Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 3 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 3 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



  THE

  ~Botanical Magazine~;

  OR,

  ~Flower-Garden Displayed~:

  IN WHICH


  The most Ornamental Foreign Plants, cultivated in the
  Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately
  represented in their natural Colours.

  TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

  Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according
  to the celebrated Linnæus; their Places of Growth, and
  Times of Flowering:

  TOGETHER WITH

  THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

  A WORK

  Intended for the Use of such Ladies, Gentlemen, and Gardeners, as
  wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.

  ~By WILLIAM CURTIS~,

  Author of the Flora Londinensis.

  ~VOL. III.~


  "The spleen is seldom felt where Flora reigns;
  The low'ring eye, the petulance, the frown,
  And sullen sadness, that o'ershade, distort,
  And mar the face of beauty, when no cause
  For such immeasurable woe appears;
  These Flora banishes, and gives the fair
  Sweet smiles and bloom, less transient than her own."
                                                  COWPER.


  LONDON:

  Printed by Couchman and Fry, Throgmorton-Street,

  For W. CURTIS, at his Botanic-Garden, Lambeth-Marsh;

  And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

  M DCC XC.

       *       *       *       *       *



[73]

MONSONIA SPECIOSA. LARGE-FLOWER'D MONSONIA.


_Class and Order._

POLYADELPHIA DODECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ 5-petala. _Stam._ 15. connata in 5 filamenta.
     _Stylus_ 5-fidus. _Caps._ 5-cocca.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MONSONIA _speciosa_ foliis quinatis: foliolis bipinnatis, _Lin. Syst.
     Vegetab. p. 697._

MONSONIA grandiflora. _Burm. prodr. 23._

[Illustration: No 73]

The genus of which this charming plant is the most distinguished
species, has been named in honour of _Lady Anne Monson_. The whole
family are natives of the Cape, and in their habit and fructification
bear great affinity to the Geranium. The present species was introduced
into this country in 1774, by Mr. MASSON.

We received this elegant plant just as it was coming into flower, from
Mr. COLVILL, Nurseryman, King's-Road, Chelsea, who was so
obliging as to inform me that he had succeeded best in propagating it by
planting cuttings of the root in pots of mould, and plunging them in a
tan-pit, watering them as occasion may require; in due time buds appear
on the tops of the cuttings left out of the ground.

It rarely or never ripens its seed with us.

Should be treated as a hardy greenhouse plant; may be sheltered even
under a frame, in the winter.



[74]

ANTIRRHINUM TRISTE. MELANCHOLY OR BLACK-FLOWER'D TOAD-FLAX.


_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOPSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ basis deorsum prominens, nectarifera. _Caps._
     2. locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ANTIRRHINUM _triste_ foliis linearibus sparsis inferioribus oppositis
     nectariis subulatis, floribus sub-sessilibus. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab.
     p. 555._

LINARIA tristis hispanica. _Dill. Elth. 201. t. 164. f. 199._

[Illustration: No 74]

Receives its name of _triste_ from the sombre appearance of its flowers;
but this must be understood when placed at some little distance, for, on
a near view, the principal colour of the blossoms is a fine rich brown,
inclined to purple.

Is a native of Spain, and of course a greenhouse plant with us, but it
must not be too tenderly treated, as it loses much of its beauty when
drawn up, it should therefore be kept out of doors when the season will
admit, as it only requires shelter from severe frost, and that a common
hot-bed frame will in general sufficiently afford it.

It flowers during most of the summer months; as it rarely or never
ripens its seeds with us, the usual mode of propagating it, is by
cuttings, which strike readily enough in the common way.

MILLER relates that it was first introduced into this country
by Sir CHARLES WAGER, from Gibraltar seeds.



[75]

POTENTILLA GRANDIFLORA. LARGE-FLOWER'D POTENTILLA.


_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 10-fidus. _Petala_ 5. _Sem._ subrotunda, nuda, receptaculo parvo
     exsucco affixa.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

POTENTILLA _grandiflora_ foliis ternatis dentatis utrinque subpilosis,
     caule decumbente foliis longiore, _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 715._

FRAGARIA sterilis, amplissimo folio et flore petalis cordatis, _Vaill.
     Paris. 55. t. 10. f. 1._

[Illustration: No 75]


Culture is well known to produce great alterations in the appearance of
most plants, but particularly in those which grow spontaneously on dry
mountainous situations, and this is strikingly exemplified in the
present instance, this species of _Potentilla_, becoming in every
respect much larger, as well as much smoother than in its natural state.
_Vid._ VAILL. above quoted.

It is a hardy herbaceous plant, a native of Switzerland, Siberia, and
other parts of Europe, and flowers in July.

LINNÆUS considers it as an annual; MILLER, as a
biennial; we suspect it to be, indeed have little doubt of its being a
perennial; having propagated it by parting its roots, but it may be
raised more successfully from seed.



[76]

EPILOBIUM ANGUSTISSIMUM. NARROWEST LEAV'D WILLOW-HERB.


_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 4-fidus. _Petala_ 4. _Caps._ oblonga, infera. _Sem._ papposa.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

EPILOBIUM angustifolium, foliis sparsis linearibus obsolete denticulatis
     aveniis, petalis æqualibus integerrimis, _Ait. Hort. Kew. 2. p. 5._

EPILOBIUM _angustifolium_, var. _Lin. Sp. Pl._

EPILOBIUM flore difformi, foliis linearibus. _Hall, Hist. Helv. p. 427.
     n. 1001._

[Illustration: No 76]

Though the _Epilobium_ here figured has not been many years introduced
into this country, it is a plant which has long been well known, and
described.

LINNÆUS makes it a variety only of the _Epilobium
angustifolium_; HALLER, a distinct species, and in our opinion,
most justly.

Those who have cultivated the _Epilobium angustifolium_ have cause to
know that it increases prodigiously by its creeping roots. The present
plant, so far as we have been able to determine from cultivating it
several years, in our Garden, Lambeth-Marsh, has not shewn the least
disposition to increase in the same way, nor have any seedlings arisen
from the seeds which it has spontaneously scattered: we have, indeed,
found it a plant rather difficult to propagate, yet it is highly
probable that at a greater distance from London, and in a more
favourable soil, its roots, though not of the creeping kind, may admit
of a greater increase, and its seeds be more prolific.

It is a native of the Alps of Switzerland, from whence it is frequently
dislodged, and carried into the plains by the impetuosity of torrents.

It flowers with us in July and August, and being a hardy perennial, and
perhaps the most elegant species of the genus, appears to us highly
deserving a place in the gardens of the curious.



[77]

CENTAUREA MONTANA. GREATER BLUE-BOTTLE.


_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.

