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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 6 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William, 1746-1799
Language: English
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THE

BOTANICAL MAGAZINE;

OR,

Flower-Garden Displayed:

IN WHICH

The most ornamental FOREIGN PLANTS, cultivated in the Open Ground, the
Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural
Colours,

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to
the celebrated LINNÆUS; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:

TOGETHER WITH

THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

A WORK

Intended for the Use of such LADIES, GENTLEMEN, AND GARDENERS, as with
which to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they
cultivate.

By WILLIAM CURTIS,

Author of the FLORA LONDINENSIS.

VOL. VI.

       *       *       *       *       *

  ----"nor thou disdain
  To check the lawless riot of the trees,
  To plant the grove, or turn the barren mould
  Oh happy he, whom, when his years decline,
  (His fortune and his fame by worthy means
  Attain'd, and equal to his mod'rate mind;
  His life approv'd by all the wise and good,
  Even envy'd by the vain) the peaceful groves
  Of Epicurus, from this stormy world
  Hereine in rest; of all ungrateful cares
  Absolv'd, and sacred from the selfish crowd.
  Happiest of men I if the same soil invites
  A chosen few, companions of his youth,
  Once fellow-rakes perhaps now rural friends;
  With whom in easy commerce to pursue
  Nature's free charms, and vie for Sylvan fame
  A fair ambition; void of strife, or guile,
  Or jealousy, or pain to be outdone.
  Who plans th'enchanted garden, who directs
  The visto best, and best conducts the stream;
  Whose groves the fastest thicken, and ascend;
  Whom first the welcome spring salutes; who shews
  The earliest bloom, the sweetest proudest charms
  Of Flora; who best gives Pomona's juice
  To match the sprightly genius of Champain."

                                          ARMSTRONG.

       *       *       *       *       *

  LONDON:

  PRINTED BY STEPHEN COUCHMAN,
  For W. CURTIS, N^o 3, _St. George's-Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road;
  And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.
  M DCC XCIII.


       *       *       *       *       *



[181]

COLUTEA FRUTESCENS. SCARLET BLADDER SENNA.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Legumen_ inflatum, basi superiore dehiscens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     COLUTEA _frutescens_ fruticosa, foliolis ovato-oblongis. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr, p. 668._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p.
     56._ _Mill. Icon. 99._

     COLUTEA æthiopica, flore purpureo. _Breyn. Cent. 70. t. 29._


Of the several species of Colutea cultivated in our garden the one here
figured, is distinguished by the brilliancy of its' flowers, the
largeness of its pods, and the downy appearance of the under side of its
leaves.

It appears from the _Hortus Kewensis_ to have been cultivated by Mr.
JAMES SUTHERLAND as long since as the year 1683 it was not however
generally introduced to our gardens till the time of MILLER, who figured
it in his _Icones_, it was then understood to be an Æthiopian plant; Mr.
AITON since describes it as a native of the Cape also; of course, we
find it more tender than most of its kindred, and hence it is usually
regarded as a greenhouse plant; yet, as it is not destroyed by a small
degree of frost, it will frequently, like the myrtle survive a mild
winter in the open border, especially if trained to a wall: it is rarely
of more than two or three years duration.

It is readily raised from seeds sown in the open ground, plants from
which flower the August following, and, in favourable seasons, ripen
their seeds; in order, however, that they may ripen them with more
certainty, MILLER, recommends the sowing them early on a gentle hot-bed.

A dry soil suits this species best.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[182]

SALVIA AUREA. GOLDEN SAGE.

_Class And Order._

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ inæqualis. _Filamenta_ transverse pedicello affixa.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     SALVIA _aurea_ foliis subrotundis integerrimis, basi truncatis
     dentatis. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 71._ _Ait. Hort.
     Kew. V. 1. p. 45._

     SALVIA _Africana_ frutescens folio subrotundo glauco, flore magno
     aureo. _Comm. Hort. 2. 183. t. 92._


Such as are delighted with the singular rather than the beautiful
appearances of plants, cannot fail of ranking the present species of
sage among their favourites.

It been called _aurea_, from the colour of its flowers, _ferruginea_
would perhaps have been more expressive of them; when they first open
indeed they are of a yellow colour, but they quickly and constantly
become of the colour of rusty iron.

The leaves are nearly round, and have a pleasing silvery hue: a few of
them only, and those chiefly at the extremities of the young shoots, are
of the form described by LINNÆUS in his specific character of the plant,
and hence COMMELIN'S description (_vid. Syn._) is to be preferred, as
leading us with more certainty to a knowledge of the plant; the colour
of the leaves, the colour and unusual magnitude of the blossoms, are
indisputably the most striking features of the species, and therefore to
be resorted to: for my own part, as a friend to the advancement of the
science, rather than as the follower of that great man, I see no good
reason why colour should not in many instances, especially where
expressive characters are wanting, form a part of the specific character
in plants, as well as in animals: we are told indeed of its inconstancy.
I would ask--who ever saw the colour of the leaves or blossoms of the
present plant to vary? and, on the contrary, who ever saw its leaves
constant in their form?

The _Salvia aurea_ is a native of the Cape, and was cultivated by Mr.
MILLER in 1731, it is a hardy greenhouse plant, is readily propagated by
cuttings, and flowers from May to November.

If suffered to grow, it will become a shrub of the height of six or
seven feet.

[Illustration]



[183]

SYRINGA VULGARIS. COMMON LILAC.

_Class and Order._

DIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 4-fida. _Capsula_ bilocularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     SYRINGA _vulgaris_ foliis ovato-cordatis integris. _Linn. Syst.
     Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 57._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 1. p. 15._

     SYRINGA cærulea, _Bauh. Pin. 398._

     LILAC sive Syringa cærulea. The blew Pipe tree. _Park. Parad. p.
     407._


Few shrubs are better known in this country than the Lilac few more
universally cultivated; there is scarcely a cottage it does not enliven,
or a shrubbery it does not beautify.

It has long had a place in our gardens; both GERARD and PARKINSON
describe two sorts, the blue and the white; to these another sort is
added by more modern writers, superior in beauty to the original, as
producing larger bunches of flowers, of a brighter hue, having more of
the purple tint and hence called by some the purple Lilac, MILLER
considers the three as different species.

The flowers of the Lilac possess a considerable degree of fragrance, but
not of the most agreeable kind; our readers perhaps, will not be
displeased to hear the opinion of old GERARD on this point, delivered in
his own words:--"They have a pleasant sweete smell, but in my judgement
they are too sweete, troubling and molesting the head in very strange
manner: I once gathered the flowers, and laid them in my chamber window,
which smelled more strongly after they had lien together a few howers,
with such a ponticke and unacquainted savor, that they awaked me from
sleepe, so that I could not take any rest until I had cast them out of
my chamber."[1]

Though a native of Persia, it bears our severest winters without injury,
has a pleasing appearance when in bud, flowers in May, and is readily
propagated by suckers; but finer plants, in the opinion of MILLER, are
raised from seeds.

It will grow in almost any soil or situation, even in London, but, to
flower well, it must have a pure air.

[Footnote 1: The name, indeed, of one of our colours is taken from its
blossoms.

     This Quotation from Gerard referring to its Smell belongs to the
     Philadelphus coronarius or Mock-orange which both by him and
     Parkinson is called Syringa, & which led to the Mistake.]



[184]

IXIA CROCATA. SAFFRON-COLOUR'D IXIA.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-partita, campanulata, regularis. _Stigmata_ 3.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     IXIA _crocata_ foliis ensiformibus, floribus secundis corolia
     basi hyalino-fenestratis. _Thunb. Diss. de Ixia._ _Linn. Syst. Veg.
     ed. 14. Murr. p. 85._

     IXIA _crocata_ foliis ensiformibus, floribus alternis, tubo
     longitudine bractearum, corollæ laminis ovatis integerrimis basi
     hyalinis. _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 60. V. 1._

     IXIA planifolia, caule multifloro spatha brevissima. _Mill. Ic.
     160. t. 239. f. 2._


To the Cape of Good Hope, that never-failing source of rare and
beautiful plants, we are indebted for most of our Ixias, and among
others for the present species, which though not of that value, nor
possessing the delicacy or fragrance of the blossoms of some others, is
a very desirable plant, not only as an object of curiosity, from the
transparency of the base of the corolla, but as it adds much to the
brilliancy of a collection, is easily obtained, and as easily
propagated.

