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Title: Latin for Beginners
Author: D'Ooge, Benjamin Leonard, 1860-1940
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber’s Notes:

This textbook uses many letters with macrons (straight line above
vowel):
  ā ē ī ō ū ȳ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū
If these characters do not display properly--in particular, if the
macrons do not appear directly above the letters--you may have an
incompatible text reader or unavailable fonts. See if you can change
the “character set” or “file encoding” to Unicode (UTF-8), or try a
different font. As a last resort, you may need to use one of the
simplified versions of this file: Latin-1 (Windows), Mac, or ASCII-7
(“typewriter” characters only).

Other combined forms occur much less often:
  ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ (single letter with breve)
  o͝o (“oo” with breve)
  ē̆ ī̆(letter with combined breve and macron)
  ā́ ī́ ṓ  ắ ĕ́ ĭ́ ŏ́ ŭ́ (letters with combined breve/macron and accent,
    used only in Pronunciation section)
Note that most accents will correctly appear _after_ a letter:
  īn´sula, ha´bitat, illī´us

To make this unpaginated e-text easier to use, each chapter’s Special
Vocabulary has been included with its chapter _in addition to_ its
original location near the end of the book. The same was done with the
irregular verbs. The vocabulary lists are at the beginning of each
chapter, as far as possible from the Exercises.

Boldface is shown by «guillemets», italics by _lines_.

The variation between “æ” (English text) and “ae” (Latin text) is as in
the original. Bracketed passages in the original are shown in [[double
brackets]].]

       *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

              LATIN FOR BEGINNERS

                       BY

           BENJAMIN L. D’OOGE, Ph.D.

 Professor in the Michigan State Normal College



               Ginn and Company
      Boston · New York · Chicago · London


  Copyright, 1909, 1911 by Benjamin L. D’Ooge
          Entered at Stationers’ Hall
              All Rights Reserved
                     013.4



               The Athenæum Press
Ginn and Company · Proprietors · Boston · U.S.A.


       *       *       *       *       *


PREFACE

To make the course preparatory to Cæsar at the same time systematic,
thorough, clear, and interesting is the purpose of this series of
lessons.

The first pages are devoted to a brief discussion of the Latin language,
its history, and its educational value. The body of the book, consisting
of seventy-nine lessons, is divided into three parts.

Part I is devoted to pronunciation, quantity, accent, and kindred
introductory essentials.

Part II carries the work through the first sixty lessons, and is devoted
to the study of forms and vocabulary, together with some elementary
constructions, a knowledge of which is necessary for the translation of
the exercises and reading matter. The first few lessons have been made
unusually simple, to meet the wants of pupils not well grounded in
English grammar.

Part III contains nineteen lessons, and is concerned primarily with the
study of syntax and of subjunctive and irregular verb forms. The last
three of these lessons constitute a review of all the constructions
presented in the book. There is abundant easy reading matter; and, in
order to secure proper concentration of effort upon syntax and
translation, no new vocabularies are introduced, but the vocabularies in
Part II are reviewed.

It is hoped that the following features will commend themselves to
teachers:

The forms are presented in their natural sequence, and are given, for
the most part, in the body of the book as well as in a grammatical
appendix. The work on the verb is intensive in character, work in other
directions being reduced to a minimum while this is going on. The forms
of the subjunctive are studied in correlation with the subjunctive
constructions.

The vocabulary has been selected with the greatest care, using Lodge’s
“Dictionary of Secondary Latin” and Browne’s “Latin Word List” as a
basis. There are about six hundred words, exclusive of proper names, in
the special vocabularies, and these are among the simplest and commonest
words in the language. More than ninety-five per cent of those chosen
are Cæsarian, and of these more than ninety per cent are used in Cæsar
five or more times. The few words not Cæsarian are of such frequent
occurrence in Cicero, Vergil, and other authors as to justify their
appearance here. But teachers desiring to confine word study to Cæsar
can easily do so, as the Cæsarian words are printed in the vocabularies
in distinctive type. Concrete nouns have been preferred to abstract,
root words to compounds and derivatives, even when the latter were of
more frequent occurrence in Cæsar. To assist the memory, related English
words are added in each special vocabulary. To insure more careful
preparation, the special vocabularies have been removed from their
respective lessons and placed by themselves. The general vocabulary
contains about twelve hundred words, and of these above eighty-five per
cent are found in Cæsar.

The syntax has been limited to those essentials which recent
investigations, such as those of Dr. Lee Byrne and his collaborators,
have shown to belong properly to the work of the first year. The
constructions are presented, as far as possible, from the standpoint of
English, the English usage being given first and the Latin compared or
contrasted with it. Special attention has been given to the
constructions of participles, the gerund and gerundive, and the
infinitive in indirect statements. Constructions having a logical
connection are not separated but are treated together.

Exercises for translation occur throughout, those for translation into
Latin being, as a rule, only half as long as those for translation into
English. In Part III a few of the commoner idioms in Cæsar are
introduced and the sentences are drawn mainly from that author. From
first to last a consistent effort is made to instill a proper regard for
Latin word order, the first principles of which are laid down early in
the course.

Selections for reading are unusually abundant and are introduced from
the earliest possible moment. These increase in number and length as the
book progresses, and, for the most part, are made an integral part of
the lessons instead of being massed at the end of the book. This
arrangement insures a more constant and thorough drill in forms and
vocabulary, promotes reading power, and affords a breathing spell
between succeeding subjects. The material is drawn from historical and
mythological sources, and the vocabulary employed includes but few words
not already learned. The book closes with a continued story which
recounts the chief incidents in the life of a Roman boy. The last
chapters record his experiences in Cæsar’s army, and contain much
information that will facilitate the interpretation of the Commentaries.
The early emphasis placed on word order and sentence structure, the
simplicity of the syntax, and the familiarity of the vocabulary, make
the reading selections especially useful for work in sight translation.

Reviews are called for at frequent intervals, and to facilitate this
branch of the work an Appendix of Reviews has been prepared, covering
both the vocabulary and the grammar.

The illustrations are numerous, and will, it is hoped, do much to
stimulate interest in the ancient world and to create true and lasting
impressions of Roman life and times.

A consistent effort has been made to use simple language and clear
explanation throughout.

As an aid to teachers using this book a “Teacher’s Manual” has been
prepared, which contains, in addition to general suggestions, notes on
each lesson.

The author wishes to express his gratitude to the numerous teachers who
tested the advance pages in their classes, and, as a result of their
experience, have given much valuable aid by criticism and suggestion.
Particular acknowledgments are due to Miss A. Susan Jones of the Central
High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan; to Miss Clara Allison of the High
School at Hastings, Michigan; and to Miss Helen B. Muir and Mr. Orland
O. Norris, teachers of Latin in this institution.

  BENJAMIN L. D’OOGE

    MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL COLLEGE



CONTENTS

Lesson                                                              Page

  TO THE STUDENT--By way of Introduction                             1-4

PART I. THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN

  ALPHABET, SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS, SYLLABLES, QUANTITY, ACCENT,
    HOW TO READ LATIN 5-11

PART II. WORDS AND FORMS

      I-VI. FIRST PRINCIPLES--_Subject and Predicate,
            Inflection, Number, Nominative Subject, Possessive
            Genitive, Agreement of Verb, Direct Object,
            Indirect Object, etc._--DIALOGUE                       12-24

  VII-VIII. FIRST OR _Ā_-DECLENSION--_Gender, Agreement of
            Adjectives, Word Order_                                25-30

      IX-X. SECOND OR _O_-DECLENSION--GENERAL RULES FOR
            DECLENSION--_Predicate Noun, Apposition_--DIALOGUE     31-35

        XI. ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS         36-37

       XII. NOUNS IN «-ius» AND «-ium»--GERMĀNIA                   38-39

      XIII. SECOND DECLENSION (_Continued_)--Nouns in «-er» and
            «-ir»--ITALIA--DIALOGUE                                39-41

       XIV. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS                          42-43

        XV. ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH--_Cause, Means, Accompaniment,
            Manner_--THE ROMANS PREPARE FOR WAR                    44-46

       XVI. THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES                          46-47

      XVII. THE DEMONSTRATIVE «is, ea, id»--DIALOGUE               48-50

     XVIII. CONJUGATION--Present, Imperfect, and Future of «sum»--
            DIALOGUE                                               51-53

       XIX. PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF «amō» AND «moneō»         54-56

        XX. IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF «amō» AND «moneō»--
            _Meaning of the Imperfect_--NIOBE AND HER CHILDREN     56-57

       XXI. FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF «amō» AND «moneō»--
            NIOBE AND HER CHILDREN (_Concluded_)                   58-59

      XXII. REVIEW OF VERBS--_The Dative with Adjectives_--
            CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS                                59-61

     XXIII. PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF «regō» AND «audiō»--
           CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS (_Concluded_)                   61-63

      XXIV. IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF «regō» AND «audiō»--
            _The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs_           63-65

       XXV. FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF «regō» AND «audiō»         65-66

      XXVI. VERBS IN «-iō»--Present, Imperfect, and Future Active
            Indicative of «capiō»--_The Imperative_                66-68

     XXVII. PASSIVE VOICE--Present, Imperfect, and Future
            Indicative of «amō» and «moneō»--PERSEUS AND
            ANDROMEDA                                              68-71

    XXVIII. PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE
            OF «regō» AND «audiō»--PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA
            (_Continued_)                                          72-73

      XXIX. PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE
            OF «-iō» VERBS--PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND
            IMPERATIVE                                             73-75

       XXX. SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS--THE ABLATIVE
            DENOTING FROM--_Place from Which, Separation,
            Personal Agent_                                        75-78

      XXXI. PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF «sum»--
           DIALOGUE                                                79-81

     XXXII. PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR
            CONJUGATIONS--_Meanings of the Perfect_--PERSEUS
            AND ANDROMEDA (_Continued_)                            81-83

    XXXIII. PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE--
           PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE                               84-85

     XXXIV. REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE--PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA
            (_Concluded_)                                          86-87

      XXXV. PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE--PERFECT PASSIVE
            AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE                           88-90

     XXXVI. REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS--_Prepositions, Yes-or-No
            Questions_                                             90-93

    XXXVII. CONJUGATION OF «possum»--_The Infinitive used as in
            English_--_Accusative Subject of an Infinitive_--
            THE FAITHLESS TARPEIA                                  93-96

   XXXVIII. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN--
            _Agreement of the Relative_--THE FAITHLESS TARPEIA
            (_Concluded_)                                         97-101

 XXXIX-XLI. THE THIRD DECLENSION--Consonant Stems                101-106

      XLII. REVIEW LESSON--TERROR CIMBRICUS                          107

     XLIII. THIRD DECLENSION--_I_-Stems                          108-110

      XLIV. IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION--
            GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION--THE FIRST BRIDGE
            OVER THE RHINE                                       111-112

       XLV. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION--THE ROMANS
            INVADE THE ENEMY’S COUNTRY                           113-115

      XLVI. THE FOURTH OR _U_-DECLENSION                         116-117

     XLVII. EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE--_Place to Which, Place from
            Which, Place at or in Which, the Locative_--
            Declension of «domus»--DÆDALUS AND ICARUS            117-121

    XLVIII. THE FIFTH OR _Ē_-DECLENSION--_Ablative of Time_
           --DÆDALUS AND ICARUS (_Continued_)                    121-123

      XLIX. PRONOUNS--Personal and Reflexive Pronouns--DÆDALUS
            AND ICARUS (_Concluded_)                             123-126

         L. THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN «ipse» AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE
            «īdem»--HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE                 126-127

        LI. THE DEMONSTRATIVES «hic», «iste», «ille»--A GERMAN
            CHIEFTAIN ADDRESSES HIS FOLLOWERS--HOW HORATIUS
            HELD THE BRIDGE (_Continued_)                        128-130

       LII. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS--HOW HORATIUS HELD THE
            BRIDGE (_Concluded_)                                 130-132

      LIII. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES                     133-135

       LIV. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES--_Ablative with
            Comparatives_                                        135-136

        LV. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (_Continued_)--
            Declension of «plūs»                                 137-138

       LVI. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (_Concluded_)--
            _Ablative of the Measure of Difference_              138-139

      LVII. FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS                  140-142

     LVIII. NUMERALS--_Partitive Genitive_                       142-144

       LIX. NUMERALS (_Continued_)--_Accusative of Extent_--
            CÆSAR IN GAUL                                        144-146

        LX. DEPONENT VERBS--_Prepositions with the Accusative_   146-147


PART III. CONSTRUCTIONS

       LXI. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD--Inflection of the Present--
            _Indicative and Subjunctive Compared_                148-152

      LXII. THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE 152-153

     LXIII. INFLECTION OF THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE--_Sequence
            of Tenses_                                           153-155

      LXIV. INFLECTION OF THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT
            SUBJUNCTIVE--_Substantive Clauses of Purpose_        156-159

       LXV. SUBJUNCTIVE OF «possum»--_Verbs of Fearing_          160-161

      LXVI. THE PARTICIPLES--Tenses and Declension               161-164

     LXVII. THE IRREGULAR VERBS «volō», «nōlō», «mālō»--
           _Ablative Absolute_                                   164-166

    LXVIII. THE IRREGULAR VERB «fīō»--_Subjunctive of Result_    167-168

      LXIX. SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC--_Predicate
            Accusative_                                          169-171

       LXX. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH «cum»--_Ablative of
            Specification_                                       171-173

      LXXI. VOCABULARY REVIEW--_Gerund and Gerundive_--
           _Predicate Genitive_                                  173-177

     LXXII. THE IRREGULAR VERB «eō»--_Indirect Statements_       177-180

    LXXIII. VOCABULARY REVIEW--THE IRREGULAR VERB «ferō»--
            _Dative with Compounds_                              181-183

     LXXIV. VOCABULARY REVIEW--_Subjunctive in Indirect
            Questions_                                           183-185

      LXXV. VOCABULARY REVIEW--_Dative of Purpose or End for
            Which_                                               185-186

     LXXVI. VOCABULARY REVIEW--_Genitive and Ablative of
            Quality or Description_                              186-188

    LXXVII. REVIEW OF AGREEMENT--_Review of the Genitive,
            Dative, and Accusative_                              189-190

   LXXVIII. REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE                               191-192

     LXXIX. REVIEW OF THE SYNTAX OF VERBS                        192-193


READING MATTER

  INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS                                       194-195

  THE LABORS OF HERCULES                                         196-203

  P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY                204-215


APPENDIXES AND VOCABULARIES

  APPENDIX I. TABLES OF DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS,
    ETC.                                                         226-260

  APPENDIX II. RULES OF SYNTAX                                   261-264

  APPENDIX III. REVIEWS                                          265-282

  SPECIAL VOCABULARIES                                           283-298

  LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY                                       299-331

  ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY                                       332-343


INDEX                                                            344-348



LATIN FOR BEGINNERS


TO THE STUDENT--BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

«What is Latin?» If you will look at the map of Italy on the opposite
page, you will find near the middle of the peninsula and facing the west
coast a district called Latium,[1] and Rome its capital. The Latin
language, meaning the language of Latium, was spoken by the ancient
Romans and other inhabitants of Latium, and Latin was the name applied
to it after the armies of Rome had carried the knowledge of her language
far beyond its original boundaries. As the English of to-day is not
quite the same as that spoken two or three hundred years ago, so Latin
was not always the same at all times, but changed more or less in the
course of centuries. The sort of Latin you are going to learn was in use
about two thousand years ago. And that period has been selected because
the language was then at its best and the greatest works of Roman
literature were being produced. This period, because of its supreme
excellence, is called the Golden Age of Roman letters.

    [Footnote 1: Pronounce _Lā´shĭ-ŭm_.]

«The Spread of Latin.» For some centuries after Rome was founded, the
Romans were a feeble and insignificant people, their territory was
limited to Latium, and their existence constantly threatened by warlike
neighbors. But after the third century before Christ, Rome’s power grew
rapidly. She conquered all Italy, then reached out for the lands across
the sea and beyond the Alps, and finally ruled over the whole ancient
world. The empire thus established lasted for more than four hundred
years. The importance of Latin increased with the growth of Roman
power, and what had been a dialect spoken by a single tribe became the
universal language. Gradually the language changed somewhat, developing
differently in different countries. In Italy it has become Italian, in
Spain Spanish, and in France French. All these nations, therefore, are
speaking a modernized form of Latin.

«The Romans and the Greeks.» In their career of conquest the Romans came
into conflict with the Greeks. The Greeks were inferior to the Romans in
military power, but far superior to them in culture. They excelled in
art, literature, music, science, and philosophy. Of all these pursuits
the Romans were ignorant until contact with Greece revealed to them the
value of education and filled them with the thirst for knowledge. And so
it came about that while Rome conquered Greece by force of arms, Greece
conquered Rome by force of her intellectual superiority and became her
schoolmaster. It was soon the established custom for young Romans to
go to Athens and to other centers of Greek learning to finish their
training, and the knowledge of the Greek language among the educated
classes became universal. At the same time many cultured Greeks--poets,
artists, orators, and philosophers--flocked to Rome, opened schools, and
taught their arts. Indeed, the preëminence of Greek culture became so
great that Rome almost lost her ambition to be original, and her writers
vied with each other in their efforts to reproduce in Latin what was
choicest in Greek literature. As a consequence of all this, the
civilization and national life of Rome became largely Grecian, and to
Greece she owed her literature and her art.

«Rome and the Modern World.» After conquering the world, Rome impressed
her language, laws, customs of living, and modes of thinking upon the
subject nations, and they became Roman; and the world has remained
largely Roman ever since. Latin continued to live, and the knowledge of
Latin was the only light of learning that burned steadily through the
dark ages that followed the downfall of the Roman Empire. Latin was the
common language of scholars and remained so even down to the days of
Shakespeare. Even yet it is more nearly than any other tongue the
universal language of the learned. The life of to-day is much nearer
the life of ancient Rome than the lapse of centuries would lead one to
suppose. You and I are Romans still in many ways, and if Cæsar and
Cicero should appear among us, we should not find them, except for dress
and language, much unlike men of to-day.

«Latin and English.» Do you know that more than half of the words in the
English dictionary are Latin, and that you are speaking more or less
Latin every day? How has this come about? In the year 1066 William the
Conqueror invaded England with an army of Normans. The Normans spoke
French--which, you remember, is descended from Latin--and spread their
language to a considerable extent over England, and so Norman-French
played an important part in the formation of English and forms a large
proportion of our vocabulary. Furthermore, great numbers of almost pure
Latin words have been brought into English through the writings of
scholars, and every new scientific discovery is marked by the addition
of new terms of Latin derivation. Hence, while the simpler and commoner
words of our mother tongue are Anglo-Saxon, and Anglo-Saxon forms the
staple of our colloquial language, yet in the realms of literature, and
especially in poetry, words of Latin derivation are very abundant. Also
in the learned professions, as in law, medicine, and engineering, a
knowledge of Latin is necessary for the successful interpretation of
technical and scientific terms.

«Why study Latin?» The foregoing paragraphs make it clear why Latin
forms so important a part of modern education. We have seen that our
civilization rests upon that of Greece and Rome, and that we must look
to the past if we would understand the present. It is obvious, too, that
the knowledge of Latin not only leads to a more exact and effective use
of our own language, but that it is of vital importance and of great
practical value to any one preparing for a literary or professional
career. To this it may be added that the study of Latin throws a flood
of light upon the structure of language in general and lays an excellent
foundation for all grammatical study. Finally, it has been abundantly
proved that there is no more effective means of strengthening the mind
than by the earnest pursuit of this branch of learning.

«Review Questions.» Whence does Latin get its name? Where is Latium?
Where is Rome? Was Latin always the same? What sort of Latin are we to
study? Describe the growth of Rome’s power and the spread of Latin. What
can you say of the origin of Italian, French, and Spanish? How did the
ancient Greeks and Romans compare? How did Greece influence Rome? How
did Rome influence the world? In what sense are we Romans still? What
did Latin have to do with the formation of English? What proportion of
English words are of Latin origin, and what kind of words are they? Why
should we study Latin?



PART I

THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN


THE ALPHABET

«1.» The Latin alphabet contains the same letters as the English except
that it has no _w_ and no _j_.

«2.» The vowels, as in English, are _a, e, i, o, u, y_. The other
letters are consonants.

«3.» _I_ is used both as a vowel and as a consonant. Before a vowel in
the same syllable it has the value of a consonant and is called _I
consonant_.

Thus in Iū-li-us the first _i_ is a consonant, the second a vowel.


SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS[1]

    [Footnote 1: N.B. The sounds of the letters are best learned by
    hearing them correctly pronounced. The matter in this section is,
    therefore, intended for reference rather than for assignment as a
    lesson. As a first step it is suggested that the teacher pronounce
    the examples in class, the pupils following.]

«4.» Latin was not pronounced like English. The Romans at the beginning
of the Christian era pronounced their language substantially as
described below.

«5.» The vowels have the following sounds:

  VOWELS[2]                         LATIN EXAMPLES

  ā as in _father_                  hāc, stās
  ă like the first _a_ in _aha´_,
    never as in _hat_               ă´-măt, că-nās
  ē as in _they_                    tē´-lă, mē´-tă
  ĕ as in _met_                     tĕ´-nĕt, mĕr´-cēs
  ī as in _machine_                 sĕr´-tī, prā´-tī
  ĭ as in _bit_                     sĭ´-tĭs, bĭ´-bī
  ō as in _holy_                    Rō´-mă, ō´-rĭs
  ŏ as in _wholly_, never as in
    _hot_                           mŏ´-dŏ, bŏ´-nōs
  ū as in _rude_, or as _oo_ in
    _boot_                          ū´-mŏr, tū´-bĕr
  ŭ as in _full_, or as _oo_ in
    _foot_                          ŭt, tū´-tŭs

NOTE. It is to be observed that there is a decided difference in sound,
except in the case of _a_, between the long and the short vowels. It is
not merely a matter of _quantity_ but also of _quality_.

    [Footnote 2: Long vowels are marked ¯, short ones ˘.]

«6.» In «diphthongs» (two-vowel sounds) both vowels are heard in a
single syllable.

  DIPHTHONGS                        LATIN EXAMPLES

  «ae» as _ai_ in _aisle_           tae´-dae
  «au» as _ou_ in _out_             gau´-dĕt
  «ei» as _ei_ in _eight_           dein´-dĕ
  «eu» as _ĕ´o͝o_ (a short _e_
    followed by a short _u_ in
    one syllable)                   seu
  «oe» like _oi_ in _toil_          foe´-dŭs
  «ui» like _o͝o´ĭ_ (a short _u_
    followed by a short _i_ in one
    syllable. Cf. English _we_)     cui, huic

NOTE. Give all the vowels and diphthongs their proper sounds and do not
slur over them in unaccented syllables, as is done in English.

«7.» «Consonants» are pronounced as in English, except that

  CONSONANTS                        LATIN EXAMPLES

  «c» is always like _c_ in _cat_,
    never as in _cent_              că´-dō, cĭ´-bŭs, cē´-nă
  «g» is always like _g_ in _get_,
    never as in _gem_               gĕ´-mō, gĭg´-nō
  «i consonant» is always like
    _y_ in _yes_                    iăm, iŏ´-cŭs
  «n» before _c, qu_, or _g_ is
    like _ng_ in _sing_ (compare
    the sound of _n_ in _anchor_)   ăn´-cŏ-ră (ang´-ko-ra)
  «qu», «gu», and sometimes «su»
    before a vowel have the sound
    of _qw, gw_, and _sw_. Here
    _u_ has the value of consonant
    _v_ and is not counted a vowel  ĭn´-quĭt, quī, lĭn´-guă,
                                      săn´-guĭs, suā´-dĕ-ō
  «s» is like _s_ in _sea_, never
    as in _ease_                    rŏ´-să, ĭs
  «t» is always like _t_ in
    _native_, never as in _nation_  ră´-tĭ-ō, nā´-tĭ-ō
  «v» is like _w_ in _wine_, never
    as in _vine_                    «vī´-nŭm», «vĭr»
  «x» has the value of two
    consonants (_cs_ or _gs_) and
    is like _x_ in _extract_, not
    as in _exact_                   «ĕx´-trā», «ĕx-āc´-tŭs»
  «bs» is like _ps_ and «bt» like
    _pt_                            «ŭrbs», «ŏb-tĭ´-nĕ-ō»
  «ch», «ph», and «th» are like
    _c_, _p_, _t_                   «pŭl´-chĕr», «Phoe´-bē»,
                                      «thĕ-ā´-trŭm»

    _a._ In combinations of consonants give each its distinct sound.
    Doubled consonants should be pronounced with a slight pause between
    the two sounds. Thus pronounce _tt_ as in _rat-trap_, not as in
    _rattle_; _pp_ as in _hop-pole_, not as in _upper_. Examples,
    «mĭt´-tō», «Ăp´pĭ-ŭs», «bĕl´-lŭm.»


SYLLABLES

«8.» A Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs.
Thus «aes-tā´-tĕ» has three syllables, «au-dĭ-ĕn´-dŭs» has four.

    _a._ Two vowels with a consonant between them never make one
    syllable, as is so often the case in English. Compare English
    _inside_ with Latin īn-sī´-dĕ.

«9.» Words are divided into syllables as follows:

1. A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second. Thus
«ă-mā´-bĭ-lĭs», «mĕ-mŏ´-rĭ-ă», «ĭn-tĕ´-rĕ-ā», «ă´-bĕst»,
«pĕ-rē´-gĭt».[3]

    [Footnote 3: In writing and printing it is customary to divide
    the parts of a compound, as «inter-eā», «ab-est», «sub-āctus»,
    «per-ēgit», contrary to the correct phonetic rule.]

2. Combinations of two or more consonants:

    _a._ A consonant followed by _l_ or _r_ goes with the _l_ or _r_.
    Thus «pū´-blĭ-cŭs», «ă´-grī».

EXCEPTION. Prepositional compounds of this nature, as also _ll_ and
_rr_, follow rule _b_. Thus «ăb´-lŭ-ō», «ăb-rŭm´-pō», «ĭl´-lĕ»,
«fĕr´-rŭm».

    _b._ In all other combinations of consonants the first consonant
    goes with the preceding vowel.[4] Thus «măg´-nŭs», «ĕ-gĕs´-tās»,
    «vĭc-tō´-rĭ-ă», «hŏs´-pĕs», «ăn´-nŭs», «sŭ-bāc´-tŭs».

    [Footnote 4: The combination nct is divided nc-t, as fūnc-tŭs,
    sānc-tŭs.]

3. The last syllable of a word is called the _ul´-ti-ma_; the one
next to the last, the _pe-nult´_; the one before the penult, the
_an´-te-pe-nult´_.

«10.» EXERCISE

Divide the words in the following passage into syllables and pronounce
them, placing the accent as indicated:

Vā́dĕ ăd fŏrmī́căm, Ō pĭ́gĕr, ĕt cōnsī́dĕrā vĭ́ās ĕ́iŭs ĕt dĭ́scĕ săpĭĕ́ntĭăm:
quae cŭm nōn hắbĕăt dŭ́cĕm nĕc praecĕptṓrĕm nĕc prī́ncĭpĕm, pắrăt ĭn
aestā́tĕ cĭ́bŭm sĭ́bĭ ĕt cŏ́ngrĕgăt ĭn mĕ́ssĕ quŏd cŏ́mĕdăt.

[[Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise: which,
having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer
and gathereth her food in the harvest.]]


QUANTITY

«11.» The quantity of a vowel or a syllable is the time it takes to
pronounce it. Correct pronunciation and accent depend upon the proper
observance of quantity.

«12.» «Quantity of Vowels.» Vowels are either long (¯) or short (˘). In
this book the long vowels are marked. Unmarked vowels are to be
considered short.

  1. A vowel is short before another vowel or _h_; as «pŏ-ē´-ta»,
  «tră´-hō».

  2. A vowel is short before _nt_ and _nd_, before final _m_ or _t_,
  and, except in words of one syllable, before final _l_ or _r_. Thus
  «a´-mănt», «a-măn´-dus», «a-mā´-băm», «a-mā´-băt», «a´-ni-măl»,
  «a´-mŏr».

  3. A vowel is long before _nf_, _ns_, _nx_, and _nct_. Thus
  «īn´-fe-rō», «re´-gēns», «sān´-xī», «sānc´-tus».

  4. Diphthongs are always long, and are not marked.

«13.» «Quantity of Syllables.» Syllables are either long or short, and
their quantity must be carefully distinguished from that of vowels.

  1. «A syllable is short»,

    _a._ If it ends in a short vowel; as «ă´-mō», «pĭ´-grĭ».

NOTE. In final syllables the short vowel may be followed by a final
consonant. Thus the word «mĕ-mŏ´-rĭ-ăm» contains four short syllables.
In the first three a short vowel ends the syllable, in the last the
short vowel is followed by a final consonant.

  2. «A syllable is long»,

    _a._ If it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, as «cū´-rō»,
    «poe´-nae», «aes-tā´-te».

    _b._ If it ends in a consonant which is followed by another
    consonant, as «cor´-pus», «mag´-nus».

NOTE. The vowel in a long syllable may be either long or short, and
should be pronounced accordingly. Thus in «ter´-ra», «in´-ter», the
first syllable is long, but the vowel in each case is short and should
be given the short sound. In words like «saxum» the first syllable is
long because _x_ has the value of two consonants (_cs_ or _gs_).

  3. In determining quantity _h_ is not counted a consonant.

NOTE. Give about twice as much time to the long syllables as to the
short ones. It takes about as long to pronounce a short vowel plus a
consonant as it does to pronounce a long vowel or a diphthong, and so
these quantities are considered equally long. For example, it takes
about as long to say «cŭr´-rō» as it does «cū´-rō», and so each of these
first syllables is long. Compare «mŏl´-lis» and «mō´-lis», «ā-mĭs´-sī»
and «ā-mi´-sī».


ACCENT

«14.» Words of two syllables are accented on the first, as «mēn´-sa»,
«Cae´-sar».

«15.» Words of more than two syllables are accented on the penult if the
penult is long. If the penult is short, accent the antepenult. Thus
«mo-nē´-mus», «re´-gi-tur», «a-gri´-co-la», «a-man´-dus».

NOTE. Observe that the position of the accent is determined by the
length of the _syllable_ and not by the length of the vowel in the
syllable. (Cf. §13.2, Note.)

«16.» Certain little words called _enclit´ics_[5] which have no separate
existence, are added to and pronounced with a preceding word. The most
common are «-que», _and_; «-ve», _or_; and «-ne», the question sign.
The syllable before an enclitic takes the accent, regardless of its
quantity. Thus «populus´que», «dea´que», «rēgna´ve», «audit´ne».

    [Footnote 5: Enclitic means _leaning back_, and that is, as you see,
    just what these little words do. They cannot stand alone and so they
    lean back for support upon the preceding word.]

HOW TO READ LATIN

«17.» To read Latin well is not so difficult, if you begin right.
Correct habits of reading should be formed now. Notice the quantities
carefully, especially the quantity of the penult, to insure your getting
the accent on the right syllable. (Cf. §15.) Give every vowel its
proper sound and every syllable its proper length. Then bear in mind
that we should read Latin as we read English, in phrases rather than in
separate words. Group together words that are closely connected in
thought. No good reader halts at the end of each word.

«18.» Read the stanzas of the following poem by Longfellow, one at a
time, first the English and then the Latin version. The syllables
inclosed in parentheses are to be slurred or omitted to secure
smoothness of meter.

EXCELSIOR [[HIGHER]]! [6]

  The shades of night were falling fast,
  As through an Alpine village passed
  A youth, who bore, ’mid snow and ice,
  A banner with the strange device,
           Excelsior!

      Cadēbant noctis umbrae, dum
      Ibat per vīcum Alpicum
      Gelū nivequ(e) adolēscēns,
      Vēxillum cum signō ferēns,
               Excelsior!

  His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
  Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
  And like a silver clarion rung
  The accents of that unknown tongue,
           Excelsior!

      Frōns trīstis, micat oculus
      Velut ē vāgīnā gladius;
      Sonantque similēs tubae
      Accentūs lingu(ae) incognitae,
               Excelsior!

  In happy homes he saw the light
  Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
  Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
  And from his lips escaped a groan,
           Excelsior!

      In domibus videt clārās
      Focōrum lūcēs calidās;
      Relucet glaciēs ācris,
      Et rumpit gemitūs labrīs,
               Excelsior!

  “Try not the Pass!” the old man said;
  “Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
  The roaring torrent is deep and wide!”
  And loud that clarion voice replied,
        Excelsior!

      Dīcit senex, “Nē trānseās!
      Suprā nigrēscit tempestās;
      Lātus et altus est torrēns.”
      Clāra vēnit vōx respondēns,
            Excelsior!

  At break of day, as heavenward
  The pious monks of Saint Bernard
  Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
  A voice cried through the startled air,
        Excelsior!

      Iam lūcēscēbat, et frātrēs
      Sānctī Bernardī vigilēs
      Ōrābant precēs solitās,
      Cum vōx clāmāvit per aurās,
            Excelsior!

  A traveler, by the faithful hound,
  Half-buried in the snow was found,
  Still grasping in his hand of ice
  That banner with the strange device,
        Excelsior!

      Sēmi-sepultus viātor
      Can(e) ā fīdō reperītur,
      Comprēndēns pugnō gelidō
      Illud vēxillum cum signō,
            Excelsior!

  There in the twilight cold and gray,
  Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
  And from the sky, serene and far,
  A voice fell, like a falling star,
        Excelsior!


      Iacet corpus exanimum
      Sed lūce frīgidā pulchrum;
      Et caelō procul exiēns
      Cadit vōx, ut Stella cadēns,
          Excelsior!

    [Footnote 6: Translation by C. W. Goodchild in _Praeco Latinus_,
    October, 1898.]



PART II

WORDS AND FORMS


LESSON I

FIRST PRINCIPLES

«19.» «Subject and Predicate.»
  1. Latin, like English, expresses thoughts by means of sentences.
  A sentence is a combination of words that expresses a thought, and in
  its simplest form is the statement of a single fact. Thus,

  _Galba is a farmer_
    «Galba est agricola»
  _The sailor fights_
    «Nauta pugnat»

In each of these sentences there are two parts:

  SUBJECT               PREDICATE
    _Galba_               _is a farmer_
      «Galba»
    _The sailor_          _fights_
      «Nauta»               «pugnat»

  2. The subject is that person, place, or thing about which something
  is said, and is therefore a _noun_ or some word which can serve the
  same purpose.

    _a._ Pronouns, as their name implies (_pro_, “instead of,” and
    _noun_), often take the place of nouns, usually to save repeating
    the same noun, as, _Galba is a farmer; «he» is a sturdy fellow_.

  3. The predicate is that which is said about the subject, and consists
  of a verb with or without modifiers.

    _a._ A verb is a word which asserts something (usually an act)
    concerning a person, place, or thing.

«20.» «The Object.» In the two sentences, _The boy hit the ball_ and
_The ball hit the boy_, the same words are used, but the meaning is
different, and depends upon the order of the words. The «doer» of the
act, that about which something is said, is, as we have seen above, the
«subject». «That to which something is done» is the «direct object» of
the verb. _The boy hit the ball_ is therefore analyzed as follows:

    SUBJECT        PREDICATE
                 /-----------\
    _The boy_    _hit the ball_
               (verb)  (direct object)

    _a._ A verb whose action passes over to the object directly, as in
    the sentence above, is called a «transitive verb». A verb which does
    not admit of a direct object is called «intransitive», as, _I walk_,
    _he comes_.

«21.» «The Copula.» The verb _to be_ in its different forms--_are_,
_is_, _was_, etc.--does not tell us anything about the subject; neither
does it govern an object. It simply connects the subject with the word
or words in the predicate that possess a distinct meaning. Hence it is
called the «copula», that is, _the joiner_ or _link_.

«22.» In the following sentences pronounce the Latin and name the
_nouns, verbs, subjects, objects, predicates, copulas_:

  1. «America est patria mea»
     _America is fatherland my_

  2. «Agricola fīliam amat»
     _(The) farmer (his) daughter loves_

  3. «Fīlia est Iūlia»
     _(His) daughter is Julia_

  4. «Iūlia et agricola sunt in īnsulā»
     _Julia and (the) farmer are on (the) island_

  5. «Iūlia aquam portat»
     _Julia water carries_

  6. «Rosam in comīs habet»
     _(A) rose in (her) hair (she) has_

  7. «Iūlia est puella pulchra»
     _Julia is (a) girl pretty_

  8. «Domina fīliam pulchram habet»
     _(The) lady (a) daughter beautiful has_

    _a._ The sentences above show that Latin does not express some words
    which are necessary in English. First of all, _Latin has no article
    «the» or «a»_; thus _«agricola»_ may mean _the farmer, a farmer_,
    or simply _farmer_. Then, too, the personal pronouns, _I, you, he,
    she_, etc., and the possessive pronouns, _my, your, his, her_, etc.,
    are not expressed if the meaning of the sentence is clear without
    them.


LESSON II

FIRST PRINCIPLES (_Continued_)

«23.» «Inflection.» Words may change their forms to indicate some change
in sense or use, as, _is, are_; _was, were; who, whose, whom; farmer,
farmer’s; woman, women_. This is called «inflection». The inflection of
a noun, adjective, or pronoun is called its «declension», that of a verb
its «conjugation».

«24.» «Number.» Latin, like English, has two numbers, singular and
plural. In English we usually form the plural by adding _-s_ or _-es_ to
the singular. So Latin changes the singular to the plural by changing
the ending of the word. Compare

  «Naut-a pugnat»
    _The sailor fights_
  «Naut-ae pugnant»
    _The sailors fight_

«25.» RULE. _Nouns that end in «-a» in the singular end in «-ae» in the
plural_.

«26.» Learn the following nouns so that you can give the English for the
Latin or the Latin for the English. Write the plural of each.

  «agri´cola», _farmer_ (agriculture)[1]
  «aqua», _water_ (aquarium)
  «causa», _cause, reason_
  «do´mina», _lady of the house, mistress_ (dominate)
  «filia», _daughter_ (filial)
  «fortū´na», _fortune_
  «fuga», _flight_ (fugitive)
  «iniū´ria», _wrong, injury_
  «lūna», _moon_ (lunar)
  «nauta», _sailor_ (nautical)
  «puel´la», _girl_
  «silva», forest (silvan)
  «terra», _land_ (terrace)

    [Footnote 1: The words in parentheses are English words related to
    the Latin. When the words are practically identical, as «causa»,
    _cause_, no comparison is needed.]

«27.» Compare again the sentences

  «Nauta pugna-t»
    _The sailor fights_
  «Nautae pugna-nt»
    _The sailors fight_

In the first sentence the verb «pugna-t» is in the third person
singular, in the second sentence «pugna-nt» is in the third person
plural.

«28.» RULE. «Agreement of Verb.» _A finite verb must always be in the
same person and number as its subject._

«29.» RULE. _In the conjugation of the Latin verb the third person
singular active ends in «-t», the third person plural in «-nt». The
endings which show the person and number of the verb are called
«personal endings»._

«30.» Learn the following verbs and write the plural of each. The
personal pronouns _he_, _she_, _it_, etc., which are necessary in the
inflection of the English verb, are not needed in the Latin, because the
personal endings take their place. Of course, if the verb’s subject is
expressed we do not translate the personal ending by a pronoun; thus
«nauta pugnat» is translated _the sailor fights_, not _the sailor he
fights_.

  «ama-t» _he (she, it) loves, is loving, does love_ (amity, amiable)
  «labō´ra-t» “ “ “ _labors, is laboring, does labor_
  «nūntia-t»[2] “ “ “ _announces, is announcing, does announce_
  «porta-t» “ “ “ _carries, is carrying, does carry_ (porter)
  «pugna-t» “ “ “ _fights, is fighting, does fight_ (pugnacious)

    [Footnote 2: The _u_ in «nūntiō» is long by exception.
    (Cf. §12.2.)]

«31.» EXERCISES

I. 1. The daughter loves, the daughters love. 2. The sailor is carrying,
the sailors carry. 3. The farmer does labor, the farmers labor. 4. The
girl is announcing, the girls do announce. 5. The ladies are carrying,
the lady carries.

II. 1. Nauta pugnat, nautae pugnant. 2. Puella amat, puellae amant.
3. Agricola portat, agricolae portant. 4. Fīlia labōrat, fīliae
labōrant. 5. Nauta nūntiat, nautae nūntiant. 6. Dominae amant, domina
amat.

  [Illustration: DOMINA]


LESSON III

FIRST PRINCIPLES (_Continued_)

«32.» «Declension of Nouns.» We learned above (§§19, 20) the difference
between the subject and object, and that in English they may be
distinguished by the order of the words. Sometimes, however, the order
is such that we are left in doubt. For example, the sentence _The lady
her daughter loves_ might mean either that the lady loves her daughter,
or that the daughter loves the lady.

  1. If the sentence were in Latin, no doubt could arise, because the
  subject and the object are distinguished, not by the order of the
  words, but by the endings of the words themselves. Compare the
  following sentences:

  «Domina fīliam amat»
  «Fīliam domina amat»
  «Amat fīliam domina»
  «Domina amat fīliam»
    _The lady loves her daughter_

  «Fīlia dominam amat»
  «Dominam fīlia amat»
  «Amat dominam fīlia»
  «Fīlia amat dominam»
    _The daughter loves the lady_

    _a._ Observe that in each case the subject of the sentence ends in
    «-a» and the object in «-am». The _form_ of the noun shows how it is
    used in the sentence, and the order of the words has no effect on
    the essential meaning.

  2. As stated above (§23), this change of ending is called
  «declension», and each different ending produces what is called a
  «case». When we decline a noun, we give all its different cases, or
  changes of endings. In English we have three cases,--nominative,
  possessive, and objective; but, in nouns, the nominative and objective
  have the same form, and only the possessive case shows a change of
  ending, by adding _’s_ or the apostrophe. The interrogative pronoun,
  however, has the fuller declension, _who?_ _whose?_ _whom?_

«33.» The following table shows a comparison between English and Latin
declension forms, and should be thoroughly memorized:

          ENGLISH CASES                         LATIN CASES
  +---+-------------+--------------+------------------+----------------+
  |   | Declension  | Name of case | Declension of    | Name of case   |
  |   | of _who?_   | and use      | «domina»         |   and use      |
  |   |             |              | and translation  |                |
  +---+-------------+--------------+------------------+----------------+
  |   | Who?        | Nominative-- | «do´min-a»       | Nominative--   |
  | S |             |  case of the |  _the lady_      |  case of the   |
  | I |             |  subject     |                  |  subject       |
  | N |             |              |                  |                |
  | G | Whose?      | Possessive-- | «domin-ae»       | Genitive--     |
  | U |             |  case of the |  _the lady’s_    |  case of the   |
  | L |             |  possessor   |  _of the lady_   |  possessor     |
  | A |             |              |                  |                |
  | R | Whom?       | Objective--  | «domin-am»       | Accusative--   |
  |   |             |  case of the |  _the lady_      |  case of the   |
  |   |             |  object      |                  |  direct object |
  +---+-------------+--------------+------------------+----------------+
  |   | Who?        | Nominative-- | «domin-ae»       | Nominative--   |
  |   |             |  case of the | _the ladies_     |  case of the   |
  | P |             |  subject     |                  |  subject       |
  | L |             |              |                  |                |
  | U | Whose?      | Possessive-- | «domin-ā´rum»    | Genitive--     |
  | R |             |  case of the |  _the ladies’_   | case of the    |
  | A |             |  possessor   |  _of the ladies_ | possessor      |
  | L |             |              |                  |                |
  |   | Whom?       | Objective--  | «domin-ās»       | Accusative--   |
  |   |             |  case of the |  _the ladies_    |  case of the   |
  |   |             |  object      |                  |  direct object |
  +---+-------------+--------------+------------------+----------------+

When the nominative singular of a noun ends in «-a», observe that

    _a._ The nominative plural ends in «-ae».

    _b._ The genitive singular ends in «-ae» and the genitive plural in
    «-ārum».

    _c._ The accusative singular ends in «-am» and the accusative plural
    in «-ās».

    _d._ The genitive singular and the nominative plural have the same
    ending.

«34.» EXERCISE

Pronounce the following words and give their general meaning. Then give
the number and case, and the use of each form. Where the same form
stands for more than one case, give all the possible cases and uses.

1. Silva, silvās, silvam. 2. Fugam, fugae, fuga. 3. Terrārum,
terrae, terrās. 4. Aquās, causam, lūnās. 5. Fīliae, fortūnae, lūnae.
6. Iniūriās, agricolārum, aquārum. 7. Iniūriārum, agricolae, puellās.
8. Nautam, agricolās, nautās. 9. Agricolam, puellam, silvārum.


LESSON IV

FIRST PRINCIPLES (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  [See Transcriber’s Note at beginning of text.]

  NOUNS
  «dea», _goddess_ (deity)
   Diā´na, _Diana_
  «fera», _a wild beast_ (fierce)
   Lātō´na, _Latona_
  «sagit´ta», _arrow_

  VERBS
  «est», _he (she, it) is_; «sunt», _they are_
  «necat», _he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill_

  CONJUNCTION[A]
  «et», _and_

  PRONOUNS
  «quis», interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., _who?_
  «cuius» (pronounced _co͝oi´yo͝os_, two syllables), interrog. pronoun,
     gen. sing., _whose?_

    [Footnote A: A _conjunction_ is a word which connects words, parts
    of sentences, or sentences.]

«35.» We learned from the table (§33) that the Latin nominative,
genitive, and accusative correspond, in general, to the nominative,
possessive, and objective in English, and that they are used in the same
way. This will be made even clearer by the following sentence:

  «Fīlia agricolae nautam amat»,
    _the farmer’s daughter_ (or _the daughter of the farmer_)
    _loves the sailor_

What is the subject? the direct object? What case is used for the
subject? for the direct object? What word denotes the possessor? In what
case is it?

«36.» RULE. «Nominative Subject.» _The subject of a finite verb is in
the Nominative and answers the question Who? or What?_

«37.» RULE. «Accusative Object.» _The direct object of a transitive verb
is in the Accusative and answers the question Whom? or What?_

«38.» RULE. «Genitive of the Possessor.» _The word denoting the owner or
possessor of something is in the Genitive and answers the question
Whose?_

  [Illustration: DIANA SAGITTAS PORTAT ET FERAS NECAT]

«39.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

I. 1. Diāna est dea. 2. Lātōna est dea. 3. Diāna et Lātōna sunt deae.
4. Diāna est dea lūnae. 5. Diāna est fīlia Lātōnae. 6. Lātōna Diānam
amat. 7. Diāna est dea silvārum. 8. Diāna silvam amat. 9. Diāna sagittās
portat. 10. Diāna ferās silvae necat. 11. Ferae terrārum pugnant.

For the order of words imitate the Latin above.

II. 1. The daughter of Latona does love the forests. 2. Latona’s
daughter carries arrows. 3. The farmers’ daughters do labor. 4. The
farmer’s daughter loves the waters of the forest. 5. The sailor is
announcing the girls’ flight. 6. The girls announce the sailors’ wrongs.
7. The farmer’s daughter labors. 8. Diana’s arrows are killing the wild
beasts of the land.

«40.» CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin. The answers may be
found in the exercises preceding.

  1. Quis est Diāna?
  2. Cuius fīlia est Diāna?
  3. Quis Diānam amat?
  4. Quis silvam amat?
  5. Quis sagittās portat?
  6. Cuius fīliae labōrant?


LESSON V

FIRST PRINCIPLES (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «corō´na», _wreath, garland, crown_
   fā´bula, _story_ (fable)
  «pecū´nia», _money_ (pecuniary)
  «pugna», _battle_ (pugnacious)
  «victō´ria», _victory_

  VERBS
  «dat», _he (she, it) gives_
   nārrat, _he (she, it) tells_ (narrate)

  CONJUNCTION[A]
  «quia» or «quod», _because_

  «cui» (pronounced _co͝oi_, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat.
     sing., _to whom?_ _for whom?_

    [Footnote A: A _conjunction_ is a word which connects words, parts
    of sentences, or sentences.]

«41.» «The Dative Case.» In addition to the relationships between words
expressed by the nominative, genitive (possessive), and accusative
(objective) cases, there are other relationships, to express which in
English we use such words as _from_, _with_, _by_, _to_, _for_, _in_,
_at_.[1]

    [Footnote 1: Words like _to_, _for_, _by_, _from_, _in_, etc., which
    define the relationship between words, are called «prepositions».]

Latin, too, makes frequent use of such prepositions; but often it
expresses these relations without them by means of case forms which
English does not possess. One of the cases found in the Latin declension
and lacking in English is called the _dative_.

«42.» When the nominative singular ends in «-a», the dative singular
ends in «-ae» and the dative plural in «-īs».

NOTE. Observe that the _genitive singular_, the _dative singular_, and
the _nominative plural_ all have the same ending, «-ae»; but the uses of
the three cases are entirely different. The general meaning of the
sentence usually makes clear which case is intended.

    _a._ Form the dative singular and plural of the following nouns:
    «fuga», «causa», «fortūna», «terra», «aqua», «puella», «agricola»,
    «nauta», «domina».

«43.» «The Dative Relation.» The dative case is used to express the
relations conveyed in English by the prepositions _to_, _towards_,
_for_.

These prepositions are often used in English in expressions of motion,
such as _She went to town_, _He ran towards the horse_, _Columbus sailed
for America_. In such cases the dative is not used in Latin, as _motion
through space_ is foreign to the dative relation. But the dative is used
to denote that _to_ or _towards which_ a benefit, injury, purpose,
feeling, or quality is directed, or that _for which_ something serves or
exists.

    _a._ What dative relations do you discover in the following?

The teacher gave a prize to John because he replied so promptly to all
her questions--a good example for the rest of us. It is a pleasure to us
to hear him recite. Latin is easy for him, but it is very hard for me.
Some are fitted for one thing and others for another.

«44.» «The Indirect Object.» Examine the sentence

  «Nauta fugam nūntiat»,
    _the sailor announces the flight_

Here the verb, «nūntiat», governs the direct object, «fugam», in the
accusative case. If, however, we wish to mention the persons «to whom»
the sailor announces the flight, as, _The sailor announces the flight
«to the farmers»_, the verb will have two objects:

  1. Its direct object, _flight_ («fugam»)
  2. Its indirect object, _farmers_

According to the preceding section, _to the farmers_ is a relation
covered by the dative case, and we are prepared for the following rule:

«45.» RULE. «Dative Indirect Object.» _The indirect object of a verb is
in the Dative._

    _a._ The indirect object usually stands before the direct object.

«46.» We may now complete the translation of the sentence _The sailor
announces the flight to the farmers_, and we have

  «Nauta agricolīs fugam nūntiat»

«47.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

_Point out the direct and indirect objects and the genitive of the
possessor._

I. 1. Quis nautīs pecūniam dat? 2. Fīliae agricolae nautīs pecūniam
dant. 3. Quis fortūnam pugnae nūntiat? 4. Galba agricolīs fortunam
pugnae nūntiat. 5. Cui domina fābulam nārrat? 6. Fīliae agricolae domina
fābulam nārrat. 7. Quis Diānae corōnam dat? 8. Puella Diānae corōnam dat
quia Diānam amat. 9. Dea lūnae sagittās portat et ferās silvārum necat.
10. Cuius victōriam Galba nūntiat? 11. Nautae victōriam Galba nūntiat.

Imitate the word order of the preceding exercise.

II. 1. To whom do the girls give a wreath? 2. The girls give a wreath to
Julia, because Julia loves wreaths. 3. The sailors tell the ladies[2] a
story, because the ladies love stories. 4. The farmer gives his
(§22.a) daughter water. 5. Galba announces the cause of the battle
to the sailor. 6. The goddess of the moon loves the waters of the
forest. 7. Whose wreath is Latona carrying? Diana’s.

    [Footnote 2: Observe that in English the indirect object often
    stands without a preposition _to_ to mark it, especially when it
    precedes the direct object.]


LESSON VI

FIRST PRINCIPLES (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  ADJECTIVES
  «bona», _good_
  «grāta», _pleasing_
  «magna», _large, great_
  «mala», _bad, wicked_
  «parva», _small, little_
  «pulchra», _beautiful, pretty_
  «sōla», _alone_

  NOUNS
  ancil´la, _maidservant_
  Iūlia, _Julia_

  ADVERBS[A]
  «cūr», _why_
  «nōn», _not_

  PRONOUNS
  «mea», _my_; «tua», _thy, your_ (possesives)
  «quid», interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., _what?_

  «-ne», the question sign, an enclitic (§16) added to the first word,
     which, in a question, is usually the verb, as «amat», _he loves_,
     but «amat´ne»? _does he love?_ «est», _he is_; «estne»? _is he?_
     Of course «-ne» is not used when the sentence contains «quis»,
     «cūr», or some other interrogative word.

    [Footnote A: An _adverb_ is a word used to modify a verb, an
    adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings _sweetly_; she is
    _very_ talented; she began to sing _very early_.]

«48.» «The Ablative Case.» Another case, lacking in English but found in
the fuller Latin declension, is the _ab´la-tive._

«49.» When the nominative singular ends in «-a», the ablative singular
ends in «-ā» and the ablative plural in «-īs».

    _a._ Observe that the final -ă of the nominative is short, while the
    final -ā of the ablative is long, as,

      _Nom._ fīliă
      _Abl._ fīliā

    _b._ Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural.

    _c._ Form the ablative singular and plural of the following nouns:
    «fuga», «causa», «fortūna», «terra», «aqua», «puella», «agricola»,
    «nauta», «domina».

«50.» «The Ablative Relation.» The ablative case is used to express the
relations conveyed in English by the prepositions _from_, _with_, _by_,
_at_, _in_. It denotes

  1. That from which something is separated, from which it starts, or of
  which it is deprived--generally translated by _from_.

  2. That with which something is associated or by means of which it is
  done--translated by _with_ or _by_.

  3. The place where or the time when something happens--translated by
  _in_ or _at_.

    _a._ What ablative relations do you discover in the following?

      In our class there are twenty boys and girls. Daily at eight
      o’clock they come from home with their books, and while they are
      at school they read with ease the books written by the Romans.
      By patience and perseverance all things in this world can be
      overcome.

«51.» «Prepositions.» While, as stated above (§41), many relations
expressed in English by prepositions are in Latin expressed by case
forms, still prepositions are of frequent occurrence, but only with the
accusative or ablative.

«52.» RULE. «Object of a Preposition.» _A noun governed by a preposition
must be in the Accusative or Ablative case._

«53.» Prepositions denoting the ablative relations _from, with, in, on_,
are naturally followed by the ablative case. Among these are

  «ā»[1] or «ab», _from, away from_
  «dē», _from, down from_
  «ē»[1] or «ex», _from, out from, out of_
  «cum», _with_
  «in», _in, on_

    [Footnote 1: «ā» and «ē» are used only before words beginning with
    a consonant; «ab» and «ex» are used before either vowels or
    consonants.]

  1. _Translate into Latin, using prepositions._ In the water, on the
  land, down from the forest, with the fortune, out of the forests, from
  the victory, out of the waters, with the sailors, down from the moon.

«54.» «Adjectives.» Examine the sentence

  «Puella parva bonam deam amat»,
    _the little girl loves the good goddess_

In this sentence «parva» (_little_) and «bonam» (_good_) are not nouns,
but are descriptive words expressing quality. Such words are called
_adjectives_,[2] and they are said to belong to the noun which they
describe.

    [Footnote 2: _Pick out the adjectives in the following:_ “When I
    was a little boy, I remember that one cold winter’s morning I was
    accosted by a smiling man with an ax on his shoulder. ‘My pretty
    boy,’ said he, ‘has your father a grindstone?’ ‘Yes, sir,’ said I.
    ‘You are a fine little fellow,’ said he. ‘Will you let me grind my
    ax on it?’”]

You can tell by its ending to which noun an adjective belongs. The
ending of «parva» shows that it belongs to «puella», and the ending of
«bonam» that it belongs to «deam». Words that belong together are said
to agree, and the belonging-together is called _agreement_. Observe that
_the adjective and its noun agree in number and case_.

«55.» Examine the sentences

  «Puella est parva»,
    _the girl is little_
  «Puella parva bonam deam amat»,
    _the little girl loves the good goddess_

In the first sentence the adjective «parva» is separated from its noun
by the verb and stands in the predicate. It is therefore called a
_predicate adjective_. In the second sentence the adjectives «parva» and
«bonam» are closely attached to the nouns «puella» and «deam»
respectively, and are called _attributive adjectives._

    _a._ Pick out the attributive and the predicate adjectives in the
    following:

Do you think Latin is hard? Hard studies make strong brains. Lazy
students dislike hard studies. We are not lazy.

«56.» DIALOGUE

JULIA AND GALBA

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

  I. Quis, Galba, est Diāna?
  G. Diāna, Iūlia, est pulchra dea lūnae et silvārum.
  I. Cuius fīlia, Galba, est Diāna?
  G. Lātōnae fīlia, Iūlia, est Diāna.
  I. Quid Diāna portat?
  G. Sagittās Diāna portat.
  I. Cūr Diāna sagittās portat?
  G. Diāna sagittās portat, Iūlia, quod malās ferās silvae magnae necat.
  I. Amatne Lātōna fīliam?
  G. Amat, et fīlia Lātōnam amat.
  I. Quid fīlia tua parva portat?
  G. Corōnās pulchrās fīlia mea parva portat.
  I. Cui fīlia tua corōnās pulchrās dat?
  G. Diānae corōnās dat.
  I. Quis est cum fīliā tuā? Estne sōla?
  G. Sōla nōn est; fīlia mea parva est cum ancillā meā.

    _a._ When a person is called or addressed, the case used is called
    the _voc´ative_ (Latin _vocāre_, “to call”). _In form the vocative
    is regularly like the nominative_. In English the name of the person
    addressed usually stands first in the sentence. _The Latin vocative
    rarely stands first_. Point out five examples of the vocative in
    this dialogue.

    _b._ Observe that questions answered by _yes_ or _no_ in English
    are answered in Latin by repeating the verb. Thus, if you wished to
    answer in Latin the question _Is the sailor fighting?_ «Pugnatne
    nauta?» you would say «Pugnat», _he is fighting_, or «Nōn pugnat»,
    _he is not fighting._


LESSON VII

THE FIRST OR _Ā_-DECLENSION

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «casa, -ae», f., _cottage_
   cēna, -ae, f., _dinner_
  «gallī´na, -ae», f., _hen, chicken_
  «īn´sula, ae», f., _island_ (pen-insula)

  ADVERBS
  «de-in´de», _then, in the next place_
  «ubi», _where_

  PREPOSITION
  «ad», _to_, with acc. to express motion toward

  PRONOUN
  «quem», interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., _whom?_

  VERBS
  ha´bitat, _he (she, it) lives, is living, does live_ (inhabit)
  «laudat», _he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise_ (laud)
  «parat», _he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare_
  «vocat», _he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites,
     is inviting, does invite_ (vocation)

«57.» In the preceding lessons we have now gone over all the cases,
singular and plural, of nouns whose nominative singular ends in «-a».
All Latin nouns whose nominative singular ends in «-a» belong to the
First Declension. It is also called the _Ā_-Declension because of the
prominent part which the vowel «a» plays in the formation of the cases.
We have also learned what relations are expressed by each case. These
results are summarized in the following table:

+--------+----------------+-------------------+-------------------------+
|  CASE  | NOUN           |   TRANSLATION     | USE AND GENERAL MEANING |
|        |                |                   | OF EACH CASE            |
+--------+----------------+-------------------+-------------------------+
|        |                |     SINGULAR      |                         |
+--------+----------------+-------------------+-------------------------+
| _Nom._ | do´min-a       | _the lady_        | The subject             |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Gen._ | domin-ae       | _of the lady_,    | The possessor           |
|        |                |  or _the lady’s_  |   of something          |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Dat._ | domin-ae       | _to_ or _for      | Expressing the relation |
|        |                |  the lady_        |   _to_ or _for_,        |
|        |                |                   |   especially the        |
|        |                |                   |   indirect object       |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Acc._ | domin-am       | _the lady_        | The direct object       |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Abl._ | domin-ā        | _from, with, by,  | Separation (_from_),    |
|        |                |   in, the lady_   | association or means    |
|        |                |                   | (_with, by_), place     |
|        |                |                   | where or time when      |
|        |                |                   | (_in, at_)              |
+--------+----------------+-------------------+-------------------------+
|        |                |      PLURAL       |                         |
+--------+----------------+-------------------+-------------------------+
| _Nom._ | domin-ae       | _the ladies_      |                         |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Gen._ | domin-ā´rum    | _of the ladies_,  |                         |
|        |                |  or _the ladies’_ |                         |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Dat._ | domin-īs       | _to_ or _for      | The same as             |
|        |                |   the ladies_     |   the singular          |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Acc._ | domin-ās       | _the ladies_      |                         |
|        |                |                   |                         |
| _Abl._ | domin-īs       | _from, with, by_, |                         |
|        |                |  _in, the ladies_ |                         |
+--------+----------------+-------------------+-------------------------+

«58.» «The Base.» That part of a word which remains unchanged in
inflection and to which the terminations are added is called the «base».

Thus, in the declension above, «domin-» is the base and «-a» is the
termination of the nominative singular.

«59.» Write the declension of the following nouns, separating the base
from the termination by a hyphen. Also give them orally.

  «pugna», «terra», «lūna», «ancil´la», «corō´na», «īn´sula», «silva»

«60.» «Gender.» In English, names of living beings are either masculine
or feminine, and names of things without life are neuter. This is called
«natural gender». Yet in English there are some names of things to which
we refer as if they were feminine; as, “Have you seen my yacht? _She_ is
a beauty.” And there are some names of living beings to which we refer
as if they were neuter; as, “Is the baby here? No, the nurse has taken
_it_ home.” Some words, then, have a gender quite apart from sex or real
gender, and this is called «grammatical gender».

Latin, like English, has three genders. Names of males are usually
masculine and of females feminine, but _names of things have grammatical
gender and may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter_. Thus we have
in Latin the three words, «lapis», _a stone_; «rūpēs», _a cliff_; and
«saxum», _a rock_. «Lapis» is _masculine_, «rūpēs» _feminine_, and
«saxum» _neuter_. The gender can usually be determined by the ending of
the word, and _must always be learned_, for without knowing the gender
it is impossible to write correct Latin.

«61.» «Gender of First-Declension Nouns.» Nouns of the first declension
are feminine unless they denote males. Thus «silva» is feminine, but
«nauta», _sailor_, and «agricola», _farmer_, are masculine.

«62.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

I. 1. Agricola cum fīliā in casā habitat. 2. Bona fīlia agricolae cēnam
parat. 3. Cēna est grāta agricolae[1] et agricola bonam fīliam laudat.
4. Deinde fīlia agricolae gallīnās ad cēnam vocat. 5. Gallīnae fīliam
agricolae amant. 6. Malae fīliae bonās cēnās nōn parant. 7. Fīlia
agricolae est grāta dominae. 8. Domina in īnsulā magnā habitat.
9. Domina bonae puellae parvae pecūniam dat.

II. 1. Where does the farmer live? 2. The farmer lives in the small
cottage. 3. Who lives with the farmer? 4. (His) little daughter lives
with the farmer. 5. (His) daughter is getting («parat») a good dinner
for the farmer. 6. The farmer praises the good dinner. 7. The daughter’s
good dinner is pleasing to the farmer.

    [Footnote 1: Note that the relation expressed by the dative case
    covers that _to which a feeling is directed._ (Cf. §43.)]

  [Illustration]

What Latin words are suggested by this picture?

«63.» CONVERSATION

Answer the questions in Latin.

  1. Quis cum agricolā in casā habitat?
  2. Quid bona fīlia agricolae parat?
  3. Quem agricola laudat?
  4. Vocatne fīlia agricolae gallīnās ad cēnam?
  5. Cuius fīlia est grāta dominae?
  6. Cui domina pecūniam dat?


LESSON VIII

FIRST DECLENSION (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «Italia, -ae», f., _Italy_
   Sicilia, -ae, f., _Sicily_
  «tuba, -ae», f., _trumpet_ (tube)
  «via, -ae», f., _way, road, street_ (viaduct)

  ADJECTIVES
  «alta», _high, deep_ (altitude)
  «clāra», _clear, bright; famous_
  «lāta», _wide_ (latitude)
  «longa», _long_ (longitude)
  «nova», _new_ (novelty)

«64.» We have for some time now been using adjectives and nouns together
and you have noticed an agreement between them in _case_ and in _number_
(§54). They agree also in _gender_. In the phrase «silva magna», we
have a feminine adjective in «-a» agreeing with a feminine noun in «-a».

«65.» RULE. «Agreement of Adjectives.» _Adjectives agree with their
nouns in gender, number, and case._

«66.» Feminine adjectives in «-a» are declined like feminine nouns in
«-a», and you should learn to decline them together as follows:

          NOUN               ADJECTIVE
  «domina» (base «domin-»),  «bona» (base «bon-»),
     f., _lady_                _good_

          SINGULAR                TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  do´mina             bona        -a
  _Gen._  dominae             bonae       -ae
  _Dat._  dominae             bonae       -ae
  _Acc._  dominam             bonam       -am
  _Abl._  dominā              bonā        -ā

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  dominae             bonae       -ae
  _Gen._  dominā´rum          bonā´rum    -ārum
  _Dat._  dominīs             bonīs       -īs
  _Acc._  dominās             bonās       -ās
  _Abl._  dominīs             bonīs       -īs

    _a._ In the same way decline together «puella mala», _the bad girl_;
    «ancil´la parva», _the little maid_; «fortū´na magna», _great
    fortune._

«67.» The words «dea», _goddess_, and «fīlia», _daughter_, take the
ending «-ābus» instead of «-īs» in the _dative and ablative plural._
Note the _dative and ablative plural_ in the following declension:

  «dea bona» (bases «de-» «bon-»)

          SINGULAR      PLURAL
  _Nom._  dea bona      deae bonae
  _Gen._  deae bonae    deā´rum bonā´rum
  _Dat._  deae bonae    deā´bus bonīs
  _Acc._  deam bonam    deās bonās
  _Abl._  deā bonā      dea´bus bonīs

    _a._ In the same way decline together «fīlīa parva».

«68.» «Latin Word Order.» The order of words in English and in Latin
sentences is not the same.

In English we arrange words in a fairly fixed order. Thus, in the
sentence _My daughter is getting dinner for the farmers_, we cannot
alter the order of the words without spoiling the sentence. We can,
however, throw emphasis on different words by speaking them with more
force. Try the effect of reading the sentence by putting special force
on _my, daughter, dinner, farmers_.

In Latin, where the office of the word in the sentence is shown by its
_ending_ (cf. §32.1), and not by its _position_, the order of words is
more free, and position is used to secure the same effect that in
English is secured by emphasis of voice. To a limited extent we can
alter the order of words in English, too, for the same purpose. Compare
the sentences

    _I saw a game of football at Chicago last November_ (normal order)
    _«Last November» I saw a game of football at Chicago_
    _At Chicago, last November, I saw a game of «football»_

  1. In a Latin sentence the most emphatic place is the _first_; next in
  importance is the _last_; the weakest point is the _middle_. Generally
  the _subject_ is the most important word, and is placed _first_;
  usually the _verb_ is the next in importance, and is placed _last_.
  The other words of the sentence stand between these two in the order
  of their importance. Hence the normal order of words--that is, where
  no unusual emphasis is expressed--is as follows:

    _subject_--_modifiers of the subject_--_indirect object_--
    _direct object_--_adverb_--_verb_

  Changes from the normal order are frequent, and are due to the desire
  for throwing emphasis upon some word or phrase. _Notice the order of
  the Latin words when you are translating, and imitate it when you are
  turning English into Latin._

  2. Possessive pronouns and modifying genitives normally stand after
  their nouns. When placed before their nouns they are emphatic, as

    «fīlia mea», _my daughter_;
      «mea fīlia», _«my» daughter_;
    «casa Galbae», _Galba’s cottage_;
      «Galbae casa», _«Galba’s» cottage_.

  Notice the variety of emphasis produced by writing the following
  sentence in different ways:

    «Fīlia mea agricolīs cēnam parat» (normal order)
    «Mea fīlia agricolīs parat cēnam» («mea» and «cēnam» emphatic)
    «Agricolīs fīlia mea cēnam parat» («agricolīs» emphatic)

  3. An adjective placed before its noun is more emphatic than when it
  follows. When great emphasis is desired, the adjective is separated
  from its noun by other words.

    «Fīlia mea casam parvam nōn amat» («parvam» not emphatic)
    «Fīlia mea parvam casam nōn amat» («parvam» more emphatic)
    «Parvam fīlia mea casam nōn amat» («parvam» very emphatic)

  4. Interrogative words usually stand first, the same as in English.

  5. The copula (as «est», «sunt») is of so little importance that it
  frequently does not stand last, but may be placed wherever it sounds
  well.

«69.» EXERCISE

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

_Note the order of the words in these sentences and pick out those that
are emphatic._

1. Longae nōn sunt tuae viae. 2. Suntne tubae novae in meā casā? Nōn
sunt. 3. Quis lātā in silvā habitat? Diāna, lūnae clārae pulchra dea,
lātā in silvā habitat. 4. Nautae altās et lātās amant aquās. 5. Quid
ancilla tua portat? Ancilla mea tubam novam portat. 6. Ubi sunt Lesbia
et Iūlia? In tuā casa est Lesbia et Iūlia est in meā. 7. Estne Italia
lāta terra? Longa est Italia, nōn lāta. 8. Cui Galba agricola fābulam
novam nārrat? Fīliābus dominae clārae fābulam novam nārrat. 9. Clāra
est īnsula Sicilia. 10. Quem laudat Lātōna? Lātōna laudat fīliam.

       *       *       *       *       *

  «First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar, §§502-505»

       *       *       *       *       *

LESSON IX

THE SECOND OR _O_-DECLENSION

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «bellum, -ī», n., _war_ (re-bel)
  «cōnstantia, -ae», f., _firmness, constancy, steadiness_
   dominus, -ī, m., _master, lord_ (dominate)
  «equus, -ī», m., _horse_ (equine)
  «frūmentum, -ī», n., _grain_
  «lēgātus, -ī», m., _lieutenant, ambassador_ (legate)
  «Mārcus, -ī», m., _Marcus, Mark_
  «mūrus, -ī», m., _wall_ (mural)
  «oppidānus, -ī», m., _townsman_
  «oppidum, -ī», n., _town_
  «pīlum, -ī», n., _spear_ (pile driver)
  «servus, -ī», m., _slave, servant_
   Sextus, -ī, m., _Sextus_

  VERBS
  «cūrat», _he (she, it) cares for_, with acc.
  «properat», _he (she, it) hastens_

«70.» Latin nouns are divided into five declensions.

The declension to which a noun belongs is shown by the ending of
the genitive singular. This should always be learned along with the
nominative and the gender.

«71.» The nominative singular of nouns of the Second or _O_-Declension
ends in «-us», «-er», «-ir», or «-um». The genitive singular ends in
«-ī».

«72.» «Gender.» Nouns in «-um» are neuter. The others are regularly
masculine.

«73.» «Declension of nouns in -_us_ and -_um_.» Masculines in «-us» and
neuters in «-um» are declined as follows:

  «dominus» (base «domin-»),    «pīlum» (base «pīl-»),
     m., _master_                n., _spear_

                 TERMINATIONS       TERMINATIONS
          SINGULAR
  _Nom._  do´minus[1]  -us       pīlum     -um
  _Gen._  dominī       -ī        pīlī      -ī
  _Dat._  dominō       -ō        pīlō      -ō
  _Acc._  dominum      -um       pīlum     -um
  _Abl._  dominō       -ō        pīlō      -ō
  _Voc._  domine       -e        pīlum     -um

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  dominī       -ī        pīla      -a
  _Gen._  dominō´rum   -ōrum     pīlō´rum  -ōrum
  _Dat._  dominīs      -īs       pīlīs     -īs
  _Acc._  dominōs      -ōs       pīla      -a
  _Abl._  dominīs      -īs       pīlīs     -īs

    [Footnote 1: Compare the declension of «domina» and of «dominus».]

    _a._ Observe that the masculines and the neuters have the same
    terminations excepting in the nominative singular and the nominative
    and accusative plural.

    _b._ The vocative singular of words of the second declension in
    «-us» ends in «-ĕ», as «domine», _O master_; «serve», _O slave_.
    This is the most important exception to the rule in §56.a.

«74.» Write side by side the declension of «domina», «dominus», and
«pīlum». A comparison of the forms will lead to the following rules,
which are of great importance because they apply to all five
declensions:

    _a._ The vocative, with a single exception (see §73.b), is like
    the nominative. That is, the vocative singular is like the
    nominative singular, and the vocative plural is like the nominative
    plural.

    _b._ The nominative, accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are
    alike, and in the plural end in «-a».

    _c._ The accusative singular of masculines and feminines ends in
    «-m» and the accusative plural in «-s».

    _d._ The dative and ablative plural are always alike.

    _e._ Final «-i» and «-o» are always _long_; final «-a» is _short_,
    except in the ablative singular of the first declension.

«75.» Observe the sentences

  «Lesbia est bona»,
    _Lesbia is good_
  «Lesbia est ancilla»,
    _Lesbia is a maidservant_

We have learned (§55) that «bona», when used, as here, in the predicate
to describe the subject, is called a _predicate adjective_. Similarly a
_noun_, as «ancilla», used in the _predicate_ to define the subject is
called a «predicate noun».

«76.» RULE. «Predicate Noun.» _A predicate noun agrees in case with the
subject of the verb._

  [Illustration: PILA]

«77.» DIALOGUE

GALBA AND MARCUS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

  G. Quis, Mārce, est lēgātus cum pīlō et tubā?
  M. Lēgātus, Galba, est Sextus.
  G. Ubi Sextus habitat?[2]
  M. In oppidō Sextus cum fīliābus habitat.
  G. Amantne oppidānī Sextum?
  M. Amant oppidānī Sextum et laudant, quod magnā cum cōnstantiā pugnat.
  G. Ubi, Mārce, est ancilla tua? Cūr nōn cēnam parat?
  M. Ancilla mea, Galba, equō lēgātī aquam et frūmentum dat.
  G. Cūr nōn servus Sextī equum dominī cūrat?
  M. Sextus et servus ad mūrum oppidī properant. Oppidānī bellum
    parant.[3]

    [Footnote 2: «habitat» is here translated _does live_. Note the
    _three_ possible translations of the Latin present tense:
      «habitat»
          _he lives_
          _he is living_
          _he does live_
    Always choose the translation which makes the best sense.]

    [Footnote 3: Observe that the verb «parō» means not only
    _to prepare_ but also _to prepare for_, and governs the
    accusative case.]

  [Illustration: LEGATUS CUM PILO ET TUBA]

«78.» CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin.

  1. Ubi fīliae Sextī habitant?
  2. Quem oppidānī amant et laudant?
  3. Quid ancilla equō lēgātī dat?
  4. Cuius equum ancilla cūrat?
  5. Quis ad mūrum cum Sextō properat?
  6. Quid oppidānī parant?


LESSON X

SECOND DECLENSION (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «amīcus, -ī», m., _friend_ (amicable)
  «Germānia, -ae», f., _Germany_
  «patria, -ae», f., _fatherland_
  «populus, -ī», m., _people_
  «Rhēnus, -ī», m., _the Rhine_
  «vīcus, -ī», m., _village_

«79.» We have been freely using feminine adjectives, like «bona», in
agreement with feminine nouns of the first declension and declined like
them. _Masculine_ adjectives of this class are declined like «dominus»,
and _neuters_ like pīlum. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter,
are therefore declined as follows:

  MASCULINE NOUN AND ADJECTIVE         NEUTER NOUN AND ADJECTIVE
  «dominus bonus», _the good master_   «pīlum bonum», _the good spear_
    BASES domin- bon-                    BASES pīl- bon-

                          TERMINATIONS               TERMINATIONS
          SINGULAR
  _Nom._  do´minus bonus       -us      pīlum bonum        -um
  _Gen._  dominī bonī          -ī       pīlī bonī         -ī
  _Dat._  dominō bonō          -ō       pīlō bonō         -ō
  _Acc._  dominum bonum        -um      pīlum bonum       -um
  _Abl._  dominō bonō          -ō       pīlō bonō         -ō
  _Voc._  domine bone          -e       pīlum bonum       -um

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  dominī bonī          -ī       īla bona          -a
  _Gen._  dominō´rum bonō´rum  -ōrum    īlō´rum bonō´rum  -ōrum
  _Dat._  dominīs bonīs        -is      īlīs bonīs        -īs
  _Acc._  dominōs bonōs        -ōs      īla bona          -a
  _Abl._  dominīs bonīs        -īs      īlīs bonīs        -īs

Decline together «bellum longum», «equus parvus», «servus malus»,
«mūrus altus», «frūmentum novum».

«80.» Observe the sentences

  «Lesbia ancilla est bona»,
    _Lesbia, the maidservant, is good_
  «Fīlia Lesbiae ancillae est bona»,
    _the daughter of Lesbia, the maidservant, is good_
  «Servus Lesbiam ancillam amat»,
    _the slave loves Lesbia, the maidservant_

In these sentences «ancilla», «ancillae», and «ancillam» denote the
class of persons to which _Lesbia_ belongs and explain who she is. Nouns
so related that the second is only another name for the first and
explains it are said to be in apposition, and are always in the same
case.

«81.» RULE. «Apposition.» _An appositive agrees in case with the noun
which it explains._

«82.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Patria servī bonī, vīcus servōrum bonōrum, bone popule. 2. Populus
oppidī magnī, in oppidō magnō, in oppidīs magnīs. 3. Cum pīlīs longīs,
ad pīla longa, ad mūrōs lātōs. 4. Lēgāte male, amīcī legātī malī, cēna
grāta dominō bonō. 5. Frūmentum equōrum parvōrum, domine bone, ad
lēgātōs clārōs. 6. Rhēnus est in Germāniā, patriā meā. 7. Sextus lēgātus
pīlum longum portat. 8. Oppidānī bonī Sextō lēgātō clārā pecūniam dant.
9. Malī servī equum bonum Mārcī dominī necant. 10. Galba agricola et
Iūlia fīlia bona labōrant. 11. Mārcus nauta in īnsulā Siciliā habitat.

II. 1. Wicked slave, who is your friend? Why does he not praise Galba,
your master? 2. My friend is from («ex») a village of Germany, my
fatherland. 3. My friend does not love the people of Italy. 4. Who is
caring for[1] the good horse of Galba, the farmer? 5. Mark, where is
Lesbia, the maidservant? 6. She is hastening[1] to the little cottage[2]
of Julia, the farmer’s daughter.

    [Footnote 1: See footnote 1, p. 33. Remember that «cūrat» is
    transitive and governs a direct object.]

    [Footnote 2: Not the dative. (Cf. §43.)]


LESSON XI

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «arma, armōrum», n., plur., _arms_, especially defensive weapons
  «fāma, -ae», f., _rumor; reputation, fame_
  «galea, -ae», f., _helmet_
  «praeda, -ae», f., _booty, spoils_ (predatory)
  «tēlum, -ī», n., _weapon of offense, spear_

  ADJECTIVES
  «dūrus, -a, -um», _hard,  rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome_
     (durable)
  «Rōmānus, -a, -um», _Roman_. As a noun, «Rōmānus, -ī», m., _a Roman_

«83.» Adjectives of the first and second declensions are declined in the
three genders as follows:

          MASCULINE  FEMININE   NEUTER
          SINGULAR
  _Nom._  bonus      bona       bonum
  _Gen._  bonī       bonae      bonī
  _Dat._  bonō       bonae      bonō
  _Acc._  bonum      bonam      bonum
  _Abl._  bonō       bonā       bonō
  _Voc._  bone       bona       bonum

        PLURAL
  _Nom._  bonī       bonae      bona
  _Gen._  bonōrum    bonārum    bonōrum
  _Dat._  bonīs      bonīs      bonīs
  _Acc._  bonōs      bonās      bona
  _Abl._  bonīs      bonīs      bonīs

    _a._ Write the declension and give it orally _across the page_, thus
    giving the three genders for each case.

    _b._ Decline «grātus, -a, -um»; «malus, -a, -um»; «altus, -a, -um»;
    «parvus, -a, -um».

«84.» Thus far the adjectives have had the same terminations as the
nouns. However, the agreement between the adjective and its noun does
_not_ mean that they must have the same termination. If the adjective
and the noun belong to different declensions, the terminations will, in
many cases, not be the same. For example, «nauta», _sailor_, is
masculine and belongs to the first declension. The masculine form of the
adjective «bonus» is of the second declension. Consequently, _a good
sailor_ is «nauta bonus». So, _the wicked farmer_ is «agricola malus».
Learn the following declensions:

«85.» «nauta bonus» (bases naut- bon-), m., _the good sailor_

          SINGULAR
  _Nom._  nauta     bonus
  _Gen._  nautae    bonī
  _Dat._  nautae    bonō
  _Acc._  nautam    bonum
  _Abl._  nautā     bonō
  _Voc._  nauta     bone

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  nautae    bonī
  _Gen._  nautārum  bonōrum
  _Dat._  nautīs    bonīs
  _Acc._  nautās    bonōs
  _Abl._  nautīs    bonīs
  _Voc._  nautae    bonī

«86.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Est[1] in vīcō nauta bonus. 2. Sextus est amīcus nautae bonī.
3. Sextus nautae bonō galeam dat. 4. Populus Rōmānus nautam bonum
laudat. 5. Sextus cum nautā bonō praedam portat. 6. Ubi, nauta bone,
sunt anna et tēla lēgātī Rōmānī? 7. Nautae bonī ad bellum properant.
8. Fāma nautārum bonōrum est clāra. 9. Pugnae sunt grātae nautīs bonīs.
10. Oppidānī nautās bonōs cūrant. 11. Cūr, nautae bonī, malī agricolae
ad Rhēnum properant? 12. Malī agricolae cum bonīs nautīs pugnant.

II. 1. The wicked farmer is hastening to the village with (his) booty.
2. The reputation of the wicked farmer is not good. 3. Why does Galba’s
daughter give arms and weapons to the wicked farmer? 4. Lesbia invites
the good sailor to dinner. 5. Why is Lesbia with the good sailor
hastening from the cottage? 6. Sextus, where is my helmet? 7. The good
sailors are hastening to the toilsome battle. 8. The horses of the
wicked farmers are small. 9. The Roman people give money to the good
sailors. 10. Friends care for the good sailors. 11. Whose friends are
fighting with the wicked farmers?

    [Footnote 1: «Est», beginning a declarative sentence, _there is._]

  [Illustration: GALEAE]


LESSON XII

NOUNS IN _-IUS_ AND _-IUM_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «fīlius, fīlī», m., _son_ (filial)
   fluvius, fluvī, m., _river_ (fluent)
  «gladius, gladī», m., _sword_ (gladiator)
  «praesidium, praesi´dī», n., _garrison, guard, protection_
  «proelium, proelī», n., _battle_

  ADJECTIVES
  «fīnitimus, -a, -um», _bordering upon, neighboring, near to_.
     As a noun, «fīnitimī, -ōrum», m., plur., _neighbors_
  «Germānus, -a, -um», _German_. As a noun, «Germānus, -ī», m.,
    _a German_
  «multus, -a, -um», _much_; plur., _many_

  ADVERB
  «saepe», _often_

«87.» Nouns of the second declension in «-ius» and «-ium» end in «-ī» in
the genitive singular, _not_ in «-iī», and the accent rests on the
penult; as, «fīlī» from «fīlius» (_son_), «praesi´dī» from «praesi´dium»
(_garrison_).

«88.» Proper names of persons in «-ius», and «fīlius», end in «-ī» in
the vocative singular, _not_ in «-ĕ», and the accent rests on the
penult; as, «Vergi´lī», _O Vergil_; «fīlī», _O son._

    _a._ Observe that in these words the vocative and the genitive are
    alike.

«89.»   «praesidium» (base praesidi-),  «fīlius» (base fīli-),
           n., _garrison_                  m., _son_

          SINGULAR
  _Nom._  praesidium                      fīlius
  _Gen._  praesi´dī                       fīlī
  _Dat._  praesidiō                       fīliō
  _Acc._  praesidium                      fīlium
  _Abl._  praesidiō                       fīliō
  _Voc._  praesidium                      fīlī

The plural is regular. Note that the «-i-» of the base is lost only in
the genitive singular, and in the vocative of words like «fīlius».

Decline together «praesidium parvum»; «fīlius bonus»; «fluvius longus»,
_the long river_; «proelium clārum», _the famous battle._

«90.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Frūmentum bonae terrae, gladī malī, bellī longī. 2. Cōnstantia
magna, praesidia magna, clāre Vergi´lī. 3. Male serve, Ō clārum oppidum,
male fīlī, fīliī malī, fīlī malī. 4. Fluvī longī, fluviī longī,
fluviōrum longōrum, fāma praesi´dī magnī. 5. Cum gladiīs parvīs, cum
deābus clārīs, ad nautās clārōs. 6. Multōrum proeliōrum, praedae magnae,
ad proelia dūra.

GERMĀNIA

II. Germānia, patria Germānōrum, est clāra terra. In Germāniā sunt
fluviī multī. Rhēnus magnus et lātus fluvius Germāniae est. In silvīs
lātīs Germāniae sunt ferae multae. Multi Germānii in oppidīs magnis et
in vīcīs parvīs habitant et multī sunt agricolae bonī. Bella Germānōrum
sunt magna et clāra. Populus Germāniae bellum et proelia amat et saepe
cum finitimīs pugnat. Fluvius Rhēnus est fīnitimus oppidīs[1] multīs et
clārīs.

    [Footnote 1: Dative with «fīnitimus». (See §43.)]


LESSON XIII

SECOND DECLENSION (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «ager, agrī», m., _field_ (acre)
  «cōpia, -ae», f., _plenty, abundance_ (copious); plur., _troops,
     forces_
  «Cornēlius, Cornē´lī», m., _Cornelius_
  «lōrī´ca, -ae», f., _coat of mail, corselet_
  «praemium, praemī», n., _reward, prize_ (premium)
  «puer, puerī», m., _boy_ (puerile)
  «Rōma, -ae», f., _Rome_
  «scūtum, -ī», n., _shield_ (escutcheon)
  «vir, virī», m., _man, hero_ (virile)

  ADJECTIVES
  «legiōnārius, -a, -um»,[A] _legionary, belonging to the legion_.
     As a noun, «legiōnāriī, -ōrum», m., plur., _legionary soldiers_
  «līber, lībera, līberum», _free_ (liberty) As a noun. «līberī, -ōrum»,
     m., plur., _children_ (lit. _the freeborn_)
  «pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum», _pretty, beautiful_

  PREPOSITION
  «apud», _among_, with acc.

  CONJUNCTION
  «sed», _but_

    [Footnote A: The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in «-ius»
    ends in «-iī» and the vocative in «-ie»; not in «-ī», as in nouns.]

«91.» «Declension of Nouns in _-er_ and _-ir_.» In early Latin all the
masculine nouns of the second declension ended in «-os». This «-os»
later became «-us» in words like «servus», and was dropped entirely in
words with bases ending in «-r», like «puer», _boy_; «ager», _field_;
and «vir», _man_. These words are therefore declined as follows:

«92.» «puer», m., _boy_  «ager», m., _field_  «vir», m., _man_
         BASE «puer-»       BASE «agr-»          BASE «vir-»

          SINGULAR                                    TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  puer               ager                 vir      ----
  _Gen._  puerī              agrī                 virī     -ī
  _Dat._  puerō              agrō                 virō     -ō
  _Acc._  puerum             agrum                virum    -um
  _Abl._  puerō              agrō                 virō     -ō

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  puerī              agrī                 virī     -ī
  _Gen._  puerōrum           agrōrum              virōrum  -ōrum
  _Dat._  puerīs             agrīs                virīs    -īs
  _Acc._  puerōs             agrōs                virōs    -ōs
  _Abl._  puerīs             agrīs                virīs    -īs

    _a._ The vocative case of these words is like the nominative,
    following the general rule (§74.a).

    _b._ The declension differs from that of «servus» only in the
    nominative and vocative singular.

    _c._ Note that in «puer» the «e» remains all the way through, while
    in «ager» it is present only in the nominative. In «puer» the «e»
    belongs to the base, but in «ager» (base «agr-») it does not, and
    was inserted in the nominative to make it easier to pronounce. Most
    words in «-er» are declined like «ager». _The genitive shows whether
    you are to follow_ «puer» _or_ «ager».

«93.» Masculine adjectives in «-er» of the second declension are
declined like nouns in «-er». A few of them are declined like «puer»,
but most of them like «ager». The feminine and neuter nominatives show
which form to follow, thus,

  MASC.    FEM.     NEUT.
  līber    lībera   līberum   (_free_)
     is like «puer»
  pulcher  pulchra  pulchrum  (_pretty_)
     is like «ager»

For the full declension in the three genders, see §469._b._ _c._

«94.» Decline together the words «vir līber», «terra lībera», «frūmentum
līberum», «puer pulcher», «puella pulchra», «oppidum pulchrum»

«95.» ITALIA[1]

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

Magna est Italiae fāma, patriae Rōmānōrum, et clāra est Rōma, domina
orbis terrārum.[2] Tiberim,[3] fluvium Rōmānum, quis nōn laudat et
pulchrōs fluviō fīnitimōs agrōs? Altōs mūrōs, longa et dūra bella,
clārās victōriās quis nōn laudat? Pulchra est terra Italia. Agrī bonī
agricolīs praemia dant magna, et equī agricolārum cōpiam frūmentī ad
oppida et vīcōs portant. In agrīs populī Rōmānī labōrant multī servī.
Viae Italiae sunt longae et lātae. Fīnitima Italiae est īnsula Sicilia.

    [Footnote 1: In this selection note especially the emphasis as shown
    by the order of the words.]

    [Footnote 2: «orbis terrārum», _of the world_.]

    [Footnote 3: «Tiberim», _the Tiber_, accusative case.]

«96.» DIALOGUE

MARCUS AND CORNELIUS

  C. Ubi est, Mārce, fīlius tuus? Estne in pulchrā terrā Italiā?
  M. Nōn est, Cornēlī, in Italiā. Ad fluvium Rhēnum properat cum cōpiīs
    Rōmānīs quia est[4] fāma Novī bellī cum Germānīs. Līber Germāniae
    populus Rōmānōs Nōn amat.
  C. Estne fīlius tuus copiārum Rōmānārum lēgātus?
  M. Lēgātus nōn est, sed est apud legiōnāriōs.
  C. Quae[5] arma portat[6]?
  M. Scūtum magnum et lōrīcam dūram et galeam pulchram portat.
  C. Quae tēla portat?
  M. Gladium et pīlum longum portat.
  C. Amatne lēgātus fīlium tuum?
  M. Amat, et saepe fīliō meō praemia pulchra et praedam multam dat.
  C. Ubi est terra Germānōrum?
  M. Terra Germānōrum, Cornēlī est fīnitima Rhēnō, fluviō magnō et altō.

    [Footnote 4: «est», before its subject, _there is_; so «sunt»,
    _there are._]

    [Footnote 5: «Quae», _what kind of_, an interrogative adjective
    pronoun.]

    [Footnote 6: What are the three possible translations of the present
    tense?]

  [Illustration: LEGIONARIUS]


LESSON XIV

THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «auxilium, auxi´lī», n., _help, aid_ (auxiliary)
  «castrum, -ī», n., _fort_ (castle); plur., _camp_ (lit. _forts_)
  «cibus, -ī», m., _food_
  «cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī», n., _plan_ (counsel)
  «dīligentia, -ae», f.. _diligence, industry_
   magister, magistrī, m., _master, teacher_[A]

  ADJECTIVES
  «aeger, aegra, aegrum», _sick_
  «crēber, crēbra, crēbrum», _frequent_
  «miser, misera, miserum», _wretched, unfortunate_ (miser)

    [Footnote A: Observe that «dominus», as distinguished from
    «magister», means _master_ in the sense of _owner_.]

«97.» Observe the sentences

  _This is my shield_
  _This shield is mine_

In the first sentence _my_ is a possessive adjective; in the second
_mine_ is a possessive pronoun, for it takes the place of a noun, _this
shield is mine_ being equivalent to _this shield is my shield_.
Similarly, in Latin the possessives are sometimes _adjectives_ and
sometimes _pronouns_.

«98.» The possessives _my, mine, your, yours_, etc. are declined like
adjectives of the first and second declensions.

               SINGULAR
  _1st Pers._  meus, mea, meum          _my, mine_
  _2d Pers._   tuus, tua, tuum          _your, yours_
  _3d Pers._   suus, sua, suum          _his (own), her (own),
                                           its (own)_
               PLURAL
  _1st Pers._  noster, nostra, nostrum  _our, ours_
  _2d Pers._   vester, vestra, vestrum  _your, yours_
  _3d Pers._   suus, sua, suum          _their (own), theirs_

NOTE. «Meus» has the irregular vocative singular masculine «mī», as
«mī fīlī», _O my son_.

    _a._ The possessives agree with the name of the _thing possessed_ in
    gender, number, and case. Compare the English and Latin in

      _Sextus is calling «his» boy_  «Sextus» } «suum puerum vocat»
      _Julia is calling «her» boy_   «Iūlia»  }

    Observe that «suum» agrees with «puerum», and is unaffected by the
    gender of Sextus or Julia.

    _b._ When _your, yours_, refers to _one_ person, use «tuus»; when to
    _more than one_, «vester»; as,

      _Lesbia, your wreaths are pretty_
        «Corōnae tuae, Lesbia, sunt pulchrae»
      _Girls, your wreaths are pretty_
        «Corōnae vestrae, puellae, sunt pulchrae»

    _c._ «Suus» is a _reflexive_ possessive, that is, it usually stands
    in the predicate and regularly refers back to the _subject_. Thus,
    «Vir suōs servōs vocat» means _The man calls his (own) slaves._ Here
    _his_ («suōs») refers to _man_ («vir»), and could not refer to any
    one else.

    _d._ Possessives are used much less frequently than in English,
    being omitted whenever the meaning is clear without them. (Cf.
    §22.a.) This is especially true of «suus, -a, -um», which, when
    inserted, is more or less emphatic, like our _his own, her own_,
    etc.

«99.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. 1. Mārcus amīcō Sextō cōnsilium suum nūntiat 2. Est cōpia frūmentī in
agrīs nostrīs. 3. Amīcī meī bonam cēnam ancillae vestrae laudant 4. Tua
lōrīca, mī fīlī, est dūra. 5. Scūta nostra et tēla, mī amīce, in castrls
Rōmānīs sunt. 6. Suntne virī patriae tuae līberī? Sunt. 7. Ubi, Cornēlī,
est tua galea pulchra? 8. Mea galea, Sexte, est in casā meā. 9. Pīlum
longum est tuum, sed gladius est meus. 10. Iūlia gallīnās suās pulchrās
amat et gallīnae dominam suam amant. 11. Nostra castra sunt vestra.
12. Est cōpia praedae in castrīs vestrīs. 13. Amīcī tuī miserīs et
aegrīs cibum et pecūniam saepe dant.

II. 1. Our teacher praises Mark’s industry. 2. My son Sextus is carrying
his booty to the Roman camp.[1] 3. Your good girls are giving aid to the
sick and wretched.[2] 4. There are [3] frequent battles in our villages.
5. My son, where is the lieutenant’s food? 6. The camp is mine, but the
weapons are yours.

    [Footnote 1: Not the dative. Why?]

    [Footnote 2: Here the adjectives _sick_ and _wretched_ are used like
    nouns.]

    [Footnote 3: Where should «sunt» stand? Cf. I. 2 above.]

  [Illustration: AGRICOLA ARAT]


LESSON XV

THE ABLATIVE DENOTING _WITH_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «carrus, -ī», m., _cart, wagon_
  «inopia, -ae», f., _want, lack;_ the opposite of «cōpia»
  «studium, studī», n., _zeal, eagerness_ (study)

  ADJECTIVES
  «armātus, -a, -um», _armed_
  «īnfīrmus, -a, -um», _week, feeble_ (infirm)
   vali´dus, -a, -um, _strong, sturdy_

  VERB
  «mātūrat», _he (she, it) hastens._ Cf. properat

  ADVERB
  «iam», _already, now_

  «-que», conjunction, _and_; an enclitic (cf. §16) and always added
  to the _second_ of two words to be connected, as «arma tēla´que»,
  _arms and weapons_.

«100.» Of the various relations denoted by the ablative case (§50)
there is none more important than that expressed in English by the
preposition _with_. This little word is not so simple as it looks.
It does not always convey the same meaning, nor is it always to be
translated by «cum». This will become clear from the following
sentences:

  _a._ Mark is feeble _with_ (_for_ or _because of_) want of food
  _b._ Diana kills the beasts _with_ (or _by_) her arrows
  _c._ Julia is _with_ Sextus
  _d._ The men fight _with_ great steadiness

    _a._ In sentence _a_, _with want_ (_of food_) gives the cause of
    Mark’s feebleness. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative
    without a preposition, and the construction is called the «ablative
    of cause»:

      «Mārcus est īnfīrmus inopiā cibī»

    _b._ In sentence _b_, _with_ (or _by_) _her arrows_ tells «by means
    of what» Diana kills the beasts. This idea is expressed in Latin by
    the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called
    the «ablative of means»:

      «Diāna sagittīs suīs ferās necat»

    _c._ In sentence _c_ we are told that Julia is not alone, but «in
    company with» Sextus. This idea is expressed in Latin by the
    ablative with the preposition «cum», and the construction is called
    the «ablative of accompaniment»:

      «Iūlia est cum Sextō»

    _d._ In sentence _d_ we are told how the men fight. The idea is one
    of «manner». This is expressed in Latin by the ablative with «cum»,
    unless there is a modifying adjective present, in which case «cum»
    may be omitted. This construction is called the «ablative of
    manner»:

      «Virī (cum) cōnstantiā magnā pugnant»

«101.» You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative
denoting _with_:

«102.» RULE. «Ablative of Cause.» _Cause is denoted by the ablative
without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what?_

«103.» RULE. «Ablative of Means.» _Means is denoted by the ablative
without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what?
With what?_

N.B. «Cum» must never be used with the ablative expressing cause or
means.

«104.» RULE. «Ablative of Accompaniment.» _Accompaniment is denoted by
the ablative with «cum». This answers the question With whom?_

«105.» RULE. «Ablative of Manner.» _The ablative with «cum» is used to
denote the manner of an action. «Cum» may be omitted, if an adjective is
used with the ablative. This answers the question How? In what manner?_

«106.» What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following
passage, and what question does each answer?

The soldiers marched to the fort with great speed and broke down the
gate with blows of their muskets. The inhabitants, terrified by the din,
attempted to cross the river with their wives and children, but the
stream was swollen with (_or_ by) the rain. Because of this many were
swept away by the waters and only a few, almost overcome with fatigue,
with great difficulty succeeded in gaining the farther shore.

«107.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. _The Romans prepare for War._ Rōmānī, clārus Italiae populus, bellum
parant. Ex agrīs suīs, vicīs, oppidīsque magnō studiō virī validī ad
arma properant. Iam lēgatī cum legiōnariīs ex Italiā ad Rhēnum, fluvium
Germāniae altum et lātum, properant, et servī equīs et carrīs cibum
frūmentumque ad castra Rōmāna portant. Inopiā bonōrum tēlōrum īnfirmī
sunt Germānī, sed Rōmānī armāti galeīs, lōrīcīs, scūtīs, gladiīs,
pīlīsque sunt validī.

II. 1. The sturdy farmers of Italy labor in the fields with great
diligence. 2. Sextus, the lieutenant, and (his) son Mark are fighting
with the Germans. 3. The Roman legionaries are armed with long spears.
4. Where is Lesbia, your maid, Sextus? Lesbia is with my friends in
Galba’s cottage. 5. Many are sick because of bad water and for lack of
food. 6. The Germans, with (their) sons and daughters, are hastening
with horses and wagons.


LESSON XVI

THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

«108.» There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second
declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and
dative singular of all genders:

           MASC.  FEM.  NEUT.
  _Gen._   -īus   -īus  -īus
  _Dat._   -ī     -ī    -ī

Otherwise they are declined like «bonus, -a, -um». Learn the list and
the meaning of each:

  «alius, alia, aliud», _other, another_ (of several)
  «alter, altera, alterum», _the one, the other_ (of two)
  «ūnus, -a, -um», _one, alone_; (in the plural) _only_
  «ūllus, -a, -um», _any_
  «nūllus, -a, -um», _none, no_
  «sōlus, -a, -um», _alone_
  «tōtus, -a, -um», _all, whole, entire_
  «uter, utra, utrum», _which?_ (of two)
  «neuter, neutra, neutrum», _neither_ (of two)

«109.» PARADIGMS

          SINGULAR
          MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.
  _Nom._  nūllus    nūlla     nūllum
  _Gen._  nūllī´us  nūllī´us  nūllī´us
  _Dat._  nūllī     nūllī     nūllī
  _Acc._  nūllum    nūllam    nūllum
  _Abl._  nūllō     nūllā     nūllō

          MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.
  _Nom._  alius     alia      aliud
  _Gen._  alī´us    alī´us    alī´us
  _Dat._  aliī      aliī      aliī
  _Acc._  alium     aliam     aliud
  _Abl._  aliō      aliā      aliō

  THE PLURAL IS REGULAR

    _a._ Note the peculiar neuter singular ending in «-d» of «alius».
    The genitive «alīus» is rare. Instead of it use «alterīus», the
    genitive of «alter».

