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´╗┐Title: A Continuation of a Voyage to New Holland
Author: Dampier, William, 1652-1715
Language: English
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*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A Continuation of a Voyage to New Holland" ***

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Wherein are described,

The Islands Timor, Roti and Anabao. A passage between the islands Timor
and Anabao. Kupang and Laphao Bays. The islands Omba, Fetter, Banda and
Bird. A description of the coast of New Guinea. The islands Pulo Sabuda,
Cockle, King William's, Providence, Gerrit Denis, Anthony Cave's and St.
John's. Also a new passage between New Guinea and New Britain. The
islands Ceram, Bonao, Bouro, and several islands before unknown. The
coast of Java, and Straits of Sunda. Author's arrival at Batavia, Cape of
Good Hope, St. Helena, island of Ascension, etc. Their inhabitants,
customs, trade, etc. Harbours, soil, birds, fish, etc. Trees, plants,
fruits, etc.


Illustrated with maps and draughts: also divers birds, fishes, etc. not
found in this part of the world, engraven on eighteen copper plates.





Printed for James and John Knapton, at The Crown in St. Paul's





The Author's departure from the coast of New Holland, with the reasons of it.
The Author's arrival at the island Timor.
Search for fresh water on the south side of the island, in vain.
Fault of the charts.
The island Roti.
A passage between the islands Timor and Anabao.
Fault of the charts.
A Dutch fort, called Concordia.
Their suspicion of the Author.
The island Anabao described.
The Author's parley with the Governor of the Dutch fort.
They, with great difficulty, obtain leave to water.
Kupang Bay.
Coasting along the north side of Timor.
They find water and an anchoring-place.
A description of a small island, seven leagues east from the
Laphao Bay.
How the Author was treated by the Portuguese there.
Designs of making further searches upon and about the island.
Port Sesial.
Return to Babao in Kupang Bay.
The Author's entertainment at the fort of Concordia.
His stay seven weeks at Babao.


A particular description of the island Timor.
Its coast.
The island Anabao.
Fault of the charts.
The channel between Timor and Anabao.
Kupang Bay.
Fort Concordia.
A particular description of the bay.
The anchoring-place, called Babao.
The Malayans here kill all the Europeans they can.
Laphao, a Portuguese settlement, described.
Port Ciccale.
The hills, water, lowlands, soil, woods, metals, in the island Timor.
Its trees.
Cana-fistula-tree described.
Wild figtrees described.
Two new sorts of palmtrees described.
The fruits of the island.
The herbs.
Its land animals.
The ringing-bird.
Its fish.
Cockle merchants and oysters.
Cockles as big as a man's head.
Its original natives described.
The Portuguese and Dutch settlements.
The Malayan language generally spoken here.
L'Orantuca on the island Ende.
The seasons, winds, and weather at Timor.


Departure from Timor.
The islands Omba and Fetter.
A burning island.
Their missing the Turtle Isles.
Banda Isles.
Bird Island.
They descry the coast of New Guinea.
They anchor on the coast of New Guinea.
A description of the place, and of a strange fowl found there.
Great quantities of mackerel.
A white island.
They anchor at an island called by the inhabitants Pulo Sabuda.
A description of it and its inhabitants and product.
The Indians' manner of fishing there.
Arrival at Mabo, the north-west cape of New Guinea.
A description of it.
Cockle Island.
Cockles of seventy-eight pound weight.
Pigeon Island.
The wind hereabouts.
An empty cockleshell weighing two hundred fifty-eight pound.
King William's Island.
A description of it.
Plying on the coast of New Guinea.
Fault of the charts.
Providence Island.
They cross the Line.
A snake pursued by fish.
Squally Island.
The main of New Guinea.


The mainland of New Guinea.
Its inhabitants.
Slingers Bay.
Small islands.
Gerrit Dennis Isle described.
Its inhabitants.
Their proas.
Anthony Cave's Island.
Its inhabitants.
Trees full of worms found in the sea.
St. John's Island.
The mainland of New Guinea.
Its inhabitants.
The coast described.
Cape and Bay St. George.
Cape Orford.
Another bay.
The inhabitants there.
A large account of the author's attempts to trade with them.
He names the place Port Montague.
The country thereabouts described, and its produce.
A burning island described.
A new passage found.
New Britain.
Sir George Rook's Island.
Long Island and Crown Island, discovered and described.
Sir R. Rich's Island.
A burning island.
A strange spout.
A conjecture concerning a new passage southward.
King William's Island.
Strange whirlpools.
Distance between Cape Mabo and Cape St. George computed.


The Author's return from the coast of New Guinea.
A deep channel.
Strange tides.
The island Ceram described.
Strange fowls.
The islands Bonao, Bouro, Misacombi, Pentare, Laubana, and Potoro.
The passage between Pentare and Laubana.
The island Timor.
Babao Bay.
The island Roti.
More islands than are commonly laid down in the charts.
Great currents.
Coast of New Holland.
The Trial Rocks.
The coast of Java.
Princes Isle.
Straits of Sunda.
Thwart-the-way Island.
Indian proas, and their traffic.
Passage through the Strait.
Arrival at Batavia.


The Author continues in Batavia Road to refit, to get provisions.
English ships then in the road.
Departure from Batavia.
Touch at the Cape of Good Hope.
And at St. Helena.
Arrival at the island of Ascension.
A leak sprung.
Which being impossible to be stopped, the ship is lost, but the men saved.
They find water upon the island.
And are brought back to England.























I had spent about 5 weeks in ranging off and on the coast of New Holland,
a length of about 300 leagues: and had put in at 3 several places to see
what there might be thereabouts worth discovering; and at the same time
to recruit my stock of fresh water and provisions for the further
discoveries I purposed to attempt on the Terra Australis. This large and
hitherto almost unknown tract of land is situated so very advantageously
in the richest climates of the world, the torrid and temperate zones;
having in it especially all the advantages of the torrid zone, as being
known to reach from the equator itself (within a degree) to the Tropic of
Capricorn, and beyond it; that in coasting round it, which I designed by
this voyage, if possible, I could not but hope to meet with some fruitful
lands, continent or islands, or both, productive of any of the rich
fruits, drugs, or spices (perhaps minerals also, etc.) that are in the
other parts of the torrid zone, under equal parallels of latitude; at
least a soil and air capable of such, upon transplanting them hither, and
cultivation. I meant also to make as diligent a survey as I could of the
several smaller islands, shores, capes, bays, creeks, and harbours, fit
as well for shelter as defence, upon fortifying them; and of the rocks
and shoals, the soundings, tides, and currents, winds and weather,
variation, etc., whatever might be beneficial for navigation, trade or
settlement; or be of use to any who should prosecute the same designs
hereafter; to whom it might be serviceable to have so much of their work
done to their hands; which they might advance and perfect by their own
repeated experiences. As there is no work of this kind brought to
perfection at once I intended especially to observe what inhabitants I
should meet with, and to try to win them over to somewhat of traffic and
useful intercourse, as there might be commodities among any of them that
might be fit for trade or manufacture, or any found in which they might
be employed. Though as to the New Hollanders hereabouts, by the
experience I had had of their neighbours formerly, I expected no great
matters from them.

With such views as these I set out at first from England; and would,
according to the method I proposed formerly, have gone westward through
the Magellanic Strait, or round Tierra del Fuego rather, that I might
have begun my discoveries upon the eastern and least known side of the
Terra Australis. But that way it was not possible for me to go by reason
of the time of year in which I came out; for I must have been compassing
the south of America in a very high latitude in the depth of the winter
there. I was therefore necessitated to go eastward by the Cape of Good
Hope; and when I should be past it it was requisite I should keep in a
pretty high latitude, to avoid the general tradewinds that would be
against me, and to have the benefit of the variable winds: by all which I
was in a manner unavoidably determined to fall in first with those parts
of New Holland I have hitherto been describing. For should it be asked
why at my first making that shore I did not coast it to the southward,
and that way try to get round to the east of New Holland and New Guinea;
I confess I was not for spending my time more than was necessary in the
higher latitudes; as knowing that the land there could not be so well
worth the discovering as the parts that lay nearer the Line and more
directly under the sun. Besides, at the time when I should come first on
New Holland, which was early in the spring, I must, had I stood
southward, have had for some time a great deal of winter weather,
increasing in severity, though not in time, and in a place altogether
unknown; which my men, who were heartless enough to the voyage at best,
would never have borne after so long a run as from Brazil hither.

For these reasons therefore I chose to coast along to the northward, and
so to the east, and so thought to come round by the south of Terra
Australis in my return back, which should be in the summer season there:
and this passage back also I now thought I might possibly be able to
shorten, should it appear, at my getting to the east coast of New Guinea,
that there is a channel there coming out into these seas, as I now
suspected, near Rosemary Island: unless the high tides and great
indraught thereabout should be occasioned by the mouth of some large
river; which has often low lands on each side of its outlet, and many
islands and shoals lying at its entrance. But I rather thought it a
channel or strait than a river: and I was afterwards confirmed in this
opinion when, by coasting New Guinea, I found that other parts of this
great tract of Terra Australis, which had hitherto been represented as
the shore of a continent, were certainly islands; and it is probably the
same with New Holland: though, for reasons I shall afterwards show, I
could not return by the way I proposed to myself to fix the discovery.
All that I had now seen from the latitude of 27 degrees south to 25,
which is Shark's Bay; and again from thence to Rosemary Islands and about
the latitude of 20; seems to be nothing but ranges of pretty large
islands against the sea, whatever might be behind them to the eastward,
whether sea or land, continent or islands.

But to proceed with my voyage. Though the land I had seen as yet was not
very inviting, being but barren towards the sea, and affording me neither
fresh water nor any great store of other refreshments, nor so much as a
fit place for careening; yet I stood out to sea again with thoughts of
coasting still alongshore (as near as I could) to the north-eastward, for
the further discovery of it: persuading myself that at least the place I
anchored at in my voyage round the world, in the latitude of 16 degrees
15 minutes, from which I was not now far distant, would not fail to
afford me sweet water upon digging, as it did then; for the brackish
water I had taken in here, though it served tolerably well for boiling,
was yet not very wholesome.

With these intentions I put to sea on the 5th of September 1699, with a
gentle gale, sounding all the way; but was quickly induced to alter my
design. For I had not been out above a day but I found that the shoals
among which I was engaged all the while on the coast, and was like to be
engaged in, would make it a very tedious thing to sail along by the
shore, or to put in where I might have occasion. I therefore edged
farther off to sea, and so deepened the water from 11 to 32 fathom. The
next day, being September the 6th, we could but just discern the land,
though we had then no more than about 30 fathom, uncertain soundings; for
even while we were out of sight of land we had once but 7 fathom, and had
also great and uncertain tides whirling about, that made me afraid to go
near a coast so shallow, where we might be soon aground and yet have but
little wind to bring us off: for should a ship be near a shoal she might
be hurled upon it unavoidably by a strong tide, unless there should be a
good wind to work her and keep her off. Thus also on the 7th day we saw
no land, though our water decreased again to 26 fathom; for we had
deepened it, as I said, to 30.


This day we saw two water-snakes, different in shape from such as we had
formerly seen. The one was very small, though long; the other long and as
big as a man's leg, having a red head; which I never saw any have, before
or since. We had this day latitude 16 degrees 9 minutes by observation.

