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Title: The Botanical Magazine  Vol. 7 - or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
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THE

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE;

OR,

Flower-Garden Displayed:

IN WHICH

The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open Ground, the
Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural
Colours.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to
the celebrated LINNÆUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:

TOGETHER WITH

THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

A WORK

Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as wish
to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.

By _WILLIAM CURTIS_,

Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

VOL. VII.

  "Now let us range both far, and wide,
  "Thro' all the gardens boasted pride.
  "Here Jasmines spread the silver flow'r,
  "To deck the wall or weave the bow'r,
  "The Woodbines mix in am'rous play,
  "And breathe their fragrant lives away.
  "There rising Myrtles form a shade;
  "There Roses blush, and scent the glade;
  "The Orange, with a vernal face,
  "Wears ev'ry rich autumnal grace;
  "While the young blossoms here unfold,
  "There shines the fruit like pendant gold;
  "Citrons their balmy sweets exhale,
  "And triumph in the distant gale.

                                 COTTON.


_LONDON:_

PRINTED BY STEPHEN COUCHMAN,

For W. CURTIS, No 3, _St. George's-Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road;

And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

MDCCXCIV.



[217]

BUCHNERA VISCOSA. CLAMMY BUCHNERA.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal_. obsolete 5-dentatus. _Corollæ_ limbus 5-fidus, æqualis: lobis
     cordatis. _Caps_. 2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

BUCHNERA _viscosa_ foliis lineari-lanceolatis laxe dentatis
     subglutinosis, floribus pedunculatis, caule fruticoso. _L' Herit.
     Strip. nov. tom. 2. tab. 34. Ait. Kew. V. 2. p. 357._


_Buchnera_ is a genus of plants established by LINNÆUS in honour of A.
E. BUCHNER, a German naturalist.

Of this genus, nine species are enumerated in the 14th edition of the
_Systema Vegetabilium_, by Professor MURRAY.

We learn from Mr. AITON, that the present species (a native of the Cape)
was introduced to the royal garden at Kew in 1774.

It cannot boast much beauty, yet as it occupies but little room, grows
readily from cuttings, and flowers during most of the summer: it obtains
a place in most greenhouses.

[Illustration: _No 217_]

[Illustration: _No 218_]



[218]

DISANDRA PROSTRATA. TRAILING DISANDRA.

_Class and Order._

HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ sub 7-partitus. _Cor._ rotata, subseptem-partita. _Caps._
     2-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

DISANDRA prostrata. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. Suppl. Pl. p.
     32. 214._ _Ait. Kew, V. 1. p. 493._

SIBTHORPIA peregrina. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 880._


The foliage of this plant greatly resembles that of Ground Ivy, and its
branches trail on the ground somewhat in the same manner, extending to
the length of several feet; but it is not on the ground that it is best
seen, as its flowers are apt to be hid among the leaves: it appears most
advantageously when growing in a pot, placed on a pedestal, or in some
elevated situation, where its branches may hang carelessly down: thus
treated, when fully blown, it becomes a most pleasing object.

LINNÆUS, the son, in his _Suppl. Plant._ observes, that the _Disandra_
varies extremely in the number of its stamina, as it does also in the
divisions of its calyx, and corolla; in this respect;, indeed, we do not
know its equal: fortunately for those systems of Botany, which are
formed from the number of certain parts of the fructification, few such
inconstants exist.

Professor MURRAY observes, that seven is the most prevalent number of
its stamina, five the most natural.

LINNÆUS describes it as a native of the East; Mr. AITON informs us, that
it was introduced here about the year 1771, from Madeira.

It flowers during most of the summer months; in the winter it must be
kept in the green-house; in the summer it will bear the open air, grows
readily from cuttings, should be planted in rich earth, and plentifully
watered in dry weather.

[Illustration: _No 219_]



[219]

MICHAUXIA CAMPANULOIDES. ROUGH-LEAV'D MICHAUXIA.

_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 16-partitus. _Cor._ rotata, 8-partita. _Nectarium_ 8-valve,
     staminiferum. _Caps._ 8-locularis, polysperma. _L' Heritier
     Monogr._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MICHAUXIA campanuloides. _L' Heritier Monogr._

The celebrated author of the _Hortus Kewensis_ informs us, that the
plant here figured is a native of the Levant, and was introduced to this
country in the year 1787, by Mons. L'HERITIER, who first gave it the
name of _Michauxia_, and wrote a Monographia, or particular treatise on
it.

We have before observed, that when a plant has been named in honour of
any particular person, that name must be retained in all countries,
however uncouth its pronunciation may be, and there are few of our
readers but what will think the present name sufficiently so.

Last summer 1792, in the month of July, we had the pleasure to see a
fine plant of this sort, fully blown, in the collection of Messrs.
GRIMWOOD and CO. Kensington; though in a small pot, it grew nearly to
the height of six feet, was branched almost to the bottom, and loaded
with a profusion of blossoms, such as are represented on the plate, and
which bore some distant resemblance to those of a passion-flower.

It is a biennial green-house plant, and, of course, only to be raised
from seeds, which we are sorry to find have not ripened in this country,
though they are said to do so in France.



[220]

ERICA CERINTHOIDES. HONEYWORT-FLOWER'D HEATH.

_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 4-phyllus. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Filamenta_ receptaculo inferta.
     _Antheræ_ bifidæ. _Caps._ 4-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ERICA _cerinthoides_ antheris muticis inclusis, corollis clavatis
     grossis, stigmate incluso cruciato, foliis quaternis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 368._ _Ait. Kew. V. 2. p. 22._

The _Erica cerinthoides_ is one of the most magnificent and shewy of the
genus, grows wild at the Cape, from whence it was introduced to the
royal garden at Kew, by Mr. MASSON, in 1774; it is the more valuable, as
it flowers during most of the year: its blossoms are found to vary from
a deep to a very pale red. It is a hardy green-house plant, and usually
propagated by cuttings.

To have this beautiful tribe of plants in perfection, they must be kept
in pots proportioned to their size, filled with that kind of bog earth
in which our British heaths grow spontaneously, finely sifted; to which
it may be necessary sometimes to add a third part of the mould of rotten
leaves, or choice loam, partaking more of a clayey than a sandy nature:
we must be careful not to let them suffer for want of water in dry hot
weather, as such an omission, even for one day, may be fatal; and to
give them as much air as possible at all times when the weather is
mild.

[Illustration: _No 220_]



[221]

IPOMOEA COCCINEA. SCARLET IPOMOEA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ infundibuliformis, _Stigma_ capitato-globosum, _Caps._
     3-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IPOMOEA _coccinea_ foliis cordatis acuminatis basi angulatis,
     pedunculis multifloris. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p.
     204._ _Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 215._

CONVOLVULUS coccineus, folio anguloso, _Plum. Amer. 89. t. 103._

QUAMOLCIT americana, folio hederæ, flore coccineo. _Comm. rar. 21. t.
     21._

The _Ipomoea_ is very nearly related to the _Convolvulus_, one
principal difference consists in the different form of its stigma, which
is globular, like that of the Primrose; whereas in the Convolvulus it is
divided into two substances, as is obviously shewn in the _Convolvulus
arvensis_ and _sepium_, but all the plants of these two genera have not
this character marked with equal strength.

The present species is a twining plant, will run up a stick to the
height of six, eight, or ten feet, and produce an abundance of flowers,
of a rich orange colour tending to scarlet, which renders it one of the
most ornamental annuals cultivated in our gardens, into which it is not
as yet generally introduced, though cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1759.

Mr. MILLER describes it as a native of Carolina, and the Bahama Islands,
Mr. AITON of the West-Indies; it flowers from June to September.

It is cultivated in the same manner, and with the same ease as other
annuals; three seeds may be set in the ground, about four inches
asunder, in the form of a triangle; when the seedlings are sufficiently
advanced, a tall stick is to be thrust down in the centre betwixt the
three plants, for them to twine around: the warmer and more sheltered
the situation, and the richer the soil in which they are placed, the
taller the plants will grow; by raising them on a hot bed, you may
anticipate their natural time of flowering, and be more certain of
obtaining good seed.

