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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 1 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
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  THE

  ~Botanical Magazine~;

  OR,

  ~Flower-Garden Displayed~:

  IN WHICH

  The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the
  Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately
  represented in their natural Colours.

  TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

  Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according
  to the celebrated LINNÆUS; their Places of Growth, and
  Times of Flowering:

  TOGETHER WITH

  THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

  A WORK

  Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and GARDENERS, as
  wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.

  By WILLIAM CURTIS,

  Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

  VOL. I

  "A Garden is the purest of human Pleasures."
                                          VERULAM.


  LONDON:
  Printed by COUCHMAN and FRY, Throgmorton-Street,
  For W. CURTIS, at his BOTANIC-GARDEN, Lambeth-Marsh;
  And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.
  M DCC XC.



PREFACE.


The present periodical publication owes its commencement to the repeated
solicitations of several Ladies and Gentlemen, Subscribers to the
Author's BOTANIC GARDEN, who were frequently lamenting the want
of a work, which might enable them, not only to acquire a systematic
knowledge of the Foreign Plants growing in their gardens, but which
might at the same time afford them the best information respecting their
culture--in fact, a work, in which Botany and Gardening (so far as
relates to the culture of ornamental Plants) or the labours of
LINNÆUS and MILLER, might happily be combined.

In compliance with their wishes, he has endeavoured to present them with
the united information of both authors, and to illustrate each by a set
of new figures, drawn always from the living plant, and coloured as near
to nature, as the imperfection of colouring will admit.

He does not mean, however, to confine himself solely to the Plants
contained in the highly esteemed works of those luminaries of Botany and
Gardening, but shall occasionally introduce new ones, as they may
flower in his own garden, or those of the curious in any part of
Great-Britain.

At the commencement of this publication, he had no design of entering on
the province of the Florist, by giving figures of double or improved
Flowers, which sometimes owe their origin to culture, more frequently to
the sportings of nature; but the earnest entreaties of many of his
Subscribers, have induced him so far to deviate from his original
intention, as to promise them one, at least, of the Flowers most
esteemed by Florists.

The encouragement given to this work, great beyond the Author's warmest
expectations, demands his most grateful acknowledgements, and will
excite him to persevere in his humble endeavours to render Botany a
lasting source of rational amusement; and public utility.

  BOTANIC GARDEN,
  Lambeth-Marsh,
  1787.



[1]

~Iris Persica. Persian Iris.~

_Class and Order._

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

Corolla 6-partita: Petalis alternis, reflexis. Stigmata petaliformia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _Persica_ corolla imberbi, petalis interioribus brevissimis
patentissimis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 79. _Sp. Pl. p._ 59.

IRIS bulbosa præcox minus odora Persica variegata. _Moris. hist._ 2.
_p._ 357.

XIPHIUM Persicum. _Miller Dict. ed._ 6. 4_to._

The Persian bulbous Flower-de-luce. _Parkins. Parad. p._ 172.

[Illustration: No 1]

A native of Persia. Flowers in February and March. Its beauty, early
appearance, and fragrant blossoms, make it highly esteemed by all lovers
of flowers; like the Hyacinth or Narcissus it will blow within doors in
a water-glass, but stronger in a small pot of sand, or sandy loam; a few
flowers will scent a whole apartment: it will also blossom in the open
air, but requires warmth and shelter; it is propagated by offsets and
seeds; the best flowering roots are imported from Holland, they bear
forcing well; and hence this plant may be had to flower a full month or
six weeks in succession.

PARKINSON remarks, that in his time (1629) it was very rare,
and seldom bore flowers.



[2]

~Rudbeckia purpurea. Purple Rudbeckia.~

_Class and Order._

~Syngenesia Polygamia Frustranea.~

_Generic Character._

Receptaculum paleaceum, conicum. Pappus margine quadri-dentato. Calyx
duplici ordine squamarum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

RUDBECKIA _purpurea_ foliis lanceolato-ovatis alternis indivisis, radii
petalis bifidis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 651. _Sp. Pl. p._ 1280.

DRACUNCULUS virginianus latifolius, petalis florum longissimis
purpurascentibus. _Moris. Hist._ 3. _p._ 42. _f._ 6. _t._ 9. _f._ 1.

[Illustration: No 2]

This species differs from the other plants of the genus, in the colour
of its outermost petals, which are long, narrow, purple, and pendulous,
and not unaptly resemble small pieces of red tape. Notwithstanding it is
a native of the warm climates Carolina and Virginia, it succeeds very
well with us in an open border: but, as Mr. MILLER very justly
observes, it will always be prudent to shelter two or three plants under
a common hot-bed frame in winter, to preserve the kind, because in very
severe winters, those in the open air are sometimes killed. It flowers
in July. As it rarely ripens its seeds with us, the only mode of
propagating it, is by parting the roots; but in that way the plant does
not admit of much increase.



[3]

~Helleborus hyemalis. Winter Hellebore, or Aconite.~

_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Polygynia[A].~

_Generic Character._

Calyx 0. Petala 5 sive plura. Nectaria bilabiata, tubulata. Capsulæ
polyspermæ erectiusculæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HELLEBORUS _hyemalis_ flore folio infidente. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p._
431. _Sp. Pl. p._ 783.

ACONITUM unifolium bulbosum. _Bauh. Pin._ 183.

The Winter's Wolfesbane. _Park. Parad. p._ 214.

[Illustration: No 3]

Grows wild in Lombardy, Italy, and Austria, affects mountainous
situations, flowers with us in February, and hence is liable to be cut
off by severe frosts. "Is propagated by offsets, which the roots send
out in plenty. These roots may be taken up and transplanted any time
after their leaves decay, which is generally by the beginning of June
till October, when they will begin to put out new fibres; but as the
roots are small and nearly the colour of the ground, so if care is not
taken to search for them, many of the roots will be left in the ground.
These roots should be planted in small clusters, otherwise they will not
make a good appearance, for single flowers scattered about the borders
of these small kinds are scarce seen at a distance; but when these and
the Snowdrops are alternately planted in bunches, they will have a good
effect, as they flower at the same time, and are much of a size."
_Millers Gard. Dict._

[Footnote A: Most of the Hellebores vary greatly in the number of their
pistils, which in general are too few to justify the placing those
plants in the order Polygynia.]



[4]

~Cyclamen Coum. Round-leav'd Cyclamen.~

_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

Corolla rotata, reflexa, tubo brevissimo fauce prominente. Bacca tecta
capsula.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CYCLAMEN _Coum_ foliis orbiculatis planis, pediculis brevibus, floribus
minoribus. _Miller's Dict._

CYCLAMEN hyemale orbiculatis foliis inferius rubentibus purpurascente
flore; Coum Herbariorum. _Hort. reg. Paris._ _Herm. Cat._

CYCLAMEN orbiculato folio inferne purpurascente. _Bauh. Pin. p._ 307.

The common round-leav'd Sowebread. _Park. Parad. p._ 198.

[Illustration: No. 4]

Grows wild in many parts of Italy and Germany, and is sometimes found
with white flowers; if the season be mild, or the plants sheltered from
the inclemency of the weather, this species will flower as early as
February, or much earlier by artificial heat.

