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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 5 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
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  THE

  ~Botanical Magazine;~

  OR,

  ~Flower-Garden Displayed:~


  IN WHICH

  The most Ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open
  Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in
  their natural Colours.

  TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

  Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to
  the celebrated LINNÆUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of
  Flowering:

  TOGETHER WITH

  THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

  A WORK

  Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, and
  GARDENERS, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the
  Plants they cultivate.

  By _WILLIAM CURTIS_,

  Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

  ~VOL. V.~


               ----"the garden yields
  A soft amusement, an humane delight.
  To raise th' insipid nature of the ground,
  Or tame its savage genius to the grace
  Of careless sweet rusticity, that seems
  The amiable result of happy chance,
  Is to create, and give a god-like joy,
  Which ev'ry year improves."

                            ARMSTRONG.

  LONDON:

  Printed by COUCHMAN and FRY, Throgmorton-Street. For

  W. CURTIS, No 3, _St. George's-Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road; And Sold by

  the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

  M DCC XCI.


       *       *       *       *       *



[145]

MONARDA FISTULOSA, _var._ CRIMSON MONARDA.

_Class and Order._

DIANDRA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ inæqualis: labio superiore lineari filamenta involvente.
     _Semina_ 4.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

MONARDA _fistulosa_ capitulis terminalibus, caule obtusangulo. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. p. 68. ed. 14. Murr._ _Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 36._

ORIGANUM fistulosum Canadense. _Corn. Canad. 13. t. 14._

[Illustration: No 145]

The _Monarda fistulosa_, a hardy herbaceous plant, growing spontaneously
in Canada, and other parts of North-America, has long been cultivated in
the English gardens, to which it recommends itself as much by the
fragrance of its foliage, as the beauty of its flowers; of this species
the plant here figured is an uncommonly beautiful variety, its blossoms
far surpassing those of the original in size, as well as brilliancy of
colour, the floral leaves also are highly coloured; we have represented
a single blossom of the common _Monarda fistulosa_, that the difference
of the two may be rendered obvious.

This variety has been very lately introduced from Holland, by Messrs.
GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington; it flowers from June to September,
and is propagated by parting its roots in spring or autumn.



[146]

HYPERICUM CALYCINUM. LARGE-FLOWER'D ST. JOHN'S-WORT.

_Class and Order._

POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-partitus. _Petala_ 5. _Filamenta_ multa, in 5 phalanges basi
     connata. _Capsula._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HYPERICUM _calycinum_ floribus pentagynis solitariis terminalibus, caule
     tetragono fruticoso, foliis oblongo-ovatis coriaceis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. p. 700. Mant. 106._ _Hort. Kew. v. 3. 103._

ASCYRUM magno flore. _Bauh. Pin. 280. Prodr. 130._

ANDROSÆMUM Constantinopolitanum flore maximo. _Wheler's Journey into
     Greece, p. 205. cum fig._

[Illustration: No 146]

This species of St. John's-Wort, particularly distinguished by the
largeness of its flowers, has very generally been considered as the
_Ascyron_ of LINNÆUS, owing to his giving to that plant the
synonyms which properly belong to the present one: in his _Mantissa_,
this species is called _calycinum_, which name is adopted in the 14th
edition of the _Systema Vegetabilium_, and also in the _Hortus
Kewensis_, where the proper synonyms are applied to it, and from which
we learn, that it is a native of the country near Constantinople, and
was introduced into this country by Sir GEORGE WHELER, Bart. in
1676.

It is a hardy perennial, increasing much by its roots, which are of the
creeping kind, and by parting of which in the autumn it is most readily
propagated; like the periwinkle, it is a plant well adapted to cover a
bank, or bare, spots under trees, where other plants will not thrive.

It flowers from July to September.



[147]

DAIS COTINIFOLIA. COTINUS-LEAV'D DAIS.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

Involucrum 4-phyllum. _Cor._ 4 s. 5-fida. Bacca 1-sperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

DAIS _cotinifolia_ floribus quinquefidis decandris. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 403._ _Spec. Pl. p. 556._

DAIS _laurifolia_. _Jacq. ic. collect. 1. p. 46._

[Illustration: No 147]

The _Dais cotinifolia_ is an ornamental Green-house Shrub, of the
deciduous kind, and though it appears from the _Hortus Kewensis_ to have
been introduced by Mr. JAMES GORDON, of Mile-End, in 1776, is
yet a great rarity with us, and only to be found in some of the first
collections.

Its scarcity, and consequent very high price, is attributed to the
Nursery-men's not having yet discovered the means of propagating it
freely.

Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. of Kensington, have some very fine
plants of it, which flower every year in the months of June and July,
but as yet have produced no perfect seeds, which they may be expected to
do when grown older; such having been known to ripen them in Holland.

It is a native of the Cape, and appears to have been long possessed by
the Dutch, as its Generic Character taken from D. V. ROYEN, is
printed in the Genera Plantarum of LINNÆUS in 1764.

There are only two known species, and they vary in the number of their
Stamina, and divisions of the Corolla.



[148]

PELARGONIUM BETULINUM. BIRCH-LEAV'D CRANE'S-BILL.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem
     nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5-petala,
     irregularis. _Filamenta_ 10, inæqualia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata.
     _Fructus_ 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata.
     _L'Herit. Geran._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PELARGONIUM _betulinum_ umbellis paucifloris, foliis ovatis inæqualiter
     serratis lævigatis. _L'Herit. n. 84._

GERANIUM _betulinum_ calycibus monophyllis, foliis ovatis inæqualiter
     serratis planis, caule fruticoso. _Linn. Sp. Pl. p. 946._ _Burm.
     Ger. 38._

GERANIUM fruticosum, betulæ folio, africanum. _Raii Suppl. 513._

[Illustration: No 148]

Though long since described, we have been in possession of this species
of Crane's-Bill but a few years; it is one of the many new ones
introduced by Mr. MASSON from the Cape, and at the same time
one of the most desirable, as its blossoms which are ornamental, are
freely produced during most of the summer, and the plant itself is
readily propagated by cuttings.

The flowers vary considerably, both in size, and colour; its foliage is
different from that of most others, and, as its name imports, like that
of the Birch-Tree.

It requires the same treatment as most other Green-House Plants.



[149]

ZINNIA MULTIFLORA. MANY-FLOWERED ZINNIA.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

_Generic Character._

_Recept._ paleaceum. _Pappus_ aristis 2 erectis. _Cal._
     ovato-cylindricus, imbricatus. _Flosculi_ radii 5-10, persistentes,
     integri.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

ZINNIA _multiflora_ floribus pedunculatis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14.
     Murr. p. 777._

[Illustration: No 149]

The _Zinnia, multiflora_, a native of Louisania, is a plant of more
modern introduction, but requires the same treatment, and flowers at the
same time, as the _Tagetes patula_, with which, though far inferior in
brilliancy of colour, it contributes to decorate the borders of the
flower-garden from June to September.

There is a variety of it with yellow flowers, nearly as common in our
gardens as the present plant.

LINNÆUS gave to this genus the name of ZINNIA, in
honour of JOH. GOTTFR. ZINN, the pupil of HALLER, and
his successor at the University of Gottingen.

The plant we have figured, answers to the name and to the specific
description of LINNÆUS'S _multiflora_; having never seen his
_pauciflora_, we cannot say whether there be any just cause for
suspecting them to be varieties of each other.



