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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 4 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
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  THE

  ~Botanical Magazine;~

  OR,

  ~Flower-Garden Displayed:~


  IN WHICH

  The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open
  Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in
  their natural Colours.

  TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

  Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to
  the celebrated LINNÆUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of
  Flowering:

  TOGETHER WITH

  THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

  A WORK

  Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and
  GARDENERS, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the
  Plants they cultivate.

  By _WILLIAM CURTIS_,

  Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

  ~VOL. IV.~

  Observe the rising Lily's snowy grace,
  Observe the various vegetable race;
  They neither toil nor spin, but careless grow,
  Yet see how warm they blush! how bright they glow!
  What regal vestments can with them compare!
  What king so shining, or what queen so fair.
                                         THOMSON.


  LONDON:

  Printed by COUCHMAN and FRY, Throgmorton-Street. For

  W. CURTIS, No 3, _St. George's-Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road; And Sold by

  the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

  M DCC XCI.


       *       *       *       *       *



[109]

LAVATERA TRIMESTRIS. ANNUAL LAVATERA.

_Class and Order_.

MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ duplex: exterior 3-fidus. _Arilli_ plurimi, monospermi.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._


LAVATERA _trimestris_ caule scabro herbaceo, foliis glabris, pedunculis
      unifloris, fructibus orbiculo tectis. _Linn. Sp. Pl. 974._ _Hort.
      Kew. v. 2. p. 452._

LAVATERA _(althææfolia)_ foliis infimis cordato-orbiculatis, caulinis
      trilobis acuminatis glabris, pedunculis unifloris, caule herbaceo.
      _Miller's Gard. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

MALVA folio vario. _Bauh. Pin. 315._

MALVA Hispanica flore carneo amplo.

The Spanish blush Mallow. _Park. Parad. p. 366._

[Illustration: No 109]

Our plant is undoubtedly the _Spanish blush Mallow_ of
PARKINSON, and the _Lavatera althææfolia_ of MILLER
according to the former, it is a native of Spain, according to the
latter, of Syria.

Mr. MILLER considers it as distinct from the _trimestris_; Mr.
AITON has no _althææfolia_ in his _Hort. Kew._ we are therefore
to conclude that the _althææfolia_ of MILLER, and the _trimestris_
of LINNÆUS are one and the same species.

Of the annuals commonly raised in our gardens, this is one of the most
shewy, as well as the most easily cultivated; its seeds are to be sown
in March, on the borders where they are to remain, the plants, thinned
as they come up, and kept clear of weeds.

It varies with white blossoms, and flowers from July to September.



[110]

MIMOSA VERTICILLATA. WHORL'D-LEAV'D MIMOSA.

_Class and Order._

POLYGAMIA MONOECIA.

_Generic Character._

HERMAPHROD. _Cal._ 5-dentatus. _Cor._ 5-fida. _Stam._ 5. f. plura.
      _Pist._ 1. _Legumen._

MASC. _Cal._ 5-dentatus. _Cor._ 5-fida. _Stam._ 5. 10. plura.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MIMOSA _verticillata_ intermis, foliis verticillatis linearibus
      pungentibus. _L'Herit. fert. angl. t. 41._ _Hort. Kew. p. 438._

[Illustration: No 110]

The radical leaves of plants usually differ in shape from those of the
stalk, in some plants remarkably so; the _Lepidium perfoliatum_ figured
in the _Flora Austriaca_ of Professor JACQUIN is a striking
instance of this dissimilarity: the _Lathyrus Aphaca_, a British plant,
figured in the _Flora Lond._ is still more such, as large entire
leaf-like stipulæ grow in pairs on the stalk, instead of leaves, while
the true leaves next the root, visible when the plant first comes up
from seed, are few in number, and those pinnated. The present plant no
less admirably illustrates the above remark, the leaves which first
appear on the seedling plants being pinnated, as is represented in the
small figure on the plate, while those which afterwards come forth grow
in whorls. We have observed the same disposition to produce dissimilar
leaves in several other species of _Mimosa_, which have arisen from
Botany-Bay seeds, lately introduced.

This singular species, on the authority of Mr. DAVID NELSON, is
a native of New South Wales, and was introduced to the royal garden at
Kew by Sir JOSEPH BANKS, Bart.

We first saw it in flower, and have since seen it with ripe seed-pods,
at Mr. MALCOLM's, Kennington.

It is properly a green-house plant, and propagated only by seeds, which
are to be sown on a gentle hot-bed.

It is some years in arriving at its flowering state.



[111]

LATHYRUS TUBEROSUS. TUBEROUS LATHYRUS, or PEASE
EARTH-NUT.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Stylus_ planus, supra villosus, superne latior. _Cal._ laciniæ
      superiores 2 breviores.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LATHYRUS _tuberosus_ pedunculis multifloris, cirrhis diphyllis: foliolis
      ovalibus, internodiis nudis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr.
      p. 663._

LATHYRUS arvensis repens tuberosus. _Bauh. Pin. 344._

LATHYRUS arvensis sive terræ glandes. Pease Earth-Nuts. _Parkins. Theat.
      p. 1061._

[Illustration: No 111]

Grows spontaneously in various parts of France and Germany; Mr.
PHILIP HURLOCK lately shewed me some dried specimens of this
plant, which he gathered in the corn fields, on the _Luneburgh Heide_,
in _Upper Lusatia_, where it grew plentifully, and afforded a pleasing
appearance to the curious traveller:--not so to the husbandman, to whom
it is as noxious as the _Convolvulus arvensis_ (_small Bindweed_) is
with us, and equally difficult to extirpate, having powerfully creeping
roots, which somewhat like the _Helianthus tuberosus_ (commonly called
_Jerusalem Artichoke_) produce large tubera, and which like those of
that plant, are in high esteem with some as an article of food, and as
such even cultivated abroad.

It flowers from June to the end of August. It is certainly a beautiful
hardy perennial, similar to (but of more humble growth) than the
everlasting pea, yet must be cautiously introduced on account of its
creeping roots, by which it is most readily propagated, rarely ripening
its seeds with us.

It is, perhaps, better suited to decorate the unclip'd hedge of the
pleasure-ground, than the border of the flower-garden.



[112]

CISTUS LADANIFERUS. GUM CISTUS.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA MONOGNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 5-petala. _Calyx_ 5-phyllus: foliolis duobus minoribus.
      _Capsula_.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CISTUS _ladaniferus_ arborescens ex stipulatus, foliis lanceolatis supra
      lævibus, petiolis basi coalitis vaginantibus. _Linn. Syst.
      Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 497._

CISTUS ladanifera Hispanica incana. _Bauh. Pin. 467._

CISTUS Ledon. The Gum Cistus or Sweete Holly Rose. _Park. Parad. p.
      422._

[Illustration: No 112]

One of the most ornamental hardy shrubs we possess; at once pleasing to
the eye, and grateful to the smell; for, as MILLER observes,
the whole plant in warm weather exudes a sweet glutinous substance,
which has a very strong balsamic scent, so as to perfume the
circumambient air to a great distance.

Its blossoms, which appear in June and July in great profusion, exhibit
a remarkable instance of quickly-fading beauty, opening and expanding to
the morning sun, and before night strewing the ground with their elegant
remains: as each succeeding day produces new blossoms, this deciduous
disposition of the petals, common to the genus, is the less to be
regretted.

Is a native of Spain and Portugal, prefers a dry soil and warm sheltered
situation, and in very severe seasons requires some kind of covering.

Cultivated 1656, by Mr. JOHN TRADESCANT, jun. _Ait. Hort. Kew._

Is readily increased from cuttings; but MILLER remarks, that
the best plants are raised from seeds.

Varies with waved leaves, and in having petals without a spot at the
base.