As it grows naturally in woods and shady places, it will thrive best in
a mixture of bog-earth and loam placed in a north border; if planted in
the open border, it will require to be covered with a hand-glass during
winter, and in the spring, when in bloom; the more usual method with
gardeners is to preserve them in pots in a common hot-bed frame, the
advantage of this method is that they may, at any time, be removed to
decorate the parlour or the study.

The plants of this genus admit of but little increase by their roots;
the best method of propagating them is by seed, which should be sown
soon after they are ripe in boxes or pots, and covered about half an
inch deep, placing them where they may have only the morning-sun, till
the beginning of September, when they may be removed to a warmer
exposure.



[5]

~Erythronuim Dens Canis. Dogs-Tooth, or Dogs-Tooth Violet.~

_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

Corolla 6-petala, campanulata: Nectario tuberculis 2-petalorum
alternorum basi adnatis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ERYTHRONIUM _Dens Canis._ _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 269. _Sp. Pl. p._ 437.

Dens Canis latiore rotundioreque folio. _Bauh. Pin._ 87.

Dogs-Tooth with a pale purple flower. _Park. Parad. p._ 194.

[Illustration: No. 5]

Of this genus Mr. Miller makes two species; Linnæus, perhaps with more
propriety, only one, for breadth of leaves or colour of flowers can
scarcely be considered as sufficient to constitute a specific
difference.

It is found in the gardens with purple flowers of two different tints,
also with white and yellow blossoms, grows naturally in Hungary and some
parts of Italy, and blows in the open border at the beginning of April.

"They are propagated by offsets from their roots. They love a shady
situation and a gentle loamy soil, but should not be too often removed.
They may be transplanted any time after the beginning of June, when
their leaves will be quite decayed, till the middle of September; but
the roots should not be kept very long out of the ground, for if they
shrink it will often cause them to rot. The roots of these flowers
should not be planted scattering in the borders of the flower-garden,
but in patches near each other, where they will make a good appearance."
_Miller's Gard. Dict._



[6]

~Narcissus Minor. Least Daffodil.~

_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

Petala 6, æqualia: Nectario infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. Stamina intra
nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NARCISSUS _minor_ spatha uniflora, nectario obconico erecto crispo
sexfido æquante petala lanceolata. _Lin. Sp. Pl. p._ 415. _Syst.
Vegetab. p._ 262.

NARCISSUS parvus totus luteus. _Bauhin. Pin._ 53.

The least Spanish yellow bastard Daffodil. _Park. Parad. p._ 105.

[Illustration: No. 6]

We are not a little surprised that Mr. Miller should have taken no
notice of the present species, as it must have been in the English
gardens long before his time, being mentioned by Parkinson in his Garden
of pleasant Flowers: it is nearly related to the _Pseudo-Narcissus_, but
differs from it in many particulars except size, _vid. Lin. Sp. Pl._ and
Parkinson above quoted.

Though its blossoms are not so large as those of the other species, yet
when the roots are planted in a cluster, they make a very pretty shew,
and have this advantage, that they flower somewhat earlier than any of
the others.

Like the common Daffodil it propagates very fast by the roots, and will
thrive in almost any soil or situation.

Though a native of Spain, it is seldom injured by the severity of our
climate.



[7]

~Cynoglossum Omphalodes. Blue Navelwort.~

_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

Corolla infundibuliformis, fauce clausa fornicibus. Semina depressa
interiore tantum latere stylo affixa.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CYNOGLOSSUM Omphalodes repens, foliis radicalibus cordatis[B], _Lin. Sp.
Pl. p._ 193. _Syst. Vegetab. p._ 157. _Scopoli Fl. Carn. p._ 124. _t._
3.

SYMPHYTUM minus borraginis facie. _Bauh. Pin._ 259.

BORAGO minor verna repens, folio lævi. _Moris. hist._ 3. _p._ 437. _s._
11, _t._ 26. _fig._ 3.

[Illustration: No. 7]

A native of Spain, Portugal, and Carniola, and an inhabitant of woods
and shady situations, flowers in March and April: in the autumn it puts
forth trailing shoots, which take root at the joints, whereby the plant
is most plentifully propagated; thrives best under a wall in a North
border.

[Footnote B: "Stolones repunt non caulis florifer, cui folia ovalia, et
minime cordata. TOURNEFORTIUS separavit a SYMPHITO, et dixit
OMPHALLODEM _pumilam vernam, symphyti folio_, sed bene monet
LINNÆUS solam fructus asperitatem aut glabritiem, non sufficere ad novum
genus construendum." _Scopoli Fl. Carn. p._ 124.]



[8]

~Helleborus Niger. Black Hellebore, or Christmas Rose.~

_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Polygynia.~

_Generic Character._

Calyx nullus. Petala 5 sive plura. Nectaria bilabiata, tubulata. Capsulæ
polyspermæ, erectiusculæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HELLEBORUS niger scapo sub-bifloro subnudo, foliis pedatis. _Lin. Syst.
Vegetab. p._ 431. _Sp. Pl. p._ 783.

HELLEBORUS niger flore roseo, _Bauh. Pin._ 186.

The true Black Hellebore, or Christmas flower. _Parkins. Parad. p._ 344.

[Illustration: No. 8]

As our Publication seems likely to fall into the hands of such as are
totally unacquainted with Botany, or botanical writings, it must plead
as an apology for our often explaining many circumstances relative to
plants, which may be well known to adepts in the science.

This plant derives its first name from the black colour of its roots,
its second from its early flowering, and the colour of its petals, which
though generally milk-white on their first appearance, yet have
frequently a tint of red in them, which increases with the age of the
blossom and finally changes to green; in some species of Hellebore,
particularly the _viridis_, the flower is green from first to last.

Black Hellebore grows wild on the Appenine and other mountains,
preferring such as are rocky.

If the weather be unusually mild, it will flower in our gardens, in the
open border, as early as December and January; it may indeed be
considered as the herald of approaching spring.

Like most other alpine plants, it loves a pure air, a situation
moderately moist, and a soil unmanured: as the beauty of its flowers is
apt to be destroyed by severe frosts, it should be covered during the
winter with a hand-glass, or if it be treated in the manner recommended
for the round-leav'd Cyclamen, it may be had to flower in still greater
perfection.

It is propagated by parting its roots in autumn: neither this species
nor the _hyemalis_ thrive very near London.



[9]

~Iris pumila. Dwarf Iris.~

_Class and Order._

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

Corolla sex-partita: Petalis alternis, reflexis. Stigmata petaliformia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS pumila corollis barbatis, caule foliis breviore unifloro. _Lin.
Syst. Vegetab. p._ 78. _Sp. Plant. p._ 56. _Jacq. Fl. Austr. t._ 1.

CHAMÆIRIS minor flore purpureo. _Bauh. Pin._ 33.

The lesser purple dwarf Flower-de-luce. _Park. Parad. p._ 186.