I was by this time got to the north of the place I had thought to have
put in at where I dug wells in my former voyage; and though I knew, by
the experience I had of it then, that there was a deep entrance in
thither from the eastward; yet by the shoals I had hitherto found so far
stretched on this coast, I was afraid I should have the same trouble to
coast all along afterwards beyond that place: and besides the danger of
running almost continually amongst shoals on a strange shore, and where
the tides were strong and high; I began to bethink myself that a great
part of my time must have been spent in being about a shore I was already
almost weary of, which I might employ with greater satisfaction to my
mind, and better hopes of success, in going forward to New Guinea. Add to
this the particular danger I should have been in upon a lee shore, such
as is here described, when the north-west monsoon should once come in;
the ordinary season of which was not now far off, though this year it
stayed beyond the common season; and it comes on storming at first, with
tornadoes, violent gusts, etc. Wherefore quitting the thoughts of putting
in again at New Holland, I resolved to steer away for the island Timor;
where, besides getting fresh water, I might probably expect to be
furnished with fruits and other refreshments to recruit my men, who began
to droop; some of them being already to my great grief afflicted with the
scurvy, which was likely to increase upon them and disable them, and was
promoted by the brackish water they took in last for boiling their
oatmeal. It was now also towards the latter end of the dry season; when I
might not probably have found water so plentifully upon digging at that
part of New Holland as when I was there before in the wet season. And
then, considering the time also that I must necessarily spend in getting
in to the shore through such shoals as I expected to meet with; or in
going about to avoid them; and in digging of wells when I should come
hither: I might very well hope to get to Timor and find fresh water there
as soon as I could expect to get it at New Holland; and with less trouble
and danger.

On the 8th of September therefore, shaping our course for Timor, we were
in latitude 15 degrees 37 minutes. We had 26 fathom coarse sand; and we
saw one whale. We found them lying most commonly near the shore or in
shoal water. This day we also saw some small white clouds; the first that
we had seen since we came out of Shark's Bay. This was one sign of the
approach of the north-north-west monsoon. Another sign was the shifting
of the winds; for from the time of our coming to our last anchoring
place, the seabreezes which before were easterly and very strong had been
whiffling about and changing gradually from the east to the north, and
thence to the west, blowing but faintly, and now hanging mostly in some
point of the west. This day the winds were at south-west by west, blowing
very faint; and the 9th day we had the wind at north-west by north, but
then pretty fresh; and we saw the clouds rising more and thicker in the
north-west. This night at 12 we lay by for a small low sandy island which
I reckoned myself not far from. The next morning at sun-rising we saw it
from the top-masthead, right ahead of us; and at noon were up within a
mile of it: when by a good observation I found it to lie in 13 degrees 55
minutes. I have mentioned it in my first volume, but my account then made
it to lie in 13 degrees 50 minutes. We had abundance of boobies and
man-of-war-birds flying about us all the day; especially when we came
near the island; which had also abundance of them upon it; though it was
but a little spot of sand, scarce a mile round.

I did not anchor here nor send my boat ashore; there being no appearance
of getting anything on that spot of sand besides birds that were good for
little: though had I not been in haste I would have taken some of them.
So I made the best of my way to Timor; and on the 11th in the afternoon
we saw 10 small land-birds, about the bigness of larks, that flew away
north-west. The 13th we saw a great many sea-snakes. One of these, of
which I saw great numbers and variety in this voyage, was large, and all
black: I never saw such another for his colour.


We had now for some days small gales from the south-south-west to the
north-north-west, and the sky still more cloudy especially in the
mornings and evenings. The 14th it looked very black in the north-west
all the day; and a little before sunset we saw, to our great joy, the
tops of the high mountains of Timor, peeping out of the clouds which had
before covered them as they did still the lower parts.

We were now running directly towards the middle of the island on the
south side: but I was in some doubt whether I should run down alongshore
on this south side towards the east end; or pass about the west end, and
so range along on the north side, and go that way towards the east end:
but as the winds were now westerly I thought it best to keep on the south
side, till I should see how the weather would prove; for, as the island
lies, if the westerly winds continued and grew tempestuous I should be
under the lee of it and have smooth water, and so could go alongshore
more safely and easily on this south side: I could sooner also run to the
east end where there is the best shelter, as being still more under the
lee of the island when those winds blow. Or if, on the other side, the
winds should come about again to the eastward, I could but turn back
again (as I did afterwards) and passing about the west end, could there
prosecute my search on the north side of the island for water, or
inhabitants, or a good harbour, or whatever might be useful to me. For
both sides of the island were hitherto alike to me, being wholly
unacquainted here; only as I had seen it at a distance in my former


I had heard also that there were both Dutch and Portuguese settlements on
this island; but whereabouts I knew not: however I was resolved to search
about till I found either one of these settlements, or water in some
other place.

It was now almost night and I did not care to run near the land in the
dark, but clapped on a wind and stood off and on till the next morning,
being September 15th, when I steered in for the island, which now
appeared very plain, being high, double and treble land, very remarkable,
on whatever side you view it. See a sight of it in 2 parts, Table 5
Number 1. At 3 in the afternoon we anchored in 14 fathom, soft black oasy
ground, about a mile from the shore. See 2 sights more of the coast in
Table 5 Numbers 2 and 3, and the island itself in the particular map;
which I have here inserted to show the course of the voyage from hence to
the eastward; as the general map shows the course of the whole voyage.
But in making the particular map I chose to begin only with Timor, that I
might not, by extending it too far, be forced to contract the scale too
much among the islands, etc., of the New Guinea coast, which I chiefly
designed it for.

The land by the sea on this south side is low and sandy, and full of tall
straight-bodied trees like pines, for about 200 yards inwards from the
shore. Beyond that, further in towards the mountains, for a breadth of
about 3 miles more or less, there is a tract of swampy mangrove land
which runs all along between the sandy land of the shore on one side of
it, and the feet of the mountains on the other. And this low mangrove
land is overflown every tide of flood by the water that flows into it
through several mouths or openings in the outer sandy skirt against the
sea. We came to an anchor right against one of these openings; and
presently I went in my boat to search for fresh water, or get speech of
the natives; for we saw smokes, houses, and plantations against the sides
of the mountains, not far from us. It was ebbing water before we got
ashore, though the water was still high enough to float us in without any
great trouble. After we were within the mouth we found a large salt-water
lake which we hoped might bring us up through the mangroves to the fast
land: but before we went further I went ashore on the sandy land by the
seaside, and looked about me; but saw there no sign of fresh water.
Within the sandy bank the water forms a large lake: going therefore into
the boat again we rowed up the lake towards the firm land, where no doubt
there was fresh water, could we come at it. We found many branches of the
lake entering within the mangrove land but not beyond it. Of these we
left some on the right hand and some on the left, still keeping in the
biggest channel; with still grew smaller, and at last so narrow that we
could go no farther, ending among the swamps and mangroves. We were then
within a mile of some houses of the Indian inhabitants and the firm land
by the sides of the hills: but the mangroves thus stopping our way, we
returned as we came: but it was almost dark before we reached the mouth
of the creek. It was with much ado that we got out of it again; for it
was now low-water, and there went a rough short sea on the bar; which
however we passed over without any damage and went aboard.

The next morning at five we weighed and stood alongshore to the eastward,
making use of the sea and land-breezes. We found the seabreezes here from
the south-south-east to the south-south-west, the land-breezes from the
north to the north-east. We coasted along about 20 leagues and found it
all a straight, bold, even shore, without points, creeks or inlets for a
ship: and there is no anchoring till within a mile or a mile and a half
of the shore. We saw scarce any opening fit for our boats; and the fast
land was still barricaded with mangroves; so that here was no hope to get
water; nor was it likely that there should be hereabouts any European
settlement, since there was no sign of a harbour.


The land appeared pleasant enough to the eye: for the sides and tops of
the mountains were clothed with woods mixed with savannahs; and there was
a plantation of the Indian natives, where we saw the coconuts growing,
and could have been glad to have come at some of them. In the chart I had
with me a shoal was laid down hereabouts; but I saw nothing of it, going,
or coming; and so have taken no notice of it in my map.

Weary of running thus fruitlessly along the south side of the island to
the eastward I resolved to return the way I came; and compassing the west
end of the island, make a search along the north side of it. The rather,
because the north-north-west monsoon, which I had designed to be
sheltered from by coming the way I did, did not seem to be near at hand,
as the ordinary season of them required; but on the contrary I found the
winds returning again to the south-eastward; and the weather was fair,
and seemed likely to hold so; and consequently the north-north-west
monsoon was not like to come in yet. I considered therefore that by going
to the north side of the island I should there have the smooth water, as
being the lee side as the winds now were; and hoped to have better riding
at anchor or landing on that side, than I could expect here, where the
shore was so lined with mangroves.

Accordingly the 18th about noon I altered my course and steered back
again towards the south-west end of the island. This day we struck a
dolphin; and the next day saw two more but struck none: we also saw a


In the evening we saw the island Roti, and another island to the south of
it, not seen in my map; both lying near the south-west end of Timor. On
both these islands we saw smokes by day, and fires by night, as we had
seen on Timor ever since we fell in with it. I was told afterwards by the
Portuguese that they had sugar-works on the island Roti; but I knew
nothing of that now; and the coast appearing generally dry and barren,
only here and there a spot of trees, I did not attempt anchoring there
but stood over again to the Timor coast.


September the 21st in the morning, being near Timor, I saw a pretty large
opening which immediately I entered with my ship, sounding as I went in:
but had no ground till I came within the east point of the mouth of the
opening, where I anchored in 9 fathom, a league from the shore. The
distance from the east side to the west side of this opening was about 5
leagues. But, whereas I thought this was only an inlet or large sound
that ran a great way into the island Timor, I found afterwards that it
was a passage between the west end of Timor and another small island
called Anamabao or Anabao: into which mistake I was led by my sea-chart,
which represented both sides of the opening as parts of the same coast,
and called all of it Timor: see all this rectified, and a view of the
whole passage as I found it, in a small map I have made of it. Table 6
Number 1.

I designed to sail into this opening till I should come to firm land, for
the shore was all set thick with mangroves here by the sea, on each side;
which were very green, as were also other trees more within-land. We had
now but little wind; therefore I sent my boat away, to sound and to let
me know by signs what depth of water they met with, if under 8 fathom;
but if more I ordered them to go on and make no signs. At 11 that
morning, having a pretty fresh gale, I weighed and made sail after my
boat; but edged over more to the west shore, because I saw many smaller
openings there, and was in hopes to find a good harbour where I might
secure the ship; for then I could with more safety send my boats to seek
for fresh water. I had not sailed far before the wind came to the
south-east and blew so strong that I could not with safety venture nearer
that side, it being a lee shore. Besides, my boat was on the east side of
the Timor coast; for the other was, as I found afterwards, the Anabao
shore; and the great opening I was now in was the strait between that
island and Timor; towards which I now tacked and stood over. Taking up my
boat therefore I ran under the Timor side, and at 3 o'clock anchored in
29 fathom, half a mile from the shore. That part of the south-west point
of Timor where we anchored in the morning bore now south by west,
distance 3 leagues: and another point of the island bore
north-north-east, distance 2 leagues.


