble thoughts
or noble feelings, and that which we welcome we become.

This book shows the smile, laughter, the taking of breath and the simple
stretch as most important exercises which are to be regularly taken. It
also implies a deeper study into human co-ordinations; it tries to show
a universal necessity of rhythm and is an endeavor to establish the
higher principles of training in a way that makes them applicable to the
most simple of human actions.

The student is requested to study himself, to make a demonstration of
every claim and of more than is claimed. The exercises are so simple
that anyone can try and prove them, only let the trial be one continued
long enough to be a real test.

The moment you awake center attention upon a pleasant thought or take an
attitude of joy, thanksgiving and love for all the world. Have courage
and confidence that all evils will vanish; express some normal feelings
at once by the expansion of the chest, a deep full breath, an inward
laugh or chuckle and an increased harmonious stretch of the whole body.

Everyone will be tempted to say that he cannot control his thoughts. He
may say he does not wish to be a hypocrite and try to excuse himself for
brooding over gloomy thoughts or the fear that he will not get through
the day. Such lack of courage, lack of faith, lack of thanks for the
beauties of life are sins which cannot be too strongly condemned.

We can and must at once put ourselves in a positive attitude of mind. We
must begin our day with a song, with a smile. We must look upward, not
downward. We must reject every discordant thought and accept accordant
ones regarding the coming day. It is a new day which brings new life,
new joys, new duties, it may be new trials, but these, instead of being
accepted as obstacles, may be turned into opportunities.

The indulgence of negative thoughts in the morning may become a habit. A
great battle may have to be fought at first, but perseverance and
promptness can correct such evil tendencies. It is at this time that the
demon of regret and of disappointment is apt to lay hold of us; the
blackest thought in our lives likely to meet us.

Observe that this was so of Pippa. Though she awoke with joy, and is
held up as an ideal, as she goes on thinking the darkest shadow of her
life comes to her.

                            "If I only knew
    What was my mother's face--my father, too!"

This thought, however, she puts out of her mind by resolution, by
turning, as we always should turn at such an hour, to the Source.

    "Nay, if you come to that, best love of all
    Is God's; then why not have God's love befall
    Myself as, in the palace by the Dome,
    Monsignor?--who to-night will bless the home
    Of his dead brother."

Here must begin the heroic endeavor to live. Effort will be required for
a time till the habit is formed.

Instantly control the attention and express it by action. Give a
positive welcome to the day and the light; express positive thanksgiving
for the thought that you have strength and that you have the joy of work
to do.

It is in the morning that we should begin to live a new life, a simple
life; it is then that we should eliminate all whines and abnormal
desires and open our hearts to receive the strength of a new day.

Life, growth and development respond to joy. Every flower seems to smile
to meet the sun, and the little bird sings in the midst of its duties.

Some scientists are hoping to discover the germ of old age, and by
destroying this to prolong life. The real germ, however, of old age is
found in the doubt and worry which we allow to enter the holy of holies
of the heart at the holiest hour of the day. If we guard the sacred
shrine of thought and consciousness from impure, unkind and discouraging
ideas at the moment of awaking it may be truly said that the enjoyments
of life as well as its length will be doubled.

The primary acts that express this joy are: first, expansion; second,
taking a deep breath; third, stretching of the body; fourth, a smile or
inward laugh.

Sometimes these take place so rapidly as to seem to be simultaneous,
but close examination will reveal a sequence, though rapid.

As in life we have to live a truth to know or understand it, so an act
of expression embodies the emotion.

True enjoyment is also always expansive. Anger and negative emotions
cause constrictions, while joy and love increase expansion.

"As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he." It is the mind that makes
the man. When we reject a negative thought and accept a positive one we
begin the real battle of life. Negative emotion, every moment it is
expressed becomes stronger, and gradually takes complete possession of
us.

Prof. James says that everyone should do something disagreeable every
day, but there is great danger in accepting anything as disagreeable. We
must not only do something disagreeable, but we must accept and do it as
if it were an agreeable thing. This is most important. The attitude
toward life makes all the difference.

Another great teacher has said, "When a wrong thought comes in, say, Out
of my house, you don't belong here!"

Remember that the field of consciousness is a sacred shrine. From it
banish everything that is not full of joy and praise and comfort, that
does not give you strength and courage. Do as Pippa did. Do not let the
devil take possession, as he is always ready to do at this time.

This battle must be fought at once. There must be no delay. Idea will
link itself to idea by the law of association of ideas, and we shall
soon form a habit of negative thoughts in the morning.

The great point to note is that we should live rational lives, that we
should give our attention and apply our own scientific knowledge and
reason to the every-day duties of life, and not disregard the duty we
owe to ourselves.

Men are continually doing something which they know to be wrong. They
indulge in thoughts which they know will poison their minds and
characters. They eat food which they know is not good for them. They
pour into their stomachs stimulants which they know will dull their
higher faculties and powers.

Some tell us that life is a continuous battle. It may be looked at in
that way, but if we look at it from a more rational point of view it is
a continual reaching up for higher enjoyment. Every day and every hour
we must be on our guard; our theories must be a rule of life to be
really obeyed and lived. Therefore, to apply our own knowledge to the
restoration or maintenance of life demands that we avoid that which is
injurious, and that we joyously, gladly accept that which is helpful.

Life is a sacred gift, a privilege, and an opportunity to be enjoyed, it
is to be lifted up, and filled with high experiences.

To accomplish all these ends, we should study those moments when we are
in greatest danger,--those moments which are most important and when we
are best able to control our attention and to command our feelings.

The one supreme hour is the hour of awakening. If we can occupy a few
minutes of this time in right thoughts, and right movements
scientifically directed and as simple as those of the animals, the
effect will be astonishing.

To come down to a few specific things that everyone should practice in
order to be stronger, to be more efficient, to enjoy more and to live
longer, let us summarize a few general points.

(1) Express joy first with laughter. If you cannot laugh aloud, laugh
with an inner chuckle. It is not enough to have joy, it must be actively
expressed to have an effect upon the organism.

(2) Maintaining the joy and laughter, express, therefore, all harmonious
extensions of the body, that is, all simple stretches. Maintaining the
laughter and the extension of the body, expand the chest and torso as
much as possible.

(3) On waking up, take a thought of joy, of courage, of love toward all
mankind, toward the day and its work.

(4) Maintaining all previous conditions, take a full, deep breath.

(5) Set free with the simplest movements every part of the body.

(6) Co-ordinate the parts of the body concerned in every-day work, and
sustain them with primary and normal activities.

(7) Bring all the parts of the body into normal rhythm by alternative
activity of the parts and in other ways.

To have good health we must rejoice, laugh, extend, expand, breathe,
co-ordinate the primary parts of the body, act rhythmically, set free
all the parts of the body and all the primary activities of function.

In short, this book tries to move everyone to study the simplest things,
the simplest actions, the most normal duties of a human being, and to
assert these and to exercise them the very first thing in the morning.



III

WHAT IS AN EXERCISE?


On account of the many misconceptions of the nature of human
development, will it not be well, before beginning our program to
consider seriously--What is training? What are some of its principles?
What can we do with ourselves by obeying nature's laws? Or, if these
questions are too serious, too difficult for a short answer, should we
not, at least, try to realize what is an exercise?

To many persons, any kind of movement, any jerk or chaotic action, is an
exercise. They think that the more effort put forth, the better. Thus
some teachers of voice contend that, to be an exercise, there must be
muscular effort in producing tone. On the contrary, many movements are
injurious; unnecessary effort will defeat some of the most important
exercises.

The exercise must obey the laws of nature. It must fulfill nature's
intentions, stimulate nature's processes, awaken normal, though
slumbering activity.

An exercise is of fundamental importance to all human beings. Man comes
into the world the feeblest of all animals. He has the least power to do
anything for himself, but he comes with possibilities of higher love and
union with his fellow-men. He comes into the world with a greater
possibility of unfolding than any other created being.

Accordingly an exercise is a means of progress, a simple action which a
man must use for his own unfoldment.

An exercise is a conscious step toward an ideal.

Man is given the prophetic power to realize his own possibilities. We
can hardly imagine an exercise independent of the conscious sense of the
highest and best attainments, of thereby making ourselves stronger and
in some way better.

This ideal is instinctive, even on the part of animals, in fact, the
animal instinctively regards its own preservation, its own unfoldment
and the reaching of its ideal type.

A tree will cover up its wound and reach out its branches freely,
spontaneously in the direction of the light and toward the attainment of
its own type.

With man the ideal is a matter of higher realization. We have the lower
instincts in common with the animals but we have also something higher.
There is inborn in us a conception that man transcends all present
conditions.

An exercise is a step towards the attainment of a chosen end.

Accordingly we have high exercises and low exercises; exercises on a
mental and on a physical plane; exercises that may train men down to an
abnormal type; exercises also that are intellectual, imaginative and
spiritual.

Everywhere in nature there is a low and a high. In animals of a high
order of unfoldment there is specific functioning of every part but in
those of a low order the functions are confused. The organs are not so
well differentiated.

Even in human beings, in the process of degeneracy a man loses a greater
variety of his powers, and his very voice and body lose some of those
characteristics which belong to the ideal member of the race.

A true exercise always brings sound and specific parts into action. Part
is differentiated from part. All parts are made more flexible and more
capable of discharging a function distinct from all other parts of the
body. A true action of the hand cannot be performed by the foot nor can
a foot become a hand except by a process of degeneracy.

An exercise implies a struggle upward over against a drift downwards.

An exercise is an aspiration.

An exercise is a demonstration, it reveals a man's best to himself. It
is a process of translating his dreams into reality. It is the only
proof of himself, his intuitive language.

An exercise is not physical but mental.

Never regard your exercises as merely physical. The expression "physical
training" is a misnomer. All training is the action of mind. It may
manifest itself in a physical direction, but training itself,--the
putting forth,--is mental. It is the emotion we feel more than the
movement that accomplishes results.

No matter who laughs, consider your morning exercises sacred to you.
Make them a part of your very life and habits, and put into them your
thought and the attitude of your mind toward your fellow-beings.

You will be tempted to regard such movements as merely mechanical and
artificial. You will be tempted to think they are just the ideas of some
crank. Put all this aside. Begin your exercises joyously and happily,
for the very pleasure of the action.

Remember that you are not a body in which you have a soul; you are a
soul and have a body. The cause of everything, even of health, is in our
minds. Our awakening is not a physical matter.

There is no power in the material body to move a finger. An exercise is
bringing a mental action into manifestation. However physical an action
may appear, its only significance is as an act of mind.

An exercise is an expression.

It is an act of being, not of body; it is activity of being in action of
body. There is no such thing as physical expression.

Expression is not merely a reflex action. It is the emanation of
activity. It is the union of thinking, feeling and willing.

An exercise implies that we can choose what we are to express. It
implies also that we can consciously regulate, guide or accentuate our
mental, imaginative and emotional activities.

Here we find the importance also of expression as an educational view.
Repression and suppression may be injurious to health. Expression is
necessary even for the proper functioning of the vital organs.
Impression implies the conscious use of an impulse. It implies the
ability to share our ideas, feelings or experiences with others.

An exercise is a means of turning an impulse in a higher direction. It
implies also the curbing of abnormal impulses.

Exercise implies stimulation of normal functioning. It is an endeavor,
but one in accordance with principle.

Thus, an exercise is an expression of an aspiration. Exercise implies
many things. It implies that a man may be low down but that he can rise;
it implies that if he begin early and work patiently enough he can
control, soon or late, his nature. He can control the expression of his
being and every manifestation of life if he will only come close enough
to the fountain-head of thinking and feeling. He must be willing to
demonstrate on an humble plane, and, while striving for the highest
ideal, take the simplest exercise as the first step of the ladder.

An exercise localizes function. Every part of the body, even every
muscle has certain functions to discharge. Awkward men use the wrong
part to perform a certain action; part interferes with part. A true
exercise will train each part to discharge its own function and bring it
into harmonious co-ordination with other parts. It will stimulate both
growth and development but make growth precede development.

While aspiration is universal it becomes conscious in a human being. We
have definite ideals and not only instincts for their attainment, but we
can adopt rational methods for their realization. We have not only an
instinctive consciousness of what is normal but a deep intuition that we
can improve every power of our being, every agent of our body and every
tone of the voice.

A simple, a most commonplace action, when done with aspiration becomes
an exercise. In fact, everything that man does is part of the training.
A true list of exercises must reflect the spirit of all life.

A normal man can distinguish between a wrong and a right exercise,
between that which will lift him upward and that which will cause
degeneracy. When men give up to their lower appetites they strengthen
the downward impulses, but the mind can be awakened and every little
step will become a demonstration of higher possibilities. An exercise is
a demonstration to a man of his possibilities.

Sometime the science of sciences will be that of training and education.

All over the organic world we find tendencies toward degeneracy or
downward; and we find everywhere aspirations or activities upward.

Every bird, every rose, every blade of grass is trying to reach an
ideal. This universal upward tendency or process we call by some big
words which confuse our minds and obscure the facts.

An exercise is not only mental but emotional, not only expressive of
thought but of normal emotion.

The wise doctor looks at his patient. He does this not only to recognize
the patient's condition but to see how much courage he has, how much
joy, how gladly he accepts life.

An exercise demands accentuation of extension.

Muscles should have a certain normal length and the power of relaxation
to take a certain length. On account of abnormal positions, such as
obtain during sleep, certain muscles become unduly elongated and others
too short. To restore the balance of proper proportions those shortened
need extension and the elongated need shortening. Accordingly the
so-called extensor muscles of the body need frequent action.

The effect of these stretches is to harmonize the vital forces. When a
man lies upon his bed, as has been said, he breathes less, the
circulation is more or less impeded; hence, the dull feeling and
unwillingness to rise.

The stretch also equalizes the circulation. It affects the veins where
the pressure of blood is weakest, where there is a more immediate
indication of congestion, so that the bad blood flows away, and the good
blood from the arteries where the pressure of blood is strong, flows in,
and the processes of life go on with more decision.

There is still another explanation why the stretch is so important. It
is primarily activity of the extensor muscles and is vitally connected
with all true expansion. The flexor muscles on account of the position
in sitting and because of a lack of expansive activity, often become too
short. They can be extended only by activity of the extensor muscles.
The stretch is the special and instinctive action of the extensor
muscles in response to a distinctive demand for freedom of the organs,
or harmony of the whole myological mechanism. It is also, as has been
said, closely connected with the circulation, and the activity of the
vital organs.

There is no more important exercise than stretching. Its neglect is one
of the strange things in training. One who wishes to be stronger, to
have the normal possession of all his faculties, powers and organs, can
be initiated and secure the result most rapidly, by the use of this
simple and elemental exercise.

An exercise is an act of expansion.

The action of man's body consists of expansion, contraction and
modulation, the latter being the union of the other two.

True energy expresses itself primarily by expansion. Life expands and
any increase of new life and all positive emotions cause an increase of
expansive activity in the body.

The study of expansion reveals to us the fact that expansion and
contraction furnish the many elements of all human action, but that
expansion is first, that expansion expresses joy, exhilaration,
animation in life, and that contraction, aside from its co-ordination
with expansion in causing control in intensity, expresses antagonism,
hate, anger, pain. Accordingly this book assigns certain fundamental
expansions, which everyone should practice and does practice if he obey
his own deep instincts.

Negative emotions, such as fear, despondency, or antagonism, cause
contraction and tend to constrict the vital organs.

It can, of course, be seen at once that expansion is due to the activity
of the extensor muscles. The stretch is, in the main, an expansion. At
any rate, it is always associated, co-ordinated, when properly
performed, with expansion.

Moreover, if we observe the action of animals and all true spontaneous
actions in a human being, we observe that the activity of expansion
begins in the centre of the body. It is at this point that we should
initiate our expression. The actions in the middle of the body are more
conditional than those in the feet, hands, or limbs, but the awakening
of conditions should precede modulation. A certain activity of expansion
and diffusion is the very basis of all conditions.

All exercises should naturally begin with expansion. A true exercise
means an increase of activity. Moreover, not only does life expand, but
all positive emotions, such as joy, love, courage, cause activity of the
extensor muscles. These emotions, as is universally known, improve
health.