[Illustration: No. 9]

Gardeners, in former days, not having that profusion of plants to attend
to and cultivate, which we can at present boast, appear to have been
more solicitous in increasing generally the varieties of the several
species; accordingly, we find in the _Paradisus terrestris_ of the
venerable PARKINSON, no less than six varieties of this
plant[C], most of which are now strangers to the Nursery Gardens. We may
observe, that varieties in general not being so strong as the original
plant, are consequently much sooner lost.

The Iris pumila grows wild in many parts of Hungary, affects open and
hilly situations, and flowers in our gardens in the month of April; it
is a very hardy plant, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation;
is propagated by parting its roots in autumn.

[Footnote C:
     The lesser purple dwarf Flower-de-luce with white blossoms,
     --   ----   ----   ---        ----     ---  straw colour ditto.
     --   ----   ----   ---        ----     ---  pale blue ditto.
     --   ----   ----   ---        ----     ---  blush-coloured ditto.
     --   ----   ----   ---        ----     ---  yellow variable ditto.
     --   ----   ----   ---        ----     ---  blue variable ditto,
     and the purple dwarf Sea Flower-de-luce of the same author, is
     probably no other than a variety.]



[10]

~Anemone Hepatica. Hepatica, or Noble Liverwort.~

_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Polygynia.~

_Generic Character._

Calyx nullus. Petala 6. 9. Semina plura.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ANEMONE Hepatica foliis trilobis integerrimis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._
424. _Sp. Pl. p._ 758. _Fl. Suec. n._ 480.

TRIFOLIUM hepaticum flore simplici et pleno. _Bauh. Pin._ 339.

Red Hepatica or noble Liverwort. _Park. Parad. p._ 226.

[Illustration: No. 10]

Dillenius, Miller, and some other authors, make a distinct genus of the
_Hepatica_: Linnæus unites it with the _Anemone_, observing, that though
it differs from the _Anemone_ in having a calyx, yet that calyx is at
some distance from the flower, and partakes more of the Nature of an
Involucrum, which is not uncommon to the Anemonies.

The Hepaticas, as Parkinson observes, flower soon after the winter
Hellebore, "and making their pride appear in winter, are the more
welcome early guests."

It is found wild in its single state, with red, blue, and white flowers,
in the woods and shady mountains of Sweden, Germany, and Italy; the red
variety with double flowers is the one most commonly cultivated in our
gardens; the double blue is also not unfrequent; the single white is
less common; and the double white Miller never saw, yet admits that it
may exist spontaneously, or be produced from seed: Parkinson mentions a
white variety with red threads or stamina.

According to Miller, this plant delights in a loamy soil, and in an
eastern position where it may have only the morning sun: the single
sorts are easily raised from seed; the double, increased by parting the
roots, which ought to be done in March when they are in bloom; they
should not be divided into very small heads: these plants, if often
removed and parted, are apt to die, but left undisturbed for many years,
they will thrive exceedingly, and become very large roots.



[11]

~Erica herbacea. Herbaceous Heath.~

_Class and Order._

~Octandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

Calyx 4-phyllus. Corolla 4-fida. Filamenta receptaculo inserta. Antheræ
bifidæ. Capsula 4-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ERICA _herbacea_ antheris muticis exsertis, corollis oblongis, stylo
exserto, foliis quaternis, floribus secundis, _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._
306. _carnea Sp. Pl. ed._ 3. _p._ 504.

ERICA _carnea_. _Jacq. Fl. Austr. v._ 1. _tab._ 32

ERICA procumbens herbacea. _Bauh. Pin. p._ 486.

[Illustration: No. 11]

Since the days of Mr. Miller, who, with all his imperfections, has
contributed more to the advancement of practical gardening than any
individual whatever, our gardens, but more especially our green-houses,
have received some of their highest ornaments from the introduction of a
great number of most beautiful Heaths: the present plant, though a
native of the Alps and mountainous parts of Germany, is of modern
introduction here, what renders it particularly acceptable, is its
hardiness and early flowering; its blossoms are formed in the autumn,
continue of a pale green colour during the winter, and expand in the
spring, flowering as early as March, especially if kept in a
green-house, or in a common hot-bed frame, which is the more usual
practice.

It may be propagated by seeds or cuttings, the latter is the most ready
way of increasing this and most of the other species of the genus: when
the cuttings have struck root, they should be planted in a mixture of
fresh loam and bog earth, either in the open border, under a wall, or in
pots.

The name of _herbacea_, which Linnæus has given to this plant, is not
very characteristic, but it should be observed, that Linnæus in this, as
in many other instances, has only adopted the name of some older
botanist; and it should also be remembered, that in genera, where the
species are very numerous, it is no easy matter to give names to all of
them that shall be perfectly expressive.

This species does not appear to us to be specifically different from the
_mediterranea_.



[12]

~Dodecatheon Meadia. Mead's Dodecatheon, or American Cowslip.~

_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ rotata, reflexa. _Stamina_ tubo insidentia. _Capsula_
unilocularis, oblonga.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

DODECATHEON _Meadia_. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 163. _Sp. Plant. p._ 163.

MEADIA _Catesb. Car._ 3. _p._ 1. _t._ 1. _Trew. Ehret. t._ 12.

AURICULA ursi virginiana floribus boraginis instar rostratis, cyclaminum
more reflexis. _Pluk. alm._ 62. _t._ 79. _f._ 6.

[Illustration: No. 12]

This plant grows spontaneously in Virginia and other parts of North
America, from whence, as Miller informs us, it was sent by Mr. Banister
to Dr. Compton, Lord Bishop of London, in whose curious garden he first
saw it growing in the year 1709.

It is figured by Mr. Catesby, in his Natural History of Carolina, among
the natural productions of that country, who bestowed on it the name of
_Meadia_, in honour of the late Dr. Mead, a name which Linnæus has not
thought proper to adopt as a generic, though he has as a trivial one.

"It flowers the beginning of May, and the seeds ripen in July, soon
after which the stalks and leaves decay, so that the roots remain
inactive till the following spring.

"It is propagated by offsets, which the roots put out freely when they
are in a loose moist soil and a shady situation; the best time to remove
the roots, and take away the offsets, is in August, after the leaves and
stalks are decayed, that they may be fixed well in their new situation
before the frost comes on. It may also be propagated by seeds, which the
plants generally produce in plenty; these should be sown in autumn,
soon after they are ripe, either in a shady moist border, or in pots,
which should be placed in the shade; in the spring, the plants will come
up, and must then be kept clean from weeds; and, if the season proves
dry, they must be frequently refreshed with water: nor should they be
exposed to the sun; for while the plants are young, they are very
impatient of heat, so that I have known great numbers of them destroyed
in two or three days, which were growing to the full sun. These young
plants should not be transplanted till the leaves are decayed, then they
may be carefully taken up and planted in a shady border, where the soil
is loose and moist, at about eight inches distance from each other,
which will be room enough for them to grow one year, by which time they
will be strong enough to produce flowers, so may then be transplanted
into some shady borders in the flower-garden, where they will appear
very ornamental during the continuance of their flowers." _Miller's
Gard. Dict._



[13]

~Coronilla glauca. Sea-green, or Day-smelling Coronilla.~

_Class and Order._

~Diadelphia Decandria.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ bilabiatus: 2/3: dentibus superioribus connatis. _Vexillum_ vix
alis longius. _Legumen_ isthmis interceptum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CORONILLA _glauca_ fruticosa, foliolis septenis, obtusissimis, stipulis
lanceolatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 557. _Sp. Pl._ 1047.

