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Title: Zuñi Fetiches - Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the - Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1880-1881, - Government Printing Office, Washington, 1883, pages 3-45
Author: Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 1857-1900
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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by the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF/Gallica) at
http://gallica.bnf.fr)



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION--BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY.

ZUÑI FETICHES.

BY

FRANK HAMILTON CUSHING.



CONTENTS.

Zuñi philosophy                                      9
  Worship of animals                                11
  Origin of Zuñi Fetichism                          12
  The Zuñi Iliad                                    12
    The Drying of the World                         13
  Power of the Fetiches                             15
Prey Gods of the Six Regions                        16
  Their origin                                      16
    Pó-shai-aŋ-k'ia                                 16
  Their power as mediators                          18
    Mí-tsi                                          18
  Their worship                                     19
Prey Gods of the Hunt                               20
  Their relation to the others                      20
  Their origin                                      20
    The distribution of the animals                 21
  Their varieties                                   24
    The Mountain Lion--Hunter God of the North      25
    The Coyote--Hunter God of the West              26
    The Wild Cat--Hunter God of the South           27
    The Wolf--Hunter God of the East                28
    The Eagle--Hunter God of the Upper Regions      29
    The Mole--Hunter God of the Lower Regions       30
    The Ground Owl and the Falcon                   30
  Their relative values                             30
  Their custodian                                   31
  The rites of their worship                        32
    The Day of the Council of the Fetiches          32
    Ceremonials of the hunt                         33
  Their power                                       39
Prey Gods of the Priesthood of the Bow              40
  The Knife-Feathered Monster, the Mountain Lion,
                           and the Great White Bear 40
  Their resemblance to the Prey Gods of the Hunt    41
  The rites of their worship                        41
Other Fetiches                                      44
  Fetiches of Navajo origin                         44
    The pony                                        44
    The sheep                                       44
Amulets and charms                                  44



ILLUSTRATIONS


Plate I.--Prey God fetiches                                   12
     II.--Prey God fetiches of the Six Regions                16
    III.--Prey God fetiches of the hunt                       20
     IV.--Mountain Lion fetiches of the chase                 24
      V.--Coyote fetiches of the chase                        26
     VI.--Wild Cat fetiches of the chase                      27
    VII.--Wolf fetiches of the chase                          28
   VIII.--Eagle fetiches of the chase                         29
     IX.--Mole and Ground Owl fetiches                        30
      X.--Shield and fetich of the Priesthood of the Bow      40
     XI.--Shield and fetich of the Priesthood of the Bow      40

Fig  1.--Concretion                                           45
     2.--Mineral fetich                                       45
     3.--Fossil fetich                                        56



ZUÑI FETICHES.

BY FRANK H. CUSHING.



ZUÑI PHILOSOPHY.


The Á-shi-wi, or Zuñis, suppose the sun, moon, and stars, the sky,
earth, and sea, in all their phenomena and elements; and all inanimate
objects, as well as plants, animals, and men, to belong to one great
system of all-conscious and interrelated life, in which the degrees of
relationship seem to be determined largely, if not wholly, by the
degrees of resemblance. In this system of life the starting point is
man, the most finished, yet the lowest organism; at least, the lowest
because most dependent and least mysterious. In just so far as an
organism, actual or imaginary, resembles his, is it believed to be
related to him and correspondingly mortal; in just so far as it is
mysterious, is it considered removed from him, further advanced,
powerful, and immortal. It thus happens that the animals, because alike
mortal and endowed with similar physical functions and organs, are
considered more nearly related to man than are the gods; more nearly
related to the gods than is man, because more mysterious, and
characterized by specific instincts and powers which man does not of
himself possess. Again, the elements and phenomena of nature, because
more mysterious, powerful and immortal, seem more closely related to the
higher gods than are the animals; more closely related to the animals
than are the higher gods, because their manifestations often resemble
the operations of the former.

In consequence of this, and through the confusion of the subjective
with the objective, any element or phenomenon in nature, which is
believed to possess a personal existence, is endowed with a personality
analogous to that of the animal whose operations most resemble its
manifestation. For instance, lightning is often given the form of a
serpent, with or without an arrow-pointed tongue, because its course
through the sky is serpentine, its stroke instantaneous and destructive;
yet it is named Wí-lo-lo-a-ne, a word derived not from the name of the
serpent itself, but from that of its most obvious trait, its gliding,
zigzag motion. For this reason, the serpent is supposed to be more
nearly related to lightning than to man; more nearly related to man than
is lightning, because mortal and less mysterious. As further
illustrative of the interminable relationships which are established on
resemblances fancied or actual, the flint arrow-point may be cited.
Although fashioned by man, it is regarded as originally the gift or
"flesh" of lightning, as made by the power of lightning, and rendered
more effective by these connections with the dread element; pursuant of
which idea, the zigzag or lightning marks are added to the shafts of
arrows. A chapter might be written concerning this idea, which may
possibly help to explain the Celtic, Scandinavian, and Japanese beliefs
concerning "elf-shafts," and "thunder-stones," and "bolts."

In like manner, the supernatural beings of man's fancy--the "master
existences"--are supposed to be more nearly related to the personalities
with which the elements and phenomena of nature are endowed than to
either animals or men; because, like those elements and phenomena, and
unlike men and animals, they are connected with remote tradition in a
manner identical with their supposed existence to-day, and therefore are
considered immortal.

To the above descriptions of the supernatural beings of Zuñi Theology
should be added the statement that all of these beings are given the
forms either of animals, of monsters compounded of man and beast, or of
man. The animal gods comprise by far the largest class.

In the Zuñi, no general name is equivalent to "the gods," unless it be
the two expressions which relate only to the higher or creating and
controlling beings--the "causes," Creators and Masters,
"Pí-kwain=á-hâ-i" (Surpassing Beings), and "Á-tä-tchu" (All-fathers),
the beings superior to all others in wonder and power, and the "Makers"
as well as the "Finishers" of existence. These last are classed with the
supernatural beings, personalities of nature, object beings, etc., under
one term--

_a._ Í-shothl-ti-mon=á-hâ-i, from _í-shothl-ti-mo-na_=ever recurring,
immortal, and _á-hâ-i_=beings.

Likewise, the animals and animal gods, and sometimes even the
supernatural beings, having animal or combined animal and human
personalities, are designated by one term only--

_b._ K'ia-pin=á-hâ-i, from _k'ia-pin-na_=raw, and _á-hâ-i_=beings. Of
these, however, three divisions are made:

(1.) K'ia-pin-á-hâ-i=game animals, specifically applied to those animals
furnishing flesh to man.

(2.) K'iä-shem-á-hâ-i, from _k'iä-we_=water, _she-man_=wanting, and
_á-hâ-i_=beings, the water animals, specially applied not only to them,
but also to all animals and animal gods supposed to be associated
sacredly with water, and through which water is supplicated.

(3.) Wé-ma-á-hâ-i, from _we-ma_=prey, and _á-hâ-i_=beings, "Prey
Beings," applied alike to the prey animals and their representatives
among the gods. Finally we have the terms--

_c._ Ak-na=á-hâ-i, from _ák-na_=done, cooked, or baked, ripe, and
_á-hâ-i_=beings, the "Done Beings," referring to mankind; and

_d_. Äsh-i-k'ia=á-hâ-i, from _ä′sh-k'ia_=made, finished, and
_á-hâ-i_=beings, "Finished Beings," including the dead of mankind.

That very little distinction is made between these orders of life, or
that they are at least closely related, seems to be indicated by the
absence from the entire language of any general term for _God_. True,
there are many beings in Zuñi Mythology godlike in attributes,
anthropomorphic, monstrous, and elemental, which are known as the
"Finishers or makers of the paths of life," while the most superior of
all is called the "Holder of the paths (of our lives)," Hâ′-no-o-na
wí-la-po-na. Not only these gods, but all supernatural beings, men,
animals, plants, and many objects in nature, are regarded as personal
existences, and are included in the one term _á-hâ-i_, from _á_, the
plural particle signifying "all," and _hâ-i_, being or life,="Life,"
"the Beings." This again leads us to the important and interesting
conclusion that all beings, whether deistic and supernatural, or
animistic and mortal, are regarded as belonging to one system; and that
they are likewise believed to be related by blood seems to be indicated
by the fact that human beings are spoken of as the "children of men,"
while _all_ other beings are referred to as "the Fathers," the
"All-fathers," and "Our Fathers."


THE WORSHIP OF ANIMALS.

It naturally follows from the Zuñi's philosophy of life, that his
worship, while directed to the more mysterious and remote powers of
nature, or, as he regards them, existences, should relate more
especially to the animals; that, in fact, the animals, as more nearly
related to himself than are these existences, more nearly related to
these existences than to himself, should be frequently made to serve as
mediators between them and him. We find this to be the case. It follows
likewise that in his inability to differentiate the objective from the
subjective, he should establish relationships between natural objects
which resemble animals and the animals themselves; that he should even
ultimately imitate these animals for the sake of establishing such
relationships, using such accidental resemblances as his _motives_, and
thus developing a conventionality in all art connected with his worship.
It follows that the special requirements of his life or of the life of
his ancestors should influence him to select as his favored mediators or
aids those animals which seemed best fitted, through peculiar
characteristics and powers, to meet these requirements. This, too, we
find to be the case, for, preeminently a man of war and the chase, like
all savages, the Zuñi has chosen above all other animals those which
supply him with food and useful material, together with the animals
which prey on them, giving preference to the latter. Hence, while the
name of the former class is applied preferably as a _general_ term to
all animals and animal gods, as previously explained, the name of the
latter is used with equal preference as a term for all fetiches
(Wé-ma-we), whether of the prey animals themselves or of other animals
and beings. Of course it is equally natural, since they are connected
with man both in the scale of being and in the power to supply his
physical wants more nearly than are the higher gods, that the animals or
animal gods should greatly outnumber and even give character to all
others. We find that the Fetiches of the Zuñis relate mostly to the
animal gods, and principally to the prey gods.


ORIGIN OF ZUÑI FETICHISM.

This fetichism seems to have arisen from the relationships heretofore
alluded to, and to be founded on the myths which have been invented to
account for those relationships. It is therefore not surprising that
those fetiches most valued by the Zuñis should be either natural
concretions (Plate I, Fig. 6), or objects in which the evident original
resemblance to animals has been only heightened by artificial means
(Plate IV, Fig. 7; Plate V, Fig. 4; Plate VI, Figs. 3,6, 8; Plate VIII,
Figs. 1, 3, 4, 5; Plate IX, Fig. 1).

Another highly prized class of fetiches are, on the contrary, those
which are elaborately carved, but show evidence, in their polish and
dark patina, of great antiquity. They are either such as have been found
by the Zuñis about pueblos formerly inhabited by their ancestors or are
tribal possessions which have been handed down from generation to
generation, until their makers, and even the fact that they were made by
any member of the tribe, have been forgotten. It is supposed by the
priests (Á-shi-wa-ni) of Zuñi that not only these, but all true
fetiches, are either actual petrifactions of the animals they represent,
or were such originally. Upon this supposition is founded the following
tradition, taken, as are others to follow, from a remarkable mythologic
epic, which I have entitled the Zuñi Iliad.

[Illustration: PREY GOD FETICHES.]


THE ZUÑI ILIAD.

Although oral, this epic is of great length, metrical, rythmical even
in parts, and filled with archaic expressions nowhere to be found in the
modern Zuñi. It is to be regretted that the original diction cannot here
be preserved. I have been unable, however, to record literally even
portions of this piece of aboriginal literature, as it is jealously
guarded by the priests, who are its keepers, and is publicly repeated by
them only once in four years, and then only in the presence of the
priests of the various orders. As a member of one of the latter, I was
enabled to listen to one-fourth of it during the last recitation,
which occurred in February, 1881. I therefore give mere abstracts,
mostly furnished from memory, and greatly condensed, but pronounced
correct, so far as they go, by one of the above-mentioned priests.

THE DRYING OF THE WORLD.

In the days when all was new, men lived in the four caverns of the lower
regions (Á-wi-tën té-huthl-na-kwïn=the "Four Wombs of the World"). In
the lowermost one of these men first came to know of their existence. It
was dark, and as men increased they began to crowd one another and were
very unhappy. Wise men came into existence among them, whose children
supplicated them that they should obtain deliverance from such a
condition of life.