Is not the plant from whence the Ladanum of the shops is produced,
though affording in warmer countries than ours a similar gum, hence its
name of _ladanifera_ is not strictly proper.



[113]

CONVOLVULUS PURPUREUS. PURPLE BINDWEED, or CONVOLVULUS
MAJOR.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata, plicata. _Stigmata_ 2. _Capsula_ 2-locularis;
      loculis dispermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CONVOLVULUS _purpureus_ foliis cordatis indivisis, fructibus cernuis,
      pedicellis incrassatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
      200._

CONVOLVULUS purpureus folio subrotundo. _Bauh. Pin. 295._

CONVOLVULUS cæruleus major rotundifolius. The greater blew Bindweede or
      Bell-flower with round leaves. _Park. Parad. p. 358._

[Illustration: No 113]

"Is an annual plant which grows naturally in Asia and America, but has
been long cultivated for ornament in the English gardens, and is
generally known by the title of Convolvulus major. Of this there are
three or four lasting varieties; the most common hath a purple flower,
but there is one with a white, another with a red, and one with a
whitish-blue flower, which hath white seeds. All these varieties I have
cultivated many years, without observing them to change. If the seeds of
these sorts are sown in the spring, upon a warm border where the plants
are designed to remain, they will require no other culture but to keep
them clear from weeds, and place some tall stakes down by them, for
their stalks to twine about, otherwise they will spread on the ground
and make a bad appearance. These plants, if they are properly supported,
will rise ten or twelve feet high in warm Summers: they flower in June,
July, and August, and will continue till the frost kills them. Their
seeds ripen in Autumn." _Miller's Gard. Dict. ed. 4to. 1771._



[114]

SILENE PENDULA. PENDULOUS CATCHFLY.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

Calyx ventricosus. Petala 5, unguiculata coronata ad faucem, Capsula
      3-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SILENE _pendula_ calycibus fructiferis pendulis inflatis: angulis decem
      scabris. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 421._

VISCAGO hirsuta sicula, lychnidis aquaticæ facie, supina. _Dill. Hort.
      Elth. 421. t. 312. f. 404._

[Illustration: No 114]

Grows spontaneously in Sicily and Crete; is an annual of humble growth,
and hence a suitable plant for the borders of the flower garden, or the
decoration of Rock-work, as its blossoms are shewy, and not of very
short duration.

It flowers in June and July, and if once permitted to scatter its seeds,
will come up yearly without any trouble.



[115]

LATHYRUS SATIVUS. BLUE-FLOWER'D LATHYRUS, or
CHICHLING-VETCH.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Stylus_ planus, supra villosus, superne latior. _Calycis_ laciniæ
      superiores 2 breviores.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LATHYRUS _sativus_ pedunculis unifloris, cirrhis diphyllis
      tetraphyllisque, leguminibus ovatis compressis dorso bimarginatis.
      _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 662._

LATHYRUS sativus, flore fructusque albo. _Bauh. Pin. 343._

[Illustration: No 115]

A native of France, Spain, and Italy, and distinguishable when in flower
by the blue colour of its blossoms, which are sometimes, however,
milk-white; but its seed-pods afford a more certain mark of distinction,
being unusually short, broad, and winged on the back.

This species grows to the height of about two feet, and is usually sown
in the spring with other annuals; though not so beautiful, it forms a
contrast to the sweet and Tangier Pea, and may be introduced where there
is plenty of room, or a desire of possessing and knowing most of the
plants of a genus.

It flowers in June and July.

Cultivated 1739, by Mr. PHILIP MILLER. _Ait. Hort. Kew._



[116]

LIMODORUM TUBEROSUM. TUBEROUS-ROOTED LIMODORUM.

_Class and Order._

GYNANDRIA DIANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

Nectarium monophyllum, concavum, pedicellatum, intra petalum infimum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LIMODORUM _tuberosum_ floribus subspicatis barbatis. _Ait. Hort. Kew. p.
      301._

[Illustration: No 116]

For this rare plant I am indebted to the very laudable exertions of a
late Gardener of mine, JAMES SMITH, who, in the spring of the
year 1788, examining attentively the bog earth which had been brought
over with some plants of the _Dionæa Muscipula_, found several small
tooth-like knobby roots, which being placed in pots of the same earth,
and plunged into a tan-pit having a gentle heat, produced plants the
ensuing summer, two of which flowered, and from the strongest of those
our figure was taken.

From this circumstance we learn, that this species is a native of South
Carolina, and properly a bog plant, growing spontaneously with the
_Dionæa Muscipula_.

Both Mr. DRYANDER and Dr. J. E. SMITH assure me, that
it is the true _Limodorum tuberosum_ of LINNÆUS; the one
usually called by that name is a native of the West-Indies, and treated
as a stove plant.

From the little experience we have had of the management of this
species, it appears to us to be scarcely hardy enough for the open
border, yet not tender enough to require a stove. We have succeeded best
by treating it in the manner above mentioned; we may observe, that the
tan-pit spoken of was built in the open garden, not in a stove, and was
for the purpose of raising plants or seeds by a gentle heat, as well as
for striking cuttings and securing plants from cold in the winter.

Our figure will make a description of the plant unnecessary, its
flowering stem with us has arisen to the height of a foot and a half,
the number of flowers has not exceeded five. In its most luxuriant state
it will probably be found much larger, and to produce more flowers.



[117]

CAMPANULA CARPATICA. CARPATIAN BELL-FLOWER.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata fundo clauso valvis staminiferis. _Stigma_
      trifidum. _Capsula_ infera poris lateralibus dehiscens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CAMPANULA _carpatica_ foliis glabris cordatis serratis petiolatis,
      pedunculis elongatis, calyce reflexo glutinoso. _Linn. Syst.
      Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 207. Suppl. p. 140._ _Jacq. Hort. v.
      i. t. 57._

[Illustration: No 117]

This species of Bell-flower, which takes its name from its place of
growth, is a native of the Carpatian Alps, and was introduced into the
Royal Garden at Kew, by _Professor_ JACQUIN, of _Vienna_, in
the year 1774.

It flowers in June and July.

As yet it is scarce in our gardens, but deserves to be more generally
known and cultivated; its flowers, in proportion to the plant, are large
and shewy: like many other Alpine plants, it is well suited to decorate
certain parts of rock-work, or such borders of the flower garden, as are
not adapted for large plants.

It is a hardy perennial, and propagated by parting its roots in autumn.

Our figure, from a deficiency in the colouring art, gives a very
inadequate idea of its beauty.



[118]

SEDUM ANACAMPSEROS. EVERGREEN ORPINE.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. _Cor._ 5-petala. _Squamæ_ nectariferæ 5, ad basin
      germinis. _Caps._ 5.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SEDUM _Anacampseros_ foliis cuneiformibus basi attenuatis subsessilibus,
      caulibus decumbentibus, floribus corymbosis. _Ait. Hort. Kew. p.
      108._

SEDUM _Anacampseros_ foliis cuneiformibus integerrimis caulibus
      decumbemtibus, floribus corymbosis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
      Murr. p. 430._

TELEPHIUM repens folio deciduo. _Bauh. Pin. 287._

TELEPHIUM tertium. _Dodon. Pempt. p. 130._

[Illustration: No 118]

Grows spontaneously out of the crevices of the rocks in the South of
France; flowers in our gardens in July and August; is a very hardy
perennial, and in sheltered situations retains its leaves all the year.

The singular manner in which the leaves are attached to the flowering
stem, deserves to be noticed.

As many of the succulent plants are tender, and require a Green-house in
the winter, cultivators of plants are apt indiscriminately to extend the
same kind of care to the whole tribe, hence it is not uncommon to find
this and many other similar hardy plants, nursed up in the Green-house
or stove, when they would thrive much better on a wall or piece of
rock-work, for the decoration of which this plant in particular is
admirably adapted.