Not long after, we saw a sloop coming about the point last mentioned,
with Dutch colours; which I found, upon sending my boat aboard, belonged
to a Dutch fort (the only one they have in Timor) about 5 leagues from
hence, called Concordia. The governor of the fort was in the sloop, and
about 40 soldiers with him. He appeared to be somewhat surprised at our
coming this way; which it seems is a passage scarce known to any but
themselves; as he told the men I sent to him in my boat. Neither did he
seem willing that we should come near their fort for water. He said also
that he did not know of any water on all that part of the island, but
only at the fort; and that the natives would kill us if they met us
ashore. By the small arms my men carried with them in the boat they took
us to be pirates, and would not easily believe the account my men gave
them of what we were and whence we came. They said that about 2 years
before this there had been a stout ship of French pirates here; and that
after having been suffered to water, and to refresh themselves, and been
kindly used, they had on a sudden gone among the Indians, subjects of the
fort, and plundered them and burnt their houses. And the Portuguese here
told us afterwards that those pirates, whom they also had entertained,
had burnt their houses and had taken the Dutch fort (though the Dutch
cared not to own so much) and had driven the governor and factory among
the wild Indians their enemies. The Dutch told my men further that they
could not but think we had of several nations (as is usual with pirate
vessels) in our ship and particularly some Dutchmen, though all the
discourse was in French (for I had not one who could speak Dutch) or
else, since the common charts make no passage between Timor and Anabao,
but lay down both as one island; they said they suspected we had
plundered some Dutch ship of their particular charts, which they are
forbid to part with.

With these jealousies the sloop returned towards their fort, and my boat
came back with this news to me: but I was not discouraged at this news;
not doubting but I should persuade them better when I should come to talk
with them. So the next morning I weighed and stood towards the fort. The
winds were somewhat against us so that we could not go very fast, being
obliged to tack 2 or 3 times: and, coming near the farther end of the
passage between Timor and Anabao, we saw many houses on each side not far
from the sea, and several boats lying by the shore. The land on both
sides was pretty high, appearing very dry and of a reddish colour, but
highest on the Timor side. The trees on either side were but small, the
woods thin, and in many places the trees were dry and withered.


The island Anamabao, or Anabao, is not very big, not exceeding 10 leagues
in length and 4 in breadth; yet it has 2 kingdoms in it, namely that of
Anamabao on the east side towards Timor and the north-east end; and that
of Anabao, which contains the south-west end and the west side of the
island; but I known not which of them is biggest. The natives of both are
of the Indian kind, of a swarthy copper-colour, with black lank hair.
Those of Anamabao are in league with the Dutch, as these afterwards told
me, and with the natives of the kingdom of Kupang in Timor, over against
them, in which the Dutch fort Concordia stands: but they are said to be
inveterate enemies to their neighbours of Anabao. Those of Anabao,
besides managing their small plantations of roots and a few coconuts, do
fish, strike turtle, and hunt buffaloes, killing them with swords, darts,
or lances. But I know not how they get their iron; I suppose by traffic
with the Dutch or Portuguese, who send now and then a sloop and trade
thither, but well armed; for the natives would kill them, could they
surprise them. They go always armed themselves; and when they go
a-fishing or a-hunting they spend 4 or 5 days or more in ranging about
before they return to their habitation. We often saw them after this at
these employments; but they would not come near us. The fish or flesh
that they take, besides what serves for present spending, they dry on a
barbecue or wooden grate, standing pretty high over the fire, and so
carry it home when they return. We came sometimes afterwards to the
places where they had meat thus a-drying, but did not touch any of it.

But to proceed: I did not think to stop anywhere till I came near the
fort; which yet I did not see: but, coming to the end of this passage, I
found that if I went any farther I should be open again to the sea. I
therefore stood in close to the shore on the east side, and anchored in 4
fathom water, sandy ground; a point of land still hindering me from
seeing the fort. But I sent my boat to look about for it; and in a short
time she returned, and my men told me they saw the fort, but did not go
near it; and that it was not above 4 or 5 miles from hence. It being now
late I would not send my boat thither till the next morning: meanwhile
about 2 or 300 Indians, neighbours of the fort, and sent probably from
thence, came to the sandy bay just against the ship; where they stayed
all night, and made good fires. They were armed with lances, swords and
targets, and made a great noise all the night: we thought it was to scare
us from landing, should we attempt it: but we took little notice of them.


The next morning, being September the 23rd, I sent my clerk ashore in my
pinnace to the governor to satisfy him that we were Englishmen: and in
the King's ship, and to ask water of him; sending a young man with him
who spoke French. My clerk was with the governor pretty early; and in
answer to his queries about me, and my business in these parts, told him
that I had the King of England's commission, and desired to speak with
him. He beckoned to my clerk to come ashore; but as soon as he saw some
small arms in the stern-sheets of the boat he commanded him into the boat
again, and would have him be gone. My clerk solicited him that he would
allow him to speak with him; and at last the governor consented that he
should come ashore, and sent his lieutenant and 3 merchants with a guard
of about a hundred of the native Indians to receive him. My clerk said
that we were in much want of water, and hoped they would allow us to come
to their watering-place and fill. But the governor replied that he had
orders not to supply any ships but their own East India Company; neither
must they allow any Europeans to come the way that we came; and wondered
how we durst come near their fort. My clerk answered him that, had we
been enemies, we must have come ashore among them for water: but, said
the governor, you are come to inspect into our trade and strength; and I
will have you therefore be gone with all speed. My clerk answered him
that I had no such design but, without coming nearer them, would be
contented if the governor would send water on board where we lay, about 2
leagues from the fort; and that I would make any reasonable satisfaction
for it. The governor said that we should have what water we wanted,
provided we came no nearer with the ship: and ordered that as soon as we
pleased we should send our boat full of empty casks, and come to an
anchor with it off the fort, till he sent slaves to bring the casks
ashore and fill them; for that none of our men must come ashore. The same
afternoon I sent up my boat as he had directed with an officer and a
present of some beer for the governor; which he would not accept of, but
sent me off about a ton of water.

On the 24th in the morning I sent the same officer again in my boat; and
about noon the boat returned again with the two principal merchants of
the factory and the lieutenant of the fort; for whose security they had
kept my officer and one of my boat's crew as hostages, confining them to
the governor's garden all the time: for they were very shy of trusting
any of them to go into their fort, as my officer said: yet afterwards
they were not shy of our company; and I found that my officer maliciously
endeavoured to make them shy of me. In the evening I gave the Dutch
officers that came aboard the best entertainment I could; and, bestowing
some presents on them, sent them back very well pleased; and my officer
and the other man were returned to me. Next morning I sent my boat ashore
again with the same officer; who brought me word from the governor that
we must pay 4 Spanish dollars for every boat-load of water: but in this
he spoke falsely, as I understood afterwards from the governor himself
and all his officers, who protested to me that no such price was
demanded, but left me to give the slaves what I pleased for their labour:
the governor being already better satisfied about me than when my clerk
spoke to him, or than that officer I sent last would have caused him to
be: for the governor being a civil, genteel, and sensible man, was
offended at the officer for his being so industrious to misrepresent me.
I received from the governor a little lamb, very fat; and I sent him 2 of
the guinea-hens that I brought from St. Jago, of which there were none

I had now 11 buts of water on board, having taken in 7 here, which I
would have paid for but that at present I was afraid to send my boat
ashore again; for my officer told me, among other of his inventions, that
there were more guns mounted in the fort than when we first came; and
that he did not see the gentlemen that were aboard the day before;
intimating as if they were shy of us; and that the governor was very
rough with him; and I, not knowing to the contrary at present, consulted
with my other officers what was best to be done; for by this the governor
should seem to design to quarrel with us. All my other officers thought
it natural to infer so much, and that it was not safe to send the boat
ashore any more, lest it should be seized on; but that it was best to go
away and seek more water where we could find it. For having now (as I
said) 11 buts aboard; and the land being promising this way, I did not
doubt finding water in a short time. But my officer who occasioned these
fears in us by his own forgeries was himself for going no further; having
a mind, as far as I could perceive, to make everything in the voyage, to
which he showed himself averse, seem as cross and discouraging to my men
as possible, that he might hasten our return; being very negligent and
backward in most businesses I had occasion to employ him in; doing
nothing well or willingly, though I did all I could to win him to it. He
was also industrious to stir up the seamen to mutiny; telling them, among
other things, that any Dutch ship might lawfully take us in these seas;
but I knew better, and avoided everything that could give just offence.


The rest of my officers therefore being resolved to go from hence, and
having bought some fish of some Anamabeans who, seeing our ship, came
purposely to sell some, passing to and fro every day, I sailed away on
the 26th about 5 in the afternoon. We passed along between a small low
sandy island (over against the fort) full of bays and pretty high trees;
sounding as we went along, and had from 25 to 35 fathom, oasy ground. See
the little map of this passage Table 6 Number 1.

The 27th in the morning we anchored in the middle of the bay, called
Kupang Bay, in 12 fathom, soft oaze, about 4 leagues above the Dutch
fort. Their sloop was riding by the fort, and in the night fired a gun;
but for what reason I know not, and the governor said afterwards it was
the skipper's own doing, without his order. Presently after we had
anchored I went in the pinnace to search about the bay for water but
found none. Then, returning aboard, I weighed, and ran down to the north
entrance of the bay, and at 7 in the evening anchored again in 37 fathom,
soft oaze, close by the sandy island, and about 4 leagues from the Dutch
fort. The 28th I sent both my boats ashore on the sandy island to cut
wood; and by noon they both came back laden. In the afternoon I sent my
pinnace ashore on the north coast or point of Kupang Bay, which is called
Babao. Late in the night they returned, and told me that they saw great
tracks of buffaloes there, but none of the buffaloes themselves; neither
did they find any fresh water. They also saw some green-turtle in the sea
and one alligator.


The 29th I went out of Kupang Bay, designing to coast it alongshore on
the north side of Timor to the eastward; as well to seek for water, as
also to acquaint myself with the island, and to search for the Portuguese
settlements; which we were informed were about forty leagues to the
eastward of this place.

We coasted alongshore with land and seabreezes. The land by the shore was
of a moderate height, with high and very remarkable hills farther within
the country; their sides all spotted with woods and savannahs. But these
on the mountains' sides appeared of a rusty colour, not so pleasant and
flourishing as those that we saw on the south side of the island; for the
trees seemed to be small and withering; and the grass in the savannahs
also looked dry, as if it wanted moisture. But in the valleys, and by the
sea side, the trees looked here also more green. Yet we saw no good
anchoring-place, or opening, that gave us any encouragement to put in;
till the 30th day in the afternoon.

We were then running alongshore, at about 4 leagues distance, with a
moderate seabreeze; when we opened a pretty deep bay which appeared to be
a good road to anchor in. There were two large valleys and one smaller
one which, descending from the mountains, came all into one valley by the
seaside against this bay, which was full of tall green trees. I presently
stood in with the ship till within two leagues of the shore; and then
sent in my pinnace, commanded by my chief mate, whose great care,
fidelity, and diligence I was well assured of; ordering him to seek for
fresh water; and if he found any to sound the bay and bring me word what
anchoring there was, and to make haste aboard.

As soon as they were gone I stood off a little and lay by. The day was
now far spent; and therefore it was late before they got ashore with the
boat; so that they did not come aboard again that night. Which I was much
concerned at; because in the evening, when the seabreeze was done and the
weather calm, I perceived the ship to drive back again to the westward. I
was not yet acquainted with the tides here; for I had hitherto met with
no strong tides about the island, and scarce any running in a stream, to
set me alongshore either way. But after this time I had pretty much of
them; and found at present the flood set to the eastward, and the ebb to
the westward. The ebb (with which I was now carried) sets very strong and
runs 8 or 9 hours. The flood runs but weak, and at most lasts not above 4
hours; and this too is perceived only near the shore; where, checking the
ebb, it swells the seas and makes the water rise in the bays and rivers 8
or 9 foot. I was afterwards credibly informed by some Portuguese that the
current runs always to the westward in the mid-channel between this
island and those that face it in a range to the north of it, namely
Misicomba (or Omba) Pintare, Laubana, Ende, etc.