[150]

TAGETES PATULA. SPREADING TAGETES, or FRENCH MARIGOLD.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

_Generic Character._

_Receptaculum_ nudum. _Pappus_ aristis 5 erectis. _Cal._ 1-phyllus,
     5-dentatus, tubulosus. Flosculi radii 4-8, persistentes.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

TAGETES _patula_ caule subdiviso patulo. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr.
     228._

TANACETUM Africanum Flos Africanus minor. _Bauh. Pin. 132._

FLOS Africanus. _Dod. Pempt. 255._ The small single French Marigold.
     _Park. Par. p. 304._

[Illustration: No 150]

For richness and variety of tints few flowers can vie with this species
of Tagetes, which forms one of the chief ornaments of our gardens at the
close of summer.

Some authors make it a native of Africa, others of America.

Two principal varieties are usually kept in the gardens, the common
small sort with a strong disagreeable smell, and a larger one here
figured, usually called sweet-scented, the former is of more humble
growth, its branches more spreading, its blossoms smaller than those of
the latter, the flowers of which have usually a greater portion of the
yellow tint, and the smell of the other so modified as to be far less
disagreeable; sweet-scented we fear it can scarcely be called: from the
seed of both sorts some flowers will be produced extremely double, and
others single.

MILLER recommends the seed to be frequently changed, to prevent
them from degenerating.

It is one of our tender annuals which require to be raised on a gentle
hot-bed, if we are desirous of having them early; if that be not an
object, they may be sown under a common hand-glass on a warm border the
beginning of May, and, when large enough, planted out in the
flower-beds, where they are to remain.

DODONÆUS observes, that the leaves, if held up to the light,
appear as if perforated; and he adduces some instances, which prove the
plant to be of a poisonous nature.



[151]

LOTUS TETRAGONOLOBUS. WINGED LOTUS.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Legumen_ cylindricum strictum. _Alæ_ sursum longitudinaliter
     conniventes. _Cal._ tubulosus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LOTUS _tetragonolobus_ leguminibus solitariis membranaceo-quadrangulis,
     bractæis ovatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab, p. 691._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. p.
     91._

LOTUS ruber siliqua angulosa. _Bauh. Pin. 332._

LOTUS pulcherrima tetragonolobus. _Comm. Hort. 91. t. 26._

PISUM quadratum, the crimson-blossom'd or square-codded Pease. _Park.
     Parad. p. 338._

[Illustration: No 151]

A common annual in our gardens, where it has been long cultivated; is a
native of Sicily, and flowers in the open borders in July and August;
requires the same management as other hardy annuals.

MILLER observes, that it was formerly cultivated as an esculent
plant, the green pods being dressed and eaten as peas.



[152]

EPIDENDRUM COCHLEATUM. TWO-LEAV'D EPIDENDRUM.

_Class and Order._

GYNANDRIA DIANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

Nectarium turbinatum, obliquum, reflexum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

EPIDENDRUM _cochleatum_ foliis oblongis geminis glabris striatis bulbo
     innatis, scapo multifloro, nectario cordato. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab,
     ed. 14. Murr. p. 819._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 303._

HELLEBORINE cochleato flore. _Plum. Sp. 9. u. 185. fig. 2._

[Illustration: No 152]

Plants which draw their support from other living ones, of which there
are numerous instances, are by Botanists termed parasitical, and of this
kind are most of the present family; deriving their generic name, which
is of Greek extraction, from growing on trees, into the bark of which
they fix their roots; some of them are also found to grow on dead wood,
as the present plant, which is described by Sir HANS SLOANE, in
his history of Jamaica, _V. 1. p. 250. t. 121. f. 2._ as not only
growing plentifully on trees, but also on the palisadoes of St. Jago de
la Vega.

Instances of these plants flowering in England are very rare; Commodore
GARDNER, in the year 1789, presented to the Apothecaries
company some roots of this plant, taken up in the woods of Jamaica with
great care, and which being successfully treated by Mr.
FAIRBAIRN in their garden at Chelsea, one of them threw up a
flowering stem last February, from whence our drawing was made.

Mr. FAIRBAIRN planted the roots in pots of earth, composed of
rotten wood and decayed leaves, plunging them into the tan-bed of a pit
of considerable size.

In its fructification, the Epidendrum obviously agrees with the Orchis
tribe, but differs essentially in the oeconomy of its roots; in the
Orchis the roots spring from the crown of the bulb, which is formed in
the earth; in the Epidendrum the bulb, or the part which appears to be
analogous to a bulb, though of a green colour, is produced above ground,
while the roots or fibres proceed from below it.



[153]

BULBOCODIUM VERNUM. VERNAL BULBOCODIUM.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ infundibuliformis, hexapetala: unguibus angustis staminiferis.
     _Capsula_ supera.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

BULBOCODIUM _vernum_ foliis lanceolatis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr.
     p. 320._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 421._ _Retz. Obs. Bot. Fasc. 2.
     t. 1._

COLCHICUM vernum hispanicum. _Bauh. Pin. 69._ Medowe Saffron of the
     spring. _Park. Parad. p. 158-159. f. 7._

[Illustration: No 153]

The excellent and learned CLUSIUS, in the second appendix to
his history of rare plants, gives a very good figure of this plant, both
in flower and seed, accompanied with its history; our PARKINSON
also represents it in his _Parad. terr._ and gives such a minute
description of it, as convinces us he must have cultivated it at the
time he wrote: Mr. MILLER appears not to have been well
acquainted with it, or he would not have described its root to be like
that of the Snowdrop; had he said Colchicum, he would not have misled:
RETZIUS also in his Bot. Obs. gives a figure of it with the
flower dissected.

The _Bulbocodium_, of which there is only one species, is a mountainous
plant, a native of Spain, and flowers in the open ground at the same
time as the Crocus, for a purple variety of which it might easily be
mistaken at first sight; but it differs from the Crocus in having six
stamina, and from the Colchicum, to which it is very nearly allied, in
having one style instead of three.

It is at present a rare plant in our gardens, which we attribute to its
bulbs not admitting of much increase, as well as to its being liable to
be killed by frost, and hence requiring more care than it may be thought
entitled to from its appearance.

It varies in the colour of its flowers.



[154]

SAPONARIA OCYMOIDES, BASIL SOAP-WORT.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 1-phyllus, nudus. _Petala_ 5 unguiculata. _Caps._ oblonga
     1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SAPONARIA _Ocymoides_ calycibus cylindricis villosis, caulibus
     dichotomis procumbentibus. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr._ _Jacq.
     Fl. Austr. v. 5. app. t. 23._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 87._

LYCHNIS vel Ocymoides repens montanum. _Bauh. Pin. 206._

[Illustration: No 154]

The _Saponaria Ocymoides_ has been figured in the appendix to the fifth
volume of the _Flora Austriaca_ in its wild state, as in similar works
every plant is expected to be; our figure represents a branch of it
only, taken (as all ours in this work professedly are) from a garden
specimen which grew on a wall of a particular construction in our garden
at Brompton, and of which it was the principal ornament through the
months of May, June, and July, during most of which time it was covered
with a profusion of bloom[1].

Though it produces blossoms in abundance, it affords but little seed,
but may be increased by slips or cuttings.

It is a hardy perennial, a native of France, Italy, Switzerland, and
Carinthia, loves a pure air and a dry situation[2], grows best among
rocks, stones, or out of a wall, and certainly is one of the best plants
imaginable for ornamenting of rock-work.

