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Title: The Botanical Magazine Vol. 8 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
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  THE

  BOTANICAL MAGAZINE;

  OR,

  Flower-Garden Displayed:

  IN WHICH

  The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the
  Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately
  represented in their natural Colours.

  TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

  Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according
  to the celebrated LINNÆUS; their Places of Growth,
  and Times of Flowering:

  TOGETHER WITH

  THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

  A WORK

  Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as
  wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.

  By _WILLIAM CURTIS_,

  Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

  VOL. VIII.

  "Much I love
  To see the fair one bind the straggling pink,
  Cheer the sweet rose, the lupin, and the stock,
  And lend a staff to the still gadding pea.
  Ye fair, it well becomes you. Better thus
  Cheat time away, than at the crowded rout,
  Rustling in silk, in a small room, close-pent,
  And heated e'en to fusion; made to breathe
  A rank contagious air, and fret at whist,
  Or sit aside to sneer and whisper scandal."

                                  VILLAGE CURATE, p. 74.

_LONDON:_

PRINTED BY STEPHEN COUCHMAN, For W. CURTIS, No 3, _St.
George's-Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road; And Sold by the principal
Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland, M DCC XCIV. */



[253]

LATHYRUS ARTICULATUS. JOINTED-PODDED LATHYRUS.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Stylus_ planus, supra villosus, superne latior. _Cal._ laciniæ
     superiores 2-breviores.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LATHYRUS _articulatus_ pedunculis subunifloris, cirrhis
     polyphyllis; foliolis alternis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr.
     p. 662._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 41._

     CLYMENUM hispanicum, flore vario, siliqua articulata. _Tourn. Inst.
     396._

     LATHYRUS hispanicus, pedunculis bifloris, cirrhis polyphyllis
     foliolis alternis. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

The seed-vessels are of the first importance in ascertaining the several
species of Lathyrus, some being naked, others hairy, some long, others
short, some having a smooth and perfectly even surface, others, as in
the present instance, assuming an uneven or jointed appearance.

Of this genus we have already figured three annual species, common in
flower-gardens, viz. _odoratus_, _tingitanus_, and _sativus_; to these
we now add the _articulatus_, not altogether so frequently met with, but
meriting a place on the flower-border, as the lively red and delicate
white so conspicuous in its blossoms, causes it to be much admired.

It is a native of Italy, and was cultivated at the Chelsea Garden, in
the time of Mr. RAND, anno 1739.

It is a hardy annual, requiring support, and rarely exceeding the height
of two feet, flowering in July and August, and is readily raised from
seeds, which should be sown in the open border at the beginning of
April.

[Illustration: No 253]

[Illustration: No 254]



[254]

LOPEZIA RACEMOSA. MEXICAN LOPEZIA.

_Class and Order._

MONANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-phyllus. _Cor._ irregularis, pentapetala, duo superiora
     geniculata, quintum inferne declinatum, plicatum, ungue arcuata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LOPEZIA _racemosa_ caule herbaceo ramoso; foliis alternis
     ovato-lanceolatis, serratis; floribus racemosis. _Cavanilles Ic. et
     descr. Pl._

Some plants have a claim on our attention for their utility, some for
their beauty, and some for the singularity of their structure, and the
wonderful nature of their oeconomy; in the last class we must place
the present plant, the flowers of which we recommend to the examination
of such of our readers as may have an opportunity of seeing them; to the
philosophic mind, not captivated with mere shew, they will afford a most
delicious treat.

We first saw this novelty in flower, towards the close of the year 1792,
at the Apothecaries Garden, Chelsea, where Mr. FAIRBAIRN informed me,
that he had that season raised several plants of it from seeds,
communicated by Dr. J. E. SMITH, who received them from Madrid, to which
place they were sent from South-America, and where the plant as Mons.
CAVANILLE informs us, grows spontaneously near Mexico. In October 1793,
we had the pleasure of seeing the plant again in blossom in the
aforesaid garden, raised from seeds which ripened there the preceding
year, but unfortunately from the lateness of their flowering, and the
very great injury the plants had sustained from the Cobweb Mite (_Acarus
teliarius_) vulgarly called the red Spider, there seemed little prospect
that the seed-vessels would arrive at perfection.

The seeds were sown by Mr. FAIRBAIRN, in March, and the plants kept in
the green-house till very late in the summer, when to accelerate their
blowing, they were removed into the dry stove: it is worthy of remark,
that these plants, even late in the autumn, shew no signs of blossoming,
but the flowers at length come forth with almost unexampled rapidity,
and the seed-vessels are formed as quickly, so that if the flowers were
not very numerous, their blossoming period would be of very short
duration; future experience may perhaps point out the means of making
the plant blow earlier: in Spain, the blossoms appeared later than here,
Mons. CAVANILLE observed them in the Royal Garden, in November and
December, most probably in the open ground, as no mention is made of the
plants having been preserved from the weather.

It was not till long after our description was taken, that we had an
opportunity of seeing Mons. CAVANILLE'S most accurate and elegant work,
above quoted, in which this plant is first figured and described; we
have selected the most essential parts of his generic character, and
adopted his specific description: there is one point, however, in which
we differ from him; the part which he regards as the fifth Petal, we are
inclined to consider rather as that indescribable something, called by
LINNÆUS the Nectary, it is indeed of little moment whether we call it a
Petal or a Nectary, but there are several reasons why, strictly
speaking, we cannot regard it as a Petal: in general the number of
Petals correspond with the number of the leaves of the Calyx, those of
the latter are four; the base of this Nectary originates deeper than the
claws of the Petals, springing in fact from the same part as the
Filament, its structure, especially the lower part of it, is evidently
different from that of the Petals, corresponding indeed as nearly as
possible with that of the base of the filament.--_Vid._ DESCER.

Mons. CAVANILLE was induced to call this plant _Lopezia_, in compliment
to TH. LOPEZ, a Spaniard[1].

[Footnote 1: In honorem Licent. THOMÆ LOPEZ, Burgensis, qui aliquot
annos Regii Senatoris munere functus in America, CAROLO V. imperante. In
patriam reversus breviarium historiæ naturalis novi orbis scripsit sub
titulo de tribus elementis aëre, aqua, et terra, MS. apud eundem
Muguozium.]



DESCRIPTION OF THE LOPEZIA.

ROOT annual.

     STALK five or six feet high, branched almost to the bottom, square,
     of a deep red colour, smooth towards the bottom, slightly hairy
     above: _Branches_ like the stalk.

     LEAVES alternate, ovate, pointed, toothed on the edges, more so on
     the larger leaves, slightly beset with soft hairs, veins prominent
     on the under side, usually running parallel to each other and
     unbranched: _Leafstalks_ hairy.

     FLOWERS numerous, from the alæ of the leaves, growing irregularly
     on hairy leafy racemi, standing on long slender peduncles, which
     hang down as the seed-vessels are produced: in this and some others
     of its characters, the plant shews some affinity to the _Circæa_.

     CALYX: a _Perianthium_ of four leaves, sitting on the Germen,
     leaves narrow, concave, reddish, with green tips, the lowermost one
     widely separated from the others, and placed immediately under the
     Nectary, _fig._ 1.

     COROLLA four _Petals_ of a pale red colour, forming in their mode
     of growth the upper half of a circle, the two uppermost linear, of
     a deeper colour near the apex, jointed below the middle, with a
     small green gland on each joint, standing on short round
     footstalks, which are hairy when magnified, the two side Petals
     nearly orbicular with long narrow claws, the part between the base
     of the Petal and the claw of a deeper red or crimson, _fig._ 2.

     NECTARY situated below the Petals, perfectly white, somewhat ovate,
     the sides folding together, before the flower fully expands, nearly
     upright, embracing and containing within it the Pistillum and
     Stamen, on touching it ever so slightly with the point of a pin,
     while in this state, it suddenly springs back and quits the
     Pistillum, the lower elastic part of it is then bent in the form
     represented in a magnified view of the flower on the plate, _fig._
     4. this curious phoenomenon has not been noticed by CAVANILLE.

     STAMEN: _Filament_ one, tapering and very slender just below the
     Anthera, arising from the same part as (and placed opposite to the
     base of) the Nectary the lower part of it broader, somewhat fleshy,
     cartilaginous, and of the same nature as the inferior part of the
     Nectary, with a groove as that has on the inside, so that before
     the flower expands, the bases of each are like two half tubes, the
     sides of which, nearly touching each other, wholly enclose the
     Pistillum; as the fructification goes forward, the Filament,
     endowed also with an elastic power, bends back soon after the
     flower is open, betwixt the two uppermost Petals, and becomes
     invisible to an inattentive observer; the Anthera, which is large,
     is at first yellow, and afterwards dark brown, _fig._ 5.

     PISTILLUM: _Germen_ below the Calyx, round, smooth, and green;
     _Style_ filiform, white, length of the Filament; Stigma forming a
     small villous head, _fig._ 6. in some of the flowers the Pistillum
     appears imperfect, being much shorter than usual, and wanting the
     Stigma, perhaps such have not acquired their full growth, _fig._ 6.

     PERICARPIUM (from CAVANILLE) a round _Capsule_, of four cells, and
     four valves, the cells many-seeded.

SEEDS very minute, ovate, affixed to a four-cornered receptacle.