    _b._ These peculiar case endings are found also in the declension of
    pronouns (see §114). For this reason these adjectives are sometimes
    called the «pronominal adjectives».

«110.» Learn the following idioms:

  «alter, -era, -erum» ... «alter, -era, -erum», _the one ... the other_
    (of two)
  «alius, -a, -ud» ... «alius, -a, -ud», _one ... another _ (of any
    number)
  «aliī, -ae, -a» ... «aliī, -ae, -a», _some ... others_

EXAMPLES

  1. «Alterum oppidum est magnum, alterum parvum», _the one town is
  large, the other small_ (of two towns).

  2. «Aliud oppidum est validum, aliud īnfīrmum», _one town is strong,
  another weak_ (of towns in general).

  3. «Aliī gladiōs, aliī scūta portant», _some carry swords, others
  shields._

«111.» EXERCISES

I. 1. In utrā casā est Iūlia? Iūlia est in neutrā casā. 2. Nūllī malō
puerō praemium dat magister. 3. Alter puer est nauta, alter agricola.
4. Aliī virī aquam, aliī terram amant. 5. Galba ūnus (_or_ sōlus) cum
studiō labōrat. 6. Estne ūllus carrus in agrō meō? 7. Lesbia est ancilla
alterīus dominī, Tullia alterīus. 8. Lesbia sōla cēnam parat. 9. Cēna
nūllīus alterīus ancillae est bona. 10. Lesbia nūllī aliī virō cēnam
dat.

NOTE. The pronominal adjectives, as you observe, regularly stand before
and not after their nouns.

II. 1. The men of all Germany are preparing for war. 2. Some towns are
great and others are small. 3. One boy likes chickens, another horses.
4. Already the booty of one town is in our fort. 5. Our whole village is
suffering for (i.e. _weak because of_) lack of food. 6. The people are
already hastening to the other town. 7. Among the Romans (there) is no
lack of grain.


LESSON XVII

THE DEMONSTRATIVE _IS, EA, ID_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «agrī cultūra, -ae», f., _agriculture_
  «Gallia, -ae», f., _Gaul_
  «domicilīum, domīci´lī», n., _dwelling place_ (domicile), _abode_
  «Gallus, -i», m., _a Gaul_
  «lacrima, -ae», f., _tear_
  «fēmina, -ae», f., _woman_ (female)
  «numerus, -ī», m., _number_ (numeral)

  ADJECTIVE
  «mātūrus, -a, -um», _ripe, mature_

  ADVERB
   quō, _whither_

  VERBS
   arat, _he (she, it) plows_ (arable)
  «dēsīderat», _he (she, it) misses, longs for_ (desire), with acc.

  CONJUNCTION
  «an», _or_, introducing the second half of a double question, as
    _Is he a Roman or a Gaul_, «Estne Romanus an Gallus?»

«112.» A demonstrative is a word that points out an object definitely,
as _this, that, these, those_. Sometimes these words are pronouns, as,
_Do you hear these?_ and sometimes adjectives, as, _Do you hear these
men?_ In the former case they are called «demonstrative pronouns», in
the latter «demonstrative adjectives».

«113.» Demonstratives are similarly used in Latin both as _pronouns_ and
as _adjectives_. The one used most is

  «is», masculine; «ea», feminine; «id», neuter
  SINGULAR: _this, that_; PLURAL: _these, those_

«114.» «Is» is declined as follows. Compare its declension with that of
«alius», §109.

  BASE «e-»

          SINGULAR              PLURAL
          MASC.  FEM.   NEUT.   MASC.      FEM.    NEUT.
  _Nom._  is     ea     id      eī         eae     ea
                                (_or_ iī)
  _Gen._  eius   eius   eius    eōrum      eārum   eōrum
  _Dat._  eī     eī     eī      eīs        eīs     eīs
                                (_or_ iīs    iīs     iīs)
  _Acc._  eum    eam    id      eōs        eās     ea
  _Abl._  eō     eā     eō      eīs        eīs     eīs
                                (_or_ iīs    iīs     iīs)

Note that the base «e-» changes to «i-» in a few cases. The genitive
singular «eius» is pronounced _eh´yus_. In the plural the forms with two
«i»’s are preferred and the two «i»’s are pronounced as one. Hence,
pronounce «iī» as «ī» and «iīs» as «īs».

«115.» Besides being used as demonstrative pronouns and adjectives the
Latin demonstratives are regularly used for the personal pronoun _he,
she, it_. As a personal pronoun, then, «is» would have the following
meanings:

  SINGULAR
  _Nom._ «is», _he_; «ea», _she_; «id», _it_
  _Gen._ «eius», _of him_ or _his_;
         «eius», _of her, her_, or _hers_;
         «eius», _of it_ or _its_
  _Dat._ «eī», _to_ or _for him_;
         «eī», _to_ or _for her_;
         «eī», _to_ or _for it_
  _Acc._ «eum», _him_; «eam», _her_; «id», _it_
  _Abl._ «eō», _with, from_, etc., _him_;
         «eā», _with, from_, etc., _her_;
         «eō», _with, from_, etc., _it_

  PLURAL
  _Nom._ «eī» or «iī», «eae», «ea», _they_
  _Gen._ «eōrum», «eārum», «eōrum», _of them, their_
  _Dat._ «eīs» or «iīs», «eīs» or «iīs», «eīs» or «iīs»,
           _to_ or _for them_
  _Acc._ «eōs, eās, ea», _them_
  _Abl._ «eīs» or «iīs», «eīs» or «iīs», «eīs» or «iīs»,
           _with, from_, etc., _them_

«116.» «Comparison between _suus_ and _is_.» We learned above (§98.c)
that «suus» is a _reflexive_ possessive. When _his, her_ (poss.), _its,
their_, do not refer to the subject of the sentence, we express _his,
her, its_ by «eius», the genitive singular of «is», «ea», «id»; and
_their_ by the genitive plural, using «eōrum» to refer to a masculine
or neuter antecedent noun and «eārum» to refer to a feminine one.

EXAMPLES

  _Galba calls his_ (own) _son_,
    «Galba suum fīlium vocat»
  _Galba calls his son_ (not his own, but another’s),
    «Galba eius fīlium vocat»
  _Julia calls her_ (own) _children_,
    «Iūlia suōs līberōs vocat»
  _Julia calls her children_ (not her own, but another’s),
    «Iūlia eius līberōs vocat»
  _The men praise their_ (own) _boys_,
    «virī suōs puerōs laudant»
  _The men praise their boys_ (not their own, but others’),
    «virī eōrum puerōs laudant»

«117.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

1. He praises her, him, it, them. 2. This cart, that report, these
teachers, those women, that abode, these abodes. 3. That strong
garrison, among those weak and sick women, that want of firmness,
those frequent plans.

4. The other woman is calling her chickens (_her own_). 5. Another woman
is calling her chickens (_not her own_). 6. The Gaul praises his arms
(_his own_). 7. The Gaul praises his arms (_not his own_). 8. This
farmer often plows their fields. 9. Those wretched slaves long for their
master (_their own_). 10. Those wretched slaves long for their master
(_not their own_). 11. Free men love their own fatherland. 12. They
love its villages and towns.

«118.» DIALOGUE[1]

CORNELIUS AND MARCUS

  M. Quis est vir, Cornēlī, cum puerō parvō? Estne Rōmānus et līber?
  C. Rōmānus nōn est, Mārce. Is vir est servus et eius domicilium est in
    silvīs Galliae.
  M. Estne puer fīlius eius servī an alterīus?
  C. Neutrīus fīlius est puer. Is est fīlius lēgātī Sextī.
  M. Quō puer cum eō servō properat?
  C. Is cum servō properat ad lātōs Sextī agrōs.[2] Tōtum frūmentum est
    iam mātūrum et magnus servōrum numerus in Italiae[3] agrīs labōrat.
  M. Agricolaene sunt Gallī et patriae suae agrōs arant?
  C. Nōn agricolae sunt. Bellum amant Gallī, nōn agrī cultūram. Apud eōs
    virī pugnant et fēminae auxiliō līberōrum agrōs arant parantque
    cibum.
  M. Magister noster puerīs puellīsque grātās Gallōrum fābulās saepe
    nārrat et laudat eōs saepe.
  C. Mala est fortūna eōrum et saepe miserī servī multīs cum lacrimīs
    patriam suam dēsīderant.

    [Footnote 1: There are a number of departures from the normal order
    in this dialogue. Find them, and give the reason.]

    [Footnote 2: When a noun is modified by both a genitive and an
    adjective, a favorite order of words is _adjective, genitive,
    noun_.]

    [Footnote 3: A modifying genitive often stands between a preposition
    and its object.]

       *       *       *       *       *

  «Second Review, Lessons IX-XVII, §§506-509»

       *       *       *       *       *

LESSON XVIII

«CONJUGATION»
THE PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE TENSES OF «SUM»

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
   lūdus, -ī, m.,_school_
  «socius, socī», m., _companion, ally_ (social)

  ADJECTIVES
  «īrātus, -a, -um», _angry, furious_ (irate)
  «laetus, -a, -um», _happy, glad_ (social)

  ADVERBS
   hodiē, _to-day_
  «ibi», _there, in that place_
   mox, _presently, soon_, of the immediate future
  «nunc», _now, the present moment_
  «nūper», _lately, recently_, of the immediate past

«119.» The inflection of a verb is called its _conjugation_ (cf. §23).
In English the verb has but few changes in form, the different meanings
being expressed by the use of personal pronouns and auxiliaries, as,
_I am carried, we have carried, they shall have carried_, etc. In Latin,
on the other hand, instead of using personal pronouns and auxiliary
verbs, the form changes with the meaning. In this way the Romans
expressed differences in _tense, mood, voice, person_, and _number_.

«120.» «The Tenses.» The different forms of a verb referring to
different times are called its _tenses_. The chief distinctions of
time are present, past, and future:

  1. «The present», that is, _what is happening now_, or
     _what usually happens_, is expressed by
        THE PRESENT TENSE

  2. «The past», that is, _what was happening, used to happen,
      happened, has happened_, or _had happened_, is expressed by
        THE IMPERFECT, PERFECT, AND PLUPERFECT TENSES

  3. «The future», that is, _what is going to happen_, is expressed by
        THE FUTURE AND FUTURE PERFECT TENSES

«121.» «The Moods.» Verbs have inflection of _mood_ to indicate the
manner in which they express action. The moods of the Latin verb are the
_indicative, subjunctive, imperative_, and _infinitive_.

    _a._ A verb is in the _indicative_ mood when it makes a statement or
    asks a question about something assumed as a fact. All the verbs we
    have used thus far are in the present indicative.

«122.» «The Persons.» There are three persons, as in English. The first
person is the person speaking (_I sing_); the second person the person
spoken to (_you sing_); the third person the person spoken of (_he
sings_). Instead of using personal pronouns for the different persons in
the two numbers, singular and plural, the Latin verb uses the personal
endings (cf. §22 _a_; 29). We have already learned that «-t» is the
ending of the third person singular in the active voice and «-nt» of the
third person plural. The complete list of personal endings of the active
voice is as follows:

              SINGULAR                  PLURAL
  _1st Pers._ _I_             -m or -ō  _we_   -mus
  _2d Pers._  _thou_ or _you_ -s        _you_  -tis
  _3d Pers._  _he, she, it_   -t        _they_ -nt

«123.» Most verbs form their moods and tenses after a regular plan and
are called _regular_ verbs. Verbs that depart from this plan are called
_irregular_. The verb _to be_ is irregular in Latin as in English. The
present, imperfect, and future tenses of the indicative are inflected as
follows:

  PRESENT INDICATIVE
              SINGULAR                        PLURAL
  _1st Pers._ su-m, _I am_                    su-mus, _we are_
  _2d Pers._  e-s, _you[1] are_               es-tis, _you[1] are_
  _3d Pers._  es-t, _he, she_, or _it is_     su-nt,  _they are_

  IMPERFECT INDICATIVE
              SINGULAR                        PLURAL
  _1st Pers._ er-a-m, _I was_                 er-ā´-mus, _we were_
  _2d Pers._  er-ā-s, _you were_              er-ā´-tis, _you were_
  _3d Pers._  er-a-t, _he, she_, or _it was_  er-ā-nt,   _they were_

  FUTURE INDICATIVE
              SINGULAR                        PLURAL
  _1st Pers._ er-ō,   _I shall be_            er´-i-mus, _we shall be_
  _2d Pers._  er-i-s, _you will be_           er´-i-tis, _you will be_
  _3d Pers._  er-i-t, _he will be_            er-u-nt,   _they will be_

    _a._ Be careful about vowel quantity and accent in these forms, and
    consult §§12.2; 14; 15.

    [Footnote 1: Observe that in English _you are_, _you were_, etc. may
    be either singular or plural. In Latin the singular and plural forms
    are never the same.]

«124.» DIALOGUE

THE BOYS SEXTUS AND MARCUS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

  S. Ubi es, Mārce? Ubi est Quīntus? Ubi estis, amīcī?
  M. Cum Quīntō, Sexte, in silvā sum. Nōn sōlī sumus; sunt in silvā
    multī aliī puerī.
  S. Nunc laetus es, sed nūper nōn laetus erās. Cūr miser erās?
  M. Miser eram quia amīcī meī erant in aliō vicō et eram sōlus. Nunc
    sum apud sociōs meōs. Nunc laetī sumus et erimus.
  S. Erātisne in lūdo hodiē?
  M. Hodiē nōn erāmus in lūdō, quod magister erat aeger.
  S. Eritisne mox in lūdō?
  M. Amīcī meī ibi erunt, sed ego (_I_) nōn erō.
  S. Cūr nōn ibi eris? Magister, saepe irātus, inopiam tuam studī
    dīligentiaeque nōn laudat.
  M. Nūper aeger eram et nunc īnfīrmus sum.

«125.» EXERCISE

1. You are, you were, you will be, (_sing. and plur._). 2. I am, I was,
I shall be. 3. He is, he was, he will be. 4. We are, we were, we shall
be. 5. They are, they were, they will be.

6. Why were you not in school to-day? I was sick. 7. Lately he was a
sailor, now he is a farmer, soon he will be a teacher. 8. To-day I am
happy, but lately I was wretched. 9. The teachers were happy because of
the boys’ industry.

  [Illustration: PUERI ROMANI IN LUDO]


LESSON XIX

THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS
PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF _AMŌ_ AND _MONEŌ_

«126.» There are four conjugations of the regular verbs. These
conjugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the
present conjugation-stem.[1] This vowel is called the _distinguishing
vowel_, and is best seen in the present infinitive.

    [Footnote 1: The _stem_ is the body of a word to which the
    terminations are attached. It is often identical with the base (cf.
    §58). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not
    appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional
    terminations. This point is further explained in §230.]

Below is given the _present infinitive_ of a verb of each conjugation,
the _present stem_, and the _distinguishing vowel._

                                                    DISTINGUISHING
  CONJUGATION   PRES. INFIN.            PRES. STEM      VOWEL
      I.         «amā´re», _to love_     «amā-»          «ā»
     II.         «monē´re», _to advise_  «monē-»         «ē»
    III.         «re´gĕre», _to rule_    «regĕ-»         «ĕ»
     IV.         «audī´re», _to hear_    «audi-»         «ī»

    _a._ Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by
    dropping «-re», the ending of the present infinitive.

NOTE. The present infinitive of «sum» is «esse», and «es-» is the
present stem.

«127.» From the present stem are formed the _present_, _imperfect_, and
_future_ tenses.

«128.» The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first and
of the second conjugation is as follows:

     «a´mō, amā´re» (_love_)        «mo´neō, monē´re» (_advise_)
      PRES. STEM «amā-»              PRES. STEM «monē-»

      SINGULAR                    PLURAL            PERSONAL ENDINGS
  1. a´mō, _I love_               mo´neō, _I advise_              -ō
  2. a´mās, _you love_            mo´nēs, _you advise_            -s
  3. a´mat, _he (she, it) loves_  mo´net, _he (she, it) advises_  -t

  1. amā´mus, _we love_           monē´mus, _we advise_         -mus
  2. amā´tis, _you love_          monē´tis, _you advise_        -tis
  3. a´mant, _they love_          mo´nent, _they advise_         -nt

  1. The present tense is inflected by adding the personal endings to
  the present stem, and its first person uses «-o» and not «-m». The
  form «amō» is for «amā-ō», the two vowels «ā-ō» contracting to «ō». In
  «moneō» there is no contraction. _Nearly all regular verbs ending in
  «-eo» belong to the second conjugation._

  2. Note that the long final vowel of the stem is shortened before
  another vowel («monē-ō» = «mo´nĕō»), and before final «-t» («amăt»,
  «monĕt») and «-nt» («amănt», «monĕnt»). Compare §12.2.

«129.» Like «amō» and «moneō» inflect the present active indicative of
the following verbs[2]:

    [Footnote 2: The only new verbs in this list are the five of the
    second conjugation which are starred. Learn their meanings.]

  INDICATIVE PRESENT           INFINITIVE PRESENT
   a´rō, _I plow_               arā´re, _to plow_
   cū´rō, _I care for_          cūrā´re, _to care for_
  *dē´leō, _I destroy_          dēlē´re, _to destroy_
   dēsī´derō, _I long for_      dēsīderā´re, _to long for_
   dō,[3] _I give_              da´re, _to give_
  *ha´beō, _I have_             habē´re, _to have_
   ha´bitō, _I live, I dwell_   habitā´re, _to live, to dwell_
  *iu´beō, _I order_            iubē´re, _to order_
   labō´rō, _I labor_           labōrā´re, _to labor_
   lau´dō, _I praise_           laudā´re, _to praise_
   mātū´rō, _I hasten_          mātūrā´re, _to hasten_
  *mo´veō, _I move_             movē´re, _to move_
   nār´rō, _I tell_             nārrā´re, _to tell_
   ne´cō, _I kill_              necā´re, _to kill_
   nūn´tiō, _I announce_        nūntiā´re, _to announce_
   pa´rō, _I prepare_           parā´re, _to prepare_
   por´tō, _I carry_            portā´re, _to carry_
   pro´perō, _I hasten_         properā´re, _to hasten_
   pug´nō, _I fight_            pugnā´re, _to fight_
  *vi´deō, _I see_              vidē´re, _to see_
   vo´cō, _I call_              vocā´re, _to call_

    [Footnote 3: Observe that in «dō, dăre», the «a» is _short_, and
    that the present stem is «dă-» and not «dā-». The only forms of «dō»
    that have a long are «dās» (pres. indic.), «dā» (pres. imv.), and
    «dāns» (pres. part.).]

«130.» «The Translation of the Present.» In English there are three ways
of expressing present action. We may say, for example, _I live, I am
living_, or _I do live_. In Latin the one expression «habitō» covers all
three of these expressions.

«131.» EXERCISES

Give the _voice_, _mood_, _tense_, _person_, and _number_ of each form.

I. 1. Vocāmus, properātis, iubent. 2. Movētis, laudās, vidēs.
3. Dēlētis, habētis, dant. 4. Mātūrās, dēsīderat, vidēmus. 5. Iubet,
movent, necat. 6. Nārrāmus, movēs, vident. 7. Labōrātis, properant,
portās, parant. 8. Dēlet, habētis, iubēmus, dās.

N.B. Observe that the personal ending is of prime importance in
translating a Latin verb form. Give that your first attention.

II. 1. We plow, we are plowing, we do plow. 2. They care for, they are
caring for, they do care for. 3. You give, you are having, you do have
(_sing_.). 4. We destroy, I do long for, they are living. 5. He calls,
they see, we are telling. 6. We do fight, we order, he is moving, he
prepares. 7. They are laboring, we kill, you announce.


LESSON XX

IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF _AMŌ_ AND _MONEŌ_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «fōrma, -ae», f., _form, beauty_
  «regīna, -ae», f., _queen_ (regal)
  «poena, -ae», f., _punishment, penalty_
   superbia, -ae, f., _pride, haughtiness_
  «potentia, -ae», f., _power_ (potent)
  «trīstītīa, -ae», f., _sadness, sorrow_

  ADJECTIVES
  «septem», indeclinable, _seven_
  «superbus, -a, -um», _proud, haughty_ (superb)

   CONJUNCTIONS
  «nōn sōlum ... sed etiam», _not only ... but also_

«132.» «Tense Signs.» Instead of using auxiliary verbs to express
differences in tense, like _was_, _shall_, _will_, etc., Latin adds to
the verb stem certain elements that have the force of auxiliary verbs.
These are called _tense signs_.

«133.» «Formation and Inflection of the Imperfect.» The tense sign of
the imperfect is «-bā-», which is added to the present stem. The
imperfect consists, therefore, of three parts:

  PRESENT STEM  TENSE SIGN  PERSONAL ENDING
  «amā-»        «ba-»       «m»
  _loving_      _was_       _I_

The inflection is as follows:

  CONJUGATION I                    CONJUGATION II
                                                                PERSONAL
     SINGULAR                                                    ENDINGS
  1. amā´bam, _I was loving_       monē´bam, _I was advising_         -m
  2. amā´bās, _you were loving_    monē´bās, _you were advising_      -s
  3. amā´bat, _he was loving_      monē´bat, _he was advising_        -t

     PLURAL
  1. amābā´mus, _we were loving_   monēbā´mus, _we were advising_   -mus
  2. amābā´tis, _you were loving_  monēbā´tis, _you were advising_  -tis
  3. amā´bant, _they were loving_  monē´bant, _they wereadvising_    -nt

    _a._ Note that the «ā» of the tense sign «-bā-» is shortened before
    «-nt», and before «m» and «t» when final. (Cf. §12.2.)

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in §129.

«134.» «Meaning of the Imperfect.» The Latin imperfect describes an
act as _going on_ or _progressing in past time_, like the English
past-progressive tense (as, _I was walking_). It is the regular tense
used to describe a past situation or condition of affairs.

«135.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Vidēbāmus, dēsīderābat, mātūrābās. 2. Dabant, vocābātis,
dēlēbāmus. 3. Pugnant, laudābās, movēbātis. 4. Iubēbant, properābātis,
portābāmus. 5. Dabās, nārrābant, labōrābātis. 6. Vidēbant, movēbās,
nūntiābāmus. 7. Necābat, movēbam, habēbat, parābātis.

II. 1. You were having (_sing. and plur._), we were killing, they were
laboring. 2. He was moving, we were ordering, we were fighting. 3. We
were telling, they were seeing, he was calling. 4. They were living,
I was longing for, we were destroying. 5. You were giving, you were
moving, you were announcing, (_sing. and plur._). 6. They were caring
for, he was plowing, we were praising.

«136.» NI´OBE AND HER CHILDREN

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

Niobē, rēgina Thēbānōrum, erat pulchra fēmina sed superba. Erat superba
nōn sōlum fōrmā[1] suā marītīque potentiā[1] sed etiam magnō līberōrum
numerō.[1] Nam habēbat[2] septem fīliōs et septem fīliās. Sed ea
superbia erat rēgīnae[3] causa magnae trīstitiae et līberīs[3] causa
dūrae poenae.

NOTE. The words «Niobē», «Thēbānōrum», and «marītī» will be found in the
general vocabulary. Translate the selection without looking up any other
words.

    [Footnote 1: Ablative of cause.]

    [Footnote 2: Translate _had_; it denotes a past situation. (See
    §134.)]

    [Footnote 3: Dative, cf. §43.]


LESSON XXI

FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF _AMŌ_ AND _MONEŌ_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
   sacrum, -ī, n., _sacrifice, offering, rite_
  «verbum, -ī», n., _word_ (verb)

  VERBS
   sedeō, -ēre, _sit_ (sediment)
   volō, -āre, _fly_ (volatile)

  ADJECTIVES
  «interfectus, -a, -um», _slain_
  «molestus, -a, -um», _troublesome, annoying_ (molest)
  «perpetuus, -a, -um», _perpetual, continuous_

  «ego», personal pronoun, _I_ (egotism). Always emphatic in the
     nominative.

«137.» The tense sign of the Future Indicative in the first and second
conjugations is «-bi-». This is joined to the present stem of the verb
and followed by the personal ending, as follows:

  PRESENT STEM  TENSE SIGN  PERSONAL ENDING
  «amā-»        «bi-»       «s»
  _love_        _will_      _you_

«138.» The Future Active Indicative is inflected as follows.

     CONJUGATION I              CONJUGATION II
     SINGULAR
  1. amā´bō, _I shall love_      monē´bō, _I shall advise_
  2. amā´bis, _you will love_    monē´bis, _you will advise_
  3. amā´bit, _he will love_     monē´bit, _he will advise_

     PLURAL
  1. amā´bimus, _we shall love_  monē´bimus, _we shall advise_
  2. amā´bitis _you will love_   monē´bitis, _you will advise_
  3. amā´bunt, _they will love_  monē´bunt, _they will advise_

    _a._ The personal endings are as in the present. The ending «-bō»
    in the first person singular is contracted from «-bi-ō». The «-bi-»
    appears as «-bu-» in the third person plural. Note that the
    inflection is like that of «erō», the future of «sum». _Pay especial
    attention to the accent._

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in §129.

«139.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Movēbitis, laudābis, arābō. 2. Dēlēbitis, vocābitis, dabunt.
3. Mātūrābis, dēsīderābit, vidēbimus. 4. Habēbit, movēbunt, necābit.
5. Nārrābimus, monēbis, vidēbunt. 6. Labōrābitis, cūrābunt, dabis.
7. Habitābimus, properābitis, iubēbunt, parābit. 8. Nūntiābō,
portābimus, iubēbō.

II. 1. We shall announce, we shall see, I shall hasten. 2. I shall
carry, he will plow, they will care for. 3. You will announce, you will
move, you will give, (_sing. and plur._). 4. We shall fight, we shall
destroy, I shall long for. 5. He will call, they will see, you will tell
(_plur._). 6. They will dwell, we shall order, he will praise. 7. They
will labor, we shall kill, you will have (_sing. and plur._), he will
destroy.

«140.» NI´OBE AND HER CHILDREN (_Concluded_)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apollō et Diāna erant līberī Lātōnae. Iīs Thēbānī sacra crēbra
parābant.[1] Oppidānī amābant Lātōnam et līberōs eius. Id superbae
rēgīnae erat molestum. “Cūr,” inquit, “Lātōnae et līberīs sacra parātis?
Duōs līberōs habet Lātōna; quattuordecim habeō ego. Ubi sunt mea sacra?”
Lātōna iīs verbīs[2] īrāta līberōs suōs vocat. Ad eam volant Apollō
Diānaque et sagittīs[3] suīs miserōs līberōs rēgīnae superbae dēlent.
Niobē, nūper laeta, nunc misera, sedet apud līberōs interfectōs et cum
perpetuīs lacrimīs[4] eōs dēsīderat.

NOTE. Consult the general vocabulary for «Apollō», «inquit», «duōs», and
«quattuordecim». Try to remember the meaning of all the other words.

    [Footnote 1: Observe the force of the imperfect here, _used to
    prepare_, _were in the habit of preparing_; so «amābant» denotes a
    past situation of affairs. (See §134.)]

    [Footnote 2: Ablative of cause.]

    [Footnote 3: Ablative of means.]

    [Footnote 4: This may be either manner or accompaniment. It is often
    impossible to draw a sharp line between means, manner, and
    accompaniment. The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinction. It
    was enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case.]


LESSON XXII

REVIEW OF VERBS · THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «disciplīna, -ae», f., _training, culture, discipline_
  «Gāius, Gāī», m., _Caius_, a Roman first name
  «ōrnāmentum, -ī», n., _ornament, jewel_
   Tiberius, Tibe´rī, m., _Tiberius_, a Roman first name

  VERB
  «doceō, -ēre», _teach_ (doctrine)

  ADVERB
  «maximē», _most of all, especially_

  ADJECTIVE
  «antīquus, -qua, -quum», _old, ancient_ (antique)

«141.» Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both
orally and in writing, of «sum» and the verbs in §129.

«142.» We learned in §43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the
dative, and in §44 that one of its commonest uses is with _verbs_ to
express the indirect object. It is also very common with _adjectives_
to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective
is directed. We have already had a number of cases where «grātus»,
_agreeable to_, was so followed by a dative; and in the last lesson we
had «molestus», _annoying to_, followed by that case. The usage may be
more explicitly stated by the following rule:

«143.» RULE. «Dative with Adjectives.» _The dative is used with
adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is
directed. Such are, especially, those meaning «near», also «fit»,
«friendly», «pleasing», «like», and their opposites._

«144.» Among such adjectives memorize the following:

  «idōneus, -a, -um», _fit, suitable_ (for)
  «amīcus, -a, -um», _friendly_ (to)
  «inimicus, -a, -um», _hostile_ (to)
  «grātus, -a, -um», _pleasing_ (to), _agreeable_ (to)
  «molestus, -a, -um», _annoying_ (to), _troublesome_ (to)
  «fīnitimus, -a, -um», _neighboring_ (to)
  «proximus, -a, -um», _nearest, next_ (to)

«145.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Rōmānī terram idōneam agrī cultūrae habent. 2. Gallī cōpiīs
Rōmānīs inimīcī erant. 3. Cui dea Lātōna amīca non erat? 4. Dea Lātōna
superbae rēgīnae amīca nōn erat. 5. Cibus noster, Mārce, erit armātīs
virīs grātus. 6. Quid erat molestum populīs Italiae? 7. Bella longa cum
Gallīs erant molesta populīs Italiae. 8. Agrī Germānōrum fluviō Rhēnō
fīnitimī erant. 9. Rōmānī ad silvam oppidō proximam castra movēbant.
10. Nōn sōlum fōrma sed etiam superbia rēgīnae erat magna. 11. Mox
rēgīna pulchra erit aegra trīstitiā. 12. Cūr erat Niobē, rēgīna
Thēbānōrum, laeta? Laeta erat Niobē multīs fīliīs et fīliābus.

II. 1. The sacrifices of the people will be annoying to the haughty
queen. 2. The sacrifices were pleasing not only to Latona but also to
Diana. 3. Diana will destroy those hostile to Latona. 4. The punishment
of the haughty queen was pleasing to the goddess Diana. 5. The Romans
will move their forces to a large field[1] suitable for a camp. 6. Some
of the allies were friendly to the Romans, others to the Gauls.

    [Footnote 1: Why not the dative?]

«146.» CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apud antīquās dominās, Cornēlia, Āfricānī fīlia, erat[2] maximē clāra.
Fīliī eius erant Tiberius Gracchus et Gāius Gracchus. Iī puerī cum
Cornēliā in oppidō Rōmā, clārō Italiae oppidō, habitābant. Ibi eōs
cūrābat Cornēlia et ibi magnō cum studiō eōs docēbat. Bona fēmina erat
Cornēlia et bonam disciplīnam maximē amābat.

NOTE. Can you translate the paragraph above? There are no new words.

    [Footnote 2: Observe that all the imperfects denote continued or
    progressive action, or describe a state of affairs. (Cf. §134.)]


LESSON XXIII

PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF _REGŌ_ AND _AUDIŌ_

«147.» As we learned in §126, the present stem of the third conjugation
ends in «-ĕ», and of the fourth in «-ī». The inflection of the Present
Indicative is as follows:

     CONJUGATION III               CONJUGATION IV
    «re´gō, re´gere» (_rule_)     «au´dio, audī´re» (_hear_)
     PRES. STEM «regĕ-»            PRES. STEM «audī-»

     SINGULAR
  1. re´gō, _I rule_               au´diō, _I hear_
  2. re´gis, _you rule_            au´dīs, _you hear_
  3. re´git, _he (she, it) rules_  au´dit, _he (she, it) hears_

     PLURAL
  1. re´gimus, _we rule_           audī´mus, _we hear_
  2. re´gitis, _you rule_          audī´tis, _you hear_
  3. re´gunt, _they rule_          au´diunt, _they hear_

  1. The personal endings are the same as before.

  2. The final short «-e-» of the stem «regĕ-» combines with the «-ō» in
  the first person, becomes «-u-» in the third person plural, and
  becomes «-ĭ-» elsewhere. The inflection is like that of «erō», the
  future of «sum».

  3. In «audiō» the personal endings are added regularly to the stem
  «audī-». In the third person plural «-u-» is inserted between the stem
  and the personal ending, as «audi-u-nt». Note that the long vowel of
  the stem is shortened before final «-t» just as in «amō» and «moneō».
  (Cf. §12.2.)

Note that «-i-» is always short in the third conjugation and long in
the fourth, excepting where long vowels are regularly shortened. (Cf.
§12.1, 2.)

«148.» Like «regō» and «audiō» inflect the present active indicative of
the following verbs:

  INDICATIVE PRESENT  INFINITIVE PRESENT

  agō, _I drive_      agere, _to drive_
  dīcō, _I say_       dīcere, _to say_
  dūcō, _I lead_      dūcere, _to lead_
  mittō, _I send_     mittere, _to send_
  mūniō, _I fortify_  mūnīre, _to fortify_
  reperiō, _I find_   reperīre, _to find_
  veniō, _I come_     venīre, _to come_

«149.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis agit? Cūr venit? Quem mittit? Quem dūcis? 2. Quid mittunt? Ad
quem veniunt? Cuius castra mūniunt? 3. Quem agunt? Venīmus. Quid puer
reperit? 4. Quem mittimus? Cuius equum dūcitis? Quid dīcunt? 5. Mūnīmus,
venītis, dīcit. 6. Agimus, reperītis, mūnīs. 7. Reperis, ducitis, dīcis.
8. Agitis, audimus, regimus.

II. 1. What do they find? Whom do they hear? Why does he come? 2. Whose
camp are we fortifying? To whom does he say? What are we saying? 3. I am
driving, you are leading, they are hearing. 4. You send, he says, you
fortify (_sing. and plur._). 5. I am coming, we find, they send. 6. They
lead, you drive, he does fortify. 7. You lead, you find, you rule, (_all
plur._).

«150.» CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS (_Concluded_)

Proximum domicīliō Cornēliae erat pulchrae Campānae domicilium. Campāna
erat superba nōn sōlum fōrmā suā sed maximē ōrnāmentīs suīs. Ea[1]
laudābat semper. “Habēsne tū ūlla ornāmenta, Cornēlia?” inquit. “Ubi
sunt tua ōrnāmenta?” Deinde Cornēlia fīliōs suōs Tiberium et Gāium
vocat. “Puerī meī,” inquit, “sunt mea ōrnāmenta. Nam bonī līberī sunt
semper bonae fēminae ōrnāmenta maximē clāra.”

NOTE. The only new words here are «Campāna», «semper», and «tū».

    [Footnote 1: «Ea», accusative plural neuter.]

  [Illustration: “PUERI MEI SUNT MEA ORNAMENTA”]


LESSON XXIV

IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF _REGŌ_ AND _AUDIŌ_
THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL INTRANSITIVE VERBS

«151.» PARADIGMS

     CONJUGATION III              CONJUGATION IV
     SINGULAR
  1. regē´bam, _I was ruling_       audiē´bam, _I was hearing_
  2. regē´bās, _you were riding_    audiē´bās, _you were hearing_
  3. regē´bat, _he was ruling_      audiē´bat, _he was hearing_

     PLURAL
  1. regēbā´mus, _we were ruling_   audiēbā´mus, _we were hearing_
  2. regēbā´tis, _you were ruling_  audiēbā´tis, _you were hearing_
  3. regē´bant, _they were ruling_  audiē´bant, _they were hearing_

  1. The tense sign is «-bā-», as in the first two conjugations.

  2. Observe that the final «-ĕ-» of the stem is lengthened before the
  tense sign «-bā-». This makes the imperfect of the third conjugation
  just like the imperfect of the second (cf. «monēbam» and «regēbam»).

  3. In the fourth conjugation «-ē-» is inserted between the stem and
  the tense sign «-bā-» («audi-ē-ba-m»).

  4. In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in §148.

«152.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Agēbat, veniēbat, mittēbat, dūcēbant. 2. Agēbant, mittēbant,
dūcēbas, mūniēbant. 3. Mittēbāmus, dūcēbātis, dīcēbant. 4. Mūniēbāmus,
veniēbātis, dīcēbās. 5. Mittēbās, veniēbāmus, reperiēbat. 6. Reperiēbās,
veniēbās, audiēbātis. 7. Agēbāmus, reperiēbātis, mūniēbat. 8. Agēbātis,
dīcēbam, mūniēbam.

II. 1. They were leading, you were driving (_sing. and plur._), he was
fortifying. 2. They were sending, we were finding, I was coming. 3. You
were sending, you were fortifying, (_sing. and plur._), he was saying.
4. They were hearing, you were leading (_sing. and plur._), I was
driving. 5. We were saying, he was sending, I was fortifying. 6. They
were coming, he was hearing, I was finding. 7. You were ruling (_sing.
and plur._), we were coming, they were ruling.

«153.» «The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs.» We learned above
(§20.a) that a verb which does not admit of a direct object is called
an _intransitive_ verb. Many such verbs, however, are of such meaning
that they can govern an indirect object, which will, of course, be in
the dative case (§45). Learn the following list of intransitive verbs
with their meanings. In each case the dative indirect object is the
person or thing to which a benefit, injury, or feeling is directed.
(Cf. §43.)

  «crēdō, crēdere», _believe_ (give belief to)
  «faveō, favēre», _favor_ (show favor to)
  «noceō, nocēre», _injure_ (do harm to)
  «pāreō, pārēre», _obey_ (give obedience to)
  «persuādeō, persuādēre», _persuade_ (offer persuasion to)
  «resistō, resistere», _resist_ (offer resistance to)
  «studeō, studēre», _be eager for_ (give attention to)

«154.» RULE. «Dative with Intransitive Verbs.» _The dative of the
indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs «crēdō», «faveō»,
«noceō», «pāreō», «persuādeō», «resistō», «studeō», and others of like
meaning._

«155.» EXERCISE

1. Crēdisne verbīs sociōrum? Multī verbīs eōrum nōn crēdunt. 2. Meī
fīnitimī cōnsiliō tuō nōn favēbunt, quod bellō student. 3. Tiberius et
Gāius disciplīnae dūrae nōn resistēbant et Cornēliae pārēbant. 4. Dea
erat inimīca septem fīliābus rēgīnae. 5. Dūra poena et perpetua
trīstitia rēgīnae nōn persuādēbunt. 6. Nūper ea resistēbat et nunc
resistit potentiae Lātōnae. 7. Mox sagittae volābunt et līberīs miserīs
nocēbunt.


LESSON XXV

FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF _REGŌ_ AND _AUDIŌ_

«156.» In the future tense of the third and fourth conjugations we meet
with a new tense sign. Instead of using «-bi-», as in the first and
second conjugations, we use «-ā-»[1] in the first person singular and
«-ē-» in the rest of the tense. In the third conjugation the final «-ĕ-»
of the stem is dropped before this tense sign; in the fourth conjugation
the final «-ī-» of the stem is retained.[2]

    [Footnote 1: The «-ā-» is shortened before «-m» final, and «-ē-»
    before «-t» final and before «-nt». (Cf. §12.2.)]

    [Footnote 2: The «-ī-» is, of course, shortened, being before
    another vowel. (Cf. §12.1.)]

«157.» PARADIGMS

     CONJUGATION III            CONJUGATION IV
     SINGULAR
  1. re´gam, _I shall rule_     au´diam, _I shall hear_
  2. re´gēs, _you will rule_    au´diēs, _you will hear_
  3. re´get, _he will rule_     au´diet, _he will hear_

     PLURAL
  1. regē´mus, _we shall rule_  audiē´mus, _we shall hear_
  2. regē´tis, _you will rule_  audiē´tis, _you will hear_
  3. re´gent, _they will rule_  au´dient, _they will hear_

  1. Observe that the future of the third conjugation is like the
  present of the second, excepting in the first person singular.

  2. In the same manner inflect the verbs given in §148.

«158.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Dīcet, dūcētis, mūniēmus. 2. Dīcent, dīcētis, mittēmus.
3. Mūnient, venient, mittent, agent. 4. Dūcet, mittēs, veniet, aget.
5. Mūniet, reperiētis, agēmus. 6. Mittam, veniēmus, regent. 7. Audiētis,
veniēs, reperiēs. 8. Reperiet, agam, dūcēmus, mittet. 9. Vidēbitis,
sedēbō, vocābimus.

II. 1. I shall find, he will hear, they will come. 2. I shall fortify,
he will send, we shall say. 3. I shall drive, you will lead, they will
hear. 4. You will send, you will fortify, (_sing. and plur._), he will
say. 5. I shall come, we shall find, they will send.

6. Who[3] will believe the story? I[4] shall believe the story. 7. Whose
friends do you favor? We favor our friends. 8. Who will resist our
weapons? Sextus will resist your weapons. 9. Who will persuade him?
They will persuade him. 10. Why were you injuring my horse? I was not
injuring your horse. 11. Whom does a good slave obey? A good slave obeys
his master. 12. Our men were eager for another battle.

    [Footnote 3: Remember that «quis», _who_, is singular in number.]

    [Footnote 4: Express by «ego», because it is emphatic.]


LESSON XXVI

VERBS IN _-IŌ_ OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION · THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

«159.» There are a few common verbs ending in «-iō» which do not belong
to the fourth conjugation, as you might infer, but to the third. The
fact that they belong to the third conjugation is shown by the ending of
the infinitive. (Cf. §126.) Compare

  «audiō, audī´re» (_hear_), fourth conjugation
  «capiō, ca´pere» (_take_), third conjugation

«160.» The present, imperfect, and future active indicative of «capiō»
are inflected as follows:

  «capiō, capere», _take_
  PRES. STEM  «cape-»

     PRESENT     IMPERFECT      FUTURE
     SINGULAR
  1. ca´piō      capiē´bam      ca´piam
  2. ca´pis      capiē´bās      ca´piēs
  3. ca´pit      capiē´bat      ca´piet

     PLURAL
  1. ca´pimus    capiēbā´mus    capiē´mus
  2. ca´pitis    capiēbā´tis    capiē´tis
  3. ca´piunt    capiē´bant     ca´pient

  1. Observe that «capiō» and the other «-iō» verbs follow the fourth
  conjugation wherever in the fourth conjugation _two vowels occur in
  succession._ (Cf. capiō, audiō; capiunt, audiunt; and all the
  imperfect and future.) All other forms are like the third conjugation.
  (Cf. capis, regis; capit, regit; etc.)

  2. Like «capiō», inflect

  «faciō, facere», _make, do_
  «fugiō, fugere», _flee_
  «iaciō, iacere», _hurl_
  «rapiō, rapere», _seize_

«161.» «The Imperative Mood.» The imperative mood expresses a command;
as, _come!_ _send!_ The present tense of the imperative is used only in
the second person, singular and plural. _The singular in the active
voice is regularly the same in form as the present stem. The plural is
formed by adding «-te» to the singular._

  CONJUGATION      SINGULAR             PLURAL
    I.             amā, _love thou_     amā´te, _love ye_
   II.             monē, _advise thou_  monē´te, _advise ye_
  III. (_a_)       rege, _rule thou_    re´gite, _rule ye_
       (_b_)       cape, _take thou_    ca´pite, _take ye_
   IV.             audī, _hear thou_    audī´te, _hear ye_
  sum (irregular)  es, _be thou_        este, _be ye_

  1. In the third conjugation the final -ĕ- of the stem becomes -ĭ- in
  the plural.

  2. The verbs «dīcō», _say_; «dūcō», _lead_; and «faciō», _make_, have
  the irregular forms «dīc», «dūc», and «fac» in the singular.

  3. Give the present active imperative, singular and plural, of
  «veniō», «dūcō», «vocō», «doceō», «laudō», «dīcō», «sedeō», «agō»,
  «faciō», «mūniō», «mittō», «rapiō».

«162.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Fugient, faciunt, iaciēbat. 2. Dēlē, nūntiāte, fugiunt. 3. Venīte,
dīc, faciētis. 4. Dūcite, iaciam, fugiēbant. 5. Fac, iaciēbāmus,
fugimus, rapite. 6. Sedēte, reperī, docēte. 7. Fugiēmus, iacient,
rapiēs. 8. Reperient, rapiēbātis, nocent. 9. Favēte, resistē, pārēbitis.

10. Volā ad multās terrās et dā auxilium. 11. Ego tēla mea capiam et
multās ferās dēlēbō. 12. Quis fābulae tuae crēdet? 13. Este bonī, puerī,
et audīte verba grāta magistrī.

II. 1. The goddess will seize her arms and will hurl her weapons.
2. With her weapons she will destroy many beasts. 3. She will give aid
to the weak.[1] 4. She will fly to many lands and the beasts will flee.
5. Romans, tell[2] the famous story to your children.

    [Footnote 1: Plural. An adjective used as a noun. (Cf.
    §99.II.3.)]

    [Footnote 2: Imperative. The imperative generally stands first, as
    in English.]

       *       *       *       *       *

  «Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, §§510-512»

       *       *       *       *       *

LESSON XXVII

THE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF _AMŌ_ AND _MONEŌ_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «āla, -ae», f., _wing_
  «deus, -ī», m., _god_ (deity)[A]
  «monstrum, -ī», n., _omen, prodigy; monster_
   ōrāculum, -ī, n., _oracle_

  VERB
  «vāstō, -āre», _lay waste, devastate_

  ADJECTIVES
  «commōtus, -a, -um», _moved, excited_
  «maximus, -a, -um», _greatest_ (maximum)
  «saevus, -a, -um», _fierce, savage_

  ADVERBS
  «ita», _thus, in this way, as follows_
  «tum», _then, at that time_

    [Footnote A: For the declension of «deus», see §468]

«163.» «The Voices.» Thus far the verb forms have been in the _active
voice_; that is, they have represented the subject as _performing_ an
action; as,

  The lion ---> _killed_ ---> the hunter

A verb is said to be in the _passive voice_ when it represents its
subject as _receiving_ an action; as,

  The lion <--- _was killed_ <--- by the hunter

Note the direction of the arrows.

«164.» «Passive Personal Endings.» In the passive voice we use a
different set of personal endings. They are as follows:

      SINGULAR                PLURAL
   1. -r, _I_              1. -mur, _we_
   2. -ris, -re, _you_     2. -minī, _you_
   3. -tur, _he, she, it_  3. -ntur, _they_

    _a._ Observe that the letter «-r» appears somewhere in all but one
    of the endings. This is sometimes called the _passive sign_.

«165.» PARADIGMS

  «amō, amāre»                 «monēo, monēre»
  PRES. STEM «amā-»            PRES. STEM «monē-»

  PRESENT INDICATIVE                                            PERSONAL
                                                                 ENDINGS
  SINGULAR
  a´mor, _I am loved_          mo´neor, _I am advised_            -or[1]
  amā´ris or amā´re,           monē´ris or monē´re.          -ris or -re
    _you are loved_              _you are advised_
  amā´tur,  _he is loved_      monē´tur,  _he is advised_           -tur

  PLURAL
  amā´mur,  _we are loved_     monē´mur,  _we are advised_          -mur
  amā´minī,  _you are loved_   monē´minī,  _you are advised_       -mini
  aman´tur,  _they are loved_  monen´tur,  _they are advised_      -ntur

    [Footnote 1: In the present the personal ending of the first person
    singular is «-or».]

  IMPERFECT INDICATIVE (TENSE SIGN «-bā-»)

  SINGULAR
  amā´bar,                     monē´bar,                              -r
    _I was being loved_          _I was being advised_
  amābā´ris or amābā´re,       monēbā´ris or monēbā´re       -ris or -re
    _you were being loved_       _you were being advised_
  amābā´tur,                   monēbā´tur,                          -tur
    _he was being loved_        _he was being advised_

  PLURAL
  amābā´mur,                   monēbā´mur,                          -mur
    _we were being loved_        _we were being advised_
  amābā´minī,                  monēbā´minī,                        -minī
    _you were being loved_       _you were being advised_
  amāban´tur,                  monēban´tur,                        -ntur
    _they were being loved_      _they were being advised_

  FUTURE (TENSE SIGN «-bi-»)

  SINGULAR
  amā´bor,                     monē´bor,                              -r
    _I shall be loved_           _I shall be advised_
  amā´beris, _or_ amā´bere     monē´beris _or_ monē´bere,    -ris or -re
    _you will be loved_          _you will be advised_
  amā´bitur,                   monē´bitur,                          -tur
    _he will be loved_           _he will be advised_

  PLURAL
  amā´bimur,                   monē´bimur,                          -mur
    _we shall be loved_          _we shall be advised_
  amābi´minī,                  monēbi´minī,                        -minī
    _you will be loved_          _you will be advised_
  amābun´tur,                  monēbun´tur,                        -ntur
    _they will be loved_         _they will be advised_

  1. The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active.

  2. In the future the tense sign «-bi-» appears as «-bo-» in the first
  person, «-be-» in the second, singular number, and as «-bu-» in the
  third person plural.

  3. Inflect «laudō», «necō», «portō», «moveō», «dēleō», «iubeō», in the
  present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

«166.» Intransitive verbs, such as «mātūrō», _I hasten_; «habitō», _I
dwell_, do not have a passive voice with a personal subject.

«167.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Laudāris _or_ laudāre, laudās, datur, dat. 2. Dabitur, dabit,
vidēminī, vidētis. 3. Vocābat, vocābātur, dēlēbitis, dēlēbiminī.
4. Parābātur, parābat, cūrās, cūrāris _or_ cūrāre. 5. Portābantur,
portābant, vidēbimur, vidēbimus. 6. Iubēris _or_ iubēre, iubēs,
laudābāris _or_ laudābāre, laudābās. 7. Movēberis or movēbere, movēbis,
dabantur, dabant. 8. Dēlentur, dēlent, parābāmur, parābāmus.

II. 1. We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, you
were carrying, you were being carried. 2. I see, I am seen, it was being
announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will be ordered.
3. You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are moved, we are
praising, we are being praised. 4. I am called, I call, you will have,
you are cared for. 5. They are seen, they see, we were teaching, we were
being taught, they will move, they will be moved.

  [Illustration: PERSEUS ANDROMEDAM SERVAT]

«168.» PER´SEUS AND ANDROM´EDA

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Perseus fīlius erat Iovis,[2] maximī[3] deōrum. Dē eō multās fabulās
nārrant poētae. Eī favent deī, eī magica arma et ālās dant. Eīs tēlīs
armātus et ālīs frētus ad multās terrās volābat et mōnstra saeva dēlēbat
et miserīs īnfīrmīsque auxilium dabat.

Aethiopia est terra Āfricae. Eam terram Cēpheus[4] regēbat. Eī[5]
Neptūnus, maximus aquārum deus, erat īrātus et mittit[6] mōnstrum saevum
ad Aethiopiam. Ibi mōnstrum nōn sōlum lātīs pulchrīsque Aethiopiae agrīs
nocēbat sed etiam domicilia agricolārum dēlēbat, et multōs virōs,
fēminās, līberōsque necābat. Populus ex agrīs fugiēbat et oppida mūrīs
validīs mūniēbat. Tum Cēpheus magnā trīstitiā commōtus ad Iovis ōrāculum
properat et ita dīcit: “Amīcī meī necantur; agrī meī vāstantur. Audī
verba mea, Iuppiter. Dā miserīs auxilium. Age mōnstrum saevum ex
patriā.”

    [Footnote 2: «Iovis», the genitive of «Iuppiter».]

    [Footnote 3: Used substantively, _the greatest_. So below, l. 4,
    «miserīs» and «īnfīrmīs» are used substantively.]

    [Footnote 4: Pronounce in two syllables, _Ce´pheus_.]

    [Footnote 5: «Eī», _at him_, dative with «īrātus».]

    [Footnote 6: The present is often used, as in English, in speaking
    of a past action, in order to make the story more vivid and
    exciting.]


LESSON XXVIII

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF _REGŌ_ AND _AUDIŌ_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  VERBS
  «respondeō, -ēre», _respond, reply_
  «servō, -āre», _save, preserve_

  ADJECTIVE
  «cārus, -a, -um», _dear_ (cherish)

  CONJUNCTION
  «autem», _but, moreover, now_. Usually stands second, never first

  NOUN
  «vīta, -ae», f., _life_ (vital)

«169.» Review the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of
«regō» and «audiō», and learn the passive of the same tenses (§§490,
491).

    _a._ Observe that the tense signs of the imperfect and future are
    the same as in the active voice, and that the passive personal
    endings (§164) are added instead of the active ones.

    _b._ Note the slight irregularity in the second person singular
    present of the third conjugation. There the final «-e-» of the stem
    is not changed to «-i-», as it is in the active. We therefore have
    «re´geris» or «re´gere», _not_ «re´giris», «re´gire».

    _c._ Inflect «agō», «dīcō», «dūcō», «mūniō», «reperiō», in the
    present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

«170.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Agēbat, agēbātur, mittēbat, mittēbātur, dūcēbat. 2. Agunt,
aguntur, mittuntur, mittunt, mūniunt. 3. Mittor, mittar, mittam, dūcēre,
dūcere. 4. Dīcēmur, dīcimus, dīcēmus, dīcimur, mūniēbaminī. 5. Dūcitur,
dūciminī, reperīmur, reperiar, agitur. 6. Agēbāmus, agēbāmur, reperīris,
reperiēminī. 7. Mūnīminī, veniēbam, dūcēbar, dīcētur. 8. Mittiminī,
mittitis, mittēris, mitteris, agēbāminī. 9. Dīcitur, dīcit, mūniuntur,
reperient, audientur.

II. 1. I was being driven, I was driving, we were leading, we were being
led, he says, it is said. 2. I shall send, I shall be sent, you will
find, you will be found, they lead, they are led. 3. I am found, we are
led, they are driven, you were being led (_sing. and plur._). 4. We
shall drive, we shall be driven, he leads, he is being led, they will
come, they will be fortified. 5. They were ruling, they were being
ruled, you will send, you will be sent, you are sent, (_sing. and
plur._). 6. He was being led, he will come, you are said (_sing. and
plur._).

«171.» PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (_Continued_)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Tum ōrāculum ita respondet: “Mala est fortūna tua. Neptūnus, magnus
aquārum deus, terrae Aethiopiae inimīcus, eās poenās mittit. Sed parā
īrātō deō sacrum idōneum et mōnstrum saevum ex patriā tuā agētur.
Andromeda fīlia tua est mōnstrō grāta. Dā eam mōnstrō. Servā cāram
patriam et vītam populī tuī.” Andromeda autem erat puella pulchra. Eam
amābat Cēpheus maximē.


LESSON XXIX

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF _-IŌ_ VERBS
PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE

  [Special Vocabulary]

  VERB
  «superō, -āre», _conquer, overcome_ (insuperable)

  NOUNS
  «cūra, -ae», f., _care, trouble_
  «locus, -ī», m., _place, spot_ (location). «Locus» is neuter in the
     plural and is declined «loca, -ōrum», etc.
  «perīculum, -ī», n., _danger, peril_

  ADVERBS
  «semper», _always_
  «tamen», _yet, nevertheless_

  PREPOSITIONS
  «dē», with abl., _down from; concerning_
  «per», with acc., _through_

  CONJUNCTION
  «si», _if_

«172.» Review the active voice of «capiō», present, imperfect, and
future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§492).

    _a._ The present forms «capior» and «capiuntur» are like «audior,
    audiuntur», and the rest of the tense is like «regor».

    _b._ In like manner inflect the passive of «iaciō» and «rapiō».

«173.» «The Infinitive.» The infinitive mood gives the general meaning
of the verb without person or number; as, «amāre», _to love_. Infinitive
means _unlimited_. The forms of the other moods, being limited by person
and number, are called the _finite_, or limited, verb forms.

«174.» The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are as
follows:

  CONJ.  PRES.      PRES. INFINITIVE    PRES. INFINITIVE
         STEM         ACTIVE              PASSIVE

    I.   «amā-»     amā´re,             amā´rī,
                      _to love_           _to be loved_
   II.   «monē-»    monē´re,            monē´rī,
                      _to advise_         _to be advised_
  III.   «rege-»    re´gere,            re´gī,
                      _to rule_           _to be ruled_
         «cape-»     ca´pere            ca´pī,
                      _to take_           _to be taken_
   IV.   «audī-»     audī´re,           audīrī,
                       _to hear_          _to be heard_

  1. Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add «-re» to
  the present stem.

    _a._ The present infinitive of «sum» is «esse». There is no passive.

  2. Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the
  active by changing final «-e» to «-ī», except in the third
  conjugation, which changes final «-ere» to «-ī».

  3. Give the active and passive present infinitives of «doceō»,
  «sedeō», «volō», «cūrō», «mittō», «dūcō», «mūniō», «reperiō», «iaciō»,
  «rapiō.»

«175.» The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are as
follows:

         ACTIVE[1]              PASSIVE
  CONJ.  SINGULAR    PLURAL     SINGULAR             PLURAL
     I.  «a´mā»      amā´te     amā´re,              amā´minī,
                                _be thou loved_     _be ye loved_
    II.  «mo´nē»     monē´te    monē´re,             monē´minī,
                                _be thou advised_   _be ye advised_
   III.  «re´ge»     re´gite    re´gere,             regi´minī,
                                _be thou ruled _     _be ye ruled_
         «ca´pe»     ca´pite    ca´pere,             capi´minī,
                                _be thou taken_      _be ye taken_
    IV.  «au´dī»     audī´te    audī´re,             audī´minī,
                                _be thou heard_      _be ye heard_

  1. Observe that the second person singular of the present passive
  imperative is like the present active infinitive, and that both
  singular and plural are like the second person singular[2] and plural,
  respectively, of the present passive indicative.

  2. Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs
  in §174.3.

    [Footnote 1: For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from
    §161.]

    [Footnote 2: That is, using the personal ending «-re». A form like
    «amāre» may be either _indicative_, _infinitive_, or _imperative_.]

«176.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Tum Perseus ālīs ad terrās multās volabit. 2. Mōnstrum saevum per
aquās properat et mox agrōs nostrōs vāstābit. 3. Sī autem Cēpheus ad
ōrāculum properābit, ōrāculum ita respondēbit. 4. Quis tēlīs Perseī
superābitur? Multa mōnstra tēlīs eius superābuntur. 5. Cum cūrīs magnīs
et lacrimīs multīs agricolae ex domiciliīs cārīs aguntur. 6. Multa loca
vāstābantur et multa oppida dēlēbantur. 7. Mōnstrum est validum, tamen
superābitur. 8. Crēdēsne semper verbīs ōrāculī? Ego iīs non semper
crēdam. 9. Pārēbitne Cēpheus ōrāculō? Verba ōrāculī eī persuādēbunt.
10. Si nōn fugiēmus, oppidum capiētur et oppidānī necābuntur. 11. Vocāte
puerōs et nārrāte fābulam clāram dē mōnstrō saevō.

II. 1. Fly thou, to be cared for, be ye sent, lead thou. 2. To lead, to
be led, be ye seized, fortify thou. 3. To be hurled, to fly, send thou,
to be found. 4. To be sent, be ye led, to hurl, to be taken. 5. Find
thou, hear ye, be ye ruled, to be fortified.


LESSON XXX

SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS · THE ABLATIVE DENOTING _FROM_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  VERBS
  «absum, abesse», irreg., _be away, be absent, be distant_, with
     separative abl.
  «adpropinquō, -āre», _draw near, approach_ (propinquity), with
     dative[A]
  «contineō, -ēre», _hold together, hem in, keep_ (contain)
  «discēdō, -ere», _depart, go away, leave_, with separative abl.
  «egeō, -ēre», _lack, need, be without_, with separative abl.
  «interficiō, -ere», _kill_
  «prohibeō, -ēre», _restrain, keep from_ (prohibit)
  «vulnerō, -āre», _wound_ (vulnerable)

  NOUNS
  «prōvincia, -ae», f., _province_
  «vīnum, -ī», n., _wine_

  ADJECTIVE
  «dēfessus, -a, -um», _weary, worn out_

  ADVERB
  «longē», _far, by far, far away_

    [Footnote A: This verb governs the dative because the idea of
    _nearness to_ is stronger than that of _motion to_. If the latter
    idea were the stronger, the word would be used with «ad» and the
    accusative.]

«177.» You should learn to give rapidly synopses of the verbs you have
had, as follows:[1]

            CONJUGATION I       CONJUGATION II
                       INDICATIVE
            ACTIVE   PASSIVE    ACTIVE    PASSIVE
  _Pres._   a´mō     a´mor      mo´neō    mo´neor
  _Imperf._ amā´bam  amā´bar    monē´bam  monē´bar
  _Fut._    amā´bo   amā´bor    monē´bo   monē´bor

    [Footnote 1: Synopses should be given not only in the first person,
    but in other persons as well, particularly in the third singular and
    plural.]

            CONJUGATION I          CONJUGATION II
                          IMPERATIVE
            ACTIVE    PASSIVE     ACTIVE     PASSIVE
  _Pres._   a´mā      amā´re      mo´nē      monē´re

                         INFINITIVE
  _Pres._   amā´re    amā´rī      monē´re    monē´rī

            CONJUGATION III        CONJUGATION III («-iō» verbs)
                         INDICATIVE
            ACTIVE    PASSIVE     ACTIVE     PASSIVE
  _Pres._   re´gō     re´gor      ca´piō     ca´pior
  _Imperf._ regē´bam  regē´bar    capiē´bam  capiē´bar
  _Fut._    re´gam    re´gar      ca´piam    ca´piar

                         IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._   re´ge     re´gere     ca´pe       ca´pere

                         INFINITIVE
  _Pres._   re´gere   re´gī       ca´pere     ca´pī

            CONJUGATION IV
              INDICATIVE
            ACTIVE     PASSIVE
  _Pres._   au´diō     au´dior
  _Imperf._ audiē´bam  audiē´bar
  _Fut._    au´diam    au´diar

              IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._   au´dī      audī´re

              INFINITIVE
  _Pres._   audī´re    audī´rī

  1. Give the synopsis of «rapiō», «mūniō», «reperiō», «doceō», «videō»,
  «dīcō», «agō», «laudō», «portō», and vary the person and number.

«178.» We learned in §50 that one of the three relations covered by the
ablative case is expressed in English by the preposition _from._ This is
sometimes called the _separative ablative_, and it has a number of
special uses. You have already grown familiar with the first mentioned
below.

«179.» RULE. «Ablative of the Place From.» _The place from which is
expressed by the ablative with the prepositions «ā» or «ab», «dē», «ē»
or «ex»._

  «Agricolae ex agrīs veniunt», _the farmers come from the fields_

    _a._ «ā» or «ab» denotes _from near_ a place; «ē» or «ex», _out
    from_ it; and «dē», _down from_ it. This may be represented
    graphically as follows:

                               _________
                              |         |
                  «ā» or «ab» |         | «ē» or «ex»
                /_____________|    ___________________\
                \             |  Place  |             /
                              |_________|
                                   |
                                   | «dē»
                                   |
                                   V

«180.» RULE. «Ablative of Separation.» _Words expressing separation or
deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning._

    _a._ If the separation is _actual_ and _literal_ of one material
    thing from another, the preposition «ā» or «ab», «ē» or «ex», or
    «dē» is generally used. If no actual motion takes place of one thing
    from another, no preposition is necessary.

      (a) «Perseus terram ā mōnstrīs līberat»
        _Perseus frees the land from monsters_
          (literal separation--actual motion is expressed)
      (b) «Perseus terram trīstitiā līberat»
        _Perseus frees the land from sorrow_
          (figurative separation--no actual motion is expressed)

«181.» RULE. «Ablative of the Personal Agent.» _The word expressing the
person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the
ablative with the preposition «ā» or «ab.»_

    _a._ In this construction the English translation of «ā», «ab» is
    _by_ rather than _from_. This ablative is regularly used with
    passive verbs to indicate the _person by whom_ the act was
    performed.

      «Mōnstrum ā Perseō necātur», _the monster is being slain by_
        (lit. _from_) _Perseus_

    _b._ Note that the active form of the above sentence would be
    «Perseus monstrum necat», _Perseus is slaying the monster_. In the
    passive the _object_ of the active verb becomes the _subject_, and
    the _subject_ of the active verb becomes the _ablative of the
    personal agent_, with «ā» or «ab».

    _c._ Distinguish carefully between the ablative of means and the
    ablative of the personal agent. Both are often translated into
    English by the preposition _by_. (Cf. §100. _b._) _Means is a
    «thing»; the agent or actor is a «person»_. The ablative of means
    has no preposition. The ablative of the personal agent has «ā» or
    «ab». Compare

      «Fera sagittā necātur», _the wild beast is killed by an arrow_
      «Fera ā Diānā necātur», _the wild beast is killed by Diana_

    «Sagittā», in the first sentence, is the ablative of means; «ā
    Diānā», in the second, is the ablative of the personal agent.

«182.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Viri inopiā cibī dēfessī ab eō locō discēdent. 2. Gerinānī castrīs
Rōmānīs adpropinquābant, tamen lēgātus cōpiās ā proeliō continēbat.
3. Multa Gallōrum oppida ab Rōmanīs capientur. 4. Tum Rōmānī tōtum
populum eōrum oppidōrum gladiīs pīlīsque interficient. 5. Oppidānī
Rōmānīs resistent, sed defessī longō proelīo fugient. 6. Multī ex
Galliā fugiēbant et in Germānōrum vicīs habitābant. 7. Miserī nautae
vulnerantur ab inimīcīs[2] saevīs et cibō egent. 8. Discēdite et
date virīs frūmentum et cōpiam vīnī. 9. Cōpiae nostrae ā proeliō
continēbantur ab Sextō lēgatō. 10. Id oppidum ab prōvinciā Rōmānā longē
aberat.

II. 1. The weary sailors were approaching a place dear to the goddess
Diana. 2. They were without food and without wine. 3. Then Galba and
seven other men are sent to the ancient island by Sextus. 4. Already
they are not far away from the land, and they see armed men on a high
place. 5. They are kept from the land by the men with spears and arrows.
6. The men kept hurling their weapons down from the high place with
great eagerness.

    [Footnote 2: «inimīcīs», here used as a noun. See vocabulary.]


LESSON XXXI

PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF _SUM_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
   aurum, -ī, n., _gold_ (oriole)
  «mora, -ae», f., _delay_
  «nāvigium, nāvi´gī», n., _boat, ship_
  «ventus, -ī», m., _wind_ (ventilate)

  VERB
  «nāvigō, -āre», _sail_ (navigate)

  ADJECTIVES
   attentus, -a, -um, _attentive, careful_
  «dubius, -a, -um», _doubtful_ (dubious)
   perfidus, -a, -um, _faithless, treacherous_ (perfidy)

  ADVERB
  «anteā», _before, previously_

  PREPOSITION
  «sine», with abl., _without_

«183.» «Principal Parts.» There are certain parts of the verb that are
of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the
_principal parts._

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the present, the past, and the
past participle; as _go, went, gone_; _see, saw, seen_, etc.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the _first person singular of
the present indicative_, the _present infinitive_, the _first person
singular of the perfect indicative_, and _the perfect passive
participle._

«184.» «Conjugation Stems.» From the principal parts we get three
conjugation stems, from which are formed the entire conjugation. We
have already learned about the «present stem», which is found from the
present infinitive (cf. §126.a). The other two stems are the «perfect
stem» and the «participial stem».

«185.» «The Perfect Stem.» The perfect stem of the verb is formed in
various ways, but may always be _found by dropping «-ī» from the first
person singular of the perfect_, the third of the principal parts. From
the perfect stem are formed the following tenses:

  THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE
  THE PLUPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE (ENGLISH PAST PERFECT)
  THE FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE

All these tenses express completed action in present, past, or future
time respectively.

«186.» «The Endings of the Perfect.» The perfect active indicative is
inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem.
These endings are different from those found in any other tense, and are
as follows:

     SINGULAR               PLURAL
  1. -ī, _I_             1. -imus, _we_
  2. -istī, _you_        2. -istis, _you_
  3. -it, _he, she, it_  3. -ērunt or -ēre, _they_

«187.» Inflection of «sum» in the perfect, pluperfect, and future
perfect indicative:

               PRES. INDIC.  PRES. INFIN.  PERF. INDIC.
  PRIN. PARTS  sum           esse          fuī

               PERFECT STEM fu-

    PERFECT
  SINGULAR                     PLURAL
  fu´ī, _I have been, I was_     fu´imus, _we have been, we were_
  fuis´tī,                       fuis´tis, _you have been, you were_
    _you have been, you were_
  fu´it, _he has been, he was_   fuē´runt _or_ fuē´re,
                                   _they have been, they were_

    PLUPERFECT (TENSE SIGN «-erā-»)
  fu´eram, _I had been_          fuerā´mus, _we had been_
  fu´erās, _you had been_        fuerā´tis, _you had been_
  fu´erat, _he had been_         fu´erant, _they had been_

    FUTURE PERFECT (TENSE SIGN «-eri-»)
  fu´erō, _I shall have been_    fue´rimus, _we shall have been_
  fu´eris, _you will have been_  fue´ritis, _you will have been_
  fu´erit, _he will have been_   fu´erint, _they will have been_

  1. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect.

  2. Observe that the pluperfect may be formed by adding «eram», the
  imperfect of «sum», to the perfect stem. The tense sign is «-erā-».

  3. Observe that the future perfect may be formed by adding «erō», the
  future of «sum», to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends
  in «-erint», not in «-erunt». The tense sign is «-eri-».

  4. All active perfects, pluperfects, and future perfects are formed on
  the perfect stem and inflected in the same way.

«188.» DIALOGUE

THE BOYS TITUS, MARCUS, AND QUINTUS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

  M. Ubi fuistis, Tite et Quīnte?
  T. Ego in meō lūdō fuī et Quīntus in suō lūdō fuit. Bonī puerī fuimus.
    Fuitne Sextus in vīcō hodiē?
  M. Fuit. Nūper per agrōs proximōs fluviō properābat. Ibi is et
    Cornēlius habent nāvigium.
  T. _Nāvigium_ dīcis? Aliī[1] nārrā eam fābulam!
  M. Vērō (_Yes, truly_), pulchrum et novum nāvigium!
  Q. Cuius pecūniā[2] Sextus et Cornēlius id nāvigium parant? Quis iīs
    pecūniam dat?
  M. Amīcī Cornēlī multum habent aurum et puer pecūniā nōn eget.
  T. Quō puerī nāvigābunt? Nāvigābuntne longē ā terrā?
  M. Dubia sunt cōnsilia eōrum. Sed hodiē, crēdō, sī ventus erit
    idōneus, ad maximam īnsulam nāvigābunt. Iam anteā ibi fuērunt.
    Tum autem ventus erat perfidus et puerī magnō in perīculō erant.
  Q. Aqua ventō commōta est inimīca nautīs semper, et saepe perfidus
    ventus nāvigia rapit, agit, dēletque. Iī puerī, sī nōn fuerint
    maximē attentī, īrātā aquā et validō ventō superābuntur et ita
    interficientur.

    [Footnote 1: Dative case. (Cf. §109.)]

    [Footnote 2: Ablative of means.]

«189.» EXERCISE

1. Where had the boys been before? They had been in school. 2. Where had
Sextus been? He had been in a field next to the river. 3. Who has been
with Sextus to-day? Cornelius has been with him. 4. Who says so? Marcus.
5. If the wind has been suitable, the boys have been in the boat.
6. Soon we shall sail with the boys. 7. There[3] will be no danger,
if we are (shall have been) careful.[4]

    [Footnote 3: The expletive _there_ is not expressed, but the verb
    will precede the subject, as in English.]

    [Footnote 4: This predicate adjective must be nominative plural to
    agree with _we_.]


LESSON XXXII

THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  «animus, -ī», m., _mind, heart; spirit, feeling_ (animate)
  «bracchium, bracchī», n., _forearm, arm_
  «porta, -ae», f., _gate_ (portal)

  ADJECTIVES
  «adversus, -a, -um», _opposite; adverse, contrary_
  «plēnus, -a, -um», _full_ (plenty)

  PREPOSITION
  «prō», with abl., _before; in behalf of; instead of_

  ADVERB
  «diū», _for a long time, long_

«190.» «Meanings of the Perfect.» The perfect tense has two distinct
meanings. The first of these is equivalent to the English present
perfect, or perfect with _have_, and denotes that the action of the verb
is complete at the time of speaking; as, _I have finished my work_. As
this denotes completed action at a definite time, it is called the
«perfect definite».

The perfect is also used to denote an action that happened _sometime in
the past_; as, _I finished my work._ As no definite time is specified,
this is called the «perfect indefinite». It corresponds to the ordinary
use of the English past tense.

    _a._ Note carefully the difference between the following tenses:

      _I {was finishing } my work_ (imperfect, §134)
         {used to finish}
      _I finished my work_         (perfect indefinite)
      _I have finished my work_    (perfect definite)

When telling a story the Latin uses the _perfect indefinite_ to mark the
different _forward steps_ of the narrative, and the _imperfect_ to
_describe situations and circumstances_ that attend these steps. If the
following sentences were Latin, what tenses would be used?

  “Last week I went to Boston. I was trying to find an old friend of
  mine, but he was out of the city. Yesterday I returned home.”

«191.» «Inflection of the Perfect.» We learned in §186 that any perfect
is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem.
The inflection in the four regular conjugations is then as follows:

  CONJ. I   «amāvī»  _I have loved_, _I loved_ or _did love_
  CONJ. II  «monuī»  _I have advised_, _I advised_ or _did advise_
  CONJ. III «rēxī»   _I have ruled_, _I ruled_ or _did rule_
            «cēpī»   _I have taken_, _I took_ or _did take_
  CONJ. IV  «audīvī» _I have heard_, _I heard_ or _did hear_

     PERFECT STEMS
     «amāv-»     «monu-»        «rēx-»        «cēp-»        «audīv-»

     SINGULAR
  1. amā´vī      mo´nuī         rē´xī          cē´pī         audī´vī
  2. amāvis´tī   monuis´tī      rēxis´tī       cēpis´tī      audīvis´tī
  3. amā´vit     mo´nuit        rē´xit         cē´pit        audī´vit

     PLURAL
  1. amā´vimus   monu´imus      rē´ximus       cē´pimus     audī´vimus
  2. amāvis´tis  monuis´tis     rēxis´tis      cēpis´tis    audīvis´tis
  3. amāvē´runt  monuē´runt     rēxē´runt      cēpē´runt    audīvē´runt
       _or_        _or_           _or_           _or_         _or_
       amāvē´re    monuē´re       rēxē´re        cēpē´re      audīvē´re

  1. The first person of the perfect is always given as the third of the
  principal parts. From this we get the perfect stem. _This shows the
  absolute necessity of learning the principal parts thoroughly._

  2. Nearly all perfects of the first conjugation are formed by adding
  «-vī» to the present stem. Like «amāvī» inflect «parāvī», «vocāvī»,
  «cūrāvī», «laudāvī».

  3. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. Drill on it.

«192.» Learn the principal parts and inflect the perfects:

  PRES. INDIC.  PRES. INFIN.  PERF. INDIC.
  dō            dăre          dedī          _give_
  dēleō         dēlēre        dēlēvī        _destroy_
  habeō         habēre        habuī         _have_
  moveō         movēre        mōvī          _move_
  pāreō         pārēre        pāruī         _obey_
  prohibeō      prohibēre     prohībuī      _restrain, keep from_
  videō         vidēre        vīdī          _see_
  dīcō          dīcere        dīxī          _say_
  discēdō       discēdere     discessī      _depart_
  dūcō          dūcere        dūxī          _lead_
  faciō         facere        fēcī          _make, do_
  mittō         mittere       mīsī          _send_
  mūniō         mūnīre        mūnīvī        _fortify_
  veniō         venīre        vēnī          _come_

«193.» PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (_Continued_)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

Cēpheus, adversā fortūnā maximē commōtus, discessit et multīs cum
lacrimīs populō Aethiopiae verba ōrāculī nārrāvit. Fāta Andromedae,
puellae pulchrae, ā tōtō populō dēplōrābantur, tamen nūllum erat
auxilium. Deinde Cēpheus cum plēnō trīstitiae animō cāram suam fīliam
ex oppidī portā ad aquam dūxit et bracchia eius ad saxa dūra revīnxit.
Tum amīcī puellae miserae longē discessērunt et diū mōnstrum saevum
exspectāvērunt.

Tum forte Perseus, ālīs frētus, super Aethiopiam volābat. Vīdit populum,
Andromedam, lacrimās, et, magnopere attonitus, ad terram dēscendit. Tum
Cēpheus eī tōtās cūrās nārrāvit et ita dīxit: “Pārēbō verbīs ōrāculī, et
prō patriā fīliam meam dabō; sed sī id mōnstrum interficiēs et
Andromedam servābis, tibi (_to you_) eam dabō.”


LESSON XXXIII

PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE
PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE

«194.»            CONJ. I  CONJ. II  CONJ. III         CONJ. IV
                  «amō»    «moneō»   «regō»  «capiō»   «audiō»
  PERFECT STEMS   «amāv-»  «monu-»   «rēx-»  «cēp-»    «audīv-»


  PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE
  TENSE SIGN «-erā-»

     SINGULAR
     I had loved  I had advised  I had ruled  I had taken  I had heard

  1. amā´veram    monu´eram      rē´xeram     cē´peram     audī´veram
  2. amā´verās    monu´erās      rē´xerās     cē´perās     audī´verās
  3. amā´verat    monu´erat      rē´xerat     cē´perat     audī´verat

     PLURAL
  1. amāverā´mus  monuerā´mus    rēxerā´mus   cēperā´mus   audīverā´mus
  2. amāverā´tis  monuerā´tis    rēxerā´tis   cēperā´tis   audīverā´tis
  3. ama´verant   monu´erant     rē´xerant    cē´perant    audī´verant


  FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE
  TENSE SIGN «-eri-»

     SINGULAR
   I shall have  I shall have  I shall have  I shall have  I shall have
      loved         advised       ruled         taken         heard

  1. amā´verō     monu´erō     rē´xerō       cē´perō       audī´verō
  2. amā´veris    monu´eris    rē´xeris      cē´peris      audī´veris
  3. amā´verit    monu´erit    rē´xerit      cē´perit      audī´verit

     PLURAL
  1. amāve´rimus  monue´rimus  rēxe´rimus    cēpe´rimus    audīve´rimus
  2. amāve´ritis  monue´ritis  rēxe´ritis    cēpe´ritis    audīve´ritis
  3. amā´verint   monu´erint   rē´xerint     cē´perint     audī´verint

  1. Observe that these are all inflected alike and the rules for
  formation given in §187.2-4 hold good here.

  2. In like manner inflect the pluperfect and future perfect indicative
  active of «dō», «portō», «dēleō», «moveō», «habeō», «dīcō», «discēdō»,
  «faciō», «veniō», «mūniō.»

«195.» «The Perfect Active Infinitive.» The perfect active infinitive is
formed by adding «-isse» to the perfect stem.

  CONJ       PERFECT STEM  PERFECT INFINITIVE
    I.       amāv-         amāvis´se, _to have loved_
   II.       monu-         monuis´se, _to have advised_
  III. (_a_) rēx-          rēxis´se, _to have ruled_
       (_b_) cēp-          cēpis´se, _to have taken_
   IV.       audīv»        audīvis´se, _to have heard_
  sum        fu-           fuis´se, _to have been_

  1. In like manner give the perfect infinitive active of «dō», «portō»,
  «dēleō», «moveō», «habeō», «dīcō», «discēdō», «faciō», «veniō»,
  «mūniō».

«196.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Habuistī, mōvērunt, miserant. 2. Vīdit, dīxeris, dūxisse.
3. Mīsistis, pāruērunt, discesserāmus. 4. Mūnīvit, dederam, mīserō.
5. Habuerimus, dēlēvī, pāruit, fuisse. 6. Dederās, mūnīveritis,
vēnerātis, mīsisse. 7. Vēnerās, fēcisse, dederātis, portāveris.

8. Quem verba ōrāculī mōverant? Populum verba ōrāculī mōverant.
9. Cui Cēpheus verba ōrāculī nārrāverit? Perseō Cēpheus verba ōrāculī
nārrāverit. 10. Amīcī ab Andromedā discesserint. 11. Mōnstrum saevum
domicilia multa dēlēverat. 12. Ubi mōnstrum vīdistis? Id in aquā
vīdimus. 13. Quid mōnstrum faciet? Mōnstrum Andromedam interficiet.

II. 1. They have obeyed, we have destroyed, I shall have had. 2. We
shall have sent, I had come, they have fortified. 3. I had departed, he
has obeyed, you have sent (_sing. and plur._). 4. To have destroyed, to
have seen, he will have given, they have carried. 5. He had destroyed,
he has moved, you have had (_sing. and plur._). 6. I have given, you had
moved (_sing. and plur._), we had said. 7. You will have made (_sing.
and plur._), they will have led, to have given.

8. Who had seen the monster? Andromeda had seen it. 9. Why had the men
departed from[1] the towns? They had departed because the monster had
come. 10. Did Cepheus obey[2] the oracle[3]? He did.

    [Footnote 1: «ex». What would «ab» mean?]

    [Footnote 2: _Did ... obey_, perfect tense.]

    [Footnote 3: What case?]


LESSON XXXIV

REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE

  [Special Vocabulary]

  ADVERBS
  «celeriter», _quickly_ (celerity)
  «dēnique», _finally_
  «graviter», _heavily, severely_ (gravity)
  «subitō», _suddenly_

  VERB
  «reportō, -āre, -āvī», _bring back, restore; win, gain_ (report)

«197.» A review of the tenses of the indicative active shows the
following formation:

             { PRESENT        = First of the principal parts
  TENSES     { IMPERFECT      = Present stem + -ba-m
  OF THE     { FUTURE         = Present stem + -bō, Conj. I and II
  INDICATIVE {                                 -a-m, Conj. III and IV
             { PERFECT        = Third of the principal parts
             { PLUPERFECT     = Perfect stem + -era-m
             { FUTURE PERFECT = Perfect stem + -erō

«198.» The synopsis of the active voice of «amō», as far as we have
learned the conjugation, is as follows:

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «amō, amāre, amāvī»

  PRES. STEM «amā-»

         { _Pres._      amō
  INDIC. { _Imperf._    amābam
         { _Fut._       amābō
  PRES. IMV.            amā
  PRES. INFIN.          amāre

  PERF. STEM «amāv-»

         { _Perf._      amāvī
  INDIC. { _Pluperf._   amāveram
         { _Fut. perf._ amāverō
  PERF. INFIN.          amāvisse

  1. Learn to write in the same form and to give rapidly the principal
  parts and synopsis of «parō», «dō», «laudō», «dēleō», «habeō»,
  «moveō», «pāreō», «videō», «dīcō», «discēdō», «dūcō», «mittō»,
  «capiō», «muniō», «veniō».[1]

    [Footnote 1: Learn to give synopses rapidly, and not only in the
    first person singular but in any person of either number.]

«199.» Learn the following principal parts:[2]

    PRES. INDIC.   PRES. INFIN.  PERF. INDIC.

  IRREGULAR VERBS
    sum           esse           fuī           _be_
    ab´sum        abes´se        ā´fuī         _be away_
    dō            dare           dedī          _give_

  CONJUGATION II
    contineō      continēre      continuī      _hold in, keep_
    doceō         docēre         docuī         _teach_
    egeō          egēre          eguī          _need_
    faveō         favēre         fāvī          _favor_
    iubeō         iubēre         iussī         _order_
    noceō         nocēre         nocuī         _injure_
    persuādeō     persuādēre     persuāsī      _persuade_
    respondeō     respondēre     respondī      _reply_
    sedeō         sedēre         sēdī          _sit_
    studeō        studēre        studuī        _be eager_

  CONJUGATION III
    agō           agere          ēgī           _drive_
    crēdō         crēdere        crēdidī       _believe_
    fugiō         fugere         fūgī          _flee_
    iaciō         iacere         iēcī          _hurl_
    interficiō    interficere    interfēcī     _kill_
    rapiō         rapere         rapuī         _seize_
    resis´tō      resis´tere     re´stitī      _resist_

  CONJUGATION IV
    repe´riō      reperī´re      rep´perī      _find_

    [Footnote 2: These are all verbs that you have had before, and the
    perfect is the only new form to be learned.]

«200.» PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (_Concluded_)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. Read the whole story.

Perseus semper proeliō studēbat[3] et respondit,[3] “Verba tua sunt
maximē grāta,” et laetus arma sua magica parāvit.[3] Subitō mōnstrum
vidētur; celeriter per aquam properat et Andromedae adpropinquat. Eius
amīcī longē absunt et misera puella est sōla. Perseus autem sine morā
super aquam volāvit.[3] Subitō dēscendit[3] et dūrō gladiō saevum
mōnstrum graviter vulnerāvit.[3] Diū pugnātur,[4] diū proelium est
dubium. Dēnique autem Perseus mōnstrum interfēcit[3] et victōriam
reportāvit.[3] Tum ad saxum vēnit[3] et Andromedam līberāvit[3] et eam
ad Cēpheum dūxit.[3] Is, nūper miser, nunc laetus, ita dīxit[3]: “Tuō
auxiliō, mī amīce, cāra fīlia mea est lībera; tua est Andromeda.” Diū
Perseus cum Andromedā ibi habitābat[3] et magnopere ā tōtō populō
amābātur.[3]

    [Footnote 3: See if you can explain the use of the perfects and
    imperfects in this passage.]

    [Footnote 4: The verb pugnātur means, literally, _it is fought_;
    translate freely, _the battle is fought_, or _the contest rages_.
    The verb pugnō in Latin is intransitive, and so does not have a
    personal subject in the passive. A verb with an indeterminate
    subject, designated in English by _it_, is called impersonal.]


LESSON XXXV

THE PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE
THE PERFECT PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE

«201.» The fourth and last of the principal parts (§183) is the «perfect
passive participle». _From it we get the participial stem on which are
formed the future active infinitive and all the passive perfects._

  1. Learn the following principal parts, which are for the first time
  given in full:

  CONJ.  PRES. INDIC.  PRES. INFIN.  PERF. INDIC.  PERF. PASS. PART.
     I.  amō           amā´-re       amā´v-ī       amā´t-us
     This is the model for all regular verbs of the first conjugation.
    II.  mo´neō        monē´-re      mo´nu-ī       mo´nit-us
   III.  regō          re´ge-re      rēx-ī         rēct-us
         ca´piō        ca´pe-re      cēp-ī         capt-us
    IV.  au´diō        audī´-re      audī´v-ī      audī´t-us

  2. The base of the participial stem is found by dropping «-us» from
  the perfect passive participle.

«202.» In English the perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses
of the indicative passive are made up of forms of the auxiliary verb
_to be_ and the past participle; as, _I have been loved_, _I had been
loved_, _I shall have been loved._

Very similarly, in Latin, the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect
passive tenses use respectively the present, imperfect, and future of
«sum» as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle, as

  Perfect passive, «amā´tus sum», _I have been_ or _was loved_
  Pluperfect passive, «amā´tus eram», _I had been loved_
  Future perfect passive, «amā´tus erō», _I shall have been loved_

  1. In the same way give the synopsis of the corresponding tenses of
  «moneō», «regō», «capiō», and «audiō», and give the English meanings.

«203.» «Nature of the Participle.» A participle is partly verb and
partly adjective. As a verb it possesses tense and voice. As an
adjective it is declined and agrees with the word it modifies in gender,
number, and case.

«204.» The perfect passive participle is declined like «bonus, bona,
bonum», and in the compound tenses (§202) it agrees as a predicate
adjective with the subject of the verb.

  EXAMPLES IN SINGULAR
    «Vir laudātus est», _the man was praised_, or _has been praised_
    «Puella laudāta est», _the girl was praised_, or _has been praised_
    «Cōnsilium laudātum est», _the plan was praised_, or
                                _has been praised_

  EXAMPLES IN PLURAL
    «Virī laudātī sunt», _the men were praised_, or _have been praised_
    «Puellae laudātae sunt», _the girls were praised_, or
                               _have been praised_
    «Cōnsilia laudāta sunt», _the plans were praised_, or
                               _have been praised_

  1. Inflect the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative
  passive of «amō», «moneō», «regō», «capiō», and «audiō» (§§488-492).

«205.» «The perfect passive infinitive» is formed by adding «esse»,
the present infinitive of «sum», to the perfect passive participle; as,
amā´t-us (-a, -um) «esse», _to have been loved_; mo´nit-us (-a,
-um) «esse», _to have been advised_.

  1. Form the perfect passive infinitive of «regō», «capiō», «audiō»,
  and give the English meanings.

«206.» The future active infinitive is formed by adding «esse», the
present infinitive of «sum», to the future active participle. This
participle is made by adding «-ūrus, -a, -um» to the base of the
participial stem. Thus the future active infinitive of «amō» is
amat-ū´rus (-a, -um) «esse», _to be about to love_.

    _a._ Note that in forming the three tenses of the active infinitive
    we use all three conjugation stems:

      Present, amāre (present stem), _to love_
      Perfect, amāvisse (perfect stem), _to have loved_
      Future, amātūrus esse (participial stem), _to be about to love_

  1. Give the three tenses of the active infinitive of «laudō», «moneō»,
  «regō», «capiō», «audiō», with the English meanings.

«207.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Fābula Andromedae nārrāta est. 2. Multae fābulae ā magistrō
nārrātae sunt. 3. Ager ab agricolā validō arātus erat. 4. Agrī ab
agricolīs validīs arātī erant. 5. Aurum ā servō perfidō ad domicilium
suum portātum erit. 6. Nostra arma ā lēgātō laudāta sunt. Quis vestra
arma laudāvit? 7. Ab ancillā tuā ad cēnam vocātae sumus. 8. Andromeda
mōnstrō nōn data est, quia mōnstrum ā Perseō necātum erat.

II. 1. The provinces were laid waste, the field had been laid waste, the
towns will have been laid waste. 2. The oracles were heard, the oracle
was heard, the oracles had been heard. 3. The oracle will have been
heard, the province had been captured, the boats have been captured.
4. The fields were laid waste, the man was advised, the girls will have
been advised. 5. The towns had been ruled, we shall have been captured,
you will have been heard.


LESSON XXXVI

REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS · PREPOSITIONS _YES_-OR-_NO_ QUESTIONS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «dexter, dextra, dextrum», _right_ (dextrous)
  «sinister, sinistra, sinistrum», _left_
  «frūstrā», adv., _in vain_ (frustrate)

  «gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus», _bear, carry on; wear_;
    «bellum gerere», _to wage war_
  «occupō, occupāre, occupāvī, occupātus», _seize, take possession of_
    (occupy)
  «postulō, postulāre, postulāvī, postulātus», _demand_ (ex-postulate)
  «recūsō, recūsāre, recūsāvī, recūsātus», _refuse_
  «stō, stāre, stetī, status», _stand_
  «temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus», _try, tempt, test; attempt_
  «teneō, tenēre, tenuī, ----», _keep, hold_ (tenacious)

  The word «ubi», which we have used so much in the sense of _where_ in
  asking a question, has two other uses equally important:

  1. «ubi» = _when_, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as,
    «Ubi mōnstrum audīvērunt, fūgērunt», _when they heard the monster,
    they fled_

  2. «ubi» = _where_, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as,
    «Videō oppidum ubi Galba habitat», _I see the town where Galba
    lives_

  «ubi» is called a _relative conjunction_ because it is equivalent to
  a relative pronoun. _When_ in the first sentence is equivalent to
  _at the time «at which»;_ and in the second, _where_ is equivalent
  to _the place «in which»._

«208.» The following list shows the principal parts of all the verbs you
have had excepting those used in the paradigms. The parts you have had
before are given for review, and the perfect participle is the only new
form for you to learn. Sometimes one or more of the principal parts are
lacking, which means that the verb has no forms based on that stem. A
few verbs lack the perfect passive participle but have the future active
participle in «-ūrus», which appears in the principal parts instead.

  IRREGULAR VERBS

  «sum»     «esse»     «fuī»    «futūrus»    _be_
  «absum»   «abesse»   «āfuī»   «āfutūrus»   _be away_
  «dō»[1]   «dare»     «dedī»   «datus»      _give_

    [Footnote 1: «dō» is best classed with the irregular verbs because
    of the short «a» in the present and participial stems.]

  CONJUGATION I

  «portō»   «portāre»   «portāvī»   «portātus»   _carry_

  So for all verbs of this conjugation thus far used.

  CONJUGATION II

  «contineō»   «continēre»   «continuī»  «contentus»   _hold in, keep_
  «dēleō»      «dēlēre»      «dēlēvī»    «dēlētus»     _destroy_
  «doceō»      «docēre»      «docuī»     «doctus»      _teach_
  «egeō»       «egēre»       «eguī»       ----         _lack_
  «faveō»      «favēre»      «fāvī»      «fautūrus»    _favor_
  «iubeō»      «iubēre»      «iussī»     «iussus»      _order_
  «moveō»      «movēre»      «mōvī»      «mōtus»       _move_
  «noceō»      «nocēre»      «nocuī»     «nocitūrus»   _injure_
  «pāreō»      «pārēre»      «pāruī»      ----         _obey_
  «persuādeō»  «persuādēre»  «persuāsī»  «persuāsus»   _persuade (from)_
  «prohibeō»   «prohibēre»   «prohibuī»  «prohibitus»  _restrain, keep_
  «respondeō»  «respondēre»  «respondī»  «respōnsus»   _reply_
  «sedeō»      «sedēre»      «sēdī»      «-sessus»     _sit_
  «studeō»     «studēre»     «studuī»      ----        _be eager_
  «videō»      «vidēre»      «vīdī»      «vīsus»       _see_

  CONJUGATION III

  «agō»         «agere»        «ēgī»        «āctus»        _drive_
  «crēdō»       «crēdere»      «crēdidī»    «crēditus»     _believe_
  «dīcō»        «dīcere»       «dīxī»       «dictus»       _say_
  «discēdō»     «discēdere»    «discessī»   «discessus»    _depart_
  «dūcō»        «dūcere»       «dūxī»       «ductus»       _lead_
  «faciō»[2]    «facere»       «fēcī»       «factus»       _make_
  «fugiō»       «fugere»       «fūgī»       «fugitūrus»    _flee_
  «iaciō»       «iacere»       «iēcī»       «iactus»       _hurl_
  «interficiō»  «interficere»  «interfēcī»  «interfectus»  _kill_
  «mittō»       «mittere»      «mīsī»       «missus»       _send_
  «rapiō»       «rapere»       «rapuī»      «raptus»       _seize_
  «resistō»     «resistere»    «restitī»     ----          _resist_

  CONJUGATION IV

  «mūniō»     «mūnīre»     «mūnīvī»     «mūnītus»    _fortify_
  «reperiō»   «reperīre»   «rep´perī»   «repertus»   _find_
  «veniō»     «venīre»     «vēnī»       «ventus»     _come_

    [Footnote 2: «faciō» has an irregular passive which will be
    presented later.]

«209.» «Prepositions.»
  1. We learned in §§52, 53 that only the _accusative_ and the
  _ablative_ are used with prepositions, and that prepositions
  expressing ablative relations govern the ablative case. Those we have
  had are here summarized. The table following should be learned.

    «ā» or «ab»,  _from, by_
    «cum»,        _with_
    «dē»,         _down from, concerning_
    «ē» or «ex»,  _out from, out of_
    «prō»,        _before, in front of; for, in behalf of_
    «sine»,       _without_

  2. Prepositions not expressing ablative relations must govern the
  _accusative_ (§52). Of these we have had the following:

    «ad»,    _to_;
    «apud»,  _among_;
    «per»,   _through_

  There are many others which you will meet as we proceed.

  3. The preposition «in» when meaning _in_ or _on_ governs the
  _ablative_; when meaning _to, into, against_ (relations foreign to the
  ablative) «in» governs the _accusative_.

«210.» «_Yes_-or-_No_ Questions.» Questions not introduced by some
interrogative word like _who, why, when_, etc., but expecting the answer
_yes_ or _no_, may take one of three forms:

  1. _Is he coming?_ (Asking for information. Implying nothing as to
       the answer expected.)
  2. _Is he not coming?_ (Expecting the answer _yes_.)
  3. _He isn´t coming, is he?_ (Expecting the answer _no_.)

These three forms are rendered in Latin as follows:

  1. «Venitne?» _is he coming?_
  2. «Nōnne venit?» _is he not coming?_
  3. «Num venit?» _he isn´t coming, is he?_

    _a._ «-ne», the question sign, is usually added to the verb, which
    then stands first.

    _b._ We learned in §56.b that _yes_-or-_no_ questions are usually
    answered by repeating the verb, with or without a negative. Instead
    of this, «ita», «vērō», «certē», etc. (_so, truly, certainly_, etc.)
    may be used for _yes_, and «nōn», «minimē», etc. for _no_ if the
    denial is emphatic, as, _by no means_, _not at all_.

«211.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

I. 1. Nōnne habēbat Cornēlia ōrnāmenta aurī? Habēbat. 2. Num Sextus
lēgātus scūtum in dextrō bracchiō gerēbat? Nōn in dextrō, sed sinistrō
in bracchiō Sextus scūtum gerēbat. 3. Frūstrā bella multa ab Gallīs
gesta erant. 4. Ubi oppidum ā perfidō Sextō occupātum est, oppidānī
miserī gladiō interfectī sunt. 5. Id oppidum erat plēnum frūmentī.
6. Nōnne Sextus ab oppidānīs frūmentum postulāvit? Vērō, sed iī
recūsāvērunt frūmentum dare. 7. Cūr oppidum ab Sextō dēlētum est? Quia
frūmentum recūsātum est. 8. Ea victōria nōn dubia erat. 9. Oppidānī
erant dēfessī et armīs egēbant. 10. Num fugam temptāvērunt? Minimē.

II. 1. Where was Julia standing? She was standing where you had ordered.
2. Was Julia wearing any ornaments? She had many ornaments of gold.
3. Did she not attempt flight when she saw the danger? She did. 4. Who
captured her? Galba captured her without delay and held her by the left
arm. 5. She didn´t have the lady’s gold, did she? No, the gold had been
taken by a faithless maid and has been brought back.

       *       *       *       *       *

  «Fourth Review, Lessons XXVII-XXXVI, §§513-516»

       *       *       *       *       *

LESSON XXXVII

CONJUGATION OF _POSSUM_ · THE INFINITIVE USED AS IN ENGLISH

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «neque» or «nec», conj., _neither_, _nor_, _and ... not_;
    «neque ... neque», _neither ... nor_
  «castellum, -ī», n., _redoubt, fort_ (castle)
  «cotīdiē», adv., _daily_
   cessō, cessāre, cessāvī, cessātus, _cease_, with the infin.

  «incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptus», _begin_ (incipient),
     with the infin.
  «oppugnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātus», _storm, assail_
  «petō, petere, petivi» or «petiī, petītus», _aim at, assail, storm,
     attack; seek, ask_ (petition)
  «pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus», _place, put_ (position);
    «castra pōnere», _to pitch camp_
  «possum, posse, potuī, ----», _be able, can_ (potent), with the infin.
  «vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitus», _forbid_ (veto), vith the infin.;
    opposite of «iubeō», _command_
  «vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus», _conquer_ (in-vincible)
  «vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, ----», _live, be alive_ (re-vive)

«212.» Learn the principal parts of «possum», _I am able_, _I can_, and
its inflection in the indicative and infinitive. (Cf. §495.)

    _a._ «Possum», _I can_, is a compound of «potis», _able_, and «sum»,
    _I am_.

«213.» «The Infinitive with Subject Accusative.» The _infinitive_ (cf.
§173) is a _verbal noun_. Used as a noun, it has the constructions of a
noun. As a verb it can govern a case and be modified by an adverb. The
uses of the infinitive are much the same in Latin as in English.

  1. In English certain verbs of _wishing, commanding, forbidding_, and
  the like are used with an object clause consisting of a substantive in
  the objective case and an infinitive, as, _he commanded the men to
  flee_. Such object clauses are called infinitive clauses, and the
  substantive is said to be the subject of the infinitive.

  Similarly in Latin, some verbs of _wishing, commanding, forbidding_,
  and the like are used with an object clause consisting of an
  infinitive with a subject in the accusative case, as, «Is virōs
  fugere iussit», _he commanded the men to flee_.

«214.» RULE. «Subject of the Infinitive.» _The subject of the infinitive
is in the accusative._

«215.» «The Complementary Infinitive.» In English a verb is often
followed by an infinitive to complete its meaning, as, _the Romans are
able to conquer the Gauls_. This is called the _complementary_
infinitive, as the predicate is not _complete_ without the added
infinitive.

Similarly in Latin, _verbs of incomplete predication_ are completed by
the infinitive. Among such verbs are «possum», _I am able, I can_;
«properō», «mātūrō», _I hasten_; «temptō», _I attempt_; as

  «Rōmānī Gallōs superāre possunt»,
    _the Romans are able to_ (or _can_) _conquer the Gauls_
  «Bellum gerere mātūrant»,
    _they hasten to wage war_

    _a._ A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive
    agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main
    verb.

      «Malī puerī esse bonī nōn possunt», _bad boys are not able to_
        (or _cannot_) _be good._

    Observe that «bonī» agrees with «puerī».