[Illustration: _No 221_]

[Illustration: _No 222_]



[222]

STRUTHIOLA ERECTA. SMOOTH STRUTHIOLA.

_Class and Order._

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ nulla. _Cal._ tubulosus, ore glandulis 8. _Bacca_ exsucca,
     polysperma. _Linn. Mant. p. 4. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p.
     165._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

STRUTHIOLA _erecta_ glabra. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 164._
     _Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 165._

PASSERINA _dodecandra_. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 513._ _Amæn. Acad. V.
     4. p. 271._

PASSERINA filiformis. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

PASSERINA. _Burm. Afric. t. 47. f. 1._

The plant here represented appears to have been first described and
figured by BURMAN, in his _Pl. Afric._ under the name of _Passerina_:
LINNÆUS introduced it in the 3d edition of his _Sp. Pl._ by the title of
_Passerina dodecandra_; discovering afterwards that it had in reality
only four stamina, and that the other eight substances, mistaken for
such, were so many glandular nectaria, he made in his _Mantiss. Plant._
a new genus of it, by the name of _Struthiola_, and assigned it the
trivial name of _erecta_; in the abbreviated generic description given
of it by Prof. MURRAY, an alteration is made in this generic character,
and what before was considered as Corolla, is here regarded as Calyx; no
reason is assigned for this alteration, and we are at a loss to account
for the propriety of it.

Mr. MILLER, who cultivated this plant in 1758, describes it in his
dictionary, and observes very justly, that though its branches when
young are erect, when loaded with blossoms they incline to a horizontal
position; hence the term _erecta_ becomes an improper one, and should be
changed for one more expressive.

This species of Struthiola is a very common shrub in our greenhouses,
will grow to the height of five or six feet, and, though not so
ornamental as some other plants, has the merit of flowering during most
of the year, and often in the depth of winter.

Is readily increased by cuttings.



[223]

LYCHNIS CORONATA. CHINESE LYCHNIS.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 1-phyllus, oblongus, lævis. _Petala_ 5, unguiculata: _Limbo_
     sub-bifido. _Caps._ 5-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LYCHNIS _coronata_ glabra, floribus axillaribus terminalibusque
     solitariis, petalis laciniatis. _Thunb. Japon. p. 187._ _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 435._ _Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 117._

LYCHNIS _grandiflora_ floribus axillaribus terminalibusque folitariis,
     petalis inæqualiter crenatis. _Jacq. Collect. V. 1. p. 149. Icon.
     V. 1._

JAPONICE sen sjun ra, vulgo Ganpi. _Kempf. Amæn. Exot. Fasc. V. p. 873._

The rich and elegant blossoms of this Chinese or Japanese beauty,
possess a flatness and stiffness, which gives them an artificial air, to
which their colour, which is exactly that of common red lead, may
perhaps somewhat contribute; they make their appearance towards the
close of the summer, and as many (when the plant is in health and
vigour) are produced on the same stem, they continue a considerable time
in bloom; its root is perennial, and its stem, which rises to the height
of about two feet, herbaceous.

We remember to have seen this plant in the collection of the late Dr.
FOTHERGILL at Upton, about the year 1774, by whom it was first
introduced to this country: KÆMPFER, the celebrated Dutch traveller, who
saw it growing in Japan, gives a very short description of it in his
_Amænitates exoticæ_, and mentions a variety of it with white flowers:
Professor THUNBERG, who saw it also in its wild state, as well as in the
gardens of that country, confines himself to describing the plant more
at large: Professor JACQUIN, in his _Icones_, has given an admirable
figure of it.

Persons here differ in their mode of cultivating this species of
Lychnis, some treating it as a stove others as a greenhouse and others
as a hardy herbaceous plant; the latter mode is to be preferred,
provided care be taken to plant it in a sheltered situation, and to
guard it against the inclemency of particular seasons; it is propagated
by parting its roots, also by slips, and cuttings, but in this business
more than ordinary care is required to be successful.

[Illustration: _No 223_]

[Illustration: _No 224_]



[224]

PHYLICA ERICOIDES. HEATH-LEAV'D PHYLICA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Perianthium_ 5-partitum, turbinatum. _Petala_ 0. _Squamæ_ 5, stamina
     munientes. _Caps._ tricocca, infera.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PHYLICA _ericoides_ foliis linearibus verticillatis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 235._ _Ait. Kew. V. 1. p. 268._

ALATERNOIDES africana ericæ foliis, floribus albicantibus et muscosis.
     _Comm. Hort. 2. p. 1. t. 1._

Mr. MILLER, who cultivated this plant in 1731, informs us, that it grows
wild about Lisbon, where it covers extensive tracts of ground, in the
same manner as the heath does in this country; it seldom rises above the
height of three feet, and is much disposed to become bushy; its flowers,
which are slightly odoriferous, begin to appear in autumn, and continue
during the winter and spring; they grow in little heads on the summits
of the branches: their whiteness, contrasted with the dark colour of the
foliage, forms a pleasing appearance, and entitles this plant, though a
common and long-established inhabitant of the greenhouse, to a place
with such as may boast more brilliancy of colour.

Its leaves, which thickly cover the stalks, do not well accord with
LINNÆUS's specific description.

It is usually propagated by cuttings, which strike readily.

[Illustration: _No 225_]



[225]

LOBELIA SURINAMENSIS. SHRUBBY LOBELIA.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA MONOGAMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. _Cor._ 1-petala, irregularis. _Caps._ infera, 2 sive
     3-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LOBELIA _surinamensis_ caule suffruticoso, foliis oblongis glabris
     serratis, floribus axillaribus pedunculatis. _Ait. Kew. V. 3. p.
     498. Sp. Pl. 1320._

LOBELIA _lævigata_ foliis ellipticis serratis glabris, capsulis grossis
     globosis, calycibus subulatis, corollis glaberrimis. _Linn. Suppl.
     p. 392._

The Lobelia surinamensis, a plant newly introduced here, is minutely
described in the _Suppl. Pl._ of the younger LINNÆUS, under the name of
_lævigata_, apparently from the smoothness of its flowers: in the year
1786, Mr. ALEXANDER ANDERSON sent this plant to the Royal Garden at Kew,
from the West-Indies, where it grows spontaneously, as well as at
Surinam; and Mr. AITON has inserted it at the end of the _Hort. Kew._
assigning to it a new specific description, and a new trivial name: our
drawing was made from a plant which flowered in the stove of Messrs.
GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington, to whom it was imparted by RICHARD
MOLESWORTH, Esq. of Peckham, a gentleman liberal in his communications,
and anxious to promote the cause of Botany.

This species of Lobelia is a stove plant, having a some-*what shrubby
stalk, growing to the height of several feet; its blossoms are very
large, of a pale red colour, and its Antheræ, which might be mistaken
for the stigma, unusually hairy.

It begins to flower in January and February, and continues to blossom
during most of the summer.

Is increased by cuttings.



[226]

ARABIS ALPINA. ALPINE WALL-CRESS.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Glandulæ_ nectariferæ 4, singulæ intra calycis foliola, squamæ instar
     reflexæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ARABIS _alpina_ foliis amplexicaulibus dentatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     ed. 14. Murr. p. 599._ _Ait. Kew. Vol. 2. p. 399._ _Mill. Dict. ed.
     6. 4to._

DRABA alba siliquosa repens. _Bauh. Pin. p. 109._

An early-blowing plant, if it has no great pretensions to beauty, brings
with it a powerful recommendation, more especially if its flowers are
not of the more common hue; such are the claims which the present plant
has to a place in this work: it is perennial, hardy, herbaceous, of low
growth, rarely exceeding a foot in height, producing its white blossoms
in April and May: its size renders it a suitable plant for the border of
a small garden, or for the covering of rock-work.

It is readily increased by parting its roots in autumn.

Grows spontaneously on the Alps of Switzerland, Austria, and Lapland,
and was cultivated (_vid. Hort. Kew_) in the Botanic Garden at Oxford,
in 1658.