[Illustration: No 256]



[255]

CYTISUS SESSILIFOLIUS. SESSILE-LEAV'D, OR COMMON CYTISUS.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 2-labiatus: 2/3 _Legumen_ basi attenuatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CYTISUS _sessilifolius_ racemis erectis, calycibus bractæa
     triplici, foliis floralibus sessilibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 666._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 50._

     CYTISUS glabris foliis subrotundis, pediculis brevissimis. _Bauh.
     Pin. p. 390._

     CYTISUS vulgatior, the common Tree Trefoile. _Park. Parad. p. 440._

The term _sessilifolius_ has been given to this species of Cytisus,
because the leaves are for the most part sessile, that is sit close to
the branches, without any or very short footstalks; such they are at
least on the flowering branches when the shrub is in blossom, but at the
close of the summer they are no longer so, the leaves acquiring very
evident footstalks.

It is a native of the more southern parts of Europe, and though in point
of size and elegance it cannot vie with its kindred Laburnum, it is a
deciduous shrub of considerable beauty, rarely exceeding the height of
five or six feet, and producing a great profusion of bright yellow
flowers, which continue in blossom a long while; they make their
appearance in May and June, and are usually succeeded by seed-vessels
which produce ripe seeds, by these the plant is readily propagated.

It is one of the most common shrubs we have, as well as one of the
oldest inhabitants of our shrubberies, being mentioned by PARKINSON in
his _Parad. Terrestris_.



[256]

IXIA LONGIFLORA. LONG-FLOWER'D IXIA.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-partita, campanulata, regularis. _Stigmata_ 3.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     IXIA _longiflora_ foliis ensiformibus linearibus strictis, tubo
     filiformi longissimo. _Ait. Kew. v. 4. p. 58._

     GLADIOLUS _longiflorus_ caule tereti, tubo longissimo, spathis
     foliisque linearibus glabris. _Linn. Suppl. p. 96._ _Gmel. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 86._

We are not acquainted with a tribe of plants which stand more in need of
elucidation than those of this genus; of the vast numbers imported from
the Cape within these few years, where they are chiefly natives, and
that for the most part by way of Holland, few comparatively are well
ascertained; some of them appear subject to great variation, both in the
size and colour of their blossoms (whether in their wild state they are
thus inconstant, or whether there are seminal varieties raised by the
persevering industry of the Dutch Florists, we have not yet had it in
our power satisfactorily to ascertain); others like the present one have
their characters strongly marked, and less variable; in general they are
plants of easy culture, requiring chiefly to be protected from the
effects of frost, the least degree of which is presently fatal to most
of them.

The treatment recommended for the _Ixia flexuosa_ is applicable to this
and the other Cape species.

According to the _Hort. Kew._ this species was introduced by Mr. MASSON
in the year 1774.

It flowers from April to June.

[Illustration: No 256]

[Illustration: No 257]



[257]

LYCHNIS CHALCEDONICA. SCARLET LYCHNIS.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 1-phyllus, oblongus, lævis. _Petala_ 5-unguiculata. _Limbo_
     sub-bifido. _Caps._ 5-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LYCHNIS _chalcedonica_ floribus fasciculatis fastigiatis. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 435._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 16._

     LYCHNIS hirsuta flore coccineo major. _Bauh. Pin. 203._

     FLOS Constantinopolitanus. _Dod. Pempt. 178._

     LYCHNIS _chalcedonica_ flore simplici miniato. Single Nonsuch, or
     Flower of Bristow or Constantinople. _Parkins. Parad. 253._

The Scarlet Lychnis appears to have been a great favourite with
PARKINSON, he calls it a glorious flower, and in a wooden print of him
prefixed to his _Paradisus Terrestris_, we see him represented with a
flower of this sort in his hand of the double kind.

It grows spontaneously in most parts of Russia, and is one of our most
hardy perennials.

The extreme brilliancy of its flowers renders it a plant, in its single
state highly ornamental; when double, its beauty is heightened, and the
duration of it increased.

It flowers in June and July.

The single sort may be increased by parting its roots in autumn, but
more abundantly by seeds, which should be sown in the spring; the double
sort may also be increased by dividing its roots, but more plentifully
by cuttings of the stalk, put in in June, before the flowers make their
appearance; in striking of these, however, there requires some nicety.

This plant is found to succeed best in a rich, loamy, soil; and certain
districts have been found to be more favourable to its growth than
others.

A white and a pale red variety of it in its single state were known to
CLUSIUS, and similar varieties of the double kind are said to exist; it
is of little moment whether they do or not, every variation in this
plant from a bright scarlet is in every sense of the word a degeneracy.

[Illustration: No 258]



[258]

CORONILLA VARIA. PURPLE CORONILLA.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus: 2/3: dentibus superioribus connatis. _Vexillum_
     vix alis longius. _Legumen_ isthmis interceptum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CORONILLA _varia_ herbacea, leguminibus erectis teretibus torosis
     numerosis, foliolis plurimis glabris. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 670._ _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 59._

     SECURIDACA dumetorum major, flore vario, siliquis articulatis.
     _Bauh. Pin. p. 349._

     SECURIDACA II. altera species. _Clus. Hist. 2. ccxxxvij._ The
     greater joynted Hatchet Vetch. _Park. Theat. p. 1088._

CLUSIUS, in his work above referred to, informs us that he found this
plant growing wild in various parts of Germany, in meadows, fields, and
by road sides; that it flowered in June, sometimes the whole summer
through, and ripened its seeds in July and August; the blossoms he found
subject to much variation of colour, being either deep purple, whitish,
or even wholly white: CASP. BAUHINE notices another variety, in which
the alæ are white and the rostrum purple; this variety, which we have
had the honour to receive from the Earl of EGREMONT is the most
desirable one to cultivate in gardens, as it is more ornamental than the
one wholly purple, most commonly met with in the nurseries, and
corresponds also better with its name of _varia_; it is to be noted
however that this variety of colour exists only in the young blossoms.

The Coronilla varia is a hardy, perennial, herbaceous plant, climbing,
if supported, to the height of four or five feet, otherwise spreading
widely on the ground, and frequently injuring less robust plants growing
near it; on this account, as well as from its having powerfully creeping
roots whereby it greatly increases, though a pretty plant, and flowering
during most of the summer, it is not to be introduced without caution,
and is rather to be placed in the shrubbery, or outskirts of the garden,
than in the flower border.

It will grow in any soil or situation, but blossoms and seeds most
freely in a soil moderately dry.

PARKINSON in his _Theater of Plants_, mentions its being cultivated, as
an ornamental plant. _Ait. Kew._

Its bitterness, will be an objection to its being cultivated for the use
of cattle, for which purpose it has been recommended.



[259]

LILIUM CATESBÆI. CATESBY'S LILY.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-petala campanulata: linea longitudinali nectarifera.
     _Caps._ valvulis pilo cancellato connexis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LILIUM _Catesbæi_ caule unifloro, petalis erectis unguiculatis.
     _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13._ _Gmel. p. 545._

     LILIUM _Catesbæi_ foliis sparsis, bipedali, flore unico erecto,
     corolla campanulata, petalis unguibus angustis longis. _Walt. Fl.
     Carol. p. 123._

     LILIUM _Spectabile_ foliis sparsis; floribus solitariis erectis;
     petalorum unguibus angustis, alternis extus utrinque sulcatis,
     laminis revolutis. _Salisb. Ic. Stirp. rar. t. 5._

At the close of the year 1787, Mr. ROBERT SQUIBB, sent me from
South-Carolina roots of the Lily here figured, many of which have since
flowered with various persons in this kingdom.

CATESBY in his Natural History of Carolina, gives a figure and short
account of it; WALTER in his _Flora Caroliniana_ describes it under the
name of _Lilium Catesbæi_; Mr. SALISBURY in the first number of his very
magnificent work, lately published, presents us with a very highly
finished likeness of this lily, accompanied by a most accurate and
minute description of it, and judging from some appearances in CATESBY'S
figure, that it was not the _Lilium Catesbæi_ of WALTER, names it
_spectabile_; but as we are assured by Mr. SQUIBB, who assisted his
friend WALTER in his publication, that it was the lily figured by
CATESBY, we have continued the name given in honour of that Naturalist.

Of the different Lilies cultivated in this country, this is to be
numbered among the least, the whole plant when in bloom being frequently
little more than a foot high; in its native soil it is described as
growing to the height of two feet; the stalk is terminated by one
upright flower, of the form and colour represented on the plate; we have
observed it to vary considerably in the breadth of its petals, in their
colour, and spots.

It flowers usually in July and August.

This plant may be raised from seeds, or increased by offsets, which,
however, are not very plentifully produced, nor is the plant to be made
grow in perfection without great care, the roots in particular are to be
guarded against frost; the soil and situation may be the same as
recommended for the _Cyclamen Coum. p. 4. v. 1_.

[Illustration: No 259]



[260]

METROSIDEROS CITRINA. HARSH-LEAV'D METROSIDEROS.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-dentatus, sinu germen fovens. _Petala_ 5, caduca. _Stam._
     discreta, petalis multoties longiora. _Caps._ 3-4 locularis,
     polysperma. _Banks. Gærtner._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     METROSIDEROS _citrina_ foliis lineari-lanceolatis rigentibus.