«216.» «The Infinitive used as a Noun.» In English the infinitive is
often used as a pure noun, as the subject of a sentence, or as a
predicate nominative. For example, _To conquer_ (= conquering) _is
pleasing; To see_ (= seeing) _is to believe_ (= believing). The same use
of the infinitive is found in Latin, especially with «est», as

  «Superāre est grātum», _to conquer is pleasing_
  «Vidēre est crēdere», _to see is to believe_

    _a._ In the construction above, the infinitive often has a subject,
    which must then be in the accusative case, as

      «Galbam superāre inimīcōs est grātum multīs»,
        _for Galba to conquer his enemies is pleasing to many_

    _b._ An infinitive used as a noun is neuter singular. Thus, in the
    sentence «superāre est grātum», the predicate adjective «grātum» is
    in the neuter nominative singular to agree with «superāre» the
    subject.

«217.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Magister lūdī līberōs cum dīligentiā labōrāre iussit. 2. Egēre
cibō et vinō est virīs molestum. 3. Virī armātī vetuērunt Gallōs castra
ibi pōnere. 4. Estne lēgātus in castellō an in mūrō? Is est prō portā.
5. Ubi nostrī[1] fugere incēpērunt, lēgātus ab vestrīs[1] captus est.
6. Gallī castellum ibi oppugnāverant ubi praesidium erat īnfīrmum.
7. Aliī pugnāre temptābant, aliī portās petēbant. 8. Fēminae prō
domiciliīs sedēbant neque resistere validīs Gallīs poterant.
9. Bellum est saevum, nec īnfīrmīs nec miserīs favet. 10. Sed virī arma
postulābant et studēbant Gallōs dē mūrīs agere. 11. Id castellum ab
Gallīs occupārī Rōmānīs nōn grātum erit. 12. Gallī ubi ā Rōmānīs victī
sunt, esse līberī[2] cessāvērunt. 13. Diū sine aquā vīvere nōn potestis.

II. 1. The girl began daily to carry water from the river to the gates.
2. The Gauls had pitched their camp in a place suitable for a battle.
3. For a long time they tried in vain to seize the redoubt. 4. Neither
did they cease to hurl weapons against[3] the walls. 5. But they were
not able to (could not) take the town.

    [Footnote 1: Supply _men_. «nostri», «vestrī», and «suī» are often
    used as nouns in this way.]

    [Footnote 2: Not _children_. The Romans used «līberī» either as an
    adjective, meaning _free_, or as a noun, meaning _the free_, thereby
    signifying their _free-born children_. The word was never applied to
    children of slaves.]

    [Footnote 3: «in» with the accusative.]

«218.» THE FAITHLESS TARPE´IA

Sabīnī ōlim cum Rōmānīs bellum gerēbant et multās victōriās
reportāverant. Iam agrōs proximōs mūrīs vāstābant, iam oppidō
adpropinquābant. Rōmānī autem in Capitōlium fūgerant et longē perīculō
aberant. Mūrīs validīs et saxīs altīs crēdēbant. Frūstrā Sabīnī tēla
iaciēbant, frūstrā portās dūrās petēbant; castellum occupāre nōn
poterant. Deinde novum cōnsilium cēpērunt.[4]

Tarpēia erat puella Rōmāna pulchra et superba. Cotīdiē aquam cōpiīs
Rōmānīs in Capitōlium portābat. Eī[5] nōn nocēbant Sabīnī, quod ea sine
armīs erat neque Sabīnī bellum cum fēminīs līberīsque gerēbant. Tarpēia
autem maximē amābat ōrnāmenta aurī. Cotīdiē Sabīnōrum ōrnāmenta vidēbat
et mox ea dēsīderāre incipiēbat. Eī ūnus ex[6] Sabīnīs dīxit, “Dūc
cōpiās Sabīnās intrā portās, Tarpēia, et maxima erunt praemia tua.”

    [Footnote 4: «cōnsilium capere», _to make a plan_. Why is the
    _perfect_ tense used here and the imperfect in the preceding
    sentences? Explain the use of tenses in the next paragraph.]

    [Footnote 5: Dative with «nocēbant». (Cf. §154.)]

    [Footnote 6: «ex», _out of_, i.e. _from the nuumber of_; best
    translated _of_.]

  [Illustration: TARPEIA PUELLA PERFIDA]


LESSON XXXVIII

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

«219.» Sentences are _simple, compound_, or _complex_.

    _a._ A _simple sentence_ is a sentence containing but one statement,
    that is, one subject and one predicate: _The Romans approached the
    town._

    _b._ A _compound sentence_ is a sentence containing two or more
    independent statements:
      _The Romans approached the town_ | and | _the enemy fled._

NOTE. An independent statement is one that can stand alone; it does not
depend upon another statement.

    _c._ A _complex sentence_ is a sentence containing one independent
    statement and one or more dependent statements:
      _When the Romans approached the town | the enemy fled._

NOTE. A dependent or subordinate statement is one that depends on or
qualifies another statement; thus _the enemy fled_ is independent, and
_when the Romans approached the town_ is dependent or subordinate.

    _d._ The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are
    called _clauses_. In a complex sentence the independent statement is
    called the _main clause_ and the dependent statement the
    _subordinate clause._

«220.» Examine the complex sentence

  _The Romans killed the men who were taken_

Here are two clauses:

  _a._ The main clause, _The Romans killed the men_

  _b._ The subordinate clause, _who were taken_

The word _who_ is a pronoun, for it takes the place of the noun _men_.
It also connects the subordinate clause _who were taken_ with the noun
_men_. Hence the clause is an _adjective clause_. A pronoun that
connects an _adjective clause_ with a substantive is called a _relative
pronoun_, and the substantive for which the relative pronoun stands is
called its _antecedent_. The relative pronouns in English are _who,
whose, whom, which, what, that_.

«221.» The relative pronoun in Latin is «quī», «quae», «quod», and it is
declined as follows:

          SINGULAR                     PLURAL
          MASC.    FEM.     NEUT.      MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.
  _Nom._  «quī»    «quae»   «quod»     «quī»     «quae»    «quae»
  _Gen._  «cuius»  «cuius»  «cuius»    «quōrum»  «quārum»  «quōrum»
  _Dat._  «cui»    «cui»    «cui»      «quibus»  «quibus»  «quibus»
  _Acc._  «quem»   «quam»   «quod»     «quōs»    «quās»    «quae»
  _Abl._  «quō»    «quā»    «quō»      «quibus»  «quibus»  «quibus»

  1. Review the declension of «is», §114, and note the similarity in
  the endings. The forms «quī», «quae», and «quibus» are the only forms
  showing new endings.

NOTE. The genitive «cuius» and the dative «cui» are pronounced
_co͝oi´yo͝os_ (two syllables) and _co͝oi_ (one syllable).

«222.» «The Relative Pronoun is translated as follows:»[1]

           MASC. AND FEM.         NEUT.
  _Nom._  _who, that_            _which, what, that_
  _Gen._  _of whom, whose_       _of which, of what, whose_
  _Dat._  _to_ or _for whom_     _to_ or _for which_, _to_ or _for what_
  _Acc._  _whom, that_           _which, what, that_
  _Abl._  _from_, etc., _whom_   _from_, etc., _which_ or _what_

    [Footnote 1: This table of meanings need not be memorized. It is
    inserted for reference when translating.]

    _a._ We see from the table above that «quī», when it refers to a
    person, is translated by some form of _who_ or by _that_; and that
    when it refers to anything else it is translated by _which, what_,
    or _that_.

«223.» Note the following sentences:

  _The Romans killed the men who were taken_
  _The Romans killed the woman who was taken_
  «Rōmānī interfēcērunt virōs quī captī sunt»
  «Rōmānī interfēcērunt fēminam quae capta est»

In the first sentence _who_ («quī») refers to the antecedent _men_
(«virōs»), and is _masculine plural_. In the second, _who_ («quae»)
refers to _woman_ («fēminam»), and _feminine singular_. From this we
learn that the relative must agree with its antecedent in _gender_ and
_number_. In neither of the sentences are the antecedents and relatives
in the same case. «Virōs» and «fēminam» are accusatives, and «quī» and
«quae» are nominatives, being the subjects of the subordinate clauses.
Hence

«224.» RULE. «Agreement of the Relative.» _A relative pronoun must agree
with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by
the way it is used in its own clause._

«225.» «Interrogative Pronouns.» An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun
that asks a question. In English the interrogatives are _who?_ _which?_
_what?_ In Latin they are «quis?» «quid?» (pronoun) and «quī?» «quae?»
«quod?» (adjective).

«226.» Examine the sentences

  _a._ _Who is the man?_ «Quis est vir?»
  _b._ _What man is leading them?_ «Quī vir eōs dūcit?»

In _a_, _who_ is an interrogative _pronoun_. In _b_, _what_ is an
interrogative _adjective_. Observe that in Latin «quis», «quid» is the
_pronoun_ and «quī», «quae», «quod» is the _adjective_.

«227.» 1. The interrogative adjective «quī», «quae», «quod» is declined
just like the relative pronoun. (See §221.)

  2. The interrogative pronoun «quis», «quid» is declined like «quī»,
  «quae», «quod» in the plural. In the singular it is declined as
  follows:

          MASC. AND FEM.                NEUT.
  _Nom._  «quis», _who?_                «quid», _what? which?_
  _Gen._  «cuius», _whose?_             «cuius», _whose?_
  _Dat._  «cui», _to_ or _for whom?_    «cui», _to_ or _for_
                                          _what_ or _which?_
  _Acc._  «quem», _whom?_               «quid», _what? which?_
  _Abl._  «quō», _from_, etc., _whom?_  «quō», _from_, etc.,
                                          _which_ or _what?_

NOTE. Observe that the masculine and feminine are alike and that all the
forms are like the corresponding forms of the relative, excepting quis
and quid.

«228.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis est aeger? Servus quem amō est aeger. 2. Cuius scūtum habēs?
Scūtum habeō quod lēgātus ad castellum mīsit. 3. Cui lēgātus suum scūtum
dabit? Fīliō meō scūtum dabit. 4. Ubi Germānī antīquī vīvēbant? In terrā
quae est proxima Rhēnō Germānī vīvēbant. 5. Quibuscum[1] Germānī bellum
gerēbant? Cum Rōmānīs, qui eōs superāre studēbant, Germānī bellum
gerēbant. 6. Quī virī castra pōnunt? Iī sunt virī quōrum armīs Germānī
victī sunt. 7. Quibus tēlīs cōpiae nostrae eguērunt? Gladiīs et telīs
nostrae cōpiae eguērunt. 8. Ā quibus porta sinistra tenēbātur? Ā sociīs
porta sinistra tenēbātur. 9. Quae prōvinciae ā Rōmānīs occupātae sunt?
Multae prōvinciae ā Rōmānīs occupātae sunt. 10. Quibus virīs deī
favēbunt? Bonīs virīs deī favēbunt.

    [Footnote 1: «cum» is added to the ablative of relative,
    interrogative, and personal pronouns instead of being placed
    before them.]

  [Illustration: GERMANI ANTIQUI]

II. 1. What victory will you announce? 2. I will announce to the people
the victory which the sailors have won. 3. The men who were pitching
camp were eager for battle. 4. Nevertheless they were soon conquered by
the troops which Sextus had sent. 5. They could not resist our forces,
but fled from that place without delay.

«229.» THE FAITHLESS TARPEIA (_Concluded_)[2]

Tarpēia, commōta ōrnamentīs Sabīnōrum pulchrīs, diū resistere nōn potuit
et respondit: “Date mihi[3] ōrnāmenta quae in sinistrīs bracchīs
geritis, et celeriter cōpiās vestrās in Capitōlium dūcam.” Nec Sabīnī
recūsāvērunt, sed per dūrās magnāsque castellī portās properāvērunt
quō[1] Tarpēia dūxit et mox intrā validōs et altōs mūrōs stābant. Tum
sine morā in[2] Tarpēiam scūta graviter iēcērunt; nam scūta quoque in
sinistrīs bracchiīs gerēbant. Ita perfida puella Tarpēia interfecta est;
ita Sabīnī Capitōlium occupāvērunt.

    [Footnote 2: Explain the use of the tenses in this selection.]

    [Footnote 3: _to me._]

    [Footnote 1: quō = _whither_, _to the place where_. Here «quo» is
    the relative adverb. We have had it used before as the interrogative
    adverb, _whither?_ _to what place?_]

    [Footnote 2: _upon_.]


LESSON XXXIX

THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «barbarus, -a, -um», _strange, foreign, barbarous_. As a noun,
    «barbarī, -ōrum», m., plur., _savages, barbarians_
  «dux, ducis», m., _leader_ (duke). Cf. the verb «dūcō»
  «eques, equitis», m., _horseman, cavalryman_ (equestrian)
   iūdex, iūdicis, _m., judge_
  «lapis, lapidis», m., _stone_ (lapidary)
  «mīles, mīlitis», m., _soldier_ (militia)
  «pedes, peditis», m., _foot soldier_ (pedestrian)
  «pēs, pedis»,[A] m., _foot_ (pedal)
  «prīnceps, prīncipis», m., _chief_ (principal)
  «rēx, rēgis», m., _king_ (regal)
  «summus, -a, -um», _highest, greatest_ (summit)
  «virtūs, virtūtis», f., _manliness, courage_ (virtue)

    [Footnote A: Observe that «e» is _long_ in the nom. sing, and
    _short_ in the other cases.]

«230.» «Bases and Stems.» In learning the first and second declensions
we saw that the different cases were formed by adding the case
terminations to the part of the word that did not change, which we
called the «base». If to the base we add «-ā» in the first declension,
and «-o» in the second, we get what is called the «stem». Thus «porta»
has the base «port-» and the stem «portā-»; «servus» has the base
«serv-» and the stem «servo-».

These stem vowels, «-ā-» and «-o-», play so important a part in the
formation of the case terminations that these declensions are named from
them respectively the _Ā_- and _O_-Declensions.

«231.» «Nouns of the Third Declension.» The third declension is called
the Consonant or _I_-Declension, and its nouns are classified according
to the way the _stem_ ends. If the last letter of the stem is a
consonant, the word is said to have a _consonant stem_; if the stem ends
in «-i-», the word is said to have an «i-»_stem_. _In consonant stems
the stem is the same as the base. In_ «i-»_stems the stem is formed by
adding_ «-i-» _to the base._ The presence of the «i» makes a difference
in certain of the cases, so the distinction is a very important one.

«232.» Consonant stems are divided into two classes:

   I. Stems that add «-s» to the base to form the nominative singular.
  II. Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular.

CLASS I

«233.» Stems that add «-s» to the base in the nominative singular are
either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows:

            «prīnceps»,   «mīles», m.,  «lapis»,
            m., _chief_   _soldier_     m., _stone_
  BASES OR
  STEMS     «prīncip-»    «mīlit-»      «lapid-»

            SINGULAR                               TERMINATIONS
                                                   M. AND F.
  _Nom._    prīnceps      mīles         lapis      -s
  _Gen._    prīn´cipis    mīlitis       lapidis    -is
  _Dat._    prīn´cipī     mīlitī        lapidī     -ī
  _Acc._    prīn´cipem    mīlitem       lapidem    -em
  _Abl._    prīn´cipe     mīlite        lapide     -e

            PLURAL
  _Nom._    prīn´cipēs    mīlitēs       lapidēs    -ēs
  _Gen._    prīn´cipum    mīlitum       lapidum    -um
  _Dat._    prīnci´pibus  mīlitibus     lapidibus  -ibus
  _Acc._    prīn´cipēs    mīlitēs       lapidēs    -ēs
  _Abl._    prīnci´pibus  mīlitibus     lapidibus  -ibus


            «rēx»,      «iūdex»,     «virtūs», f.,
            m., _king_  m.,_judge_   _manliness_
  BASES OR
  STEMS     «rēg-»      «iūdic-»     «virtūt-»

            SINGULAR                              TERMINATIONS
            M. AND F.
  _Nom._    rēx         iūdex        virtūs       -s
  _Gen._    rēgis       iūdicis      virtū´tis    -is
  _Dat._    rēgī        iūdicī       virtū´tī     -ī
  _Acc._    rēgem       iūdicem      virtū´tem    -em
  _Abl._    rēge        iūdice       virtū´te     -e

            PLURAL
  _Nom._    rēgēs       iūdicēs      virtū´tēs    -ēs
  _Gen._    rēgum       iūdicum      virtū´tum    -um
  _Dat._    rēgibus     iūdicibus    virtū´tibus  -ibus
  _Acc._    rēgēs       iūdicēs      virtū´tēs    -ēs
  _Abl._    rēgibus     iūdicibus    virtū´tibus  -ibus

  1. The base or stem is found by dropping «-is» in the genitive
  singular.

  2. Most nouns of two syllables, like «prīnceps» («prīncip-»), «mīles»
  («mīlit-»), «iūdex» («iūdic-»), have «i» in the base, but «e» in the
  nominative.

    _a._ «lapis» is an exception to this rule.

  3. Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the
  nominative:

    _a._ A final «-t» or «-d» is dropped before «-s»; thus «mīles» for
    «mīlets», «lapis» for «lapids», «virtūs» for «virtūts».

    _b._ A final «-c» or «-g» unites with «-s» and forms «-x»; thus
    «iūdec» + «s» = «iūdex», «rēg» + «s» = «rēx».

  4. Review §74 and apply the rules to this declension.

  In like manner decline «dux, ducis», m., _leader_; «eques, equitis»,
  m., _horseman_; «pedes, peditis», m., _foot soldier_; «pēs, pedis»,
  m.,_foot_.

«234.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Neque peditēs neque equitēs occupāre castellum Rōmānum poterant.
2. Summā virtūte mūrōs altōs cotīdiē oppugnābant. 3. Pedes mīlitum
lapidibus quī dē mūrō iaciēbantur saepe vulnerābantur. 4. Quod novum
cōnsilium dux cēpit? 5. Is perfidam puellam pulchrīs ōrnāmentīs
temptāvit. 6. Quid puella fēcit? 7. Puella commōta aurō mīlitēs per
portās dūxit. 8. Tamen praemia quae summō studiō petīverat nōn
reportāvit. 9. Apud Rōmānōs antīquōs Tarpēia nōn est laudāta.

II. 1. What ship is that which I see? That («illud») ship is the
_Victory_. It is sailing now with a favorable wind and will soon
approach Italy. 2. The judges commanded the savages to be seized and to
be killed. 3. The chiefs of the savages suddenly began to flee, but were
quickly captured by the horsemen. 4. The king led the foot soldiers to
the wall from which the townsmen were hurling stones with the greatest
zeal.

  [Illustration: NAVIGIUM]


LESSON XL

THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «Caesar, -aris», m., _Cæsar_
  «captīvus, -ī», m., _captive, prisoner_
  «cōnsul, -is», m., _consul_
  «frāter, frātris», m., _brother_ (fraternity)
  «homō, hominis», m., _man, human being_
  «impedīmentum, -ī», n., _hindrance_ (impediment); plur.
    «impedīmenta, -ōrum», _baggage_
  «imperātor, imperātōris», m., _commander in chief, general_ (emperor)
  «legiō, legiōnis», f., _legion_
  «māter, mātris», f., _mother_ (maternal)
  «ōrdō, ōrdinis», m., _row, rank_ (order)
  «pater, patris», m., _father_ (paternal)
  «salūs, salūtis», f., _safety_ (salutary)
  «soror, sorōris», f., _sister_ (sorority)

CLASS II

«235.» Consonant stems that add no termination in the nominative are
declined in the other cases exactly like those that add «-s.» They may
be masculine, feminine, or neuter.

«236.» PARADIGMS

MASCULINES AND FEMININES

            «cōnsul»,     «legiō», f.,  «ōrdō»,    «pater», m.,
            m., _consul_  _legion_      m., _row_  _father_
  BASES OR
  STEMS     «cōnsul-»     «legiōn-»     «ōrdin-»   «patr-»

            SINGULAR                                       TERMINATIONS
                                                           M. AND F.
  _Nom._    cōnsul        legiō         ōrdō       pater     --
  _Gen._    cōnsulis      legiōnis      ōrdinis    patris    -is
  _Dat._    cōnsulī       legiōnī       ōrdinī     patrī     -ī
  _Acc._    cōnsulem      legiōnem      ōrdinem    patrem    -em
  _Abl._    cōnsule       legiōne       ōrdine     patre     -e

            PLURAL
  _Nom._    cōnsulēs      legiōnēs      ōrdinēs    patrēs    -ēs
  _Gen._    cōnsulum      legiōnum      ōrdinum    patrum    -um
  _Dat._    cōnsulibus    legiōnibus    ōrdinibus  patribus  -ibus
  _Acc._    cōnsulēs      legiōnēs      ōrdinēs    patrēs    -ēs
  _Abl._    cōnsulibus    legiōnibus    ōrdinibus  patribus  -ibus

  1. With the exception of the nominative, the terminations are exactly
  the same as in Class I, and the base or stem is found in the same way.

  2. Masculines and feminines with bases or stems in -in- and -ōn- drop
  -n- and end in -ō in the nominative, as legiō (base or stem legiōn-),
  ōrdō (base or stem ōrdin-).

  3. Bases or stems in -tr- have -ter in the nominative, as pater (base
  or stem patr-).

  4. Note how the genitive singular gives the clue to the whole
  declension. _Always learn this with the nominative._

«237.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Audīsne tubās, Mārce? Nōn sōlum tubās audiō sed etiam ōrdinēs
militum et carrōs impedīmentōrum plēnōs vidēre possum. 2.Quās legiōnēs
vidēmus? Eae legiōnēs nūper ex Galliā vēnērunt. 3. Quid ibi fēcērunt?
Studēbantne pugnāre an sine virtūte erant? 4.Multa proelia fēcērunt[1]
et magnās victōriās et multōs captīvōs reportāvērunt. 5.Quis est
imperātor eārum legiōnum? Caesar, summus Rōmānōrum imperātor. 6.Quis est
eques quī pulchram corōnam gerit? Is eques est frāter meus. Eī corōna ā
cōnsule data est quia summā virtūte pugnāverat et ā barbarīs patriam
servāverat.

II. 1. Who has seen my father to-day? 2. I saw him just now («nūper»).
He was hastening to your dwelling with your mother and sister. 3. When
men are far from the fatherland and lack food, they cannot be
restrained[2] from wrong[3]. 4. The safety of the soldiers is dear to
Cæsar, the general. 5. The chiefs were eager to storm a town full of
grain which was held by the consul. 6. The king forbade the baggage of
the captives to be destroyed.

    [Footnote 1: «proelium facere» = _to fight a battle._]

    [Footnote 2: «contineō.» Cf. §180.]

    [Footnote 3: Abl. iniūriā.]


LESSON XLI

THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS (_Concluded_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «calamitās, calamitātis», f., _loss, disaster, defeat_ (calamity)
  «caput, capitis», n., _head_ (capital)
  «flūmen, flūminis», n., _river_ (flume)
  «labor, labōris», m., _labor, toil_
  «opus, operis», n., _work, task_
  «ōrātor, ōrātōris», m., _orator_
  «rīpa, -ae», f., _bank_ (of a stream)
  «tempus, temporis», n., _time_ (temporal)
  «terror, terrōris», m., _terror, fear_
  «victor, victōris», m., _victor_

  «accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptus», _receive, accept_
  «cōnfirmō, cōnfīrmāre, cōnfīrmāvī, cōnfīrmātus», _strengthen,
     establish, encourage_ (confirm)

«238.» Neuter consonant stems add no termination in the nominative and
are declined as follows:

            «flūmen»,    «tempus»,   «opus»,     «caput»,
            n., _river_  n., _time_  n., _work_  n., _head_
  BASES OR
  STEMS     «flūmin-»    «tempor-»   «oper-»     «capit-»

            SINGULAR                                     TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._    flūmen       tempus      opus        caput       --
  _Gen._    flūminis     temporis    operis      capitis    -is
  _Dat._    flūminī      temperī     operī       capitī     -ī
  _Acc._    flūmen       tempus      opus        caput       --
  _Abl._    flūmine      tempore     opere       capite     -e

             PLURAL
  _Nom._     flūmina      tempora     opera      capita     -a
  _Gen._     flūminum     temporum    operum     capitum    -um
  _Dat._     flūminibus   temporibus  operibus   capitibus  -ibus
  _Acc._     flūmina      tempora     opera      capita     -a
  _Abl._     flūminibus   temporibus  operibus   capitibus  -ibus

  1. Review §74 and apply the rules to this declension.

  2. Bases or stems in -in- have -e- instead of -i- in the nominative,
  as flūmen, base or stem flūmin-.

  3. Most bases or stems in -er- and -or- have -us in the nominative, as
  opus, base or stem oper-; tempus, base or stem tempor-.

«239.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Barbarī ubi Rōmam cēpērunt, maxima rēgum opera dēlēvērunt.
2. Rōmānī multās calamitātēs ā barbarīs accēpērunt. 3. Ubi erat summus
terror apud oppidānōs, animī dubiī eōrum ab ōrātōre clarō cōnfīrmāti
sunt. 4. Rōma est in rīpīs fiūminis magnī. 5. Ubi Caesar imperātor
mīlitēs suōs arma capere iussit, iī ā proeliō continērī nōn potuērunt.
6. Ubi proelium factum est, imperātor reperīrī nōn potuit. 7. Imperātor
sagittā in capite vulnerātus erat et stāre nōn poterat. 8. Eum magnō
labōre pedes ex proeliō portāvit. 9. Is bracchiīs suīs imperātōrem
tenuit et eum ex perīculīs summīs servāvit. 10. Virtūte suā bonus mīles
ab imperātōre corōnam accēpit.

II. 1. The consul placed a crown on the head of the victor. 2. Before
the gates he was received by the townsmen. 3. A famous orator praised
him and said, “By your labors you have saved the fatherland from
disaster.” 4. The words of the orator were pleasing to the victor.
5. To save the fatherland was a great task.

  [Illustration: Corona]


LESSON XLII

REVIEW LESSON

«240.» Review the paradigms in §§233, 236, 238; and decline all nouns of
the third declension in this selection.

TERROR CIMBRICUS[1]

Ōlim Cimbrī et Teutonēs, populī Germāniae, cum fēminīs līberīsque
Italiae adpropinquāverant et cōpiās Rōmānās maximō proeliō vīcerant. Ubi
fuga legiōnum nūntiāta est, summus erat terror tōtīus Rōmae, et Rōmānī,
graviter commōtī, sacra crēbra deīs faciēbant et salūtem petēbant.

Tum Mānlius ōrātor animōs populī ita cōnfīrmāvit:--“Magnam calamitātem
accēpimus. Oppida nostra ā Cimbrīs Teutonibusque capiuntur, agricolae
interficiuntur, agrī vāstantur, cōpiae barbarōrum Rōmae adpropinquant.
Itaque, nisi novīs animīs proelium novum faciēmus et Germānōs ex patriā
nostrā sine morā agēmus, erit nūlla salūs fēminīs nostrīs līberīsque.
Servāte līberōs! Servāte patriam! Anteā superātī sumus quia imperātōrēs
nostrī fuērunt īnfīrmī. Nunc Marius, clārus imperātor, quī iam multās
aliās victōriās reportāvit, legiōnēs dūcet et animōs nostrōs terrōre
Cimbricō līberāre mātūrābit.”

Marius tum in Āfricā bellum gerēbat. Sine morā ex Āfricā in Italiam
vocātus est. Cōpiās novās nōn sōlum tōtī Italiae sed etiam prōvinciīs
sociōrum imperāvit.[2] Disciplīnā autem dūrā labōribusque perpetuīs
mīlitēs exercuit. Tum cum peditibus equitibusque, quī iam proeliō
studēbant, ad Germānōrum castra celeriter properāvit. Diū et ācriter
pugnātum est.[3] Dēnique barbarī fūgērunt et multī in fugā ab equitibus
sunt interfectī. Marius pater patriae vocātus est.

    [Footnote 1: About the year 100 B.C. the Romans were greatly alarmed
    by an invasion of barbarians from the north known as Cimbri and
    Teutons. They were traveling with wives and children, and had an
    army of 300,000 fighting men. Several Roman armies met defeat, and
    the city was in a panic. Then the Senate called upon Marius, their
    greatest general, to save the country. First he defeated the Teutons
    in Gaul. Next, returning to Italy, he met the Cimbri. A terrible
    battle ensued, in which the Cimbri were utterly destroyed; but the
    _terror Cimbricus_ continued to haunt the Romans for many a year
    thereafter.]

    [Footnote 2: _He made a levy_ (of troops) _upon_, «imperāvit» with
    the acc. and the dat.]

    [Footnote 3: Cf. §200. II. 2.]


LESSON XLIII

THE THIRD DECLENSION · _I_-STEMS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «animal, animālis (-ium[A])», n., _animal_
  «avis, avis (-ium)», f., _bird_ (aviation)
  «caedēs, caedis (-ium)», f., _slaughter_
  calcar, calcāris (-ium), n., _spur_
  «cīvis, cīvis (-ium)», m. and f., _citizen_ (civic)
  «cliēns, clientis (-ium)», m., _retainer, dependent_ (client)
  «fīnis, fīnis (-ium)», m., _end, limit_ (final);
    plur., _country, territory_
  «hostis, hostis (-ium)», m. and f., _enemy_ in war (hostile).
    Distinguish from «inimīcus», which means a _personal_ enemy
  «ignis, ignis (-ium)», m., _fire_ (ignite)
  «īnsigne, īnsignis (-ium)», n. _decoration, badge_ (ensign)
  «mare, maris (-ium[B])», n., _sea_ (marine)
  «nāvis, nāvis (-ium)», f., _ship_ (naval);
  «nāvis longa», _man-of-war_
  «turris, turris (-ium)», f., _tower_ (turret)
  «urbs, urbis (-ium)», f., _city_ (suburb). An «urbs» is larger than an
     «oppidum».

    [Footnote A: The genitive plural ending «-ium» is written to mark
    the i-stems.]

    [Footnote B: The genitive plural of «mare» is not in use.]

«241.» To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know
whether or not it is an «i»-stem. Nouns with «i»-stems are

  1. Masculines and feminines:

    _a._ Nouns in «-ēs» and «-īs» with the same number of syllables in
    the genitive as in the nominative. Thus «caedēs, caedis», is an
    «i»-stem, but «mīles, mīlitis», is a consonant stem.

    _b._ Nouns in «-ns» and «-rs».

    _c._ Nouns of one syllable in «-s» or «-x» preceded by a consonant.

  2. Neuters in «-e», «-al», and «-ar».

«242.» The declension of «i»-stems is nearly the same as that of
consonant stems. Note the following differences:

_a._ Masculines and feminities have «-ium» in the genitive plural and
«-īs» or «-ēs» in the accusative plural.

_b._ Neuters have «-ī» in the ablative singular, and an «-i-» in every
form of the plural.

«243.» «Masculine and Feminine _I_-Stems.» Masculine and feminine
«i»-stems are declined as follows:

         «caedēs», f., «hostis»,    «urbs», f., «cliēns», m.,
         _slaughter_   m., _enemy_  _city_      _retainer_
  STEMS  «caedi-»      «hosti-»     «urbi-»     «clienti-»
  BASES  «caed-»       «host-»      «urb-»      «client-»

         SINGULAR                                           TERMINATIONS
                                                            M. AND F.
  _Nom._ caedēs        hostis       urbs        cliēns[1]      -s, -is,
                                                                _or_ -ēs
  _Gen._ caedis        hostis       urbis       clientis       -is
  _Dat._ caedī         hostī        urbī        clientī        -ī
  _Acc._ caedem        hostem       urbem       clientem       -em (-im)
  _Abl._ caede         hoste        urbe        cliente        -e (-ī)

         PLURAL
  _Nom._ caedēs        hostēs       urbēs       clientēs       -ēs
  _Gen._ caedium       hostium      urbium      clientium      -ium
  _Dat._ caedibus      hostibus     urbibus     clientibus     -ibus
  _Acc._ caedīs, -ēs   hostīs, -ēs  urbīs, -ēs  clientīs, -ēs  -īs, -ēs
  _Abl._ caedibus      hostibus     urbibus     clientibus     -ibus

    [Footnote 1: Observe that the vowel before «-ns» is long, but that
    it is shortened before «-nt». Cf. §12.2, 3.]

  1. «avis», «cīvis», «fīnis», «ignis», «nāvis» have the ablative
  singular in «-ī» or «-e».

  2. «turris» has accusative «turrim» and ablative «turrī» or «turre».

«244.» «Neuter _I_-Stems.» Neuter «i»-stems are declined as follows:

          «īnsigne», n.,  «animal», n.,  «calcar»,
          _decoration_    _animal_       n., _spur_
  STEMS   «īnsigni-»      «animāli-»     «calcāri-»
  BASES   «īnsign-»       «animāl-»      «calcār-»

          SINGULAR                                 TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  īnsigne         animal         calcar      -e _or_ --
  _Gen._  īnsignis        animālis       calcāris    -is
  _Dat._  īnsignī         animālī        calcārī     -ī
  _Acc._  īnsigne         animal         calcar      -e _or_ --
  _Abl._  īnsignī         animālī        calcārī     -ī

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  īnsignia        animālia       calcāria    -ia
  _Gen._  īnsignium       animālium      calcārium   -ium
  _Dat._  īnsignibus      animālibus     calcāribus  -ibus
  _Acc._  īnsignia        animālia       calcāria    -ia
  _Abl._  īnsignibus      animālibus     calcāribus  -ibus

  1. Review §74 and see how it applies to this declension.

  2. The final «-i-» of the stem is usually dropped in the nominative.
  If not dropped, it is changed to «-e».

  3. A long vowel is shortened before final «-l» or «-r». (Cf. §12.2.)

«245.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Quam urbem vidēmus? Urbs quam vidētis est Rōma. 2. Cīvēs Rōmānī
urbem suam turribus altīs et mūrīs longīs mūnīverant. 3. Ventī nāvīs
longās prohibēbant fīnibus hostium adpropinquāre. 4. Imperātor a
clientibus suīs calcāria aurī et alia īnsignia accēpit. 5. Mīlitēs
Rōmānī cum hostibus bella saeva gessērunt et eōs caede magnā
superāvērunt. 6. Alia animālia terram, alia mare amant. 7. Nāvēs longae
quae auxilium ad imperātōrem portābant ignī ab hostibus dēlētae sunt.
8. In eō marī avis multās vīdimus quae longē ā terrā volāverant.
9. Nōnne vīdistis nāvīs longās hostium et ignīs quibus urbs nostra
vāstābātur? Certē, sed nec caedem cīvium nec fugam clientium vīdimus.
10. Avēs et alia animālia, ubi ignem vīdērunt, salūtem fugā petere
celeriter incēpērunt. 11. Num. iūdex in peditum ōrdinibus stābat?
Minimē, iūdex erat apud equitēs et equus eius īnsigne pulchrum gerēbat.

  [Illustration: NAVES LONGAE]

II. 1. Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were not
able to live. 2. When the general[2] heard the rumor, he quickly sent a
horseman to the village. 3. The horseman had a beautiful horse and wore
spurs of gold. 4. He said to the citizens, “Send your retainers with
horses and wagons to our camp, and you will receive an abundance of
grain.” 5. With happy hearts they hastened to obey his words.[3]

    [Footnote 2: Place first.]

    [Footnote 3: Not the accusative. Why?]


LESSON XLIV

IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION · GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «arbor, arboris», f., _tree_ (arbor)
  «collis, collis (-ium)», m., _hill_
  «dēns, dentis (-ium)», m., _tooth_ (dentist)
   fōns, fontis (-ium), m.. _fountain, spring; source_
  «iter, itineris», n., _march, journey, route_ (itinerary)
  «mēnsis, mēnsis (-ium)», m., _month_
  «moenia, -ium», n., plur., _walls, fortifications_. Cf. «mūrus»
  «mōns, montis (-ium)», m., _mountain_;
    «summus mōns», _top of the mountain_
  «numquam», adv., _never_
  «pōns, pontis», m., _bridge_ (pontoon)
  «sanguis, sanguinis», m., blood (sanguinary)
  «summus, -a, -um», _highest, greatest_ (summit)
  «trāns», prep, with acc., _across_ (transatlantic)
  «vīs (vīs)», gen. plur. «virium», f. _strength, force, violence_ (vim)

«246.» PARADIGMS

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The original text gives «vī-» and «vīr-» as the “Bases” of «vīs», and
  omits the “Stems” for both words. The forms have been regularized to
  agree with the inflectional table in the Appendix.]

          «vīs», f., _force_  «iter», n., _march_
  STEMS   «vī-» and «vīri-»   «iter-» and «itiner-»
  BASES   «v-» and «vīr-»     «iter-» and «itiner-»

          SINGULAR
  _Nom._  vīs                 iter
  _Gen._  vīs (rare)          itineris
  _Dat._  vī (rare)           itinerī
  _Acc._  vim                 iter
  _Abl._  vī                  itinere

           PLURAL
  _Nom._  vīrēs               itinera
  _Gen._  vīrium              itinerum
  _Dat._  vīribus             itineribus
  _Acc._  vīrīs, or -ēs       itinera
  _Abl._  vīribus             itineribus

«247.» There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not
present numerous exceptions.[1] The following rules, however, are of
great service, and should be thoroughly mastered:

  1. «Masculine» are nouns in «-or», «-ōs», «-er», «-ĕs» (gen. «-itis»).

    _a._ «arbor», _tree_, is feminine; and «iter», _march_, is neuter.

  2. «Feminine» are nouns in «-ō», «-is», «-x», and in «-s» preceded by
  a consonant or by any long vowel but «ō».

    _a._ Masculine are «collis» (_hill_), «lapis», «mēnsis» (_month_),
    «ōrdō», «pēs», and nouns in «-nis» and «-guis»--as «ignis»,
    «sanguis» (_blood_)--and the four monosyllables

      «dēns», _a tooth_; «mōns», _a mountain_
      «pōns», _a bridge_; «fōns», _a fountain_

  3. «Neuters» are nouns in «-e», «-al», «-ar», «-n», «-ur», «-ŭs», and
  «caput».

    [Footnote 1: Review §60. Words denoting males are, of course,
    masculine, and those denoting females, feminine.]

«248.» Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which it
is determined:

  «animal»   «calamitās»   «flūmen»    «lapis»   «nāvis»
  «avis»     «caput»       «ignis»     «legiō»   «opus»
  «caedēs»   «eques»       «īnsigne»   «mare»    «salūs»
  «calcar»   «fīnis»       «labor»     «mīles»   «urbs»

«249.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. _The First Bridge over the Rhine._ Salūs sociōrum erat semper cāra
Rōmānīs. Ōlim Gallī, amīcī Rōmānōrum, multās iniūriās ab Germānīs quī
trāns flūmen Rhēnum vivēbant accēperant. Ubi lēgātī ab iīs ad Caesarem
imperātōrem Rōmānum vēnērunt et auxilium postulāvērunt, Rōmānī magnīs
itineribus ad hostium fīnīs properāvērunt. Mox ad rīpās magnī flūminis
vēnērunt. Imperātor studēbat cōpiās suās trāns fluvium dūcere, sed nūllā
viā[2] poterat. Nūllās nāvīs habēbat. Alta erat aqua. Imperātor autem,
vir clārus, numquam adversā fortūnā commōtus, novum cōnsilium cēpit.
Iussit suōs[3] in[4] lātō flūmine facere pontem. Numquam anteā pōns in
Rhēnō vīsus erat. Hostēs ubi pontem quem Rōmānī fēcerant vīdērunt, summō
terrōre commōtī, sine morā fugam parāre incēpērunt.

II. 1. The enemy had taken (possession of) the top of the mountain.
2. There were many trees on the opposite hills. 3. We pitched our camp
near («ad») a beautiful spring. 4. A march through the enemies’ country
is never without danger. 5. The time of the month was suitable for the
march. 6. The teeth of the monster were long. 7. When the foot
soldiers[5] saw the blood of the captives, they began to assail the
fortifications with the greatest violence.[2]

    [Footnote 2: Abl. of manner.]

    [Footnote 3: «suōs», used as a noun, _his men_.]

    [Footnote 4: We say _build a bridge over_; the Romans, _make a
    bridge on_.]

    [Footnote 5: Place first.]

       *       *       *       *       *

  «Fifth Review, Lessons XXXVII-XLIV, §§517-520»

       *       *       *       *       *

LESSON XLV

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION · _I_-STEMS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «ācer, ācris, ācre», _sharp, keen, eager_ (acrid)
  «brevis, breve», _short, brief_
  «difficilis, difficile», _difficult_
  «facilis, facile», _facile, easy_
  «fortis, forte», _brave_ (fortitude)
  «gravis, grave», _heavy, severe, serious_ (grave)
  «omnis, omne», _every, all_ (omnibus)
  «pār», gen. «paris», _equal_ (par)
  «paucī, -ae, -a», _few, only a few_ (paucity)
  «secundus, -a, -um», _second; favorable_, opposite of adversus
  «signum, -ī», n., _signal, sign, standard_
  «vēlōx», gen. «vēlōcis», _swift_ (velocity)

  «conlocō, conlocāre, conlocāvī, conlocātus», _arrange, station, place_
    (collocation)
  «dēmōnstrō, dēmōnstrāre, dēmōnstrāvī, dēmōnstrātus», _point out,
    explain_ (demonstrate)
  «mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus», _commit, intrust_ (mandate)

«250.» Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like
«bonus», «aeger», or «līber»), or they are of the third declension.

«251.» Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have «i»-_stems_,
and they are declined almost like nouns with «i»-stems.

«252.» Adjectives learned thus far have had a different form in the
nominative for each gender, as, «bonus», m.; «bona», f.; «bonum», n.
Such an adjective is called an _adjective of three endings_. Adjectives
of the third declension are of the following classes:

    I. Adjectives of three endings--
      a different form in the nominative for each gender.

   II. Adjectives of two endings--
      masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different.

  III. Adjectives of one ending--
      masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative all alike.

«253.» Adjectives of the third declension in «-er» have three endings;
those in «-is» have two endings; the others have one ending.

CLASS I

«254.» Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows:

          «ācer, ācris, ācre», _keen, eager_
          STEM «ācri-»
          BASE «ācr-»

          SINGULAR               PLURAL
          MASC.  FEM.   NEUT.    MASC.       FEM.        NEUT.
  _Nom._  ācer   ācris  ācre     ācrēs       ācrēs       ācria
  _Gen._  ācris  ācris  ācris    ācrium      ācrium      ācrium
  _Dat._  ācrī   ācrī   ācrī     ācribus     ācribus     ācribus
  _Acc._  ācrem  ācrem  ācre     ācrīs, -ēs  ācrīs, -ēs  ācria
  _Abl._  ācrī   ācrī   ācrī     ācribus     ācribus     ācribus


CLASS II

«255.» Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows:

          «omnis, omne», _every, all_[1]
          STEM «omni-»
          BASE «omn-»

          SINGULAR                 PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.    MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  omnis           omne     omnēs           omnia
  _Gen._  omnis           omnis    omnium          omnium
  _Dat._  omnī            omnī     omnibus         omnibus
  _Acc._  omnem           omne     omnīs, -ēs      omnia
  _Abl._  omnī            omnī     omnibus         omnibus

    [Footnote 1: «omnis» is usually translated _every_ in the singular
    and _all_ in the plural.]

CLASS III

«256.» Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows:

         «pār», _equal_
          STEM «pari-»
          BASE «par-»

          SINGULAR                 PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.    MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  pār             pār      parēs           paria
  _Gen._  paris           paris    parium          parium
  _Dat._  parī            parī     paribus         paribus
  _Acc._  parem           pār      parīs, -ēs      paria
  _Abl._  parī            parī     paribus         paribus

  1. All «i»-stem adjectives have «-ī» in the ablative singular.

  2. Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the
  same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and in
  the nominative and accusative plural.

  3. Decline «vir ācer», «legiō ācris», «animal ācre», «ager omnis»,
  «scūtum omne», «proelium pār».

«257.» There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant
stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems.

«258.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. _The Romans invade the Enemy’s Country._ Ōlim peditēs Rōmānī cum
equitibus vēlōcibus in hostium urbem iter faciēbant. Ubi nōn longē
āfuērunt, rapuērunt agricolam, quī eīs viam brevem et facilem
dēmōnstrāvit. Iam Rōmānī moenia alta, turrīs validās aliaque opera urbis
vidēre poterant. In moenibus stābant multī prīncipēs. Prīncipēs ubi
vīdērunt Rōmānōs, iussērunt cīvīs lapidēs aliaque tēla dē mūrīs iacere.
Tum mīlitēs fortēs continērī ā proeliō nōn poterant et ācer imperātor
signum tubā darī iussit. Summā vī omnēs mātūrāvērunt. Imperātor Sextō
lēgātō impedīmenta omnia mandāvit. Sextus impedīmenta in summō colle
conlocāvit. Grave et ācre erat proelium, sed hostēs nōn parēs Rōmānīs
erant. Aliī interfectī, aliī captī sunt. Apud captīvōs erant māter
sororque rēgis. Paucī Rōmānōrum ab hostibus vulnerātī sunt. Secundum
proelium Rōmānīs erat grātum. Fortūna fortibus semper favet.

II. 1. Some months are short, others are long. 2. To seize the top of
the mountain was difficult. 3. Among the hills of Italy are many
beautiful springs. 4. The soldiers were sitting where the baggage had
been placed because their feet were weary. 5. The city which the
soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong walls and high
towers. 6. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown of gold and all his
money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave had never before been
faithless.

  [Illustration: AQUILA LEGIONIS]


LESSON XLVI

THE FOURTH OR _U_-DECLENSION

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «adventus, -ūs», m., _approach, arrival_ (advent)
  «ante», prep, with acc., _before_ (ante-date)
  «cornū, -ūs», n., _horn, wing_ of an army (cornucopia);
    «ā dextrō cornū», _on the right wing_;
    «ā sinistrō cornū», _on the left wing_
  «equitātus, -ūs», m., _cavalry_
  «exercitus, -ūs», m., _army_
  «impetus, -ūs», m., _attack_ (impetus);
    «impetum facere in», with acc., _to make an attack on_
  «lacus, -ūs, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus», m., _lake_
  «manus, -ūs», f., _hand; band, force_ (manual)
  «portus, -ūs», m., _harbor_ (port)
  «post», prep, with acc., _behind, after_ (post-mortem)

  «cremō, cremāre, cremāvī, cremātus», _burn_ (cremate)
  «exerceō, exercēre, exercuī, exercitus», _practice, drill, train_
    (exercise)

«259.» Nouns of the fourth declension are either masculine or neuter.

«260.» Masculine nouns end in «-us», neuters in «-ū». The genitive ends
in «-ūs».

    _a._ Feminine by exception are «domus», _house_; «manus», _hand_;
    and a few others.

PARADIGMS

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The “Stems” are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied
  from the inflectional table in the Appendix.]

          «adventus»,     «cornū»,
          m., _arrival_   n., _horn_
   STEMS  «adventu-»      «cornu-»
   BASES  «advent-»       «corn-»

          SINGULAR                   TERMINATIONS
          MASC.           NEUT.
  _Nom._  adventus        cornū      -us      -ū
  _Gen._  adventūs        cornūs     -ūs      -ūs
  _Dat._  adventuī (ū)    cornū      -uī (ū)  -ū
  _Acc._  adventum        cornū      -um      -ū
  _Abl._  adventū         cornū      -ū       -ū

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  adventūs        cornua     -ūs       -ua
  _Gen._  adventuum       cornuum    -uum      -uum
  _Dat._  adventibus      cornibus   -ibus     -ibus
  _Acc._  adventūs        cornua     -ūs       -ua
  _Abl._  adventibus      cornibus   -ibus     -ibus

  1. Observe that the base is found, as in other declensions, by
  dropping the ending of the genitive singular.

  2. «lacus», _lake_, has the ending «-ubus» in the dative and ablative
  plural; «portus», _harbor_, has either «-ubus» or «-ibus».

  3. «cornū» is the only neuter that is in common use.

«261.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Ante adventum Caesaris vēlōcēs hostium equitēs ācrem impetum in
castra fēcērunt. 2. Continēre exercitum ā proeliō nōn facile erat.
3. Post adventum suum Caesar iussit legiōnēs ex castrīs dūcī. 4. Prō
castrīs cum hostium equitātū pugnātum est. 5. Post tempus breve
equitātus trāns flūmen fūgit ubi castra hostium posita erant. 6. Tum
victor imperātor agrōs vāstāvit et vīcōs hostium cremāvit. 7. Castra
autem nōn oppugnāvit quia mīlitēs erant dēfessī et locus difficilis.
8. Hostēs nōn cessāvērunt iacere tēla, quae paucīs nocuērunt. 9. Post
adversum proelium principēs Gallōrum lēgātōs ad Caesarem mittere
studēbant, sed populō persuādēre nōn poterant.

II. 1. Did you see the man-of-war on the lake? 2. I did not see it
(_fem_.) on the lake, but I saw it in the harbor. 3. Because of the
strong wind the sailor forbade his brother to sail. 4. Cæsar didn´t make
an attack on the cavalry on the right wing, did he? 5. No, he made an
attack on the left wing. 6. Who taught your swift horse to obey?
7. I trained my horse with my (own) hands, nor was the task difficult.
8. He is a beautiful animal and has great strength.


LESSON XLVII

EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE · THE DECLENSION OF _DOMUS_

  [Special Vocabulary]

   Athēnae, -ārum, f., plur., _Athens_
   Corinthus, -ī, f., _Corinth_
  «domus, -ūs», locative «domī», f., _house, home_ (dome). Cf.
    «domicilium»
  «Genāva, -ae», f., _Geneva_
   Pompēii, -ōrum, m., plur., _Pompeii_, a city in Campania. See map
  «propter», prep. with acc., _on account of, because of_
   rūs, rūris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. «rūra», n., _country_
    (rustic)
  «tergum, tergī», n., _back_; «ā tergō», _behind, in the rear_
  «vulnus, vulneris», n., _wound_ (vulnerable)

  «committō, committere, commīsī, commissus», _intrust, commit;_
    «proelium committere», _join battle_
  «convocō, convocāre, convocāvī, convocātus», _call together, summon_
    (convoke)
  «timeō, timēre, timuī, ----», _fear; be afraid_ (timid)
  «vertō, vertere, vertī, versus», _turn, change_ (convert);
    «terga vertere», _to turn the backs_, hence _to retreat_

«262.» We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the
following:

  «Galba ad» (or «in») «oppidum properat»
  «Galba ab» («dē» or «ex») «oppidō properat»
  «Galba in oppidō habitat»

From these expressions we may deduce the following rules:

«263.» RULE. «Accusative of the Place to.» _The «place to which» is
expressed by «ad» or «in» with the accusative. This answers the question
Whither?_

«264.» RULE. «Ablative of the Place from.» _The «place from which» is
expressed by «ā» or «ab», «dē», «ē» or «ex», with the separative
ablative. This answers the question Whence?_ (Cf. Rule, §179.)

«265.» RULE. «Ablative of the Place at or in.» _The «place at or in
which» is expressed by the ablative with «in». This answers the question
Where?_

    _a._ The ablative denoting the _place where_ is called the _locative
    ablative_ (cf. «locus», _place_).

«266.» «Exceptions.» Names of towns, small islands,[1] «domus», _home_,
«rūs», _country_, and a few other words in common use omit the
prepositions in expressions of place, as,

  «Galba Athēnās properat», _Galba hastens to Athens_
  «Galba Athēnīs properat», _Galba hastens from Athens_
  «Galba Athēnīs habitat», _Galba lives at_ (or _in_) _Athens_
  «Galba domum properat», _Galba hastens home_
  «Galba rūs properat», _Galba hastens to the country_
  «Galba domō properat», _Galba hastens from home_
  «Galba rūre properat», _Galba hastens from the country_
  «Galba rūrī» (less commonly «rūre») «habitat»,
    _Galba lives in the country_

    _a._ Names of _countries_, like «Germānia», «Italia», etc., do not
    come under these exceptions. _With them prepositions must not be
    omitted._

    [Footnote 1: Small islands are classed with towns because they
    generally have but one town, and the name of the town is the same as
    the name of the island.]

«267.» «The Locative Case.» We saw above that the place-relation
expressed by _at_ or _in_ is regularly covered by the locative ablative.
However, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form
known as the _locative case_. This case has been everywhere merged in
the ablative excepting in the singular number of the first and second
declensions. The form of the locative in these declensions is like the
genitive singular, and its use is limited to names of towns and small
islands, «domī», _at home_, and a few other words.

«268.» RULE. «Locative and Locative Ablative.» _To express the «place in
which» with names of towns and small islands, «if they are singular and
of the first or second declension», use the locative; otherwise use the
locative ablative without a preposition; as_,

  «Galba Rōmae habitat», _Galba lives at Rome_
  «Galba Corinthī habitat», _Galba lives at Corinth_
  «Galba domī habitat», _Galba lives at home_

Here «Rōmae», «Corinthī», and «domī» are _locatives_, being _singular_
and of the first and second declensions respectively. But in

  «Galba Athēnīs habitat», _Galba lives at Athens_,
  «Galba Pompēiīs habitat», _Galba lives at Pompeii_

«Athēnīs» and «Pompēiīs» are locative ablatives. These words can have no
locative case, as the nominatives «Athēnae» and «Pompēiī» are_plural_
and there is no plural locative case form.

«269.» The word «domus», _home, house_, has forms of both the second and
the fourth declension. Learn its declension (§468).

«270.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Corinthī omnia īnsignia aurī ā ducibus victōribus rapta erant.
2. Caesar Genāvam exercitum magnīs itineribus dūxit. 3. Quem pontem
hostēs cremāverant? Pontem in Rhēnō hostēs cremāverant. 4. Pompēiīs
multās Rōmānōrum domōs vidēre poteritis. 5. Rōmā cōnsul equō vēlōcī
rūs properāvit. 6. Domī cōnsulis hominēs multī sedēbant. 7. Imperātor
iusserat lēgātum Athēnās cum multīs nāvibus longīs nāvigāre. 8. Ante
moenia urbis sunt ōrdinēs arborum altārum. 9. Propter arborēs altās nec
lacum nec portum reperīre potuimus. 10. Proeliīs crēbrīs Caesar legiōnēs
suās quae erant in Galliā exercēbat. 11. Cotīdiē in locō idoneō castra
pōnēbat et mūniēbat.

II. 1. Cæsar, the famous general, when he had departed from Rome,
hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.[2] 2. He had heard a
rumor concerning the allies at Geneva. 3. After his arrival Cæsar called
the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle. 4. The enemy
hastened to retreat, some because[3] they were afraid, others because[3]
of wounds. 5. Recently I was at Athens and saw the place where the
judges used to sit.[4] 6. Marcus and Sextus are my brothers; the one
lives at Rome, the other in the country.

    [Footnote 2: Latin says “by a swift horse.” What construction?]

    [Footnote 3: Distinguish between the English conjunction _because_
    («quia» or «quod») and the preposition _because of_ («propter»).]

    [Footnote 4: _used to sit_, express by the imperfect.]

  [Illustration: DAEDALUS ET ICARUS]

«271.» DAED´ALUS AND IC´ARUS

Crēta est īnsula antīqua quae aquā altā magnī maris pulsātur. Ibi ōlim
Mīnōs erat rēx. Ad eum vēnit Daedalus quī ex Graeciā patriā fugiēbat.
Eum Mīnōs rēx benignīs verbīs accēpit et eī domicilium in Crētā dedit.
[5]Quō in locō Daedalus sine cūrā vīvebat et rēgī multa et clāra opera
faciēbat. Post tempus longum autem Daedalus patriam cāram dēsīderāre
incēpit. Domum properāre studēbat, sed rēgī persuādēre nōn potuit et
mare saevum fugam vetābat.

    [Footnote 5: _And in this place_; «quō» does not here introduce a
    subordinate relative clause, but establishes the connection with the
    preceding sentence. Such a relative is called a _connecting
    relative_, and is translated by _and_ and a demonstrative or
    personal pronoun.]


LESSON XLVIII

THE FIFTH OR Ē-DECLENSION · THE ABLATIVE OF TIME

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «aciēs, -ēī», f., _line of battle_
  «aestās, aestātis», f., _summer_
  «annus, -ī», m., _year_ (annual)
  «diēs, diēī», m., _day_ (diary)
  «fidēs, fideī», no plur., f., _faith, trust; promise, word;
     protection_; «in fidem venīre», _to come under the protection_
  «fluctus, -ūs», m. _wave, billow_ (fluctuate)
  «hiems, hiemis», f., _winter_
  «hōra, -ae», f., _hour_
  «lūx, lūcis», f., _light_ (lucid); «prīma lux», _daybreak_
  «merīdiēs», acc. -em, abl. -ē, no plur., m., _midday_ (meridian)
  «nox, noctis (-ium)», f., _night_ (nocturnal)
  «prīmus, -a, -um», _first_ (prime)
  «rēs, reī», f., _thing, matter_ (real);
  «rēs gestae», _deeds, exploits_ (lit. _things performed_);
    «rēs adversae», _adversity_; «rēs secundae», _prosperity_
  «spēs, speī», f., _hope_

«272.» «Gender.» Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except
«diēs», _day_, and «merīdiēs», _midday_, which are usually masculine.

«273.» PARADIGMS

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The “Stems” are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied
  from the inflectional table in the Appendix.]

          «diēs»,     «rēs», f.,
          m., _day_   _thing_
  STEMS   «diē-»      «rē-»
  BASES   «di-»       «r-»

          SINGULAR          TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  diēs        rēs      -ēs
  _Gen._  diēī        reī      -ē̆ī
  _Dat._  diēī        reī      -ē̆ī
  _Acc._  diem        rem      -em
  _Abl._  diē         rē       -ē

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  diēs        rēs      -ēs
  _Gen._  diērum      rērum    -ērum
  _Dat._  diēbus      rēbus    -ēbus
  _Acc._  diēs        rēs      -ēs
  _Abl._  diēbus      rēbus    -ēbus

  1. The vowel «e» which appears in every form is regularly long. It is
  shortened in the ending «-eī» after a consonant, as in «r-ĕī»; and
  before «-m» in the accusative singular, as in «di-em». (Cf. §12.2.)

  2. Only «diēs» and «rēs» are complete in the plural. Most other nouns
  of this declension lack the plural. «Aciēs», _line of battle_, and
  «spēs», _hope_, have the nominative and accusative plural.

«274.» The ablative relation (§50) which is expressed by the
prepositions _at, in_, or _on_ may refer not only to place, but also to
time, as _at noon, in summer, on the first day_. The ablative which is
used to express this relation is called the _ablative of time_.

«275.» RULE. «The Ablative of Time.» _The time «when» or «within which»
anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition._

    _a._ Occasionally the preposition «_in_» is found. Compare the
    English _Next day we started_ and _«On» the next day we started_.

«276.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. _Galba the Farmer._ Galba agricola rūrī vīvit. Cotīdiē prīmā lūce
labōrāre incipit, nec ante noctem in studiō suō cessat. Merīdiē Iūlia
fīlia eum ad cēnam vocat. Nocte pedēs dēfessōs domum vertit. Aestāte
fīliī agricolae auxilium patrī dant. Hieme agricola eōs in lūdum mittit.
Ibi magister pueris multās fābulās dē rēbus gestīs Caesaris nārrat.
Aestāte fīliī agricolae perpetuīs labōribus exercentur nec grave agrī
opus est iīs molestum. Galba sine ūllā cūrā vivit nec rēs adversās
timet.

II. 1. In that month there were many battles in Gaul. 2. The cavalry of
the enemy made an attack upon Cæsar’s line of battle. 3. In the first
hour of the night the ship was overcome by the billows. 4. On the second
day the savages were eager to come under Cæsar’s protection. 5. The king
had joined battle, moved by the hope of victory. 6. That year a fire
destroyed many birds and other animals. 7. We saw blood on the wild
beast’s teeth.

«277.» DAED´ALUS AND IC´ARUS (_Continued_)

Tum Daedalus gravibus cūrīs commōtus fīliō suō Īcarō ita dixit: “Animus
meus, Īcare, est plēnus trīstitiae nec oculī lacrimīs egent. Discēdere
ex Crētā, Athēnās properāre, maximē studeō; sed rēx recūsat audīre verba
mea et omnem reditūs spem ēripit. Sed numquam rēbus adversīs vincar.
Terra et mare sunt inimīca, sed aliam fugae viam reperiam.” Tum in artīs
ignōtās animum dīmittit et mīrum capit cōnsilium. Nam pennās in ōrdine
pōnit et vērās ālās facit.


LESSON XLIX

PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED · PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «amīcitia, -ae», f., _friendship_  (amicable)
  «itaque», conj., _and so, therefore, accordingly_
  «littera, -ae», f., _a letter_ of the alphabet;
    plur., _a letter, an epistle_
  «metus, metūs», m., _fear_
  «nihil, indeclinable», n., _nothing_ (nihilist)
  «nūntius, nūntī», m., _messenger_. Cf. «nūntiō»
  «pāx, pācis», f., _peace_ (pacify)
  «rēgnum, -ī», n., _reign, sovereignty, kingdom_
  «supplicum, suppli´cī», n., _punishment_;
    «supplicum sūmere dē», with abl., _inflict punishment on_;
    «supplicum dare», _suffer punishment_. Cf. «poena»

  «placeō, placēre, placuī, placitus», _be pleasing to, please_,
     with dative. Cf. §154
  «sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsī, sūmptus», _take up, assume_
  «sustineō, sustinēre, sustinuī, sustentus», _sustain_

«278.» We have the same kinds of pronouns in Latin as in English. They
are divided into the following eight classes:

  1. «Personal pronouns», which show the person speaking, spoken to, or
  spoken of; as, «ego», _I_; «tū», _you_; «is», _he_. (Cf. §279. etc.)

  2. «Possessive pronouns», which denote possession; as, «meus», «tuus»,
  «suus», etc. (Cf. §98.)

  3. «Reflexive pronouns», used in the predicate to refer back to the
  subject; as, _he saw himself_. (Cf. §281.)

  4. «Intensive pronouns», used to emphasize a noun or pronoun; as, _I
  myself saw it_. (Cf. §285.)

  5. «Demonstrative pronouns», which point out persons or things; as,
  «is», _this, that_. (Cf. §112.)

  6. «Relative pronouns», which connect a subordinate adjective clause
  with an antecedent; as, «quī», _who_. (Cf. §220.)

  7. «Interrogative pronouns», which ask a question; as, «quis», _who?_
  (Cf. §225.)

  8. «Indefinite pronouns», which point out indefinitely; as, _some one,
  any one, some, certain ones_, etc. (Cf. §296.)

«279.» The demonstrative pronoun «is», «ea», «id», as we learned in
§115, is regularly used as the personal pronoun of the third person
(_he_, _she_, _it_, _they_, etc.).

«280.» The personal pronouns of the first person are «ego», _I_; «nōs»,
_we_; of the second person, «tū», _thou_ or _you_; «vōs», _ye_ or _you_.
They are declined as follows:

         SINGULAR
         FIRST PERSON                  SECOND PERSON
  _Nom._ ego, _I_                      tū, _you_
  _Gen._ meī, _of me_                  tuī, _of you_
  _Dat._ mihi, _to_ or _for me_        tibi, _to_ or _for you_
  _Acc._ mē, _me_                      tē, _you_
  _Abl._ mē, _with, from_, etc., _me_  tē, _with, from_, etc., _you_

         PLURAL
  _Nom._ nōs, _we_                     vōs, _you_
  _Gen._ nostrum or nostrī, _of us_    vestrum or vestrī, _of you_
  _Dat._ nōbīs, _to_ or _for us_       vōbīs, _to_ or _for you_
  _Acc._ nōs, _us_                     vōs, _you_
  _Abl._ nōbīs, _with, from_,          vōbīs, _with, from_, etc., _you_
           etc., _us_

  1. The personal pronouns are not used in the nominative excepting for
  emphasis or contrast.

«281.» «The Reflexive Pronouns.» 1. The personal pronouns «ego» and «tū»
may be used in the predicate as reflexives; as,

     «videō mē», _I see myself_
       «vidēmus nōs», _we see ourselves_
     «vidēs tē», _you see yourself_
       «vidētis vōs», _you see yourselves_

  2. The reflexive pronoun of the third person (_himself, herself,
  itself, themselves_) has a special form, used only in these senses,
  and declined alike in the singular and plural.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL
    _Gen._   suī              _Acc._   sē
    _Dat._   sibi                _Abl._   sē

  EXAMPLES
    «Puer sē videt», _the boy sees himself_
    «Puella sē videt», _the girl sees herself_
    «Animal sē videt», _the animal sees itself_
    «Iī sē vident», _they see themselves_

    _a._ The form «sē» is sometimes doubled, «sēsē», for emphasis.

  3. Give the Latin for

    _I teach myself_        _We teach ourselves_
    _You teach yourself_    _You teach yourselves_
    _He teaches himself_    _They teach themselves_

«282.» The preposition «cum», when used with the ablative of «ego»,
«tū», or «suī», is appended to the form, as, «mēcum», _with me_;
«tēcum», _with you_; «nōbīscum», _with us_; etc.

«283.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. 1. Mea māter est cāra mihi et tua māter est cāra tibi. 2. Vestrae
litterae erant grātae nōbis et nostrae litterae erant grātae vōbīs.
3. Nūntius rēgis quī nōbīscum est nihil respondēbit. 4. Nūntiī pācem
amīcitiamque sibi et suīs sociīs postulāvērunt. 5. Sī tū arma sūmēs,
ego rēgnum occupābō. 6. Uter vestrum est cīvis Rōmānus? Neuter nostrum.
7. Eō tempore multī supplicium dedērunt quia rēgnum petierant. 8. Sūme
supplicium, Caesar, dē hostibus patriae ācribus. 9. Prīmā lūce aliī
metū commōtī sēsē fugae mandāvērunt; aliī autem magnā virtūte impetum
exercitūs nostrī sustinuērunt. 10. Soror rēgis, ubi dē adversō proeliō
audīvit, sēsē Pompēiīs interfēcit.

II. 1. Whom do you teach? I teach myself. 2. The soldier wounded himself
with his sword. 3. The master praises us, but you he does not praise.
4. Therefore he will inflict punishment on you, but we shall not suffer
punishment. 5. Who will march (i.e. make a march) with me to Rome?
6. I will march with you to the gates of the city. 7. Who will show
us[1] the way? The gods will show you[1] the way.

    [Footnote 1: Not accusative.]

DAED´ALUS AND IC´ARUS (_Concluded_)

«284.» Puer Īcarus ūnā[2] stābat et mīrum patris opus vidēbat. Postquam
manus ultima[3] ālīs imposita est, Daedalus eās temptāvit et similis avī
in aurās volāvit. Tum ālās umerīs fīlī adligāvit et docuit eum volāre
et dīxit, “Tē vetō, mī fīlī, adpropinquāre aut sōlī aut marī. Sī
fluctibus adpropinquāveris,[4] aqua ālīs tuīs nocēbit, et sī sōlī
adpropinquāveris,[4] ignis eās cremābit.” Tum pater et filius iter
difficile incipiunt. Ālās movent et aurae sēsē committunt. Sed stultus
puer verbīs patris nōn pāret. Sōlī adpropinquat. Ālae cremantur et
Īcarus in mare dēcidit et vitam āmittit. Daedalus autem sine ūllō
perīculō trāns fluctūs ad īnsulam Siciliam volāvit.

    [Footnote 2: Adverb, see vocabulary.]

    [Footnote 3: «manus ultima», _the finishing touch_. What literally?]

    [Footnote 4: Future perfect. Translate by the present.]


LESSON L

THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN _IPSE_ AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE _ĪDEM_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «corpus, corporis», n., _body_ (corporal)
  «dēnsus, -a, -um», _dense_
  «īdem, e´adem, idem», demonstrative pronoun, _the same_ (identity)
  «ipse, ipsa, ipsum», intensive pronoun, _self; even, very_
  «mīrus, -a, -um», _wonderful, marvelous_ (miracle)
  «ōlim», adv., _formerly, once upon a time_
  «pars, partis (-ium)», f., _part, region, direction_
  «quoque», adv., _also_. Stands _after_ the word which it emphasizes
  «sōl, sōlis», m., _sun_ (solar)
  «vērus, -a, -um», _true, real_ (verity)

  «dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus», _owe, ought_ (debt)
  «ēripiō, ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus», _snatch from_

«285.» «Ipse» means _-self_ (_him-self, her-self_, etc.) or is
translated by _even_ or _very_. It is used to emphasize a noun or
pronoun, expressed or understood, with which it agrees like an
adjective.

    _a._ «Ipse» must be carefully distinguished from the reflexive
    «suī». The latter is always used as a pronoun, while «ipse» is
    regularly adjective. Compare

      «Homō sē videt», _the man sees himself_ (reflexive)
      «Homō ipse perīculum videt»,
        _the man himself_ (intensive) _sees the danger_
      «Homō ipsum perīculum videt»,
        _the man sees the danger itself_ (intensive)

«286.» Except for the one form «ipse», the intensive pronoun is declined
exactly like the nine irregular adjectives (cf. §§108, 109). Learn the
declension (§481).

«287.» The demonstrative «īdem», meaning _the same_, is a compound of
«is». It is declined as follows:

          SINGULAR
          MASC.       FEM.        NEUT.
  _Nom._  īdem        e´adem      idem
  _Gen._  eius´dem    eius´dem    eius´dem
  _Dat._  eī´dem      eī´dem      eī´dem
  _Acc._  eun´dem     ean´dem     idem
  _Abl._  eō´dem      eā´dem      eō´dem

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  iī´dem      eae´dem     e´adem
            eī´dem
  _Gen._  eōrun´dem   eārun´dem   eōrun´dem
  _Dat._  iīs´dem     iīs´dem     iīs´dem
            eīs´dem     eīs´dem     eīs´dem
  _Acc._  eōs´dem     eās´dem     e´adem
  _Abl._  iīs´dem     iīs´dem     iīs´dem
            eīs´dem     eīs´dem     eīs´dem

    _a._ From forms like «eundem» (eum + -dem), «eōrundem» (eōrum
    + -dem), we learn the rule that «m» before «d» is changed to «n».

    _b._ The forms «iīdem», «iīsdem» are often spelled and pronounced
    with one «ī».

«288.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Ego et tū[1] in eādem urbe vīvimus. 2. Iter ipsum nōn timēmus sed
ferās saevās quae in silvā dēnsā esse dīcuntur. 3. Ōlim nōs ipsī idem
iter fēcimus. 4. Eō tempore multās ferās vīdimus. 5. Sed nōbīs nōn
nocuērunt. 6. Caesar ipse scūtum dē manibus mīlitis ēripuit et in ipsam
aciem properāvit. 7. Itaque mīlitēs summā virtūte tēla in hostium
corpora iēcērunt. 8. Rōmānī quoque gravia vulnera accēpērunt. 9. Dēnique
hostēs terga vertērunt et ommīs in partīs[2] fūgērunt. 10. Eādem hōrā
litterae Rōmam ab imperātōre ipsō missae sunt. 11. Eōdem mēnse captīvī
quoque in Italiam missī sunt. 12. Sed multī propter vulnera iter
difficile trāns montīs facere recūsābant et Genāvae esse dīcēbantur.

II. 1. At Pompeii there is a wonderful mountain. 2. When I was in that
place, I myself saw that mountain. 3. On the same day many cities were
destroyed by fire and stones from that very mountain. 4. You have not
heard the true story of that calamity, have you?[3] 5. On that day the
very sun could not give light to men. 6. You yourself ought to tell (to)
us that story.

    [Footnote 1: Observe that in Latin we say _I and you_, not _you
    and I_.]

    [Footnote 2: Not _parts_, but _directions_.]

    [Footnote 3: Cf. §210.]

«289.» HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE[4]

Tarquinius Superbus, septimus et ultimus rēx Rōmānōrum, ubi in exsilium
ab īrātīs Rōmānīs ēiectus est, ā Porsenā, rēge Etrūscōrum, auxilium
petiit. Mox Porsena magnīs cum cōpiīs Rōmam vēnit, et ipsa urbs summō in
perīculō erat. Omnibus in partibus exercitus Rōmānus victus erat. Iam
rēx montem Iāniculum[5] occupāverat. Numquam anteā Rōmānī tantō metū
tenēbantur. Ex agrīs in urbem properabānt et summō studiō urbem ipsam
mūniēbant.

    [Footnote 4: The story of Horatius has been made familiar by
    Macaulay’s well-known poem “Horatius” in his _Lays of Ancient Rome_.
    Read the poem in connection with this selection.]

    [Footnote 5: The Janiculum is a high hill across the Tiber from
    Rome.]


LESSON LI

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS _HIC_, _ISTE_, _ILLE_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «hic, haec, hoc», demonstrative pronoun, _this_ (of mine);
    _he, she, it_
  «ille, illa, illud», demonstrative pronoun _that_ (yonder);
    _he, she, it_
  «invīsus, -a, -um», _hateful, detested_, with dative Cf. §143
  «iste, ista, istud», demonstrative pronoun, _that_ (of yours);
    _he, she, it_
  «lībertās, -ātis», f., _liberty_
  «modus, -ī», m., _measure; manner, way, mode_
  «nōmen, nōminis», n., _name_ (nominate)
  «oculus, -ī», m., _eye_ (oculist)
  «prīstinus, -a, -um», _former, old-time_ (pristine)
  «pūblicus, -a, -um», _public, belonging to the state;_
    «rēs pūblica, reī pūblicae», f., _the commonwealth, the state,
     the republic_
  «vestīgium, vestī´gī», n., _footprint, track; trace, vestige_
  «vōx, vōcis», f., _voice_

«290.» We have already learned the declension of the demonstrative
pronoun «is» and its use. (Cf. Lesson XVII.) That pronoun refers to
persons or things either far or near, and makes no definite reference to
place or time. If we wish to point out an object definitely in place or
time, we must use «hic», «iste», or «ille.» These demonstratives, like
«is», are used both as pronouns and as adjectives, and their relation to
the speaker may be represented graphically thus:

             «hic»          «iste»        «ille»
  SPEAKER ------------->-------------->--------------->
          _this_, _he_;  _that_, _he_;  _that_, _he_
            (near);       (remote);     (more remote)

    _a._ In dialogue «hic» refers to a person or thing near the speaker;
    «iste», to a person or thing near the person addressed; «ille», to a
    person or thing remote from both. These distinctions are illustrated
    in the model sentences, §293, which should be carefully studied and
    imitated.

«291.» «Hic» is declined as follows:

           SINGULAR
           MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.
  _Nom._   hic     haec    hoc
  _Gen._   huius   huius   huius
  _Dat._   huic    huic    huic
  _Acc._   hunc    hanc    hoc
  _Abl._   hōc     hāc     hōc

           PLURAL
  _Nom._   hī      hae     haec
  _Gen._   hōrum   hārum   hōrum
  _Dat._   hīs     hīs     hīs
  _Acc._   hōs     hās     haec
  _Abl._   hīs     hīs     hīs

    _a._ «Huius» is pronounced _ho͝o´yo͝os_, and «huic» is pronounced
    _ho͝oic_ (one syllable).

«292.» The demonstrative pronouns «iste», «ista», «istud», and «ille»,
«illa», «illud», except for the nominative and accusative singular
neuter forms «istud» and «illud», are declined exactly like «ipse»,
«ipsa», «ipsum.» (See §481.)

«293.» «MODEL SENTENCES»

  _Is this horse_ (of mine) _strong?_
    «Estne hic equus valīdus?»

  _That horse_ (of yours) _is strong, but that one_ (yonder) _is weak_
    «Iste equus est validus, sed ille est īnfīrmus»

  _Are these_ (men by me) _your friends?_
    «Suntne hī amīcī tuī?»

  _Those_ (men by you) _are my friends,
      but those_ (men yonder) _are enemies_
    «Istī sunt amīcī meī, sed illī sunt inimīcī»

«294.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. _A German Chieftain addresses his Followers._ Ille fortis Germānōrum
dux suōs convocāvit et hōc modō animōs eōrum cōnfirmāvit. “Vōs, quī in
hīs fīnibus vīvitis, in hunc locum convocāvī[1] quia mēcum dēbētis istōs
agrōs et istās domōs ab iniūriīs Rōmānōrum liberāre. Hoc nōbīs nōn
difficile erit, quod illī hostēs hās silvās dēnsās, ferās saevās quārum
vestīgia vident, montēs altōs timent. Sī fortēs erimus, deī ipsī nōbīs
viam salūtis dēmonstrābunt. Ille sōl, istī oculī calamītātēs nostrās
vīdērunt.[1] Itaque nōmen illīus reī pūblicae Rōmānae nōn sōlum nōbis,
sed etiam omnibus hominibus quī lībertātem amant, est invīsum. Ad arma
vōs vocō. Exercēte istam prīstinam virtūtem et vincētis.”

    [Footnote 1: The perfect definite. (Cf. §190.)]

II. 1. Does that bird (of yours)[2] sing? 2. This bird (of mine)[2]
sings both[3] in summer and in winter and has a beautiful voice.
3. Those birds (yonder)[2] in the country don´t sing in winter.
4. Snatch a spear from the hands of that soldier (near you)[2] and come
home with me. 5. With those very eyes (of yours)[2] you will see the
tracks of the hateful enemy who burned my dwelling and made an attack on
my brother. 6. For («propter») these deeds («rēs») we ought to inflict
punishment on him without delay. 7. The enemies of the republic do not
always suffer punishment.

    [Footnote 2: English words in parentheses are not to be translated.
    They are inserted to show what demonstratives should be used.
    (Cf. §290.)]

    [Footnote 3: _both ... and_, «et ... et».]

  [Illustration: HORATIUS PONTEM DEFENDIT]

«295.» HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE (_Continued_)

Altera urbis pars mūrīs, altera flūmine satis mūnīrī vidēbātur. Sed erat
pōns in flūmine quī hostibus iter paene dedit. Tum Horātius Cocles,
fortis vir, magnā vōce dīxit, “Rescindite pontem, Rōmānī! Brevī tempore
Porsena in urbem cōpiās suās trādūcet.” Iam hostēs in ponte erant, sed
Horātius cum duōbus (cf. §479) comitibus ad extrēmam pontis partem
properāvit, et hi sōli aciem hostium sustinuērunt. Tum vērō cīvēs Rōmānī
pontem ā tergō rescindere incipiunt, et hostēs frūstrā Horātium superāre
temptant.


LESSON LII

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «incolumis, -e», _unharmed_
  «nē ... quidem», adv., _not even_. The emphatic word stands between
    «nē» and «quidem»
  «nisi», conj., _unless, if ... not_
  «paene», adv., _almost_ (pen-insula)
  «satis», adv., _enough, sufficiently_ (satisfaction)
  «tantus, -a, -um», _so great_
  «vērō», adv., _truly, indeed, in fact_. As a conj. _but, however_,
    usually stands second, never first.

  «dēcidō, dēcidere, dēcidī, ----», _fall down_ (deciduous)
  «dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī, dēsultus», _leap down, dismount_
  «maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsūrus», _remain_
  «trādūcō, trādūcere, trādūxī, trāductus», _lead across_

«296.» The indefinite pronouns are used to refer to _some person_ or
_some thing_, without indicating which particular one is meant. The
pronouns «quis» and «quī», which we have learned in their interrogative
and relative uses, may also be indefinite; and nearly all the other
indefinite pronouns are compounds of «quis» or «quī» and declined almost
like them. Review the declension of these words, §§221, 227.

«297.» Learn the declension and meaning of the following indefinites:

  MASC.      FEM.             NEUT.
       «quis»                 «quid», _some one, any one_ (substantive)
  «quī»      «qua» or «quae»  «quod», _some, any_ (adjective), §483
       «aliquis»              «aliquid», _some one, any one_
                                (substantive), §487
  «aliquī»   «aliqua»         «aliquod», _some, any_ (adjective), §487
  «quīdam»   «quaedam»        «quoddam», «quiddam», _a certain,
                                 a certain one_, §485
       «quisquam»             «quicquam» or «quidquam» (no plural),
                                _any one_ (at all) (substantive), §486
       «quisque»              «quidque», _each one, every one_
                                (substantive), §484
  «quisque»  «quaeque»        «quodque», _each, every_ (adjective), §484

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  In the original text, the combined forms (masculine/feminine) were
  printed in the “masculine” column.]

NOTE. The meanings of the neuters, _something_, etc., are easily
inferred from the masculine and feminine.

    _a._ In the masculine and neuter singular of the indefinites,
    «quis-»forms and «quid-»forms are mostly used as substantives,
    «quī-»forms and «quod-»forms as adjectives.

    _b._ The indefinites «quis» and «quī» never stand first in a clause,
    and are rare excepting after «sī», «nisi», «nē», «num» (as, «sī
    quis», _if any one_; «sī quid», _if anything_; «nisi quis», _unless
    some one_). Generally «aliquis» and «aliquī» are used instead.

    _c._ The forms «qua» and «aliqua» are both feminine nominative
    singular and neuter nominative plural of the indefinite adjectives
    «quī» and «aliquī» respectively. How do these differ from the
    corresponding forms of the relative «quī?»

    _d._ Observe that «quīdam» (quī + -dam) is declined like «quī»,
    except that in the accusative singular and genitive plural «m» of
    «quī» becomes «n» (cf. §287.a): «quendam», «quandam»,
    «quōrundam», «quārundam;» also that the neuter has «quiddam»
    (substantive) and «quoddam» (adjective) in the nominative and
    accusative singular. «Quīdam» is the least indefinite of the
    indefinite pronouns, and implies that you could name the person or
    thing referred to if you cared to do so.

    _e._ «Quisquam» and «quisque» (substantive) are declined like
    «quis.»

    _f._ «Quisquam», _any one_ («quicquam» or «quidquam», _anything_),
    is always used substantively and chiefly in negative sentences. The
    corresponding adjective _any_ is «ūllus, -a, -um» (§108).

«298.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Aliquis dē ponte in flūmen dēcidit sed sine ūllō perīculō servātus
est. 2. Est vērō in vītā cuiusque hominis aliqua bona fortūna. 3. Nē
mīlitum quidem[1] quisquam in castrīs mānsit. 4. Sī quem meae domī
vidēs, iubē eum discēdere. 5. Sī quis pontem tenet, nē tantus quidem
exercitus capere urbem potest. 6. Urbs nōn satis mūnīta erat et merīdiē
rēx quīdam paene cōpiās suās trāns pontem trādūxerat. 7. Dēnique mīles
quīdam armātus in fluctūs dēsiluit et incolumis ad alteram rīpam oculōs
vertit. 8. Quisque illī fortī mīlitī aliquid dare dēbet. 9. Tanta vērō
virtūs Rōmānus semper placuit. 10. Ōlim Corinthus erat urbs satis magna
et paene par Rōmae ipsī; nunc vērō moenia dēcidērunt et pauca vestīgia
urbis illīus reperīrī possunt. 11. Quisque lībertātem amat, et aliquibus
vērō nōmen rēgis est invīsum.

II. 1. If you see a certain Cornelius at Corinth, send him to me.
2. Almost all the soldiers who fell down into the waves were unharmed.
3. Not even at Pompeii did I see so great a fire. 4. I myself was eager
to tell something to some one. 5. Each one was praising his own work.
6. Did you see some one in the country? I did not see any one. 7. Unless
some one will remain on the bridge with Horatius, the commonwealth will
be in the greatest danger.

    [Footnote 1: Observe that «quīdam» and «quidem» are different
    words.]

«299.» HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE (_Concluded_)

Mox, ubi parva pars pontis mānsit, Horātius iussit comitēs discēdere et
sōlus mīrā cōnstantiā impetum illius tōtius exercitūs sustinēbat.
Dēnique magnō fragōre pōns in flūmen dēcīdit. Tum vērō Horātius tergum
vertit et armātus in aquās dēsiluit. In eum hostēs multa tēla iēcērunt;
incolumis autem per fiuctūs ad alteram rīpam trānāvit. Eī propter tantās
rēs gestās populus Rōmānus nōn sōlum alia magna praemia dedit sed etiam
statuam Horāti in locō pūblicō posuit.

       *       *       *       *       *

  «Sixth Review, Lessons XLV-LII, §§521-523»

       *       *       *       *       *

LESSON LIII

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «aquila, -ae», f., _eagle_ (aquiline)
  «audāx», gen. «audācis», adj., _bold, audacious_
  «celer, celeris, celere», _swift, quick_ (celerity).  Cf. «vēlōx»
  «explōratōr, -ōris», m., _scout, spy_ (explorer)
  «ingēns», gen. «ingentis», adj., _huge, vast_
  «medius, -a, -um», _middle, middle part of_ (medium)
  «mēns, mentis (-ium)», f., _mind_ (mental). Cf. «animus»
  «opportūnus, -a, -um», _opportune_
  «quam», adv., _than_. With the superlative «quam» gives the force of
    _as possible_, as «quam» audācissimī virī, _men as bold as possible_
  «recens», gen. «recentis», adj., _recent_
  «tam», adv., _so_. Always with an adjective or adverb, while «ita» is
    generally used with a verb

  «quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītus», _ask, inquire, seek_
    (question). Cf. «petō»

«300.» The quality denoted by an adjective may exist in either a higher
or a lower degree, and this is expressed by a form of inflection called
comparison. The mere presence of the quality is expressed by the
positive degree, its presence in a higher or lower degree by the
comparative, and in the highest or lowest of all by the superlative. In
English the usual way of comparing an adjective is by using the suffix
_-er_ for the comparative and _-est_ for the superlative; as, positive
_high_, comparative _higher_, superlative _highest_. Less frequently we
use the adverbs _more_ and _most_; as, positive _beautiful_, comparative
_more beautiful_, superlative _most beautiful._

In Latin, as in English, adjectives are compared by adding suffixes or
by using adverbs.

«301.» Adjectives are compared by using suffixes as follows:

  POSITIVE          COMPARATIVE          SUPERLATIVE
  clārus, -a, -um   clārior, clārīus     clārissimus, -a, -um
    (_bright_)        (_brighter_)         (_brightest_)
    (BASE clār-)
  brevis, breve     brevior, brevius     brevissimus, -a, -um
    (_short_)         (_shorter_)          (_shortest_)
    (BASE brev-)
  vēlōx             vēlōcior, vēlōcius   vēlōcissimus, -a, -um
    (_swift_)         (_swifter_)          (_swiftest_)
    (BASE veloc-)

    _a._ The comparative is formed from the base of the positive by
    adding «-ior» masc. and fem., and «-ius» neut.; the superlative by
    adding «-issimus, -issima, -issimum».

«302.» Less frequently adjectives are compared by using the adverbs
«magis», _more_; «maximē», _most_; as, «idōneus», _suitable_; «magis
idōneus», _more suitable_; «maximē idōneus», _most suitable._

«303.» «Declension of the Comparative.» Adjectives of the comparative
degree are declined as follows:

          SINGULAR                     PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.        MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  clārior         clārīus      clārīōrēs       clāriōra
  _Gen._  clāriōris       clāriōris    clāriōrum       clāriōrum
  _Dat._  clāriōrī        clāriōrī     clāriōribus     clāriōribus
  _Acc._  clāriōrem       clārius      clāriōrēs       clāriōra
  _Abl._  clāriōre        clāriōre     clāriōribus     clāriōribus

    _a._ Observe that the endings are those of the consonant stems of
    the third declension.

    _b._ Compare «longus», _long_; «fortis», _brave_; «recēns» (base,
    «recent-»), _recent_; and decline the comparative of each.

«304.» Adjectives in «-er» form the comparative regularly, but the
superlative is formed by adding «-rimus», «-a», «-um» to the nominative
masculine of the positive; as,

  POSITIVE                    COMPARATIVE           SUPERLATIVE
  ācer, ācris, ācre           ācrior, ācrius        ācerrimus, -a, -um
    (BASE acr-)
  pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum  pulchrior, pulchrius  pulcherrimus,
    (BASE pulchr-)                                    -a, -um
  līber, lībera, līberum      līberior, līberius    līberrimus, -a, -um
    (BASE līber-)

    _a._ In a similar manner compare «miser», «aeger», «crēber».

«305.» The comparative is often translated by _quite, too_, or
_somewhat_, and the superlative by _very_; as, «altior», _quite_ (_too,
somewhat_) _high_; «altissimus», _very high._

«306.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Quid explōrātōrēs quaerēbant? Explōrātōrēs tempus opportfūissimum
itinerī quaerēbant. 2. Mediā in silvā ignīs quam crēberrimōs fēcimus,
quod ferās tam audācis numquam anteā vīderāmus. 3. Antīquīs temporibus
Germānī erant fortiōrēs quam Gallī. 4. Caesar erat clārior quam
inimīcī[1] quī eum necāvērunt. 5. Quisque scūtum ingēns et pīlum longius
gerēbat. 6. Apud barbarōs Germānī erant audācissimī et fortissimī.
7. Mēns hominum est celerior quam corpus. 8. Virī aliquārum terrārum
sunt miserrimī. 9. Corpora Germānōrum erant ingentiōra quam Rōmānōrum.
10. Ācerrimī Gallōrum prīncipēs sine ūllā morā trāns flūmen quoddam
equōs vēlōcissimōs trādūxērunt. 11. Aestāte diēs sunt longiōrēs quam
hieme. 12. Imperātor quīdam ab explōrātōribus dē recentī adventū nāvium
longārum quaesīvit.

II. 1. Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest. 2. Certain animals are
swifter than the swiftest horse. 3. The Roman name was most hateful to
the enemies of the commonwealth. 4. The Romans always inflicted the
severest[2] punishment on faithless allies. 5. I was quite ill, and so I
hastened from the city to the country. 6. Marcus had some friends dearer
than Cæsar.[3] 7. Did you not seek a more recent report concerning the
battle? 8. Not even after a victory so opportune did he seek the
general’s friendship.

    [Footnote 1: Why is this word used instead of «hostēs»?]

    [Footnote 2: Use the superlative of «gravis».]

    [Footnote 3: Accusative. In a comparison the noun after «quam» is in
    the same case as the one before it.]

N.B. Beginning at this point, the selections for reading will be found
near the end of the volume. (See p. 197.)


LESSON LIV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
THE ABLATIVE WITH COMPARATIVES WITHOUT _QUAM_

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «alacer, alacris, alacre», _eager, spirited, excited_ (alacrity)
  «celeritās, -ātis», f., _speed_ (celerity)
  «clāmor, clāmōris», m., _shout, clamor_
  «lēnis, lēne», _mild, gentle_ (lenient)
  «mulier, muli´eris», f., _woman_
  «multitūdō, multitūdinis», f., _multitude_
  «nēmŏ», dat. «nēminī», acc. «nēminem» (gen. «nūllīus», abl. «nūllō»,
     from «nūllus»), no plur., m. and f., _no one_
  «nōbilis, nōbile», _well known, noble_
  «noctū», adv. (an old abl.), _by night_ (nocturnal)
  «statim», adv., _immediately, at once_
  «subitō», adv., _suddenly_
  «tardus, -a, -um», _slow_ (tardy)
  «cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītus», _desire, wish_ (cupidity)

«307.» The following six adjectives in «-lis» form the comparative
regularly; but the superlative is formed by adding «-limus» to the base
of the positive. Learn the meanings and comparison.

  POSITIVE                   COMPARATIVE         SUPERLATIVE
  facilis, -e, _easy_        facilior, -ius      facillimus, -a, -um
  difficilis, -e, _hard_     difficilior, -ius   difficillimus, -a, -um
  similis, -e, _like_        similior, -ius      simillimus, -a, -um
  dissimilis, -e, _unlike_   dissimilior, -ius   dissimillimus, -a, -um
  gracilis, -e, _slender_    gracilior, -ius     gracillimus, -a, -um
  humilis, -e, _low_         humilior, -ius      humillimus, -a, -um

«308.» From the knowledge gained in the preceding lesson we should
translate the sentence _Nothing is brighter than the sun_

  «Nihil est clārius quam sōl»

But the Romans, especially in negative sentences, often expressed the
comparison in this way,

  «Nihil est clārius sōle»

which, literally translated, is _Nothing is brighter away from the sun_;
that is, _starting from the sun as a standard, nothing is brighter_.
This relation is expressed by the separative ablative «sōle». Hence the
rule

«309.» RULE. «Ablative with Comparatives.» _The comparative degree, if
«quam» is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative._

«310.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Nēmō mīlitēs alacriōrēs Rōmānīs vīdit. 2. Statim imperātor iussit
nūntiōs quam celerrimōs litterās Rōmam portāre. 3. Multa flūmina sunt
lēniōra Rhēnō. 4. Apud Rōmanōs quis erat clārior Caesare? 5. Nihil
pulchrius urbe Rōmā vīdī. 6. Subitō multitūdo audacissima magnō clamōre
proelium ācrius commīsit. 7. Num est equus tuus tardus? Nōn vērō tardus,
sed celerior aquilā. 8. Ubi Romae fuī, nēmō erat mihi amicior Sextō.
9. Quaedam mulierēs cibum mīlitibus dare cupīvērunt. 10. Rēx vetuit
cīvis ex urbe noctū discēdere. 11. Ille puer est gracilior hāc
muliere. 12. Explōrātor duās (_two_) viās, alteram facilem, alteram
difficiliōrem, dēmōnstrāvit.

II. 1. What city have you seen more beautiful than Rome? 2. The Gauls
were not more eager than the Germans. 3. The eagle is not slower than
the horse. 4. The spirited woman did not fear to make the journey by
night. 5. The mind of the multitude was quite gentle and friendly.
6. But the king’s mind was very different. 7. The king was not like
(similar to) his noble father. 8. These hills are lower than the huge
mountains of our territory.

  [Illustration: ARMA ROMANA]


LESSON LV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (_Continued_)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «aedificium, aedifi´cī», n., _building, dwelling_ (edifice)
  «imperium, impe´rī», n., _command, chief power; empire_
  «mors, mortis (-ium)», f., _death_ (mortal)
  «reliquus, -a, -um», _remaining, rest of_. As a noun, m. and n. plur.,
    _the rest_ (relic)
  «scelus, sceleris», n., _crime_
  «servitūs, -ūtis», f., _slavery_ (servitude)
  «vallēs, vallis (-ium)», f., _valley_

  «abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus», _hide_
  «contendō, contendere, contendī, contentus», _strain, struggle;
     hasten_ (contend)
  «occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus», _cut down, kill_. Cf. «necō»,
    «interficiō»
  «perterreō, perterrēre, perterruī, perterritus», _terrify, frighten_
  «recipiō, recipere, recēpī, receptus», _receive, recover_;
    «sē recipere», _betake one’s self, withdraw, retreat_
  «trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus», _give over, surrender, deliver_
    (traitor)

«311.» Some adjectives in English have irregular comparison, as _good,
better, best_; _many, more, most._ So Latin comparison presents some
irregularities. Among the adjectives that are compared irregularly are

  POSITIVE                     COMPARATIVE        SUPERLATIVE
  «bonus, -a, -um», _good_     «melior, melius»   «optimus, -a, -um»
  «magnus, -a, -um», _great_   «maior, maius»     «maximus, -a, -um»
  «malus, -a, -um», _bad_      «peior, peius»     «pessimus, -a, -um»
  «multus, -a, -um», _much_    «----, plūs»       «plūrimus, -a, -um»
  «multī, -ae, -a», _many_     «plūrēs, plūra»    «plūrimī, -ae, -a»
  «parvus, -a, -um», _small_   «minor, minus»     «minimus, -a, -um»

«312.» The following four adjectives have two superlatives. Unusual
forms are placed in parentheses.

  «exterus, -a, -um», («exterior, -ius»,    { «extrēmus, -a, -um» }
    _outward_             _outer_)          {(«extimus, -a, -um») }
                                                _outermost, last_
  «īnferus, -a, -um»,  «īnferior, -ius»,    { «īnfimus, -a, -um»  }
    _low_                 _lower_           { «īmus, -a, -um»     }
                                                _lowest_
  «posterus, -a, -um», («posterior, -ius»,  { «postrēmus, -a, -um» }
    _next_                _later_)          {(«postumus, -a, -um») }
                                                _last_
  «superus, -a, -um»,  «superior, -ius»     { «suprēmus, -a, -um»  }
    _above_               _higher_          { «summus, -a, -um»    }
                                                _highest_

«313.» «Plūs», _more_ (plural _more, many, several_), is declined as
follows:

          SINGULAR                 PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.    MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._       ----       plūs     plūrēs          plūra
  _Gen._       ----       plūris   plūrium         plūrium
  _Dat._       ----       ----     plūribus        plūribus
  _Acc._       ----       plūs     plūrīs, -ēs     plūra
  _Abl._       ----       plūre    plūribus        plūribus

    _a._ In the singular «plūs» is used only as a neuter substantive.

«314.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Reliquī hostēs, quī ā dextrō cornū proelium commīserant, dē
superiōre locō fūgērunt et sēsē in silvam maximam recēpērunt. 2. In
extrēmā parte silvae castra hostium posita erant. 3. Plūrimī captīvī
ab equitibus ad Caesarem ductī sunt. 4. Caesar vērō iussit eōs in
servitūtem trādī. 5. Posterō diē magna multitūdō mulierum ab Rōmānīs
in valle īmā reperta est. 6. Hae mulierēs maximē perterritae adventū
Caesaris sēsē occīdere studēbant. 7. Eae quoque plūrīs fābulās dē
exercitūs Rōmānī sceleribus audīverant. 8. Fāma illōrum mīlitum optima
nōn erat. 9. In barbarōrum aedificiīs maior cōpia frūmentī reperta est.
10. Nēmō crēbrīs proeliīs contendere sine aliquō perīculō potest.

II. 1. The remaining women fled from their dwellings and hid themselves.
2. They were terrified and did not wish to be captured and given over
into slavery. 3. Nothing can be worse than slavery. 4. Slavery is worse
than death. 5. In the Roman empire a great many were killed because they
refused to be slaves. 6. To surrender the fatherland is the worst crime.


LESSON LVI

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (_Concluded_)
ABLATIVE OF THE MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «aditus, -ūs», m., _approach, access; entrance_
  «cīvitās, cīvitātis», f., _citizenship; body of citizens, state_
    (city)
  «inter», prep, with  acc.,  _between, among_ (interstate commerce)
  «nam», conj., _for_
  «obses, obsidis», m. and f., _hostage_
  «paulō», adv. (abl. n. of «paulus»), _by a little, somewhat_

  «incolō, incolere, incoluī, ----», transitive, _inhabit_;
    intransitive, _dwell_. Cf. «habitō», «vīvō»
  «relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus», _leave, abandon_
    (relinquish)
  «statuō, statuere, statuī, statūtus», _fix, decide_ (statute), usually
    with infin.

«315.» The following adjectives are irregular in the formation of the
superlative and have no positive. Forms rarely used are in parentheses.

  COMPARATIVE              SUPERLATIVE
  «citerior», _hither_    («citimus», _hithermost_)
  «interior», _inner_     («intimus», _inmost_)
  «prior», _former_        «prīmus», _first_
  «propior», _nearer_      «proximus», _next, nearest_
  «ulterior», _further_    «ultimus», _furthest_

«316.» In the sentence _Galba is a head taller than Sextus_, the phrase
_a head taller_ expresses the «measure of difference» in height between
Galba and Sextus. The Latin form of expression would be _Galba is taller
than Sextus «by a head»_. This is clearly an ablative relation, and the
construction is called the «ablative of the measure of difference».

EXAMPLES

  «Galba est altior capite quam Sextus»
    _Galba is a head taller_ (taller by a head) _than Sextus_.
  «Illud iter ad Italiam est multō brevius»
    _That route to Italy is much shorter_ (shorter by much)

«317.» RULE. «Ablative of the Measure of Difference.» _With comparatives
and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure
of difference._

    _a._ Especially common in this construction are the neuter ablatives

  «eō», _by this, by that_         «nihilō»,[1] _by nothing_
  «hōc», _by this_                 «paulō», _by a little_
  «multō», _by much_

    [Footnote 1: «nihil» was originally «nihilum» and declined like
    «pīlum». There is no plural.]

«318.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Barbarī proelium committere statuērunt eō magis quod Rōmānī
īnfīrmī esse vidēbantur. 2. Meum cōnsilium est multō melius quam tuum
quia multō facilius est. 3. Haec via est multō lātior quam illa.
4. Barbarī erant nihilō tardiōrēs quam Rōmānī. 5. Tuus equus est paulō
celerior quam meus. 6. Iī quī paulō fortiōrēs erant prohibuērunt
reliquōs aditum relinquere. 7. Inter illās cīvitātēs Germānia mīlitēs
habet optimōs. 8. Propior via quae per hanc vallem dūcit est inter
portum et lacum. 9. Servī, quī agrōs citeriōrēs incolēbant, priōrēs
dominōs relinquere nōn cupīvērunt, quod eōs amābant. 10. Ultimae
Germāniae partēs numquam in fidem Rōmānōrum vēnērunt. 11. Nam trāns
Rhēnum aditus erat multō difficilior exercituī Rōmānō.

II. 1. Another way much more difficult (more difficult by much) was left
through hither Gaul. 2. In ancient times no state was stronger than the
Roman empire. 3. The states of further Gaul did not wish to give
hostages to Cæsar. 4. Slavery is no better (better by nothing) than
death. 5. The best citizens are not loved by the worst. 6. The active
enemy immediately withdrew into the nearest forest, for they were
terrified by Cæsar’s recent victories.