It was then that the "Holder of the Paths of Life," the Sun-father,
created from his own being two children, who fell to earth for the good
of all beings (Ú-a-nam átch-pi-ah-k'oa). The Sun-father endowed these
children with immortal youth, with power even as his own power, and
created for them a bow (Á-mi-to-lan-ne,=the Rain Bow) and an arrow
(Wí-lo-lo-a-ne,=Lightning). For them he made also a shield like unto his
own, of magic power, and a knife of flint, the great magic war knife
(Sá-wa-ni-k'ia ä′-tchi-ë-ne). The shield (Pí-al-lan-ne) was a mere
network of sacred cords (Pí-tsau-pi-wi,=cotton) on a hoop of wood, and
to the center of this net-shield was attached the magic knife.

These children cut the face of the world with their magic knife, and
were borne down upon their shield into the caverns in which all men
dwelt. There, as the leaders of men, they lived with their children,
mankind.

They listened to the supplications of the priests. They built a ladder
to the roof of the first cave and widened with their flint knife and
shield the aperture through which they had entered. Then they led men
forth into the second cavern, which was larger and not quite so dark.

Ere long men multiplied and bemoaned their condition as before. Again
they besought their priests, whose supplications were once more listened
to by the divine children. As before, they led all mankind into the
third world. Here it was still larger and like twilight, for the light
of the Sun himself sifted down through the opening. To these poor
creatures (children) of the dark the opening itself seemed a blazing
sun.

But as time went on men multiplied even as they had before, and at last,
as at first, bemoaned their condition. Again the two children listened
to their supplications, and it was then that the children of men first
saw the light of their father, the Sun.

The world had been covered with water. It was damp and unstable.
Earthquakes disturbed its surface. Strange beings rose up through it,
monsters and animals of prey. As upon an island in the middle of a great
water, the children of men were led forth into the light of their
father, the Sun. It blinded and heated them so that they cried to one
another in anguish, and fell down, and covered their eyes with their
bare hands and arms, for men were black then, like the caves they came
from, and naked, save for a covering at the loins of rush, like yucca
fiber, and sandals of the same, and their eyes, like the owl's, were
unused to the daylight.

Eastward the two children began to lead them, toward the Home of the
Sun-father.

Now, it happened that the two children, saw that the earth must be dried
and hardened, for wherever the foot touched the soil water gathered--as
may be seen even in the rocks to-day--and the monsters which rose forth
from the deep devoured the children of men. Therefore they consulted
together and sought the advice of their creator, the Sun-father. By his
directions, they placed their magic shield upon the wet earth. They drew
four lines a step apart upon the soft sands. Then the older brother said
to the younger, "Wilt thou, or shall I, take the lead?"

"I will take the lead," said the younger.

"Stand thou upon the last line," said the older.

And when they had laid upon the magic shield the rainbow, and across it
the arrows of lightning, toward all the quarters of the world, the
younger brother took his station facing toward the right. The older
brother took his station facing toward the left. When all was ready,
both braced themselves to run. The older brother drew his arrow to the
head, let fly, and struck the rainbow and the lightning arrows midway,
where they crossed. Instantly, _thlu-tchu!_ shot the arrows of lightning
in every direction, and fire rolled over the face of the earth, and the
two gods followed the courses of their arrows of lightning.

Now that the surface of the earth was hardened, even the animals of
prey, powerful and like the fathers (gods) themselves, would have
devoured the children of men; and the Two thought it was not well that
they should all be permitted to live, "for," said they, "alike will the
children of men and the children of the animals of prey multiply
themselves. The animals of prey are provided with talons and teeth; men
are but poor, the finished beings of earth, therefore the weaker."

Whenever they came across the pathway of one of these animals, were he
great mountain lion or but a mere mole, they struck him with the fire of
lightning which they carried in their magic shield. _Thlu!_ and
instantly he was shriveled and burnt into stone.

Then said they to the animals that they had thus changed to stone, "That
ye may not be evil unto men, but that ye may be a great good unto them,
have we changed you into rode everlasting. By the magic breath of prey,
by the heart that shall endure forever within you, shall ye be made to
serve instead of to devour mankind."

Thus was the surface of the earth hardened and scorched and many of all
kinds of beings changed to stone. Thus, too, it happens that we find,
here and there throughout the world, their forms, sometimes large like
the beings themselves, sometimes shriveled and distorted. And we often
see among the rocks the forms of many beings that live no longer, which
shows us that all was different in the "days of the new."

Of these petrifactions, which are of course mere concretions or
strangely eroded rock-forms, the Zuñis say, "Whomsoever of us may be met
with the light of such great good fortune may _see_ (discover, find)
them and should treasure them for the sake of the sacred (magic) power
which was given them in the days of the new. For the spirits of the
We-ma-á-hâ-i still live, and are pleased to receive from us the Sacred
Plume (of the heart--Lä-sho-a-ni), and sacred necklace of treasure
(Thlâ-thle-a); hence they turn their ears and the ears of their brothers
in our direction that they may hearken to our prayers (sacred talks) and
know our wants."


POWER OF THE FETICHES.

This tradition not only furnishes additional evidence relative to the
preceding statements, but also, taken in connection with the following
belief, shows quite clearly to the native wherein lies the power of his
fetiches. It is supposed that the hearts of the great animals of prey
are infused with a spirit or medicine of magic influence over the hearts
of the animals they prey upon, or the game animals (K'ia-pin-á-hâ-i);
that their breaths (the "Breath of Life"--Hâ-i-an-pi-nan-ne--and soul
are synonymous in Zuñi Mythology), derived from their hearts, and
breathed upon their prey, whether near or far, never fail to overcome
them, piercing their hearts and causing their limbs to stiffen, and the
animals themselves to lose their strength. Moreover, the roar or cry of
a beast of prey is accounted its Sá-wa-ni-k'ia, or magic medicine of
destruction, which, heard by the game animals, is fatal to them, because
it charms their senses, as does the breath their hearts. Since the
mountain lion, for example, lives by the blood ("life fluid") and flesh
of the game animals, and by these alone, he is endowed not only with the
above powers, but with peculiar powers in the senses of sight and smell.
Moreover, these powers, as derived from his heart, are preserved in his
fetich, since his heart still lives, even though his person be changed
to stone.



PREY GODS OF THE SIX REGIONS.


THEIR ORIGIN.

Therefore it happens that the use of these fetiches is chiefly connected
with the chase. To this, however, there are some exceptions. One of
these may be partly explained by the following myth concerning
Pó-shai-aŋ-k'ia, the God (Father) of the Medicine societies or sacred
esoteric orders, of which there are twelve in Zuñi, and others among the
different pueblo tribes. He is supposed to have appeared in human form,
poorly clad, and therefore reviled by men; to have taught the ancestors
of the Zuñi, Taos, Oraibi, and Coçonino Indians their agricultural and
other arts, their systems of worship by means of plumed and painted
prayer-sticks; to have organized their medicine societies; and then to
have disappeared toward his home in Shí-pä-pu-li-ma (from
_shi-pí-a_=mist, vapor; _u-lin_=surrounding; and _i-mo-na_=sitting place
of--"The mist-enveloped city"), and to have vanished beneath the world,
whence he is said to have departed for the home of the Sun. He is still
the conscious auditor of the prayers of his children, the invisible
ruler of the spiritual Shí-pä-pu-li-ma, and of the lesser gods of the
medicine orders, the principal "Finisher of the Paths of our Lives." He
is, so far as any identity can be established, the "Montezuma" of
popular and usually erroneous Mexican tradition.


PÓ-SHAI-AŊ-K'IA.

In ancient times, while yet all beings belonged to one family,
Pó-shai-aŋ-k'ia, the father of our sacred bands, lived with his
children (disciples) in the City of the Mists, the middle place (center)
of the Medicine societies of the world. There he was guarded on all
sides by his six warriors, Á-pi-thlan shí-wa-ni (_pí-thlan_=bow,
_shí-wa-ni_=priests), the prey gods; toward the North by the Mountain
Lion (Long Tail); toward the West by the Bear (Clumsy Foot); toward the
South by the Badger (Black Mark Face); toward the East by the Wolf (Hang
Tail); above by the Eagle (White Cap); and below by the Mole. When he
was about to go forth into the world, he divided the universe into six
regions, namely, the North (Pï′sh-lan-kwïn táh-na=Direction of the
Swept or Barren place); the West (K'iä′-li-shi-ïn-kwïn
táh-na=Direction of the Home of the Waters); the South (Á-la-ho-ïn-kwïn
táh-na=Direction of the Place of the Beautiful Bed); the East
(Té-lu-a-ïn-kwïn táh-na=Direction of the Home of Day); the Upper Regions
(Í-ya-ma-ïn-kwïn táh-na=Direction of the Home of the High); and the
Lower Regions (Ma-ne-lam-ïn-kwïn táh-na=Direction of the Home of the
Low)."

[Illustration: PREY GOD FETICHES OF THE SIX REGIONS.]

All, save the first of these terms, are archaic. The modern names for
the West, South, East, Upper and Lower Regions signifying
respectively--"The Place of Evening," "The Place of the Salt Lake" (Las
Salinas), "The Place whence comes the Day," "The Above," and "The
Below."

In the center of the great sea of each of these regions stood a very
ancient sacred place (Té-thlä-shi-na-kwïn), a great mountain peak. In
the North was the Mountain Yellow, in the West the Mountain Blue, in the
South the Mountain Red, in the East the Mountain White, above the
Mountain All-color, and below the Mountain Black.

We do not fail to see in this clear reference to the natural colors of
the regions referred to--to the barren north and its auroral hues, the
west with its blue Pacific, the rosy south, the white daylight of the
east, the many hues of the clouded sky, and the black darkness of the
"caves and holes of earth." Indeed, these colors are used in the
pictographs and in all the mythic symbolism of the Zuñis, to indicate
the directions or regions respectively referred to as connected with
them.

Then said Pó-shai-aŋ-k'ia to the Mountain Lion (Plate II, Fig. 1), "Long
Tail, thou art stout of heart and strong of will. Therefore give I unto
thee and unto thy children forever the mastership of the gods of prey,
and the guardianship of the great Northern World (for thy coat is of
yellow), that thou guard from that quarter the coming of evil upon my
children of men, that thou receive in that quarter their messages to me,
that thou become the father in the North of the sacred medicine orders
all, that thou become a Maker of the Paths (of men's lives)."

Thither went the Mountain Lion. Then said Pó-shai-aŋ-k'ia to the Bear
(Plate II, Fig. 2), "Black Bear, thou art stout of heart and strong of
will. Therefore make I thee the younger brother of the Mountain Lion,
the guardian and master of the West, for thy coat is of the color of the
land of night," etc.

To the Badger (Plate II, Fig. 3), "Thou art stout of heart but _not_
strong of will. Therefore make I thee the younger brother of the Bear,
the guardian and master of the South, for thy coat is ruddy and marked
with black and white equally, the colors of the land of summer, which is
red, and stands between the day and the night, and thy homes are on the
sunny sides of the hills," etc.

To the White Wolf (Plate II, Fig. 4), "Thou art stout of heart and
strong of will. Therefore make I thee the younger brother of the Badger,
the guardian and master of the East, for thy coat is white and gray, the
color of the day and dawn," etc.

And to the Eagle (Plate II, Fig. 5), he said: "White Cap (Bald Eagle),
thou art passing stout of heart and strong of will. Therefore make I
thee the younger brother of the Wolf, the guardian and master of the
Upper regions, for thou fliest through the skies without tiring, and thy
coat is speckled like the clouds," etc.

"Prey Mole (Plate II, Fig. 6), thou art stout of heart and strong of
will. Therefore make I thee the younger brother of the Eagle, the
guardian and master of the Lower regions, for thou burrowest through the
earth without tiring, and thy coat is of black, the color of the holes
and caves of earth," etc.


THEIR POWER AS MEDIATORS.

Thus it may be seen that all these animals are supposed to possess not
only the guardianship of the six regions, but also the mastership, not
merely geographic, but of the medicine powers, etc., which are supposed
to emanate from them; that they are the mediators between men and
Pó-shai-aŋ-ki'a, and conversely, between the latter and men.

As further illustrative of this relationship it may not be amiss to add
that, aside from representing the wishes of men to Pó-shai-aŋ-ki'a,
by means of the spirits of the prayer plumes, which, it is supposed, the
prey gods take into his presence, and which are, as it were, memoranda
(like _quippus_) to him and other high gods of the prayers of men, they
are also made to bear messages to men from him and his associated gods.