CORONILLA maritima, glauco folio. _Tournef. inst._ 650.

COLUTEA scorpioides maritima, glauco folio. _Bauh. Pin._ 397. _prodr._
157.

[Illustration: No. 13]

This charming shrub, which is almost perpetually in blossom, and
admirably adapted for nosegays, is a native of the south of France, and
a constant ornament to our green-houses.

Linnæus has observed, that the flowers, which in the day time are
remarkably fragrant, in the night are almost without scent.

"It is propagated by sowing the seeds in the spring, either upon a
gentle hot-bed, or on a warm border of light earth: when the plants are
come up about two inches high, they should be transplanted either into
pots, or into a bed of fresh earth, at about four or five inches
distance every way, where they may remain until they have obtained
strength enough to plant out for good, which should be either in pots
filled with good fresh earth, or in a warm situated border, in which, if
the winter is not too severe, they will abide very well, provided they
are in a dry soil." _Miller's Gard. Dict._



[14]

~Primula villosa. Mountain Primula.~

_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Involucrum_ umbellulæ. _Corollæ_ tubus cylindricus: ore patulo.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PRIMULA _villosa_ foliis obovatis dentatis villosis, scapo brevissimo
multifloro.

PRIMULA _villosa_. _Jacquin Fl. Austr. app. t._ 27.

[Illustration: No. 14]

Mr. Miller, in the Sixth Edition of the Abridgment of his Gardener's
Dictionary, mentions only four Primulas, exclusive of the Auricula, the
two first of which are named erroneously, and of the two last not a
syllable is said either as to their place of growth or culture.

The plant here figured, has been introduced pretty generally into the
Nursery-Gardens in the neighboured of London within these few years: Mr.
Salisbury informs me, that a variety of this plant with white flowers,
brought originally from the Alps of Switzerland, has for many years been
cultivated in a garden in Yorkshire.

It is not noticed by Linnæus: Professor Jacquin, in his Flora Austriaca,
has figured and described a Primula, which, though not agreeing so
minutely as could be wished with the one we have figured, is
nevertheless considered by some of the first Botanists in this country
as the same species; he gives it the name of _villosa_, which we adopt,
though with us it is so slightly villous as scarcely to deserve that
epithet.

It varies in the brilliancy of its colours, flowers in April, and will
succeed with the method of culture recommended for the Round-Leaved
Cyclamen.



[15]

~Narcissus Jonquilla. Common Jonquil.~

_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Petala_ sex. _Nectario_ infundibuliformi, monophyllo.

_Stamina_ intra nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NARCISSUS _Jonquilla_ spatha multiflora, nectario hemisphærico crenato,
breviore petalis, foliis semiteretibus. _Lin. Spec. Pl. p._ 417.

[Illustration: No. 15]

The fragrant Jonquil is a native of Spain, flowers in the open ground,
about the latter-end of April, or beginning of May, and will thrive in
almost any soil or situation, but prefers, as most bulbs do, a fresh
loamy earth; indeed such a soil is favourable to the growth of most
plants, as being exempt from a variety of subterraneous insects, which
are apt to infest ground which has been long cultivated.

It is found in the gardens with double flowers.

Our plant accords exactly with the description of Linnæus, above quoted,
but must be carefully distinguished from some others very similar to it.



[16]

~Iris variegata. Variegated Iris.~

_Class and Order._

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-partita; _Petalis_ alternis, reflexis. _Stigmata_
petaliformia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _variegata_ corollis barbatis, caule subfolioso longitudine
foliorum multifloro. _Linn. Spec. Pl. p._ 56.

IRIS latifolia pannonica, colore multiplici. _Bauh. Pin._ 31.

The yellow variable Flower-de-Luce. _Parkinson Parad. p._ 182.

[Illustration: No. 16]

This species of Iris, inferior to few in point of beauty, is a native of
the hilly pastures of Hungary, and flowers in our gardens in the month
of May, and beginning of June. It is a hardy perennial, requires no
particular treatment, and may be easily propagated by parting its roots
in Autumn.



[17]

~Cactus flagelliformis. Creeping Cereus.~

_Class and Order._

~Icosandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 1-phyllus, superus, imbricatus. _Corolla_ multiplex. _Bacca_
1-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character._

CACTUS _flagelliformis_ repens decemangularis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
ed._ 14 _p._ 460.

CEREUS _flagelliformis_. _Miller's Gard. Dict. ed._ 6. 4_to._

[Illustration: No. 17]

Grows spontaneously in South-America, and the West-Indies, flowers in
our dry stoves early in June, is tolerably hardy, and will thrive even
in a common green-house, that has a flue to keep out the severe frosts.

It is superior to all its congeners in the brilliancy of its colour, nor
are its blossoms so fugacious as many of the other species.

No plant is more easily propagated by cuttings; these Miller recommends
to be laid by in a dry place for a fortnight, or three weeks, then to be
planted in pots, filled with a mixture of loam and lime rubbish, having
some stones laid in the bottom of the pot to drain off the moisture, and
afterwards plunged into a gentle hot-bed of Tanners bark, to facilitate
their rooting, giving them once a week a gentle watering: this business
to be done the beginning of July.

It is seldom that this plant perfects its seeds in this country: Miller
relates that it has borne fruit in Chelsea gardens.



[18]

~Geranium Reichardi. Dwarf Geranium.~

_Class and Order._

~Monadelphia Decandria.~

_General Character._

Monogynia. Stigmata 5. Fructus rostratus, 5-coccus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

GERANIUM _Reichardi_ scapis unifloris, floribus pentandris, foliis
subreniformibus inciso-crenatis.

GERANIUM _Reichardi_ scapis unifloris, foliis plerisque oblongis
trilobis vel quinquelobis inciso-crenatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
Murr._ 14. _p._ 618.

[Illustration: No. 18]

This species of Geranium, so strikingly different from all others at
present cultivated in our gardens, has been known for several years to
the Nursery-men in the neighbourhood of London, by the name of _acaule_,
a name we should gladly have retained, had not Professor Murray
described it in the 14th edition of Linnæus's _Systema Vegetabilium_,
under the name of _Reichardi_, a name he was disposed to give it in
compliment to a French gentleman, who first discovered it in the island
of Minorca, and introduced it into the gardens of France.

Linnæus describes many of the Geraniums, as having only five antheræ,
though several of those he thus describes have to our certain knowledge
ten, the five lowermost of which shedding their pollen first, often drop
off, and leave the filaments apparently barren: but in this species
(with us at least) there never are more than five, but betwixt each
stamen, there is a broad pointed barren filament or squamula, scarcely
to be distinguished by the naked eye.

The usual and best practice is to make a green-house plant of this
species, though it has been known to remain in the open ground, during a
mild winter, unhurt.

It continues to have a succession of blossoms during the greatest part
of the summer, and may be propagated either by seed or parting its
roots.