LESSON LVII

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «aequus, -a, -um», _even, level; equal_
  «cohors, cohortis (-ium)», f., _cohort_, a tenth part of a legion,
     about 360 men
  «currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus», _run_ (course)
  «difficultās, -ātis», f., _difficulty_
  «fossa, -ae», f., _ditch_ (fosse)
  «gēns, gentis (-ium)», f., _race, tribe, nation_ (Gentile)
  «negōtium, negōtī», n., _business, affair, matter_ (negotiate)
  «regiō, -ōnis», f., _region, district_
  «rūmor, rūmōris», m., _rumor, report_. Cf. fāma
  «simul atque», conj., _as soon as_

  «suscipiō, suscipere, suscēpī, susceptus», _undertake_
  «trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctus», _drag, draw_ (ex-tract)
  «valeō, valēre, valuī, valitūrus», _be strong_; plūrimum valēre,
     _to be most powerful, have great influence_ (value). Cf. validus

«319.» Adverbs are generally derived from adjectives, as in English
(e.g. adj. _sweet_, adv. _sweetly_). Like adjectives, they can be
compared; but they have no declension.

«320.» Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second
declensions are formed and compared as follows:

          POSITIVE                COMPARATIVE  SUPERLATIVE
  _Adj._  cārus, _dear_           cārior       cārissimus
  _Adv._  cārē, _dearly_          cārius       cārissimē

  _Adj._  pulcher, _beautiful_    pulchrior    pulcherrimus
  _Adv._  pulchrē, _beautifully_  pulchrius    pulcherrimē

  _Adj._  līber, _free_           līberior     līberrimus
  _Adv._  līberē, _freely_        līberius     līberrimē

    _a._ The positive of the adverb is formed by adding «-ē» to the base
    of the positive of the adjective. The superlative of the adverb is
    formed from the superlative of the adjective in the same way.

    _b._ The comparative of any adverb is the neuter accusative singular
    of the comparative of the adjective.

«321.» Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declension are
formed like those described above in the comparative and superlative.
The positive is usually formed by adding «-iter» to the base of
adjectives of three endings or of two endings, and «-ter» to the base of
those of one ending;[1] as,

          POSITIVE              COMPARATIVE  SUPERLATIVE
  _Adj._  fortis, _brave_       fortior      fortissimus
  _Adv._  fortiter, _bravely_   fortius      fortissimē

  _Adj._  audāx, _bold_         audācior     audācissimus
  _Adv._  audācter, _boldly_    audācius     audācissimē

    [Footnote 1: This is a good working rule, though there are some
    exceptions to it.]

«322.» «Case Forms as Adverbs.» As we learned above, the neuter
accusative of comparatives is used adverbially. So in the positive or
superlative some adjectives, instead of following the usual formation,
use the accusative or the ablative singular neuter adverbially; as,

  _Adj._  facilis, _easy_             prīmus, _first_
  _Adv._  facile (acc.), _easily_     prīmum (acc.), _first_
                                      prīmō (abl.), _at first_
  _Adj._  multus, _many_              plūrimus, _most_
  _Adv._  multum (acc.), _much_       plūrimum (acc.), _most_
          multō (abl.), _by much_

«323.» Learn the following irregular comparisons:

  bene, _well_           melius, _better_    optimē, _best_
  diū, _long_ (time)     diūtius, _longer_   diūtissimē, _longest_
  magnopere, _greatly_   magis, _more_       maximē, _most_
  parum, _little_        minus, _less_       minimē, _least_
  prope, _nearly, near_  propius, _nearer_   proximē, _nearest_
  saepe, _often_         saepius, _oftener_  saepissimē, _oftenest_

«324.» Form adverbs from the following adjectives, using the regular
rules, and compare them: «laetus», «superbus», «molestus», «amīcus»,
«ācer», «brevis», «gravis», «recēns.»

«325.» RULE. «Adverbs.» _Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other
adverbs._

«326.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Nūlla rēs melius gesta est quam proelium illud[2] ubi Marius
multō minōre exercitū multō maiōrēs cōpiās Germānōrum in fugam dedit.
2. Audācter in Rōmānōrum cohortīs hostēs impetūs fēcērunt 3. Marius
autem omnēs hōs fortissimē sustinuit. 4. Barbarī nihilō fortiōrēs erant
quam Rōmānī. 5. Prīmō barbarī esse superiōrēs vidēbantur, tum Rōmānī
ācrius contendērunt. 6. Dēnique, ubi iam diūtissimē paene aequō proeliō
pugnātum est, barbarī fugam petiērunt. 7. Quaedam Germānōrum gentēs,
simul atque rūmōrem illīus calamitātis audīvērunt, sēsē in ultimīs
regiōnibus fīnium suōrum abdidērunt. 8. Rōmānī saepius quam hostēs
vīcērunt, quod meliōra arma habēbant. 9. Inter omnīs gentīs Rōmānī
plūrimum valēbant. 10. Hae cohortēs simul atque in aequiōrem regiōnem
sē recēpērunt, castra sine ūllā difficultāte posuērunt.

II. 1. Some nations are easily overcome by their enemies. 2. Germany is
much larger than Gaul. 3. Were not the Romans the most powerful among
the tribes of Italy? 4. On account of (his) wounds the soldier dragged
his body from the ditch with the greatest difficulty. 5. He was able
neither to run nor to fight. 6. Who saved him? A certain horseman boldly
undertook the matter. 7. The rumors concerning the soldier’s death were
not true.

    [Footnote 2: «ille» standing after its noun means _that well-known,
    that famous_.]


LESSON LVIII

NUMERALS · THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «commeātus, -ūs», m.. _provisions_
  «lātitūdō, -inis», f., _width_ (latitude)
  «longitūdō, -inis», f., _length_ (longitude)
  «magnitūdō, -inis», f., _size, magnitude_
  «mercātor, mercātōris», m., _trader, merchant_
  «mūnītiō, -ōnis», f., _fortification_ (munition)
  «spatium, spatī», n., _room, space, distance; time_

  «cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus», _learn_;
     in the perfect tenses, _know_ (re-cognize)
  «cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus», _collect; compel_ (cogent)
  «dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfēnsus», _defend_
  «incendō, incendere, incendī, incēnsus», _set fire to, burn_
    (incendiary). Cf. «cremō»
  «obtineō, obtinēre, obtinuī, obtentus», _possess, occupy, hold_
    (obtain)
  «perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventus», _come through, arrive_

«327.» The Latin numeral adjectives may be classified as follows:

  1. «Cardinal Numerals», answering the question _how many?_ as, «ūnus»,
  _one_; «duo», _two_; etc.

  2. «Ordinal Numerals», derived in most cases from the cardinals and
  answering the question _in what order?_ as, «prīmus», _first_;
  «secundus», _second_; etc.

  3. «Distributive Numerals», answering the question _how many at a
  time?_ as, «singulī», _one at a time_.

«328.» «The Cardinal Numerals.» The first twenty of the cardinals are as
follows:

  1, «ūnus»       6, «sex»      11, «ūndecim»        16, «sēdecim»
  2, «duo»        7, «septem»   12, «duodecim»       17, «septendecim»
  3, «trēs»       8, «octō»     13, «tredecim»       18, «duodēvīgintī»
  4, «quattuor»   9, «novem»    14, «quattuordecim»  19, «ūndēvīgintī»
  5, «quīnque»   10, «decem»    15, «quīndecim»      20, «vīgintī»

    _a._ Learn also «centum» = 100, «ducentī» = 200, «mīlle» = 1000.

«329.» «Declension of the Cardinals.» Of the cardinals only «ūnus»,
«duo», «trēs», the hundreds above one hundred, and «mīlle» used as a
noun, are declinable.

    _a._ «ūnus» is one of the nine irregular adjectives, and is declined
    like «nūllus» (cf. §§109, 470). The plural of «ūnus» is used to
    agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning, as, «ūna castra»,
    _one camp_; and with other nouns in the sense of _only_, as, «Gallī
    ūnī», _only the Gauls_.

    _b._ Learn the declension of «duo», _two_; «trēs», _three_; and
    «mīlle», _a thousand_. (§479.)

    _c._ The hundreds above one hundred are declined like the plural of
    «bonus»; as,

      ducentī,    -ae,   -a
      ducentōrum, -ārum, -ōrum
        etc.        etc.   etc.

«330.» We have already become familiar with sentences like the
following:

  «Omnium avium aquila est vēlōcissima»
    _Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest_
  «Hoc ōrāculum erat omnium clārissimum»
    _This oracle was the most famous of all_

In such sentences the genitive denotes the whole, and the word it
modifies denotes a part of that whole. Such a genitive, denoting the
whole of which a part is taken, is called a «partitive genitive».

«331.» RULE. «Partitive Genitive.» _Words denoting a part are often used
with the genitive of the whole, known as the «partitive genitive»._

    _a._ Words denoting a part are especially pronouns, numerals, and
    other adjectives. But cardinal numbers excepting «mīlle» regularly
    take the ablative with «ex» or «dē» instead of the partitive
    genitive.

    _b._ «Mīlle», _a thousand_, in the singular is usually an
    indeclinable adjective (as, «mīlle mīlitēs», _a thousand soldiers_),
    but in the plural it is a declinable noun and takes the partitive
    genitive (as, «decem mīlia mīlitum», _ten thousand soldiers_).

EXAMPLES:

  «Fortissimī hōrum sunt Germānī»
    _The bravest of these are the Germans_
  «Decem mīlia hostium interfecta sunt»
    _Ten thousand_ (lit. _thousands_) _of the enemy were slain_
  «Ūna ex captīvīs erat soror rēgis»
    _One of the captives was the king’s sister_

«332.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Caesar maximam partem aedificiōrum incendit. 2. Magna pars
mūnītiōnis aquā flūminis dēlēta est. 3. Gallī huius regiōnis quīnque
mīlia hominum coēgerant. 4. Duo ex meīs frātribus eundem rūmōrem
audīvērunt. 5. Quis Rōmānōrum erat clarior Caesare? 6. Quīnque cohortēs
ex illā legiōne castra quam fortissimē dēfendēbant. 7. Hic locus aberat
aequō spatiō[1] ab castrīs Caesaris et castrīs Germānōrum. 8. Caesar
simul atque pervēnit, plūs commeātūs ab sociīs postulāvit. 9. Nōnne
mercātōrēs magnitūdinem īnsulae cognōverant? Longitūdinem sed nōn
lātitūdinem cognōverant. 10. Paucī hostium obtinēbant collem quem
explōrātōrēs nostrī vīdērunt.

II. 1. I have two brothers, and one of them lives at Rome. 2. Cæsar
stormed that very town with three legions. 3. In one hour he destroyed a
great part of the fortification. 4. When the enemy could no longer[2]
defend the gates, they retreated to a hill which was not far distant.[3]
5. There three thousand of them bravely resisted the Romans.[4]

    [Footnote 1: Ablative of the measure of difference.]

    [Footnote 2: Not «longius». Why?]

    [Footnote 3: Latin, _was distant by a small space._]

    [Footnote 4: Not the accusative.]


LESSON LIX

NUMERALS (_Continued_) · THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «agmen, agminis», n., _line of march, column_;
    «prīmum agmen», _the van_;
    «novissimum agmen», _the rear_
  «atque», «ac», conj., _and_; «atque» is used before vowels and
     consonants, «ac» before consonants only. Cf. «et» and «-que»
  «concilium, conci´lī», n., _council, assembly_
  «Helvētiī, -ōrum», m., _the Helvetii_, a Gallic tribe
  «passus, passūs», m., _a pace_, five Roman feet;
    «mīlle passuum», _a thousand (of) paces_, a Roman mile
  «quā dē causā», _for this reason, for what reason_
  «vāllum, -ī», n., _earth-works, rampart_

  «cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsūrus», _fall_ (decadence)
  «dēdō, dēdere, dēdidī, dēditus», _surrender, give up_;
     with a reflexive pronoun, _surrender one’s self, submit_, with the
     dative of the indirect object
  «premō, premere, pressī, pressus», _press hard, harass_
  «vexō, vexāre, vexāvī, vexātus», _annoy, ravage_ (vex)

«333.» Learn the first twenty of the ordinal numerals (§478). The
ordinals are all declined like «bonus».

«334.» The distributive numerals are declined like the plural of
«bonus». The first three are

    «singulī, -ae, -a», _one each, one by one_
    «bīnī, -ae, -a», _two each, two by two_
    «ternī, -ae, -a», _three each, three by three_

«335.» We have learned that, besides its use as object, the accusative
is used to express space relations not covered by the ablative. We have
had such expressions as «per plūrimōs annōs», _for a great many years_;
«per tōtum diem», _for a whole day_. Here the space relation is one of
_extent of time_. We could also say «per decem pedēs», _for ten feet_,
where the space relation is one of _extent of space_. While this is
correct Latin, the usual form is to use the accusative with no
preposition, as,

  «Vir tōtum diem cucurrit», _the man ran for a whole day_
  «Caesar mūrum decem pedēs mōvit», _Cæsar moved the wall ten feet_

«336.» RULE. «Accusative of Extent.» _Duration of time and extent of
space are expressed by the accusative._

    _a._ This accusative answers the questions _how long? how far?_

    _b._ Distinguish carefully between the accusative of time _how long_
    and the ablative of time _when_, or _within which._

Select the accusatives of time and space and the ablatives of time in
the following:

When did the general arrive? He arrived at two o’clock. How long had
he been marching? For four days. How far did he march? He marched
sixty-five miles. Where has he pitched his camp? Three miles from the
river, and he will remain there several days. The wall around the camp
is ten feet high. When did the war begin? In the first year after the
king’s death.

«337.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. _Cæsar in Gaul_. Caesar bellum in Gallia septem annōs gessit. Prīmō
annō Helvētiōs vīcit, et eōdem annō multae Germanōrum gentēs eī sēsē
dēdidērunt. Multōs iam annōs Germānī Gallōs vexabant[1] et ducēs Germānī
cōpiās suās trāns Rhēnum saepe trādūcēbant.[1] Nōn singulī veniēbant,
sed multa milia hominum in Galliam contendēbant. Quā dē causā prīncipēs
Galliae concilium convocāvērunt atque statuērunt legates ad Caesarem
mittere. Caesar, simul atque hunc rūmōrem audīvit, cōpiās suās sine morā
coēgit. Primā lūce fortiter cum Germanīs proelium commīsit. Tōtum diem
ācriter pugnātum est. Caesar ipse ā dextrō cornū acicm dūxit. Magna pars
exercitūs Germānī cecidit. Post magnam caedem paucī multa milia passuum
ad flūmen fūgērunt.

II. 1. Cæsar pitched camp two miles from the river. 2. He fortified the
camp with a ditch fifteen feet wide and a rampart nine feet high. 3. The
camp of the enemy was a great way off (was distant by a great space).
4. On the next day he hastened ten miles in three hours. 5. Suddenly the
enemy with all their forces made an attack upon («in» _with acc._) the
rear. 6. For two hours the Romans were hard pressed by the barbarians.
7. In three hours the barbarians were fleeing.

    [Footnote 1: Translate as if pluperfect.]


LESSON LX

DEPONENT VERBS

  [Special Vocabulary]

  «aut», conj., _or_; «aut ... aut», _either ... or_
  «causā», abl. of «causa», _for the sake of, because of_. Always stands
     _after_ the gen. which modifies it
  «ferē», adv., _nearly, almost_
  «opīniō, -ōnis», f., _opinion, supposition, expectation_
  «rēs frūmentāria, reī frūmentāriae», f. (lit. _the grain affair_),
    _grain supply_
  «timor, -ōris», m., _fear_. Cf. «timeō»
  «undique», adv., _from all sides_

  «cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum», _attempt, try_
  «ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum», _move out, disembark_;
    «prōgredior», _move forward, advance_ (egress, progress)
  «moror, morārī, morātus sum», _delay_
  «orior, orirī, ortus sum», _arise, spring; begin; be born_ (_from_)
    (origin)
  «proficīscor, proficīscī, profectus sum», _set out_
  «revertor, revertī, reversus sum», _return_ (revert). The forms of
    this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect
    system. Perf. act., «revertī»
  «sequor, sequī, secūtus sum», _follow_ (sequence). Note the following
    compounds of «sequor» and the force of the different prefixes:
    «cōnsequor» (_follow with_), _overtake_;
    «īnsequor» (_follow against_), _pursue_;
    «subsequor» (_follow under_), _follow close after_

«338.» A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning; as,
«hortor», _I encourage_; «vereor», _I fear_. Such verbs are called
«deponent» because they have laid aside («dē-pōnere», _to lay aside_)
the active forms.

    _a._ Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs
    have also the future active infinitive and a few other active forms
    which will be noted later. (Sec§§375, 403.b.)

«339.» The principal parts of deponents are of course passive in form,
as,

  Conj. I         «hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum», _encourage_
  Conj. II        «vereor, verērī, veritus sum», _fear_
  Conj. III (_a_) «sequor, sequī, secūtus sum», _follow_
            (_b_) «patior, patī, passus sum», _suffer, allow_
  Conj. IV        «partior, partīrī, partītus sum», _share, divide_

Learn the synopses of these verbs. (See §493.) «Patior» is conjugated
like the passive of «capiō» (§492).

«340.» PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

The prepositions with the accusative that occur most frequently are

  «ante», _before_
  «apud», _among_
  «circum», _around_
  «contrā», _against, contrary to_
  «extrā», _outside of_
  «in», _into, in, against, upon_
  «inter», _between, among_
  «intrā», _within_
  «ob», _on account of_ («quam ob rem», _wherefore, therefore_)
  «per», _through, by means of_
  «post», _after, behind_
  «propter», _on account of, because of_
  «trāns», _across, over_

    _a._ Most of these you have had before. Review the old ones and
    learn the new ones. Review the list of prepositions governing the
    ablative, §209.

«341.» EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. 1. Trēs ex lēgātīs, contrā Caesaris opīniōnem, iter facere per
hostium fīnīs verēbantur. 2. Quis eōs hortātus est? Imperātor eōs
hortātus est et iīs persuādēre cōnātus est, sed nōn potuit. 3. Quid
lēgātōs perterruit? Aut timor hostium, quī undique premēbant, aut
longitūdō viae eōs perterruit. 4. Tamen omnēs ferē Caesarem multō magis
quam hostīs veritī sunt. 5. Fortissimae gentēs Galliae ex Germānīs
oriēbantur. 6. Quam ob rem tam fortēs erant? Quia nec vīnum nec
alia quae virtūtem dēlent ad sē portārī patiēbantur. 7. Caesar ex
mercātōribus dē īnsulā Britanniā quaesīvit, sed nihil cognōscere potuit.
8. Itaque ipse statuit hanc terram petere, et mediā ferē aestāte cum
multīs nāvibus longīs profectus est. 9. Magnā celeritāte iter confēcit
et in opportūnissimō locō ēgressus est. 10. Barbarī summīs vīribus eum
ab īnsulā prohibēre cōnātī sunt. 11. Ille autem barbarōs multa mīlia
passuum īnsecūtus est; tamen sine equitātū eōs cōnsequī nōn potuit.

II. 1. Contrary to our expectation, the enemy fled and the cavalry
followed close after them. 2. From all parts of the multitude the shouts
arose of those who were being wounded. 3. Cæsar did not allow the
cavalry to pursue too far.[1] 4. The cavalry set out at the first hour
and was returning[2] to camp at the fourth hour. 5. Around the Roman
camp was a rampart twelve feet high. 6. Cæsar will delay three days
because of the grain supply. 7. Nearly all the lieutenants feared the
enemy and attempted to delay the march.

    [Footnote 1: Comparative of «longē».]

    [Footnote 2: Will this be a deponent or an active form?]

       *       *       *       *       *

  «Seventh Review, Lessons LIII-LX, §§524-526»

       *       *       *       *       *

  [Illustration]



PART III

CONSTRUCTIONS


INTRODUCTORY NOTE

The preceding part of this book has been concerned chiefly with forms
and vocabulary. There remain still to be learned the forms of the
Subjunctive Mood, the Participles, and the Gerund of the regular verb,
and the conjugation of the commoner irregular verbs. These will be taken
up in connection with the study of constructions, which will be the
chief subject of our future work. The special vocabularies of the
preceding lessons contain, exclusive of proper names, about six hundred
words. As these are among the commonest words in the language, _they
must be mastered_. They properly form the basis of the study of words,
and will be reviewed and used with but few additions in the remaining
lessons.

For practice in reading and to illustrate the constructions presented, a
continued story has been prepared and may be begun at this point (see p.
204). It has been divided into chapters of convenient length to
accompany progress through the lessons, but may be read with equal
profit after the lessons are finished. The story gives an account of the
life and adventures of Publius Cornelius Lentulus, a Roman boy, who
fought in Cæsar’s campaigns and shared in his triumph. The colored
plates illustrating the story are faithful representations of ancient
life and are deserving of careful study.


LESSON LXI

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

«342.» In addition to the indicative, imperative, and infinitive moods,
which you have learned, Latin has a fourth mood called the subjunctive.
The tenses of the subjunctive are

  PRESENT    }
  IMPERFECT  }  ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
  PERFECT    }
  PLUPERFECT }

«343.» The tenses of the subjunctive have the same time values as the
corresponding tenses of the indicative, and, in addition, _each of them
may refer to future time_. No meanings of the tenses will be given in
the paradigms, as the translation varies with the construction used.

«344.» The present subjunctive is inflected as follows:

     CONJ. I    CONJ. II     CONJ. III                CONJ. IV
     ACTIVE VOICE
     SINGULAR
  1. a´mem      mo´neam      re´gam      ca´piam      au´diam
  2. a´mēs      mo´neās      re´gās      ca´piās      au´diās
  3. a´met      mo´neat      re´gat      ca´piat      au´diat

     PLURAL
  1. amē´mus    moneā´mus    regā´mus    capiā´mus    audiā´mus
  2. amē´tis    moneā´tis    regā´tis    capiā´tis    audiā´tis
  3. a´ment     mo´neant     re´gant     ca´piant     au´diant

     PASSIVE VOICE
     SINGULAR
  1. a´mer      mo´near      re´gar      ca´piar      au´diar
  2. amē´ris    moneā´ris    regā´ris    capiā´ris    audiā´ris
        (-re)        (-re)       (-re)        (-re)        (-re)
  3. amē´tur    moneā´tur    regā´tur    capiā´tur    audiā´tur

     PLURAL
  1. amē´mur    moneā´mur    regā´mur    capiā´mur    audiā´mur
  2. amē´minī   moneā´minī   regā´minī   capiā´minī   audiā´minī
  3. amen´tur   monean´tur   regan´tur   capian´tur   audian´tur

    _a._ The present subjunctive is formed from the present stem.

    _b._ The mood sign of the present subjunctive is «-ē-» in the first
    conjugation and «-ā-» in the others. It is shortened in the usual
    places (cf. §12), and takes the place of the final vowel of the
    stem in the first and third conjugations, but not in the second and
    fourth.

    _c._ The personal endings are the same as in the indicative.

    _d._ In a similar way inflect the present subjunctive of «cūrō»,
    «iubeō», «sūmō», «iaciō», «mūniō».

«345.» The present subjunctive of the irregular verb «sum» is inflected
as follows:

        { 1.  sim            { 1.  sīmus
  SING. { 2.  sīs     PLURAL { 2.  sītis
        { 3.  sit            { 3.  sint

«346.» «The Indicative and Subjunctive Compared.»

  1. The two most important of the finite moods are the indicative and
  the subjunctive. The indicative deals with facts either real or
  assumed. If, then, we wish to assert something as a fact or to inquire
  after a fact, we use the indicative.

  2. On the other hand, if we wish to express a _desire_ or _wish_, a
  _purpose_, a _possibility_, an _expectation_, or some such notion, we
  must use the subjunctive. The following sentences illustrate the
  difference between the indicative and the subjunctive ideas.

     INDICATIVE IDEAS                SUBJUNCTIVE IDEAS

  1. _He is brave_                   1. _May he be brave_
       «Fortis est»                       «Fortis sit» (idea of wishing)
  2. _We set out at once_            2. _Let us set out at once_
       «Statim proficīscimur»             «Statim proficīscāmur»
                                          (idea of willing)
  3. _You hear him every day_        3. _You can hear him every day_
       «Cotīdiē eum audīs»                «Cotīdiē eum audiās»
                                           (idea of possibility)
  4. _He remained until the ship_    4. _He waited until the ship_
         _arrived_                          _should arrive_
       «Mānsit dum nāvis pervēnit»        «Exspectāvit dum nāvis
                                             pervenīret»[1]
                                          (idea of expectation)
  5. _Cæsar sends men who find the_  5. _Cæsar sends men_
       _bridge_                           _who are to find_
                                          (or _to find_) _the bridge_
       «Caesar mittit hominēs quī»        «Caesar hominēs mittit quī»
         «pontem reperiunt»                 «pontem reperiant»
                                          (idea of purpose)

    [Footnote 1: «pervenīret», imperfect subjunctive.]

NOTE. From the sentences above we observe that the subjunctive may be
used in either independent or dependent clauses; but it is far more
common in the latter than in the former.

«347.» EXERCISE

Which verbs in the following paragraph would be in the indicative and
which in the subjunctive in a Latin translation?

There have been times in the history of our country when you might be
proud of being an American citizen. Do you remember the day when Dewey
sailed into Manila Bay to capture or destroy the enemy’s fleet? You
might have seen the admiral standing on the bridge calmly giving his
orders. He did not even wait until the mines should be removed from the
harbor’s mouth, but sailed in at once. Let us not despair of our country
while such valor exists, and may the future add new glories to the past.


LESSON LXII

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE

«348.» Observe the sentence

  «Caesar hominēs mittit quī pontem reperiant»,
  _Cæsar sends men to find the bridge_

The verb «reperiant» in the dependent clause is in the subjunctive
because it tells us what Cæsar wants the men to do; in other words, it
expresses his will and the purpose in his mind. Such a use of the
subjunctive is called the subjunctive of purpose.

«349.» RULE. «Subjunctive of Purpose.» _The subjunctive is used in a
dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal
clause._

«350.» A clause of purpose is introduced as follows:

I. If something is wanted, by

  «quī», the relative pronoun (as above)
  «ut», conj., _in order that, that_
  «quō» (abl. of «quī», _by which_), _in order that, that_, used when
    the purpose clause contains a comparative. The ablative «quō»
    expresses the measure of difference. (Cf. §317.)

II. If something is not wanted, by

  «nē», conj., _in order that not, that not, lest_

«351.» EXAMPLES

  1. «Caesar cōpiās cōgit quibus hostīs īnsequātur»
    _Cæsar collects troops with which to pursue the foe_

  2. «Pācem petunt ut domum revertantur»
    _They ask for peace in order that they may return home_

  3. «Pontem faciunt quō facilius oppidum capiant»
    _They build a bridge that they may take the town more easily_
    (lit. _by which the more easily_)

  4. «Fugiunt nē vulnerentur»
     _They flee that they may not_ (or _lest they_) _be wounded_

«352.» «Expression of Purpose in English.» In English, purpose clauses
are sometimes introduced by _that_ or _in order that_, but much more
frequently purpose is expressed in English by the infinitive, as _We eat
to live_, _She stoops to conquer_. In Latin prose, on the other hand,
«purpose is never expressed by the infinitive». Be on your guard and do
not let the English idiom betray you into this error.

«353.» EXERCISES

I.
  1. Veniunt ut         {  dūcant, mittant, videant, audiant,
                        {  dūcantur, mittantur, videantur, audiantur.
  2. Fugimus nē         {  capiāmur, trādāmur, videāmus,
                        {  necēmur, rapiāmur, resistāmus.
  3. Mittit nūntiōs quī { dicant, audiant, veniant,
                        { nārrent, audiantur, in conciliō sedeant.
  4. Castra mūniunt     { sēsē dēfendant, impetum sustineant,
         quō facilius   { hostīs vincant, salūtem petant.

II. 1. The Helvetii send ambassadors to seek[1] peace. 2. They are
setting out at daybreak in order that they may make a longer march
before night. 3. They will hide the women in the forest (_acc. with_
«in») that they may not be captured. 4. The Gauls wage many wars to
free[1] their fatherland from slavery. 5. They will resist the Romans[2]
bravely lest they be destroyed.

    [Footnote 1: Not infinitive.]

    [Footnote 2: Not accusative.]


LESSON LXIII

INFLECTION OF THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

«354.» The imperfect subjunctive may be formed by adding the personal
endings to the present active infinitive.

     CONJ. I     CONJ. II     CONJ. III                 CONJ. IV
     ACTIVE
  1. amā´rem     monē´rem     re´gerem     ca´perem     audī´rem
  2. amā´rēs     monē´rēs     re´gerēs     ca´perēs     audī´rēs
  3. amā´ret     monē´ret     re´geret     ca´peret     audī´ret

  1. amārē´mus   monērē´mus   regerē´mus   caperē´mus   audīrē´mus
  2. amārē´tis   monērē´tis   regerē´tis   caperē´tis   audīrē´tis
  3. amā´rent    monē´rent    re´gerent    ca´perent    audī´rent

     PASSIVE
  1. amā´rer     monē´rer     re´gerer     ca´perer     audī´rer
  2. amārē´ris   monērē´ris   regerē´ris   caperē´ris   audīrē´ris
          (-re)        (-re)        (-re)        (-re)        (-re)
  3. amārē´tur   monērē´tur   regerē´tur   caperē´tur   audīrē´tur

  1. amārē´mur   monērē´mur   regerē´mur   caperē´mur   audīrē´mur
  2. amārē´minī  monērē´minī  regerē´minī  caperē´minī  audīre´minī
  3. amāren´tur  monēren´tur  regeren´tur  caperen´tur  audīren´tur

    _a._ In a similar way inflect the imperfect subjunctive, active and
    passive, of «cūrō», «iubeō», «sūmō», «iaciō», «mūniō».

«355.» The imperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb «sum» is
inflected as follows:

        { 1. es´sem           { 1. essē´mus
  SING. { 2. es´sēs    PLURAL { 2. essē´tis
        { 3. es´set           { 3. es´sent

«356.» The three great distinctions of time are _present_, _past_, and
_future_. All tenses referring to present or future time are called
«primary tenses», and those referring to past time are called «secondary
tenses». Now it is a very common law of language that in a complex
sentence the tense in the dependent clause should be of the same kind as
the tense in the principal clause. In the sentence _He «says» that he
«is» coming_, the principal verb, _says_, is present, that is, is in a
primary tense; and _is coming_, in the dependent clause, is naturally
also primary. If I change _he says_ to _he said_,--in other words, if I
make the principal verb secondary in character,--I feel it natural to
change the verb in the dependent clause also, and I say, _He «said» that
he «was» coming_. This following of a tense by another of the same kind
is called _tense sequence_, from _sequī_, “to follow.”

In Latin the law of tense sequence is obeyed with considerable
regularity, especially when an indicative in the principal clause is
followed by a subjunctive in the dependent clause. Then a primary tense
of the indicative is followed by a primary tense of the subjunctive, and
a secondary tense of the indicative is followed by a secondary tense of
the subjunctive. Learn the following table:

«357.» TABLE FOR SEQUENCE OF TENSES

+-----+-------------------+-------------------------------------------+
|     |  PRINCIPAL VERB   |    DEPENDENT VERBS IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE     |
| P   |      IN THE       +---------------------+---------------------+
| R   |    INDICATIVE     | _Incomplete or_     | _Completed Action_  |
| I   |                   | _Continuing Action_ |                     |
| M   +-------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| A   |      Present      |                     |                     |
| R   |      Future       |       Present       |       Perfect       |
| T   |   Future perfect  |                     |                     |
+-----+-------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
| S D |                   |                     |                     |
| E A |    Imperfect      |                     |                     |
| C R |     Perfect       |      Imperfect      |     Pluperfect      |
| O Y |    Pluperfect     |                     |                     |
| N-  |                   |                     |                     |
+-----+-------------------+---------------------+---------------------+

«358.» RULE. «Sequence of Tenses.» _Primary tenses are followed by
primary tenses and secondary by secondary._

«359.» EXAMPLES

I. Primary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

  «Mittit»   }
  «Mittet»   } «hominēs ut agrōs vāstent»
  «Mīserit»  }

       { _sends_          }       { _that they may_           }
  _He_ { _will send_      } _men_ { _in order to_             }
       { _will have sent_ }       { _to lay waste the fields_ }

II. Secondary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

  «Mittēbat»}
  «Mīsit»   } «hominēs ut agrōs vāstārent»
  «Mīserat» }

       { _was sending_      }       { _that they might_         }
  _He_ { _sent or has sent_ } _men_ { _in order to_             }
       { _had sent_         }       { _to lay waste the fields_ }

«360.» EXERCISES

I.
  1. Vēnerant ut {dūcerent, mitterent, vidērent, audīrent,
                 {dūcerentur, mitterentur, vidērentur, audirentur

  2. Fugiēbat nē {caperētur, trāderētur, vidērētur,
                 {necārētur, raperētur, resisteret.

  3. Misit nūntiōs quī {dīcerent, audīrent, venīrent
                       {nārrārent, audīrentur, in conciliō sedērent.

  4. Castra mūnīvērunt {sēsē dēfenderent, impetum sustinērent,
       quō facilius    {hostīs vincerent, salūtem peterent.

II. 1. Cæsar encouraged the soldiers in order that they might fight more
bravely. 2. The Helvetii left their homes to wage war. 3. The scouts set
out at once lest they should be captured by the Germans. 4. Cæsar
inflicted punishment on them in order that the others might be more
terrified. 5. He sent messengers to Rome to announce the victory.


LESSON LXIV

THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

«361.» The perfect and the pluperfect subjunctive active are inflected
as follows:

     CONJ. I       CONJ. II      CONJ. III                 CONJ. IV
     PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE
     SINGULAR
  1. amā´verim     monu´erim     rē´xerim     cē´perim     audī´verim
  2. amā´veris     monu´eris     rē´xeris     cē´peris     audī´veris
  3. amā´verit     monu´erit     rē´xerit     cē´perit     audī´verit

     PLURAL
  1. amāve´rimus   monue´rimus   rēxe´rimus   cēpe´rimus   audīve´rimus
  2. amāve´ritis   monue´ritis   rēxe´ritis   cēpe´ritis   audīve´ritis
  3. amā´verint    monu´erint    rē´xerint    cē´perint    audī´verint

     PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE
     SINGULAR
  1. amāvis´sem    monuis´sem    rēxis´sem    cēpis´sem    audīvis´sem
  2. amāvis´sēs    monuis´sēs    rēxis´sēs    cēpis´sēs    audīvis´sēm
  3. amāvis´set    monuis´set    rēxis´set    cēpis´set    audīvis´set

     PLURAL
  1. amāvissē´mus  monuissē´mus  rēxissē´mus  cēpissē´mus  audīvissē´mus
  2. amāvissē´tis  monuissē´tis  rēxissē´tis  cēpissē´tis  audīvissē´tis
  3. amāvis´sent   monuis´sent   rēxis´sent   cēpis´sent   audīvis´sent

    _a._ Observe that these two tenses, like the corresponding ones in
    the indicative, are formed from the perfect stem.

    _b._ Observe that the perfect subjunctive active is like the future
    perfect indicative active, excepting that the first person singular
    ends in «-m» and not in «-ō».

    _c._ Observe that the pluperfect subjunctive active may be formed by
    adding «-issem, -issēs», etc. to the perfect stem.

    _d._ In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive
    active of «cūrō», «iubeō», «sūmō», «iaciō», «mūniō».

«362.» The passive of the perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the
perfect passive participle with «sim», the present subjunctive of «sum.»

     CONJ. I       CONJ. II      CONJ. III                 CONJ. IV
     PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE
     SINGULAR
  1. amā´tus sim   mo´nitus sim  rēc´tus sim  cap´tus sim  audī´tus sim
  2. amā´tus sīs   mo´nitus sīs  rēc´tus sīs  cap´tus sīs  audī´tus sīs
  3. amā´tus sit   mo´nitus sit  rēc´tus sit  cap´tus sit  audī´tus sit

     PLURAL
  1. amā´tī sīmus  mo´nitī s.    rēc´tī s.    cap´tī s.    audī´tī s.
  2. amā´tī sītis  mo´nitī s.    rēc´tī s.    cap´tī s.    audī´tī s.
  3. amā´tī sint   mo´nitī sint  rēc´tī sint  cap´tī sint  audī´tī sint

«363.» The passive of the pluperfect subjunctive is formed by combining
the perfect passive participle with «essem», the imperfect subjunctive
of «sum».

     CONJ. I        CONJ. II        CONJ. III                 CONJ. IV
     PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE
     SINGULAR
  1. amātus essem   monitus essem   rēctus essem   captus e.  audītus e.
  2. amātus essēs   monitus essēs   rēctus essēs   captus e.  audītus e.
  3. amātus esset   monitus esset   rēctus esset   captus e.  audītus e.

     PLURAL
  1. amātī essēmus  monitī essēmus  rēctī essēmus  captī e.   audītī e.
  2. amātī essētis  monitī essētis  rēctī essētis  captī e.   audītī e.
  3. amātī essent   monitī essent   rēctī essent   captī e.   audītī e.

    _a._ In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive
    passive of «cūrō», «iubeō», «sūmō», «iaciō», «mūniō.»

«364.» The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb
«sum» are inflected as follows:

  PERFECT               PLUPERFECT
  fu´erim  fue´rimus    fuis´sem  fuissē´mus
  fu´eris  fue´ritis    fuis´sēs  fuissē´tis
  fu´erit  fu´erint     fuis´set  fuis´sent

«365.» A substantive clause is a clause used like a noun, as,

  _That the men are afraid_ is clear enough (clause as subject)
  He ordered _them to call on him_ (clause as object)

We have already had many instances of infinitive clauses used in this
way (cf. §213), and have noted the similarity between Latin and English
usage in this respect. But the Latin often uses the _subjunctive_ in
substantive clauses, and this marks an important difference between the
two languages.

«366.» RULE. «Substantive Clauses of Purpose.» _A substantive clause of
purpose with the subjunctive is used as the object of verbs of
«commanding», «urging», «asking», «persuading», or «advising», where in
English we should usually have the infinitive._

EXAMPLES

  1. _The general ordered the soldiers to run_
       «Imperātor mīlitibus imperāvit ut currerent»
  2. _He urged them to resist bravely_
       «Hortātus est ut fortiter resisterent»
  3. _He asked them to give the children food_
       «Petīvit ut līberīs cibum darent»
  4. _He will persuade us not to set out_
       «Nōbīs persuādēbit nē proficīscāmur»
  5. _He advises us to remain at home_
       «Monet ut domī maneāmus»

    _a._ The object clauses following these verbs all express the
    purpose or will of the principal subject that something be done or
    not done. (Cf. §348.)

«367.» The following verbs are used with object clauses of purpose.
Learn the list and the principal parts of the new ones.

  «hortor», _urge_
  «imperō», _order_ (with the _dative_ of the _person_ ordered and a
    _subjunctive clause_ of the _thing_ ordered done)
  «moneō», _advise_
  «petō», «quaerō», «rogō», _ask, seek_
  «persuādeō», _persuade_ (with the same construction as imperō)
  «postulō», _demand, require_
  «suādeō», _advise_ (cf. «persuādeō»)

N.B. Remember that «iubeō», _order_, takes the infinitive as in English.
(Cf. §213.1.) Compare the sentences

  «Iubeō eum venīre», _I order him to come_
  «Imperō eī ut veniat», _I give orders to him that he is to come_

We ordinarily translate both of these sentences like the first, but the
difference in meaning between iubeō and imperō in the Latin requires the
_infinitive_ in the one case and the _subjunctive_ in the other.

«368.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Petit atque hortātur ut ipse dīcat. 2. Caesar Helvētiīs imperrāvit
nē per prōvinciam iter facerent. 3. Caesar nōn iussit Helvētiōs per
prōvinciam iter facere. 4. Ille cīvibus persuāsit ut dē fīnibus suīs
discēderent. 5. Caesar prīncipēs monēbit nē proelium committant.
6. Postulāvit nē cum Helvētiīs aut cum eōrum sociīs bellum gererent.
7. Ab iīs quaesīvī nē proficīscerentur. 8. Iīs persuādēre nōn potuī ut
domī manērent.

II. 1. Who ordered Cæsar to make the march? (_Write this sentence both
with_ «imperō» _and with_ «iubeō».) 2. The faithless scouts persuaded
him to set out at daybreak. 3. They will ask him not to inflict
punishment. 4. He demanded that they come to the camp. 5. He advised
them to tell everything («omnia»).

NOTE. Do not forget that the English infinitive expressing purpose must
be rendered by a Latin subjunctive. Review §352.

  [Illustration: LEGIO ITER FACIT]


LESSON LXV

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF _POSSUM_ · VERBS OF FEARING

«369.» Learn the subjunctive of «possum» (§495), and note especially the
position of the accent.

«370.» «Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing.» We have learned that what
we want done or not done is expressed in Latin by a subjunctive clause
of purpose. In this class belong also _clauses after verbs of fearing_,
for we fear either that something will happen or that it will not, and
we either want it to happen or we do not. If we want a thing to happen
and fear that it will not, the purpose clause is introduced by «ut». If
we do not want it to happen and fear that it will, «nē» is used. Owing
to a difference between the English and Latin idiom we translate «ut»
after a verb of fearing by _that not_, and «nē» by _that_ or _lest_.

«371.» EXAMPLES

  «timeō»   }      { «veniat»
  «timēbō»  } «ut» {
  «timuerō» }      { «vēnerit»

_I fear_, _shall fear_, _shall have feared_, _that he will not come_,
_has not come_

  «timēbam»  }      { «venīret»
  «timuī»    } «ut» {
  «timueram» }      { «vēnisset»

_I was fearing_, _feared_, _had feared_, _that he would not come_, _had
not come_

The same examples with «nē» instead of «ut» would be translated _I fear
that_ or _lest he will come_, _has come_, etc.

«372.» RULE. «Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing.» _Verbs of fearing are
followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by «ut» («that
not») or «nē» («that» or «lest»)._

«373.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar verēbātur ut supplicium captīvōrum Gallīs placēret.
2. Rōmānī ipsī magnopere verēbantur nē Helvētiī iter per prōvinciam
facerent. 3. Timēbant ut satis reī frūmentāriae mittī posset. 4. Vereor
ut hostium impetum sustinēre possim. 5. Timuit nē impedīmenta ab
hostibus capta essent. 6. Caesar numquam timuit nē legiōnēs vincerentur.
7. Legiōnēs pugnāre nōn timuērunt.[1]

II. 1. We fear that they are not coming. 2. We fear lest they are
coming. 3. We feared that they had come. 4. We feared that they had
not come. 5. They feared greatly that the camp could not be defended.
6. Almost all feared[1] to leave the camp.

    [Footnote 1: Distinguish between what one is afraid _to do_
    (complementary infinitive as here) and what one is afraid _will
    take place_ or _has taken place_ (substantive clause with the
    subjunctive).]


LESSON LXVI

THE PARTICIPLES

«374.» The Latin verb has the following Participles:[1]

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  For reasons of space, this table is given in two forms: first a
  reduced version without translation, and then the complete text,
  including translations, split into two elements.]

            CONJ. I   CONJ. II   CONJ. III           CONJ. IV
            ACTIVE
  PRESENT   amāns     monēns     regēns    capiēns   audiēns
  FUTURE    amātūrus  monitūrus  rēctūrus  captūrus  audītūrus

            PASSIVE
  PERFECT   amātus    monitus    rēctus    captus    audītus
  FUTURE[2] amandus   monendus   regendus  capiendus  audiendus

            CONJ. I            CONJ. II
            ACTIVE
  PRESENT   amāns              monēns
              _loving_           _advising_
  FUTURE    amātūrus           monitūrus
              _about to love_    _about to advise_

            PASSIVE
  PERFECT   amātus             monitus
              _loved, having_  _advised, having been advised_
              _been loved_
  FUTURE[2] amandus            monendus
              _to be loved_    _to be advised_

            CONJ. III                            CONJ. IV
            ACTIVE
  PRESENT   regēns             capiēns           audiēns
              _ruling_           _taking_         _hearing_
  FUTURE    rēctūrus           captūrus          audītūrus
              _about to rule_   _about to take_    _about to hear_

            PASSIVE
  PERFECT   rēctus             captus              audītus
              _ruled, having_    _taken, having_     _heard, havinh_
              _been ruled_       _been taken_        _been heard_
  FUTURE[2] regendus           capiendus           audiendus
              _to be ruled_      _to be taken_       _to be heard_

    [Footnote 1: Review §203.]

    [Footnote 2: The future passive participle is often called the
    _gerundive_.]

    _a._ The present active and future passive participles are formed
    from the present stem, and the future active and perfect passive
    participles are formed from the participial stem.

    _b._ The present active participle is formed by adding «-ns» to the
    present stem. In «-iō» verbs of the third conjugation, and in the
    fourth conjugation, the stem is modified by the addition of «-ē-»,
    as «capi-ē-ns», «audi-ē-ns». It is declined like an adjective of one
    ending of the third declension. (Cf. §256.)

         «amāns», _loving_
         BASE «amant-» STEM «amanti-»
         SINGULAR                   PLURAL
         MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.      MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._ amāns           amāns      amantēs         amantia
  _Gen._ amantis         amantis    amantium        amantium
  _Dat._ amantī          amantī     amantibus       amantibus
  _Acc._ amantem         amāns      amantīs         amantia
                                      _or_ -ēs
  _Abl._ amantī          amantī     amantibus       amantibus
           _or_ -e         _or_ -e

  (1) When used as an adjective the ablative singular ends in «-ī»;
  when used as a participle or as a substantive, in «-e».

  (2) In a similar way decline «monēns», «regēns», «capiēns», «audiēns».

    _c._ The future active participle is formed by adding «-ūrus» to the
    base of the participial stem. We have already met this form combined
    with «esse» to produce the future active infinitive. (Cf. §206.)

    _d._ For the perfect passive participle see §201. The future
    passive participle or gerundive is formed by adding «-ndus» to the
    present stem.

    _e._ All participles in «-us» are declined like «bonus».

    _f._ Participles agree with nouns or pronouns like adjectives.

    _g._ Give all the participles of the following verbs: «cūrō»,
    «iubeō», «sūmō», «iaciō», «mūniō».

«375.» «Participles of Deponent Verbs.» Deponent verbs have the
participles of the active voice as well as of the passive; consequently
every deponent verb has four participles, as,

                _Pres. Act._ «hortāns», _urging_
                 _Fut. Act._ «hortātūrus», _about to urge_
     _Perf. Pass._ (in form) «hortātus», _having urged_
  _Fut. Pass._ (_Gerundive_) «hortandus», _to be urged_

    _a._ Observe that the perfect participle of deponent verbs is
    passive in form but _active_ in meaning. _No other verbs have a
    perfect active participle._ On the other hand, the future passive
    participle of deponent verbs is passive in meaning as in other
    verbs.

    _b._ Give the participles of «cōnor», «vereor», «sequor», «patior»,
    «partior».

«376.» «Tenses of the Participle.» The tenses express time as follows:

  1. The present active participle corresponds to the English present
  active participle in _-ing_, but can be used only of an action
  occurring at the same time as the action of the main verb; as,
  «mīlitēs īnsequentēs cēpērunt multōs», _the soldiers, while pursuing,
  captured many._ Here the pursuing and the capturing are going on
  together.

  2. The perfect participle (excepting of deponents) is regularly
  passive and corresponds to the English past participle with or without
  the auxiliary _having been_; as, «audītus», _heard_ or _having been
  heard_.

  3. The future active participle, translated _about to_, etc., denotes
  time after the action of the main verb.

«377.» Review §§203, 204, and, note the following model sentences:

  1. «Mīlitēs currentēs erant dēfessī», _the soldiers who were running_
  (lit. _running_) _were weary_.

  2. «Caesar profectūrus Rōmam nōn exspectāvit», _Cæsar, when about to
  set out_ (lit. _about to set out_) _for Rome, did not wait_.

  3. «Oppidum captum vīdimus», _we saw the town which had been captured_
  (lit. _captured town_).

  4. «Imperātor trīduum morātus profectus est», _the general, since_
  (_when_, or _after_) _he had delayed_ (lit. _the general, having
  delayed_) _three days, set out_.

  5. «Mīlitēs vīctī terga nōn vertērunt», _the soldiers, though they
  were conquered_ (lit. _the soldiers conquered_), _did not retreat_.

In each of these sentences the literal translation of the participle is
given in parentheses. We note, however, that its proper translation
usually requires a clause beginning with some conjunction (_when, since,
after, though_, etc.), or a relative clause. Consider, in each case,
what translation will best bring out the thought, and do not, as a rule,
translate the participle literally.

«378.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Puer timēns nē capiātur fugit. 2. Aquila īrā commōta avīs reliquās
interficere cōnāta erat. 3. Mīlitēs ab hostibus pressī tēla iacere nōn
potuērunt. 4. Caesar decimam legiōnem laudātūrus ad prīmum agmen
prōgressus est. 5. Imperātor hortātus equitēs ut fortiter pugnārent
signum proeliō dedit. 6. Mīlitēs hostīs octō milia passuum īnsecūtī
multīs cum captīvīs ad castra revertērunt. 7. Sōl oriēns multōs
interfectōs vīdit. 8. Rōmānī cōnsilium audāx suspicātī barbaris sēsē
nōn commīsērunt. 9. Nāvis ē portū ēgressa nūllō in perīculō erat.

II.[3] 1. The army was in very great danger while marching through the
enemy’s country. 2. Frightened by the length of the way, they longed for
home. 3. When the scouts were about to set out, they heard the shouts of
victory. 4. When we had delayed many days, we set fire to the buildings
and departed. 5. While living at Rome I heard orators much better than
these. 6. The soldiers who are fighting across the river are no braver
than we.

    [Footnote 3: In this exercise use participles for the subordinate
    clauses.]


LESSON LXVII

THE IRREGULAR VERBS _VOLŌ_, _NŌLŌ_, _MĀLŌ_
THE ABLATIVE WITH A PARTICIPLE, OR ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE

«379.» Learn the principal parts and conjugation of «volō», _wish_;
«nōlō» («ne» + «volō»), _be unwilling_; «mālō» («magis» + «volō»), _be
more willing, prefer_ (§497). Note the irregularities in the present
indicative, subjunctive, and infinitive, and in the imperfect
subjunctive. (Cf. §354.)

    _a._ These verbs are usually followed by the infinitive with or
    without a subject accusative; as, «volunt venīre», _they wish to
    come_; «volunt amīcōs venīre», _they wish their friends to come_.
    The English usage is the same.[1]

    [Footnote 1: Sometimes the subjunctive of purpose is used after
    these verbs. (See §366.)]

[ Conjugations given in §497:

  PRINCIPAL PARTS:
  «volō, velle, voluī», ----, _be willing, will, wish_
  «nōlō, nōlle, nōluī», ----, _be unwilling, will not_
  «mālō, mālle, māluī», ----, _be more willing, prefer_

  INDICATIVE
           SINGULAR
  _Pres._  volō                nōlō                mālō
           vīs                 nōn vis             māvīs
           vult                nōn vult            māvult

           PLURAL
           volumus             nōlumus             mālumus
           vultis              nōn vultis          māvul´tis
           volunt              nōlunt              mālunt

  _Impf._  volēbam             nōlēbam             mālēbam
  _Fut._   volam, volēs, etc.  nōlam, nōlēs, etc.  mālam, mālēs, etc.
  _Perf._  voluī               nōluī               māluī
  _Plup._  volueram            nōlueram            mālueram
  _F.P._   voluerō             nōluerō             māluerō

  SUBJUNCTIVE
           SINGULAR
  _Pres._  velim               nōlim               mālim
           velīs               nōlīs               mālīs
           velit               nōlit               mālit

           PLURAL
           velī´mus            nōlī´mus            mālī´mus
           velī´tis            nōlī´tis            mālī´tis
           velint              nōlint              mālint

  _Impf._  vellem              nōllem              māllem
  _Perf._  voluerim            nōluerim            māluerim
  _Plup._  voluissem           nōluissem           māluissem


  IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._  nōlī
           nōlīte
  _Fut._   nōlītō, etc.

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._  velle               nōlle               mālle
  _Perf._  voluisse            nōluisse            māluisse

  PARTICIPLE
  _Pres._  volēns, -entis      nōlēns, -entis      ----]

«380.» Observe the following sentences:

  1. «Magistrō laudante omnēs puerī dīligenter labōrant», _with the
  teacher praising_, or _since the teacher praises_, or _the teacher
  praising, all the boys labor diligently._

  2. «Caesare dūcente nēmō prōgredī timet», _with Cæsar leading_, or
  _when Cæsar leads_, or _if Cæsar leads_, or _Cæsar leading, no one
  fears to advance._

  3. «His rēbus cognitīs mīlitēs fūgērunt», _when this was known_, or
  _since this was known_, or _these things having been learned, the
  soldiers fled._

  4. «Proeliō commissō multī vulnerātī sunt», _after the battle had
  begun_, or _when the battle had begun_, or _the battle having been
  joined, many were wounded._

    _a._ One of the fundamental ablative relations is expressed in
    English by the preposition _with_ (cf. §50). In each of the
    sentences above we have a noun and a participle in agreement in
    the ablative, and the translation shows that in each instance the
    ablative expresses _attendant circumstance_. For example, in the
    first sentence the circumstance attending or accompanying the
    diligent labor of the boys is the praise of the teacher. This is
    clearly a _with_ relation, and the ablative is the case to use.

    _b._ We observe, further, that the ablative and its participle are
    absolutely independent grammatically of the rest of the sentence.
    If we were to express the thought in English in a similar way, we
    should use the nominative independent or absolute. In Latin the
    construction is called the Ablative Absolute, or the Ablative with a
    Participle. This form of expression is exceedingly common in Latin,
    but rather rare in English, so we must not, as a rule, employ the
    English absolute construction to translate the ablative abolute. The
    attendant circumstance may be one of _time_ (when or after), or one
    of _cause_ (since), or one of _concession_ (though), or one of
    _condition_ (if). In each case try to discover the precise relation,
    and tranlate the ablative and its participle by a clause which will
    best express the thought.

«381.» RULE. «Ablative Absolute.» _The ablative of a noun or pronoun
with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express
attendant circumstance._

NOTE 1. The verb «sum» has no present participle. In consequence we
often find two nouns or a noun and an adjective in the ablative absolute
with no participle expressed; as, «tē duce», _you_ (being) _leader_,
_with you as leader_; «patre īnfirmō», _my father_ (being) _weak_.

NOTE 2. Be very careful not to put in the ablative absolute a noun and
participle that form the subject or object of a sentence. Compare

    _a._ _The Gauls, having been conquered by Cæsar, returned home_

    _b._ _The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar, the army returned
           home_

In _a_ the subject is _The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar_, and we
translate,

  «Gallī ā Caesare victi domum revertērunt»

In _b_ the subject is _the army_. _The Gauls having been conquered by
Cæsar_ is nominative absolute in English, which requires the ablative
absolute in Latin, and we translate,

  «Gallīs ā Caesare victīs exercitus domum revertit»

NOTE 3. The fact that only deponent verbs have a perfect active
participle (cf. §375.a) often compels a change of voice when
translating from one language to the other. For example, we can
translate _Cæsar having encouraged the legions_ just as it stands,
because «hortor» is a deponent verb. But if we wish to say _Cæsar having
conquered the Gauls_, we have to change the voice of the participle to
the passive because «vincō» is not deponent, and say, _the Gauls having
been conquered by Cæsar_ (see translation above).

«382.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Māvīs, nōn vīs, vultis, nōlumus. 2. Ut nōlit, ut vellēmus, ut
mālit. 3. Nōlī, velle, nōluisse, mālle. 4. Vult, māvultis, ut nōllet,
nōlīte. 5. Sōle oriente, avēs cantāre incēpērunt. 6. Clāmōribus audītīs,
barbarī prōgredī recūsābant. 7. Caesare legiōnēs hortātō, mīlitēs paulō
fortius pugnāvērunt. 8. Hīs rēbus cognitīs, Helvētiī fīnitimīs
persuāsērunt ut sēcum iter facerent. 9. Labōribus cōnfectīs, mīlitēs
ā Caesare quaerēbant ut sibi praemia daret. 10. Conciliō convocātō,
prīncipēs ita respondērunt. 11. Dux plūrīs diēs in Helvētiōrum fīnibus
morāns multōs vīcōs incendit. 12. Magnitūdine Germānōrum cognitā, quīdam
ex Rōmānis timēbant. 13. Mercātōribus rogātīs, Caesar nihilō plūs
reperīre potuit.

II. 1. He was unwilling, lest they prefer, they have wished. 2. You
prefer, that they might be unwilling, they wish. 3. We wish, they had
preferred, that he may prefer. 4. Cæsar, when he heard the rumor (_the
rumor having been heard_), commanded («imperāre») the legions to advance
more quickly. 5. Since Cæsar was leader, the men were willing to make
the journey. 6. A few, terrified[2] by the reports which they had heard,
preferred to remain at home. 7. After these had been left behind, the
rest hastened as quickly as possible. 8. After Cæsar had undertaken the
business (_Cæsar, the business having been undertaken_), he was
unwilling to delay longer.[3]

    [Footnote 2: Would the ablative absolute be correct here?]

    [Footnote 3: Not «longius». Why?]


LESSON LXVIII

THE IRREGULAR VERB _FĪŌ_ · THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT

«383.» The verb «fīō», _be made, happen_, serves as the passive of
«faciō», _make_, in the present system. The rest of the verb is formed
regularly from «faciō». Learn the principal parts and conjugation
(§500). Observe that the «i» is long except before «-er» and in «fit».

    _a._ The compounds of «facio» with prepositions usually form the
    passive regularly, as,

      _Active_   «cōnficiō, cōnficere, cōnfēcī, cōnfectus»
      _Passive_  «cōnficior, cōnficī, cōnfectus sum»

[ Conjugation given in §500:

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «fīō, fierī, factus sum»

  INDICATIVE                 SUBJUNCTIVE              IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._  fīō      ----     fīam          _2d Pers._ fī      fīte
           fīs      ----
           fit      fīunt
  _Impf._  fīēbam            fierem
  _Fut._   fīam              ----

  INDICATIVE                       SUBJUNCTIVE
  _Perf._  factus, -a, -um  sum    factus, -a, -um  sim
  _Plup._  factus, -a, -um  eram   factus, -a, -um  essem
  _F.P._   factus, -a, -um  erō

  INFINITIVE                       PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._  fierī                   _Perf._  factus, -a, -um
  _Perf._  factus, -a, -um  esse   _Ger._   faciendus, -a, -um
  _Fut._   [[factum īrī]]]

«384.» Observe the following sentences:

  1. «Terror erat tantus ut omnēs fugerent», _the terror was so great
  that all fled._

  2. «Terror erat tantus ut nōn facile mīlitēs sēsē reciperent», _the
  terror was so great that the soldiers did not easily recover
  themselves._

  3. «Terror fēcit ut omnēs fugerent», _terror caused all to flee_
  (lit. _made that all fled_).

    _a._ Each of these sentences is complex, containing a principal
    clause and a subordinate clause.

    _b._ The principal clause names a cause and the subordinate clause
    states the _consequence_ or _result_ of this cause.

    _c._ The subordinate clause has its verb in the subjunctive, though
    it is translated like an indicative. The construction is called the
    _subjunctive of consequence or result_, and the clause is called a
    consecutive or result clause.

    _d._ In the last example the clause of result is the object of the
    verb «fēcit».

    _e._ The conjunction introducing the consecutive or result clause is
    «ut» = _so that_; negative, «ut nōn» = _so that not_.

«385.» RULE. «Subjunctive of Result.» _Consecutive clauses of result are
introduced by «ut» or «ut nōn» and have the verb in the subjunctive._

«386.» RULE. _Object clauses of result with «ut» or «ut nōn» are found
after verbs of «effecting» or «bringing about»._

«387.» «Purpose and Result Clauses Compared.» There is great similarity
in the expression of purpose and of result in Latin. If the sentence is
affirmative, both purpose and result clauses may be introduced by «ut»;
but if the sentence is negative, the purpose clause has «nē» and the
result clause «ut nōn». Result clauses are often preceded in the main
clause by such words as «tam», «ita», «sic» (_so_), and these serve to
point them out. Compare

    _a._ «Tam graviter vulnerātus est ut caperētur»
      _He was so severely wounded that he was captured_
    _b._ «Graviter vulnerātus est ut caperētur»
      _He was severely wounded in order that he might be captured_

Which sentence contains a result clause, and how is it pointed out?

«388.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Fit, fīet, ut fīat, fīēbāmus. 2. Fīō, fīēs, ut fierent, fierī,
fīunt. 3. Fīētis, ut fīāmus, fīs, fīemus. 4. Mīlitēs erant tam tardī
ut ante noctem in castra nōn pervenīrent. 5. Sōl facit ut omnia sint
pulchra. 6. Eius modī perīcula erant ut nēmō proficīscī vellet.
7. Equitēs hostium cum equitātū nostrō in itinere contendērunt, ita
tamen[1] ut nostrī omnibus in partibus superiōrēs essent. 8. Virtūs
mīlitum nostrōrum fēcit ut hostēs nē ūnum quidem[2] impetum sustinērent.
9. Hominēs erant tam audācēs ut nūllō modō continērī possent.
10. Spatium erat tam parvum ut mīlitēs tēla iacere nōn facile possent.
11. Hōc proeliō factō barbarī ita perterritī sunt ut ab ultimīs gentibus
lēgātī ad Caesarem mitterentur. 12. Hoc proelium factum est nē lēgātī ad
Caesarem mitterentur.

    [Footnote 1: «ita tamen», _with such a result however_.]

    [Footnote 2: «nē ... quidem», _not even_. The emphatic word is
    placed between.]

II. 1. It will happen, they were being made, that it may happen. 2. It
happens, he will be made, to happen. 3. They are made, we were being
made, lest it happen. 4. The soldiers are so brave that they conquer.
5. The soldiers are brave in order that they may conquer. 6. The
fortification was made so strong that it could not be taken. 7. The
fortification was made strong in order that it might not be taken.
8. After the town was taken,[3] the townsmen feared that they would be
made slaves. 9. What state is so weak that it is unwilling to defend
itself?

    [Footnote 3: Ablative absolute.]


LESSON LXIX

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC OR DESCRIPTION
THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE

«389.» Akin to the subjunctive of consequence or result is the use of
the subjunctive in clauses of characteristic or description.

This construction is illustrated in the following sentences:

  1. «Quis est quī suam domum nōn amet?» _who is there who does not love
  his own home?_

  2. «Erant quī hoc facere nōllent», _there were (some) who were
  unwilling to do this._

  3. «Tū nōn is es quī amīcōs trādās», _you are not such a one as to_,
  or _you are not the man to, betray your friends._

  4. «Nihil videō quod timeam», _I see nothing to fear_ (nothing of such
  as character as to fear it).

    _a._ Each of these examples contains a descriptive relative clause
    which tells what kind of a person or thing the antecedent is. To
    express this thought the subjunctive is used. A relative clause that
    merely states a fact and does not describe the antecedent uses the
    indicative. Compare the sentences

      _Cæsar is the man who is leading us_,
        «Caesar est is quī nōs dūcit»
          (mere statement of fact, no description, with the indicative)
      _Cæsar is the man to lead us_,
        «Caesar est is quī nōs dūcat»
          (descriptive relative clause with the subjunctive)

    _b._ Observe that in this construction a demonstrative pronoun and a
    relative, as is «quī», are translated _such a one as to, the man
    to_.

    _c._ In which of the following sentences would you use the
    indicative and in which the subjunctive?

       _These are not the men who did this_
       _These are not the men to do this_

«390.» RULE. «Subjunctive of Characteristic.» _A relative clause with
the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called
the «subjunctive of characteristic or description»._

«391.» Observe the sentences

  1. Rōmānī «Caesarem cōnsulem» fēcērunt,
       _the Romans made «Cæsar consul»_.

  2. «Caesar cōnsul» ā Rōmānīs factus est,
       _«Cæsar» was made «consul» by the Romans_.

    _a._ Observe in 1 that the transitive verb «fēcērunt», _made_, has
    two objects: (1) the direct object, «Caesarem»; (2) a second object,
    «cōnsulem», referring to the same person as the direct object and
    completing the predicate. The second accusative is called a
    Predicate Accusative.

    _b._ Observe in 2 that when the verb is changed to the passive both
    of the accusatives become nominatives, the _direct object_ becoming
    the _subject_ and the _predicate accusative_ the _predicate
    nominative_.

«392.» RULE. «Two Accusatives.» _Verbs of «making», «choosing»,
«calling», «showing», and the like, may take a predicate accusative
along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives
become nominatives._

«393.» The verbs commonly found with two accusatives are

  «creo, creāre, creāvī, creātus», _choose_
  «appellō, appellāre, appellāvī, appellātus» }
  «nōminō, nōmināre, nōmināvī, nōminātus»     } _call_
  «vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus»             }
  «faciō, facere, fēcī, factus», _make_

«394.» EXERCISES

I. 1. In Germāniae silvis sunt[1] multa genera ferārum quae reliquīs
in locīs nōn vīsa sint. 2. Erant[1] itinera duo quibus Helvētiī domō
discēdere possent. 3. Erat[1] manus nūlla, nūllum oppidum, nūllum
praesidium quod sē armīs dēfenderet. 4. Tōtō frūmentō raptō, domī nihil
erat quō mortem prohibēre possent. 5. Rōmānī Galbam ducem creāvērunt et
summā celeritāte profectī sunt. 6. Neque erat[1] tantae multitūdinis
quisquam quī morārī vellet. 7. Germānī nōn iī sunt quī adventum Caesaris
vereantur. 8. Cōnsulibus occīsīs erant quī[2] vellent cum rēgem creāre.
9. Pāce factā erat nēmō quī arma trādere nōllet. 10. Inter Helvētiōs
quis erat quī nōbilior illō esset?

II. 1. The Romans called the city Rome. 2. The city was called Rome by
the Romans. 3. The better citizens wished to choose him king. 4. The
brave soldier was not the man to run. 5. There was no one [3]to call me
friend. 6. These are not the men to[4] betray their friends. 7. There
were (some) who called him the bravest of all.

    [Footnote 1: Remember that when the verb «sum» precedes its subject
    it is translated _there is_, _there are_, _there were_, etc.]

    [Footnote 2: «erant quī», _there were_ (some) _who_. A wholly
    indefinite antecedent of «quī» does not need to be expressed.]

    [Footnote 3: A relative clause of characteristic or description.]

    [Footnote 4: See §389.b.]

       *       *       *       *       *

  «Eighth Review, Lessons LXI-LXIX, §§527-528»

       *       *       *       *       *

LESSON LXX

THE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE CONJUNCTION _CUM_ THE ABLATIVE OF
SPECIFICATION

«395.» The conjunction «cum» has the following meanings and
constructions:

  «cum» TEMPORAL = _when_, followed by the indicative or the subjunctive
  «cum» CAUSAL = _since_, followed by the subjunctive
  «cum» CONCESSIVE = _although_, followed by the subjunctive

As you observe, the mood after «cum» is sometimes indicative and
sometimes subjunctive. The reason for this will be made clear by a study
of the following sentences:

  1. «Caesarem vīdī tum cum in Galliā eram»,
       _I saw Cæsar at the time when I was in Gaul_.

  2. «Caesar in eōs impetum fēcit cum pācem peterent»,
       _Cæsar made an attack upon them when they were seeking peace_.

  3. «Hoc erat difficile cum paucī sine vulneribus essent»,
       _this was difficult, since only a few were without wounds_.

  4. «Cum prīmī ōrdinēs fūgissent, tamen reliquī fortiter cōnsistēbant»,
       _though the front ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood
       their ground_.

    _a._ The underlying principle is one already familiar to you (cf.
    §389.a). When the «cum» clause states a fact and simply _fixes the
    time_ at which the main action took place, the indicative mood is
    used. So, in the first example, «cum in Galliā eram» fixes the time
    when I saw Cæsar.

    _b._ On the other hand, when the «cum» clause _describes the
    circumstances_ under which the main act took place, the subjunctive
    mood is used. So, in the second example, the principal clause states
    that Cæsar made an attack, and the «cum» clause describes the
    circumstances under which this act occurred. The idea of _time_ is
    also present, but it is subordinate to the idea of _description_.
    Sometimes the descriptive clause is one of _cause_ and we translate
    «cum» by _since_; sometimes it denotes _concession_ and «cum» is
    translated _although_.

«396.» RULE. «Constructions with _Cum_». _The conjunction «cum» means
«when», «since», or «although». It is followed by the subjunctive unless
it means «when» and its clause fixes the time at which the main action
took place._

NOTE. «Cum» in clauses of description with the subjunctive is much more
common than its use with the indicative.

«397.» Note the following sentences:

  1. «Oppidum erat parvum magnitūdine sed magnum multitūdine hominum»,
    _the town was small in size but great in population_.

  2. «Homō erat corpore īnfīrmus sed validus animō»,
       _the man was weak in body but strong in courage_.

    _a._ Observe that «magnitūdine», «multitūdine», «corpore», and
    «animō» tell _in what respect_ something is true. The relation is
    one covered by the ablative case, and the construction is called the
    _ablative of specification_.

«398.» RULE. «Ablative of Specification.» _The ablative is used to
denote «in what respect» something is true._

«399.» IDIOMS

  «aliquem certiōrem facere», _to inform some one_ (lit. _to make some
    one more certain_)
  «certior fierī», _to be informed_ (lit. _to be made more certain_)
  «iter dare», _to give a right of way, allow to pass_
  «obsidēs inter sē dare», _to give hostages to each other_

«400.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Helvētiī cum patrum nostrōrum tempore domō prefectī essent,
cōnsulis exercitum in fugam dederant. 2. Cum Caesar in Galliam vēnit,
Helvētiī aliōs agrōs petēbant. 3. Caesar cum in citeriōre Gallia esset,
tamen dē Helvētiōrum cōnsiliīs certior fīēbat. 4. Cum Helvētiī bellō
clārissimī essent, Caesar iter per prōvinciam dare recūsāvit. 5. Lēgātus
cum haec audīvisset, Caesarem certiōrem fecit. 6. Cum principēs inter sē
obsidēs darent, Rōmānī bellum parāvērunt. 7. Caesar, cum id nūntiātum
esset, mātūrat ab urbe proficīscī. 8. Nē virtūte quidem Gallī erant
parēs Germānis. 9. Caesar neque corpore neque animō īnfīrmus erat.
10. Illud bellum tum incēpit cum Caesar fuit cōnsul.

Observe in each case what mood follows «cum», and try to give the
reasons for its use. In the third sentence the «cum» clause is
concessive, in the fourth and sixth causal.

II. 1. That battle was fought at the time when («tum cum») I was at
Rome. 2. Though the horsemen were few in number, nevertheless they did
not retreat. 3. When the camp had been sufficiently fortified, the enemy
returned home. 4. Since the tribes are giving hostages to each other,
we shall inform Cæsar. 5. The Gauls and the Germans are very unlike in
language and laws.


LESSON LXXI

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE · THE PREDICATE GENITIVE

«401.» Review the word lists in §§510, 511.

«402.» «The Gerund.» Suppose we had to translate the sentence

  _By overcoming the Gauls Cæsar won great glory_

We can see that _overcoming_ here is a verbal noun corresponding to
the English infinitive in _-ing_, and that the thought calls for the
ablative of means. To translate this by the Latin infinitive would be
impossible, because the infinitive is indeclinable and therefore has
no ablative case form. Latin, however, has another verbal noun of
corresponding meaning, called the «gerund», declined as a neuter of
the second declension in the _genitive_, _dative_, _accusative_, and
_ablative singular_, and thus supplying the cases that the infinitive
lacks.[1] Hence, to decline in Latin the verbal noun _overcoming_, we
should use the infinitive for the nominative and the gerund for the
other cases, as follows:

  _Nom._  «superāre», _overcoming, to overcome_   INFINITIVE
  _Gen._  «superandī», _of overcoming_            }
  _Dat._  «superandō»,  _for overcoming_          }
  _Acc._  «superandum», _overcoming_              } GERUND
  _Abl._  «superandō», _by overcoming_            }

Like the infinitive, the gerund governs the same case as the verb from
which it is derived. So the sentence given above becomes in Latin

  «Superandō Gallōs Caesar magnam glōriam reportāvit»

    [Footnote 1: Sometimes, however, the infinitive is used as an
    accusative.]

«403.» The gerund[2] is formed by adding «-ndī, -ndō, -ndum, -ndō», to
the present stem, which is shortened or otherwise changed, as shown
below:

PARADIGM OF THE GERUND

          CONJ. I   CONJ. II   CONJ. III              CONJ. IV
  _Gen._  amandī    monendī    regendī    capiendī    audiendī
  _Dat._  amandō    monendō    regendō    capiendō    audiendō
  _Acc._  amandum   monendum   regendum   capiendum   audiendum
  _Abl._  amandō    monendō    regendō    capiendō    audiendō

    _a._ Give the gerund of «cūrō», «dēleō», «sūmō», «iaciō», «veniō».

    _b._ Deponent verbs have the gerund of the active voice (see §493).
    Give the gerund of «cōnor», «vereor», «sequor», «patior», «partior».

    [Footnote 2: The gerund is the neuter singular of the future
    passive participle used as a noun, and has the same formation.
    (Cf. §374.d.)]

«404.» «The Gerundive.» The gerundive is the name given to the future
passive participle (§374.d) when the participle approaches the meaning
of a verbal noun and is translated like a gerund. It is the adjective
corresponding to the gerund. For example, to translate _the plan of
waging war_, we may use the gerund with its direct object and say
«cōnsilium gerendī bellum»; or we may use the gerundive and say
«cōnsilium bellī gerendī», which means, literally, _the plan of the war
to be waged_, but which came to have the same force as the gerund with
its object, and was even preferred to it.

«405.» Compare the following parallel uses of the gerund and gerundive:

          GERUND                         GERUNDIVE
  _Gen._ «Spēs faciendī pācem»          «Spēs faciendae pācis»
  _Dat._ «Locus idōneus pugnandō»       «Locus idōneus castrīs pōnendīs»
           _A place suitable for          _A place suitable for
              fighting_                      pitching camp_
  _Acc._ «Mīsit equitēs ad īnsequendum» «Mīsit equitēs ad īnsequendōs
                                             hostīs»
           _He sent horsemen to pursue_   _He sent horsemen to pursue
                                             the enemy_
  _Abl._ «Nārrandō fābulās magister     «Nārrandīs fābulīs magister
            puerīs placuit»                puerīs placuit»
           _The teacher pleased the       _The teacher pleased the
              boys by telling stories_       boys by telling stories_

    _a._ We observe

      (1) That the gerund is a noun and the gerundive an adjective.
      (2) That the gerund, being a noun, may stand alone or with an
      object.
      (3) That the gerundive, being an adjective, is used only in
      agreement with a noun.

«406.» RULE. «Gerund and Gerundive.»

  1. _The Gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive,
  dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these
  cases are in general the same as those of other nouns._

  2. _The Gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of
  gerund + object excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without
  a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is
  more usual._

«407.» RULE. «Gerund or Gerundive of Purpose.» _The accusative of the
gerund or gerundive with_ «ad», _or the genitive with «causā»[3] (= for
the sake of), is used to express purpose._

  GERUND                        GERUNDIVE
  «Ad audiendum vēnērunt» or    «Ad urbem videndam vēnērunt» or
    «Audiendī causā vēnērunt»     «Urbis videndae causā vēnērunt»
    _They came to hear_           _They came to see the city_

    [Footnote 3: «causā» always _follows_ the genitive.]

NOTE. These sentences might, of course, be written with the subjunctive
of purpose,--«vēnērunt ut audīrent»; «vēnērunt ut urbem vidērent.» In
short expressions, however, the gerund and gerundive of purpose are
rather more common.

«408.» We have learned that the word denoting the owner or possessor of
something is in the genitive, as, «equus Galbae», _Galba’s horse._ If,
now, we wish to express the idea _the horse is Galba’s_, Galba remains
the possessor, and hence in the genitive as before, but now stands in
the predicate, as, «equus est Galbae». Hence this is called the
predicate genitive.

«409.» RULE. «Predicate Genitive.» _The possessive genitive often stands
in the predicate, especially after the forms of «sum», and is then
called the predicate genitive._

«410.» IDIOMS

  «alīcui negōtium dare», _to employ someone_
    (lit. _to give business to some one_)
  «novīs rēbus studēre», _to be eager for a revolution_
    (lit. _to be eager for new things_)
  «reī mīlitāris perītissimus», _very skillful in the art of war_
  «sē suaque omnia», _themselves and all their possessions_

«411.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar cum in Galliā bellum gereret, militibus decimae legiōnis
maximē fāvit quia reī mīlitāris perītissimī erant. 2. Sociīs negōtium
dedit reī frumentāriae cūrandae. 3. Lēgāti nōn sōlum audiendī causā sed
etiam dicendī causā vēnērunt. 4. Imperātor iussit explōrātōres locum
idōneum mūnindō reperīre. 5. Nuper hae gentēs novīs rēbus studēbant;
mox iīs persuādēbō ut Caesarī sē suaque omnia dēdant. 6. Iubēre est
regīnae[4] et pārēre est multitūdinis.[4] 7. Hōc proeliō factō quīdam ex
hostibus ad pācem petendam venērunt. 8. Erant quī arma trādere nōllent.
9. Hostēs tam celeriter prōgressī sunt ut spatium pīla in hostīs
iaciendī non darētur. 10. Spatium neque arma capiendī[5] neque auxilī
petendī[5] datum est.

II. 1. These ornaments [6]belong to Cornelia. 2. Men very skillful in
the art of war were sent [7]to capture the town. 3. The scouts found a
hill suitable for fortifying very near to the river. 4. Soon the cavalry
will come [8]to seek supplies. 5. The mind of the Gauls is eager for
revolution and for undertaking wars. 6. To lead the line of battle
[9]belongs to the general. 7. [10]Whom shall we employ to look after
the grain supply?

    [Footnote 4: Predicate genitive.]

    [Footnote 5: Which of these expressions is gerund and which
    gerundive?]

    [Footnote 6: _belong to_ = _are of_.]

    [Footnote 7: Use the gerundive with «ad».]

    [Footnote 8: Use the genitive with «causā». Where should «causā»
    stand?]

    [Footnote 9: Compare the first sentence.]

    [Footnote 10: Compare the second sentence in the Latin above.]


LESSON LXXII

THE IRREGULAR VERB _EŌ_ · INDIRECT STATEMENTS

«412.» Learn the principal parts and the conjugation of «eō», _go_
(§499).

    _a._ Notice that «ī-», the root of «eō», is changed to «e-» before
    a vowel, excepting in «iēns», the nominative of the present
    participle. In the perfect system «-v-» is regularly dropped.

[ Conjugation given in §499:

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «eō, īre, iī (īvī), ĭtum» (n. perf. part.)
  PRES. STEM ī-
  PERF. STEM ī- or īv-
  PART. STEM it-

          INDICATIVE       SUBJUNCTIVE                IMPERATIVE
          SING.  PLUR.
  _Pres._ eō   īmus        eam             _2d Pers._ ī     īte
          īs   ītis
          it   eunt
  _Impf._ ībam             īrem
  _Fut._  ībō              ----            _2d Pers._ ītō   ītōte
                                           _3d Pers._ ītō   euntō
  _Perf._ iī (īvī)        ierim (īverim)
  _Plup._ ieram (īveram)  īssem (īvissem)
  _F. P._ ierō (īverō)

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ īre
  _Perf._ īsse (īvisse)
  _Fut._  itūrus, -a, -um   esse

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ iēns, _gen._ euntis (§472)
  _Fut._  itūrus, -a, -um
  _Ger._  eundum

  GERUND
  _Gen._  eundī
  _Dat._  eundō
  _Acc._  eundum
  _Abl._  eundō

  SUPINE
  _Acc._  [[itum]]
  _Abl._  [[itū]] ]

«413.» Learn the meaning and principal parts of the following compounds
of «eō» with prepositions:

  «ad´eō, adī´re, ad´iī, ad´itus», _go to, visit_, with the accusative
  «ex´eō, exī´re, ex´iī, ex´itus», _go forth_, with «ex» or «dē»
    and the ablative of the place from which
  «in´eō, inī´re, in´iī, in´itus», _begin, enter upon_,
    with the accusative
  «red´eō, redī´re, red´iī, red´itus», _return_, with «ad» or «in» and
    the accusative of the place to which
  «trāns´eō, trānsī´re, trāns´iī, trāns´itus», _cross_,
    with the accusative

«414.» «Indirect Statements in English.» Direct statements are those
which the speaker or writer makes himself or which are quoted in his
exact language. Indirect statements are those reported in a different
form of words from that used by the speaker or writer. Compare the
following direct and indirect statements:

                      { 1. The Gauls are brave
  Direct statements   { 2. The Gauls were brave
                      { 3. The Gauls will be brave

  Indirect statements { 1. _He says_ that the Gauls _are_ brave
    after a verb in   { 2. _He says_ that the Gauls _were_ brave
    the present tense { 3. _He says_ that the Gauls _will be_ brave

  Indirect statements { 1. _He said_ that the Gauls _were_ brave
    after a verb in   { 2. _He said_ that the Gauls _had been_ brave
    a past tense      { 3. _He said_ that the Gauls _would be_ brave

We see that in English

    _a._ The indirect statement forms a clause introduced by the
    conjunction _that_.

    _b._ The verb is finite (cf. §173) and its subject is in the
    nominative.

    _c._ The tenses of the verbs originally used are changed after the
    past tense, _He said._

«415.» «Indirect Statements in Latin.» In Latin the direct and indirect
statements above would be as follows:

    DIRECT   { 1. «Gallī sunt fortēs»
  STATEMENTS { 2. «Gallī erant fortēs»
             { 3. «Gallī erunt fortēs»


             { 1. «Dīcit» or «Dīxit Gallōs esse fortīs»
             {    (_He says_ or _He said_
             {     _the Gauls to be brave_)[1]
   INDIRECT  { 2. «Dīcit» or «Dīxit Gallōs fuisse fortīs»
  STATEMENTS {    (_He says_ or _He said_
             {     _the Gauls to have been brave_)[1]
             { 3. «Dīcit» or «Dīxit Gallōs futūrōs esse fortīs»
             {    (_He says_ or _He said_
             {     _the Gauls to be about to be brave_)[1]

    [Footnote 1: These parenthetical renderings are not inserted as
    translations, but merely to show the literal meaning of the Latin.]

Comparing these Latin indirect statements with the English in the
preceding section, we observe three marked differences:

    _a._ There is no conjunction corresponding to _that_.

    _b._ The verb is in the infinitive and its subject is in the
    accusative.

    _c._ The tenses of the infinitive are not changed after a past tense
    of the principal verb.

«416.» RULE. «Indirect Statements.» _When a direct statement becomes
indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive and its
subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive._

«417.» «Tenses of the Infinitive.» When the sentences in §415 were
changed from the direct to the indirect form of statement, «sunt» became
«esse», «erant» became «fuisse», and «erunt» became «futūrōs esse».

«418.» RULE. «Infinitive Tenses in Indirect Statements.» _A present
indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the
indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future
indicative becomes future infinitive._

NOTE. When translating into Latin an English indirect statement, first
decide what tense of the indicative would have been used in the direct
form. That will show you what tense of the infinitive to use in the
indirect.

«419.» RULE. «Verbs followed by Indirect Statements.» _The
accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found
after verbs of «saying», «telling», «knowing», «thinking», and
«perceiving»._

«420.» Verbs regularly followed by indirect statements are:

  _a_. Verbs of saying and telling:
    «dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus», _say_
    «negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus», _deny, say not_
    «nūntiō, nūntiāre, nūntiāvī, nūntiātus», _announce_
    «respondeō, respondēre, respondī, respōnsus», _reply_

  _b_. Verbs of knowing:
    «cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus», _learn_,
      (in the perf.) _know_
    «sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus», _know_

  _c_. Verbs of thinking:
    «arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum», _think, consider_
    «exīstimō, exīstimāre, exīstimāvī, exīstimātus», _think, believe_
    «iūdicō, iūdicāre, iūdicāvi, iūdicātus», _judge, decide_
    «putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus», _reckon, think_
    «spērō, spērāre, spērāvi, spērātus», _hope_

  _d_. Verbs of perceiving:
    «audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus», _hear_
    «sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsus», _feel, perceive_
    «videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus», _see_
    «intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellēctus», _understand,
      perceive_

Learn such of these verbs as are new to you.

«421.» IDIOMS
  «postrīdiē eius diēī», _on the next day_
    (lit. _on the next day of that day_)
  «initā aestāte», _at the beginning of summer_
  «memoriā tenēre», _to remember_ (lit. _to hold by memory_)
  «per explōrātōrēs cognōscere», _to learn through scouts_

«422.» EXERCISES

I. 1. It, īmus, īte, īre. 2. Euntī, iisse _or_ īsse, ībunt, eunt.
3. Eundi, ut eant, ībitis, īs. 4. Nē īrent, ī, ībant, ierat. 5. Caesar
per explorātores cognōvit Gallōs flūmen trānsīsse. 6. Rōmānī audīvērunt
Helvētiōs initā aestāte dē fīnibus suīs exitūrōs esse. 7. Legātī
respondērunt nēminem ante Caesarem illam īnsulam adīsse. 8. Prīncipēs
Gallōrum dīcunt sē nūllum cōnsilium contrā Caesaris imperium initūrōs
esse. 9. Arbitrāmur potentiam rēgīnae esse maiōrem quam cīvium.
10. Rōmānī negant se lībertātem Gallīs ēreptūrōs esse. 11. Hīs rēbus
cognitīs sēnsimus lēgātōs non vēnisse ad pācem petendam. 12. Helvētii
sciunt Rōmānōs priōrēs victōriās memoriā tenēre. 13. Sociī cum
intellegerent multōs vulnerārī, statuērunt in suōs fīnīs redīre.
14. Aliquis nūntiāvit Mārcum cōnsulem creātum esse.

II. 1. The boy is slow. He says that the boy is, was, (and) will be
slow. 2. The horse is, has been, (and) will be strong. He judged that
the horse was, had been, (and) would be strong. 3. We think that the
army will go forth from the camp at the beginning of summer. 4. The next
day we learned through scouts that the enemy’s town was ten miles
off.[2] 5. The king replied that the ornaments belonged to[3] the queen.

    [Footnote 2: _to be off, to be distant_, «abesse».]

    [Footnote 3: Latin, _were of_ (§409).]

  [Illustration: TUBA]


LESSON LXXIII

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE IRREGULAR VERB _FERŌ_
THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUNDS

«423.» Review the word lists in §§513, 514.

«424.» Learn the principal parts and conjugation of the verb «ferō»,
_bear_ (§498).

  1. Learn the principal parts and meanings of the following compounds
  of ferō, _bear_:

  «ad´ferō, adfer´re, at´tulī, adlā´tus», _bring to; report_
  «cōn´ferō, cōnfer´re, con´tulī, conlā´tus», _bring together, collect_
  «dē´ferō, dēfer´re, dē´tulī, dēlā´tus», _bring to; report;
     grant, confer_
  «īn´ferō, īnfer´re, in´tulī, inlā´tus», _bring in, bring against_
  «re´ferō, refer´re, ret´tulī, relā´tus», _bear back, report_

[ Conjugation given in §498:

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus»
  PRES. STEM  fer-    PERF. STEM  tul-    PART. STEM  lāt-

  INDICATIVE
          ACTIVE                    PASSIVE
  _Pres._ ferō      ferimus         feror        ferimur
          fers      fertīs          ferris, -re  ferimimī
          fert      ferunt          fertur       feruntur
  _Impf._ ferēbam                   ferēbar
  _Fut._  feram, ferēs, etc.        ferar, ferēris, etc.
  _Perf._ tulī                      lātus, -a, -um sum
  _Plup._ tuleram                   lātus, -a, -um eram
  _F.P._  tulerō                    lātus, -a, -um erō

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  _Pres._ feram, ferās, etc.        ferar, ferāris, etc.
  _Impf._ ferrem                    ferrer
  _Perf._ tulerim                   lātus, -a, -um sim
  _Plup._ tulissem                  lātus, -a, -um essem

  IMPERATIVE
  _Pres. 2d Pers._  fer     ferte     ferre    feriminī
  _Fut. 2d Pers._   fertō   fertōte   fertor
       _3d Pers._   fertō   ferunto   fertor   feruntor

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ ferre                     ferrī
  _Perf._ tulisse                   lātus, -a, -um esse
  _Fut._  lātūrus, -a, -um esse     ----

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ ferēns, -entis    _Pres._ ----
  _Fut._  lātūrus, -a, -um  _Ger._  ferendus, -a, -um
  _Perf._ ----              _Perf._ lātus, -a, -um

  GERUND
  _Gen._ ferendī
  _Dat._ ferendō
  _Acc._ ferendum
  _Abl._ ferendō

  SUPINE (Active Voice)
  _Acc._ [[lātum]]
  _Abl._ [[lātū]] ]

«425.» The dative is the case of the indirect object. Many intransitive
verbs take an indirect object and are therefore used with the dative
(cf. §153). Transitive verbs take a direct object in the accusative; but
sometimes they have an indirect object or dative as well. _The whole
question, then, as to whether or not a verb takes the dative, defends
upon its capacity for governing an indirect object._ A number of verbs,
some transitive and some intransitive, which in their simple form would
not take an indirect object, when compounded with certain prepositions,
have a meaning which calls for an indirect object. Observe the following
sentences:

  1. «Haec rēs exercituī magnam calamitātem attulit», _this circumstance
  brought great disaster to the army._

  2. «Germānī Gallīs bellum īnferunt», _the Germans make war upon the
  Gauls._

  3. «Hae cōpiae proeliō nōn intererant», _these troops did not take
  part in the battle._

  4. «Equitēs fugientibus hostibus occurrunt», _the horsemen meet the
  fleeing enemy._

  5. «Galba cōpiīs fīlium praefēcit», _Galba put his son in command of
  the troops._

In each sentence there is a dative, and in each a verb combined with a
preposition. In no case would the simple verb take the dative.

«426.» RULE. «Dative with Compounds.» _Some verbs compounded with «ad»,
«ante», «con», «dē», «in», «inter», «ob», «post», «prae», «prō», «sub»,
«super», admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds
may take both an accusative and a dative._

NOTE 1. Among such verbs are[1]

  «ad´ferō, adfer´re, at´tulī, adlā´tus», _bring to; report_
  «ad´sum, ades´se, ad´fuī, adfutū´rus», _assist; be present_
  «dē´ferō, dēfer´re, dē´tulī, dēlātus», _report; grant, confer_
  «dē´sum, dees´se, dē´fuī,----», _be wanting, be lacking_
  «īn´ferō, īnfer´re, in´tulī, inlā´tus», _bring against, bring upon_
  «inter´sum, interes´se, inter´fuī, interfutū´rus», _take part in_
  «occur´rō, occur´rere, occur´rī, occur´sus», _run against, meet_
  «praefi´ciō, praefi´cere, praefē´cī, praefec´tus», _appoint over,
     place in command of_
  «prae´sum, praees´se, prae´fuī, ----», _be over, be in command_

    [Footnote 1: But the accusative with «ad» or «in» is used with some
    of these, when the idea of _motion to_ or _against_ is strong.]

«427.» IDIOMS

  «graviter» or «molestē ferre», _to be annoyed at, to be indignant at_,
    followed by the accusative and infinitive
  «sē cōnferre ad» or «in», with the accusative,
    _to betake one’s self to_
  «alicui bellum īnferre», _to make war upon some one_
  «pedem referre», _to retreat_ (lit. _to bear back the foot_)

«428.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Fer, ferent, ut ferant, ferunt. 2. Ferte, ut ferrent, tulisse,
tulerant. 3. Tulimus, ferēns, lātus esse, ferre. 4. Cum nāvigia insulae
adpropinquārent, barbarī terrōre commōtī pedem referre cōnātī sunt.
5. Gallī molestē ferēbant Rōmānōs agrōs vastāre. 6. Caesar sociīs
imperāvit nē fīnitimis suīs bellum īnferrent. 7. Explorātōrēs, qui
Caesarī occurrērunt, dīxērunt exercitum hostium vulneribus dēfessum sēsē
in alium locum contulisse. 8. Hostes sciēbant Rōmānōs frūmentō egēre et
hanc rem Caesarī summum perīculum adlātūram esse. 9. Impedīmentīs in
ūnum locum conlātis, aliquī mīlitum flūmen quod nōn longē aberat
trānsiērunt. 10. Hōs rēx hortātus est ut ōrāculum adīrent et rēs audītās
ad sē referrent. 11. Quem imperātor illī legiōnī praefēcit? Pūblius illī
legiōnī pracerat. 12. Cum esset Caesar in citeriōre Galliā, crēbrī ad
eum[2] rūmōrēs adferēbantur litterīsque quoque certior fīēbat Gallōs
obsidēs inter sē dare.

II. 1. The Gauls will make war upon Cæsar’s allies. 2. We heard that the
Gauls would make war upon Cæsar’s allies. 3. Publius did not take part
in that battle. 4. We have been informed that Publius did not take part
in that battle. 5. The man who was in command of the cavalry was wounded
and began to retreat. 6. Cæsar did not place you in command of the
cohort to bring[3] disaster upon the army.

    [Footnote 2: Observe that when «adferō» denotes _motion to_, it is
    not followed by the dative; cf. footnote, p. 182.]

    [Footnote 3: Not the infinitive. (Cf. §352.)]


LESSON LXXIV

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS

«429.» Review the word lists in §§517, 518.

«430.» When we report a statement instead of giving it directly, we have
an indirect statement. (Cf. §414.) So, if we report a question instead
of asking it directly, we have an indirect question.

  DIRECT QUESTION                  INDIRECT QUESTION
  _Who conquered the Gauls?      He asked who conquered the Gauls_

    _a._ An indirect question depends, usually as object, upon a verb of
    asking (as «petō», «postulō», «quaerō», «rogō») or upon some verb or
    expression of saying or mental action. (Cf. §420.)

«431.» Compare the following direct and indirect questions:

  DIRECT  INDIRECT

  «Quis Gallōs vincit?»    {  _a._ «Rogat quis Gallōs vincat»
  _Who is conquering the_  {       _He asks who is conquering the_
    _Gauls?_               {       _Gauls_
                           {  _b._ «Rogavit quis Gallōs vinceret»
                           {       _He asked who was conquering_
                           {       _the Gauls_

                           {  _a._ «Rogat ubi sit Rōma»
  «Ubī est Rōma?»          {       _He asks where Rome is_
  _Where is Rome?_         {  _b._ «Rogāvit ubi esset Rōma»
                           {        _He asked where Rome was_

                           {  _a._ «Rogat num Caesar Gallōs vīcerit»
                           {       _He asks whether Cæsar conquered_
  «Caesarne Gallōs vīcit?» {       _the Gauls_
  _Did Cæsar conquer the_  {  _b._ «Rogāvit num Caesar Gallōs
    _Gauls?_               {         «vīcisset»
                           {       _He asked whether Cæsar had_
                           {       _conquered the Gauls_

    _a._ The verb in a direct question is in the indicative mood, but
    the mood is subjunctive in an indirect question.

    _b._ The tense of the subjunctive follows the rules for tense
    sequence.

    _c._ Indirect questions are introduced by the same interrogative
    words as introduce direct questions, excepting that_yes_-or-_no_
    direct questions (cf. §210) on becoming indirect are usually
    introduced by «num», _whether_.

«432.» RULE. «Indirect Questions.» _In an indirect question the verb is
in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense
sequence._

«433.» IDIOMS

  «dē tertiā vigiliā», _about the third watch_
  «iniūriās alicui īnferre», _to inflict injuries upon some one_
  «facere verba prō», with the ablative, _to speak in behalf of_
  «in reliquum tempus», _for the future_

«434.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Rēx rogāvit quid lēgātī postulārent et cūr ad sē vēnissent.
2. Quaesīvit quoque num nec recentīs iniūriās nec dubiam Rōmānōrum
amīcitiam memoriā tenērent. 3. Vidētisne quae oppida hostēs
oppugnāverint? 4. Nōnne scītis cūr Gallī sub montem sēse contulerint?
5. Audīvimus quās iniūrias tibi Germānī intulissent. 6. Dē tertiā
vigiliā imperātor mīsit hominēs quī cognōscerent quae esset nātūra
montis. 7. Prō hīs ōrātor verba fēcit et rogāvit cūr cōnsulēs nāvīs
ad plēnem summī perīculī locum mittere vellent. 8. Lēgātīs convocātīs
dēmōnstrāvit quid fierī vellet. 9. Nūntius referēbat quid in Gallōrum
conciliō dē armīs trādendīs dictum esset. 10. Moneō nē in reliquum
tempus peditēs et equitēs trāns flūmen dūcās.

II. 1. What hill did they seize? I see what hill they seized. 2. Who
has inflicted these injuries upon our dependents? 3. They asked who had
inflicted those injuries upon their dependents. 4. Whither did you go
about the third watch? You know whither I went. 5. At what time did the
boys return home? I will ask at what time the boys returned home.


LESSON LXXV

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE DATIVE OF PURPOSE, OR END FOR WHICH

«435.» Review the word lists in §§521, 522.

«436.» Observe the following sentences:

  1. «Explōrātōrēs locum castrīs dēlēgērunt», _the scouts chose a place
  for a camp._

  2. «Hoc erat magnō impedīmentō Gallīs», _this was_ (for) _a great
  hindrance to the Gauls._

  3. «Duās legiōnēs praesidiō castrīs relīquit», _he left two legions
  as_ (lit. _for_) _a guard to the camp._

In each of these sentences we find a dative expressing the _purpose
or end for which_ something is intended or for which it serves. These
datives are «castrīs», «impedīmentō», and «praesidiō». In the second and
third sentences we find a second dative expressing the _person or thing
affected_ («Gallīs» and «castrīs»). As you notice, these are true
datives, covering the relations of _for which_ and _to which_. (Cf.
§43.)

«437.» RULE. «Dative of Purpose or End.» _The dative is used to denote
the «purpose or end for which», often with another dative denoting the
«person or thing affected»._

«438.» IDIOMS

  «cōnsilium omittere», _to give up a plan_
  «locum castrīs dēligere», _to choose a place for a camp_
  «alicui magnō ūsuī esse», _to be of great advantage to some one_
    (lit. _for great advantage to some one_)

«439.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Rogāvit cūr illae cōpiae relictae essent. Respondērunt illās
cōpiās esse praesidiō castrīs. 2. Caesar mīsit explōrātōrēs ad locum
dēligendum castrīs. 3. Quisque exīstimāvit ipsum nōmen Caesaris magnō
terrōrī barbarīs futūrum esse. 4. Prīmā lūce īdem exercitus proelium
ācre commīsit, sed gravia suōrum vulnera magnae cūrae imperātōrī erant.
5. Rēx respondit amīcitiam populī Rōmānī sibi ōrnāmentō et praesidiō
dēbēre esse. 6. Quis praeerat equitātuī quem auxiliō Caesarī sociī
mīserant? 7. Aliquibus rēs secundae sunt summae calamitātī et rēs
adversae sunt mīrō ūsuī. 8. Gallīs magnō ad pugnam erat impedīmentō quod
equitātus ā dextrō cornū premēbat. 9. Memoria prīstinae virtūtis nōn
minus quam metus hostium erat nostrīs magnō ūsuī. 10. Tam dēnsa erat
silva ut prōgredī nōn possent.

II. 1. I advise you [1]to give up the plan [2]of making war upon the
brave Gauls. 2. Do you know [3]where the cavalry has chosen a place for
a camp? 3. The fear of the enemy will be of great advantage to you.
4. Cæsar left three cohorts as (for) a guard to the baggage. 5. In
winter the waves of the lake are so great [4]that they are (for) a great
hindrance to ships. 6. Cæsar inflicted severe[5] punishment on those who
burned the public buildings.

    [Footnote 1: Subjunctive of purpose. (Cf. §366.)]

    [Footnote 2: Express by the genitive of the gerundive.]

    [Footnote 3: Indirect question.]

    [Footnote 4: A clause of result.]

    [Footnote 5: «gravis, -e.»]


LESSON LXXVI

VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION

«440.» Review the word lists in §§524, 525.

«441.» Observe the English sentences

  (1) _A man «of» great courage_, or (2) _A man «with» great courage_

  (3) _A forest «of» tall trees_, or (4) _A forest «with» tall trees_

Each of these sentences contains a phrase of quality or description.
In the first two a man is described; in the last two a forest. The
descriptive phrases are introduced by the prepositions _of_ and _with_.

In Latin the expression of quality or description is very similar.

The prepositions _of_ and _with_ suggest the genitive and the ablative
respectively, and we translate the sentences above

  (1) «Vir magnae virtūtis», or (2) «Vir magnā virtūte»
  (3) «Silva altārum arborum», or (4) «Silva altīs arboribus»

There is, however, one important difference between the Latin and the
English. In English we may say, for example, _a man of courage_, using
the descriptive phrase without an adjective modifier. _In Latin,
however, an adjective modifier must always be used_, as above.