It flowers in May and June, but its flowering may be prolonged by
putting its bulbs into pots at different periods, or accelerated by
artificial heat.

It produces offsets more plentifully than many of the genus.

Mr. AITON informs us that it was cultivated by Mr. MILLER in 1758, who
figures it in his _Icones_.

[Illustration]



[185]

CORONILLA VALENTINA. RUE-LEAVED CORONILLA.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus: 2/3: dentibus superioribus connatis. _Vexillum_
     vix alis longius. _Legumen_ isthmis interceptum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CORONILLA _valentina_ fruticosa, foliolis subnovenis, stipulis
     suborbiculatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 669._ _Ait.
     Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 58._

     POLYGALA valentina. _Clus. hist. pl. rar. p. 98. fig. inf._


The _Coronilla valentina_ comes very near to the _glauca_ already
figured in this work, but may be distinguished by a little attention;
the _valentina_ has smaller leaves, which are more numerous, and more
truly glaucous; the stipulæ, which in the _glauca_ are small, narrow,
and pointed, in the _valentina_ are large, and almost round, and in the
young plant are strikingly conspicuous; as the plant comes into flower,
they drop off; the _valentina_ is not so much disposed to flower the
year through as the _glauca_, but produces its blossoms chiefly in May,
June, and July; the flowers of the _glauca_ are observed to smell more
strongly in the day-time, those of the _valentina_ at all times diffuse
a very powerful odour, so as even to scent a small greenhouse; we have
often been amused with hearing the different opinions entertained of
this smell, some speaking of it in terms of rapture, others ready to
faint when they approach it: the flowers of the _valentina_ are more
disposed to produce seed-vessels than those of the _glauca_, the seeds
of which usually ripen well, and afford the means of increasing the
plant most readily. To have a succession of small handsome bushy plants
for the greenhouse, the old ones must either be frequently cut down, or
young ones raised from seed, or cuttings, the stems as they grow up
becoming naked at bottom.

It is a hardy greenhouse plant, and may be kept well enough through the
winter in a common hot-bed frame, or planted against a south wall, and
matted as myrtles usually are in such situations; we have known the
_glauca_, treated in prove a charming ornament.

It is a native of Spain, growing, as CLUSIUS informs us, by road-sides,
in sandy places, and on the declivities of hills.

Cultivated here in 1656, by J. TRADESCANT, jun. H. K.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[186]

SELAGO OVATA. OVAL-HEADED SELAGO.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Cor._ tubus capillaris; limbus subæqualis, _Sem._
     1.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     SELAGO _ovata_ spicis strobilinis ovatis terminalibus, foliis
     sparsis linearibus, caule fruticoso. _L'Herit. Stirp. nov. tom. 2.
     t. 33._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 355._

     LIPPIA _ovata_ capitulis ovatis, foliis linearibus integerrimis.
     _Linn. Mant. p. 89._


LINNÆUS in his _Mantissa_ has somewhat largely described this plant
under the name of _Lippia ovata_, evidently from a dried specimen, which
may account for the flowers being described of a dark violet colour; he
recommends it to such as might have an opportunity of seeing the living
plant, to observe if it was not referable to some other genus;
accordingly Mons. L'HERITIER, who, when lately in England, saw it in the
royal garden at Kew, joined it to the genus _Selago_, retaining the
trivial name of _ovata, bractæata_ would perhaps have been a better
name; for though its ovate inflorescence may be peculiar to the species,
its bracteæ or floral leaves are so very singular that they constitute
the most prominent feature of the plant.

Mr. AITON informs us, that it was introduced to the royal garden at Kew,
from the Cape, by Mr. MASSON, in 1774.

It recommends itself not so much on account of its beauty, curious
structure of its flowering spikes, and the fragrance of its blossoms.

It is a greenhouse plant, and flowers during most of the summer; its
blossoms are white with a yellow spot on the two uppermost, and
sometimes on all the segments of the corolla, and an orange spot at the
mouth of the tube.

Is propagated by cuttings.



[187]

IRIS SAMBUCINA. ELDER-SCENTED IRIS.

_Class and Order._

TRIANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-petala, inæqualis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus.
     _Stigmata_ petaliformia cucullato-bilabiata. _Thunb. Diss. de
     Iride._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     IRIS _sambucina_ barbata, foliis ensiformibus glabris erectis
     brevioribus scapo multifloro, petalis deflexis planis. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab, ed. 14. Murr._ _Thunb. loc. cit. n. 10._ _Ait. Hort. Kew.
     v. 1. p. 69._

     IRIS latifolia germanica, sambuci odore. _Bauh. Pin. 31._

     IRIS Camerarii sive purpurea versicolor major. The greater variable
     coloured purple Flower-de-Luce. _Park. Par. p. 181._


This species of Iris, said to be a native of the South of Europe,
derives its name from the smell of its flowers, which very much
resembles that of elder in bloom.

It is one of the tallest and handsomest of the genus, in a rich moist
soil acquiring the height of three feet or more; it is therefore more
proper for the shrubbery than the flower-garden.

It flowers about the latter end of May, and is readily increased by
parting its roots in autumn.

The Iris of PARKINSON, referred to in the synonyms, accords so exactly
with our plant, in every circumstance but smell, which is not mentioned,
that we have no doubt but it was cultivated in our gardens in his time.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[188]

CONVOLVULUS NIL. AZURE CONVOLVULUS.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ Campanulata, plicata. _Stigmata_ 2. _Caps._ 2-locularis:
     loculis dispermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CONVOLVULUS _Nil_ foliis cordatis trilobis, corollis
     semiquinquefidis, pedunculis petiolo brevioribus. _Linn. Syst. Veg.
     ed. 14. Murr. p. 209._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 209._

     CONVOLVULUS cæruleus hederaceo anguloso folio. _Bauh. Pin. p. 295._

     NIL Arab. _Gef. hor. Eyst._

     CONVOLVULUS Cæruleus. Blew Bindweed. _Ger. Herb. p. 715. cum ic._

     CONVOLVULUS trifolius five hederaceus purpureus. The greater purple
     Bindeweede or Bell-Flower with cornered leaves. _Park. Parad. Pl.
     361. fig. 2._


All our writers on exotic botany treat of this plant, GERARD, one of the
first, gives us the following account: "This beautiful Bindweed, which
we call _Convolvulus Cæruleus_, is called of the Arabians _Nil_: of
_Serapio_, _Hab al nil_, about Alepo and Tripolis in Syria, the
inhabitants call it Hasmisen, the Italians _Campana azurea_, of the
beautifull azured flowers and also _Fior de notte_, bicause his beautie
appeereth most in the night:" he informs us, that it grew in his garden,
but perished before it ripened its seeds. PARKINSON says, it thrives
remarkably well in our country, if the year be any thing kindly: MILLER
informs us, that it is a native of Africa and America, extols it as one
of the most beautiful of the genus, observes, that it is a very distinct
species from the purpurea, of which it has been considered by some as a
variety; that it will grow to the height of eight or ten feet, that in
favourable seasons the seeds will ripen in the open air, and that it
requires the same treatment as other annuals usually raised on a
hot-bed. Mr. AITON considers it as a stove plant, as indeed most of our
tender annuals properly are.

It flowers from July to September.

Though apparently common in our gardens formerly, it is now very rarely
met with.

[Illustration]



[189]

ERICA GRANDIFLORA. GREAT-FLOWERED HEATH.

_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-phyllus. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Filamenta_ receptaculo inferta.
     _Antheræ_ bifidæ. _Caps._ 4-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ERICA _grandiflora_ antheris muticis exfertis, corollis
     cylindraceis subincurvis glabris, stylo elongato, floribus
     axillaribus pedunculatis, foliis subsenis acerosis glabris. _Ait.
     Hort. Kew. vol. 2. p. 25._

     ERICA _grandiflora_ foliis quaternis, stylo exserto, corolla
     cylindrica, calyce simplici, floribus lateralibus subcurvatis.
     _Linn. Suppl. Pl. p. 223._


The Erica here figured, is one of the many new and beautiful species,
which within these few years have been sent from the Cape by Mr. MASSON,
and which have contributed so greatly to enrich the royal garden at Kew.

The description given of the _grandiflora_ in the _Suppl. Plant_.
accords so ill with our plant, that we should be led to consider it as
another species, did not the respectable authority of the _Hortus
Kewensis_ silence all doubts on that head.