_Generic Character._

Receptaculum setosum. Pappus simplex. Corollæ radii infundibuliformes,
     longiores, irregulares.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CENTAUREA montana calycibus serratis, foliis lanceolatis decurrentibus
     caule simplicissimo. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 785._

CYANUS montanus latifolius S. Verbasculum cyanoides. _Bauh. Pin. 273._

CYANUS major. _Lobel. icon. 548._

[Illustration: No 77]

It has been suggested by some of our readers, that too many common
plants, like the present, are figured in this work. We wish it to be
understood, that the professed design of the Botanical Magazine is to
exhibit representations of such. We are desirous of putting it in the
power of all who cultivate or amuse themselves with plants, to become
scientifically acquainted with them, as far as our labours extend; and
we deem it of more consequence, that they should be able to ascertain
such as are to be found in every garden, than such as they may never
have an opportunity of seeing. On viewing the representations of objects
of this sort, a desire of seeing the original is naturally excited, and
the pleasure is greatly enhanced by having it in our power to possess
it. But, while we are desirous of thus creating Botanists, we are no
less anxious to gratify the wishes of those already such; and we
believe, from a perusal of the Magazine, it will appear that one-third
of the plants figured, have some pretensions to novelty.

The _Centaurea montana_ is a native of the German Alps, flowers during
the greatest part of the summer, is a hardy perennial, and will grow in
any soil or situation, some will think too readily.



[78]

NARCISSUS ODORUS. SWEET-SCENTED, OR GREAT JONQUIL.


_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Petala_ 6-æqualia. _Nectario_ infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. _Stamina_
     intra nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NARCISSUS _odorus_ spatha sub-biflora, nectario campanulato sexfido lævi
     dimidio petalis breviore, foliis semicylindricis. _Lin. Syst.
     Vegetab. p. 317._

NARCISSUS angustifolius, five juncifolius maximus amplo calice.

The Great Jonquilia with the large flower or cup. _Park Parad. p. 89.
     fig. 5._

[Illustration: No 78]

We shall be thought, perhaps, too partial to this tribe of plants, this
being the fifth species now figured; but it should be remembered, that
as the spring does not afford that variety of flowers which the summer
does, we are more limited in our choice; the flowers of this delightful
season have also greater claims to our notice, they present themselves
with double charms.

This species, which, as its name implies, possesses more fragrance than
many of the others, is a native of the South of Europe, flowers in the
open border in April, is a hardy-perennial, thriving in almost any soil
or situation, but succeeds best in a loamy soil and eastern exposure.
Varies with double flowers, in which slate it is often used for forcing.

No notice is taken of this species by MILLER, except as a
variety of the N. _Jonquilla_, from which it differs _toto calo_.



[79]

LOTUS JACOBÆUS. BLACK-FLOWER'D LOTUS.


_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Legumen_ cylindricum strictum. _Alæ_ sursum longitudinaliter
     conniventes. _Cal._ tubulosus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LOTUS _Jacobæus_ leguminibus subternatis, caule herbaceo erecto,
     foliolis linearibus. _Lin. Syst. Veg. 601._

LOTUS angustifolia, flore luteo purpurascente, infulæ S. Jacobi. _Comm.
     hort. 2. p. 165. t. 83._

[Illustration: No 79]

This species of _Lotus_ has been called black-flower'd, not that the
flowers are absolutely black, for they are of a very rich brown inclined
to purple, but because they appear so at a little distance; the light
colour of the foliage contributes not a little to this appearance.

"It grows naturally in the Island of St. James; is too tender to live
abroad in England, so the plants must be kept in pots, and in the winter
placed in a warm airy glass cafe, but in the summer they should be
placed abroad in a sheltered situation. It may be easily propagated by
cuttings during the summer season, and also by seeds, but the plants
which have been two or three times propagated by cuttings, seldom are
fruitful." _Miller's Gard. Dict._

It continues to flower during the whole of the summer; as it is very apt
to die off without any apparent cause, care should be taken to have a
succession of plants from seeds, if possible.



[80]

SPIGELIA MARILANDICA. MARYLAND SPIGELIA, OR WORM-GRASS.


_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ infundibuliformis. _Capsula_ didyma. 2-locularis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SPIGELIA _Marilandica_ caule tetragono, foliis omnibus oppositis. _Lin.
     Syst. Veg. p. 197._ _Mant. 2. p. 338._

LONICERA _Marilandica_, _Spec. Pl. ed. 3. p. 249._

PERICLYMENI virginiani flore coccineo planta marilandica spicata erecta
     foliis conjugatis. _D. Sherard Raii Suppl. p. 32._ _Catesb. Carol.
     11. t. 78._

ANTHELMIA Indian pink. _Dr. Lining. Essays Physical and Literary, Vol.
     1. and Vol. 3._

[Illustration: No 80]

This plant, not less celebrated for its superior efficacy in destroying
worms[A], than admired for its beauty, is a native of the warmer parts
of North America; the older Botanists, and even LINNÆUS, at one
time considered it as a _honeysuckle_, but he has now made a new genus
of it, which he has named in honour of SPIGELIUS, a Botanist of
considerable note, author of the _Ifagog. in yem herbar_. published at
_Leyden_ in 1633.

"This plant is not easily propagated in England, for the roots make but
slow increase, so that the plant is not very common in the English
Gardens at present; for although it is so hardy as to endure the cold of
our ordinary winters in the open air, yet as it does not ripen seeds,
the only way of propagating it is by parting of the roots; and as these
do not make much increase by offsets, so the plants are scarce; it
delights in a moist soil, and must not be often transplanted." _Miller's
Dict._

The scarcity of this plant, even now, is a proof of the justness of Mr.
MILLER's observation; it is in fact a very shy plant, and
scarcely to be kept in this country but by frequent importation.

It flowers in June and July.

[Footnote A: _Vid. Lewis's Mater. Medica._]



[81]

COLUTEA ARBORESCENS. TREE COLUTEA, OR BLADDER SENNA.


_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-fidus. _Legumen_ inflatum, basi superiore dehiscens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

COLUTEA _arborescens_ arborea foliolis obcordatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab.
     p. 668._

COLUTEA vesicaria. _Bauh. Pin. 396._

The greater Bastard Senna with bladders. _Park. Par. 440._

[Illustration: No 81]

The Bladder Senna, a native of the South of France and Italy, produces a
profusion of bloom from June to August, when its inflated pods please
from the singularity of their appearance; on these accounts, it is one
of the most common flowering shrubs cultivated in gardens and
plantations.