[Illustration: _No 226_]



[227]

HELIANTHUS MULTIFLORUS. MANY-FLOWERED or PERENNIAL SUN-FLOWER.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ paleaceum, planum. _Pappus_ 2-phyllus. _Cal._ imbricatus,
     subsquarrosus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HELIANTHUS _multiflorus_ foliis inferioribus cordatis trinervatis
     superioribus ovatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 781._

CHRYSANTHEMUM americanum majus perenne, floris folis foliis et floribus.
     _Moris. Hist. 3. p. 23._

The Helianthus multiflorus, a native of North-America, is a hardy
perennial herbaceous plant, arising usually to the height of five or six
feet, and producing a great number of large yellow shewy blossoms, which
renders it a suitable plant to ornament the shrubbery or garden of large
extent; the variety with double flowers is the one most commonly
cultivated, and this we find in almost every garden: it flowers from
July to September, and is propagated by parting its roots in autumn.

This is a hardy plant, of ready growth, will bear the smoke of London
better than many others; if it continues in the same spot for a great
number of years, the blossoms are apt to become single.

The single sort, according to MORISON, was introduced before 1699 by
Lord LEMSTER. _Ait. Kew._

[Illustration: _No 227_]

[Illustration: _No 228_]



[228]

BELLIS PERENNIS _var._ MAJOR FLORE PLENO. GREAT DOUBLE DAISY.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ nudum, conicum. _Pappus_ nullus. _Cal._ hemisphæricus: squamis
     æqualibus. _Sem._ subovata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

BELLIS _perennis_ scapo nudo. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     770._

BELLIS hortensis flore pleno. _Bauh. Pin. p. 261._

BELLIS minor hortensis flore pleno. Double Garden Daisy. _Park. Parad.
     p. 322._

The daisy, a plant common to Europe, in its wild state delights in open
situations, which are moderately moist, its root is perennial, and
increases greatly; the usual colour of its flowers is white, the florets
are sometimes tipt with red, but more frequently red on the under side.

When double, the daisy becomes much more ornamental, and in this state
many varieties of it have long been cultivated, very generally in
gardens; those principally found in our nurseries are

The large double daisy with florets of a deep red colour on the under
side, figured on the plate; the flowers of this sort will sometimes
expand nearly to the size of a half-crown piece, and are the most shewy
of any that we have seen; the foliage of this sort is also
proportionably larger.

The pale red double daisy, more delicate in its appearance, but smaller,
varying in its shades of colour.

The pure white double daisy.

The deep red double daisy; in this the petals are usually tubular or
quilled.

Besides these, there are

The coxcomb double daisy, both red and white, in which the flowering
stem rises up preternaturally flattened, and carries on its summit a
long-extended ridge of flowers, frequently of an enormous size; this
monstrous production seems to arise from the coalescence of two or more
flowering stems: and as it is of accidental origin, so we find that a
daisy which has been a coxcomb one year, shall lose that appearance
entirely the next, and out of a long edging of daisies growing
luxuriantly, new ones shall here and there arise; we cannot therefore
depend upon the constancy of this variety.

Another singular variety is the proliferous or hen and chicken daisy, in
which a number of flowers standing on short footstalks spring circularly
out of the main flower; as this appearance for the most part arises from
great luxuriance[A], this sort of daisy is also found occasionally to
lose its prolific character: in my garden at Lambeth-Marsh, I once had a
daisy growing in an edging among a number of others, which not only
became proliferous, or of the hen and chicken kind, but its stalk also,
or scapus, became branched, producing six or seven flowering-stems, with
flowers at their extremities of the size of the common daisy; thus we
find that the most permanent characters of plants are liable to be
altered, and even destroyed, by accident, or culture.

Daisies appear to most advantage planted as an edging to a border, not
that they are superior, or even equal to box for the great purposes of
an edging; but in the spring of the year they enliven the border more,
and add much to the general gaiety of the garden: in the formation of
these, we shall give our readers some practical instructions, which will
enable them to succeed much better than by following the mode commonly
practised.

The last week in September, or the first in October, take up your daisy
roots, and divide them into single plants; your border being dug, put
down your line, and make a shallow trench along it as for the planting
of box; in this trench place your plants three inches apart, spreading
out their fibres in the trench, and pressing the earth closely round
them; in this way they will soon become rooted, and firmly fixed in the
ground before the approach of frost; should this business be deferred
later, as it frequently is, and the daisies be planted with a dibber in
the usual way, in all probability the worms will draw out every plant
before spring, especially if the earth has been rendered loose by
repeated frosts.

Edgings of this kind require to be replanted in the same way every
autumn, as the plants, if they grow well, spread too wide; if the summer
prove dry, many of the roots fail, and if they remain undisturbed in the
same spot, they will degenerate and become single, notwithstanding Mr.
MILLER informs us, that he never observed them to do so.

[Footnote A: We once saw a specimen of a hen and chicken daisy gathered
on a hill in Sussex, much inferior in size to the daisy as it usually
grows.]



[229]

PRIMULA ACAULIS FL. PLENO CARNEO. DOUBLE LILAC PRIMROSE.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Involucr._ umbellulæ. _Corollæ_ tubus cylindricus ore patulo.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PRIMULA _acaulis_ foliis rugosis dentatis, subtus hirsutis; scapis
     unifloris. _Jacq. Misc. Austr. p. 158._ _Curt. Flor. Lond. Fasc.
     6._

The Primrose in its wild single state is frequently introduced into
shrubberies and plantations, for the purpose of enlivening them in the
spring months; in its double state it has been deemed peculiarly worthy
of cultivation by the curious in flowers. Of the _double yellow_
Primrose, which seems to have been the first known, we meet with a
figure in the _Hort. Eyst._ and in the _Parad. Terrestr._ of PARKINSON,
since those publications many new and perfectly double varieties have
been introduced, as

The _double white_, rarely met with.

The _double deep red or velvet_, the blossoms of this will sometimes
come single.

The _double pink or lilac_, here figured, a plant much admired.

The _double crimson_, a new variety, which, in brilliancy of colour, far
surpasses all the others.

The _red_, commonly called the _Scotch Primrose_, less ornamental than
any of the preceding: besides these, we have observed a variety with
blossoms of a dingy yellow inclining to red, not worth cultivating.

These several varieties of Primrose are admirably adapted to the
decoration of the shrubbery, plantations, or even the north side of
rock-work; they delight to grow in a stiff loam, a moist and somewhat
shady situation, so planted they thrive admirably, the double succeeding
almost as well as the single; every second or third year their roots
should be divided, which may be done either in spring or autumn, they
may be cultivated also in pots for the convenience of removing them when
in blossom.

[Illustration: _No 229_]

[Illustration: _No 230_]



[230]

PLUMBAGO ROSEA. ROSE-COLOURED LEADWORT.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ infundibuliformis: _Stamina_ squamis basin corollæ
     claudentibus inserta. _Stigma_ 5-fidum. _Sem._ 1. oblongum
     tunicatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PLUMBAGO _rosea_ foliis petiolatis ovatis glabris, subdenticulatis caule
     geniculis gibbosis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 199.
     Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 215._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 205._

PLUMBAGO zeylanica, folio splendento ocymastri, flore rubro. _Burm.
     Zeyl. 195._

RADIX vesicatoria. _Rumph. Amboin. 5. p. 453. t. 168._

The _Plumbago rosea_, one of the most ornamental plants which we keep in
our stoves, is a native of India, from whence it was introduced to this
country by the late Dr. FOTHERGILL, in the year 1777, posterior to the
publication of the last edition of Mr. MILLER's Dictionary.

It is a shrubby plant, which frequently grows to the height of four or
five feet, and is perpetually putting forth flowering spikes; these
continue a long while in blossom, and hence, with proper management, it
may be had to flower during most of the year, a very desirable
circumstance in a plant of such singular beauty.

The usual mode of increasing it is by cuttings, which strike freely.

Its parts of fructification, whether we regard their colour or
structure, are highly deserving of notice.