For instance, it is believed that any member of the medicine orders who
neglects his religious duties as such is rendered liable to punishment
(Hä′-ti-a-k'ia-na-k'ia=reprehension) by Pó-shai-aŋ-ki'a through
some one of his warriors.

As illustrative of this, the story of an adventure of Mí-tsi, an Indian
who "still lives, but limps," is told by the priests with great emphasis
to any backsliding member.

MÍ-TSI.

Mí-tsi was long a faithful member of the Little Fire order
(Ma-ke-tsá-na-kwe), but he grew careless, neglected his sacrifices, and
resigned his rank as "Keeper of the Medicines," from mere laziness. In
vain his fathers warned him. He only grew hot with anger. One day Mí-tsi
went up on the mesas to cut corral posts. He sat down to eat his dinner.
A great black bear walked out of the thicket near at hand and leisurely
approached him. Mí-tsi dropped his dinner and climbed a neighboring
little dead pine tree. The bear followed him and climbed it, too. Mí-tsi
began to have sad thoughts of the words of his fathers.

"Alas," he cried, "pity me, my father from the West-land!" In vain he
promised to be a good Ma-ke-tsá-na-kwe. Had not Pó-shai-aŋ-ki'a
commanded?

So the black bear seized him by the foot and pulled until Mí-tsi
screamed from pain; but, cling as he would to the tree, the bear pulled
him to the ground. Then he lay down on Mí-tsi and pressed the wind out
of him so that he forgot. The black bear started to go; but eyed Mí-tsi.
Mí-tsi kicked. Black bear came and pressed his wind out again. It hurt
Mí-tsi, and he said to himself, "Oh dear me! what shall I do? The father
thinks I am not punished enough." So he kept very still. Black bear
started again, then stopped and looked at Mí-tsi, started and stopped
again, growled and moved off, for Mí-tsi kept very still. Then the black
bear went slowly away, looking at Mí-tsi all the while, until he passed
a little knoll. Mí-tsi crawled away and hid under a log. Then, when he
thought himself man enough, he started for Zuñi. He was long sick, for
the black bear had eaten his foot. He "still lives and limps," but he is
a good Ma-ke-tsá-na-kwe. Who shall say that Pó-shai-aŋ-k'ia did not
command?


THEIR WORSHIP.

The prey gods, through their relationship to Pó-shai-aŋ-k'ia, as
"Makers of the Paths of Life," are given high rank among the gods. With
this belief, their fetiches are held "as in captivity" by the priests of
the various medicine orders, and greatly venerated by them as mediators
between themselves and the animals they represent. In this character
they are exhorted with elaborate prayers, rituals, and ceremonials.
Grand sacrifices of plumed and painted prayer-sticks (Téthl-na-we) are
made annually by the "Prey Brother Priesthood" (Wé-ma á-pa-pa
á-shi-wa-ni) of these medicine societies, and at the full moon of each
month lesser sacrifices of the same kind by the male members of the
"Prey gentes" (Wé-ma á-no-ti-we) of the tribe.



PREY GODS OF THE HUNT.


THEIR RELATION TO THE OTHERS.

The fetich worship of the Zuñis naturally reaches its highest and most
interesting development in its relationship to the chase, for the
We-ma-á-hâ-i are considered _par excellence_ the gods of the hunt. Of
this class of fetiches, the special priests are the members of the
"Great Coyote People" (Sá-ni-a-k'ia-kwe, or the Hunting Order), their
keepers, the chosen members of the Eagle and Coyote gentes and of the
Prey Brother priesthood.

The fetiches in question (Plate III) represent, with two exceptions, the
same species of prey animals as those supposed to guard the six regions.
These exceptions are, the Coyote (Sús-ki, Plate III, Fig. 2), which
replaces the Black Bear of the West, and the Wild Cat (Té-pi, Plate III,
Fig. 3), which takes the place of the Badger of the South.

In the prayer-songs of the Sá-ni-a-kía-kwe, the names of all of these
prey gods are, with two exceptions, given in the language of the Rio
Grande Indians. This is probably one of the many devices for securing
greater secrecy, and rendering the ceremonials of the Hunter Society
mysterious to other than members. The exceptions are, the Coyote, or
Hunter god of the West, known by the archaic name of Thlä′-k'iä-tchu,
instead of by its ordinary name of Sús-ki, and the Prey Mole or god of
the Lower regions (Plate III, Fig. 5), which is named Maí-tu-pu, also
archaic, instead of K'iä′-lu-tsi. Yet in most of the prayer and
ritualistic recitals of this order all of these gods are spoken of by
the names which distinguish them in the other orders of the tribe.

[Illustration: PREY GOD FETICHES OF THE HUNT.]


THEIR ORIGIN.

While all the prey gods of the hunt are supposed to have functions
differing both from those of the six regions and those of the Priesthood
of the Bow, spoken of further on, they are yet referred, like those of
the first class, to special divisions of the world. In explanation of
this, however, quite another myth is given. This myth, like the first,
is derived from the epic before referred to, and occurs in the latter
third of the long recital, where it pictures the tribes of the Zuñis,
under the guidance of the Two Children, and the Kâ′-kâ at
Kó-thlu-ël-lon-ne, now a marsh-bordered lagune situated on the eastern
shore of the Colorado Chiquito, about fifteen miles north and west from
the pueblo of San Juan, Arizona, and nearly opposite the mouth of the
Rio Concho. This lagune is probably formed in the basin or crater of
some extinct geyser or volcanic spring, as the two high and wonderfully
similar mountains on either side are identical in formation with those
in which occur the cave-craters farther south on the same river. It has,
however, been largely filled in by the _débris_ brought down by the Zuñi
River, which here joins the Colorado Chiquito. Kó-thlu-ël-lon signifies
the "standing place (city) of the Kâ′-kâ" (from _Kâ_=a contraction of
Kâ′-kâ, the sacred dance, and _thlu-ël-lon_=standing place).

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANIMALS.

Men began their journey from the Red River, and the Kâ′-kâ still
lived, as it does now, at Kó-thlu-ël-lon-ne, when the wonderful Snail
People (not snails, as may be inferred, but a tribe of that name), who
lived in the "Place of the Snails" (K'iá-ma-k'ia-kwïn), far south of
where Zuñi now is, caused, by means of their magic power, all the game
animals in the whole world round about to gather together in the great
forked cañon-valley under their town, and there to be hidden.

The walls of this cañon were high and insurmountable, and the whole
valley although large was filled full of the game animals, so that their
feet rumbled and rattled together like the sound of distant thunder, and
their horns crackled like the sound of a storm in a dry forest. All
round about the cañon these passing wonderful Snail People made a road
(line) of magic medicine and sacred meal, which road, even as a corral,
no game animal, even though great Elk or strong Buck Deer, could pass.

Now, it rained many days, and thus the tracks of all these animals
tending thither were washed away. Nowhere could the Kâ′-kâ or the
children of men, although they hunted day after day over the plains and
mountains, on the mesas and along the cañon-valleys, find prey or trace
of prey.

Thus it happened that after many days they grew hungry, almost famished.
Even the great strong Shá'-la-k'o and the swift Sá-la-mo-pi-a walked
zigzag in their trails, from the weakness of hunger. At first the mighty
Kâ′-kâ and men alike were compelled to eat the bones they had before
cast away, and at last to devour the soles of their moccasins and even
the deer-tail ornaments of their dresses for want of the flesh of
K'iap-in-á-hâ-i, Game animals.

Still, day after day, though weak and disheartened, men and the
Kâ′-kâ sought game in the mountains. At last a great Elk was given
liberty. His sides shook with tallow, his dewlap hung like a bag, so
fleshy was it, his horns spread out like branches of a dead tree, and
his crackling hoofs cut the sands and even the rocks as he ran westward.
He circled far off toward the Red River, passed through the Round
Valley, and into the northern cañons. The Shá'-la-k'o was out hunting.
He espied the deep tracks of the elk and fleetly followed him. Passing
swift and strong was he, though weak from hunger, and ere long he came
in sight of the great Elk. The sight gladdened and strengthened him; but
alas! the Elk kept his distance as he turned again toward the
hiding-place of his brother animals. On and on the Sha'-la-k'o followed
him, until he came to the edge of a great cañon, and peering over the
brink discovered the hiding-place of all the game animals of the world.

"Aha! so here you all are," said he. "I'll hasten back to my father,
Pá-u-ti-wa,[1] who hungers for flesh, alas! and grows weak." And like
the wind the Shá'-la-k'o returned to Kó-thlu-ël-lon-ne. Entering, he
informed the Kâ′-kâ, and word was sent out by the swift
Sá-la-mo-pi-a[2] to all the We-ma-á-hâ-i for counsel and assistance, for
the We-ma-á-hâ-i were now the Fathers of men and the Kâ′-kâ . The
Mountain Lion, the Coyote, the Wild Cat, the Wolf, the Eagle, the
Falcon, the Ground Owl, and the Mole were summoned, all hungry and lean,
as were the Kâ'-kâ and the children of men, from want of the flesh of
the game animals. Nevertheless, they were anxious for the hunt and moved
themselves quickly among one another in their anxiety. Then the passing
swift runners, the Sá-la-mo-pi-a, of all colors, the yellow, the blue,
the red, the white, the many colored, and the black, were summoned to
accompany the We-ma-á-hâ-i to the cañon-valley of the Snail People. Well
they knew that passing wonderful were the Snail People, and that no easy
matter would it be to overcome their medicine and their magic. But they
hastened forth until they came near to the cañon. Then the
Shá'-la-k'o,[3] who guided them, gave directions that they should make
themselves ready for the hunt.

When all were prepared, he opened by his sacred power the magic corral
on the northern side, and forth rushed a great buck Deer.

"Long Tail, the corral has been opened for thee. Forth comes thy game,
seize him!" With great leaps the Mountain Lion overtook and threw the
Deer to the ground, and fastened his teeth in his throat.

The corral was opened on the western side. Forth rushed a Mountain
Sheep.

"Coyote, the corral has been opened for thee. Forth comes thy game,
seize him!" The Coyote dashed swiftly forward. The Mountain Sheep dodged
him and ran off toward the west. The Coyote crazily ran about yelping
and barking after his game, but the Mountain Sheep bounded from rock to
rock and was soon far away. Still the Coyote rushed crazily about, until
the Mountain Lion commanded him to be quiet. But the Coyote smelled the
blood of the Deer and was beside himself with hunger. Then the Mountain
Lion said to him disdainfully, Satisfy thy hunger on the blood that I
have spilled, for to-day thou hast missed thy game; and thus ever will
thy descendants like thee blunder in the chase. As thou this day
satisfiest thy hunger, so also by the blood that the hunter spills or
the flesh that he throws away shall thy descendants forever have being."

[Footnote 1: The chief god of the Kâ′-kâ, now represented by masks,
and the richest costuming known to the Zuñis, which are worn during the
winter ceremonials of the tribe.]

[Footnote 2: The Sá-la-mo-pi-a are monsters with round heads, long
snouts, huge feathered necks, and human bodies. They are supposed to
live beneath the waters, to come forth or enter snout foremost. They
also play an important part in the Kâ'-kâ or sacred dances of winter.]

[Footnote 3: Monster human bird forms, the warrior chiefs of
Pá-u-ti-wa, the representatives of which visit Zuñi, from their supposed
western homes in certain springs, each New Year. They are more than
twelve feet high, and are carried swiftly about by persons concealed
under their dresses.]

The corral was opened on the southern side. An Antelope sprang forth.
With bounds less strong than those of the Mountain Lion, but nimbler,
the Wild Cat seized him and threw him to the ground.

The corral was opened on the eastern side. Forth ran the Ó-ho-li (or
albino antelope). The Wolf seized and threw him. The Jack Rabbit was let
out. The Eagle poised himself for a moment, then swooped upon him. The
Cotton Tail came forth. The Prey Mole waited in his hole and seized him;
the Wood Rat, and the Falcon made him his prey; the Mouse, and the
Ground Owl quickly caught him.

While the We-ma-á-hâ-i were thus satisfying their hunger, the game
animals began to escape through the breaks in the corral. Forth through
the northern door rushed the Buffalo, the great Elk, and the Deer, and
toward the north the Mountain Lion, and the yellow Sá-la-mo-pi-a swiftly
followed and herded them, to the world where stands the yellow mountain,
below the great northern ocean.

Out through the western gap rushed the Mountain Sheep, herded and driven
by the Coyote and the blue Sá-la-mo-pi-a, toward the great western
ocean, where stands the ancient blue mountain.