If we observe the structure of the torso, we find that the chest has no
prop from below; that the ribs are placed at an angle with the spine,
sloping downwards as low as forty-five degrees, while at times they may
be lifted seventy-five or eighty degrees or more. The expansion of the
chest lifts the ribs.

If we study a skeleton, we see that it must be suspended, that it cannot
be propped up.

Man, accordingly, stands and walks primarily on account of the active
expansion of his whole chest. He is the one animal that has levitation,
as will be shown later.

We find that under the ribs in the torso are all the vital organs. The
lungs, the heart, the stomach, all these depend for their normal
position, their normal action upon the expansion of the chest.

When a man stands, the tendency for the chest is to sag. There are no
bones to elevate it. Man has levitation as well as gravitation, and the
expansion and elevation of the chest lie at the basis of all good
position in standing, sitting and also walking.

There are certain co-ordinate curves, beautiful, spiral, rhythmic, in a
normal and healthy human being. These curves depend upon this expansion
of the chest.

All the best gymnastic exercises centre in the development of activity
in the muscles concerned in keeping the chest elevated and harmoniously
expanded.

When we study the expression of this part, we find that it reveals
energy and courage and all the noble, positive emotions of a human
being.

A passive chest expresses indifference, inactivity, fear,
discouragement, a sense of weakness, unwillingness to awake and rise up
to meet emergencies. A sunken chest, accordingly, is an indication of a
tendency to disease, simply because it expresses a negative mental state
or one favorable to the reception of abnormal conditions.

The expansion of the chest, on the contrary, reveals that happy
acceptance of life, that active, energetic determination to control
abnormal conditions which will ward off all disease and eliminate all
failure.

This expansion of the chest, as we can see, is one of the most elemental
actions of expansion of the human being. We shall observe later that
this activity is directly concerned with erect posture. All actions in a
normal condition co-operate or co-ordinate. This expansion frees the
respiratory muscles and all the vital organs, gives man command of the
elemental action of his body as a whole; that is, his erectness
expresses higher emotions and experiences.

An exercise implies co-ordination.

An organism exists only by virtue of certain co-ordination of parts.
Training improves and extends this co-ordination.

Co-ordination is the simultaneous union of many different elements or
actions in different parts of the body.

An exercise is rhythmic.

When exercises are performed in obedience to the law of rhythm, better
results will follow. Rhythm is a law of man's being. Action and reaction
imply a human being doing his little part and then accepting the greater
work out of the heart of the universe. Action and reaction, activity
and passivity, the giving and the receiving, everything natural is
rhythmic. Absence of rhythm is death.

An exercise is simple.

The best exercise is the simplest in its movements. It is not the
spectacular actions of an exercise that make it the best. As every
exercise is a struggle upward it must necessarily be an emphasis of
something elemental and normal.

Any movement is normal when it is part of the discharge of an elemental
or distinctive action of any agent or part.

The difference between accidental and elemental needs more discussion.
Working upon accidentals secures weak results, perverts and interferes
with free function. Working upon elementals brings freedom, power.



IV

PROGRAM OF EXERCISES


As all training is a reaching upward towards an ideal so an exercise is
a single step and the first exercise should be the most primary action.
The primary condition of all growth is a certain joyous awakening, an
expansive enjoyment of life.

Take a joyous thought and express it in active laughter.

No matter how dull or weary you feel when you first awake, joyously
accept the new day. Use the following exercises and actions as you would
a cold wet towel on your face or hands. Look on the sunny side at once
and laugh. We can possess a feeling only by expressing it; we enter into
possession of the day only by using it.

It is easy to look at the light, easy to breathe, easy to stretch, to
expand, easy to remember something joyous, easy to smile and easy to
laugh.

If your body feels weak and sluggish, and you have great indifference to
movement there is all the more reason for promptness. If you will
joyously extend your arms, expand, breathe deeply and laugh, you welcome
life and joy and give them a chance to take possession of your being and
body and you will soon feel courageous instead of gloomy, strong instead
of weak, rested instead of weary.

None of these exercises require a great expenditure of vitality.
Performed, as many of them are, lying down, however energetically you
may do them they will bring little or no weariness. Though the exercises
do not require much vitality they should be practiced vigorously to
accomplish the best results.


1. PRIMARY EXPANSION AND EXTENSION

     On waking, take a courageous, joyous attitude of mind. Chuckling
     deeply, actively expand the whole body, take a deep breath and
     co-ordinate harmoniously as many parts as can be brought into
     sympathetic activity. Stretch the arms upward and the feet downward
     as far as possible, and repeat at least twenty times.

An old writer gave dilatation as one of the primary characteristics of
life. A certain distention of all parts of the body is the beginning of
the renewal of energy and a primary manifestation of life. We must give
room to the life forces, feel the diffusion of energy into every part.
The sense of constriction, due to lying in a cramped position, can be
easily removed by this primary exercise.

The chief elements in this primary distention of the body are found in
the stretch and expansion of the torso, in deeper, fuller breathing, in
the sense of diffusion of life, in greater satisfaction and in laughter.
These elements should be practiced on waking up.

The stretch should be in the nature of an indulgence, an instinctive
longing on first awaking, a longing in common with all animals. It ought
to be enjoyable and a help to sustain the laughter.

Count one for the active movement, or stretch, two for the staying of
the active conditions, three for the gradual release of activity, and
four for complete relaxation.

The exercise, as most of the others, should be repeated twenty to
twenty-five times, counting four for each of the preceding movements.
This will require eighty to one hundred counts. Each of the four actions
of the muscles should be carefully distinguished and accentuated.

Counting four in this way for an exercise and for each of the first
steps obeys the law of rhythm, accentuates all the elemental actions of
the muscles and establishes primary conditions of healthful activity in
all the vital organs.

The simultaneous elements or actions in this first exercise are of such
importance that it is well to practice each one separately, either
before or after the general exercise.

This distinct practice prevents the slighting of any of these elemental
conditions, restores harmony and stimulates normal functioning of all
organs. In fact, all these actions are really necessary conditions and
should be present as elements of all exercises.

The following exercises (2-5) are important, individual accentuations of
the essential actions of this general exercise, and the conditions of
all exercises.

The student should carefully study his tendencies to omit or slight any
one of these elements and accentuate carefully not only every step
separately, but observe with especial care the one most needed.


2. INITIATORY EXHILARATION

     Sustaining the extension and full breath, laugh heartily, with
     little or no noise, chuckle to yourself persistently for several
     minutes. Centre the laughter in the breathing and the torso.

Joy and laughter must be considered the first condition of all exercise.
The reasons have been explained. If you are still sceptical, observe and
experiment. Everything that is truly scientific can be proved or in some
way demonstrated. As this is one of the basic principles of this book
and its companion volume, "The Smile," and as joy and laughter are met
as the first exercise of our program, it may be well to summarize some
of the arguments:

Exercise in laughter sets free the vital organs and brings all parts
into harmonious, normal activity, stimulates the circulation, quickens
the metabolism of the cells and causes elimination. Each of these topics
might receive many pages of discussion.

You will be tempted to omit the practice of the chuckle, but it should
be especially emphasized.

It expresses and accentuates the permanent possession of the joyous
thought. No other exercise can so stimulate a right attitude toward
life, as well as restore the normal condition of the vital organs.

It has also, as have all of these exercises, a beneficial effect upon
the voice. In fact, all good exercises tend to improve the voice. This
is one of the most important tests of an exercise,--does it affect
easily, naturally and normally the vocal organs?


3. HARMONIC EXPANSION

     Sustaining laughter and extension, sympathetically and joyously
     elevate and expand the chest as far as possible.

Feel the breast bone separate farther from the spine, easily and
naturally as in the expression of joyous courage.

Expand slowly, sustain the expansion, gradually release, then rest, that
is to say, perform the exercise in the same quadruple rhythm of the
harmonic extension.

In this exercise you should feel a deepening of the chest chamber.

It is well at first, until you get the exercises correctly, to place one
hand at the back, the other on the chest, and in expanding to feel the
two hands separate.

This expansion should be sustained for several seconds. The release
should follow gradually. There should be a repetition of the expansion;
you should feel a sympathetic activity all through the chest and torso.

Sudden collapses should at all times be avoided, and they should
especially be avoided in exercises of the chest and of the central
organs.

The free, expansive facility of the whole chest is the measure of the
health, strength, grace and normal actions of a human being. It is of
primary importance.


4. RESPIRATORY ACCENTUATION

     Keeping the body extended, the chest well expanded, take a deep,
     full breath, hold it a moment and gradually release it, then wait a
     second without greatly lessening the expansion of the chest

In this exercise be sure to accentuate the four elemental parts of an
exercise. Taking breath, the active stay of the breath, the gradual
release and then the complete surrender of the direct respiratory
muscles: that is, accentuate the four steps or elements as in most
exercises and avoid the temptation to jerk and to exaggerate minor parts
or actions. Constrictions, inharmonious and unrhythmic jerks are always
out of place in any exercise. The best results can be obtained only by
observance of principles.

Do not force the breath out. Allow it to pass out easily and normally.
Increase the inspiration rather than the expiration. The air will tend
to pass out too quickly, reserve it and allow it to pass out steadily
and regularly.

We find that the taking of breath is associated with the result of
expansion and vitally connected with the conception of impressions and
expression, and so is a necessary part.

The expanding of the chest causes greater room in the thoracic chamber
and breath flows in naturally. This exercise, however, implies that we
should consciously and deliberately accentuate expansion and the taking
of breath. It aids in the realization of life and the diffusion of
activity.

Man breathes over twenty-five thousand times in twenty-four hours. He
can get along very well on two or three meals of food and six or eight
glasses of water, but with as low as fourteen thousand breaths a day, he
is flat on his back and has hardly enough power to move hand or foot.

We live on air. This is one reason why the expansion of the chest is so
important. It gives room for breath. In fact, in breathing we do not
suck breath into the lungs. Air presses fifteen pounds to the square
inch to get into the lungs. Expansion is, therefore, the primary element
in breathing. We should, however, at times not only expand fully but
consciously draw in breath. We can expand the chest while sustaining it
and drink breath into the very depths of our lungs.

Thus the exercise requires us to take as much breath as possible, to
retain it a moment, then slowly give it up and at last to relax
completely the diaphragm, all the time sustaining the chest expansion.
Preserve still the quadruple rhythm. Of course the exercise can be done
with dual rhythm, and it will be helpful, but the accentuation of all
four of the primary actions will accomplish more than double the
beneficial results not only for health but for the voice. It develops
the retental action of the breath. A true use of the voice demands a
full chest. This exercise strengthens the muscles that reserve the
breath and support the tone.

The process of respiration is most directly necessary to all the actions
of the human organs. It is an essential part of circulation. The breath
we take meets the blood. The blood is carried from the heart through the
lungs and back to the heart, then out through every organ of the body
and back again to the heart. The whole circulation is a mighty process
by which the blood receives sustenance, bears this to every organ of the
body and carries back the refuse which is oxidized and given out by the
lungs. The blood, according to the earliest tradition, is the life.

All ancient writers on long life "regard the control of the breath as a
fundamental sign." A person with little control of his breathing is
doomed to a short life.

Nature has so constituted us that at the moment of some excitement, or
the reception of some impression, or the instant we try to do something
unusual, we take a greater amount of breath. In any exercise, always
allow the breathing to act freely. Observe that breathing is the
initiatory act or condition of all human effort. It is a sign of the
reception of an impression and is thus one of the conditional acts of
expression. Breathe deeply and freely at all times. A deliberative
breathing exercise, such as the preceding, strengthens all the
respiratory muscles and corrects abnormal tendencies.


5. PRIMARY CO-ORDINATION IN LEVITATION

     Simultaneously lift and expand the summit of the chest as you
     actively extend the balls of the feet downwards.

The opposition between the lifting of the chest and extending the balls
of the feet takes place in all good positions in standing and walking.
This exercise initiates or accentuates the co-ordination of the muscles
used in standing. It tends also to harmonize and bring into unity all
the conditions so far attained, and gives practical application to those
parts of the body which are active all day, in standing, walking and in
sitting.

All exercises must be performed rhythmically. There are many elements
in rhythm, one is activity and passivity, and another is the alternation
of parts:--one limb is active and this helps alternation or rhythm.


6. HARMONIC AND RHYTHMIC EXTENSION

     Lift the chest and extend the right foot downward, then lift the
     chest with the downward extension of the left foot, rhythmically
     alternating from one to the other. This is the first step in the
     development of rhythm.

This alternation is still more akin to the action of the body in
standing and walking.

Allow the hip to extend outward on the same side which is being
extended.

Co-ordination, that is a simultaneous and sympathetic union of many
parts in one action or a harmonious variation of a primary response in
many parts, is one of the primary characteristics of the organism. It
can be secured by a certain feeling that the whole nature shares in the
exercise, that the whole body responds to the whole being of man. It is
a direct expression of joy and sympathy. In an involuntary performance
there is always less co-ordination than in a sympathetic motion. These
are feelings vitally necessary to co-ordination and we must not only
have and feel them, we must express them in the body.

The alternation of exercises introduces rhythm, which has been found to
be one of the most fundamental elements in training. Rhythm consists of
proportion in time. This proportion is in alternation: alternation of
activity and passivity, and in alternation of one part with another, as
in walking.

Rhythm is the continuity of co-ordinations. Co-ordinations cannot be
properly preserved without rhythm nor can there be rhythm without
co-ordinations.

The exercises 2 to 6 should all be included in No. 1. They should also
be individually practiced in order to accomplish the best results and to
avoid the omission of any of these primary elements which should be
present in and co-ordinate every true exercise.

After being practiced individually, exercise No. 1 should be practiced
several times with a greater co-ordinating union of all the elements.
The feeling of satisfaction and joy should be realized at once.


7. CO-ORDINATION OF PRIMARY CONDITIONS

     Repeat Exercise No. 1; stretch first the right arm and also the
     leg, bend the left arm and left leg and so on in alternation.
     Preserve all the movements.

     The difference between this exercise and No. 1 is the stretching of
     each side in alternation. The same elements should be included.


8. PRIMARY CO-ORDINATE VOICE CONDITIONS

     Sustaining all the foregoing conditions; extension, expansion and
     diffusion of feeling, the retention of the breath and the
     simultaneous openness and relaxation of the throat, laugh low but
     heartily:--ha ha, he he, etc.

The tone should be soft and pure. The softer the better. If there is any
danger of waking or disturbing someone the exercise should not be
omitted but practiced softly.

Joy must not only be felt, it must be expressed. This series of
exercises is based upon the fact that the greatest exercises are
expressive movements. The smile on the face and active laughter should
be used as direct exercises, not only for the body but also for the
voice.

This exercise implies some understanding of the fundamental elements of
vocal training. The primary co-ordination of voice conditions, that is,
the sympathetic, harmonious and elastic retention of the breath causing
the co-ordinate passivity at the throat has been explained in "Mind and
Voice." This was my discovery and the mastery of it has helped thousands
out of ministerial sore throats and other abnormal conditions, and, to
my mind, is proved as a fundamental principle. It is of the utmost
importance that this little exercise should be practiced in accordance
with the principle. The great point of the exercise is the elastic,
sympathetic retention of the greatest possible amount of breath and the
simultaneous passivity and openness of the throat. The study of laughter
or the best possible tone anyone can make will enable him to realize
this deep but simple principle.

The effect of this exercise is to centre the breath and to harmonize the
activities of the whole man. The central organs should always be
exercised before the organs of the surface. The laughter must be
sincere, genuine, hearty and natural.

No one can imagine what wonderful effects can be brought to the voice by
such simple exercises as these. The voice is an index, not only to
mental and emotional conditions but to health. The voice cannot improve
truly without improving health.

We reserve breath and have a certain sympathetic fullness due to
retention of the breath in the middle of the body. Simultaneously there
is an openness of the whole throat and tone passage. All the organs of
voice are thus brought into right conditions. When this condition is
violated there is a misuse of the voice.