Like most of the Sedum tribe it may readily be propagated by cuttings,
or parting its roots in autumn.

DODONÆUS' figure admirably represents its habit.

According to the _Hort. Kew._ it was cultivated in this country by
GERARD, in 1596.


+------------------------------------------------------+
|Transcriber's Note:                                   |
|There is a departure from the usual format here with  |
|STRELITZIA REGINÆ having two illustrations, No 119 and|
|No 120, thus creating a gap in the sequence.          |
+------------------------------------------------------+



[119]

STRELITZIA REGINÆ. CANNA-LEAVED STRELITZIA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Spathæ. Cal._ 0. _Cor._ 3-petala. _Nectarium_ triphyllum, genitalia
      involvens. _Peric._ 3-loculare, polyspermum.

STRELITZIA _Reginæ Ait. Hort. Kew. v. i. p. 285. Tab. 2._

HELICONIA _Bibai J. Mill. ic. tab. 5, 6._

[Illustration: No 119]

In order that we may give our readers an opportunity of seeing a
coloured representation of one of the most scarce and magnificent plants
introduced into this country, we have this number deviated from our
usual plan, with respect to the plates, and though in so doing we shall
have the pleasure of gratifying the warm wishes of many of our readers,
we are not without our apprehensions least others may not feel perfectly
well satisfied; should it prove so, we wish such to rest assured that
this is a deviation in which we shall very rarely indulge and never but
when something uncommonly beautiful or interesting presents itself: to
avoid the imputation of interested motives, we wish our readers to be
apprized that the expences attendant on the present number, in
consequence of such deviation, have been considerably _augmented_, not
lowered.

It is well known to many Botanists, and others, who have experienced Sir
JOSEPH BANKS's well known liberality, that previous to the publication
of the _Hortus Kewensis_ he made a new genus of this plant, which had
before been considered as a species of _Heliconia_, and named it
_Strelitzia_ in honour of our most gracious Queen CHARLOTTE; coloured
engravings of which, executed under his direction, he presented to his
particular friends; impressions of the same plate have been given in the
aforesaid work, in which we are informed that this plant was introduced
to the royal garden at Kew, by Sir JOSEPH BANKS, Bart. in the year 1773,
where it lately flowered--of some other plants introduced after that
period from the Cape, of which it is a native, one flowered in the Pine
stove of BAMBER GASCOYNE, Esq. several years ago, from whence Mr. MILLAR
drew his figure, and the plant from which our drawing was made flowered
this spring, in the bark stove of the garden belonging to the
Apothecaries Company, at Chelsea, where it will also soon flower again.

This plant has usually been confined to the stove, where it has been
placed in a pot, and plunged into the tan, as the plants in such
situations usually are; it has been found that when the roots have been
confined to the narrow limits of a pot, the plant has rarely or never
flowered, but that when the roots have by accident extended into the
rotten tan, it has readily thrown up flowering stems, the best practice
therefore, not only with this, but many other plants, is to let the
roots have plenty of earth to strike into. As it is a Cape plant it may
perhaps be found to succeed best in the conservatory.

It has not, that we know of, as yet ripened its seeds in this country;
till it does, or good seeds of it shall be imported, it must remain a
very scarce and dear plant, as it is found to increase very slowly by
its roots: plants are said to be sold at the Cape for Three Guineas
each.

_General Description of the STRELITZIA REGINÆ._

[Illustration: No 120]

From a perennial stringy root shoot forth a considerable number of
leaves, standing upright on long footstalks, front a sheath of some one
of which, near its base, springs the flowering stem, arising somewhat
higher than the leaves, and terminating in an almost horizontal
long-pointed spatha, containing about six or eight flowers, which
becoming vertical as they spring forth, form a kind of crest, which the
glowing orange of the Corolla, and fine azure of the Nectary, renders
truly superb. The outline in the third plate of this number, is intended
to give our readers an idea of its general habit and mode of growth.

_Particular Description of the same._

ROOT perennial, stringy, somewhat like that of the tawny Day-lily
      (Hemerocallis fulva); strings the thickness of the little finger,
      blunt at the extremity, extending horizontally, if not confined,
      to the distance of many feet.

LEAVES numerous, standing upright on their footstalks, about a foot in
      length, and four inches in breadth, ovato-oblong, coriaceous,
      somewhat fleshy, rigid, smooth, concave, entire on the edges,
      except on one side towards the base, where they are more or less
      curled, on the upper side of a deep green colour, on the under
      side covered with a fine glaucous meal, midrib hollow above and
      yellowish, veins unbranched, prominent on the inside, and
      impressed on the outside of the leaf, young leaves rolled up.

LEAF-STALKS about thrice the length of the leaves, upright, somewhat
      flattened, at bottom furnished with a sheath, and received into
      each other, all radical.

SCAPUS or flowering stem unbranched, somewhat taller than the leaves,
      proceeding from the sheath of one of them, upright, round, not
      perfectly straight, nearly of an equal thickness throughout, of a
      glaucous hue, covered with four or five sheaths which closely
      embrace it. Two or more flowering stems spring from the same root,
      according to the age of the plant.

SPATHA terminal, about six inches in length, of a glaucous hue, with a
      fine bright purple at its base, running out to a long point,
      opening above from the base to within about an inch of the apex,
      where the edges roll over to one side, forming an angle of about
      forty-five degrees, and containing about six flowers.

FLOWERS of a bright orange colour, becoming upright, when perfectly
      detached from the spatha, which each flower is a considerable time
      in accomplishing. In the plant at Chelsea, the two back petals,
      or, more properly segments of the first flower, sprang forth with
      the nectary, and while the former became immediately vertical, the
      latter formed nearly the same angle as the spatha; four days
      afterwards the remaining segment of the first flower, with the two
      segments and nectary of the second came forth, and in the same
      manner at similar intervals all the flowers, which were six in
      number, continued to make their appearance.

COROLLA deeply divided into three segments, which are ovato-lanceolate,
      slightly keeled, and somewhat concave, at the base white, fleshy,
      and covered with a glutinous substance flowing in great quantities
      from the nectary.

NECTARY of a fine azure blue and most singular form, composed of two
      petals, the upper petal very short and broad, with a whitish mucro
      or point, the sides of which lap over the base of the other petal;
      inferior petal about two inches and a half in length, the lower
      half somewhat triangular, grooved on the two lowermost sides, and
      keeled at bottom, the keel running straight to its extremity, the
      upper half gradually dilating towards the base, runs out into two
      lobes more or less obtuse, which give it an arrow-shaped form,
      bifid at the apex, hollow, and containing the antheræ, the edges
      of the duplicature crisped and forming a kind of frill from the
      top to the bottom.

STAMINA five Filaments arising from the base of the nectary, short and
      distinct; Antheræ long and linear, attached to and cohering by
      their tips to the apex of the nectary.

STYLE filiform, white, length of the nectary.

STIGMA three quarters of an inch long, attached to, and hitched on as it
      were to the tip of the nectary, roundish, white, awl-shaped, very
      viscid, becoming as the flower decays of a deep purple brown
      colour, and usually splitting into three pieces, continuing
      attached to the nectary till the nectary decays.

Mr. FAIRBAIRN, to whose abilities and industry the Companies
Garden at Chelsea is indebted for its present flourishing state, being
desirous of obtaining ripe seeds, I had no opportunity of examining the
germen.