    _a._ Latin makes a distinction between the use of the two cases in
    that _numerical descriptions of measure are in the genitive_ and
    _descriptions of physical characteristics are in the ablative._
    Other descriptive phrases may be in either case.

«442.» EXAMPLES

  1. «Fossa duodecim pedum», _a ditch of twelve feet_.

  2. «Homō magnīs pedibus et parvō capite»,
     _a man with big feet and a small head_.

  3. «Rēx erat vir summā audāciā» or «rēx erat vir summae audāciae»,
    _the king was a man of the greatest boldness_.

«443.» RULE. «Genitive of Description.» _Numerical descriptions of
measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective._

«444.» RULE. «Ablative of Description.» _Descriptions of physical
characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying
adjective._

«445.» RULE. «Genitive or Ablative of Description.» _Descriptions
involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may
be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying
adjective._

«446.» IDIOMS

  «Helvētiīs in animō est», _the Helvetii intend_,
    (lit. _it is in mind to the Helvetians_)
  «in mātrimōnium dare», _to give in marriage_
  «nihil posse», _to have no power_
  «fossam perdūcere», _to construct a ditch_
    (lit. _to lead a ditch through_)

«447.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Mīlitēs fossam decem pedum per eōrum fīnīs perdūxērunt.
2. Prīnceps Helvētiōrum, vir summae audāciae, prīncipibus gentium
fīnitimārum sorōrēs in mātrimōnium dedit. 3. Eōrum amīcitiam cōnfīrmāre
voluit quō facilius Rōmānīs bellum īnferret. 4. Germanī et Gallī nōn
erant eiusdem gentis. 5. Omnēs ferē Germānī erant magnīs corporum
vīribus.[1] 6. Gallī qui oppidum fortiter dēfendēbant saxa ingentis
magnitūdinis dē mūrō iaciēbant. 7. Cum Caesar ab explōrātōribus
quaereret quī illud oppidum incolerent, explōrātōrēs respondērunt eōs
esse homines summā virtūte et magnō cōnsiliō. 8. Moenia vīgintī pedum
ā sinistrā parte, et ā dextrā parte flūmen magnae altitūdinis oppidum
dēfendēbant. 9. Cum Caesar in Galliam pervēnisset, erat rūmor Helvētiīs
in animō esse iter per prōvinciam Rōmānam facere. 10. Caesar, ut eōs ab
fīnibus Rōmānis prohibēret, mūnītiōnem [2]multa mīlia passuum longam
fēcit.

II. 1. Cæsar was a general of much wisdom and great boldness, and very
skillful in the art of war. 2. The Germans were of great size, and
thought that the Romans had no power. 3. Men of the highest courage
were left in the camp as (for) a guard to the baggage. 4. The king’s
daughter, who was given in marriage to the chief of a neighboring state,
was a woman of very beautiful appearance. 5. The soldiers will construct
a ditch of nine feet around the camp. 6. A river of great width was
between us and the enemy.

    [Footnote 1: From «vīs». (Cf. §468.)]

    [Footnote 2: Genitives and ablatives of description are adjective
    phrases. When we use an _adverbial_ phrase to tell _how long_ or
    _how high_ or _how deep_ anything is, we must use the accusative of
    extent. (Cf. §336.) For example, in the sentence above «multa mīlia
    passuum» is an adverbial phrase (accusative of extent) modifying
    «longam». If we should omit «longam» and say _a fortification of
    many miles_, the genitive of description (an adjective phrase)
    modifying «mūnītiōnem» would be used, as «mūnītiōnem multōrum mīlium
    passuum».]

  [Illustration: GLADII]


LESSON LXXVII

REVIEW OF AGREEMENT, AND OF THE GENITIVE, DATIVE, AND ACCUSATIVE

«448.» There are four agreements:

  1. That of the predicate noun or of the appositive with the noun to
  which it belongs (§§76, 81).

  2. That of the adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle with its
  noun (§65).

  3. That of a verb with its subject (§28).

  4. That of a relative pronoun with its antecedent (§224).

«449.» The relation expressed by the «genitive» is, in general, denoted
in English by the preposition _of_. It is used to express

                { _a._ As attributive (§38).
  1. Possession {
                { _b._ In the predicate (§409).

  2. The whole of which a part is taken (partitive genitive) (§331).

  3. Quality or description (§§443, 445).

«450.» The relation expressed by the «dative» is, in general, denoted in
English by the prepositions _to_ or _for_ when they do not imply motion
through space. It is used to express

                         { _a._ With intransitive verbs and with
                         {   transitive verbs in connection with a
                         {   direct object in the accusative (§45).
  1. The indirect object { _b_. With special intransitive verbs (§154).
                         { _c_. With verbs compounded with «ad», «ante»,
                         {   «con», «dē», «in», «inter», «ob», «post»,
                         {   «prae», «prō», «sub», «super» (§426).

  2. The object to which the quality of an adjective is directed (§143).

  3. The purpose, or end for which, often with a second dative denoting
  the person or thing affected (§437).

«451.» The «accusative» case corresponds, in general, to the English
objective. It is used to express

  1. The direct object of a transitive verb (§37).

  2. The predicate accusative together with the direct object after
  verbs of _making, choosing, falling, showing_, and the like (§392).

  3. The subject of the infinitive (§214).

  4. The object of prepositions that do not govern the ablative (§340).

  5. The duration of time and the extent of space (§336).

  6. The place to which (§§263, 266).

«452.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Mīlitēs quōs vīdimus dīxērunt imperium bellī esse Caesaris
imperātōris. 2. Helvētiī statuērunt quam[1] maximum numerum equōrum
et carrōrum cōgere. 3. Tōtīus Galliae Helvētiī plūrimum valuērunt.
4. Multās hōrās ācriter pugnātum est neque quisquam poterat vidēre
hostem fugientem. 5. Virī summae virtūtis hostīs decem mīlia passuum
īnsecūtī sunt. 6. Caesar populō Rōmānō persuāsit ut sē cōnsulem creāret.
7. Victōria exercitūs erat semper imperātōrī grātissima. 8. Trīduum iter
fēcērunt et Genāvam, in oppidum[2] hostium, pervēnērunt. 9. Caesar
audīvit Germānōs bellum Gallīs intulisse. 10. Magnō ūsuī mīlitibus
Caesaris erat quod priōribus proeliīs sēsē exercuerant.

II. 1. One[3] of the king’s sons and many of his men were captured.
2. There was no one who wished[4] to appoint her queen. 3. The grain
supply was always a care (for a care) to Cæsar, the general. 4. I think
that the camp is ten miles distant. 5. We marched for three hours
through a very dense forest. 6. The plan [5]of making war upon the
allies was not pleasing to the king. 7. When he came to the hill he
fortified it [6]by a twelve-foot wall.

    [Footnote 1: What is the force of «quam» with superlatives?]

    [Footnote 2: «urbs» or «oppidum», appositive to a name of a town,
    takes a preposition.]

    [Footnote 3: What construction is used with numerals in preference
    to the partitive genitive?]

    [Footnote 4: What mood? (Cf. §390.)]

    [Footnote 5: Use the gerund or gerundive.]

    [Footnote 6: Latin, _by a wall of twelve feet._]


LESSON LXXVIII

REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE

«453.» The relations of the ablative are, in general, expressed in
English by the prepositions _with_ (or _by_), _from_ (or _by_), and _in_
(or _at_). The constructions growing out of these meanings are

  I. Ablative rendered _with_ (or _by_):
    1. Cause (§102)
    2. Means (§103)
    3. Accompaniment (§104)
    4. Manner (§105)
    5. Measure of difference (§317)
    6. With a participle (ablative absolute) (§381)
    7. Description or quality (§§444, 445)
    8. Specification (§398)

  II. Ablative rendered _from_ (or _by_):
    1. Place from which (§§179, 264)
    2. Ablative of separation (§180)
    3. Personal agent with a passive verb (§181)
    4. Comparison without «quam» (§309)

  III. Ablative rendered _in_ (or _at_):
    1. Place at or in which (§§265, 266)
    2. Time when or within which (§275)

«454.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Gallī locīs superiōribus occupātīs itinere exercitum prohibēre
cōnantur. 2. Omnēs oppidānī ex oppidō ēgressī salūtem fugā petere
incēpērunt. 3. Caesar docet sē mīlitum vītam suā salūte habēre multō
cāriōrem. 4. Cum celerius omnium opīniōne pervēnisset, hostēs ad eum
obsidēs mīsērunt 5. Vīcus in valle positus montibus altissimīs undique
continētur. 6. Plūrimum inter Gallōs haec gēns et virtūte et hominum
numerō valēbat. 7. Secundā vigiliā nūllō certō ōrdine neque imperiō ē
castrīs ēgressī sunt. 8. Duābus legiōnibus Genāvae relictīs, proximō diē
cum reliquīs domum profectus est. 9. Erant itinera duo quibus itineribus
Helvētiī domō exīre possent. 10. Rēx erat summā audāciā et magnā apud
populum potentiā. 11. Gallī timōre servitūtis commōtī bellum parābant.
12. Caesar monet lēgātōs ut contineant militēs, nē studiō pugnandī aut
spē praedae longius[1] prōgrediantur. 13. Bellum ācerrimum ā Caesare in
Gallōs gestum est.

II. 1. The lieutenant after having seized the mountain restrained his
(men) from battle. 2. All the Gauls differ from each other in laws.
3. This tribe is much braver than the rest. 4. This road is [2]ten miles
shorter than that. 5. In summer Cæsar carried on war in Gaul, in winter
he returned to Italy. 6. At midnight the general set out from the camp
with three legions. 7. I fear that you cannot protect[3] yourself from
these enemies. 8. [4]After this battle was finished peace was made by
all the Gauls.

    [Footnote 1: «longius», _too far_. (Cf. §305.)]

    [Footnote 2: Latin, _by ten thousands of paces_.]

    [Footnote 3: «dēfendere».]

    [Footnote 4: Ablative absolute.]


LESSON LXXIX

REVIEW OF THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE, THE INFINITIVE, AND THE SUBJUNCTIVE

«455.» The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive,
dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these
cases are in general the same as those of other nouns (§§402, 406.1).

«456.» The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of
gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a
preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more
usual (§406.2).

«457.» The infinitive is used:

  I. As in English.

    _a._ As subject or predicate nominative (§216).

    _b._ To complete the predicate with verbs of incomplete predication
    (complementary infinitive) (§215).

    _c._ As object with subject accusative after verbs of _wishing,
    commanding, forbidding_, and the like (§213).

  II. In the principal sentence of an indirect statement after verbs
  of _saying _and _mental action_. The subject is in the accusative
  (§§416, 418, 419).

«458.» The subjunctive is used:

  1. To denote purpose (§§349, 366, 372).

  2. To denote consequence or result (§§385, 386).

  3. In relative clauses of characteristic or description (§390).

  4. In «cum» clauses of time, cause, and concession (§396).

  5. In indirect questions (§432).

«459.» EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar, cum pervēnisset, militēs hortābātur nē cōnsilium oppidī
capiendi omitterent. 2. Rēx, castrīs prope oppidum positīs, mīsit
explōrātōrēs quī cognōscerent ubi exercitus Rōmanus esset. 3. Nēmo
relinquēbātur quī arma ferre posset. 4. Nūntiī vīdērunt ingentem
armōrum multitudinem dē mūrō in fossani iactam esse. 5. Dux suōs
trānsīre flūmen iussit. Trānsīre autem hoc flūmen erat difficillimum.
6. Rōmānī cum hanc calamitātem molestē ferrant, tamen terga vertere
recūsāvērunt. 7. Hōc rūmōre audītō, tantus terror omnium animōs
occupāvit ut nē fortissimī quidem proelium committere vellent. 8. Erant
quī putārent tempus annī idōneum nōn esse itinerī faciendō. 9. Tam
ācriter ab utraque parte pugnābātur ut multa mīlia hominum occīderentur.
10. Quid timēs? Timeō nē Rōmānīs in animō sit tōtam Galliam superāre et
nōbīs iniūriās inferre.

II. 1. Do you not see who is standing on the wall? 2. We hear that the
plan of taking the town has been given up. 3. Since the Germans thought
that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Cæsar ordered a bridge to be
made. 4. When the bridge was finished, the savages were so terrified
that they hid themselves. 5. They feared that Cæsar would pursue them.
6. Cæsar [1]asked the traders what the size of the island was. 7. The
traders advised him not [2]to cross the sea. 8. He sent scouts [3]to
choose a place for a camp.

    [Footnote 1: «quaerere ab».]

    [Footnote 2: Not infinitive.]

    [Footnote 3: Use the gerundive with «ad».]



READING MATTER


INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS

«How to Translate.» You have already had considerable practice in
translating simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the meaning
lies in the endings of the words. If these are neglected, no skill can
make sense of the Latin. If they are carefully noted and accurately
translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the following
suggestions:

  1. Read the Latin sentence through to the end, noting endings of
  nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.

  2. Read it again and see if any of the words you know are nominatives
  or accusatives. This will often give you what may be called the
  backbone of the sentence; that is, subject, verb, and object.

  3. Look up the words you do not know, and determine their use in the
  sentence from their endings.

  4. If you cannot yet translate the sentence, put down the English
  meanings of all the words _in the same order as the Latin words_. You
  will then generally see through the meaning of the sentence.

  5. Be careful to

    _a._ Translate adjectives with the nouns to which they belong.

    _b._ Translate together prepositions and the nouns which they
    govern.

    _c._ Translate adverbs with the words that they modify.

    _d._ _Make sense._ If you do not make sense, you have made a
    mistake. One mistake will spoil a whole sentence.

  6. When the sentence is correctly translated, read the Latin over
  again, and try to understand it as Latin, without thinking of the
  English translation.

«The Parts of a Sentence.» You will now meet somewhat longer sentences
than you have had before. To assist in translating them, remember, first
of all, that every sentence conveys a meaning and either tells us
something, asks a question, or gives a command. Every sentence must have
a subject and a verb, and the verb may always have an adverb, and, if
transitive, will have a direct object.

However long a sentence is, you will usually be able to recognize its
subject, verb, and object or predicate complement without any
difficulty. These will give you the leading thought, and they must never
be lost sight of while making out the rest of the sentence. The chief
difficulty in translating arises from the fact that instead of a single
adjective, adverb, or noun, we often have a phrase or a clause taking
the place of one of these; for Latin, like English, has adjective,
adverbial, and substantive clauses and phrases. For example, in the
sentence _The idle boy does not study_, the word _idle_ is an adjective.
In _The boy wasting his time does not study_, the words _wasting his
time_ form an adjective phrase modifying _boy_. In the sentence _The boy
who wastes his time does not study_, the words _who wastes his time_
form an adjective clause modifying _boy_, and the sentence is complex.
These sentences would show the same structure in Latin.

In translating, it is important to keep the parts of a phrase and the
parts of a clause together and not let them become confused with the
principal sentence. To distinguish between the subordinate clauses and
the principal sentence is of the first importance, and is not difficult
if you remember that a clause regularly contains a word that marks it as
a clause and that this word usually stands first. These words join
clauses to the words they depend on, and are called _subordinate
conjunctions_. They are not very numerous, and you will soon learn to
recognize them. In Latin they are the equivalents for such words as
_when, while, since, because, if, before, after, though, in order that,
that_, etc. Form the habit of memorizing the Latin subordinate
conjunctions as you meet them, and of noting carefully the mood of the
verb in the clauses which they introduce.


  [Illustration: HERCULES]

THE LABORS OF HERCULES

  Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued
  throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant he
  strangled some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his
  boyhood and youth he performed various marvelous feats of strength,
  and on reaching manhood he succeeded in delivering the Thebans from
  the oppression of the Minyæ. In a fit of madness, sent upon him by
  Juno, he slew his own children; and, on consulting the Delphic oracle
  as to how he should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to
  submit himself for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to
  perform whatever tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle,
  and during the twelve years of his servitude accomplished twelve
  extraordinary feats known as the Labors of Hercules. His death was
  caused, unintentionally, by his wife Deiani´ra. Hercules had shot with
  his poisoned arrows a centaur named Nessus, who had insulted Deianira.
  Nessus, before he died, gave some of his blood to Deianira, and told
  her it would act as a charm to secure her husband’s love. Some time
  after, Deianira, wishing to try the charm, soaked one of her husband’s
  garments in the blood, not knowing that it was poisoned. Hercules put
  on the robe, and, after suffering terrible torments, died, or was
  carried off by his father Jupiter.


  [Illustration: HERCULES ET SERPENTES]

LIII.[1] THE INFANT HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS

Dī[2] grave supplicium sūmmit de malīs, sed iī quī lēgibus[3] deōrum
pārent, etiam post mortem cūrantur. Illa vīta dīs[2] erat grātissima
quae hominibus miserīs ūtilissima fuerat. Omnium autem praemiōrum summum
erat immortālitās. Illud praemium Herculī datum est.

Herculis pater fuit Iuppiter, māter Alcmēna, et omnium hominum
validissimus fuisse dīcitur. Sed Iūnō, rēgīna deōrum, eum, adhūc
īnfantem, interficere studēbat; nam eī[1] et[2] Herculēs et Alcmēna
erant invīsī. Itaque mīsit duās serpentīs, utramque saevissimam, quae
mediā nocte domum[3] Alcmēnae vēnērunt. Ibi Herculēs, cum frātre suō,
nōn in lectulō sed in scūtō ingentī dormiēbat. Iam audācēs serpentēs
adpropinquāverant, iam scūtum movēbant. Tum frāter, terrōre commōtus,
magnā vōce mātrem vocāvit, sed Herculēs ipse, fortior quam frāter,
statim ingentīs serpentīs manibus suīs rapuit et interfēcit.

    [Footnote 1: This number refers to the lesson after which the
    selection may be read.]

    [Footnote 2: «Dī» and «dīs» are from «deus». Cf. §468.]

    [Footnote 3: «lēgibus», §501.14.]

    [Footnote 1: «eī», _to her_, referring to Juno.]

    [Footnote 2: «et ... et», _both ... and_.]

    [Footnote 3: «domum», §501.20.]


LIV. HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINYÆ

Herculēs ā puerō[1] corpus suum gravissimīs et difficillimīs labōribus
exercēbat et hōc modō vīrēs[2] suās cōnfirmāvit. Iam adulēscēns
Thēbīs[3] habitābat. Ibi Creōn quīdam erat rēx. Minyae, gēns
validissima, erant fīnitimī Thēbānīs, et, quia ōlim Thēbānōs vīcerant,
quotannīs lēgātōs mittēbant et vectīgal postulābant. Herculēs autem
cōnstituit cīvīs suōs hōc vectīgālī līberāre et dixit rēgī, “Dā mihi
exercitum tuum et ego hōs superbōs hostīs superābō.” Hanc condiciōnem
rēx nōn recūsāvit, et Herculēs nūntiōs in omnīs partis dīmīsit et cōpiās
coēgit.[4] Tum tempore opportūnissimō proelium cum Minyīs commīsit. Diū
pugnātum est, sed dēnique illī impetum Thēbānōrum sustinēre nōn
potuērunt et terga vertērunt fugamque cēpērunt.

    [Footnote 1: «ā puerō», _from boyhood_.]

    [Footnote 2: «virēs», from «vīs». Cf. §468.]

    [Footnote 3: «Thēbīs», §501.36.1.]

    [Footnote 4: «coēgit», from «cōgō».]


HE COMMITS A CRIME AND GOES TO THE DELPHIAN ORACLE TO SEEK EXPIATION

Post hoc proelium Creōn rēx, tantā victōriā laetus, fīliam suam Herculī
in mātrimōnium dedit. Thēbīs Herculēs cum uxōre suā diū vīvēbat et ab
omnibus magnopere amābātur; sed post multōs annōs subitō [1]in furōrem
incidit et ipse suā manū līberōs suōs interfēcit. Post breve tempus
[2]ad sānitātem reductus tantum scelus expiāre cupiēbat et cōnstituit ad
ōrāculum Delphicum iter facere. Hoc autem ōrāculum erat omnium
clārissimum. Ibi sedēbat fēmina quaedam quae Pȳthia appellābātur. Ea
cōnsilium dabat iīs quī ad ōrāculum veniēbant.

    [Footnote 1: «in furōrem incidit», _went mad_.]

    [Footnote 2: «ad sānitātem reductus», lit. _led back to sanity_.
    What in good English?]


  [Illustration: HERCULES LEONEM SUPERAT]

LV. HERCULES BECOMES SUBJECT TO EURYSTHEUS[1] ·
      HE STRANGLES THE NEME´AN LION

Itaque Herculēs Pȳthiae tōtam rem dēmonstrāvit nec scelus suum abdidit.
Ubi iam Herculēs fīnem fēcit, Pȳthia iussit eum ad urbem Tīryntha[2]
discēdere et ibi rēgī Eurystheō sēsē committere. Quae[3] ubi audīvit,
Herculēs ad illam urbem statim contendit et Eurystheō sē in servitūtem
trādidit et dīxit, “Quid prīmum, Ō rēx, mē facere iubēs?” Eurystheus,
quī perterrēbātur vī et corpore ingentī Herculis et eum occidī[4]
studēbat, ita respondit: “Audī, Herculēs! Multa mira[5] nārrantur dē
leōne saevissimō quī hōc tempore in valle Nemaeā omnia vāstat. Iubeō tē,
virōrum omnium fortissimum, illō mōnstrō hominēs līberāre.” Haec verba
Herculī maximē placuērunt. “Properābo,” inquit, “et parēbō imperiō[6]
tuō.” Tum in silvās in quibus leō habitābat statim iter fēcit. Mox feram
vīdit et plūrīs impetūs fēcit; frūstrā tamen, quod neque sagittīs neque
ūllō aliō tēlō mōnstrum vulnerāre potuit. Dēnique Herculēs saevum leōnem
suīs ingentibus bracchiīs rapuit et faucīs eius omnibus vīribus
compressit. Hōc modō brevī tempore eum interfēcit. Tum corpus leōnis ad
oppidum in umerīs reportāvit et pellem posteā prō[7] veste gerēbat.
Omnēs autem quō eam regiōnem incolēbant, ubi fāmam dē morte leōnis
ingentis accēpērunt, erant laetissimī et Herculem laudābant verbīs
amplissimīs.

    [Footnote 1: «Eu-rys´theus» (pronounced _U-ris´thūs_) was king of
    _Tī´ryns_, a Grecian city, whose foundation goes back to prehistoric
    times.]

    [Footnote 2: «Tīryntha», the acc. case of «Tīryns», a Greek noun.]

    [Footnote 3: «Quae», obj. of «audīvit». It is placed first to make a
    close connection with the preceding sentence. This is called a
    connecting relative.]

    [Footnote 4: «occīdī», pres. pass. infin.]

    [Footnote 5: «mīra», _marvelous things_, the adj. being used as a
    noun. Cf. «omnia», in the next line.]

    [Footnote 6: «imperiō», §501.14.]

    [Footnote 7: «prō», _for, instead of_.]


LVI. SLAYING THE LERNE´AN HYDRA

Deinde Herculēs ab Eurystheō iussus est Hydram occīdere. Itaque cum
amīcō Iolāō[1] contendit ad palūdem Lernaeam ubi Hydra incolēbat. Hoc
autem mōnstrum erat serpēns ingēns quae novem capita habēbat. Mox is
mōnstrum repperit et summō[2] cum perīculō collum eius sinistrā manū
rapuit et tenuit. Tum dextrā manū capita novem abscīdere incēpit, sed
frūstrā labōrābat, quod quotiēns hoc fēcerat totiēns alia nova capita
vidēbat. Quod[3] ubi vīdit, statuit capita ignī cremāre. Hōc modō octō
capita dēlēvit, sed extrēmum caput vulnerārī nōn potuit, quod erat
immortāle. Itaque illud sub ingentī saxō Herculēs posuit et ita
victōriam reportāvit.

    [Footnote 1: «Iolāō», abl. of _I-o-lā´us_, the hero’s best friend.]

    [Footnote 2: Note the emphatic position of this adjective.]

    [Footnote 3: «Quod ubi», _when he saw this_, another instance of the
    connecting relative. Cf. p. 199, l. 3.]


LVII. THE ARCADIAN STAG AND THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR

Postquam Eurystheō mors Hydrae nuntiata est, summus terror animum eius
occupavit. Itaque iussit Herculem capere et ad sē reportāre cervum
quendam; nam minimē cupīvit tantum virum in rēgnō suō tenēre. Hie autem
cervus dīcēbātur aurea cornua et pedēs multō[1] celeriōrēs ventō[2]
habēre. Prīmum Herculēs vestīgia animālis petīvit, deinde, ubi cervum
ipsum vīdit, omnibus vīribus currere incēpit. Per plūrimōs diēs
contendit nec noctū cessāvit. Dēnique postquam per tōtum annum
cucurrerat--ita dīcitur--cervum iam dēfessum cēpit et ad Eurystheum
portāvit.

Tum vērō iussus est Herculēs aprum quendam capere quī illō tempore agrōs
Erymanthiōs vāstābat et hominēs illīus locī magnopere perterrēbat.
Herculēs laetē negōtium suscēpit et in Arcadiam celeriter sē recēpit.
Ibi mox aprum repperit. Ille autem; simul atque Herculem vīdit, statim
quam[3] celerrimē fūgit et metū perterritus in fossam altam sēsē
abdidit. Herculēs tamen summā cum difficultāte eum extrāxit, nec aper
ūllō modō sēsē līberāre potuit, et vīvus ad Eurystheum portātus est.

    [Footnote 1: «multō», §501.27.]

    [Footnote 2: «ventō», §501.34.]

    [Footnote 3: «quam». What is the force of «quam» with a
    superlative?]


LVIII. HERCULES CLEANS THE AUGE´AN STABLES AND KILLS THE
  STYMPHALIAN BIRDS

Deinde Eurystheus Herculī hunc labōrem multō graviōrem imperāvit.
Augēās[1] quīdam, quī illō tempore rēgnum Ēlidis[2] obtinēbat, tria
mīlia boum[3] habēbat. Hī[4] ingentī stabulō continēbantur. Hoc
stabulum, quod per trīgintā annōs nōn pūrgātum erat, Herculēs intrā
spatium ūnīus diēī pūrgāre iussus est. llle negōtium alacriter suscēpit,
et prīmum labōre gravissimō maximam fossam fōdit per quam flūminis aquam
dē montibus ad mūrum stabulī dūxit. Tum partem parvam mūrī dēlēvit et
aquam in stabulum immīsit. Hōc modō fīnm operis fēcit ūnō diē facillimē.

Post paucōs diēs Herculēs ad oppidum Stymphālum iter fēcit; nam
Eurystheus iusserat eum avis Stymphālidēs occīdere. Hae avēs rōstra
ferrea habēbant et hominēs miserōs dēvorābant. Ille, postquam ad locum
pervēnit, lacum vīdit in quō avēs incolēbant. Nūllō tamen modō Herculēs
avibus adpropinquāre potuit; lacus enim nōn ex aquā sed ē līmō
cōnstitit.[5] Dēnique autem avēs [6]dē aliquā causā perterritae in aurās
volāvērunt et magna pars eārum sagittīs Herculis occīsa est.

    [Footnote 1: «Augēās», pronounced in English _Aw-jē´as_.]

    [Footnote 2: «Ēlidis», gen. case of «Ēlis», a district of Greece.]

    [Footnote 3: «boum», gen. plur. of «bōs». For construction see
    §501.11.]

    [Footnote 4: «ingentī stabulō», abl. of means, but in our idiom we
    should say _in a huge stable_.]

    [Footnote 5: «cōnstitit», from «consto».]

    [Footnote 6: «dē aliquā causā perterritae», _frightened for some
    reason_.]


  [Illustration: HERCULES ET TAURUS]

LIX. HERCULES CAPTURES THE CRETAN BULL AND CARRIES HIM LIVING TO
EURYSTHEUS

Tum Eurystheus iussit Herculem portāre vīvum ex īnsulā Crētā taurum
quendam saevissimum. Ille igitur nāvem cōnscendit--nam ventus erat
idōneus--atque statim solvit. Postquam trīduum nāvigavit, incolumis
īnsulae adpropinquāvit. Deinde, postquam omnia parāta sunt, contendit ad
eam regiōnem quam taurus vexābat. Mox taurum vīdit ac sine ūllō metū
cornua eius corripuit. Tum ingentī labōre mōnstrum ad nāvem trāxit atque
cum hāc praedā ex īnsulā discessit.


THE FLESH-EATING HORSES OF DIOME´DES

Postquam ex īnsulā Crētā domum pervēnit, Hercules ab Eurystheō in
Thrāciam missus est. Ibi Diomēdēs quīdam, vir saevissimus, rēgnum
obtinēbat et omnīs ā fīnibus suīs prohibēbat. Herculēs iussus erat equōs
Diomedis rapere et ad Eurystheum dūcere. Hī autem equī hominēs
miserrimōs dēvorābant dē quibus rēx supplicium sūmere cupiēbat. Herculēs
ubi pervēnit, prīmum equōs ā rēge postulāvit, sed rēx eōs dēdere
recūsāvit. Deinde ille īrā commōtus rēgem occīdit et corpus eius equīs
trādidit. Itaque is quī anteā multōs necāverat, ipse eōdem suppliciō
necātus est. Et equī, nūper saevissima animālia, postquam dominī suī
corpus dēvorāvērunt, mānsuētī erant.


LX. THE BELT OF HIPPOL´YTE, QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS

Gēns Amāzonum[1] dīcitur[2] omnīnō ex mulieribus fuisse. Hae cum virīs
proelium committere nōn verēbantur. Hippolytē, Amāzonum rēgīna, balteum
habuit pulcherrimum. Hunc balteum possidēre fīlia Eurystheī vehementer
cupiēbat. Itaque Eurystheus iussit Herculem impetum in Amāzonēs facere.
Ille multīs cum cōpiīs nāvem cōnscendīt et paucis diēbus in Amāzonum
fīnīs pervēnit, ac balteum postulāvit. Eum trādere ipsa Hipporytē quidem
cupīvit; reliquīs tamen Amazonibus[3] persuādēre nōn potuit. Postrīdiē
Herculēs proelium commīsit. Multās hōrās utrimque quam fortissimē
pugnātum est Dēnique tamen mulieres terga vertērunt et fugā salūtem
petiērunt. Multae autem captae sunt, in quō numerō erat ipsa Hippolytē.
Herculēs postquam balteum accēpit, omnibus captīvīs lībertātem dedit.

    [Footnote 1: A fabled tribe of warlike women living in Asia Minor.]

    [Footnote 2: «omnīnō», etc., _to have consisted entirely of women._]

    [Footnote 3: «Amāzonibus», §501.14.]


  [Illustration: HERCULES ET CERBERUS]

THE DESCENT TO HADES AND THE DOG CER´BERUS

Iamque ūnus modo ē duodecim labōribus relinquēbātur sed inter omnīs hic
erat difficillimus. Iussus est enim canem Cerberum[4] ex Orcō in lūcem
trahere. Ex Orcō autem nēmō anteā reverterat. Praetereā Cerberus erat
mōnstrum maximē horribile et tria capita habēbat. Herculēs postquam
imperia Eurystheī accēpit, statim profectus est et in Orcum dēscendit.
Ibi vērō nōn sine summō periculō Cerberum manibus rapuit et ingentī cum
labōre ex Orcō in lūcem et adurbem Eurystheī trāxit.

Sic duodecim laborēs illī[5] intrā duodecim annōs cōnfectī sunt. Dēmum
post longam vītam Herculēs ā deīs receptus est et Iuppiter fīliō suō
dedit immortālitātem.

    [Footnote 4: The dog Cerberus guarded the gate of Orcus, the abode
    of the dead.]

    [Footnote 5: «illī», _those famous._]


  [Illustration: PUERI ROMANI]

P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY[1]

LXI. PUBLIUS IS BORN NEAR POMPE´II

P. Cornēlius Lentulus,[2] adulēscēns Rōmānus, amplissimā familiā[3]
nātus est; nam pater eius, Mārcus, erat dux perītissimus, cuius
virtūte[4] et cōnsiliō multae victōriae reportātae erant; atque mater
eius, lūlia, ā clārissimīs maiōribus orta est. Nōn vērō in urbe sed
rūrī[5] Pūblius nātus est, et cum mātre habitābat in vīllā quae in maris
lītore et sub radīcibus magnī montis sita erat. Mōns autem erat Vesuvius
et parva urbs Pompēiī octō mīlia[6] passuum[7] aberat. In Italiā antīquā
erant plūrimae quidem villae et pulchrae, sed inter hās omnīs nūlla erat
pulchrior quam villa Mārcī Iūliaeque. Frōns vīllae mūrō a maris
fluctibus mūniēbātur. Hinc mare et lītora et īnsulae longē lātēque
cōnspicī[8] ac saepe nāvēs longae et onerāriae poterant. Ā tergō et ab
utrōque latere agrī ferācissimī patēbant. Undique erat magna variōrum
flōrum cōpia et multa ingentium arborum genera quae aestāte[9] umbram
dēfessīs agricolīs grātissimam adferēbant. Praetereā erant[10] in agrīs
stabulīsque multa animālium genera, nōn sōlum equī et bovēs sed etiam
rārae avēs. Etiam erat[10] magna piscīna plēna piscium; nam Rōmānī
piscīs dīligenter colēbant.

    [Footnote 1: This story is fiction with certain historical facts in
    Cæsar’s career as a setting. However, the events chronicled might
    have happened, and no doubt did happen to many a Roman youth.]

    [Footnote 2: A Roman had three names, as, «Pūblius» (given name),
    «Cornēlius» (name of the _gēns_ or clan), «Lentulus» (family name).]

    [Footnote 3: Abl. of source, which is akin to the abl. of
    separation (§501.32).]

    [Footnote 4: «virtūte», §501.24.]

    [Footnote 5: «rūrī», §501.36.1.]

    [Footnote 6: «mīlia», §501.21.]

    [Footnote 7: «passuum», §501.11.]

    [Footnote 8: «cōnspicī», infin. with poterant, §215. Consult the
    map of Italy for the approximate location of the villa.]

    [Footnote 9: «aestāte», §501.35.]

    [Footnote 10: How are the forms of «sum» translated when they
    precede the subject?]


  [Illustration: CASA ROMANA]

LXII. HIS LIFE ON THE FARM

Huius vīllae Dāvus, servus Mārcī, est vīlicus[1] et cum Lesbiā uxōre
omnia cūrat. Vīlicus et uxor in casā humilī, mediīs in agrīs sitā,
habitant. Ā prīmā lūce ūsque ad vesperum sē[2] gravibus labōribus
exercent ut omnī rēs bene gerant.[3] Plūrima enim sunt officia Dāvī et
Lesbiae. Vīlicus servōs regit nē tardī sint[3]; mittit aliōs quī agrōs
arent,[3] aliōs quī hortōs inrigent,[3] et opera in[4] tōtum diem
impōnit. Lesbia autem omnibus vestīmenta parat, cibum coquit, pānem
facit.

Nōn longē ab hōrum casā et in summō colle situm surgēbat domicilium
ipsīus dominī dominaeque amplissimum. Ibi plūrīs annōs[5] Pūblius cum
mātre vītam fēlīcem agēbat; nam pater eius, Mārcus, in terrīs longinquīs
gravia reī pūblicae bella gerēbat nec domum[6] revertī poterat. Neque
puerō quidem molestum est rūrī[7] vīvere. Eum multae rēs dēlectant.
Magnopere amat silvās, agrōs, equōs, bovēs, gallīnās, avīs, reliquaque
animālia. Saepe plūrīs hōrās[8] ad mare sedet quō[9] melius fluctūs et
nāvīs spectet. Nec omnīnō sine comitibus erat, quod Lȳdia, Dāvī fīlia,
quae erat eiusdem aetātis, cum eō adhūc infante lūdēbat, inter quōs cum
annīs amīcitia crēscēbat. Lȳdia nūllum alium ducem dēligēbat et Pūblius
ab puellae latere rārō discēdēbat. Itaque sub clārō Italiae sōle Pūblius
et Lȳdia, amīcī fidēlissimī, per campōs collīsque cotīdiē vagābantur.
Modo in silvā fīnitimā lūdebant ubi Pūblius sagittīs[10] celeribus avis
dēiciēbat et Lȳdia corōnīs variōrum flōrum comās suās ōrnābat; modo
aquam et cibum portābant ad Dāvum servōsque dēfessōs quī agrōs colēbant:
modo in casā parvā aut hōrās lactās in lūdō cōnsūmēbant aut auxilium
dabant Lesbiae, quae cibum virō et servīs parābat vel aliās rēs
domesticās agēbat.

    [Footnote 1: The «vīlicus» was a slave who acted as overseer of a
    farm. He directed the farming operations and the sale of the
    produce.]

    [Footnote 2: «se», reflexive pron., object of «exercent».]

    [Footnote 3: For the construction, see §501.40.]

    [Footnote 4: «in», _for_.]

    [Footnote 5: «annōs», §501.21.]

    [Footnote 6: «domum», §501.20.]

    [Footnote 7: «rūrī», §501.36.1.]

    [Footnote 8: «hōrās», cf. «annōs», line 17.]

    [Footnote 9: «quō ... spectet», §§349, 350.]

    [Footnote 10: «sagittis», §501.24.]


LXIII. MARCUS LENTULUS, THE FATHER OF PUBLIUS, IS SHIPWRECKED ·
JULIA RECEIVES A LETTER FROM HIM

Iam Pūblius[1] decem annōs habēbat cum M.Cornēlius Lentulus, pater eius,
quī quīnque annōs[2] grave bellum in Asiā gerēbat, non sine glōriā
domum[3] revertēbātur. Namque multa secunda proelia fēcerat, maximās
hostium cōpiās dēlēverat, multās urbīs populo[4] Rōmānō inimīcās
cēperat. Primum nūntius pervēnit quī ā Lentulō[5] missus erat[6] ut
profectiōnem suam nūntiāret. Deinde plūrīs diēs[7] reditum virī optimī
māter fīliusque exspectābant et animīs[8] sollicitis deōs immortālīs
frūstrā colēbant. Tum dēmum hās litterās summo cum gaudiō accēpērunt:

[9]“Mārcus Iūliae suac salūtem dīcit. Sī valēs, bene est; ego valeō. Ex
Graeciā, quō[10] praeter spem et opīniōnem hodiē pervēnī, hās litterās
ad tē scribō. Namque nāvis nostra frācta est; nōs autem--[11]dīs est
gratia--incolumes sumus. Ex Asiae[12] portū nāvem lēnī ventō solvimus.
Postquam[13] altum mare tenuimus [14]nec iam ūllae terrae appāruērunt,
caelum undique et undique fluctūs, subitō magna tempestās coorta est et
nāvem vehementissimē adflīxit. Ventīs fluctibusque adflīctātī[15] nec
sōlem discernere nec cursum tenēre poterāmus et omnia praesentem mortem
intentābant. Trīs diēs[16] et trīs noctīs[16] sine rēmīs vēlīsque
agimur. Quārtō diē[17] prīmum terra vīsa est et violenter in saxa, quae
nōn longē ā lītore aberant, dēiectī sumus. Tum vērō maiōra perīcula
timēbāmus; sed nauta quīdam, vir fortissimus, ex nāve in fluctūs īrātōs
dēsiluit [18]ut fūnem ad lītus portāret; quam rem summō labōre vix
effēcit. Ita omnēs servātī sumus. Grātiās igitur et honōrem Neptūnō
dēbēmus, quī deus nōs ē perīculō ēripuit. Nunc Athēnīs[19] sum, quō
cōnfūgī ut mihi paucās hōrās ad quiētem darem.[20] Quam prīmum autem
aliam nāvem condūcam ut iter ad Italiam reliquum cōnficiam et domum[21]
ad meōs cārōs revertar. Salūtā nostrum Pūblium amīcissimē et valētūdinem
tuam cūrā dīligenter. [22]Kalendīs Mārtiīs.”

    [Footnote 1: _was ten years old_.]

    [Footnote 2: «annōs», §501.21.]

    [Footnote 3: «domum», §501.20.]

    [Footnote 4: «populō», dat. with inimīcās, cf. §501.16.]

    [Footnote 5: «Lentulō», §501.33.]

    [Footnote 6: «ut ... nūntiāret», §501.40.]

    [Footnote 7: «diēs», cf. annōs, 1. 9.]

    [Footnote 8: «animīs», abl. of manner. Do you see one in line 15?]

    [Footnote 9: This is the usual form for the beginning of a Latin
    letter. First we have the greeting, and then the expression Sī
    valēs, etc. The date of the letter is usually given at the end, and
    also the place of writing, if not previously mentioned in the
    letter.]

    [Footnote 10: «quō», _where_.]

    [Footnote 11: «dīs est grātia», _thank God_, in our idiom.]

    [Footnote 12: Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in Asia
    Minor.]

    [Footnote 13: «altum mare tenuimus», _we were well out to sea._]

    [Footnote 14: «nec iam», _and no longer_.]

    [Footnote 15: «adflīctātī», perf. passive part. _tossed about_.]

    [Footnote 16: What construction?]

    [Footnote 17: «diē», §501.35.]

    [Footnote 18: «ut ... portāret», §501.40.]

    [Footnote 19: «Athēnīs», §501.36.1.]

    [Footnote 20: «darem», cf. «portāret», l. 6.]

    [Footnote 21: Why not «ad domum»?]

    [Footnote 22: «Kalendīs Mārtiīs», _the Calends_ or _first of March_;
    abl. of time, giving the date of the letter.]


LXIV. LENTULUS REACHES HOME · PUBLIUS VISITS POMPEII WITH HIS FATHER

Post paucōs diēs nāvis M. Cornēlī Lentulī portum Mīsēnī[1] petiit, quī
portus nōn longē ā Pompēiīs situs est; quō in portū classis Rōmānā
pōnēbātur et ad pugnās nāvālīs ōrnābātur. Ibi nāvēs omnium generum
cōnspicī poterant. Iamque incrēdibilī celeritāte nāvis longa quā
Lentulus vehēbātur lītorī adpropinquāvit; nam nōn sōlum ventō sed etiam
rēmīs impellēbātur. In altā puppe stābat gubernātor et nōn procul aliquī
mīlitēs Rōmānī cum armīs splendidīs, inter quōs clārissimus erat
Lentulus. Deinde servī rēmīs contendere cessāvērunt[2]; nautae vēlum
contrāxērunt et ancorās iēcērunt. Lentulus statim ē nāvī ēgressus est
et[3] ad villam suam properāvit. Eum Iūlia, Pūblius, tōtaque familia
excēpērunt. [4]Quī complexūs, quanta gaudia fuērunt!

Postrīdiē eius diēī Lentulus fīliō suō dīxit, “Venī, mī Pūblī, mēcum.
Pompēiōs iter hodiē faciam. Māter tua suādet[5] ut frūctūs et cibāria
emam. Namque plūrīs amīcōs ad cēnam vocāvimus et multīs rēbus[6] egēmus.
Ea hortātur ut quam prīmum proficīscāmur.” “Libenter, mī pater,” inquit
Pūblius. “Tēcum esse mihi semper est grātum; nec Pompēiōs umquam vīdī.
Sine morā proficīscī parātus sum.” Tum celeriter currum cōnscendērunt et
ad urbis mūrōs vectī sunt. Stabiānā portā[7] urbem ingressī sunt.
Pūblius strātās viās mīrātur et saxa altiōra quae in mediō disposita
erant et altās orbitās quās rotae inter haec saxa fēcerant. Etiam
strepitum mīrātur, multitūdinem, carrōs, fontīs, domōs, tabernās,
forum[8] cum statuīs, templīs, reliquīsque aedificiīs pūblicīs.

    [Footnote 1: Misenum had an excellent harbor, and under the emperor
    Augustus became the chief naval station of the Roman fleet. See map
    of Italy.]

    [Footnote 2: Why is the infinitive used with «cessāvērunt»?]

    [Footnote 3: See Plate I, Frontispiece.]

    [Footnote 4: Observe that these words are exclamatory.]

    [Footnote 5: What construction follows «suādeō»? §501.41.]

    [Footnote 6: «rēbus», §501.32.]

    [Footnote 7: This is the abl. of the _way by which_ motion takes
    place, sometimes called the abl. of route. The construction comes
    under the general head of the abl. of means. For the scene here
    described, see Plate II, p. 53, and notice especially the
    stepping-stones for crossing the street («saxa quae in mediō
    disposita erant»).]

    [Footnote 8: The forum of Pompeii was surrounded by temples, public
    halls, and markets of various sorts. Locate Pompeii on the map.]


LXV. A DAY AT POMPEII

Apud forum ē currū dēscendērunt et Lentulus dīxit, “Hīc sunt multa
tabernārum genera, mī Pūblī. Ecce, trāns viam est popīna! [1]Hoc genus
tabernārum cibāria vēndit. Frūctūs quoque ante iānuam stant. Ibi cibāria
mea emam.” “Optimē,” respondit Pūblius. “At ubi, mī pater, crūstula
emere possumus? Namque māter nōbīs imperāvit [2]ut haec quoque
parārēmus. Timeō ut[3] ista popīna vēndat crūstula.” “Bene dīcis,”
inquit Lentulus. “At nōnne vidēs illum fontem ā dextrā ubi aqua per
leōnis caput fluit? In illō ipsō locō est taberna pīstōris quī sine
dubiō vēndit crūstula.”

Brevī tempore[4] omnia erant parāta, iamque [5]quīnta hōra erat. Deinde
Lentulus et fīlius ad caupōnam properāvērunt, quod famē[6] et sitī[7]
urgēbantur. Ibi sub arboris umbrā sēdērunt et puerō imperāvērunt ut
sibi[8] cibum et vīnum daret. Huic imperiō[9] puer celeriter pāruit. Tum
laetī sē[10] ex labōre refēcērunt.

Post prandium prefectī sunt ut alia urbis spectācula vidērent. Illō
tempore fuērunt Pompēiīs[11] multa templa, duo theātra, thermae
magnumque amphitheātrum, quae omnia post paucōs annōs flammīs atque
incendiīs Vesuvī et terrae mōtū dēlēta sunt. Ante hanc calamitātem autem
hominēs [12]nihil dē monte veritī sunt. In amphitheātrō quidem Pūblius
morārī cupīvit ut spectācula gladiātōria vidēret, quae in[13] illum
ipsum diem prōscrīpta erant et iam [14]rē vērā incēperant. Sed Lentulus
dīxit, “Morārī, Pūblī, [15]vereor ut possīmus. Iam decima hōra est et
via est longa. Tempus suādet ut quam prīmum domum revertāmur.” Itaque
servō imperāvit ut equōs iungeret, et sōlis occāsū[16] ad vīllam
pervēnērunt.

    [Footnote 1: We say, _this kind of shop_; Latin, _this kind of
    shops_.]

    [Footnote 2: «ut ... parārēmus», §501.41.]

    [Footnote 3: How is «ut» translated after a verb of fearing? How
    «nē»? Cf. §501.42.]

    [Footnote 4: «tempore», §501.35.]

    [Footnote 5: «quīnta hōra». The Romans numbered the hours of the day
    consecutively from sunrise to sunset, dividing the day, whether long
    or short, into twelve equal parts.]

    [Footnote 6: «famē» shows a slight irregularity in that the abl.
    ending «-e» is long.]

    [Footnote 7: «sitis», _thirst_, has «-im» in the acc. sing., «-ī» in
    the abl. sing., and no plural.]

    [Footnote 8: Observe that the reflexive pronoun «sibi» does not here
    refer to the subject of the subordinate clause in which it stands,
    but to the subject of the main clause. This so-called _indirect_ use
    of the reflexive is often found in object clauses of purpose.]

    [Footnote 9: What case? Cf. §501.14.]

    [Footnote 10: «sē», cf. p. 205, l. 7, and note.]

    [Footnote 11: «Pompēiīs», §501.36.1.]

    [Footnote 12: «nihil ... veritī sunt», _had no fears of the
    mountain_.]

    [Footnote 13: «in», _for_.]

    [Footnote 14: «rē vērā», _in fact_.]

    [Footnote 15: «vereor ut», §501.42.]

    [Footnote 16: «occāsū», §501.35.]


LXVI. LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON

Ā prīmīs annīs quidem Iūlia ipsa fīlium suum docuerat, et Pūblius nōn
sōlum [1]pūrē et Latīnē loquī poterat sed etiam commodē legēbat et
scrībēbat. Iam Ennium[2] aliōsque poētās lēgerat. Nunc vērō Pūblius
[3]duodecim annōs habēbat; itaque eī pater bonum magistrum, [4]virum
omnī doctrīnā et virtūte ōrnātissimum, parāvit, [5]quī Graeca, mūsicam,
aliāsque artīs docēret. [6]Namque illīs temporibus omnēs ferē gentēs
Graecē loquēbantur. Cum Pūbliō aliī puerī, Lentulī amīcōrum fīliī,[7]
discēbant. Nam saepe apud Rōmānōs mōs erat [8]nōn in lūdum fīliōs
mittere sed domī per magistrum docēre. Cotīdiē discipulī cum magistrō in
peristȳlō[9] Mārcī domūs sedēbant. Omnēs puerī bullam auream, orīginis
honestae signum, in collō gerēbant, et omnēs togā praetextā amictī
erant, [10]quod nōndum sēdecim annōs[11] nātī sunt.

    [Footnote 1: «pūrē ... poterat», freely, _could speak Latin well_.
    What is the literal translation?]

    [Footnote 2: «Ennium», the father of Latin poetry.]

    [Footnote 3: «duodecim ... habēbat», cf. p. 206, l. 8, and note.]

    [Footnote 4: «virum», etc., _a very well-educated and worthy man_.
    Observe the Latin equivalent.]

    [Footnote 5: «quī ... docēret», a relative clause of purpose. Cf. §§
    349, 350.]

    [Footnote 6: In Cæsar’s time Greek was spoken more widely in the
    Roman world than any other language.]

    [Footnote 7: «fīliī», in apposition with «puerī».]

    [Footnote 8: «nōn ... mittere». This infinitive clause is the
    subject of «erat». Cf. §216. The same construction is repeated in
    the next clause, «domī ... docēre». The object of «docēre» is
    «fīliōs» understood.]

    [Footnote 9: The peristyle was an open court surrounded by a
    colonnade.]

    [Footnote 10: At the age of sixteen a boy laid aside the _bulla_
    and the _toga praetexta_ and assumed _toga virīlis_ or manly gown.]

    [Footnote 11: «annōs», §501.21. The expression «nōndum sēdecim
    annōs nātī sunt» means literally, _they were born not yet sixteen
    years_. This is the usual expression for age. What is the English
    equivalent?]


  [Illustration: TABULA ET STILUS]

SCENE IN SCHOOL · AN EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION

DISCIPULĪ. Salvē, magister.
MAGISTER. Vōs quoque omnēs, salvēte. [1]Tabulāsne portāvistis et
  stilōs?
D. Portāvimus.
M. Iam fābulam Aesōpī[2] discēmus. Ego legam, vōs in tabulīs scrībite.
  Et tū, Pūblī, dā mihi ē capsā[3] Aesōpī volūmen.[4] Iam audīte
  omnēs: _Vulpēs et Ūva_.
Vulpēs ōlim famē coācta ūvam dēpendentem vīdit. Ad ūvam saliēbat,
  sūmere cōnāns. Frūstrā diū cōnāta, tandem īrāta erat et salīre
  cessāns dīxit: “Illa ūva est acerba; acerbam ūvam [5]nihil moror.”
Omnia´ne scrīpsistis, puerī?
D. Omnia, magister.

    [Footnote 1: Tablets were thin boards of wood smeared with wax. The
    writing was done with a stylus, a pointed instrument like a pencil,
    made of bone or metal, with a knob at the other end. The knob was
    used to smooth over the wax in making erasures and corrections.]

    [Footnote 2: «Aesōpī», the famous Greek to whom are ascribed most of
    the fables current in the ancient world.]

    [Footnote 3: A cylindrical box for holding books and papers, shaped
    like a hatbox.]

    [Footnote 4: Ancient books were written on rolls made of papy´rus.]

    [Footnote 5: «nihil moror», _I care nothing for_.]


LXVII. PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME TO FINISH HIS EDUCATION

Iamque Pūblius, [1]quīndecim annōs nātus, [2]prīmīs litterārum elementīs
cōnfectīs, Rōmam petere voluit ut scholās grammaticōrum et philosophōrum
frequentāret. Et facillimē patrī[3] suō, qui ipse philosophiae studiō
tenēbātur, persuāsit. Itaque [4]omnibus rēbus ad profectiōnem
comparātīs, pater fīliusque equīs animōsīs vectī[5] ad magnam urbem
profectī sunt. Eōs proficīscentīs Iūlia tōtaque familia vōtīs
precibusque prōsecūtae sunt. Tum per loca[6] plāna et collis silvīs
vestītōs viam ingressī sunt ad Nōlam, quod oppidum eōs hospitiō modicō
excēpit. Nōlae[7] duās hōrās morātī sunt, quod sōl merīdiānus ārdēbat.
Tum rēctā viā[8] circiter vīgintī mīlia[9] passuum[9] Capuam,[9] ad
īnsignem Campāniae urbem, contendērunt. Eō[10] multā nocte dēfessī
pervēnērunt. [11]Postrīdiē eius diēī, somnō et cibō recreātī, Capuā
discessērunt et [13]viam Appiam ingressī, quae Capuam tangit et ūsque ad
urbem Rōmam dūcit, ante merīdiem Sinuessam pervēnērunt, quod oppidum
tangit mare. Inde prīmā lūce proficīscentēs Formiās[13] properāvērunt,
ubi Cicerō, ōrātor clarissimus, quī forte apud vīllam suam erat, eōs
benignē excēpit. Hinc [14]itinere vīgintī quīnque mīlium passuum factō,
Tarracīnam, oppidum in saxīs altissimīs situm, vīdērunt. Iamque nōn
longē aberant palūdēs magnae, quae multa mīlia passuum undique patent.
Per eās pedestris via est gravis et in nāve viātōrēs vehuntur. Itaque
[15]equīs relictīs Lentulus et Pūblius nāvem cōnscendērunt, et, ūnā
nocte in trānsitū cōnsūmptā, Forum Appī vēnērunt. Tum brevī tempore
Arīcia eōs excēpit. Hoc oppidum, in colle situm, ab urbe Romā sēdecim
mīlia passuum abest. Inde dēclivis via ūsque ad latum campum dūcit ubi
Rōma stat. Quem ad locum ubi Pūblius vēnit et Rōmam adhūc remōtam,
maximam tōtīus orbis terrārum urbem, cōnspēxit, summā admīrātiōne et
gaudiō adfectus est. Sine morā dēscendērunt, et, mediō intervāllō quam
celerrimē superātō, urbem portā Capēnā ingressī sunt.

    [Footnote 1: «quīndecim», etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.]

    [Footnote 2: «prīmīs ... cōnfectīs», abl. abs. Cf. §501.28.]

    [Footnote 3: «patrī», dat. with «persuāsit».]

    [Footnote 4: «omnibus ... comparātīs», cf. note 2.]

    [Footnote 5: «vectī», perf. pass. part. of «vehō».]

    [Footnote 6: What is there peculiar about the gender of this word?]

    [Footnote 7: «Nōlae», locative case, §501.36.2.]

    [Footnote 8: «viā», cf. «portā», p. 208, l. 7, and note.]

    [Footnote 9: What construction?]

    [Footnote 10: «Eō», adv. _there_.]

    [Footnote 11: «Postrīdiē eius diēī», _on the next day_.]

    [Footnote 12: «viam Appiam», the most famous of all Roman roads, the
    great highway from Rome to Tarentum and Brundisium, with numerous
    branches. Locate on the map the various towns that are mentioned in
    the lines that follow.]

    [Footnote 13: «Formiās», _Formiæ_, one of the most beautiful spots
    on this coast, and a favorite site for the villas of rich Romans.]

    [Footnote 14: «itinere ... factō», abl. abs. The gen. «mīlium»
    modifies «itinere».]

    [Footnote 15: «equīs relictīs». What construction? Point out a
    similar one in the next line.]


  [Illustration: BULLA]

LXVIII. PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS

Pūblius iam tōtum annum Rōmae morābātur[1] multaque urbis spectācula
vīderat et multōs sibi[2] amīcōs parāverat. Eī[3] omnēs favēbant; [4]dē
eō omnēs bene spērāre poterant. Cotīdiē Pūblius scholas philosophōrum et
grammaticōrum tantō studiō frequentābat [5]ut aliīs clārum exemplum
praebēret. Saepe erat cum patre in cūriā[6]; quae rēs effēcit [7]ut
summōs reī pūblicae virōs et audīret et vidēret. Ubi [8]sēdecim annōs
natus est, bullam[9] auream et togam praetextam mōre Rōmānō dēposuit
atque virīlem togam sūmpsit. Virīlis autem toga erat omnīnō alba, sed
praetexta clāvum purpureum in margine habēbat. [10]Dēpōnere togam
praetextam et sūmere togam virīlem erat rēs grātissima puerō Rōmānō,
quod posteā vir et cīvis Rōmānus habēbātur.

[11]Hīs rēbus gestīs Lentulus ad uxōrem suam hās litterās scrīpsit:

[12]“Mārcus Iūliae suae salūtem dīcit. Sī valēs, bene est; ego valeō.
Accēpī tuās litterās. Hās nunc Rōmā per servum fidēlissimum mittō ut dē
Pūbliō nostrō quam celerrimē sciās. Nam hodiē eī togam virīlem dedī.
Ante lucem surrēxī[13] et prīmum bullam auream dē collō eius remōvī. Hāc
Laribus[14] cōnsecrātā et sacrīs factīs, eum togā virīlī vestīvī.
Interim plūrēs amīcī cum multitūdine optimōrum cīvium et honestōrum
clientium pervēnerant [15]quī Pūblium domō in forum dēdūcerent. Ibi in
cīvitātem receptus est et nōmen, Pūblius Cornēlius Lentulus, apud cīvīs
Rōmānōs ascrīptum est. Omnēs eī amīcissimī fuērunt et magna[16] de eō
praedīcunt. Sapientior enim aequālibus[17] est et magnum ingenium habet.
[18]Cūrā ut valeās.”

    [Footnote 1: «morābātur», translate as if pluperfect.]

    [Footnote 2: «sibi», _for himself_.]

    [Footnote 3: «Eī», why dat.?]

    [Footnote 4: «dē ... poterant», in English, _all regarded him as a
    very promising youth;_ but what does the Latin say?]

    [Footnote 5: «ut... praebēret», §501.43.]

    [Footnote 6: «cūriā», a famous building near the Roman Forum.]

    [Footnote 7: «ut ... audīret et vidēret», §501.44.]

    [Footnote 8: «sēdecim, etc.», cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.]

    [Footnote 9: «bullam», cf. p. 210, l. 3, and note 4.]

    [Footnote 10: These infinitive clauses are the subject of «erat».
    Cf. §216.]

    [Footnote 11: «Hīs rēbus gestīs», i.e. the assumption of the _toga
    virilis_ and attendant ceremonies.]

    [Footnote 12: Compare the beginning of this letter with the one on
    page 206.]

    [Footnote 13: «surrēxī», from «surgō».]

    [Footnote 14: The Lares were the spirits of the ancestors, and were
    worshiped as household gods. All that the house contained was
    confided to their care, and sacrifices were made to them daily.]

    [Footnote 15: «quī ... dēdūcerent», §350.]

    [Footnote 16: «magna», _great things_, a neuter adj. used as a
    noun.]

    [Footnote 17: «aequālibus», §501.34.]

    [Footnote 18: «Cūrā ut valeās», _take good care of your health_. How
    does the Latin express this idea?]


LXIX. PUBLIUS JOINS CÆSAR’S ARMY IN GAUL

Pūblius iam adulēscēns postquam togam virīlem sūmpsit, aliīs rēbus
studēre incēpit et praesertim ūsū[1] armōrum sē[2] dīligenter exercuit.
Magis magisque amāvit illās artīs quae mīlitārem animum dēlectant.
Iamque erant [3]quī eī cursum mīlitārem praedīcerent. Nec sine causā,
quod certē patris īsigne exemplum [4]ita multum trahēbat. [5]Paucīs ante
annīs C. Iūlius Caesar, ducum Rōmānōrum maximus, cōnsul creātus erat et
hōc tempore in Galliā bellum grave gerēbat. Atque in exercitū eius
plūrēs adulēscentēs mīlitābant, apud quōs erat amīcus quīdam Pūblī. Ille
Pūblium crēbrīs litterīs vehementer hortābātur [6]ut iter in Galliam
faceret. Neque Pūblius recūsāvit, et, multīs amīcīs ad portam urbis
prōsequentibus, ad Caesaris castra profectus est. Quārtō diē postquam
iter ingressus est, ad Alpīs, montīs altissimōs, pervēnit. Hīs summā
difficultāte superātīs, tandem Gallōrum in fīnibus erat. Prīmō autem
veritus est ut[7] castrīs Rōmānīs adpropinquāre posset, quod Gallī,
maximīs cōpiīs coāctīs, Rōmānōs obsidēbant et viās omnīs iam clauserant.
Hīs rēbus commōtus Pūblius vestem Gallicam induit nē ā Gallīs caperētur,
et ita per hostium cōpiās incolumis ad castra pervenīre potuit. Intrā
mūnītiōnes acceptus, ā Caesare benignē exceptus est. Imperātor fortem
adulēscentem amplissimīs verbīs laudāvit et eum [8]tribūnum mīlītum
creāvit.

    [Footnote 1: Abl. of means.]

    [Footnote 2: «sē», reflexive object of «exercuit».]

    [Footnote 3: «quī ... praedīcerent», §501.45.]

    [Footnote 4: «ita multum trahēbat», _had a great influence in that
    direction_.]

    [Footnote 5: «Paucīs ante annīs», _a few years before_; in Latin,
    _before by a few years_, «ante» being an adverb and «annīs» abl. of
    degree of difference.]

    [Footnote 6: «ut ... faceret», §501.41.]

    [Footnote 7: «ut», how translated here? See §501.42.]

    [Footnote 8: The _military tribune_ was a commissioned officer
    nearly corresponding to our rank of colonel. The tribunes were often
    inexperienced men, so Cæsar did not allow them much responsibility.]


  [Illustration: IMPEDIMENTA]

HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED

Exercitus quī in hostium fīnibus bellum genit multīs perīcuīs
circumdatus est. [1]Quae perīcula ut vītāret, Rōmāni summam cūram
adhībēre solēbant. Adpropinquanteēs cōpiīs hostium agmen ita dispōnēbant
[2]ut imperātor ipse cum plāribus legiōnibus expedītīs[3] prīmum agmen
dūceret. Post eās cōpiās impedīmenta[4] tōtīus exercitūs conlocābant.
[5]Tum legiōnēs quae proximē cōnscrīptae erant tōtum agmen claudēbant.
Equitēs quoque in omnīs partīs dīmittēbantur quī loca explōrārent; et
centuriōnēs praemittēbantur ut locum castrīs idōneum dēligerent. Locus
habēbatur idōneus castrīs [6]quī facile dēfendī posset et prope aquam
esset. Quā dē causā castra[7] in colle ab utrāque parte arduō, ā fronte
lēniter dēclīvī saepe pōnēbantur; vel locus palūdibus cīnctus vel in
flūminis rīpīs situs dēligēbātur. Ad locum postquam exercitus pervēnit,
aliī mīlitum [8]in armīs erant, aliī castra mūnīre incipiēbant. Nam
[9]quō tūtiōrēs ab hostibus mīlitēs essent, nēve incautī et imparātī
opprimerentur, castra fossā lātā et vāllō altō mūniēbant. In castrīs
portae quattuor erant ut ēruptiō mīlitum omnīs in partīs fierī posset.
In angulīs castrōrum erant turrēs dē quibus tēla in hostīs
coniciēbantur. [10]Tālibus in castrīs quālia dēscrīpsimus Pūblius ā
Caesare exceptus est.

    [Footnote 1: «Quae perīcula», object of «vītārent». It is placed
    first to make a proper connection with the preceding sentence.]

    [Footnote 2: «ut ... dūceret», §501.43.]

    [Footnote 3: «expedītīs», i.e. without baggage and ready for
    action.]

    [Footnote 4: «impedīmenta». Much of the baggage was carried in carts
    and on beasts of burden, as is shown above; but, besides this, each
    soldier (unless «expedītus») carried a heavy pack. See also picture,
    p. 159.]

    [Footnote 5: The newest legions were placed in the rear, because
    they were the least reliable.]

    [Footnote 6: «quī ... posset ... esset», §501.45.]

    [Footnote 7: «castra», subject of «pōnēbantur».]

    [Footnote 8: «in armīs erant», _stood under arms_.]

    [Footnote 9: «quō ... essent». When is «quō» used to introduce a
    purpose clause? See §350.I.]

    [Footnote 10: «Tālibus in castrīs quālia», _in such a camp as_.
    It is important to remember the correlatives «tālis ... quālis»,
    _such ... as_.]


  [Illustration: CENTURIO]

LXX. THE RIVAL CENTURIONS

Illīs in castrīs erant duo centuriōnēs,[1] fortissimī virī, T. Pullō et
L. Vorēnus, quōrum neuter alterī virtūte[2] cēdere volēbat. Inter eōs
iam multōs annōs īnfēnsum certāmen gerēbātur. Tum dēmum fīnis
contrōversiae hōc modō[3] factus est. Diē tertiō postquam Pūblius
pervēnit, hostēs, maiōribus cōpiīs coāctīs, ācerrimum impetum in castra
fēcērunt. Tum Pullō, [4]cum Rōmānī tardiōrēs[5] vidērentur, “Cūr
dubitās,” inquit, “Vorēne? Quam commodiōrem occāsiōnem exspectās? Hic
diēs dē virtūte nostrā iūdicābit.” Haec[6] cum dīxisset, extrā
mūnītiōnēs prōcessit et in eam hostium partem quae cōfertissima
[7]vidēbātur inrūpit. Neque Vorēnus quidem tum vāllō[8] sēsē continet,
sed Pullōnem subsequitur. Tum Pullō pīlum in hostīs immittit atque ūnum
ex multitūdine prōcurrentem trāicit. Hunc percussum et exanimātum hostēs
scūtīs prōtegunt et in Pullōnem omnēs tēla coniciunt. Eius scūtum
trānsfīgitur et tēlum in balteō dēfīgitur. Hic cāsus vāgīnam āvertit et
dextram manum eius gladium ēdūcere cōnantis[9] morātur. Eum ita
impedītum hostēs circumsistunt.

Tum vēro [10]eī labōrantī Vorēnus, cum sit inimīcus, tamen auxilium dat.
Ad hunc cōnfestim [11]ā Pullōne omnis multitūdō sē convertit. Gladiō
comminus pugnat Vorēnus, atque, ūnō interfectō, reliquōs paulum
prōpellit. Sed īnstāns cupidius[12] īnfēlīx, [13]pede sē fallente,
concidit.

Huic rūrsus circumventō auxilium dat Pullō, atque ambō incolumēs,
plūribus interfectīs, summā cum laude intrā mūnītiōnēs sē recipiunt. Sic
inimīcōrum alter alterī auxilium dedit nec de eōrum virtūte quisquam
iūdicāre potuit.

    [Footnote 1: A centurion commanded a company of about sixty men. He
    was a common soldier who had been promoted from the ranks for his
    courage and fighting qualities. The centurions were the real leaders
    of the men in battle. There were sixty of them in a legion. The
    centurion in the picture (p. 216) has in his hand a staff with a
    crook at one end, the symbol of his authority.]

    [Footnote 2: «virtūte», §501.30.]

    [Footnote 3: Abl. of manner.]

    [Footnote 4: «cum ... vidērentur», §501.46.]

    [Footnote 5: «tardiōrēs», _too slow_, a not infrequent translation
    of the comparative degree.]

    [Footnote 6: «Haec», obj. of «dīxisset». It is placed before «cum»
    to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. What is the
    construction of «dīxisset»?]

    [Footnote 7: «vidēbatur, inrūpit». Why is the imperfect used in one
    case and the perfect in the other? Cf. §190.]

    [Footnote 8: «vāllō», abl. of means, but in English we should say
    _within the rampart_. Cf. «ingentī stabulō», p. 201, l. 13, and
    note.]

    [Footnote 9: «cōnantis», pres. part. agreeing with «eius».]

    [Footnote 10: «eī labōrantī», indir. obj. of dat.]

    [Footnote 11: «ā Pullōne», _from Pullo_, abl. of separation.]

    [Footnote 12: «cupidius», _too eagerly_.]

    [Footnote 13: «pede sē fallente», lit. _the foot deceiving itself_;
    in our idiom, _his foot slipping_.]


LXXI. THE ENEMY BESIEGING THE CAMP ARE REPULSED

Cum iam sex hōrās pugnatum esset[1] ac nōn sōlum vīrēs sed etiam tēla
Rōmānōs dēficerent[1], atque hostēs ācrius instārent,[1] et vāllum
scindere fossamque complēre incēpissent,[1] Caesar, vir reī mīlitāris
perītissimus, suīs imperāvit ut proelium paulisper intermitterent,[2]
et, signō datō, ex castrīs ērumperent.[2] [3]Quod iussī sunt faciunt, et
subitō ex omnibus portīs ērumpunt. Atque tam celeriter mīlitēs
concurrērunt et tam propinquī erant hostēs[4] ut spatium pīla
coniciendī[5] nōn darētur. Itaque reiectīs pīlīs [6]comminus gladiīs
pugnātum est. Diū et audācter hostēs restitērunt et in extrēmā spē
salūtis tantam virtūtem praestitērunt ut ā dextrō cornū vehementer
[7]multitūdine suōrum aciem Rōmanam premerent. [8]Id imperātor cum
animadvertisset, Pūblium adulēscentem cum equitātū mīsit quī
labōrantibus[9] auxilium daret. Eius impetum sustinēre nōn potuērunt
hostēs[10] et omnēs terga vertērunt. Eōs in fugam datōs Pūblius
subsecūtus est ūsque ad flūmen Rhēnum, quod ab eō locō quīnque mīlia
passuum aberat. Ibi paucī salūtem sibi repperērunt. Omnibus reliquīs
interfectīs, Pūblius et equitēs in castra sēsē recēpērunt. Dē hāc
calamitāte fīnitimae gentēs cum certiōrēs factae essent, ad Caesarem
lēgātōs mīsērunt et sē suaque omnia dēdidērunt.

    [Footnote 1: «pugnātum esset, dēficerent, īnstārent, incēpissent».
    These are all subjunctives with «cum». Cf. §501.46.]

    [Footnote 2: «intermitterent, ērumperent». What use of the
    subjunctive?]

    [Footnote 3: «Quod», etc., _they do as ordered_. The antecedent of
    «quod» is «id» understood, which would be the object of «faciunt».]

    [Footnote 4: «ut ... darētur». Is this a clause of purpose or of
    result?]

    [Footnote 5: «coniciendī», §402.]

    [Footnote 6: «comminus gladiīs pugnātum est», _a hand-to-hand
    conflict was waged with swords_.]

    [Footnote 7: «multitūdine suōrum», _by their numbers_. «suōrum» is
    used as a noun. What is the literal translation of this expression?]

    [Footnote 8: «Id imperātor. Id» is the obj. and «imperātor» the
    subj. of «animadvertisset».]

    [Footnote 9: «labōrantibus». This participle agrees with «iīs»
    understood, the indir. obj. of «daret; qui ... daret» is a purpose
    clause, §501.40.]

    [Footnote 10: «hostēs», subj. of «potuērunt».]


LXXII. PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY · ITS GREAT FORESTS AND STRANGE ANIMALS

Initā aestāte Caesar litterīs certior fīēbat et per explōrātōrēs
cognōscēbat plūrīs cīvitātēs Galliae novīs rēbus studēre,[1] et contrā
populum Rōmānum coniūrāre[1] obsidēsque [2]inter sē dare,[1] atque cum
hīs Germānōs quōsdam quoque sēsē coniūnctūrōs esse.[1] Hīs litterīs
nūntiīsque commōtus Caesar cōnstituit quam celerrimē in Gallōs
proficīscī,[3] ut eōs inopīnantīs opprimeret, et Labiēnum lēgātum cum
duābus legiōnibus peditum et duōbus mīlibus equitum in Germānōs
mittere.[3] [4]Itaque rē frūmentāriā comparātā castra mōvit. Ab
utrōque[5] rēs bene gesta est; nam Caesar tam celeriter in hostium fīnīs
pervēnit ut spatium [6]cōpiās cōgendī nōn darētur[4]; et Labiēnus dē
Germānīs tam grave supplicium sūmpsit ut nēmō ex eā gente in reliquum
tempus Gallīs auxilium dare audēret.[7]

Hoc iter in Germāniam Pūblius quoque fēcit et, [8]cum ibi morārētur,
multa mīrābilia vīdit. Praesertim vērō ingentem silvam mīrābātur, quae
tantae magnitūdinis esse dīcēbātur [9]ut nēmō eam trānsīre posset, nec
quisquam scīret aut initium aut fīnem. Quā dē rē plūra cognōverat ā
mīlite quōdam quī ōlim captus ā Germānīs multōs annōs ibi incoluit.
Ille[10] dē silvā dīcēns, “Īnfīnītae magnitūdinis est haec silva,”
inquit; “nee quisquam est [11]huius Germāniae [12]quī initium eius sciat
aut ad fīnem adierit. Nāscuntur illīc multa tālia animālium genera
quālia reliquīs in locīs nōn inveniuntur. Sunt bovēs quī ūnum[13] cornū
habent; sunt etiam animālia quae appellantur alcēs. Hae nūllōs
crūrum[14] articulōs habent. Itaque, sī forte concidērunt, sēsē ērigere
nūllō modō possunt. Arborēs habent prō[15] cubīlibus; ad eās sē
applicant atque ita reclīnātae quiētem capiunt. Tertium est genus eōrum
quī ūrī appellantur. Hī sunt paulō minōrēs elephantīs.[16] Magna vis
eōrum est et magna vēlōcitās. Neque hominī neque ferae parcunt.[17]”

    [Footnote 1: Observe that all these infinitives are in indirect
    statements after «certior fīēbat», _he was informed_, and
    «cognōscēbat», _he learned_. Cf. §501.48, 49.]

    [Footnote 2: «inter sē», _to each other_.]

    [Footnote 3: «proficīscī, mittere». These infinitives depend upon
    «cōnstituit».]

    [Footnote 4: Before beginning a campaign, food had to be provided.
    Every fifteen days grain was distributed. Each soldier received
    about two pecks. This he carried in his pack, and this constituted
    his food, varied occasionally by what he could find by foraging.]

    [Footnote 5: Abl. of personal agent, §501.33.]

    [Footnote 6: «cōpiās cōgendī», §501.37.1.]

    [Footnote 7: «darētur, audēret», §501.43. «audēret» is not from
    «audiō».]

    [Footnote 8: «cum ... morārētur», §501.46.]

    [Footnote 9: «ut ... posset, ... scīret», §501.43.]

    [Footnote 10: «Ille», subj. of «inquit».]

    [Footnote 11: «huius Germāniae», _of this part of Germany_.]

    [Footnote 12: «quī ... scīat ... adierit», §501.45.]

    [Footnote 13: «ūnum», _only one_.]

    [Footnote 14: «crūrum», from «crūs».]

    [Footnote 15: «prō», _for, in place of_.]

    [Footnote 16: «elephantīs», §501.34.]

    [Footnote 17: «parcunt». What case is used with this verb?]


  [Illustration: VINEA]

LXXIII. THE STORMING OF A CITY

Pūblius plūrīs diēs in Germāniā morātus[1] in Galliam rediit, et ad
Caesaris castra sē contulit. Ille quia molestē ferēbat Gallōs[2] eius
regiōnis obsidēs dare recūsāvisse et exercituī frūmentum praebēre
nōluisse, cōnstituit eīs[3] bellum īnferre. Agrīs vāstātīs, vīcīs
incēnsīs, pervēnit ad oppidum validissimum quod et nātūrā et arte
mūnītum erat. Cingēbātur mūrō vīgintī quīnque pedēs[4] altō. Ā lateribus
duōsitum, praeruptō fastīgiō ad plānitiem vergēgat; ā quārtō tantum[5]
latere aditus erat facilis. Hoc oppidum oppugnāre, [6]cum opus esset
difficillimum, tamen cōnstituit Caesar. Et castrīs mūnītīs Pūbliō
negōtium dedit ut rēs [7]ad oppugnandum necessāriās parāret.

Rōmānōrum autem oppugnātiō est haec.[8] Prīmum turrēs aedificantur
quibus mīlitēs in summum mūrum ēvādere possint[9]; vīneae[10] fīunt
quibus tēctī mīlitēs ad mūrum succēdant; pluteī[11] parantur post quōs
mīlitēs tormenta[12] administrent; sunt quoque arietēs quī mūrum et
portās discutiant. Hīs omnibus rēbus comparātīs, deinde [13]agger ab eā
parte ubi aditus est facillimus exstruitur et cum vīneīs ad ipsum
oppidum agitur. Tum turris in aggere prōmovētur; arietibus quī sub
vīneīs conlocātī erant mūrus et portae discutiuntur; ballistīs,
catapultīs, reliquīsque tormentīs lapidēs et tēla in oppidum
coniciuntur. Postrēmō cum iam turris et agger altitūdinem mūrī adaequant
et arietēs moenia perfrēgērunt,[14] signō datō mīlitēs inruunt et
oppidum expugnant.

    [Footnote 1: «morātus». Is this part. active or passive in meaning?]

    [Footnote 2: «Gallōs», subj. acc. of the infins. «recūsāvisse» and
    «nōluisse». The indirect statement depends upon «molestē ferēbat».]

    [Footnote 3: «eīs», §501.15.]

    [Footnote 4: «pedēs», §501.21.]

    [Footnote 5: «tantum», adv. _only_.]

    [Footnote 6: «cum ... esset», a clause of concession, §501.46.]

    [Footnote 7: «ad oppugnandum», a gerund expressing purpose.]

    [Footnote 8: «haec», _as follows_.]

    [Footnote 9: «possint», subjv. of purpose. Three similar
    constructions follow.]

    [Footnote 10: «vīneae». These «vīneae» were wooden sheds, open in
    front and rear, used to protect men who were working to take a
    fortification. They were about eight feet high, of like width, and
    double that length, covered with raw hides to protect them from
    being set on fire, and moved on wheels or rollers.]

    [Footnote 11: «pluteī», large screens or shields with small wheels
    attached to them. These were used to protect besiegers while moving
    up to a city or while serving the engines of war.]

    [Footnote 12: «tormenta». The engines of war were chiefly the
    catapult for shooting great arrows, and the ballista, for hurling
    large stones. They had a range of about two thousand feet and were
    very effective.]

    [Footnote 13: The «agger», or mound, was of chief importance in a
    siege. It was begun just out of reach of the missiles of the enemy,
    and then gradually extended towards the point to be attacked. At the
    same time its height gradually increased until on a level with the
    top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber,
    and had covered galleries running through it for the use of the
    besiegers. Over or beside the _agger_ a tower was moved up to the
    wall, often with a battering-ram (_aries_) in the lowest story. (See
    picture, p. 221.)]

    [Footnote 14: «perfrēgērunt», from «perfringō».]

  [Illustration: BALLISTA]


  [Illustration: TURRES, ARIETES, VINEA]

LXXIV. THE CITY IS TAKEN · THE CAPTIVES ARE QUESTIONED

Omnibus rēbus necessāriīs ad oppugnandum ā Pūbliō comparātīs,
dēlīberātur in conciliō quod cōnsilium [1]oppidī expugnandī ineant.[2]
Tum ūnus[3] ex centuriōnibus, vir reī mīlitāris perītissimus, “Ego
suādeō,” inquit, “ut ab eā parte, ubi aditus sit[5] facillimus, aggerem
exstruāmus[4] et turrim prōmoveāmus[6] atque ariete admōtō simul mūrum
discutere cōnēmur.[5]” [6]Hoc cōnsilium cum omnibus placēret, Caesar
concilium dīmīsit. Deinde mīlitēs hortātus ut priōrēs victōriās
memoriā[7] tenērent, iussit aggerem exstruī, turrim et arietem admovērī.
Neque oppidānīs[8] cōnsilium dēfuit. Aliī ignem et omne genus tēlōrum dē
mūrō in turrim coniēcērunt, aliī ingentia saxa in vīneās et arietem
dēvolvērunt. Diū utrimque ācerrimē pugnātum est. Nē vulnerātī quidem
pedem rettulērunt. Tandem, [9]dē tertiā vigiliā, Pūblius, quem Caesar
illī operī[10] praefēcerat, nūntiāvit partem[11] mūrī ictibus arietis
labefactam concidisse. Quā rē audītā Caesar signum dat; mīlitēs inruunt
et magnā cum caede hostium oppidum capiunt.

Postrīdiē eius diēī, hōc oppidō expugnātō, [12]captīvōrum quī
nōbilissimī sunt ad imperātōrem ante praetōrium[13] addūcuntur. Ipse,
lōrīcā aurātā et paludāmentō purpureō īnsignis, captīvōs per interpretem
in hunc modum interrogat:[14] Vōs quī estis[15]?

INTERPRES. Rogat imperātor quī sītis.

CAPTĪVĪ. Fīliī rēgis sumus.

INTERPRES. Dīcunt sē fīliōs esse rēgis.

IMPERĀTOR. Cūr mihi tantās iniūriās intulistis?

INTERPRES. Rogat cūr sibi tantās iniūriās intuleritis.

CAPTĪVĪ. Iniūriās eī nōn intulimus sed prō patriā bellum gessimus.
Semper voluimus Rōmānīs esse amīcī, sed Rōmānī sine causā nōs domō
patriāque expellere cōnātī sunt.

INTERPRES. [16]Negant sē iniūriās tibi intulisse, sed prō patriā bellum
gessisse. [17]Semper sē voluisse amīcōs Rōmānīs esse, sed Rōmānōs sine
causā sē domō patriāque expellere cōnātōs esse.

IMPERĀTOR. [18]Manēbitisne in reliquum tempus in fidē, hāc rebelliōne
condōnātā?

Tum vērō captīvī multīs cum lacrimīs iūrāvērunt sē in fidē mānsūrōs
esse, et Caesar eōs incolumīs domum dīmīsit.

    [Footnote 1: «oppidī expugnandī». Is this a gerund or a gerundive
    construction? Cf. §501.37.]

    [Footnote 2: «ineant». §501.50.]

    [Footnote 3: «ūnus». subj. of «inquit».]

    [Footnote 4: «sit». This is a so-called subjunctive by attraction,
    which means that the clause beginning with «ubi» stands in such
    close connection with the subjv. clause beginning with «ut», that
    its verb is attracted into the same mood.]

    [Footnote 5: All these verbs are in the same construction.]

    [Footnote 6: «Hoc cōnsilium», subj. of «placēret». For the order
    cf. «Haec cum», etc., p. 215, l. 22, and note; «Id imperātor cum»,
    p. 217, l. 8.]

    [Footnote 7: «memoriā», abl. of means.]

    [Footnote 8: «oppidānīs», §501.15.]

    [Footnote 9: Between twelve and three o’clock in the morning. The
    night was divided into four watches.]

    [Footnote 10: «operī», §501.15.]

    [Footnote 11: «partem», subj. acc. of «concidisse».]

    [Footnote 12: «captīvōrum ... sunt», _the noblest of the captives_.]

    [Footnote 13: The general’s headquarters.]

    [Footnote 14: Study carefully these direct questions, indirect
    questions, and indirect statements.]

    [Footnote 15: See Plate III, p. 148.]

    [Footnote 16: «Negant», etc., _they say that they have not_, etc.
    «Negant» is equivalent to «dīcunt nōn», and the negative modifies
    «intulisse», but not the remainder of the indirect statement.]

    [Footnote 17: «Semper», etc., _that they have always_, etc.]

    [Footnote 18: «Manēbitisne in fidē», _will you remain loyal?_]


LXXV. CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN CÆSAR AND POMPEY
THE BATTLE OF PHARSALIA

Nē cōnfectō[1] quidem bellō Gallicō, [2]bellum cīvīle inter Caesarem et
Pompēium exortum est. Nam Pompēius, quī summum imperium petēbat, senātuī
persuāserat ut Caesarem reī pūblicae hostem[3] iūdicāret et exercitum
eius dīmittī iubēret. Quibus cognitīs rēbus Caesar exercitum suum
dīmittere recūsāvit, atque, hortātus mīlitēs ut ducem totiēns victōrem
ab inimīcōrum iniūriīs dēfenderent, imperāvit ut sē Rōmam sequerentur.
Summā cum alacritāte mīlitēs pāruērunt, et trānsitō Rubicōne[4] initium
bellī cīvīlis factum est.

Italiae urbēs quidem omnēs ferē [5]rēbus Caesaris favēbant et eum
benignē excēpērunt. Quā rē commōtus Pompēius ante Caesaris adventum Rōmā
excessit et Brundisium[6] pervēnit, inde [7]paucīs post diēbus cum
omnibus cōpiīs ad Ēpīrum mare trānsiit. Eum Caesar cum septem legiōnibus
et quīngentīs equitibus secūtus est, et īnsignis inter Caesaris
comitātum erat Pūblius.

Plūribus leviōribus proeliīs factīs, tandem cōpiae adversae ad
Pharsālum[8] in Thessaliā sitam castra posuērunt. Cum Pompeī exercitus
esset bis tantus quantus Caesaris, tamen erant multī quī veterānās
legiōnēs quae Gallōs et Germānōs superāverant vehementer timēbant.
Quōs[9] [10]ante proelium commissum Labiēnus[11] lēgātus, quī ab Caesare
nūper dēfēcerat, ita adlocūtus est: “[12]Nōlīte exīstimāre hunc esse
exercitum veterānōrum mīlitum. Omnibus interfuī proeliīs[13] neque
temerē incognitam rem prōnūntiō. Perexigua pars illīus exercitūs quī
Gallōs superāvit adhūc superest. Magna pars occīsa est, multī domum
discessērunt, multī sunt relictī in Italiā. Hae cōpiae quās vidētis in
[14]citeriōre Galliā nūper cōnscrīptae sunt.” Haec[15] cum dīxisset,
iūrāvit sē nisi victōrem in castra nōn reversūrum esse. [16]Hoc idem
Pompēius et omnēs reliquī iūrāvērunt, et magnā spē et laetitiā, sīcut
certam ad victōriam, cōpiae ē castrīs exiērunt.

Item Caesar, animō[17] ad dīmicandum parātus, exercitum suum ēdūxit et
septem cohortibus [18]praesidiō castrīs relictīs cōpiās triplicī aciē
īnstrūxit. Tum, mīlitibus studiō pugnae ārdentibus, tubā signum dedit.
Mīlitēs prōcurrērunt et pīlīs missīs gladiōs strīnxērunt. Neque vērō
virtūs hostibus dēfuit. Nam et tēla missa sustinuērunt et impetum
gladiōrum excēpērunt et ōrdinēs cōnservāvērunt. Utrimque diū et ācriter
pugnātum est nec quisquam pedem rettulit. Tum equitēs Pompēī aciem
Caesaris circumīre cōnātī sunt. Quod[19] ubi Caesar animadvertit,
tertiam aciem,[20] quae ad id tempus quiēta fuerat, prōcurrere iussit.
Tum vērō integrōrum impetum[21] dēfessī hostēs sustinēre nōn potuērunt
et omnēs terga vertērunt. Sed Pompēius dē fortūnīs suīs dēspērāns sē in
castra equō contulit, inde mox cum paucīs equitibus effūgit.

    [Footnote 1: With «nē ... quidem» the emphatic word stands between
    the two.]

    [Footnote 2: The Civil War was caused by the jealousy and rivalry
    between Cæsar and Pompey. It resulted in the defeat and subsequent
    death of Pompey and the elevation of Cæsar to the lordship of the
    Roman world.]

    [Footnote 3: «hostem», predicate accusative, §501.22.]

    [Footnote 4: The Rubicon was a small stream in northern Italy that
    marked the boundary of Cæsar’s province. By crossing it with an
    armed force Cæsar declared war upon Pompey and the existing
    government. Cæsar crossed the Rubicon early in the year 49 B.C.]

    [Footnote 5: «rēbus Caesaris favēbant», _favored Cæsar’s side_. In
    what case is «rēbus»?]

    [Footnote 6: «Brundisium», a famous port in southern Italy whence
    ships sailed for Greece and the East. See map.]

    [Footnote 7: «paucīs post diēbus», _a few days later_; literally,
    _afterguards by a few days_. Cf. «paucīs ante annīs», p. 213, l. 12,
    and note.]

    [Footnote 8: The battle of Pharsalia was fought on August 9, 48 B.C.
    In importance it ranks as one of the great battles of the world.]

    [Footnote 9: «Quōs», obj. of «adlocūtus est».]

    [Footnote 10: «ante proelium commissum», _before the beginning of
    the battle_.]

    [Footnote 11: «Labiēnus», Cæsar’s most faithful and skillful
    lieutenant in the Gallic War. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in
    49 B.C., he deserted Cæsar and joined Pompey. His defection caused
    the greatest joy among the Pompeian party; but he disappointed the
    expectations of his new friends, and never accomplished anything of
    importance. He fought against his old commander in several battles
    and was slain at the battle of Munda in Spain, 45 B.C.]

    [Footnote 12: «Nōlīte exīstimāre», _don´t think_.]

    [Footnote 13: «proeliīs», §501.15.]

    [Footnote 14: «citeriōre Galliā». This name is applied to Cisalpine
    Gaul, or Gaul south of the Alps.]

    [Footnote 15: «Haec», obj. of «dīxisset».]

    [Footnote 16: «Hoc idem», obj. of «iūrāvērunt».]

    [Footnote 17: «animō», §501.30.]

    [Footnote 18: «praesidiō castrīs», §501.17.]

    [Footnote 19: «Quod», obj. of «animadvertit».]

    [Footnote 20: «aciem», subj. of «prōcurrere».]

    [Footnote 21: «impetum», obj. of «sustinēre».]


  [Illustration: SIGNIFER]

LXXVI. THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR

Pompēiō amīcīsque eius superātīs atque omnibus hostibus ubīque victīs,
Caesar imperātor Rōmam rediit et [1]extrā moenia urbis in campō Mārtiō
castra posuit. Tum vērō amplissimīs honōribus adfectus est. Dictātor
creātus est, et eī triumphus ā senātū est dēcrētus. [2]Quō diē de Gallīs
triumphum ēgit, tanta multitūdō hominum in urbem undique cōnflūxit [3]ut
omnia loca essent cōnferta. Templa patēbant, ārae fūmābant, columnae
sertīs ōrnātae erant. [4]Cum vērō pompa urbem intrāret, quantus hominum
fremitus ortus est! Prīmum per portam ingressī sunt senātus et
magistrātūs. Secūtī sunt tībīcinēs, signiferī, peditēs laureā corōnātī
canentēs: “Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, quī subēgit Galliam,” et “Mīlle,
mīlle, mīlle, mīlle Gallōs trucīdāvimus.” Multī praedam captārum urbium
portābant, arma, omnia bellī īnstrūmenta. Secūtī sunt equitēs, animōsīs
atque splendidissimē ōrnātīs equīs vectī, inter quōs Pūblius adulēscēns
fortissimus habēbātur. Addūcēbantur taurī, arietēs, [5]quī dīs
immortālibus immolārentur. Ita longō agmine prōgrediēns exercitus
[6]sacrā viā per forum in Capitōlium perrēxit.

Imperātor ipse cum urbem intrāret, undique laetō clāmōre multitūdinis
salūtātus est. Stābat in currū aureō quem quattuor albī equī vehēbant.
Indūtus [7]togā pictā, alterā manū habēnās et lauream tenēbat, alterā
eburneum scēptrum. Post eum servus in currū stāns auream corōnam super
caput eius tenēbat. Ante currum miserrimī captīvī, rēgēs prīncipēsque
superātārum gentium, catēnīs vīnctī, prōgrediēbantur; et vīgintī
quattuor līctōrēs[8] laureatās fascīs ferentēs et signiferī currum
Caesaris comitābantur. Conclūdit agmen multitūdō captīvōrum, quī, in
servitūtem redāctī,[9] dēmissō vultū, vīnctīs[10] bracchiīs, sequuntur;
quibuscum veniunt longissimō ōrdine mīlitēs, etiam hī praedam vel
insignia mīlitāria ferentēs.

  [Illustration: LICTORES CUM FASCIBUS]

Caesar cum Capitōlium ascendisset, in templō Iovī Capitōlīnō sacra
fēcit. Simul[11] captivōrum quī nōbilissimī erant, abductī in
carcerem,[12] interfectī sunt. Sacrīs factīs Caesar dē Capitōliō
dēscendit et in forō mīitibus suīs honōrēs mīlitārīs dedit eīsque
pecūniam ex bellī praedā distribuit.

Hīs omnibus rēbus cōnfectīs, Pūblius Caesarem valēre[13] iussit et quam
celerrimē ad vīllam contendit ut patrem mātremque salūtāret.

[14]Dē rēbus gestīs P. Cornēlī Lentulī hāctenus.

    [Footnote 1: A victorious general with his army was not allowed to
    enter the city until the day of his triumph. A triumph was the
    greatest of all military honors.]

    [Footnote 2: «Quō diē», _on the day that_, abl. of time.]

    [Footnote 3: «ut ... essent», §501.43.]

    [Footnote 4: «Cum ... intrāret», §501.46.]

    [Footnote 5: «quī ... immolārentur», §501.40.]

    [Footnote 6: The Sacred Way was a noted street running along one
    side of the Forum to the base of the Capitoline Hill, on whose
    summit stood the magnificent temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. This
    route was always followed by triumphal processions.]

    [Footnote 7: The «toga picta» worn by a general in his triumph was a
    splendid robe of Tyrian purple covered with golden stars. See Plate
    IV, p. 213.]

    [Footnote 8: The lictors were a guard of honor that attended the
    higher magistrates and made a way for them through the streets. On
    their shoulders they carried the _fasces_, a bundle of rods with an
    ax in the middle, symbolizing the power of the law.]

    [Footnote 9: «dēmissō vultū», _with downcast countenance_.]

    [Footnote 10: «vīnctīs», from «vinciō».]

    [Footnote 11: «Simul», etc., _At the same time those of the captives
    who were the noblest._]

    [Footnote 12: The prison was a gloomy dungeon on the lower slopes of
    the Capitoline Hill.]

    [Footnote 13: «valēre iussit», _bade farewell to_.]

    [Footnote 14: This sentence marks the end of the story.]



APPENDIX I

DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS, ETC.


NOUNS

«460.» Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the
final letter of the stem and by the termination of the genitive
singular.

FIRST DECLENSION--«Ā-»stems, Gen. Sing. «-ae»

SECOND DECLENSION--«O-»stems, Gen. Sing. «-ī»

THIRD DECLENSION--Consonant stems and «I-»stems, Gen. Sing. «-is»

FOURTH DECLENSION--«U-»stems, Gen. Sing. «-ūs»

FIFTH DECLENSION--«Ē-»stems, Gen. Sing. «-ē̆ī»

«461.» FIRST DECLENSION. _Ā_-STEMS

   «domina», _lady_    STEM «dominā-»    BASE «domin-»

          SINGULAR            PLURAL
                 TERMINATIONS          TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  domina   -a         dominae    -ae
  _Gen._  dominae  -ae        dominārum  -ārum
  _Dat._  dominae  -ae        dominīs    -īs
  _Acc._  dominam  -am        dominās    -ās
  _Abl._  dominā   -ā         dominīs    -īs

    _a._ «Dea» and «fīlia» have the termination «-ābus» in the dative
    and ablative plural.

«462.» SECOND DECLENSION. _O_-STEMS

    _a._ MASCULINES IN -us

   «dominus», _master_   STEM «domino-»   BASE «domin-»

          SINGULAR            PLURAL
                 TERMINATIONS          TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  dominus  -us        dominī     -ī
  _Gen._  dominī   -ī         dominōrum  -ōrum
  _Dat._  dominō   -ō         dominīs    -īs
  _Acc._  dominum  -um        dominōs    -ōs
  _Abl._  dominō   -ō         dominīs    -īs

  1. Nouns in «-us» of the second declension have the termination «-e»
  in the vocative singular, as «domine».

  2. Proper names in «-ius», and «filius», end in «-ī» in the vocative
  singular, and the accent rests on the penult, as «Vergi´lī, fīlī».

    _b._ NEUTERS IN -um

    «pīlum», _spear_   STEM «pīlo-»   BASE «pīl-»

          SINGULAR          PLURAL
               TERMINATIONS        TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  pīlum  -um        pīla     -a
  _Gen._  pīlī   -ī         pīlōrum  -ōrum
  _Dat._  pīlō   -ō         pīlīs    -īs
  _Acc._  pīlum  -um        pīla     -a
  _Abl._  pīlō   -ō         pīlīs    -īs

  1. Masculines in «-ius» and neuters in «-ium» end in «-ī» in the
  genitive singular, _not_ in «-iī», and the accent rests on the penult.

    _c._ MASCULINES IN -er AND -ir

         «puer», _boy_  «ager», _field_  «vir», _man_
   STEMS «puero-»       «agro-»          «viro-»
   BASES «puer-»        «agr-»           «vir-»

          SINGULAR                               TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  puer           ager             vir      --
  _Gen._  puerī          agrī             virī     -ī
  _Dat._  puerō          agrō             virō     -ō
  _Acc._  puerum         agrum            virum    -um
  _Abl._  puerō          agrō             virō     -ō

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  puerī          agrī             virī     -ī
  _Gen._  puerōrum       agrōrum          virōrum  -ōrum
  _Dat._  puerīs         agrīs            virīs    -īs
  _Acc._  puerōs         agrōs            virōs    -ōs
  _Abl._  puerīs         agrīs            virīs    -īs

«463.» THIRD DECLENSION.

CLASSIFICATION

I. Consonant Stems

  1. Stems that add «-s» to the base to form the nominative
     singular: masculines and feminines only.

  2. Stems that add no termination in the nominitive singular:
     _a._ masculines and feminines; _b._ neuters.

II. _I_-Stems.

  Masculines, feminines, and neuters.

«464.» I. CONSONANT STEMS

1. _Nouns that add «-s» to the base to form the nominative singular:
masculines and feminines only_

          «prīnceps»,   «mīles», m.,  «lapis», m.,
          m., _chief_   _soldier_     _stone_
  BASES |
  OR    | «prīncip-»    «mīlit-»      «lapid-»
  STEMS |

          SINGULAR                             TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  prīnceps      mīles         lapis      -s
  _Gen._  prīncipis     mīlitis       lapidis    -is
  _Dat._  prīncipī      mīlitī        lapidī     -ī
  _Acc._  prīncipem     mīlitem       lapidem    -em
  _Abl._  prīncipe      mīlite        lapide     -e

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  prīncipēs     mīlitēs       lapidēs    -ēs
  _Gen._  prīncipum     mīlitum       lapidum    -um
  _Dat._  prīncipibus   mīlitibus     lapidibus  -ibus
  _Acc._  prīncipēs     mīlitēs       lapidēs    -ēs
  _Abl._  prīncipibus   mīlitibus     lapidibus  -ibus

          «rēx», m.,  «iūdex», m.,   «virtūs», f.,
          _king_      _judge_        _virtue_
  BASES |
  OR    | «rēg-»      «iūdic-»       «virtūt-»
  STEMS |

          SINGULAR                             TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  rēx         iūdex          virtūs      -s
  _Gen._  rēgis       iūdicis        virtūtis    -is
  _Dat._  rēgī        iūdicī         virtūtī     -ī
  _Acc._  rēgem       iūdicem        virtūtem    -em
  _Abl._  rēge        iūdice         virtūte     -e

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  rēgēs       iūdicēs        virtūtēs    -ēs
  _Gen._  rēgum       iūdicum        virtūtum    -um
  _Dat._  rēgibus     iūdicibus      virtūtibus  -ibus
  _Acc._  rēgēs       iūdicēs        virtūtēs    -es
  _Abl._  rēgibus     iūdicibus      virtūtibus  -ibus

NOTE. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. §233.3.

  2. _Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular_

    _a._ MASCULINES AND FEMININES

          «cōnsul», m.,  «legiō», f.,  «ōrdō»,     «pater», m.,
          _consul_       _legion_      m., _row_   _father_
  BASES |
  OR    | «consul-»      «legiōn-»     «ōrdin-»    «patr-»
  STEMS |

          SINGULAR                                         TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  cōnsul         legiō         ōrdō        pater     --
  _Gen._  cōnsulis       legiōnis      ōrdinis     patris    -is
  _Dat._  cōnsulī        legiōnī       ōrdinī      patrī     -ī
  _Acc._  cōnsulem       legiōnem      ōrdinem     patrem    -em
  _Abl._  cōnsule        legiōne       ōrdine      patre     -e

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  cōnsulēs       legiōnēs      ōrdinēs     patrēs    -ēs
  _Gen._  cōnsulum       legiōnum      ōrdinum     patrum    -um
  _Dat._  cōnsulibus     legiōnibus    ōrdinibus   patribus  -ibus
  _Acc._  cōnsulēs       legiōnēs      ōrdinēs     patrēs    -ēs
  _Abl._  cōnsulibus     legiōnibus    ōrdinibus   patribus  -ibus

NOTE. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf.
§236.1-3.