Vocal training consists in the use of such simple exercises as will
establish all these conditions that have been mentioned, especially the
last. The conditions of voice must be co-ordinated, the vocal organs
must respond to thinking and feeling. We cannot ignore, we must
demonstrate on every plane. Man is given the greatest opportunity for
progress. It is an opportunity he must take. There is no growth, no
advance without labor. The labor may not be voluntary, it may not be
hard, but man has his work to do. It is a joyous work. Man has an
instinctive desire for right exercise which will enable him to really
unfold his faculties and demonstrate his powers.


9. FREEDOM OF VITAL ORGANS

     Lying as before, placing both hands flat upon the stomach, keeping
     the body extended and expanded, breathing full and free, manipulate
     in a circular, triple rhythm or backward and forward, in dual
     rhythm, all the vital organs. The thumbs may be placed up under the
     floating ribs.

This exercise is usually given first in Swedish medical gymnastics. It
is especially for the stomach, though it has a vital action upon the
liver and other organs. Such manipulations are beneficial to a dyspeptic
or to one suffering from congestion of the liver, or from constipation.
It is a very important exercise and stimulates all the parts so that
they will receive more benefit from the following exercises.

When any particular part, such as the stomach or liver, is found a
little tender or sore, special attention should be given to this spot.


10. FREEDOM OF THE TORSO

     Preserving primary conditions, turn the hips vigorously as far as
     possible one way and then the other.

This gives a vigorous twist through the centre of the body. It affects
the stomach, liver and all the vital organs, and if the chest is kept
expanded and a full breath is retained, it greatly affects the diaphragm
and action of the respiratory muscles.

These movements may be taken also with dual and with quadruple rhythm.
If done slowly and steadily, in true rhythm and sequence, they will
accomplish surprising results, and bring about a deep harmony. If there
is congestion the exercise should be performed twenty or twenty-five
times.

This exercise frees the torso and makes it flexible. It strengthens the
diaphragm and, obeying one of the fundamental laws, exercises the
central muscles of the body.

Do not give sudden jerks or sudden collapses, but steadily, definitely
and vigorously pivot the hip.

In many people, there are tendencies to congestion in the stomach, and
in the neck and throat. This rotary action tends to remove these
constrictions and to develop a certain flexibility in the whole torso.


11. FREEDOM OF NECK AND THROAT

     Knead with both hands the whole throat and neck, moving every part
     and eliminating any soreness or stiffness.

The night gown should be unbuttoned and the breast bare. The fingers
should be used and also the palm of the hand and the thumb so that every
part of the neck and throat shall be set free.

In most persons spots will be found that have some tenderness or
soreness, especially if there is any cold or sore throat, and these
parts should receive careful attention and manipulation, which should be
continued until the soreness is removed. Persevere until the whole
throat feels perfectly free and relaxed. It is often the case that some
gland is weak and can be strengthened by this massage.

This exercise and that of the manipulation of the stomach, as well as
the exercises which follow, have a wonderful effect upon the voice.


12. FREEDOM OF NECK AND HEAD

     Pivot the head as far as possible to the right and then as far as
     possible to the left.

This exercise is also best practiced in quadruple rhythm. The hands may
be around the back of the neck. Knead deeply and remove any congestion.

The efficiency of this exercise may be increased by placing the hands on
the neck so that at the moment of extreme pivot the hand may knead the
parts. This action of the hand increases the effect and tends, in cases
of congestion around the throat or ears, to give great assistance
towards the elimination of all abnormal conditions. The other exercises
for the manipulation of the throat tend to correct catarrhal conditions.


13. ELEVATION AND EXTENSION OF LOWER LIMBS

     Observing all the conditions, lift the right foot, knee straight,
     as high as possible, then slowly release it, then lift the left in
     the same way.

The movement should also be done in quadruple rhythm. The lift should be
slow, and there should be a decided staying of the activity, and then a
very slow release; then complete rest.

The effect of this exercise is to accentuate further the idea of rhythm;
that is, it requires alternate activity and passivity in sequence or a
continuity of co-ordinations.

In performing this exercise almost an ache may be felt at the back of
the legs, especially at the back of the knees. This is due to the fact
that these muscles become too short in sitting and therefore need
extension. This exercise gives extension to these muscles. Similar aches
will always indicate a lack of extension and call for special help and
practice of the opposing muscles.

Of course, it can be seen that whenever parts of the body, such as the
knees, are kept bent, the muscles at the front of the limb will grow too
long and those at the back of it, too short. Hence, when a man stands up
there is a tendency to stand with the knee bent. Old men have a lack of
firm backward spring in the knee. It is the aim of several of the
exercises to cure this.


14. EXTENSION OF THE BACK

     With the body well expanded, kept straight, breathing free and
     full, lift the hips bearing the weight upon the back of the
     shoulders and the heel.

This exercise needs to be practiced with quadruple rhythm slowly. It
gives wonderful exercise to the central muscles and organs of the torso.


15. ELEVATION OF LOWER LIMBS

     With the body well extended and all conditions sustained, lift both
     legs, knees straight, hold, slowly release, then completely rest.

This exercise is the best help that can be given for a hollow back. It
also brings activity into all the abdominal muscles. It will strengthen
the muscles concerned in the support of the voice. If the chest is kept
well expanded and the lungs full of breath, the exercise will have a
wonderful effect upon the diaphragm and the respiratory mechanism. It
will strengthen and deepen the breathing and make it more central and
reposeful.


16. RHYTHMIC ALTERNATION IN EXTENSION

     Combine the last two exercises and give them in alternation. First,
     lift the body, then rest, then lift both feet, then the body, and
     so on.

     This alternate movement will bring great relief. The muscles are
     more or less opposed; at any rate, the activity concerned in each
     exercise will receive a rest during the other action.

This, of course, uses rhythm as an aid. True, natural rhythm is always
helpful and should be introduced whenever possible.


17. ROTARY ACTION OF THE FEET

     With the heels resting upon the bed carry the balls of the feet in
     the widest possible circle.

This exercise may be omitted, but it is very important for one who is
lacking in freedom in the feet or who suffers from cold feet. It also
brings into action the lower extremities and tends to further equalize
the circulation.


18. MOBILITY OF THE FACE

     Rest a moment and feel a sense of satisfaction and then smile and
     place both hands upon the face, covering it as far as possible and
     knead the muscles, so as to eliminate every constriction and allow
     the diffusion of the smile to go into every part.

Do not laugh at this exercise but observe the effect. This exercise,
however, should be practiced in union with the smile.

Pay especial attention to any part of the face where there are
constrictions or tendencies to constriction, and especially any part
that may seem to droop.

Where there has been a good deal of suffering or whining, or both,
certain parts of the face, especially the corners of the mouth, are
turned downward. This habitual action causes the muscles that lift the
corners of the mouth to become too long while the corresponding muscles
that draw the mouth down become abnormally short. Kneading is,
primarily, to give extension to the muscles that have become too short,
and the laughter at the same time is to give exercise to the muscles
that have become too extended or elongated.

All parts of the face will be brought into proportion. Crows' feet will
be eliminated and the beauty and expression of the countenance greatly
increased. Where there seems to be no muscle between the skin and bone,
as sometimes in the forehead, there must be manipulation, exercise of
the weak muscles.

In the case of the face we have to bring in so-called secondary motions.
We have to use the hands in the way indicated to get any effect. Of
course, the effect will be temporary unless the disposition is changed.
The mental and emotional actions are always the primary cause, but
frequently the condition of the muscles has become such that it will
take a long time to effect a change. The exercises, accordingly, are a
wonderful help.

If one-tenth of the power of this exercise to help the countenance were
realized, it would not be neglected.

One of my students opened a room and secured quite a following in facial
massage by using these exercises. Some cruder than this one were used,
though good results were accomplished. This exercise, as here suggested,
can be done by anyone alone. If people use it who have constricted
countenances, they should carefully emphasize the smile. That has not
been done and hence the best results have not been secured.

The faithful practice of such an exercise and especially the study of
the significance of the smile and the practice of laughter, in union
with other exercises for the stimulation of vitality, will work wonders
in the expressive mobility and beauty of the countenance.

It is worth ten times all the cosmetics as a beautifier. It would banish
"Beauty Parlors." It is not, however, for the restoration of beauty of
the countenance, but to bring blood into parts that are not used. It has
good effect upon catarrh, headaches and neuralgia.

While resting the larger muscles of the body these two important
exercises may be introduced, or they may be introduced as the last of
the first series, while lying on the back.


19. FREEDOM OF THE SCALP

     Placing the hands upon the head move the whole scalp freely and
     easily in all directions.

This is really the only effective remedy for imperfection at the roots
of the hair, falling hair, or baldness. It will cause natural and rich
growth of hair.

It is well, also, to pull the hair. One specialist gives this as the
only remedy to prevent it from falling out. Not only will such exercises
improve the hair by improving the circulation around the roots, but it
will make the muscles of these parts more flexible.


20. EXTENSION AND FREEDOM OF THE VITAL ORGANS

     Turn over, face downward, with the body well extended, bearing the
     weight upon the toes and the elbows, with the upper arm vertical,
     lift the hips and torso till the body is extended in a straight
     line.

Be sure that the upper arms are vertical and the fore-arms parallel with
each other. Try to keep the body as straight as possible and get the
sense of extension.

This may seem to be a severe exercise, but it is not dangerous. In fact,
more than any other exercise it tends to correct abnormal conditions in
the central portions of the body. It allows the vital organs to be
suspended from another angle, rests them, and tends to restore all to
normal conditions.

This exercise should be performed in quadruple rhythm, steadily, and
slowly. Attention should be given to the complete rest at the climax.
Practice it a few times at first until the strength is sufficient to
repeat it many times.

It is an unusually important exercise in case of any constrictions. It
strengthens also certain muscles of the torso which are apt to be
neglected.

This making a bridge of the body, supporting it by the upper arms which
should be vertical, and the feet which should also be vertical, has a
great effect upon all the internal organs of the torso. It affects any
sort of displacement and any kind of congestion. The exercises may be
practiced slowly, rising and then staying the activity for a little
while, and then allowing the body slowly to descend.

Take a good rest as the exercise is rather vigorous for some persons,
especially those who have any weakness through the torso. Those whom the
exercise taxes are they who especially need it. It should be repeated
several times.


21. PIVOTAL ELEVATION OF THE HEAD

     Pivot the head as far as possible to the right, and then lift it
     backward. Release and carry to the left, and lift it backward as
     far as possible.

This exercise tends to strengthen the muscles at the back of the neck.
It helps the extension of the chest, and strengthens those muscles which
hold the head erect.


22. ACTIVITY OF THE ROYAL MUSCLE

     Lift the head as far back as possible, then slowly draw the chin in
     lifting the back of the head high.

This exercise develops what sculptors call the royal muscle. This muscle
is active, causes an erect head and gives a certain dignity to the
carriage of the body and is usually associated with a properly expanded
body.

Of course, it alone is not sufficient for a dignified carriage because
there must be an expanded chest and the whole body must be normally
erect. This muscle, however, plays an important part. It is at the
summit of the line of gravity and affects not only the carriage of the
head but has a sympathetic effect on the chest. When it is strong and
vigorous it tends to make the whole body erect and to bring into
sympathetic co-ordination all the muscles used in standing.


23. EXTENSION OF HIPS AND ABDOMEN

     With the body well extended lift the right foot, knee straight, as
     far backward and upward as possible. Then release, and lift the
     left foot in the same way.

This exercise should be used alternately and given a good deal of
activity. The heels may be extended or stretched downward as they are
lifted. This will give greater extension to the muscles at the back of
the leg.

This exercise causes extension of certain muscles which are kept short
when sitting. It is also beneficial for the back.


24. ROTATION OF RIGHT SHOULDER

     Turn over to the left side. Vigorously rotate the right shoulder,
     carrying it in as wide a circle as possible.

This rotary action of the shoulders may be repeated several times in
different positions of the body.

The exercise is important for the freeing of the whole torso. The
shoulders of most people are rather weak. They should be strong and
vigorous especially in brain workers because their action tends to
affect the circulation of the blood toward the head. It has also an
effect upon the summit of the lungs and certain regions which need
freedom.

The rotary action of the shoulders may be given best when lying on the
side. The action of the shoulders, however, should not be neglected as
it brings a harmonious circulation in the region of the throat. The
exercise tends also to affect the whole summit of the chest.

The active shoulder expresses animation and ardor in passion. A good
strong shoulder is also an indication of vitality.

The circular and rotary action of the shoulders, the feet, and the hips,
is best performed with triple rhythm,--first, upward and forward;
second, backward; third, release. The release may be quick and firm.

Triple rhythm has a very sympathetic and stimulating effect. The run is
more of a triple rhythm, while the walk is dual. All forms of rhythm,
all of the metres should be introduced into the various exercises.


25. ROTATION OF LEFT SHOULDER

     Turn over to the right side, and rotate the left shoulder in the
     same way.

Whenever an exercise is taken for one side it should also be given for
the other unless there is special reason for remedying some condition of
one-sidedness.

Exercises for the centre of the body should always be given the
preference. There should be as far as possible a series of exercises.

Thus far, the exercises are all used lying down. They may be taken in
bed but, of course, it would be better if the bed were firm and not too
soft, not too yielding and as level as possible. The exercises would
often be more helpful if taken on the hard floor.

It is better to sleep on a narrow cot as Cornaro did. This prevents our
doubling up the body and contracting the vital organs. Everyone should
lie down to sleep tall, or long, and as expanded as possible.

Another reason for sleeping on a cot is that there are no hindrances to
lifting the arms behind the head in some of the first exercises. If we
sleep on a bed, when we exercise, the body should be placed more or less
across it so as to give more freedom to the arms, or the arms may be
stretched out straight at the side although this is not so good.


26. ELEVATION OF CHEST AND BREATHING

     Sit erect, as tall as possible. Expand the chest fully, carry the
     arms forward, then backward, gripping the hands almost under the
     shoulders, chest out as far as possible, taking a deep breath.
     Repeat this rhythmically many times, sustaining as far as possible
     the expansion of the chest.

It will be observed that there will come naturally a desire to sit up.
It may be well before sitting up to turn on the back and rest a moment
and feel the enjoyment of the actions that have been in the body. If the
exercises have been properly practiced, there will be a sense of ease
and satisfaction.


27. PIVOTAL FLEXIBILITY OF CHEST

     Sitting as erect as possible with actively expanded chest, pivot
     the shoulders and upper part of the torso as far as possible, first
     to the right and then to the left.

This exercise may be performed to advantage with quadruple rhythm.

This movement exercises almost the opposite muscles from Exercise No.
10. It also has the same beneficial results in the extension of the
chest, the removal of constrictions or interferences with the diaphragm,
and has a beneficial effect also upon the stomach and all the vital
organs.

It is an important exercise for strengthening the muscles of breathing
and deepening respiration. It should be repeated many times.


28. EXTENSION OF MUSCLES OF THE BACK

     Stand, stretch arms upward as far as possible, then carry them in
     the widest possible circle. Relax the back and all parts of the
     body so that the fingers come to the floor or near it. Then return
     and carry the fingers as far back as possible.

This exercise brings extension into all the muscles of the back.
Frequently, it is the best possible exercise to develop the chest since
the extension of a muscle also stimulates its right contraction.

The elbows and knees should be kept as straight as possible in this
exercise. The wide circle should be made not only in coming down but in
going back forward and over backward.

This exercise causes great extension of the muscles. The muscles from
the heel all up the back of the legs and even of the arms are affected.
Then in getting back the muscles of all the body receive a similar
extension.

This action is very helpful for the development of erectness of the
body. It also causes alternation of the muscles and has a good effect
upon the health.


29. EXTENSION OF MUSCLES AT THE SIDE

     Standing erect carry the hip out over the right foot, surrendering
     the whole body to the left side. Allow the weight to be carried out
     over the left foot, the left hip being widely extended.

This exercise tends to get freedom for muscles at the side and the hip
so that the hip upon which the person stands will naturally sway out to
the side, and the free hip will be surrendered, bringing the body very
naturally into its spiral curves.


30. CO-ORDINATION IN STANDING

     Standing erect, expand the chest in opposition to the balls of the
     feet, and allow the body slowly to be lifted seemingly from the
     summit of the chest upward. Allow it to return very slowly and
     steadily and to sink to the heels. Repeat many times.