The blossoms of this species, whether we regard their magnitude, their
colour, their smooth and glossy surface, or the regular position of the
filaments, projecting beyond the corolla, and closing together by the
antheræ, excite our notice, and claim our admiration.

Like every other heath, the hardy ones excepted, it is a greenhouse
plant, and flowers from May to July.

Our drawing was made from a plant finely blown, in the collection of
JAMES VERE, Esq. Kensington-Gore.



[190]

ORNITHOGALUM AUREUM. GOLDEN ORNITHOGALUM.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-petala, erecta, persistens, supra medium patens,
     _Filamenta_ alterna basi dilatata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ORNITHOGALUM _aureum_ foliis ovato-lanceolatis, albomargmatis,
     floribus racemosis confertis, filamentis nectario emarginato
     infidentibus.


We have bestowed on this plant the name of _aureum_, from the colour of
its blossoms, which are usually of a bright orange or gold colour; in
some specimens we have observed them of a paler hue, and consequently
less beautiful.

This highly ornamental species is of modern introduction, having been
received by Mess. LEE and KENNEDY, a few years since from the Cape, of
which it is a native.

The root is a whitish bulb, resembling in size and shape that of the
_Lachenalia tricolor_, figured on plate 82 of this work, from whence
spring three or four smooth, somewhat fleshy, upright, dark-green
leaves, about half an inch wide, and three or four inches long, edged
with white, and, if magnified, appearing fringed with very fine hairs or
villi; the stalk is naked, from eight to twelve inches high, supporting
many flowers, which spring from the alæ of large, hollow, pointed
bracteæ, and which opening one after another, keep the plant a
considerable time in flower; according to LINNÆUS'S generic character,
every other filament should be dilated at the base, in the present
species each filament is so, or rather sits as it were on a white
glandular nectary, emarginated on the inside, and highly deserving of
notice.

In the greenhouse, where this plant has hitherto been kept, its blossoms
come forth as early as January and February, and continue for several
months; they will long display their beauty, if the stem be cut off and
put in a phial of water.

It is propagated by offsets from its bulbs, and has the appearance of
being a plant of kindly growth and easy management.

[Illustration]



[191]

PRIMULA MARGINATA. SILVER-EDGED PRIMULA.

_Class and Order._

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PRIMULA _marginata_ foliis obovatis serrato-dentatis albo
     marginatis, scapo multifloro, involucri foliolis pedunculis
     brevioribus.


There is no difficulty in determining the British plants of this genus,
but much in ascertaining many of the foreign ones: Professor JACQUIN has
taken great pains to elucidate them in his _Miscel. Austr._ where
fifteen are specifically described, none of which accord exactly with
the plant here figured, which has every appearance of being a distinct
species: in the _Hortus Kewensis_ it is described as the _glutinosa_ of
the _Flora Austriaca_, with which it agrees in many respects, but
specimens sent from Vienna shew it to be a different plant; in its
farinaceous tendency it accords with the _Primula Auricula_, but is very
unlike that plant as it is figured in its wild state by Prof. _Jacquin_,
in the _Fl. Austr._ the leaves being much narrower, the flowers larger,
and of a different colour; it differs from _glutinosa_ in the shortness
of its involucrum, from _villosa_ (already figured) in having leaves
much narrower, perfectly smooth in respect to villi, and in the colour
of its blossoms, which approach that of the Lilac, but more especially
in its disposition to become mealy, particularly on the edges of its
leaves, between the serratures, where it is so strong as to make the
leaf appear with a white or silvery edge; as this character is constant
to it, and not to any other species of Primula that we are acquainted
with, we have given to it the name of _marginata_.

Mr. _Lee_ received it from the Alps in the year 1781, and it has
continued in our gardens ever since unaltered by culture.|

It is a very delicate pretty plant, with a pleasing musky smell, and
flowers in March and April. To succeed in its cultivation, it should be
placed in a pot of stiffish loam, mixed with one-third rotten leaves,
bog earth, or dung, and plunged in a north border, taking care that it
does not suffer for want of water in dry seasons; thus treated, it
increases by its roots nearly as readily as the Auricula, and may be
propagated by parting its' roots early in April or September. |

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[192]

CYPRIPEDIUM ACAULE. TWO-LEAVED LADY'S SLIPPER.

_Class and Order._

GYNANDRIA DIANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     Nectarium ventricosum, inflatum, cavum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CYPRIPEDIUM _acaule_ radicibus fibrosis, foliis oblongis
     radicalibus. _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 303._

     HELLEBORINE _Calceolus_ dicta, mariana, foliis binis e radice ex
     adverso prodeuntibus, flore purpureo _Pluk. Mant. 101; t. 418. f.
     1._

     CYPRIPEDIUM _humile_--Corolla labio superiore rhomboideo acuminato
     lateribus deflexo subtus carina angustissima obtusa, inferiore
     petalis longiore antice fisso. _Transact. Linn. Soc. V. 1. p. 76.
     t. 3. f. 4._

We have not figured the present species of Cypripedium so much on
account of its beauty as of its rarity, for it is far less handsome than
any of the other species that we are acquainted with.

It is a native of different parts of North-America, and flowers with us
in May.

There is little difficulty in distinguishing it from the other foreign
species, it has rarely more than two radical leaves, a very short
flowering stem compared with the others, a large nectary in proportion
to its size, which in the specimens we have seen has been divided on its
upper part, through its whole length, so as in fact to destroy in a
great degree that shoe or slipper-like form, from which this genus has
taken its name.

Like the rest of the family, it requires a little extraordinary care in
its culture; its roots should be placed in a pot filled with loam and
bog-earth, or rotten leaves, well mixed, and plunged in a north border,
where in severe seasons it will be proper to shelter it; if the whole
border be formed of the same soil or compost the pot will be less
necessary.

Our drawing was made from a plant growing with Messrs. GRIMWOOD and Co.
Kensington.

[Illustration]



[193]

NARCISSUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS. NARROW-LEAVED NARCISSUS.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Petala_ 6 æqualia. _Nectario_ infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo.
     _Stamina_ intra nectarium.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     NARCISSUS _poeticus_ spatha uniflora, nectario rotato brevissimo
     scarioso crenulato. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 317._
     _Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 414._

     NARCISSUS uniflorus, foliis ensiformibus, scypho brevissimo. _Hall.
     Hist. n. 1250._

     NARCISSUS albus circulo purpureo. _Bauh. Pin. p. 48._ _Magnol. Bot.
     Monsp. p. 181._

     NARCISSUS poeticus medio purpureus. _Lob._

     NARCISSUS medio purpureus. _Dod. Pempt. p. 223. f. 1._

     NARCISSUS medio purpureus præcox. Timely purple ringed Daffodil.
     _Ger. Herb. p. 108. f. 2._ also _præcocior, fig. 3._ and
     _præcocissimus, fig. 4._

     NARCISSUS medio purpureus præcox. The early purple ringed Daffodil.
     _Park. Parad. p. 76. t. 75. f. 3._

     NARCISSUS latifol. classis altera, lin. 7. alterum vero, &c. _Clus.
     Hist. Pl. rar. lib. 2. p. 156._


Under the name of _poeticus_ three different species of Narcissus
appearing perfectly distinct (though similar in many respects) and
regarded as such by the old Botanists, have been confounded by the
moderns, viz.

  Narcissus albus circulo purpureo, v et vi         }
  Narcissus albus magno odoro flore circulo pallido,} C. Bauh.
  Narcissus pallidus circulo luteo                  }

  Narcissus medio purpureus præcox,   }
  Narcissus medio purpureus serotinus,} Park Parad.
  Narcissus medio luteus vulgaris,    }

The first of these, the one here figured is evidently the _poeticus_ of
_Linnæus_, judging by the authors to whom he refers in the third edition
of his _Spec. Pl._ which are indeed few in number, and confined chiefly
to _Bauh. Pin._ _Dodonæus_; of the second, and third, he takes no
notice.