I received seeds of it, and many other rare plants, from my very kind
friend Mr. DAVAL, of Orbe, in Switzerland.



[155]

OXALIS VERSICOLOR. STRIPED-FLOWER'D WOOD-SORREL.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ unguibus connexa. _Caps._ angulis dehiscens,
     5-gona.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

OXALIS _versicolor_ caule erecto hirto, pedunculis unifloris, foliis
     ternatis: foliolis linearibus callosis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14.
     Murr. p. 114. p. 434._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 114._

OXYS Africana foliis tenuissimis, flore amplo versicolore. _Pluk.
     Amalth. 169. t. 434. f. 5._

OXYS Africana foliis tenuissimis in summitate caulis. _Raii Suppl. 598._

[Illustration: No 155]

The _Oxalis-versicolor_ is considered as one of the most beautiful of
the many species cultivated in gardens; and, though well known to, and
described by several of the older Botanists, has graced our collections
but a few years, being introduced to the Royal Garden at Kew, from the
Cape (where, as well as in Ethiopia, it grows spontaneously) by Mr.
MASSON, in the Year 1774.

Many of this genus flower early in the spring, the season in which this
species also puts forth its blossoms, but by dexterous management it may
be made to flower during most of the year; and this is effected by
placing the pea-like tubera or knobs which the root sends forth, and by
which the plant is propagated, in pots filled with loam and bog-earth at
stated distant periods.

Like most of the Cape plants, it is well adapted to the greenhouse, and
succeeds best when placed on a front shelf of the house, where it can
have plenty of light and air; some keep it in the stove, but there the
plant is drawn up, and the flowers lose a part of their brilliancy: in
no situation do they ever expand but when the sun shines on them; this
is the less to be regretted, as they are most beautiful when closed.



[156]

COREOPSIS VERTICILLATA. WHORLED COREOPSIS.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.

_Generic Character._

_Receptaculum_ paleaceum. _Pappus_ bicornis. _Calyx_ erectus,
     polyphyllus, basi radiis patentibus cinctus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

COREOPSIS _verticillata_ foliis decomposito-linearibus. _Linn. Syst.
     Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 782._

COREOPSIS foliis verticillatis linearibus multifidis. _Gronov. Fl.
     Virgin. p. 131._

DELPHINII vel mei foliis planta ad nodos positis caule singulari.
     _Clayt. n. 308._

[Illustration: No 156]

The _Coreopsis verticillata_ is a hardy, perennial, herbaceous plant, a
native of North-America; producing its blossoms, which are uncommonly
shewy, from July to October, and is readily propagated by parting its
roots in Autumn.

It grows to a great height, and is therefore rather adapted to the
shrubbery than the flower-garden.

CLAYTON remarks, that the petals, though of a yellow
colour, are used by the inhabitants to dye cloth red.



[157]

HYACINTHUS BOTRYOIDES. GRAPE HYACINTH.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ campanulata: _Pori_ 3 melliferi germinis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HYACINTHUS _botryoides_ corollis globosis uniformibus, foliis
     canaliculato-cylindricis strictis. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14.
     Murr. p. 336._ _Aiton Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 459._

HYACINTHUS _racemosus_ cæruleus major. _Bauh. Pin. 42._

HYACINTHUS Botroides cæruleus amoenus. The skie-coloured grape-flower.
     _Park. Par. p. 114. p. 113. f. 5._

[Illustration: No 157]

The _Hyacinthus botryoides_, a native of Italy, and cultivated in the
time of GERARD and PARKINSON, is now become scarce with us, being only
to be accidentally met with in long-established gardens; we first saw it
in the garden of our very worthy and much valued friend, Mr. JOHN
CHORLEY, of Tottenham, to whose lady my collection stands indebted for
several rare and valuable plants.

This species increases sufficiently fast by offsets, but in the open
border does not very readily produce flowering stems: as both it and the
_racemosus_ are apt to become troublesome in a garden from their great
increase, we would recommend their bulbs to be placed in moderately
sized pots filled with light earth, and plunged in the borders where
they are designed to flower; in the autumn they should be regularly
taken out, the offsets thrown away, and about half a dozen of the
largest bulbs left, all of which will most probably flower at the usual
time, the end of March or beginning of April.

PARKINSON, who most admirably describes this and the _racemosus_,
enumerates three varieties, viz. the _white_, the _blush-coloured_, and
the _branched_; the first is frequently imported with other bulbs from
Holland, the second and third we have not seen; the latter, if we may
judge from PARKINSON'S _fig._ in his _Parad._ is a most curious plant,
and was obtained, as CLUSIUS reports, from seeds of the white variety;
whether it now exists is deserving of inquiry.

The _botryoides_ differs from the _racemosus_, in having its leaves
upright, its bunch of flowers smaller, the flowers themselves larger,
rounder, of a paler and brighter blue.



[158]

HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS. CHINA-ROSE HIBISCUS.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ duplex, exterior polyphyllus. _Capsula_ 5-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HIBISCUS _Rosa Sinensis_ foliis ovatis acuminatis serratis, caule
     arboreo. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 629._ _Ait. Hort.
     Kew. p. 629._

ALCEA javanica arborescens, flore pleno rubicundo. _Breyn. cent. 121. t.
     56._

HIBISCUS _javanica_. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._ by whom cultivated in
     1731.

[Illustration: No 158]

RUMPHIUS in his _Herbarium Amboinense_ gives an excellent
account of this beautiful native of the East-Indies, accompanied by a
representation of it with double flowers, in which state it is more
particularly cultivated in all the gardens in India, as well as China;
he informs us that it grows to the full size of our hazel, and that it
varies with white flowers.

The inhabitants of India, he observes, are extremely partial to whatever
is red, they consider it as a colour which tends to exhilarate; and
hence they not only cultivate this plant universally in their gardens,
but use its flowers on all occasions of festivity, and even in their
sepulchral rites: he mentions also an oeconomical purpose to which the
flowers are applied, little consistent with their elegance and beauty,
that of blacking shoes, whence their name of _Rosæ calceolariæ_; the
shoes, after the colour is imparted to them, are rubbed with the hand,
to give them a gloss, and which thereby receives a blueish tinge, to
discharge which they have recourse to lemon juice.

With us it is kept in the stove, where it thrives and flowers readily
during most of the summer; the single blossoms last but a short time,
yet their superiority arising from the curious and beautiful structure
of the interior parts of the flower, compensates for the shortness of
their duration.

It is usually increased by cuttings.



[159]

ALYSSUM SAXATILE. YELLOW ALYSSUM.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Filamenta_ quædam introrsum denticulo notata. _Silicula_ emarginata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._


ALYSSUM _saxatile_ caulibus frutescentibus paniculatis, foliis
     lanceolatis mollissimis repandis. _Linn. Syst. Veg, ed. 14. Murr.
     p. 590._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 381._

ALYSSUM Creticum Saxatile, foliis undulatis incanis. _Tourn. cor. 15._

THLASPI luteum leucoji folio. _Bocc. muf. 79. t. 93._

[Illustration: No 159]

As this plant has very generally obtained in gardens and nurseries the
name of yellow Alyssum, we have retained it; for though it is not the
only one of the genus which produces yellow flowers, it may still be
called yellow by way of eminence, such is the extreme brilliancy and
profusion of its blossoms.