Such were the appearances which presented themselves to us in the plant
which flowered at the Chelsea Garden; that they are liable to
considerable variation is apparent from the figure of Mr.
MILLAR, which appears to have been drawn from a very luxuriant
specimen, as two spathæ grow from one flowering stem, the stigma is also
remarkably convoluted, many other appearances are likewise represented,
which our plant did not exhibit: in the figure given in the _Hortus
Kewensis_, the stigma appears to have separated from the nectary on the
first opening of the flower, and to be split into three parts, neither
of which circumstances took place in our plant till they were both in a
decaying state.



[121]

NARCISSUS INCOMPARABILIS. PEERLESS DAFFODIL.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Petala_ 6 æqualia: _Nectario_ infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo: _Stamina_
      intra nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

NARCISSUS _incomparabilis_ spatha uniflora, nectario campanulato plicato
      crispo petalis dimidio breviore, foliis planis.

NARCISSUS latifolius omnium maximus amplo calice flavo sive Nompareille.
      The great Nonesuch Daffodil, or incomparable Daffodil. _Park. Par.
      p. 68._

[Illustration: No 121]

This species of Narcissus, though well described and figured by the old
Botanists, especially PARKINSON; has been overlooked by
LINNÆUS.

It is undoubtedly the _incomparable Daffodil_ of
PARKINSON, figured in his Garden of Pleasant Flowers; and the
_incomparabilis_ of MILLER's _Dict. ed. 6. 4to._ the latter
informs us, that he received roots of it from Spain and Portugal, which
fixes its place of growth.

It is a very hardy bulbous plant, and flowers in April; in its single
state it is very ornamental, the petals are usually pale yellow, and the
nectary inclined to orange, which towards the brim is more brilliant in
some than in others; in its double state, it is well known to Gardeners,
by the name of Butter and Egg Narcissus, and of this there are two
varieties, both of which produce large shewy flowers, the one with
colours similar to what we have above described, which is the most
common, the other with petals of a pale sulphur colour, almost white,
and the nectary bright orange; this, which is one of the most ornamental
of the whole tribe, is named in the Dutch catalogues, the _Orange
Phoenix_; its blossoms are so large as frequently to require
supporting; its bulbs may be had of many of the Nurseries about London,
and of those who, profiting by the supineness of our English Gardeners,
import bulbs from abroad.

Like most of the tribe, this species will grow well without any care,
the bulbs of the double sort should be taken up yearly, otherwise they
are apt to degenerate.



[122]

HYACINTHUS RACEMOSUS. STARCH HYACINTH.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

Corolla campanulata: pori 3 melliferi germinis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HYACINTHUS _racemosus_ corollis ovatis, summis sessilibus, foliis laxis.
      _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 336._ _Sp. Pl. 455._

HYACINTHUS racemosus cæruleus minor juncifolius. _Bauh. Pin. p. 43._

HYACINTHUS botryodes 1. _Car Clus. Hist. p. 181._

HYACINTHUS racemosus. _Dodon. Pempt. p. 217._

HYACINTHUS botroides minor cæruleus obscurus. The darke blew
      Grape-flower. _Park. Par. p. 114._

[Illustration: No 122]

The _Hyacinthus racemosus_ and _botryoides_ are both cultivated in
gardens, but the former here figured is by far the most common;
_racemosus_ and _botryoides_, though different words, are expressive of
the same meaning, the former being derived from the Latin term
_racemus_, the latter from the Greek one [Greek: votrus], both of which
signify a bunch of grapes, the form of which the inflorescence of these
plants somewhat resembles, and hence they have both been called Grape
Hyacinths, but as confusion thereby arises, we have thought it better to
call this species the Starch Hyacinth, the smell of the flower in the
general opinion resembling that substance, and leave the name of Grape
Hyacinth for the _botryoides_.

The _Hyacinthus racemosus_ grows wild in the corn fields of Germany, in
which it increases so fast by offsets from the root as to prove a very
troublesome weed, and on this account it must be cautiously introduced
into gardens.

It flowers in April and May.

We have found the Nurserymen very apt to mistake it for the
_botryoides_, a figure of which it is our intention to give in some
future number.



[123]

ANEMONE HORTENSIS. STAR ANEMONE, or BROAD-LEAV'D GARDEN
ANEMONE.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

Cal. 0. Petala 5-9. Semina plura.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ANEMONE _hortensis_ foliis digitalis, feminibus lanatis. _Linn. Syst.
      Vegetab. ed Murr. p. 510._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. vol. 2. p. 256._

ANEMONE Geranii rotundo folio, purpurascens. _Bauh. Pin. 173._

ANEMONE prima. _Dodon. Pempt. 434._

ANEMONE latifolia purpurea stellata sive papaveracea. The purple
      Star-Anemone or Windflower. _Park. Parad. p. 204._

[Illustration: No 123]

We are more and more convinced, that in our eagerness, for novelties, we
daily lose plants by far more ornamental than the new ones we introduce;
the present, a most charming spring plant, with which the Gardens
abounded in the time of PARKINSON, is now a great rarity; its
blossoms, which are uncommonly brilliant, come forth in April, and, like
those of many other plants, appear to advantage only when the sun
shines.

It may be propagated either by seeds, or by parting its roots in Autumn,
in the former way we may obtain many beautiful varieties.

It prefers a light loamy soil and moderately exposed situation.

Roots of a variety of this plant with scarlet double flowers are
imported from Holland, under the name, of _Anemonoides_, and sold at a
high price.



[124]

IBERIS GIBRALTARICA. GIBRALTAR CANDY-TUFT.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ irregularis: Petalis 2 exterioribus majoribus. _Silicula_
polysperma, emarginata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IBERIS _Gibraltarica_ frutescens foliis apice dentatis. _Linn. Syst.
      Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 589._

THLASPIDIUM Hispanicum, ampliore flore folio crasso dentato. _Dill.
      Elth. 382. t. 287. f. 37._

[Illustration: No 124]

The flowers of this plant, a native of Gibraltar, bear some resemblance
to those of the Common Candy-Tuft, but when they blow in perfection,
they are usually twice as large; hence they are highly ornamental in the
green-house, which early in the Spring, the time of their coming forth,
stands in need of some such shewy flowers.

This plant is easily raised from cuttings, and easily preserved; it may
be kept through the Winter in a common hot-bed frame, and in mild
Winters will stand abroad, especially if sheltered amongst rock-work;
its greatest enemy is moisture in the Winter season, this often proves
fatal to it, as indeed a long continued damp atmosphere does to many
others; the Nurserymen about London complain of losing more plants the
last mild Winter, from this cause, than they generally do from severe
frosts. In a little green-house which I had in my late garden,
Lambeth-Marsh, most of the plants became absolutely mouldy; in such
seasons then, though in point of cold the plants may not require it, we
must dissipate the superfluous moisture by a gentle heat.



[125]

ALSTROEMERIA LIGTU. STRIPED-FLOWER'D ALSTROEMERIA.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-petala, sub-bilabiata: petalis 2 inferioribus basi
tubulosis. _Stamina_ declinata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ALSTROEMERIA _Ligtu_ caule erecto, foliis spathulato-oblongis,
      pedunculis umbellæ involucro longioribus, corolla bilabiata.
      _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. Suppl. p. 207._ _Amoen.
      Acad. V. 6. p. 247._

HEMEROCALLIS floribus purpurascentibus striatis. _Few. Peruv. 2. p. 710.
      t. 4._

[Illustration: No 125]

This plant receives its generic name from CLAUDIUS ALSTROEMER (son of
Sir JONAS ALSTROEMER, a most respectable Swedish Merchant) who first
found the other most beautiful species the _Pelegrina_ in Spain, whither
it had been transmitted from Peru; its trivial name _Ligtu_ is a
provincial one.