Though many species of this genus have been raised from seeds, brought
within these few years from the South Seas, where they are said to be
very numerous; this is, we believe, the only one that as yet has
flowered in this country: our drawing was made from a plant which
blossomed toward the close of last summer at Lord CREMORNES, the root of
which had been sent from Botany-Bay; previous to this period we have
been informed, that the same species flowered both at Kew and
Sion-House: as it is without difficulty raised both from seeds and
cuttings, young plants of it are to be seen in most of the Nurseries
near town; it would seem that they do not flower till they are at least
five or six years old.

_Metrosideros_ is a name given originally by RUMPHIUS in _Herb. Amboin_
to some plants of this genus, the term applies to the hardness of their
wood, which by the Dutch is called Yzerhout (Ironwood): FORSTER in his
_Gen. Pl._ figures this and another genus on the same plate, under the
name of _Leptospermum_; SCHREBER in his edition of the _Gen. Pl._ of
LINNÆUS, unites _Metrosideros_, _Melaleuca_, _Leptospermum_, and
_Fabricia_, under the genus _Melaleuca_; GÆRTNER in his elaborate work
on the seeds of plants, makes separate genera of these, agreeably to the
ideas of Sir JOSEPH BANKS and Mr. DRYANDER, who on this subject can
certainly boast the best information.

We cannot, without transgressing the allotted limits of our
letter-press, give a minute description of the plant figured; suffice it
to say, that it is an ever-green shrub, growing to the height of from
four to six or more feet, that its leaves on the old wood feel very
harsh or rigid to the touch, and when bruised give forth an agreeable
fragrance, the flowers grow in spikes on the tops of the branches, and
owe their beauty wholly to the brilliant colour of the filaments.

[Illustration: No 260]

[Illustration: No 261]



[261]

ERODIUM INCARNATUM. FLESH-COLOURED CRANE'S-BILL.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA PENTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ 5-petala. _Nect. Squamulæ_ 5 cum
     filamentis alternantes; et glandulæ melliferæ, basi staminum
     insidentes. _Fructus_ 5-coccus, rostratus; rostra spiralia,
     introrsum barbata. _L'Herit. Geran._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ERODIUM _incarnatum_ pedunculis paucifloris, foliis tripartitis
     ternatisve trifidis scabris, caule fruticuloso. _L'Herit. n. 21.
     tab. 5._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 415._

     GERANIUM incarnatum pedunculis bifloris, foliis tripartitis
     trifidis glabris, petalis integris, arillis glabris. _Linn. Suppl.
     Pl._

     GERANIUM _incarnatum_ foliis incisis quinquelobis punctatis;
     petiolis longissimis, pedunculis trifloris. _Cavanill. diff. 4. p.
     223. n. 314. t. 97. f. 3._

In the 80th number of this work we gave a figure of the _Pelargonium
tricolor_, a plant very generally regarded as the most beautiful of the
genus; we now present our readers with the representation of an
_Erodium_, which has to boast nearly an equal share of admiration.

This species, as we learn from the _Hortus Kewensis_, is a native of the
Cape, and was introduced by Mr. MASSON in the year 1787.

Its usual time of flowering is July and August; in this point it is
inferior to the _Pelargonium tricolor_, which blossoms through the
spring as well as summer months.

It produces seeds but sparingly; cuttings of the plant are struck with
less difficulty than those of the _Pelargonium_ above mentioned, the
same treatment is applicable to both plants, they must be regarded as
green-house plants of the more tender kind, which are liable to be
destroyed in the winter season by a moist cold atmosphere.



[262]

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM AUREUM. GOLDEN FIG-MARIGOLD.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ numerosa linearia. _Caps._ carnosa infera
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _aureum_ foliis cylindrico-triquetris punctatis
     distinctis, pistillis atro purpurascentibus. _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed.
     10. p. 1060._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 190._

This Mesembryanthemum is one of the taller and more upright species, as
well as the earliest in point of flowering, producing its blossoms from
February to May; these are large and of a bright orange hue, the
pistilla in the centre are purple, and serve at once to distinguish and
embellish them.

It was first described in the _10th ed._ of _Linn. Syst. Nat._ and
afterwards inserted in the _Hort. Kew._ of Mr. AITON, who informs us
that it is a native of the Cape, and was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in
the year 1750. Prof. MURRAY omits it in his _12th ed._ of the _Syst.
Vegetab._ of LINNÆUS, as does Prof. GMELIN in the last edition of _Linn.
Syst. Nat._

The facility with which this tribe in general is increased by cuttings
is well known; this is raised as readily as the others.

[Illustration: No 262]

[Illustration: No 263]



[263]

GLYCINE BIMACULATA. PURPLE GLYCINE.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus. _Corollæ_ carina apice vexillum reflectens.

_Specific Character._

     GLYCINE _bimaculata_ caule volubili lævi, foliis simplicibus
     cordato-oblongis, racemis multifloris.

Of the many plants which within these few years have been raised from
Botany-Bay seeds, this is one of the first which flowered in this
country, and one of the most ornamental; to the greenhouse it is indeed
an invaluable acquisition: we regret that the size of our paper and the
imperfection of the colouring art, will not admit of our giving a
representation of it more adequate to its beauty.

It rises up with a twining shrubby stalk to the height of six, eight, or
more feet; these multiplying greatly by age, become loaded with a
profusion of purple flowers, growing in racemi, the richness of which is
enlivened by the appearance of two green spots at the base of the
vexillum; for the most part the blossoms go off with us without
producing any seed-vessels; in some instances, however, perfect seeds
have been produced, and we have seen a plant in bloom raised from such
in the charming retreat of JOHN ORD, Esq. Walham-Green.

A great excellence of this plant is the duration of its flowering
period, it begins to put forth its blossoms in February, and continues
to do so during most of the summer.

In the Nurseries about town, it is known by the name of _Glycine
virens_, a name given the plant originally by Dr. SOLANDER; the latter
of these terms we have taken the liberty of changing to _bimaculata_, as
being more expressive of an obvious character in the flower: we might,
perhaps, been justified in altering the genus, as its characters do not
appear to be peculiarly expressive of a Glycine, nor indeed of any other
genus in this numerous natural order.

It is raised readily from seeds.

We think it highly probable, that in warm sheltered situations, this
climber might grow in the open ground; to such as have it in abundance,
we recommend them to make the experiment.



[264]

CISTUS FORMOSUS. BEAUTIFUL CISTUS.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 5-petala. _Cal._ 5-phyllus, foliolis duobus minoribus.
     _Capsula._

Mr. LEE, Nurseryman of Hammersmith, informs me, that in the year 1780,
he raised the Cistus here figured from seeds, the produce of Portugal,
and as its flowers were uncommonly beautiful, he was induced to name it
_formosus_.

It approaches so near to the _Cistus halimifolius_ in point of habit, in
the form and colour of its leaves and flowers, that we are inclined
rather to regard it as a variety of that plant, than as a distinct
species; at the same time it must be allowed to be a very striking
variety, the flowers being at least thrice as large as those of the
_halimifolius_ usually are, and the whole plant more hairy: as an
ornamental shrub, it is highly deserving a place in all curious
collections.

It will grow very well in the open border in warm sheltered situations,
it may be kept also in a pot, by which means it may more readily be
sheltered during the winter, either in the greenhouse or under a frame.

It flowers early in May, and may be increased by cuttings.

[Illustration: No 264]

[Illustration: No 265]



[265]

IXIA BULBOCODIUM. CROCUS-LEAV'D IXIA.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 1-petala, tubulosa; tubo recto, filiformi; limbo 6-partito,
     campanulato, æquali. _Stigmata_ tria, simplicia. _Thunb. Diss.
     de Ixia._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     IXIA _Bulbocodium_ scapo unifloro brevissimo, foliis angulatis
     caulinis, stigmatibus sextuplicibus. _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. p.
     76._

     IXIA _Bulbocodium_ scapo ramoso, floribus solitariis, foliis
     sulcatis reflexis. _Thunb. Diss. n. 3._

     CROCUS vernus angustifolius. 1. 11. _Clus. Hist. i. p. 207._
     violaceo flore, 208. _ejusd._

There are three plants cultivated in the gardens of the curious to which
_Bulbocodium_ is applied, either as a generic or a trivial name, viz.
_Narcissus Bulbocodium_, _Bulbocodium vernum_, already figured, and the
present plant: the _Ixia Bulbocodium_ and _Bulbocodium vernum_ are given
in this work, not so much for their beauty as their rarity, not so much
to gratify the eye, as to communicate a knowledge of two plants but
little known, and liable to be confounded from a similarity of their
names.

This is one of the few hardy species of the genus, and grows wild in
many parts of Spain and Italy; it is said to have been found in
Guernsey: it affects hilly and dry situations, will grow readily in
almost any soil, especially if fresh, and not infested with vermin: it
flowers about the middle of April, the blossoms do not expand fully
unless exposed to the sun, and are not of long duration: authors
describe the wild plants as varying greatly in colour, _vid. Clus._ they
are most commonly pale blue.

Like the Crocus, it increases readily by offsets.