"It is propagated by sowing its seeds any time in the spring in a bed of
common earth; and when the plants are come up, they must be kept clear
from weeds, and the Michaelmas following they should be transplanted
either into nursery-rows, or in the places where they are designed to
remain; for if they are let grow in the seed-bed too long, they are very
subject to have tap roots, which render them unfit for transplanting;
nor should these trees be suffered to remain too long in the nursery
before they are transplanted, for the same reason." _Miller's Gard.
Dict._

We have learned by experience, that a very wet soil will prove fatal to
these shrubs.



[82]

LACHENALIA TRICOLOR. THREE-COLOURED LACHENALIA.


_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ subtriphyllus, inferus, coloratus. _Corolla_ 3-petala,
     receptaculo inferta. _Jacquin jun. in act. helv. vol. 9._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LACHENALIA _tricolor_. _Lin. Syst, Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 314._ _Jacq.
     Icon. pl. rarior, t. 3._

PHORMIUM _Aloides_. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 336. Suppl. 205._

[Illustration: No 82]

To Mr. LEE, of the Vineyard, Hammersmith, the first, and as we
understand, the only Nurseryman as yet in possession of this plant,
which has but lately been introduced into this country from the Cape, we
are indebted for the present specimen.

Mr. JACQUIN, jun. who has figured and described it in the _Acta
Helvetica_, gives it the name of _Lachenalia_, in honour of WARNERUS
de la CHENAL, a very eminent Swiss Botanist, and the particular
friend of the late illustrious HALLER. Our readers should be
informed, that it had before been called by two other different names,
viz. _Hyacinthus orchiodes_, and _Phormium aloides_, under the latter of
which it now stands in the 14th edition of the _Systema Vegetabilium_,
as well as that of _Lachenalia_.

Its trivial name of _tricolor_ it receives from the three colours
observable in the flowers; but it must be noticed, that it is only at
the middle period of its flowering, that these three colours are highly
distinguishable; as it advances, the brilliant orange of the top flowers
dies away; the spots on the leaves also, which when the plant is young,
give it the appearance of an orchis, as it advances into bloom become
less and less conspicuous.

Like most of the Cape plants, the _Lachenalia_ requires to be sheltered
in the winter; during that season it must therefore be kept in a
greenhouse, or hot-bed frame, well secured.

It flowers in the spring, but its blowing may be accelerated by the
warmth of the stove, for it bears forcing well enough.

It is increased by offsets from the bulbs.



[83]

HIBISCUS SYRIACUS. SYRIAN HIBISCUS; commonly called ALTHÆA
FRUTEX.


_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ duplex, exterior polyphyllus. _Capsula_ 5-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HIBISCUS _syriacus_ foliis cuneiformi ovatis superne incise-serratis,
     caule arboreo. _Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 630._

ALCEA arborescens syriaca. _Bauh. Pin. p. 316._

ALTHÆA frutex flore albo vel purpureo. _Park. Par. p. 369._

[Illustration: No 83]

The _Hibiscus syriacus_, known generally by the name of _Althæa frutex_,
is a native of Syria, and forms one of the chief ornaments of our
gardens in autumn; we view it, however, with less delight, as it is a
sure indication of approaching winter.

There are many varieties of it mentioned by authors, as the _purple,
red-flowered, white-flowered, variegated red and white flowered_, and
the _striped-flowered_, to which may be added, another variety, lately
introduced, with double flowers: it varies also in its foliage, which is
sometimes marked with white, sometimes with yellow.

As from the lateness of its flowering, and the want of sufficient
warmth, it rarely ripens its seeds with us; the usual mode of increasing
it is by layers, and sometimes by cuttings; but the best plants are
raised from seeds. MILLER observes, that the scarce varieties
may be propagated by grafting them on each other, which is the common
method of propagating the sorts with striped leaves.

In the time of PARKINSON it was not looked on as a hardy shrub:
he thus writes,--"they are somewhat tender, and would not be suffered to
be uncovered in the winter time, or yet abroad in the garden, but kept
in a large pot or tubbe, in the house or in a warme cellar, if you would
have them to thrive." _Park. Parad._



[84]

TUSSILAGO ALPINA. ALPINE COLTSFOOT.


_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Receptaculum_ nudum. _Pappus_ simplex. _Cal._ squamæ æquales, discum
     æquantes, submembranaceæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TUSSILAGO _alpina_ scapo unifloro subnudo, foliis cordato orbiculatis
     crenatis utrinque virentibus. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 755._

TUSSILAGO alpina rotundifolia glabra. _Bauh. Pin. 197._

[Illustration: No 84]

This species, a native of the Alps, of Switzerland, and Austria, is
frequently kept in gardens for the sake of variety; like the rest of the
genus, it flowers early in the spring, in March and April; is a very
hardy perennial, increases most readily in a moist shady situation, is
usually kept in pots for the convenience of sheltering it in very severe
seasons; but it will grow readily enough in the open border. All plants
that flower early, though ever so hardy, require some kind of shelter,
previous to, and during their flowering.

Is propagated by parting its roots in autumn.



[85]

SPARTIUM JUNGEUM. SPANISH BROOM.


_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Stigma_ longitudinale, supra villosum. _Filamenta_ germini adhærentia.
     _Calyx_ deorsum productus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SPARTIUM _junceum_ ramis oppositis teretibus apice floriferis, foliis
     lanceolatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 643._

SPARTIUM arborescens, feminibus lenti similibus. _Bauh. Pin. 396._

Spanish Broom. _Park. Parad. p. 442. t. 443. fig. 4._

[Illustration: No 85]

Grows naturally in France, Spain, Italy, and Turkey; bears our climate
extremely well; is a common shrub in our nurseries and plantations,
which it much enlivens by its yellow blossoms: flowers from June to
August, or longer in cool seasons.

Is raised by seeds, which generally come up plentifully under the
shrubs.

MILLER mentions a variety of it, which, as inferior to the
common sort, does not appear to be worth cultivating.



[86]

GLADIOLUS COMMUNIS. COMMON CORN-FLAG.


_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ sexpartita, ringens. _Stamina_ adscendentia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

GLADIOLUS _communis_ foliis ensiformibus, floribus distantibus.

GLADIOLUS utrinque floridus? _Bauh. Pin. 41._

The French Corn-Flag. _Park. Parad. p. 189. t. 191. f. 1._

[Illustration: No 86]

Grows wild in the corn fields of most of the warmer parts of Europe,
varies with white and flesh-coloured blossoms, increases so fast, both
by offsets and seeds, as to become troublesome to the cultivator; hence,
having been supplanted by the Greater Corn-Flag, the _Byzantinus_ of
MILLER, whose blossoms are larger, and more shewy, it is not so
generally found in gardens as formerly.

It flowers in June.



[87]

HYOSCYAMUS AUREUS. GOLDEN-FLOWER'D HENBANE.