It is a native of Crete, and was first cultivated in this country by Mr.
MILLER, in 1731[3], at Chelsea garden.

It begins to flower about the latter end of April, and continues to
blossom through great part of May; and it is not uncommon for it to
flower again in autumn.

If it has a pure air and a dry situation, it will grow in almost any
soil.

The usual mode of propagating it is by slips, or cuttings. As it is a
small, shewy, hardy plant, and not disposed to over-run others, it is
very suitable to embellish rock-work.



[160]

PULMONARIA VIRGINICA. VIRGINIA LUNGWORT.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ infundibuliformis fauce pervia. _Calyx_ prismatico-pentagonus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PULMONARIA _Virginica_ calycibus abbreviatis, foliis lanceolatis
     obtusiusculis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 187._

PULMONARIA non maculosa, floribus tubulosis longis pulcherrimis
     cæruleis, in panicula pendula congestis, foliis teneribus glabris
     latis obtusis, ad margines æqualibus, pediculis dilute purpureis
     infidentibus, radice crassa instar symphyti. Mountain Cowslip.
     _Clayt. Gron. Fl. Virg. p. 25._

[Illustration: No 160]

MILLER informs us in his Dictionary, that the _Pulmonaria
Virginica_ grows naturally upon mountains in most parts of
North-America, that the seeds were sent many years since by Mr.
BANISTER, from Virginia; and some of the plants were raised in
the garden of the Bishop of London, at Fulham, where for several years
it was growing.

Though a native of Virginia, it ranks with the hardy herbaceous plants
of our gardens, and flowers in the open border about the middle of
April; the blossoms before their expansion are of a reddish purple
colour, when fully blown they become of a light bright blue, the foliage
is glaucous, or blueish green; it is said to vary with white and
flesh-coloured flowers.

In favourable seasons, the Flower-Garden owes much of its gaiety to this
elegant plant, and at a time when ornament is most desirable.

It requires a pure air, and a situation moderately sheltered, as the
cold easterly winds which too readily prevail in April, when it is in
flower, are apt to deface it.

It is usually propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and is a free
grower.



[161]

AMYGDALUS NANA. DWARF ALMOND.

_Class and Order._

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-fidus, inferus. _Petala_ 5. Drupa nuce poris perforata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AMYGDALUS _nana_ foliis basi attenuatis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr.
     p. 162._ _Pallas. Ross. 1. p. 12. t. 6._

AMYGDALUS indica nana. _Pluk. alm. 28. t. 11. f. 3._

ARMENIACA persicæ foliis, fructu exsucco. _Amm. Ruth. 273. t. 30._

[Illustration: No 161]

The Dwarf Almond, a native of Russia and Tartary, is justly considered
as one of our most ornamental shrubs; it rarely rises above the height
of three feet, and hence becomes very suitable for the shrubbery of
small extent. It flowers about the middle of April, somewhat later than
the common Almond.

MILLER observes, that the roots are apt to put out suckers, by
which the plant may be increased in plenty; and if those are not
annually taken away, they will starve the old plant.

Cultivated in 1683, by Mr. JAMES SUTHERLAND. _Ait. Hort.
Kew._



[162]

SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS. CANADA PUCCOON, or BLOODWORT.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 8-petala. _Cal._ 2-phyllus. Siliqua ovata, 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SANGUINARIA _Canadensis_. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 489._

CHELIDONIUM majus Canadense acaulon. _Corn. Canad. 212._

RANUNCULUS Virginiensis albus. _Park. Theat. 226._

SANGUINARIA flore simplici. _Dill. Elth. t. 252._

[Illustration: No 162]

Though the Sanguinaria cannot be considered as a handsome shewy plant,
yet we scarcely know its equal in point of delicacy and singularity;
there is something in it to admire, from the time that its leaves emerge
from the ground, and embosom the infant blossom, to their full
expansion, and the ripening of its seed vessels.

The woods of Canada, as well as of other parts of North-America, produce
this plant in abundance with us it flowers in the beginning of April:
its blossoms are fugacious, and fully expand only in fine warm weather.
It is a hardy perennial, and is usually propagated by parting its roots
in autumn; a situation moderately shady, and a soil having a mixture of
bog-earth or rotten leaves in it suits it best.

Its knobby roots, when broken asunder, pour forth a juice of a bright
red or orange colour, whence its name of Sanguinaria: with this liquid
the Indians are said to paint themselves.

DILLENIUS, has figured it in his admirable work, the Hortus
Elthamensis, where three varieties of it are represented, viz. a large
one, a small one, and one in which the petals are multiplied, but which
can scarcely be called double.

It appears from MORISON[4], that the Sanguinaria was cultivated
in this country in 1680, the date of his work.



[163]

PHLOX DIVARICATA. EARLY-FLOWERING LYCHNIDEA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corolla_ hypocrateriformis. _Filamenta_ inæqualia. _Stigma_ 3-fidum.
     _Cal._ prismaticus. _Caps._ 3-locularis, i-sperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PHLOX _divaricata_ foliis lato-lanceolatis: superioribus alternis, caule
     bifido, pedunculis geminis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab, p. 199._ _Ait.
     Hort. Kew. p. 206._

LYCHNIDEA virginiana, alsines aquaticæ foliis, floribus in ramulis
     divaricatis. _Pluk. Mant. 121?_

[Illustration: No 163]

Most of the plants of this genus are natives of North-America, and
remarkable for their beauty; they were first introduced under the name
of _Lychnidea_, which, though a Latin term, is now familiarized to the
English ear.

Mr. AITON has given to this species the name of
early-flowering, it coming much sooner into blossom than any of the
others, beginning to flower in May with the yellow Alyssum; its
blossoms, however, are not of so long duration, nor so ornamental as
some others of the same family.

It seldom exceeds a foot in height, and, on this account, may be
regarded as a suitable rock-plant.

It rarely ripens its seeds with us, but is readily increased either by
cuttings or layers; succeeds best in a pure air and a situation
moderately dry.

Like most other American plants, it is of modern introduction, was
cultivated by Mr. MILLER, in 1758, and figured in his Icones.



[164]

RANUNCULUS GRAMINEUS. GRASS-LEAVED CROWFOOT.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5 intra ungues poro mellifero. _Semina_
     nuda.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

RANUNCULUS _gramineus_ foliis lanceolato linearibus indivisis, caule
     erecto lævissimo paucifloro. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p.
     515._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 265._


RANUNCULUS gramineo folio bulbosus. _Bauh. Pin. 181?_

RANUNCULUS montanus folio gramineo. _Bauh. Pin. 180._

RANUNCULUS gramineus. Grasse leafed Crowfoot. _Park. Parad. p. 218. 221.
     f. i._

[Illustration: No 164]

This species of Ranunculus, an inhabitant of the dry pastures South of
France and Italy, and a hardy herbaceous plant of ready growth,
recommends itself by the earliness of its flowering and the delicate
glaucous colour of its foliage. PARKINSON figures it with
double flowers, though he describes it with semi-double ones only; we
have not observed either of these varieties in the gardens about London,
they have most probably fallen victims to the rage for novelty, at the
shrine of which many a fair and goodly flower is yearly sacrificed.

It flowers towards the end of April, and is propagated by parting its
roots in autumn.