Was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1739, _Ait. Kew._ Bulbocodium, 1. in
the 6th edition of his Dictionary in 4to, is not this plant, but the
_Anthericum scrotinum_, _Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 5. app. t. 38._



[266]

RANUNCULUS AMPLEXICAULIS. PLANTAIN-LEAVED CROWFOOT.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ deciduus. 5 phyllus, (rarius 3-phyllus) _Petala_ 5, (rarius
     2, 3, aut 8) intra ungues squamula vel poro mellifero. _Styli_
     persistentes. _Sem._ incrustata, erecta. _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13.
     Gmel._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     RANUNCULUS _amplexicaulis_ foliis ovatis acuminatis
     amplexicaulibus, caule multifloro, radice fasciculata. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 515._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 265._

     RANUNCULUS montanus foliis plantaginis. _Bauh. Pin. 180._

     RANUNCULUS pyrenæus albo flore. _Clus. app. alt. auct. ic. 4 ta._
     _Ger. emac. 963. fig. 2._

The leaves of the _Ranunculus amplexicaulis_ in part surround the stalk
at their base, whence its trivial name; in colour they differ from most
others of the genus, being of a greyer or more glaucous hue, which
peculiarity joined to the delicate whiteness of the flowers, renders
this species a very desirable one to add to a collection of hardy,
ornamental, herbaceous plants, more especially as it occupies but little
space, and has no tendency to injure the growth of others.

It is a native of the Apennine and Pyrenean mountains, and flowers in
April and May.

CLUSIUS is the first author who describes and figures this species.
JOHNSON in his _ed._ of GERARD copies his figure, and mentions it as
being then made a denizen of our gardens.

It is readily propagated by parting its roots in Autumn, and provided it
has a pure air will succeed in most soils an situations.

[Illustration: No 266]

[Illustration: No. 267]



[267]

PYRUS SPECTABILIS. CHINESE APPLE TREE.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ 5. _Pomum_ inferum, 5-loculare,
     polyspermum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PYRUS _spectabilis_ umbellis sessilibus, foliis ovali oblongis
     serratis lævibus, unguibus calyce longioribus, stylis basi lanatis.
     _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 175._ _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13._ _Gmel. p.
     842._

The Chinese Apple-Tree when it blossoms in perfection, answers truly to
the name of _spectabilis_; a more shewy or ornamental tree can scarcely
be introduced to decorate the shrubbery or plantation; its beauty like
that of most trees, whose ornament consists chiefly in their blossoms,
is however but of short duration, and depends in some degree on the
favourableness of the season at the time of their expansion, which
usually takes place about the end of April or beginning of May; the
flowers are large, of a pale red when open, and semi-double, the buds
are of a much deeper hue, the fruit is of little account, and but
sparingly produced. Trees of this species are to be met with in some
gardens of the height of twenty or thirty feet.

Dr. FOTHERGILL is regarded as the first who introduced this Chinese
native, he cultivated it in the year 1780; such plants of it as were in
his collection, passed at his decease into the hands of Messrs. GORDON
and THOMPSON, in whose rich and elegant Nursery, at Mile-End, this tree
may be seen in great perfection.

Though perfectly hardy, as its blossoms are liable to be injured by
cutting winds, it will be most proper to plant it in a shelter'd
situation.

It is usually increased by grafting it on the Crab stock.



[268]

GLYCINE RUBICUNDA. DINGY-FLOWERED GLYCINE.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus. _Corollæ_ carina apice vexillum reflectens.

_Specific Character._

     GLYCINE _rubicunda_ caule perenni volubili, foliis ternatis,
     foliolis subovalibus integerrimis, pedunculis subtrifloris.

The plant here figured, and very generally known to the Nurserymen, in
the neighbourhood of London, by the name of _Glycine rubicunda_, is a
native of New South-Wales, and was introduced to this country about the
same time as the _Glycine bimaculata_ already figured.

It is a shrubby, twining plant, running up to the height of five, six,
or more feet, producing blossoms abundantly from April to June, which
are usually succeeded by seed-vessels which ripen their seeds with us.

The flowers though large and shewy, have a kind of dingy or lurid
appearance, which greatly diminishes their beauty. We have observed the
blossoms of some plants more brilliant than those of others, and we
think it highly probable, that, at some future period, seminal varieties
may be obtained with flowers highly improved in colour.

This species is readily raised from seeds, is of quick growth, and may
be regarded as one of our more hardy green-house plants: probably it may
succeed in the open air, if planted in a warm situation, and sheltered
in inclement seasons.

[Illustration: No 268]

[Illustration: No 269]



[269]

ORNITHOGALUM NUTANS. NEAPOLITAN STAR OF BETHLEHEM.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6 petala, erecta, persistens, supra medium patens,
     _Filamenta_ alterna basi dilatata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ORNITHOGALUM _nutans_ floribus secundis pendulis, nectario stamineo
     campaniformi. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 328._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. i. p. 443._

     ORNITHOGALUM exoticum magno flore minori innato. _Bauh. Pin. p.
     70._

     ORNITHOGALUM Neopolitanum, the Starre-flower of Naples. _Park.
     Parad. p. 138. p. 137. f. 8._ _Clus. app. alt. p. 9. fig. 7._

Authors have given to this species of Ornithogalum the name of
Neapolitan, following CLUSIUS by whom the plant is figured and
described, and who so called it, merely on receiving it from Naples; it
may perhaps be doubted whether it be originally a native of Italy. Prof.
JACQUIN has figured it in his _Flora Austriaca_, the plant being common
about Vienna, in garden-walks, under hedges, and in meadows, he does not
however, from that circumstance, regard it as an original native there.
CASP. BAUHIN informs us that HONORIUS BELLI sent it him from Crete under
the name of _Phalangium_, leaving its true habitat to be settled more
precisely hereafter, we shall observe, that it is one of those plants
which soon accommodate themselves to any country; producing a numerous
progeny both from roots and seeds, and by no means nice as to soil or
situation; it is not long before it becomes a weed in the garden, from
whence it is apt like the _Hyacinthus racemosus_, already figured, to
pass into the field or meadow.

Its flowers, which if not beautiful are singular and delicate, make
their appearance towards the end of April, they are of no long duration,
seldom continuing above a fortnight, and are succeeded by seed-vessels
which produce abundance of ripe seed, by which, as well as by its bulbs,
the plant may be increased.

In the _Hortus Kewensis_ it is set down as a Greenhouse plant, one of
the rare errors which occur in that most useful work.

[Illustration: No 270]



[270]

GLYCINE COCCINEA. SCARLET GLYCINE.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus. _Corollæ_ carina apice vexillum reflectens.

_Specific Character._

     GLYCINE _coccinea_ foliis ternatis, foliolis subrotundis undulatis.

We here present our readers with another Glycine, very lately raised by
several persons in the neighbourhood of London from Botany-Bay seeds,
and which we have called _coccinea_ from the colour of its blossoms.

It is a shrubby, climbing plant, which, if supported, will grow to the
height of many feet, producing a great number of flowers on its pendant
branches; the leaves, which grow three together, are nearly round, and,
in the older ones especially, are crimped or curled at the edges; the
flowers grow for the most part in pairs, are of a glowing scarlet
colour, at the base of the carina somewhat inclined to purple, the
bottom of the vexillum is decorated with a large yellow spot, verging to
green, which adds much to the beauty of the flower.

It blossoms from April to June, and appears to be fully as much disposed
to produce seed vessels, and perfect seeds, as the _rubicunda_, and by
which alone it has hitherto been propagated.

We must rank it among the more tender green-house plants.



[271]

CYRTANTHUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS. NARROW-LEAVED CYRTANTHUS.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ tubulosa, clavata, curva, 6-fida, laciniæ ovato-oblongæ.
     _Filamenta_ tubo inserta, apice conniventia. _Linn. Fil._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CYRTANTHUS _angustifolius_ foliis obtuse carinatis rectis, floribus
     cernuis, _Linn. Fil. Ait. Kew. v. i. p. 414._

     CRINUM _angustifolium_ foliis linearibus obtusis, corollis
     cylindricis: laciniis alternis interglandulosis. _Linn. Suppl.
     195._

CYRTANTHUS is a genus which takes its name from the curvature of its
flower, was established by the younger LINNÆUS, and adopted by Mr. AITON
in the _Hortus Kewensis_.

The present species is a native of the Cape, and was added to the royal
collection at Kew, by Mr. MASSON, in the year 1774. The plant from
whence our drawing was made flowered the preceding May with Mr. WHITLEY,
Nurseryman, Old Brompton, who received it from Holland, and who has been
so fortunate as to obtain young plants of it from seed.

It flowers in May and June; requires the same treatment as other Cape
bulbs, and may be increased by offsets and seeds.

At the extremity of each alternate segment of the corolla there is a
kind of small glandular hook, deserving of notice.

[Illustration: N.271]



[272]

GLADIOLUS TRISTIS. SQUARE-LEAVED CORN-FLAG.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-partita, ringens. _Stamina_ adscendentia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     GLADIOLUS _tristis_ foliis lineari-cruciatis, corollis
     campanulatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 86._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. 1. p. 63._

     LILIO-GLADIOLUS bifolius et biflorus, foliis quadrangulis. _Trew.
     Ehret. t. 39._

     GLADIOLUS _tristis_ foliis linearibus sulcatis, caule bifloro, tubo
     longissimo, segmentis æqualibus. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

LINNÆUS gave to this species of _Gladiolus_ the name of _tristis_, from
the colour of its flowers, which however possess scarcely sufficient of
the sombre to justify the appellation; still less so if they vary in the
manner represented in TREW'S _Ehret_, where they are painted in gay and
lively colours: in the specimens we have seen, the blossoms have been of
a sulphur colour, shaded in particular parts with very fine pencillings,
especially on the under side: most authors describe the flowering stems
as producing only two flowers, LINNÆUS has observed that they sometimes
produce many, we have seen them do so where the plant has grown in
perfection; in their expansion, which usually takes place in April and
May, they give forth a most agreeable fragrance.