[Illustration: _No 231_]



[231]

FUMARIA SOLIDA. SOLID-ROOTED FUMITORY.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA PENTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ diphyllus. _Cor._ ringens. _Filam._ 2 membranacea, singula
     _Antheris_ 3.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

FUMARIA _solida_, caule simplici, bracteis brevioribus multifidis,
     radice solida. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

FUMARIA _bulbosa_, caule simplici, bracteis longitudine florum. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 636. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 983._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 1._

FUMARIA _bulbosa_ radice non cava major. _Bauh. Pin. p. 144._ Small
     hollow roote. _Park Parad. p. 275. 279. f. 2._

By the old Botanists this species of _Fumaria_, whose root is constantly
solid, was considered as a distinct species from another similar to it
of larger growth, whose root is as constantly hollow, and which will be
figured in the next number of this work; CASPAR BAUHINE in particular,
in his _Pinax_, describes the characters in which they differ: LINNÆUS
nevertheless makes them varieties of each other, uniting them under the
name of _bulbosa_; from this union we have taken the liberty to dissent,
choosing rather to follow MILLER, who regards them as distinct, and the
Botanists preceding him.

The _Fumaria solida_, a very old inhabitant of our gardens, is a plant
of very humble growth, rarely exceeding three or four inches in height,
and producing its spike of purple flowers in April, which continue in
blossom about a fortnight.

In point of colour the flowers of this plant are not subject to much
variation, we possess a variety of it with blossoms of a much brighter
colour than those of the common sort, and which, on that account, is
much more worthy of cultivation.

As a spring plant, it deserves a place in the garden; in point of
ornament, it is applicable to the same purposes as the Primrose, will
grow in almost any soil or situation, requires to be taken up in the
autumn, and fresh-planted every two or three years; if suffered to
remain in the same spot for a great length of time, it becomes smaller,
produces few or no flowers, and is so altered in its appearance, as to
look like another species.

[Illustration: _No 232_]



[232]

FUMARIA CAVA. HOLLOW-ROOTED FUMITORY.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA HEXANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal_. diphyllus. _Cor._ ringens. _Filamenta_ 2 membranacea singula
     _Antheris_ 3.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

FUMARIA _cava_, caule simplici, bracteis longitudine florum integris,
     radice cava.

FUMARIA _bulbosa_ radice cava major. _Bauh. Pin. p. 143._

RADIX _cava_ major. _Park. Parad. p. 275._

The hollow-rooted Fumitory differs from the _solida_, already figured,
and that constantly, in a variety of particulars; its root is always, as
far as we have observed, hollow, appearing sometimes, as PARKINSON
informs us, "like a shell, every part of which when broken will grow;"
frequently acquiring a very great size; the plant itself usually grows
to twice the height of the _solida_, bearing foliage and flowers
proportionably large; its bracteæ or floral leaves, which in the
_solida_ assume a kind of finger'd appearance from the manner in which
they are divided, in this are entire or but slightly indented; it
flowers also about three weeks earlier.

Of the _Fumaria cava_ there are three principal varieties in point of
colour, viz. the white, the blush-coloured, and the purple, which,
though plentiful in our gardens formerly, are now rarely met with; Mr.
CHAPPELOW informs me, that he found them all this spring, in an old
plantation at Teddington, where they produced the most pleasing effect.

It begins to flower in March and continues in bloom three weeks or a
month, rarely produces any seed, so that it is to be propagated only by
dividing its roots; it is a hardy herbaceous plant, a native of Germany,
and will grow in almost any soil provided it be planted in a shady
situation.



[233]

CHIRONIA BACCIFERA. BERRY-BEARING CHIRONIA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ rotata. _Pistillum_ declinatum. _Stamina_ tubo corollæ
     infidentia. _Antheræ_ demum spirales. _Peric._ 2-loculare.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CHIRONIA _baccifera_ frutescens baccifera. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._
     _Murr. p. 229._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 258._

CENTAURIUM minus arborescens pulpiferum. _Comm. rar. 9. t. 9._

CENTAURIUM minus africanum arborescens angustifolium. _Old. afr. 26._

The _Chironia baccifera_, a native of Africa, is a plant not unfrequent
in our greenhouses; its flowers are curious in their structure, of a
lively hue, and suceeded by round seed-vessels, which, when ripe, have
the appearance of red berries, whence its name of _baccata_; if we
carefully examine these seed-vessels, we shall find that they are not
properly berries, for on cutting them transversly, they are found to be
hollow and to be divided into two cells (_vid. Pl._) in which are
contained small black seeds, whose surface is beautifully reticulated
with impressed dots; the sides of the seed-vessel are fleshy, and do not
appear to divide or split in any regular manner for the discharge of the
seed; they must however be regarded rather as capsules than berries: in
the genus _Hypericum_, the seed-vessels are found to vary in a somewhat
similar manner; in this part of the fructification there is not,
therefore, that deviation which has been supposed, but there is a very
great one in the antheræ, which do not ultimately become spiral.

This plant, which grows to the height of a foot and a half or two feet,
becomes very bushy, rather too much so in point of ornament, and
produces both flowers, and fruit, during most of the summer.

Though regarded as a greenhouse plant, it does not ripen its seeds well
unless kept in the stove; is with difficulty raised from cuttings, from
seeds readily, by which it requires to be frequently renovated.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER in 1759. _Ait. Kew._

[Illustration: _No 233_]

[Illustration: _No 234_]



[234]

LINUM ARBOREUM. TREE FLAX.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5. _Caps._ 5-valvis, 10-locularis. _Sem._
     solitaria.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LINUM _arboreum_ foliis cuneiformibus, caulibus arborescentibus. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 303._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 388._

LINUM _arboreum_. _Alp. Exot. 19. t. 13._

Contrary to what we observe in most of the plants of this genus, the
present very rare and no less beautiful species of Flax forms (if not a
tree, as its name imports) a shrub of the height of several feet, which
begins to flower in the green-house in March, and continues to be more
or less covered with blossoms to the close of the summer.

It is a native of the Levant, from whence it was introduced to this
country in the year 1788, with a profusion of other vegetables, by JOHN
SIBTHORP, M. D. the present celebrated Professor of Botany in the
University of Oxford; who, for the laudable purpose of promoting the
science in which he is so eminent, and of enriching the Oxford
collection, already rendered most respectable by his unwearied labours,
meditates, as we are informed, a second journey into Greece.

Hitherto this plant has produced no seeds in this country, and it is
with difficulty increased by cuttings.

Our figure was drawn from a plant which flowered in the spring with
Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington.



[235]

TROLLIUS ASIATICUS. ASIATIC GLOBE-FLOWER.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 0. _Petala_ circiter 14. _Capsulæ_ plurimæ, ovatæ, polyspermæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TROLLIUS _asiaticus_ corolla patula, nectariis staminibus longioribus.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 518._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     271._

HELLEBORUS aconiti folio, flore globoso croceo. _Amm. Ruth. 101._

Of this genus, two species only have as yet been discovered, the one a
native of Great-Britain, the other here figured the produce of Siberia
and Cappadocia, both hardy, perennial, herbaceous plants; the latter,
more particularly, from the bright orange colour of its flowers, held in
high estimation as an ornamental plant, and flowering in May and June.
This species, as yet rare in this country, is usually propagated by
parting its roots in autumn; it may also be raised from seeds, which
ripen frequently on strong healthy plants: to succeed in its
cultivation, we should plant it in a composition of loam and bog earth,
and place it in a north border, taking care that it does not suffer from
want of watering in dry summers.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1759. _Ait. Kew._

[Illustration: _No 235_]

[Illustration: _No 236_]



[236]

VERBASCUM MYCONI. BORAGE-LEAV'D MULLEIN.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ rotata, subinæqualis. _Caps._ 1-locularis 2-valvis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

VERBASCUM _myconi_ foliis lanatis radicalibus, scapo nudo. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 220._ _Ait. Kew. p. 238._

CORTUSA foliis ovatis sessilibus. _Linn. Hort. Cliff. 50._

SANICULA alpina, foliis boraginis villosa. _Bauh. Pin. 243._

AURICULA _ursi_ myconi. _Dalech. Hist. 837._

AURICULA _ursi_ flore coeruleo folio Boraginis. Blew Beares Eares with
     Borage leaves. _Park. Parad. p. 236. 237. f. 3._

Most of the plants of this genus are tall and shewy; the one here
figured is however, of very humble growth, its flowering stem in the
cultivated plant rarely exceeding six inches in height; its flowers are
proportionably large, of a blueish purple colour, and highly ornamental;
they make their appearance in May, and continue successively in blossom
for several months, hence it becomes a desirable plant to cultivate,
especially for the decorating of rock-work; it is very hardy, requires a
north aspect in the summer, and to be carefully watered in dry weather;
will grow in almost any soil, and is usually propagated by planting its
roots in autumn.