_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ infundibuliformis, obtusa. _Stamina_ inclinata. _Capsula_
     operculata 2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HYOSCYAMUS _aureus_ foliis petiolatis dentatis acutis floribus
     pedunculatis, fructibus pendulis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 220._

HYOSCYAMUS creticus luteus major. _Bauh. Pin. 169._

[Illustration: No 87]

A native of Crete, and other parts of the East.

"Flowers most part of the summer, but seldom ripens seeds in England;
will continue for several years, if kept in pots and sheltered in
winter, for it will not live in the open air during that season; if
placed under a common hot-bed frame, where it may enjoy as much free air
as possible in mild weather, it will thrive better than when more
tenderly treated.

"It may be easily propagated by cuttings, which if planted in a shady
border and covered with hand-glasses, in any of the summer months, they
will take root in a month or six weeks, and may be afterwards planted in
pots and treated like the old plants." MILLER's _Gard. Dict._

It is, however, a more common practice to keep this plant in the stove
in the winter; one advantage, at least, attends this method, we secure
it with certainty.



[88]

NARCISSUS BULBOCODIUM. HOOP PETTICOAT NARCISSUS.


_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Petala_ 6, æqualia: _Nectario_ infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. _Stamina_
     intra nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NARCISSUS _Bulbocodium_ spatha uniflora, nectario turbinato petalis
     majore, staminibus pistilloque declinatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p.
     317._

NARCISSUS montanus juncifolius, calyce aureo. _Bauhin. p. 53._

The greater yellow Junquilia, or bastard Daffodil. _Park. Parad. p. 106.
     t. 107. fig. 6. var. min. fig. 7._

[Illustration: No 88]

Grows spontaneously in Portugal; flowers in the open border about the
middle of May, is an old inhabitant of our gardens, but, like the
_triandrus_, is now become scarce, at least in the nurseries about
London; in some gardens in Hampshire we have seen it grow abundantly:
MILLER calls it the _Hoop Petticoat Narcissus_, the nectary, as
he observes, being formed like the ladies hoop petticoats.

It certainly is one of the neatest and most elegant of the genus, is
propagated by offsets, and should be planted in a loamy soil, with an
Eastern exposure.



[89]

VIOLA PEDATA CUT-LEAV'D VIOLET.


_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA MONOGAMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ 5-petala, irregularis, postice cornuta.
     _Capsula_ supera, 3-valvis; 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

VIOLA _pedata_ acaulis, foliis pedatis septempartitis. _Lin. Syst.
     Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 802. Spec. Pl. p. 1323._ _Gronov. Fl.
     Virg. ed. 2. p. 135._

VIOLA _tricolor_ caule nudo, foliis tenuius dissectis. _Banist. Virg._

VIOLA inodora flore purpurascente specioso, foliis ad modum digitorum
     incisis. _Clayt. n. 254._

[Illustration: No 89]

This species of Violet, a native of Virginia, is very rarely met with in
our gardens; the figure we have given, was drawn from a plant which
flowered this spring in the garden of THOMAS SYKES, Esq. at
Hackney, who possesses a very fine collection of plants, and of American
ones in particular.

It is more remarkable for the singularity of its foliage than the beauty
of its blossoms; the former exhibit a very good example of the _folium
pedatum_ of LINNÆUS, whence its name.

MILLER, who calls it _multifida_ from a former edition of
LINNÆUS's _Species Plantarum_, says, that the flowers are not
succeeded by seeds here, hence it can only be propagated by parting its
roots.

The best mode of treating it, will be to place the roots in a pot of
loam and bog earth mixed, and plunge the pot into a north border, where
it must be sheltered in the winter, or taken up and kept in a common
hot-bed frame.



[90]

GORTERIA RIGENS. RIGID-LEAV'D GORTERIA.


_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.


_Generic Character._

_Receptaculum_ nudum. _Pappus_ lanatus. _Corollæ_ radii ligulatæ.
     _Calyx_ imbricatus, squamis spinosis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

GORTERIA _rigens_ foliis lanceolatis pinnatifidis, caule depresso,
     scapis unifloris. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. 783. Sp.
     Pl. ed. 3. p. 1284._

ARCTOTIS ramis decumbentibus, foliis lineari-lanceolatis rigidis, subtus
     argenteis. _Mill. Dict. et Icon. t. 49._

ARCTOTHECA foliis rigidis leniter dissectis. _Vaill. act. 1728. n. 9._

[Illustration: No 90]

The GORTERIA, of which there are several species, and most of them, like
the present, natives of the Cape, has been named in honour of DAVID DE
GORTER, author of the _Flora Zutphanica_ and _Ingrica_; the trivial name
of _rigens_ is given to this species from the rigidity of its leaves, a
term which it is sometimes apt to exchange for the more common botanic
name of _ringens_; an instance of such mistake occurs in the 6th edition
of MILLER's _Gard. Dict._

The greenhouse, to which it properly belongs, can scarcely boast a more
shewy plant; its blossoms, when expanded by the heat of the sun, and it
is only when the sun shines on them that they are fully expanded,
exhibit an unrivalled brilliancy of appearance.

It flowers in June, but rarely brings its seeds to perfection in this
country, which is of the less consequence, as the plant is readily
enough increased by cuttings.

It requires the common treatment of a greenhouse plant.



[91]

IRIS SURFING. CHALCEDONIAN IRIS.


_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-petala, inæqualis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus.
     _Stigmata_ petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _Surfing_ barbata foliis ensiformibus glabris, scapo unifloro,
     petalis rotundatis. _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 88._

IRIS Surfing flore maximo et albo nigricante. _Bauh. Pin. 31._

The great Turkey Flower-de-luce. _Park. Parad. 179._

[Illustration: No 91]

This species, by far the most magnificent of the Iris tribe, is a native
of Persia, from a chief city of which it takes the name of Surfing;
LINNÆUS informs us, that it was imported into Holland from
Constantinople in 1573.

Though an inhabitant of a much warmer climate than our own, it thrives
readily in the open borders of our gardens; and, in certain favourable
situations, flowers freely about the latter end of May or beginning of
June. It succeeds best in a loamy soil and sunny exposure, with a pure
air moisture, which favours the growth of most of the genus, is
injurious and sometimes even fatal to this species.

As it rarely ripens its seeds with us, it is generally propagated by
parting its roots in autumn. These are also usually imported from
Holland, and may be had of the importers of bulbs at a reasonable rate.

Being liable to be destroyed by seasons unusually severe, it will be
prudent to place a few roots of it in pots, either in the greenhouse or
in a hot-bed frame during the winter.

It bears forcing well.



[92]

SAXIFRAGA SARMENTOSA. STRAWBERRY SAXIFRAGE.