    _b._ NEUTERS
          «flūmen»,     «tempus»,    «opus»,      «caput»,
          n., _river_   n., _time_   n., _work_   n., _head_
  BASES |
  OR    | «flūmin-»     «tempor-»    «oper-»      «capit-»
  STEMS |

          SINGULAR                                         TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  flūmen        tempus       opus         caput      --
  _Gen._  flūminis      temporis     operis       capitis    -is
  _Dat._  flūminī       temporī      operī        capitī     -ī
  _Acc._  flūmen        tempus       opus         caput      --
  _Abl._  flūmine       tempore      opere        capite     -e

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  flūmina       tempora      opera        capita     -a
  _Gen._  flūminum      temporum     operum       capitum    -um
  _Dat._  flūminibus    temporibus   operibus     capitibus  -ibus
  _Acc._  flūmina       tempora      opera        capita     -a
  _Abl._  flūminibus    temporibus   operibus     capitibus  -ibus

NOTE. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf.
§238.2, 3.

«465.» II. _I_-STEMS

    _a._ MASCULINES AND FEMININES

         «caedēs», f., «hostis»,    «urbs», f., «cliēns», m.,
         _slaughter_   m., _enemy_  _city_      _retainer_
  STEMS  «caedi-»      «hosti-»     «urbi-»     «clienti-»
  BASES  «caed-»       «host-»      «urb-»      «client-»

          SINGULAR                                          TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  caedēs       hostis       urbs        cliēns         -s, -is,
                                                                _or_ -ēs
  _Gen._  caedis       hostis       urbis       clientis       -is
  _Dat._  caedī        hostī        urbī        clientī        -ī
  _Acc._  caedem       hostem       urbem       clientem       -em (-im)
  _Abl._  caede        hoste        urbe        cliente        -e (-ī)

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  caedēs       hostēs       urbēs       clientēs       -ēs
  _Gen._  caedium      hostium      urbium      clientium      -ium
  _Dat._  caedibus     hostibus     urbibus     clientibus     -ibus
  _Acc._  caedīs, -ēs  hostīs, -ēs  urbīs, -ēs  clientīs, -ēs  -īs, -ēs
  _Abl._  caedibus     hostibus     urbibus     clientibus     -ibus

  1. «Avis», «cīvis», «fīnis», «ignis», «nāvis», have the abl. sing. in
  «-ī» or «-e».

  2. «Turris» has accusative «turrim» and ablative «turrī» or «turre».

    _b._ NEUTERS

          «īnsigne», n.,   «animal», n.,   «calcar»,
          _decoration_     _animal_        n., _spur_

  STEMS   «īnsigni-»       «animāli-»      «calcāri-»
  BASES   «īnsign-»        «animāl-»       «calcār-»

          SINGULAR                                   TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  īnsigne          animal          calcar      -e _or_ --
  _Gen._  īnsignis         animālis        calcāris    -is
  _Dat._  īnsignī          animālī         calcārī     -ī
  _Acc._  īnsigne          animal          calcar      -e _or_ --
  _Abl._  īnsignī          animālī         calcārī     -ī

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  īnsignia         animālia        calcāria    -ia
  _Gen._  īnsignium        animālium       calcārium   -ium
  _Dat._  īnsignibus       animālibus      calcāribus  -ibus
  _Acc._  īnsignia         animālia        calcāria    -ia
  _Abl._  īnsignibus       animālibus      calcāribus  -ibus

«466.» THE FOURTH DECLENSION. _U_-STEMS

         «adventus», m.,    «cornū», n., _horn_
         _arrival_
  STEMS  «adventu-»         «cornu-»
  BASES  «advent-»          «corn-»

                                       TERMINATIONS
          SINGULAR                     MASC.    NEUT.
  _Nom._  adventus           cornū      -us      -ū
  _Gen._  adventūs           cornūs     -ūs      -ūs
  _Dat._  adventuī (ū)       cornū      -uī (ū)  -ū
  _Acc._  adventum           cornū      -um      -ū
  _Abl._  adventū            cornū      -ū       -ū

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  adventūs           cornua     -ūs     -ua
  _Gen._  adventuum          cornuum    -uum    -uum
  _Dat._  adventibus         cornibus   -ibus   -ibus
  _Acc._  adventūs           cornua     -ūs     -ua
  _Abl._  adventibus         cornibus   -ibus   -ibus

«467.» THE FIFTH DECLENSION. _Ē_-STEMS

          «diēs», m., _day_   «rēs», f., _thing_
  STEMS   «diē-»              «rē-»
  BASES   «di-»               «r-»

          SINGULAR                   TERMINATIONS
  _Nom._  diēs                rēs      -ēs
  _Gen._  diēī                reī      -ē̆ī
  _Dat._  diēī                reī      -ē̆ī
  _Acc._  diem                rem      -em
  _Abl._  diē                 rē       -ē

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  diēs                rēs      -ēs
  _Gen._  diērum              rērum    -ērum
  _Dat._  diēbus              rēbus    -ēbus
  _Acc._  diēs                rēs      -ēs
  _Abl._  diēbus              rēbus    -ēbus

«468.» SPECIAL PARADIGMS

          «deus»,       «domus», f.,  «vīs», f.,    «iter»,
          m., _god_     _house_       _strength_    n., _way_
  STEMS   «deo-»        «domu-»       «vī-» and     «iter-» and
                                        «vīri-»       «itiner-»
  BASES   «de-»         «dom-»        «v-» and      «iter-» and
                                        «vīr-»        «itiner-»

  SINGULAR
  _Nom._  deus          domus          vīs          iter
  _Gen._  deī           domūs          vīs (rare)   itineris
  _Dat._  deō           domuī, -ō      vī (rare)    itinerī
  _Acc._  deum          domum          vim          iter
  _Abl._  deō           domō, -ū       vī           itinere

  PLURAL
  _Nom._  deī, dī       domūs          vīrēs        itinera
  _Gen._  deōrum, deum  domuum, -ōrum  vīrium       itinerum
  _Dat._  deīs, dīs     domibus        vīribus      itineribus
  _Acc._  deōs          domōs, -ūs     vīrīs, -ēs   itinera
  _Abl._  deīs, dīs     domibus        vīribus      itineribus

    _a._ The vocative singular of «deus» is like the nominative.

    _b._ The locative of «domus» is «domī».


ADJECTIVES

«469.» FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. _O_- AND _Ā_-STEMS

    _a._ ADJECTIVES IN -us

          «bonus», _good_
  STEMS   «bono-» m. and n., «bona-» f.
  BASE    «bon-»

          SINGULAR
          MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.
  _Nom._  bonus     bona      bonum
  _Gen._  bonī      bonae     bonī
  _Dat._  bonō      bonae     bonō
  _Acc._  bonum     bonam     bonum
  _Abl._  bonō      bonā      bonō

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  bonī      bonae     bona
  _Gen._  bonōrum   bonārum   bonōrum
  _Dat._  bonīs     bonīs     bonīs
  _Acc._  bonōs     bonās     bona
  _Abl._  bonīs     bonīs     bonīs

    _b._ ADJECTIVES IN «-er»

          «līber», _free_
  STEMS   «lībero-» m. and n., «līberā-» f.
  BASE    «līber-»

          SINGULAR
          MASC.       FEM.        NEUT.
  _Nom._  līber       lībera      līberum
  _Gen._  līberī      līberae     līberī
  _Dat._  līberō      līberae     līberō
  _Acc._  līberum     līberam     līberum
  _Abl._  līberō      līberā      līberō

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  līberī      līberae     lībera
  _Gen._  līberōrum   līberārum   līberōrum
  _Dat._  līberīs     līberīs     līberīs
  _Acc._  līberōs     līberās     lībera
  _Abl._  līberīs     līberīs     līberīs

          «pulcher», _pretty_
  STEMS   «pulchro-» m. and n., «pulchrā-» f.
  BASE    «pulchr-»

          SINGULAR
          MASC.        FEM.         NEUT.
  _Nom._  pulcher      pulchra      pulchrum
  _Gen._  pulchrī      pulchrae     pulchrī
  _Dat._  pulchrō      pulchrae     pulchrō
  _Acc._  pulchrum     pulchram     pulchrum
  _Abl._  pulchrō      pulchrā      pulchrō

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  pulchrī      pulchrae     pulchra
  _Gen._  pulchrōrum   pulchrārum   pulchrōrum
  _Dat._  pulchrīs     pulchrīs     pulchrīs
  _Acc._  pulchrōs     pulchrās     pulchra
  _Abl._  pulchrīs     pulchrīs     pulchrīs


«470.» THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

          «alius», _another_
  STEMS   «alio-» m. and n., «aliā-» f.
  BASE    «ali-»

          SINGULAR                  PLURAL
          MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.     MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.
  _Nom._  alius   alia    aliud     aliī      aliae     alia
  _Gen._  alīus   alīus   alīus     aliōrum   aliārum   aliōrum
  _Dat._  aliī    aliī    aliī      aliīs     aliīs     aliīs
  _Acc._  alium   aliam   aliud     aliōs     aliās     alia
  _Abl._  aliō    aliā    aliō      aliīs     aliīs     aliīs

          «ūnus», _one, only_
  STEMS   «ūno-» m. and n., «ūnā-» f.
  BASE    «ūn-»

          MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.     MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.
  _Nom._  ūnus    ūna     ūnum      ūnī       ūnae      ūna
  _Gen._  ūnīus   ūnīus   ūnīus     ūnōrum    ūnārum    ūnōrum
  _Dat._  ūnī     ūnī     ūnī       ūnīs      ūnīs      ūnīs
  _Acc._  ūnum    ūnam    ūnum      ūnōs      ūnās      ūna
  _Abl._  ūnō     ūnā     ūnō       ūnīs      ūnīs      ūnīs

_a._ For the complete list see §108.

«471.» ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. _I_-STEMS

  I. THREE ENDINGS

          «ācer, ācris, ācre», _keen, eager_
          STEM «ācri-»  BASE «ācr-»

          SINGULAR                  PLURAL
          MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.     MASC.        FEM.         NEUT.
  _Nom._  ācer    ācris   ācre      ācrēs        ācrēs        ācria
  _Gen._  ācris   ācris   ācris     ācrium       ācrium       ācrium
  _Dat._  ācrī    ācrī    ācrī      ācribus      ācribus      ācribus
  _Acc._  ācrem   ācrem   ācre      ācrīs, -ēs   ācrīs, -ēs   ācria
  _Abl._  ācrī    ācrī    ācrī      ācribus      ācribus      ācribus

  II. TWO ENDINGS

          «omnis, omne», _every, all_
          STEM «omni-»  BASE «omn-»

          SINGULAR                  PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.     MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  omnis           omne      omnēs           omnia
  _Gen._  omnis           omnis     omnium          omnium
  _Dat._  omnī            omnī      omnibus         omnibus
  _Acc._  omnem           omne      omnīs, -ēs      omnia
  _Abl._  omnī            omnī      omnibus         omnibus

  III. ONE ENDING

          «pār», _equal_
          STEM «pari-»  BASE «par-»

          SINGULAR                   PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.      MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  pār             pār        parēs           paria
  _Gen._  paris           paris      parium          parium
  _Dat._  parī            parī       paribus         paribus
  _Acc._  parem           pār        parīs, -ēs      paria
  _Abl._  parī            parī       paribus         paribus

  1. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have «-ī» in the ablative
  singular.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  This sentence appears to be a footnote, but there is no footnote tag
  on the page.]

«472.» PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES

          «amāns», _loving_
          STEM «amanti-» BASE «amant-»

          SINGULAR                     PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.        MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  amāns           amāns        amantēs         amantia
  _Gen._  amantis         amantis      amantium        amantium
  _Dat._  amantī          amantī       amantibus       amantibus
  _Acc._  amantem         amāns        amantīs, -ēs    amantia
  _Abl._  amante, -ī      amante, -ī   amantibus       amantibus

          «iēns», _going_
          STEM «ienti-, eunti-»  BASE «ient-, eunt-»

  _Nom._  iēns            iēns         euntēs          euntia
  _Gen._  euntis          euntis       euntium         euntium
  _Dat._  euntī           euntī        euntibus        euntibus
  _Acc._  euntem          iēns         euntīs, -ēs     euntia
  _Abl._  eunte, -ī       eunte, -ī    euntibus        euntibus

«473.» REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

  POSITIVE             COMPARATIVE                 SUPERLATIVE
  MASC.                MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.       MASC. FEM. NEUT.
  altus (alto-)        altior          altius      altissimus -a -um
  līber (lībero-)      līberior        līberius    līberrimus -a -um
  pulcher (pulchro-)   pulchrior       pulchrius   pulcherrimus -a -um
  audāx (audāci-)      audācior        audācius    audācissimus -a -um
  brevis (brevi-)      brevior         brevius     brevissimus -a -um
  ācer (ācri-)         ācrior          ācrius      ācerrimus -a -um

«474.» DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES

          «altior», _higher_

          SINGULAR                    PLURAL
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.       MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  altior          altius      altiōrēs        altiōra
  _Gen._  altiōris        altiōris    altiōrum        altiōrum
  _Dat._  altiōrī         altiōrī     altiōribus      altiōribus
  _Acc._  altiōrem        altius      altiōrēs        altiōra
  _Abl._  altiōre         altiōre     altiōribus      altiōribus

          «plūs», _more_

  _Nom._  ----            plūs        plūrēs          plūra
  _Gen._  ----            plūris      plūrium         plūrium
  _Dat._  ----            ----        plūribus        plūribus
  _Acc._  ----            plūs        plūrīs (-ēs)    plūra
  _Abl._  ----            plūre       plūribus        plūribus

«475.» IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

  POSITIVE              COMPARATIVE            SUPERLATIVE
  bonus, -a, -um,       melior, melius,        optimus, -a, -um,
    _good_                  _better_                 _best_
  malus, -a, -um,       peior, peius,          pessimus, -a, -um,
    _bad_                   _worse_                  _worst_
  magnus, -a, -um,      maior, maius,          maximus, -a, -um,
    _great_                 _greater_                _greatest_
  multus, -a, -um,      ----, plūs, _more_     plūrimus, -a, -um,
    _much_                                           _most_
  parvus, -a, -um,      minor, minus,          minimus, -a, -um,_
    _small_                 _smaller_                _smallest
  senex, senis,         senior                 maximus nātū
    _old_
  iuvenis, -e,          iūnior                 minimus nātū
    _young_
  vetus, veteris,       vetustior, -ius        veterrimus, -a, -um
    _old_
  facilis, -e,          facilior, -ius         facillimus, -a, -um
    _easy_
  difficilis, -e,       difficilior, -ius      difficillimus, -a, -um
    _difficult_
  similis, -e,          similior, -ius         simillimus, -a, -um
    _similar_
  dissimilis, -e,       dissimilior, -ius      dissimillimus, -a, -um
    _dissimilar_
  humilis, -e, _low_    humilior, -ius         humillimus, -a, -um
  gracilis, -e,         gracilior, -ius        gracillimus, -a, -um
    _slender_
  exterus, _outward_    exterior,              extrēmus, extimus,
                            _outer, exterior_        _outermost, last_
  īnferus, _below_      īnferior,  _lower_     īnfimus, īmus, _lowest_
  posterus,             posterior, _later_     postrēmus, postumus,
    _following_                                      _last_
  superus, _above_      superior,              suprēmus, summus,
                            _higher_                 _highest_
  [[cis, citrā,]]       citerior, _hither_     citimus, _hithermost_
    [[_on this side_]]
  [[in, intrā,]]        interior, _inner_      intimus, _inmost_
    [[_in, within_]]
  [[prae, prō,]]        prior,  _former_       prīmus, _first_
    [[_before_]]
  [[prope, _near_]]     propior, _nearer_      proximus, _next_
  [[ultrā, _beyond_]]   ulterior, _further_    ultimus, _furthest_

«476.» REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

  POSITIVE                        COMPARATIVE  SUPERLATIVE
  cārē (cārus), _dearly_          cārius       cārissimē
  miserē (miser), _wretchedly_    miserius     miserrimē
  ācriter (ācer), _sharply_       ācrius       ācerrimē
  facile (facilis), _easily_      facilius     facillimē

«477.» IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

  POSITIVE                   COMPARATIVE        SUPERLATIVE
  diū, _long, a long time_   diūtius            diūtissimē
  bene (bonus), _well_       melius, _better_   optimē, _best_
  male (malus), _ill_        peius, _worse_     pessimē, _worst_
  magnopere, _greatly_       magis, _more_      maximē, _most_
  multum (multus), _much_    plūs, _more_       plūrimum, _most_
  parum, _little_            minus, _less_      minimē, _least_
  saepe, _often_             saepīus            saepissimē

«478.» NUMERALS

The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting «ūnus», «duo», «trēs»,
the hundreds above one hundred, and «mīlle» used as a noun. The ordinals
are declined like «bonus, -a, -um».

         CARDINALS                   ORDINALS
         (_How many_)                (_In what order_)
     1,  ūnus, -a, -um,  _one_       prīmus, -a, -um        _first_
     2,  duo, duae, duo  _two_       secundus (_or_ alter)  _second_
     3,  trēs, tria      _three_,    tertius                _third_,
     4,  quattuor          etc.      quārtus                  etc.
     5,  quīnque                     quīntus
     6,  sex                         sextus
     7,  septem                      septimus
     8,  octō                        octāvus
     9,  novem                       nōnus
    10,  decem                       decimus
    11,  ūndecim                     ūndecimus
    12,  duodecim                    duodecimus
    13,  tredecim (decem (et) trēs)  tertius decimus
    14,  quattuordecim               quārtus decimus
    15,  quīndecim                   quīntus decimus
    16,  sēdecim                     sextus decimus
    17,  septendecim                 septimus decimus
    18,  duodēvīgintī (octōdecim)    duodēvīcēnsimus
    19,  ūndēvīgintī (novendecim)    ūndēvīcēnsimus
    20,  vīgintī                     vīcēnsimus
    21, {vīgintī ūnus _or_          {vīcēnsimus prīmus _or_
        {ūnus et vīgintī, etc.      {ūnus et vīcēnsimus, etc.
    30,  trīgintā                    trīcēnsimus
    40,  quadrāgintā                 quadrāgēnsimus
    50,  quīnquāgintā                quīnquāgēnsimus
    60,  sexāgintā                   sexāgēnsimus
    70,  septuāgintā                 septuāgēnsimus
    80,  octōgintā                   octōgēnsimus
    90,  nōnāgintā                   nōnāgēnsimus
   100,  centum                      centēnsimus
   101,  centum (et) ūnus, etc.      centēnsimus (et) prīmus, etc.
   120,  centum (et) vīgintī         centēnsimus vīcēnsimus
   121,  centum (et) vīgintī ūnus,   centēnsimus (et) vīcēnsimus prīmus,
           etc.                        etc.
   200,  ducentī, -ae, -a            ducentēnsimus
   300,  trecentī                    trecentēnsimus
   400,  quadringentī                quadringentēnsimus
   500,  quīngentī                   quīngentēnsimus
   600,  sescentī                    sescentēnsimus
   700,  septingentī                 septingentēnsimus
   800,  octingentī                  octingentēnsimus
   900,  nōngentī                    nōngentēnsimus
  1000,  mīlle                       mīllēnsimus

«479.» Declension of «duo», _two_, «trēs», _three_, and «mīlle»,
_a thousand_.

        MASC.     FEM.    NEUT.     M. AND F.  NEUT.     SING.  PLUR.
  _N._  duo       duae    duo       trēs       trīa      mīlle  mīlia
  _G._  duōrum    duārum  duōrum    trium      trium     mīlle  mīlium
  _D._  duōbus    duābus  duōbus    tribus     tribus    mīlle  mīlibus
  _A._  duōs      duās    duo       trīs       tria      mīlle  mīlia
        _or_ duo  duās    duo       _or_ trēs  tria
  _A._  duōbus    duābus  duōbus    tribus     tribus    mīlle  mīlibus

NOTE. «Mīlle» is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive,
and is occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular.
For the declension of «ūnus» cf. §470.


PRONOUNS

«480.» PERSONAL

          ego, _I_             tū, _you_            suī, _of himself,_
                                                           _etc._
          SING. PLUR.          SING. PLUR.          SING.     PLUR.
  _Nom._  ego   nōs            tū    vōs            ----      ----
  _Gen._  meī   nostrum, -trī  tuī   vestrum, -trī  suī       suī
  _Dat._  mihi  nōbīs          tibi  vōbīs          sibi      sibi
  _Acc._  mē    nōs            tē    vōs            sē, sēsē  sē, sēsē
  _Abl._  mē    nōbīs          tē    vōbīs          sē, sēsē  sē, sēsē

Note that «suī» is always reflexive.

«481.» DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the
pronominal endings «-ī̆us» and «-ī» in the gen. and dat. sing.

         «ipse», _self_

         SINGULAR                       PLURAL
         MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.      MASC.      FEM.       NEUT.
  _Nom._ ipse      ipsa      ipsum      ipsī       ipsae      ipsa
  _Gen._ ipsī´us   ipsī´us   ipsī´us    ipsōrum    ipsārum    ipsōrum
  _Dat._ ipsī      ipsī      ipsī       ipsīs      ipsīs      ipsīs
  _Acc._ ipsum     ipsam     ipsum      ipsōs      ipsās      ipsa
  _Abl._ ipsō      ipsā      ipsō       ipsīs      ipsīs      ipsīs

         «hic», _this_ (here), _he_

  _Nom._ hic       haec      hoc        hī         hae        haec
  _Gen._ huius     huius     huius      hōrum      hārum      hōrum
  _Dat._ huic      huic      huic       hīs        hīs        hīs
  _Acc._ hunc      hanc      hoc        hōs        hās        haec
  _Abl._ hōc       hāc       hōc        hīs        hīs        hīs

         «iste», _this, that_ (of yours), _he_

  _Nom._ iste      ista      istud      istī       istae      ista
  _Gen._ istī´us   istī´us   istī´us    istōrum    istārum    istōrum
  _Dat._ istī      istī      istī       istīs      istīs      istīs
  _Acc._ istum     istam     istud      istōs      istās      ista
  _Abl._ istō      istā      istō       istīs      istīs      istīs

         «ille», _that_ (yonder), _he_

  _Nom._ ille      illa      illud      illī       illae      illa
  _Gen._ illī´us   illī´us   illī´us    illōrum    illārum    illōrum
  _Dat._ illī      illī      illī       illīs      illīs      illīs
  _Acc._ illum     illam     illud      illōs      illās      illa
  _Abl._ illō      illā      illō       illīs      illīs      illīs

         «is», _this, that, he_

  _Nom._ is        ea        id         iī, eī     eae        ea
  _Gen._ eius      eius      eius       eōrum      eārum      eōrum
  _Dat._ eī        eī        eī         iīs, eīs   iīs, eīs   iīs, eīs
  _Acc._ eum       eam       id         eōs        eās        ea
  _Abl._ eō        eā        eō         iīs, eīs   iīs, eīs   iīs, eīs

         «īdem», _the same_

  _Nom._ īdem      e´adem    idem       iī´dem     eae´dem    e´adem
                                         eī´dem
  _Gen._ eius´dem  eius´dem  eius´dem   eōrun´dem  eārun´dem  eōrun´dem
  _Dat._ eī´dem    eī´dem    eī´dem     iīs´dem    iīs´dem    iīs´dem
                                          eīs´dem    eīs´dem   eīs´dem
  _Acc._ eun´dem   ean´dem   idem       eōs´dem    eās´dem    e´adem
  _Abl._ eō´dem    eā´dem    eō´dem     iīs´dem    iīs´dem    iīs´dem
                                          eīs´dem    eīs´dem    eīs´dem

NOTE. In the plural of «is» and «īdem» the forms with two i’s are
preferred, the two i’s being pronounced as one.

«482.» RELATIVE

          «quī», _who, which, that_

          SINGULAR                PLURAL
          MASC.  FEM.   NEUT.     MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.
  _Nom._  quī    quae   quod      quī     quae    quae
  _Gen._  cuius  cuius  cuius     quōrum  quārum  quōrum
  _Dat._  cui    cui    cui       quibus  quibus  quibus
  _Acc._  quem   quam   quod      quōs    quās    quae
  _Abl._  quō    quā    quō       quibus  quibus  quibus

«483.» INTERROGATIVE

          «quis», substantive, _who, what_

          SINGULAR                      PLURAL
          MASC. & FEM.  NEUT.           MASC.    FEM.     NEUT.
  _Nom._  quis          quid            qui      quae     quae
  _Gen._  cuius         cuius           quōrum   quārum   quōrum
  _Dat._  cui           cui             quibus   quibus   quibus
  _Acc._  quem          quid            quōs     quās     quae
  _Abl._  quō           quō             quibus   quibus   quibus

The interrogative adjective «quī, quae, quod», is declined like the
relative.

«484.» INDEFINITES

«quis» and «quī», as declined above,[1] are used also as indefinites
(_some, any_). The other indefinites are compounds of «quis» and «quī».

          «quisque», _each_

          SUBSTANTIVE                ADJECTIVE
          MASC. & FEM.  NEUT.        MASC.      FEM.       NEUT.
  _Nom._  quisque       quidque      quisque    quaeque    quodque
  _Gen._  cuius´que     cuius´que    cuius´que  cuius´que  cuius´que
  _Dat._  cuique        cuique       cuique     cuique     cuique
  _Acc._  quemque       quidque      quemque    quamque    quodque
  _Abl._  quōque        quōque       quōque     quāque     quōque

    [Footnote 1: «qua» is generally used instead of «quae» in the
    feminine nominative singular and in the neuter nominative and
    accusative plural.]

«485.» «quīdam», _a certain one, a certain_

Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has «quoddam» and the
substantive «quiddam».

          SINGULAR
          MASC.       FEM.        NEUT.
  _Nom._  quīdam      quaedam     quoddam, quiddam (_subst._)
  _Gen._  cuius´dam   cuius´dam   cuius´dam
  _Dat._  cuidam      cuidam      cuidam
  _Acc._  quendam     quandam     quoddam, quiddam (_subst._)
  _Abl._  quōdam      quādam      quōdam

          PLURAL
  _Nom._  quīdam      quaedam     quaedam
  _Gen._  quōrun´dam  quārun´dam  quōrun´dam
  _Dat._  quibus´dam  quibus´dam  quibus´dam
  _Acc._  quōsdam     quāsdam     quaedam
  _Abl._  quibus´dam  quibus´dam  quibus´dam

«486.» «quisquam», substantive, _any one_ (at all)

          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.
  _Nom._  quisquam        quicquam (quidquam)
  _Gen._  cuius´quam      cuius´quam
  _Dat._  cuiquam         cuiquam
  _Acc._  quemquam        quicquam (quidquam)
  _Abl._  quōquam         quōquam

«487.» «aliquis», substantive, _some one_. «aliquī», adjective, _some_

          SINGULAR
          SUBSTANTIVE                   ADJECTIVE
          MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.       MASC.      FEM.       NEUT.
  _Nom._  aliquis        aliquid      aliquī     aliqua     aliquod
  _Gen._  alicu´ius      alicu´ius    alicu´ius  alicu´ius  alicu´ius
  _Dat._  alicui         alicui       alicui     alicui     alicui
  _Acc._  aliquem        aliquid      aliquem    aliquam    aliquod
  _Abl._  aliquō         aliquō       aliquō     aliquā     aliquō

          PLURAL FOR BOTH SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE
          MASC.       FEM.        NEUT.
  _Nom._  aliquī      aliquae     aliqua
  _Gen._  aliquō´rum  aliquā´rum  aliquō´rum
  _Dat._  ali´quibus  ali´quibus  ali´quibus
  _Acc._  aliquōs     aliquās     aliqua
  _Abl._  ali´quibus  ali´quibus  ali´quibus

    _a._ «quis (quī)», _any one, any_, is the least definite (§297.b).
    «aliquis (aliquī)», _some one, some_, is more definite than «quis».
    «quisquam», _any one_ (at all), and its adjective «ūllus», _any_,
    occur mostly with a negative, expressed or implied, and in clauses
    of comparison.


REGULAR VERBS

«488.» FIRST CONJUGATION. _Ā_-VERBS. _AMŌ_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus»
  PRES. STEM amā-    PERF. STEM amāv-    PART. STEM amāt-

  ACTIVE                       PASSIVE
  INDICATIVE
  PRESENT
  _I love, am loving,_         _I am loved_, etc.
    _do love_, etc.
  amō        amāmus            amor              amāmur
  amās       amātis            amāris, -re       amāminī
  amat       amant             amātur            amantur

  IMPERFECT
  _I loved, was loving_,       _I was loved_, etc.
    _did love_, etc.
  amābam     amābāmus          amābar            amābāmur
  amābās     amābātis          amābāris, -re     amābāminī
  amābat     amābant           amābātur          amābantur

  FUTURE
  _I shall love_, etc.         _I shall be loved_, etc.
  amābō      amābimus          amābor            amābimur
  amābis     amābitis          amāberis, -re     amābiminī
  amābit     amābunt           amābitur          amābuntur

  PERFECT
  _I have loved, loved,_       _I have been (was) loved_, etc.
    _did love_, etc.
  amāvi      amāvimus          amātus, {sum      amātī,  {sumus
  amāvistī   amāvistis         -a, -um {es       -ae, -a {estis
  amāvit     amāvērunt, -re            {est              {sunt

  PLUPERFECT
  _I had loved_, etc.          _I had been loved_, etc.
  amāveram   amāverāmus        amātus, {eram     amātī,  {erāmus
  amāverās   amāverātis        -a, -um {erās     -ae, -a {erātis
  amāverat   amāverant                 {erat             {erant

  FUTURE PERFECT
  _I shall have loved_, etc.   _I shall have been loved_, etc.
  amāverō    amāverimus        amātus, {erō      amātī,  {erimus
  amāveris   amāveritis        -a, -um {eris     -ae, -a {eritis
  amāverit   amāverint                 {erit             {erunt

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  PRESENT
  amem       amēmus            amer              amēmur
  amēs       amētis            amēris, -re       amēminī
  amet       ament             amētur            amentur

  IMPERFECT
  amārem     amāremus          amārer            amārēmur
  amārēs     amārētis          amārēris, -re     amārēminī
  amāret     amārent           amārētur          amārentur

  PERFECT
  amāverim   amāverimus        amātus, {sim      amātī,  {sīmus
  amāveris   amāveritis        -a, -um {sīs      -ae, -a {sītis
  amāverit   amāverint                 {sit              {sint

  PLUPERFECT
  amāvissem  amāvissēmus       amātus, {essem    amātī,  {essēmus
  amāvissēs  amāvissētis       -a, -um {essēs    -ae, -a {essētis
  amāvisset  amāvissent                {esset            {essent

  IMPERATIVE
  PRESENT
  amā, _love thou_             amāre, _be thou loved_
  amāte, _love ye_             amāminī, _be ye loved_

  FUTURE
  amātō, _thou shalt love_     amātor, _thou shalt be loved_
  amātō, _he shall love_       amātor, _he shall be loved_
  amātōte, _you shall love_    ----
  amantō, _they shall love_    amantor, _they shall be loved_

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ amāre, _to love_     amārī, _to be loved_
  _Perf._ amāvisse,            amātus, -a, -um esse,
            _to have loved_      _to have been loved_
  _Fut._ amātūrus, -a, -um     [[amātum īrī]], _to be about to be loved_
            esse, _to be_
            _about to love_

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ amāns, -antis,       _Pres._ ----
            _loving_
  _Fut._  amātūrus, -a, -um,   _Gerundive[1]_ amandus, -a, -um, _to be
           _about to love_                      loved_
  _Perf._ ----                 _Perf._ amātus, -a, -um,
                                         _having been loved, loved_

  GERUND
  _Nom._ ----
  _Gen._ amandī, _of loving_
  _Dat._ amandō, _for loving_
  _Acc._ amandum, _loving_
  _Abl._ amandō, _by loving_

  SUPINE (Active Voice)
  _Acc._ [[amātum]], _to love_
  _Abl._ [[amātū]], _to love, in the loving_

    [Footnote 1: Sometimes called the future passive participle.]

«489.» SECOND CONJUGATION. _Ē_-VERBS. _MONEŌ_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus»
  PRES. STEM monē-    PERF. STEM monu-    PART. STEM  monit-

  ACTIVE                       PASSIVE
  INDICATIVE
  PRESENT
  _I advise_, etc.,            _I am advised,_ etc.
  moneō      monēmus           moneor            monēmur
  monēs      monētis           monēris, -re      monēminī
  monet      monent            monētur           monentur

  IMPERFECT
  _I was advising_, etc.,      _I was advised_, etc.
  monēbam    monēbāmus         monēbar           monēbāmur
  monēbās    monēbātis         monēbāris, -re    monēbāminī
  monēbat    monēbant          monēbātur         monēbāntur

  FUTURE
  _I shall advise_, etc.,      _I shall be advised_, etc.
  monēbō     monēbimus         monēbor           monēbimur
  monēbis    monēbitis         monēberis, -re    monēbiminī
  monēbit    monēbunt          monēbitur         monēbuntur

  PERFECT
  _I have advised,_            _I have been (was) advised_, etc.
    _I advised_, etc.
  monuī      monuimus                   {sum             {sumus
  monuistī   monuistis         monitus, {es      monitī, {estis
  monuit     monuērunt, -re    -a, -um  {est     -ae, -a {sunt

  PLUPERFECT
  _I had advised_, etc.,       _I had been advised_, etc.

  monueram   monuerāmus                 {eram            {erāmus
  monuerās   monuerātis        monitus, {eras    monitī, {eratis
  monuerat   monuerant         -a, -um  {erat    -ae, -a {erant

  FUTURE PERFECT
  _I shall have advised_,      _I shall have been advised_, etc.
     etc.
  monuerō    monuerimus                 {erō             {erimus
  monueris   monuerītis        monitus, {eris    monitī, {eritis
  monuerit   monuerīnt         -a, -um  {erit    -ae, -a {erunt

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  PRESENT
  moneam     moneāmus          monear            moneāmur
  moneās     moneātis          moneāris, -re     moneāminī
  moneat     moneant           moneātur          moneantur

  IMPERFECT
  monērem    monērēmus         monērer           monērēmur
  monērēs    monērētis         monērēris, -re    monērēminī
  monēret    monērent          monērētur         monērentur

  PERFECT
  monuerim   monuerimus                 {sim             {sīmus
  monueris   monueritis        monitus, {sīs     monitī, {sītis
  monuerit   monuerint         -a, -um  {sit     -ae, -a {sint

  PLUPERFECT
  monuissem  monuissēmus                {essem           {essēmus
  monuissēs  monuissētis       monitus, {essēs   monitī, {essētis
  monuisset  monuissent        -a, -um  {esset   -ae, -a {essent

  IMPERATIVE
  PRESENT
  monē, _advise thou_          monēre, _be thou advised_
  monēte, _advise ye_          monēminī, _be ye advised_

  FUTURE
  monētō, _thou shall_         monētor, _thou shalt be advised_
            _advise_
  monētō, _he shall advise_    monētor, _he shall be advised_
  monētōte, _you shall advise_  ----
  monentō, _they shall_        monentor, _they shall be advised_
            _advise_

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ monēre, _to advise_  monērī, _to be advised_
  _Perf._ monuisse, _to have_  monitus, -a, -um esse,
            _advised_            _to have been advised_
  _Fut._ monitūrus, -a, -um    [[monitum īrī]],
           esse, _to be_         _to be about to be advised_
           _about to advise_

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ monēns, -entis,      _Pres._ ----
            _advising_
  _Fut._ monitūrus, -a, -um,   _Ger._ monendus, -a, -um,
           _about to advise_            _to be advised_
  _Perf._ ----                 _Perf._ monitus, -a, -um,
                                         _having been advised, advised_

  GERUND
  _Nom._ ----
  _Gen._ monendī, _of advising_
  _Dat._ monendō, _for advising_
  _Acc._ monendum, _advising_
  _Abl._ monendō, _by advising_

  SUPINE (Active Voice)
  _Acc._ [[monitum]], _to advise_
  _Abl._ [[monitū]], _to advise, in the advising_

«490.» THIRD CONJUGATION. _Ĕ_-VERBS. _REGŌ_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «regō, regere, rexī, rēctus»
  PRES. STEM rege-    PERF. STEM rēx-    PART. STEM rēct-

  ACTIVE                       PASSIVE
  INDICATIVE
  PRESENT
  _I rule_, etc.               _I am ruled_, etc.
  regō       regimus           re´gor            re´gimur
  regis      regitis           re´geris, -re     regi´minī
  regit      regunt            re´gitur          regun´tur

  IMPERFECT
  _I was ruling_, etc.         _I was ruled_, etc.
  regēbam    regēbāmus         regē´bar          regēbā´mur
  regēbās    regēbātis         regēbā´ris, -re   regēbā´minī
  regēbat    regēbant          regēbā´tur        regēban´tur

  FUTURE
  _I shall rule_, etc.         _I shall be ruled_, etc.
  regam      regēmus           re´gar            regē´mur
  regēs      regētis           regē´ris, -re     regē´minī
  reget      regent            regē´tur          regen´tur

  PERFECT
  _I have ruled_, etc.         _I have been ruled_, etc.
  rēxī       rēximus                   {sum              {sumus
  rēxistī    rēxistis          rēctus, {es       rēctī,  {estis
  rēxit      rēxērunt, -re     -a, -um {est      -ae, -a {sunt

  PLUPERFECT
  _I had ruled_, etc.          _I had been ruled_, etc.
  rēxeram    rēxerāmus                 {eram             {erāmus
  rēxerās    rēxerātis         rēctus, {eras     rēctī,  {erātis
  rēxerat    rēxerant          -a, -um {erat     -ae, -a {erant

  FUTURE PERFECT
  _I shall have ruled_, etc.   _I shall have been ruled_, etc.
  rēxerō     rēxerimus                 {erō              {erimus
  rēxeris    rēxeritis         rēctus, {eris     rēctī,  {eritis
  rēxerit    rēxerint          -a, -um {erit     -ae, -a {erunt

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  PRESENT
  regam      regāmus           regar             regāmur
  regās      regātis           regāris, -re      regāminī
  regat      regant            regātur           regantur

  IMPERFECT
  regerem    regerēmus         regerer           regerēmur
  regerēs    regerētis         regerēris, -re    regerēminī
  regeret    regerent          regerētur         regerentur

  PERFECT
  rēxerim    rēxerimus                 {sim              {sīmus
  rēxeris    rēxeritis         rēctus, {sīs      rēcti,  {sītis
  rēxerit    rēxerint          -a, -um {sit      -ae, -a {sint

  PLUPERFECT
  rēxissem   rēxissēmus                {essem            {essēmus
  rēxissēs   rēxissētis        rēctus, {essēs    rēcti,  {essētis
  rēxisset   rēxissent         -a, -um {esset    -ae, -a {essent

  IMPERATIVE
  PRESENT
  rege, _rule thou_            regere, _be thou ruled_
  regite, _rule ye_            regiminī, _be ye ruled_

  FUTURE
  regitō, _thou shalt rule_    regitor, _thou shalt be ruled_
  regitō _he shall rule_       regitor, _he shall be ruled_
  regitōte, _ye shall rule_    ----
  reguntō, _they shall rule_   reguntor, _they shall be ruled_

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ regere, _to rule_    regī, _to be ruled_
  _Perf._ rēxisse, _to have_   rēctus, -a, -um esse,
            _ruled_              _to have been ruled_
  _Fut._ rēctūrus, -a, -um     [[rēctum īrī]],
           esse, _to be_         _to be about to be ruled_
           _about to rule_

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ regēns, -entis,      _Pres._ ----
            _ruling_
  _Fut._ rēctūrus, -a, -um,    _Ger._ regendus, -a, -um, _to be ruled_
           _about to rule_
  _Perf._ ----                 _Perf._ rēctus, -a, -um,
                                         _having been ruled, ruled_

  GERUND
  _Nom._ ----
  _Gen._ regendī, _of ruling_
  _Dat._ regendō, _for ruling_
  _Acc._ regendum, _ruling_
  _Abl._ regendō, _by ruling_

  SUPINE (Active Voice)
  _Acc._ [[rēctum]], _to rule_
  _Abl._ [[rēctū]], _to rule, in the ruling_

«491.» FOURTH CONJUGATION. _Ī_-VERBS. _AUDIŌ_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus»
  PRES. STEM audī-    PERF. STEM audīv-    PART. STEM audīt-

  ACTIVE                       PASSIVE
  INDICATIVE
  PRESENT
  _I hear_, etc.               _I am heard_, etc.
  audiō      audīmus           au´dior           audī´mur
  audīs      audītis           audī´ris, -re     audī´minī
  audit      audiunt           audī´tur          audiun´tur

  IMPERFECT
  _I was hearing_, etc.        _I was heard_, etc.
  audiēbam   audiēbāmus        audiē´bar         audiēbā´mur
  audiēbās   audiēbātis        audiēbā´ris, -re  audiēbā´minī
  audiēbat   audiēbant         audiēbā´tur       audiēban´tur

  FUTURE
  _I shall hear_, etc.         _I shall be heard_, etc.
  audiam     audiēmus          au´diar           audiē´mur
  audiēs     audiētis          audiē´ris, -re    audiē´minī
  audiet     audient           audiē´tur         audien´tur

  PERFECT
  _I have heard_, etc.         _I have been heard_, etc.
  audīvī     audīvimus                  {sum             {sumus
  audīvistī  audīvistis        audītus, {es      audītī, {estis
  audīvit    audīvērunt, -re   -a, -um  {est     -ae, -a {sunt

  PLUPERFECT
     _I had heard_, etc.       _I had been heard_, etc.
  audīveram  audīverāmus                {eram            {erāmus
  audīverās  audīverātis       audītus, {eras    audītī, {erātis
  audīverat  audīverant        -a, -um  {erat    -ae, -a {erant

  FUTURE PERFECT
  _I shall have heard_, etc.   _I shall have been heard_, etc.
  audīverō   audīverimus                {erō             {erimus
  audīveris  audīveritis       audītus, {eris    audītī, {eritis
  audīverit  audīverint        -a, -um  {erit    -ae, -a {erunt

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  PRESENT
  audiam     audiāmus          audiar            audiāmur
  audiās     audiātis          audiāris, -re     audiāminī
  audiat     audiant           audiātur          audiantur

  IMPERFECT
  audīrem    audīrēmus         audīrer           audīrēmur
  audīrēs    audīrētis         audīrēris, -re    audīrēminī
  audīret    audīrent          audīrētur         audīrentur

  PERFECT
  audīverim  audīverimus                {sim             {sīmus
  audīveris  audīveritis       audītus, {sīs     audīti, {sītis
  audīverit  audīverint        -a, -um  {sit     -ae, -a {sint

  PLUPERFECT
  audīvissem audīvissēmus               {essem           {essēmus
  audīvissēs audīvissētis      audītus, {essēs   audīti, {essētis
  audīvisset audīvissent       -a, -um  {esset   -ae, -a {essent

  IMPERATIVE
  PRESENT
  PRESENT
  audī, _hear thou_            audīre, _be thou heard_
  audīte, _hear ye_            audīminī, _be ye heard_

  FUTURE
  audītō, _thou shalt hear_    audītor, _thou shalt be heard_
  audītō _he shall hear_       audītor, _he shall be heard_
  audītōte, _ye shall hear_    ----
  auduntō, _they shall hear_   audiuntor, _they shall be heard_

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ audīre, _to hear_    audīrī, _to be heard_
  _Perf._ audīvisse,           audītus, -a, -um esse,
            _to have heard_      _to have been heard_
  _Fut._ audītūrus, -a, -um    [[audītum īrī]],
           esse, _to be_         _to be about to be heard_
           _about to hear_

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ audiēns, -entis,      _Pres._ ----
            _hearing_
  _Fut._ audītūrus, -a, -um,    _Ger._ audiendus, -a, -um, _to be heard_
           _about to hear_
  _Perf._ ----                 _Perf._ audītus, -a, -um,
                                         _having been heard, heard_

  GERUND
  _Nom._ ----
  _Gen._ audiendī, _of hearing_
  _Dat._ audiendō, _for hearing_
  _Acc._ audiendum, _hearing_
  _Abl._ audiendō, _by hearing_

  SUPINE (Active Voice)
  _Acc._ [[audītum]], _to hear_
  _Abl._ [[audītu]], _to hear, in the hearing_

«492.» THIRD CONJUGATION. VERBS IN _-IŌ_. _CAPIŌ_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «capiō, capere, cēpī, captus»
  PRES. STEM cape-    PERF. STEM cēp-    PART. STEM capt-

  ACTIVE                       PASSIVE
  INDICATIVE
  PRESENT
  capiō      capimus           ca´pior           ca´pimur
  capis      capitis           ca´peris, -re     capi´minī
  capit      capiunt           ca´pitur          capiun´tur

  IMPERFECT
  capiēbam   capiebamus        capiē´bar         capiēbā´mur
  capiēbas   capiēbātis        capiēba´ris, -re  capiēbā´minī
  capiēbat   capiēbant         capiēbā´tur       capieban´tur

  FUTURE
  capiam     capiēmus          ca´piar           capiē´mur
  capiēs     capiētis          capiē´ris, -re    capiē´minī
  capiet     capient           capiē´tur         capien´tur

  PERFECT
  cēpī, cēpistī, cēpit, etc.   captus, -a, -um  sum, es, est, etc.

  PLUPERFECT
  cēperam, cēperās, cēperat,   captus, -a, -um  eram, erās, erat, etc.
    etc.

  FUTURE PERFECT
  cēperō, cēperis, cēperit,    captus, -a, -um  erō, eris, erit, etc.
    etc.

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  PRESENT
  capiam, capiās, capiat,      capiar, -iāris, -re, -iātur, etc.
    etc.
  IMPERFECT
  caperem, caperēs, caperet,   caperer, -erēris, -re, -erētur, etc.
    etc.
  PERFECT
  cēperim, cēperis, cēperit,   captus, -a, -um  sim, sīs, sit, etc.
    etc.
  PLUPERFECT
  cēpissem, cēpissēs,          captus, -a, -um  essem, essēs, esset,
    cēpisset, etc.               etc.

  IMPERATIVE
  PRESENT
  _2d Pers._  cape    capite        capere   capiminī

  FUTURE
  _2d Pers._  capitō  capitōte      capitor  ----
  _3rd Pers._ capitō  capiuntō      capitor  capiuntor

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ capere               capī
  _Perf._ cēpisse              captus, -a, -um esse
  _Fut._ captūrus, -a, -um     [[captum īrī]]
           esse

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ capiēns, -ientis     _Pres._ ----
  _Fut._ captūrus, -a, -um     _Ger._ capiendus, -a, -um
  _Perf._ ----                 _Perf._ captus, -a, -um

  GERUND
  _Gen._ capiendī etc.

  SUPINE (Active Voice)
  _Acc._ [[captum]]
  _Abl._ [[captū]]

«493.» DEPONENT VERBS

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  Asterisks in this section are from the original text (“marked with a
  star”).]

  PRINCIPAL PARTS

    I. «hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum», _urge_
   II. «vereor, verērī, veritus sum», _fear_
  III. «sequor, sequī, secūtus sum», _follow_
   IV. «partior, partīrī, partītus sum», _share, divide_

NOTE. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain
forms from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -iō verbs
of the third conjugation are inflected like the passive of capiō.

  INDICATIVE
  _Pres._  hortor          vereor         sequor         partior
           hortāris, -re   verēris, -re   sequeris, -re  partīris, -re
           hortātur        verētur        sequitur       partītur
           hortāmur        verēmur        sequimur       partīmur
           hortāminī       verēminī       sequiminī      partīminī
           hortantur       verentur       sequuntur      partiuntur
  _Impf._  hortābar        verēbar        sequēbar       partiēbar
  _Fut._   hortābor        verēbor        sequar         partiar
  _Perf._  hortātus sum    veritus sum    secūtus sum    partītus sum
  _Plup._  hortātus eram   veritus eram   secūtus eram   partītus eram
  _F.P._   hortātus erō    veritus erō    secūtus erō    partītus erō

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  _Pres._  horter          verear         sequar         partiar
  _Impf._  hortārer        verērer        sequerer       partīrer
  _Perf._  hortātus sim    veritus sim    secūtus sim    partītus sim
  _Plup._  hortātus essem  veritus essem  secūtus essem  partītus essem

  IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._  hortāre         verēre         sequere        partīre
  _Fut._   hortātor        verētor        sequitor       partītor

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._  hortārī         verērī         sequī          partīrī
  _Perf._  hortātus esse   veritus esse   secūtus esse   partītus esse
  _Fut._  *hortātūrus     *veritūrus     *secūtūrus     *partītūrus
             esse            esse           esse           esse

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ *hortāns        *verēns        *sequēns       *partiēns
  _Fut._  *hortāturus     *veritūrus     *secūtūrus     *partītūrus
  _Perf._  hortātus        veritus        secūtus        partītus
  _Ger._   hortandus       verendus       sequendus      partiendus

  GERUND
  *hortandī, etc.     *verendī, etc.
    *sequendī, etc.     *partiendī, etc.

  SUPINE
  *[[hortātus, -tū]]  *[[veritum, -tū]]
    *[[secūtum, -tū]]   *[[partītum, -tū]]

IRREGULAR VERBS

«494.» «sum», _am, be_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «sum, esse, fuī, futūrus»
  PRES. STEM es-    PERF. STEM fu-    PART. STEM  fut-

  INDICATIVE
  PRESENT
  SINGULAR                         PLURAL
  sum, _I am_                      sumus, _we are_
  es, _thou art_                   estis, _you are_
  est, _he (she, it) is_           sunt, _they are_

  IMPERFECT
  eram, _I was_                    erāmus, _we were_
  erās, _thou wast_                erātis, _you were_
  erat, _he was_                   erant, _they were_

  FUTURE
  erō, _I shall be_               erimus, _we shall be_
  eris, _thou wilt be_            eritis, _you will be_
  erit, _he will be_              erunt, _they will be_

  PERFECT
  fuī, _I have been, was_         fuimus, _we have been, were_
  fuistī, _thou hast been, wast_  fuistis, _you have been, were_
  fuit, _he has been, was_        fuērunt, fuēre, _they have been, were_

  PLUPERFECT
  fueram, _I had been_            fuerāmus, _we had been_
  fuerās, _thou hadst been_       fuerātis, _you had been_
  fuerat, _he had been_           fuerant, _they had been_

  FUTURE PERFECT
  fuerō, _I shall have been_      fuerimus, _we shall have been_
  fueris, _thou wilt have been_   fueritis, _you will have been_
  fuerit, _he will have been_     fuerint, _they will have been_

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  PRESENT                      IMPERFECT
  SINGULAR    PLURAL           SINGULAR   PLURAL
  sim        sīmus             essem      essēmus
  sīs        sītis             essēs      essētis
  sit        sint              esset      essent

  PERFECT                      PLUPERFECT
  fuerim     fuerimus          fuissem    fuissēmus
  fueris     fueritis          fuissēs    fuissētis
  fuerit     fuerint           fuisset    fuissent

  IMPERATIVE
  PRESENT
  _2d Pers. Sing._ es, _be thou_
  _2d Pers. Plur._ este, _be ye_
  FUTURE
  _2d Pers. Sing._ estō, _thou shalt be_
  _3d Pers. Sing._ estō, _he shall be_
  _2d Pers. Plur._ estōte, _ye shall be_
  _3d Pers. Plur._ suntō, _they shall be_

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._  esse, _to be_
  _Perf._  fuisse, _to have been_
  _Fut._   futūrus, -a, -um esse or «fore», _to be about to be_

  PARTICIPLE
  futūrus, -a, -um, _about to be_

«495.» «possum», _be able, can_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «possum, posse, potuī, ----»

           INDICATIVE                 SUBJUNCTIVE
           SINGULAR   PLURAL          SINGULAR    PLURAL
  _Pres._  possum     pos´sumus       possim      possī´mus
           potes      potes´tis       possīs      possī´tis
           potest     possunt         possit      possint
  _Impf._  poteram    poterāmus       possem      possē´mus
  _Fut._   poterō     poterimus       ----        ----
  _Perf._  potuī      potuimus        potuerim    potuerimus
  _Plup._  potueram   potuerāmus      potuissem   potuissēmus
  _F.P._   potuerō    potuerimus      ----        ----

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._  posse
  _Perf._  potuisse

  PARTICIPLE
  _Pres._  potens, _gen._ -entis, (adjective) _powerful_

«496.» «prōsum», _benefit_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī, prōfutūrus»
  PRES. STEM  «prōdes-»     PERF. STEM  «prōfu-»   PART. STEM «prōfut-»

           INDICATIVE                   SUBJUNCTIVE
           SINGULAR    PLURAL           SINGULAR   PLURAL
  _Pres._  prōsum      prō´sumus        prōsim       prōsī´mus
           prōdes      prōdes´tis       prōsīs       prōsī´tis
           prōdest     prōsunt          prōsit       prōsint
  _Impf._  prōderam    prōderāmus       prōdessem    prodessē´mus
  _Fut._   prōderō     prōderimus       ----         ----
  _Perf._  prōfuī      prōfuimus        prōfuerim    prōfuerimus
  _Plup._  prōfueram   prōfuerāmus      prōfuissem   prōfuissēmus
  _F.P._   prōfuerō    prōfuerimus      ----         ----

  IMPERATIVE
  _Pres. 2d Pers._ prōdes, prōdeste
  _Fut. 2d Pers._  prōdestō, prōdestōte

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._  prōdesse
  _Perf._  prōfuisse
  _Fut._   prōfutūrus, -a, -um esse

  FUTURE PARTICIPLE  prōfutūrus, -a, -um

«497.» [ «volō», «nōlō», «mālō»]

  PRINCIPAL PARTS:
  «volō, velle, voluī», ----, _be willing, will, wish_
  «nōlō, nōlle, nōluī», ----, _be unwilling, will not_
  «mālō, mālle, māluī», ----, _be more willing, prefer_

«Nōlō» and «mālō» are compounds of «volō». «Nōlō» is for «ne» (_not_) +
«volō», and «mālō» for «mā» (from «magis», _more_) + «volō». The second
person «vīs» is from a different root.

  INDICATIVE
           SINGULAR
  _Pres._  volō                nōlō                mālō
           vīs                 nōn vis             māvīs
           vult                nōn vult            māvult

           PLURAL
           volumus             nōlumus             mālumus
           vultis              nōn vultis          māvul´tis
           volunt              nōlunt              mālunt

  _Impf._  volēbam             nōlēbam             mālēbam
  _Fut._   volam, volēs, etc.  nōlam, nōlēs, etc.  mālam, mālēs, etc.
  _Perf._  voluī               nōluī               māluī
  _Plup._  volueram            nōlueram            mālueram
  _F.P._   voluerō             nōluerō             māluerō

  SUBJUNCTIVE
           SINGULAR
  _Pres._  velim               nōlim               mālim
           velīs               nōlīs               mālīs
           velit               nōlit               mālit

           PLURAL
           velī´mus            nōlī´mus            mālī´mus
           velī´tis            nōlī´tis            mālī´tis
           velint              nōlint              mālint

  _Impf._  vellem              nōllem              māllem
  _Perf._  voluerim            nōluerim            māluerim
  _Plup._  voluissem           nōluissem           māluissem

  IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._  nōlī
           nōlīte
  _Fut._   nōlītō, etc.

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._  velle               nōlle               mālle
  _Perf._  voluisse            nōluisse            māluisse

  PARTICIPLE
  _Pres._  volēns, -entis      nōlēns, -entis      ----

«498.» «ferō», _bear, carry, endure_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus»
  PRES. STEM  fer-    PERF. STEM  tul-    PART. STEM  lāt-

  INDICATIVE
          ACTIVE                    PASSIVE
  _Pres._ ferō      ferimus         feror        ferimur
          fers      fertīs          ferris, -re  ferimimī
          fert      ferunt          fertur       feruntur
  _Impf._ ferēbam                   ferēbar
  _Fut._  feram, ferēs, etc.        ferar, ferēris, etc.
  _Perf._ tulī                      lātus, -a, -um sum
  _Plup._ tuleram                   lātus, -a, -um eram
  _F.P._  tulerō                    lātus, -a, -um erō

  SUBJUNCTIVE
  _Pres._ feram, ferās, etc.        ferar, ferāris, etc.
  _Impf._ ferrem                    ferrer
  _Perf._ tulerim                   lātus, -a, -um sim
  _Plup._ tulissem                  lātus, -a, -um essem

  IMPERATIVE
  _Pres. 2d Pers._  fer     ferte     ferre    feriminī
  _Fut. 2d Pers._   fertō   fertōte   fertor
       _3d Pers._   fertō   ferunto   fertor   feruntor

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ ferre                     ferrī
  _Perf._ tulisse                   lātus, -a, -um esse
  _Fut._  lātūrus, -a, -um esse     ----

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ ferēns, -entis    _Pres._ ----
  _Fut._  lātūrus, -a, -um  _Ger._  ferendus, -a, -um
  _Perf._ ----              _Perf._ lātus, -a, -um

  GERUND
  _Gen._ ferendī
  _Dat._ ferendō
  _Acc._ ferendum
  _Abl._ ferendō

  SUPINE (Active Voice)
  _Acc._ [[lātum]]
  _Abl._ [[lātū]]

«499.» eō, _go_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «eō, īre, iī (īvī), ĭtum» (n. perf. part.)
  PRES. STEM ī-
  PERF. STEM ī- or īv-
  PART. STEM it-

          INDICATIVE       SUBJUNCTIVE                IMPERATIVE
          SING.  PLUR.
  _Pres._ eō   īmus        eam             _2d Pers._ ī     īte
          īs   ītis
          it   eunt
  _Impf._ ībam             īrem
  _Fut._  ībō              ----            _2d Pers._ ītō   ītōte
                                           _3d Pers._ ītō   euntō
  _Perf._ iī (īvī)        ierim (īverim)
  _Plup._ ieram (īveram)  īssem (īvissem)
  _F. P._ ierō (īverō)

  INFINITIVE
  _Pres._ īre
  _Perf._ īsse (īvisse)
  _Fut._  itūrus, -a, -um esse

  PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._ iēns, _gen._ euntis (§472)
  _Fut._  itūrus, -a, -um
  _Ger._  eundum

  GERUND
  _Gen._  eundī
  _Dat._  eundō
  _Acc._  eundum
  _Abl._  eundō

  SUPINE
  _Acc._  [[itum]]
  _Abl._  [[itū]]

    _a._ The verb «eō» is used impersonally in the third person singular
    of the passive, as «ītur», «itum est», _etc._

    _b._ In the perfect system the forms with «v» are very rare.

«500.» «fīō», passive of «faciō»; _be made, become, happen_

  PRINCIPAL PARTS «fīō, fierī, factus sum»

  INDICATIVE                 SUBJUNCTIVE              IMPERATIVE
  _Pres._  fīō      ----     fīam          _2d Pers._ fī      fīte
           fīs      ----
           fit      fīunt
  _Impf._  fīēbam            fierem
  _Fut._   fīam              ----

  INDICATIVE                       SUBJUNCTIVE
  _Perf._  factus, -a, -um  sum    factus, -a, -um  sim
  _Plup._  factus, -a, -um  eram   factus, -a, -um  essem
  _F.P._   factus, -a, -um  erō

  INFINITIVE                       PARTICIPLES
  _Pres._  fierī                   _Perf._  factus, -a, -um
  _Perf._  factus, -a, -um  esse   _Ger._   faciendus, -a, -um
  _Fut._   [[factum īrī]]

  [Illustration: CASTRA MURO FOSSAQUE MUNIUNTUR]



APPENDIX II


«501.» RULES OF SYNTAX

NOTE. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered
consecutively. The number of the text section in which the rule appears
is given at the end of each.

_Nominative Case_

  «1.» The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and answers the
  question Who? or What? §36.

_Agreement_

  «2.» A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its
  subject. §28.

  «3.» A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.
  §76.

  «4.» An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains.
  §81.

  «5.» Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.
  §65.

  «6.» A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive
  agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb.
  §215.a.

  «7.» A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and
  number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own
  clause. §224.

_Prepositions_

  «8.» A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or
  ablative case. §52.

_Genitive Case_

  «9.» The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the
  genitive and answers the question Whose? §38.

  «10.» The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate,
  especially after the forms of «sum», and is then called the _predicate
  genitive_. §409.

  «11.» Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the
  whole, known as _the partitive genitive_. §331.

  «12.» Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive
  with a modifying adjective. §443.

_Dative Case_

  «13.» The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. §45.

  «14.» The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive
  verbs «crēdō», «faveō», «noceō», «pāreō», «persuādeō», «resistō»,
  «studeō», and others of like meaning. §154.

  «15.» Some verbs compounded with «ad», «ante», «con», «dē», «in»,
  «inter», «ob», «post», «prae», «prō», «sub», «super», admit the dative
  of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an
  accusative and a dative. §426.

  «16.» The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward
  which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those
  meaning _near_, also _fit, friendly, pleasing, like_, and their
  opposites. §143.

  «17.» The dative is used to denote the _purpose_ or _end for which_;
  often with another dative denoting _the person or thing affected_.
  §437.

_Accusative Case_

  «18.» The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and
  answers the question Whom? or What? §37.

  «19.» The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. §214.

  «20.» The _place to which_ is expressed by «ad» or «in» with the
  accusative. Before names of towns, small islands, «domus», and «rūs»
  the preposition is omitted. §§263, 266.

  «21.» _Duration of time_ and _extent of space_ are expressed by the
  accusative. §336.

  «22.» Verbs of _making, choosing, calling, showing_, and the like, may
  take a _predicate accusative_ along with the direct object. With the
  passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives. §392.

_Ablative Case_

  «23.» _Cause_ is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This
  answers the question Because of what? §102.

  «24.» _Means_ is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This
  answers the question By means of what? or With what? §103.

  «25.» _Accompaniment_ is denoted by the ablative with «cum». This
  answers the question With whom? §104.

  «26.» The ablative with «cum» is used to denote the manner of an
  action. «Cum» may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the
  ablative. This answers the question How? or In what manner? §105.

  «27.» With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is
  used to denote the _measure of difference_. §317.

  «28.» The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect
  participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance.
  This is called the _ablative absolute_. §381.

  «29.» 1. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the
    ablative with a modifying adjective. §444.

    2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical
    characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the
    ablative with a modifying adjective. §445.

  «30.» The ablative is used to denote _in what respect_ something is
  true. §398.

  «31.» The _place from which_ is expressed by «ā» or «ab», «dē», «ē» or
  «ex» with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence?
  Before names of towns, small islands, «domus», and «rūs» the
  preposition is omitted. §§264, 266.

  «32.» Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative
  to complete their meaning. This is called the _ablative of
  separation_. §180.

  «33.» The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when
  not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition «ā» or
  «ab». This is called the _ablative of the personal agent_. §181.

  «34.» The comparative degree, if «quam» is omitted, is followed by the
  separative ablative. §309.

  «35.» The _time when or within which_ anything happens is expressed by
  the ablative without a preposition. §275.

  «36.» 1. The _place at or in which_ is expressed by the ablative with
    «in». This answers the question Where? Before names of towns, small
    islands, and «rūs» the preposition is omitted. §§265, 266.

    2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or
    second declension, and the word «domus» express the _place in which_
    by the locative. §268.

_Gerund and Gerundive_

  «37.» 1. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive,
    dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of
    these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns. §406.1.

    2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of
    gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative
    without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive
    construction is more usual. §406.2.

  «38.» The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with «ad», or the
  genitive with «causā», is used to express purpose. §407.

_Moods and Tenses of Verbs_

  «39.» Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by
  secondary. §358.

  «40.» The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the
  _purpose_ of the action in the principal clause. §349.

  «41.» _A substantive clause of purpose_ with the subjunctive is used
  as object with verbs of _commanding, urging, asking, persuading_, or
  _advising_, where in English we should usually have the infinitive.
  §366.

  «42.» Verbs of _fearing_ are followed by a substantive clause of
  purpose introduced by «ut» (_that not_) or «nē» (_that_ or _lest_).
  §372.

  «43.» _Consecutive clauses of result_ are introduced by «ut» or «ut
  nōn», and have the verb in the subjunctive. §385.

  «44.» _Object clauses of result_ with «ut» or «ut nōn» are found after
  verbs of effecting or bringing about. §386.

  «45.» A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe
  an antecedent. This is called the _subjunctive of characteristic or
  description_. §390.

  «46.» The conjunction «cum» means _when, since_, or _although_. It is
  followed by the subjunctive unless it means _when_ and its clause
  fixes the time at which the main action took place. §396.

  «47.» When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is
  changed to the infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject
  accusative of the infinitive. §416.

  «48.» The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect
  statements is found after verbs of _saying, telling, knowing,
  thinking_, and _perceiving_. §419.

  «49.» A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present
  infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect
  infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive. §418.

  «50.» In an _indirect question_ the verb is in the subjunctive and its
  tense is determined by the law for tense sequence. §432.

  [Illustration: DOMINA]



APPENDIX III


REVIEWS[1]

    [Footnote 1: It is suggested that each of these reviews be assigned
    for a written test.]

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  In this Review section, the lists of English words for translation may
not be in the same order as in the original.]


I. REVIEW OF VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR THROUGH LESSON VIII

«502.» Give the English of the following words:[1]

  NOUNS
   agricola      «gallīna»
   ancilla        iniūria
  «aqua»         «īnsula»
  «casa»         «lūna»
  «causa»        «nauta»
   cēna          «pecūnia»
  «corōna»        puella
  «dea»          «pugna»
   domina        «sagitta»
   fābula        «silva»
  «fera»         «terra»
  «fīlia»        «tuba»
  «fortūna»      «via»
  «fuga»         «victōria»

  ADJECTIVES
  «alta»         «magna»
  «bona»         «mala»
  «clāra»        «nova»
  «grāta»        «parva»
  «lāta»         «pulchra»
  «longa»        «sōla»

  VERBS
   amat          «necat»
  «dat»          «nūntiat»
  «est»          «parat»
   habitat       «portat»
  «labōrat»      «pugnat»
  «laudat»       «sunt»
   nārrat        «vocat»

  PREPOSITIONS
  «ā» or «ab»
  «ad»
  «cum»
  «dē»
  «ē» or «ex»
  «in»

  PRONOUNS
  «mea»
  «tua»
  «quis»
  «cuius»
  «cui»
  «quem»
  «quid»

  ADVERBS
  «cūr»
  «deinde»
  «nōn»
  «ubi»

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «et»
   quia
  «quod»

  INTERROGATIVE
  PARTICLE
  «-ne»

    [Footnote 1: Proper nouns and proper adjectives are not repeated in
    the reviews. Words used in Cassar’s “Gallic War” are in heavy type.]

«503.» Give the Latin of the following words:[1]

Underline the words you do not remember. Do not look up a single word
till you have gone through the entire list. Then drill on the words you
have underlined.

  _flight_                      _wide_
   story                         tells
  _new_                         _money_
   lives (verb)                 _calls_
  _away from_                   _with_
  _who_                         _your_
  _why_                         _then, in the next place_
  _forest_                      _daughter_
  _wreath_                      _to whom_
  _deep, high_                  _fortune_
   dinner                       _famous_
  _out from_                    _labors_ (verb)
  _my_                          _kills_
  _where_                       _not_
  _trumpet_                     _in_
   lady, mistress               _and_
  _whom_                        _sailor_
  _island_                       farmer
  _goddess_                     _what_
  _wild beast_                  _way_
  _praises_ (verb)              _bad_
  _alone_                        loves
  _pleasing_                    _pretty_
  _prepares_                    _water_
  _are_                         _great_
  _to_                          _is_
  _because_                     _announces_
  _arrow_                       _injury, wrong_
  _cottage_                     _battle_ (noun)
  _gives_                       _small_
   girl                         _fights_ (verb)
  _good_                         maid
  _carries_                     _down from_
  _chicken_                     _long_
  _victory_                     _cause_
  _land_                        _whose_

    [Footnote 1: The translations of words used in Cæsar are in
    italics.]

«504.» «Review Questions.» How many syllables has a Latin word? How are
words divided into syllables? What is the ultima? the penult? the
antepenult? When is a syllable short? When is a syllable long? What is
the law of Latin accent? Define the subject of a sentence; the
predicate; the object; the copula. What is inflection? declension?
conjugation? What is the ending of the verb in the third person
singular, and what in the plural? What does the form of a noun show?
Name the Latin cases. What case is used for the subject? the direct
object? the possessor? What relation is expressed by the dative case?
Give the rule for the indirect object. How are questions answered in
Latin? What is a predicate adjective? an attributive adjective? What is
meant by agreement? Give the rule for the agreement of the adjective.
What are the three relations expressed by the ablative? What can you say
of the position of the possessive pronoun? the modifying genitive? the
adjective? What is the base? What is grammatical gender? What is the
rule for gender in the first declension? What are the general principles
of Latin word order?

«505.» Fill out the following summary of the first declension:

  THE FIRST OR Ā-DECLENSION
  1. Ending in the nominative singular
  2. Rule for gender
  3. Case terminations
      a. Singular
      b. Plural
  4. Irregular nouns


II. REVIEW OF LESSONS IX-XVII

«506.» Give the English of the following words:

  NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION
  «agrī cultūra»    «galea»
  «cōnstantia»      «inopia»
  «cōpia»           «lacrima»
  «dīligentia»      «lōrīca»
  «fāma»            «patria»
   fēmina           «praeda»

  NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION
  «ager»            «līberī»
  «amīcus»           magister
  «arma» (plural)   «mūrus»
  «auxilium»        «numerus»
  «bellum»          «oppidānus»
  «carrus»          «oppidum»
  «castrum»         «pīlum»
  «cibus»           «populus»
  «cōnsilium»       «praemium»
  «domicilium»      «proelium»
   dominus          «puer»
  «equus»           «scūtum»
  «fīlius»          «servus»
   fluvius          «studium»
  «frūmentum»       «tēlum»
  «gladius»         «vīcus»
  «lēgātus»         «vir»

  ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
  «aeger, aegra, aegrum»
  «alius, alia, aliud»
  «alter, altera, alterum»
  «armātus, -a, -um»
  «crēber, crēbra, crēbrum»
  «dūrus, -a, -um»
  «fīnitimus, -a, -um»
  «īnfīrmus, -a, -um»
  «legiōnārius, -a, -um»
  «līber, lībera, līberum»
  «mātūrus, -a, -um»
  «meus, -a, -um»
  «miser, misera, miserum»
  «multus, -a, -um»
  «neuter, neutra, neutrum»
  «noster, nostra, nostrum»
  «nūllus, -a, -um»
  «pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum»
  «sōlus, -a, -um»
  «suus, -a, -um»
  «tōtus, -a, -um»
  «tuus, -a, -um»
  «ūllus, -a, -um»
  «ūnus, -a, -um»
  «uter, utra, utrum»
   validus, -a, -um
  «vester, vestra, vestrum»

  VERBS
   arat
  «cūrat»
  «dēsīderat»
  «mātūrat»
  «properat»

  DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN
  «is, ea, id»

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «an»
  «-que»
  «sed»

  ADVERBS
  «iam»
   quō
  «saepe»

  PREPOSITION
  «apud»

«507.» Give the Latin of the following words:

  _sword_                 _shield_ (noun)
  _corselet_              _whole_
  _man_                   _it_
  _your_ (plural)         _aid_ (noun)
  _hasten_                _legionary_
  _but_                   _weak_
  _among_                 _arms_
  _tear_ (noun)            master (of school)
  _village_               _friend_
   strong                 _neighboring_
  _long for_              _sick_
  _and_ (enclitic)        _lieutenant_
  _often_                 _field_
  _want_ (noun)           _report, rumor_
  _which_ (of two)        _abode_
  _care for_              _boy_
  _or_ (in a question)    _his own_
   whither                _alone_
  _wagon_                 _prize_ (noun)
  _townsman_               master (owner)
  _wretched_              _carefulness_
  _ripe_                  _plenty_
  _war_                   _troops_
  _number_                _plan_ (noun)
  _my_                    _people_
  _free_ (adj.)           _beautiful_
  _children_              _no_ (adj.)
  _wall_                  _our_
  _grain_                 _battle_
  _weapon_                _spear_
  _one_                   _food_
   plow (verb)            _steadiness_
  _this_ or _that_        _fatherland_
  _already_               _town_
  _helmet_                _fort_
   river                  _camp_
  _zeal_                  _neither_ (of two)
  _any_                   _much_
  _he_                    _agriculture_
  _son_                   _other_
  _slave_                 _the other_ (of two)
  _your_ (singular)       _hard_
  _she_                   _booty_
  _woman_                 _frequent_
  _horse_                 _armed_

«508.» «Review Questions.» How many declensions are there? What three
things must be known about a noun before it can be declined? What three
cases of neuter nouns are always alike, and in what do they end in the
plural? What two plural cases are always alike? When is the vocative
singular not like the nominative? What is a predicate noun? With what
does it agree? What is an appositive? Give the rule for the agreement of
an appositive. How can we tell whether a noun in «-er» is declined like
«puer» or like «ager»? Decline «bonus», «līber», «pulcher». How can we
tell whether an adjective in «-er» is declined like «līber» or like
«pulcher»? Why must we say «nauta bonus» and not «nauta bona»? Name the
Latin possessive pronouns. How are they declined? With what does the
possessive pronoun agree? When do we use «tuus» and when «vester»? Why
is «suus» called a _reflexive_ possessive? What is the non-reflexive
possessive of the third person? When are possessives omitted? What four
uses of the ablative case are covered by the relations expressed in
English by _with_? Give an illustration in Latin of the _ablative of
manner_; of the _ablative of cause_; of the _ablative of means_; of the
_ablative of accompaniment_. What ablative regularly has «cum»? What
ablative sometimes has «cum»? What uses of the ablative never have
«cum»? Name the nine pronominal adjectives, with their meanings. Decline
«alius», «nūllus». Decline «is». What does «is» mean as a demonstrative
adjective or pronoun? What other important use has it?

«509.» Fill out the following summary of the second declension:

  THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION
  1. Endings in the nominative
  2. Rule for gender
  3. Case terminations of nouns in «-us»
          a. Singular
          b. Plural
      a. The vocative singular of nouns in «-us»
  4. Case terminations of nouns in «-um»
          a. Singular
          b. Plural
  5. Peculiarities of nouns in «-er» and «-ir»
  6. Peculiarities of nouns in «-ius» and «-ium»


III. REVIEW OF LESSONS XVIII-XXVI

«510.» Give the English of the following words:

  NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION
  «disciplīna»       rēgīna
  «fōrma»            superbia
  «poena»           «trīstitia»
  «potentia»

  NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION
   lūdus
  «ōrnāmentum»
   sacrum
  «socius»
  «verbum»

  ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
  «amīcus»            īrātus
  «antīquus»         «laetus»
  «fīnitimus»        «molestus»
  «grātus»           «perpetuus»
  «idōneus»          «proximus»
  «inimīcus»         «septem»
  «interfectus»      «superbus»

  ADVERBS
   hodiē
  «ibi»
  «maximē»
   mox
  «nunc»
  «nūper»

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «etiam»
  «nōn sōlum ... sed etiam»

  PERSONAL PRONOUN
  «ego»

  VERBS
    CONJ. I
     volō, -āre

    CONJ. II
    «dēleō, -ēre»      «noceō, -ēre»
    «doceō, -ēre»      «pāreō, -ēre»
    «faveō, -ēre»      «persuādeō, -ēre»
    «habeō, -ēre»       sedeō, -ēre
    «iubeō, -ēre»      «studeō, -ēre»
    «moneō, -ēre»      «videō, -ēre»
    «moveō, -ēre»

    CONJ. III
    «agō, -ere»        «fugiō, -ere»
    «capiō, -ere»      «iaciō, -ere»
    «crēdō, -ere»      «mittō, -ere»
    «dīcō, -ere»        rapiō, -ere
    «dūcō, -ere»       «regō, -ere»
    «faciō, -ere»      «resistō, -ere»

    CONJ. IV
    «audiō, -īre»
    «mūniō, -īre»
    «reperiō, -īre»
    «veniō, -īre»

    IRREGULAR VERB
    «sum, esse»

«511.» «Give the Latin of the following words.» In the case of verbs
always give the first form and the present infinitive.

  _ancient_                _power_
  _come_                   _make, do_
  _resist_                 _injure_
  _see_                    _now_
  _be_                     _annoying_
   fly                     _lead_
  _I_                      _move_
  _proud_                   soon
  _word_                   _glad_
  _sadness_                _punishment_
  _find_                   _believe_
  _rule_ (verb)            _advise_
  _be eager for_           _especially, most of all_
  _not only...but also_     angry
  _seven_                  _beauty_
  _ally, companion_        _say_
   pride                   _command_ (verb)
  _fortify_                _there_
  _send_                   _slain_
   sit                     _training_
  _also_                   _take_
   school                  _have_
  _hear_                    to-day
  _hurl_                   _unfriendly_
  _persuade_               _drive_
  _only_                   _favor_ (verb)
  _nearest_                _suitable_
   sacred rite             _pleasing_
   queen                   _teach_
  _flee_                   _neighboring_
  _obey_                   _destroy_
  _lately_                 _friendly_
  _constant_                seize
  _ornament_

«512.» «Review Questions.» What is conjugation? Name two important
differences between conjugation in Latin and in English. What is tense?
What is mood? What are the Latin moods? When do we use the indicative
mood? Name the six tenses of the indicative. What are personal endings?
Name those you have had. Inflect sum in the three tenses you have
learned. How many regular conjugations are there? How are they
distinguished? How is the present stem found? What tenses are formed
from the present stem? What is the tense sign of the imperfect? What is
the meaning of the imperfect? What is the tense sign of the future in
the first two conjugations? in the last two? Before what letters is a
final long vowel of the stem shortened? What are the three possible
translations of a present, as of pugnō? Inflect arō, sedeō, mittō,
faciō, and veniō, in the present, imperfect, and future active. What
forms of -iō verbs of the third conjugation are like audiō? what like
regō? Give the rule for the dative with adjectives. Name the special
intransitive verbs that govern the dative. What does the imperative mood
express? How is the present active imperative formed in the singular? in
the plural? What three verbs have a shortened present active imperative?
Give the present active imperative of portō, dēleō, agō, faciō, mūniō.


IV. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVII-XXXVI

«513.» Give the English of the following words:

  NOUNS OF THE FIRST DECLENSION
  «āla»
  «cūra»
  «mora»
  «porta»
  «prōvincia»
  «vīta»

  NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION
  «animus»         «nāvigium»
   aurum            ōrāculum
  «bracchium»      «perīculum»
  «deus»           «ventus»
  «locus»          «vīnum»
   mōnstrum

  ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
  «adversus»       «dubius»
  attentus         «maximus»
  «cārus»           perfidus
  «commōtus»       «plēnus»
  «dēfessus»        saevus
  «dexter»         «sinister»

  ADVERBS
  «anteā»          «ita»
  «celeriter»      «longē»
  «dēnique»        «semper»
  «diū»            «subitō»
  «frūstrā»        «tamen»
  «graviter»       «tum»

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «autem»
  «sī»
  «ubi»

  PREPOSITIONS
  «dē»
  «per»
  «prō»
  «sine»

  VERBS
    CONJ. I
    «adpropinquō»    «servō»
    «nāvigō»         «stō»
    «occupō»         «superō»
    «postulō»        «temptō»
    «recūsō»         «vāstō»
    «reportō»        «vulnerō»

    CONJ. II
    «contineō»
    «egeō»
    «prohibeō»
    «respondeō»
    «teneō»

    CONJ. III
    «discēdō»
    «gerō»
    «interficiō»

    IRREGULAR VERB
    «absum»

«514.» Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender
of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

  _be away_                       _heavily_
  _wind_                           monster
  _through_                       _approach_
  _if_                            _nevertheless_
   savage                         _place_
  _wound_ (verb)                  _be without, lack_
  _wine_                          _moved_
  _delay_                          gold
   faithless                      _restrain, keep from_
  _right_                         _without_
  _seize_                         _hold_
  _quickly_                       _suddenly_
  _before, in behalf of_          _dear_
  _battle_                        _always_
  _down from_ or _concerning_     _god_
  _moreover_                      _hold in, keep_
  _greatest_                      _afar_
   oracle                         _thus, so, as follows_
  _danger_                        _arm_ (noun)
  _lay waste_                     _when_
  _gate_                          _in vain_
  _doubtful_                      _stand_
  _opposite, adverse_             _bring back, win_
  _demand_                        _before, previously_
  _finally_                       _depart, go away_
   attentive                      _province_
  _then, at that time_            _care, trouble_
  _weary_                         _kill_
  _overcome, conquer_             _reply_ (verb)
  _conquer_                       _wing_
  _boat, ship_                    _mind, heart_
  _sail_ (verb)                   _left_ (adj.)
  _life_                          _bear, carry on_
  _save_                          _try_
  _full_                          _for a long time_
  _refuse_

«515.» Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs:

  «sum»          «faveō»
  «dō»           «noceō»
  «teneō»        «dīcō»
  «iubeō»        «pāreō»
  «agō»          «dūcō»
  «mittō»        «faciō»
  «mūniō»        «persuādeō»
  «moveō»        «sedeō»
  «crēdō»        «studeō»
  «rapiō»        «fugiō»
  «reperiō»      «veniō»
  «dēleō»        «iaciō»
  «resistō»      «videō»
  «audiō»        «absum»
  «moneō»        «egeō»
  «capiō»        «gerō»
  «doceō»        «stō»
  «regō»

«516.» «Review Questions.» What are the personal endings in the passive
voice? What is the letter -r sometimes called? What are the
distinguishing vowels of the four conjugations? What forms constitute
the principal parts? What are the three different conjugation stems? How
may they be found? What are the tenses of the indicative? of the
infinitive? What tense of the imperative have you learned? What forms
are built on the present stem? on the perfect stem? on the participial
stem? What are the endings of the perfect active indicative? What is the
tense sign of the pluperfect active? of the future perfect active? How
is the present active infinitive formed? the present passive infinitive?
How is the present active imperative formed? the present passive
imperative? How is the perfect active infinitive formed? the perfect
passive infinitive? How is the future active infinitive formed? What is
a participle? How are participles in -us declined? Give the rule for the
agreement of the participle. How are the perfect, pluperfect, and future
perfect passive indicative formed? Conjugate the verb «sum» in all moods
and tenses as far as you have learned it (§494). What is meant by the
separative ablative? How is the place _from which_ expressed in Latin?
Give the rule for the ablative of separation; for the ablative of the
personal agent. How can we distinguish between the ablative of means and
the ablative of the personal agent? What is the perfect definite? the
perfect indefinite? What is the difference in meaning between the
perfect indefinite and the imperfect? What two cases in Latin may be
governed by a preposition? Name the prepositions that govern the
ablative. What does the preposition «in» mean when it governs the
ablative? the accusative? What are the three interrogatives used to
introduce _yes_-and-_no_ questions? Explain the force of each. What
words are sometimes used for _yes_ and _no?_ What are the different
meanings and uses of ubi?


V. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXVII-XLIV

«517.» Give the English of the following words:

  NOUNS
    FIRST DECLENSION                SECOND DECLENSION
    «rīpa»                          «barbarī»
                                    «captīvus»
                                    «castellum»
                                    «impedīmentum»

    THIRD DECLENSION
    «animal»        «homō»          «ōrdō»
    «arbor»         «hostīs»        «pater»
    «avis»          «ignis»         «pedes»
    «caedēs»        «imperātor»     «pēs»
    «calamitās»     «īnsigne»        pōns
     calcar         «iter»          «prīnceps»
    «caput»         iūdex           «rēx»
    «cīvis»         «labor»         «salūs»
    «cliēns»        «lapis»         «sanguis»
    «collis»        «legiō»         «soror»
    «cōnsul»        «mare»          tempus
    «dēns»          «māter»         «terror»
    «dux»           «mēnsis»        «turris»
    «eques»         «mīles»         «urbs»
    «fīnis»         «mōns»          «victor»
    «flūmen»        «nāvis»         «virtūs»
     fōns           «opus»          «vīs»
    «frāter»        «ōrātor»

  ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
  «barbarus»
  «dexter»
  «sinister»
  «summus»

  PREPOSITIONS
  «in» with the abl.
  «in» with the acc.
  «trāns»

  ADVERBS
  «cotīdiē»
  «numquam»

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «nec, neque»
  «nec...nec», or «neque...neque»

  VERBS
  CONJ. I         CONJ. III
  «cessō»         «accipiō»
  «oppugnō»       «petō»
  «confirmō»      «vincō»
  «vetō»          «incipiō»
                  «ponō»
                  «vivō»

«518.» Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender
of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

  _forbid_                  _in_
  _rank, row_               _judge_
  _brother_                 _defeat, disaster_
  _force_                   _fire_
  _across_                  _tree_
  _savages_                 _foot soldier_
  _horseman_                _receive_
  _never_                   _general_
  _mountain_                _highest_
  _manliness, courage_      _fountain_
  _leader_                  _orator_
  _put, place_              _neither...nor_
  _time_                    _and not_
  _savage, barbarous_       _left_
  _sister_                  _tooth_
  _seek_                    _soldier_
  _captive_                 _month_
  _hindrance, baggage_      _city_
  _captive_                 _victor_
  _hindrance, baggage_      _daily_
  _man-of-war_              _live_ (verb)
  _conquer_                 _redoubt, fort_
  _consul_                  _sea_
  _mother_                  _tower_
  _retainer_                _drill_ (verb)
  _citizen_                 _legion_
  _head_                    _terror_
  _safety_                  _into, to_
  _assail, storm_           _right_ (adj.)
  _begin_                   _stone_
  _march_                   _blood_
  _decoration_              _labor_ (noun)
  _bridge_                  _king_
  _bird_                    _spur_
  _cease_                   _chief_
  _man_                     _slaughter_
  _river_                   _strengthen_
  _work_ (noun)             _foot_
  _and_                     _enemy_
  _ship_                    _animal_
  _bank_                    _father_

«519.» «Review Questions.» Give the conjugation of «possum». What is an
infinitive? What three uses has the Latin infinitive that are like the
English? What is the case of the subject of the infinitive? What is
meant by a complementary infinitive? In the sentence _The bad boy cannot
be happy_, what is the case of _happy_? Give the rule. Decline «quī».
Give the rule for the agreement of the relative. What are the two uses
of the interrogative? Decline «quis». What is the base of a noun? How is
the stem formed from the base? Are the stem and the base ever the same?
How many declensions of nouns are there? Name them. What are the two
chief divisions of the third declension? How are the consonant stems
classified? Explain the formation of «lapis» from the stem «lapid-»,
«mīles» from «mīlit-», «rēx» from «rēg-». What nouns have «i»-stems?
What peculiarities of form do «i»-stems have,--masc., fem., and neut.?
Name the five nouns that have «-ī» and «-e» in the abl. Decline
«turris». Give the rules for gender in the third declension. Decline
«mīles», «lapis», «rēx», «virtūs», «cōnsul», «legiō», «homō», «pater»,
«flūmen», «opus», «tempus», «caput», «caedēs», «urbs», «hostis», «mare»,
«animal», «vīs», «iter».

«520.» Fill out the following scheme:

               {              {  Masculine
               {  GENDER      {  Feminine
               {  ENDINGS     {  Neuter
               {
    THE THIRD  {              { I. CONSONANT  { _a_. Masc. and fem.
    DECLENSION {              {      STEMS    {  _b_. Neuters
               {    CASE      {
               { TERMINATIONS {
               {              {
               {              { II. _I_-STEMS { _a_. Masc. and fem.
               {              {               { _b_. Neuters
               {
               { IRREGULAR NOUNS


VI. REVIEW OF LESSONS XLV-LII

«521.» Give the English of the following words:

  NOUNS
    FIRST DECLENSION
    «amīcitia»
    «hōra»
    «littera»

    SECOND DECLENSION
    «annus»              «supplicium»,
    «modus»                «supplicium dare»
    «nūntius»              «supplicium sūmere dē»
    «oculus»             «tergum»,
    «rēgnum»               «tergum vertere»
    «signum»             «vestīgium»

    THIRD DECLENSION
    «aestās»             «nox»
    «corpus»             «pars»
    «hiems»              «pāx»
    «lībertās»            rūs
    «lūx»,               «sōl»
      «prīma lūx»        «vōx»
    «nōmen»              «vulnus»

    FOURTH DECLENSION
    «adventus»           «impetus»
    «cornū»              «lacus»
    «domus»              «manus»
    «equitātus»          «metus»
    «exercitus»          «portus»
    «fluctus»

    FIFTH DECLENSION
    «aciēs»              «rēs»,
    «diēs»                 «rēs gestae»
    «fidēs»,               «rēs adversae»
      «in fidem venīre»    «rēs secundae»
                           «rēs pūblica»
                         «spēs»

    INDECLINABLE NOUN
    «nihil»

  ADJECTIVES
    FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
    «dēnsus»                 «prīstinus»
    «invīsus»                «pūblicus»
    «mīrus»                  «secundus»
    «paucī»                  «tantus»
    «prīmus»                 «vērus»

    THIRD DECLENSION
    «ācer, ācris, ācre»      «gravis, grave»
    «brevis, breve»          «incolumis, incolume»
    «difficilis, difficile»  «omnis, omne»
    «facīlis, facile»        «pār, pār»
    «fortis, forte»          «vēlōx, vēlōx»

  PRONOUNS
    PERSONAL
    «ego»
    «nōs»
    «suī»
    «tū»
    «vōs»

    DEMONSTRATIVE
    «hic»
    «īdem»
    «ille»
    «iste»

    INTENSIVE
    «ipse»

    INDEFINITE
    «aliquis, aliquī»
    «quīdam»
    «quis, quī»
    «quisquam»
    «quisque»

  ADVERBS
  «nē...quidem»    «quoque»
   ōlim            «satis»
  «paene»          «vērō»

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «itaque»
  «nisi»

  PREPOSITIONS
  «ante»
  «post»
  «propter»

  VERBS
    CONJ. I                    CONJ. II
    «conlocō»                  «dēbeō»
    «convocō»                  «exerceō»
    «cremō»                    «maneō»
    «dēmōnstrō»                «placeō»
    «mandō»                    «sustineō»

    CONJ. III                  CONJ. IV
    «committō»,                «dēsiliō»
      «committere proelium»
    «dēcidō»
    «ēripiō»
    «sūmō»,
      «sūmere supplicium dē»
    «trādūcō»
    «vertō»

«522.» Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender
of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

  _if not, unless_           _adversity_
  _on account of_            _former, old-time_
  _public_                   _all, every_
  _commonwealth_             _any one_ (at all)
  _leap down, dismount_      _this_ (of mine)
  _unharmed_                 _heavy, serious_
  _lead across_              _hateful, detested_
  _remain_                   _true_
  _call together_            _burn_
  _friendship_               _snatch from_
  _footprint, trace_         _letter_
  _each_                     _punishment_
  _fear_ (noun)              _inflict punishment on_
  _hope_                     _behind, after_
  _therefore_                _suffer punishment_
  _so great_                 _liberty_
  _equal_                    _sun_
  _in truth, indeed_         _sustain_
  _that_ (yonder)            _take up, assume_
  _a certain_                _hour_
  _fall down_                _reign, realm_
  _owe, ought_               _messenger_
  _measure, mode_            _part, direction_
  _eye_                      _body_
  _name_                     _harbor_
  _wave, billow_             _faith, protection_
  _thing, matter_            _of himself_
  _exploits_                 _also, too_
  _republic_                 _sufficiently_
  _prosperity_               _you_ (plur.)
  _burn_                     _peace_
  _that_ (of yours)          _back_
  _before_                   _turn the back, retreat_
  _light_                    _night_
  _daybreak_                 _hand, force_
  _winter_                   _lake_
  _attack_                   _day_
  _line of battle_           _commit, intrust_
  _army_                     _a few only_
  _drill, train_             _sharp, eager_
  _join battle_              _we_
  _house, home_              _turn_
  _midday_                   _you_ (sing.)
  _wonderful_                _I_
  _brave_                    _signal_
  _almost_                   _summer_
  _the same_                 _cavalry_
  _some, any_                _wound_
  _if any one_               _horn, wing_
  _self, very_               _country_
  _not even_                 _second, favorable_
  _easy_                     _formerly, once_
  _dense_                    _short_
  _point out, explain_       _voice_
  _difficult_                _arrival_
  _first_                    _come under the protection of_
  _arrange, station_         _nothing_
  _please_                   _swift_
  _year_

«523.» «Review Questions.» By what declensions are Latin adjectives
declined? What can you say about the stem of adjectives of the third
declension? Into what classes are these adjectives divided? How can you
tell to which of the classes an adjective belongs? Decline «ācer, omnis,
pār». What are the nominative endings and genders of nouns of the fourth
or «u»-declension? What nouns are feminine by exception? Decline
«adventus, lacus, cornū, domus». Give the rules for the ordinary
expression of the _place to which_, the _place from which_, the _place
in which_. What special rules apply to names of towns, small islands,
and «rūs»? What is the locative case? What words have a locative case?
What is the form of the locative case? Translate _Galba lives at home,
Galba lives at Rome, Galba lives at Pompeii_. What is the rule for
gender in the fifth or «ē»-declension? Decline «diēs», «rēs». When is
the long «ē» shortened? What can you say about the plural of the fifth
declension? Decline «tuba», «servus», «pīlum», «ager», «puer», «mīles»,
«cōnsul», «flūmen», «caedēs», «animal». How is the _time when_
expressed? Name the classes of pronouns and define each class. Decline
«ego, tū, is». What are the reflexives of the first and second persons?
What is the reflexive of the third person? Decline it. Translate _I see
myself, he sees himself, he sees him_. Decline «ipse». How is «ipse»
used? Decline «īdem». Decline «hic», «iste», «ille». Explain the use of
these words. Name and translate the commoner indefinite pronouns.
Decline «aliquis», «quisquam», «quīdam», «quisque».


VII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LIII-LX

«524.» Give the English of the following words:

  NOUNS
    FIRST DECLENSION
    «aquila»        «fossa»

    SECOND DECLENSION
    «aedificium»    «negōtium»
    «captīvus»      «spatium»
    «concilium»     «vāllum»
    «imperium»

    THIRD DECLENSION
    «agmen»         «mors»
    «celeritās»     «mulier»
    «cīvitās»       «multitūdō»
    «clāmor»        «mūnītiō»
    «cohors»        «nēmō»
    «difficultās»   «obses»
    «explōrātor»    «opīniō»
    «gēns»          «regiō»
    «lātitūdō»      «rūmor»
    «longitūdō»     «scelus»
    «magnitūdō»     «servitūs»
    «mēns»          «timor»
    «mercātor»      «vallēs»
    «mīlle»

    FOURTH DECLENSIONS
    «aditus»        «passus»
    «commeātus»

    FIFTH DECLENSION
    «rēs frūmentāria»

  ADJECTIVES
    FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
    «aequus»          «pessimus»
    «bīnī»            «plūrimus»
    «ducentī»         «posterus»
    «duo»             «prīmus»
    «exterus»          reliquus
    «īnferus»         «secundus»
    «maximus»         «singulī»
    «medius»          «superus»
    «minimus»         «tardus»
    «opportūnus»      «ternī»
    «optimus»         «ūnus»

    THIRD DECLENSION
    «alacer, alacris, alacre»
    «audāx, audāx»
    «celer, celeris, celere»
    «citerior, citerius»
    «difficilis, difficile»
    «dissimilis, dissimile»
    «facilis, facile»
     gracilis, gracile
    «humilis, humile»
    «ingēns, ingēns»
    «interior, interius»
    «lēnis, lēne»
    «maior, maius»
    «melior, melius»
    «minor, minus»
    «nōbilis, nōbile»
    «peior, peius»
     ----, «plūs»
    «prior, prius»
    «recēns, recēns»
    «similis, simile»
    «trēs, tria»
    «ulterior, ulterius»

  ADVERBS
  «ācriter»          «optimē»
  «audācter»         «parum»
  «bene»             «paulō»
  «facile»           «plūrimum»
  «ferē»             «prope»
  «fortiter»         «propius»
  «magis»            «proximē»
  «magnopere»        «quam»
  «maximē»           «statim»
  «melius»           «tam»
  «minimē»           «undique»
  «multum»

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «atque, ac»        «quā dē causā»
  «aut»              «quam ob rem»
  «aut ... aut»      «simul atque or»
  «et ... et»        «simul ac
  «nam»»

  PREPOSITIONS
  «circum»
  «contrā»
  «inter»
  «ob»
  «trāns»

  VERBS
    CONJ. I         CONJ. II
    «cōnor»         «obtineō»
    «hortor»        «perterreō»
    «moror»         «valeō»
    «vexō»          «vereor»

    CONJ. III
    «abdō»          «patior»
    «cadō»           premō
    «cognōscō»      «proficīscor»
    «cōnsequor»     «prōgredior»
    «contendō»      «quaerō»
    «cupiō»         «recipiō»
    «currō»         «relinquō»
    «dēdō»          «revertor»
    «dēfendō»       «sequor»
     ēgredior        statuō
    «incendō»        subsequor
    «incolō»        «suscipiō»
    «īnsequor»      «trādō»
    «occīdō»        «trahō»

    CONJ. IV
    «orior»         perveniō»

«525.» Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the
gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

  _on account of_           _width_
  _nearly_                  _scout_
  _keenly, sharply_         _cohort_
  _thousand_                _tribe, nation_
  _two_                     _business_
  _opportune_               _by a little_
  _remaining_               _somewhat_
  _above_ (adj.)            _crime_
  _next_                    _difficult_
  _grain supply_            _equal_
  _pace_                    _move forward, advance_
  _shout_ (noun)            _further_
  _from all sides_          _multitude_
  _against_                 _woman_
  _around_                  _desire_ (verb)
  _three_                   _give over, surrender_
  _line of march_           _kill_
  _manor_                   _overtake_
  _region_                  _hasten, strive_
  _fortification_           _hide_
  _eagle_                   _one_
  _almost_                  _first_
  _boldly_                  _second, favorable_
  _bravely_                 _two hundred_
  _across_                  _former_
  _between, among_          _inner_
  _hither_ (adj.)           _middle_
  _so_                      _low_
  _less_                    _outward_
  _more_                    _three by three_
  _most_                    _provisions_
  _worst_                   _speed_
  _difficulty_              _ditch_
  _hostage_                 _wherefore_ or _therefore_
  _death_                   _length_
  _command, power_          _for this reason_
  _captive_                 _fear_ (noun)
  _or_                      _return_
  _and_                     _inquire_
  _arrive_                  _set out_
  _attempt, try_            _move out, disembark_
  _fear_ (verb)             _leave_
  _worse_                   _abandon_
  _greater, larger_         _be strong_
  _two by two_              _receive, recover_
  _least_ (adv.)            _terrify, frighten_
  _opinion, expectation_    _dwell_
  _defend_                  _state, citizenship_
  _approach, entrance_      _valley_
  _trader_                  _slavery_
  _magnitude, size_         _greatly_
  _council, assembly_       _best of all_ (adv.)
  _space, room_             _better_ (adv.)
  _either ... or_           _well_ (adv.)
  _rise, arise_             _very much_
  _suffer, allow_           _much_
  _press hard_              _unlike_
  _fall_                    _like_ (adj.)
  _surrender_               _slow_
  _set fire to_             _very greatly, exceedingly_
  _possess, hold_           _building_
  _delay_ (verb)            _mind_ (noun)
  _nearest_ (adv.)          _easily_
  _nearer_ (adv.)           _easy_
  _better_ (adj.)           _recent_
  _well known, noble_       _huge, great_
  _rampart_                 _bold_
  _mild, gentle_            _immediately_
  _swift_                   _as soon as_
  _eager_                   _for_
  _low_ (adj.)              _than_
  _slender_                 _best_ (adj.)
  _one by one_              _greatest_
  _no one_                  _follow close_
  _least_ (adv.)            _encourage_
  _little_ (adv.)           _annoy, ravage_
  _learn, know_             _hide_
  _drag_                    _follow_
  _undertake_               _pursue_
  _run_                     _both ... and_
  _fix, decide_

«526.» «Review Questions.» What is meant by comparison? In what two ways
may adjectives be compared? Compare «clārus, brevis, vēlōx», and explain
the formation of the comparative and the superlative. What are the
adverbs used in comparison? Compare «brevis» by adverbs. Decline the
comparative of «vēlōx». How are adjectives in «-er» compared? Compare
«ācer», «pulcher», «liber». What are possible translations for the
comparative and superlative? Name the six adjectives that form the
superlative in «-limus». Translate in two ways _Nothing is brighter than
the sun_. Give the rule for the ablative with comparatives. Compare
«bonus, magnus, malus, multus, parvus, exterus, īnferus, posterus,
superus». Decline «plūs». Compare «citerior, interior, propior,
ulterior». Translate _That route to Italy is much shorter_. Give the
rule for the expression of measure of difference. Name five words that
are especially common in this construction. How are adverbs usually
formed from adjectives of the first and second declensions? from
adjectives of the third declension? Compare the adverbs «cārē»,
«līberē», «fortiter», «audācter». What cases of adjectives are sometimes
used as adverbs? What are the adverbs from «facilis»? «multus? prīmus?
plūrimus»? «bonus»? «magnus»? «parvus»? Compare «prope», «saepe»,
«magnopere». How are numerals classified? Give the first twenty
cardinals. Decline «ūnus, duo, trēs, mīlle». How are the hundreds
declined? What is meant by the partitive genitive? Give the rule for the
partitive genitive. What sort of words are commonly used with this
construction? What construction is used with «quīdam» and cardinal
numbers excepting «mīlle»? Give the first twenty ordinals. How are they
declined? How are the distributives declined? Give the rule for the
expression of duration of time and extent of space. What is the
difference between the ablative of time and the accusative of time? What
is a deponent verb? Give the synopsis of one. What form always has a
passive meaning? Conjugate «amō», «moneō», «regō», «capiō», «audiō», in
the active and passive.