It is a native of the Cape, and other parts of Africa; was cultivated by
Mr. MILLER, and flowered in the Chelsea Garden in the year 1745. _Ait.
Kew._

The leaves which so characteristically distinguish this species are
highly deserving of notice, instances of such rarely occur; as the bulbs
produce numerous offsets, the plant is propagated by them without
difficulty, and requires the same treatment as other Cape bulbs.

[Illustration: No 272]

[Illustration: No 273]



[273]

DIOSMA UNIFLORA. ONE-FLOWERED DIOSMA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 5-petala. _Nectaria_ 5, supra germen. _Caps._ 3. s. 5.
     coalitæ. _Sem._ calyptrata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     DIOSMA _uniflora_ foliis ovato oblongis, floribus solitariis
     terminalibus. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 287._ _Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 239._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 276._

     CISTUS humilis æthiopicus, inferioribus foliis rosmarini sylvestris
     punctatis, cæteris autem serpylli subrotundis, flore carneo. _Pluk.
     mant. 49. t. 342. f. 5._

The _Diosma uniflora_ another native of the Cape, that never failing
source of vegetable riches, was introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew by
Mr. MASSON in the year 1775, it flowers in our Green-Houses from April
to June, and is usually propagated by cuttings.

This plant forms a small bushy shrub, the leaves are thickly and
irregularly set on the branches, quite up to the flowers, which stand
singly on their summits, and are larger than those of any other known
species of Diosma, expanding as we have found on trial beyond the size
of half-a-crown, which the blossom does in our figure, though it will
not appear to do so to the eye of most observers; they are without
scent, the calyx is large and continuing, composed of five
ovato-lanceolate leaves, reddish on the upper side, and if viewed from
above visible between the petals; the petals are five in number, much
larger than the calyx, and deciduous, of a white colour with a streak of
red running down the middle of each, surface highly glazed, the stamina
are composed of five short filaments, white and slightly hairy, broad at
their base and tapering gradually to a fine point, by which they are
inserted into the hind part of the antheræ, near the bottom; the
antheræ are as long as the filaments, of a brown purple colour, bending
over the stigma, and opening inwardly, each carrying on the upper part
of its back a gland-like substance, of a pale brown colour: besides
these parts there are five filamentous bodies alternating with, and of
the same length as the stamina, of a white colour, and hairy, each
dilating at its extremity where it is of a reddish hue, and presenting
towards the antheræ an oval somewhat concave surface, which secretes a
viscous liquid; in some flowers that we have examined, and we regret
seeing but few, we have observed these nectaries (for such they may be
strictly called) closely adhering by their viscous summits to the
glandular substances at the back of the antheræ[2]; the germen is
studded with a constellation of little glands, which pour forth, and
almost deluge it with nectar; the stigma is composed of five little
round knobs: seed vessels we have not seen.

[Footnote 2: What the use of this very extraordinary apparatus may be we
can at present scarcely conjecture, future observation may perhaps
enable us to speak more decisively; when we figure the _Diosma
ericoides_ we shall probably have more to say of this species.]



[274]

BORBONIA CRENATA. HEART-LEAVED BORBONIA.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ acuminato-spinosus. _Stigma_ emarginatum. _Legumen_
     mucronatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     BORBONIA _crenata_ foliis cordatis multinerviis denticulatis.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 643._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     9._

     FRUTEX _æthiopicus_ leguminosus, foliis rusci majoribus in ambitu
     spinulis fimbriatis. _Pluk. Alm. 159._

     PLANTA leguminosa æthiopica, foliis rusci. _Breyn. Cent. t. 28._

_Borbonia_ is a genus of plants established by LINNÆUS in the 6th
edition of his _Genera Plantarum_; of this genus there are six species
enumerated in the 3d edition of the _Species Plant_. and two in the
_Hort. Kew._ the latter of which, the _crenata_, introduced from the
Cape by Mr. MASSON, in 1774, is here figured.

It is a small shrubby plant, rarely exceeding the height of three feet,
producing its flowers in a small cluster on the summits of the branches;
these are of a yellow colour, and have nothing about them peculiarly
singular, or beautiful; it is the foliage alone which renders this plant
desirable in a collection.

It flowers from June to August, and in favourable seasons ripens its
seeds, by which the plant is usually propagated.

[Illustration: No 274]

[Illustration: No 275]



[275]

LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA. COMMON TULIP-TREE.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 3-phyllus. _Petala_ 6. _Sem._ imbricata in strobilum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LIRIODENDRON _Tulipifera_ foliis lobatis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 507._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. 250._

     TULIPIFERA virginiana, tripartito aceris folio: media lacinia velut
     abscissa. _Pluk. Alm. 379. t. 117. f. 5. & t. 248. f. 7._ _Catesb.
     Carol. 1. p. 48. t. 48._

     LIRIODENDRON foliis angulatis truncatis. _Trew. Ehret. t. x._

The Tulip-tree is a native of most parts of North-America, MARSHALL
describes it as often growing to the size of a very large tree, 70 or 80
feet in height, and above 4 feet in diameter; he mentions two varieties,
one with yellow and the other with white wood; that with yellow wood is
soft and brittle, much used for boards, heels of shoes, also turned into
bowls, trenchers, &c. the white is heavy, tough, and hard, and is sawed
into joists, boards, &c. for building.

RAY informs us in his _Hist. Pl._ that this tree was cultivated here by
Bishop COMPTON, in 1688: and from MILLER we learn, that the first tree
of the kind which flowered in this country, was in the gardens of the
Earl of PETERBOROUGH, at Parsons-Green, near Fulham; in Mr. ORD'S
garden, at Walham-Green, there is, among other choice old trees, a very
fine tulip-tree, which is every year covered with blossoms, and which
afforded us the specimen here figured. It flowers in June and July,
rarely ripens its seeds with us, though it does readily in America.

The foliage of this plant is extremely singular, most of the leaves
appearing as if truncated, or cut off at the extremity; they vary
greatly in the division of their lobes, the flowers differ from those of
the tulip in having a calyx, but agree as to the number of petals, which
is six; and so they are described in the sixth edition of the _Gen. Pl._
of LINN. but in _Professor_ MURRAY'S _Syst. Veg. Ait. H. K. Linn. Syst.
Nat. ed. 13_, by GMELIN, 9 are given, this in the first instance must be
a mere typographical error arising from the inversion of the 6.

This tree is found to flourish most in a soil moderately stiff and
moist, is usually raised from seeds, the process of which is amply
described by MILLER in his Dictionary.

[Illustration: No 276]



[276]

BLITUM VIRGATUM. STRAWBERRY BLITE.

_Class and Order._

MONANDRIA DIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Col._ 3-fidus. _Petala_ O. _Sem._ 1. calyce baccato.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     BLITUM _virgatum_ capitellis sparsis lateralibus. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 53._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 7._

     ATRIPLEX sylvestris mori fructu. _Bauh. Pin. p. 519._

     ATRIPLEX sylvestris baccifera. _Clus. Hist. cxxxv._

This plant, not unfrequently met with in gardens, is known to most
cultivators by the name of _Strawberry Spinach_; the leaves somewhat
resembling those of the latter, and the fruit that of the former: C.
BAUHINE likens its berries to those of the Mulberry, to which they
certainly bear a greater resemblance: in most of the species of this
genus the calyx exhibits a very singular phenomenon, when the flowering
is over, it increases in size, becomes fleshy, and finally pulpy,
containing the ripe seed, which however it does not wholly envelope;
thus from each cluster of flowers growing in the alæ of the leaves are
produced so many berries, of a charming red colour, to which the plant
owes its beauty altogether, for the flowers are small, herbaceous, and
not distinctly visible to the naked eye; they can boast however of being
of the first class in the Linnean system _Monandria_, to which few
belong.

Strawberry Blite is a hardy annual, growing spontaneously in some parts
of France, Spain, and Tartary; is not a very old inhabitant of our
gardens, Mr. AITON mentioning it as being first cultivated by Mr. MILLER
in 1759. Its berries are produced from June to September; in their taste
they have nothing to recommend them, though not pleasant they are
harmless.

CLUSIUS we believe to be the first author who gives a figure and
description of it.

It affects a dry soil, and open situation; in such there is no necessity
to give any particular directions for its cultivation, as it comes up
readily from seed spontaneously scattered, so much so as sometimes to
prove a troublesome weed.



[277]

MAHERNIA PINNATA. WINGED MAHERNIA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-dentatus. _Petala_ 5. _Nectaria_ 5 obcordata, filamentis
     supposita. _Caps._ 5-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MAHERNIA _pinnata_, foliis tripartito pinnatifidis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 308._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 398._

     HERMANNIA foliis tripartitis, media pinnatifida. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed.
     3. p. 943._

     HERMANNIA frutescens, folio multifido tenui, caule rubro. _Boerh.
     Lugd. 1. p. 273._

LINNÆUS, in his _Spec. Pl._ regarded this plant as a species of
_Hermannia_; finding afterwards that it differed materially in its
fructification from that genus, he made a new one of it in his
_Mantissa_, by the name of _Mahernia_; still, however, the two genera
are very nearly related: one principal difference consists in the
nectaria of the _Mahernia_, which are very remarkable.