We were driven 4 leagues back again, and took particular notice of a
point of land that looked like Flamborough Head, when we were either to
the east or west of it; and near the shore it appeared like an island.
Four or five leagues to the east of this point is another very remarkable
bluff point which is on the west side of the bay that my boat was in. See
two sights of this land, Table 6 Numbers 2 and 3. We could not stem the
tide till about 3 o'clock in the afternoon; when, the tide running with
us, we soon got abreast of the bay, and then saw a small island to the
eastward of us. See a sight of it Table 6 Number 4. About 6 we anchored
in the bottom of the bay in 25 fathom, soft oaze, half a mile from the

I made many false fires in the night, and now and then fired a gun that
my boat might find me; but to no purpose. In the morning I found myself
driven again by the tide of ebb 3 or 4 leagues to the westward of the
place where I left my boat. I had several men looking out for her; but
could not get sight of her: besides I continued still driving to the
westward; for we had but little wind, and that against us. But by 10
o'clock in the morning we had the comfort of seeing the boat; and at 11
she came aboard, bringing 2 barrecoes of very good water.


The mate told me there was good anchoring close by the watering-place;
but that there ran a very strong tide, which near the shore made several
races, so that they found much danger in getting ashore, and were afraid
to come off again in the night because of the ripplings the tide made.

We had now the seabreeze, and steered away for this bay; but could hardly
stem the tide till about 3 in the afternoon; when, the tide being turned
with us, we went along briskly, and about 6 anchored in the bay, in 25
fathom, soft oaze, half a mile from the shore.

The next morning I went ashore to fill water, and before night sent
aboard 8 tons. We filled it out of a large pond within 50 paces of the
sea. It looked pale but was very good, and boiled peas well. I saw the
track of an alligator here. Not far from the pond we found the rudder of
a Malayan proa, 3 great jars in a small shed set up against a tree, and a
barbecue whereon there had been fish and flesh of buffaloes dressed, the
bones lying but a little from it.

In 3 days we filled about twenty-six tun of water, and then had on board
about 30 tun in all. The 2 following days we spent in fishing with the
seine, and the first morning caught as many as served all my ship's
company: but afterwards we had not so good success. The rest of my men
which could be spared from the ship I sent out; some with the carpenter's
mate to cut timber for my boats, etc. These went always guarded with 3 or
4 armed men to secure them: I showed them what wood was fitting to cut
for our use, especially the calabash and maho; I showed them always the
manner of stripping the maho-bark, and of making therewith thread, twine,
ropes, etc. Others were sent out a-fowling; who brought home pigeons,
parrots, cockatoos, etc. I was always with one party or other myself;
especially with the carpenters, to hasten them to get what they could,
that we might be gone from hence.

Our water being full, I sailed from hence October the 6th about 4 in the
afternoon, designing to coast alongshore to the eastward, till I came to
the Portuguese settlements. By the next morning we were driven 3 or 4
leagues to the west of the bay; but in the afternoon, having a faint
seabreeze, we got again abreast of it. It was the 11th day at noon before
we got as far as the small island before mentioned, which lies about 7
leagues to the east of the watering-bay: for what we gained in the
afternoon by the benefit of the seabreezes we lost again in the evenings
and mornings, while it was calm, in the interval of the breezes. But this
day, the seabreeze blowing fresher than ordinary, we passed by the island
and run before night about 7 leagues to the east of it.

This island is not half a mile long, and not above 100 yards in breadth,
and looked just like a barn when we were by it: it is pretty high, and
may be seen from a ship's topmast-head about 10 leagues. The top, and
part of the sides, are covered with trees, and it is about 3 leagues from
Timor; it is about midway between the watering-place and the Portuguese
first and main settlement by the shore.


In the night we were again driven back toward the island, 3 leagues: but
the 12th day, having a pretty brisk seabreeze, we coasted alongshore;
and, seeing a great many houses by the sea, I stood in with my ship till
I was within 2 miles of them, and then sent in my boat and lay by till it
returned. I sent an officer to command the boat; and a Portuguese seaman,
that I brought from Brazil, to speak with the men that we saw on the bay;
there being a great many of them, both foot and horse. I could not tell
what officer there might be amongst them; but I ordered my officer to
tell the chief of them that we were English, and came hither for
refreshment. As soon as the boat came ashore and the inhabitants were
informed who we were they were very glad, and sent me word that I was
welcome, and should have anything that the island afforded; and that I
must run a little farther about a small point, where I should see more
houses; and that the men would stand on the bay, right against the place
where I must anchor. With this news the boat immediately returned; adding
withal that the governor lived about 7 miles up in the country; and that
the chief person here was a lieutenant, who desired me, as soon as the
ship was at anchor, to send ashore one of my officers to go to the
governor and certify him of our arrival. I presently made sail towards
the anchoring-place, and at 5 o'clock anchored in Laphao Bay in 20
fathom, soft oaze, over against the town. A description of which, and of
the Portuguese settlement there, shall be given in the following chapter.

As soon as I came to anchor I sent my boat ashore with my second mate, to
go to the governor. The lieutenant that lived here had provided horses
and guides for him, and sent 4 soldiers with him for his guard, and,
while he was absent, treated my men with arack at his own house, where he
and some others of the townsmen showed them many broad thin pieces of
gold; telling them that they had plenty of that metal and would willingly
traffic with them for any sort of European commodities. About 11 o'clock
my mate returned on board and told me he had been in the country, and was
kindly received by the gentleman he went to wait upon; who said we were
welcome, and should have anything the island afforded; and that he was
not himself the governor, but only a deputy. He asked why we did not
salute their fort when we anchored; my mate answered that we saw no
colours flying, and therefore did not know there was any fort till he
came ashore and saw the guns; and if we had known that there was a fort
yet that we could not have given any salute till we knew that they would
answer it with the like number of guns. The deputy said it was very well;
and that he had but little powder; and therefore would gladly buy some of
us, if we had any to spare; which my mate told him we had not.

The 13th the deputy sent me aboard a present of 2 young buffaloes, 6
goats, 4 kids, 140 coconuts, 300 ripe mangoes, and 6 ripe jacks. This was
all very acceptable; and all the time we lay here we had fresh provision,
and plenty of fruits; so that those of my men that were sick of the
scurvy soon recovered and grew lusty. I stayed here till the 22nd, went
ashore several times, and once purposely to see the deputy, who came out
of the country also on purpose to see and talk with me. And then indeed
there were guns fired for salutes, both aboard my ship and at the fort.
Our interview was in a small church which was filled with the better sort
of people; her poorer sort thronging on the outside, and looking in upon
us: for the church had no wall but at the east end; the sides and the
west end being open, saving only that it had boards about 3 or 4 foot
high from the ground. I saw but 2 white men among them all; one was a
padre that came along with the lieutenant; the other was an inhabitant of
the town. The rest were all copper-coloured, with black lank hair. I
stayed there about 2 hours, and we spoke to each other by an interpreter.
I asked particularly about the seasons of the year, and when they
expected the north-north-west monsoon. The deputy told me that they
expected the wind to shift every moment; and that some years the
north-north-west monsoon set in in September, but never failed to come in
October; and for that reason desired me to make what haste I could from
hence; for it was impossible to ride here when those winds came.


I asked him if there was no harbour hereabouts where I might be secured
from the fury of these winds at their first coming. He told me that the
best harbour in the island was at a place called Babao on the north side
of Kupang Bay; that there were no inhabitants there, but plenty of
buffaloes in the woods, and abundance of fish in the sea; that there was
also fresh water: that there was another place, called port Sesial, about
20 leagues to the eastward of Laphao; that there was a river of fresh
water there, and plenty of fish, but no inhabitants: yet that if I would
go thither he would send people with hogs, goats and buffaloes, to truck
with me for such commodities as I had to dispose of.

I was afterwards told that on the east end of the island Ende there was
also a very good harbour, and a Portuguese town; that there was great
plenty of refreshments for my men, and dammer for my ship; that the
governor or chief of that place was called Captain More; that he was a
very courteous gentleman, and would be very glad to entertain an English
ship there; and if I designed to go thither, I might have pilots here
that would be willing to carry me, if I could get the lieutenant's
consent. That it was dangerous going thither without a pilot, by reason
of the violent tides that run between the islands Ende and Solor. I was
told also that at the island Solor there were a great many Dutchmen
banished from other places for certain crimes. I was willing enough to go
thither, as well to secure my ship in a good harbour, where I might
careen her (there being dammer also, which I could not get here, to make
use of instead of pitch, which I now wanted) and where I might still be
refreshing my men and supporting them in order to my further discoveries;
as also to inform myself more particularly concerning these places as yet
so little known to us. Accordingly I accepted the offer of a pilot and
two gentlemen of the town, to go with me to Larentuca on the island Ende:
and they were to come on board my ship the night before I sailed. But I
was hindered of this design by some of my officers who had here also been
very busy in doing me all the injury they could underhand.

But to proceed. While I stayed here I went ashore every day and my men
took there turns to go ashore and traffic for what they had occasion for;
and were now all very well again: and to keep themselves in heart every
man bought some rice, more or less, to recruit them after our former
fatigues. Besides, I ordered the purser to buy some for them, to serve
them instead of peas which were now almost spent. I filled up my
water-casks again here, and cut more wood; and sent a present to the
lieutenant, Alexis Mendosa, designing to be gone; for while I lay here we
had some tornadoes and rain, and the sky in the north-west looked very
black mornings and evenings, with lightning all night from that quarter,
which made me very uneasy and desirous to depart hence; because this road
lay exposed to the north-north-west and north winds, which were now daily
expected and which are commonly so violent that it is impossible for any
ship to ride them out: yet on the other hand it was absolutely necessary
for me to spend about 2 months time longer in some place hereabouts
before I could prosecute my voyage farther to the eastward; for reasons
which I shall give hereafter in its proper place in the ensuing
discourse. When therefore I sent the present to the governor I desired to
have a pilot to Larentuca on the island Ende; where I desired to spend
the time I had to spare. He now sent me word that he could not well do
it, but would send me a letter to Port Sesial for the natives, who would
come to me there and supply me with what provision they had.

I stayed 3 days in hopes yet to get a pilot for Larentuca, or at least
the letter from the governor to Port Sesial. But seeing neither I sailed
from hence the 22nd of October, coasting to the eastward, designing for
Sesial; and before night was about 10 leagues to the east of Laphao. I
kept about 3 leagues offshore and my boat ranged along close by the
shore, looking into every bay and cove; and at night returned on board.
The next morning, being 3 or 4 leagues farther to the eastward, I sent my
boat ashore again to find Sesial. At noon they returned and told me they
had been at Sesial, as they guessed; that there were two Portuguese barks
in the port who threatened to fire at them but did not; telling them this
was Porto del Roy de Portugal. They saw also another bark which ran and
anchored close by the shore, and the men ran all away for fear: but our
men calling to them in Portuguese, they at last came to them, and told
them that Sesial was the place which they came from, where the 2 barks
lay: had not these men told them they could not have known it to be a
port, it being only a little bad cove, lying open to the north; having 2
ledges of rocks at its entrance, one on each side; and a channel between,
which was so narrow that it would not be safe for us to go in. However I
stood in with the ship, to be better satisfied; and when I came near it
found it answer my men's description. I lay by a while to consider what I
had best do; for my design was to lie in a place where I might get fresh
provisions if I could: for, though my men were again pretty well
recruited, and those that had been sick of the scurvy were well again,
yet I designed if possible to refresh them as much and as long as I could
before I went farther. Besides my ship wanted cleaning; and I was
resolved to clean her if possible.