According to FEWILLEE, who has written on the plants of Peru, this
species is found on the banks of the rivers in Chili: we treat it,
and successfully, as a stove plant; its flowers, which usually make
their appearance in February and March, emit a fragrance scarcely
inferior to Mignonet; its leaves, contrary to most others, grow
inverted, which is effected by a twist of the footstalk, and afford an
excellent example of LINNÆUS's _Folium resupinatum_; the filaments,
after the pollen is discharged, turn upwards, and the antheræ become
almost globular.

It is usually propagated by parting its roots in Autumn.

Our figure was drawn from a plant which flowered extremely well in the
stove of Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington.



[126]

ALYSSUM DELTOIDEUM. PURPLE ALYSSUM.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Filamenta_ quædam introrsum denticulo notata. _Silicula_ emarginata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ALYSSUM _deltoideum_ caulibus suffrutescentibus prostratis, foliis
      lanceolato-deltoidibus, siliculis hirtis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p.
      591._ _Sp. Pl. 908._

LEUCOJUM saxatile thymifolio hirsutum cæruleo-purpureum. _Bauh. Pin.
      201._

[Illustration: No 126]

Plants which flower early, and continue a long while in bloom, are
deservedly preferred, more especially by those who content themselves
with a partial collection; of that number is the present species of
Alyssum, which begins to flower in March, and continues to blossom
through April, May, and June, and, if favourably situated, during most
of the summer.

It is properly a rock plant, being hardy, forming with very little care
a neat tuft of flowers, and not apt to encroach on its neighbours.

May be propagated by parting its roots in Autumn, or by cuttings.

Is a native of the Levant, according to Mr. AITON; and
cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1739, but omitted in the 6th 4to.
edition of his Dictionary: has usually been considered by the Nurserymen
about London as the _hyperboreum_.



[127]

IXIA FLEXUOSA. BENDING-STALK'D IXIA.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-partita, campanulata, regularis. _Stigmata_ 3.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IXIA _flexuosa_ foliis linearibus, racemo flexuoso multifloro. _Linn.
      Sp. Pl. p. 51._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 58._

[Illustration: No 127]

The Ixias are a numerous tribe, chiefly natives of the Cape, and in
general remarkable either for their delicacy, or brilliant colours.

The one here figured appears to be a variety of the _flexuosa_ with a
purple eye, its blossoms are fragrant, and come forth in April or May.

"All the sorts multiply very fast by offsets, so that when once
obtained, there will be no occasion to raise them from seeds: for the
roots put out offsets in great plenty, most of which will flower the
following season, whereas those from seeds are three or four years
before they flower. These plants will not thrive through the winter in
the full ground in England, so must be planted in pots, and placed under
a frame in winter, where they may be protected from frost, but in mild
weather should enjoy the free air; but they must be guarded from mice,
who are very fond of these roots, and if not prevented will devour
them." _Millers Gard. Dict._



[128]

SCILLA CAMPANULATA.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-petala, patens, decidua. _Filamenta_ filiformia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SCILLA _campanulata_ bulbo folido, racemo multifloro oblongo-subconico,
      corollis campanulatis erectis, bracteis bipartitis, pedunculo
      longioribus, foliis lanceolatis. _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 444._

HYACINTHUS Hispanicus major flore campanulæ instar.

The greater Spanish bell-flowred Jacinth. _Park. Par. 123._

[Illustration: No 128]

There are few old gardens which do not abound with this plant; it bears
great affinity to our Hare-bell, with which it appears to have been
confounded by most Botanists. _Parkinson_ thus discriminates it: "This
Spanish bell-flowred Jacinth is very like the former English or Spanish
Jacinth, but greater in all parts, as well of leaves as flowers, many
growing together at the toppe of the stalke; with many short greene
leaves among them, hanging doune their heads with larger, greater, and
wider open mouths, like unto bels of a darke blew colour, and no good
sent." _Park. Parad._

Though not remarkable for the fineness of its colours, or pleasing from
its fragrance, it contributes with other bulbous plants to decorate the
flower border or plantation in the spring, when flowers are most wanted.

It is very hardy, and increases abundantly by offsets; its seeds also
ripen well.



[129]

AMARYLLIS VITTATA. SUPERB AMARYLLIS.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ hexapetaloidea, irregularis. _Filamenta_ fauci tubi inserta,
      declinata, inæqualia proportione vel directione, _Linn. fil._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AMARYLLIS floribus pedicellatis, corollis
      cuneiformi-infundibuliformibus, petalorum exteriorum rachibus
      interiorum margini adnatis, scapo tereti, stigmatibus sulcatis.
      _Linn. fil._

AMARYLLIS _vittata._ _L'Herit. Sert. Angl. t. 15._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. p.
      418._

[Illustration: No 129]

LINNÆUS, the Son, took much pains in new modelling the generic
and specific characters of this genus; as may be seen in the _Hort.
Kew_: Mons. L'HERITIER, when in England a few years since, saw
this species, described and named it _Vittata_[1].

Of what country it is a native is not known with certainty, most
probably of the Cape, was first introduced into England by Mr.
MALCOLM.

Our figure was drawn from a fine specimen which flowered this spring
with Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington.

It usually flowers in April or May, but may be forwarded by artificial
heat.

It rarely puts forth offsets from the root, but readily produces seeds,
by which it is propagated without difficulty.

When it blossoms in perfection it truly deserves the name of superb,
which Mr. AITON has given it, the stem rising to the height of
three feet or more, and producing from two to five flowers.



[130]

ALYSSUM UTRICULATUM. BLADDER-PODDED ALYSSUM.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Filamenta_ quædam introrsum denticulo notata. _Silicula_ emarginata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ALYSSUM _utriculatum_ caule herbaceo erecto, foliis lævibus lanceolatis
      integerrimis, filiculis inflatis. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14.
      Murr._

ALYSSOIDES fruticosum, leucoji folio viridi. _Tourn. inst. 218._

[Illustration: No 130]

A native of the Levant, and cultivated by Mr. MILLER in the
year 1739.

Is a hardy and beautiful perennial, flowering from April to June, at
which time it begins to form its curiously inflated pods.

Like the _Alyssum deltoideum_, it is well adapted to the decorating of
walls, or rock-work, and is readily propagated either by seeds or
slips.



[131]

CATESBÆA SPINOSA. THORNY CATESBÆA, or LILY-THORN.

_Class and Order._

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 1-petala, infundibuliformis, longissima, supera. Stamina intra
faucem. _Bacca_ polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CATESBÆA _spinosa._ _Linn. Syst. Vegetab, ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 152._ _Sp.
      Pl. p. 159._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 159._

Frutex spinosus, buxi foliis plurimis simul nascentibus, flore
      tetrapetaloide pendulo sordide flavo, tubo longissimo, fructu
      ovali croceo semina parva continente. _Catesb. Carol. 2. p. 100.
      t. 100._

[Illustration: No 131]

Of this genus there is only one species described by authors, and which
LINNÆUS has named in honour of our countryman MARK CATESBY, Author of
the Natural History of Carolina.

"This shrub was discovered by Mr. CATESBY, near Nassau-town, in
the Island of Providence, where he saw two of them growing, which were
all he ever saw; from these he gathered the seeds and brought them to
England.

"It is propagated by seeds, which must be procured from the country
where it naturally grows. If the entire fruit are brought over in sand,
the seeds will be better preserved; the seeds must be sown in small pots
filled with light sandy earth, and plunged into a moderate hot-bed of
Tanner's-bark. If the seeds are good, the plants will appear in about
six weeks; these plants make little progress for four or five years. If
the nights should prove cold the glasses must be covered with mats every
evening. As these plants grow slowly, so they will not require to be
removed out of the seed-pots the first year, but in the Autumn the pots
should be removed into the stove, and plunged into the tan-bed; in
spring the plants should be carefully taken up, and each planted in a
separate small pot, filled with light sandy earth, and plunged into a
fresh hot-bed of Tanner's-bark. In Summer when the weather is warm, they
should have a good share of air admitted to them, but in Autumn must be
removed into the stove; where they should constantly remain, and must be
treated afterwards in the same manner as other tender exotic plants."
_Miller's Dict._

It is more usual with Nurserymen to increase this plant by cuttings.