Out through the southern gap rushed the Antelope, herded and driven by
the Wild Cat and the red Sá-la-mo-pi-a, toward the great land of summer,
where stands the ancient red mountain.

Out through the eastern gap rushed the Ó-ho-li, herded and driven by the
Wolf and the white Sá-la-mo-pi-a, toward where "they say" is the eastern
ocean, the "Ocean of day", wherein stands the ancient white mountain.

Forth rushed in all directions the Jack Rabbit, the Cotton Tail, the
Bats, and the Mice, and the Eagle, the Falcon, and the Ground Owl
circled high above, toward the great "Sky ocean," above which stands the
ancient mountain of many colors, and they drove them over all the earth,
that from their homes in the air they could watch them in all places;
and the Sá-la-mo-pi-a of many colors rose and assisted them.

Into the earth burrowed the Rabbits, the Bats, and the Mice, from the
sight of the Eagle, the Falcon, and the Ground Owl, but the Prey Mole
and the black Sá-la-mo-pi-a thither followed them toward the four
caverns (wombs) of earth, beneath which stands the ancient black
mountain.

Then the earth and winds were filled with rumbling from the feet of the
departing animals, and the Snail People saw that their game was
escaping; hence the world was filled with the wars of the Kâ′-kâ, the
Snail People, and the children of men.

Thus were let loose the game animals of the world. Hence the Buffalo,
the Great Elk, and the largest Deer are found mostly in the north, where
they are ever pursued by the great Mountain Lion; but with them escaped
other animals, and so not alone in the north are the Buffalo, the Great
Elk, and the Deer found.

Among the mountains and the cañons of the west are found the Mountain
Sheep, pursued by the Coyote; but with them escaped many other animals;
hence not alone in the west are the Mountain Sheep found.

Toward the south escaped the Antelopes, pursued by the Wild Cat. Yet
with them escaped many other animals; hence not alone in the south are
the Antelopes found.

Toward the east escaped the Ó-ho-li, pursued by the Wolf; but with them
escaped many other animals; hence not alone in the east are the
Ó-ho-li-we found.

Forth in all directions escaped the Jack Rabbits, Cotton Tails, Rats,
and Mice; hence over all the earth are they found. Above them in the
skies circle the Eagle, the Falcon, and the Ground Owl; yet into the
earth escaped many of them, followed by the Prey Mole; hence beneath the
earth burrow many.

Thus, also, it came to be that the Yellow Mountain Lion is the master
Prey Being of the north, but his younger brothers, the blue, the red,
the white, the spotted, and the black Mountain Lions wander over the
other regions of earth. Does not the spotted Mountain Lion (evidently
the Ocelot) live among the _high_ mountains of the south?

Thus, too, was it with the Coyote, who is the master of the West, but
whose younger brothers wander over all the regions; and thus, too, with
the Wild Cat and the Wolf.

In this tradition there is an attempt, not only to explain the special
distribution throughout the six regions, of the Prey animals and their
prey, but also to account for the occurrence of animals in regions other
than those to which, according to this classification, they properly
belong.

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN LION FETICHES OF THE CHASE--HUNTER GOD
OF THE NORTH]


THEIR VARIETIES.

We find, therefore, that each one of the six species of Prey animals is
again divided into six varieties, according to color, which determines
the location of each variety in that one or other of the regions with
which its color agrees, yet it is supposed to owe allegiance to its
representative, whatsoever this may be or wheresoever placed. For
instance, the Mountain Lion is primarily god of the North, but he is
supposed to have a representative (younger brother) in the West (the
blue Mountain Lion), another in the South (the Red), in the East (the
White), in the Upper regions (the Spotted), and in the Lower regions
(the black Mountain Lion).

Hence, also, there are six varieties of the fetich representing any one
of these divisions, the variety being determined by the color, as
expressed either by the material of which the fetich is formed, or the
pigment with which it is painted, or otherwise, as, for example, by
inlaying. (Plate III, Fig. 4, and Plate VII, Fig. 2.)

THE MOUNTAIN LION--HUNTER GOD OF THE NORTH.

According to this classification, which is native, the fetiches of the
Mountain Lions are represented on Plate IV. They are invariably
distinguished by the tail, which is represented very long, and laid
lengthwise of the back from the rump nearly or quite to the shoulders,
as well as by the ears, which are quite as uniformly rounded and not
prominent.

The fetich of the yellow Mountain Lion (Hâ′k-ti tä′sh-a-na
thlúp-tsi-na), or God of the North (Plate IV, Fig. 1), is of yellow
limestone.[1] It has been smoothly carved, and is evidently of great
antiquity, as shown by its polish and patina, the latter partly of
blood. The anus and eyes are quite marked holes made by drilling. An
arrow-point of flint is bound to the back with cordage of cotton, which
latter, however, from its newness, seems to have been recently added.

The fetich of the blue Mountain Lion, of the West (Hâ′k-ti
tä′sh-a-na thlí-a-na), is represented in Plate IV, Fig. 2. The
original is composed of finely veined azurite or carbonate of copper,
which, although specked with harder serpentinous nodules, is almost
entirely blue. It has been carefully finished, and the ears, eyes,
nostrils, mouth, tail, anus, and legs are clearly cut.

The fetich of the white Mountain Lion, of the East (Hâ′k-ti
tä′sh-a-na k'ó-ha-na), is represented by several specimens, two of
which are reproduced in Plate IV, Figs. 3 and 4. The former is very
small and composed of compact white limestone, the details being
pronounced, and the whole specimen finished with more than usual
elaboration. The latter is unusually large, of compact gypsum or
alabaster, and quite carefully carved. The eyes have been inlaid with
turkoises, and there is cut around its neck a groove by which the beads
of shell, coral, &c., were originally fastened. A large arrow-head of
chalcedony has been bound with cords of cotton flatwise along one side
of the body.

The only fetich representing the red Mountain Lion, of the South
(Hâ′k-ti tä′sh-a-na á-ho-na), in the collection was too imperfect
for reproduction.

[Footnote 1: I am indebted to Mr. S.F. Emmons, of the Geological
Survey, for assisting me to determine approximately the mineralogical
character of these specimens.]

The fetich of the spotted or many-colored Mountain Lion (Hâ′k-ti
tä′sh-a-na sú-pa-no-pa _or_ í-to-pa-nah-na-na), of the Upper regions,
is also represented by two specimens (Plate IV, Figs. 5 and 6), both of
fibrous aragonite in alternating thin and thick laminæ, or bands of
grayish yellow, white, and blue. Fig. 5 is by far the more elaborate of
the two, and is, indeed, the most perfect fetich in the collection. The
legs, ears, eyes, nostrils, mouth, tail, anus, and genital organs (of
the male) are carefully carved, the eyes being further elaborated by
mosaics of minute turkoises. To the right side of the body, "over the
heart," is bound with blood-blackened cotton cords a delicate flint
arrow-point, together with white shell and coral beads, and, at the
breast, a small triangular figure of an arrow in haliotus, or abalone.

The fetich of the black Mountain Lion (Hâ′k-ti tä′sh-a-na
shí-k'ia-na) (Pl. IV, Fig. 7) is of gypsum, or white limestone, but has
been painted black by pigment, traces of which are still lodged on
portions of its surface.

THE COYOTE--HUNTER GOD OF THE WEST.

The fetiches of the Coyote, or God of the West, and his younger
brothers, represented on Plate V, are called Téthl-po-k'ia, an archaic
form of the modern word Sús-k'i wé-ma-we (Coyote fetiches), from
_téthl-nan_,=a sacred prayer-plume, and _pó-an_,=an object or locality
on or toward which anything is placed, a depository, and _k'ia_=the
active participle. They are usually distinguished by horizontal or
slightly drooping tails, pointed or small snouts, and erect ears.
Although the Coyote of the West is regarded as the master of the Coyotes
of the other five regions, yet, in the prayers, songs, and recitations
of the Sá-ni-a-k'ia-kwe, and Prey Brother Priesthood, the Coyote of the
North is mentioned first. I therefore preserve the same sequence
observed in describing the Mountain Lion fetiches.

The fetich of the yellow Coyote (Sús-k'i thlúp-tsi-na), of the North, is
represented in Plate V, Fig. 1. The original is of compact white
limestone stained yellow. The attitude is that of a coyote about to
pursue his prey (lá-hi-na í-mo-na), which has reference to the
intemperate haste on the part of this animal, which usually, as in the
foregoing tradition, results in failure.

The fetich of the blue Coyote, of the West (Sús-k'i
ló-k'ia-na--signifying in reality blue gray, the color of the coyote,
instead of blue=thlí-a-na), is shown, in Plate V, Fig. 2. This fetich is
also of compact white limestone, of a yellowish gray color, although
traces of blue paint and large turkois eyes indicate that it was
intended, like Plate III, Fig. 3, to represent the God of the West.

The fetich of the red Coyote (Sús-k'i á-ho-na), of the South, is
represented by Plate V, Fig. 4, which, although of white
semi-translucent calcite, has been deeply stained with red paint.

[Illustration: THE COYOTE FETICHES OF THE CHASE--HUNTER GOD OF THE
WEST.]

[Illustration: WILD CAT FETICHES OF THE CHASE--HUNTER GOD OF THE
SOUTH.]

Two examples of the fetich of the white Coyote (Sús-k'i k'ó-ha-na), of
the East, are shown in Plate V, Figs. 4 and 5. They are both of compact
white limestone. The first is evidently a natural fragment, the feet
being but slightly indicated by grinding, the mouth by a deep cut
straight across the snout, and the eyes by deeply drilled depressions,
the deep groove around, the neck being designed merely to receive the
necklace. The second, however, is more elaborate, the pointed chin,
horizontal tail, and pricked-up ears being distinctly carved, and yet in
form the specimen resembles more a weasel than a coyote.

The fetich of the many-colored Coyote (Sús-k'i í-to-pa-nah-na-na), of
the Upper regions, is reproduced in Plate V, Fig. 6, which represents
the male and female together, the latter being indicated merely by the
smaller size and the shorter tail. They are both of aragonite. This
conjoined form of the male and female fetiches is rare, and is
significant of other powers than those of the hunt.

The black Coyote (Sús-k'i shí-k'ia-na), of the Lower regions, is
represented by Plate V, Fig. 7, the original of which is of compact
white limestone or yellowish-gray marble, and shows traces of black
paint or staining.

THE WILD-CAT--HUNTER GOD OF THE SOUTH.

The fetiches of the Wild Cat, the principal of which is God of the
South, are represented on Plate VI. They are characterized by short
horizontal tails and in most cases by vertical faces and short ears,
less erect than in the fetiches of the Coyote.

Plate VI, Fig. 1, represents the fetich of the yellow Wild Cat (Té-pi
thlúp-tsi-na) of the North. Although of yellow limestone, it is stained
nearly black with blood. A long, clearly-chipped arrow-point of
chalcedony is bound with blood-stained cotton cordage along the right
side of the figure, and a necklace of white shell beads (Kó-ha-kwa),
with one of black stone (Kewí-na-kwa) among them, encircles the neck.

Plate VI, Fig. 2, represents the fetich of the blue Wild Cat (Té-pi
thlí-a-na), of the West. It is formed from basaltic clay of a
grayish-blue color, and is furnished with an arrow-point of jasper (jasp
vernis), upon which, is laid a small fragment of turkois, both secured
to the back of the specimen with sinew taken from the animal
represented. Plate VI, Fig. 3, likewise represents the fetich of the
Wild Cat of the West. It is a fragment from a thin vein of malachite and
azurite, or green and blue carbonate of copper, and has been but little
changed from its original condition.

Plate VI, Fig. 4, represents the red Wild Cat (Té-pi á-ho-na), of the
South. Although formed from gypsum or yellow limestone, its color has
been changed by the application of paint. It is supplied with the usual
necklace and arrow-point of the perfect fetich, secured by bands of
sinew and cotton.

Both Figs. 5 and 6 of Plate VI represent the fetich of the white Wild
Cat (Té pi k'ó-ha-na), of the East, and are of compact white limestone
carefully fashioned and polished, the one to represent the perfect
animal, the other the fœtus. This specimen, like Plate V, Fig. 6, has
a significance other than that of a mere fetich of the chase, a
significance connected with the Phallic worship of the Zuñis, on which
subject I hope ere many years to produce interesting evidence.