At last after much consideration I thought it safer to go away again for
Babao; and accordingly stood to the westward. We were now about 60
leagues to the east of Babao. The coast is bold all the way, having no
shoals, and but one island which I saw and described coming to the
eastward. The land in the country is very mountainous; but there are some
large valleys towards the east end. Both the mountains and valleys on
this side are barren; some wholly so; and none of them appear so pleasant
as the place where I watered. It was the 23rd day in the evening when I
stood back again for Babao. We had but small sea and land-breezes. On the
27th we came into Kupang Bay; and the next day, having sounded Babao
road, I ran in and came to an anchor there, in 20 fathom, soft oaze, 3
mile from the shore. One reason, as I said before, of my coming hither,
was to ride secure and to clean my ship's bottom; as also to endeavour by
fishing and hunting of buffaloes to refresh my men and save my salt
provision. It was like to be some time before I could clean my ship
because I wanted a great many necessaries, especially a vessel to careen
by. I had a long-boat in a frame that I brought out of England, by which
I might have made a shift to do it; but my carpenter was uncapable to set
her up. Besides, by the time the ship's sides were caulked, my pitch was
almost spent; which was all owing to the carpenter's wilful waste and
ignorance; so that I had nothing to lay on upon the ship's bottom. But
instead of this I intended to make lime here, which with oil would have
made a good coat for her. Indeed had it been advisable I would have gone
in between Cross Island and Timor, and have hauled my ship ashore; for
there was a very convenient place to do it in; but, my ship being sharp,
I did not dare to do it: besides, I must have taken everything out of
her; and I had neither boats to get my things ashore nor hands to look
after them when they were there; for my men would have been all employed;
and, though here are no Indians living near, yet they come hither in
companies when ships are here, on purpose to do any mischief they can to
them; and it was not above 2 years since a Portuguese ship riding here,
and sending her boat for water to one of the galleys, the men were all
killed by the Indians. But to secure my men I never suffered them to go
ashore unarmed; and while some were at work others stood to guard them.

We lay in this place from October the 28th till December the 12th. In
which time we made very good lime with shells, of which here are plenty.
We cut palmetto leaves to burn the ship's sides; and, giving her as good
a heel as we could, we burned her sides and paid them with lime and water
for want of oil to mix with it. This stuck on about 2 months where it was
well burned. We did not want fresh provisions all the time we lay here,
either of fish or flesh. For there were fair sandy bays on the point of
Babao, where in 2 or 3 hours in a morning we used with our seine to drag
ashore as much fish as we could eat all the day; and for a change of diet
when we were weary of fish I sent 10 or 11 men a-hunting for buffaloes;
who never came empty home. They went ashore in the evening or early in
the morning, and before noon always returned with their burdens of
buffalo, enough to suffice us 2 days; by which time we began to long for
fish again.


On the 11th of November the governor of Concordia sent one of his
officers to us to know who we were. For I had not sent thither since I
came to anchor last here. When the officer came aboard he asked me why we
fired so many guns the 4th and 5th days (which we had done in honour of
King William and in memory of the deliverance from the powder plot) I
told him the occasion of it; and he replied that they were in some fear
at the fort that we had been Portuguese, and that we were coming with
soldiers to take their fort; he asked me also why I did not stay and fill
my water at their fort before I went away from thence? I told him the
reason of it and withal offered him money; bidding him take what he
thought reasonable: he took none and said he was sorry there had been
such a misunderstanding between us; and knew that the governor would be
much concerned at it. After a short stay he went ashore; and the next
morning came aboard again, and told me the governor desired me to come
ashore to the fort and dine with him; and if I doubted anything he would
stay aboard till I returned. I told him I had no reason to mistrust
anything against me, and would go ashore with him; so I took my clerk and
my gunner and went ashore in my pinnace: the gunner spoke very good
French, and therefore I took him to be my interpreter because the
governor speaks French: he was an honest man, and I found him always
diligent and obedient. It was pretty late in the afternoon before we came
ashore; so that we had but little time with the governor. He seemed to be
much dissatisfied at the report my officer had made to me (of which I
have before given an account) and said it was false, neither would he now
take any money of me; but told me I was welcome; as indeed I found by
what he provided. For there was plenty of very good victuals, and well
dressed; and the linen was white and clean; and all the dishes and plates
of silver or fine china. I did not meet anywhere with a better
entertainment while I was abroad; nor with so much decency and order. Our
liquor was wine, beer, toddy, or water, which we liked best after dinner.
He showed me some drawers full of shells which were the strangest and
most curious that I had ever seen. He told me before I went away that he
could not supply me with any naval stores, but if I wanted any fresh
provision he would supply me with what I had occasion for. I thanked him
and told him I would send my boat for some goats and hogs, though
afterwards on second thoughts I did not do it: for it was a great way
from the place where we lay to the fort; and I could not tell what
mischief might befall any of my men when there from the natives;
especially if encouraged by the Dutch, who are enemies to all Europeans
but such as are under their own government. Therefore I chose rather to
fish and hunt for provisions than to be beholden to the Dutch and pay
dearly for it too.


We found here, as I said before, plenty of game; so that all the time we
lay at this place we spent none or very little of our salt provisions;
having fish or fresh buffalo every day. We lay here 7 weeks; and,
although the north-north-west monsoon was every day expected when I was
at Laphao, yet it was not come, so that if I had prosecuted my voyage to
the eastward without staying here it had been but to little advantage.
For if I had gone out and beaten against the wind a whole month I should
not have got far; it may be 40, 50 or 60 leagues; which was but 24 hours
run for us with a large wind; besides the trouble and discontent which
might have arisen among my men in beating to windward to so little
purpose, there being nothing to be got at sea; but here we lived and did
eat plentifully every day without trouble. The greatest inconveniency of
this place was want of water; this being the latter part of the dry
season, because the monsoon was very late this year. About 4 days before
we came away we had tornadoes with thunder, lightning and rain, and much
wind; but of no long continuance; at which time we filled some water. We
saw very black clouds, and heard it thunder every day for near a month
before in the mountains; and saw it rain, but none came near us: and even
where we hunted we saw great trees torn up by the roots, and great havoc
made among the woods by the wind; yet none touched us.




The island Timor, as I have said in my Voyage round the World, is about
seventy leagues long and fourteen or sixteen broad. It lies nearly
north-east and south-west. The middle of it lies in about 9 degrees south
latitude. It has no navigable rivers nor many harbours; but abundance of
bays for ships to ride in at some seasons of the year. The shore is very
bold, free from rocks, shoals or islands, excepting a few which are
visible and therefore easily avoided. On the south side there is a shoal
laid down in our charts about thirty leagues from the south-west end; I
was fifteen or twenty leagues further to the east than that distance, but
saw nothing of the shoal; neither could I find any harbour. It is a
pretty even shore, with sandy bays and low land for about three or four
miles up; and then it is mountainous. There is no anchoring but with half
a league or a league at farthest from the shore; and the low land that
bounds the sea has nothing but red mangroves, even from the foot of the
mountains till you come within a hundred and fifty or two hundred paces
of the sea; and then you have sandbanks clothed with a sort of pine; so
that there is no getting water on this side because of the mangroves.


At the south-west end of Timor is a pretty high island called Anabao. It
is about ten or twelve leagues long and about four broad; near which the
Dutch are settled. It lies so near Timor that it is laid down in our
charts as part of that island; yet we found a narrow deep channel fit for
any ships to pass between them. This channel is about ten leagues long
and in some places not above a league wide. It runs north-east and
south-west, so deep that there is no anchoring but very nigh the shore.
There is but little tide; the flood setting north and the ebb to the
southward. At the north-east end of this channel are two points of land
not above a league asunder; one on the south side upon Timor, called
Kupang; the other on the north side, upon the island Anabao. From this
last point the land trends away northerly two or three leagues, opens to
the sea, and then bends in again to the westward.


Being past these points you open a bay of about eight leagues long and
four wide. This bay trends in on the south side north-east by east from
the south point before mentioned; making many small points or little
coves. About a league to the east of the said south point the Dutch have
a small stone fort, situated on a firm rock close by the sea: this fort
they call Concordia. On the east side of the fort there is a small river
of fresh water which has a broad boarded bridge over it, near to the
entry into the fort. Beyond this river is a small sandy bay where the
boats and barks land and convey their traffic in or out of the fort.
About a hundred yards from the seaside, and as many from the fort, and
forty yards from the bridge on the east side, the Company have a fine
garden, surrounded with a good stone wall; in it is plenty of all sorts
of salads, cabbages, roots for the kitchen; in some parts of it are
fruit-trees, as jacas, pumplenose, oranges, sweet lemons, etc. And by the
walls are coconut and toddy-trees in great plenty. Besides these they
have musk and watermelons, pineapples, pomecitrons, pomegranates, and
other sorts of fruits. Between this garden and the river there is a pen
for black cattle, whereof they have plenty. Beyond the Company's ground
the natives have their houses, in number about fifty or sixty. There are
forty or fifty soldiers belonging to this fort, but I know not how many
guns they have; for I had only opportunity to see one bastion, which had
in it four guns. Within the walls there is a neat little church or


Beyond Concordia the land runs about seven leagues to the bottom of the
bay; then it is not above a league and a half from side to side, and the
land trends away northerly to the north shore, then turns about again to
the westward, making the south side of the bay. About three leagues and a
half from the bottom of the bay on this side there is a small island
about a musket-shot from the shore; and a reef of rocks that runs from it
to the eastward about a mile. On the west side of the island is a channel
of three fathom at low-water, of which depth it is also within, where
ships may haul in and careen. West from this island the land rounds away
in a bight or elbow, and at last ends in a low point of land which shoots
forth a ledge of rocks a mile into the sea, which is dry at low water.
Just against the low point of land and to the west of the ledge of rocks
is another pretty high and rocky yet woody island, about half a mile from
the low point; which island has a ledge of corally rocks running from it
all along to the other small island, only leaving one channel between
them. Many of these rocks are to be seen at low-water, and there seldom
is water enough for a boat to go over them till quarter flood or more.
Within this ledge there is two or three fathom water, and without it no
less than ten or twelve fathom close to the rocks. A league without this
last rocky island is another small low sandy island, about four miles
from the low point, three leagues from the Dutch fort Concordia and three
leagues and a half from the south-west point of the bay. Ships that come
in this way must pass between this low isle and the low point, keeping
near the isle.


In this bay there is any depth of water from thirty to three fathom, very
good oazy holding ground. This affords the best shelter against all winds
of any place about the island Timor. But from March to October, while
either the southerly winds or only land and seabreezes hold, the
Concordia side is best to ride in; but when the more violent northerly
winds come then the best riding is between the two rocky islands in
nineteen or twenty fathom. If you bring the westernmost island to bear
south-west by west about a league distance, and the low point west by
south; then the body of the sandy island will bear south-west half west,
distance two leagues; and the ledges of rocks shooting from each make
such a bar that no sea can come in. Then you have the land from west by
south to east-north-east to defend you on that side: and other winds do
not here blow violently. But if they did yet you are so land-locked that
there can be no sea to hurt you. This anchoring-place is called Babao,
about five leagues from Concordia. The greatest inconveniency in it is
the multitude of worms. Here is fresh water enough to be had in the wet
season; every little gulley discharging fresh water into the sea.