[19]

~Hemerocallis Flava. Yellow Day-lily.~

_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata, tubus cylindraceus.

_Stamina_ declinata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HEMEROCALLIS _flava_ foliis lineari-subulatis carinatis, corollis
flavis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed._ 14. _p._ 339.

LILIUM luteum, asphodeli radice. _Bauh. Pin._ 80.

The Yellow Day-Lily. _Parkins. Parad. p._ 148.

[Illustration: No. 19]

This Genus has been called _Hemerocallis_, in English, _Day-Lily_, from
the short duration of its blossoms, but these are not quite so fugacious
in this species as in the _fulva_.

It very rarely happens that Linnæus, in his specific character of a
plant, has recourse to colour, he has however in this instance; but this
seems to arise from his considering them rather as varieties, than
species. To us they appear to be perfectly distinct, and in addition to
several other characters, the flava is distinguished by the fragrance of
its blossoms.

This species is an inhabitant of Hungary and Siberia, and consequently
bears our climate exceedingly well; it requires a moist soil, and a
situation somewhat shady, and is easily propagated by parting its roots
in autumn.



[20]

~Geranium Peltatum. Ivy-Leaved Geranium.~

_Class and Order._

~Monadelphia Decandria.~

_Generic Character._

Monogyna. _Stigmata_ quinque. _Fructus_ rostratus. 5-coccus.

_Specific Character._

GERANIUM _peltatum_ calycibus monophyllis, foliis quinquelobis
integerrimis glabris subpeltatis, caule fruticoso. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
ed._ 14. _p._ 613.

GERANIUM africanum, foliis inferioribus asari, superioribus
staphidisagriæ maculatis splendentibus et acetosæ sapore. _Comm. Præl._
52. _t._ 2.

[Illustration: No. 20]

A native of Africa, as are most of our shewy Geraniums, is not so tender
as many others, and may be propagated very readily from cuttings.

A leaf, having its foot-stalk inserted into the disk or middle part of
it, or near it, is called by Linnæus, peltatum, hence the Latin trivial
name of this plant. It may be observed, however, that some of the leaves
have this character more perfectly than others.

The African Geraniums differ much from the European, in the irregularity
of their Petals, but exhibit the character of the Class _Monadelphia_
much better than any of our English ones, having their filaments
manifestly united into one body; this species has only 7 filaments
bearing antheræ, but 3 barren ones may be discovered upon a careful
examination, which makes it of the order _Decandria_.



[21]

~Iris Versicolor. Particoloured Iris.~

_Class and Order._

~Triandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-petala, inæqualis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus.
_Stigmata_ petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata. Conf. _Thunb. Dis. de
Iride._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _versicolor_ imberbis foliis ensiformibus, scapo tereti flexuoso,
germinibus subtrigonis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed._ 14. _Murr. p._ 90.
_Sp. Plant. ed._ 3. _p._ 57.

IRIS Americana versicolor stylo crenato. _Dill. Elth._ 188. 1. 155. _f._
188.

[Illustration: No. 21]

A native of Virginia, Maryland, and Pensylvania, has a perennial root,
is hardy, and will thrive in almost any soil or situation; may be
increased by parting its roots in autumn.

Our plant is the _picta_ of Miller, and the _versicolor_ of Miller is,
we believe, the _sibirica_ of Linnæus.

This species has, for the most part, a stalk unusually crooked or
elbowed, by which it is particularly distinguished. It flowers in June,
as do most of this beautiful tribe.



[22]

~Nigella damascena. Garden Fennel-flower, Love in a mist, Devil in a Bush.~

_Class and Order._

~Polyandria Pentagynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ nullus. _Petala_ 5. Nectaria 5. trifida, intra corollam.
_Capsulæ_ 5 connexæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NIGELLA _damascena_ floribus involucro folioso cinctis. _Lin. Syst.
Vegetab. ed._ 14. _Murr. p._ 506. _Sp. Pl. p._ 753.

NIGELLA angustifolia, flore majore simplici cæruleo. _Bauh. Pin._ 145.

The great Spanish Nigella. _Park. Parad. p._ 287.

[Illustration: No. 22]

Is an annual, and grows wild among the corn in the southern parts of
Europe; varies with white and blue flowers, both single and double.

"May be propagated by sowing their seeds upon a bed of light earth,
where they are to remain (for they seldom succeed well if transplanted);
therefore, in order to have them intermixed among other annual flowers
in the borders of the Flower Garden, the seeds should be sown in patches
at proper distances: and when the plants come up, they must be thinned
where they grow too close, leaving but three or four of them in each
patch, observing also to keep them clear from weeds, which is all the
culture they require. In July they will produce their flowers, and their
seeds will ripen in August.

"The season for sowing these seeds is in March; but if you sow some of
them in August, soon after they are ripe, upon a dry soil and in a warm
situation, they will abide through the winter, and flower strong the
succeeding year; by sowing of the seeds at different times, they may be
continued in beauty most parts of the summer." _Miller's Gard. Dict.
ed._ 6. 4_to._



[23]

~Tropæolum majus. Greater Indian-Cress, or Nasturtium.~

_Class and Order._

~Octandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 1-phyllus, calcaratus. _Petala_ 5 in æqualia. _Baccæ_ tres,
siccæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TROPÆOLUM _majus_ foliis peltatis subquinquelobis, petalis obtusis.
_Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed._ 14. _Murr. p._ 357. _Sp. Pl. p._ 490.

CARDAMINDUM ampliori folio et majori flore. _Grande Capucine Tournef.
Inst. p._ 430.

[Illustration: No. 23]

The present plant is a native of Peru, and is said by Linnæus to have
been first brought into Europe in the year 1684; it is certainly one of
the greatest ornaments the Flower-Garden can boast: it varies in colour,
and is also found in the Nurseries with double flowers. The former, as
is well known, is propagated by seed; the latter by cuttings, which
should be struck on a hot-bed. To have these plants early, they should
be raised with other tender annuals; they usually begin to flower in
July, and continue blossoming till the approach of winter: the stalks
require to be supported, for if left to themselves they trail on the
ground, overspread, and destroy the neighbouring plants.

Elizabeth Christina, one of the daughters of Linnæus, is said to have
perceived the flowers to emit spontaneously, at certain intervals,
sparks like those of electricity, visible only in the dusk of the
evening, and which ceased when total darkness came on.

The flowers have the taste of water-cress, with a degree of sweetness,
which that plant does not possess, more particularly resident in the
spur of the calyx or nectary; hence are sometimes used in sallads, and
hence the plant acquires its name of _Nasturtium_.



[24]

~Agrostemma coronaria. Rose Cockle, or Campion.~

_Class and Order._

~Decandria Pentagynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 1-phyllus, coriaceus. _Petala_ 5 unguiculata: limbo obtuso,
indiviso. _Caps._ 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AGROSTEMMA _coronaria_ tomentosa, foliis ovato-lanceolatis, petalis
emarginatis coronatis serratis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed._ 14. _Murr. p._
435. _Sp. Pl. p._

LYCHNIS coronaria dioscoridis sativa. _Bauh. Pin._ 203. The single red
Rose Campion. _Parkins. Parad. p._ 252.