_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-partitus. _Cor._ 5-petala. _Caps._ 2-rostris, 1-locularis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SAXIFRAGA _sarmentosa_ foliis radicalibus subrotundis cordatis crenatis,
     sarmentis axillaribus radicantibus, corolla irregulari, racemo
     composito. _Lin. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. p. 412._ _Suppl. p. 240._

[Illustration: No 92]

This species of Saxifrage differing so widely from the others, both in
its habit and fructification, as to create a doubt in the minds of some,
whether it ought not to be considered as a distinct genus, is a native
of China, and one of the many plants which have been introduced into our
gardens since the time of MILLER.

Its round variegated leaves, and strawberry-like runners, the uncommon
magnitude of the two lowermost pendant petals, joined to the very
conspicuous glandular nectary in the centre of the flower, half
surrounding the germen, render this species strikingly distinct.

It is properly a greenhouse plant; in mild winters indeed it will bear
the open air, especially if placed at the foot of a wall, or among
rock-work; but, in such situations, it is frequently killed in severe
seasons.

It flowers in May and June, but does not produce its blossoms so freely
as some others.

No difficulty attends the propagation of it, for it increases so fast by
its runners, as to be even troublesome.



[93]

SEMPERVIVUM MONANTHES. DWARF HOUSELEEK.


_Class and Order._

DODECANDRIA DODECAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 12-partitus. _Petala_ 12. _Capsulæ_ 12. polyspermæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SEMPERVIVUM _monanthes_ foliis teretibus clavatis confertis, pedunculis
     nudis subunifloris, nectariis obcordatis. _Aiton. Hort. Kew._

[Illustration: No 93]

It appears from the _Hortus Kewensis_, the publication of which is daily
expected, that the plant here figured was first brought to this country
from the Canary Islands, by Mr. FRANCIS MASSON, in the year
1777.

It is highly deserving the notice of the Botanist, not only as being by
far the least species of the genus, but on account of its Nectaria;
these, though not mentioned by LINNÆUS in his character of the genus,
have been described by other authors, particularly JACQUIN and HALLER;
and though not present in most, and but faintly visible in a few species
of _Sempervivum_, in this plant form a principal part of the
fructification; they are usually seven in number, but vary from six to
eight.

In the specimens we have examined, and which perhaps have been rendered
luxuriant by culture, the number of stamina has been from twelve to
sixteen; of styles, from six to eight; of flowers on the same stalk,
from one to eight.

It flowers during most of the summer months, succeeds very well with the
common treatment of a greenhouse plant in the summer, but does best in a
dry stove in the winter.

Is readily increased by parting its roots.



[94]

SISYRINCHIUM IRIOIDES. IRIS-LEAV'D SISYRINCHIUM.


_Class and Order._

GYNANDRIA TRIANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

Monogyna. _Spatha_ diphylla. _Petala_ 6 plana. _Capsula_ tri-locularis,
     infera.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SISYRINCHIUM _iridioides_ foliis ensiformibus; petalis
     oblongo-obcordatis, venosis; germinibus pyriformibus, subhirsutis.

SISYRINCHIUM _Bermudiana._ _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 820. var. 2.
    Spec. Pl. p. 1353._

BERMUDIANA iridis folio, radice fibrosa. _Dill. Elth. 48. t. 41. f. 48._

SISYRINCHIUM _Bermudiana_ foliis gladiolatis amplexicaulibus, pedunculis
     brevioribus. _Miller's Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

[Illustration: No 94]

On comparing the present plant with the _Bermudiana graminea flore
minore coeruleo_ of DILLENIUS, both of which I have growing,
and now in pots before me, the difference appears so striking, that I am
induced with him and MILLER to consider them as distinct
species; especially as, on a close examination, there appear characters
sufficient to justify me in the opinion, which characters are not
altered by culture.

It is a native of the Bermudian Islands, and flowers in the open border
from May to the end of July; it is not uncommon to keep it in the
greenhouse, for which, from its size &c. it is very well adapted; but it
is not necessary to treat it tenderly, as it will bear a greater degree
of cold than many plants usually considered as hardy.

It may be propagated most readily by seeds, or by parting its roots in
the autumn; should be planted on a border with an eastern aspect; soil
the same as for bulbs.



[95]

GERANIUM RADULA. RASP-LEAV'D GERANIUM.


_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

Monogyna. _Stigmata_ 5. _Fructus_ rostratus, 5-coccus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

GERANIUM _revolutum_ pedunculis subbifloris, foliis multifidis
     linearibus scabris ad oras revolutis, caule arboreo. _Jacq. ic.
     133. collect. 1. p. 84._

GERANIUM _Radula._ _Cavanill. Diss. 4. p. 262. t. 101. f. 1._

[Illustration: No 95]

This is one of the numerous tribe of _Geraniums_ introduced from the
Cape since the time of MILLER: it takes the name of _Radula_,
which is the Latin term for a rasp or file, from the rough rasp-like
surface of the leaves.

There are two varieties of it, a _major_ and a _minor_, which keep
pretty constantly to their characters; and as this species is readily
raised from seeds, it affords also many seminal varieties.

As a Botanist, desirous of seeing plants distinct in their characters,
we could almost wish it were impossible to raise these _foreign
Geraniums_ from seeds; for, without pretending to any extraordinary
discernment, we may venture to prophecy, that in a few years, from the
multiplication of seminal varieties, springing from seeds casually, or
perhaps purposely impregnated with the pollen of different sorts, such a
crop will be produced as will baffle all our attempts to reduce to
species, or even regular varieties.

Such as are partial to this tribe, will no doubt wish to have this
species in their collection; the blossoms are pretty, and the foliage is
singular, but it remains but a short time in flower.

It is readily propagated by cuttings.



[96]

LANTANA ACULEATA. PRICKLY LANTANA.


_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 4-dentatus obsolete. _Stigma_ uncinato-refractum. _Drupa_ nucleo
     2-loculari.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LANTANA _aculeata_ foliis oppositis, caule aculeato ramoso spicis
     hemisphæricis. _Lin. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. p. 566._

[Illustration: No 96]

According to MILLER, this species grows naturally in _Jamaica_,
and most of the other Islands in the _West-Indies_, where it is called
_wild Sage_; the flowers, which are very brilliant, are succeeded by
roundish berries, which, when ripe, turn black, having a pulpy covering
over a single hard seed.

It is readily propagated by cuttings.

Different plants vary greatly in the colour of their blossoms, and the
prickliness of their stalks; the prickles are seldom found on the young
shoots.

This plant will bear to be placed abroad in the warmest summer months,
the rest of the year it requires artificial heat. It is usually placed
in the dry stove, to which, as it is seldom without flowers, it imparts
great brilliancy.