The two former ones of these have the greatest affinity, inasmuch as
they both produce for the most part only one flower, of a white colour,
having a very short nectary, edged with orange; to both of these
LINNÆUS'S specific description is equally applicable, as well as the
trivial name of _poeticus_, given them indiscriminately by several of
the old Botanists, some regarding the first, some the second as the
plant mentioned by THEOCRITUS[2], VIRGIL[3], and OVID[4]; unfortunately
both of them are found to grow in the same meadows, and have the same
obvious appearances, it is therefore utterly impossible to say which of
the two was the Narcissus of the poets; if we have the greatest
difficulty in ascertaining what the plants were of the _Botanists_ of
those times, how are we to discover what the _Poets_ meant, who with
very few exceptions have been unpardonably inattentive to the
appearances of nature. Since then the term _poeticus_ is equally
suitable to both, and as there cannot be two with the same name, we have
thought it best to get rid of it altogether, and substitute others which
tend in a certain degree to discriminate the several species,
denominating the

  1st. _angustifolius._
  2d. _majalis._
  3d. _biflorus._

The _angustifolius_ here figured is a native of the South of Europe, and
said by MAGNOL and CLUSIUS to grow spontaneously in the meadows about
Narbonne and Montpelier.

It flowers in our gardens early in April, about a month before the
_biflorus_, and full six weeks sooner than the _majalis_, increases
readily by offsets, and succeeds best in a soil that is moderately
moist. In what respects it differs from the two others, will be
mentioned when they come to be figured.

[Footnote 2:

  Florida sed postquam venêre in prata puellæ,
  His illa, hæc aliis se floribus oblectabant;
  Narcisso illa quidem bene olente, atq; illa Hyacintho.]

[Footnote 3:

  Pro molli Viola, pro purpureo Narcisso,
  Carduus et spinis surgit Paliurus acutis.]

[Footnote 4:

  Nusquam corpus erat, croceum pro corpore florem
  Inveniunt, foliis medium cingentibus albis.]

[Illustration]



[194]

FRITILLARIA IMPERIALIS. CROWN IMPERIAL.

_Class and Order._

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-petala, campanulata, supra ungues cavitate nectarifera.
     _Stam._ longitudine corollæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     FRITILLARIA _imperialis_ racemo comoso inferne nudo, foliis
     integerrimis. _Linn, Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 324._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. 1. p. 432._

     LILIUM sive Corona Imperialis. _Bauh. Pin. p. 79._

     TUSAI sive Lilium Persicum. _Clust. Hist. 1. p. 127._

     CORONA IMPERIALIS. The Crowne Imperiall. _Park. Par. p. 27. tab.
     29. f. 1._


The Crown Imperial, a native of the East, most probably of Persia, was
introduced according to DODONÆUS, into the gardens of the emperor and
some of the nobility at Vienna in 1576; it appears to have been
cultivated here as early as 1596: both GERARD and PARKINSON describe it
minutely, the latter on account of its "stately beautifulness, gives it
the first place in his garden of delight."

It flowers usually in the beginning of April; the whole plant sends
forth a strong unpleasant smell, compared by most writers to that of a
fox, perceptible when you approach it; to this effluvia PARKINSON
endeavours to reconcile us by saying that it is not unwholesome; it is
so disagreeable however, that few choose to have many of these plants,
or those in the most frequented parts of their gardens, yet it ought not
to be proscribed, for independent of its beauty, there is much in it to
admire, and especially its singular Nectaria, which in the form of a
white glandular excavation decorate the base of each petal; in these
usually stands a drop of clear nectareous juice; the peduncle or
flower-stalk which bends downwards when the plant is in flower, becomes
upright as the seed ripens.

Of this plant, as of all others which have long been objects of culture,
there are many varieties; those most generally cultivated in our gardens
are the common orange-flowered single and double, yellow single and
double, gold-striped leaved, and silver-striped leaved; the Dutch in
their catalogues enumerate thirteen varieties.

Luxuriant plants will sometimes produce a second and even a third whorl
or crown of flowers, and the flat-stalked ones which are monsters, have
been known to produce seventy-two blossoms, but none of these are found
to be constant.

The Crown Imperial, though a native of a much warmer climate than ours,
is a hardy bulb, and not very nice in regard to soil, succeeds best in
such as is stiffish, enriched with manure, and placed in a sheltered
situation.

Is propagated by offsets, which are produced in tolerable abundance.

[Illustration]



[195]

CHEIRANTHUS MUTABILIS. CHANGEABLE WALL-FLOWER.

_Class and Order._

TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA.

_Generic Character._

     _Germen_ utrinque denticulo glandulato. _Cal._ clausus foliolis
     duobus basi gibbis. _Sem._ plana.

_Specific Character._

     CHEIRANTHUS _mutabilis_ foliis lanceolatis acuminatis argute
     serratis, caule frutescente, siliquis pedunculatis. _Ait. Hort.
     Kew. v. 2. p. 395._


The present species of _Cheiranthus_, unknown both to MILLER and
LINNÆUS, was first described in the _Hortus Kewensis_ of Mr. AITON, who
informs us that it was introduced to the Royal Garden in 1777, and found
wild in the Island of Madeira by Mr. MASSON.

Its chief merit as an ornamental plant consists in its early flowering;
its blossoms which are shewy contribute to enliven the green-house in
March and April; on their first expanding, they are white, in some
plants (for they are subject to great variation) inclined to yellow, in
a few days they become purple; to this change of colour observable also
in the _Cheiranthus maritimus_ already figured, it owes its name of
_mutabilis_.

In sheltered gardens at the foot of a wall, we have known this species
survive a mild winter; it seems indeed to be almost as hardy as the
common stock; it is most commonly however kept in the green-house.

The usual way of propagating this species, which is of ready and quick
growth, is by cuttings, which should be put into the ground as soon as
the plant has done flowering; these if properly treated will become
handsome plants to place in the green-house at the approach of Winter,
and to decorate it the ensuing Spring; in like manner may the
green-house be annually recruited with many similar plants to great
advantage.



[196]

SAXIFRAGA CRASSIFOLIA. OVAL-LEAVED SAXIFRAGE.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-partitus. _Cor._ 5-petala. _Caps._ 2-rostris, 1-locularis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     SAXIFRAGA _crassifolia_, foliis ovalibus retusis obsolete serratis
     petiolatis, caule nudo, panicula conglomerata. _Linn. Sp. Pl ed. 3.
     p. 573._ _Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 412._

     SAXIFRAGA foliis ovalibus crenulatis, caulibus nudis. _Gmel. Sib.
     4. p. 166. t. 66._


The term _grandifolia_ would have been more applicable to this species
of Saxifrage than _crassifolia_, for it is not so much distinguished for
the thickness as the largeness of its leaves; these are almost equal in
size to those of our broad-leaved Dock, red on the under and of a fine
shining green on their upper surface; they may be ranked indeed among
the more handsome kinds of foliage; the flowering stems, according to
the richness and moisture of the soil in which they are planted, rise
from one to two or even three feet high; at top supporting a large bunch
of purple pendulous flowers, which blossom in April and May, and, if the
season prove favourable, make a fine appearance. Should cold winds
prevail at the time of their flowering, which they are very apt to do,
the plants should be covered with a hand-glass; or, if in a pot, it may
be removed into the green-house, which they will not disgrace.

Is found spontaneously on the Alps of Siberia, and, according to Mr.
AITON, was introduced in 1765 by Dr. SOLANDER. No plant is more readily
increased by parting its roots, which may be done either in spring or
autumn.

There is another Saxifrage in our gardens exceedingly like this in
appearance, but differing, in producing larger bunches of flowers, and
in having larger, rounder, and more heart-shaped leaves; Mr. AITON
regards this as a variety of the _crassifolia_, we are inclined to
consider it as a species under the name of _cordifolia_. The parts of
fructification in the _crassifolia_ are apt to be preternaturally
increased.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[197]

NARCISSUS BIFLORUS. TWO-FLOWER'D NARCISSUS.

     NARCISSUS _biflorus_ spatha biflor, nectario brevissimo scarioso.

     NARCISSUS pallidus circulo luteo. _Bauh. Pin. p. 50._

     NARCISSUS medio luteus. _Dod. Pempt. p. 223. f. 2._

     NARCISSUS medio luteus. Primrose Peerles, or the common white
     Daffodil. _Ger. Herb. p. 110. f. 6._

     NARCISSUS medio luteus vulgaris. The common white Daffodill, called
     _Primrose Peerlesse_. _Park. Par. P. 74. t. 75. f. 1._

     NARCISSUS latifol classis altera, lin. 1. Nascuntur, &c. ad
     intellexisse. _Clus. Hist. Pl. rar. lib. 2. p. 156._


Both GERARD and PARKINSON describe and figure this plant, informing us
that it was very common in the gardens in their time; the former indeed
mentions it as growing wild in fields and sides of woods in the West of
England; the latter says he could never hear of its natural place of
growth. CLUSIUS reports that he had been credibly informed of its
growing wild in England; it probably may, but of this it remains for us
to be more clearly ascertained; it undoubtedly is the plant mentioned by
RAY in his Synopsis.