The synonyms of this and other species of Ranunculus described in
GERARD'S _Fl. Gallopr._ are very inaccurately quoted in
Professor MURRAY'S edition of the _Syst. Vegetab._



[165]

PELARGONIUM CORDIFOLIUM. HEART-LEAVED GERANIUM.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema, definente in tubulum capilarem,
     nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5-petala,
     irregularis. _Filam_. 10 inæqualia: quorum 3. (raro 5) castrata.
     _Fructus_ 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia introrsum barbata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

PELARGONIUM _cordatum_ umbellis multifloris, foliis cordatis acutis
     dentatis, petalis inferis linearibus acutis. _Ait. Hort. Kew. p.
     427._

GERANIUM _cordifolium_. _Cavan. Diss. p. 240. t. 117. f. 3._

[Illustration: No 165]

Our readers are here presented with the figure of another Geranium of
modern introduction, not enumerated by LINNÆUS or MILLER, and which in
point of beauty, duration of flowering, and facility of culture, is
equal to most.

It was introduced to the Royal Garden, at Kew, from the Cape, by Mr.
MASSON, in 1774.

There are several varieties of it, but the one here figured is the most
beautiful.

It strikes readily from cuttings, by which it is usually propagated.

Requires the same treatment as the more common Geraniums, and
flowers, from March to July.



[166]

CHEIRANTHUS MARITIMUS. MEDITERRANEAN STOCK.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Germen_ utrinque denticulo glandulato. _Cal._ clausus: foliolis duobus
     basi gibbis. _Semina_ plana.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CHEIRANTHUS _maritimus_ foliis ellipticis obtusis nudis scabriusculis,
     caule diffuso scabro. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 597._ _Mantiss. p.
     568._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 395._

LEUCOJUM minus flore violaceo. _Barr. Ic. 1127._

[Illustration: No 166]

LINNÆUS has described this plant minutely in his _Mantissa
Plant_, so that no doubt remains of its being his _maritimus_.

With us, it has been customary for Gardeners and Nurserymen to
distinguish this species by the name of Virginia Stock, a name highly
improper, as it is found to be a native of the Mediterranean coast.

The blossoms which this plant first puts forth are of a lively red, in a
few days they become of a blueish purple colour; to this variety of hues
the plant owes its chief beauty.

Being of humble growth, and producing a profusion of bloom, which is of
long duration, it is frequently used as an edging to borders, and
sometimes sown in little patches with other annuals; in whatever way
used, it contributes greatly to enliven the borders of the
flower-garden.

It is one of those annuals whose seeds should be sown in the autumn, as
it thereby comes much forwarder into bloom, and its blossoms are more
lively than those arising from seeds sown in the spring; by varying the
time of sowing, it may be had to flower in spring, summer, and autumn.

Small pots of it in bloom have a pretty appearance, and may be used to
decorate the windows of those who reside in cities or great towns, where
the pleasures of the garden are not to be enjoyed.



[167]

SOPHORA TETRAPTERA. WINGED-PODDED SOPHORA.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-dentatus, superne gibbus. _Cor._ papilionacea:
     alis-longitudine vexilli. _Legumen._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

SOPHORA _tetraptera_ foliis pinnatis foliolis numerosis (17--19)
     lanceolato-oblongis villosiusculis: leguminibus
     membranaceo-quadrangulis, caule arboreo. _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 43._

SOPHORA _tetraptera_. _Job. Miller ic. tab. 1._

[Illustration: No 167]

The magnificent and highly curious species of Sophora here represented,
is one of the many plants discovered by Sir JOSEPH BANKS at
New-Zealand, where it forms a tree of a considerable size.

A finer sight can scarcely be imagined than a tree of this sort,
extending to a great breadth on a wall with a western aspect, in the
Apothecaries Garden at Chelsea, where it was planted by Mr.
FORSYTH about the year 1774, and which at this moment (April
28, 1791) is thickly covered with large pendulous branches of yellow, I
had almost said golden flowers; for they have a peculiar richness, which
it is impossible to represent in colouring; in the winter care is taken
to cover it carefully with mats, least it should suffer from any
extraordinarily severe weather.

It usually produces a few seed vessels of an uncommon form, having four
wings, whence its name of _tetraptera_; from some of the seeds which
have ripened in this country plants have been raised, and by these the
plant is found to be propagated with the most success; it may also be
increased by cuttings and layers.



[168]

IRIS PAVONIA. PEACOCK IRIS.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-petala inæqualis, _Petalis_ alternis geniculato-patentibus,
     _Stigmata_ petaliformia; cucullato-bilabiata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IRIS _pavonia_ imberbis folio lineari glabro, scapo subunifloro. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. p. 92._

[Illustration: No 168]

We have our doubts whether the plant here figured be the _pavonia_ of
the _Systema Vegetabilium_, as it does not accord so well with the
description there given, as we could wish; as such however it has been
regarded by some here, and it must be allowed to answer extremely well
to the name.

It is a small delicate Iris, about a foot and a half high, with very
narrow leaves, bearing on the top of the stalk one or at most two
flowers, three of the petals are large and white, with a brilliant blue
spot at the base of each, edged on the outer side with deep purple; the
delicacy of the flower, and the eye-like spot at the base of three of
the petals, render at one of the most striking plants of the genus.

The figure here given was drawn from a plant which flowered with Messrs.
GRIMWOOD and Co. last June, who received it from Holland, and
treat it in the same way as their Cape bulbs, of which country it is
said to be a native.

It is not mentioned either in Mr. MILLER'S _Gardener's
Dictionary_, or the _Hortus Kewensis_.



[169]

IXORA COCCINEA. SCARLET IXORA.

_Class and Order._

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 1-petala, infundibuliformis, longa, supera, _Stamina_ supra
     faucem. _Bacca_ 4-sperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IXORA _coccinea_ foliis ovalibus semiamplexicaulibus, floribus
     fasciculatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr._ _Ait. Hort. Kew.
     p. 148._

JASMINUM indicum, lauri folio, inodorum umbellatum, floribus coccineis.
     _Pluk. alm. 196. t. 59. s. 2._

CERASUS zeylanica humilis sylvestris, floribus holosericeis intense
     rubris umbellatim congestis, fructibus nigris. _Mus. Zeyl. p. 15._

FLAMMA SYLVARUM _Rumph. Amb. 4. p. 105. t. 46._

[Illustration: No 169]

It will appear strange, we presume, to most of our readers, when they
are informed, that the _Ixora coccinea_, a plant at present in few
hands, and which a short time since was sold in some of our nurseries
for five guineas, should have been known in this country a hundred years
ago; and yet Mr. AITON, who has so laudably exerted himself, in
ascertaining the precise period, when most of the exotics cultivated in
the royal garden at Kew first made their appearance in Great-Britain,
informs us on very respectable authority, that this plant was introduced
by Mr. BENTICK in 1690.

There is every reason to suppose, that this splendid exotic did not long
survive its introduction; on inquiry, we learn that it was reintroduced
about fifteen years ago, by the late Dr. JOHN FOTHERGILL, a
name, to medicine and botany ever dear, in whose rich and magnificent
collection at Upton was first known to flower; about the same time, the
late Mr. THOBURN, Nurseryman at Brompton, raised a few Ixoras
from foreign seeds, and from these (an accident having happened to the
plant which was Dr. FOTHERGILL'S) are said to have arisen the
plants at present in this country.