[Illustration: No. 24]

Grows spontaneously in Italy and Siberia; Linnæus informs us that the
blossom is naturally white, with red in the middle.

"The single Rose Campion has been long an inhabitant of the English
gardens, where, by its seeds having scattered, it is become a kind of
weed. There are three varieties of this plant, one with deep red,
another with flesh-coloured, and a third with white flowers, but these
are of small esteem, for the double Rose Campion being a finer flower,
has turned the others out of most fine gardens. The single sorts
propagate fast enough by the seeds, the sort with double flowers never
produces any, so is only propagated by parting of the roots; the best
time for this is in autumn, after their flowers are past; in doing of
this, every head which can be slipped off with roots should be parted;
these should be planted in a border of fresh undunged earth, at the
distance of six inches, observing to water them gently until they have
taken root, after which they will require no more, for much wet is
injurious to them, as is also dung. After the heads are well rooted,
they should be planted into the borders of the Flower-Garden, where they
will be very ornamental during the times of their flowering, which is in
July and August." _Miller's Gard. Dict. ed._ 6. 4_to._

Miller, by mistake, calls this plant _Cælirosa_.



[25]

~Dianthus chinensis. China or Indian Pink.~

_Class and Order._

~Decandria Digynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ cylindricus, 1-phyllus: basi squamis 4. _Petala_ 5, unguiculata.
_Capsula_ cylindrica, 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

DIANTHUS _chinensis_ floribus solitariis, squamis calycinis subulatis
patulis, tubum æquantibus, corollis crenatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._
418. _Sp. Pl._ 588.

CARYOPHYLLUS sinensis supinus, leucoji folio, flore unico. _Tournef.
act._ 1705. _p._ 348. _f._ 5.

[Illustration: No. 25]

This species, unknown to the older botanists, is a native of China,
hence its name of China Pink; but, in the nurseries, it is in general
better known by the name of Indian Pink.

Though it cannot boast the agreeable scent of many of its congeners, it
eclipses most of them in the brilliancy of its colours; there are few
flowers indeed which can boast that richness and variety found among the
most improved varieties of this species; and as these are easily
obtained from seed, so they are found in most collections, both single
and double.

It is little better than an annual, but will sometimes continue two
years in a dry soil, which it affects.

Attempts have been made to force it, but, as far as we have learned,
with no great success.



[26]

~Stapelia variegata. Variegated Stapelia.~

_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Digynia.~

_Generic Character._

Contorta. _Nectarium_ duplici stellula tegente genitalia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

STAPELIA _variegata_ denticulis ramorum patentibus. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab.
p._ 260. _Sp. Pl. p._ 316.

ASCLEPIAS aizoides africana. _Bradl. suc._ 3. _p._ 3. _t._ 22.

[Illustration: No. 26]

This very singular plant is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, where it
grows and flourishes on the rocks with the _Stapelia hirsuta_.

If these plants be kept in a very moderate stove in winter, and in
summer placed in an airy glass-case where they may enjoy much free air,
but screened from wet and cold, they will thrive and flower very well;
for although they will live in the open air in summer, and may be kept
through the winter in a good green-house; yet these plants will not
flower so well as those managed in the other way. They must have little
water given them, especially in winter.

It is very seldom that the _variegata_ produces seed-vessels in this
country; MILLER observes, in upwards of forty years that he
cultivated it, he never saw it produce its pods but three times, and
then on such plants only as were plunged into the tan-bed in the stove.

This plant may be propagated without seeds, as it grows fast enough from
slips; treatment the same as that of the Creeping Cereus, which see.

It takes its name of _Stapelia_ from _Stapel_, a Dutchman, author of
some botanical works, particularly a Description of Theophrastus's
plants.



[27]

~Convolvulus tricolor. Small Convolvulus or Bindweed.~

_Class and Order._

~Pentandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata, plicata. _Stigmata_ 2. _Capsula_ 2-locularis:
loculis dispermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CONVOLVULUS _tricolor_ foliis lanceolato ovatis glabris, caule
declinato, floribus solitariis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 203. _Sp. Pl.
p._ 225.

CONVOLVULUS peregrinus cæruleus, folio oblongo. _Bauh. Pin._ 295. Flore
triplici colore insignito. _Moris. hist._ 2. _p._ 17. _s._ 1. _t._ 4.
_f._ 4.

The Spanish Small Blew Bindeweede. _Parkins. Parad. p._ 4.

[Illustration: No. 27]

This species has usually been called _Convolvulus minor_ by gardeners,
by way of distinguishing it from the _Convolvulus purpureus_, to which
they have given the name of _major_. It is a very pretty annual; a
native of Spain, Portugal, and Sicily, and very commonly cultivated in
gardens.

The most usual colours of its blossoms are blue, white, and yellow,
whence its name of _tricolor_; but there is a variety of it with white,
and another with striped blossoms.

The whole plant with us is in general hairy, hence it does not well
accord with LINNÆUS'S description. It is propagated by seeds,
which should be sown on the flower-borders in the spring, where the
plants are to remain: they require no other care than to be thinned and
weeded.



[28]

~Passiflora coerulea. Common Passion-Flower.~

_Class and order._

~Gynandria Hexandria.~

_Generic Character._

Trigyna. _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5. _Nectarium_ corona. _Bacca_
pedicellata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PASSIFLORA _coerulea_ foliis palmatis integerrimis. _Lin. Syst.
Vegetab. p._ 823. _Sp. Pl. p._ 1360.

GRANADILLA polyphyllos, fructu ovato. _Tourn. inst._ 241.

FLOS PASSIONIS major pentaphyllus. _Sloan. Jam._ 104. _hist._ 1. _p._
229.

[Illustration: No. 28]

The Passion-Flower first introduced into this country was the
_incarnata_ of Linnæus, a native of Virginia, and figured by Parkinson
in his _Paradisus Terrestris_, who there styles it the surpassing
delight of all flowers: the present species, which, from its great
beauty and superior hardiness, is now by far the most common, is of more
modern introduction; and, though a native of the Brasils, seldom suffers
from the severity of our climate; flowering plentifully during most of
the summer months, if trained to a wall with a southern aspect, and, in
such situations, frequently producing ripe fruit, of the size and form
of a large olive, of a pale orange colour.

This most elegant plant may be propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings;
foreign seeds are most to be depended on; they are to be sown in the
spring, on a moderate hot-bed, and when the plants are grown to the
height of two or three inches, they are to be carefully taken up, and
each planted in a separate small pot, filled with good loam, then
plunged into a moderate hot-bed, to forward their taking new root; after
which they should be gradually inured to the common air: the younger the
plants the more shelter they require, and if ever so old or strong, they
are in danger from severe frosts. The layers and cuttings are to be
treated in the common way, but seedling plants, if they can be obtained,
are on many accounts to be preferred.



[29]

~Reseda odorata. Sweet-scented Reseda or Mignonette.~

_Class and Order._

~Dodecandria Trigynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 1-phyllus, partitus. _Petala_ laciniata. _Caps._ ore dehiscens,
1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

RESEDA _odorata_ foliis integris trilobisque, calycibus florem
æquantibus. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 449.