As it grows readily, increases in a greater degree than most others and
is both ornamental and odoriferous, it is no wonder that we meet with it
in almost every garden, and that in abundance, flowering towards the end
of April, about three weeks later than the angustifolia. It usually
produces two flowers, hence we have called it biflorus; it frequently
occurs with one, more rarely with three, in a high state of culture it
probably may be found with more; when it has only one flower it may
easily be mistaken for the _majalis_, but may be thus distinguished from
it; its petals are of a more yellow hue, the nectary is wholly yellow,
wanting the orange rim, it flowers at least three weeks earlier; but the
character, which by observation we have found most to be depended on,
exists in the flowering stem, the top of which in the biflorus, very
soon after it emerges from the ground, bends down and becomes elbowed,
as our figure represents; in the _majalis_, it continues upright till
within a short time of the flowers expanding.

[Illustration]



[198]

INDIGOFERA CANDICANS. WHITE-LEAVED INDIGO.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ patens. _Cor._ carina utrinque calcari subulato patulo.
     _Legumen_ lineare.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     INDIGOFERA _candicans_ foliis ternatis lanceolato-linearibus subtus
     sericeis, spicis pedunculatis paucifloris, leguminibus cylindraceis
     rectis. _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3, p. 67._


Of the genus _Indigofera_, twenty-three species are enumerated in Prof.
MURRAY'S edition of the _Syst. Vegetab._ of LINNÆUS; ten in the _Hortus
Kewensis_ of Mr. AITON; in which last work only, the present plant,
distinguished by the whiteness of its stalks and of the underside of its
leaves, is described, and in which we are informed, that it is a native
of the Cape, from whence it was introduced by Mr. MASSON in 1774.

Its principal period of flowering is from about the beginning of May to
the middle of June, at which time it is highly ornamental in the
green-house: strong healthy plants produce from five to eight blossoms
in a spike: on a plant growing with Mr. COLVILL, Nurseryman,
King's-Road, Chelsea, we once counted nine: a few of these usually
produce seed-vessels containing perfect seeds, by which the plant is
mostly propagated; it may also be raised by cuttings, but not very
readily.



[199]

ASTER ALPINUS. ALPINE ASTER.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

_Generic Character._

     _Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ simplex. _Cor._ radii plures 10. _Cal._
     imbricati squamæ inferiores patulæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ASTER _alpinus_ foliis subspathulatis hirtis integerrimis, caulibus
     simplicibus unifloris. _Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 198._

     ASTER _alpinus_ foliis spatulatis hirtis: radicalibus obtusis,
     caule simplicissimo unifloro. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 761._ _Jacq.
     Fl. Austr. V. 1. t. 88._

     ASTER montanus cæruleus, magno flore, foliis oblongis. _Bauh. Pin.
     p. 267._


CLUSIUS and JACQUIN, by both of whom this species of Aster is figured
and described, inform us, that it grows spontaneously on the Austrian
Alps: of the many hardy herbaceous species cultivated in our garden,
this is by far the most humble in is growth; in its wild state acquiring
the height of about four inches, and when cultivated, rarely exceeding
eight or nine: its blossoms for its size are large and shewy, making
their appearance much earlier than any of the others, viz. about the end
of May and beginning of June, and continuing in blossom three weeks or a
month.

It is readily propagated by parting its roots in the autumn, may be kept
in pots, or planted in the open border, prefers a moist stiffish soil;
if carefully watered in dry weather, will grow among rock-work, for
which, from its size, it is well adapted.

[Illustration]



[200]

ANTIRRHINUM SPARTEUM. BRANCHING TOAD-FLAX.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ basis deorsum prominens nectarifera.
     _Caps._ 2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ANTIRRHINUM _sparteum_ foliis subulatis canaliculatis carnosis:
     inferioribus ternis, caule paniculato corollisque glaberrimis.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 555._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. 2. p.
     333._


The drawing here exhibited gives but a faint idea of the elegant and
lively appearance which this plant assumes when it grows in a tuft, and
a number of its branches are in blossom at the same time.

It is a hardy annual, of small stature, a native of Spain, and flowers
during most of the summer.

Was introduced into this country, according to Mr. AITON, in 1772, by
Mons. RICHARD, and deserves to be much more generally cultivated.

Some regard it as a biennial, but as seeds of it sown in the spring
flower the ensuing summer, and as the plant dies when it has ripened its
seeds, there appears more propriety in considering it as an annual.

It is to be sown in the same manner as other hardy annuals; will flower
earlier if the seeds have been raised in autumn.

The upper part of the stalk, as well as the leaves of the calyx, are
beset with viscous hairs, in which respect it does not perfectly accord
with LINNÆUS's description. _Vid. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 854._

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[201]

PELARGONIUM BICOLOR. TWO-COLOURED CRANE'S-BILL.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA HEPTANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-partitus: lacinia suprema desinente in tubulum capillarem,
     nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. _Cor._ 5-petala,
     irregularis. _Filam._ 10, inæqualia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata.
     _Fructus_ 5-coccus, rostratus: _rostra_ spiralia, introrsum
     barbata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PELARGONIUM _bicolor_ umbellis multifloris, foliis ternatifidis
     lobatis dentatis undulatis villosis. _L'Herit. n. 64._ _Ait. Hort.
     Kew. v. 2. p. 425._

     GERANIUM bicolor. _Jacq. Hort. 3. p. 23. t. 39._ _Cavan. diss. 4.
     p. 248. t. 111. f. 1._


In every numerous tribe of plants, many of the species approach so near
to each other, that there is much difficulty in distinguishing them;
this objection cannot be urged against the present plant, which
obviously differs from all the others of the same genus in the
particular shape of its leaves and the colour of its blossoms, the
latter are usually of a rich and very dark purple edged with white, from
whence we apprehend it takes its name of _bicolor_; the colours however
are scarcely distinct enough to justify such a name.

Mr. AITON informs us in his _Hort. Kew._ that this very ornamental
species was introduced in the year 1778, by JOHN, the late Earl of BUTE,
but of what country it is a native, does not appear to be ascertained.

Our drawing was made from a plant in the collection of Messrs. GRIMWOOD
and Co. Kensington, with whom it flowers from June to August.

It is not disposed to ripen its seeds, nor is it very readily increased
by cuttings.



[202]

LUPINUS PERENNIS. PERENNIAL LUPINE.

_Class and Order._

DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus. _Antheræ_ 5, oblongæ 5, subrotundæ. _Legumen_
     coriaceum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     LUPINUS _perennis_ calycibus alternis inappendiculatis: labio
     superiore emarginato; inferiore integro. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14. Murr. p. 655._ _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 28._

     LUPINUS calycibus alternis, radice perenni repente. _Fl. Virg.
     172._

     LUPINUS cæruleus minor perennis virginianus repens. _Moris. hist.
     2. p. 87. s. 2. t. 7. f. 6._

     LUPINUS floribus cæruleis inodoris, in spicas longas digestis,
     radice reptatrice. _Clayt. n. 779._


Every species of Lupine described in the _Species Plantarum_ of LINNÆUS,
and in the _Hortus Kewensis_ of Mr. AITON, except the one here figured,
are annuals; till another perennial one therefore shall be discovered,
the term _perennis_ will be strictly applicable to the present plant.

Its root is not only of the kind just mentioned, but creeping also; Mr.
_Miller_ informs us, that he traced some of them belonging to plants of
a year old, to the depth of three feet, they also spread out far and
wide; hence the roots even of young plants are with difficulty taken up
entire, and as they do not succeed well by transplanting, if the root be
cut or broken, our excellent author prefers raising this elegant plant
from seed, which, though not very plentifully produced, ripen in July
and August; care must be taken to gather them as soon as ripe.

It is a native of Virginia, and appears to have been cultivated in the
Botanic Garden at Oxford, as long since as 1658.

Flowers from May to July.

Is a hardy perennial, succeeding best in a dry situation, with a loam
moderately stiff.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[203]

GERANIUM ANGULATUM. ANGULAR-STALKED CRANE'S-BILL.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ 5-petala, regularis. _Nect._ glandulæ 5,
     melliferæ, basi longiorum filamentorum adnatæ. _Fructus_ 5-coccus,
     rostratus: _rostra_ simplicia, nuda, (nec spiralia nec barbata).