Grows spontaneously on the Pyrenean Alps; in its wild state it is more
dwarfish than our figure represents it, its foliage more woolly, and
enriched with various tints, which the plant loses on cultivation; such
specimens I saw in the possession of Dr. R. HALIFAX, of
Albemarle-Street, who gathered it on its native Alps.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1731, _Ait. Kew._ and most probably
long before that period by PARKINSON, who lives a figure and accurate
description of it in his _Parad. terrestris_.



[237]

OXALIC CARINA. GOAT'S-FOOT WOOD SORREL.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ Unibus connect. _Caps._ Anglos discerns,
     5-Gina.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

OXALIS _Carina_ scapis unbeliefs, foliis ternaries glabris, floribus
     erects. _Thunb. Oxalic, n. 11._ _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._
     _Murr. p. 433._

OXALIS _Peas Capra_ scapo embellisher, foliis ternaries sub bipartite
     apiece subtus callouses. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 622._

OXALIS bulbosa pentacle et hexagonal, floribus margins lutes et
     copiosis. _Burm. Afr. 80. t. 29. et t. 28. f. 3._

The Cape of Good-Hope, that most fertile source of curious and beautiful
plants, affords numerous species of Wood Sorrel, and, among others, the
present one, which is distinguished for the largeness of its blossoms;
they are of a fine yellow colour, and, when expanded by the influence of
the sun, make a very conspicuous figure in the green-house; it begins to
flower early in April, and continues about two months in bloom, many
flowering stems arising from the same root.

This species is of free growth, and increases plentifully by bulbs,
which are produced on the crown of the root, as well as on its fibres;
these, when the plant decays, should be taken up, and two or three of
the largest planted in the middle of a pot filled with a mixture of bog
earth and rotten leaves, well incorporated; towards winter, the pots
mould be placed in the green-house, or in a frame so secured as
perfectly to keep out frost.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1757. _Ait. Kew._

[Illustration: _No 237_]



[238]

SENECIO ELEGANS. PURPLE GROUNDSEL, or RAGWORT.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ simplex. _Cal._ cylindricus, calyculatus.
     _Squamis_ apice sphacelatis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SENECIO _elegans_ corollis radiants, foliis pontiffs æqualibus
     pianissimos margin increased recurved. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 757._

SENECIO _elegans_ corollis radiants, foliis polos-viscid is pontiffs
     æqualibus pianissimos, Roach inferno angsts, calycibus hurts. _Ait.
     Kew. v. 3. p. 193._

ASTER Africans Annuus senecionis foliis. _Comm. Hort. 2. p. 59. t. 30._

LINNÆUS has given to this charming annual the name of _elegans_, on
account of the great beauty of its flowers, the florets of the radius
being of a most brilliant purple, and those of the disk bright yellow;
colours regarded as peculiar to this plant, till the _Sen. venustus_
described in the _Hort. Kew._ was discovered and introduced here; it is
a native of the Cape and other parts of Africa, grows usually to the
height of a foot and a half, or two feet; flowers from June to August,
grows readily, requiring the same treatment as other annuals of the more
tender kind; seedling plants raised in the autumn in pots, and kept in
the green-house or under a frame during winter, will, of course, flower
much earlier than plants produced in the spring.

Within these few years, a variety of this Senecio with perfectly double
flowers, equally brilliant as those of the single kind, has been
introduced, and is here figured; this, from its superior beauty, is now
cultivated, in preference to the single; there is double variety of it
also with white flowers which being less shewy is not so much esteemed;
both of these are raised, and that readily, from cuttings, which as soon
as well rooted may be planted out in the open borders, where they will
be highly ornamental during most of the summer; as young plants are most
desirable, we should take care to have a constant succession from
cuttings regularly put in, and to preserve pots of such in particular,
in the green-house during winter, for early blowing the ensuing summer.

The single sort was cultivated here, by CHARLES DUBOIS, Esq. in the year
1700. _Ait. Kew._

[Illustration: _No 238_]



[239]

AMARYLLIS ATAMASCO. ATAMASCO LILY.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ hexapetaloidea, irregularis. _Filamenta_ fauci tubi inserta,
     declinata, inæqualia proportione vel directione. _Linn. Fil._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AMARYLLIS _Atamasco_ spatha bifida acuta, flore pedicellato, corolla
     campanulata subæquali erecta basi breve tubulosa, staminibus
     declinatis æqualibus. _Linn. Fil._ _Ait. Kew. p. 416._

AMARYLLIS _Atamasco_ spatha uniflora, corolla æquali, pistillo
     declinato. _Linn. Spec. Pl. ed 3. p. 420._

LILIO-NARCISSUS Indicus pumilus monanthus albus foliis angustissimis
     Atamasco dictus. _Moris. Hist. 11. p. 366. t. 24._

LILIO-NARCISSUS virginiensis. _Catesb. Carol. 3. p. 12. t. 12._

LILIO-NARCISSUS liliflorus carolinianus flore albo singulari cum
     rubedine diluto. _Pluk. Alm. 220. t. 43. f. 3._

The _Amaryllis Atamasco_ is a native of Virginia and Carolina, in which
countries it grows very plentifully in the fields and woods, where it
makes a beautiful appearance when it is in flower, which is in the
spring. The flowers of this sort are produced singly, and at their first
appearance have a fine Carnation colour on their outside, but this fades
away to a pale or almost white before the flowers decay. This plant is
so hardy as to thrive in the open air in England, provided the roots are
planted[B] in a warm situation and on a dry soil; it may be propagated
by offsets from the roots, which they put out pretty plentifully,
especially if they are not transplanted oftner than once in three years.
_Miller's Dict._

It is usual with the Nurserymen about London to keep this plant in the
greenhouse, where it flowers about the end of April.

Mr. CHARLES HATTON cultivated here in 1680, _Ait. Kew._ on the authority
of MORISON.

[Footnote B: CLAYTON in _Gronov. Fl. Virg._ says maddidis gaudet locis,
it delights to grow in wet places.]

[Illustration: _No 239_]

[Illustration: _No 240_]



[240]

PELARGONIUM TRICOLOR. THREE-COLOURED CRANE'S-BILL.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema desinente in tubulum capillarem,
     nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5-petala,
     irregularis. _Filamenta_ 10, inæqualia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata,
     Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata.
     _L'Herit. Geran._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PELARGONIUM _tricolor_ petalis duobus superioribus punctis prominulis
     lucidis ad basin scabris.

The _Pelargonium tricolor_, a species perfectly new, in point of beauty
is thought to eclipse all that have hitherto been introduced to this
country; its blossoms are certainly the most shewy, in a collection of
plants they are the first to attract the eye, the two uppermost petals
are of a beautiful red, having their bases nearly black, the three
lowermost are white, hence its name of _tricolor_: this peculiarity of
colour joined to their form, has induced some to fancy a similarity
betwixt its flowers and those of the Heartsease: to the blossoms of the
_Lathyrus articulatus_ in point of colour, they bear also a distant
resemblance.

In our eagerness to lay before the public this striking novelty, we may
possibly omit some circumstances relative to its history and treatment,
which future experience may develope, they will not, however, we trust
be very material; the plants which we have had an opportunity of seeing
have scarcely exceeded a foot in height, growing up with a shrubby stem,
and expanding widely into numerous flowering branches, unusually
disposed to produce flowers in a constant succession, so that during
most of the summer the plant is loaded with a profusion of bloom; these
flowers for the most part go off without being followed by any seed, and
when any seed is produced, of which we have seen a few instances, there
is generally one perfect and four abortive, frequently all of them fail;
the blossoms vary in the number of their stamina, four are most usually
apparent, three superior, and that very constantly, one inferior and
often two, we have never observed seven, the proper number of fertile
stamina in a _Pelargonium_: the whole plant is covered with short white
hairs which give to the foliage a somewhat silvery hue.