Our drawing was made from a plant which flowered this Spring, with Mr.
COLVILL, Nurseryman, King's-Road, Chelsea.

It flowers most part of the Summer, but not so freely as many other
stove-plants.



[132]

RUBUS ARCTICUS. DWARF BRAMBLE.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus. Petala 5. _Bacca_ composita acinis monospermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

RUBUS _arcticus_ foliis ternatis, caule inermi unifloro. _Linn. Syst.
      Vegetab. p. 476._

RUBUS humilis flore purpureo. _Buxb. Cent. 5. p. 13. t. 26._

RUBUS trifolius humilis non spinosus, sapore et odore fragariæ, fructu
      rubro polycocco. _Amm. Ruth. 185._

[Illustration: No 132]

The Rubus arcticus grows wild in the northern parts of Europe and
America, in moist, sandy, and gravelly places. LINNÆUS has
figured and minutely described it in his _Flora Lapponica_, out of
gratitude, as he expresses himself, for the benefits reaped from it in
his Lapland journey, by the nectareous wine of whose berries he was so
often recruited when sinking with hunger and fatigue; he observes that
the principal people in the north of Sweden make a syrup, a jelly, and a
wine, from the berries, which they partly consume themselves, and partly
transmit to Stockholm, as a dainty of the most delicious kind; and truly
he adds, of all the wild Swedish berries this holds the first place.

Our figure does not correspond altogether with LINNÆUS's
description, but it is drawn as the plant grew; culture doubtless made
it produce more than its usual number of flowering stems and petals.

It grows readily and increases rapidly in bog-earth, on a north border,
and flowers in May and June, but very rarely ripens its fruit in
Gardens.



[133]

HYACINTHUS COMOSUS. TWO COLOURED, or, TASSEL
HYACINTH.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ campanulata: pori 3-melliferi germinis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HYACINTHUS _comosus_ corollis angulato-cylindricis: summis sterilibus
      longius pedicellatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. 336._

HYACINTHUS comosus major purpureus. _Bauh. Pin. 42._ The purple faire
      haired Jacinth; or Purse tassels. _Park. Parad. p. 117._

[Illustration: No 133]

Most of the old Botanists arranged this plant, the _racemosus_, and
others having almost globular flowers with the Hyacinths. TOURNEFORT,
struck with the difference of their appearance, made a distinct genus of
them under the name of _Muscari_, in which he is followed by MILLER, and
should have been by LINNÆUS, for they differ so much that no student
would consider the present plant as belonging to the same genus with the
Hare-bell.

This species grows wild in the corn-fields of Spain, Portugal, and some
parts of Germany, and flowers in May and June.

It is distinguished more by its singularity than beauty, the flowers on
the summit of the stalk differing widely in colour from the others, and
being mostly barren: PARKINSON says, "the whole stalke with the
flowers upon it, doth somewhat resemble a long Purse tassell, and
thereupon divers Gentlewomen have so named it."

It is a hardy bulbous plant, growing readily in most soils and
situations, and usually propagated by offsets.



[134]

ADONIS VERNALIS.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ quinis plura absque nectario. _Sem._ nuda.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ADONIS _vernalis_ flore dodecapetalo, fructu ovato. _Linn. Syst.
      Vegetab. ed. Murr. p. 514._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. Vol. 2. p. 264._

HELLEBORUS niger tenuifolius, Buphthalmi flore. _Bauh. Pin. 186._

BUPHTHALMUM _Dodon. Pempt. 261._

HELLEBORUS niger ferulaceus sive Buphthalmum. The great Ox-eye, or the
      great yellow Anemone. _Parkins. Parad. p. 291. f. 6._

[Illustration: No 134]

Of this plant LINNÆUS makes two species, viz. the _vernalis_
and _appennina_, differing in their specific character merely in the
number of their petals, which are found to vary from situation and
culture; as the first name taken from its time of flowering is the most
expressive, we have followed Mr. MILLER and Mr. AITON in adopting it.

It is an old inhabitant of the English gardens, and a most desirable
one, as it flowers in the spring; produces fine shewy blossoms, which
expand wide when exposed to the sun, is hardy and readily cultivated.

Grows wild on the mountainous pastures of some parts of Germany.

It may be increased by parting its roots in Autumn or Spring, or by
seed. MILLER recommends the latter mode.



[135]

GLADIOLUS CARDINALIS. SUPERB GLADIOLUS; or, CORN-FLAG.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-partita, irregularis, inæqualis, _Stigmata_ 3.

_Specific Character._

GLADIOLUS _cardinalis_ corollæ erectæ limbo campanulato, floribus
      secundis, scapo multifloro, foliis ensiformibus multinerviis.

[Illustration: No 135]

This new species of Gladiolus, of whose magnificence our figure can
exhibit but an imperfect idea, was introduced into this country from
Holland, a few years since, by Mr. GRAFFER, at present Gardener to the
King of Naples; and first flowered with Messrs. LEWIS and MACKIE,
Nurserymen, at Kingsland; a very strong plant of it flowered also this
summer at Messrs. GRIMWOODS and Co. which divided at top into three
branches, from one of which our figure was drawn.

It obviously differs from the other more tender plants of this genus, in
the colour of its flowers, which are of a fine scarlet, with large white
somewhat rhomboidal spots, on several of the lowermost divisions of the
Corolla; strong plants will throw up a stem three or four feet high.

It is most probably a native of the Cape, flowers with us in July and
August, and is increased by offsets from the bulbs; must be treated like
the Ixias and other similar Cape plants.



[136]

PELARGONIUM TETRAGONUM. SQUARE STALKED GERANIUM.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-partitus, lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem,
      nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5-petala,
      irregularis. _Filamenta_ 10, inæqualia: quorum 3 (raro 5)
      castrata. _Fructus_ 5-coccus, rostratus: _rostra_ spiralia,
      introrsum barbata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PELARGONIUM _tetragonum_ pedunculis bifloris, ramis tetragonis carnosis,
      corollis tetrapetalis, _L'Herit. n. 72. t. 23._

GERANIUM _tetragonum_. _Linn. Suppl. p. 305._

[Illustration: No 136]

A vein of singularity runs through the whole of this plant, its stalks
are unequally and obtusely quadrangular, sometimes more evidently
triangular; its leaves few, and remarkably small; its flowers, on the
contrary, are uncommonly large, and what is more extraordinary have only
four petals; previous to their expansion they exhibit also an appearance
somewhat outrè, the body of the filaments being bent so as to form a
kind of bow, in which state we have represented one of the blossoms in
our figure.

When it flowers in perfection, which it is not apt to do in all places,
the largeness of its blossoms renders it one of the most ornamental of
the genus.

There is a variety of it with beautifully coloured leaves, of which we
have availed ourselves in its representation.

It flowers from June, to August, and September; requires the same
treatment as the more common Geraniums, and is readily propagated by
cuttings.

Was first introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew, by Mr. MASSON,
in 1774, from the Cape, of which, it is a native. _Ait. Hort. Kew._



[137]

HYPERICUM BALEARICUM. WARTY ST. JOHN'S-WORT.

_Class and Order._

POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5. _Nectarium_ 0. _Capsula_.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HYPERICUM _balearicum_ floribus pentagynis, caule fruticoso foliis
      ramisque cicatrizatis. _Linn. Syst. Veget. p. 102._

MYRTO-CISTUS pennæi _Clus. Hist. 1. p. 68._

[Illustration: No 137]

Is according to LINNÆUS a native of _Majorca_; MILLER
says that it grows naturally in the Island of _Minorca,_ from whence the
seeds were sent to England by Mr. SALVADOR, an Apothecary at
Barcelona, in the year 1718.