This exercise should also be practiced upon each foot separately. It
establishes right co-ordinations of the body in standing and helps in
establishing accordant poise. All the muscles in the body which tend to
bring the summit of the chest and the balls of the feet into right
co-ordination are brought into sympathetic activity. It is really an
important exercise for the development of a correct bearing and posture
of the body.

In going upward, be sure that the chest reaches upward and that the body
is lifted by a species of levitation.

Keep the body as straight as possible from the heel to the centre of the
neck, preserving a sympathetic expansion of the chest at all times.

This exercise acts upon the whole body, tending to bring all parts into
normal relationship.


31. EXTENSION OF CHEST

     Placing your hands against the sides of a narrow door way, allow
     your weight to come forward upon the hands, the knees straight.
     Take a full breath, then carry the body back by action of the arms.

This presses the shoulders back and causes expansion of the chest, and a
deep breath should, of course, be taken. The exercise should be repeated
many times.

This exercise, as well as all others, should be practiced where the air
is pure.

Observe that this exercise can be made more severe by placing the feet
farther back from the door so that the weight of the body will fall more
upon the hands. In this case the hands may be lower. They should be
placed slightly below the shoulders.


32. HARMONY OF RESPIRATION AND CIRCULATION

     Lift the arms as high as possible and grasp a pole which has been
     placed so that it can barely be grasped on tiptoe, and let your
     weight rest upon the hands, and endeavor to touch the floor with
     the heels. One can easily have a pole placed upon hooks as high as
     possible inside a closet.

This exercise frees all the muscles of the back and carries the blood
away from the head. It is an exercise especially recommended by Baron
Posse for brain workers.

After the exercises take a sponge bath, or if preferred, rub the chest
and throat vigorously with a rough cloth with cold water. Some people
prefer an entire bath, but getting into very cold water often has a bad
effect upon the circulation and breathing. The water should not be too
cold at first until one becomes accustomed to the unusual stimulation.
Rub till dry and warm. Injury may follow if there is not reaction.

This program may be lengthened or shortened to suit individual needs.
Many exercises can be added by each one according to instinct. Some, for
example, those turning to the side, except possibly the relaxing of the
shoulders, may be shortened. The exercises may be lengthened also by
practicing one a longer period of time, making repetitions of a hundred
or more. They may be shortened, too, by giving each movement a shorter
period.

Each student must study himself and adapt the exercises according to
need. Feelings of enjoyment, however, are not a safe guide. We are so
apt to let the dull and stupid feeling take possession in the morning
and omit the exercises for the day. It takes resolution to perform them
but in a few minutes the reward comes in a feeling of satisfaction and
rest. The exercises are usually the best means of removing the feeling
of dullness. That, indeed, is one of their chief aims. Co-ordinating the
performance and the joyous attitude of man will soon cause the exercises
to be developed into a habit and one will feel the need of them as much
as he feels the need of food.

The exercises demand joy, expansion, extension, stretching, deep
breathing, co-ordination of various parts and the specific accentuation
of the movements and harmonious as well as rhythmic alternation.

In general, a person can arrange from this program, shorter ones of from
five minutes to thirty, according to individual needs.

The principles underlying the exercises should be carefully considered.
This will enable students to remember more easily and more correctly to
practice the successive exercises.

Moreover, in the practice of the exercises, as has been said, the aim
should be always kept in mind. Thus the simplest action may be turned
into the most important exercise by being practiced in accordance with
principles and for a specific aim.

To aid those who wish a shorter program, one that will not take over ten
minutes, the following may serve as a helpful guide.

1. Combine all exercises from one to seven:--laugh, expand the chest,
breathe deeply, co-ordinating the balls of the feet with the chest, and
stretch. Emphasize all of these exercises. It may be wise to count say
six specific, successive steps: 1, the expansion of the chest; 2, deep
breathing; 3, laughter; 4, stretch; 5, gradual relaxation; 6, complete
release.

One should be sure that each of these elements is practiced correctly.
It is wise at first to individualize them until they are normal and then
such a combination becomes efficient and may be in fact advisable as a
step in progress.

2. Combine exercises nine and ten:--that is, knead the stomach in
combination with the pivot of the hips.

3. Exercises eleven and twelve in a similar way combine the kneading of
the neck and throat with the pivotal action of the head.

4. Sixteen may be practiced in a way to unite fourteen and fifteen.

5. Eighteen and nineteen may be practiced as one. The movements,
however, should be separated and may be alternated by passing from the
face to the head.

6. Exercise twenty, as many others, should always be practiced
individually and separately.

7. Twenty may be combined, but not so well with eleven and twelve.

8. All the sitting exercises may be omitted or combined with the
standing exercises taken before the exercises on the pole.



V

HOW TO PRACTICE THE EXERCISES


Since exercises are primarily mental it can be seen that it is not
merely the movement but the mental and emotional attitude toward that
movement, in short, the conditions of its practice, upon which the
accomplishment of right results most depend. An exercise performed with
a feeling of antagonism, gloom, or perfunctorily without thought, will
not accomplish nearly as much as one practiced with sympathy and joy.

Only thinking and feeling will establish the co-ordinations. Mere
perfunctory performance of an exercise or a mechanical use of the will
may produce certain local effects, and in this way may actually do harm,
while the same exercise practiced with a feeling of joy and exhilaration
will bring into co-ordination various parts, and, in fact, affect the
whole organism. Practice the exercises accordingly for the fun of the
thing; laugh, feel a joyous exultation.

Joyous normal emotion acts expansively. The circulation is quickened and
the vital organs are stimulated to normal action. Without the awakening
or enjoyment of life the vital forces show little response.

If anyone will examine himself in a state of anger he will feel that it
is the lower part of his nature that is dominating him. He can realize
that his muscles and vital organs are constricted and cramped. Who has
not felt a deep feeling of bitterness, almost of poison, after a fit of
anger? Who has not felt a certain depression, at times even of sickness,
after antagonism or giving up to despondency?

There is also a feeling above negative emotions of certain dormant
possibilities, certain affections and a better nature in the background.
In all true exercises this sub-conscious, better self should be the very
centre of the endeavor.

So universally is true training and even the nature of an exercise
misunderstood that it may be well to summarize a few points to secure
intelligent practice.

1. Practice with your whole nature.

Do not regard the performance of movements as a mere matter of will.
Expression requires a unity of the whole life of our being.

Regard an exercise as a means of bringing all your powers into life and
unity. Let practice be a means of demonstrating your own abilities,
spontaneous and deliberative activities to yourself.

2. Practice with an ideal in mind.

The accomplishment of an endeavor implies the reaching or attainment of
an ideal. Practicing with no end in view accomplishes nothing. The goal
must be an ideal.

There is a universal intuition in an ideal man. There is an intuition
deep in ourselves of our higher possibilities. The feeling that better
things are possible inspires all human endeavor. Movement merely for the
sake of movement, mere haphazard practice, without an ideal,
accomplishes but little. We want not only an instinctive ideal but we
want one which is the result of thought and study.

3. Practice hopefully and joyfully.

That is to say, there should not only be thought and imagination in
practice, there should be feeling,--a normal and ideal emotion. The
realization of the possibility of attaining an ideal brings joy, hope,
courage and confidence.

4. In every exercise feel a sympathetic expansion of the torso.

It is not only necessary to feel joy, we must express it, and the
primary expression of joy is expansion.

Expansion is needed not only as one of the exercises; it is more than
this. It is a conditional element of all exercise. From first to last,
in every movement, feel also a certain expansion of the chest.

5. In every exercise feel exhilaration of the breathing.

Increase of the activity of breathing in direct co-ordination with
expansion is a part of the expression, not only of joy but courage,
resolution, endeavor and all normal emotions.

Taking a full breath is given as one of the exercises, but here again we
have a condition for all exercises. This is the reason why we should
give attention to exalted emotion. It will diffuse through the whole
body causing expansion and also quickening all the vital functions.

Respiration is the central function of the body. All the vital
operations depend upon it. Perfunctory exercises which do not stimulate
breathing are useless and injurious.

6. Accentuate the extension of the muscles of the body in all exercises
possible.

The kneading of the face helps the parts as well as being important in
itself. If we rub the muscles while whining we tend to confirm the
condition in the parts at the time. Thus we may develop whines and
frowns. It is very important, therefore, that there should be a cheery
smile on the face during the manipulation, if the looks are to be
improved by the exercise.

In kneading the stomach and the diaphragm if we have a full chest, as in
laughter, the manipulation will produce a far better effect upon the
diaphragm than if we have little breath.

In practicing an exercise, therefore, it is not only necessary to study
which part most needs development or which muscle is weak, but it is
just as necessary to notice which muscles need extension.

7. Practice harmoniously.

We should exercise all parts of the body in a similar way. If we
exercise, for example, the action of the feet it is well also to
practice rotary action of the arms, or at any rate, of the head.

We should see to it that when we practice one part of the body the
corresponding part of the body should be equally exercised. We should
not give more exercise to one side or part, except when there are
congested conditions. We should not give much more to the arms than to
the legs unless we have to walk a great deal.

8. Practice in such a way that every movement affects the central parts
of the body.

Hence the program takes first the expansion of the chest and breathing
and chuckling, also the transverse action of the torso. We should be
cautious about performing violent exercises with the arms, or even with
the feet, without simultaneous expansion of the torso because this is a
central action which is conditional to all proper action of the limbs.
Contraction of the torso while working upon the limbs may draw vitality
from the vital organs.

Gymnasts, as a class, die early because they are always performing
feats. Other dangers are found in the gymnasium, such as practicing
exercises perfunctorily, using quick jerks and too heavy and labored
movements which affect only the heavy muscles. The absence of rhythm and
co-ordination, the presence of too antagonistic movements, the desire to
make a show, too much work upon the superficial muscles are also
frequent faults.

Another reason for the beginning of the day's exercise with joy is the
fact that the positive emotions affect a man in the centre of his body.
They are all expressed by sympathy and right expansion of the torso.
This is not only central in expression, it is also central in training.

The muscles affecting the more central organs should in every exercise
in some sense cause co-ordinate actions in various parts. The expansive
action of the chest is one of the chief exercises because it not only
frees the vital organs but co-ordinates the normal actions of a man in
standing and walking.

Observe that harmony demands that all parts be equally exercised, but
unity demands that we begin our exercises at the center. The organic
centrality of the whole body is of first importance.

We should not only feel expansion of the chest in all exercises, but we
should begin with exercises for the torso rather than with exercises
for the limbs. We want to reach the deepest vital organs as a part of
all exercises.

Sometimes a man goes into a gymnasium and works for the muscles of the
arm, for example, while the muscles of his chest and around his stomach
and diaphragm are weak. In this case the central muscles may grow
weaker. Exercises, not properly centred, will decrease harmony.

I have found many people with lack of support of the voice and weakness
of the diaphragm and the muscles relating to the retention of breath,
but I have found very strong muscles in the arms, while the muscles in
the center of the body were surprisingly weak.

In following "external measurements" too much attention is often given
to the muscles of the limbs that can be measured. It is easy to discover
the fact that the lower limbs have more muscular development than the
arms, but this is of little consequence compared with the weakness of
internal and hidden muscles like the diaphragm.

It cannot be too often emphasized that an organism necessarily is one.
The parts sympathize with each other, and the higher the organism the
more is this true. The voice expresses the whole being and body, and it
not only calls for great activity of the central muscles, such as the
diaphragm, but every part of the body seems to share in voice
conditions.

A human being with his legs cut off can never sing or speak as well as
he could before he lost them.

9. As far as possible, always feel in all the muscles a sympathetic
action with certain opposite parts that support or naturally co-operate
with these.

Specific exercises must be directed to central and harmonious effects.
For example, expanding the chest and extending the balls of the feet
downward as far as possible co-ordinates the parts that are used in
standing, though in a different way. It gives extension to the parts;
and to extend muscles is often the best way to bring activity into them.

Formerly a horse was fed in a high trough in order to make him hold his
head high, but no horse carries his head so high or has such a beautiful
arch to the neck as the wild horse, that feeds on the ground.

Weak muscles may often be improved by giving them extension. This
eliminates constrictions and brings more rhythm or balanced activity in
opposition to other muscles or in union with them.

The co-ordination must be felt. When there are co-ordinations there will
be a sense of satisfaction in the vital organs. The exercises will not
weary. They will not be a strain or tax the strength. They accumulate
vitality rather than waste it.

Co-ordination must especially be studied and used consciously and
deliberatively with reference to the chest. In the start of every
exercise there should be, as has been said before, something of an
increase of activity in the chest and the breath.

10. Practice all exercises as rhythmically as possible.

Rhythm and co-ordination are the deepest lessons of life and are
necessary to each other. Activity and passivity must alternate in
proportion as far as possible in all exercise.

Observe also that the active exertion of an exercise should determine
the amount of the reaction. We should go as slowly in the recoil or
eccentric contraction as we do in the concentric contraction.

Nature is always rhythmic. Notice the beating of the heart, going on
constantly for eighty or a hundred years. It acts and then re-acts.
Observe, too, the rhythm of the peristaltic action of the stomach.

An exercise must obey this universal law of nature.

Jerks should never be permitted; but all be easy and gradual. Even the
surrender of a movement should be gradual.

The eccentric action which results is more important in many cases than
the concentric. For example, in the diaphragm we make voice by an
eccentric action of the inspiratory muscles. We take breath by a
concentric action of the diaphragm, we give out breath in making voice
by eccentric contraction.

Rhythm, therefore, means primarily that there should be a rest after
each exercise. If we feel very weary we should especially emphasize this
rest. It is lack of this rest that causes strain and weariness and makes
a person nervous. The normal effect of the exercises when practiced
rhythmically, is to eliminate fatigue, correct nervousness and weakness.

Rhythmic movements accomplish ten times more than unrhythmic ones, even
if unrhythmic movements do not produce unhealthy and abnormal results.

Observe that nature always responds to rhythm. The body will respond to
rhythm. Let the exercise be taken vigorously and definitely. Let also
the reactions or rests be equally definite and decided. Vigor should
never lead to constrictions or to great labor.

If we lie on our back and stretch one side and then the other it is
easier and we accomplish better results as a rule than we do by
stretching both arms and feet simultaneously.

It is hard to explain the sympathetic union of co-ordination and rhythm.
I have never found any explanation or even reference to this. Even
Dalcroze, who has so many good ideas regarding rhythm, has not grasped
the principles of co-ordination of different parts of the body and
especially the relation of co-ordination to rhythm.

Awkward people lack both co-ordination and rhythm and the two are
vitally connected. By establishing co-ordinations we begin to establish
rhythm, and by establishing rhythm we help in the co-ordinations.

The principle of rhythm applies to all our human actions. We should walk
rhythmically, and we should stand allowing all the rhythmic curves of
the body to have their normal relationship. We shall always have the
right rhythmic curves if we have the right centrality and
co-ordinations.

One of the greatest effects of music is due to the rhythm. All
movements, however, have a rhythm of their own.

11. Use in every exercise, as far as possible, all the primary actions
of the muscles.

We can distinguish four actions of the muscles. First, active
contraction, shortening of the muscles sometimes called concentric
contraction; secondly, we can stay the tension of the muscles at a
certain point. This is called static contraction. Third, we can allow
the muscle gradually to release its contraction, that is, allow it to
slowly lengthen. This is called eccentric contraction. Fourth, we can
take the will entirely out of a muscle and allow its complete
quiescence.

Rhythm demands the presence of all these actions; and also all these
elements in proportion. And in the practice of all exercises it is well
to accentuate all four of these elements by counting. In the stretch for
the whole body, for example, we can extend the limbs slowly as far as
possible, and there will be a contraction of the extensor muscles. Then
we can stay the body when stretched to the fullest extent. Then we can
gradually release the action of these muscles and then completely rest.

Some of the exercises can be practiced with dual movements, first with
activity and then release, but by varying the climactic action for a
moment and gradually releasing, that is, by giving these a quadruple
rhythm, we can accomplish better results than in the dual.