Instances have occurred in which one or more of the white petals have
had a stripe of red in them, and we have observed that the dark colour
at the base of the uppermost petals is, in a certain degree, soluble in
water, for on the plants being watered the white petals have here and
there become stained by the colouring matter proceeding from it, and
which, in a diluted state, is of a purplish tint: as the flowers decay,
this apparently black part, distinguished by the roughness of its
surface, arising from prominent lucid points, and which essentially
distinguish the species, is sometimes perforated with numerous small
holes.

Mr. MASSON, who is employed to collect plants at the Cape, for the Royal
Garden at Kew, and in which employment he so honourably acquits himself,
as the _Hortus Kewensis_ bears ample testimony, sent hither seeds of
this _Pelargonium_, which flowered in that matchless collection in the
year 1792; a few plants of it have also been raised from Cape seeds, by
Mr. WILLIAMS, Nurseryman, at Hammersmith, some of which flowered this
spring with Mr. COLVILL, Nurseryman, Kings-Road.

It must be several years before the lovers of plants can be generally
gratified with the possession of this plant, most of its branches
running out speedily into flowering stalks, form few proper for
cuttings, which are struck with difficulty, and perfect seeds are
sparingly produced.

It appears to be equally hardy as most others of the same tribe, and to
require a similar treatment.



[241]

FAGONIA CRETICA. CRETIAN FAGONIA.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5, cordata. _Caps._ 5-locularis,
     10-valvisi, loculis 1-spermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

FAGONIA _cretica_ spinosa, foliolis lanceolatis planis lævibus. _Linn.
     Sp. Pl. ed 3. p. 553._ _Mant. p. 380._ _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 401._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 62._

TRIFOLIUM spinosum Creticum. _Clus. Hist. 2. p. 242. f._ _Bauh. Pin. p.
     330._

FAGONIA cretica spinosa. _Tourn. Inst. p. 265._

CLUSIUS is the first author who has described and figured this plant, he
is very minute in his description of it, noticing the exact number of
its stamina; it is the more surprising, therefore, that he should have
so little idea of generic character, as to rank it with the trefoils
merely from the form of its leaves: TOURNEFORT, born to illustrate the
genera of plants, named it _Fagonia_ in honour of his friend and patron,
Mons. FAGON, privy counsellor and consulting physician to LEWIS XIV.

This species is a native of the island of Candia, and was cultivated
here by Mr. MILLER, in 1739; it is an annual, and as it does not perfect
its seeds with us in the open air, unless in very favourable seasons, it
is usually treated as a green-house plant, its seeds should be sown in
the autumn, as it thereby flowers earlier, and ripe seeds are with more
certainty obtained.

It blossoms from June to August.

The plant from which our drawing was made, flowered this season in the
very rich collection of Messrs. LEE and KENNEDY, Hammersmith.

Its branches are usually procumbent, about a foot in length, and
require, if the plant be kept in a pot, to be tied up to a stick.

[Illustration: _No 241_]

[Illustration: _No 242_]



[242]

VERONICA DECUSSATA. CROSS-LEAV'D SPEEDWELL.

_Class and Order._

DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ limbo 4-partito: lacinia infima angustiore. _Caps._ 2-locularis
     apice emarginata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

VERONICA _decussata_ spicis terminalibus paniculatis, foliis oblongis
     integerrimis lævigatis coriaceis, caule fruticoso. _Ait. Kew. v. 1.
     p. 20._

VERONICA _decussata_ floribus racemosis axillaribus, foliis ovalibus
     decussatis integerrimis. _Moench. Weissenstein. p. 137._ _Linn.
     Syst. Nat. tom. 2. ed. 13._ _Gmel. p. 30._

The plant here represented, is a native of Falkland's Island, and was
introduced to this country by Dr. FOTHERGILL, about the year 1776; if
permitted to grow, it will become a bushy shrub of a considerable size:
it has been chiefly admired for the unusual and regular growth of its
leaves, which are ever-green, and grow thickly on the branches,
cross-wise, affording an excellent example of the _folia decussata_; but
it is entitled to our admiration on another account, its blossoms have a
most delicious fragrance (similar to that of the _Olea fragrans_) not
mentioned by authors, and we believe scarcely known, having never heard
it spoken of by those who have cultivated the plant; its flowers, which
are white, are produced on the tops of the branches, which, however,
they do not strictly terminate, but usually grow out just below the
summits, on short racemi; the corolla is sometimes divided into five
segments, and there is a greater equality in the segments than is
usually found in the flowers of the Veronica, the seed-vessel differs
also in its form, being longer, more oval, and scarcely emarginate;
these several deviations from the structure of the Veronica genus,
joined to the fragrance of the blossoms of this plant, induce us to
think, that it has more affinity with the _Olea_ above mentioned.

Cultivators complain, that it does not blow freely; without any
peculiarity of treatment, it flowers with us every year, about the
middle of June; it is one of the more hardy greenhouse plants, which
is usually and readily increased by cuttings.

[Illustration: _No 243_]



[243]

ARGEMONE MEXICANA. MEXICAN ARGEMONE, or PRICKLY POPPY.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-petala. _Cal._ 3-phyllus. _Caps._ semivalvis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ARGEMONE _mexicana_ capsulis sexvalvibus, foliis spinosis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 490._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 225._

PAPAVER spinosum. _Clus. Hist. 2. p. 93._

CARDUUS chrysanthemus Peruanus. The Golden Thistle of Peru. _Ger. Herb.
     p. 993._

This species of Argemone is a native of Mexico, and the West-Indies,
where we should suppose it to be a very common and noxious weed, from
the name there given it of _Fico del inferno_, or the _Devil's Fig_: it
has long been introduced to this country; GERARD, who cultivated it with
success, ludicrously attributes its nickname to a different source: "The
golden Thistle of Peru, called in the West-Indies, Fique del inferno, a
friend of mine brought it unto me from an iland there, called Saint
Johns Iland, among other seedes, what reason the inhabitants there have
to call it so it is unto me unknown, unless it be bicause of his fruite,
which doth much resemble a figge in shape and bignesse, but so full of
sharpe and venemous prickles, that whosoever had one of them in his
throte, doubtless less it would send him packing either to heaven or to
hell."

MILLER mentions it as a plant of no great use or beauty, in the latter
point of view CLUSIUS, who was one of the first to figure and describe
it, and GERARD, thought differently; its foliage is certainly beautiful,
somewhat like that of the milk thistle, its blossoms are large and
shewy, though not of long duration; like the Celandine, the whole plant
abounds with a yellow juice, which flows out when it is wounded; it
differs from the poppy, to which it is nearly related, in having a calyx
of three leaves.

Though a native of a very warm climate, it is cultivated with as much
facility as any annual whatever; in the gardens about London, where it
has once grown, and scattered its seeds, it comes up spontaneously every
spring, flowers in July and August, and ripens its seeds in September;
these are large, somewhat round, of a black colour, with a beautiful
surface; a light rich soil and warm situation suits it best.



[244]

IPOMOEA QUAMOCLIT. WINGED LEAV'D IPOMOEA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ infundibuliformis. _Stigma_ capitato-globosum. _Caps._
     3-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IPOMOEA _Quamoclit_ foliis pinnatifidis linearibus, floribus
     subsolitariis. _Linn, Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 204._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. 1. p. 215._

QUAMOCLIT _s_ Jasminum Americanum. _Clus. Posth. 9._

CONVOLVULUS tenuifolius Americanus. The red Bellflower of America.
     _Park. Parad. p. 358. 3._

In a former number of this work, we gave a figure of the Scarlet
Ipomoea, which every one possessing a garden, at least in the more
southern parts of this kingdom, might gratify themselves with a sight
of, it being hardy enough to flower and ripen its seeds in the open
border; but the present species, an annual also, and equally beautiful,
with greater singularity of foliage, can be brought to perfection only
in the stove of hot-house.

Its seeds should be sown early in the spring, two or three in a small
pot; when the plants are so far advanced as to shew a disposition to
climb, they should be removed with a ball of earth into a middle-sized
pot, in which one, two, or three sticks, four or five feet high should
be stuck, for the plants to climb up; in the months of June and July
they will flower, and ripe seed will be produced in September.