[97]

FUCHSIA COCCINEA. SCARLET FUCHSIA.


_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 1-phyllus, coloratus, corollifer, maximus. _Petala_ 4, parva,
     _Bacca_ infera, 4-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

FUCHSIA _coccinea_ foliis oppositis ovatis denticulatis; petalis
     obovatis, obtusis. _Hort. Kew._

THILCO _Feuillée it. 3. p. 64. t. 47._

[Illustration: No 97]

The present plant is a native of _Chili_, and was introduced to the
royal gardens at Kew, in the year 1788, by Capt. FIRTH; it
takes the name of _Fuchsia_ from _Fuchs_ a German Botanist of great
celebrity, author of the _Historia Stirpium_ in _folio_, published in
1542, containing five hundred and sixteen figures in wood; and which,
though mere outlines, express the objects they are intended to
represent, infinitely better than many laboured engravings of more
modern times.

Every person who can boast a hot-house will be anxious to possess the
_Fuchsia_, as it is not only a plant of peculiar beauty, but produces
its rich pendant blossoms through most of the summer; the petals in the
centre of the flower are particularly deserving of notice; they somewhat
resemble a small roll of the richest purple-coloured ribband.

Though this plant will not succeed well in the winter, nor be easily
propagated unless in a stove, it will flower very well during the summer
months, in a good greenhouse or hot-bed frame, and though at present
from its novelty it bears a high price, yet as it is readily propagated,
both by layers, cuttings, and seeds, it will soon be within the purchase
of every lover of plants.

Mr. LEE, of Hammersmith, we understand first had this plant for
sale.



[98]

TROPÆOLUM MINUS. SMALL TROPÆOLUM, OR INDIAN-CRESS.


_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 1-phyllus, calcaratus. _Petala_ 5, inæqualia. _Bacca_ tres,
siccæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TROPÆOLUM _minus_ foliis peltatis repandis, petalis acuminato-setaceis.
     _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 357._

Indian-Cresses, or yellow Larke's-heeles. _Park. Parad. p. 280._

[Illustration: No 98]

This species of _Tropæolum_ (which like the _majus_ already figured in
this work, is a native of _Peru_) has long been an inhabitant of our
gardens; it was the only species we had in the time of PARKINSON, by
whom it is figured and described; it appears indeed to have been a great
favourite with that intelligent author, for he says this plant "is of so
great beauty and sweetnesse withall, that my garden of delight cannot
bee unfurnished of it, and again the whole flower hath a fine small
sent, very pleasing, which being placed in the middle of some Carnations
or Gilloflowers (for they are in flower at the same time) make a
delicate Tussimusie, as they call it, or Nosegay, both for sight and
sent."

As the _Passiflora cærulea_, from its superior beauty and hardiness, has
in a great degree supplanted the _incarnata_, so has the _Tropæolum
majus_ the _minus_; we have been informed indeed that it was entirely
lost to our gardens till lately, when it was reintroduced by Dr.
J. E. SMITH, who by distributing it to his friends, and the
Nurserymen near London, has again rendered it tolerably plentiful.

Like the _majus_ it is an annual, though by artificial heat it may be
kept in a pot through the winter, as usually is the variety of it with
double flowers; but as it will grow readily in the open air, in warm
sheltered situations, it should be raised on a hot-bed, like other
tender annuals, if we wish to have it flower early in the summer,
continue long in blossom, and produce perfect seeds.



[99]

ANTIRRHINUM PURPUREUM. PURPLE TOAD-FLAX.


_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-phyllus. _Corollæ_ basis deorsum prominens, nectarifera.
     _Capsula_ 2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ANTIRRHINUM purpureum foliis quaternis linearibus, caule erecto spicato.
     _Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 555._

LINARIA purpurea major odorata. _Bauh. Pin. 213._

LINARIA altera purpurea. _Dod. Pempt. 183._

[Illustration: No 99]

Though not so beautiful as many of the genus, this species is a common
inhabitant of the flower-garden, in which it continues to blossom,
during most of the summer.

It is a native of Italy, and delights in a dry soil and situation; it
will even flourish on walls, and hence will serve very well to decorate
the more elevated parts of rock-work.

When once introduced it comes up spontaneously from seeds.



[100]

LATHYRUS TINGITANUS. TANGIER PEA.


_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Stylus_ planus, supra villosus, superne latior, _Cal._ laciniæ
     superiores 2-breviores.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LATHYRUS _tingitanus_ pedunculis bifloris, cirrhis diphyllis, foliolis
     alternis lanceolatis glabris, stipulis lunatis. _Lin. Syst.
     Vegetab. p. 663._

LATHYRUS tingitanus, filiquis orobi, flore amplo ruberrimo. _Moris,
     hist. 2. p. 55._

[Illustration: No 100]

The Tangier Pea, a native of Morocco, cannot boast the agreeable scent,
or variety of colours of the sweet Pea; nor does it continue so long in
flower; nevertheless there is a richness in the colour of its blossoms,
which entitles it to a place in the gardens of the curious, in which it
is usually sown in the spring, with other hardy annuals.

It flowers in June and July.

The best mode of propagating it, is to, sow the seeds on the borders in
patches, where the plants are to remain; thinning them when they come
up, so as to leave only two or three together.



[101]

ALYSSUM HALIMIFOLIUM. SWEET ALYSSUM.


_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Filamenta_ quædam introrsum denticulo notata. _Silicula_ emarginata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ALYSSUM _halimifolium_ caulibus suffruticosis, diffusis, foliis
     lineari-lanceolatis integerrimis, villosiusculis, staminibus
     simplicibus, siliculis subrotundis integris. _Hort. Kew. V. 2. p.
     381._

ALYSSUM halimifolium caulibus procumbentibus, perennantibus, foliis
     lanceolato-linearibus, acutis, integerrimis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     p. 590._

Thlaspi halimi folio sempervirens. _Herm. lugd. 594. t. 595._

[Illustration: No 101]

Grows spontaneously in dry situations, in the southernmost parts of
Europe, where it is shrubby; and in similar situations it is so in some
degree with us; but on our flower-borders, where it is usually sown, it
grows so luxuriantly, that the stalks becoming juicy and tender, are
generally destroyed by our frosts; hence it is an annual from
peculiarity of circumstance; as such, it is very generally cultivated;
the flowers exhibit a pretty, innocent appearance, and strongly diffuse
an agreeable honey-like smell. They continue to blow through most of the
summer months.

It is a very proper plant for a wall or piece of rock-work; care must be
taken, however, not to sow too much of the seed in one pot, as it
spreads wide, but it may easily be reduced at any period of its growth,
as it does not creep at the root.

The specific description in the _Hortus Kewensis_ above referred to,
admirably characterizes the plant, but surely at the expence of its
generic character.