In dual rhythm we are apt to collapse suddenly after a movement. In
fact, it is harder to control the release of the contraction of the
muscles than to control the gradual increase of their contraction. This
is illustrated in the difficulty of retaining breath. Breath is normally
retained by sustaining the activity of the diaphragm, that is, its
eccentric contraction. However, the body needs occasionally the complete
surrender of muscles, but this should not be too sudden or jerky. The
gradual surrender brings greater control and the higher type of
development.

When we use what are known as secondary movements, that is, when we use
the hands to manipulate the stomach or when somebody else rubs us, we
should restfully and completely give up the muscles and manipulate them
or let them be manipulated in a state of rest.

At times it may be well to manipulate a muscle when at full tension.
When there seems to be a tendency to great constriction it may be well
to manipulate a muscle during both contraction and relaxation and to
test its relaxation. Again if a muscle does not seem to act as far as
possible the opposing one may be found too short and may be manipulated
to allow greater extension.

12. Practice thoughtfully.

That is to say, study yourself. Observe your needs. For example, stand
against some perfectly straight post or door, with the heels and back of
the head against it. Where the back curves most, there will be room for
the hand. Now where do you feel the most constriction? Give attention to
such parts.

Even when lying on your back, by stretching the limbs and expanding the
chest such wrong tendencies or faults in standing can be corrected. The
chest can be set free when it is constricted. When it is carried too low
you can directly separate the breast-bone from the spine. By sympathetic
expansions of the torso and by manipulating with the hands the parts
that are especially constricted, curvatures, even in the back, can be
improved.

In all cases in practicing expansion we should be careful that there is
no increase in the curvature of the spine. The back should remain
normal, or become more nearly normal if we find any perversions.

A hollow back, as is well known, is more difficult to correct than a
hollow chest, though both of them are abnormal. A hollow back can best
be corrected by the lifting of the feet, and the extension of the
muscles of the back. If the hand is placed under the back where there is
the greatest curvature there will be felt a normal action upon this
curve of the spine.

One point which has been discussed is whether training can affect the
bones, or only the muscles. The whole body can be affected by training
if the right methods are used. In correcting something like a hollow
back, which has been of long duration, not only the balance of the
muscles but the very articulations and ligaments and even bones may be
affected by patient and persevering practice.

If there is congestion in the region of the throat, the pivotal action
of the head is important, but the hands can be made to do a great deal
of work also during the pivotal actions. Such manipulation is one of the
best remedies for sore throat, and also for dizziness, unless the
dizziness is caused by a wrong condition of the stomach or liver, in
which case the pivotal actions of the torso should be vigorously
performed, with kneading by the hands, of the abdomen.

If one limb is weaker than its mate it should be given more practice
until balance is restored.

If there is any muscle weak in any part of the body, we should find an
exercise to strengthen it harmoniously.

It can hardly be emphasized too often that the central muscles should be
stronger than the surface muscles. Whenever we find, for example, a weak
diaphragm, we should use a greater number of exercises for it and be
careful not to give too much attention to the arm muscles.

It is not mere strength to lift a heavy weight that measures the degree
of vitality or indicates length of life, but rather the harmony of all
parts working together. The muscles connected with breathing should be
stronger in proportion than the superficial muscles of the arms or lower
limbs.

People who perform one particular movement a great deal, such as a
blacksmith in hammering, should study and use exercises for the parts
that are habitually neglected.

A little thought can correct every abnormal condition, even stiff joints
and headache. By practicing patiently such tendencies may be practically
eliminated.

13. Practice progressively.

Exercises are often taken intemperately. The student begins with
enthusiasm, feels uncomfortable results from the extravagance, and then
gives up the exercises.

Begin carefully. Patiently practice the movement at first ten or twenty
times, counting four with each step and accentuating the stretches, each
day increasing a little, and after a week or two the results will be
surprising. Let there be regularity even in the increasing of the
exercises.

We must take steps slowly, and gradually add others until we have the
number which the normal condition of our system demands.

Study your own strength and the effects of the exercises upon you.

There are many ways by which an exercise may be made progressive. First,
by gradually increasing the vigor of the movement. For example, lifting
the feet from the bed, one foot may be lifted at a time, which is
easier, or both may be lifted only a few inches at first. Second, the
exercise may be performed more slowly and more vigorously. Third, by
repeating the exercise a greater number of times. Fourth, by the
addition of a greater number and variety of exercises.

Sometimes a person is lame from practice. This is usually due to the
breaking of small, delicate fibres. These fibres may have grown together
by monotony of movement and by extending them suddenly or violently they
may have been wrenched apart too suddenly. Muscular fibres should move
freely. They will do so if we practice gradually, but violent practice
may strain unused muscles and thus cause soreness. In general, the
actions of muscles should be as varied as possible, but should be
easily, progressively developed. Every successive day, exercises should
receive a little more vigor until normal conditions are established.

Some kinds of exercises may be omitted at first. We may leave out all
the exercises sitting or those lying on the side. A few of the standing
exercises may also be omitted.

You will be tempted, however, to omit too much as a rule and then some
special day to practice too many. Even if you do get a little sore or
lame or feel a little as if you had overdone it is better than
under-doing, and nature will soon correct the abnormal condition. The
next time you practice the exercise you can eliminate the bad effects of
your former practice.

In all cases of sickness, or weakness from any cause, special care must
be given to gentle stretches and manipulation. The movements should be
slow and steady. Do not leave yourself in a state of pain but of
enjoyment.

Remember that growth in nature is slow. The stronger the organism, like
the oak, the slower the growth. A weed may grow almost in a night. Be
patient, therefore, do not worry,--be persevering and regular in all the
habits of life.

Some constitutions need more exercise than others. Those who are growing
fleshy need quick, vigorous exercises, while those who are growing thin
and emaciated need slow, steady ones, as do those who are nervous.

14. Establish periodicity.

All development in nature proceeds in a regular and continuous sequence.
There are certain alternations and variations, but these take place at
specific periods.

The organism will adapt itself to regular periods. Thus, if we take our
meals regularly, we get hungry at the same time every day. We should go
to bed at a regular hour; at that time the system demands rest and we
become sleepy.

Parents are so anxious that their children have a good time that they
frequently cultivate irregular habits and thus lay the foundation of
future failure.

Health is greatly dependent upon regular hours for both work and
recreation. Anything that interferes with periodicity in the human body
interferes with vital functioning. Observe how regularly we breathe.
There is a normal respiration, circulation, and beating of the heart
which are practically the same for everyone. Any variation from these
regular rhythms is serious.

This principle of periodicity applies to exercises as well as to
anything else. Some men have the habit of going to a gymnasium once a
week. They take the exercises one day and neglect them for several days,
then try to make up for lost time. The exercises in such cases are not
enjoyed. They will be performed mechanically, if not perfunctorily: at
any rate, satisfactory results will not follow.

If we take exercises every day at about the same time, say upon waking
in the morning and on going to bed at night, the system will come to
long for them just as the stomach craves food.

Nature does not grow a little one day and then stop for a while; she
does not grow a limb on one side and then another on the other side. All
growth is continuous.

Of course, this continuity is rhythmic. There is a different action day
and night, but this in itself is a form of periodicity. In the same way
we have summer and winter. The tree feeds itself in summer and during
the winter the life remains hidden at the root while the process of
making the texture firm proceeds with rhythmic alternation.

All phases of life and growth are periodic. If, for any reason, there is
an unusually severe winter the plants are killed. If there is a long
period of drought vegetation dies. A certain normal amount of rain as of
air, food, or soil is necessary to the growth of the plant.

One reason for practicing in the early morning is the fact that it will
connect exercise with the natural habits of the individual. The time of
waking up should be periodic and will be so if we retire regularly. The
practice of exercises on first awakening or retiring will also tend to
help the normal time and amount of sleep. If we take exercises on first
waking, as suggested, we shall awake about the same time and with
greater enjoyment.

The system will come to expand naturally; every cell will leap like a
dog that prances with joy when it sees its master getting ready to go
for a walk.

15. Practice regularly.

Not only should the time be regular, the amount of exercise also should
be about the same each day. We should not give a half hour or an hour
one day and neglect it entirely the next any more than we should eat one
extraordinary meal and then go without anything to eat for two or three
days.

The same is true also regarding the kind of exercise. It may be helpful
to change some of the exercises, but we should have exercises for all
parts of the body. If we substitute one exercise for another we should
take care to exercise all the parts equally. We may change the kind of
food, but the degree of sustenance it contains should not greatly vary.

16. Practice patiently.

Do not expect great results to come in a day, though you ought to feel
some effect very quickly, yet it may take weeks, especially if there is
any unusual weakness or abnormal condition. The slower and more varied
the practice the better, other things being equal, because conditions
are more important than the exercise and the normal adjustment of the
various parts of the body is much more important than strengthening any
local part.

17. Practice slowly but decidedly and vigorously.

The more slowly an exercise is practiced the deeper the effect. The
lifting of the feet very slowly, for example, will have more effect upon
the diaphragm than if done quickly. The holding of the chest high while
lifting the feet slowly, causes wonderful action of the diaphragm and
of the stomach and vital organs.

Slowness, however, does not mean hesitation, indifference, nor laziness.
Mere lazy, indifferent practice will accomplish nothing. Let the
movements be done slowly but decidedly and definitely.

One should be careful if there is any particular part that causes pain.
We should bring in secondary or kneading movements, with the hands. If
the action is thoughtfully directed to the right part, if it is truly
rhythmic and sympathetic, abnormal conditions will be removed.

18. Exercise as well as sleep in the purest air possible.

Sleep with your windows open. Let the air circulate across your room
though not across your bed. Let the air be as pure as that out of doors.

Perform your exercises in bed with your windows open and with but little
covering. The vigorous exercises will bring greater warmth and you will
feel the desire to throw off the blanket. Some of the exercises, of
course, as lifting the legs, cannot be performed so well without
removing the covering.

The method of practicing the exercises as well as the amount, number and
character of them, depends greatly upon the health and the vitality of
the individual, but there must be a continual advance in the vigor and
the number of the exercises.



VI

ACTIONS OF EVERY-DAY LIFE


The benefit of exercises must be tested by the help they give to the
actions of every-day life. The human body must perform certain movements
which are continually necessary. These exercises enable us to do these
movements with more grace and ease, with more pleasure to ourselves,
with greater saving of strength and vitality, and in a way to give
greater pleasure to others.


1. HOW TO STAND

"Man is the only animal," says Sir William Turner, "with a vertical
spine." The bird stands upon two feet but the spine is not vertical.
Strictly speaking no animal stands erect except man.

The primary aim of all true exercise for the improvement of health and
the prolonging of life must affect the erectness of the human body and
the counterpoise curves of the spine. The axis of the spine must be
vertical.

Nearly all the exercises from the very first tend to accomplish this
result. The expansion of the chest, the pivotal flexing of the torso,
the lifting of the feet, the stretching, the co-ordinate action between
the summit of the chest and the balls of the feet, and the exercises in
sitting and standing, all tend to establish this most important
condition.

There must be activity at the summit of the chest. The head and the
chest are the first to give up and sag. We can see that the skeleton has
no bones below the breast bone to support it. The lower ribs are
floating ribs and the other ribs have an angle downward. Everything is
arranged with reference to the expansion of the chest. This is the
central activity in standing properly.

We can see, as has been shown, that man is held up seemingly from above.
Man comes into stable equilibrium only when the body is supported from
the summit of the chest. Levitation opposes gravitation.

It will be observed that the first exercises concern the expansion of
the chest and when the exercises are properly performed, this expansion
of the chest is indirectly sustained through them all.

If we observe a person standing properly, we find that a line dropped
through the centre of the ear will fall through the centre of the
shoulder, the centre of the hip, and the centre of the arch of the foot.
The things that cause bad positions are: the chest inactive, the hips
sinking forward, the head hanging downward or lolling to the side, the
body sinking to the heel, and weak knees; but all of these seem to be
corrected when the chest is properly expanded and elevated.

To stand well, therefore, one should stand upright; the chest well
expanded so as to bring all parts into co-ordination and establish a
true centrality in the body. In a certain sense, there seems to be an
axis of the body by which it rests easily upon one foot while the other
leg and hip are perfectly free. The body is also perfectly free to pivot
and to pass the weight to the other foot.

The recommendation to "stand tall" is more or less helpful, but there
must be some qualification. Stand tall, but not with rigidity or
stiffness. The body must be elastically and sympathetically tall, and
also sympathetically expanded, man must stand as if held up from above
rather than from below, expanded and elevated by feeling and thought
rather than by mere will. The centrality, ease and harmony of the poise
are of more importance than the tallness.

When one stands properly on one foot a spiral line from the top of the
head to the foot is developed. The head inclines slightly toward the
side that bears the weight, the torso slightly inclines in opposition
and the active lower limb takes a slightly opposite inclination. This
line which has been called the line of beauty is very common in nature.
It is found all over the human body.

When the face is animated with joy and gentleness, such spiral curves
appear in all directions. The presence of this line is an element of a
beautiful face and of a graceful body.

The beneficial effects of such a poise are seen at once. The breathing
is free. When a person stands in bad poise there is constriction of the
respiratory muscles so that he is uneasy, he shifts from foot to foot.
But when one stands in stable equilibrium, he stands restfully, easily
and gracefully, and can move in any direction freely. His body also
becomes expressive and acts under the dominion of feeling.


2. HOW TO WALK

The character of a person's position in standing will determine the
character of the walk. If one has learned to stand in stable equilibrium
he will walk suggesting repose. If he stand in a discordant poise he
will walk in a discordant chaotic way and will be continuously fighting
to stand up.

When a person stands in an accordant poise the walk is a progression
forward and a levitation upward rhythmically and freely, the spiral
lines alternating with every step.

Every line of the body acts rhythmically. There is not only rhythmical
alternation of the lower limbs and of the movements of the weight from
foot to foot but all the lines of the body alternate rhythmically.

A good walk is the carrying out of a man's purpose. Accordingly there is
an attraction forward and upward at the summit of the chest.

There are some abnormal walks where men seem to be drawn by the head,
some walk as if drawn by the nose or chin, by the hips or by the knees
or even the feet. The gravitation of the body forward toward the
carrying out of one's purpose should be from the centre of gravitation
and should be upward.

"Onward and upward, true to the line." Man in his very walking seems to
be a progressive being. To climb a declivity, he seems to move forward
and upward. In a bad walk a man seems drawn downward.

The poise of the body in standing and walking is most affected by this
series of exercises. The co-ordination between the summit of the chest
and the feet in rhythmic alternation, the simultaneous activity of the
chest in all movements or exercises develop good positions in standing
and natural actions of the body in walking.

The extensions especially when in alternation bring the body also into
the normal spiral lines and tend also to extend the muscles especially
at the side so that the shoulder does not seem to be drawn down toward
the hip, but acts with the torso freely.

When exercises are practiced properly the whole bearing of the body will
begin to improve.


3. HOW TO SIT

Badly as people stand, they sit possibly worse. Most people sit in the
most unhealthful as well as in the most ungraceful way. Generally there
is a complete "slumping" of the chest, the spine is brought into a wide,
single curve instead of its counterpoise curves.

All the exercises from the very first, have a bearing upon the
establishment of the normal conditions of the spine. If the exercises
are well practiced, especially the elevation and expansion of the chest,
the spine is strengthened and its normally proportioned curves are
established.

Bad positions in sitting are extremely common. Book-keepers, editors,
seamstresses and children in school need careful attention. Special
exercises should be given, such as the "harmonious expansion of the
chest" in sitting and the use of the arms to develop the uprightness of
the torso.

Bad positions in sitting are often due to a false sense of rest. Muscles
not acting harmoniously tend to completely collapse. Many people sit
without true rest, and are continually shifting their position in a vain
search for rest.

What is rest? The chief rest comes through the alternation of activity
and passivity, that is, through rhythm. Passivity alternating with
activity brings rest to the human heart and is the best mode of rest.
Rest also results from normal functioning. A person can sit or stand in
true poise, giving freedom to breathing, and be able to rest much more
truly than in an unnatural, abnormal, collapsed condition.

This can be well illustrated by the fact that when a person starts out
to walk with the chest slumped, the head hung down and with all the
vital organs cramped, he comes back more weary than rested.

In walking we should, as has been shown, keep the chest well expanded,
the body elevated, co-ordinating all the normal relations of parts. If
we walk in this way it tends to rest rather than to weary us.