This species was introduced from the Cape, where it is a native, by Mr.
MASSON, in 1774, and is now very generally met with in our green-houses.
It produces its little bells, of a lively red when they first open, from
June to August, or September; is a small delicate plant, and easily
raised from cuttings.

[Illustration: No 277]

[Illustration: No 278]



[278]

LILIUM CANDIDUM. WHITE LILY.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-petala, campanulata: linea longitudinali nectarifera.
     _Caps._ valvulis pilo cancellato connexis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LILIUM _candidum_ foliis sparsis, corollis campanulatis, intus
     glabris. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 433._ _Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._
     _Murr. p. 324._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 429._

     LILIUM album flore erecto et vulgare. _Bauh. Pin. 76._

     LILIUM album vulgare. The ordinary White Lily. _Park. Parad. p. 39.
     t. 37. f. 4._

We may rank the White Lily among the very oldest inhabitants of the
flower-garden; in the time of GERARD it was very generally cultivated,
and doubtless at a much earlier period; a plant of such stateliness, so
shewy, so fragrant, and at the same time so much disposed to increase,
would of course soon be found very generally in gardens, into which its
introduction would be accelerated on another account; it was regarded as
a plant of great efficacy; among other extraordinary powers attributed
to it, we are gravely told that it taketh away the wrinkles of the face.

LINNÆUS makes it a native of Palestine and Syria; Mr. AITON of the
Levant.

Its blossoms, which open early in July, continue about three weeks, and
when they go off leave the flower-garden greatly thinned of its
inhabitants.

Of the White Lily there are three principal varieties:

  1. With double flowers.
  2. With flowers blotched with purple.
  3. With striped leaves, or leaves edged with yellow.

The two first of these are to be esteemed merely as curiosities; in the
third the plant acquires an accession of beauty which it has not
originally; though many persons object to variegated leaves, as
conveying an idea of fickliness, that complaint cannot be urged against
the foliage of the striped Lily, to which the borders of the
flower-garden are indebted for one of their chief ornaments during the
autumnal and winter months; early in September these begin to emerge,
and towards spring another set rises up in their centre, of more upright
growth, and which announce the rising of the flowering stem.

Besides these varieties, LINNÆUS has considered the _Lilium album
floribus dependentibus s. peregrinum_ of C. BAUHINE, the _Sultan
Zambach_ of CLUSIUS, and the _Hortus Eystettensis_, as one of its
varieties also: MILLER regards this plant as a distinct species, and
those who have attentively examined the figures and descriptions of
CLUSIUS and the _Hort. Eyst._ will be of the same opinion.

The Lily increases most abundantly by offsets, hence it becomes
necessary that the bulbs should be taken up, and reduced every second or
third year; but the striped leaved variety increasing much more slowly,
should remain unmolested for a greater length of time.

There is scarcely a soil or situation in which the Lily will not grow,
it will thrive most in a soil moderately stiff and moist; though a
native of a warm climate no severity of weather affects it with us: we
may learn from this, not to regulate the culture of plants invariably by
the climate in which they grow spontaneously.

The best time for removing the bulbs of this plant is about the middle
of August, before they shoot forth their leaves; but they may be
transplanted any time from September to spring.

[Illustration: No 279]



[279]

PLUMERIA RUBRA. RED PLUMERIA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     Contorta. _Folliculi_ 2. reflexi. _Semina_ membranæ propriæ
     inserta.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PLUMERIA _rubra_ foliis ovato-oblongis, petiolis biglandulosis.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 254._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p.
     298._

     PLUMERIA flore roseo odoratissimo. _Tourn. Inst. 659._ _Trew.
     Ehret. Tab. xli._

_Plumeria_ is a genus of plants named by TOURNEFORT in honour of his
countryman the celebrated PLUMIER, it comes near to Nerium or Oleander,
and contains several species, all natives of warm climates.

The present plant is a native of Jamaica, where it is known by the name
of Red Jasmine, from whence seeds and large cuttings are often sent to
this country; here they require the stove to bring them to flower:
seed-vessels they are never known to produce.

The flowers, which are very odoriferous, are produced in July and August
in large bunches, on the summits of the branches, from whence the leaves
also proceed; the stems, which grow to a considerable height as well as
thickness, are naked, and the whole plant loses its foliage from the
middle of winter till about the beginning of May; the branches and other
parts of the plant, when broken off, give forth a milky juice, the
leaves are handsome, and the veins remarkable.

Being too tender to bear the open air of this climate, it is kept in the
stove even during summer, in hot weather it must have plenty of air, and
in cold seasons be sparingly watered.

Is propagated by seeds, but more frequently by cuttings, which MILLER
recommends to be put by for two months or ten weeks, previous to their
being committed to the earth.

[Illustration: No 280]



[280]

APOCYNUM ANDROSÆMIFOLIUM. TUTSAN-LEAV'D, or FLY-CATCHING DOGSBANE.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ campanulata. _Glandulæ_ 5 cum staminibus alternæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     APOCYNUM _androsæmifolium_ caule rectiuseulo herbaceo, foliis
     ovatis utrinque glabris, cymis terminalibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 258._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 303._

     APOCYNUM canadense; foliis androsæmi majoris. _Bocc. sicc. 35. t.
     16. f. 3._ _Moris. Hist. 3. p. 609. s. 15. t. 3. f. 16._

In addition to the powerful recommendations of beauty and fragrance, the
Tutsan-leav'd Dogsbane interests us on account of the curious structure
of its flowers, and their singular property of catching flies.

This species is a native of different parts of North-America; Mr. W.
HALE, of Alton, Hants, who resided at Halifax in Nova-Scotia several
years, brought me some seeds of it gathered in that neighbourhood, which
vegetated, and produced flowering plants: it is not new to this country,
being known to MORISON who figures it, and to MILLER, who cultivated it
in 1731.

It is a hardy perennial plant, growing to about the height of a foot and
a half, or two feet, and flowering from the beginning of July, to
September; it has a creeping root, thereby it increases greatly in light
dry soils, and warm situations, so as even to be troublesome; it will
not thrive in a wet soil; with us it produces seed-vessels but rarely;
is propagated by parting its roots in Autumn or Spring; MILLER
recommends March as the most proper season, or it may be raised from
seeds, which in certain situations and seasons ripen here.

The flowers of this Apocynum have a sweet honey-like fragrance, which
perfumes the air to a considerable distance, and no doubt operates
powerfully in attracting insects; when a plant of this sort is fully
blown, one may always find flies caught in its blossoms, usually by the
trunk, very rarely by the leg; sometimes four, or even five, which is
the greatest possible number, are found in one flower, some dead, others
endeavouring to disentangle themselves, in which they are now and then
so fortunate as to succeed; these flies are of different species, the
_musca pipiens_, a slender variegated fly with thick thighs, is a very
common victim, the _musca domestica_, or house fly, we have never
observed among the captives.

Previous to our explaining the manner in which it appears to us that
these insects are caught, it will be necessary that we should describe,
in as plain a manner as possible, those parts of the flower which more
particularly constitute this fatal fly trap.

On looking into the flower we perceive five Stamina, the Antheræ of
which are large, of a yellow colour, and converge into a kind of cone;
each of these Antheræ is arrow-shaped, towards the top of the cone their
sides touch but do not adhere, below they separate a little, so as to
leave a very narrow opening or slit between each, they are placed on
very short filaments, which stand so far apart that a considerable
opening is left between them, which openings, however, are closed up by
processes of the corolla, nicely adapted to, and projecting into them;
at the bottom of, and in the very centre of the flower, we perceive two
germina, or seed-buds, the rudiments of future seed-vessels, surrounded
by glandular substances, secreting a sweet liquid; on the summit of
these germina, and betwixt the two, stands the stigma, in the form of a
little urn, the middle of which is encircled by a glandular ring, which
secretes a viscid honey-like substance, to this part of the stigma the
Antheræ interiorly adhere most tenaciously, so as to prevent their
separation unless considerable force be applied; it is, as we apprehend,
the sweet viscid substance thus secreted by the stigma, within the
Antheræ, which the fly endeavours to obtain, and to this end insinuates
its trunk first into the lowermost and widest part of the slit, betwixt
each of the Antheræ above described, pushing it of necessity upwards:
when gratified, not having the sense to place itself in the same
position as that in which it stood when it inserted its trunk, and to
draw it out in the same direction downwards, unfortunately for it, it
varies its position, and pulling its trunk upwards, draws it into the
narrow part of the slit, where it becomes closely wedged in, and the
more it pulls the more securely it is caught, and thus this heedless
insect, as THOMSON calls it, terminates its existence in captivity most
miserable.

In the incomparable poem of Dr. DARWIN, entitled the _Botanic Garden_,
there is a figure given of this plant; and in the Supplement we have the
following account written by Mr. DARWIN, of Elston.

"In the Apocynum Androsæmifolium the Anthers converge over the
nectaries, which consist of five glandular oval corpuscles, surrounding
the germ, and at the same time admit air to the nectaries at the
interstice between each anther; but when a fly inserts its proboscis
between these anthers to plunder the honey, they converge closer, and
with such violence as to detain the fly, which thus generally perishes."

This explanation of a phænomenon entitled to much attention, is widely
different from ours; which of the two is most consonant to truth and
nature, we shall leave to the determination of future observers.

In explaining the preceding appearances, to prevent confusion we called
those parts which form the cone in the middle of the flower Antheræ, but
strictly speaking they are not such, the true Antheræ being situated on
the inside of their summits, where they will be found to be ten in
number, making in fact the Apocynum a decandrous plant.