Both RHEEDE and RUMPHIUS describe and figure this
plant in their respective works, the _Hortus Malabaricus_ and _Herbarium
Amboinense_; it is mentioned also by several other authors: from their
various accounts we discover, that in different parts of India, where it
grows wild, it forms a slender shrub, or tree, about six feet high,
rising generally with a single stem; that its clusters of flowers, seen
from afar are so brilliant as to resemble a burning coal, especially in
a dark wood, whence its name of _Flamma Sylvarum_; that it grows in the
woods, and flowers in September and October, producing a black fruit,
the size of small cherries, on which the peacocks are supposed to feed,
and from whence they have obtained the name of _Cerasa Pavonina_. The
Chinese call it _Santanhoa_; with them it produces flowers and fruit the
year through, and they hold the blossoms in such veneration, as to use
them in the sacrifices they make to their idol IXORA, whence
LINNÆUS has taken the name applied by him to this genus. The
root is said to possess some acrimony, and to be made use of by the
natives in curing the toothach.

It is customary in this country, to treat the _Ixora_ as a stove plant;
perhaps it may be less tender than we are aware of; it flowers in July
and August, but has not been known to produce fruit; is increased from
cuttings, without much difficulty.

Our drawing was taken from a small but very healthy plant in the stove
of Mr. WHITLEY (late THOBURN and WHITLEY, Brompton).

LINNÆUS describes, and some authors figure this plant with
stipulæ, which our plant had not, not being arrived at an age, perhaps,
to produce them.



[170]

DRABA AIZOIDES. SENGREEN DRABA, or WHITLOW-GRASS.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA.

_Generic Character._

_Silicula_ integra, ovali-oblonga: valvis planiusculis, dissepimento
     parallelis. _Stylus_ nullus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

DRABA _aizoides_ scapo nudo simplici, foliis ensiformibus carinatis
     ciliatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. Murr. p. 372._ _Ait. Hort. Kew.
     v. 2. p. 372._

SEDUM alpinum hirsutum luteum. _Bauh. Pin. 284._

LEUCOJUM luteum aizoides montanum. _Col. Ecphr. 2. p. 62._

[Illustration: No 170]

The plant here figured, a native of the German Alps, is one of those
whose beauty cannot be shewn in a small detached piece of it; to be
admired, it must be seen in a tuft of some considerable size, which it
is much disposed to form when growing among rock-work, for which, like
many other small Alpine plants, it is well suited; thus elevated above
the surface of the ground, the various beauties of this humble race are
more distinctly seen, and their curious structure more readily
inspected.

This species is the more to be esteemed, as it flowers very early in the
spring, in March, and the beginning of April, and continues in blossom
about six weeks.

LINNÆUS originally confounded it with a similar plant, the
_Draba alpina_, a mistake since rectified in his _Mantissa Plant. p.
91._



[171]

IXIA CHINENSIS. CHINESE IXIA.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-partita, campanulata, regularis. _Stigmata_ 3.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

IXIA _chinensis_ foliis ensiformibus; floribus remotis, panicula
     dichotoma, floribus pedunculatis. _Linn. Sp. Pl. v. i. p. 52._
     _Ait. Hort. Kew. v. i. p. 62._

MORÆA _chinensis_ caule compresso, foliis ensiformibus, panicula
     dichotoma, floribus pedunculatis. _Murr. Syst. Vegetab. p. 93._

[Illustration: No 171]

In that elaborate and inestimable work, the _Hortus Malabaricus_, we
have a good figure of the plant here exhibited, accompanied by a minute
description; the author informs us that it grows spontaneously in India,
attaining the height even of five or six feet, and affecting a sandy
soil; the natives consider it as an antidote to poisons in general, and
regard the bruised root as peculiarly efficacious in curing the bite of
the serpent, called Cobra de Copella.

We raised plants of it last year from seeds imparted to us by J.
IBBETTSON, Esq. of the Admiralty; this year, during the months of
August and September, many of them have flowered, and capsules are
forming which have every appearance of producing perfect seeds; the root
of this plant is yellow, and tuberous like that of the Iris, the leaves
also greatly resemble those of that tribe, it grows to the height of
about three feet, and produces a considerable number of flowers in
succession each of which is of short duration.

The root and radical leaves as represented on the plate are much smaller
than in plants which have been long established.

Our plants stood in pots in the open ground through the winter of 1790-1
without injury, but it must be remembered, that the weather during that
period was uncommonly mild; it will be safest therefore to consider
it as a tender herbaceous plant.

It differs so much in its fructification from many others of the genus,
that Prof. MURRAY has considered it as a _Moræa_, with which,
in our humble opinion, it has scarcely any affinity.



[172]

LAMIUM ORVALA. BALM-LEAVED ARCHANGEL, or DEAD-NETTLE.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

_Corollæ_ labium superius integrum, fornicatum; lab. infer. 2-lobum;
     faux utrinque margine dentata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

LAMIUM _Orvala_ foliis cordatis inæqualiter arguteque serratis, corollis
     fauce inflata, caulibus coloratis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14.
     Murr. p. 534._

LAMIUM maximum sylvaticum alterum. _Bauh. Pin. 231._

GALEOPSIS maxima pannonica. _Clus. hist. 2. p. 35._ Hungary Dead-Nettle,
     or the Dragon Flower. _Park. Parad. p. 385._

[Illustration: No 172]

Few of the plants of this genus have been thought to possess sufficient
beauty for the flower-garden, the present one excepted, the magnificence
of whose blossoms justly entitles it to rank with the more curious, if
not the most beautiful of the vegetable tribes.

Though not common in our gardens, it has long been introduced, having
been cultivated and accurately described, though badly figured, by
PARKINSON in his _Parad. terr._

It grows spontaneously in the woods of Italy and Hungary, and flowers
with us about the latter end of April, at which time, if cold winds
prevail, it is apt to be injured, unless placed in a sheltered part of
the garden.

It may be propagated either by seeds, or by parting its roots in autumn,
is a hardy plant and grows readily.



[173]

AITONIA CAPENSIS. CAPE AITONIA.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA OCTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

Monogyna. _Cal._ 4-partitus. _Cor._ 4-petala. _Bacca_ sicca,
     4-angularis, 1-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AITONIA _Capensis_. _Linn. Suppl. Pl. p. 303._ _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14. Murr. p. 612._

COTYLEDON foliis linearibus, flore quadrifido, fructu subrotundo. _Burm.
     Afric. 53. t. 21. s. 2._

[Illustration: No 173]

This genus, of which there is only one known species, has been named by
the younger LINNÆUS, in honour of Mr. WILLIAM AITON, author of the
_Hortus Kewensis_, and Botanic Gardener to his Majesty. The great length
of time[5], Mr. AITON has been engaged in the cultivation of plants, the
immense numbers which have been the constant objects of his care through
every period of their growth, joined to his superior discernment, give
him a decided superiority in the _prima facie_ knowledge of living
plants over most Botanists the present day; his abilities in the other
line of his profession, are displayed in the eulogies of all who have
seen the royal collection at Kew, which he has the honour to
superintend.

The Aitonia is a native of the Cape, and was introduced by Mr.
MASSON, in the year 1774.

It is a greenhouse shrub of slow growth, seldom exceeding three feet in
height; producing, when of sufficient age, flowers and fruit through
most of the year; the fruit is a large dry angular berry, of a fine red
colour.

Our drawing was made from a very fine plant, formerly Dr. FOTHERGILL'S,
now in the collection of Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co. Kensington.