Therefore stand sympathetically expanded and easily tall. Walk in the
same way and sit in the same way. Let there be a certain exhilaration
and a sense of satisfaction.


4. HOW TO LIE DOWN

Dr. Lyman Beecher said that one should always assume a horizontal
posture in the middle of the day. The heart, he said, had less difficult
work to pump the blood horizontally than vertically.

Henry Ward Beecher attributed his power to do a great deal more work
than ordinary men to this habit of his life of always resting in the
middle of the day.

He justified his habit by quoting from his father, using even his
father's antique pronunciation of "poster."

There is no doubt truth in this. To one very active and who performs a
great deal of work it brings a variety of positions and greater rhythm.
It rests the vital organs. It brings a harmonious repose and relation of
parts.

Even in lying down, we find abnormal conditions. Some men cramp and
constrict themselves. The chest is allowed to collapse and the whole
body tends to be drawn together. Grief or any negative emotion of
feeling or condition destructive to health tends to act in this way.

People, therefore, should lie down properly. They should lie down, as
has been said, sympathetically and expansively long. They should
directly manifest courage rather than shrinking, joy rather than
sadness, with thankful animation rather than in a despairing state of
mind. By the expression of joy and courage and peaceful repose and with
a deep sense of the acceptance and realization of the good of life lying
down will mean more. Express this in the body by normal position, by
expansion, no matter what attitude the body may occupy. Man, whether he
chooses or not, always expresses the state of his mind in the action of
his body. And by cultivating the right mood and expressing the right
feeling and so exercising the parts of his body as to express normally
and more adequately that mood, men will develop not only health,
strength and long life; but will also develop a nobler and stronger
personality and more heroic and courageous endurance.

The exercises, accordingly, should be applied to the simplest movements
of every-day life. They must not be taken as something separate from
life, but as an essential part of it, as necessary to life as a smile is
to the face.



VII

WORK AND PLAY


"Blessed," says Carlyle, "is the man who has found his work. Let him
seek no other blessing."

A man out of work is one of the saddest of all sights. There possibly is
a sadder one, the man who has lost the power to play. The child in whom
the spirit of play has been crushed out is saddest of all.

Work is natural. One who does not love to work is greatly to be pitied.
Fortunately, such people are rare. When a man finds his work and becomes
actively occupied with it he is happy. He, however, often overdoes it
and the difficulty is not to work but to play.

Usually it is thought that there is antagonism between work and play. On
the contrary, they are more alike than most people think.

According to William Morris, "Art is the spirit of play put into our
work." The union of work and play is absolutely necessary to human
nature.

By work we generally mean something that comes as a duty, something
which we are compelled to do or something which we must do from
necessity in order to win a livelihood.

Play is usually regarded as something that is pure enjoyment and
spontaneous. A recent cartoon pictured a boy complaining because his
mother had asked him to carry a small rug up to the top of the house,
then portrayed the same boy, after a ten-mile trudge, climbing a steep
hill with a load of golf sticks, the perspiration streaming down his
face, saying, "This is fine!"

The same task may therefore be regarded as work or play according to the
point of view. The difference is the degree of enjoyment, the attitude
or feeling toward the thing to be done.

We can control our attention, we can look for interesting things in
almost any effort. In either work or play we require a rhythmic
alternation between enjoyment and resolute endeavor.

The principles advocated in this book and its companion, "The Smile,"
should prepare a man for the work and the play of life. Exercises taken
at any time should serve as a remedy for the evil effects of hard work
of any kind.

The exercises give the best preparation for work and because many of
them are taken lying down they do not exhaust but accumulate energy.
They also stimulate and develop a harmony and activity of man's whole
being.

The shortest and best answer that can be made to the question "How to
work" is, to work rhythmically. This is the way Nature works. There is
action and reaction.

The law of rhythm, which has already been explained, must be obeyed in
our every-day tasks. It applies to every step we take.

One of the best results of these exercises is that they develop a sense
of rhythm.

There are many violations of rhythm. One is continuing along one line
too long. Work can be so arranged as to be varied. We can work at one
thing several hours and then we can deliberately drop it until the next
day and take up some other phase of work.

Without rhythm, work becomes drudgery. A more specific violation of
rhythm is a failure to relax and to use force only when needed.

The greatest effect of force comes through action and reaction.
Sometimes a man uses unnecessary parts and uses them continually. That,
of course, will cause weariness.

There are hundreds of questions regarding such discussions in as many
books in our day. Mr. Nathaniel J. Fowler, Jr., in "The Boy," a careful
book which is a treasure house of information, has gathered answers to
leading questions from two hundred and eighty-three prominent men. Many
of these, in fact, most of them, advise a boy, when he is not satisfied
with his work and is pretty sure that he is not adapted to it, to change
his occupation.

It is a difficult point upon which to give advice, but other things
being equal, work should be enjoyed. When not enjoyed there should be a
serious study of the man himself, a study of his attitude toward life, a
study of his possibilities, a study of his opportunities, and also a
study of what he is best fitted for, and an endeavor to find this.

It is surprising, however, how far men can adapt themselves, even change
their very nature in accomplishing a work which is laid upon them as a
duty. One of the greatest artists of New England took care of his
brothers and sisters and his father's farm, at a crisis, and kept a
little shed outside the house where he painted at odd moments. He had an
avocation as well as a vocation. He gave up his trip to study in Europe
as he wished to study; he did a vast amount of work which was regarded
by many as drudgery, and he was compelled to study his art only at odd
moments. Despite all this, George Fuller became one of the most
illustrious and original of American artists. Today his pictures are in
all the leading museums, and command a high price.

What is drudgery? Dr. James Freeman Clark defined it as "work without
imagination." Anything can be made drudgery. A man can study art, or
sing, paint pictures, edit newspapers, or write books and make his work
drudgery. Drudgery is working perfunctorily. It is work without
aspiration, work without an ideal.

No man can do anything well in life, without an ideal. If a man
undertakes a certain work he must begin it by awakening and realizing
the importance of that work in the world's life. He must form a definite
ideal of the best possible way of doing that work and of its relation to
the world.

In short, no man can accomplish anything in a negative, indifferent
attitude toward his work. He must look upon it from the side of its
importance, the side of its beauty, the side that is interesting to him,
the side that shows its influence and helpfulness toward the world.

Play, to the little child--and also to the hard working man--is more
serious than work. When work begins to be perfunctory, play is the only
remedy. In such a case a man is in a dangerous rut and must adopt a new
rhythm.

"All work, and no play, makes Jack," or any other donkey, "a dull boy."

The first principle of play must be to obey our higher impulses. To play
means the ability to change our occupation. It means the ability to
obey other impulses than perfunctory ones.

Some men regard play as something low. On the contrary, notwithstanding
the "recapitulation" theory, play should be a new aspiration, a deeper
assertion of freedom, a higher opportunity for suppressed energies.

To play, certain feelings and conceptions of our nature must be
awakened. Play reveals character even more than work because it shows
the latent impulses of the man. Therefore, if in college, in school, or
in childhood, in playing with companions, the right associations are
brought to bear, the right persons are received as mates, then the very
sympathy and contact with others will cause higher aspirations, deeper
enjoyments, more spontaneous endeavor, and renewal of life. Play is
sub-conscious, it is giving way in some sense, to instinct; but it is
deliberatively giving up. It implies enjoyment but it does not
necessarily imply the gratification of low desire.

Something can be said in favor of athletics. A story is told of a
gentleman who visited his nephew in a large private school. He went
around the athletic field and asked the trainers about his relative.
Then the uncle found the boy in his room, digging. He said, "What are
you doing here? None of the trainers see anything of you. What is the
trouble?" The student answered, "I have been sick and I have been
working hard to catch up." "Get out of this," replied the uncle, "I went
to preparatory school and to college to find friends, to get enjoyment,
to learn how to play, to come in contact with men. That is the serious
business of school and college."

There are some who consider this the very worst of heresies. I used to
think so myself; but contact with students in colleges and universities
has enabled me at least to see the point of view of this gentleman. Many
times I have met men who were not getting the most out of their college
or university course though you could not tell that from their
scholarship or so-called "standing." They lacked the spirit of
enjoyment, the power of initiative. They lacked the power of sympathetic
touch with other men that makes greatly for success in life.

To my mind there are some games which bring no sympathetic touch among
men. Mere games are not always worthy of the name of play. They become
drudgery, and they cause certain constrictions. They fetter the whole
life. They call for perfect silence, call for the exercise of great
mechanical skill. Frequently we find men playing games which are
analogous, if not identical, with their work. Games should be different
from work. They should bring sympathetic enjoyment. They should bring
exultation.

A noted physiologist sent by his government to examine into the physical
training of other countries visited a leading school in England and
found the pupils one morning, during the best hours of the day, at play.
Approaching one of the boys, he asked for the principal, and was
conducted very politely to the master. The visitor was greatly impressed
by the boys. He asked the principal why it was that his boys were
playing during the best part of the day. "Ah," said the principal, "that
is part of our method. We want the best time in the day to be devoted to
their outdoor exercises and sports. We take the utmost care that the
boys shall come into the most sympathetic spirit with each other, and
anything that happens wrong on the playground is to us fully as serious
as what happens in their studies."

There is a universal conception that play is not serious. Children are
allowed to do just as they please. This is a mistake. Froebel has taught
the true spirit and importance of play. Some people consider his
explanations as being purely speculative, if not insane; but the great
majority of those who have really studied child life agree with him.

It is important what games the child is given. The play must be enjoyed.
It should awaken creative energy. It should appeal to the imagination
and feelings and not be a purely mechanical exercise of will. It is
absolutely necessary for the unfoldment of character that the child come
into touch with other minds, and also into contact with things.

Someone has summed up the whole principle in a sentence: "Bring such
objects before the child as will stimulate spontaneous activity." The
objects may be animals, birds, leaves, flowers, balls, sticks, anything
which can awaken human faculties or be turned into a tool.

Arts are given us rather for avocations, for our enjoyment, as a test of
our ability to appreciate the different points of view. Each art, as I
have often tried to say, expresses something that no other art can say,
and he is a cultivated human being who can read all the arts and enjoy
them. The aim of art is to guide our energies in higher directions, and
to stimulate our ideals. Art develops attention and trains us to become
interested in a great variety of directions.

As a proof of this observe the great beauty of nature. We are stirred
to go out of doors, to go into the woods and note the beautiful scene
and the music of the pines that calls us. Nature everywhere seems at
play, seems to invite men to come out into her unlimited playground, the
playground of universal principles and fullness of life.

The poet, Schiller, explained all art as being derived from the play
instinct. It has been said that play is the overflow of life. Life,
love, joy, all noble ideals, must awaken spontaneity or they will not
grow. All parts of man's nature must have expression and not be
repressed. Play is given to stimulate and to express the spontaneous in
us, to manifest emotion and imagination and a sense of freedom. Freedom
is a necessity of all unfoldment. Even the flower must bloom
spontaneously from the energy within. The sun that calls forth the
leaves on all the trees does so by warming the roots in the tree and
bringing the gentle south winds which fan the waving branches into
activity and cause the unfolding buds to be filled with spontaneous
life.

The whole world is full of joy and love. It is human ambition and
jealousies that bring the hindrances.

The rhythmic alternation and the necessary relation of work and play to
each other can be seen in the very constitution of man. Play alone may
develop obedience to lower impulses; while work alone tends to repress
the higher aspirations and spontaneous energies.

Even a man's health and strength as well as success depend upon the
rhythmic alternation of work and play.

While reading over the copy for this book for the last time, when in
that agonizing state which some writers know, undecided whether to throw
it into the fire or send it to the printers, I read at the suggestion of
a friend, Eleanor H. Porter's little book, "Pollyanna." That simple,
wholesome story has given me courage. The fundamental lesson in it is
that we should find always something about which to be glad, no matter
how severe the trial or how disappointing the event.

Goethe gave as rules for a life of culture:--"Every day see some
beautiful picture, hear some beautiful piece of music, read some
beautiful poem." These might develop culture in a narrow sense, but to
broaden and deepen our lives we need every day to see something
beautiful in nature, and in the lives and characters of our fellow
beings.

Dr. Howard Crosby once remarked that by giving ten minutes to the
telegrams of the newspapers any man should be able to keep in touch with
the life of mankind.

The Boy Scouts and the Campfire Girls are emphasizing some important
phases of education and life which have been too often overlooked.

One of the Boy Scout rules implies that every day a boy should perform
some kindly act for others.

The importance of a boy's stepping up to an elderly lady looking for an
electric car and giving her assistance, or carrying a lot of bundles for
someone cannot be too highly emphasized. These boys take no "tips." They
are trained to serve for the sake of the serving. These suggestions and
services awaken the higher nature of the boy or girl. Such movements
should be universally supported.

One of the most important helps to the boys should not be overlooked. In
offering their services they are led to express their best selves. It is
important that they should learn to approach strangers with polite
confidence and courage when offering assistance.

I gave my seat once to a woman in a street car and at first I felt a
little resentful because not by look or word did she express gratitude.
As I glanced at the woman, however, I saw that she really desired to
thank me but was embarrassed. She did not know how to do so. How few are
taught the languages!

If the Boy Scouts and the Campfire Girls do nothing else than to learn
to express their willingness to serve they have made a wonderful gain
for active, useful and successful lives.

Of course, the primary aim is the good deed, but are not the kind tone,
word and polite bow fully as necessary? Are they not the entering wedge
and do they not appeal to the higher nature in the same way that the
thought of being of service inspires the boy or girl?

While doing is the great thing, yet it is necessary to say in union with
doing. There is really no antagonism between expression in kind looks,
tones or words, and acts. They are inseparably connected.

These same principles apply also to the Campfire Girls. They must not
only be trained to do things but trained to realize their own
personalities and to draw out the best in others. Then the actions will
begin to be more expressive of the real personality of the boy or the
girl and the seeing, doing and becoming will form an organic unity.
Someone has said that the great law of education is, first, to know;
second, to do; third, to become. The doing implies not only action, but
expression. Certainly we do not become what we know till we do or
express through word, tone and action.

The most successful men in the world have certain principles to guide
their every-day life. If we could only smile instead of frown, when
people criticize or condemn us, how much more successful would be our
lives!

Every day we can discover something interesting in our fellow-men.

We can learn to listen.

We should work when we work and play when we play. We should not play in
a half-hearted way worrying about our work; and when we work we should
do so with all our might.

We ought to have regular periods of rest; we ought to avoid unpleasant
topics in conversation. Everyone should have a vocation as well as an
avocation.

May we not summarize all these suggestions into a few statements which
will enable us to co-ordinate work and play, and aid us in our daily
lives to obey the principles that should govern us from our first waking
moments? Every Day:

1. Smile when tempted to frown; look for and enjoy the best around you.

2. See, hear or read, that is, receive an impression from something
beautiful in nature, art, music, poetry, literature or your fellow-men.

3. Think, feel or realize something in the direction of your ideals and
in some way unite your dreams with your every-day work and play.

4. Express the best that is in you and awaken others to express the best
in them.

5. Serve some fellow-being by listening, by kind word or deed.

6. Share in some of the great movements of the race.

All these refer to an important point--that we should be teachable and
should receive right impressions. This is of primary importance.
Breathing means the taking of breath. We should begin the day with
joyous and glad acceptance of life and all that it brings. A spirit of
thankfulness and acceptance is the true spirit of life.

We, however, need active expression. As breathing implies not only
taking breath but giving it out, so impression and expression are
necessary elements of the rhythm of life.

Hence even these six things are incomplete. We should also exercise our
higher faculties and powers, especially those we are not habitually
using in our work. Our whole nature should be active if we are truly to
live. Our higher faculties should not be regarded as concerned only in
mere dreaming. Our ideals should be connected with our daily work and
contact with mankind if we are to cease drudging or working without
imagination. Accordingly by word, thought or act, we should express
every day the best that is in us. Moreover, fully as important as these,
we should every day come into sympathetic touch with our fellow-beings
and call forth the best in them.