Plate VI, Fig. 7, represents the fetich of the many-colored Wild Cat
(Té-pi sú-pa-no-pa), of the Upper regions, which is made of basaltic
clay, stained black with pitch and pigment, and furnished with a flake
of flint and a small fragment of chrysocolla, both of which are attached
to the back of the figure with a binding of sinew.

Plate VI, Fig. 8, represents, according to the Zuñis, a very ancient and
valued fetich of the black Wild Cat (Té-pi shí-k'ia-na), of the Lower
regions. It is little more than a concretion of compact basaltic rock,
with slight traces of art. Its natural form, however, is suggestive of
an animal. Long use has polished its originally black surface to the hue
of lustrous jet.

THE WOLF--HUNTER GOD OF THE EAST.

The fetiches of the Wolf, God of the East, and of his younger brothers
(Iú-na-wi-ko wé-ma-we) are represented on Plate VII. They are
characterized by erect attitudes, usually oblique faces, pricked-up
ears, and "hanging tails."

Plate VII, Fig. 1, is a representation of the fetich of the yellow Wolf
(Iú-na-wi-ko thlúp-tsi-na), of the North. It is of yellow indurated
clay-stone. In this example the legs are much longer than in most
specimens, for nearly all these figures are either natural fragments or
concretions slightly improved on by art, or are figures which have been
suggested by and derived from such fragments or concretions. Moreover,
the ceremonials to be described further on require that they should be
"able to stand alone"; therefore they are usually furnished with only
rudimentary legs. The tail is only indicated, while in nearly all other
Wolf fetiches it is clearly cut down the rump, nearly to the gambol
joint.

Plate VII, Fig. 2, represents a fetich of the blue Wolf (Iú-na-wi-ko
thlí-a-na), of the West. It is of gray sandstone, stained first red,
then blue, the latter color being further indicated by settings of green
turkois on either side and along the back, as well as in the eyes.

Plate VII, Fig. 3, represents the fetich of the red Wolf (Iú-na-wi-ko
á-ho-na), of the South. It is but crudely formed from a fragment of
siliceous limestone, the feet, ears, and tail being represented only by
mere protuberances. Although the material is naturally of a
yellowish-gray color, it has been stained red.

Plate VII, Fig. 4, represents the fetich of the white Wolf (Iú-na-wi-ko
k'ó-ha-na), of the East. It is of very white, compact limestone. The
hanging tail, erect ears, attitude, &c., are better shown in this than
perhaps in any other specimen of the class in the collection. It has,
however, been broken through the body and mended with black pitch.

[Illustration: WOLF FETICHES OF THE CHASE--HUNTER GOD OF THE EAST.]

[Illustration: EAGLE FETICHES OF THE CHASE--HUNTER GOD OF THE UPPER
REGIONS.]

Plate VII, Fig. 5, represents the fetich, of the many-colored Wolf
(Iú-na-wi-ko í-to-pa-nah-na-na), of the Upper regions. The original is
of fine-grained sandstone of a gray color, stained in some places
faintly with red and other tints. The mouth, eyes, ear tips, and tail
have been touched with black to make them appear more prominent.

Plate VII, Fig. 6, represents the fetich of the black Wolf (Iú-na-wi-ko
shí-k'ia-na), of the Lower regions. Although uncommonly large and
greatly resembling in form the bear, it possesses the oblique face,
upright ears, hanging tail, and other accepted characteristics of the
Wolf.

THE EAGLE--HUNTER GOD OF THE UPPER REGIONS.

The fetiches of the Eagle, God of the Upper regions, and his younger
brothers of the other regions (K'iä′-k'iä-li wé-ma-we) are represented
on Plate VIII. They are characterized merely by rude bird forms, with
wings either naturally or very conventionally carved (Figs. 3 and 6).
Further details are rarely attempted, from the fact that all the other
principal prey animals are quadrupeds, and the simple suggestion of the
bird form is sufficient to identify the eagle among any of them.

Plate VIII, Fig. 1, represents the fetich of the yellow Eagle
(K'iä′-k'iä-li thlúp-tsi-na), of the Northern skies. It consists
merely of the head and shoulders, very rudely formed of white limestone
and painted with yellow ocher. This specimen is doubtless a natural
fragment very little altered by art.

Plate VIII, Fig. 2, represents the fetich of the blue Eagle
(K'iä′k'iä-li ló-k'ia-na), of the Western skies. It is quite
elaborately carved, supplied with a pedestal, and pierced through the
body to facilitate suspension. For during ceremonials, to be described
further on, the fetiches of the Eagle are usually suspended, although
sometimes, like those of the quadrupeds, they are placed on the floor,
as indicated by the pedestal furnished to this specimen. Although of
compact white limestone, this fetich is made to represent the blue Eagle
by means of turkois eyes and a green stain over the body. A small pink
chalcedony arrow-point is attached to the back between the wings by
means of a single sinew band passed around the tips of the latter and
the tail and under the wings over the shoulders.

Plate VIII, Fig. 3, represents the fetich of the red Eagle
(K'iä′-k'iä-li á-ho-na), of the Southern skies. Like Fig. 42, this is
doubtless a nearly natural fragment of very fine-grained red sandstone,
the wings being indicated by deep lines which cross over the back, and
the rump grooved to receive the cord with which to secure to the back an
arrow-point. The breast is perforated.

Plate VIII, Fig. 4, is a nearly natural fragment of compact white
limestone, representing the white Eagle (K'iä′-k'iä-li k'ó-ha-na), of
the Eastern skies. No artificial details, save the eyes, which are
faintly indicated, have been attempted on this specimen.

Plate VIII, Fig. 5, represents, in compact yellow limestone, the
speckled Eagle (K'iä′-k'iä-li sú-tchu-tchon-ne) of the Upper regions,
the drab color of the body being varied by fragments of pure turkois
inserted into the eyes, breast, and back. A notch in the top and front
of the head probably indicates that the specimen was once supplied with
a beak, either of turkois or of white shell. It is perforated lengthwise
through the breast.

Plate VIII, Fig. 6, is a representation of a thoroughly typical
conventional fetich of the black Eagle (K'iä′-k'iä-li kwín-ne) of the
Lower regions. It is of calcite, stained lustrous black. A cotton cord
around the neck supplies the place of the original "necklace."

THE MOLE--HUNTER GOD OF THE LOWER REGIONS.

The fetiches of the Mole, or God of the Lower regions (K'iä′-lu-tsi
wé-ma-we, in the sacred orders; Maí-tu-pu wé-ma-we, in the order of the
Hunt), are represented in the collection by only two specimens, Plate
II, Fig. 6, and Plate IX, Fig. 1. The figure of a third specimen, taken
from one of my sketches of the original in Zuñi, is given on Plate III,
Fig. 5.

These fetiches being unpopular, because considered less powerful than
those of the larger gods of prey, are very rare, and are either rude
concretions with no definite form (Plate II, Fig. 6), or almost equally
rude examples of art, as in Plate IX, Fig. 1, which represents the
fetich of the white Mole (Maí-tu-pu kó-ha-na) of the Eastern Lower
regions. It consists merely of a natural slab of fine white limestone.

Nevertheless, value is sometimes attached to the Mole, from the fact
that it is able by burrowing to lay traps for the largest game of earth,
which it is supposed to do consciously. For this reason it is sometimes
represented with surprising fidelity, as in Plate III, Fig. 5.

THE GROUND OWL AND THE FALCON.

The fetiches of the Ground Owl (the Prairie Dog
variety--Thlá-po-po-ke'-a' wé-ma-we) of all regions, are still more
rarely represented and even less prized than those of the Mole. The only
example in the collection is reproduced in Plate IX, Fig. 2. The
original is quite carefully formed of soft white limestone, and is
perforated to facilitate suspension.

The Falcon fetiches (Pí-pi wé-ma-we) are included in the Eagle species,
as they are called the younger brothers of the Eagle, and supply the
place of the red Eagle which variety is met with very rarely.

[Illustration: THE MOLE AND THE GROUND-OWL FETICHES--HUNTER GODS OF THE
LOWER REGIONS AND ALL REGIONS.

THE NAVAJO FETICHES--PHALLIC GODS OF THE FLOCKS.]


THEIR RELATIVE VALUES.

The relative value of these varieties of fetiches depends largely upon
the rank of the Animal god they represent. For instance, the Mountain
Lion is not only master of the North, which takes precedence over
all the other "ancient sacred spaces" (Té-thlä-shi-na-we) or regions,
but is also the master of all the other Prey gods, if not of all other
terrestrial animals. Notwithstanding the fact that the Coyote, in the
Order of the Hunt (the Coyote society or the Sá-ni-a-k'ia-kwe), is given
for traditional reasons higher _sacred_ rank than the Mountain Lion, he
is, as a Prey Being, one degree lower, being god of the West, which
follows the North, in order of importance. Hence we find the Mountain
Lion and Coyote fetiches far more prized than any of the others, and
correspondingly more numerous. The Coyote in rank is younger brother of
the Mountain Lion, just as the Wild Cat is younger brother of the
Coyote, the Wolf of the Wild Cat, and so on to the Mole, and less
important Ground Owl. In relationship by blood, however, the yellow
Mountain Lion is accounted older brother of the blue, red, white,
spotted, and black Mountain Lions; the blue Coyote, older brother of the
red, white, yellow, mottled or spotted, and black Coyotes. So the Wild
Cat of the South is regarded as the older brother of the Wild Cats of
all the other five regions. And thus it is respectively with, the Wolf,
the Eagle, and the Mole. We find, therefore, that in the North all the
gods of Prey are represented, as well as the Mountain Lion, only they
are yellow. In the West all are represented, as well as the Coyote, only
they are blue; and thus throughout the remaining four regions.

The Mountain Lion is further believed to be the special hunter of the
Elk, Deer, and Bison (no longer an inhabitant of New Mexico). His fetich
is, therefore, preferred by the hunter of these animals. So, also, is
the fetich of the Coyote preferred by the hunter of the Mountain Sheep;
that of the Wild Cat, by the hunter of the Antelope; that of the Wolf,
by the hunter of the rare and highly-valued Ó-ho-li; those of the Eagle
and Falcon, by the hunter of Rabbits; and that of the Mole, by the
hunter of other small game.

The exception to this rule is individual, and founded upon the belief
that any one of the gods of Prey hunts to some extent the special game
of all the other gods of Prey. Hence, any person who may discover either
a concretion or natural object or an ancient fetich calling to mind or
representing any one of the Prey gods will regard it as his special
fetich, and almost invariably prefer it, since he believes it to have
been "meted to" him (ań-ik-tchi-a-k'ia) by the gods.


THEIR CUSTODIAN.

Although these fetiches are thus often individual property, members of
the Sá-ni-a-k'ia-kwe, and of the Eagle and Coyote gentes, as well as
priests included in the Prey God Brotherhood, are required to deposit
their fetiches, when not in use, with the "Keeper of the Medicine of the
Deer" (Nál-e-ton í-lo-na), who is usually, if not always, the head
member of the Eagle gens.

It rests with these memberships and these alone to perfect the fetiches
when found, and to carry on at stated intervals the ceremonials and
worship connected with them.

When not in use, either for such ceremonials or for the hunt, these
tribal fetiches are kept in a very ancient vessel of wicker-work, in the
House of the Deer Medicine (Nál-e-ton ín-kwïn), which is usually the
dwelling place of the keeper.


THE RITES OF THEIR WORSHIP.

THE DAY OF THE COUNCIL OF THE FETICHES.

The principal ceremonial connected with the worship of the Prey Beings
takes place either a little before or after the winter solstice or
national New Year.

This is due to the fact that many of the members of the above-mentioned
associations also belong to other societies, and are required on the
exact night of the New Year to perform other religious duties than those
connected with the fetich worship. Hence, the fetiches or gods of prey
have their special New Year's day, called Wé-ma-a-wa ú-pu-k'ia té-wa-ne
("The day of the council of the fetiches").

On this occasion is held the grand council of the fetiches. They are all
taken from their place of deposit and arranged, according to species and
color, in front of a symbolic slat altar on the floor of the council
chamber in a way I have attempted to indicate, as far as possible, by
the arrangement of the figures on the plates, the quadrupeds being
placed upright, while the Eagles and other winged fetiches are suspended
from the rafters by means of cotton cords. Busily engaged in observing
other ceremonials and debarred from actual entrance, until my recent
initiation into the Priesthood of the Bow, I have unfortunately never
witnessed any part of this ceremonial save by stealth, and cannot
describe it as a whole. I reserve the right, therefore, to correct any
details of the following at some future day.