It is only to be raised from seeds, which are sparingly produced in this
country.



[174]

BUDDLEA GLOBOSA. ROUND-HEADED BUDDLEA.

_Class and Order._

TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 4-fidus. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Stamina_ ex incifuris. _Caps._ 2-fulca,
     2-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

BUDDLEA _globosa_ foliis lanceolatis, capitulis solitariis. _Ait. Hort.
     Kew. p. 150. V. 1._

BUDLEJA _globosa_. _Hope in Act. Harlem, V. 20. part. 2. p. 417. t. 11._

PALQUIN _Feuil. it. 3. p. 51. t. 38._

[Illustration: No 174]

Mr. ADAM BUDDLE, in honour of whom the present genus has been
originally named by Dr. HOUSTON, was an ingenious English
Botanist, cotemporary with, and the friend of PETIVER; his name
is often mentioned in the _Synopsis_ of Mr. RAY and his _Hortus
Siccus_, or dried collection of British plants, preserved in the British
Museum, still resorted to in doubtful cases.

The present species not enumerated either by LINNÆUS or
MILLER, is a native of Chili, and according to the _Hort. Kew._
was introduced by Messrs. KENNEDY and LEE, in 1774.

It has been customary, in consideration of its native place of growth,
to treat it here as a greenhouse plant, for which situation it soon
becomes unfit from its magnitude; some have ventured to plant it in the
open borders in warm sheltered situations, where it has been found to
succeed very well, producing its beautiful yellow blossoms in abundance;
care must be taken, however, to guard it carefully from severe frosts,
which are apt to destroy it.

It flowers in May and June, and is usually propagated by cuttings or
layers.



[175]

KALMIA LATIFOLIA. BROAD-LEAV'D KALMIA.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Calyx_ 5-partitus. _Cor._ hypocrateriformis: limbo subtus quinquecorni.
     _Caps._ 5-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

KALMIA _latifolia_ foliis ovato-ellipticis ternis sparsisque, corymbis
     terminalibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 64. ed. 14. Murr._ _Ait.
     Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 64._

ANDROMEDA foliis ovatis obtusis, corollis corymbosis infundibuliformis,
     genitalibus declinatis. _Fl. Virg. 160._

CHAMÆDAPHNE foliis tini, floribus bullatis. _Catesb. Car. 11. t. 98._

CISTUS chamærhododendros Mariana laurifolia, floribus expansis, summo
     ramulo in umbellam plurimis. _Pluk. mant. 49. t. 379. s. 6._ The
     common Laurel, vulgarly called Ivy.

[Illustration: No 175]

Professor KALM (in honour of whom LINNÆUS, as before
has been observed, named this genus of plants) in his travels into
North-America, published in English by Mr. FORSTER, relates
that he found this species in various provinces of that extensive
continent, as Pensylvania, New-Jersey, and New-York, growing most
commonly on the sides of hills, sometimes in woods; that it flourished
most on the northern sides of the hills, especially where they were
intersected by rivulets; he observes, that when all the other trees had
lost their ornaments, this enlivened the woods by the verdure of its
foliage, and that about the month of May, it was covered with a
profusion of blossoms of unrivalled beauty.



[176]

CYTISUS LABURNUM. COMMON LABURNUM.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 2-labiatus: 2/3. _Legumen_ basi attenuatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

CYTISUS _Laburnum_ racemis simplicibus pendulis, foliolis
     ovato-oblongis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. p. 666. ed. 14. Murr._ _Ait.
     Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 49._

LABURNUM arbor trifolia anagyridi similis. _Bauh. hist. 2. p. 361._

LABURNUM. Beane Trefoile. _Park. Parad. p. 438._

[Illustration: No 176]

Of the Laburnum, our nurseries afford two principal varieties, the broad
and narrow-leav'd; the latter (which is the one here figured) Mr. MILLER
was induced to make a species of under the name of _alpinum_; it
certainly differs very materially from the broad-leav'd one, yet is most
probably only a seminal variety; the Laburnum figured in its wild state
by Professor JACQUIN, in his _Flora Austriaca_, has much broader leaves
than ours, no mention is made by him of its being subject to vary.

Both MILLER and HANBURY recommend the Laburnum to be cultivated not only
as an ornamental but as a timber tree, the wood having a very close
grain, a good colour, and bearing a high polish;[6] they urge in its
favour, that it is very hardy, a quick grower, and one that will thrive
in almost any soil; the latter says, it will become a timber tree of
more than a yard in girt: whatever success may attend its cultivation
for the more useful purposes, as a hardy, deciduous, ornamental tree, it
has long been the pride of our shrubberies and plantations.

It blossoms in May, and is usually very productive of seeds, by which it
may be propagated most readily.

Hares and rabbits being fond of its bark, do great damage to plantations
of Laburnum, especially in severe weather; I remember somewhere to have
read, that these animals will not touch a tree if soot has been placed
about it; perhaps, a circle drawn round the base of the tree with the
new coal tar, which has a powerful smell of long duration, might keep
off these noxious animals.

The Professor does not mention the precise height which he had observed
these trees to attain in North-America, but it is evident that they
acquire a considerable thickness, as the wood of the root as well as the
body of the tree is manufactured into various utensils by the natives,
and by the Indians into spoons in particular, whence it has obtained the
name of the _Spoon Tree_.

The leaves have been found to prove poisonous to kine, horses, and
sheep, but the deer are observed to brouse on them with impunity.

PETER COLLINSON, Esq. who was highly instrumental in enriching
this country with the native plants of North-America, is said to have
introduced this elegant species about the year 1734.

With us it succeeds best when planted with a northern aspect, well
sheltered, in a soil composed of loam and bog earth, in a situation
moderately moist, where the air is perfectly pure.

Being with difficulty propagated by suckers or layers, it is most
commonly raised from American seeds.



[177]

KALMIA GLAUCA. GLAUCOUS KALMIA.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

KALMIA _glauca_ foliis oppositis oblongis lævigatis, subtus glaucis,
     margine revolutis, corymbis terminalibus, ramulis ancipitibus.
     _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 64. tab. 8._

[Illustration: No 177]

This species (much inferior in size to the _latifolia_, as it rarely
exceeds two feet in height) is a native of Newfoundland, where it was
discovered by Sir JOSEPH BANKS, Bart. and by him introduced to
this country in the year 1767.

It is of course not described by Mr. MILLER, nor is it mentioned the in
the 14th edition of LINNÆUS'S _Syst. Vegetab._ by Professor MURRAY; in
the _Hort. Kew._ of Mr. AITON, it is both described and figured.

It flowers in April and May, is propagated in the same manner and
requires the same treatment as the _latifolia_.



[178]

HYPERICUM CORIS. HEATH-LEAV'D. ST. JOHN'S-WORT.

_Class and Order._


POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5. _Nect._ 0. _Capsula._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

HYPERICUM _Coris_ floribus trigynis, calycibus serrato-glandulosis,
     foliis subverticillatis. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 702._

CORIS lutea. _Bauh. pin. 280._

CORIS legitima, Ericæ similis. _Hon. Belli, ep. 1. ad Cluj. Clus. op. V.
     1. p. 299._

CORIS. _Matthioli 939._

[Illustration: No 178]

There is an elegance and neatness in most of this tribe, and none
possess those qualities in a greater degree than the present species,
which is a charming little evergreen, admirably adapted for the
greenhouse, as it forms a pretty bulb, and flowers during most of the
summer.