In the dry season you must search for it in standing ponds or gulleys,
where the wild buffaloes, hogs, etc. resort every morning and evening to
drink; where you may lie and shoot them, taking care that you go strong
enough and well-armed against the natives upon all occasions. For though
there are no inhabitants near this place yet the Malayans come in great
companies when ships are here; and if they meet with any Europeans they
kill them, of what nation soever they be, not excepting the Portuguese
themselves. It is but two years since a Portuguese ship riding here had
all the boat's crew cut off as they were watering; as I was informed by
the Dutch. Here likewise is plenty of fish of several sorts, which may be
caught with a seine; also tortoise and oysters.

From the north-east point of this bay, on the north side of the island,
the land trends away north-north-east for four or five leagues; afterward
north-east or more easterly; and when you are fourteen or fifteen leagues
to the eastward of Babao you come up with a point that makes like
Flamborough Head, if you are pretty nigh the land; but if at a distance
from it on either side it appears like an island. This point is very
remarkable, there being none other like it in all this island. When you
are abreast of this point you will see another point about four leagues
to the eastward; and when you are abreast of this latter point you will
see a small island bearing east or east by north (according to your
distance from the land) just rising out of the water: when you see it
plain you will be abreast of a pretty deep sandy bay, which has a point
in the middle that comes sloping from the mountains with a curious valley
on each side: the sandy bay runs from one valley to the other. You may
sail into this bay, and anchor a little to the eastward of the point in
twenty fathom water, half a mile from the shore, soft oaze. Then you will
be about two leagues from the west point of the bay, and about eight
leagues from the small island before mentioned, which you can see pretty
plain bearing east-north-east a little northwardly. Some other marks are
set down in the foregoing chapter. In this sandy bay you will find fresh
water in two or three places. At spring tides you will see many
ripplings, like shoals; but they are only eddies caused by the two points
of the bay.

We saw smokes all day up in the mountains, and fires by night, at certain
places where we supposed the natives lived, but saw none of them.

The tides ran between the two points of the bay, very strong and
uncertain: yet it did not rise and fall above nine foot upon a spring
tide: but it made great ripplings and a roaring noise, whirling about
like whirlpools. We had constantly eddy tides under the shore, made by
the points on each side of the bay.


When you go hence to the eastward you may pass between the small island
and Timor; and when you are five or six leagues to the eastward of the
small island you will see a large valley to the eastward of you; then,
running a little further, you may see houses on the bay: you may luff in,
but anchor not till you go about the next point. Then you will see more
houses where you may run in to twenty or thirty fathom, and anchor right
against the houses, nearest the west end of them. This place is called
Laphao. It is a Portuguese settlement, about sixteen leagues from the

There are in it about forty or fifty houses and one church. The houses
are mean and low, the walls generally made of mud or wattled, and their
sides made up with boards: they are all thatched with palm or palmetto
leaves. The church also is very small: the east end of it is boarded up
to the top; but the sides and the west end are only boarded three or four
foot high; the rest is all open: there is a small altar in it, with two
steps to go up to it, and an image or two; but all very mean. It is also
thatched with palm or palmetto leaves. Each house has a yard belonging to
it, fenced about with wild canes nine or ten foot high. There is a well
in each yard, and a little bucket with a string to it to draw water
withal. There is a trunk of a tree made hollow, placed in each well, to
keep the earth from falling in. Round the yards there are many
fruit-trees planted; as coconuts, tamarinds and toddy-trees.

They have a small hovel by the sea side where there are six small old
iron guns standing on a decayed platform, in rotten carriages. Their
vents are so big that when they are fired, the strength of the powder
flying out there, they give but a small report like that of a musket.
This is their court of guard; and here were a few armed men watching all
the time we lay here.

The inhabitants of the town are chiefly a sort of Indians of a
copper-colour, with black lank hair: they speak Portuguese and are of the
Romish religion; but they take the liberty to eat flesh when they please.
They value themselves on the account of their religion and descent from
the Portuguese; and would be very angry if a man should say they are not
Portuguese; yet I saw but three white men here, two of which were padres.
There are also a few Chinese living here. It is a place of pretty good
trade and strength, the best on this island, Porta Nova excepted. They
have three or four small barks belonging to the place; with which they
trade chiefly about the island with the natives for wax, gold, and
sandalwood. Sometimes they go to Batavia and fetch European commodities,
rice, etc.

The Chinese trade hither from Macao; and I was informed that about twenty
sail of small vessels come from thence hither every year. They bring
coarse rice, adulterated gold, tea, iron, and iron tools, porcelain,
silks, etc. They take in exchange pure gold, as it is gathered in the
mountains, beeswax, sandalwood, slaves, etc. Sometimes also here comes a
ship from Goa. Ships that trade here began to come hither the latter end
of March; and none stay here longer than the latter end of August. For
should they be here while the north-north-west monsoon blows no cables
nor anchors would hold them; but they would be driven ashore and dashed
in pieces presently. But from March till September, while the
south-south-east monsoon blows, ships ride here very secure; for then,
though the wind often blows hard, yet it is offshore; so that there is
very smooth water, and no fear of being driven ashore; and yet even then
they moor with three cables; two towards the land, eastward and westward;
and the third right off to seaward.

As this is the second place of traffic so it is in strength the second
place the Portuguese have here, though not capable of resisting a hundred
men: for the pirates that were at the Dutch fort came hither also; and
after they had filled their water and cut firewood and refreshed
themselves, they plundered the houses, set them on fire, and went away.
Yet I was told that the Portuguese can draw together five or six hundred
men in twenty-four hours time, all armed with hand-guns, swords and
pistols; but powder and bullets are scarce and dear. The chief person
they have on the island is named Antonio Henriquez; they call him usually
by the title of Captain More or Maior. They say he is a white man, and
that he was sent hither by the viceroy of Goa. I did not see him; for he
lives, as I was informed, a great way from hence, at a place called Porta
Nova, which is at the east end of the island, and by report is a good
harbour; but they say that this Captain More goes frequently to wars in
company with the Indians that are his neighbours and friends, against
other Indians that are their enemies. The next man to him is Alexis
Mendosa; he is a lieutenant, and lives six or seven miles from hence, and
rules this part of the country. He is a little man of the Indian race,
copper-coloured, with black lank hair. He speaks both the Indian and
Portuguese languages; is a Roman Catholic, and seems to be a civil brisk
man. There is another lieutenant at Laphao; who is also an Indian; speaks
both his own and the Portuguese language very well; is old and infirm,
but was very courteous to me.

They boast very much of their strength here, and say they are able at any
time to drive the Dutch away from the island, had they permission from
the king of Portugal so to do. But though they boast thus of their
strength yet really they are very weak; for they have but a few small
arms and but little powder: they have no fort, nor magazine of arms; nor
does the viceroy of Goa send them any now: for though they pretend to be
under the king of Portugal they are a sort of lawless people, and are
under no government. It was not long since the viceroy of Goa sent a ship
hither, and a land-officer to remain here: but Captain More put him in
irons, and sent him aboard the ship again; telling the commander that he
had no occasion for any officers; and that he could make better officers
here than any that could be sent him from Goa: and I know not whether
there has been any other ship sent from Goa since: so that they have no
supplies from thence: yet they need not want arms and ammunition, seeing
they trade to Batavia. However they have swords and lances as other
Indians have; and though they are ambitious to be called Portuguese, and
value themselves on their religion, yet most of the men and all the women
that live here are Indians; and there are very few right Portuguese in
any part of the island. However of those that call themselves Portuguese
I was told there are some thousands; and I think their strength consists
more in their numbers than in good arms or discipline.

The land from hence trends away east by north about 14 leagues, making
many points and sandy bays, where vessels may anchor.


Fourteen leagues east from Laphao there is a small harbour called Ciccale
by the Portuguese, and commended by them for an excellent port; but it is
very small, has a narrow entrance, and lies open to northerly winds:
though indeed there are two ledges of rocks, one shooting out from the
west point and the other from the east point, which break off the sea;
for the rocks are dry at low water. This place is about 60 leagues from
the south-west end of the island.


The whole of this island Timor is a very uneven rough country, full of
hills and small valleys. In the middle of it there runs a chain of high
mountains, almost from one end to the other. It is indifferently well
watered (even in the dry times) with small brooks and springs, but no
great rivers; the island being but narrow, and such a chain of mountains
in the middle that no water can run far; but, as the springs break out on
one side or other of the hills, they make their nearest course to the
sea. In the wet season the valleys and low lands by the sea are overflown
with water; and then the small drills that run into the sea are great
rivers; and the gullies, which are dry for 3 or 4 months before, now
discharge an impetuous torrent. The low land by the seaside is for the
most part friable, loose, sandy soil; yet indifferently fertile and
clothed with woods. The mountains are chequered with woods and some spots
of savannahs: some of the hills are wholly covered with tall, flourishing
trees; others but thinly; and these few trees that are on them, look very
small, rusty and withered; and the spots of savannahs among them appear
rocky and barren. Many of the mountains are rich in gold, copper, or
both: the rains wash the gold out of mountains, which the natives pick up
in the adjacent brooks, as the Spaniards do in America: how they get the
copper I know not.


The trees that grow naturally here are of divers sorts; many of them
wholly unknown to me; but such as I have seen in America or other places,
and grow here likewise, are these, namely mangrove, white, red and black;
maho, calabash, several sorts of the palm kind: the cotton-trees are not
large, but tougher than those in America: here are also locust-trees of 2
or 3 sorts, bearing fruit, but not like those I have formerly seen; these
bear a large white blossom, and yield much fruit but, it is not sweet.


Cana-fistula-trees are very common here; the tree is about the bigness of
our ordinary apple-trees; their branches not thick, nor full of leaves.
These and the before-mentioned blossom in October and November; the
blossoms are much like our apple-tree blossoms, and about that bigness:
at first they are red; but before they fall off, when spread abroad, they
are white; so that these trees in their season appear extraordinarily
pleasant, and yield a very fragrant smell. When the fruit is ripe it is
round, and about the bigness of a man's thumb; of a dark brown colour,
inclining to red, and about 2 foot or 2 foot and a half long. We found
many of them under the trees, but they had no pulp in them. The
partitions in the middle are much at the same distance with those brought
to England, of the same substance, and such small flat seed in them: but
whether they be the true cana-fistula or no I cannot tell, because I
found no black pulp in them.

The calabashes here are very prickly: the trees grow tall and tapering;
whereas in the West Indies they are low and spread much abroad.

Here are also wild tamarind-trees, not as large as the true; though much
resembling them both in the bark and leaf.


Wild fig trees here are many, but not so large as those in America. The
fruit grows not on the branches singly like those in America, but in
strings and clusters, 40 or 50 in a cluster, about the body and great
branches of the tree, from the very root up to the top. These figs are
about the bigness of a crab-apple, of a greenish colour, and full of
small white seeds; they smell pretty well, but have no juice or taste;
they are ripe in November.

Here likewise grows sandalwood, and many more sorts of trees fit for any
uses. The tallest among them resemble our pines; they are straight and
clear-bodied, but not very thick; the inside is reddish near the heart
and hard and ponderous.