VIII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LXI-LXIX

«527.» Review the vocabularies of the first seventeen lessons. See
§§502, 503, 506, 507.

«528.» «Review Questions.» Name the tenses of the subjunctive. What time
is denoted by these tenses? What are the mood signs of the present
subjunctive? How may the imperfect subjunctive be formed? How do the
perfect subjunctive and the future perfect indicative active differ in
form? How is the pluperfect subjunctive active formed? Inflect the
subjunctive active and passive of «cūrō», «dēleō», «vincō», «rapiō»,
«mūniō». Inflect the subjunctive tenses of «sum»; of «possum». What are
the tenses of the participles in the active? What in the passive? Give
the active and passive participles of «amō», «moneō», «regō», «capiō»,
«audiō». Decline «regēns». What participles do deponent verbs have? What
is the difference in meaning between the perfect participle of a
deponent verb and of one not deponent? Give the participles of «vereor».
How should participles usually be translated? Conjugate «volō», «nolō»,
«mālō», «fīō».

What is the difference between the indicative and subjunctive in their
fundamental ideas? How is purpose usually expressed in English? How is
it expressed in Latin? By what words is a Latin purpose clause
introduced? When should «quō» be used? What is meant by sequence of
tenses? Name the primary tenses of the indicative and of the
subjunctive; the secondary tenses. What Latin verbs are regularly
followed by substantive clauses of purpose? What construction follows
«iubeō»? What construction follows verbs of _fearing_? How is
consequence or result expressed in Latin? How is a result clause
introduced? What words are often found in the principal clause
foreshadowing the coming of a result clause? How may negative purpose be
distinguished from negative result? What is meant by the subjunctive of
characteristic or description? How are such clauses introduced? Explain
the ablative absolute. Why is the ablative absolute of such frequent
occurrence in Latin? Explain the predicate accusative. After what verbs
are two accusatives commonly found? What do these accusatives become
when the verb is passive?

  [Illustration: IMPERATOR MILITES HORTATUR]



SPECIAL VOCABULARIES

The words in heavy type are used in Cæsar’s “Gallic War.”

[Transcriber’s Note:

Each chapter’s Special Vocabulary was included with its chapter text
in addition to its original location here. Details are given in the
Transcriber’s Note at the beginning of the text. In the printed book,
the vocabularies for Lesson IV and Lesson V appeared on the same page;
the Footnote about _conjunctions_ was shared by the two lists.]


LESSON IV, §39

  NOUNS
  «dea», _goddess_ (deity)
   Diā´na, _Diana_
  «fera», _a wild beast_ (fierce)
   Lātō´na, _Latona_
  «sagit´ta», _arrow_

  VERBS
  «est», _he (she, it) is_; «sunt», _they are_
  «necat», _he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill_

  CONJUNCTION[A]
  «et», _and_

  PRONOUNS
  «quis», interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., _who?_
  «cuius» (pronounced _co͝oi´yo͝os_, two syllables), interrog. pronoun,
    gen. sing., _whose?_

    [Footnote A: A _conjunction_ is a word which connects words, parts
    of sentences, or sentences.]


LESSON V, §47

  NOUNS
  «corō´na», _wreath, garland, crown_
   fā´bula, _story_ (fable)
  «pecū´nia», _money_ (pecuniary)
  «pugna», _battle_ (pugnacious)
  «victō´ria», _victory_

  VERBS
  «dat», _he (she, it) gives_
   nārrat, _he (she, it) tells_ (narrate)

  CONJUNCTION[A]
  «quia» or «quod», _because_

  «cui» (pronounced _co͝oi_, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat.
    sing., _to whom?_ _for whom?_

    [Footnote A: A _conjunction_ is a word which connects words, parts
    of sentences, or sentences.]


LESSON VI, §56

  ADJECTIVES
  «bona», _good_
  «grāta», _pleasing_
  «magna», _large, great_
  «mala», _bad, wicked_
  «parva», _small, little_
  «pulchra», _beautiful, pretty_
  «sōla», _alone_

  NOUNS
  ancil´la, _maidservant_
  Iūlia, _Julia_

  ADVERBS[A]
  «cūr», _why_
  «nōn», _not_

  PRONOUNS
  «mea», _my_; «tua», _thy, your_ (possesives)
  «quid», interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., _what?_

  «-ne», the question sign, an enclitic (§16) added to the first word,
  which, in a question, is usually the verb, as «amat», _he loves_, but
  «amat´ne?» _does he love?_ «est», _he is_; «estne?» _is he?_ Of course
  «-ne» is not used when the sentence contains «quis», «cūr», or some
  other interrogative word.

    [Footnote A: An _adverb_ is a word used to modify a verb, an
    adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings _sweetly_; she is
    _very_ talented; she began to sing _very early_.]


LESSON VII, §62

  NOUNS
  «casa, -ae», f., _cottage_
  cēna, -ae, f., _dinner_
  «gallī´na, -ae», f., _hen, chicken_
  «īn´sula, ae», f., _island_ (pen-insula)

  ADVERBS
  «de-in´de», _then, in the next place_
  «ubi», _where_

  PREPOSITION
  «ad», _to_, with acc. to express motion toward

  PRONOUN
  «quem», interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., _whom?_

  VERBS
  ha´bitat, _he (she, it) lives, is living, does live_ (inhabit)
  «laudat», _he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise_ (laud)
  «parat», _he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare_
  «vocat», _he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites,
    is inviting, does invite_ (vocation)


LESSON VIII, §69

  NOUNS
  «Italia, -ae», f., _Italy_
   Sicilia, -ae, f., _Sicily_
  «tuba, -ae», f., _trumpet_ (tube)
  «via, -ae», f., _way, road, street_ (viaduct)

  ADJECTIVES
  «alta», _high, deep_ (altitude)
  «clāra», _clear, bright; famous_
  «lāta», _wide_ (latitude)
  «longa», _long_ (longitude)
  «nova», _new_ (novelty)


LESSON IX, §77

  NOUNS
  «bellum, -ī», n., _war_ (re-bel)
  «cōnstantia, -ae», f., _firmness, constancy, steadiness_
   dominus, -ī, m., _master, lord_ (dominate)
  «equus, -ī», m., _horse_ (equine)
  «frūmentum, -ī», n., _grain_
  «lēgātus, -ī», m., _lieutenant, ambassador_ (legate)
  «Mārcus, -ī», m., _Marcus, Mark_
  «mūrus, -ī», m., _wall_ (mural)
  «oppidānus, -ī», m., _townsman_
  «oppidum, -ī», n., _town_
  «pīlum, -ī», n., _spear_ (pile driver)
  «servus, -ī», m., _slave, servant_
   Sextus, -ī, m., _Sextus_

  VERBS
  «cūrat», _he (she, it) cares for_, with acc.
  «properat», _he (she, it) hastens_


LESSON X, §82

  NOUNS
  «amīcus, -ī», m., _friend_ (amicable)
  «Germānia, -ae», f., _Germany_
  «patria, -ae», f., _fatherland_
  «populus, -ī», m., _people_
  «Rhēnus, -ī», m., _the Rhine_
  «vīcus, -ī», m., _village_


LESSON XI, §86

  NOUNS
  «arma, armōrum», n., plur., _arms_, especially defensive weapons
  «fāma, -ae», f., _rumor; reputation, fame_
  «galea, -ae», f., _helmet_
  «praeda, -ae», f., _booty, spoils_ (predatory)
  «tēlum, -ī», n., _weapon of offense, spear_

  ADJECTIVES
  «dūrus, -a, -um», _hard,  rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome_
    (durable)
  «Rōmānus, -a, -um», _Roman_. As a noun, «Rōmānus, -ī», m., _a Roman_


LESSON XII, §90

  NOUNS
  «fīlius, fīlī», m., _son_ (filial)
   fluvius, fluvī, m., _river_ (fluent)
  «gladius, gladī», m., _sword_ (gladiator)
  «praesidium, praesi´dī», n., _garrison, guard, protection_
  «proelium, proelī», n., _battle_

  ADJECTIVES
  «fīnitimus, -a, -um», _bordering upon, neighboring, near to_.
    As a noun, «fīnitimī, -ōrum», m., plur., _neighbors_
  «Germānus, -a, -um», _German_. As a noun, «Germānus, -ī», m.,
    _a German_
  «multus, -a, -um», _much_; plur., _many_

  ADVERB
  «saepe», _often_


LESSON XIII, §95

  NOUNS
  «ager, agrī», m., _field_ (acre)
  «cōpia, -ae», f., _plenty, abundance_ (copious); plur., _troops,
    forces_
  «Cornēlius, Cornē´lī», m., _Cornelius_
  «lōrī´ca, -ae», f., _coat of mail, corselet_
  «praemium, praemī», n., _reward, prize_ (premium)
  «puer, puerī», m., _boy_ (puerile)
  «Rōma, -ae», f., _Rome_
  «scūtum, -ī», n., _shield_ (escutcheon)
  «vir, virī», m., _man, hero_ (virile)

  ADJECTIVES
  «legiōnārius, -a, -um»,[A] _legionary, belonging to the legion_.
    As a noun, «legiōnāriī, -ōrum», m., plur., _legionary soldiers_
  «līber, lībera, līberum», _free_ (liberty) As a noun. «līberī, -ōrum,»
    m., plur., _children_ (lit. _the freeborn_)
  «pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum», _pretty, beautiful_

  PREPOSITION
  «apud», _among_, with acc.

  CONJUNCTION
  «sed», _but_

    [Footnote A: The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in «-ius»
    ends in «-iī» and the vocative in «-ie»; not in «-ī», as in nouns.]


LESSON XIV, §99

  NOUNS
  «auxilium, auxi´lī», n., _help, aid_ (auxiliary)
  «castrum, -ī», n., _fort_ (castle); plur., _camp_ (lit. _forts_)
  «cibus, -ī», m., _food_
  «cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī», n., _plan_ (counsel)
  «dīligentia, -ae», f., _diligence, industry_
   magister, magistrī, m., _master, teacher_[A]

  ADJECTIVES
  «aeger, aegra, aegrum», _sick_
  «crēber, crēbra, crēbrum», _frequent_
  «miser, misera, miserum», _wretched, unfortunate_ (miser)

    [Footnote A: Observe that «dominus», as distinguished from
    «magister», means _master_ in the sense of _owner_.]


LESSON XV, §107

  NOUNS
  «carrus, -ī», m., _cart, wagon_
  «inopia, -ae», f., _want, lack;_ the opposite of «cōpia»
  «studium, studī», n., _zeal, eagerness_ (study)

  ADJECTIVES
  «armātus, -a, -um», _armed_
  «īnfīrmus, -a, -um», _week, feeble_ (infirm)
   vali´dus, -a, -um, _strong, sturdy_

  VERB
  «mātūrat», _he (she, it) hastens._ Cf. properat

  ADVERB
  «iam», _already, now_

  «-que», conjunction, _and_; an enclitic (cf. §16) and always added
  to the _second_ of two words to be connected, as «arma tēla´que»,
  _arms and weapons_.


LESSON XVII, §117

  NOUNS
  «agrī cultūra, -ae», f., _agriculture_
  «Gallia, -ae», f., _Gaul_
  «domicilīum, domīci´lī», n., _dwelling place_ (domicile), _abode_
  «Gallus, -i», m., _a Gaul_
  «lacrima, -ae», f., _tear_
  «fēmina, -ae», f., _woman_ (female)
  «numerus, -ī», m., _number_ (numeral)

  ADJECTIVE
  «mātūrus, -a, -um», _ripe, mature_

  ADVERB
   quō, _whither_

  VERBS
   arat, _he (she, it) plows_ (arable)
  «dēsīderat», _he (she, it) misses, longs for_ (desire), with acc.

  CONJUNCTION
  «an», _or_, introducing the second half of a double question, as
  _Is he a Roman or a Gaul_, «Estne Romanus an Gallus?»


LESSON XVIII, §124

  NOUNS
   lūdus, -ī, m., _school_
  «socius, socī», m., _companion, ally_ (social)

  ADJECTIVES
  «īrātus, -a, -um», _angry, furious_ (irate)
  «laetus, -a, -um», _happy, glad_ (social)

  ADVERBS
   hodiē, _to-day_
  «ibi», _there, in that place_
   mox, _presently, soon_, of the immediate future
  «nunc», _now, the present moment_
  «nūper», _lately, recently_, of the immediate past


LESSON XX, §136

  NOUNS
  «fōrma, -ae», f., _form, beauty_
  «regīna, -ae», f., _queen_ (regal)
  «poena, -ae», f., _punishment, penalty_
   superbia, -ae, f., _pride, haughtiness_
  «potentia, -ae», f., _power_ (potent)
  «trīstītīa, -ae», f., _sadness, sorrow_

  ADJECTIVES
  «septem,» indeclinable, _seven_
  «superbus, -a, -um», _proud, haughty_ (superb)

  CONJUNCTIONS
  «nōn sōlum ... sed etiam», _not only ... but also_


LESSON XXI, §140

  NOUNS
   sacrum, -ī, n., _sacrifice, offering, rite_
  «verbum, -ī», n., _word_ (verb)

  VERBS
   sedeō, -ēre, _sit_ (sediment)
   volō, -āre, _fly_ (volatile)

  ADJECTIVES
  «interfectus, -a, -um», _slain_
  «molestus, -a, -um», _troublesome, annoying_ (molest)
  «perpetuus, -a, -um», _perpetual, continuous_

  «ego», personal pronoun, _I_ (egotism). Always emphatic in the
    nominative.


LESSON XXII, §146

  NOUNS
  «disciplīna, -ae», f., _training, culture, discipline_
  «Gāius, Gāī», m., _Caius_, a Roman first name
  «ōrnāmentum, -ī», n., _ornament, jewel_
   Tiberius, Tibe´rī, m., _Tiberius_, a Roman first name

  VERB
  «doceō, -ēre», _teach_ (doctrine)

  ADVERB
  «maximē», _most of all, especially_

  ADJECTIVE
  «antīquus, -qua, -quum», _old, ancient_ (antique)


LESSON XXVII, §168

  NOUNS
  «āla, -ae», f., _wing_
  «deus, -ī», m., _god_ (deity)[A]
  «monstrum, -ī», n., _omen, prodigy; monster_
   ōrāculum, -ī, n., _oracle_

  VERB
  «vāstō, -āre», _lay waste, devastate_

  ADJECTIVES
  «commōtus, -a, -um», _moved, excited_
  «maximus, -a, -um», _greatest_ (maximum)
  «saevus, -a, -um», _fierce, savage_

  ADVERBS
  «ita», _thus, in this way, as follows_
  «tum», _then, at that time_

    [Footnote A: For the declension of «deus», see §468]


LESSON XXVIII, §171

  VERBS
  «respondeō, -ēre», _respond, reply_
  «servō, -āre», _save, preserve_

  ADJECTIVE
  «cārus, -a, -um», _dear_ (cherish)

  CONJUNCTION
  «autem», _but, moreover, now_. Usually stands second, never first

  NOUN
  «vīta, -ae», f., _life_ (vital)


LESSON XXIX, §176

  VERB
  «superō, -āre», _conquer, overcome_ (insuperable)

  NOUNS
  «cūra, -ae», f., _care, trouble_
  «locus, -ī», m., _place, spot_ (location). «Locus» is neuter in the
    plural and is declined «loca, -ōrum», etc.
  «perīculum, -ī», n., _danger, peril_

  ADVERBS
  «semper», _always_
  «tamen», _yet, nevertheless_

  PREPOSITIONS
  «dē», with abl., _down from.; concerning_
  «per», with acc., _through_

  CONJUNCTION
  «si», _if_


LESSON XXX, §182

  VERBS
  «absum», abesse, irreg., _be away, be absent, be distant_, with
    separative abl.
  «adpropinquō, -āre», _draw near, approach_ (propinquity), with
    dative[A]
  «contineō, -ēre», _hold together, hem in, keep_ (contain)
  «discēdō, -ere», _depart, go away, leave_, with separative abl.
  «egeō, -ēre», _lack, need, be without_, with separative abl.
  «interficiō, -ere», _kill_
  «prohibeō, -ēre», _restrain, keep from_ (prohibit)
  «vulnerō, -āre», _wound_ (vulnerable)

  NOUNS
  «prōvincia, -ae», f., _province_
  «vīnum, -ī», n., _wine_

  ADJECTIVE
  «dēfessus, -a, -um», _weary, worn out_

  ADVERB
  «longē», _far, by far, far away_

    [Footnote A: This verb governs the dative because the idea of
    _nearness to_ is stronger than that of _motion to_. If the latter
    idea were the stronger, the word would be used with «ad» and the
    accusative.]


LESSON XXXI, §188

  NOUNS
   aurum, -ī, n., _gold_ (oriole)
  «mora, -ae», f., _delay_
  «nāvigium, nāvi´gī», n., _boat, ship_
  «ventus, -ī», m., _wind_ (ventilate)

  VERB
  «nāvigō, -āre», _sail_ (navigate)

  ADJECTIVES
   attentus, -a, -um, _attentive, careful_
  «dubius, -a, -um», _doubtful_ (dubious)
   perfidus, -a, -um, _faithless, treacherous_ (perfidy)

  ADVERB
  «anteā», _before, previously_

  PREPOSITION
  «sine», with abl., _without_


LESSON XXXII, §193

  NOUNS
  «animus, -ī», m., _mind, heart; spirit, feeling_ (animate)
  «bracchium, bracchī», n., _forearm, arm_
  «porta, -ae», f., _gate_ (portal)

  ADJECTIVES
  «adversus, -a, -um», _opposite; adverse, contrary_
  «plēnus, -a, -um», _full_ (plenty)

  PREPOSITION
  «prō», with abl., _before; in behalf of; instead of_

  ADVERB
  «diū», _for a long time, long_


LESSON XXXIV, §200

  ADVERBS
  «celeriter», _quickly_ (celerity)
  «dēnique», _finally_
  «graviter», _heavily, severely_ (gravity)
  «subitō», _suddenly_

  VERB
  «reportō, -āre, -āvī», _bring back, restore; win, gain_ (report)


LESSON XXXVI, §211

  «dexter, dextra, dextrum», _right_ (dextrous)
  «sinister, sinistra, sinistrum», _left_
  «frūstrā», adv., _in vain_ (frustrate)

  «gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus», _bear, carry on; wear_;
    «bellum gerere», _to wage war_
  «occupō, occupāre, occupāvī, occupātus», _seize, take possession of_
    (occupy)
  «postulō, postulāre, postulāvī, postulātus», _demand_ (ex-postulate)
  «recūsō, recūsāre, recūsāvī, recūsātus», _refuse_
  «stō, stāre, stetī, status», _stand_
  «temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus», _try, tempt, test; attempt_
  «teneō, tenēre, tenuī, ----», _keep, hold_ (tenacious)

  The word «ubi», which we have used so much in the sense of _where_ in
  asking a question, has two other uses equally important:

  1. «ubi» = _when_, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as,
    «Ubi mōnstrum audīvērunt, fūgērunt», _when they heard the monster,
    they fled_

  2. «ubi» = _where_, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as,
    «Videō oppidum ubi Galba habitat», _I see the town where Galba
    lives_

  «ubi» is called a _relative conjunction_ because it is equivalent to
  a relative pronoun. _When_ in the first sentence is equivalent to
  _at the time «at which»;_ and in the second, _where_ is equivalent
  to _the place «in which»._


LESSON XXXVII, §217

  «neque» or «nec», conj., _neither_, _nor_, _and ... not_;
    «neque ... neque», _neither ... nor_
  «castellum, -ī», n., _redoubt, fort_ (castle)
  «cotīdiē», adv., _daily_

   cessō, cessāre, cessāvī, cessātus, _cease_, with the infin.
  «incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptus», _begin_ (incipient),
    with the infin.
  «oppugnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātus», _storm, assail_
  «petō, petere, petivi» or «petiī, petītus», _aim at, assail, storm,
    attack; seek, ask_ (petition)
  «pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus», _place, put_ (position);
    «castra pōnere», _to pitch camp_
  «possum, posse, potuī, ----», _be able, can_ (potent), with the infin.
  «vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitus», _forbid_ (veto), vith the infin.;
    opposite of «iubeō», _command_
  «vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus», _conquer_ (in-vincible)
  «vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, ----», _live, be alive_ (re-vive)


LESSON XXXIX, §234

  «barbarus, -a, -um», _strange, foreign, barbarous_. As a noun,
    «barbarī, -ōrum», m., plur., _savages, barbarians_
  «dux, ducis», m., _leader_ (duke). Cf. the verb «dūcō»
  «eques, equitis», m., _horseman, cavalryman_ (equestrian)
   iūdex, iūdicis, _m., judge_
  «lapis, lapidis», m., _stone_ (lapidary)
  «mīles, mīlitis», m., _soldier_ (militia)
  «pedes, peditis», m., _foot soldier_ (pedestrian)
  «pēs, pedis»,[A] m., _foot_ (pedal)
  «prīnceps, prīncipis», m., _chief_ (principal)
  «rēx, rēgis», m., _king_ (regal)
  «summus, -a, -um», _highest, greatest_ (summit)
  «virtūs, virtūtis», f., _manliness, courage_ (virtue)

    [Footnote A: Observe that «e» is _long_ in the nom. sing, and
    _short_ in the other cases.]


LESSON XL, §237

  «Caesar, -aris», m., _Cæsar_
  «captīvus, -ī», m., _captive, prisoner_
  «cōnsul, -is», m., _consul_
  «frāter, frātris», m., _brother_ (fraternity)
  «homō, hominis», m., _man, human being_
  «impedīmentum, -ī», n., _hindrance_ (impediment); plur.
    «impedīmenta, -ōrum», _baggage_
  «imperātor, imperātōris», m., _commander in chief, general_ (emperor)
  «legiō, legiōnis», f., _legion_
  «māter, mātris», f., _mother_ (maternal)
  «ōrdō, ōrdinis», m., _row, rank_ (order)
  «pater, patris», m., _father_ (paternal)
  «salūs, salūtis», f., _safety_ (salutary)
  «soror, sorōris», f., _sister_ (sorority)


LESSON XLI, §239

  «calamitās, calamitātis», f., _loss, disaster, defeat_ (calamity)
  «caput, capitis», n., _head_ (capital)
  «flūmen, flūminis», n., _river_ (flume)
  «labor, labōris», m., _labor, toil_
  «opus, operis», n., _work, task_
  «ōrātor, ōrātōris», m., _orator_
  «rīpa, -ae», f., _bank_ (of a stream)
  «tempus, temporis», n., _time_ (temporal)
  «terror, terrōris», m., _terror, fear_
  «victor, victōris», m., _victor_

  «accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptus», _receive, accept_
  «cōnfirmō, cōnfīrmāre, cōnfīrmāvī, cōnfīrmātus», _strengthen,
    establish, encourage_ (confirm)


LESSON XLIII, §245

  «animal, animālis (-ium[A])», n., _animal_
  «avis, avis (-ium)», f., _bird_ (aviation)
  «caedēs, caedis (-ium)», f., _slaughter_
  calcar, calcāris (-ium), n., _spur_
  «cīvis, cīvis (-ium)», m. and f., _citizen_ (civic)
  «cliēns, clientis (-ium)», m., _retainer, dependent_ (client)
  «fīnis, fīnis (-ium)», m., _end, limit_ (final);
    plur., _country, territory_
  «hostis, hostis (-ium)», m. and f., _enemy_ in war (hostile).
    Distinguish from «inimīcus», which means a _personal_ enemy
  «ignis, ignis (-ium)», m., _fire_ (ignite)
  «īnsigne, īnsignis (-ium)», n. _decoration, badge_ (ensign)
  «mare, maris (-ium[B])», n., _sea_ (marine)
  «nāvis, nāvis (-ium)», f., _ship_ (naval);
  «nāvis longa», _man-of-war_
  «turris, turris (-ium)», f., _tower_ (turret)
  «urbs, urbis (-ium)», f., _city_ (suburb). An «urbs» is larger than an
    «oppidum».

    [Footnote A: The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the
    i-stems.]

    [Footnote B: The genitive plural of mare is not in use.]


LESSON XLIV, §249

  «arbor, arboris», f., _tree_ (arbor)
  «collis, collis (-ium)», m., _hill_
  «dēns, dentis (-ium)», m., _tooth_ (dentist)
   fōns, fontis (-ium), m.. _fountain, spring; source_
  «iter, itineris», n., _march, journey, route_ (itinerary)
  «mēnsis, mēnsis (-ium)», m., _month_
  «moenia, -ium», n., plur., _walls, fortifications_. Cf. «mūrus»
  «mōns, montis (-ium)», m., _mountain_;
    «summus mōns», _top of the mountain_
  «numquam», adv., _never_
  «pōns, pontis», m., _bridge_ (pontoon)
  «sanguis, sanguinis», m., blood (sanguinary)
  «summus, -a, -um», _highest, greatest_ (summit)
  «trāns», prep, with acc., _across_ (transatlantic)
  «vīs (vīs)», gen. plur. «virium», f. _strength, force, violence_ (vim)


LESSON XLV, §258

  «ācer, ācris, ācre», _sharp, keen, eager_ (acrid)
  «brevis, breve», _short, brief_
  «difficilis, difficile», _difficult_
  «facilis, facile», _facile, easy_
  «fortis, forte», _brave_ (fortitude)
  «gravis, grave», _heavy, severe, serious_ (grave)
  «omnis, omne», _every, all_ (omnibus)
  «pār», gen. «paris», _equal_ (par)
  «paucī, -ae, -a», _few, only a few_ (paucity)
  «secundus, -a, -um», _second; favorable_, opposite of adversus
  «signum, -ī», n., _signal, sign, standard_
  «vēlōx», gen. «vēlōcis», _swift_ (velocity)

  «conlocō, conlocāre, conlocāvī, conlocātus», _arrange, station, place_
    (collocation)
  «dēmōnstrō, dēmōnstrāre, dēmōnstrāvī, dēmōnstrātus», _point out,
    explain_ (demonstrate)
  «mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus», _commit, intrust_ (mandate)


LESSON XLVI, §261

  «adventus, -ūs», m., _approach, arrival_ (advent)
  «ante», prep, with acc., _before_ (ante-date)
  «cornū, -ūs», n., _horn, wing_ of an army (cornucopia);
    «ā dextrō cornū», _on the right wing_;
    «ā sinistrō cornū», _on the left wing_
  «equitātus, -ūs», m., _cavalry_
  «exercitus, -ūs», m., _army_
  «impetus, -ūs», m., _attack_ (impetus);
    «impetum facere in», with acc., _to make an attack on_
  «lacus, -ūs, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus», m., _lake_
  «manus, -ūs», f., _hand; band, force_ (manual)
  «portus, -ūs», m., _harbor_ (port)
  «post», prep, with acc., _behind, after_ (post-mortem)

  «cremō, cremāre, cremāvī, cremātus», _burn_ (cremate)
  «exerceō, exercēre, exercuī, exercitus», _practice, drill, train_
    (exercise)


LESSON XLVII, §270

   Athēnae, -ārum, f., plur., _Athens_
   Corinthus, -ī, f., _Corinth_
  «domus, -ūs, locative «domī»», f., _house, home_ (dome).
    Cf. «domicilium»
  «Genāva, -ae», f., _Geneva_
   Pompēii, -ōrum, m., plur., _Pompeii_, a city in Campania. See map
  «propter», prep. with acc., _on account of, because of_
   rūs, rūris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. «rūra», n., _country_
    (rustic)
  «tergum, tergī», n., _back_; «ā tergō», _behind, in the rear_
  «vulnus, vulneris», n., _wound_ (vulnerable)

  «committō, committere, commīsī, commissus», _intrust, commit;_
    «proelium committere», _join battle_
  «convocō, convocāre, convocāvī, convocātus», _call together, summon_
    (convoke)
  «timeō, timēre, timuī, ----», _fear; be afraid_ (timid)
  «vertō, vertere, vertī, versus», _turn, change_ (convert);
    «terga vertere», _to turn the backs_, hence _to retreat_


LESSON XLVIII, §276

  «aciēs, -ēī», f., _line of battle_
  «aestās, aestātis», f., _summer_
  «annus, -ī», m., _year_ (annual)
  «diēs, diēī», m., _day_ (diary)
  «fidēs, fideī, no plur.», f., _faith, trust; promise, word;
    protection_; «in fidem venīre», _to come under the protection_
  «fluctus, -ūs», m. _wave, billow_ (fluctuate)
  «hiems, hiemis», f., _winter_
  «hōra, -ae», f., _hour_
  «lūx, lūcis», f., _light_ (lucid); «prīma lux», _daybreak_
  «merīdiēs», acc. «-em», abl. «-ē», no plur., m., _midday_ (meridian)
  «nox, noctis (-ium)», f., _night_ (nocturnal)
  «prīmus, -a, -um», _first_ (prime)
  «rēs, reī», f., _thing, matter_ (real);
  «rēs gestae», _deeds, exploits_ (lit. _things performed_);
    «rēs adversae», _adversity_;
    «rēs secundae», _prosperity_
  «spēs, speī», f., _hope_


LESSON XLIX, §283

  «amīcitia, -ae», f., _friendship_ (amicable)
  «itaque», conj., _and so, therefore, accordingly_
  «littera, -ae», f., _a letter_ of the alphabet;
    plur., _a letter, an epistle_
  «metus, metūs», m., _fear_
  «nihil, indeclinable», n., _nothing_ (nihilist)
  «nūntius, nūntī», m., _messenger_. Cf. «nūntiō»
  «pāx, pācis», f., _peace_ (pacify)
  «rēgnum, -ī», n., _reign, sovereignty, kingdom_
  «supplicum, suppli´cī», n., _punishment_;
    «supplicum sūmere dē», with abl., _inflict punishment on_;
    «supplicum dare», _suffer punishment_. Cf. «poena»

  «placeō, placēre, placuī, placitus», _be pleasing to, please_,
    with dative. Cf. §154
  «sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsī, sūmptus», _take up, assume_
  «sustineō, sustinēre, sustinuī, sustentus», _sustain_


LESSON L, §288

  «corpus, corporis», n., _body_ (corporal)
  «dēnsus, -a, -um», _dense_
  «īdem, e´adem, idem», demonstrative pronoun, _the same_ (identity)
  «ipse, ipsa, ipsum», intensive pronoun, _self; even, very_
  «mīrus, -a, -um», _wonderful, marvelous_ (miracle)
  «ōlim», adv., _formerly, once upon a time_
  «pars, partis (-ium)», f., _part, region, direction_
  «quoque», adv., _also_. Stands _after_ the word which it emphasizes
  «sōl, sōlis», m., _sun_ (solar)
  «vērus, -a, -um», _true, real_ (verity)

  «dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus», _owe, ought_ (debt)
  «ēripiō, ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus», _snatch from_


LESSON LI, §294

  «hic, haec, hoc», demonstrative pronoun, _this_ (of mine);
    _he, she, it_
  «ille, illa, illud», demonstrative pronoun _that_ (yonder);
    _he, she, it_
  «invīsus, -a, -um», _hateful, detested_, with dative Cf. §143
  «iste, ista, istud», demonstrative pronoun, _that_ (of yours);
    _he, she, it_
  «lībertās, -ātis», f., _liberty_
  «modus, -ī», m., _measure; manner, way, mode_
  «nōmen, nōminis», n., _name_ (nominate)
  «oculus, -ī», m., _eye_ (oculist)
  «prīstinus, -a, -um», _former, old-time_ (pristine)
  «pūblicus, -a, -um», _public, belonging to the state;_
    «rēs pūblica, reī pūblicae», f., _the commonwealth, the state,
    the republic_
  «vestīgium, vestī´gī», n., _footprint, track; trace, vestige_
  «vōx, vōcis», f., _voice_


LESSON LII, §298

  «incolumis, -e», _unharmed_
  «nē ... quidem», adv., _not even_. The emphatic word stands between
    «nē» and «quidem»
  «nisi», conj., _unless, if ... not_
  «paene», adv., _almost_ (pen-insula)
  «satis», adv., _enough, sufficiently_ (satisfaction)
  «tantus, -a, -um», _so great_
  «vērō», adv., _truly, indeed, in fact_. As a conj. _but, however_,
    usually stands second, never first.

  «dēcidō, dēcidere, dēcidī, ----», _fall down_ (deciduous)
  «dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī, dēsultus», _leap down, dismount_
  «maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsūrus», _remain_
  «trādūcō, trādūcere, trādūxī, trāductus», _lead across_


LESSON LIII, §306

  «aquila, -ae», f., _eagle_ (aquiline)
  «audāx», gen. «audācis», adj., _bold, audacious_
  «celer, celeris, celere», _swift, quick_ (celerity). Cf. «vēlōx»
  «explōratōr, -ōris», m., _scout, spy_ (explorer)
  «ingēns», gen. «ingentis», adj., _huge, vast_
  «medius, -a, -um», _middle, middle part of_ (medium)
  «mēns, mentis (-ium)», f., _mind_ (mental). Cf. «animus»
  «opportūnus, -a, -um», _opportune_
  «quam», adv., _than_. With the superlative «quam» gives the force of
    _as possible_, as «quam» audācissimī virī, _men as bold as possible_
  «recens», gen. «recentis», adj., _recent_
  «tam», adv., _so_. Always with an adjective or adverb, while «ita» is
    generally used with a verb

  «quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītus», _ask, inquire, seek_
    (question). Cf. «petō»


LESSON LIV, §310

  «alacer, alacris, alacre», _eager, spirited, excited_ (alacrity)
  «celeritās, -ātis», f., _speed_ (celerity)
  «clāmor, clāmōris», m., _shout, clamor_
  «lēnis, lēne», _mild, gentle_ (lenient)
  «mulier, muli´eris», f., _woman_
  «multitūdō, multitūdinis», f., _multitude_
  «nēmō», dat. «nēminī», acc. «nēminem» (gen. «nūllīus», abl. «nūllō»,
    from «nūllus»), no plur., m. and f., _no one_
  «nōbilis, nōbile», _well known, noble_
  «noctū», adv. (an old abl.), _by night_ (nocturnal)
  «statim», adv., _immediately, at once_
  «subitō», adv., _suddenly_
  «tardus, -a, -um», _slow_ (tardy)
  «cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītus», _desire, wish_ (cupidity)


LESSON LV, §314

  «aedificium, aedifi´cī», n., _building, dwelling_ (edifice)
  «imperium, impe´rī», n., _command, chief power; empire_
  «mors, mortis (-ium)», f., _death_ (mortal)
  «reliquus, -a, -um», _remaining, rest of_. As a noun, m. and n. plur.,
    _the rest_ (relic)
  «scelus, sceleris», n., _crime_
  «servitūs, -ūtis», f., _slavery_ (servitude)
  «vallēs, vallis (-ium)», f., _valley_

  «abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus», _hide_
  «contendō, contendere, contendī, contentus», _strain, struggle;
    hasten_ (contend)
  «occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus», _cut down, kill_. Cf. «necō»,
    «interficiō»
  «perterreō, perterrēre, perterruī, perterritus», _terrify, frighten_
  «recipiō, recipere, recēpī, receptus», _receive, recover_;
    «sē recipere», _betake one’s self, withdraw, retreat_
  «trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus», _give over, surrender, deliver_
    (traitor)


LESSON LVI, §318

  «aditus, -ūs», m., _approach, access; entrance_
  «cīvitās, cīvitātis», f., _citizenship; body of citizens, state_
    (city)
  «inter», prep, with acc., _between, among_ (interstate commerce)
  «nam», conj., _for_
  «obses, obsidis», m. and f., _hostage_
  «paulō», adv. (abl. n. of «paulus»), _by a little, somewhat_

  «incolō, incolere, incoluī, ----», transitive, _inhabit_;
    intransitive, _dwell_. Cf. «habitō», «vīvō»
  «relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus», _leave, abandon_
    (relinquish)
  «statuō, statuere, statuī, statūtus», _fix, decide_ (statute), usually
    with infin.


LESSON LVII, §326

  «aequus, -a, -um», _even, level; equal_
  «cohors, cohortis (-ium)», f., _cohort_, a tenth part of a legion,
    about 360 men
  «currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus», _run_ (course)
  «difficultās, -ātis», f., _difficulty_
  «fossa, -ae», f., _ditch_ (fosse)
  «gēns, gentis (-ium)», f., _race, tribe, nation_ (Gentile)
  «negōtium, negōtī», n., _business, affair, matter_ (negotiate)
  «regiō, -ōnis», f., _region, district_
  «rūmor, rūmōris», m., _rumor, report_. Cf. fāma
  «simul atque», conj., _as soon as_

  «suscipiō, suscipere, suscēpī, susceptus», _undertake_
  «trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctus», _drag, draw_ (ex-tract)
  «valeō, valēre, valuī, valitūrus», _be strong_; plūrimum valēre,
    _to be most powerful, have great influence_ (value). Cf. validus


LESSON LVIII, §332

  «commeātus, -ūs», m.. _provisions_
  «lātitūdō, -inis», f., _width_ (latitude)
  «longitūdō, -inis», f., _length_ (longitude)
  «magnitūdō, -inis», f., _size, magnitude_
  «mercātor, mercātōris», m., _trader, merchant_
  «mūnītiō, -ōnis», f., _fortification_ (munition)
  «spatium, spatī», n., _room, space, distance; time_

  «cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus», _learn_;
    in the perfect tenses, _know_ (re-cognize)
  «cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus», _collect; compel_ (cogent)
  «dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfēnsus», _defend_
  «incendō, incendere, incendī, incēnsus», _set fire to, burn_
    (incendiary). Cf. «cremō»
  «obtineō, obtinēre, obtinuī, obtentus», _possess, occupy, hold_
    (obtain)
  «perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventus», _come through, arrive_


LESSON LIX, §337

  «agmen, agminis», n., _line of march, column_;
    «prīmum agmen», _the van_;
    «novissimum agmen», _the rear_
  «atque», «ac», conj., _and_; «atque» is used before vowels and
    consonants, «ac» before consonants only. Cf. «et» and «-que»
  «concilium, conci´lī», n., _council, assembly_
  «Helvētiī, -ōrum», m., _the Helvetii_, a Gallic tribe
  «passus, passūs», m., _a pace_, five Roman feet;
    «mīlle passuum», _a thousand (of) paces_, a Roman mile
  «quā dē causā», _for this reason, for what reason_
  «vāllum, -ī», n., _earth-works, rampart_

  «cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsūrus», _fall_ (decadence)
  «dēdō, dēdere, dēdidī, dēditus», _surrender, give up_;
    with a reflexive pronoun, _surrender one’s self, submit_, with the
    dative of the indirect object
  «premō, premere, pressī, pressus», _press hard, harass_
  «vexō, vexāre, vexāvī, vexātus», _annoy, ravage_ (vex)


LESSON LX, §341

  «aut», conj., _or_; «aut ... aut», _either ... or_
  «causā», abl. of «causa», _for the sake of, because of_. Always stands
    _after_ the gen. which modifies it
  «ferē», adv., _nearly, almost_
  «opīniō, -ōnis», f., _opinion, supposition, expectation_
  «rēs frūmentāria, reī frūmentāriae», f. (lit. _the grain affair_),
    _grain supply_
  «timor, -ōris», m., _fear_. Cf. «timeō»
  «undique», adv., _from all sides_

  «cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum», _attempt, try_
  «ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum», _move out, disembark_;
    «prōgredior», _move forward, advance_ (egress, progress)
  «moror, morārī, morātus sum», _delay_
  «orior, orirī, ortus sum», _arise, spring; begin; be born_
    (_from_) (origin)
  «proficīscor, proficīscī, profectus sum», _set out_
  «revertor, revertī, reversus sum», _return_ (revert). The forms of
    this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect
    system. Perf. act., «revertī»
  «sequor, sequī, secūtus sum», _follow_ (sequence). Note the following
    compounds of «sequor» and the force of the different prefixes:
    «cōnsequor» (_follow with_), _overtake_;
    «īnsequor» (_follow against_), _pursue_;
    «subsequor» (_follow under_), _follow close after_



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such;
they are inserted to show etymological meanings.

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The “parentheses” were originally printed as [square brackets]. They
  are rendered here as [[double brackets]].]


A

«ā» or «ab», prep. with abl. _from, by, off_.
  Translated _on_ in «ā dextrō cornū», _on the right wing_;
  «ā fronte», _on the front_ or _in front_;
  «ā dextrā», _on the right_;
  «ā latere», _on the side_; etc.
«ab-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus», _hide, conceal_
«ab-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus», _lead off, lead away_
«abs-cīdō, -ere, -cīdī,-cīsus» [[«ab(s)», _off_, + «caedō», _cut_]],
    _cut off_
«ab-sum, -esse, āfuī, āfutūrus», _be away, be absent, be distant,
    be off_; with «ā» or «ab» and abl., §501.32
«ac», conj., see «atque»
«ac-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus» [[«ad», _to_, + «capiō», _take_]],
    _receive, accept_
«ācer, ācris, ācre», adj. _sharp_; figuratively, _keen, active, eager_
    (§471)
«acerbus, -a, -um», adj. _bitter, sour_
«aciēs, -ēī», f. [[«ācer», _sharp_]], _edge; line of battle_
«ācriter», adv. [[«ācer», _sharp_]], compared «ācrius, ācerrimē»,
    _sharply, fiercely_
«ad», prep. with acc. _to, towards, near_.
  With the gerund or gerundive, _to, for_
«ad-aequō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _make equal, make level with_
«ad-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus», _lead to; move, induce_
«ad-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus», _go to, approach, draw near, visit_, with
    acc. (§413)
«ad-ferō, ad-ferre, at-tulī, ad-lātus», _bring, convey; report,
    announce; render, give_ (§426)
«ad-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus» [[«ad», _to_, + «faciō», _do_]],
    _affect, visit_
«adflīctātus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «adflīctō», _shatter_]],
    _shattered_
«ad-flīgō, -ere, -flīxī, -flīctus», _dash upon, strike upon; harass,
    distress_
«ad-hibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus» [[«ad», _to_, + «habeō», _hold_]], _apply,
    employ, use_
«ad-hūc», adv. _hitherto, as yet, thus far_
«aditus, -ūs», m. [[«adeō», _approach_]], _approach, access; entrance_.
    Cf. «adventus»
«ad-ligō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _bind to, fasten_
«ad-loquor, -loquī, -locūtus sum», dep. verb [[«ad», _to_, + «loquor»,
    _speak_]], _speak to, address_, with acc.
«ad-ministrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _manage, direct_
«admīrātiō, -ōnis», f. [[«admīror», _wonder at_]], _admiration,
    astonishment_
«ad-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus», _move to; apply, employ_
«ad-propinquō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _come near, approach_, with dat.
«ad-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūres», _be present; assist_; with dat., §426
«adulēscēns, -entis», m. and f. [[part. of «adolēscō», _grow_]], _a
    youth, young man, young person_
«adventus, -ūs», m. [[«ad», _to_, + «veniō», _come_]], _approach,
    arrival_ (§466)
«adversus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «advertō», _turn to_]], _turned
    towards, facing; contrary, adverse_.
  «rēs adversae», _adversity_
«aedificium, aedifi´cī», n. [[«aedificō», _build_]], _building, edifice_
«aedificō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus» [[«aedēs», _house_, + «faciō», _make_]],
    _build_
«aeger, aegra, aegrum», adj. _sick, feeble_
«aequālis, -e», adj. _equal, like_. As a noun, «aequālis, -is», m. or f.
    _one of the same age_
«aequus, -a, -um», adj. _even, level; equal_
«Aesōpus, -ī», m. _Æsop_, a writer of fables
«aestās, -ātis», f. _summer_,
  «initā aestāte», _at the beginning of summer_
«aetās, -ātis», f. _age_
«Aethiopia, -ae», f. _Ethiopia_, a country in Africa
«Āfrica, -ae», f. _Africa_
«Āfricānus, -a, -um», adj. _of Africa_. A name given to Scipio for his
    victories in Africa
«ager, agrī», m. _field, farm, land_ (§462.c)
«agger, -eris», m. _mound_
«agmen, -inis», n. [[«agō», _drive_]], _an army_ on the march, _column_.
    «prīmum agmen», _the van_
«agō, -ere, ēgī, āctus», _drive, lead; do, perform_.
  «vītam agere», _pass life_
«agricola, -ae», m. [[«ager», _field_, + «colō», _cultivate_]], _farmer_
«agrī cultūra, -ae», f. _agriculture_
«āla, -ae», f. _wing_
«alacer, -cris, -cre», adj. _active, eager_. Cf. «ācer»
«alacritās, -ātis», f. [[«alacer», _active_]], _eagerness, alacrity_
«alacriter», adv. [[«alacer», _active_]], comp «alacrius, alacerrimē»,
    _actively, eagerly_
«albus, -a, -um», adj., _white_
«alcēs, -is», f. _elk_
«Alcmēna, -ae», f. _Alcme´na_, the mother of Hercules
«aliquis (-quī), -qua, -quid (-quod)», indef. pron. _some one, some_
    (§487)
«alius, -a, -ud» (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī»), adj. _another, other_.
  «alius ... alius», _one ... another_.
  «aliī ... aliī», _some ... others_ (§110)
«Alpēs, -ium», f. plur. _the Alps_
«alter, -era, -erum» (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī»), adj. _the one, the other_
    (of two).
  «alter ... alter», _the one ... the other_ (§110)
«altitūdō, -inis», f. [[«altus», _high_]], _height_
«altus, -a, -um», adj. _high, tall, deep_
«Amāzonēs, -um», f. plur. _Amazons_, a fabled tribe of warlike women
«ambō, -ae, -ō», adj. (decl. like «duo»), _both_
«amīcē», adv. [[«amīcus», _friendly_]], superl. «amīcissimē», _in a
    friendly manner_
«amiciō, -īre, ----, -ictus» [[«am-», _about_, + «iaciō», _throw_]],
    _throw around, wrap about, clothe_
«amīcitia, -ae», f. [[«amīcus», _friend_]], _friendship_
«amīcus, -a, -um», adj. [[«amō», _love_]], _friendly_. As a noun,
    «amīcus, -ī», m. _friend_
«ā-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus», _send away; lose_
«amō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _love, like, be fond of_ (§488)
«amphitheātrum, -ī», n. _amphitheater_
«amplus, -a, -um», adj. _large, ample; honorable, noble_
«an», conj. _or_, introducing the second part of a double question
«ancilla, -ae», f. _maidservant_
«ancora, -ae», f. _anchor_
«Andromeda, -ae», f. _Androm´eda_, daughter of Cepheus and wife of
    Perseus
«angulus, -ī», m. _angle, corner_
«anim-advertō, -ere, -tī, -sus [[animus», _mind_, + «advertō», _turn
    to_]], _turn the mind to, notice_
«animal, -ālis», n. [[«anima», _breath_]], _animal_ (§465.b)
«animōsus, -a, -um», adj. _spirited_
«animus, -ī», m. [[«anima», _breath_]], _mind, heart; spirit, courage,
    feeling;_ in this sense often plural
«annus, -i», m. _year_
«ante», prep, with acc. _before_
«anteā», adv. [[«ante»]], _before, formerly_
«antīquus, -a, -um», adj. [[«ante», _before_]], _former, ancient, old_
«aper, aprī», m. _wild boar_
«Apollō, -inis», m. _Apollo_, son of Jupiter and Latona, brother of
    Diana
«ap-pāreō, -ēre, -uī», ---- [[«ad + pāreō», _appear_]], _appear_
«ap-pellō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _call by name, name_. Cf. «nōminō, vocō»
«Appius, -a, -um», adj. _Appian_
«ap-plicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _apply, direct, turn_
«apud», prep, with acc. _among; at, at the house of_
«aqua, -ae», f. _water_
«aquila, -ae», f. _eagle_
«āra, -ae», f. _altar_
«arbitror, -ārī, -ātus sum», _think, suppose_ (§420.c). Cf.
    «exīstimō, putō»
«arbor, -oris», f. _tree_ (§247.1.a)
«Arcadia, -ae», f. _Arcadia_, a district in southern Greece
«ārdeō, -ēre, ārsī, ārsūrus», _be on fire, blaze, burn_
«arduus, -a, -um», adj. _steep_
«Arīcia, -ae», f. _Aricia_, a town on the Appian Way, near Rome
«ariēs, -etis», m. _battering-ram_ (p. 221)
«arma, -ōrum», n. plur. _arms, weapons_. Cf. «tēlum»
«armātus, -a, -um», adj. [[«armō», _arm_]], _armed, equipped_
«arō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _plow, till_
«ars, artis», f. _art, skill_
«articulus, -ī», m. _joint_
«ascrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus» [[«ad», _in addition_, + «scrībō»,
    _write_]], _enroll, enlist_
«Āsia, -ae», f. _Asia_, i.e. Asia Minor
«at», conj. _but_. Cf. «autem, sed»
«Athēnae, -ārum», f. plur. _Athens_
«Atlās, -antis», m. _Atlas_, a Titan who was said to hold up the sky
«at-que, ac», conj. _and, and also, and what is more_. «atque» may be
    used before either vowels or consonants, «ac» before consonants only
«attentus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «attendō», _direct_ (the mind)
    _toward_]], _attentive, intent on, careful_
«at-tonitus, -a, -um», adj. _thunderstruck, astounded_
«audācia, -ae», f. [[«audāx», _bold_]], _boldness, audacity_
«audācter», adv. [[«audāx», _bold_]], compared «audācius, audācissimē»,
    _boldly_
«audāx, -ācis», adj. _bold, daring_
«audeō, -ēre, ausus sum», _dare_
«audiō, -īre, -īvī or -īī, -ītus», _hear, listen to_ (§§420.d, 491)
«Augēās, -ae», m. _Auge´as_, a king whose stables Hercules cleaned
«aura, -ae», f. _air, breeze_
«aurātus, -a, -um», adj. [[«aurum», _gold_]], _adorned with gold_
«aureus, -a, -um», adj.[[«aurum», _gold_]], _golden_
«aurum, -ī», n. _gold_
«aut», conj. _or_.
  «aut...aut», _either...or_
«autem», conj., usually second, never first, in the clause, _but,
    moreover, however, now_. Cf. «at, sed»
«auxilium, auxi´lī», n. _help, aid, assistance;_ plur. _auxiliaries_
«ā-vertō, -ere, -tī, -sus», _turn away, turn aside_
«avis, -is», f. _bird_ (§243.1)


B

«ballista, -ae», f. _ballista_, an engine for hurling missiles (p. 220)
«balteus, -ī», m. _belt, sword belt_
«barbarus, -ī», m. _barbarian, savage_
«bellum, -ī», n. _war_.
  «bellum īnferre», with dat. _make war upon_
«bene», adv. [[for «bonē», from «bonus»]], compared «melius, optimē»,
    _well_
«benignē», adv. [[«benignus», _kind_]], compared «benignius,
    benignissimē», _kindly_
«benignus, -a, -um», adj. _good-natured, kind_, often used with dat.
«bīnī, -ae, -a», distributive numeral adj. _two each, two at a time_
    (§334)
«bis», adv. _twice_
«bonus, -a, -um», adj. compared «melior, optimus», _good, kind_
    (§469.a)
«bōs, bovis» (gen. plur. «boum» or «bovum», dat. and abl. plur. «bōbus»
    or «būbus»), m. and f. _ox, cow_
«bracchium, bracchī», n. _arm_
«brevis, -e», adj. _short_
«Brundisium, -ī», n. _Brundisium_, a seaport in southern Italy. See map
«bulla, -ae», f. _bulla_, a locket made of small concave plates of gold
    fastened by a spring (p. 212)


C

«C.» abbreviation for «Gāius», Eng. _Caius_
«cadō, -ere, ce´cidī, cāsūrus», _fall_
«caedēs, -is», f. [[«caedō», _cut_]], (_a cutting down_), _slaughter,
    carnage_ (§465.a)
«caelum, -ī», n. _sky, heavens_
«Caesar, -aris», m. _Cæsar_, the famous general, statesman, and writer
«calamitās, -ātis», f. _loss, calamity, defeat, disaster_
«calcar, -āris», n. _spur_ (§465.b)
«Campānia, -ae», f. _Campania_., a district of central Italy. See map
«Campānus, -a, -um», adj. _of Campania_
«campus, -ī», m. _plain, field_, esp. the _Campus Martius_, along the
    Tiber just outside the walls of Rome
«canis, -is», m. and f. _dog_
«canō, -ere, ce´cinī», ----, _sing_
«cantō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus» [[«canō», _sing_]], _sing_
«Capēnus, -a, -um», adj. _of Capena_, esp. the _Porta Cape´na_, the gate
    at Rome leading to the Appian Way
«capiō, -ere, cēpī, captus», _take, seize, capture_ (§492)
«Capitōlīnus, -a, -um», adj. _belonging to the Capitol, Capitoline_
«Capitōlium, Capitō´lī», n. [[«caput», _head_]], _the Capitol_, the hill
    at Rome on which stood the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and the
    citadel
«capsa, -ae», f. _box_ for books
«captīvus, -ī», m. [[«capiō», _take_]], _captive_
«Capua, -ae», f. _Capua_, a large city of Campania. See map
«caput, -itis», n. _head_ (§464.2.b)
«carcer, -eris», m. _prison, jail_
«carrus, -ī», m. _cart, wagon_
«cārus, -a, -um», adj. _dear; precious_
«casa, -ae», f. _hut, cottage_
«castellum, -ī», n. [[dim. of «castrum», _fort_]], _redoubt, fort_
«castrum, -ī», n. _fort_. Usually in the plural, «castra, -ōrum»,
    a military _camp_.
  «castra pōnere», _to pitch camp_
«cāsus, -us», m. [[«cadō», _fall_]], _chance; misfortune, loss_
«catapulta, -ae», f. _catapult_, an engine for hurling stones
«catēna, -ae», f. _chain_
«caupōna, -ae», f. _inn_
«causa, -ae», f. _cause, reason_, «quā dē causā», _for this reason_
«cēdō, -ere, cessī, cessūrus», _give way, retire_
«celer, -eris, -ere», adj. _swift, fleet_
«celeritās, -ātis», f. [[«celer», _swift_]], _swiftness, speed_
«celeriter», adv. [[«celer», _swift_]], compared «celerius, celerrimē»,
    _swiftly_
«cēna, -ae», f. _dinner_
«centum», indecl. numeral adj. _hundred_
«centuriō, -ōnis», m. _centurion, captain_
«Cēpheus» (dissyl.), «-eī» (acc. «Cēphea»), m. _Cepheus_, a king of
    Ethiopia and father of Andromeda
«Cerberus, -ī», m. _Cerberus_, the fabled three-headed dog that guarded
    the entrance to Hades
«certāmen, -inis», n. [[«certō», _struggle_]], _struggle, contest,
    rivalry_
«certē», adv. [[«certus», _sure_]], compared «certius, certissimē»,
    _surely, certainly_
«certus, -a, -um», adj. _fixed, certain, sure_.
  «aliquem certiōrem facere» (_to make some one more certain_),
    _to inform some one_
«cervus, -ī», m. _stag, deer_
«cessō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _delay, cease_
«cibāria, -ōrum», n. plur. _food, provisions_
«cibus, -ī», _m.food, victuals_
«Cimbrī, -ōrum», m. plur. _the Cimbri_
«Cimbricus, -a, -um», adj. _Cimbrian_
«cīnctus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «cingō», _surround_]], _girt,
    surrounded_
«cingō, -ere, cīnxī, cīnctus», _gird, surround_
«circiter», adv. _about_
«circum», prep, with acc. _around_
«circum´-dō, -dare, -dedī, -datus», _place around, surround, inclose_
«circum´-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus», _go around_
«circum-sistō, -ere, circum´stetī», ----, _stand around, surround_
«circum-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus» (_come around_), _surround_
«citerior, -ius», adj. in comp., superl. «citimus», _hither, nearer_
    (§475)
«cīvīlis, -e», adj. [[«cīvis»]], _civil_
«cīvis, -is», m. and f. _citizen_ (§243.1)
«cīvitās, -ātis», f. [[«cīvis», _citizen_]], (_body of citizens_),
    _state; citizenship_
«clāmor, -ōris», m. _shout, cry_
«clārus, -a, -um», adj. _clear; famous, renowned; bright, shining_
«classis, -is», f. _fleet_
«claudō, -ere, -sī, -sus», _shut, close_
«clavus, -ī», m. _stripe_
«cliēns, -entis», m. _dependent, retainer, client_ (§465.a)
«Cocles, -itis», m. (_blind in one eye_), _Cocles_, the surname of
    Horatius
«co-gnōscō, -ere, -gnōvī, -gnītus», _learn, know, understand_. Cf.
    «sciō» (§420.b)
«cōgō, -ere, coēgī, coāctus» [[«co(m)-», _together_, + «agō», _drive_]],
    (_drive together_), _collect; compel, drive_
«cohors, cohortis», f. _cohort_, the tenth part of a legion, about 360
    men
«collis, -is», m. _hill_, «in summō colle», _on top of the hill_
    (§247.2.a)
«collum, -ī», n. _neck_
«colō, -ere, coluī, cultus», _cultivate, till; honor, worship; devote
    one’s self to_
«columna, -ae», f. _column, pillar_
«com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-)», a prefix, _together, with_, or
    intensifying the meaning of the root word
«coma, -ae», f. _hair_
«comes, -itis», m. and f. [[«com-», _together_, + «eō», _go_]],
    _companion, comrade_
«comitātus, -ūs», m. [[«comitor», _accompany_]], _escort, company_
«comitor, -ārī, -ātus sum», dep. verb [[«comes», _companion_]],
    _accompany_
«com-meātus, -ūs», m. _supplies_
«com-minus», adv. [[«com-», _together_, + «manus», _hand_]], _hand to
    hand_
«com-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus», _join together; commit, intrust_.
  «proelium committere», _join battle_.
  «sē committere» with dat, _trust one’s self to_
«commodē», adv. [[«commodus», _fit_]], compared «commodius,
    commodissimē», _conveniently, fitly_
«commodus, -a, -um», adj. _suitable, fit_
«com-mōtus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «commoveō», _move_]], _aroused,
    moved_
«com-parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«com-», intensive, + «parō»,
    _prepare_]], _prepare; provide, get_
«com-pleō, -ēre, -plēvī, -plētus» [[«com-», intensive, + «pleō»,
    _fill_]], _fill up_
«complexus, -ūs», m. _embrace_
«com-primō, -ere, -pressī, -pressus» [[«com-», _together_, + «premō»,
    _press_]], _press together, grasp, seize_
«con-cidō, -ere, -cidī», ---- [[«com-», intensive, + «cadō», _fall_]],
    _fall down_
«concilium, conci´lī», n. _meeting, council_
«con-clūdō, -ere, -clūsī, -clūsus» [[«com-», intensive, + «claudō»,
    _close_]], _shut up, close; end, finish_
«con-currō, -ere, -currī, -cursus» [[«com-», _together_, + «currō»,
    _run_]], _run together; rally, gather_
«condiciō, -ōnis», f. [[«com-», _together_, + «dicō», _talk_]],
    _agreement, condition, terms_
«con-dōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _pardon_
«con-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus», _hire_
«cōn-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus», _bring together_.
  «sē cōnferre», _betake one’s self_
«cōn-fertus, -a, -um», adj. _crowded, thick_
«cōnfestim», adv. _immediately_
«cōn-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus» [[«com-», _completely_, + «faciō»,
    _do_]], _make, complete, accomplish, finish_
«cōn-fīrmō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _make firm, establish, strengthen,
    affirm, assert_
«cōn-fluō, -ere, -flūxī», ----, _flow together_
«cōn-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus», _flee for refuge, flee_
«con-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus» [[«com-», intensive, + «iaciō»,
    _throw_]], _hurl_
«con-iungō, -ere, -iūnxī, -iūnctus» [[«com-», _together_, + «iungō»,
    _join_]], _join together, unite_
«con-iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«com-», _together_, + «iūrō», _swear_]],
    _unite by oath, conspire_
«con-locō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«com-», _together_, + «locō», _place_]],
    _arrange, place, station_
«conloquium, conlo´quī», n. [[«com-», _together_, + «loquor», _speak_]],
    _conversation, conference_
«cōnor, -ārī, -ātus sum», dep. verb, _endeavor, attempt, try_
«cōn-scendō, -ere, -scendī, -scēnsus» [[«com-», intensive, + «scandō»,
    _climb_]], _climb up, ascend_.
  «nāvem cōnscendere», _embark, go on board_
«cōn-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus» [[«com-», _together_, +
    «scrībō», _write_]], (_write together_), _enroll, enlist_
«cōn-secrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«com-», intensive, + «sacrō»,
    _consecrate_]], _consecrate, devote_
«cōn-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum», dep. verb [[«com-», intensive, +
    «sequor», _follow_]], _pursue; overtake; win_
«cōn-servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«com-», intensive, + «servō», _save_]],
    _preserve, save_
«cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī», n. _plan, purpose, design; wisdom_
«cōn-sistō, -ere, -stitī, -stitus» [[«com-», intensive, + «sistō»,
    _cause to stand_]], _stand firmly, halt, take one’s stand_
«cōn-spiciō, -ere, -spēxī, -spectus» [[«com-», intensive, + «spiciō»,
    _spy_]], _look at attentively, perceive, see_
«cōnstantia, -ae», f. _firmness, steadiness, perseverance_
«cōn-stituō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus» [[«com-», intensive, + «statuō»,
    _set_]], _establish, determine, resolve_
«cōn-stō, -āre, -stitī, -stātūrus» [[«com-», _together_, + «stō»,
    _stand_]], _agree; be certain ; consist of_
«cōnsul, -ulis», m. _consul_ (§464.2.a)
«cōn-sūmō, -ere, -sūmpsī, -sūmptus» [[«com-», intensive, + «sumō»,
    _take_]], _consume, use up_
«con-tendō, -ere, -dī, -tus», _strain; hasten; fight, contend,
    struggle_
«con-tineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentus» [[«com-», _together_, + «teneō»,
    _hold_]], _hold together, hem in, contain; restrain_
«contrā», prep, with acc. _against, contrary to_
«con-trahō, -ere, -trāxī, -trāctus» [[«com-», _together_, + «trahō»,
    _draw_]], _draw together;_ of sails, _shorten, furl_
«contrōversia, -ae», f. _dispute, quarrel_
«con-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus» [[«com-», _together_, + «veniō»,
    _come_]], _come together, meet, assemble_
«con-vertō, -ere, -vertī, -versus» [[«com-», intensive, + «vertō»,
    _turn_]], _turn_
«con-vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«com-», _together_, + «vocō», _call_]],
    _call together_
«co-orior, -īrī, -ortus sum», dep. verb [[«com-», intensive, + «orior»,
    _rise_]], _rise, break forth_
«cōpia, -ae», f. [[«com-», intensive, + «ops», _wealth_]], _abundance,
    wealth, plenty_. Plur. «cōpiae, -ārum», _troops_
«coquō, -ere, coxī, coctus», _cook_
«Corinthus, -ī», f. _Corinth_, the famous city on the Isthmus of Corinth
«Cornēlia, -ae», f. _Cornelia_, daughter of Scipio and mother of the
    Gracchi
«Cornēlius, Cornē´lī», m. _Cornelius_, a Roman name
«cornū, -ūs», n. _horn; wing_ of an army, «ā dextrō cornū», _on the
    right wing_ (§466)
«corōna, -ae», f. _garland, wreath; crown_
«corōnātus, -a, -um», adj. _crowned_
«corpus, -oris», n. _body_
«cor-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus» [[«com-», intensive, + «rapiō»,
    _seize_]], _seize, grasp_
«cotīdiānus, -a, -um», adj. _daily_
«cotīdiē», adv. _daily_
«crēber, -bra, -brum», adj. _thick, crowded, numerous, frequent_
«crēdō, -ere, -dīdī, -ditus», _trust, believe_, with dat. (§501.14)
«cremō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _burn_
«creō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _make; elect, appoint_
«Creōn, -ontis», m. _Creon_, a king of Corinth
«crēscō, -ere, crēvī, crētus», _rise, grow, increase_
«Crēta, -ae», f. _Crete_, a large island in the Mediterranean
«Crētaeus, -a, -um», adj. _Cretan_
«crūs, crūris», n. _leg_
«crūstulum, -ī», n. _pastry, cake_
«cubīle, -is», n. _bed_
«cultūra, -ae», f. _culture, cultivation_
«cum», conj. with the indic. or subjv. _when; since; although_
    (§501.46)
«cum», prep, with abl. _with_ (§209)
«cupidē», adv. [[«cupidus», _desirous_]], compared «cupidius,
    cupidissimē», _eagerly_
«cupiditās, -ātis», f. [[«cupidus», _desirous_]], _desire, longing_
«cupiō, -ere, -īvī» or «-iī, -ītus», _desire, wish_. Cf. «volō»
«cūr», adv. _why, wherefore_
«cūra, -ae», f. _care, pains; anxiety_
«cūria, -ae», f. _senate house_
«cūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«cūra», _care_]], _care for, attend to, look
    after_
«currō, -ere, cucurrī, cursus», _run_
«currus, -ūs», m. _chariot_
«cursus, -ūs», m. _course_
«custōdiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus» [[«custōs», _guard_]], _guard, watch_


D

«Daedalus, -ī», m. _Dæd´alus_, the supposed inventor of the first flying
    machine
«Dāvus, -ī», m. _Davus_, name of a slave
«dē», prep, with abl. _down from, from; concerning, about, for_
    (§209).
  «quā dē causā», _for this reason, wherefore_
«dea, -ae», f. _goddess_ (§461.a)
«dēbeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus» [[«dē», _from_, + «habeō», _hold_]], _owe,
    ought, should_
«decem», indecl. numeral adj. _ten_
«dē-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus» [[«dē», _from_, + «cernō»,
    _separate_]], _decide, decree_
«dē-cidō, -ere, -cidī», ---- [[«dē», _down_, + «cadō», _fall_]], _fall
    down_
«decimus, -a, -um», numeral adj. _tenth_
«dēclīvis, -e», adj. _sloping downward_
«dē-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus», _give up, surrender_, «sē dēdere»,
    _surrender one’s self_
«dē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus» [[«dē», _down_, + «dūcō», _lead_]],
    _lead down, escort_
«dē-fendō, -ere, -dī, -fēnsus», _ward off, repel, defend_
«dē-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus» [[«dē», _down_, + «ferō», _bring_]],
    _bring down; report, announce_ (§426)
«dē-fessus, -a, -um», adj. _tired out, weary_
«dē-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus» [[«dē», _from_, + «faciō», _make_]],
    _fail, be wanting; revolt from_
«dē-fīgō, -ere, -fīxī, -fīxus» [[«dē», _down_, + «fīgō», _fasten_]],
    _fasten, fix_
«dē-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus» [[«dē», _down_, + «iaciō», _hurl_]],
    _hurl down; bring down, kill_
«de-inde», adv. _(from thence), then, in the next place_
«dēlectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _delight_
«dēleō, -ēre, -ēvī, -ētus», _blot out, destroy_
«dēlīberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _weigh, deliberate, ponder_
«dē-ligō, -ere, -lēgī, -lēctus» [[«dē», _from_, + «legō», _gather_]],
    _choose, select_
«Delphicus, -a, -um», adj. _Delphic_
«dēmissus, -a, -um» [[part. of «dēmittō», _send down_]], _downcast,
    humble_
«dē-mōnstrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«dē», _out_, + «mōnstrō», _point_]],
    _point out, show_
«dēmum», adv. _at last, not till then_.
  «tum dēmum», _then at last_
«dēnique», adv. _at last, finally_. Cf. «postrēmō»
«dēns, dentis», m. _tooth_ (§247.2.a)
«dēnsus, -a, -um», adj. _dense, thick_
«dē-pendeō, -ēre», ----, ---- [[«dē», _down_, + «pendeō», _hang_]],
    _hang from, hang down_
«dē-plōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«dē», intensive, + «plōrō», _wail_]],
    _bewail, deplore_
«dē-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus» [[«dē», _down_, + «pōnō», _put_]],
    _put down_
«dē-scendō, -ere, -dī, -scēnsus» [[«dē», _down_, + «scandō», _climb_]],
    _climb down, descend_
«dē-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus» [[«dē», _down_, + «scrībō»,
    _write_]], _write down_
«dēsīderō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _long for_
«dē-siliō, -īre, -uī, -sultus» [[«dē», _down_, + «saliō», _leap_]],
    _leap down_
«dē-spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«dē», _away from_, + «spērō»,
    _hope_]], _despair_
«dē-spiciō, -ere, -spēxi, -spectus» [[«dē», _down_]], _look down upon,
    despise_
«dē-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus» [[«dē», _away from_, + «sum», _be_]],
    _be wanting, lack_, with dat. (§426)
«deus, -ī», m. _god_ (§468)
«dē-volvō, -ere, -volvī, -volūtus» [[«dē», _down_, + «volvō», _roll_]],
    _roll down_
«dē-vorō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«dē», _down_, + «vorō», _swallow_]],
    _devour_
«dexter, -tra, -trum» («-tera, -terum»), adj. _to the right, right_.
  «ā dextrō cornū», _on the right wing_
«Diāna, -ae», f. _Diana_, goddess of the moon and twin sister of Apollo
«dīcō, -ere, dīxī, dictus» (imv. «dīc»), _say, speak, tell_. Usually
    introduces indirect discourse (§420.a)
«dictātor, -ōris», m. [[«dictō», _dictate_]], _dictator_, a chief
    magistrate with unlimited power
«diēs, -ēi» or «diē», m., sometimes f. in sing., _day_ (§467)
«dif-ferō, -ferre, distulī, dīlātus» [[«dis-», _apart_, + «ferō»,
    _carry_]], _carry apart; differ_.
  «differre inter sē», _differ from each other_
«dif-ficilis, -e», adj. [[«dis-», _not_, + «facilis», _easy_]], _hard,
    difficult_ (§307)
«difficultās, -ātis», f. [[«difficilis», _hard_]], _difficulty_
«dīligenter», adv. [[«dīligēns», _careful_]], compared «dīligentius,
    dīligentissimē», _industriously, diligently_
«dīligentia, -ae», f. [[«dīligēns», _careful_]], _industry, diligence_
«dī-micō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _fight, struggle_
«dī-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus» [[«dī-», _off_, + «mittō», _send_]],
    _send away, dismiss, disband_.
  «dīmittere animum in», _direct one’s mind to, apply one’s self to_
«Diomēdēs, -is», m. _Dī-o-mē´dēs_, a name
«dis-, dī-», a prefix expressing separation, _off, apart, in different
    directions_. Often negatives the meaning
«dis-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus» [[«dis-», _apart_, + «cēdō», _go_]],
    _depart from, leave, withdraw, go away_
«dis-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus» [[«dis-», _apart_, + «cernō»,
    _sift_]], _separate; distinguish_
«disciplīna, -ae», f. _instruction, training, discipline_
«discipulus, -ī», m. [[«discō», _learn_]], _pupil, disciple_
«discō, -ere, didicī», ----, _learn_
«dis-cutiō, -ere, -cussī, -cussus» [[«dis-», _apart_, + «quatiō»,
    _shake_]], _shatter, dash to pieces_
«dis-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus» [[«dis-», _apart_, + «pōnō», _put_]],
    _put here and there, arrange, station_
«dis-similis, -e», adj. [[«dis-», _apart_, + «similis», _like_]],
    _unlike, dissimilar_ (§307)
«dis-tribuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus», _divide, distribute_
«diū», adv., compared «diūtius, diūtissimē», _for a long time, long_
    (§477)
«dō, dare, dedī, datus», _give_.
  «in fugam dare», _put to flight_.
  «alicui negōtium dare», _employ some one_
«doceō, -ēre, -uī, -tus», _teach, show_
«doctrīna, -ae», f. [[«doctor», _teacher_]], _teaching, learning,
    wisdom_
«dolor, -ōris», m. _pain, sorrow_
«domesticus, -a, -um», adj. [[«domus», _house_]], _of the house,
    domestic_
«domicilium, domici´lī», n. _dwelling; house, abode_. Cf. «domus»
«domina, -ae», f. _mistress_ (of the house), _lady_ (§461)
«dominus, -ī», m. _master_ (of the house), _owner, ruler_ (§462)
«domus, -ūs», f. _house, home_.
  «domī», locative, _at home_ (§468)
«dormiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus», _sleep_
«dracō, -ōnis», m. _serpent, dragon_
«dubitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _hesitate_
«dubius, -a, -um», adj. [[«duo», _two_]], (_moving two ways_),
    _doubtful, dubious_
«du-centī, -ae, -a», numeral adj. _two hundred_
«dūcō, -ere, dūxī, ductus» (imv. «dūc»), _lead, conduct_
«dum», conj. _while, as long as_
«duo, duae, duo», numeral adj. _two_ (§479)
«duo-decim», indecl. numeral adj. _twelve_
«dūrus, -a, -um», adj. _hard, tough; harsh, pitiless, bitter_
«dux, ducis», m. and f. [[cf. «dūcō», _lead_]], _leader, commander_


E

«ē» or «ex», prep, with abl. _out of, from, off, of_ (§209)
«eburneus, -a, -um», adj. _of ivory_
«ecce», adv. _see! behold! there! here!_
«ē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus» [[«ē», _out_, + «dūcō», _lead_]], _lead
    out, draw out_
«ef-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus» [[«ex», _thoroughly_, + «faciō»,
    _do_]], _work out; make, cause_
«ef-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus» [[«ex», _from_, + «fugiō», _flee_]],
    _escape_
«egeō, -ēre, -uī», ----, _be in need of, lack_, with abl. (§501.32)
«ego», pers. pron. _I_; plur. «nōs», _we_ (§480)
«ē-gredior, -ī, ēgressus sum», dep. verb [[«ē», _out of_, + «gradior»,
    _go_]], _go out, go forth_.
  «ē nāvī ēgredī», _disembark_
«ē-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus» [[«ē», _forth_, + «iaciō», _hurl_]],
    _hurl forth, expel_
«elementum, -ī», n., in plur. _first principles, rudiments_
«elephantus, -ī», m. _elephant_
«Ēlis, Ēlidis», f. _E´lis_, a district of southern Greece
«emō, -ere, ēmī, ēmptus», _buy, purchase_
«enim», conj., never standing first, _for, in fact, indeed._ Cf. «nam»
«Ennius, Ennī», m. _Ennius_, the father of Roman poetry, born 239 B.C.
«eō, īre, iī» («īvī»), «itūrus», _go_ (§499)
«eō», adv. _to that place, thither_
«Ēpīrus, -ī», f. _Epi´rus_, a district in the north of Greece
«eques, -itis», m. [[«equus», _horse_]], _horseman, cavalryman_
«equitātus, -ūs», m. [[«equitō», _ride_]], _cavalry_
«equus, -ī», m. _horse_
«ē-rigō, -ere, -rēxī, -rēctus» [[«ē», _out_, + «regō», _make
    straight_]], _raise up_
«ē-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus» [[«ē», _out of_, + «rapiō», _seize_]],
    _seize, rescue_
«ē-rumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptus» [[«ē», _forth_, + «rumpō», _break_]],
    _burst forth_
«ēruptiō, -ōnis», f. _sally_
«Erymanthius, -a, -um», adj. _Erymanthian, of Erymanthus_, a district in
    southern Greece
«et», conj. _and, also_. «et ... et», _both ... and_. Cf. «atque, ac,
    -que»
«etiam», adv. (rarely conj.) [[«et», _also_, + «iam», _now_]], _yet,
    still; also, besides_. Cf. «quoque».
  «nōn sōlum ... sed etiam», _not only ... but also_
«Etrūscī, -ōrum», m. _the Etruscans_, the people of Etruria. See map of
    Italy
«Eurōpa, -ae», f. _Europe_
«Eurystheus, -ī», m. _Eurys´theus_, a king of Tiryns, a city in southern
    Greece
«ē-vādō, -ere, -vāsī, -vāsus» [[«ē», _out_, + «vādō», _go_]], _go forth,
    escape_
«ex», see «ē»
«exanimātus, -a, -um» [[part. of «exanimō», _put out of breath_
    («anima»)]], adj. _out of breath, tired; lifeless_
«ex-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus» [[«ex», _out_, + «capiō», _take_]],
    _welcome, receive_
«exemplum, -ī», n. _example, model_
«ex-eō,-īre,-iī,-itūrus» [[«ex», _out_, + «eō», _go_]], _go out, go
    forth_ (§413)
«ex-erceō, -ēre, -uī, -itus» [[«ex», _out_, + «arceō», _shut_]], _(shut
    out), employ, train, exercise, use_
«exercitus, -us», m. [[«exerceō», _train_]], _army_
«ex-īstimō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«ex», _out_, + «aestimō», _reckon_]],
    _estimate; think, judge_ (§420.c). Cf. «arbitror, putō»
«ex-orior, -īrī, -ortus sum», dep. verb [[«ex», _forth_, + «orior»,
    _rise_]], _come forth, rise_
«expedītus, -a, -um», adj. _without baggage_
«ex-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus» [[«ex», _out_, + «pellō», _drive_]],
    _drive out_
«ex-piō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«ex», intensive, + «pīo», _atone for_]],
    _make amends for, atone for_
«explōrātor, -ōris», m. [[«explōrō», _investigate_]], _spy, scout_
«explōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _examine, explore_
«ex-pugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«ex», _out_, + «pugnō», _fight_]], _take
    by storm, capture_
«exsilium, exsi´lī», n. [[«exsul», _exile_]], _banishment, exile_
«ex-spectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«ex», _out_, + «spectō», _look_]],
    _expect, wait_
«ex-struō, -ere, -strūxī, -strūctus» [[«ex», _out_, + «struō»,
    _build_]], _build up, erect_
«exterus, -a, -um», adj., compared «exterior, extrēmus» or «extimus»,
    _outside, outer_ (§312)
«extrā», prep, with acc. _beyond, outside of_
«ex-trahō, -ere, -trāxī, -trāctus» [[«ex», _out_, + «trahō», _drag_]],
    _drag out, pull forth_
«extrēmus, -a, -um», adj., superl. of «exterus», _utmost, farthest_
    (§312)


F

«fābula, -ae», f. _story, tale, fable_
«facile», adv. [[«facilis», _easy_]], compared «facilius, facillimē»,
    _easily_ (§322)
«facilis, -e», adj. [[cf. «faciō», _make_]], _easy, without difficulty_
    (§307)
«faciō, -ere, fēcī, factus» (imv. «fac»), _make, do; cause, bring
    about_.
  «impetum facere in», _make an attack upon_.
  «proelium facere», _fight a battle_.
  «iter facere», _make a march_ or _journey_.
  «aliquem certiōrem facere», _inform some one_.
  «facere verba prō», _speak in behalf of_.
    Passive «fīō, fierī, factus sum», _be done, happen_.
      «certior fierī», _be informed_
«fallō, -ere, fefellī, falsus», _trip, betray, deceive_
«fāma, -ae», f. _report, rumor; renown, fame, reputation_
«famēs, -is» (abl. «famē»), f. _hunger_
«familia, -ae», f. _servants, slaves; household, family_
«fascēs, -ium» (plur. of «fascis»), f. _fasces_ (p. 225)
«fastīgium, fastī´gī», n. _top; slope, descent_
«fātum, -ī», n. _fate, destiny_
«faucēs, -ium», f. plur. _jaws, throat_
«faveō, -ēre, fāvī, fautūrus», _be favorable to, favor_, with dat.
    (§501.14)
«fēlīx, -īcis», adj. _happy, lucky_
«fēmina, -ae», f. woman. Cf. «mulier»
«fera, -ae», f. [[«ferus», _wild_]], _wild beast_
«ferāx, -ācis», adj. _fertile_
«ferē», adv. _about, nearly, almost_
«ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus», _bear_.
  «graviter» or «molestē ferre», _be annoyed_ (§498)
«ferreus, -a, -um», adj. [[«ferrum», _iron_]], _made of iron_
«fidēlis, -e», adj. [[«fidēs», _trust_]], _faithful, true_
«fidēs, fideī» _or_ «fidē», _trust, faith; promise, word; protection_.
  «in fidem venīre», _come under the protection_.
  «in fidē manēre», _remain loyal_
«fīlia, -ae» (dat. and abl. plur. «fīliābus»), f. _daughter_ (§461.a)
«fīlius, fīlī» (voc. sing, «fīlī»), m. _son_
«fīnis, -is», m. _boundary, limit, end;_ in plur. _territory, country_
    (§243.1)
«fīnitimus, -a, -um», adj. [[«fīnis», _boundary_]], _adjoining,
    neighboring_.
  Plur. «fīnitimī, -ōrum», m. _neighbors_
«fīō, fierī, factus sum», used as passive of «faciō». See «faciō» (§500)
«flamma, -ae», f. _fire, flame_
«flōs, flōris», m. _flower_
«fluctus, -ūs», m. [[of. «fluō», _flow_]], _flood, wave, billow_
«flūmen, -inis», n. [[cf. «fluō», _flow_]], _river_ (§464.2.b)
«fluō, -ere, flūxī, fluxus», _flow_
«fluvius, fluvī», m. [[cf. «fluō», _flow_]], _river_
«fodiō, -ere, fōdī, fossus», _dig_
«fōns, fontis», m. _fountain_ (§247.2.a)
«fōrma, -ae», f. _form, shape, appearance; beauty_
«Formiae, -ārum», f. _Formiae_, a town of Latium on the Appian Way.
    See map
«forte», adv. [[abl. of «fors», _chance_]], _by chance_
«fortis, -e», adj. _strong; fearless, brave_
«fortiter», adv. [[«fortis», _strong_]], compared «fortius, fortissimē»,
    _strongly; bravely_
«fortūna, -ae», f. [[«fors», _chance_]], _chance, fate, fortune_
«forum, -ī», n. _market place_, esp. the «Forum Rōmānum», where the life
    of Rome centered
«Forum Appī», _Forum of Appius_, a town in Latium on the Appian Way
«fossa, -ae», f. [[cf. «fodiō», _dig_]], _ditch_
«fragor, -ōris», m. [[cf. «frangō», _break_]], _crash, noise_
«frangō, -ere, frēgī, frāctus», _break_
«frāter, -tris», m. _brother_
«fremitus, -ūs», m. _loud noise_
«frequentō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _attend_
«frētus, -a, -um», adj. _supported, trusting_. Usually with abl. of
    means
«frōns, frontis», f. _front_, «ā fronte», _in front_
«frūctus, -ūs», m. _fruit_
«frūmentārius, -a, -um», adj. _pertaining to grain_.
  «rēs frūmentāria», _grain supplies_
«frūmentum, -ī», n. _grain_
«frūstrā», adv. _in vain, vainly_
«fuga, -ae», f. [[cf. «fugiō», _flee_]], _flight_.
  «in fugam dare», _put to flight_
«fugiō, -ere, fūgī, fugitūrus», _flee, run; avoid, shun_
«fūmō, -are, ------, ------», _smoke_
«fūnis, -is», m. _rope_
«furor, -ōris», m. [[«furō», _rage_]], _madness_.
  «in furōrem incīdere», _go mad_


G

«Gāius, Gāī», m. _Gaius_, a Roman name, abbreviated «C.», English form
    _Caius_
«Galba, -ae», m. _Galba_, a Roman name
«galea, -ae», f. _helmet_
«Gallia, -ae», f. _Gaul_, the country comprising what is now Holland,
    Belgium, Switzerland, and France
«Gallicus, -a, -um», adj. _Gallic_
«gallīna, -ae», f. _hen, chicken_
«Gallus, -ī», m. _a Gaul_
«gaudium, gaudī», n. _joy_
«Genāva, -ae», f. _Geneva_, a city in Switzerland
«gēns, gentis», f. [[cf. «gignō», _beget_]], _race, family; people,
    nation, tribe_
«genus, -eris», n. _kind, variety_
«Germānia, -ae», f. _Germany_
«Germānus, -ī», m. _a German_
«gerō, -ere, gessī, gestus», _carry, wear; wage_.
  «bellum gerere», _wage war_.
  «rēs gestae», _exploits_.
  «bene gerere», _carry on successfully_
«gladiātōrius, -a, -um», adj. _gladiatorial_
«gladius, gladī», m. _sword_
«glōria, -ae», f. _glory, fame_
«Gracchus, -ī», m. _Gracchus_, name of a famous Roman family
«gracilis, -e», adj. _slender_ (§307)
«Graeca, -ōrum», n. plur. _Greek writings, Greek literature_
«Graecē», adv. _in Greek_
«Graecia, -ae», f. _Greece_
«grammaticus, -ī», m. _grammarian_
«grātia, -ae», f. _thanks, gratitude_
«grātus, -a, -um», adj. _acceptable, pleasing_. Often with dat.
    (§501.16)
«gravis, -ē», adj. _heavy; disagreeable; serious, dangerous; earnest,
    weighty_
«graviter», adv. [[«gravis», _heavy_]], compared «gravius, gravissimē»,
    _heavily; greatly, seriously_.
  «graviter ferre», _bear ill, take to heart_
«gubernātor, -ōris», m. [[«gubernō», _pilot_]], _pilot_


H

«habēna, -ae», f. _halter, rein_.
«habeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus», _have, hold; regard, consider, deem_
«habitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[cf. «habeō», _have_]], _dwell, abide,
    inhabit_. Cf. «incolō, vīvō»
«hāc-tenus», adv. _thus far_
«Helvētiī, -ōrum», m. _the Helvetii_, a Gallic tribe
«Herculēs, -is», m. _Hercules_, son of Jupiter and Alcmena, and god of
    strength
«Hesperidēs, -um», f. _the Hesperides_, daughters of Hesperus, who kept
    the garden of the golden apples
«hic, haec, hoc», demonstrative adj. and pron. _this_ (of mine); as
    pers. pron. _he, she, it_ (§481)
«hīc», adv. _here_
«hiems, -emis», f. _winter_
«hīnc», adv. [[«hīc», _here_]], _from here, hence_
«Hippolytē, -ēs», f. _Hippolyte_, queen of the Amazons
«ho-diē», adv. [[modified form of «hōc diē», _on this day_]], _to-day_
«homō, -inis», m. and f. _(human being), man, person_
«honestus, -a, -um», adv. [[«honor», _honor_]], _respected, honorable_
«honor, -ōris», m. _honor_
«hōra, -ae», f. _hour_
«Horātius, Horā´tī», m. _Horatius_, a Roman name
«horribilis, -e», adj. _terrible, horrible_
«hortor, -āri, -ātus sum», dep. verb, _urge, incite, exhort, encourage_
    (§493)
«hortus, -ī», m. _garden_
«hospitium, hospi´tī», n. [[«hospes», _host_]], _hospitality_
«hostis, -is», m. and f. _enemy, foe_ (§465.a)
«humilis, -e», adj. _low, humble_ (§307)
«Hydra, -ae», f. _the Hydra_, a mythical water snake slain by
    Hercules


I

«iaciō, -ere, iēcī, iactus», _throw, hurl_
«iam», adv. _now, already_.
  «nec iam», _and no longer_
«Iāniculum, -ī», n. _the Janiculum_, one of the hills of Rome
«iānua, -ae», f. _door_
«ibi», adv. _there, in that place_
«Īcarus, -ī», m. _Ic´arus_, the son of Dædalus
«ictus, -ūs», m. [[cf. «īcō», _strike_]], _blow_
«īdem, e´adem, idem», demonstrative pron. [[«is» + «dem»]], _same_
    (§481)
«idōneus, -a, -um», adj. _suitable, fit_
«igitur», conj., seldom the first word, _therefore, then_. Cf. «itaque»
«ignis, -is», m. _fire_ (§§243.1; 247. 2.a; 465, 1)
«ignōtus, -a, -um», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «(g)notus», _known_]],
    _unknown, strange_
«ille, illa, illud», demonstrative adj. and pron. _that_ (yonder); as
    pers. pron. _he, she, it_ (§481)
«illīc», adv. [[cf. «ille»]], _yonder, there_
«im-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus» [[«in», _against_, + «mittō», _send_]],
    _send against; let in_
«immolō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«in», _upon_, + «mola», _meal_]],
    _sprinkle with sacrificial meal; offer, sacrifice_
«im-mortālis, -e», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «mortalis», _mortal_]],
    _immortal_
«im-mortālitās, -ātis», f. [[«immortālis», _immortal_]], _immortality_
«im-parātus, -a, -um», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «parātus», _prepared_]],
    _unprepared_
«impedīmentum», -ī, n. [[«impediō», _hinder_]], _hindrance;_ in plur.
    _baggage_
«impedītus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «impediō», _hinder_]], _hindered,
    burdened_
«im-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus» [[«in», _against_, + «pellō»,
    _strike_]], _strike against; impel, drive, propel_
«imperātor, -ōris», m. [[«imperō», _command_]], _general_
«imperium, impe´rī», n. [[«imperō», _command_]], _command, order; realm,
    empire; power, authority_
«imperō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _command, order_. Usually with dat. and an
    object clause of purpose (§501.41).
  With acc. object, _levy, impose_
«impetus, -ūs», m. _attack_, «impetum facere in», _make an attack upon_
«im-pōnō, -ere, -posui, -positus» [[«in», _upon_, + «pōnō», _place_]],
    _place upon; impose, assign_
«in», prep, with acc. _into, to, against, at, upon, towards;_ with abl.
    _in, on_.
  «in reliquum tempus», _for the future_
«in-», inseparable prefix. With nouns and adjectives often with a
    negative force, like English _un-, in-_
«in-cautus, -a, -um», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «cautus», _careful_]], _off
    one’s guard_
«incendium, incendī», n. _flame, fire_. Cf. «ignis, flamma»
«in-cendō, -ere, -dī, -cēnsus», _set fire to, burn_
«in-cidō, -ere, -cidī, ----», [[«in», _in, on_, + «cadō», _fall_]],
    _fall in, fall on; happen_.
  «in furōrem incidere», _go mad_
«in-cipiō, -ere, -cēpi, -ceptus» [[«in», _on_, + «capiō», _take_]],
    _begin_
«in-cognitus, -a, -um», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «cognitus», _known_]],
    _unknown_
«in-colō, -ere, -uī, ----», [[«in», _in_, + «colō», _dwell_]], _inhabit;
    live_
«incolumis, -e», adj. _sound, safe, uninjured, imharmed_
«in-crēdibilis, -e», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «crēdibilis», _to be
    believed_]], _incredible_
«inde», _from that place, thence_
«induō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus», _put on_
«indūtus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «induō», _put on_]], _clothed_
«in-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus» [[«in», _into_, + «eō», _go_]], _go into;
    enter upon, begin_, with acc. (§413)
«īn-fāns, -fantis», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + *«fāns», _speaking_]], _not
    speaking_. As a noun, m. and f. _infant_
«īn-fēlīx, -īcis», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «fēlīx», _happy_]], _unhappy,
    unlucky_
«īnfēnsus, -a, -um», adj. _hostile_
«īn´-ferō, īnfer´re, in´tulī, inlā´tus» [[«in», _against_, + «ferō»,
    _bear_]], _bring against or upon, inflict_, with acc. and dat.
    (§501.15).
  «bellum īnferre», with dat., _make war upon_
«īnferus, -a, -um», adj. _low, below_ (§312).
«īn-fīnītus, -a, -um», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «fīnītus», _bounded_]],
    _boundless, endless_
«īn-fīrmus, -a, -um», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «fīrmus», _strong_]],
    _weak, infirm_
«ingenium, inge´ni», n. _talent, ability_
«ingēns, -entis», adj. _vast, huge, enormous, large_. Cf. «magnus»
«in-gredior, -gredī, -gressus sum» [[«in», _in_, + «gradior», _walk_]],
    _advance, enter_
«inimīcus, -a, -um», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «amīcus», _friendly_]],
    _hostile_.
  As a noun, «inimīcus, -ī», m. _enemy, foe_. Cf. «hostis»
«initium, ini´tī», _entrance, beginning_
«initus, -a, -um», part. of «ineō».
  «initā aestāte», _at the beginning of summer_
«iniūria, -ae», f. [[«in», _against_, + «iūs», _law_]], _injustice,
    wrong, injury_.
  «alicui iniūriās īnferre», _inflict wrongs upon some one_
«inopia, -ae», f. [[«inops», _needy_]], _want, need, lack_
«in-opīnāns, -antis», adj. [[«in-», _not_, + «opīnāns», _thinking_]],
    _not expecting, taken by surprise_
«inquit», _said he, said she_. Regularly inserted in a direct quotation
«in-rigō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _irrigate, water_
«in-rumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptus» [[«in», _into_, + «rumpō», _break_]],
    _burst in, break in_
«in-ruō, -ere, -ruī,----» [[«in», _in_, + «ruō», _rush_]], _rush in_
«īn-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum», dep. verb [[«in», _on_, + «sequor»,
    _follow_]], _follow on, pursue_
«īn-signe, -is», n. _badge, decoration_ (§465.b)
«īnsignis, -e», adj. _remarkable, noted_
«īnstāns, -antis», adj. [[part, of «īnsto», _be at hand_]], _present,
    immediate_
«īn-stō, -āre, -stitī, -statūrus» [[«in», _upon_, + «stō», _stand_]],
    _stand upon; be at hand; pursue, press on_
«īnstrūmentum, -ī», n. _instrument_
«īn-struō, -ere, -strūxī, -strūctus» [[«in», _on_, + «struō», _build_]],
    _draw up_
«īnsula, -ae», f. _island_
«integer, -gra, -grum», _untouched, whole; fresh, new_
«intellegō, -ere, -lēxī, -lēctus» [[«inter», _between_, +«legō»,
    _choose_]], _perceive, understand_ (§420.d)
«intentō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _aim; threaten_
«inter», prep. with acc. _between, among; during, while_ (§340)
«interfectus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «inter-ficiō», _kill_]], _slain,
    dead_
«inter-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus» [[«inter», _between_, + «faciō»,
    _make_]], _put out of the way, kill_. Cf. «necō, occīdō, trucīdō»
«interim», adv. _meanwhile_
«interior, -ius», adj. _interior, inner_ (§315)
«inter-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus», _leave off, suspend_
«interpres, -etis», m. and f. _interpreter_
«inter-rogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _question_
«inter-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus» [[«inter», _between_, +«sum», _be_]],
    _be present, take part in_, with dat. (§501.15)
«inter-vāllum, -ī», n. _interval, distance_
«intrā», adv. and prep. with acc. _within, in_
«intrō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus», _go into, enter_
«in-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus» [[«in», _upon_, +«veniō», _come_]],
    _find_
«invīsus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «invideō», _envy_]], _hated,
    detested_
«Iolāus, -ī», m. _I-o-lā´us_, a friend of Hercules
«ipse, -a, -um», intensive pron. _that very, this very; self, himself,
    herself, itself_, (§481)
«īra, -ae», f. _wrath, anger_
«īrātus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «īrāscor», _be angry_]], _angered,
    enraged_
«is, ea, id», demonstrative adj. and pron. _this, that; he, she, it_
    (§481)
«iste, -a, -ud», demonstrative adj. and pron. _that_ (of yours), _he,
    she, it_ (§481)
«ita», adv. _so, thus_. Cf. «sīc» and «tam»
«Italia, -ae», f. _Italy_
«ita-que», conj. _and so, therefore_
«item», adv. _also_
«iter, itineris», n. _journey, march, route; way, passage_
    (§§247.1.a; 468).
  «iter dare», _give a right of way, allow to pass_.
  «iter facere», _march_ (see p. 159)
«iubeō, -ēre, iussī, iussus», _order, command_. Usually with the infin.
    and subj. acc. (§213)
«iūdex, -icis», m. and f. _judge_ (§464.1)
«iūdicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«iūdex», _judge_]], _judge, decide_
    (§420.c)
«Iūlia, -ae», _Julia_, a Roman name
«Iūlius, Iūlī», m. _Julius_, a Roman name
«iungō, -ēre, iūnxī, iūnctus», _join; yoke, harness_
«Iūnō, -ōnis», f. _Juno_, the queen of the gods and wife of Jupiter
«Iuppiter, Iovis», m. _Jupiter_, the supreme god
«iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _swear, take an oath_
«iussus, -a, -um», part. of «iubeō», _ordered_


L

«L.», abbreviation for «Lūcius»
«labefactus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «labefaciō», _cause to shake_]],
    _shaken, weakened, ready to fall_
«Labiēnus, -ī», m. _La-bi-e´nus_, one of Cæsar’s lieutenants
«labor, -ōris», m. _labor, toil_
«labōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«labor», _labor_]], _labor; suffer, be
    hard pressed_
«lacrima, -ae», f. _tear_
«lacus, -ūs» (dat. and abl. plur. «lacubus»), m. _lake_
«laetē», adv. [[«laetus», _glad_]], compared «laetius, laetissimē»,
    _gladly_
«laetitia, -ae», f. [[«laetus», _glad_]], _joy_
«laetus, -a, -um», adj. _glad, joyful_
«lapis, -idis», m. _stone_ (§§247.2.a; 464.1)
«Lār, Laris», m.; plur. «Larēs, -um» (rarely «-ium»), _the Lares_ or
    _household, gods_
«lātē, »adv. [[«lātus», _wide_]], compared «lātius, lātissimē», _widely_
«Latinē», adv. _in Latin_.
  «Latīnē loquī», _to speak Latin_
«lātitūdō, -inis», f. [[«lātus», _wide_]], _width_
«Lātōna, -ae», f. _Latona_, mother of Apollo and Diana
«latus, -a, -um», adj. _wide_
«lātus, -eris», n. _side, flank_.
  «ab utrōque latere», _on each side_
«laudō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«laus», _praise_]], _praise_
«laurea, -ae», f. _laurel_
«laureātus, -a, -um», adj. _crowned with laurel_
«laus, laudis», f. _praise_
«lectulus, -ī», m. _couch, bed_
«lēgātus, -ī», m. _ambassador; lieutenant_
«legiō, -ōnis», f. [[cf. «legō», _gather_]], (_body of soldiers_),
    _legion_, about 3600 men (§464.2.a)
«legiōnārius, -a, -um», adj. _legionary_. Plur. «legiōnariī, -ōrum», m.
    _the soldiers of the legion_
«legō, -ere, lēgī, lēctus», _read_
«lēnis, -e», adj. _gentle, smooth, mild_
«lēniter», adv. [[«lēnis», _gentle_]], compared «lēnius, lēnissimē»,
    _gently_
«Lentulus, -i», m. _Lentulus_, a Roman family name
«leō, -ōnis», m. _lion_
«Lernaeus, -a, -um», adj. _Lernæean_, of Lerna, in southern Greece
«Lesbia, -ae», f. _Lesbia_, a girl’s name
«levis, -e», adj. _light_
«lēx, lēgis», f. _measure, law_
«libenter», adv. [[«libēns», _willing_]], compared «libentius,
    libentissimē», _willingly, gladly_
«līber, -era, -erum», adj. _free_ (§469.b)
«līberī, -ōrum», m. [[«līber», _free_]], _children_
«līberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«līber», _free_]], _set free, release,
    liberate_
«lībertās, -ātis», f. [[«līber», _free_]], _freedom, liberty_
«līctor, -ōris», m. _lictor_ (p. 225)
«līmus, -ī», m. _mud_
«littera, -ae», f. _a letter_ of the alphabet; in plur. _a letter,
    epistle_
«lītus, -oris», n. _seashore, beach_
«locus, -ī», m. (plur. «locī» and «loca», m. and n.), _place, spot_
«longē», adv. [[«longus», _long_]], comp. «longius, longissimē», _a long
    way off; by far_
«longinquus, -a, -um», adj. [[«longus», _long_]], _distant, remote_
«longitūdō, -inis», f. [[«longus», _long_]], _length_
«longus, -a, -um», adj. _long_
«loquor, loqui, locūtus sum», dep. verb, _talk, speak_
«lōrīca, -ae», f. [[«lōrum», _thong_]], _coat of mail, corselet_
«lūdō, -ere, lūsī, lūsus», _play_
«lūdus, -ī», m. _play; school_, the elementary grades. Cf. «schola»
«lūna, -ae», f. _moon_
«lūx, lūcis», f. (no gen. plur.), _light_.
  «prīma lūx», _daybreak_
«Lȳdia, -ae», f. _Lydia_, a girl’s name