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     GERANIUM _angulatum_ foliis radicalibus subpartitis incisis
     hirsutis, caule erecto subangulato, petalis venosis.


Having cultivated the Geranium here figured for a series of years, we
are perfectly satisfied of its being a species altogether distinct from
any of the hardy and more ornamental plants of that genus usually
cultivated in our gardens.

It is obviously distinguished by two characters, the angular appearance
of its stalk (whence our name of _angulatum_) and its flesh-coloured
blossoms, marked with veins of a deeper red.

In size it stands between _pratense_ and _aconitifolium_, in its
blossoms it has some affinity to _striatum_ and _lancastriense_, but
veins are not so strongly marked as in the former, and it differs from
the latter in having an upright stalk.

It usually flowers in May, and frequently again in autumn; is a hardy
perennial, and easily increased either by seeds or parting its roots.

Of what country it is a native, or when it was first introduced, we have
yet to learn; we first observed it in a nursery near town, where it is
regarded as a very different species.

[Illustration]



[204]

RANUNCULUS ACONITIFOLIUS. MOUNTAIN CROWFOOT, or FAIR MAIDS OF FRANCE.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5-intra ungues poro mellifero. _Sem._
     nuda.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     RANUNCULUS _aconitifolius_ foliis omnibus quinatis lanceolatis
     inciso-serratis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 516._ _Ait.
     Kew. v. 1. p. 267._

     RANUNCULUS folio aconiti, flore albo multiplici. _Bauh. Pin. 179._

     RANUNCULUS montanus albus flore pleno. The double white mountain
     Crowfoot. _Park. Parad. p. 219. f. 9._

     Double white Bachelors Buttons. _Ger. Herb. p. 812. f. 1._


This is one of those plants which derives its beauty from the
multiplication of its petals; in its single state no one would think it
deserving of culture as an ornamental plant: when double, few plants
come in for a greater share of admiration.

It is a native of the Alps of Europe, and flowers in May and June.

Was very generally cultivated in our gardens in the times of GERARD and
PARKINSON.

Like most alpine plants, it requires a pure air, and succeeds best in a
situation moderately moist and shady; is a hardy perennial, and may be
increased by parting its roots in autumn.

In all seasons, with us, its foliage, as well as that of most other
Crowfoots, is liable to be disfigured, and sometimes nearly destroyed,
by a very small maggot which feeds betwixt, the coats of the leaf, and
which ultimately produces a small fly, called by us _Musca Ranunculi_.



[205]

ANTIRRHINUM ALPINUM. ALPINE TOAD-FLAX.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ basis deorsum prominens, nectarifera.
     _Caps._ 2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ANTIRRHINUM _alpinum_ foliis quaternis lineari-lanceolatis glaucis,
     caule diffuso, floribus racemosis, calcari recto. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 556._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p 335._
     _Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 1. t. 58._

     ANTIRRHINUM caule procumbente breviter spicato, foliis
     verticillatis. _Hall. Hist. p. 338._

     LINARIA quadrifolia supina. _Bauh. Pin. p. 213._

     LINARIA tertia styriaca. _Clus. Hist. 1. p. 322._


Professor JACQUIN, in describing the flowers of this plant, calls them
_elegantissimi_; and to one of its varieties HALLER applies the epithet
_pulcherrima_: such testimonies in its favour will, we presume, be
sufficient to recommend it to our readers.

It is a native of various mountainous parts of Europe, affecting moist,
stony situations,[5] and flowers during most of the summer: is a hardy
perennial[6], according to the celebrated author of the _Fl. Austriaca_;
Mr. AITON, in his _Hort. Kew._ marks it as a biennial. It is
nevertheless apt to be lost, like other small alpine plants, for want of
proper treatment and care.

Mr. AITON informs us on the authority of LOBEL, that it was cultivated
here by Mr. HUGH MORGAN, in 1570.

May be propagated by cuttings, as well as by seeds, which however are
not very plentifully produced with us.

Succeeds best when kept in a pot, or on rock-work, which it is well
suited to decorate.

[Footnote 5: In saxosis udis alpium. _Jacq._]

[Footnote 6: Radix perennis. _Jacq._]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[206]

GERANIUM ANEMONEFOLIUM. ANEMONE-LEAV'D GERANIUM.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA DECANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Cor._ 5-petala, regularis. _Nect._ glandulæ 5
     melliferæ basi longiorum filamentorum adnatæ. _Fructus_ 5-coccus,
     rostratus; _rostra_ simplicia nec spiralia nec barbata. _L. Herit.
     Geran._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     GERANIUM _anemonefolium_ foliis palmatis; foliolis pinnatifidis,
     caule fruticoso. _L. Herit. n. 6. t. 36._

     GERANIUM palmatum. _Cavan. Diss. 4. p. 216. t. 84. f. 2._


Before the appearance of the _Hortus Kewensis_, _lævigatum_ was the term
usually applied to this species of Geranium, by Botanists here, and that
on account of the smooth and glossy appearance of its leaves; in that
work Mr. AITON adopts the word _anemonefolium_, by which Mons. L.
HERITIER had distinguished this species, from an idea that their shape
afforded a more expressive character than their smoothness. We regret
that the small size of our plate will not admit of our giving
representation of those leaves, and of their mode of growth, which so
strikingly characterizes the plant and adds so considerably to its
beauty.

Mr. AITON informs us that this species is a native of Madeira, from
whence it was introduced here by Mr. FRANCIS MASSON in 1778.

It flowers from May to September, is usually and readily raised from
seeds, nor is it so tender as many other green-house plants.

[Illustration]



[207]

DIANTHUS BARBATUS. BEARDED PINK OR SWEET WILLIAM.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA DIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ cylindricus 1-phyllus: basi squamis 4. _Petala_ 5
     unguiculata. _Capsula_ cylindrica, 1-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     DIANTHUS _barbatus_ floribus aggregatis fasciculatis: squamis
     calycinis ovato-subulatis tubum æquantibus, foliis lanceolatis.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 17._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     88._

     CARYOPHYLLUS hortensis barbatus latifolius. _Bauh. Pin. 208._

     ARMERIUS latifolius simplex. Single Sweete Williams. _Park. Parad.
     p. 321._


LINNÆUS, in his _Spec. Pl._ appears not to have known of what country
the Sweet William was a native, and even in the _Hortus Kewensis_, this
circumstance is left undecided; yet DODONÆUS, in his _Pemptades_[7],
mentions its being found wild in Germany, and PROF. HOFFMAN confirms
this in his _Germanys Flora_[8].

At the time DODONÆUS wrote (1552) this plant was cultivated in the
Netherlands, from whence it was probably introduced to this country,
where it certainly is one of the oldest inhabitants of our gardens.

Beautiful as are the numerous varieties of this species of Dianthus,
Florists have not deemed it worthy of that peculiar attention which they
have bestowed on its more favoured relatives the Pink and Carnation, and
hence it probably has not arrived at that degree of improvement of which
it is capable; our figure is intended to represent one of the most
esteemed of its kind, viz. the _Painted Lady_ variety, which has a deep
rich purple eye, surrounded with a pure white, having the edge of the
petals slightly indented; but our colours fall far short of the beauties
of the original.

Besides single flowers producing an infinite variety of colours, there
are several double varieties of the Sweet William, some of which are
observed to have more scent than others.

To possess these plants in perfection, we must renew them yearly; for
though the root be perennial, it is apt to decay, especially if the soil
in which it grows be either very moist, or very dry; or if the air be
not pure, the single sorts must be raised from seeds, which should be
saved from the choicest flowers; the double sorts may be increased by
cuttings, pipings, or layers, in the same manner, and at the same time
as Pinks and Carnations; the seed should be sown early in April, the
seedlings transplanted into a bed in June, taking advantage of a wet day
and placed about six inches asunder each way; in September they will be
fit to transplant into the flower border, where they will blossom the
ensuing summer, during the months of June and July, and ripen their seed
in August.

[Footnote 7: In petrosis collibus et asperis, fabulosis apricisque
locis, apud Germanos nascitur. _Pempt. p. 177._]

[Footnote 8: Sponte in sylvaticis, montosis (Carn. Siles. Tubing)
Germanys Fl. 1791. p. 147.]