This elegant species, a native of both the Indies, was cultivated here
by PARKINSON, who minutely describes it in his _Parad terr._ when
speaking of the seed, he observes, "with us it will seldom come to
flower, because our cold nights and frosts come so soone, before it
cannot have comfort enough of the sun to ripen it."

[Illustration: _No 244_]



[245]

TEUCRIUM LATIFOLIUM. BROAD-LEAV'D SHRUBBY GERMANDER.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ labium superius (nullum) ultra basin 2-partitum, divaricatum ubi
     stamina.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TEUCRIUM _latifolium_ foliis integerrimis rhombeis acutis villosis
     subtus tomentosis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 526._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 276._

TEUCRIUM fruticans bæticum ampliore folio. _Dill. Elth. 379. t. 284. f.
     367._

The _Teucrium latifolium_ as well as the _fruticans_, which is nearly
related to it, is a native of Spain, and was cultivated in this country
in 1714, by the Duchess of BEAUFORT, _vid. Ait. Kew._

It is a shrubby plant, growing to the height of seven or eight feet (it
may be trained to a much greater height) now common in our greenhouses,
and sometimes planted in the open border in warm situations, where it
will bear about the same degree of cold as the myrtle; it flowers during
most of the summer months, and is readily increased by cuttings.

[Illustration: _No 245_]

[Illustration: _No 246_]



[246]

AQUILEGIA CANADENSIS. CANADIAN COLUMBINE.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 0. _Petala_ 5. _Nectaria_ 5 corniculata, inter petala. _Caps._ 5
     distinctæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AQUILEGIA _canadensis_ nectariis rectis, staminibus corolla longioribus.
     _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 535._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     248._

AQUILEGIA _pumila_ praæox canadensis. _Corn. Canad. 60._

AQUILEGIA præcox canadensis; flore externe rubicundo, medio luteo.
     _Moris. Hist. 111. p. 457. t. 2. f. 4._

AQUILEGIA Virginiania flore rubescente præcox.

The early red Columbine of Virginia. _Park. Th. p. 1367._

PARKINSON was not acquainted with this plant when he wrote his _Parad.
terr._ but in his larger and more general work, the _Theat. Pl._
published in 1640, he describes and figures it as a plant newly
introduced from Virginia, by Mr. JOHN TRADESCANT: CORNUTUS, in his
account of the plants of Canada, gives us a representation and a
description of this plant also; according to him, its usual height in
that country is about nine inches; in the gardens here it nearly equals
the common Columbine, which it considerably resembles in the appearance
of its foliage, but differs in the form and colour of its flowers, the
horn of the nectary is straighter, and the blossom in some of its parts
inclines more to orange, which renders it highly ornamental.

It is a hardy perennial, and may be easily propagated by parting its
roots in autumn or spring; it may also be raised from seeds, which ripen
readily here; these are found to be a long time in vegetating, as are
others of this genus.

We have observed in some gardens, a Columbine of more humble growth than
the one here figured, called by the name of _canadensis_, and which most
probably is a variety of our plant, its blossoms spread wider, are of a
pale red colour without any orange, and hence being less beautiful, is,
of course, less worthy of culture.



[247]

SCABIOSA ATROPURPUREA. SWEET SCABIOUS.

_Class and Order._

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ communis polyphyllus; proprius duplex, superus. _Recept._
     paleaceum nudum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SCABIOSA _atropurpurea_ corollulis quinquefidis radiantibus, foliis
     dissectis, receptaculis florum subulatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 145._ _Ait. Kew. v. i. p. 137._

SCABIOSA peregrina rubra capite oblongo. _Bauh. Pin. 270._

SCABIOSA vi. indica. _Clus. Hist. 2. p. 3._

Red flowered Indian Scabious. _Park. Parad. 324._

It is not a little singular that we should have no certain account of
what country this species of Scabious is a native; CLUSIUS who describes
and figures it accurately, relates that he received seeds of it from
Italy, under the name of _Indian Scabious_; he informs us also that he
received seeds of a Scabious from Spain, which the same year produced
flowers of a similar colour, but paler; PARKINSON says this plant is
verily thought to grow naturally in Spain and Italy; does he borrow this
idea from what CLUSIUS has advanced? he certainly gives no authority for
his supposition: LINNÆUS mentions it as a native of India with a note of
doubt; MILLER does the same, omitting any doubts about it; Mr. AITON
leaves its place of growth unsettled.

The Sweet Scabious has long and deservedly held a place as an ornamental
plant in our gardens, the flowers are well adapted for nosegays, have a
sweet musky smell, and are produced in great profusion from June to
October.

It is a hardy biennial, requiring yearly to be raised from seeds, these
should be sown about the latter end of May, or beginning of June, on a
shady border of fresh earth, thinning the plants as they advance to the
distance of three or four inches; in autumn they should be removed into
the border, where they are intended to flower, thus treated they will
become good strong plants against winter, flower early the ensuing
summer, and produce abundance of perfect seeds.

The blossoms vary in colour, towards autumn the edge of the florets
become paler.

PARKINSON, deviating from his usual accuracy, describes the flowers
without scent. _vid. Parad._

[Illustration: _No 247_]

[Illustration: _No 248_]



[248]

VINCA ROSEA. MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

Contorta. _Folliculi_ 2 erecti. _Semina_ nuda.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

VINCA _rosea_ caule fructescente erecto, foliis ovato oblongis, petiolis
     basi bidentatis, floribus geminis sessilibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 252._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 296._

VINCA foliis oblongo-ovatis integerrimis, tubo floris longissimo, caule
     ramoso fruticoso. _Mill. Icon. 86._

The _Vinca rosea_ was first Cultivated in this country by Mr. PHILIP
MILLER in 1757, he observes that it deserves a place in the stove as
much as any of the exotic plants we have in England, because the flowers
are very beautiful, and there is a constant succession of them all the
summer.

The following account is extracted from his Dictionary.

"This plant grows naturally in the Island of Madagascar, from whence the
seeds were brought to the Royal Garden at Paris, where the plants were
first raised, and produced their flowers the following summer; from
these plants good seeds were obtained, which were sent me by Mr.
RICHARD, gardener to the King at Versailles and Trianon. It rises to the
height of three or four feet; the branches which when young are
succulent become ligneous by age: these flowers which appear early in
the summer produce ripe seeds in the autumn.

"This sort is propagated by seeds or cuttings in the usual way; unless
the summer proves warm these plants should not be placed abroad, for
they will not thrive if they are exposed to cold or wet, therefore
during the summer they should be placed in an airy glass-case, and in
winter they must be removed into the stove, where the air is kept to a
temperate heat, without which they will not live through the winter in
England. _Mill. Dict._

There is a variety of this plant having white blossoms with a purple
eye.

The flowers do not always grow in pairs.

[Illustration: _No 249_]



[249]

CINERARIA AMELLOIDES. BLUE-FLOWERED CINERARIA or CAPE ASTER.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLOA.

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ nullum. _Pappus_ simplex. _Cal._ simplex polyphyllus æqualis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CINERARIA _Amelloides_ pedunculis unifloris, foliis oppositis ovatis
     nudis, caule suffruticoso. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     765._ _Ait Kew. v. 3. p. 219._

ASTER africanus frutescens ramosus, floribus cæruleis, foliis oppositis
     minimis, caulibus et ramulis in pedunculos nudos exeuntibus. _Raii
     Suppl. 158._

ASTER caule ramoso scabro perenni, foliis ovatis sessilibus, pedunculis
     nudis unifloris. _Mill. Icon. 76. f. 2._

The _Cineraria Amelloides_ a plant common in every green-house, was
introduced by Mr. PHILIP MILLER as long since as the year 1753, being
raised by him from Cape seeds; it forms a bushy shrub, of the height of
two, or three feet, produces numerous blossoms, which stand singly on
long footstalks, are of a pale blue colour; they make some amends for
their want of brilliancy by flowering during most of the year.

The plant is easily propagated either by seeds or cuttings.