The ceremonials last throughout the latter two-thirds of a night. Each
member on entering approaches the altar, and with prayer-meal in hand
addresses a long prayer to the assembly of fetiches, at the close of
which he scatters the prayer-meal over them, breathes on and from his
hand, and takes his place in the council. An opening prayer-chant,
lasting from one to three hours, is then sung at intervals, in which
various members dance to the sound of the constant rattles, imitating at
the close of each stanza the cries of the beasts represented by the
fetiches.

At the conclusion of the song, the "Keeper of the Deer Medicine," who
is master priest of the occasion, leads off in the recitation of a long
metrical ritual, in which he is followed by the two warrior priests with
shorter recitations, and by a prayer from another priest (of uncertain
rank). During these recitations, responses like those of the litany in
the Church of England may be heard from the whole assembly, and at their
close, at or after sunrise, all members flock around the altar and
repeat, prayer-meal in hand, a concluding invocation. This is followed
by a liberal feast, principally of game, which is brought in and served
by the women, with additional recitations and ceremonials. At this
feast, portions of each kind of food are taken out by every member for
the Prey gods, which portions are sacrificed by the priests, together
with the prayer plume-sticks, several of which are supplied by each
member.

CEREMONIALS OF THE HUNT.

Similar midnight ceremonials, but briefer, are observed on the occasion
of the great midwinter tribal hunts, the times for which are fixed by
the Keeper of the Deer Medicine, the master and warrior priests of the
Sá-ni-a-k'ia-kwe; and the religious observances accompanying and
following which would form one of the most interesting chapters
connected with the fetich worship of the Zuñi's.

These ceremonials and tribal hunts are more and more rarely observed, on
account of the scarcity of game and of the death a few years since of
the warrior priest above mentioned, without whose assistance they cannot
be performed. This position has been recently refilled, and I hope
during the coming winter to be enabled, not only to witness one of these
observances, but also to join in it; a privilege which will be granted
to me on account of my membership in the order of the Priesthood of the
Bow.

Any hunter, provided he be one privileged to participate in the above
described ceremonials--namely, a Prey brother--supplies himself, when
preparing for the chase, not only with his weapons, &c., but also with a
favorite or appropriate prey fetich. In order to procure the latter he
proceeds, sooner or later before starting, to the House of the Deer
Medicine (Nál-e-ton ï′n-kwïn), where the vessel containing the
fetiches is brought forth by the Keeper or some substitute, and placed
before him. Pacing in the direction of the region to which belongs the
particular fetich which he designs to use, he sprinkles into and over
the vessel sacred prayer or medicine meal. Then holding a small quantity
of the meal in his left hand, over the region of his heart, he removes
his head-band and utters the following prayer:

 Ma: Lú-k'ia yät-ton-né, hom tä-tchú, hom tsi-tá,      tom lithl hâ
Why!    This        day,  my  father,  my mother, (to)thee  here  I

  té-kwïn-te  té-ä-tip, o-ná ël-le-te-k'iá.  Hothl     yam   á-tä-tchú
unexpectedly      have trail     overtaken. Soever  for my     Fathers
                       (by) road

       Kâ-kâ A′-shi-wa-ní,  wé-ma    á-shi-wa-ní, K'ia-pin-a-hâ-í
sacred dance  priest-(gods),   Prey  priest-(gods),    the     gods
                                                    animal   beings

  awën hâ lithl      yam       te-li-ki-ná  yel-le-te-u-k'o-ná
theirs  I  here       my     sacred things  made ready (which)
                for them    (plumes, etc.,
                       literally relatives
                           of the species)

  te-li-ki-ná i-thle-a-nán  tom lithl hâ o-ná ël-le-te-k'iá;  tom
sacred things    with (me) unto  here  I road     overtaken; unto
                  bringing thee            by         (have) thee
                                        trail

lithl hâ häl-lo-wa-ti-nán  thle-a-ú  tom  an   té-ap-k'o-nan
 here  I     good fortune (ad)dress  thy own wherewith (thou
                                                 hast being)

ä′n-ti-shem-án a-k'iá   yam á-wi-te-lin  tsi-tá, hâ lithl
     wishing for hence, to my   all earth   mother  I  here

        té-u-su a-k'iá  ó-ne yâthl kwai-k'ia-ná.
  (with prayer) hence, trail  over go out shall.
(-from), prayer

    Lé-we     ú-lokh nan thla-ná tom   te-ap-k'o-nán  sho-hi-tá tom
Thus much   (of the)       great thy wherewith (thou (the) deer thy
               world                     hast being)

    pi-nan a-k'iá    a-u-la-shó.  Awen shi-nán,  awen k'iáh-kwïn
      wind     by encircle about Their    flesh their life fluid
breath (of  hence wander around.                         (blood)
     life)

 hothl án-ti-she-mán a-k'iá,   le-hok té-u-su a k'iá hâ  ó-ne
soever       wanting   hence   yonder  prayer  hence  I trail
                            (from me)           with

  kwaí k'ia-ná.
go out (shall).

Kwa-í-no-ti-nam  hothl    yam    té-ap-k'o-nán     a-k'iá   hom   tâ
   Without fail where-    thy  wherewith (thou hence (by) to me thou
  (unfailingly) soever for me      hast being)


ke-tsä-ti-k'ia-ná.     Hom   tâ té-k'o-ha-ná an-ík tchi-a-tú.
 happy (make, do). Unto me thou  (the) light  meet with (_do_).

FREE TRANSLATION.

Why (of course)--

This day, my father (or, my mother), here I, (as if) unexpectedly, meet
thee with whatsoever I have made ready of the sacred things of my
fathers, the priest gods of the sacred dances, the priest gods of the
Prey (beings). These sacred things bringing I have here overtaken thee,
and with their good fortune I here address thee. Wishing for that
whereby thou hast being, I shall go forth from here prayerfully upon the
trails of my earth-mother.

Throughout the whole of this great country, they whereby thou hast
being, the deer, by the command of thy wind of life (breath), wander
about. It is wishing for their flesh and blood that I shall go forth
yonder prayerfully out over the trails.

Let it be without fail that thou shall make me happy with that whereby
thou hast being. Grant unto me the light of thy favor.

Then scattering forth the prayer-meal in the direction he proposes to
take on the hunt, he chooses from the vessel the fetich, and pressing it
to or toward his lips breaths from, it and exclaims:

Ha! é-lah-kwá, hom tä-tchú (hom tsi-tá), lú-k'ia yät-ton-né   o-né
Ah!    Thanks,  my father,  (my mother),    this        day trails

yäthl ëh-kwé ta-pan hâ té-u-su a-k'iá,    o-né  yäthl kwaí-k'ia-ná.
 over  ahead taking  I  prayer    with  trails   over go out shall.

FREE TRANSLATION.

Ah! Thanks, my father (or, my mother), this day I shall follow (thee)
forth over the trails. Prayerfully over the trails I shall go out.

Should a party be going to the hunt together, all repair to the House of
the Deer Medicine, repeating, one by one, the above prayers and
ceremonial as the fetiches are drawn.

The fetich is then placed in a little crescent-shaped bag of buckskin
which the hunter wears suspended over the left breast (or heart) by a
buckskin thong, which is tied above the right shoulder. With it he
returns home, where he hangs it up in his room and awaits a favorable
rain or snow storm, meanwhile, if but a few days elapse, retaining the
fetich in his own house. If a hunter be not a member of the orders above
mentioned, while he must ask a member to secure a fetich for him, in the
manner described, still he is quite as privileged to use it as is the
member himself, although his chances for success are not supposed to be
so good as those of the proper owner.

During his journey out the hunter picks from the heart of the _yucca_,
or Spanish bayonet, a few thin leaves, and, on reaching the point where
an animal which he wishes to capture has rested, or whence it has newly
taken flight, he deposits, together with sacrifices hereinafter to be
mentioned, a spider knot (hó-tsa-na mu kwí-ton-ne), made of four strands
of these yucca leaves. This knot must be tied like the ordinary
cat-knot, but invariably from right to left, so that the ends of the
four strands shall spread out from the center as the legs of a spider
from its body. The knot is further characterized by being tied quite
awkwardly, as if by a mere child. It is deposited on the spot over which
the heart of the animal is supposed to have rested or passed. Then a
forked twig of cedar is cut and stuck very obliquely into the ground, so
that the prongs stand in a direction opposite to that of the course
taken by the animal, and immediately in front, as it were, of the fore
part of its heart, which is represented as entangled in the knot.

This process, in conjunction with the roar of the animal, which the
fetich represents, and which is imitated by the hunter on the conclusion
of these various ceremonials, is supposed to limit the power of flight
of the animal sought, to confine him within a narrow circle, and,
together with an additional ceremonial which is invariably performed,
even without the other, is supposed to render it a sure prey. This is
performed only after the track has been followed until either the animal
is in sight, or a place is discovered where it has lain down. Then, in
exactly the spot over which the heart of the animal is supposed to have
rested, he deposits a sacrifice of corn pollen (tâ-ón-ia), sacred black
war paint (tsú-ha-pa)--a kind of plumbago, containing shining particles,
and procured by barter from the Ha-va-su-paí (Coçoninos), and from
sacred mines toward the west--and prayer or sacred meal, made from white
seed-corn (emblematic of terrestrial life or of the foods of mankind),
fragments of shell, sand from the ocean, and sometimes turkois or
green-stone, ground very fine, and invariably carried in pouches by all
members of the sacred societies of Zuñi. To this mixture sacred shell
beads or coral are sometimes added. Then, taking out the fetich, he
breathes on it and from it, and exclaims "Si!", which signifies "the
time has come," or that everything is in readiness. The exact meaning
may, perhaps, be made clearer by an example. When all preparations have
been made complete for a ceremonial, the word "Si!", uttered by the
master priest of the occasion, is a signal for the commencement of the
ceremonials. It is therefore substituted for "Ma!", used in the
foregoing prayer, whenever any preparations, like sacrifices and
ceremonials, precede the prayer.

With this introduction he utters the accompanying prayer:

Lú-k'ia yät ton-né, hom tä-tchú k'ia-pin  hâ-í, to-pin-té yät-ton-né,
   This        day   my  father     game being,       one        day
                                     raw

to-pin-té teh-thli-na-né, tom  an  o-né yäthl u-lap-nap-té.   Hothl
      one          night  thy own trail  over  round about  However
                                             (even) though.

  yam á-wi-te-lin    tsi-tau-án to-pin-té i-te-tchu-ná   hom   tâ
to me       earth mother (with)       one         step to me thou
 your

   an-k'o-ha-ti-ná. Tom  an k'iah-kwïn an-ti-shi-ma-ná, tom  an
shalt grant(favor). Thy own      blood         wanting, thy own
                            life-fluid

shi-i-nán án-ti-shi-mán  a-k'iá     tom lithl hâ häl-lo-wa-ti-nán
    flesh       wanting,  hence to thee, here  I    good fortunes

á-thle-a-ú     thlâ á-thle-a-ú.     Lé-we    tá-kuthl po-ti′  hom
(ad)dress, treasure  (ad)dress. Thus much woods round  filled to me
                                  all the       about

  an tom yä′t-ti-na tsú-ma-k'ie-ná. Hom   á-tä-tchú,   hom ton
mine you     grasping   strong shall.  My all-fathers, to me you

án-k'o-ha-ti-na-wá.   Hom ton  té-k'o-ha-na án-ik-tchi-a-nap-tú.
    favor do (all). To me you light (favor) meet with _do_.

FREE TRANSLATION.

Si! This day, my father, thou game animal, even though thy trail one day
and one night hast (been made) round about; however, grant unto me one
step of my earth-mother. Wanting thy life-blood, wanting thy flesh,
hence I here address to thee good fortune, address to thee treasure.

All ye woods that fill (the country) round about me, (do) grasp for me
strongly. [This expression beseeches that the logs, sticks, branches,
brambles, and vines shall impede the progress of the chased animal.] My
fathers, favor me. Grant unto me the light of your favor, do.

The hunter then takes out his fetich, places its nostrils near his lips,
breaths deeply from them, as though to inhale the supposed magic breath
of the God of Prey, and puffs long and quite loudly in the general
direction whither the tracks tend. He then, utters three or four times a
long low cry of, "Hu-u-u-u!" It is supposed that the breath of the god,
breathed in temporarily by the hunter, and breathed outward toward the
heart of the pursued animal, will overcome the latter and stiffen his
limbs, so that he will fall an easy prey; and that the low roar, as of
the beast of prey, will enter his consciousness and frighten him so as
to conceal from him the knowledge of any approach.