[208]

MELISSA GRANDIFLORA. GREAT-FLOWER'D BALM.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ aridus, supra planiusculus; labio superiore subfastigiato.
     _Corollæ_ lab. super. subfornicatum, 2-fidum; labium inf. lobo
     medio cordato.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MELISSA _grandiflora_ pedunculis axillaribus dichotomis longitudine
     florum. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 542._ _Ait. Kew. v.
     2. p. 315._

     CALAMINTHA magno flore. _Bauh. Pin. 229._

     CALAMINTHA montana præstantior. The more excellent Calamint. _Ger.
     Herb. p. 556._ as to the name. _Ger. emac. 687._ as to the figure.


The _Melissa grandiflora_, a beautiful and hardy perennial, grows
spontaneously on the hilly and mountainous parts of France, Italy, and
Germany; GERARD mentions it as found wild in this country, which stands
in need of further confirmation; there is little doubt, however, but he
had cultivated the plant; as he says, "brought into the garden, it
prospereth marvellous well and very easily soweth itself."

It is the more valuable, as it flowers during most of the summer.

There is a variety of it with white, and another with red flowers, both
much inferior in size to those of the plant here figured, and therefore
not worth cultivating; we have a variety also with variegated leaves
which we obtained from seeds.

This plant is readily propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and may
also be raised from seeds, which are plentifully produced: as it rarely
exceeds a foot in height, it becomes a suitable plant for the small
flower border, or for the decoration of rock-work.

The leaves when bruised have the smell of garden balm.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[209]

HIBISCUS TRIONUM. BLADDER HIBISCUS.

_Class and Order._

MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ duplex: exterior polyphyllus. _Caps._ 5-locularis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     HIBISCUS _Trionum_ foliis tripartitis incisis, calycibus inflatis.
     _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 631._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     458._

     TRIONUM _Linn. Hort. cliff. 349._

     ALCEA vesicaria. _Bauh. Pin. 317._

     ALCEA peregrina five vesicaria. Venice Mallow, or Good night at
     noone. _Park. Parad. p. 368. 307. f. 2._


Seeds of the plant here figured are sold in the seed-shops under the
name of Venice Mallow, a name by which it was known in the time of
GERARD and PARKINSON: Mr. AITON has changed this for the more scientific
one of Bladder Hibiscus. Authors have also distinguished this plant by
terms expressive of the short-lived expansion of its flowers, which
GERARD says open at eight o'clock in the morning and close about nine,
from whence he observes, that it might with propriety be called Malva
horaria: MILLER lengthens the duration of its blowing to a few hours: we
have frequently observed its blossoms continue sufficiently open to shew
their beauty the greatest part of the day, more especially towards the
close of summer.

Few annuals are more admired than this, the inside of the flower is of
delicate cream colour, having the centre embellished with a rich purple
velvet, on which its golden antheræ are proudly conspicuous.

It is said to be a native of Italy; a Cape variety, differing in
hairiness and a few other particulars is mentioned by MILLER, and
considered by him as a species.

The least possible trouble attends the raising of this beautiful annual,
as it readily ripens its seeds, which falling on the ground produce
plants in abundance the ensuing spring; to have it flower as long as may
be, it will be proper to sow it at two or three different periods.

[Illustration]



[210]

CELSIA LINEARIS. LINEAR-LEAV'D CELSIA.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-partitus. _Cor._ rotata. _Filamenta_ barbata, _Caps._
     2-locularis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CELSIA _linearis_. _Jacq. Collect. v. 2. n. 210._ _Icon. v. 2. t.
     13._

     CELSIA _linearis_ foliis ternis linearibus denticulatis.


We here present our readers with the figure of a plant newly introduced
from France by Mr. WILLIAMS, Nurseryman of Paris, collected originally
in Peru by Mr. DOMBEY, whose flowers, if they do not equal those of the
Fuchsia already figured in elegance of form and growth, surpass them
somewhat in brilliancy of colour, whence it becomes a most desirable
plant for the purpose of ornament.

Professor JACQUIN, who first gave a figure and description of this
plant, informs us in his Collectanea, that he received seeds of it from
Professor ORTEGA of Madrid, under the name of _Celsia linearis_, which
name he has adopted; and we, from respect to such authority, have
continued; at the same time we must observe, that it ill accords with
that genus: the blossoms while in bud fold up somewhat in the same
manner as those of the Celsia, but on expansion they appear widely
different; their shape indeed then becomes truly singular, resembling a
half-formed imperfect corolla, its filaments are short and want the
hairs which in part characterise the Celsia; its seed-vessels also are
far from being round: its antheræ are large and close together, somewhat
like those of the Solanum, and there is so little of inequality in them,
that few students would be induced to refer its flowers to the class
Didynamia.

Being a native of a warm climate, it comes to the greatest perfection
here when placed in a stove in which the heat is moderate; but it will
succeed very well if treated as a tender green-house plant: it does not
appear to be quite so hardy as the Fuchsia, nor to flower like that
plant at all seasons, but usually produces its blossoms in the latter
summer months, those are succeeded by seed-vessels producing perfect
seeds, by which, as well as by cuttings, the plant is propagated.

Its leaves, which are not deciduous, are linear, and more or less
toothed, growing three together; this character however is somewhat
obscured by others growing from their bosoms.



[211]

SEDUM POPULIFOLIUM. POPLAR-LEAV'D STONECROP.

_Class and Order._

DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Cor._ 5-petala. _Squamæ_ nectariferæ 5 ad basin
     germinis. _Caps._ 5.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     SEDUM _populifolium_ foliis planis cordatis dentatis petiolatis,
     corymbis terminalibus. _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 109._

     SEDUM _populifolium_ foliis petiolatis cordatis dentatis, floribus
     paniculatis. _Linn. fil. suppl. p. 242._

     SEDUM _populifolium_. _Pallas, it. 3. p. 730. t. O. fig. 2._


Professor PALLAS, the celebrated Russian naturalist, discovered this
species of Sedum in Siberia, and in the year 1780, introduced it to the
royal garden at Kew; the younger LINNÆUS describes it minutely in his
_Suppl. Plantarum_, and observes, that in its general form it much
resembles the _Saxifraga rotundifolia_.

Its leaves are flat as in many of the other species, and when the plant
grows in an open situation, exposed to the sun, they become as well as
the stalks of a bright red colour, which adds much to its beauty.

It is the only hardy Sedum cultivated; in our gardens with a shrubby
stalk, its leaves however are deciduous, so that in the winter it loses
its verdure, it flowers in July and August, and is readily increased by
cuttings.

As most of this tribe grow readily, and many of them naturally on rocks
and walls, they may be in general regarded as proper rock plants, some
of them however are apt by the quickness of their growth to extend over
and destroy plants of more value; this fault, if such it may be deemed,
is not imputable to the _populifolius_.

Some not knowing its native place of growth, keep it in the
green-house.

[Illustration]



[212]

TANACETUM FLABELLIFORME. FAN-LEAVED TANSY.

_Class and Order._

SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.

_Generic Character._

     _Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ submarginatus. _Cal._ imbricatus,
     hemisphæricus. _Cor._ radii obsoletæ, trifidæ. _Linn. (interdum
     nullæ omnesque flosculi hermaphroditi.) Murr._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     TANACETUM _flabelliforme_ corymbis simplicibus, foliis deltoidibus
     apice serratis. _L'Herit. Sert. Angl. t. 27._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. V.
     3. p. 169._


There is a neatness in the appearance of this plant, which joined to the
singular form of its foliage, varying also from the general hue,
entitles it to a place in the green-house.

Mr. MASSON discovered it at the Cape, and introduced it here in 1774.
_Ait. Kew._

It flowers from May to August, grows freely, and is usually propagated
by cuttings.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[213]

POLYGONUM ORIENTALE. TALL PERSICARIA.

_Class and Order._

OCTANDRIA TRIGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 0. _Cor._ 5-partita, calycina. _Sem._ 1. angulatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     POLYGONUM _orientale_ floribus heptandris digynis, foliis ovatis,
     caule erecto, stipulis hirtis hypocrateriformibus. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 377._ _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 32._

     PERSICARIA _orientalis_ nicotianæ folio calyce florum purpureo.
     _Tournef. cor. 38._ Schovanna-modelamuccu. _Rheed. Mal. 12. p. 147.
     t. 76._


Of the genus Polygonum, the present well-known native of the East, as
well as of India, is the principal one cultivated in our gardens for
ornament, and is distinguished not less for its superior stature than
the brilliancy of its flowers; it will frequently grow to the height of
eight or ten feet, and become a formidable rival to the gigantic
sun-flower.

There is a dwarf variety of it, and another with white flowers; it has
been observed to vary also in point of hairiness.