The stalks of this species are usually of a bright red colour, and
covered with little warts; the leaves are small with many depressions on
their upper sides like scars; the flowers are not always solitary, but
frequently form a kind of Corymbus.

It is a hardy green-house plant, and readily propagated by cuttings.

It flowers during most of the Summer.

CLUSIUS informs us in his _Hist. pl. rar. p. 68._ that he
received from THOMAS PENNY, a Physician of London, in the year
1580, a figure of this elegant plant, and who the next year shewed a
dried specimen of the same in London, which had been gathered in the
Island of Majorca, and named by him [Greek: murto kison], or
Myrtle-Cistus[2] it appears therefore that this plant has long been
known, if not cultivated in this country.

We may remark that CLUSIUS's figure of this plant is not
equally expressive with many of his others.



[138]

KALMIA HIRSUTA. HAIRY KALMIA.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-partitus. _Corolla_ hypocrateriformis: limbo subtus
      quinquecorni _Caps._ 5-locularis.

_Specific Character._

KALMIA _hirsuta_ foliis ovato-lanceolatis hirsutis sparsis, floribus
      racemosis.

[Illustration: No 138]

This new species of Kalmia which we have called _hirsuta,_ the stalk,
leaves, and calyx, being covered with strong hairs, was imported from
Carolina in the Spring of 1790, by Mr. WATSON, Nurseryman at
Islington, with whom several plants of it flowered this present Autumn,
about the middle of September, from one of which our drawing was made.

The plants were brought over with their roots enclosed in balls of the
earth in which they naturally grew, which on being examined appeared of
a blackish colour, and full of glittering particles of sand; similar
indeed to the bog-earth which we find on our moors and heaths; there is
therefore little doubt (for no account accompanied the plants) but this
Kalmia grows on moorish heaths, or in swamps.

In its general appearance it bears some resemblance to the _Andromeda
Daboecii_; from the specimens we have seen its usual height would
appear to be from two to three feet; it grows upright; the flowers which
are about the size of those of the _Kalmia glauca_, are of a purple
colour, and contrary to all the other known Kalmia's grow in racemi.

It is propagated by layers, and requires the same treatment as the rest
of the genus, that is, to be planted in bog-earth, on a north border: as
this however is a new, and of course a dear plant, it will be most
prudent till we know what degree of cold it will bear, to keep it in a
pot of the same earth, plunged in the same situation, which may be
removed in the Winter to a green-house or hot-bed frame.



[139]

ALSTROEMERIA PELEGRINA. SPOTTED-FLOWER'D ALSTROEMERIA.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ 6-petala, supera, irregularis. _Stamina_ declinata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ALSTROEMERIA _Pelegrina_ caule erecto, corollis campanulatis rectis,
      foliis lineari-lanceolatis sessilibus. _Linn. Syst. Veg. p. 338.
      ed. Murr._ _Amoen. Acad. 6. p. 247. cum icone._

HEMEROCALLIS floribus purpurascentibus maculatis vulgo Pelegrina.
      _Feuill. Peruv. 2. p. 711. t. 5._

[Illustration: No 139]

Father FEUILLEE[3] figures and describes three species of
_Alstroemeria_, viz. _Pelegrina_, _Ligtu_, and _Salsilla_, common
names by which they are severally distinguished in Peru: the present
species, which is much valued by the natives on account of its beauty,
he informs us is found wild on a mountain to the north of, and a mile
distant from Lima.

From Peru, as might be expected, the present plant found its way into
Spain, from whence by the means of his beloved friend ALSTROEMER,
LINNÆUS first received seeds of it; the value he set on the acquisition
is evident from the great care he took of the seedling plants,
preserving them through the winter in his bed-chamber.

According to Mr. AITON, this species was introduced to the Royal Garden
at Kew, by Messrs. KENNEDY and LEE, as long ago as the year 1753.

Being a mountainous plant, it is found to be much more hardy than the
_Ligtu_ already figured, and is generally treated as a green-house
plant; it is found, however, to flower and ripen its seeds better under
the glass of a hot-bed frame, where air is freely admitted.

It flowers from June to October, and, though a perennial, is generally
raised from seeds, yet may sometimes be increased by parting its roots,
which somewhat resemble those of the asparagus: the seeds should be sown
in the spring, in a pot of light earth, on a gentle hot-bed, either of
dung or tan.



[140]

LUPINUS LUTEUS. YELLOW LUPINE.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 2-labiatus. _Antheræ_ 5 oblongæ, 5 subrotundæ. _Legumen_
      coriaceum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LUPINUS _luteus_ calycibus verticillatis appendiculatis: labio superiore
      bipartito; inferiore tridentato. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._
      _Murr. p. 656._

LUPINUS sylvestris, flore luteo. _Bauh. Pin. 348._

The Yellow Lupine. _Park. Parad. p. 336._

[Illustration: No 140]

The present, with many other species of Lupine, is very generally
cultivated in flower gardens, for the sake of variety, being usually
sown in the spring with other annuals; where the flower-borders are
spacious, they may with propriety be admitted, but as they take up much
room, and as their blossoms are of short duration, they are not so
desirable as many other plants.

It is a native of Sicily, and flowers in June and July.

We have often thought that the management of the kitchen garden, in
point of succession of crops, might be advantageously transplanted to
the flower garden; in the former, care is taken to have a regular
succession of the annual delicacies of the table, while in the latter, a
single sowing in the spring is thought to be all-sufficient; hence the
flower garden, which in August, September, and part of October, might be
covered with a profusion of bloom, exhibits little more than the decayed
stems of departed annuals.



[141]

HELIOTROPIUM PERUVIANUM. PERUVIAN TURNSOLE.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ hypocrateriformis, 5-fida, interjectis dentibus: fauce clausa
      fornicibus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HELIOTROPIUM _peruvianum_ foliis lanceolato-ovatis, caule fruticoso,
      spicis numerosis aggregato-corymbosis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p.
      184._

HELIOTROPIUM foliis ovato-lanceolatis, spicis plurimis; confertis, caule
      fruticoso. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to. Icon. t. 143._

[Illustration: No 141]

This plant recommends itself by its fragrance rather than its beauty, so
delicious indeed is the odour it diffuses, that it is considered as
essential to every green-house and stove.

"It grows naturally in Peru, from whence the seeds were sent by the
younger Jussieu to the royal garden at Paris, where the plants produced
flowers and seeds; and from the curious garden of the Duke d'Ayen, at
St. Germain's, I was supplied with some of the seeds, which have
succeeded, in the Chelsea garden, where the plants have flowered and
perfected their seeds for some years." _Miller's Gard. Dict._

You may consider it either as a stove or a green-house plant, the former
is more congenial to it in the winter season.

A pure atmosphere is essential to its existence, as I experienced at
Lambeth-Marsh, where I in vain endeavoured to cultivate it.

It is propagated by cuttings as easily as any Geranium, and requires a
similar treatment; in hot weather it must be well supplied with water,
and in winter carefully guarded against frost, so fatal to most of the
natives of Peru.



[142]

SCORZONERA TINGITANA. TANGIER SCORZONERA, or POPPY-LEAV'D
VIPERS GRASS.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA ÆQUALIS.

_Generic Character._

_Receptaculum_ nudum. _Pappus_ plumosus. _Calyx_ imbricatus, squamis
      margine scariosis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SCORZONERA _tingitana_ foliis omnibus runcinatis amplexicaulibus. _Linn.
      Syst. Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 711._

SONCHUS tingitanus papaveris folio _Raii Suppl. 137._

CHONDRILLA tingitana, floribus luteis papaveris hortensis folio. _Herm.
      lugdb. 657. t. 659._

[Illustration: No 142]

I am indebted for seeds of this plant to my very worthy and liberal
friend NICH. GWYN, M. D. of Ipswich, to whose penetrating
genius, and learned researches, Botany owes much.