It grows spontaneously in the South of Europe, and many parts of the
Levant; HONORIUS BELLUS, in his epistle CLUSIUS (_vid. Clus. op_.)
describes it as growing on the hilly parts of the island of Crete.

Mr. LEE, of Hammersmith, received it about four years since
from the Crimea.

It is propagated by cuttings.



[179]

FUMARIA GLAUCA. GLAUCOUS FUMITORY.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA HEXANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ diphyllus. _Cor._ ringens. _Filamenta_ 2, membranacea, singula
     _Antheris_ 3.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

FUMARIA _sempervirens_ siliquis linearibus paniculatis, caule erecto.
     _Linn. Sp. Pl. V. 2. p. 984. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 837._
     _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 2._ Bastard Fumitory. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6.
     4to._

FUMARIA siliquosa sempervirens. _Corn. Canad. 57. t. 57._

[Illustration: No 179]

The term _sempervirens_ applied to this plant by LINNÆUS,
originated in the description given of it by CORNUTUS; (_vid.
Syn_.) the impropriety of calling an annual plant (for such it
undoubtedly is with us, and must be in Canada, its native place of
growth) an _evergreen_, has appeared to us too glaring to be continued;
we have thought the promotion of the science required a change in the
name, and have therefore altered it to that of _glauca_, as coinciding
with the English name of _glaucous_, given it by Mr. AITON in
his _Hortus Kewensis_; for to the delicate, pleasing, glaucous hue of
its foliage, it owes its beauty, as much as to the lively colours of its
blossoms.

It is a hardy annual, coming up spontaneously in the open border where
it has once flowered and seeded, and sometimes reaching the height of
two feet.

It flowers from June to September.

Mr. AITON informs us of its having been cultivated by Mr.
JAMES SUTHERLAND in the year 1683. Strange! that it should yet
be a rarity in our gardens.



[180]

AZALEA NUDIFLORA _var._ COCCINEA. SCARLET AZALEA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ campanulata. _Stamina_ receptaculo inferta. _Caps._ 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

AZALEA _nudiflora_ foliis ovatis, corollis pilosis, staminibus
     longissimis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 198._ _Ait.
     Hort. Kew. V. 1. p. 202._

CISTUS virginiana, periclymeni flore ampliori minus odorato. _Pluck.
     Mant. 49._

[Illustration: No 180]

Whether the variety of the Azalea nudiflora here figured, was originally
introduced to this country by Mrs. NORMAN of Bromley in Kent,
or Mr. BEWICK of Clapham in Surrey (both celebrated for their
collections of American plants) we cannot with certainty assert; true it
is, the Azalea coccinea was little known here till the sale of Mr.
BEWICK'S plant in 1722; a considerable number of these shrubs
formed the choicest part of that collection, and sold at high prices,
one of them produced twenty guineas: prior to this period, Mr.
BEWICK had presented one of the same sort of shrubs to Mr.
THOBURN, the fruits of whose skill and assiduous care in the
cultivation of American plants are apparent in his late nursery at
Brompton, now Mr. WHITLEY'S, and from the produce of which
plant our figure was taken.

The original species, found abundantly in the more southern parts of
North-America, was introduced, according to Mr. AITON'S
account, by PETER COLLINSON, Esq. about the year 1724.

The brilliancy of colour and a happy combination of form, unite in
rendering the variety here figured, one of the most beautiful plants in
nature: yet it wants the fragrance of some of the varieties of the
_viscosa_.

It flowers in June and continues in blossom about three weeks, requires
a sheltered but not too shady a situation, more dry than moist, and a
soil composed of loam and bog earth, or rotten leaves.

The usual mode of propagating it is by layers; care must be taken not to
remove the offspring too soon from the mother plant.



    INDEX.

    In which the Latin Names of
    the Plants contained in the
    _Fourth Volume_ are alphabetically
    arranged.

    _Pl._

  173 Aitonia capensis.
  159 Alyssum saxatile.
  161 Amygdalus nana.
  180 Azalea nudiflora _var._ coccinea.
  174 Buddlea globosa.
  153 Bulbocodium vernum.
  166 Cheiranthus maritimus.
  156 Coreopsis verticillata.
  176 Cytisus Laburnum.
  147 Dais continifolia.
  170 Draba aizoides.
  152 Epidendrum cochleatum.
  179 Fumaria glauca.
  158 Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis.
  157 Hyacinthus botryoides.
  146 Hypericum calycinum.
  178 Hypericum Coris.
  168 Iris pavonia.
  171 Ixia chinensis.
  169 Ixora coccinea.
  175 Kalmia latifolia.
  177 Kalmia glauca.
  172 Lamium Orvala.
  151 Lotus tetragonolobus.
  145 Monarda fistulosa _var._
  155 Oxalis versicolor.
  165 Pelargonium cordifolium.
  148 Pelargonium betulinum.
  163 Phlox divaricata.
  160 Pumonaria virginica.
  164 Ranunculus gramineus.
  162 Sanguinaria canadensis.
  167 Sophora tetraptera.
  154 Saponaria Ocymoides.
  150 Tagetes patula.
  149 Zinnia multiflora.



  INDEX.

    In which the English Names
    of the Plants contained in
    the _Fourth Volume_ are alphabetically
    arranged.

    _Pl._

  173 Aitonia cape.
  161 Almond dwarf.
  159 Alyssum yellow.
  172 Archangel balm-leav'd.
  180 Azalea scarlet.
  174 Buddlea round-headed.
  153 Bulbocodium vernal.
  148 Crane's-bill birch-leav'd.
  165 Crane's-bill heart-leav'd.
  164 Crowsfoot grass-leav'd.
  156 Coreopsis whorled.
  147 Dais continus-leav'd.
  170 Draba fengreen.
  152 Epidendrum two-leav'd.
  179 Fumitory glaucous.
  158 Hisicus china-rose.
  157 Hyacinth grape.
  168 Iris peacock.
  171 Ixia Chinese.
  169 Ixora scarlet.
  175 Kalmia broad-leav'd.
  177 Kalmia glaucous.
  176 Laburnum common.
  151 Lotus winged.
  160 Lungwort Virginian.
  163 Lychnidea early-flowering.
  150 Marigold French.
  145 Monarda crimson.
  162 Puccoon Canada.
  146 St. John's-wort large-flower'd.
  178 St. John's-wort heath-leav'd.
  154 Soap-wort basil.
  167 Sophora winged-podded.
  166 Stock Mediterranean.
  155 Wood-sorrel striped-flower'd.
  149 Zinnia many-flower'd.


       *       *       *       *       *


FOOTNOTES

[1] Pulcherrimos et latissimos in rupibus cespites efficit. _Haller._

[2] Delectatur solo duro, arenoso, umbroso sylvarum. _Jacquin._

[3] _Ait. Hort. Kew._

[4] Provenit sponte in America occidentali five in Virginia seu Canada,
unde semen ad nos delata, quibus propagata ejus fobeles abundanter satis
in hortulo suburbano Gul. Walker non longe a palatio Divi Jacobi, sito
in vico ejusdem nominis Jacobeo dicto.

[5] Mr. A. was a pupil of the celebrated Mr. MILLER.

[6] MATTHIOLUS long since noticed the excellence of this wood,
and speaks of it as being particularly used for making the best kind of
bows; are our modern Toxopholites acquainted with this circumstance?





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