Expression implies a neighbor,--some other being with whom we can
communicate. Do not think for a moment that such expression is empty. Of
course, we must go on and endeavor every day to serve someone by a kind
act, but a kind word must not be despised. How many hearts are over
burdened because they lack a sympathetic listener! To be a polite
listener is one of the beautiful things in human life. Remember, also,
that many who have seen an opportunity and desired to do a kind act have
failed from inability to express the wish by word, smile or bow.

Expression is not separate from impression. We must receive our
impressions from every source, then we must express to others the best
that is in us and become such sympathetic listeners that others will
unfold the best in themselves and thus come into that plane where we can
sympathetically participate in the lives of others.



VIII

SIGNIFICANCE OF NIGHT AND SLEEP


Anyone who wishes for improvement in health, strength, grace, ease, or
vitality, or, in fact, in anything, must realize especially the
significance of the law of rhythm.

Rhythm is a law of the whole universe. The music of the spheres is no
fable. Observe, too, the rhythm of the seasons. Everywhere there is a
co-ordination of the finite and the infinite, the individual and the
universal,--a unity of forces acting in a sequence of natural
co-ordinations.

Of all the illustrations of rhythm one of the most important is the
alternation of day and night. Every plant awakes and rejoices with the
sun and it recognizes the sunset and goes to sleep as the darkness
comes. The few exceptions only prove the rule, and even these simply
reverse day and night and are equally rhythmic.

The value of day and night to man is well known. When there is a
continuous work to be done it has been proven scientifically that those
who work at night cannot accomplish so much as those who work by day.
The very same man cannot do the same amount and grade of work in a night
that he can do in a day.

The human system is built up by various rhythms like that of day and
night. There is a natural call for rest, for recuperation and the
surrendering of all our voluntary energies that the spontaneous
activities may have their turn.

The Psalmist, after he has gone all over the beauties of the world
exclaims, "Man goeth forth unto his work and to his labor until the
evening." Here he pauses, for the beauties of the evening seem to awe
him for a moment into silence, and then he breaks forth into a universal
paean of praise: "O, Lord, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom hast
thou made them all."

Night is a part of the normal rhythm of nature. Every plant and every
bird welcomes night as well as morning.

Serious and abnormal, indeed, is the state of one who cannot sleep. Next
to the importance of a right awakening in the morning is the peaceful,
restful retirement at night.

Edison boasts of how little sleep he needs, and claims that sometime man
will cease to sleep. He says that sleep is only a habit.

As a matter of fact, by working rhythmically through all the hours of
the day, by obeying the law of rhythm at all times, a man may possibly
need less sleep, but the repose of unconsciousness seems a part of the
Creator's economy.

"He giveth His beloved sleep."

By living in obedience to the law of rhythm and especially by taking
some rhythmic exercises before lying down, we can sleep better.

Almost innumerable are the suggestions, rules, or recipes on how to go
to sleep.

One says, "Keep counting until you fall asleep."

Another says, "Watch a flock of sheep jumping over a fence, counting
each one as it jumps."

A third says, "Watch a bird sailing around in the sky. Keep the mind
upon it and watch it as it steadily sails until you are asleep."

Someone says, "Repeat the Twenty-third Psalm over and over, the more
rhythmic, the better."

Another says, "Think of the sky. Keep the mind upon its expanse."

Still another, "Think of the Infinite and Eternal Source of the
universe."

Among all these suggestions we can find some truth. Nearly all of them
imply concentration of the mind. If attention can be focused and held at
a point, the excited activity of thinking may be stopped and the body
consequently brought into a state of acquiescence. They succeed, if they
do succeed, because attention is turned from worries to something
besides the antagonism, excitements and duties of the day.

Another element in the suggestions is their regularity. Watching the
sheep jump over a fence and counting one at a time, for example, affects
the breathing and all the vital forces of the body. This causes rhythmic
co-ordination of all the elements and the unity of this will, of course,
bring sleep. The sense of harmony and rhythm and self-control should be
gained; all antagonistic, chaotic and exciting thoughts and all worry
should be eliminated as far as possible before lying down. When we lie
down, we should turn our attention away from the excitements of the
world to something calm and reposeful.

Accordingly there is nothing better than to repeat some of the exercises
of the morning. These stretchings, practiced slowly and rhythmically,
will equalize the circulation, the taking of deep breaths, very
rhythmically, will tend to restore respiratory action and the other
exercises will tend to eliminate constriction from local parts.

Observe the necessity once more of harmonious thought and positive
emotion, for here again there will be a temptation to dwell upon the
failures of the day. It is so hard to forget some unkind word, some
failure on our part to grasp a situation at the right time. We can
easily remember the wrong word we ourselves spoke and deeply regret our
failure to enter into sympathetic touch with someone.

In such an excited frame of mind, with the nerves wrought up at the
thought of the day's work and with all these discordant pictures
thronging into our consciousness, sleep becomes impossible.

Sometimes one is too weary to go to sleep, or sinks into a deep slumber
which is not normal. The taking of breath is short and the giving up of
the breath more sudden. This sleep will not be refreshing. Nine times
out of ten such a one will wake up in the morning feeling more weary
than when he lay down at night. Of course, if a man could sleep for an
unusual number of hours, nature might in time restore him. The
excitement of our civilization prevents normal conditions and therefore
we must aid nature. Man must understand the laws of life and so use them
as to find rest properly.

We need harmony in our thoughts, to let them dwell on what is sacred and
beautiful that our sleep may be normal and that we may enter into the
world of slumber with sympathetic conditions.

We must, also, laughingly throw off negative thoughts and feelings and
allow expansion and stretching to equalize the circulation. All the
vital functions must be harmonized. As we perform these exercises once
more we find various congestions that have resulted from the
one-sidedness of our day's work,--congestions around the throat, parts
of the body are weary, constricted, and cramped. By stretching ourselves
we can harmoniously adjust the activities of our breathing and
circulation. All parts can be restored to harmony and we can rest
properly.

After all, what is rest? It is not a mere slumping into inactivity. It
is allowing the involuntary rhythm of our being, the sympathetic
co-ordination of all the forces of our body to act normally. The rhythm
of our volitional activities must be given up to the rhythm of the
unconscious and involuntary life.

Before this rhythm can reign we must remove all constrictions from any
part of the body.

After taking these exercises we should feel the sympathetic enjoyment of
all the cells of our bodies, then sleep will be refreshing, the rhythm
of breathing will be normal and the circulation and vital processes will
proceed easily and rhythmically.

What are the differences in the practicing of exercises in the morning
and evening?

In the first place the exercises in the evening should be more steady,
more regular, more harmonious, slower and more rhythmic. Every exercise
must soothe the excited nerves, the agitated brain, and the weary
respiratory muscles, the heart, and all the circulatory system.

Release needs to be especially emphasized. After every stretch, for
example, every part of the body must be relaxed. The reaction will take
more time on account of the greater activity through the day. We
should, therefore, take especial pains to accentuate the recovery or
recoil of the muscles into sympathetic passivity and rest.

The object is now not to stimulate as much as in the morning, but to
allay all excitement, harmonize the co-ordination of all parts, remove
all local activities in the different parts of the body, establish
centrality of the vital functioning and the diffusion of blood and
feeling into every part.

It is well to practice the exercises on a hard floor before getting into
bed.

The more violent exercises should of course be omitted unless there has
been a one-sided position during the day. For example, standing
exercises will be beneficial for a person who has been sitting all day.
We must practice intelligently, and carefully apply such exercises as
are needed. Harmony means the removing of constrictions and
over-activity in certain parts which one finds upon exercising. These
often need to be vigorously exercised so as to restore the harmonious
condition.

On lying down on the floor feel in stretching as if the body weighed a
ton,--feel the weight of the arms, legs and head.

Often we lie down but soon the excitement of a thought brings us to our
feet before we know it. Eliminate all such exciting ideas, then let the
stretch reach every part. Let it be slow and steady and let the release
be gradual. There should be a complete rest for quite a little period
before the next activity. Other things being equal, the activity should
be less than one-third of the surrender not only in time but in
attention.

Just before going to sleep it is well to practice a few stretches and to
give full expansion to the chest and to take a few deep breaths slowly
and rhythmically so as to establish a vigorous and normal rhythm,
equalize circulation and bring all parts into harmonious freedom.

In order to emphasize the rhythm in our evening exercises we should
accentuate and prolong especially the passive rest between the
movements. We should not only more gradually give up the actions of the
movements, accentuating the static and eccentric contraction, but we
should also feel more sense of surrender at the end of each movement.
That is, we should feel a sense of weight and of rest at the end of each
action, breathing easily, steadily and freely, all the time.

The time of this rest at the end of the exercising should be prolonged
more and more especially after we are in bed and have felt the
satisfactory feeling all through the body of harmonious diffusion of
energy and the removal of constrictions.

This sense of satisfaction through all the body is fundamental and
necessary in order to bring healthful and normal sleep.

The harmonious extension of all parts of the body should be emphasized.
All stretches are truly conducive to sleep. They allow life to permeate
through the whole body. The exercises, before going to sleep, should be
less rigorous unless there are constrictions and these should be removed
by simultaneous and sympathetic co-ordination of all parts of the body
rather than by vigorous movements.

After any local movement the stretch should be renewed and the
affirmation made of some thoughtful and beautiful idea--as love, joy,
peace. It will be surprising how quickly help will come and weariness
disappear. The entire body, in every cell, will be soothed and enjoy
sweet repose.

The affirmation of confidence, love, trust, and peace should follow as
well as precede the evening exercises. We should make the going to sleep
a sacred part of our lives. In giving up our consciousness we should be
sure to surrender it to the positive forces of the universe. This is not
an idle dream, nor a mere mystical fancy. Even from a psychological
point of view the emotion with which we go to sleep is apt to remain
with us and get in its good or evil work in the unconscious, involuntary
metabolism that takes place in all the cells. We must lie down to rest
in peace.

"Dr. Thomas Hyslop, of the West Riding Asylum in England," according to
Professor James in "Memories and Portraits," "said last year to the
British Medical Association that the best sleep-producing agent which
his practice had revealed to him, was prayer. I say this," he added [I
am sorry to say here that I must quote from memory], "purely as a
medical man. The exercise of prayer, in those who habitually exert it,
must be regarded by us doctors as the most adequate and normal of all
pacifiers of the mind and calmers of the nerves.

"But in few of us are functions not tied up by the exercise of other
functions. Relatively few medical and scientific men, I fancy, can pray.
Few can carry on any living commerce with God. Yet many of us are well
aware of how much freer and abler our lives would be, were such
important forms of energizing not sealed up by the critical atmosphere
in which we have been reared. There are in everyone potential forms of
activity that actually are shunted out from use. Part of the imperfect
vitality under which we labor can thus be easily explained."

Have a few simple sentences full of thanksgiving, of peace and rest. The
best are found in the Bible. The words to Moses, "My presence shall go
with thee and I will give thee rest," may be given and repeated many
times with a realization of their deep meaning and a personal
application to the individual.

Not only repeat phrases, lines, and verses, full of beautiful thought,
but change these into your own words. Learn to articulate your own
convictions and apply them to your own needs,--even paraphrase, for
example, such a phrase as "He restoreth my soul" in the twenty-third
Psalm. For the word "soul" we can substitute anything according to the
specific needs of the hour. We should, however, use nothing that is not
in accordance with universal love and the highest spiritual ideals of
man and of our conceptions of the universe. We must always remember that
truth is universal.

We can change "soul" also to "health," "strength" or "life," to "joy,"
to "success," to "confidence," to the body or any part of the body which
may seem to be afflicted.

There are in this Psalm other good affirmations on going to sleep. Take
individual clauses and repeat them many times, such as "I will fear no
evil, for Thou art with me."

One of the best affirmations is found in the first of the twenty-seventh
Psalm. "The Lord is my light and my salvation. Whom shall I fear? The
Lord is the strength of my life. Of whom [or of what] shall I be afraid?
One thing have I asked of the Lord, that will I seek after, that I may
dwell in the house of the Lord [in a consciousness of His presence] all
the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to enquire in
his temple [to commune with Him in the sacred temple of my own soul].

"Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on Thee."

Everyone should find his own, should find it in his experience, find it
by personal investigation and study of the Bible and through spiritual
realization.

We should live in peace with all men, be able to rejoice evermore, "to
pray without ceasing"; that is, we should always be in an attitude to
receive that which is good and never admit that which is
negative;--hate, antagonism or fear,--but we should welcome love and
that which we know expresses the "Infinite Presence." Antagonism, hate,
discords prevent us from living our hundred years. "Certain classes of
men shall not live out half their days."

The last moment before going to sleep should be one of peaceful rest.
Say "Not my will but Thine" and give up everything to the Infinite and
Eternal.

My own best help is thanksgiving and praise. When I cannot give up the
thoughts and conflicts of the day, I can bring my whole being into
reposeful rhythm best by expressing thanks that I can be awake and that
I have shared in the life of a day. I praise the Infinite Presence that
I can know beauty when I see it, that I can understand truth and know
that two times three are not seven and that I can participate in the
goodness of the universe. Then, before I know it, I have laid aside the
conflicts of the day and have passed into peaceful and harmonious rest.

This method of thanksgiving especially applies to those times when I
wake up in the middle of the night.

       *       *       *       *       *

Returning to Pippa, we find her retirement to her own room and her
method of going to sleep no less suggestive as an example than her
awakening.

She met the first wakening moment with joy and praise as she resolutely
put aside the dark thought of her life and went singing all through the
day with the same spirit of thanksgiving and love for all mankind.

Now she comes back to her room weary and discouraged, as we nearly all
do. She knows nothing of what her songs have accomplished, nothing of
the wonderful influence that has been exercised. In her disheartened
moment she sees the sunset in the dark cloud and thinking over the day
she would like to know what she really has done.

Yet she checks herself and returns to her morning hymn and keeps her
faith and trust. "Results belong to the Master, Thou hast no need to
measure them." She becomes very humble, willing, and submissive to the
hard task of the morrow. Little she dreams of the revelation that will
come of the secrets of her own life and family.

"We know not what we shall be." Each of us at the close of life lies
down without realizing our relation to the Infinite, without realizing
that we are children and heirs. Blessed is he who feels that his hymn is
also "True in some sense or other," that life is true and that each one
performs some work and it is not for us to say whether it is great or
small. They who wrought but one hour received the same wages as they who
wrought the whole day.

Deeply symbolical, allegorical, and typical in the poetic sense of human
life is Pippa's closing thought as she lies down to sleep.

    "Oh what a drear dark close to my poor day!
    How could that red sun drop in that black cloud?
    Ah, Pippa, morning's rule is moved away,
    Dispensed with, never more to be allowed!
    Day's turn is over, now arrives the night's.
    Oh, lark, be day's apostle
    To mavis, merle and throstle,
    Bid them their betters jostle
    From day and its delights!
    But at night, brother howlet, over the woods,
    Toll the world to thy chantry;
    Sing to the bats' sleek sisterhoods
    Full complines with gallantry;
    Then, owls and bats,
    Cowls and twats,
    Monks and nuns, in a cloister's moods,
    Adjourn to the oak-stump pantry!

    Now, one thing I should like to really know:
    How near I ever might approach all these
    I only fancied being, this long day:
    --Approach, I mean, so as to touch them, so
    As to ... in some way ... move them--if you please,
    Do good or evil to them some slight way.
    For instance, if I wind
    Silk to-morrow, my silk may bind
    And border Ottima's cloak's hem.
    Ah, me, and my important part with them,
    This morning's hymn half promised when I rose!
    True in some sense or other, I suppose.

    God bless me! I can pray no more to-night.
    No doubt, some way or other, hymns say right.

      All service ranks the same with God,
      With God, whose puppets, best and worst:
      Are we; there is no last nor first." [She sleeps]


       *       *       *       *       *


The Morning League of the School of Expression

is a band of the students, graduates and friends of the School of
Expression who are trying to keep their faces toward the morning.

If you wish to join, when you wake GET UP OUT OF THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE
BED, that is, stretch, expand, breathe deeply and laugh. Fill with
joyous thoughts and their active expressions the first minutes of the
day.

Note the effect, and consider yourself initiated.