Of the palm kind there are 3 or 4 sorts; two of which kinds I have not
seen anywhere but here. Both sorts are very large and tall. The first
sort had trunks of about 7 or eight foot in circumference and about 80 or
90 foot high. These had branches at the top like coconut-trees, and their
fruit like coconuts, but smaller: the nut was of an oval form, and about
the bigness of a duck's egg: the shell black and very hard. It was almost
full of kernel, having only a small empty space in the middle, but no
water as coconuts have. The kernel is too hard to be eaten. The fruit
somewhat resembles that in Brazil formerly mentioned. The husk or outside
of the fruit was very yellow, soft and pulpy when ripe; and full of small
fibres; and when it fell down from the trees would mash and smell

The other sort was as big and tall as the former; the body growing
straight up without limbs, as all trees of the palm kind do: but, instead
of a great many long green branches growing from the head of the tree,
these had short branches about the bigness of a man's arm, and about a
foot long; each of which spread itself into a great many small tough
twigs, that hung full of fruit like so many ropes of onions. The fruit
was as big as a large plum; and every tree had several bushels of fruit.
The branches that bore this fruit sprouted out at about 50 or 60 foot
height from the ground. The trunk of the tree was all of one bigness from
the ground to that height; but from thence it went tapering smaller and
smaller to the top, where it was no bigger than a man's leg, ending in a
stump: and there was no green about the tree but the fruit; so that it
appeared like a dead trunk.

Besides fruit trees here were many sorts of tall straight-bodied
timber-trees; one sort of which was like pine. These grow plentifully all
round the island by the seaside, but not far within land. It is hard
wood, of a reddish colour, and very ponderous.


The fruits of this island are guavas, mangoes, jacas, coconuts,
plantains, bananas, pineapples, citrons, pomegranates, oranges, lemons,
limes, musk-melons, watermelons, pumpkins, etc. Many of these have been
brought hither by the Dutch and Portuguese; and most of them are ripe in
September and October. There were many other excellent fruits, but not
now in season; as I was informed both by the Dutch and Portuguese.


Here I met with an herb which in the West Indies we call calalaloo. It
grows wild here. I ate of it several times and found it as pleasant and
wholesome as spinach. Here are also parsley, samphire, etc. Indian corn
thrives very well here, and is the common food of the islanders; though
the Portuguese and their friends sow some rice, but not half enough for
their subsistence.


The land animals are buffaloes, beeves, horses, hogs, goats, sheep,
monkeys, iguanas, lizards, snakes, scorpions, centumpees, etc. Beside the
tame hogs and buffaloes, there are many wild all over the country, which
any may freely kill. As for the beeves, horses, goats, and sheep, it is
probable they were brought in by the Portuguese or Dutch; especially the
beeves; for I saw none but at the Dutch fort Concordia.

We also saw monkeys and some snakes. One sort yellow, and as big as a
man's arm, and about 4 foot long: another sort no bigger than the stem of
a tobacco pipe, about 5 foot long, green all over his body, and with a
flat red head as big as a man's thumb.


The fowls are wild cocks and hens, eagles, hawks, crows, 2 sorts of
pigeons, turtledoves, 3 or 4 sorts of parrots, parakeets, cockatoos,
blackbirds; besides a multitude of smaller birds of divers colours, whose
charming music makes the woods very pleasant. One sort of these pretty
little birds my men called the ringing-bird; because it had 6 notes, and
always repeated all his notes twice one after another; beginning high and
shrill and ending low. This bird was about the bigness of a lark, having
a small sharp black bill and blue wings; the head and breast were of a
pale red, and there was a blue streak about its neck. Here are also
sea- or waterfowls, as men-of-war-birds, boobies, fishing-hawks, herons,
galdens, crab-catchers, etc. The tame fowl are cocks, hens, ducks, geese;
the 2 last sorts I only saw at the Dutch fort, of the other sort there
are not many but among the Portuguese: the woods abound with bees, which
make much honey and wax.


The sea is very well stocked with fish of divers sorts, namely mullet,
bass, bream, snook, mackerel, parracoots, garfish, ten-pounders,
scuttle-fish, stingrays, whiprays, rasperages, cockle-merchants, or
oyster-crackers, cavallies, conger-eels, rock-fish, dog-fish, etc. The
rays are so plentiful that I never drew the seine but I caught some of
them; which we salted and dried. I caught one whose tail was 13 foot
long. The cockle-merchants are shaped like cavallies, and about their
bigness. They feed on shellfish, having 2 very hard, thick, flat bones in
their throat, with which they break in pieces the shells of the fish they
swallow. We always find a great many shells in their maws, crushed in
pieces. The shellfish are oysters of 3 sorts, namely long-oysters, common
oysters, growing upon rocks in great abundance and very flat; and another
sort of large oysters, fat and crooked; the shell of this not easily to
be distinguished from a stone. Three or four of these roasted will
suffice a man for one meal. Cockles, as big as a man's head; of which 2
or 3 are enough for a meal; they are very fat and sweet. Crawfish,
shrimps, etc. Here are also many green-turtle, some alligators and
grandpisces, etc.


The original natives of this island are Indians, they are of a middle
stature, straight-bodied, slender-limbed, long-visaged; their hair black
and lank; their skins very swarthy. They are very dexterous and nimble,
but withal lazy in the high degree. They are said to be dull in
everything but treachery and barbarity. Their houses are but low and
mean, their clothing only a small cloth about their middle; but some of
them for ornament have frontlets of mother-of-pearl, or thin pieces of
silver or gold, made of an oval form of the breadth of a crown-piece,
curiously notched round the edges; five of these placed one by another a
little above the eyebrows making a sufficient guard and ornament for
their forehead. They are so thin and placed on their foreheads so
artificially that they seem reverted thereon: and indeed the pearl-oyster
shells make a more splendid show than either silver or gold. Others of
them have palmetto-caps made in divers forms.

As to their marriages they take as many wives as they can maintain; and
sometimes they sell their children to purchase more wives. I enquired
about their religion and was told they had none. Their common subsistence
is by Indian corn, which every man plants for himself. They take but
little pains to clear their land for in the dry time they set fire to the
withered grass and shrubs, and that burns them out a plantation for the
next wet season. What other grain they have beside Indian corn I know
not. Their plantations are very mean; for they delight most in hunting;
and here are wild buffaloes and hogs enough, though very shy because of
their so frequent hunting.

They have a few boats and some fishermen. Their arms are lances, thick
round short truncheons and targets; with these they hunt and kill their
game and their enemies too; for this island is now divided into many
kingdoms, and all of different languages; though in their customs and
manner of living, as well as shape and colour, they seem to be of one


The chiefest kingdoms are Kupang, Amabia, Lortribie, Pobumbie, Namquimal;
the island also of Anamabao, or Anabao, is a kingdom. Each of these has a
sultan who is supreme in his province and kingdom, and has under him
several rajas and other inferior officers. The sultans for the most part
are enemies to each other, which enmities are fomented and kept up by the
Dutch, whose fort and factory is in the kingdom of Kupang; and therefore
the bay near which they are settled, is commonly called Kupang Bay. They
have only as much ground as they can keep within reach of their guns; yet
this whole kingdom is at peace with them; and they freely trade together;
as also with the islanders on Anabao, who are in amity as well with the
natives of Kupang as with the Dutch residing there; but they are
implacable enemies to those of Amabie, who are their next neighbours, and
in amity with the Portuguese: as are also the kingdoms of Pobumbie,
Namquimal and Lortribie. It is very probable that these 2 European
settlements on this island are the greatest occasion of their continued
wars. The Portuguese vaunt highly of their strength here and that they
are able at pleasure to rout the Dutch, if they had authority so to do
from the king of Portugal; and they have written to the viceroy of Goa
about it: and though their request is not yet granted, yet (as they say)
they live in expectation of it. These have no forts but depend on their
alliance with the natives: and indeed they are already so mixed that it
is hard to distinguish whether they are Portuguese or Indians. Their
language is Portuguese; and the religion they have is Romish. They seem
in words to acknowledge the king of Portugal for their sovereign; yet
they will not accept of any officers sent by him. They speak
indifferently the Malayan and their own native languages, as well as
Portuguese; and the chiefest officers that I saw were of this sort;
neither did I see above 3 or 4 white men among them; and of these 2 were
priests. Of this mixed breed there are some thousands; of whom some have
small arms of their own, and know how to use them. The chiefest person
(as I before said) is called Captain More or Maior: he is a white man,
sent hither by the viceroy of Goa, and seems to have great command here.
I did not see him; for he seldom comes down. His residence is at a place
called Porta Nova; which the people at Laphao told me was a great way
off; but I could not get any more particular account. Some told me that
he is most commonly in the mountains, with an army of Indians, to guard
the passes between them and the Kupangayans, especially in the dry times.
The next man to him is Alexis Mendosa: he is a right Indian, speaks very
good Portuguese, and is of the Romish religion. He lives 5 or 6 miles
from the sea, and is called the lieutenant. (This is he whom I called
governor, when at Laphao.) He commands next to Captain More, and has
under him another at this fort (at the seaside) if it may be so-called.
He also is called lieutenant and is an Indian Portuguese.

Besides this mongrel breed of Indians and Portuguese here are also some
Chinamen, merchants from Macao: they bring hither coarse rice, gold, tea,
iron-work, porcelain, and silk both wrought and raw: they get in exchange
pure gold as it is here gathered, beeswax, sandalwood, coir, etc. It is
said there are about 20 small China vessels come hither every year from
Macao; and commonly one vessel a year from Goa, which brings European
commodities and calicos, muslins, etc. Here are likewise some small barks
belonging to this place, that trade to Batavia, and bring from thence
both European and Indian goods and rice. The vessels generally come here
in March and stay till September.

The Dutch as I before said are settled in the kingdom of Kupang, where
they have a small neat stone fort. It seems to be pretty strong; yet, as
I was informed, had been taken by a French pirate about 2 years ago: the
Dutch were used very barbarously, and ever since are very jealous of any
strangers that come this way; which I myself experienced. These depend
more on their own strength than on the natives their friends; having good
guns, powder, and shot enough on all occasions, and soldiers sufficient
to manage the business here, all well disciplined and in good order;
which is a thing the Portuguese their neighbours are altogether destitute
of, they having no European soldiers, few arms, less ammunition, and
their fort consisting of no more than 6 bad guns planted against the sea,
whose touch-holes (as was before observed) are so enlarged by time that a
great part of the strength of the powder flies away there; and, having
soldiers in pay, the natives on all occasions are hired; and their
government now is so loose that they will admit of no more officers from
Portugal or Goa. They have also little or no supply of arms or ammunition
from thence, but buy it as often as they can of the Dutch, Chinese, etc.,
so that upon the whole it seems improbable that they should ever attempt
to drive out the Dutch for fear of loosing themselves, notwithstanding
their bosomed prowess and alliance with the natives: and indeed, as far
as I could hear, they have business enough to keep their own present
territories from the incursions of the Kupangayans; who are friends to
the Dutch, and whom doubtless the Dutch have ways enough to preserve in
their friendship; besides that they have an inveterate malice to their
neighbours, insomuch that they kill all they meet, and bring away their
heads in triumph. The great men of Kupang stick the heads of those they
have killed on poles; and set them on the tops of their houses; and these
they esteem above all their other riches. The inferior sort bring the
heads of those they kill into houses made for that purpose; of which
there was one at the Indian village near the fort Concordia, almost full
of heads, as I was told. I know not what encouragement they have for
their inhumanity.