The hunter then rises, replaces his fetich, and pursues the trail with
all possible ardor, until he either strikes the animal down by means of
his weapons, or so worries it by long-continued chase that it becomes an
easy capture. Before the "breath of life" has left the fallen deer (if
it be such), he places its fore feet back of its horns and, grasping its
mouth, holds it firmly closed, while he applies his lips to its nostrils
and breathes as much wind into them as possible, again inhaling from the
lungs of the dying animal into his own. Then letting go he exclaims:

 Ha! é-lah-kwá! hom tä-tchú, hom tcha-lé.   Hom   tâ    tâ-sho-na-né,
All!    Thanks!  my  father,  my   child. To me thou seeds (of earth)

 k'iä-she-ma án-ik-tchi-a-nap-tú.   Hom   tâ té-k'o-ha-na, o-né, yäthl
water (want)     meet (grant) do. To me thou        light trail   over
                                                        (favor)

k'ok-shi, án-ik-tchi-a-nap-tú.
    good      meet (grant) do.

FREE TRANSLATION.

Ah! Thanks, my father, my child. Grant unto me the seeds of earth
("daily bread") and the gift of water. Grant unto me the light of thy
favor, do.

As soon as the animal is dead he lays open its viscera, cuts through the
diaphragm, and makes an incision in the aorta, or in the sac which
incloses the heart. He then takes out the prey fetich, breathes on it,
and addresses it thus:

Si! Hom tä-tchú, lú-k'ia yät-ton-né, lithl k'ia-pin-hâ-i an k'iáh-kwïn
Si! My  father   this       day      here  Game animal   its life-fluid
                                                              (blood)

a-k'iá  tâs       í-k'iah-kwi-ná,  tâs i′-ke-i-nan a-k'iá
 hence thou shalt dampen thyself, thou   shalt (thy)  hence
  with,                                        heart   with

i'-te-li-a-u-ná:
       add unto:

FREE TRANSLATION.

Si! My father, this day of the blood of a game being thou shalt drink
(water thyself). With it thou shalt enlarge (add unto) thy heart:

He then dips the fetich into the blood which the sac still contains,
continuing meanwhile the prayer, as follows:

----les-tik-lé-a ak'n' hâ-i′, k'ia-pin-hâ-i an k'iáh-kwïn, likewise
cooked being, game being its fluid done raw (of life)

shí-i-nan a-k'iá hâ's lithl yam í-ke-i-nan í-te-li-a-u-ná. flesh hence I
shall here my heart add unto (enlarge). with */

FREE TRANSLATION.

--- likewise, I, a "done" being, with the blood, the flesh of a raw
being (game animal), shall enlarge (add unto) my heart.

Which finished, he scoops up, with his hand, some of the blood and sips
it; then, tearing forth the liver, ravenously devours a part of it, and
exclaims, "É-lah-kwá!" (Thanks).

While skinning and quartering the game he takes care to cut out the
_tragus_ or little inner lobe of its ear, the clot of blood within the
heart (ä′-te mul ú-li-k'o-na), and to preserve some of the hair.
Before leaving, he forms of these and of the black paint, corn pollen,
beads of turkois or turkois dust, and sacred shell or broken shell and
coral beads before mentioned, a ball, and on the spot where the animal
ceased to breathe he digs a grave, as it were, and deposits therein,
with prayer-meal, this strange mixture, meanwhile saying the following
prayer:

Si! Lú-k'ia yät-ton-né, k'ia-pin-hâ-í, tó-pin-ta yät-ton-né tó-pin-ta
Si!    This        day     game being,       one        day,      one
                                  raw

teh-thli-na-né,     lé-we tom  o-né yäthl ú-lap-na-k'ia tap-té lú-k'ia
         night, thus much thy trail  over circled about though    this
                                                 (even)

yät-ton-né  te-kwïn-té te-ä-ti-pá, tom lithl hâ an-ah-ú'-thla-k'iá.
       day     (as if)     was it thou  here  I     upward pulling
          unexpectedly                                    embraced.

    Tom lithl hâ hä′l-lo-a-ti-nán thle-a-ú.     Tom lithl hâ
To thee  here, I       good fortune  address  To thee  here  I

    ó-ne-an   thle-a-ú.     Tom lithl hâ     thlâ thle-a-ú.    Yam
corn pollen    address. To thee  here  I treasure  address. By thy
 the yellow

an-i-kwan-a-k'iá hä′l-lo-wa-ti-nan,    ó-ne-an,     thlâ
 knowledge-hence        good fortune, the yellow, treasure

        í-thle-a-u-ná   tâ thli-mon  hâ-i   í-ya-k'ia-nan  hom  an
(thyself) shall dress thou      new  being making shall be  my own
                                 (thyself)

té u-su=pé-nan a-k'iá   tâ yä′-shu-a i-tú loh    k'ia-ná.
 prayer-speech  hence thou  conversing come and go (shall).
                with,

K'ia-pin-á-hâ-i         á-te-kwi  a-k'iá. Kwa  hom i′-no-ti-nam tun
    Game beings      relative to    with. Not mine           fail  to
    raw animals in the direction
                              of
a-k'iá      tom lithl hâ hä′l-lo-wa-ti-nan,    ó-ne-an,     thlâ,
 hence, to thee  here  I        good fortune, the yellow, treasure

á-thle-a-k'iá.   Hom   tâ té-k'o-ha-na an′-ik-tchi-a-nap-tú.  O-né
   (have) all  To me thou        light        grant (meet) do. Trail
    addressed.

yäthl k'ok-shi   hom   tâ   tcháw' il-lü′p ó-na  yá-k'ia-nap-tú.
 over     good to me thou children  together with, finish, _do_.
                                             trail

FREE TRANSLATION.

Si! This day, game animal, even though, for a day and a night, thy trail
above (the earth) circled about--this day it has come to pass that I
have embraced thee upward (from it). To thee here I address good
fortune. To thee here I address the (sacred) pollen. To thee here I
address treasure. By thy (magic) knowledge dressing thyself with this
good fortune, with this yellow, with this treasure, do thou, in becoming
a new being, converse with (or, of) my prayer as you wander to and fro.

That I may become unfailing toward the Game animals all, I have here
addressed unto thee good fortune, the yellow and treasure.

Grant unto me the light of thy favor.

Grant unto me a good (journey) over the trail of life, and, together
with children, make the road of my existence, do.

During the performance of these ceremonials the fetich is usually
placed in a convenient spot to dry, and at their conclusion, with a
blessing, it is replaced in the pouch. The hunter either seeks further
for game, or making a pack of his game in its own skin by tying the legs
together and crossing them over his forehead like a burden strap,
returns home and deposits it either at the door or just within. The
women then come, and, breathing from the nostrils, take the dead animal
to the center of the room, where, placing its head toward the East, they
lay on either side of its body next to the heart an ear of corn
(significant of renewed life), and say prayers, which, though short, are
not less interesting and illustrative of the subject than those already
given, but which, unfortunately, I cannot produce word for word.

The fetich is returned to the Keeper of the Deer Medicine with
thanksgiving and a prayer, not unlike that uttered on taking it forth,
but which also I am unable to reproduce. It contains a sentence
consigning the fetich to its house with its relatives, speaking of its
quenched thirst, satisfied hunger, and the prospects of future
conquests, etc.


THEIR POWER.

It is believed that without recourse to these fetiches or to prayers and
other inducements toward the game animals, especially the deer tribe, it
would be useless to attempt the chase. Untrammeled by the Medicine of
the Deer, the powers of the fetiches, or the animals of prey
represented, the larger game is unconquerable; and no man, however great
his endurance, is accounted able to overtake or to weary them. It thus
happens that few hunters venture forth without a fetich, even though
they belong to none of the memberships heretofore mentioned. Indeed, the
wearing of these fetiches becomes almost as universal as is the wearing
of amulets and "Medicines" among other nations and Indian tribes; since
they are supposed to bring to their rightful possessors or holders, not
only success in the chase and in war (in the case of the Warriors or
Priests of the Bow), but also good fortune in other matters.

The successful hunter is typical of possession, since the products of
his chase yield him food, apparel, ornament, and distinction. It is
therefore argued with strange logic that, even though one may not be a
hunter, there must exist a connection between the possessions of the
hunter and the possessions of that one, and that principally through the
fetiches. A man therefore counts it the greatest of good fortune when he
happens to find either a natural or artificial object resembling one of
the animals of prey. He presents it to a proper member of the Prey
Brotherhood, together with the appropriate flint arrow-point and the
desirable amount of ornaments (thlâ-â) for dressing (thlé-a-k'ia-na) and
finishing (í-ya-k'ia-na), as soon as possible.



PREY GODS OF THE PRIESTHOOD OF THE BOW.


THE KNIFE-FEATHERED MONSTER, THE MOUNTAIN LION, AND THE GREAT WHITE
BEAR.

The Priesthood of the Bow possesses three fetiches, two of which are of
the We-ma-á-hâ-i, (Plate X, Fig. 2, and Plate XI, Fig. 2.) The other is
sometimes classed with these, sometimes with the higher beings, and may
be safely said to form a connecting link between the idolatry proper of
the Zuñis and their fetichism. These three beings are, the Mountain Lion
(Plate X, Pig. 2), the great White Bear (Plate XI, Fig. 2), (Áiŋ-shi
k'ó-ha-na--the god of the scalp-taking ceremonials), and the
Knife-feathered Monster (Á-tchi-a lä-to-pa), (Plate X, Fig. 1).

This curious god is the hero of hundreds of folklore tales, and the
tutelar deity of several of the societies of Zuñi. He is represented as
possessing a human form, furnished with flint knife-feathered pinions,
and tail. His dress consists of the conventional terraced
cap(representative of his dwelling-place among the clouds), and the
ornaments, badge, and garments of the Kâ′-kâ. His weapons are the
Great Flint-Knife of War, the Bow of the Skies (the Rain-bow), and the
Arrow of Lightning, and his guardians or warriors are the Great Mountain
Lion of the North and that of the Upper regions.

He was doubtless the original War God of the Zuñis, although now
secondary, in the order of war, to the two children of the Sun mentioned
at the outset.

Anciently he was inimical to man, stealing and carrying away to his city
in the skies the women of all nations, until subdued by other gods and
men of magic powers. At present he is friendly to them, rather in the
sense of an animal whose food temporarily satisfies him than in the
beneficent character of most of the gods of Zuñi.

[Illustration: SHIELD AND FETICH OF THE PRIESTHOOD OF THE BOW.]

[Illustration: SHIELD AND FETICH OF THE PRIESTHOOD OF THE BOW.]

Both the Great White Bear and the Mountain Lion of the War Priesthood
are, as well as the Knife-feathered Demon, beings of the skies. For this
reason the fetich of the Mountain Lion of the skies (of aragonite) is
preferred by a Priest of the Bow above all other kinds or colors.
Unfortunately, none of the fetiches of this priesthood are to be found
in the collections of the Bureau, and but one, with its pouch, has been
reproduced from the original, which is in my possession. It was not
presented to me with my other paraphernalia on the night of the final
ceremonials of my initiation into the Priesthood of the Bow, but some
months afterward when I was about to start on a dangerous expedition. At
this time I was charged with carefully preserving it during life as my
special fetich, and instructed in the various usages connected with
it. The other was drawn from a sketch made by myself of a fetich in
Zuñi.

These fetiches--more usually of the Mountain Lion than of the others;
very rarely of the Knife-feathered Demon--are constantly carried by the
warriors when abroad in pouches like those of the Hunters, and in a
similar manner. They are, however, not returned to the headquarters of
the society when not in use; but, being regarded, with the other
paraphernalia of their possessor, as parts of his Sá-wa-ni-k'ia, are
always kept near him.


RESEMBLANCE TO THE PREY GODS OF THE HUNT.