[281]

TURNERA ANGUSTIFOLIA. NARROW-LEAV'D TURNERA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus, infundibuliformis, exterior 2-phyllus. _Petala_ 5
     calyci inserta. _Stigmata_ multifida. _Caps._ 1-locularis,
     3-valvis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     TURNERA _angustifolia_ floribus sessilibus petiolaribus, foliis
     lanceolatis rugosis acuminatis. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

     TURNERA frutescens folio longiore et mucronato. _Mart. Cent. 49. t.
     49._

This plant here represented is generally known to the Nurserymen about
London as the _Turnera ulmifolia_, or _Elm-leav'd Turnera_, its foliage
however does not answer to the name, nor to the figures of the plant as
given by MARTYN in his _Cent. Pl._ and LINNÆUS in his _Hortus
Cliffortianus_, which figures indeed are so similar that they look like
copies of each other, these represent the true elm leaf; on the same
plate of _Martyn's Cent._ there is given a very excellent figure of what
he considers as another species of Turnera, vide Synon. and which
MILLER, who cultivated it about the year 1773, also describes as a
distinct species, under the name of _angustifolia_, asserting, from the
experience of thirty years, that plants raised from its seeds have
constantly differed from those of the _ulmifolia_; this is our plant,
which on his authority we have given as a species, though LINNÆUS
regards it as a variety.

PLUMIER gave to this genus the name of _Turnera_, in honour of Dr.
WILLIAM TURNER, a celebrated English Botanist and Physician, who
published an Herbal, black letter, folio, in 1568.

The present species is a native of the West-Indies, and is commonly
cultivated in our stoves, where it rises with a semi-shrubby stalk, to
the height of several feet, seldom continuing more than two or three
years; young plants generally come up in plenty from seeds spontaneously
scattered, so that a succession is easily obtained.

It flowers from June to August.

Its foliage has a disagreeable smell when bruised; its flowers are
shewy, but of short duration, and are remarkable for growing out of the
footstalk of the leaf.

[Illustration: No 281]

[Illustration: No 282]



[282]

HEDYSARUM OBSCURUM. CREEPING-ROOTED HEDYSARUM.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ carina transverse obtusa. _Legumen_ articulis 1-spermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     HEDYSARUM _obscurum_ foliis pinnatis, stipulis vaginalibus, caule
     erecto flexuoso, floribus pendulis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._
     _Murr. p. 676._ _Mant. 447._ _Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 2. t. 168._

     HEDYSARUM caule recto, ramoso; foliis ovatis; siliquis pendulis,
     lævissimis, venosis. _Hall. Hist. Helv. n. 395._

     ONOBRYCHIS semine clypeato lævi. _Bauh. Pin. 350._

Prof. JACQUIN, in the second volume of the _Flora austriaca_, gives an
excellent figure and accurate description of our plant, a native of the
Alps of Germany and Switzerland, and points out the characters in which
it differs from the _alpinum_, for which it has sometimes been mistaken.

It is a hardy perennial, rarely exceeding a foot in height, produces its
spikes of pendulous flowers, which are of a most beautiful purple
colour, in July and August; hitherto these have not been succeeded by
seed-vessels with us; though we have cultivated the plant for several
years.

Its size renders it a suitable plant for rock-work, on which it will
grow readily, increasing by its roots, which are of the creeping kind.

HALLER mentions a variety of it with white flowers.



[283]

MIMULUS RINGENS. NARROW-LEAVED MONKEY-FLOWER.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-dentatus, prismaticus. _Cor._ ringens; labio superiore
     lateribus replicato. _Caps._ 2-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MIMULUS _ringens_ erectus, foliis oblongis linearibus sessilibus.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 575._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     361._

     EUPHRASIA floridana lysimachiæ glabræ siliquosæ foliis, quadrato
     caule ramosior. _Pluk. Amalth. 83. t. 393. f. 3._

     LYSIMACHIA galericulata s. Gratiola elatior non ramosa, &c. _Gron.
     Fl. Virg. p. 97._

     DIGITALIS perfoliata glabra flore violaceo minore. _Moris. Hist. 2.
     p. 479. s. 5. t. 8. f. 6._

CLAYTON, in the _Fl. Virg._ published by GRONOVIUS, describes this plant
as a native of Virginia, and says of it, "maddidis gaudet locis," it
delights in wet places: LINNÆUS makes it a native of Canada also.

It is a hardy, perennial, herbaceous plant, growing with us to the
height of about two feet, and producing its flowers, which are of a pale
violet colour, in July and August; these are frequently succeeded by
capsules containing perfect seeds, by which the plant may be propagated,
as also by parting its roots in Autumn; MILLER recommends the seeds to
be sown as soon as ripe.

The plant succeeds best in a moist and somewhat shady situation, with a
loamy soil.

A perusal of the synonyms will shew to what a variety of genera this
plant has been referred by different authors; LINNÆUS first gave to it
the name of _Mimulus_, of which term we find in his _Philosophia
Botanica_ the following concise explanation:--"MIMULUS mimus
personatus;" in plain English, a masked mimick: MIMMULUS is a classical
word for the Pedicularis, or Lousewort; the English term Monkey flower
has probably been given it, from an idea that _mimulus_ originated from
[Greek: mimô] a monkey, as in _mimusops_ monkey face.

[Illustration: No 283]



[284]

ROSA SEMPERFLORENS. EVER-BLOWING ROSE.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Petala_ 5. _Cal._ urceolatus, 5-fidus, carnosus, collo coarctatus,
     demum baccatus, coloratus. _Antrum_ duplicatum, 1-loculare, superne
     apertum, pericarpiis osseis intus nidulantibus.

_Specific Character._

     ROSA _semperflorens_ caule aculeato, foliis subternis, pedunculis
     subunifloris aculeato-hispidis, calycis laciniis integris.

We are induced to consider the rose here represented, as one of the most
desirable plants in point of ornament ever introduced to this country;
its flowers, large in proportion to the plant, are semi-double, and with
great richness of colour unite a most delightful fragrance; they blossom
during the whole of the year, more sparingly indeed in the winter
months; the shrub itself is more hardy than most greenhouse plants, and
will grow in so small a compass of earth, that it may be reared almost
in a coffee cup; is kept with the least possible trouble, and propagated
without difficulty by cuttings or suckers.

For this invaluable acquisition, our country is indebted to the late
GILBERT SLATER, Esq. of Knots-Green, near Laytonstone, whose untimely
death every person must deplore, who is a friend to improvements in
ornamental gardening: in procuring the rarer plants from abroad, more
particularly from the East-Indies, Mr. SLATER was indefatigable, nor was
he less anxious to have them in the greatest perfection this country
will admit; to gain this point there was no contrivance that ingenuity
could suggest, no labour, no expence withheld; such exertions must soon
have insured him the first collection of the plants of India: it is now
about three years since he obtained this rose from China; as he readily
imparted his most valuable acquisitions to those who were most likely to
increase them, this plant soon became conspicuous in the collections of
the principal Nurserymen near town, and in the course of a few years
will, no doubt, decorate the window of every amateur.

The largest plants we have seen have not exceeded three feet, it may no
doubt be trained to a much greater height; a variety of it much more
robust, having usually several flowers on a footstalk, of a pale red
colour, and semi-double also, has more lately been introduced, and as
far as we can learn from the same source.

[Illustration: No 284]

[Illustration: No 285]



[285]

JASMINUM ODORATISSIMUM. SWEETEST JASMINE.

_Class and Order._

DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Corolla_ hypocrateriformis. _Bacca_ dicocca. _Semina_ solitaria,
     arillata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     JASMINUM _odoratissimum_ foliis alternis obtusiusculis ternatis
     pinnatisque, ramis teretibus, laciniis calycinis brevissimis. _Ait.
     Hort. H. v. 1. p. 10._ _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 56._

     JASMINUM flavum odoratum. _Barr. Ic. 62._


The flowers of most of the species of Jasmine are odoriferous, trivial
names therefore expressive of this quality are ineligible, as wanting
character; the present name is peculiarly objectionable, inasmuch as
several other species are greatly superior to this in point of
fragrance; a lesson for Botanists to abstain from trivial names of the
superlative degree, such as _odoratissimum_, _foetidissimum_,
_maximum_, _minimum_, &c.

The present species, according to Mr. AITON, is a native of Madeira, and
was cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1730; it is now a plant common in most
greenhouses: it will form a shrub of considerable size, which requires
no support; its leaves are glossy, inclining to yellow, growing for the
most part three together, sometimes pinnated; its blossoms, which are
yellow, make their appearance from May to November: in point of
hardiness it is superior to many greenhouse plants, and may be
propagated without difficulty by cuttings.



[286]

PORTLANDIA GRANDIFLORA. GREAT-FLOWERED PORTLANDIA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ clavato-infundibuliformis. _Antheræ_ 4-6. longitudinales.
     _Caps._ 5-gona, 2-valvis, retusa, 2-locularis, polysperma, coronata
     calyce 5-phyllo.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PORTLANDIA _grandiflora_ floribus pentandris. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 213._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 228. foliis ovatis._
     _Syst. Nat. ed. 13._ _Gmel. p. 360._

     PORTLANDIA _grandiflora_ floribus pentandris, capsulis ovatis,
     foliis oblongis acuminatis. _Swartz. Obs. Bot. p. 69._


Dr. BROWN, in his Natural History of Jamaica, gives to this genus the
name of _Portlandia_, in honour of the Duchess Dowager of PORTLAND, who
employed many of the leisure hours of a long and happy life, in the
pursuits of natural history, in which she was eminently skilled.--She
was the friend and patron of Mr. LIGHTFOOT, who dedicates to her his
_Flora Scotica_; the fine collection of rare and valuable trees and
shrubs which enrich part of the grounds at Bulstrode, were of her
planting.