[102]

CAMPANULA SPECULUM. VENUS'S LOOKING-GLASS.


_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata, fundo clauso valvis staminiferis. _Stigma_
     trifidum. _Capsula_ infera, poris lateralibus dehiscens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CAMPANULA Speculum caule ramosissimo, diffuso; foliis oblongis
     subcrenatis, floribus solitariis, capsulis prismaticis. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. p. 209._

ONOBRYCHIS arvensis f. Campanula arvensis erecta. _Bauh. Pin. 215._

[Illustration: No 102]

Grows wild among the corn in the South of Europe, is an annual, and,
like the _Sweet Alyssum_, generally cultivated in our gardens, and most
deservedly so indeed, for when a large assemblage of its blossoms are
expanded by the rays of the sun, their brilliancy is such as almost to
dazzle the eyes of the beholder.

Those annuals which bear our winter's frosts without injury, are
advantageously sown in the autumn; for by that means they flower more
early, and their seeds ripen with more certainty; the present plant is
one of those: it usually sows itself, and is therefore raised without
any trouble.

It begins to flower in May and June, and continues to enliven the garden
till August or September.



[103]

PELARGONIUM ACETOSUM. SORREL CRANE'S-BILL.


_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem,
     nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5-petala,
     irregularis. _Filam._ 10. in æqualia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata.
     _Fructus_, 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata.
     _L'Herit. Geran._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PELARGONIUM _acetosum_ umbellis paucifloris, foliis obovatis crenatis
     glabris carnosis, petalis linearibus. _L'Herit. Monogr de Geran. n.
     97._

GERANIUM _acetosum_ calycibus monophyllis, foliis glabris obovatis
     carnosis crenatis, caule fruticoso laxo. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14._ _Murr. p. 613. Sp. Pl. p. 947._

GERANIUM Africanum frutescens, folio crasso et glauco acetosæ sapore.
     _Comm. præl. 51. t. 1._

[Illustration: No 103]

Mons. L'HERITIER, the celebrated French Botanist, who in the
number, elegance, and accuracy of his engravings, appears ambitious of
excelling all his contemporaries, in a work now executing on the family
of _Geranium_, has thought it necessary to divide that numerous genus
into three, viz. _Erodium_, _Pelargonium_, and _Geranium_.

The _Erodium_ includes those which LINNÆUS (who noticing the
great difference in their appearance, had made three divisions of them)
describes with five fertile stamina, and calls Myrrhina; the
_Pelargonium_ those with seven fertile stamina, his _Africana_; the
_Geranium_, those with ten fertile stamina, his _Batrachia_.

They are continued under the class _Monadelphia_, in which they now form
three different orders, according to the number of their stamina, viz.
_Pentandria_, _Heptandria_, and _Decandria_. If the principles of the
Linnæan system had been strictly adhered to, they should perhaps have
been separated into different classes; for though the _Pelargonium_ is
Monadelphous, the _Geranium_ is not so; in consequence of this
alteration, the _Geranium peltatum_ and _radula_, figured in a former
part of this work, must now be called _Pelargonium peltatum_, and
_radula_, and the _Geranium Reichardi_ be an _Erodium_.

The leaves of this plant have somewhat the taste of sorrel, whence its
name, it flowers during most of the summer, and is readily propagated by
cuttings. MILLER mentions a variety of it with scarlet flowers.

It is a native of the Cape, and known to have been cultivated in Chelsea
Garden, in the year 1724.



[104]

LYSIMACHIA BULBIFERA. BULB-BEARING LOOSESTRIFE.


_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ rotata. _Capsula_ globosa, mucronata, 10-valvis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LYSIMACHIA _stricta_ racemis terminalibus, petalis lanceolatis patulis,
     foliis lanceolatis sessilibus. _Hort. Kew. p. 199._

[Illustration: No 104]

In the spring of the year 1781, I received roots of this plant from Mr.
ROBERT SQUIBB, then at New-York, which produced flowers the
ensuing summer, since that time, I have had frequent opportunities of
observing a very peculiar circumstance in its oeconomy; after
flowering, instead of producing seeds, it throws out _gemmæ vivaces_, or
_bulbs_ of an unusual form, from the alæ of the leaves, which falling
off in the month of October, when the plant decays, produce young plants
the ensuing spring.

As it is distinguished from all the known species of _Lysimachia_ by
this circumstance, we have named it _bulbifera_ instead of _stricta_,
under which it appears in the _Hortus Kewensis_.

Some Botanists, whose abilities we revere, are of opinion that the
trivial names of plants, which are or should be a kind of abridgment of
the specific character, ought very rarely or never to be changed: we are
not for altering them capriciously on every trivial occasion, but in
such a case as the present, where the science is manifestly advanced by
the alteration, it would surely have been criminal to have preferred a
name, barely expressive, to one which immediately identifies the plant.

The _Lysimachia bulbifera_ is a hardy perennial, grows spontaneously in
boggy or swampy ground, and hence requires a moist soil. It flowers in
August.



[105]

TRADESCANTIA VIRGINICA. VIRGINIAN TRADESCANTIA, OR SPIDERWORT.


_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ triphyllus. _Petala_ 3. _Filamenta_ villis articulatis.
     _Capsula_ 3-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TRADESCANTIA _Virginica_ erecta lævis, floribus congestis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 314. Sp. Pl. 411._

ALLIUM five moly Virginianum. _Bauh. Pin. 506._

PHALANGIUM Ephemerum Virginianum Joannis Tradescant.

The soon-fading Spiderwort of Virginia, or Tradescant his Spiderwort.
     _Park. Parad. 152. 5. t. 151. f. 4._

[Illustration: No 105]

Under the name of _Spiderwort_, the old Botanists arranged many plants
of very different genera: the name is said to have arisen from the
supposed efficacy of some of these plants, in curing the bite of a kind
of spider, called _Phalangium_; not the _Phalangium_ of
LINNÆUS, which is known to be perfectly harmless: under this
name, PARKINSON minutely describes it; he mentions also, how he
first obtained it.

"This Spiderwort," says our venerable author, "is of late knowledge, and
for it the Christian world is indebted unto that painful, industrious
searcher, John Tradescant, who first received it of a friend that
brought it out of Virginia, and hath imparted hereof, as of many other
things, both to me and others."

TOURNEFORT afterwards gave it the name of _Ephemerum_,
expressive of the short duration of its flowers, which LINNÆUS
changed to _Tradescantia_.

Though a native of Virginia, it bears the severity of our climate
uninjured, and being a beautiful, as well as hardy perennial, is found
in almost every garden.