The perfect fetich of this order differs but little from those of the
Hunters, save that it is more elaborate and is sometimes supplied with a
minute heart of turkois bound to the side of the figure with sinew of
the Mountain Lion, with which, also, the arrow-point is invariably
attached, usually to the back or belly. The precious beads of shell,
turkois, coral, or black stone, varied occasionally with small univalves
from the ocean, are bound over all with a cotton cord. These univalves,
theoliva (tsu-i-ke-i-nan-ne=heartshell), are, above all other shells,
sacred; and each is emblematic of a god of the order. The wrist badges
of the members are also made of these shells, strung on a thong of
buckskin taken from the enemy. The arrow-point, when placed on the back
of the fetich, is emblematic of the Knife of War (Sá-wa-ni-k'ia
ä′-tchi-ën-né), and is supposed, through the power of Sá-wa-ni-k'ia or
the "magic medicine of war" (?) to protect the wearer from the enemy
from behind or from other unexpected quarters. When placed "under the
feet" or belly, it is, through the same power, considered capable of
effacing the tracks of the wearer, that his trail may not be followed by
the enemy.


THE RITES OF THEIR WORSHIP.

The ceremonial observed by a Priest of the Bow, when traveling alone in
a country where danger is to be apprehended from the enemy, may be taken
as most illustrative of the regard in which the fetiches of his order
are held.

Under such circumstances the warrior takes out his fetich from the
pouch, and, scattering a pinch or two of sacred flour toward each of the
four quarters with his right hand, holds it in his left hand over his
breast, and kneels or squats on the ground while uttering the
accompanying prayer:

Si! Lú-k'ia yät-ton-né, hom a-tä-tchú K'ia-pin-á-hâ-i    lé-we
Si!    This        day,  my  Fathers,  Animal Beings,    (all)
                                                     thus much

    í-na-kwe   pó-ti-tap-té hom ton   té-hi-a-na-wé. Ethl
(by) enemies filled through  me  ye precious render   Not
                                           (all do).



   tel-i-kwën-te thlothl        tchu-a í-na-kwe hom kwa'-hothl a-k'iá
that (in any)way  soever whom (of the)    enemy  my whatsoever   with
      unexpected

     a-tsu-ma-na-wam-i-k'ia-ná. Lú-k'ia yät-ton-né   hom to lé'-na
daring (existence) (pl.) shall.    This        day to me ye   thus

[At this point, while-still continuing the prayer, he scratches or cuts
in the earth or sands with the edge of the arrow-point, which is lashed
to the back or feet of the fetich, a line about five or six inches in
length].

    ai′-yäl-la-na-wá. Ethl  thlothl-tchu-á       í-na-kwe
shelter(pl.)shall give.  Not that whomsoever (of the) enemy
                shield

      í-pi-kwai-nam-tun   a-k'iá   hom  ton     aí-yäl-la-na-wá.
pass themselves through to hence to me   ye shelter shield (pl.)
                                                   shall (give),

[Here he scratches a second line.]       Hâk-ti-tä′sh-a-ná,
                                   Tail-long (Mountain Lion),

[scratches a third line.] Ä-tchi-a-lä′-to-pá, [scratches a fourth
                               Knife-feathered,

line] hom ton í-ke-i-nan     aí-yäl-la-na-wá.
       my  ye      heart   shelter shield(pl.)
                                  shall give.

[These lines, although made immediately in front of the speaker, relate
to the four points of the compass, the other two regions not being taken
into account, since it is impossible for the enemy to bring harm from
either above or below the plane on which the subject moves. It may be
well to add, also, that four (the number of the true fingers) is the
sacred numeral of the Zuñis, as with most all Indian tribes and many
other lower races.]

FREE TRANSLATION.

Si! This day, my fathers, ye animal gods, although this country be
filled with enemies, render me precious. That my existence may not be in
any way so ever unexpectedly dared by the enemy, thus, O! shelter give
ye to me (from them). (In order) that none of the enemy may pass through
(this line) hence, O! shelter give ye to me (from them). Long Tail
[Mountain Lion], Knife-feathered [God of the Knife Wings], O! give ye
shelter of my heart from them.

On the conclusion of this prayer the fetich is breathed upon and
replaced, or sometimes withheld until after the completion of the
war-song and other chants in which the three gods mentioned above are,
with others, named and exhorted, thereby, in the native belief,
rendering protection doubly certain. I am of course thoroughly familiar
with these war chants, rituals, etc. They abound in archaic terms and
are fraught with great interest, but belong more properly to another
department of Zuñi worship than that of the mere fetichism; as, indeed,
do most other recitations, chants, etc., of the War society, in any way
connected with this worship.

Before following the trail of an enemy, on rinding his camp, or on
overtaking and destroying him, many ceremonials are performed, many
prayers are uttered, much the same as those described relative to the
chase, save that they are more elaborate and more irrelevant to the
subject in hand. As with the Hunter, so with the Warrior, the fetich is
fed on the life-blood of the slain.



OTHER FETICHES.


FETICHES OF NAVAJO ORIGIN.

THE PONY.

Among other specimens in the collection to which these notes relate are
several pieces representing the horse and domesticated sheep, of which
Plate IX, Figs. 3 and 4, are the best examples. Both are of Navajo
importation, by which tribe they are much prized and used. The original
of Fig. 3 represents a saddled pony, and has been carefully carved from
a small block of compact white limestone veined like Italian marble.
This kind of fetich, according to the Zuñis, is manufactured at will by
privileged members of the Navajo nation, and carried about during
hunting and war excursions in "medicine bags," to insure the strength,
safety, and endurance of the animals they represent.

THE SHEEP.

Plate IX, Fig. 4, represents a superb large sheep fetich of
purplish-pink fluorspar, the eyes being inlaid with small turkoises.
Such are either carried about by the shepherds or kept in their huts,
and, together with certain ceremonials, are supposed not only to secure
fecundity of the flocks, but also to guard them against disease, the
animals of prey, or death by accident.


AMULETS AND CHARMS.

In addition to the animal fetiches heretofore described, many others are
found among the Zuñis as implements of their worship, and as amulets or
charms for a variety of purposes. The painted and plumed prayer-sticks
are of this character.

The amulets proper may be roughly divided into three classes:

1. Concretions and other strange rock formations, which, on account of
their forms, are thought to have been portions of the gods, of their
weapons, implements, and ornaments, their té-ap-ku-na-we (the
wherewithals of Being).

2. The sacred relics of the gods, which are supposed to have been given
to man directly by their possessors, in the "days of the new," and
include the "Gifts of the Gods" (yél-le-te-li-we).

3. The magic "medicines" which are used as protective, curative, and
productive agencies, and are known as the é tâ-we and á-kwa-we (the
"contained" and the "medicines").

One object, a mere concretion, will have something about it suggesting
an organ of the human body. (See, for example, Fig. 1.) It will then be
regarded as the genital organ of some ancient being, and will be highly
prized, not only as a means of approaching the spirit of the god to whom
it is supposed to have once belonged, but also as a valuable aid to the
young man in his conquests with the women, to the young woman in her
hope to bear male children.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Concretion.]

Again, certain minerals (Fig. 2), or fossils, etc. (Fig. 3), will be
regarded as belonging to, or parts of, the gods, yet will be used as
medicines of war or the chase, or by means of which water may be
produced or crops stimulated, to say nothing of their efficacy as cures,
or sources of strength, etc. For instance, Fig. 2 is of aragonite, hence
referred to the Upper regions, and therefore valuable to give efficacy
to the paint with which plume-sticks of rain prayers are decorated;
while Fig. 3, from its shape, is supposed to represent the relic of the
weapon or tooth of a god, and therefore endowed with the power of
Sá-wa-ni-k'ia, and hence is preserved for generations--with an
interminable variety of other things--in the Order of the Warriors, as
the "protective medicine of war" (Shom-i-tâ-k'ia). A little of it,
rubbed on a stone and mixed with much water, is a powerful medicine for
protection, with which the warrior fails not to anoint his whole body
before entering battle.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Mineral fetich.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--Fossil fetich.]

These amulets and implements of worship are well illustrated in the
National Museum, and the subject merits extensive treatment. The facts
connected with them will throw much light upon the mental
characteristics and beliefs of the Zuñis. At some future time I hope to
set this matter forth more fully.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTE.--It is to be regretted that the haste in which this paper was
prepared by the author, before his departure for New Mexico, to resume
his researches among the Zuñis, made it impossible for him to discuss
further this interesting subject. The abundant material in his
possession, gained from actual membership in the order or society under
discussion, would have rendered this comparatively easy under other
circumstances.--Ed.



INDEX.

Amulets of the Zuñis, 44
Animal carvings, worship, Zuñi, 11
A′shi-wa-ni or priests of Zuñi, 12
A′shi-wa or Zuñi, 9
Bear fetich, White, Zuñi, 40
Ceremonials of the hunt, Zuñi, 33
Charmes of the Zuñis, 44
Coyote fetich, Zuñi, 26
Distribution of the animals; Zuñi myth, 21
Drying of the world; Zuñi myth, 13
Eagle fetich, Zuñi, 29
Falcon fetich, Zuñi, 30
Fetich ceremonies connected with hunting, Zuñi, 33
      , Coyote; Zuñi hunter god of the west, 26
      , Eagle; Zuñi hunter god of the upper regions, 29
      , Mole; Zuñi hunter god of the lower regions, 30
      , Mountain lion; Zuñi hunter god of the north, 25, 40
      , Navajo pony, 44
               sheep, 44
      , Wild cat; Zuñi hunter god of the south, 27
      , Wolf; Zuñi hunter god of the east, 28
      , Zuñi falcon and ground owl, 30
             ground owl and falcon, 30
             knife feathered monster, 40
             white bear, 40
Fetiches, Material used by Zuñis in making, 25, 40
        , Material used by Zuñis in ornamenting, 25, 40
          of Navajo origin, 44
        , Zuñi, 12
        , Council of the, 32
        , Custodianship of the, 30
          of the prey gods of the hunt, 20
          of the prey gods of the priesthood of the bow, 40
Fetiches, Zuñi, of the prey gods of the six regions, 19
              , Place of deposit of, 31
              , Power of the, 15, 33
              , Relative value of the, 30
Fetichism, Origin of Zuñi, 12
God, Zuñi hunter, of the east, 28
                    lower regions, 30
                    north, 25
                    south, 29
                    upper regions, 29
                    west, 26
Gods, Zuñi prey, of the hunt, 20
                 priesthood of the bow, 40
                 six regions, 16
Hunting, Zuñi ceremonials preceding, 33
Iliad, the Zuñi, 12
Knife-feathered monster fetich, Zuñi, 40
Lucas, J. D., Shell gorget collected by, 29
Medicine, Iroquois myth giving origin of, 18
Mí-tsi, Zuñi myth of, 18
Mole fetich, Zuñi, 30
Mountain lion fetich, Zuñi, 25, 40
Myth, Zuñi, of distribution of the animals, 21
               drying of the world, 13
               Mí-tsi, 18
               Pó-shai-an-kia; prey god, 16
Navajo fetiches, 44
Owl fetich, Zuñi, 30
Philosophy, Zuñi, 9
Pony fetich, Navajo, 44
Po′-shai-an-k'ia; Prey god; Zuñi myth, 16
Power of the Zuñi fetiches, 15, 33
                  prey gods, 18
Prayers of the Zuñi priesthood of the bow, 42
             , Zuñi, preparatory to the hunt, 33
Prey gods, Zuñi, Ceremony attending worship of, 32
                 of the hunt, Number of the, 25
               , Origin of the, 20
               , Relation of, to others, 20
                 resemble prey gods of priesthood of the bow, 41
               , Worship of the, 33
Prey gods of the six regions,  Zuñi, Number of the, 16
                                  , Origin of the, 16
                                  , Power of the, as mediators, 18
                                  , Varieties of the, 24
                                  , Worship of the, 19
                                    priesthood of the bow, Zuñi, 40
                                  , Number of the, 40
                                  , Resemble prey god of the hunt, 41
                                  , Worship of the, 41, 43
Priesthood of the bow, Prey gods of the Zuñi, 40
           ; Zuñi Prey Brother, 19
Priests of Zuñi or A′-shi-wa-ni, 12
Sheep fetich, Navajo, 44
We-ma-we, Zuñi name for all fetiches, 12
White bear fetich, Zuñi, 40
Wolf fetich, Zuñi, 28
World, Zuñi myth of drying of the, 12
Worship of animals, Zuñi, 11
Zuñi prey gods, Ceremony attending, 32
                of priesthood of the bow, 41, 43
                the six regions, 19
Zuñi animal worship, 11
     fetiches, by F. H. Cushing, 1
     fetichism, Origin of, 12
     Iliad, 12
     mythology, 11
     or Á-shi-wi, 9
     philosophy, 9
     priest or Á-shi-wi-ni, 12





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