As its name implies, it is a native of the province of Tangier, on the
Barbary coast; appears to have been cultivated here, according to the
_Hort. Kew._ in 1713, but is not mentioned in the 6th 4to. edit. of
MILLER's Dictionary.

It may be considered as forming a valuable addition to our stock of
annuals, being a beautiful plant, and easily cultivated: it thrives best
on a moderately dry soil, warmly situated: should be sown in the spring
with other annuals.

I have observed, that in the middle of summer, a hot unclouded sun,
which is favourable to the expansion of most of the flowers of this
class, is too powerful for those of the present plant, which then appear
to the greatest advantage in warm hazy weather.



[143]

PELARGONIUM GLUTINOSUM. CLAMMY CRANE'S BILL.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillare
      nectariferum fecus pedunculum decurrentem. _Corolla_ pentapetala,
      irregularis. _Filamenta_ 10 inæqualia, quorum 3 raro 5 castrata.
      _Fructus_ pentacoccus, rostratus, rostra spiralia introrsum
      barbata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PELARGONIUM _glutinosum_ umbellis paucifloris foliis cordatis
      hastato-quinquangulis viscosis. _L'Herit. Ger. Ait. Hort. Kew. v.
      2. p. 426._

GERANIUM _glutinosum_. _Jacq. ic. collect. 1. p. 85._

GERANIUM _viscosum_. _Cavanill. Diss. 4. p. 246. t. 108. f. 2._

[Illustration: No 143]

The leaves of this species exhibit, on being touched, a manifest
viscidity, or clamminess, which, independent of their shape, serves to
characterize the species; the middle of the leaf is also in general
stained with purple, which adds considerably to its beauty; but this
must be regarded rather as the mark of a variety, than of the species.

With most of its congeners, it is a native of the Cape, and of modern
date in this country, being introduced to the royal garden at Kew, by
Messrs. KENNEDY and LEE, in the year 1777.

It flowers from May to September; is readily propagated by cuttings, and
sometimes raised from seeds, from whence several varieties have been
produced.



[144]

FERRARIA UNDULATA. CURLED FERRARIA.

_Class and Order._

GYNANDRIA TRIANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

Monogyna. _Spathtæ_ unifloræ. _Petala_ 6, undulato-crispata. _Stigmata_
      cucullata. _Caps._ 3-locularis, infera.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

FERRARIA _undulata_ caule multifloro. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 820. ed.
      14._ _Murr. Ait. Kew. p. 305. v. 3._

FLOS INDICUS e violaceo fuscus radice tuberosa. _I. B. Ferrar. Flora,
      ed. nov. p. 167. t. 171._

GLADIOLUS INDICUS e violaceo fuscus radice tuberosa nobis. _Moris. hist.
      f. 4. t. 4. f. 7._

NARCISSUS INDICUS flore saturate purpureo. _Rudb. Elys. 2. t. 49. f. 9._

IRIS stellata cyclamine radice pullo flore. _Barrel. Icon. 1216._

[Illustration: No 144]

The old Botanists appear to have been wonderfully at a loss to what
family they should refer this very singular plant, as will appear on
consulting the synonyms; BURMAN at length made a distinct genus of it,
naming it _Ferraria_ in honour of JOH. BAPTISTA FERRARIUS, by whom it
was described, and very well figured, in his _Flora feu de Florum
Cultura_, published at Amsterdam, in 1646.

Mr. MILLER informs us, that he received roots of this plant
from Dr. JOB BASTER, F. R. S. of Zirkzee, who obtained it from
the Cape, of which it is a native.

In the vegetable line, it is certainly one of the most singular and
beautiful of nature's productions; much it is to be regretted that its
flowers are of very short duration, opening in the morning and finally
closing in the afternoon of the same day; a strong plant will, however,
throw out many blossoms in succession.

In its structure and oeconomy, it approaches very near to the
_Sisyrinchium_.

It flowers very early in the spring, from February to May, and is
usually propagated by offsets, which its bulbs produce in tolerable
plenty. It requires a treatment similar to the Ixias and other Cape
bulbs. Our figure was drawn from a plant which flowered this spring, in
the possession of R. FORSTER, Esq. of Turnham-Green.



  INDEX.

  In which the Latin Names of
  the Plants contained in the
  _Fourth Volume_ are alphabetically
  arranged.

  _Pl._

  134 Adonis vernalis.
  125 Alstroemeria Ligtu.
  139 ------------ Pelegrina.
  126 Alyssum deltoideum.
  130 ------- utriculatum.
  129 Amaryllis vittata.
  123 Anemone hortensis.
  117 Campanula carpatica.
  131 Catesbæa spinosa.
  112 Cistus ladaniferus.
  113 Convolvulus purpureus.
  144 Ferraria undulata.
  135 Gladiolus cardinalis.
  141 Heliotropium peruvianum.
  122 Hyacinthus racemosus.
  133 ---------- comosus.
  137 Hypericum balearicum.
  124 Iberis gibraltarica.
  127 Ixia flexuosa.
  138 Kalmia hirsuta.
  111 Lathyrus tuberosus.
  115 -------- sativus.
  109 Lavatera trimestris.
  116 Limodorum tuberosum.
  140 Lupinus luteus.
  110 Mimosa verticillata.
  121 Narcissus incomparabilis.
  136 Pelargonium tetragonum.
  143 ----------- glutinosum.
  132 Rubus arcticus.
  128 Scilla campanulata.
  142 Scorzonera tingitana.
  118 Sedum Anacampseros.
  114 Silene pendula.
  119 Strelitzia Reginæ.



  INDEX.

  In which the English Names
  of the Plants contained in
  the _Fourth Volume_ are alphabetically
  arranged.

  _Pl._

  134 Adonis Spring.
  125 Alstroemeria striped-flowered.
  139 ------------ spotted-flowered.
  129 Amaryllis superb.
  130 Alyssum bladder-podded.
  126 ------- purple.
  123 Anemone star.
  117 Bell-flower Carpatian.
  113 Bindweed purple.
  132 Bramble dwarf.
  124 Candy-tuft Gibraltar.
  114 Catchfly pendulous.
  131 Catesbæa thorny.
  112 Cistus gum.
  143 Crane's-bill clammy.
  121 Daffodil peerless.
  144 Ferraria curled.
  136 Geranium square-stalked.
  135 Gladiolus superb.
  122 Hyacinth starch.
  133 -------- two-coloured.
  127 Ixia bending-stalked.
  138 Kalmia hairy.
  111 Lathyrus tuberous.
  115 -------- blue-flowered.
  109 Lavatera annual.
  116 Limodorum tuberous-rooted.
  140 Lupine yellow.
  110 Mimosa whorl'd-leaved.
  118 Orpine evergreen.
  142 Scorzonera Tangier.
  137 St. John's-wort warty.
  119 Strelitzia Canna-leaved.
  128 Squill bell-flowered.
  141 Turnsole peruvian.



FOOTNOTES

[1] From the gaiety of its flowers, which, from their stripes, appear
like an object decorated with ribbands.--_Vitta_, a ribband; _vittata_,
dressed with ribbands. _Ainsw._

[2] The leaves being somewhat like those of the Myrtle, and a gummy
substance exuding from the plant as in the Gum Cistus.

[3] In his Journal des Observations Physiques, Mathematiques, et
Botaniques, faites sur les Côtes Orientales de l'Amerique meridionale,
&c. printed in 1714.





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