Though each blossom lasts but a day, it has such a profusion in store,
that it is seldom found without flowers through the whole of the summer.
There are two varieties of it, the one with white the other with pale
purple flowers. The most usual way of propagating it is by parting its
roots in autumn to obtain varieties, we must sow its seeds.



[106]

IBERIS UMBELLATA. PURPLE CANDY-TUFT.


_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ irregularis: _Petalis_ 2 exterioribus majoribus: _Silicula_
     polysperma, emarginata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IBERIS _umbellata_ herbacea, foliis lanceolatis, acuminatis,
     inferioribus serratis; superioribus integerrimis. _Linn. Syst. Veg.
     ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 589. Sp. Pl. p. 906._

THLASPI umbellatum creticum, iberidis folio. _Bauh. Pin. 106._

DRABA S. Arabis S. Thlaspi Candiæ. _Dod. pempt. 713._

THLASPI creticum umbellatum flore albo et purpureo. Candy-Tufts, white
     and purple. _Park. Parad. p. 390._

[Illustration: No 106]

The Candy-Tuft is one of those annuals which contribute generally to
enliven the borders of the flower-garden: its usual colour is a pale
purple, there is also a white variety of it, and another with deep but
very bright purple flowers, the most desirable of the three, but where a
garden is large enough to admit of it, all the varieties may be sown.

For want of due discrimination, as MILLER has before observed,
Nurserymen are apt to collect and mix with this species the seeds of
another, viz. the _amara_, and which persons not much skilled in plants
consider as the white variety; but a slight attention will discover it
to be a very different plant, having smaller and longer heads, differing
also in the shape of its leaves and seed vessels, too trifling a plant
indeed to appear in the flower-garden.

Purple Candy-Tuft is a native of the South of Europe, and flowers in
June and July: it should be sown in the spring, on the borders of the
flower-garden in patches; when the plants come up, a few only should be
left, as they will thereby become stronger, produce more flowers, and be
of longer duration.



[107]

CASSIA CHAMÆCRISTA. DWARF CASSIA.


_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5. _Antheræ_ superne 3 steriles; infimæ 3
     rostratæ. _Legumen._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CASSIA _Chamæcrista_ foliis multijugis, glandula petiolari pedicellata,
     stipulis ensiformibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     394._ _Hort. Kew. p. 54._

CHAMÆCRISTA pavonis major. _Comm. Hort. 1. p. 53. t. 37._

[Illustration: No 107]

A native of the West-Indies, and of Virginia according to
LINNÆUS; not common in our gardens, though cultivated as long
ago as 1699, by the DUCHESS OF BEAUFORT; (_vid. Hort. Kew._)
unnoticed by MILLER.

This species, superior in beauty to many of the genus, is an annual, and
consequently raised only from seeds, these must be sown in the spring,
on a hot-bed, and when large enough to transplant, placed separately in
pots of light loamy earth, then replunged into a moderate hot-bed to
bring them forward, and in the month of June removed into a warm border,
where, if the season prove favourable, they will flower very well
towards August; but, as such seldom ripen their seeds, it will be proper
to keep a few plants in the stove or greenhouse for that purpose,
otherwise the species may be lost.



[108]

ANTHYLLIS TETRAPHYLLA. FOUR-LEAV'D LADIES-FINGER.


_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ ventricosus. _Legumen_ subrotundum, tectum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ANTHYLLIS _tetraphylla_ herbacea, foliis quaterno-pinnatis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 25._ _Hort. Kew. vol. 3. p. 25._

LOTUS pentaphyllos vesicaria. _Bauh. Pin. 332._

TRIFOLIUM halicacabum. _Cam. Hort. 171. t. 47._

[Illustration: No 108]

An annual; the spontaneous growth of Spain, Italy, and Sicily, flowers
in the open border in July, and ripens its seeds, in September.

Long since cultivated in our gardens, but more as a rare, or curious,
than a beautiful plant.

Its seeds are to be sown in April, on a bed of light earth, where they
are to remain; no other care is necessary than thinning them, and
keeping them clear of weeds.



    INDEX.

    In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _Third
    Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.

  _Pl._

  101  Alyssum halimifolium.
  108  Anthyllis tetraphylla.
  74   Antirrhinum triste.
  99        "     purpureum.
  102  Campanula speculum.
  107  Cassia Chamæcrista.
  77   Centaurea montana.
  81   Colutea arborescens.
  76   Epilobium angustissimum.
  97   Fuchsia coccinea.
  95   Geranium Radula.
  86   Gladiolus communis.
  90   Gorteria rigens.
  83   Hibiscus syriacus.
  87   Hyoscyamus aureus.
  106  Iberis umbellata.
  91   Iris susiana.
  82   Lachenalia tricolor.
  96   Lantana aculeata.
  100  Lathyrus tingitanus.
  79   Lotus jacobæus.
  104  Lysimachia bulbifera.
  73   Monsonia speciosa.
  88   Narcissus Bulbocodium.
  78       "     odorus.
  103  Pelargonium acetosum.
  75   Potentilla grandiflora.
  92   Saxifraga sarmentosa.
  93   Sempervivum monanthes.
  94   Sisyrinchium iridioides.
  85   Spartium junceum.
  80   Spigelia marilandica.
  105  Tradescantia virginica.
  98   Tropæolum minus.
  84   Tussilago alpina.
  89   Viola pedata.


    INDEX.

    In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the _Third
    Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.

  _Pl._

  101  Alyssum sweet.
  77   Blue-bottle greater.
  85   Broom Spanish.
  106  Candy-tuft purple.
  107  Cassia dwarf.
  84   Coltsfoot alpine.
  81   Colutea, or Bladder-Senna tree.
  86   Corn-flag common.
  103  Crane's-bill sorrel.
  97   Fuchsia scarlet.
  95   Geranium rasp-leav'd.
  90   Gorteria rigid-leav'd.
  87   Henbane golden-flower'd.
  83   Hibiscus Syrian.
  93   Houseleek dwarf.
  91   Iris chalcedonian.
  78   Jonquil great.
  82   Lachenalia three-colour'd.
  108  Ladies finger four-leav'd.
  96   Lantana prickly.
  102  Looking-glass Venus's.
  104  Loosestrife bulb-bearing.
  79   Lotus black-flower'd.
  73   Monsonica large-flower'd.
  88   Narcissus hoop-petticoat.
  100  Pea Tangier.
  75   Potentilla large-flower'd,
  92   Saxifrage Strawberry.
  94   Sisyrinchium Iris-leav'd.
  80   Spigelia, or Worm-grass Maryland.
  74   Toad-flax black-flower'd.
  99        "    purple.
  105  Tradescantia Virginian.
  98   Tropæolum, or Indian cress, small.
  89   Violet cut-leav'd.
  76   Willow-herb narrowest-leav'd.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 3 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home