Try as far as possible EVERY DAY to realize the League's

     UNFOLDMENT SUGGESTIONS

     1. SMILE whenever tempted to frown; look for and enjoy the best
     around you.

     2. THINK, feel or realize something in the direction of your ideals
     and, in some way, unite your ideals with your every-day work and
     play.

     3. SEE, hear or read, i. e., receive an impression from something
     beautiful in nature, art, music, poetry, literature or the lives of
     your fellow-men.

     4. EXPRESS the best that is in you and awaken others to express the
     best in them.

     5. SERVE some fellow being by listening, by kind look, tone, word
     or deed.

     6. SHARE in some of the great movements for the betterment of the
     race.

     That is, use your principles of expression to help in such
     movements as:

     1. Expression in Life (text book, "The Smile"); 2. Expression and
     Health (text book, "How to Add Ten Years to Your Life"); 3.
     Expression and Education in the Nursery; Mothers' Clubs; 4. Voice
     in the Home; 5. Reading in the Public Schools; 6. Speaking in High
     Schools and Colleges; 7. Speaking Clubs; 8. Browning Clubs (text
     book, "Browning and the Dramatic Monologue"); 9. Dramatic Clubs;
     10. Religious Societies; 11. Boy Scouts; 12. Campfire Girls; 13.
     Peace Movements; 14. Women's Clubs; and Suffrage Organizations; 15.
     Reforms; 16. Teachers' Clubs; 17. School of Expression Summer
     Terms; 18. Preparation for the School of Expression; 19. Home
     Studies; 20. Advanced Steps of the School of Expression.

Send your name and address with ten nominations for members with $1.50
for the two League text books, "The Smile" and "How to Add Ten Years to
Your Life," and you will be recorded a member. One set of books will do
for a family, other books at teachers' or introductory prices. There are
no fees. The entire net returns from the League books will be devoted to
the endowment of the School of Expression, the Home of the League.

Write frankly and freely asking any counsel, and making any suggestions
to the President of the League.

  Dr. S. S. CURRY, 307 Pierce Bldg.
  Copley Square, Boston, Mass.


       *       *       *       *       *


MORNING LEAGUE QUESTIONS FOR REPORT


Text-books--"The Smile" and "How to Add Ten Years to Your Life"

After a week's exercise for a few minutes either on waking up or on
retiring, write out a report of your experiences or answer the following
questions. It is not necessary to repeat the questions, simply use
figures. These questions follow the first series, published at the close
of "The Smile."

22. Do you practice the exercises on waking in the morning?

23. What exercises do you usually take? How long?

24. What are some of the effects of these exercises?

25. How many times do you repeat each exercise?

26. Do you practice exercises in dual, triple, or quadruple rhythm?

27. Can you keep your chest expanded and laugh at the same time?

28. Can you keep your chest fully expanded and pivot the torso?

29. Do you feel great satisfaction after stretching?

30. What constrictions or congestions have you found?

  a. In the region of the stomach
  b. Chest
  c. Neck
  d. Face
  e. Scalp
  f. Back

31. Do you find any special weaknesses?

32. Do you walk with expanded chest?

33. Do you walk rhythmically?

34. Can you keep your chest well expanded during the stretch?

35. Do you practice exercises standing at an open doorway?

36. Have you a pole from which you swing in your closet?

37. Do you sleep well?

38. What exercises do you take on retiring?

39. Do you relax completely in the middle of the day?

40. What chaotic movements have you discovered in your standing? In
sitting? In walking? In lying down?

41. Do you breathe through your nose or through your mouth, especially
when asleep?

42. Do you sleep with your windows wide open?

43. Can you laugh out a tone?

44. Taking a full breath and laughing, do your feel your throat passive?

45. Can you co-ordinate an open throat and active retention of breath in
laughing out a tone?

46. After walking a short distance do you feel exhilaration or
depression?

47. Do you use soft gentle tones in every day conversation?

48. When talking to someone who speaks in a high pitch can you act in
the opposite way, and speak in your softest tones?

49. Can you make tone as easily as you smile?

For other questions, see "The Smile."


Province Of Expression. Principles and method of developing delivery.
An Introduction to the study of the natural languages, and their
relation to art and development. By S. S. Curry, Ph.D., Litt.D. $1.50;
to teachers, $1.20, postpaid.

     Your volume is to me a very wonderful book,--it is so deeply
     philosophic, and so exhaustive of all aspects of the subject.... No
     one can read your book without at least gaining a high ideal of the
     study of expression. You have laid a deep and strong foundation for
     a scientific system. And now we wait for the
     superstructure.--Professor Alexander Melville Bell.

     It is a most valuable book, and ought to be instrumental in doing
     much good.--Professor J. W. Churchill, D.D.

     A book of rare significance and value, not only to teachers of the
     vocal arts, but also to all students of fundamental pedagogical
     principle. In its field I know of no work presenting in an equally
     happy combination philosophic insight, scientific breadth, moral
     loftiness of tone, and literary felicity of exposition.--William F.
     Warren, D.D., LL.D., of Boston University.


Lessons in Vocal Expression. The expressive modulations of the voice
developed by studying and training the voice and mind in relation to
each other. Eighty-six definite problems and progressive steps. By S. S.
Curry, Ph.D., Litt.D. $1.25; to teachers, $1.10, postpaid.

     It ought to do away with the artificial and mechanical styles of
     teaching.--Henry W. Smith, A.M., Professor of Elocution, Princeton
     University.

     Through the use of your text-book on vocal expression, I have had
     the past term much better results and more manifest interest on the
     subject than ever before.--A. H. Merrill, A.M., late Professor of
     Elocution, Vanderbilt University.

     The subject is handled in a new and original manner, and cannot
     fail to revolutionize the old elocutionary ideas.--Mail and Empire,
     Toronto.

     It is capital, good sense, and real instruction.--W. E. Huntington,
     LL.D., Ex-President of Boston University.


Imagination and Dramatic Instinct. Function of the imagination and
assimilation in the vocal interpretation of literature and speaking. By
S. S. Curry, Litt.D. $1.50; to teachers, $1.20, postpaid.

     Dr. Curry well calls the attention of speakers to the processes of
     thinking in the modulation of the voice. Every one will be
     benefited by reading his volumes.... Too much stress can hardly be
     laid on the author's ground principle, that where a method aims to
     regulate the modulation of the voice by rules, then inconsistencies
     and lack of organic coherence begin to take the place of that sense
     of life which lies at the heart of every true product of art. On
     the contrary, where vocal expression is studied as a manifestation
     of the processes of thinking, there results the truer energy of the
     student's powers and the more natural unity of the complex elements
     of his expression.--Dr. Lyman Abbott, in The Outlook.

Address: Book Dept., School of Expression, 306 Pierce Bldg., Copley
Square, Boston, Mass.


Mind and Voice. Principles underlying all phases of Vocal Training.
The psychological and physiological conditions of tone production and
scientific and artistic methods of developing them. A work of vital
importance to every one interested in improving the qualities of the
voice and in correcting slovenly speech. 456 pages. By S. S. Curry,
Litt. D. $1.50, postpaid. To teachers, $1.25, postpaid.

     It is indeed a masterly and stimulating work.--Amos R. Wells,
     Editor Christian World.

     It is a book that will be of immense help to teachers and
     preachers, and to others who are using their vocal organs
     continuously. As an educational work on an important theme, the
     book has a unique value.--Book News Monthly.

     There is pleasure and profit in reading what he says.--Evening Post
     (Chicago).

     Fills a real need in the heart and library of every true teacher
     and student of the development of natural vocal
     expression.--Western Recorder (Louisville).

     Get it and study it and you will never regret it.--Christian Union
     Herald (Pittsburg).


Foundation of Expression. Fundamentals of a psychological method of
training voice, body, and mind and of teaching speaking and reading. 236
problems; 411 choice passages. A thorough and practical text-book for
school and college, and for private study. By S. S. Curry, Litt. D.
$1.25; to teachers, $1.10, postpaid.

     It means the opening of a new door to me by the master of the
     garden.--Frank Putnam.

     Mastery of the subject and wealth of illustration are manifest in
     all your treatment of the subject. Should prove a treasure to any
     man who cares for effective public speaking.--Professor L. O.
     Brastow, Yale.

     Adds materially to the author's former contributions to this
     science and art, to which he is devoting his life most
     zealously.--Journal of Education.

     May be read with profit by all who love literature.--Denis A.
     McCarthy, Sacred Heart Review.

     It gets at the heart of the subject and is the most practical and
     clearest book on the important steps in expression that I have ever
     read.--Edith W. Moses.

     How splendid it is; it is at once practical in its simplicity and
     helpfulness and inspiring. Every teacher ought to be grateful for
     it.--Jane Herendeen, Teacher of Expression in Jamaica Normal
     School, N. Y.

     Best, most complete, and up-to-date.--Alfred Jenkins Shriver,
     LL.B., Baltimore.

     Public speakers and especially the young men and women in high
     schools, academies, and colleges will find here one of the most
     helpful and suggestive books by one of the greatest living teachers
     of the subject, that was ever presented to the public.--John
     Marshall Barker, Ph.D., Professor in Boston University.

Address: Book Dept., School of Expression, 306 Pierce Bldg., Copley
Square, Boston, Mass.


Browning and the Dramatic Monologue. Nature and peculiarities of
Browning's poetry. How to understand Browning. The principles involved
in rendering the monologue. An introduction to Browning, and to dramatic
platform art. By S. S. Curry, Litt. D., $1.25; to teachers, $1.10,
postpaid.

     It seems to me to attack the central difficulty in understanding
     and reading Robert Browning's poetry.... It opens a wide door to
     the greatest poetry of the modern age.--The Rev. John R. Gow,
     President of the Boston Browning Society.

     A book which sheds an entirely new light on Browning and should be
     read by every student of the great master; indeed, everyone who
     would be well informed should read this book, which will interest
     any lover of literature.--Journal of Education.


Spoken English. A method of co-ordinating impression and expression in
reading, conversation, and speaking. It contains suggestions on the
importance of observation and adequate impression, and nature study, as
a basis to adequate expression. The steps are carefully arranged for the
awakening of the imagination and dramatic instinct, right feeling, and
natural, spontaneous expression. 320 pages. By S. S. Curry, Litt. D.,
Ph.D. Price, $1.25; to teachers, $1.10, postpaid.

     Every page had something that caught my attention. You certainly
     have grasped the great principle of vocal expression.--Edwin
     Markham.

     Those who aim at excelling in public utterance and address may well
     possess themselves of this work.--Journal of Education.

     The specialist in reading will wish to add it to his book-shelf for
     permanent reference.--Normal Instructor.

     A masterly presentation of ideas and expression as applied in a
     wide range of excellent selections.--The World's Chronicle.


Little Classics for Oral English. A companion to Spoken English. The
problems correspond by sections with Spoken English. The books may be
used together or separately. The problems are arranged in the form of
questions which the student can answer properly only by rightly
rendering the passages. It is a laboratory method for spoken English, to
be used by the first year students in High School or the last years of
the Grammar School. 384 pages. By S. S. Curry, Litt. D. Price, $1.25; to
teachers, $1.10, postpaid.

     I am using Little Classics for Oral English in two classes and
     believe it is the most satisfactory text that I have used. The
     students seem to be able to get easily the principles from your
     questions and problems.--Elva M. Forncrook, St. Nor. Sch.,
     Kalamazoo, Mich.

     A fine collection of fine things especially suited to young people.
     Every teacher of reading and English in our secondary schools ought
     to have the book.--Prof. Lee Emerson Bassett, Leland Stanford
     University, Cal.

Address: Book Dept., School of Expression, 306 Pierce Bldg., Copley
Square, Boston, Mass.


       *       *       *       *       *


What Students and Graduates Think of the School of Expression


"We know that there is something BIG here. If only we can get it out to
the world."--Caroline A. Hardwick (Philosophic Diploma), Instructor in
Reading and Speaking, Wellesley College.

"At no other institution is it possible to secure the training one
secures at the School of Expression. It is far broader than a mere
training for speaking. It is a fundamental training for life."--Florence
E. Lutz (Philosophic Diploma), Instructor in Pantomime, New York City.

"The School of Expression taught me how to LIVE. I think its training of
the personality is its greatest work."--F. M. Sargent (Dramatic Artist's
Diploma).

"I feel deeply indebted to the School for some of the best and most
lasting inspiration I have received for my own work as a teacher of my
fellow-men."--Luella Clay Carson, Pres. of Mills College.

"The success I have attained in my profession as a reader, I owe
directly to the advanced methods of the School of Expression."--Caroline
Foye Flanders (Artistic Diploma), Public Reader, Manchester, N. H.

"The School of Expression of Boston is the most thorough and best in the
country. It is different from all other schools. I wish I could talk to
any who intend taking a course of study.--I would say, Go to the School
of Expression and if there is anything in you, they will bring it out;
they will teach you to know yourself; they will show you what you are in
comparison with what you may become, and they will begin with the cause
and start from the bottom."--Hamilton Colman, Member Richard Mansfield
Co.

"When I was your student you held before me intellectual and ethical
ideals which I am still trying to realize."--Charles L. White, D.D.,
Ex-President Colby College.

"The same principles of education which have installed manual training
in public schools are even more applicable to the training of men's
souls to rational self-expression. Dr. Curry will some day be recognized
to have been an educational philosopher for having championed principles
no less true of the spoken word than of every form of creative
self-expression."--Dean Shailer Mathews, University of Chicago.

"The whole world ought to learn about the School of Expression and your
discoveries."--Rev. J. Stanley Durkee (Speaker's Diploma), Boston.


       *       *       *       *       *


BOOKS BY S. S. CURRY, Ph.D., Litt.D.

More than any man of recent years, Dr. Curry has represented sane and
scientific methods in training the Speaking Voice.--Dr. Shailer Mathews,
University of Chicago.

Of eminent value.--Dr. Lyman Abbott.

Books so much needed by the world and which will not be written unless
you write them.--Rev. C. H. Strong, Rector St. John's Church, Savannah.


Foundations Of Expression. A psychological method of developing reading
and speaking. 236 practical problems. 411 choice passages adapted to
classes in reading and speaking. $1.25; to teachers, $1.10, postpaid.

Lessons in Vocal Expression. The expressive modulations of the voice
developed by studying and training the voice and mind in relation to
each other. Definite problems and progressive steps. $1.25; to teachers,
$1.10, postpaid.


Imagination and Dramatic Instinct. Function of imagination and
assimilation in the vocal interpretation of literature and speaking.
$1.50; to teachers, $1.20, postpaid.


Mind and Voice. Principles and Methods in Vocal Training. 456 pp. $1.50;
to teachers, $1.20 postpaid.


Browning and the Dramatic Monologue. Nature and peculiarities of
Browning's poetry. Principles involved in rendering the monologue.
Introduction to Browning, and to dramatic platform art. $1.25; to
teachers, $1.10, postpaid.


Province Of Expression. Principles and Methods of developing delivery.
An introduction to the study of natural languages, and their relation to
art and development. $1.50; to teachers $1.20, postpaid.


Vocal and Literary Interpretation of the Bible. Introduction by Prof.
Francis G. Peabody, D. D., of Harvard University. $1.50; students'
edition, $0.60, postpaid.


Classics for Vocal Expression. Gems from the best authors for voice and
interpretation. In use in the foremost schools and colleges. $1.25; to
teachers, $1.10, postpaid.


Spoken English. A psychological method of developing reading,
conversation and speaking. A book for junior students or teachers. 320
pages. $1.25; to teachers, $1.10, postpaid.


Little Classics for Oral English. Companion to Spoken English.
Introductory questions and topics. May be used with Spoken English or
separately. Questions and topics correspond. Fresh and beautiful
selections from best authors. 384 pages. $1.25; to teachers, $1.10,
postpaid.


The Smile. Introduction to action through an example. $1.00. To members
of The Morning League, $0.75, postpaid.


How to Add Ten Years to Your Life. Nature of training with short,
practical program. $1.00. To members of The Morning League, $0.75,
postpaid.


Write to Dr. Curry about the Morning League; Summer Terms; Home Studies;
School of Expression; new books, or for advice regarding your life work.
Address: Book Department, School of Expression, 308 Pierce Bldg., Copley
Square, Boston, Mass.





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