It flowers from July to October, and produces abundance of seed, which,
falling on the borders, generally comes up spontaneously in the spring;
but it is most commonly sown in the spring with other annuals: when the
seedlings appear, they should be thinned so as to stand a foot apart.
This plant requires very little care, and will bear the smoke of London
better than many others.

Was cultivated by the Dutchess of BEAUFORT, in 1707. _Ait. Kew._

The Stipulæ on the stalk are deserving of notice, being unusual in their
form, and making it look as if beruffled.



[214]

DRACOCEPHALUM DENTICULATUM. TOOTHED DRAGON'S-HEAD.

_Class and Order._

DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Corollæ faux_ inflata: _labium_ superius concavum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     DRACOCEPHALUM _denticulatum_ floribus spicatis remotis, foliis
     obovato-lanceolatis superne denticulatis. _Ait. Kew. V. 2. p. 317._


About the year 1786, we received from Philadelphia, seeds of a plant
collected at a considerable distance from that city, announced to us as
new and rare, and which produced the present species of _Dracocephalum_:
Mr. WATSON, Nurseryman at Islington, obtained the same plant from
Carolina, about the same period.

It is a hardy perennial, multiplying considerably by its roots, which
creep somewhat; it must be planted in a moist soil, and shady situation,
for such it affects, and in such only will it thrive.

It flowers in August and September.

It bears a considerable affinity to the _Dracocephalum virginianum_, to
which, though a much rarer plant, it is inferior in point of beauty; it
spreads more on the ground, its flowering stems are not altogether so
upright, nor so tall, the leaves are broader, and the flowers in the
spikes less numerous.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



[215]

RANUNCULUS ACRIS FLORE PLENO. DOUBLE UPRIGHT CROWFOOT.

_Class and Order._

POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala_ 5, intra ungues poro mellisero. _Sem._
     nuda.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     RANUNCULUS _acris_ calycibus patulis, pedunculis teretibus, foliis
     tripartito multifidis: summis linearibus. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14.
     Murr. p. 517._

     RANUNCULUS hortensis erectus flore pleno. _Bauh. Pin. p. 178. ?._

     RANUNCULUS pratensis flore multiplici. _Park. Parad. p. 218._

     The double yellow field Crowfoot.


In giving a representation of this species of Ranunculus, we have made a
slight deviation from the strict letter of our plan, as expressed in the
title page, which confines us to the figuring of foreign plants only; we
have thought, however, that it would not be inconsistent with the spirit
of the _Flower-Garden Displayed_, were we occasionally to introduce such
English plants as have double flowers, and which, on that account, are
thought worthy of a place in every garden; they are but few in number,
and we flatter ourselves that this trifling alteration will be approved
by our numerous readers.

The _Ranunculus acris_ is the first that we offer of these; a plant, in
its wild and single state, common in all our rich meadows, and in its
improved, or to speak more botanically, in its monstrous state (all
double flowers being monsters, for the most part formed from the
preternatural multiplication of their petals) it has long been
cultivated in gardens abroad, as well as here.

There are certain ornamental plants of the perennial kind, which, if
once introduced, will succeed with the least possible trouble, and
therefore suit such as have little time to bestow on their
flower-gardens; the present plant is one of those: if the soil in which
we plant it be moist, it will grow most readily, and flower during the
months of June and July; and it is easily increased, by parting its
roots in autumn.

[Illustration]



[216]

CYPRIPEDIUM ALBUM. WHITE-PETAL'D LADIES SLIPPER.

_Class and Order._

GYNANDRIA DIANDRIA.

_Generic Character._

     _Nectarium_ ventricosum inflatum cavum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CYPRIPEDIUM _album_ radicibus fibrosis foliis ovato-lanceolatis
     caulinis, petalis obtusis. _Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 303._

     HELLEBORINE Calceolus dicta mariana flore gemello candido, venis
     purpureis, striato. _Pluk. Mant. 101. t. 418. f. 3._

     CYPRIPEDIUM _hirsutum_ foliis oblongo ovatis venosis hirsutis flore
     maximo. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

     CYPRIPEDIUM _spectabile_. Corolla labio superiore ovali basi retuso
     concavo subtus carina obtusa, inferiore petalis longiore grosso.
     _Salisb. Trans. Linn. Soc. V. 1. p. 78._


Of the genus _Cypripedium_, Great-Britain produces only one, America
several species; of these the _album_ here figured, (whose name is
derived from the whiteness of its petals, and with which the nectary
must not be confounded) is by far the most magnificent; indeed there are
few flowers which to such singularity of structure add such elegance and
beauty: it grows spontaneously in various parts of North-America, and
chiefly in the woods; was introduced to the royal garden at Kew, by Mr.
WILLIAM YOUNG about the year 1770, but was known to Mr. MILLER, and
cultivated by him at Chelsea long before that period; this intelligent
and truly practical author informs us, that all the sorts of Cypripedium
are with difficulty preserved and propagated in gardens; he recommends
them to be planted in a loamy soil, and in a situation where they may
have the morning sun only; they must, he observes, for the above
reasons, be procured from the places where they naturally grow; the
roots should be seldom removed, for transplanting them prevents their
flowering, which usually takes place in June.

A greater proof of the difficulty of increasing these plants need not be
adduced than their present scarcity, though vast numbers have been
imported, how few can boast of possessing them, or of preserving them
for any length of time; careful management in their cultivation will
doubtless go far, but peculiarity of soil and situation would appear to
be of greater importance: it is well known that certain plants thrive in
certain districts only, the double yellow rose, for instance, barely
exists near London, yet this plant I have seen growing most luxuriantly,
and producing a profusion of bloom, in the late Mr. MASON'S garden,
Cheshunt, Herts, and in which various Orchis's also acquired nearly
twice their usual size,--enviable spot!



INDEX.

In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _Sixth Volume_
are alphabetically arranged.

_Pl._

  200 Antirrhinum sparteum.

  207 ---- alpinum.

  199 Aster alpinus.

  210 Celsia linearis.

  195 Cheiranthus mutabilis.

  181 Colutea frutescens.

  188 Convolvulus Nil.

  185 Coronilla valentina.

  192 Cypripedium acaule.

  216 ---- album.

  207 Dianthus barbatus.

  214 Dracocephalum denticulatum.

  189 Erica grandiflora.

  194 Fritillaria imperialis.

  203 Geranium angulatum.

  206 ---- anemonefolium.

  209 Hibiscus Trionum.

  198 Indigofera candicans.

  187 Iris sambucina.

  184 Ixia crocata.

  202 Lupinus perennis.

  208 Melissa grandiflora.

  193 Narcissus angustifolius.

  197 ---- biflorus.

  190 Ornithogalum aureum.

  201 Pelargonium bicolor.

  213 Polygonum orientale.

  191 Primula marginata.

  204 Ranunculus aconitifolius.

  215 ---- acris flore pleno.

  182 Salvia aurea.

  196 Saxifraga crassifolia.

  211 Sedum populifolium.

  186 Selago ovata.

  183 Syringa vulgaris.

  212 Tanacetum flabelliforme.


INDEX.

In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the _Sixth Volume_
are alphabetically arranged.

_Pl._

  199 Aster alpine.

  208 Balm great-flower'd.

  181 Bladder-senna scarlet.

  210 Celsia linear-leav'd.

  188 Convolvulus azure.

  185 Coronilla rue-leav'd.

  201 Crane's-bill two-colour'd.

  203 ---- angular-stalk'd.

  204 Crowfoot mountain.

  215 ---- upright-double.

  214 Dragon's-head toothed.

  206 Geranium anemone-leav'd.

  189 Heath great-flower'd.

  209 Hibiscus bladder.

  194 Imperial crown.

  198 Indigo white-leav'd.

  187 Iris elder-scented.

  184 Ixia saffron-colour'd.

  192 Ladies-slipper two-leav'd.

  216 ---- white-petal'd.

  183 Lilac common.

  202 Lupine perennial.

  193 Narcissus narrow-leav'd.

  197 ---- two-flower'd.

  190 Ornithogalum golden.

  213 Persicaria tall.

  191 Primula silver-edg'd.

  182 Sage golden.

  196 Saxifrage oval-leav'd.

  186 Selago oval-headed.

  211 Stonecrop poplar-leav'd.

  212 Tansey fan-leav'd.

  200 Toad-flax branching.

  207 ---- alpine.

  195 Wall-flower changeable.

  207 William sweet.





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