RESEDA foliis integris trilobisque, floribus tetragynis. _Mill. Dict.
t._ 217.

[Illustration: No. 29]

_Mignonette_ grows naturally in Egypt, it was unknown to the older
Botanists; Miller says he received the seeds of it from Dr. Adrian Van
Royen, Professor of Botany at Leyden, so that it is rather a modern
inhabitant of our gardens.

The luxury of the pleasure-garden is greatly heightened by the
delightful odour which this plant diffuses; and as it is most readily
cultivated in pots, its fragrance may be conveyed to the parlour of the
recluse, or the chamber of the valetudinarian; its perfume, though not
so refreshing perhaps as that of the Sweet-Briar, is not apt to offend
on continuance the most delicate olfactories.

Being an annual it requires to be raised yearly from seed; when once
introduced on a warm dry border it will continue to sow itself, and grow
very luxuriantly, flowering from June to the commencement of winter; but
as it is desirable to have it as early as possible in the spring, the
best way is either to sow the seed in pots in autumn, securing them
through the winter in frames, or in a greenhouse, or to raise the seeds
early on a gentle hot bed, thinning the plants if they require it, so as
to have only two or three in a pot.



[30]

~Lilium chalcedonicum. Chalcedonian Lily.~

_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-petala, campanulata: _linea_ longitudinali nectarifera. _Caps._
valvulis pilo cancellato connexis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LILIUM _chalcedonicum_ foliis sparsis lanceolatis, floribus reflexis,
corollis revolutis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 324.

LILIUM byzantium miniatum. _Bauh. Pin._ 78.

The Red Martagon of Constantinople. _Park. Parad. p._ 34.

[Illustration: No. 30]

This species is best known in the nurseries by the name of the _Scarlet
Martagon_; but as it is not the Martagon of Linnæus, to avoid confusion
it will be most proper to adhere to the name which Linnæus has given it.

It is a native not only of Persia, but of Hungary; Professor Jacquin,
who has figured it in his most excellent _Flora Austriaca_, describes it
as growing betwixt Carniola and Carinthia, and other parts of Hungary,
but always on the tops of the largest mountains.

It varies in the number of its flowers, from one to six, and the colour
in some is found of a blood red.

Authors differ in their ideas of its smell: Jacquin describing it as
disagreeble, while Scopoli compares it to that of an orange.

It flowers in June and July; and is propagated by offsets, which it
produces pretty freely, and which will grow in almost any soil or
situation.

The best time for removing the roots is soon after the leaves are
decayed, before they have begun to shoot.



[31]

~Jasminum officinale. Common Jasmine or Jessamine.~

_Class and Order._

~Diandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 5-fida. _Bacca_ dicocca. _Sem_. arillata. _Antheræ_ intra tubum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

JASMINUM _officinale_ foliis oppositis; foliolis distinctis. _Lin. Syst.
Vegetab. p._ 56.

JASMINUM vulgatius flore albo. _Bauh. Pin._ 397.

Jasmine or Gesmine. _Park. Parad. p._ 406.

[Illustration: No. 31]

There is an elegance in the Jasmine which added to its fragrance renders
it an object of universal admiration.

"It grows naturally at Malabar, and in several parts of India, yet has
been long inured to our climate, so as to thrive and flower extremely
well, but never produces any fruit in England. It is easily propagated
by laying down the branches, which will take root in one year, and may
then be cut from the old plant, and planted where they are designed to
remain: it may also be propagated by cuttings, which should be planted
early in the autumn, and guarded against the effects of severe frosts.

"When these plants are removed, they should be planted either against
some wall, pale, or other fence, where the flexible branches may be
supported. These plants should be permitted to grow rude in the summer,
otherwise there will be no flowers; but after the summer is past, the
luxuriant shoots should be pruned off, and the others must be nailed to
the support.

"There are two varieties of this with variegated leaves, one with white,
the other with yellow stripes, but the latter is the most common: these
are propagated by budding them on the plain Jasmine; they require to be
planted in a warm situation, especially the white-striped, for they are
much more tender than the plain, and in very severe winters their
branches should be covered with mats or straw to prevent their being
killed." _Miller's Gard. Dict._



[32]

~Mesembryanthemum dolabriforme. Hatchet-leav'd Fig-Marigold.~

_Class and Order._

~Icosandria Pentagynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ numerosa, linearia. _Caps._ carnosa infera,
polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _dolabriforme_ acaule, foliis dolabriformibus
punctatis. _Lin. Syst. Veg. p._ 470.

FICOIDES capensis humilis, foliis cornua cervi referentibus, petalis
luteis noctiflora, _Bradl. suc._ 1. _p._ 11. _t._ 10. _Dillen Hort.
Elth. t._ 191. _f._ 237.

[Illustration: No. 32]

Though many Latin names of plants, as _Geranium_, _Hepatica_,
_Convolvulus_, &c. are more familiar to the ear, and more generally used
than their English ones, yet _Mesembryanthemum_ though used by some,
appears too long to be generally adopted, its English name of
_Fig-marigold_ is doubtless to be preferred.

The Fig-marigolds are a very numerous tribe, chiefly inhabitants of the
Cape of Good Hope; no less than thirty-three species are figured in that
inestimable work the _Hortus Elthamensis_ of Dillenius. As most of these
plants grow readily from slips, or cuttings, and require only the
shelter of a common greenhouse, and as they recommend themselves to our
notice, either from the extreme singularity of their foliage, the beauty
of their flowers, or the peculiarity of their expansion, so they are a
favourite class of plants with many.

The present species is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and is
particularly distinguished by having leaves somewhat resembling a
hatchet, whence its name; it is as hardy as most, and flowers as freely,
but its blossoms fully expand in the evening and night only.

It is very readily propagated by cuttings.



[33]

~Aster tenellus. Bristly-leav'd Aster.~

_Class and Order._

~Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.~

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ simplex. _Cor._ radii plures 10. _Cal._
imbricati squamæ inferiores patulæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ASTER _tenellus_ foliis subfiliformibus aculeato-ciliatis, pedunculis
nudis, calycibus hemisphæricis æqualibus. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 760.

ASTER parvus æthiopicus, chamæmeli floribus, tamarisci ægyptiaci foliis
tenuissime denticulatis. _Pluk. alm._ 56. _t._ 271. _f._ 4. _Raii.
Suppl._ 164. _n._ 84.

[Illustration: No. 33]

Most of the numerous species of this genus flower about Michaelmas,
hence their vulgar name of _Michaelmas-Daisy_; a name exceptionable not
only on account of its length, but from its being a compound word.
_Aster_, though a Latin term, is now so generally received, that we
shall make no apology for adopting it.

We are indebted to North-America for most of our Asters, but the present
species, which is omitted by _Miller_, and is rather a scarce plant in
this country, though not of modern introduction, being figured by
_Plukenet_ and described by _Ray_, is a native of Africa, and, like a
few others, requires in the winter the shelter of a greenhouse.

It is particularly distinguished by having very narrow leaves with short
bristles on them, and by its blossoms drooping before they open.