M

«M.», abbreviation for «Mārcus»
«magicus, -a, -um», adj. _magic_
«magis», adv. in comp. degree [[«magnus», _great_]], _more, in a higher
    degree_ (§323)
«magister, -trī», m. _master, commander; teacher_
«magistrātus, -ūs», m. [[«magister», _master_]], _magistracy;
    magistrate_
«magnitūdō, -inis», f. [[«magnus», _great_]], _greatness, size_
«magnopere», adv. [[abl. of «magnum opus»]], compared «magis, maximē»,
    _greatly, exceedingly_ (§323)
«magnus, -a, -um», adj., compared «maior, maximus», _great, large;
    strong, loud_ (§311)
«maior, maius, -ōris», adj., comp. of «magnus», _greater, larger_ (§311)
«maiōrēs, -um», m. plur. of «maior», _ancestors_
«mālō, mālle, māluī, ----» [[«magis», _more_, + «volō», _wish_]], _wish
    more, prefer_ (§497)
«malus, -a, -um», adj., compared «peior, pessimus», _bad, evil_ (§311)
«mandō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«manus», _hand_, + «dō», _put_]], _(put in
    hand), intrust; order, command_
«maneō, -ēre, mānsī, mānsūrus», _stay, remain, abide_
«Mānlius, Mānlī», m. _Manlius_, a Roman name
«mānsuētus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «mānsuēscō», _tame_]], _tamed_
«manus, -ūs», f. _hand; force, band_
«Mārcus, -ī», m. _Marcus, Mark_, a Roman first name
«mare, -is», n. (no gen. plur.), _sea_.
  «mare tenēre», _be out to sea_
«margō, -inis», m. _edge, border_
«marītus, -ī», m. _husband_
«Marius, Marī», m. _Marius_, a Roman name, esp. _C. Marius_, the general
«Mārtius, -a, -um», adj. _of Mars_, esp. the _Campus Martius_
«māter, -tris», f. _mother_
«mātrimōnium, mātrimō´nī», n. _marriage_.
  «in mātrimōnium dūcere», _marry_
«mātūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _hasten_. Cf. «contendō», «properō»
«mātūrus, -a, -um», adj. _ripe, mature_
«maximē», adv. in superl. degree [[«maximus», _greatest_]], compared
    «magnopere, magis, maximē», _especially, very much_ (§323)
«maximus, -a, -um», adj., superl. of «magnus», _greatest, extreme_
    (§311)
«medius, -a, -um», adj. _middle part; middle, intervening_
«melior, -ius, -ōris», adj., comp. of «bonus», _better_ (§311)
«melius», adv. in comp. degree, compared «bene, melius, optimē»,
    _better_ (§323)
«memoria, -ae», f. [[«memor», _mindful_]], _memory_.
  «memoriā tenēre», _remember_
«mēns, mentis», f. _mind_. Cf. «animus»
«mēnsis, -is», m. _month_ (§247.2. a)
«mercātor, -ōris», m. [[«mercor», _trade_]], _trader, merchant_
«merīdiānus, -a, -um», adj. [[«merīdiēs», _noon_]], _of midday_
«merīdiēs, ----» (acc. «-em», abl. «-ē»), m. [[«medius», _mid_, +
    «diēs», _day_]], _noon_
«metus, -ūs», m. _fear, dread_
«meus, -a, -um», possessive adj. and pron. _my, mine_ (§98)
«mīles, -itis», m. _soldier_ (§464.1)
«mīlitāris, -e», adj. [[«mīles», _soldier_]], _military_.
  «rēs mīlitāris», _science of war_
«mīlitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«mīles», _soldier_]], _serve as a soldier_
«mīlle», plur. «mīlia, -ium», numeral adj. and subst. _thousand_ (§479)
«minimē», adv. in superl. degree, compared «parum, minus, minimē»,
    _least, very little; by no means_ (§323)
«minimus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree, compared «parvus, minor,
    minimus», _least, smallest_ (§311)
«minor, minus, -ōris», adj. in comp. degree, compared «parvus, minor,
    minimus», _smaller, less_ (§311)
«Mīnōs, -ōis», m. _Minos_, a king of Crete
«minus», adv. in comp. degree, compared «parum, minus, minimē», _less_
    (§323)
«Minyae, -ārum», m. _the Minyae_, a people of Greece
«mīrābilis, -e», adj. [[«mīror», _wonder at_]], _wonderful, marvelous_
«mīror, -ārī, -ātus sum», dep. verb [[«mīrus», _wonderful_]], _wonder,
    marvel, admire_
«mīrus, -a, -um», adj. _wonderful_
«Mīsēnum, -ī», _Mise´num_, a promontory and harbor on the coast of
    Campania. See map
«miser, -era, -erum», adj. _wretched, unhappy, miserable_
«missus, -a, -um», part. of «mittō», _sent_
«mittō, -ere, mīsī, missus», _send_
«modicus, -a, -um» [[«modus», _measure_]], _modest, ordinary_
«modo», adv. [[abl. of «modus», _measure_, with shortened «o»]], _only,
    merely, just now_.
  «modo ... modo», _now ... now, sometimes ... sometimes_
«modus, -ī», m. _measure; manner, way; kind_
«moenia, -ium», n. plur. [[cf. «mūniō», _fortify_]], _walls, ramparts_
«molestē», adv. [[«molestus», _troublesome_]], compared «molestius,
    molestissimē», _annoyingly_.
  «molestē ferre», _to be annoyed_
«molestus, -a, -um», _troublesome, annoying, unpleasant_ (§501.16)
«moneō, -ēre, -uī, -itus», _remind, advise, warn_ (§489)
«mōns, montis», m. _mountain_ (§247.2. a)
«mōnstrum, -ī», n. _monster_
«mora, -ae», f. _delay_
«moror, -ārī, -ātus sum», dep. verb [[«mora», _delay_]], _delay, linger;
    impede_
«mors, mortis», f. [[cf. «morior», _die_]], _death_
«mōs, mōris», m. _custom, habit_
«mōtus, -ūs», m. [[cf. «moveō», _move_]], _motion, movement_.
  «terrae mōtus», _earthquake_
«moveō, -ēre, mōvī, mōtus», _move_
«mox», adv. _soon, presently_
«mulier, -eris», f. _woman_
«multitūdō, -inis», f. [[«multus», _much_]], _multitude_
«multum (multō)», adv. [[«multus», _much_]], compared «plūs, plūrimum»,
    _much_ (§477)
«multus, -a, -um», adj., compared «plūs, plūrimus», _much_; plur. _many_
    (§311)
«mūniō, -īre, -īvī or -iī, -ītus», _fortify, defend_
«mūnītiō, -ōnis», f. [[«mūniō», _fortify_]], _defense, fortification_
«mūrus, -ī», m. _wall_. Cf. «moenia»
«mūsica, -ae», f. _music_


N

«nam», conj. _for_. Cf. «enim»
«nam-que», conj., a strengthened «nam», introducing a reason or
    explanation, _for, and in fact; seeing that_
«nārrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _tell, relate_
«nāscor, nāscī, nātus sum», dep. verb, _be born, spring from_
«nātūra, -ae», f. _nature_
«nātus», part. of «nāscor»
«nauta, -ae», m. [[for «nāvita», from «nāvis», _ship_]], _sailor_
«nāvālis, -e», adj. [[«nāvis», _ship_]], _naval_
«nāvigium, nāvi´gī», n. _ship, boat_
«nāvigō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«nāvis», _ship_, + «agō», _drive_]],
    _sail, cruise_
«nāvis, -is» (abl. -ī or -e), f. _ship_ (§243.1).
    «nāvem cōnscendere», _embark, go on board_.
    «nāvem solvere», _set sail_.
    «nāvis longa», _man-of-war_
«nē», conj. and adv. _in order that not, that_ (with verbs of fearing),
    _lest; not_.
  «nē ... quidem», _not even_
«-ne», interrog. adv., enclitic (see §§16, 210). Cf. «nōnne» and «num»
«nec» or «neque», conj. [[«nē», _not_, + «que», _and_]], _and not, nor_.
  «nec ... nec» or «neque ... neque», _neither ... nor_
«necessārius, -a, -um», adj. _needful, necessary_
«necō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[cf. nex, _death_]], _kill_. Cf. «interficiō,
    occīdō, trucīdō»
«negō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _deny, say not_ (§420.a)
«negōtium, negō´tī», n. [[«nec», _not_, + «ōtium», _ease_]], _business,
    affair, matter_.
  «alicui negōtium dare», _to employ some one_
«Nemaeus, -a, -um», adj. _Neme´an, of Neme´a_, in southern Greece
«nēmō», dat. «nēminī» (gen. «nūllīus», abl. «nūllō», supplied from
    «nūllus»), m. and f. [[«nē», _not_, + «homō», _man_]], _(not a man),
    no one, nobody_
«Neptūnus, -ī», m. _Neptune_, god of the sea, brother of Jupiter
«neque», see «nec»
«neuter, -tra, -trum» (gen. «-trīus», dat. «-trī»), adj. _neither_ (of
    two) (§108)
«nē-ve», conj. adv. _and not, and that not, and lest_
«nihil», n. indecl. [[«nē», _not_, + «hīlum», _a whit_]], _nothing_.
  «nihil posse», _to have no power_
«nihilum, -ī», n., see «nihil»
«Niobē, -ēs», f. _Ni´obe_, the queen of Thebes whose children were
    destroyed by Apollo and Diana
«nisi», conj. [[«nē», _not_, + «sī», _if_]], _if not, unless, except_
«nōbilis, -e», adj. _well known; noble_
«noceō, -ēre, -uī, -itūrus» [[cf. «necō», _kill_]], _hurt, injure_, with
    dat. (§501.14)
«noctū», abl. used as adv. [[cf. «nox», _night_]], _at night, by night_
«Nōla, -ae», f. _Nola_, a town in central Campania. See map
«nōlō, nōlle, nōluī», ---- [[«ne», _not_, + «volō», _wish_]], _not to
    wish, be unwilling_ (§497)
«nōmen, -inis», n. [[cf. «nōscō», _know_]], _(means of knowing), name_
«nōminō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«nōmen», _name_]], _name, call_. Cf.
    «appellō, vocō»
«nōn», adv. [[«nē», _not_, + «ūnum», _one_]], _not_.
  «nōn sōlum ... sed etiam», _not only ... but also_
«nōn-dum», adv. _not yet_
«nōn-ne», interrog. adv. suggesting an affirmative answer, _not?_
    (§210). Cf. «-ne» and «num»
«nōs», pers. pron. _we_ (see «ego») (§480)
«noster, -tra, -trum», possessive adj. and pron. _our, ours_. Plur.
    «nostrī, -ōrum», m. _our men_ (§98)
«novem», indecl. numeral adj. _nine_
«novus, -a, -um», adj. _new_.
  «novae rēs», _a revolution_
«nox, noctis», f. _night_, «multā nocte», _late at night_
«nūllus, -a, -um» (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī») adj. [[«nē», _not_, +
    «ūllus», _any_]], _not any, none, no_ (§108)
«num», interrog. adv. suggesting a negative answer (§210). Cf. «-ne» and
    «nōnne». In indir. questions, _whether_
«numerus, -ī», m. _number_
«numquam», adv. [[«nē», _not_, + «umquam», _ever_]], _never_
«nunc», adv. _now_. Cf. «iam»
«nūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«nūntius», _messenger_]], _report,
    announce_ (§420.a)
«nūntius, nūntī», m. _messenger_
«nūper», adv. _recently, lately, just now_
«nympha, -ae», f. _nymph_


O

«ob», prep. with acc. _on account of_. In compounds it often means _in
    front of, against_, or it is intensive.
  «quam ob rem», _for this reason_ (§340)
«obses, -idis», m. and f. _hostage_
«ob-sideō,-ēre,-sēdī, -sessus» [[«ob», _against_, + «sedeō», _sit_]],
    _besiege_
«obtineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentus» [[«ob», _against_, + «teneō», _hold_]],
    _possess, occupy, hold_
«occāsiō, -ōnis», f. _favorable opportunity, favorable moment_
«occāsus, -ūs», m. _going down, setting_
«occīdō, -ere, -cīdī, -cīsus» [[«ob», _down_, + «caedō», _strike_]],
    _strike down; cut down, kill_. Cf. «interficiō, necō»
«occupō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«ob», _completely_, + «capiō», _take_]],
    _seize, take possession of, occupy_. Cf. «rapio»
«oc-currō, -ere, -currī, -cursus» [[«ob», _against_ + «currō», _run_]],
    _run towards; meet_, with dat. (§426)
«ōceanus, -ī», m. _the ocean_
«octō», indecl. numeral adj. _eight_
«oculus, -ī», m. _eye_
«officium, offi´cī», n. _duty_
«ōlim», adv. _formerly, once upon a time_
«ōmen, -inis», n. _sign, token, omen_
«ō-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus» [[«ob», _over, past_, + «mittō»,
    _send_]], _let go, omit_.
  «consilium omittere», _give up a plan_
«omnīnō», adv. [[«omnis», _all_]], _altogether, wholly, entirely_
«omnis, -e», adj. _all, every._ Cf. «tōtus»
«onerāria, -ae», f. [[«onus», _load_]], with «nāvis» expressed or
    understood, _merchant vessel, transport_
«onus, -eris», n. _load, burden_
«opīniō, -ōnis», f. [[«opīnor», _suppose_]], _opinion, supposition,
    expectation_
«oppidānus, -ī», m. [[«oppidum», _town_]], _townsman_
«oppidum, -ī», n. _town, stronghold_
«opportūnus, -a, -um», adj. _suitable, opportune, favorable_
«op-primō, -ere, -pressī, -pressus» [[«ob», _against_, + «premō»,
    _press_]], (_press against_), _crush; surprise_
«oppugnātiō, -ōnis», f. _storming, assault_
«oppugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«ob», _against_, + «pugnō» _fight_]],
    _fight against, assault, storm, assail_
«optimē», adv. in superl. degree, compared «bene, melius, optimē», _very
    well, best of all_ (§323)
«optimus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree, compared «bonus, melior,
    optimus», _best, most excellent_ (§311)
«opus, -eris», n. _work, labor, task_ (§464.2.b)
«ōrāculum, -ī», n. [[«ōrō», _speak_]], _oracle_
«ōrātor, -ōris», m. [[«ōrō», _speak_]], _orator_
«orbis, -is», m. _ring, circle_.
  «orbis terrārum», _the earth, world_
«orbita, -ae», f. [[«orbis», _wheel_]], _rut_
«Orcus, -ī», m. _Orcus, the lower world_
«ōrdō, -inis», m. _row, order, rank_ (§247.2.a)
«orīgo, -inis», f. [[«orior», _rise_]], _source, origin_
«orior, -īrī, ortus sum», dep. verb, _arise, rise, begin; spring, be
    born_
«ōrnāmentum, -ī», n. [[«ōrnō», _fit out_]], _ornament, jewel_
«ōrnātus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «ōrnō», _fit out_]] _fitted out;
    adorned_
«ōrnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _fit out, adorn_


P

«P.», abbreviation for «Pūblius»
«paene», adv. _nearly, almost_
«palūdāmentum, -ī», n. _military cloak_
«palūs, -ūdis», f. _swamp, marsh_
«pānis, -is», m. _bread_
«pār, paris», adj. _equal_ (§471. III)
«parātus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «parō», _prepare_]], _prepared,
    ready_
«parcō, -ere, peper´cī» («parsī»), «parsūrus», _spare_, with dat.
    (§501.14)
«pāreō, -ēre, -uī, ----», _obey_, with dat. (§501.14)
«parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _prepare for, prepare; provide, procure_
«pars, partis», f. _part, share; side, direction_
«parum», adv., compared «minus, minimē», _too little, not enough_ (§323)
«parvus, -a, -um», adj., compared «minor, minimus», _small, little_
    (§311)
«passus, -ūs», m. _step, pace_.
  «mīlle passuum», _thousand paces, mile_ (§331.b)
«pateō, -ēre, patuī, ----», _lie open, be open; stretch, extend_
«pater, -tris», m. _father_ (§464.2.a)
«patior, -ī, passus sum», dep. verb, _bear, suffer, allow, permit_
«patria, -ae», f. [[cf. «pater», _father_]], _fatherland_, (_one’s_)
    _country_
«paucus, -a, -um», adj. (generally plur.), _few, only a few_
«paulisper», adv. _for a little while_
«paulō», adv. _by a little, little_
«paulum» adv. _a little, somewhat_
«pāx, pācis», f. (no gen. plur.), _peace_
«pecūnia, -ae», f. [[«pecus», _cattle_]], _money_
«pedes, -itis», m. [[«pēs», _foot_]], _foot soldier_
«pedester, -tris, -tre», adj. [[«pēs», _foot_]], _on foot; by land_
«peior, peius, -ōris», adj. in comp. degree, compared «malus, peior,
    pessimus», _worse_ (§311)
«pellis, -is», f. _skin, hide_
«penna, -ae», f. _feather_
«per», prep. with acc. _through, by means of, on account of_. In
    composition it often has the force of _thoroughly, completely, very_
    (§340)
«percussus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «percutiō», _strike through_]],
    _pierced_
«per-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus» [[«per», _through_, + «dūcō», _lead_]],
    _lead through_.
  «fossam perdūcere», _to construct a ditch_
«per-exiguus, -a, -um», adj. [[«per», _very_, + «exiguus», _small_]],
    _very small, very short_
«perfidus, -a, -um», adj. _faithless, treacherous, false_
«per-fringō, -ere, -frēgī, -frāctus» [[«per», _through_, «frangō»,
    _break_]], _shatter_
«pergō, -ere, perrēxī, perrēctus» [[«per», _through_, + «regō»,
    _conduct_]], _go on, proceed, hasten_
«perīculum, -ī», n. _trial, test; danger_
«peristȳlum, -ī», n. _peristyle_, an open court with columns around it
«perītus, -a, -um», adj. _skillful_
«perpetuus, -a, -um», adj. _perpetual_
«Perseus, -eī», _Perseus_, a Greek hero, son of Jupiter and Danaë
«persōna, -ae», f. _part, character, person_
«per-suādeō, -ēre, -suāsī, -suāsus» [[«per», _thoroughly_, + «suādeō»,
    _persuade_]], _persuade, advise_, with dat. (§501.14), often with an
    object clause of purpose (§501.41)
«per-terreō, -ēre, -uī, -itus» [[«per», _thoroughly_, + «terreō»,
    _frighten_]], _thoroughly terrify, alarm_
«per-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus» [[«per», _through_, + «veniō»,
    _come_]], _arrive, reach, come to_
«pēs, pedis», m. _foot_.
  «pedem referre», _retreat_ (§247.2.a)
«pessimus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree, compared «malus, peior,
    pessimus», _worst_ (§311)
«petō, -ere, -īvī or -iī, -ītus», _strive for, seek, beg, ask; make
    for, travel to_. Cf. «postulō, quaerō, rogō»
«Pharsālus, -ī», f. _Pharsa´lus_ or _Pharsa´lia_, a town in Thessaly,
    near which Cassar defeated Pompey, 48 B.C.
«philosophia, -ae», f. _philosophy_
«philosophus, -ī», m. _philosopher_
«pictus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «pingō», _paint_]], _colored,
    variegated_
«pīlum, -ī», n. _spear, javelin_ (§462.b)
«piscīna, -ae», f. [[«piscis», _fish_]], _fish pond_
«piscis, -is», m. _fish_
«pīstor, -ōris», m. _baker_
«placeō. -ēre, -uī, -itus», _please, be pleasing_, with dat. (§501.14)
«plānitiēs, -ēī», f. [[«plānus», _level_]], _plain_
«plānus, -a, -um», adj. _level, flat_
«plēnus, -a, -um», _full_
«plūrimum», adv. in superl. degree, compared «multum, plūs, plūrimum»,
    _very much_.
  «plūrimum valēre», _be most influential_ (§322)
«plūrimus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree, compared «multus, plūs,
    plūrimus», _most, very many_ (§311)
«plūs, plūris», adj. in comp. degree, compared «multus, plūs, plūrimus»;
    sing. n. as substantive, _more_; plur. _more, several_ (§311)
«pluteus, -ī», m. _shield, parapet_
«poena, -ae», f. _punishment, penalty_
«poēta, -ae», m. _poet_
«pompa, -ae», f. _procession_
«Pompēiī, -ōrum», m. _Pompeii_, a city of Campania. See map
«Pompēius, Pompē´ī», m. _Pompey_, a Roman name
«pōmum, -ī», n. _apple_
«pōnō, -ere, posuī, positus», _put, place_.
  «castra pōnere», _pitch camp_
«pōns, pontis», m. _bridge_ (§247.2.a)
«popīna, -ae», f. _restaurant_
«populus, -ī», m. _people_
«Porsena, -ae», m. _Porsena_, king of Etruria, a district of Italy.
    See map
«porta, -ae», f. _gate, door_
«portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _bear, carry_
«portus, -ūs», m. [[cf. «porta», _gate_]], _harbor_
«possideō, -ēre, -sēdī, -sessus», _have, own, possess_
«possum, posse, potuī, ----», irreg. verb [[«potis», _able_, + «sum»,
    _I am_]], _be able, can_ (§495).
  «nihil posse», _have no power_
«post», prep, with acc. _after, behind_ (§340)
«posteā», adv. [[«post», _after_, + «eā», _this_]], _afterwards_
(«posterus»), «-a, -um», adj., compared «posterior, postrēmus» or
    «postumus», _following, next_ (§312)
«postquam», conj. _after, as soon as_
«postrēmō», adv. [[abl. of «postrēmus», _last_]], _at last, finally_.
    Cf. «dēmum, dēnique» (§322)
«postrīdiē», adv. [[«posterō», _next_, + «diē», _day_]], _on the next
    day_
«postulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _ask, demand, require_. Cf. «petō,
    quaerō, rogō»
«potentia, -ae», f. [[«potēns», _able_]], _might, power, force_
«prae-beō, -ēre, -uī, -itus» [[«prae», _forth_, + «habeō», _hold_]],
    _offer, give_
«praeda, -ae», f. _booty, spoil, plunder_
«prae-dīcō, -ere, -dīxī, -dictus» [[«prae», _before_, + «dīcō»,
    _tell_]], _foretell, predict_
«prae-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus» [[«prae», _before_, + «faciō»,
    _make_]], _place in command_, with acc. and dat. (§501.15)
«prae-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus» [[«prae», _forward_, + «mittō»,
    _send_]], _send forward_
«praemium, praemī», n. _reward, prize_
«praeruptus, -a, -um» [[part. of «prae-rumpō», _break off_]], _broken
    off, steep_
«praesēns, -entis», adj. _present, immediate_
«praesertim», adv. _especially, chiefly_
«praesidium, praesi´di», n. _guard, garrison, protection_
«prae-stō, -āre, -stitī, -stitus» [[«prae», _before_, + «sto»,
    _stand_]], (_stand before_), _excel, surpass_, with dat. (§501.15);
    _show, exhibit_
«prae-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus» [[«prae», _before_, + «sum», _be_]],
    _be over, be in command of_, with dat. (§501.15)
«praeter», prep, with acc. _beyond, contrary to_ (§340)
«praetereā», adv. [[«praeter», _besides_, + «eā», _this_]], _in
    addition, besides, moreover_
«praetextus, -a, -um», adj. _bordered, edged_
«praetōrium, praetō´rī», n. _prætorium_
«prandium, prandī», n. _luncheon_
«premō, -ere, pressī, pressus», _press hard, compress; crowd, drive,
    harass_
(«prex, precis»), f. _prayer_
«prīmō», adv. [[«prīmus», _first_]], _at first, in the beginning_ (§322)
«prīmum», adv. [[«prīmus», _first_]], _first_.
  «quam primum», _as soon as possible_
«prīmus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree, compared «prior, prīmus»,
    _first_ (§315)
«prīnceps, -cipis», m. [[«prīmus», _first_, + «capiō», _take_]],
    (_taking the first place_), _chief, leader_ (§464.1)
«prior, prius, -ōris», adj. in comp. degree, superl., «prīmus», _former_
    (§315)
«prīstinus, -a, -um», adj. _former, previous_
«prō», prep, with abl. _before; for, for the sake of, in behalf of;
    instead of, as_ (§209). In composition, _forth, forward_
«prō-cēdō, -ere, -cussī, -cessūrus» [[«prō», _forward_, + «cēdō»,
    _go_]], _go forward, proceed_
«procul», adv. _far, afar off_
«prō-currō, -ere, -currī» («-cucurrī»), «-cur-sus» [[«prō», _forward_, +
    «currō», _run_]], _run forward_
«proelium, proeli», n. _battle, combat_.
  «proelium committere», _join battle_.
  «proelium facere», _fight a battle_
«profectiō, -ōnis», f. _departure_
«proficīscor, -ī, -fectus sum», dep. verb, _set out, march_. Cf.
    «ēgredior, exeō»
«prō-gredior, -ī, -gressus sum», dep. verb [[«prō», _forth_, +
    «gradior», _go_]], _go forth, proceed, advance_. Cf. «pergō,
    prōcēdō»
«prōgressus», see «prōgredior»
«prohibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus» [[«prō», _forth, away from_, + «habeō»,
    _hold_]], _keep away from, hinder, prevent_
«prō-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus» [[«prō», _forward_, + «moveō»,
    _move_]], _move forward, advance_
«prō-nūntiō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«prō», _forth_, + «nūntiō»,
    _announce_]], _proclaim, declare_
«prope», adv., compared «propius, proxi-mē», _nearly_. Prep, with acc.
    _near_
«prō-pellō, -ere, -pulī, -pulsus» [[«prō», _forth_, + «pellō»,
    _drive_]], _drive forth; move, impel_
«properō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«properus», _quick]], go quickly,
    hasten_. Cf. «contendō, maturō»
«propinquus, -a, -um», adj. [[«prope», _near]], near, neighboring_
«propior, -ius, -ōris», adj. in comp. degree, superl., «proximus»,
    _nearer_ (§315)
«propius», adv. in comp. degree, compared «prope, propius, proximē»,
    _nearer_ (§323)
«propter», prep. with acc. _on account of, because of_ (§340)
«prō-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scriptus» [[«prō», _forth_, + «scribō»,
    _write_]], _proclaim, publish_. Cf. «prōnūntiō»
«prō-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum», dep. verb [[«prō», _forth_, +
    «sequor», _follow]], escort, attend_
«prō-sum, prōdesse, prōfuī, prōfutūrus» [[«prō», _for_, + «sum», _be_]],
    _be useful, benefit_, with dat. (§§496; 501.15)
«prō-tegō, -ere, -tēx=i], -tēctus» [[«prō», _in front_, + «tegō»,
    _cover]], cover in front, protect_
«prōvincia, -ae», f. _territory, province_
«proximē», adv. in superl. degree, compared «prope, propius, proximē»,
    _nearest, next; last, most recently_ (§323)
«proximus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree, compared «propior,
    proximus», _nearest, next_ (§315)
«pūblicus, -a, -um», adj. [[«populus»,_people_]], _of the people,
    public_, «res pūblica», _the commonwealth_
«puella, -ae», f. [[diminutive of «puer», _boy_]], _girl, maiden_
«puer, -eri», m. _boy; slave_ (§462.c)
«pugna, -ae», f _-fight, battle._ Cf. «proelium»
«pugnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«pugna», _battle]], fight_. Cf. «contendō,
    dīmicō»
«pulcher, -chra, -chrum», adj. _beautiful, pretty_ (§§469.b; 304)
«Pullō, -ōnis», m. _Pullo_, a centurion
«pulsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _strike, beat_
«puppis, -is» (acc. «-im», abl. «-ī»), f. _stern_ of a ship, _deck_
«pūrē», adv. [[«pūrus», _pure_]], comp. «pūrius», _purely_
«pūrgō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _cleanse, clean_
«purpureus, -a, -um», adj. _purple, dark red_
«putō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _reckon, think_ (§420,_c_). Cf. «arbitror,
    exīstimō»
«Pȳthia, -ae», f. _Pythia_, the inspired priestess of Apollo at Delphi


Q

«quā dē causā», _for this reason, wherefore_
«quā rē», _therefore, for this reason_
«quaerō, -ere, -sīvī, -sītus», _seek, ask, inquire_. Cf. «petō, postulō,
    rogō»
«quālis, -e», interrog. pronom. adj. _of what sort, what kind of_.
    «talis ... qualis», _such ... as_
«quam», adv. _how_; after a comparative, _than_; with a superlative,
    translated _as...as possible_, «quam prīmum», _as soon as possible_
«quantus, -a, -um», adj. [[«quam», _how]], how great, how much_,
    «tantus ... quantus», _as great as_
«quārtus, -a, -um», numeral adj. [[«quattuor», _four_]], _fourth_
«quattuor», indecl. numeral adj. _four_
«quattuor-decim», indecl. numeral adj. _fourteen_
«-que», conj., enclitic, _and_ (§16). Cf. «ac, atque, et»
«quī, quae, quod», rel. pron. and adj. _who, which, what, that_ (§482)
«quia», conj. _because_. Cf. «quod»
«quīdam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam)», indef. pron. and adj. _a certain
    one, a certain, a_ (§485).
«quidem», adv. _to be sure, certainly, indeed_, «nē ... quidem», _not
    even_
«quiēs, -ētis», f. _rest, repose_
«quiētus, -a, -um», adj. _quiet, restful_
«quīndecim», indecl. numeral adj. _fifteen_
«quīngentī, -ae, -a», numeral adj. _five hundred_
«quīnque», indecl. numeral adj. _five_
«quīntus, -a, -um», numeral adj. _fifth_
«quis (quī), quae, quid (quod)», interrog. pron. and adj. _who? what?
    which?_ (§483).
«quis (quī), qua (quae), quid (quod)», indef. pron. and adj., used after
    «sī, nisi, nē, num», _any one, anything, some one, something, any,
    some_ (§484).
«quisquam, quicquam» or «quidquam» (no fem. or plur.), indef. pron. _any
    one_ (at all), _anything_ (at all) (§486).
«quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque)», indef. pron. and adj. _each, each
    one, every_ (§484).
«quō», interrog. and rel. adv. _whither, where_
«quō», conj. _in order to, that_, with comp. degree (§350).
«quod», conj. _because, in that_. Cf. «quia»
«quoque», conj., following an emphatic word, _also, too_. Cf. «etiam»
«quot-annīs», adv. [[«quot», _how many_ + «annus», _year_]], _every
    year, yearly_
«quotiēns», interrog. and rel. adv. _how often? as often as_


R

«rādīx, -īcis», f. _root; foot_
«rapiō, -ere, -uī, -tus», _seize, snatch_
«rārō», adv. [[«rārus», _rare_]], _rarely_
«rārus, -a, -um», adj. _rare_
«re-» or «red-», an inseparable prefix, _again, back, anew, in return_
«rebelliō, -ōnis», f. _renewal of war, rebellion_
«recēns, -entis», adj. _recent_
«re-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus» [[«re-», _back_, + «capiō», _take_]],
    _take back, receive_.
  «sē recipere», _withdraw, retreat_
«re-clīnātus, -a, -um», part. of «reclīnō», _leaning back_
«re-creātus, -a, -um», part. of «recreō», _refreshed_
«rēctus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «regō», _keep straight_]], _straight,
    direct_
«re-cūsō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _refuse_
«red-āctus, -a, -um», part. of «redigō», _reduced, subdued_
«red-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus» [[«red-», _back_, + «eō», _go_]], _go back,
    return_ (§413). Cf. «revertō»
«reditus, -ūs», m. [[cf. «redeō», _return_]], _return, going back_
«re-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus» [[«re-», _back_, + «dūcō», _lead_]],
    _lead back_
«re-ferō, -ferre, rettulī, -lātus» [[«re-», _back_, + «ferō», _bear_]],
    _bear back; report_.
  «pedem referre», _withdraw, retreat_
«re-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus» [[«re-», _again_, + «faciō», _make_]],
    _make again, repair_.
  «sē reficere», _refresh one’s self_
«rēgīna, -ae», f. [[«rēx», _king_]], _queen_
«regiō, -ōnis», f. _region, district_
«rēgnum, -ī», n. _sovereignty; kingdom_
«regō, -ere, rēxī, rēctus» [[cf. «rēx», _king_]], _govern, rule_ (§490)
«re-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus» [[«re-», _back_, + «iaciō», _hurl_]],
    _hurl back; throw away_
«re-linquō, -ere, -līquī, -lictus» [[«re-», _behind_, + «linquō»,
    _leave_]], _leave behind, leave, abandon_
«reliquus, -a, -um», adj. [[cf. «relinquō», _leave_]], _left over,
    remaining_. As a noun, plur. _the rest_
«remōtus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «re-moveō», _remove_]], _remote,
    distant_
«re-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -motus» [[«re-», _back_, + «moveō», _move_]],
    _remove_
«rēmus, -ī», m. _oar_
«re-periō, -īre, repperī, repertus», _find_
«re-portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«re-», _back_, + «portō», _carry_]],
    _carry back, bring back, win, gain_
«rēs, reī», f. _thing, business, matter, deed, event, circumstance_
    (§467).
  «quam ob rem», _for this reason_.
  «rēs adversae», _adversity_.
  «rēs frūmentāria», _grain supplies_.
  «rēs gestae», _exploits_.
  «rēs militāris», _science of war_.
  «rēs pūblica», _the commonwealth_.
  «rēs secundae», _prosperity_
«re-scindō, -ere, -scidī, -scissus» [[«re-», _back_, + «scindō»,
    _cut_]], _cut off, cut down_
«re-sistō, -ere, -stitī», ---- [[«re-», _back_, + «sistō», _cause to
    stand_]], _oppose, resist_, with dat. (§501.14)
«re-spondeō, -ēre, -spondī, -spōnsus» [[«re-», _in return_, + «spondeō»,
    _promise_]], answer, reply (§420.a)
«re-vertō, -ere, -ī», ----, or dep. verb «re-vertor, -ī, -sus sum»
    [[«re-», _back_, + «vertō», _turn_]], _turn back, return_. Usually
    active in the perf. system
«re-vinciō, -īre, -vīnxī, -vīnctus» [[«re-», _back_, + «vinciō»,
    _bind_]], _fasten_
«rēx, rēgis», m. [[cf. «regō», _rule_]], _king_
«Rhēnus, -ī», m. _the Rhine_, a river of Germany
«rīpa, -ae», f. _bank_
«rogō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _ask_. Cf. «petō, postulō, quaerō»
«Rōma, -ae», f. _Rome_. See map
«Rōmānus, -a, -um», adj. [[«Rōma», _Rome_]], _Roman_, follows its noun.
    As a noun, m. and f. _a Roman_
«rosa, -ae», f. _rose_
«rōstrum, -ī», n. _beak_ of a ship. In plur., _the rostra_, the
    speaker’s stand in the Roman Forum
«rota, -ae», f. _wheel_
«Rubicō, -ōnis», m. _the Rubicon_, a river in northern Italy. See map
«rūmor, -ōris», m. _report, rumor_
«rūrsus», adv. [[for «reversus», _turned back_]], _again, in turn_
«rūs, rūris» (locative abl. «rūrī», no gen., dat., or abl. plur.), n.
    _the country_ (§501.36.1). Cf. «ager, patria, terra»


S

«Sabīnus, -a, -um», adj. _Sabine_. As a noun, m. and f. _a Sabine_. The
    Sabines were an ancient people of central Italy. See map
«sacrum, -ī», n. [[«sacer», _consecrated_]], _something consecrated,
    sacrifice;_ usually in plur., _religious rites_
«saepe», adv., compared «saepius, saepissimē», _often, frequently_
«saevus, -a, -um», adj. _cruel, savage_
«sagitta, -ae», f. _arrow_
«saliō, -īre, -uī, saltus», _jump_
«salūs, -ūtis», f. _safety; health_.
  «salūtem dīcere», _send greetings_
«salūtō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«salūs», _health_]], _greet, salute_
«salvē», imv. of «salveō», _hail, greetings_
«sanguis, -inis», m. _blood_ (§247.2.a]
«sānitās, -ātis», f. [[«sānus», _sound_]], _health, sanity_
«sapiēns, -entis», adj. [[part. of «sapiō», _be wise_]], _wise,
    sensible_
«satis», adv. and indecl. noun, _enough, sufficient, sufficiently_
«saxum, -ī», n. _rock, stone_
«scelus, -eris», n. _crime, sin_
«scēptrum, -ī», n. _scepter_
«schola, -ae», f. _school_, the higher grades. Cf. «lūdus»
«scientia, -ae», f. [[«sciēns», _knowing_]], _skill, knowledge, science_
«scindō, -ere, scidī, scissus», _cut, tear_
«sciō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus», _know_ (§420.b). Cf. «cognōscō»
«scrībō, -ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus», _write_
«scūtum, -ī», n. _shield, buckler_
«sē», see «suī»
«sēcum» = «sē» + «cum»
«secundus, -a, -um», adj. [[«sequor», _follow_]], _following, next,
    second; favorable, successful_.
  «rēs secundae», _prosperity_
«sed», conj. _but, on the contrary_.
  «nōn sōlum ... sed etiam», _not only ... but also_
«sēdecim», indecl. numeral adj. _sixteen_
«sedeō, -ēre, sēdī, sessus», _sit_
«semper», adv. _always, forever_
«senātus, -ūs», m. [[cf. «senex», _old_]], _council of elders, senate_
«sentiō, -īre, sēnsī, sēnsus», _feel, know, perceive_ (§420.d). Cf.
    «intellegō», «videō»
«septem», indecl. numeral adj. _seven_
«septimus, -a, -um», numeral adj. _seventh_
«sequor, -ī, secūtus sum», dep. verb, _follow_ (§493)
«serpēns, -entis», f. [[«serpō», _crawl_]], _serpent, snake_
«sertae, -ārum», f. plur. _wreaths, garlands_
«servitūs, -ūtis», f. [[«servus», _slave_]], _slavery, servitude_
«servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _save, rescue, keep_
«servus, -ī», m. _slave_
«sēsē», emphatic for «sē»
«sex», indecl. numeral adj. _six_
«Sextus, -ī», m. _Sextus_, a Roman first name
«sī», conj. _if_
«sīc», adv. _thus, in this way_. Cf. «ita», «tam»
«Sicilia, -ae», f. _Sicily_. See map
«sīc-ut», _just as, as if_
«signifer, -erī», m. [[«signum», _standard_, + «ferō», _bear_]],
    _standard bearer_ (p. 224)
«signum, -ī», n. _ensign, standard; signal_
«silva, -ae», f. _wood, forest_
«similis, -e», adj., compared «similior, simillimus», _like, similar_
    (§307)
«simul», adv. _at the same time_
«simul ac» or «simul atque», conj. _as soon as_
«sine», prep. with abl. _without_ (§209)
«singulī, -ae, -a», distributive numeral adj. _one at a time, single_
    (§334)
«sinister, -tra, -trum», adj. _left_
«Sinuessa, -ae», f. _Sinues´sa_, a town in Campania. See map
«sitis, -is» (acc. «-im», abl. «-ī», no plur.), f. _thirst_
«situs, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «sinō», _set_]], _situated, placed,
    lying_
«socius, socī», m. _comrade, ally_
«sōl, sōlis» (no gen. plur.), m. _sun_
«soleō, -ēre, solitus sum», semi-dep. verb, _be wont, be accustomed_
«sollicitus, -a, -um», adj. _disturbed, anxious_
«sōlum», adv. [[«sōlus», _alone_]], _alone, only_.
  «nōn sōlum ... sed etiam», _not only ... but also_
«sōlus, -a, -um» (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī»), adj. _alone, only_ (§108)
«solvō, -ere, solvī, solūtus», _loosen, unbind_.
  «nāvem solvere», _set sail_
«somnus, -ī», m. _sleep_
«soror, -ōris», f. _sister_
«spatium, spatī», n. _space, distance; time; opportunity_
«spectāculum, -ī», n. [[«spectō», _look at_]], _show, spectacle_
«spectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _look at, witness_
«spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[spēs, _hope_]], _hope, expect_ (§420.c)
«spēs, speī», f. _hope_ (§273.2)
«splendidē», adv. [[«splendidus»]], compared «splendidius,
    splendidissimē», _splendidly, handsomely_
«splendidus, -a, -um», adj. _brilliant, gorgeous, splendid_
«Stabiānus, -a, -um», _Stabian_
«stabulum, -ī», n. [[cf. «stō», _stand_]], _standing place, stable,
    stall_
«statim», adv. [[cf. «stō», _stand_]], _on the spot, at once, instantly_
«statua, -ae», f. [[«sistō», _place, set_]], _statue_
«statuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus» [[«status», _station_]], _decide, determine_
«stilus, -ī», m. _iron pencil, style_ (p. 210)
«stō, -āre, stetī, status», _stand_
«strātus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «sternō», _spread_]], _paved_ (of
    streets)
«strepitus, -ūs», m. [[«strepō», _make a noise_]], _noise, din_
«stringō, -ere, strīnxī, strictus», _bind tight; draw, unsheathe_
«studeō, -ēre, -uī, ----», _give attention to, be eager_, with dat.
    (§501.14)
«studium, studī», n. [[cf. «studeō», _be eager for_]], _eagerness,
    desire, zeal, devotion_
«stultus, -a, -um», adj. _foolish, stupid_
«Stymphālis, -idis», adj. f. _Stymphalian, of Stympha´lus_, a lake in
    southern Greece
«Stymphālus, -ī», m. _Stympha´lus_, a district of southern Greece with a
    town, mountain, and lake, all of the same name
«suādeō, -ēre, -sī, -sus», _advise, recommend_, with subjv. of purpose
    (§501.41)
«sub», prep, with acc. and abl. _under, below, up to; at_ or _to the
    foot of_
«sub-igō, -ere, -ēgī, -āctus» [[«sub», _under_, + «agō», _drive_]],
    _subdue, reduce_
«subitō», adv. [[«subitus», _sudden_]], _suddenly_
«sub-sequor, -ī, -secūtus sum», dep. verb [[«sub», _below_, + «sequor»,
    _follow_]], _follow close after, follow up_
«suc-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus» [[«sub», _below_, + «cēdō», _go_]],
    _follow, succeed_
«suī», reflexive pron. _of himself (herself, itself, themselves)_
    (§480).
  «sēcum» = «sē» + «cum».
  «sēsē», emphatic form of «sē»
«sum, esse, fuī, futūrus», irreg. verb, _be; exist_ (§494)
«summus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree, compared «superus, superior,
    suprēmus» or «summus» (§312), _supreme, highest; best, greatest_.
  «in summō colle», _on the top of the hill_
«sūmō, -ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus», _take up; assume, put on_.
  «sūmere supplicium dē», _inflict punishment on_
«super», prep. with acc. and abl. _over, above_
«superbia, -ae», f. [[«superbus», _proud_]], _pride, arrogance_
«superbus, -a, -um», adj. _proud, haughty_
«superior», comp. of «superus»
«superō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«superus», _above_]], _go over; subdue,
    overcome; surpass, excel_
«super-sum, -esse, -fuī, ----», _be over, survive_, with dat. (§501.15)
«superus, -a, -um», adj., compared «superior, suprēmus» or «summus»,
    _above, upper_ (§312)
«supplicium, suppli´cī», n. [[«supplex», _kneeling in entreaty_]],
    _punishment, torture_.
  «supplicium sūmere dē», _inflict punishment on_.
  «supplicium dare», _suffer punishment_
«surgō, -ere, surrēxī», ---- [[«sub», _from below_, + «regō»,
_straighten_]], _rise_
«sus-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus» [[«sub», _under_, + «capiō», _take_]],
    _undertake, assume, begin_
«suspicor, -ārī, -ātus sum», dep. verb, _suspect, surmise, suppose_
«sus-tineō, -ēre, -tinuī, -tentus» [[«sub», _under_, + «teneō»,
    _hold_]], _hold up, bear, sustain, withstand_
«suus, -a, -um», reflexive possessive adj. and pron., _his, her, hers,
    its, their, theirs_ (§98)


T

«T.», abbreviation of «Titus»
«taberna, -ae», f. _shop, stall_
«tabula, -ae», f. _tablet_ for writing
«tālis, -e», adj. _such_.
  «tālis ... quālis», _such ... as_
«tam», adv. _so, such_. Cf. «ita, sīc»
«tamen», adv. _yet, however, nevertheless_
«tandem», adv. _at length, finally_
«tangō, -ere, tetigī, tāctus», _touch_
«tantum», adv. [[«tantus»]], _only_
«tantus, -a, -um», adj. _so great, such_.
  «tantus ... quantus», _as large as_
«tardus, -a, -um», adj. _slow, late; lazy_
«Tarpēia, -ae», f. _Tarpeia_ (pronounced _Tar-pē´ya_), the maiden who
    opened the citadel to the Sabines
«Tarquinius, Tarqui´nī», _Tarquin_, a Roman king. With the surname
    «Superbus», _Tarquin the Proud_
«Tarracīna, -ae», f. _Tarraci´na_, a town in Latium. See map
«taurus, -ī», m. _bull_
«tēctus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «tegō», _cover_]], _covered,
    protected_
«tēlum, -ī», n. _weapon_
«temerē», adv. _rashly, heedlessly_
«tempestās, -ātis», f. [[«tempus», _time_]] _storm, tempest_
«templum, -ī», n. _temple, shrine_
«tempto, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _try, test; make trial of, attempt_
«tempus, -oris», n. _time_ (§464.2.b).
  «in reliquum tempus», _for the future_
«teneō, -ēre, tenuī», ----, _hold, keep_
«tergum, -ī», n. _back_, «ā tergō», _on the rear_, «tergum vertere»,
_retreat, flee_
«ternī, -ae, -a», distributive numeral adj. _three each, by threes_
    (§334)
«terra, -ae», f. _earth, ground, land_.
  «orbis terrārum», _the whole world_
«terror, -ōris», m. [[cf. «terreō», _frighten_]], _dread, alarm, terror_
«tertius, -a, -um», numeral adj. _third_
«Teutonēs, -um», m. _the Teutons_
«theātrum, -ī», n. _theater_
«Thēbae, -ārum», f. _Thebes_, a city of Greece
«Thēbānī, -ōrum», m. _Thebans_, the people of Thebes
«thermae, -ārum», f. plur. _baths_
«Thessalia, -ae», f. _Thessaly_, a district of northern Greece
«Thrācia, -ae», f. _Thrace_, a district north of Greece
«Tiberius, Tibe´rī», m. _Tiberius_, a Roman first name
«tībīcen, -īnis», m. [[cf. «tībia», _pipe_]], _piper, flute player_
«timeō, -ēre, -uī», ----, _fear, be afraid of_. Cf. «vereor»
«timor, -ōris», m. [[cf. «timeō», _fear_]], _fear, dread, alarm_.
    Cf. «metus»
«Tīryns, Tīrynthis», f. _Ti´ryns_, an ancient town in southern Greece,
    where Hercules served Eurystheus
«toga, -ae», f. [[cf. «tegō», _cover_]], _toga_
«tormentum, -ī», n. _engine of war_
«totiēns», adv. _so often, so many times_
«tōtus, -a, -um», (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī»), adj. _all, the whole,
    entire_ (§108)
«trā-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus» [[«trāns», _across_, + «dō», _deliver_]],
    _give up, hand over, surrender, betray_
«trā-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus» [[«trāns», _across_, + «dūcō»,
    _lead_]], _lead across_
«trahō, -ere, trāxī, trāctus», _draw, pull, drag_.
  «multum trahere», _protract, prolong much_
«trā-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus» [[«trāns», _across_, + «iaciō»,
    _hurl_]], _throw across; transfix_
«trā-nō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«trāns», _across_, + «nō», _swim_]], _swim
    across_
«trāns», prep. with acc. _across, over_ (§340)
«trāns-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus» [[«trāns», _across_, + «eō», _go_]], _go
    across, cross_ (§413)
«trāns-fīgō, -ere, -fīxī, -fīxus» [[«trāns», _through_, + «fīgō»,
    _drive_]], _transfix_
«trānsitus», ---- (acc. «-um», abl. «-ū»), m. [[cf. «trānseō», _cross
    over_]], _passage across_
«trēs, tria», numeral adj. _three_ (§479)
«trīduum, trīduī», n. [[«trēs», _three_, + «diēs», _days_]], _three
    days’ time, three days_
«trīgintā», indecl. numeral adj. _thirty_
«triplex, -icis», adj. _threefold, triple_
«trīstis, -e», adj. _sad; severe, terrible_
«trīstitia, -ae», f. [[«trīstis», _sad_]], _sadness, sorrow_
«triumphō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«triumphus», _triumph_]], _celebrate a
    triumph_
«triumphus, -ī», m. _triumphal procession, triumph_.
  «triumphum agere», _celebrate a triumph_
«trucīdō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _cut to pieces, slaughter._ Cf.
    «interficiō», «necō», «occīdō»
«tū, tuī» (plur. «vōs»), pers. pron. _thou, you_ (§480)
«tuba, -ae», f. _trumpet_
«Tullia, -ae», f. _Tullia_, a Roman name
«tum», adv. _then, at that time_
«turris, -is», f. _tower_ (§465.2)
«tūtus, -a, -um», adj. _safe_
«tuus, -a, -um», possessive adj. and pron. _your, yours_ (§98)


U

«ubi», rel. and interrog. adv. _where, when_
«ūllus, -a, -um» (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī»), adj. _any_ (§108)
«ulterior, -ius, -ōris», adj. in comp. degree, superl. «ultimus»,
    _farther, more remote_ (§315)
«ultimus, -a, -um», adj. in superl. degree (see «ulterior»), _farthest_
    (§315)
«umbra, -ae», f. _shade_
«umerus, -ī», m. _shoulder_
«umquam», adv. _ever, at any time_
«ūnā», adv. [[«ūnus», _one_]], _in the same place, at the same time_
«ūndecimus, -a, -um», numeral adj. [[«ūnus», _one_, + «decimus»,
    _tenth_]], _eleventh_
«undique», adv. _from every quarter, on all sides, everywhere_
«ūnus, -a, -um» (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī»), numeral adj. _one; alone_
    (§108)
«urbs, -is», f. _city_ (§465.a)
«urgeō, -ēre, ursī», ----, _press upon, crowd, hem in_
«ūrus, -ī», m. _wild ox, urus_
«ūsque», adv. _all the way, even_
«ūsus, -ūs», m. _use, advantage_
«ut», conj. with the subjv. _that, in order that, that not_ (with verbs
    of fearing), _so that, to_ (§350.1)
«uter, -tra, -trum» (gen. «-īus», dat. «-ī»), interrog. pron. _which of
    two? which?_ (§108)
«uterque, utraque, utrumque», indef. pron. _each of two, each, both_.
    «ab utrāque parte», _on both sides_
«ūtilis, -e», adj. [[«ūtor», _use_]], _useful_
«utrimque», adv. [[«uterque», _each of two_]], _on each side, on either
    hand_
«ūva, -ae», f. _grape, bunch of grapes_
«uxor, -ōris», f. _wife_


V

«vāgīna, -ae», _sheath, scabbard_
«vagor, -ārī, -ātus sum», dep. verb, _wander_
«valeō, -ēre, -uī, -itūrus», _be powerful, be well_; in the imperative
    as a greeting, _farewell_.
  «plūrimum valēre», _have the most power_
«valētūdō, -inis», f. [[«valeō», _be well_]], _health_
«validus, -a, -um», adj. [[cf. «valeō», _be strong_]], _strong, able,
    well_
«vallēs, -is», f. _valley_
«vāllum, -ī», n. _rampart, earthworks_
«varius, -a, -um», adj. _bright-colored_
«vāstō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«vāstus», _empty_]], _(make empty),
    devastate, lay waste_
«vectīgal, -ālis», n. _tax, tribute_
«vehementer», adv. [[«vehemēns», _eager_]], compared «vehementius,
    vehementissimē», _eagerly, vehemently_
«vehō, -ere, vexī, vectus», _convey, carry_. In the passive often in the
    sense of _ride, sail_
«vel», conj. _or_.
  «vel ... vel», _either ... or_. Cf. «aut»
«vēlōcitās, -ātis», f. [[«vēlōx», _swift_]], _swiftness_
«vēlōx, -ōcis», adj. _swift, fleet_
«vēlum, -ī», n. _sail_
«vēndō, -ere, vēndidī, vēnditus», _sell_
«veniō, -īre, vēnī, ventus», _come, go_
«ventus, -ī», m. _wind_
«verbum, -ī», n. _word_.
  «verba facere prō», _speak in behalf of_
«vereor, -ērī, -itus sum», dep. verb, _fear; reverence, respect_
    (§493). Cf. «timeō»
«Vergilius, Vergi´lī», m. _Vergil_, the poet
«vergō, -ere, ----, ----», _turn, lie_
«vērō», adv. [[«vērus», _true_]], _in truth, surely;_ conj. _but,
    however_.
  «tum vērō», _then you may be sure_, introducing the climax of a story
«vertō, -ere, -tī, -sus», _turn, change_.
  «tergum vertere», _retreat, flee_
«vērus, -a, -um», _true, actual_
«vesper, -erī», m. _evening_
«vester, -tra, -trum», possessive adj. and pron. _your, yours_ (§98)
«vestīgium, vestī´gī», n. [[cf. «vestīgō», _track_]], _footstep, track,
    trace_
«vestīmentum, -ī», n. [[«vestis», _clothing_]], _garment_
«vestiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus» [[«vestis», _clothing_]], _clothe, dress_
«vestis, -is», f. _clothing, attire, garment, robe_
«vestītus, -a, -um», adj. [[part. of «vestiō», _clothe_]], _clothed_
«Vesuvius, Vesu´vi», m. _Vesuvius_, the volcano near Pompeii. See map
«veterānus, -a, -um», adj. _old, veteran_
«vetō, -āre, -uī, -itus», _forbid, prohibit_
«vexō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _trouble, annoy_
«via, -ae», f. _way, road, street; way, manner_. Cf. «iter»
«viātor, -ōris», m. [[«via»]], _traveler_
«victor, -ōris», m. [[«vincō», _conquer_]], _conqueror, victor_. In
    apposition, with adj. force _ victorious_
«victōria, -ae», f. [«victor», _victor_], _victory_
«vīcus, -ī», m. _village_
«videō, -ēre, vīdī, vīsus», _see, perceive_. Pass. _be seen; seem_
    (§420.d)
«vigilia,-ae», f. [[«vigil» _awake_]], watch.
  «dē tertia vigilia», _about the third watch_
«vīgintī», indecl. numeral adj. _twenty_
«vīlicus, -ī», m. [[«vīlla», _farm_]], _steward, overseer of a farm_
«vīlla, -ae», f. _farm, villa_
«vinciō, -īre, vīnxī, vīnctus», _bind, tie,fetter_
«vincō, -ere, vīcī, victus», _conquer, defeat, overcome_. Cf. «subigō,
    superō»
«vīnea, -ae», f. _shed_ (p. 219)
«vīnum, -ī», n. _wine_
«violenter», adv. [[«violentus», _violent_]], compared «violentius,
    violentissimē», _violently, furiously_
«vir, virī», m. _man, husband; hero_ (§462.c)
«virīlis, -e», adj. [[vir, _man_]], _manly_
«virtūs, -ūtis», f. [[«vir», _man_]], _manliness; courage, valor;
    virtue_ (§464.1)
«vīs», («vīs»), f. _strength, power, might, violence_ (§468)
«vīta, -ae», f. [[cf. «vīvō», _live_]], _life_, «vītam agere», _spend or
    pass life_
«vīto, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _shun, avoid_
«vīvō, -ere, vīxī, ----», _live_. Cf. «habitō, incolō»
«vīvus, -a, -um», adj. [[cf. «vīvō», _live_]], _alive, living_
«vix», adv. _scarcely, hardly_
«vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus», _call, summon, invite_. Cf. «appellō,
    nōminō»
«volō, -āre, -āvī, -ātūrus», _fly_
«volō, velle, voluī, ----», irreg. verb, _will, be willing; wish_
    (§497). Cf. «cupio»
«volūmen, -inis», n. _roll, book_
«Vorēnus, -ī», m. _Vore´nus_, a centurion
«vōs», pers. pron.; _you_ (see «tū») (§480)
«vōtum, -ī», n. [[neut. part. of «voveō», _vow_]], _vow, pledge, prayer_
«vōx, vōcis», f. [[cf. «vocō», _call_]], _voice, cry; word_
«vulnerō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus» [[«vulnus», _wound_]], _wound, hurt_
«vulnus, -eris», n. _wound, injury_
«vulpēs, -īs», f. _fox_


  [Illustration: EQUES ROMANUS]



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY

This vocabulary contains only the words used in the English-Latin
exercises. For details not given here, reference may be made to the
Latin-English vocabulary. The figures 1, 2, 3, 4, after verbs indicate
the conjugation.


A

«a, an», _commonly not translated_
«able (be)», possum, posse, potuī, ----(§495)
«abode», domicilium, domici´lī, _n._
«about» (_adv._), circiter
«about» (_prep._), dē, _with abl._
«about to», _expressed by fut. act. part._
«abundance», cōpia, -ae, _f._
«across», trāns, _with acc._
«active», ācer, ācris, ācre
«advance», prōgredior, 3
«advantage», ūsus, -ūs, _m._
«advise», moneō, 2
«after» (_conj_.), postquam; _often expressed by the perf.part._
«after» (_prep._), post, _with acc._
«against», in, contrā, _with acc._
«aid», auxilium, auxi´lī, _n._
«all», omnis, -e; tōtus, -a, -um (§108)
«allow», patior, 3
«ally», socius, socī, _m._
«almost», paene; ferē
«alone», ūnus, -a, -um; sōlus, -a, -um (§108)
«already», iam
«also», quoque
«always», semper
«ambassador», lēgātus, -ī, _m._
«among», apud, _with acc._
«ancient», antīquus, -a, -um
«and», et; atque (ac); -que
«and so», itaque
«Andromeda», Andromeda, -ae, _f._
«angry», īrātus, -a, um
«animal», animal, -ālis, _n._
«announce», nūntiō, 1
«annoying», molestus, -a, -um
«another», alius, -a, -ud (§109)
«any», ūllus, -a, -um (§108)
«any one, anything», quisquam, quicquam _or_ quidquam (§486)
«appearance», fōrma, -ae, _f._
«appoint», creō, 1
«approach», adpropinquō, 1, _with dat._
«are», _used as auxiliary, not translated_; _as a copula_, sum (§494)
«arise», orior, 4
«arm», bracchium, bracchī, _n._
«armed», armātus, -a, -um
«arms», arma, -ōrum, _n. plur._
«army», exercitus, -ūs, _m._
«around», circum, _with acc._
«arrival», adventus, -us, _m._
«arrow», sagitta, -ae, _f._
«art of war», rēs mīlitāris
«as possible», _expressed by_ quam _and superl._.
«ask», petō, 3; quaerō, 3; rogō, 1
«assail», oppugnō, 1
«at», in, _with acc. or abl.;
  with names of towns, locative case or abl. without a preposition_
    (§268);
  _time when, abl._
«at once», statim
«at the beginning of summer», initā aestāte
«Athens», Athēnae, -ārum, _f._
«attack», impetus, -us, _m._
«attempt», cōnor, 1; temptō, 1
«away from», ā _or_ ab, _with abl._


B

«bad», malus, -a, -um
«baggage», impedīmenta, -ōrum, _n. plur._
«bank», rīpa, -ae, _f._
«barbarians», barbarī, -ōrum, _m. plur._
«battle», proelium, proelī, _n._; pugna, -ae. _f._
«be», sum (§494)
«be absent, be far», absum (§494)
«be afraid», timeō, 2; vereor, 2
«be away», absum (§494)
«be in command of», praesum, _with dat._ (§§494, 426)
«be informed», certior fīō
«be off, be distant», absum (§494)
«be without», egeō, _with abl._ (§180)
«beast (wild)», fera, -ae, _f._
«beautiful», pulcher, -chra, -chrum
«because», quia; quod
«because of», propter, _with acc._; _or abl. of cause_
«before, heretofore» (_adv._), anteā
«before» (_prep._), ante, _with acc._; prō, _with abl._
«begin», incipiō, 3
«believe», crēdō, 3, _with dat._ (§153)
«belong to», _predicate genitive_ (§409)
«best», optimus, _superl. of_ bonus
«betray», trādō, 3
«better», melior, _comp. of_ bonus
«between», inter, _with acc._
«billow», fluctus, -us, _m._
«bird», avis, -is, _f._ (§243.1)
«blood», sanguis, -inis, _m._
«body», corpus, -oris. _n._
«bold», audāx, -ācis; fortis, -e
«boldly», audācter; fortiter
«boldness», audācia, -ae, _f._
«booty», praeda, -ae, _f._
«both, each» (_of two_), uterque, utraque, utrumque
«both ... and», et ... et
«boy», puer, -erī, _m._
«brave», fortis, -e
«bravely», fortiter
«bridge», pōns, pontis, _m._
«bright», clārus, -a, -um
«bring back», reportō, 1
«bring upon», īnferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus, _with acc. and dat._ (§426)
«brother», frāter, -tris, _m._
«building», aedificium, aedifi´cī. _n._
«burn», cremō, 1; incendō, 3
«business», negōtium, negō´tī, _n._
«but, however», autem, sed
«by», ā, ab, _with abl._;
    _denoting means, abl. alone_;
    _sometimes implied in a participle_
«by night», noctū


C

«Cæsar», Caesar, -aris, _m._
«calamity», calamitās, -ātis, _f._
«call», vocō, 1; appellō, 1; nōminō, 1
«call together», convocō, 1
«camp», castra, -ōrum, _n. plur._
«can, could», possum, posse, potuī, ---- (§495)
«capture», capiō, 3; occupō, 1
«care», cūra, -ae, _f._
«care for», cūrō, 1
«careful», attentus, -a, -um
«carefulness», dīligentia, -ae, _f._
«carry», ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus (§498); portō, 1
«carry on», gerō, 3
«cart», carrus, -ī, _m._
«cause», causa, -ae, _f._
«cavalry», equitātus, -ūs, _m._
«cease», cessō, 1
«Cepheus», Cēpheus, -ī, _m._
«certain (a)», quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (quiddam) (§485)
«chicken», gallīna, -ae, _f._
«chief», prīnceps, -cipis, _m._
«children», līberī, -ōrum, _m.plur._
«choose», dēligō, 3
«choose, elect», creō, 1
«citizen», cīvis, -is, _m. and f._ (§243.1)
«city», urbs, urbis, _f._
«clear», clārus, -a, -um
«cohort», cohors, -rtis, _f._
«come», veniō, 4
«command», imperō, 1, _with dat._ (§45);
  iubeō, 2;
  praesum, _with dat._ (§426)
«commit», committō, 3
«commonwealth», rēs pūblica, reī pūblicae
«concerning», dē, _with abl._
«conquer», superō, 1; vincō, 3
«construct» (_a ditch_), perdūcō, 3
«consul», cōnsul, -ulis, _m._
«contrary to», contrā, _with acc._
«Corinth», Corinthus, -ī, _f._
«Cornelia», Cornēlia, -ae, _f._
«Cornelius», Cornēlius, Cornē´li, _m._
«corselet», lōrīca, -ae, _f._
«cottage», casa, -ae, _f._
«country», _as distinguished from the city_, rūs, rūris, _n.;
  as territory_, fīnēs, -ium, _m., plur. of_ fīnis
«courage», virtūs, -ūtis, _f._
«crime», scelus, -eris, _n._
«cross», trānseō, 4 (§499)
«crown», corōna, -ae, _f._


D

«daily», cotīdiē
«danger», perīculum, -ī, _n._
«daughter», fīlia, -ae, _f._ (§67)
«day», diēs, -ēī, _m._
«daybreak», prīma lūx
«dear», cārus, -a, -um
«death», mors, mortis, _f._
«deed», rēs, reī, _f._
«deep», altus, -a, -um
«defeat», calamitās, -ātis, _f._
«defend», dēfendō, 3
«delay» (_noun_), mora, -ae, _f._
«delay» (_verb_), moror, 1
«demand», postulō, 1
«dense», dēnsus, -a, -um
«depart», discēdō, 3; exeō, 4; proficīscor, 3
«dependent», cliēns, -entis, _m._
«design», cōnsilium, consi´lī _n._
«desire», cupiō, 3
«destroy», dēleō, 2
«Diana», Diāna, -ae, _f._
«differ», differō, differre, distulī, dīlātus (§498)
«different», dissimilis, -e
«difficult», difficilis, -e
«difficulty», difficultās, -ātis, _f._
«diligence», dīligentia, -ae, _f._
«dinner», cēna, -ae, _f._
«disaster», calamitās, -ātis, _f._
«distant (be)», absum, -esse, āfuī, āfutūrus (§494)
«ditch», fossa, -ae, _f._
«do», agō, 3; faciō, 3;
  _when used as auxiliary, not translated_
«down from», dē, _with abl._
«drag», trahō, 3
«drive», agō, 3
«dwell», habitō, 1; incolō, 3; vīvō, 3
«dwelling», aedificium, aedifi´cī, _n._


E

«each», quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque) (§484)
«each of two», uterque, utraque, utrumque
«each other», inter _with acc. of a reflexive_
«eager», ācer, ācris, ācre; alacer, alacris, alacre
«eager (be)», studeō, 2
«eagerness», studium, studī, _n._
«eagle», aquila, -ae, _f._
«easily», facile
«easy», facilis, -e
«either ... or», aut ... aut
«empire», imperium, impe´rī, _n._
«employ», negōtium dō
«encourage», hortor, 1
«enemy», hostis, -is, _m. and f._; inimīcus, -ī, _m._
«enough», satis
«entire», tōtus, -a, -um (§108)
«expectation», opīniō, -ōnis, _f._
«eye», oculus, -ī, _m._


F

«faithless», perfidus, -a, -um
«famous», clārus, -a, -um
«far», longē
«farmer», agricola, -ae, _m._
«farther», ulterior, -ius
«father», pater, patris, _m._
«fatherland», patria, -ae, _f._
«favor», faveō, 2
«favorable», idōneus, -a,-um; secundus, -a, -um
«fear», metus, -ūs, _m._; timor, -ōris, _m._
«fear, be afraid», timeō, 2
«few», paucī, -ae, -a
«field», ager, agrī, _m._
«fifteen», quīndecim
«fight», contendō, 3; pugnō, 1
«find», reperiō, 4
«finish», cōnficiō, 3
«fire», ignis, -is, _m._ (§243.1)
«firmness», cōnstantia, -ae, _f._
«first», prīmus, -a, -um
«flee», fugiō, 3
«flight», fuga, -ae, _f._
«fly», volō, 1
«foe», see «enemy»
«follow close after», subsequor, 3
«food», cibus, -ī, _m._
«foot», pēs, pedis, _m._
«foot-soldier», pedes, -itis, _m._
«for» (_conj._), enim, nam
«for» (_prep._), _sign of dat._;
  dē, prō, _with abl.;
  to express purpose_, ad, _with gerundive;
  implied in acc. of time and of extent of space_
«for a long time», diū
«forbid», vetō, 1
«forces», cōpiae, -ārum, _f., plur. of_ cōpia
«forest», silva, -ae, _f._
«fort», castellum, -ī, _n._; castrum, -ī, _n._
«fortification», mūnitiō, -ōnis, _f._
«fortify», mūniō, 4
«fortune», fortūna, -ae, _f._
«fourth», quārtus, -a, -um
«free», līber, -era, -erum
«free, liberate», līberō, 1
«frequent», crēber, -bra, -brum
«friend», amīcus, -ī, _m._
«friendly» (_adj._), amīcus, -a, -um
«friendly» (_adv._), amīcē
«friendship», amīcitia, -ae, _f._
«frighten», perterreō, 2
«from», ā _or_ ab, dē, ē, ex, _with abl._
  _Often expressed by the separative ablative without a prep._
«from each other», inter, _with acc. of a reflexive pron._
«full», plēnus, -a, -um


G

«Galba», Galba, -ae, _m._
_garland_, corōna, -ae, _f._
«garrison», praesidium, praesi´dī, _n._
«gate», porta, -ae, _f._
«Gaul», Gallia, -ae, _f._
«Gaul» («a»), Gallus, -ī, _m._
«general», imperātor, -ōris, _m._
«Geneva», Genāva, -ae, _f._
«gentle», lēnis, -e
«German», Germānus, -a, -um
«Germans» («the»), Germānī, -ōrum, _m. plur_.
«Germany», Germānia, -ae, _f._
«get» (_dinner_), parō, 1
«girl», puella, -ae, _f._
«give», dō, dare, dedī, datus
«give over, surrender», dēdō, 3; trādō, 3
«give up», omittō, 3
«go», eō, 4 (§499)
«go forth», prōgredior, 3
«god», deus, -ī, _m._ (§468)
«goddess», dea, -ae, _f._ (§67)
«gold», aurum, -ī, _n._
«good», bonus, -a, -um
«grain», frūmentum, -ī, _n._
«grain supply», rēs frūmentāria
«great», ingēns, -entis; magnus, -a, -um
«greatest», maximus, -a, -um; summus, -a, -um
«guard», praesidium, praesi´dī, _n._


H

«hand», manus, -ūs, _f._
«happy», laetus, -a, -um
«harbor», portus, -ūs, _m._
«hasten», contendō, 3; mātūrō, 1; properō, 1
«hateful», invīsus, -a, -um
«haughty», superbus, -a, -um
«have», habeō, 2
«have no power», nihil possum
«he», is; hic; iste; ille; _or not expressed_
«head», caput, -itis, _n._
«hear», audiō
«heart», animus, -ī, _m._
«heavy», gravis, -e
«Helvetii» («the»), Helvētiī, -ōrum, _m. plur._
«hem in», contineō, 2
«hen», gallīna, -ae, _f._
«her», eius; huius; istīus; illīus;
  _reflexive_, suus, -a, -um (§116)
«hide», abdō, 3
«high», altus, -a, -um
«highest», summus, -a, -um
«hill», collis, -is, _m._
«himself», suī. See «self»
«hindrance», impedīmentum, -ī, _n._
«his», eius; huius; istīus; illīus;
  _reflexive_, suus, -a, -um (§116)
«hither», citerior, -ius (§315)
«hold», teneō, 2
«home», domus, -ūs, _f._ (§468).
  «at home», domī (§267)
«hope» (_noun_), spēs, speī, _f._
«hope» (_verb_), spērō, 1
«horse», equus, -ī, _m._
«horseman», eques, -itis, _m._
«hostage», obses, -idis, _m. and f._
«hostile», inimīcus, -a, -um
«hour», hōra, -ae, _f._
«house», domicilium, domici´lī, _n._; domus, -ūs, _f._ (§468)
«hurl», iaciō, 3


I

«I», ego (§280); _or not expressed_
«if», sī.
  «if not», nisi
«ill», aeger, -gra, -grum
«immediately», statim
«in» (_of place_), in, _with abl._;
  (of time or of specification) _abl. without prep._
«in order that», ut, _with subjv._;
  «in order that not, lest», nē, _with subjv._
«in vain», frūstrā
«industry», dīligentia, -ae, _f._
«inflict injuries upon», iniūriās īnferō _with dat._ (§426)
«inflict punishment on», supplicium sūmō de
«inform some one», aliquem certiōrem faciō
«injure», noceō, 2, _with dat._ (§153)
«injury», iniūria, -ae, _f._
«into», in, _with acc._
«intrust», committō, 3; mandō, 1
«invite», vocō, 1
«is», _used as auxiliary, not translated_;
  _as a copula_, sum (§494)
«island», īnsula, -ae, _f._
«it», is; hie; iste; ille; _or not expressed_
«Italy», Italia, -ae, _f._
«its», eius; huius; istīus; illīus;
  _reflexive_, suus, -a, -um (§116)
«itself», suī. See «self»


J

«join battle», proelium committō
«journey», iter, itineris, _n._ (§468)
«judge» (_noun_), iūdex, -icis, _m._
«judge» (_verb_), iūdicō, 1
«Julia», Iūlia, -ae, _f._
«just now», nūper


K

«keep», contineō, 2; prohibeo, 2; teneō, 2
«keep on doing something», _expressed by the impf. indic._
«kill», interficiō, 3; necō, 1; occīdō, 3
«king», rēx, rēgis, _m._
«kingdom», rēgnum, -ī, _n._
«know», cognōscō, 3, _in perf._; sciō, 4


L

«labor» (_noun_), labor, -ōris, _m._
«labor» (_verb_), labōrō, 1
«lack» (_noun_), inopia, -ae, _f._
«lack» (_verb_), egeō, 2, _with abl._ (§180)
«lady», domina, -ae, _f._
«lake», lacus, -ūs, _m._ (§260.2)
«land», terra, -ae, _f._
«language», lingua, -ae, _f._
«large», ingēns, -entis; magnus, -a, -um
«larger», maior, maius
«lately», nūper
«Latona», Lātōna, -ae, _f._
«law», lēx, lēgis, _f._
«lay waste», vāstō, 1
«lead», dūco, 3
«leader», dux, ducis, _m. and f._
«learn, know», cognōscō, 3
«leave, depart from», discēdō, 3
«leave behind, abandon», relinquō, 3
«left», sinister, -tra, -trum
«legion», legiō, -ōnis, _f._
«legionaries», legiōnāriī, -ōrum, _m. plur._
«length», longitūdō, -inis, _f._
«lest», nē, _with subjv._
«letter» (_of the alphabet_), littera, -ae, _f_;
  (_an epistle_) litterae, -ārum, _f. plur_.
«lieutenant», lēgātus, -ī, _m._
«light», lūx, lūcis, _f._
«like» (_adj._), similis, -e
«like, love», amō, 1
«line of battle», aciēs, aciēī, _f._
«little», parvus, -a, -um
«live», habitō, 1; incolō, 3; vīvō, 3
«long», longus, -a, -um
«long, for a long time», diū
«long for», dēsīderō, 1
«look after», cūrō, 1
«love», amō, 1


M

«maid, maid servant», ancilla, -ae,_f._
«make», faciō, 3
«make war upon», bellum īnferō _with dat._ (§426)
«man», homō, -inis, _m. and f._; vir, virī, _m._
«man-of-war», nāvis longa
«many», multī, -ae, -a, _plur. of_ multus
«march», iter, itineris, _n._ (§468)
«Mark», Mārcus, -ī, _m._
«marriage», mātrimōnium, mātrimō´nī, _n._
«master», dominus, -ī, _m._; magīster, -trī, _m._
«matter», negōtium, negō´tī, _n._; rēs, reī, _f._
«means, by means of», _the abl._
«messenger», nūntius, nūntī, _m._
«midnight», media nox
«mile», mīlle passuum (§331.b)
«miles», mīlia passuum
«mind», animus, -ī, _m._; mēns, mentis, _f._
«mine», meus, -a, -um
«mistress», domina, -ae, _f._
«money», pecūnia, -ae, _f._
«monster», mōnstrum, -ī, _n._
«month», mēnsis, -is, _m._
«moon», lūna, -ae, _f._
«more» (_adj._), plūs, plūris (§313); _or a comparative. Adverb_, magis
«most» (_adj._), plūrimus, -a, -um;
  _superl. degree. Adverb_, maximē; plūrimum
«mother», māter, mātris, _f._
«mountain», mōns, montis, _m._
«move», moveō, 2
«moved», commōtus, -a, -um
«much (by)», multō
«multitude», multitūdō, -inis. _f._
«my», meus, -a, -um
«myself», mē, _reflexive_. See «self»


N

«name», nōmen, -inis, _n._
«nation», gēns, gentis, _f._
«near», propinquus, -a, -um
«nearest», proximus, -a, -um
«nearly», ferē
«neighbor», fīnitimus, -ī, _in._
«neighboring», fīinitimus, -a, -um
«neither», neque _or_ nec;
  «neither ... nor», neque (nec) ... neque (nec)
«never», numquam
«nevertheless», tamen
«new», novus, -a, -um
«next day», postrīdiē eius diēī
«next to», proximus, -a, -um
«night», nox, noctis, _f._
«nine», novem
«no», minimē; _or repeat verb with a negative_ (§210)
«no, none», nūllus, -a, -um (§109)
«no one», nēmō, nūllīus
«nor», neque _or_ nec
«not», nōn
«not even», nē ... quidem
«not only ... but also», nōn sōlum ... sed etiam
«nothing», nihil _or_ nihilum, -ī, _n._
«now», nunc
«number», numerus, -ī, _m._


O

«obey», pāreō, 2, _with dat._ (§153)
«of», _sign of gen._;
  dē, _with abl._;
  «out of», ē _or_ ex, _with abl._
«often», saepe
«on» (_of place_), in, _with abl._;
  (_of time_) _abl. without prep._
«on account of», propter, _with acc._; _or abl. of cause._
«on all sides», undique
«once» (_upon a time_), ōlim
«one», ūnus, -a, -um (§108)
«one ... another», alius ... alius (§110)
«only» (_adv._), sōlum; tantum
«opportune», opportunus, -a, -um
«opposite», adversus, -a, -um
«oracle», ōrāculum, -ī, _n._
«orator», ōrātor, -ōris, _m._
«order», imperō, 1; iubeō, 2
«ornament», ōrnāmentum, -ī, _n._
«other», alius, -a, -ud (§109)
«others (the)», reliquī, -ōrum, _m. plur._
«ought», dēbeō, 2
«our», noster, -tra, -trum
«ourselves», nōs, _as reflexive object._ See «self»
«overcome», superō, 1; vincō, 3
«own (his, her, its, their)», suus, -a, -um


P

«part», pars, partis, _f._
«peace», pāx, pācis, _f._
«people», populus, -ī, _m._
«Perseus», Perseus, -ī, _m._
«persuade», persuādeō, 2, _with dat._ (§153)
«pitch camp», castra pōnō
«place» (_noun_), locus, -ī, _m._
«place, arrange», conlocō, 1
«place, put», pōnō, 3
«place in command», praeficiō, 3, _with acc. and dat._ (§426)
«plan (a)», cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī, _n._
«please», placeō, 2, _with dat._ (§154)
«pleasing», grātus, -a, -um
«plow», arō, 1
«Pompeii», Pompēiī, -ōrum, _m. plur._
«possible (as)», _expressed by_ quam _and superl_.
«powerful (be)», valeō, 2
«praise», laudō, 1
«prefer», mālō, mālle, māluī, ---- (§497)
«prepare for», parō, 1, _with acc._
«press hard», premō, 3
«protection», fidēs, fideī, _f._
«province», prōvincia, -ae, _f._
«public», pūblicus, -a, -um
«Publius», Pūblius, Pūblī, _m._
«punishment», poena, -ae, _f._; supplicium, suppli´cī, _n._
«purpose, for the purpose of», ut, quī, _or_ quō, _with subjv._;
  ad, _with gerund or gerundive_;
  causā, _following the genitive of a gerund or gerundive_
«pursue», īnsequor, 3


Q

«queen», rēgīna, -ae, _f._
«quickly», celeriter
«quite», _expressed by the comp. degree_


R

«rampart», vāllum, -ī, _n._
«rear», novissimum agmen
«reason», causa, -ae, _f._
«receive», accipiō, 3; excipiō, 3
«recent», recēns, -entis
«recently», nūper
«redoubt», castellum, -ī, _n._
«refuse», recūsō, 1
«remain», maneō, 2
«remaining», reliquus, -a, -um
«reply», respondeō, 2
«report» (_noun_), fama, -ae, _f._; rūmor, -ōris, _m._
«report» (_verb_), adferō; dēferō; referō (§498)
«republic», rēs pūblica
«require», postulō, 1
«resist», resistō, 3, _with dat._ (§154)
«rest (the)», reliquī, -ōrum, _m. plur._
«restrain», contineō, 2
«retainer», cliēns, -entis, _m._
«retreat», pedem referō; terga vertō
«return», redeō, 4; revertor, 3
«revolution», rēs novae
«Rhine», Rhēnus, -ī, _m._
«right», dexter, -tra, -trum
«river», flūmen, -inis, _n._; fluvius, fluvī, _m._
«road», via, -ae, _f._
«Roman», Rōmānus, -a, -um
«Rome», Rōma, -ae, _f._
«row», ōrdō, -inis, _m._
«rule», regō, 3
«rumor», fāma, -ae, _f._; rūmor, -ōris, _m._
«run», currō, 3


S

«sacrifice», sacrum, -ī, _n._
«safety», salūs, -ūtis, _f._
«sail», nāvigō, 1
«sailor», nauta, -ae, _m._
«sake, for the sake of», causā, _following a gen._
«same», īdem, eadem, idem (§287)
«savages», barbarī, -ōrum, _m. plur._
«save», servō, 1
«say», dīcō, 3
«school», lūdus, -ī, _m._; schola, -ae, _f._
«scout», explōrātor, -ōris, _m._
«sea», mare, -is, _n._
«second», secundus, -a, -um
«see», videō, 2
«seek», petō, 3
«seem», videor, 2, _passive of_ videō
«seize», occupō, 1; rapiō, 3
«self», ipse, -a, -um (§286); suī (§281)
«send», mittō, 3
«set fire to», incendō, 3
«set out», proficīscor, 3
«seven», septem
«Sextus», Sextus, -ī, _m._
«she», ea; haec; ista; illa (§115);
  _or not expressed_
«ship», nāvis, -is, _f._ (§243.1)
«short», brevis, -e
«shout», clāmor, -ōris, _m._
«show», dēmōnstrō, 1
«Sicily», Sicilia, -ae, _f._
«sick», aeger, -gra, -grum
«side», latus, -eris, _n._
«siege», obsidiō, -ōnis, _f._
«since», cum, _with subjv._ (§396);
  _the abl. abs._ (§381)
«sing», canō, 3; cantō, 1
«sister», soror, -ōris, _f._
«sit», sedeō, 2
«size», magnitūdō, -inis, _f._
«skillful», perītus, -a, -um
«slave», servus, -ī, _m._
«slavery», servitiūs, -ūtis, _f._
«slow», tardus, -a, -um
«small», parvus, -a, -um
«snatch», rapiō, 3
«so», ita; sīc; tam
«so great», tantus, -a, -um
«so that», ut;
  «so that not», ut nōn
«soldier», mīles, -itis, _m._
«some», _often not expressed_;
  quis (quī), qua (quae), quid (quod); aliquī, aliqua, aliquod
«some one», quis; aliquis (§487)
«some ... others», aliī ... aliī (§110)
«something», quid; aliquid (§487)
«son», fīlius, fīlī, _m._
«soon», mox
«space», spatium, spatī, _n._
«spear», pīlum, -ī, _n._
«spirited», ācer, ācris, ācre; alacer, alacris, alacre
«spring», fōns, fontis, _m._
«spur», calcar, -āris, _n._
«stand», stō, 1
«state», cīvitās, -ātis, _f._
«station», conlocō, 1
«steadiness», cōnstantia, -ae, _f._
«stone», lapis, -idis, _m._
«storm», oppugnō, 1
«story», fābula, -ae, _f._
«street», via, -ae, _f._
«strength», vīs, (vīs), _f._
«strong», fortis, -e; validus, -a, -um
«sturdy», validus, -a, -um
«such», tālis, -e
«suddenly», subitō
«suffer punishment», supplicium dō
«sufficiently», satis
«suitable», idōneus, -a, -um
«summer», aestās, -ātis, _f._
«sun», sōl, sōlis, _m._
«supplies», commeātus, -ūs, _m._
«surrender», trādō, 3
«suspect», suspicor, 1
«swift», celer, -eris, -ere; vēlōx, -ōcis
«sword», gladius, gladī, _m._


T

«take, capture», capiō, 3
«take part in», intersum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus, _with dat._ (§426)
«take possession of», occupō, 1
«tall», altus, -a, -um
«task», opus, operis, _n._
«teach», doceō, 2
«teacher», magister, -trī, _m._
«tear» (_noun_), lacrima, -ae, _f._
«tell», dīcō, 3; nārrō, 1
«ten», decem
«terrified», perterritus, -a, -um
«terrify», perterreō, 2
«than», quam
«that» (_conj. after verbs of saying and the like_), _not expressed_
«that» (_pron._), is; iste; ille
«that, in order that», _in purpose clauses_, ut; _after verbs of
fearing_, nē (§§349, 366, 372)
«that not, lest», _in purpose clauses_, nē;
  _after verbs of fearing_, ut (§§349, 366, 372)
«the», _not expressed_
«their», _gen. plur. of_ is; _reflexive_, suus, -a, -um (§116)
«their own», suus, -a, -um (§116)
«then, at that time», tum
«then, in the next place», deinde, tum
«there», _as expletive, not expressed_
«there, in that place», ibi
«therefore», itaque
«they», iī; hī; istī; illī;
  _or not expressed_
«think», arbitror, 1; exīstimō, 1; putō, 1
«third», tertius, -a, -um
«this», hic, haec, hoc; is, ea, id
«though», cum. _with subjv._ (§396)
«thousand», mīlle (§479)
«three», trēs, tria (§479)
«through», per, _with acc._
«thy», tuus, -a, -um
«time», tempus, -oris, _n._
«to», _sign of dat._;
  ad, in, _with acc._;
  _expressing purpose_, ut, quī, _with subjv._;
  ad, _with gerund or gerundive_
«to each other», inter, _with acc. of a reflexive pron._
«to-day», hodiē
«tooth», dēns, dentis, _m._
«top of», summus, -a, -um
«tower», turris, -is, _f._ (§243.2)
«town», oppidum, -ī, _n._
«townsman», oppidānus, -ī, _m._
«trace», vestīgium, vestī´gī, _n._
«trader», mercātor, -ōris, _m._
«train», exerceō, 2
«tree», arbor, -oris, _f._
«tribe», gēns, gentis, _f._
«troops», cōpiae, -ārum, _f. plur._
«true», vērus, -a, -um
«trumpet», tuba, -ae, _f._
«try», cōnor, 1; temptō, 1
«twelve», duodecim
«two», duo, duae, duo (§479)


U

«under», sub, _with acc. or abl._
«undertake», suscipiō, 3
«unharmed», incolumis, -e
«unless», nisi
«unlike», dissimilis, -e
«unwilling» («be»), nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, ---- (§497)
«up to», sub, _with acc._
«us», nōs, _acc. plur. of_ ego


V

«very», _superl. degree_; maximē; ipse, -a, -um (§285)
«victor», victor, -ōris, _m._
«victory», victōria, -ae, _f._
«village», vīcus, -ī, _m._
«violence», vīs, (vīs), _f._
«violently», vehementer
«voice», vōx, vōcis, _f._


W

«wage», gerō, 3
«wagon», carrus. -ī, _m._
«wall», mūrus, -ī, _m._
«want», inopia, -ae, _f._
«war», bellum, -ī, _n._
«watch», vigilia, -ae, _f._
«water», aqua, -ae, _f._
«wave», fluctus, -ūs, _m._
«way», iter, itineris, _n._ (§468); via, -ae, _f._
«way, manner», modus, -ī, _m._
«we», nōs, _plur. of_ ego; _or not expressed_
«weak», īnfīrmus, -a, -um
«weapons», arma, -ōrum, _n. plur._; tēla, -ōrum, _n. plur._
«wear», gerō, 3
«weary», dēfessus, -a, -um
«what», quis (quī), quae, quid (quod) (§483)
«when», ubi; cum (§396); _often expressed by a participle_
«where», ubi
«which», quī, quae, quod (§482);
  «which of two», uter, utra, utrum (§108)
«while», _expressed by a participle_
«whither», quō
«who» (_rel._), quī, quae (§482); (_interrog._) quis (§483)
«whole», tōtus, -a, -um (§108)
«whose», cuius;
  quōrum, quārum, quōrum, _gen. of_ quī, quae, quod, _rel._;
  _or of_ quis, quid, _interrog_.
«why», cūr
«wicked», malus, -a, -um
«wide», lātus, -a, -um
«width», lātitūdō, -inis, _f._
«wild beast», fera, -ae, _f._
«willing» («be»), volō, velle, voluī, ---- (§497)
«win» (_a victory_), reportō, 1
«wind», ventus, -ī, _m._
«wine», vīnum, -ī, _n._
«wing», cornū, -ūs, _n._
«winter», hiems, -emis, _f._
«wisdom», cōnsilium, consi´lī, _n._
«wish», cupiō, 3; volō, velle, voluī, ---- (§497);
  «wish not», nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, ---- (§497)
«with», cum, _with abl.; sometimes abl. alone_
«withdraw», sē recipere
«without», sine, _with abl._
«woman», fēmina, -ae, _f._; mulier, -eris, _f._
«wonderful», mīrus, -a, -um
«word», verbum, -ī, _n._
«work», labor, -ōris, _m._; opus, -eris, _n._
«worse», peior, peius, _comp. of_ malus
«worst», pessimus, -a, -um, _superl. of_ malus
«wound» (_noun_), vulnus, -eris, _n._
«wound» (_verb_), vulnerō, 1
«wreath», corōna, -ae, _f._
«wretched», miser, -era, -erum
«wrong», iniūria, -ae, _f._


Y

«year», annus, -ī, _m._
«yes», certē; ita; vērō; _or, more usually, repeat the verb_ (§210)
«yonder (that)», ille, -a, -ud
«you», _sing_. tū; _plur_. vōs (§480); _or not expressed_
«your», _sing_. tuus, -a, -um; _plur._ vester, -tra, -trum (§98.b)


Z

«zeal», studium, studī, _n._



INDEX

The numbers in all cases refer to sections.

«ā»-declension of nouns, 57, 461
«ā»-verbs, conjugation of, 488
«ablative» case, 48, 50
  absolute, 381
  after a comparative, 309
  of accompaniment, 104
  of agent, 181
  of cause, 102
  of description, 444, 445
  of manner, 105
  of means or instrument, 103
  of measure of difference, 317
  of place from which, 179
  of place where, 265
  of separation, 180
  of specification, 398
  of time, 275
«accent», 14-16
«accompaniment»
  abl. of, 104
«accusative» case, 33
  as subject of the infinitive, 214
  object, 37
  of duration and extent, 336
  of place to which, 263, 266
  predicate, 392
  with prepositions, 340
«adjectives», 54, 55
  agreement, 65
  comparison
    regular, 301
    by adverbs, 302
    irregular, 307, 311, 312, 315
  declension of comparatives, 303
  of first and second declensions, 83, 93, 469
  of third declension, 250-257, 471
  with the dative, 143
«adverbs», 319
  comparison, 320, 323
  formation
    regular, 320, 321
    irregular, 322, 323
«agent»
  expressed by the abl. with _ā_ or _ab_, 181
«agreement»
  of adjectives, 65, 215.a
  of appositives, 81
  of predicate nouns, 76
  of relative pronouns, 224
  of verbs, 28
«aliquis», 487
«alius», 108, 110, 470
«alphabet», 1-3
«alter», 108, 110
«antepenult», 9.3; accent of, 15
«apposition», 80, 81
«article»
  not used in Latin, 22.a

«base», 58

«cardinal numerals», 327-329, 478
«case», 32.2
«causal clauses» with _cum_, 395, 396
«cause»,
  expressed by the abl., 102
«characteristic»
  subjv. of, 389, 390
«comparative»
  declension of, 303
«comparison»
  abl. of, 309
  degrees of, 300
  of adjectives, 300-315
    irregular, 311-315, 473, 475
  of adverbs
    regular, 320-476
    irregular, 323, 477
  positive wanting, 315
  six adjectives in _-lis_, 307
«complementary infinitive», 215
«compound verbs»
  with the dative, 425, 426
«concessive» «clauses» with _cum_, 395, 396
«conjugation stems», 184
«conjugations»
  the four regular, 126, 488-491
  irregular, 494-500
«consonants», 2
«copula», 21
«cum»
  conjunction, 395
«cum»
  preposition, 209

«dative» case, 43
  of indirect object, 44, 45
  of purpose, or end for which, 437
  with adjectives, 143
  with compound verbs, 426
  with special verbs, 153
«dea»
  declension of, 67
«declension», 23, 32
«degree of difference»
  expressed by the abl., 317
«demonstrative adjectives and pronouns», 112-115, 290-292, 481
«deponent verbs», 338, 339, 493
«descriptive ablative and genitive», 441-445
«descriptive relative clause»
  with the subjv., 389, 390
«deus»
  declension of, 468
«difference, measure of», 316, 317
«diphthongs», 6
«direct statements», 414
«distributive numerals», 327.3, 334
«domī»
  locative, 267
«domus»
  declension of, 468
«duo»
  declension of, 479
«duration» of time, expressed by the acc., 336

«ē»-declension of nouns, 272, 273, 467
«ē»-verbs, conjugation of, 489
«ĕ»-verbs, conjugation of, 490
«ego»
  declension of, 280, 480
«enclitics», 16
«eō»
  conjugation of, 499
«extent» of space
  expressed by the acc., 336

«fearing»
  subjv. after verbs of, 370-372
«ferō»
  conjugation of, 498
«fifth or ē-declension», 272, 273, 467
«fīlia»
  declension of, 67
«fīlius»
  declension of, 87-89
«finite verb»
  defined, 173
«fīō»
  conjugation of, 500
«first conjugation», 488
«first or ā-declension», 57, 461
«fourth conjugation», 491
«fourth or u-declension», 259, 260, 466
«from»
  how expressed, 178-181
«future participle»
  formation of, 374.c
«future perfect»
  formation of
    active, 187.3
    passive, 202
«future tense»
  formation of, 137, 156

«gender»
  in English and in Latin, 60
  in the first declension, 61
  in the second declension, 72
  in the third declension, 247
  in the fourth declension, 260
  in the fifth declension, 272
«general observations on declension», 74
«genitive» case
  English equivalents of, 33
  of description, 443, 445
  of nouns in _-ius_ and _-ium_, 87
  partitive, 331
  possessive, 38, 409
«gerund»
  a verbal noun, 402, 403
«gerundive»
  a verbal adjective, 404
  with _ad_ to express purpose, 407

«hic»
  declension and use of, 290, 291
«how to read Latin», 17

«i»
  consonant, 3
«i»-stems of nouns, 231, 241-244
«ī»-verbs
  conjugation of, 491
«īdem»
  declension of, 287, 481
«iēns»
  declension of, 472
«ille»
  declension and use of, 290-293, 481
«imperative»
  formation of, 161, 175
    irregular, 161.2
  in commands, 161
«imperfect indicative», formation and use of, 133, 134, 165.1
«imperfect subjunctive», 354
«indefinite pronouns and adjectives», 296, 297, 484-487
«independent clauses», 219
«indirect object», 44, 45
«indirect questions», 430-432
«indirect statements», 414-419
«infinitive»
  as object, 213
  as subject, 216
  complementary, 215
  definition of, 173
  does not express purpose, 352
  formation of, 126, 174, 205, 206
  in indirect statements, 415-410
  used as in English, 213-216
«inflection»
  defined, 23
«instrument»
  abl. of, 100.b, 103
«intensive pronoun»
  _ipse_, declension and use of, 285, 286, 481
«interrogative pronouns and adjectives», 225-227, 483
«intransitive verbs»,
  defined, 20.a
  with the dative, 153
«iō-verbs of the third conj.», 492
«ipse»
  declension and use of, 285, 481
«irregular adjectives», 108
«irregular comparison»
  of adjectives, 307 311, 312
  of adverbs, 323
«irregular nouns», 67, 246, 468
«irregular verbs», 494-500
«is»
  declension and use of, 113-116
«iste»
  declension and use of, 290, 292, 481
«iter»
  declension of, 468

«Latin word order», 68
«locative» case, 267

«magis and maximē»
  comparison by, 302
«mālō»
  conjugation of, 4.97
«manner»
  abl. of, 105
«means»
  abl. of, 103
«measure of difference»
  abl. of, 316, 317
«mīlle»,
  declension of, 479
  construction with, 331.a,b
«moods», defined, 121

«-ne», enclitic
  in questions, 210
«nē», conj., _that not, lest_
  with negative clauses of purpose, 350.II
  with verbs of fearing, 370
«nine irregular adjectives», 108-110
«nōlō»
  conjugation of, 497
«nominative» case, 35, 36
«nōnne»
  in questions, 210
«nōs»
  declension of, 280, 480
«nouns», 19. 2
  first declension, 57, 461
  second declension, 71-74,87-92,462
  third declension, 230-247, 463-465
  fourth declension, 259, 260, 466
  fifth declension, 272, 273, 467
«num», in questions, 210
«number», 24
«numerals», 327-334, 478, 479

«o»-declension of nouns, 71-74, 87-92, 462
«object», 20
  direct, 37
  indirect, 44, 45
«order of words», 68
«ordinal numerals», 327. 2, 478

«participial stem», 201.2
«participles», defined, 203
  agreement of, 204
  formation,
    of present, 374.b
    of perfect, 201
    of future, 374.c,d
  of deponent verbs, 375
  tenses of, 376
  translated by a clause, 377
«partitive genitive», 330, 331
«passive voice»
  defined, 163
  formation of, 164, 202
«penult», 9.3
  accent of, 15
«perfect indicative»
  formation,
    in the active, 185, 186
    in the passive, 202
  meaning of, 190
  definite, 190
  indefinite, 190
  distinguished from the imperfect, 190
«perfect infinitive»
  active, 195
  passive, 205
«perfect passive participle», 201
«perfect stem», 185
«perfect subjunctive»
  active, 361
  passive, 362
«person», 122
«personal endings»
  active, 122
  passive, 164
«personal pronouns», 280, 480
«place»
  where, whither, whence, 263-265
  names of towns and _domus_ and _rūs_, 266-268
«pluperfect indicative»
  active, 187.2
  passive, 202
«pluperfect subjunctive»
  active, 361
  passive, 363
«plūs»
  declension of, 313
«possessive pronouns», 97, 98
«possum»
  conjugation of, 495
«predicate»
  defined, 19
«predicate adjective»
  defined, 55
«predicate noun», 75, 76
«prepositions»
  with the abl., 209
  with the acc., 340
«present indicative», 128, 130, 147
«present stem», 126.a
«present subjunctive», 344
«primary tenses», 356
«principal parts», 183
«pronouns»
  classification of, 278
  defined, 19.2.a
  demonstrative, 481
  indefinite, 297, 484-487
  intensive, 285, 286, 481
  interrogative, 483
  personal, 480
  possessive, 97, 98
  reflexive, 281
  relative, 220, 221
«pronunciation», 4-7
«prōsum»
  conjugation of, 496
«purpose»
  dative of, 436, 437
  expressed by the gerund or gerundive with _ad_, 407
  not expressed by the infinitive, 352
  subjunctive of, 348-350, 365-367

«quality»
  gen. or abl. of, 441-445
«quam»
  with a comparative, 308
«quantity», 11-13
«questions»
  direct, 210
  indirect, 430-432
«quī»
  declension and use of, 220,221, 482
«quīdam»
  declension of, 485
«quis»
  declension and use of, 225-227, 483
«quisquam»
  declension of, 486
«quisque»
  declension of, 484

«reflexive pronouns», 281
«relative clauses of characteristic or description», 389, 390
«relative clauses of purpose», 348, 349
«relative pronouns», 220, 221
«result clauses», 384-387
«reviews», 502-528
«rūs»
  constructions of, 266

«sē»
  distinguished from _ipse_, 285.a
«second conjugation», 489
«second or o-declension», 71-93, 462
«sentences»
  simple, complex, compound, 219
«separation»
  abl. of, 180
«separative ablative», 178-181
«sequence of tenses», 356-358
«space»
  extent of, expressed by the acc., 336
«specification»
  abl. of, 398
«stems»
  of nouns, 230
  of verbs, 184
«subject»
  defined, 19.2
  of the infinitive, 213, 214
«subjunctive»
  formation of the present, 344
  of the imperfect, 354
  of the perfect, 361, 362
  of the pluperfect, 361.c, 363
«subjunctive constructions»
  characteristic or description, 389, 390
  indirect questions, 430-432
  purpose, 349, 366, 372
  result, 385, 386
  time, cause, or concession, with _cum_, 395, 396
«subjunctive ideas», 346
«subjunctive tenses», 342, 343
«subordinate clauses», 219
«suī»
  declension of, 281, 480
«sum»
  conjugation of, 494
«suus»
  use of, 98.c, 116
«syllables», 8
  division of, 9
  quantity of, 13
«syntax»
  rules of, 501

«temporal clauses» with _cum_, 395, 396
«tense»
  defined, 120
«tense signs»
  imperfect, 133
  future, 137, 156
  pluperfect active, 187.2
  future perfect active, 187.3
«tenses»
  primary and secondary, 356
  sequence of, 357, 358
«third conjugation», 490, 492
«third declension of nouns»
  classes, 231, 463
  consonant stems, 232-238, 464
  gender, 247
  i-stems, 241-244, 465
  irregular nouns, 246
«time»
  abl. of, 275
«time»
  acc. of, 336
«towns»
  rules for names of, 266, 267, 268
«transitive verb», 20.a
«trēs»
  declension of, 479
«tū»
  declension of, 280, 480
«tuus»
  compared with _vester_, 98. b

«u»-declension of nouns, 259, 260, 466
«ultima», 9. 3

«verbs»
  agreement of, 28
  conjugation of, 126, 488-491
  deponent, 338, 339, 493
  irregular, 494-500
  personal endings of, 122, 164
  principal parts of, 183
«vester»
  compared with _tuus_, 98.b
«vīs»
  declension of, 468
«vocabularies»
  English-Latin, pp. 332-343
  Latin-English, pp. 299-331
  special, pp. 283-298
«vocative» case, 56.a
  of nouns in _-us_ of the second declension, 73.b
  of proper nouns in _-ius_ and of _fīlius_, 88
«voice»
  defined, 163
«volō»
  conjugation of, 497
«vōs»
  declension of, 280, 480
«vowels»
  sounds of, 5, 6
  quantity of, 12





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