Dr. SWARTZ, in his Observations on the Plants of the West-Indies,
informs us, that this species grows wild in Jamaica, where (_incolit
calcareosa petrosa_) it inhabits calcareous rocky places[3], forms a
small tree about the height of six feet, and flowers from the middle of
Summer to Autumn; its bark, he observes, as in other plants of the same
genus, is extremely bitter.

From Mr. AITON we learn, that it was introduced here by ---- ELLIS, Esq.
in 1775.

It forms a very beautiful stove plant, not of difficult growth, and
readily disposed to flower; we have seen blowing plants of it little
more than a foot high; its blossoms are not only uncommonly large,
shewy, and curious in their structure, but fragrant also, and very much
so when dried.

It is usually increased by cuttings.

[Footnote 3: We wish that every person who describes foreign plants on
the spot, would do thus; it would greatly facilitate their culture.]

[Illustration: No 286]

[Illustration: No 287]



[287]

GOODENIA LÆVIGATA. SMOOTH GOODENIA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Flores_ monopetali, superi. _Caps._ bilocularis. _Cor._ supra
     longitudinaliter fissa, stigma urceolatum ciliatum. _Smith Trans.
     Linn. Soc. v. 2. p. 346._

_Specific Character._

     GOODENIA lævigata foliis obovato-lanceolatis dentatis glabris.


In the Autumn of 1792, SAMUEL TOLFREY Esq. most kindly invited me to
inspect a vast number of the natural productions of Botany-Bay, in his
possession; collected with great assiduity, and brought over in high
preservation by Captain TENCH; among other curiosities, he shewed me
specimens of the earths of that country, imported in very small bags. I
suggested to Mr. TOLFREY, that those earths might possibly contain the
seeds of some curious and unknown plants; he readily acquiesced in the
idea, and permitted me to make trial of them: accordingly, in the Spring
of 1793, I exposed them in shallow pans, on a gentle tan heat, keeping
them duly watered; in the course of the Summer they yielded me fourteen
plants, most of which were altogether new, and among others the species
of _Goodenia_ here figured; this we have since found to be a hardy
greenhouse plant, flowering from July to October, and very readily
increased by cuttings.

The oldest plant in our possession is about a foot and a half high, much
branched, the stalks are round and smooth to the naked eye, green below,
above purplish, the leaves are smooth, a deep bright green colour,
alternate, standing on footstalks, which gradually widen into the
leaves, somewhat ovate, and deeply toothed; the flowers grow in the alæ
of the leaves, forming a thin spike, they are sessile, of a pale violet
colour, and have a peculiar smell which is rather unpleasant; at the
side of each flower are two long narrow Bracteæ; the Calyx, which is
placed on the germen, is composed of five short ovate leaves, which
appear edged with hairs if magnified; the Corolla is monopetalous, the
lower part, which at first is tubular, splits longitudinally above, and
forms a kind of half tube, the edges of which are brown, the inside
yellow, the outside greenish, the mouth beset with short hairs, each of
which is terminated by a small villous head; the limb is deeply divided
into five linear segments, spreading out like a hand, and terminated by
short points; the Filaments are five in number, of a whitish colour,
somewhat broadest above, rather flat, inserted into the receptacle;
Antheræ oval, flattened, yellow, bilocular, a little bent, the length of
the pistillum; but this is to be understood of such flowers as are not
yet fully expanded, in those that are, they are much shorter, and appear
withered; the Style, in flowers about to open, the length of the
filaments, upright, in those that are opened much longer, and bent
somewhat downward; Stigma at first upright, in the form of a cup,
having the edge curiously fringed with white hairs, afterwards it closes
together, loses its hollow, and assumes a flat appearance, and nods
somewhat, the back part of it is bearded; Germen beneath the calyx,
oblong, usually abortive with us.

The name of _Goodenia_ has been given to this genus by Dr. SMITH, in
honour of the Rev. SAMUEL GOODENOUGH, LL. D. of _Ealing_, my
much-honoured friend, whose name will be ever dear to Botanists for his
laborious investigation of the British Carices[4].

[Footnote 4: Vide a Dissertation on the British species of Carex, by Dr.
GOODENOUGH, in the second volume of the Transactions of the Linnean
Society.]

[Illustration: No 288]



[288]

PASSIFLORA CILIATA. FRINGED-LEAVED PASSION-FLOWER.

_Class and Order._

GYNANDRIA HEXANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. Petala 5. Stamina germini vicina. _Nectarium_
     multi-radiatum. _Antrum_ pedicellatum duplicatum 1-loculare.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PASSIFLORA _ciliata_ foliis trilobis glabris ciliato serratis
     intermedio longissimo, petiolis eglandulosis. _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p.
     310._


This Passion-Flower is described in the _Hort. Kew._ as a new one, under
the name of _ciliata_, introduced by Mrs. NORMAN, from the West-Indies,
in 1783: we saw it during the latter part of the last Summer, with great
profusion of flowers, in several collections, more particularly in that
of Mr. VERE, Kensington-Gore, from whence our figure and description
were taken.

Its stalks are round, perfectly smooth, and run to a very great height;
leaves dark green, glossy, perfectly smooth, except on the edges, where
they are beset with strong glandular hairs, divided into three large and
two small lobes, the middle lobe running out to a considerable length,
the footstalks of the leaves are beset with a few hairs thinly
scattered, at the base of each leaf is a tendril, and two finely-divided
stipulæ, edged also with glandular hairs. The Involucrum is composed of
three leaves, dividing into capillary segments, each of which terminates
in a viscid globule, fetid when bruised; betwixt the involucrum and the
blossom is a short peduncle; the pillar which supports the germen is of
a bright purple colour, with spots of a darker hue, the germen is smooth
and green; Styles green; Stigmata of a dark green; Filaments six in
number; Antheræ pale yellow green, the former dotted with purple; of
Radii, there may be said to be four rows, variegated with white and
purple, petals ten, externally greenish, internally red, deeper or paler
according to circumstances.

The leaves of this plant vary greatly in form, according to the health
and luxuriance of the plant; on comparing it with the _foetida_, we
strongly suspect it to be a variety merely of that species: time will
shew.

It is increased by cuttings, or seeds.



INDEX.

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _Eighth Volume_
are alphabetically arranged.


  Pl.

  280 Apocynum androsæmifolium.

  276 Blitum virgatum.

  274 Borbonia crenata.

  264 Cistus formosus.

  258 Coronilla varia.

  271 Cyrtanthus angustifolius.

  255 Cytisus sessilifolius.

  273 Diosma uniflora.

  261 Erodium incarnatum.

  272 Gladiolus tristis.

  263 Glycine bimaculata.

  268 ------- rubicunda.

  270 ------- coccinea.

  287 Goodenia lævigata.

  282 Hedysarum obscurum.

  285 Jasminum odoratissimum.

  256 Ixia longiflora.

  265 ---- Bulbocodium.

  253 Lathyrus articulatus.

  259 Lilium Catesbæi.

  278 ------ candidum.

  275 Liriodendron Tulipifera.

  254 Lopezia racemosa.

  257 Lychnis chalcedonica.

  277 Mahernia pinnata.

  262 Mesembryanthemum aureum.

  260 Metrosideros citrina.

  283 Mimulus ringens.

  269 Ornithogalum nutans.

  288 Passiflora ciliata.

  279 Plumeria rubra.

  286 Portlandia grandiflora.

  267 Pyrus spectabilis.

  266 Ranunculus amplexicaulis.

  284 Rosa semperflorens.

  281 Turnera angustifolia.



INDEX.

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the _Eighth
Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.


  Pl.

  267 Apple-tree Chinese.

  276 Blite strawberry.

  274 Borbonia heart-leaved.

  264 Cistus beautiful.

  272 Corn-flag square-leaved.

  258 Coronilla purple.

  261 Crane's-bill flesh-coloured.

  266 Crowfoot plantain-leaved.

  271 Cyrtanthus narrow-leaved.

  255 Cytisus common.

  273 Diosma one-flowered.

  280 Dogsbane tutsan-leaved.

  262 Fig-marigold golden.

  263 Glycine purple.

  268 ------- dingy-flowered.

  270 ------- scarlet.

  287 Goodenia smooth.

  282 Hedysarum creeping-rooted.

  285 Jasmine sweet.

  256 Ixia long-flowered.

  265 ---- crocus-leaved.

  253 Lathyrus jointed-podded.

  259 Lily Catesby's.

  278 ---- white.

  254 Lopezia mexican.

  257 Lychnis scarlet.

  277 Mahernia winged.

  260 Metrosideros harsh-leaved.

  283 Monkey-flower narrow-leav'd.

  288 Passion-flower fringed-leaved.

  279 Plumeria red.

  286 Portlandia great-flowered.

  284 Rose ever-blowing.

  269 Star of Bethlehem Neapolitan.

  275 Tulip-tree common.

  281 Turnera narrow-leaved.





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