[250]

MYRTUS TOMENTOSA. WOOLLY-LEAVED MYRTLE.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus, superus. _Petala_ 5. _Bacca_ 2. s. 3 sperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MYRTUS _tomentosa_ pedunculis unifloris, foliis triplinervii, subtus
     tomentosis. _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 159._

ARBOR sinensis canellæ folio minore, trinervi, prona parte villoso,
     fructu caryophylli aromatici majoris villis similiter obducto.
     _Pluk. Amalth. 21. t. 372. f. 1._

In the third edition of the _Species Plant._ of LINNÆUS, published in
1764, thirteen Myrtles are described; in the 13th edition of the _Syst.
Natur._ published by GMELIN in 91, forty-one are enumerated; thus in
twenty-seven years this genus has gained an accession of twenty-eight
species: most of these are natives of warm climates, and few
comparatively have been introduced to this country, six species only
being mentioned in the _Hort. Kew._ of Mr. AITON, in that work the
_tomentosa_ here figured, not known to LINNÆUS or MILLER is specifically
described, and there Mr. AITON informs us that it is a native of China,
and was introduced by Mrs. NORMAN about the year 1766.

Since that period it has fallen into the hands of various cultivators,
and flowered perhaps in greater perfection than it did originally at
Kew; the peduncles, in the various specimens we have seen usually
supporting more than one flower.

It is a shrub of great beauty, both in respect to its foliage and
flowers, bearing but little similitude to the common Myrtle, if suffered
to grow, acquiring the height of many feet.

Its blossoms are produced in June and July, the buds are covered with a
white down, as is also the underside of the leaves, whence its name of
_tomentosa_.

It has been customary to treat it as a stove plant, such it is
considered in the _Hort. Kew._ there is great reason however to believe,
that it is by no means tender, and that it may succeed as most of the
Chinese plants do in a good greenhouse.

It is usually increased by cuttings which are struck difficulty.

[Illustration: _No 250_]



[251]

ALLIUM DESCENDENS. PURPLE-HEADED GARLICK.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-partita, patens. _Spatha_ multiflora. _Umbella_ congesta.
     _Caps._ supera.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ALLIUM _descendens_ caule subteretifolio umbellifero, pedunculis
     exterioribus brevioribus, staminibus tricuspidatis. Linn. _Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 322._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 425._

ALLIUM staminibus alterne trifidis, foliis fistulosis, capite sphærico
     non bulbifero atropurpureo. _Hall. All. Tab. 2. f. p. 355. xx. ii._

BARON HALLER in his most admirable _Monographia_ on the plants of this
genus, published in his _Opuscula Botanica_, describes and figures this
species, a hardy perennial, being a native of Switzerland, and
cultivated according to Mr. AITON, in the garden at Oxford in 1766.

It usually grows to the height of three feet, thriving in almost any
soil or situation, its flowers as in many other species grow in a
capitulum or little head, not an umbel, strictly speaking, as LINNÆUS
describes it; this head is at first covered with a whitish membrane,
wearing some resemblance to a night-cap, on the falling off of which the
whole of the capitulum is perceived to be of a green colour, shortly the
crown of it becomes of a fine reddish purple, this colour extends itself
gradually downwards, presently we see the upper half of the head purple,
the lower half green, in this state it has a most pleasing appearance;
the purple still extending downwards, the whole head finally becomes
uniformly so, and then its flowers begin to open, and emit an odour
rather agreeable than otherwise; on dissecting a flower we find three of
the stamina in each longer than the others, and bearing two little
points, which proceed not from the antheræ, but from the top of the
filaments, it is therefore one of those Alliums which LINNÆUS describes,
as having _Antheræ bicornes_.

This species increases readily by offsets, which should be separated and
planted in Autumn.

We know not why LINNÆUS should give it the name of _descendens_, unless
from its being one of those plants whose roots in process of time
descend deeply into the earth.

[Illustration: _No 251_]

[Illustration: _No 252_]



[252]

CAMPANULA GRANDIFLORA. GREAT-FLOWERED BELL-FLOWER.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ campanulata fundo clauso valvis staminiferis. _Stigma_ trifidium.
     _Caps._ insera poris lateralibus dehiscens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CAMPANULA _grandiflora_ caule subunifloro, foliis sublanceolatis
     serratis, corolla patente. _Jacq. in Litt. Hort. v. 3. t. 2._

CAMPANULA _grandiflora_ foliis ternis oblongis serratis, caule unifloro,
     flore patulo. _Linn. Suppl. p. 140. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     207._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 218._

Professor JACQUIN is, we believe, the first author who has figured this
species of Campanula, which he has done in his _Hortus Vindebonensis_;
LINNÆUS the Son afterwards inserted it in his _Suppl. Pl._ assigning it
the characters specified above in the synonyms, and expressing his
doubts whether it was not a variety of the _Campanula carpatica_,
already figured in this work, _Pl. 117_. Prof. JACQUIN clearly
demonstrates that it cannot be so, as it differs most essentially from
that plant in a variety of particulars, _vid. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14.
Murr._ his specific description there given, agrees much better with the
plants we have seen flower here, than that of LINNÆUS does, there being
generally more than one flower on a stalk, and the leaves rarely growing
three together.

The blossoms of this plant when it grows in perfection, are very large,
nearly twice the size of those of the _Campanula carpatica_, whence its
name of _grandiflora_; previous to their opening fully, they somewhat
resemble an air balloon, from which circumstance it has been called by
some the Balloon plant.

It is a hardy perennial, a native of Siberia and Tartary, and was
introduced to this country by Mr. JOHN BELL in the year 1782.

It flowers in July, is as yet a rare plant in this country, and likely
to continue so, as it is not easily increased, multiplying but little by
its roots, scarcely to be struck from cuttings, and rarely producing
perfect seeds.



INDEX.

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _Seventh Volume_
are alphabetically arranged.


  _Pl._
  251  Allium descendens.
  239  Amaryllis Atamasco.
  226  Arabis alpina.
  243  Argemone mexicana.
  246  Aquilegia canadensis.
  228  Bellis perennis var. major fl. pl.
  217  Buchnera viscosa.
  252  Campanula grandiflora.
  233  Chironia baccifera.
  249  Cineraria Amelloides.
  218  Disandra prostrata.
  220  Erica cerinthoides.
  241  Fagonia cretica.
  231  Fumaria solida.
  232  ---- cava.
  227  Helianthus multiflorus.
  221  Ipomoea coccinea.
  244  ---- Quamoclit.
  234  Linum arboreum.
  225  Lobelia surinamensis.
  223  Lychnis coronata.
  219  Michauxia campanuloides
  250  Myrtus tomentosa.
  237  Oxalis caprina.
  240  Pelargonium tricolor.
  224  Phylica ericoides.
  230  Plumbago rosea
  229  Primula acaulis fl. pl. carneo.
  247  Scabiosa atropurpurea.
  238  Senecio elegans.
  222  Struthiola erecta.
  245  Teucrium latifolium.
  235  Trollius asiaticus
  248  Vinca rosea.
  236  Verbascum Myconi.
  242  Veronica decussata



INDEX.

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the _Seventh
Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.


  _Pl._
  252  Bell flower great-flowered.
  217  Buchnera clammy.
  233  Chironia berry-bearing.
  249  Cineraria blue-flowered.
  246  Columbine canadian.
  240  Cranes-bill three-coloured
  228  Daisy great double.
  218  Disandra trailing.
  241  Fagonia cretian.
  234  Flax tree.
  231  Fumitory solid-rooted.
  232  ---- hollow-rooted.
  251  Garlick purple-headed
  245  Germander broad-leaved shrubby.
  235  Globe-flower Asiatic.
  220  Heath honeywort-flowered.
  221  Ipomoea scarlet.
  244  ---- winged-leaved.
  230  Leadwort rose-coloured.
  239  Lily Atamasco.
  225  Lobelia shrubby.
  223  Lychnis chinese.
  219  Michauxia rough-leaved.
  236  Mullein borage-leaved.
  250  Myrtle woolly-leaved.
  248  Periwinkle Madagascar.
  224  Phylica heath-leaved.
  243  Poppy prickly.
  229  Primrose lilac double.
  238  Rag wort purple.
  247  Scabious sweet.
  242  Speedwell cross-leaved.
  222  Struthiola smooth.
  227  Sunflower perennial.
  226  Wall-cress alpine.
  237  Wood-sorrel goat's-foot.





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