It is a perennial, flowers in September and October, and may be
propagated by slips or cuttings.

The plant from whence our drawing was made, came from Messrs. _Gordon_
and _Thompson_'s Nursery, Mile-End.



[34]

~Browallia elata. Tall Browallia.~

_Class and Order._

~Didynamia Gymnospermia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-dentatus. _Cor._ limbus 5-fidus, æqualis, patens: umbilico
clauso Antheris 2, majoribus. _Caps._ 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

BROWALLIA _elata_ pedunculis unifloris multiflorisque. _Lin. Syst.
Vegetab. p._ 572. _Sp. Pl._ 880. _Mill. Dict._

[Illustration: No. 34]

Of this genus there are only two species, both natives of South-America,
the _elata_, so called from its being a much taller plant than the
_demissa_, is a very beautiful, and not uncommon stove or green-house
plant; it is impossible, by any colours we have, to do justice to the
brilliancy of its flowers.

Being an annual, it requires to be raised yearly from seed, which must
be sown on a hot-bed in the spring, and the plants brought forward on
another, otherwise they will not perfect their seeds in this country.
Some of these may be transplanted into the borders of the flower-garden
which are warmly situated, where, if the season prove favourable, they
will flower and ripen their seeds; but, for security's sake, it will be
prudent to keep a few plants in the stove or green-house.

As these plants have not been distinguished by any particular English
name, MILLER very properly uses its Latin one; a practice which
should as much as possible be adhered to, where a genus is named in
honour of a Botanist of eminence.



[35]

~Crepis barbata. Bearded Crepis, or Purple-eyed Succory-Hawkweed.~

_Class and Order._

~Syngenesia Polygamia Æqualis.~

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ nudum. _Cal._ calyculatus squamis deciduis. _Pappus_ plumosus,
stipitatus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CREPIS _barbata_ involucris calyce longioribus: squamis setaceis
sparsis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 719.

HIERACIUM proliferum falcatum. _Bauh. Pin._ 128.

HIERACIUM calyce barbato. _Col. ecphr._ 2. _p._ 28. _t._ 27. _f._ 1.

HIERACIUM boeticum medio nigro. _Herm. Parad. Bat._ 185. _t._ 185.

[Illustration: No. 35]

Grows spontaneously in the south of France, about Montpelier; also, in
Spain, Italy, Sicily, and elsewhere in the south of Europe: is one of
the most common annuals cultivated in our gardens. It begins flowering
in July, and continues to blossom till the frost sets in.

No other care is necessary in the cultivation of this species than
sowing the seeds in the spring, in little patches, on the borders where
they are to remain, thinning them if they prove too numerous.

MILLER calls this species _boetica_, and improperly describes
the centre of the flower as black, as also does HERMAN: in all
the specimens we have seen, it has evidently been of a deep purple
colour, or, as LINNÆUS expresses it, _atropurpurascens_.



[36]

~Lilium bulbiferum. Orange Lily.~

_Class and Order._

~Hexandria Monogynia.~

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-petala, campanulata: _linea_ longitudinali nectarifera. _Caps._
valvulis pilo cancellato connexis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LILIUM _bulbiferum_ foliis sparsis, corollis campanulatis erectis: intus
scabris. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p._ 324. _Jacq. Fl. Austr. t._ 226.

LILIUM purpureo-croceum majus. _Bauh. Pin._ 76.

LILIUM aureum, the gold red Lily. _Park. Parad. p._ 37.

[Illustration: No. 36]

"The common orange or red Lily is as well known in the English gardens
as the white Lily, and has been as long cultivated here. This grows
naturally in Austria and some parts of Italy. It multiplies very fast by
offsets from the roots, and is now so common as almost to be rejected;
however, in large gardens these should not be wanting, for they make a
good appearance when in flower if they are properly disposed; of this
sort there are the following varieties:

The orange Lily with double flowers,

The orange Lily with variegated leaves,

The smaller orange Lily.

These varieties have been obtained by culture, and are preserved in the
gardens of florists. They all flower in June and July, and their stalks
decay in September, when the roots may be transplanted and their offsets
taken off, which should be done once in two or three years, otherwise
their branches will be too large, and the flower-stalks weak. This doth
not put out new roots till towards spring, so that the roots may be
transplanted any time after the stalks decay till November. It will
thrive in any soil or situation, but will be strongest in a soft gentle
loam, not too moist." _Mill. Dict._

Bears the smoke of London better than many plants.

Varies with and without bulbs on the stalks.



INDEX.

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _First Volume_,
are alphabetically arranged.

    _Pl._

  24 Agrostemma Coronaria.
  10 Anemone _Hepatica_.
  33 Aster tenellus.
  34 Browallia elata.
  17 Cactus flagelliformis.
  27 Convolvulus tricolor.
  13 Coronilla glauca.
  35 Crepis barbata.
   4 Cyclamen _Coum_.
   7 Cynoglossum _Omphalodes_.
  25 Dianthus chinensis.
  12 Dodecatheon _Meadia_.
  11 Erica herbacea.
   5 Erythronium _Dens Canis_.
  18 Geranium Reichardi.
  20 Geranium peltatum.
   3 Helleborus hyemalis.
   8 Helleborus niger.
  19 Hemerocallis flava.
  31 Jasminum officinale.
   1 Iris persica.
   9 Iris pumila.
  16 Iris variegata.
  21 Iris versicolor.
  30 Lilium chalcedonicum.
  36 Lilium bulbiferum.
  32 Mesembryanthemum dolabriforme.
   6 Narcissus minor.
  15 Narcissus _Jonquilla_.
  22 Nigella damascena.
  28 Passiflora coerulea.
  14 Primula villosa.
  29 Reseda odorata.
   2 Rudbeckia purpurea.
  26 Stapelia variegata.
  23 Tropæolum majus.


  INDEX.

  In which the English Names
  of the Plants contained in
  the _First Volume_, are alphabetically
  arranged.

    _Pl._

  33 Aster bristly-leav'd.
  34 Browallia tall.
  17 Cereus creeping.
  24 Cockle rose.
  13 Coronilla sea-green.
  27 Convolvulus small.
  35 Crepis bearded.
   4 Cyclamen round-leav'd.
   6 Daffodil lesser.
  19 Day-lily yellow.
  12 Dodecatheon Mead's.
   5 Dog's-tooth.
  22 Fennel-flower garden.
  32 Fig-marigold hatchet-leav'd.
  18 Geranium dwarf.
  20 Geranium ivy-leav'd.
  11 Heath herbaceous.
   8 Hellebore black.
   3 Hellebore winter.
  10 Hepatica.
  31 Jasmine common.
  23 Indian-cress greater.
  15 Jonquil common.
   9 Iris dwarf.
  21 Iris particoloured.
   1 Iris persian.
  16 Iris variegated.
  30 Lily chalcedonian.
  36 Lily orange.
   7 Navel-wort blue.
  28 Passion-flower common.
  25 Pink china.
  14 Primula mountain.
  29 Reseda sweet-scented.
   2 Rudbeckia purple.
  26 Stapelia variegated.





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