The Dutch have always 2 sloops belonging to their fort; in these they go
about the island and trade with the natives and, as far as I could learn,
they trade indifferently with them all. For though the inland people are
at war with each other, yet those by the seaside seem to be little
concerned; and, generally speaking the Malayan language, are very
sociable and easily induced to trade with those that speak that language;
which the Dutch here always learn; besides, being well acquainted with
the treachery of these people, they go well armed among them, and are
very vigilant never to give them an opportunity to hurt them; and it is
very probable that they supply them with such goods as the Portuguese


The Malayan language, as I have before said, is generally spoken amongst
all the islands hereabouts. The greater the trade is the more this
language is spoken: in some it is become their only language; in others
it is but little spoken, and that by the seaside only. With this language
the Mahomedan religion did spread itself, and was got hither before any
European Christians came: but now, though the language is still used, the
Mahomedan religion falls, wherever the Portuguese or Dutch are settled;
unless they be very weak, as at Solor and Ende, where the chief language
is Malayan, and the religion Mahomedanism; though the Dutch are settled
at Solor, and the Portuguese at the east end of the island Ende, at a
place called Lorantuca; which, as I was informed, is a large town, has a
pretty strong fort and safe harbour. The chief man there (as at Timor) is
called Captain More, and is as absolute as the other. These 2 principal
men are enemies to each other; and by their letters and messages to Goa
inveigh bitterly against each other; and are ready to do all the ill
offices they can; yet neither of them much regards the viceroy of Goa, as
I was informed.

Lorantuca is said to be more populous than any town on Timor; the island
Ende affording greater plenty of all manner of fruit, and being much
better supplied with all necessaries than Laphao; especially with sheep,
goats, hogs, poultry, etc. But it is very dangerous getting into this
harbour because of the violent tides between the islands Ende and Solor.
In the middle channel between Timor and the range of islands to the
northward of it, whereof Ende and Solor are 2, there runs a constant
current all the year to the westward; though near either shore there are
tides indeed; but the tide of flood, which sets west, running 8 or 9
hours, and the ebb not exceeding 3 or 4 hours, the tide in some places
rises 9 or 10 foot on a spring.


The seasons of the year here at Timor are much the same as in other
places in south latitude. The fair weather begins in April or May and
continues to October, then the tornadoes begin to come, but no violent
bad weather till the middle of December. Then there are violent west or
north-west winds, with rain, till towards the middle of February. In May
the southerly winds set in and blow very strong on the north side of the
island, but fair. There is great difference of winds on the 2 sides of
the island: for the southerly winds are but very faint on the south side,
and very hard on the north side; and the bad weather on the south side
comes in very violent in October, which on the north side comes not till
December. You have very good sea and land breezes, when the weather is
fair; and may run indifferently to the east or west, as your business
lies. We found from September to December the winds veering all round the
compass gradually in 24 hours time; but such a constant western current
that it is much harder getting to the east than west at or near spring
tides: which I have more than once made trial of. For weighing from Babao
at 6 o'clock in the morning on the 12 instant we kept plying under the
shore till the 20th, meeting with such a western current that we gained
very little. We had land and seabreezes; but so faint that we could
hardly stem the current; and when it was calm between the breezes we
drove a-stern faster than ever we sailed ahead.




On the 12th of December 1699 we sailed from Babao, coasting along the
island Timor to the eastward towards New Guinea. It was the 20th before
we got as far as Laphao, which is but forty leagues. We saw black clouds
in the north-west and expected the wind from that quarter above a month


That afternoon we saw the opening between the islands Omba and Fetter,
but feared to pass through in the night. At two o'clock in the morning it
fell calm; and continued so till noon, in which time we drove with the
current back again south-west six or seven leagues.

On the 22nd, steering to the eastward to get through between Omba and
Fetter, we met a very strong tide against us, so that we, although we had
a very fresh gale, yet made way very slowly; yet before night got
through. By a good observation we found that the south-east point of Omba
lies in latitude 8 degrees 25 minutes. In my charts it is laid down in 8
degrees 10 minutes. My true course from Babao is east 25 degrees north,
distance one hundred and eighty-three miles. We sounded several times
when near Omba, but had no ground. On the north-east point of Omba we saw
four or five men, and a little further three pretty houses on a low
point, but did not go ashore.

At five this afternoon we had a tornado which yielded much rain, thunder
and lightning; yet we had but little wind. The 24th in the morning we
caught a large shark, which gave all the ship's company a plentiful meal.


The 27th we saw the burning island, it lies in latitude 6 degrees 36
minutes south; it is high and but small. It runs from the sea a little
sloping towards the top; which is divided in the middle into two peaks,
between which issued out much smoke: I have not seen more from any
volcano. I saw no trees; but the north side appeared green, and the rest
looked very barren.


Having passed the burning island I shaped my course for two islands
called Turtle Isles which lie north-east by east a little easterly, and
distant about fifty leagues from the burning isle. I, fearing the wind
might veer to the eastward of the north, steered 20 leagues north-east,
then north-east by east. On the 28th we saw two small low islands called
Luca Paros, to the north of us. At noon I accounted myself 20 leagues
short of the Turtle Isles.


The next morning, being in the latitude of the Turtle Islands, we looked
out sharp for them but saw no appearance of any island till 11 o'clock;
when we saw an island at a great distance. At first we supposed it might
be one of the Turtle Isles: but it was not laid down true, neither in
latitude nor longitude from the burning isle, nor from the Luca Paros,
which last I took to be a great help to guide me, they being laid down
very well from the burning isle, and that likewise in true latitude and
distance from Omba: so that I could not tell what to think of the island
now in sight; we having had fair weather, so that we could not pass by
the Turtle Isles without seeing them; and this in sight was much too far
off for them. We found variation 1 degree 2 minutes east. In the
afternoon I steered north-east by east for the islands that we saw. At 2
o'clock I went and looked over the fore-yard, and saw 2 islands at much
greater distance than the Turtle Islands are laid down in my charts; one
of them was a very high peaked mountain, cleft at top, and much like the
burning island that we passed by, but bigger and higher; the other was a
pretty long high flat island. Now I was certain that these were not the
Turtle Islands, and that they could be no other than the Banda Isles; yet
we steered in to make them plainer. At 3 o'clock we discovered another
small flat island to the north-west of the others, and saw a great deal
of smoke rise from the top of the high island; at 4 we saw other small
islands, by which I was now assured that these were the Banda Isles
there. At 5 I altered my course and steered east, and at 8
east-south-east; because I would not be seen by the inhabitants of those
islands in the morning.


We had little wind all night: and in the morning as soon as it was light
we saw another high peaked island: at 8 it bore south-south-east half
east, distance 8 leagues. And this I knew to be Bird Isle. It is laid
down in our charts in latitude 5 degrees 9 minutes south, which is too
far southerly by 27 miles according to our observation; and the like
error in laying down the Turtle Islands might be the occasion of our
missing them.

At night I shortened sail for fear of coming too nigh some islands that
stretch away bending like a half moon from Ceram towards Timor, and which
in my course I must of necessity pass through. The next morning betimes I
saw them; and found them to be at a farther distance from Bird Island
than I expected. In the afternoon it fell quite calm; and when we had a
little wind it was so unconstant, flying from one point to another, that
I could not without difficulty get through the islands where I designed:
besides I found a current setting to the southward; so that it was
betwixt 5 and 6 in the evening before I passed through the islands; and
then just weathered little Waiela, whereas I thought to have been 2 or 3
leagues more northerly. We saw the day before, betwixt 2 and 3, a spout
but a small distance from us. It fell down out of a black cloud that
yielded great store of rain, thunder, and lightning: this cloud hovered
to the southward of us for the space of three hours, and then drew to the
westward a great pace; at which time it was that we saw the spout, which
hung fast to the cloud till it broke; and then the cloud whirled about to
the south-east, then to east-north-east; where, meeting with an island,
it spent itself and so dispersed; and immediately we had a little of the
tail of it, having had none before. Afterward we saw a smoke on the
island Kosiway, which continued all night.



On New Year's Day we first descried the land of New Guinea, which
appeared to be high land; and the next day we saw several high islands on
the coast of New Guinea, and ran in with the mainland. The shore here
lies along east-south-east and west-north-west. It is high even land,
very well clothed with tall flourishing trees, which appeared very green
and gave us a very pleasant prospect. We ran to the westward of four
mountainous islands; and in the night had a small tornado, which brought
with it some rain and a fair wind. We had fair weather for a long time;
only when near any land we had some tornadoes; but off at sea commonly
clear weather; though if in sight of land we usually saw many black
clouds hovering about it.


On the 5th and 6th of January we plied to get in with the land; designing
to anchor, fill water, and spend a little time in searching the country,
till after the change of the moon; for I found a strong current setting
against us. We anchored in 38 fathom water, good oazie ground. We had an
island of a league long without us, about 3 miles distant; and we rode
from the main about a mile. The easternmost point of land seen bore east
by south half south, distance 3 leagues: and the westernmost
west-south-west half south, distance 2 leagues. So soon as we anchored we
sent the pinnace to look for water, and try if they could catch any fish.
Afterwards we sent the yawl another way to see for water. Before night
the pinnace brought on board several sorts of fruits that they found in
the woods, such as I never saw before.


One of my men killed a stately land-fowl, as big as the largest
dunghill-cock. It was of a sky-colour; only in the middle of the wings
was a white spot, about which were some reddish spots: on the crown it
had a large bunch of long feathers, which appeared very pretty. His bill
was like a pigeon's; he had strong legs and feet, like dunghill-fowls;
only the claws were reddish. His crop was full of small berries. It lays
an egg as big as a large hen's egg; for our men climbed the tree where it
nested and brought off one egg. They found water; and reported that the
trees were large, tall and very thick; and that they saw no sign of
people. At night the yawl came aboard and brought a wooden fishgig, very
ingeniously made; the matter of it was a small cane; they found it by a
small barbecue, where they also saw a shattered canoe.


The next morning I sent the boatswain ashore a-fishing and at one haul he
caught 352 mackerels and about 20 other fishes; which I caused to be
equally divided among all my company. I sent also the gunner and chief
mate to search about if they could find convenient anchoring nearer a
watering-place: by night they brought word that they had found a fine
stream of good water, where the boat could come close to and it was very
easy to be filled; and that the ship might anchor as near to it as I
pleased: so I went thither. The next morning therefore we anchored in 25
fathom water, soft oazie ground, about a mile from the river: we got on
board 3 tun of water that night; and caught 2 or 3 pike-fish, in shape
much like a parracota, but with a longer snout, something resembling a
gar, yet not so long. The next day I sent the boat again for water and
before night all my casks were full.


Having filled here about 15 tuns of water, seeing we could catch but
little fish, and had no other refreshments, I intended to sail next day;
but finding that we wanted wood I sent to cut some; and going ashore to
hasten it, at some distance from the place where our men were, I found a
small cove where I saw two barbecues, which appeared not to be above 2
months standing: the spars were cut with some sharp instrument; so that,
if done by the natives, it seems that they have iron. On the 10th, a
little after 12 o'clock, we weighed and stood over to the north side of
the bay; and at 1 o'clock stood out with the wind at north and
north-north-west. At 4 we passed out by a White Island, which I so named
from its many white cliffs, having no name in our charts. It is about a
league long, pretty high, and very woody: it is about 5 miles from the
main, only at the west end it reaches within 3 miles of it. At some
distance off at sea the west point appears like a cape land; the north
side trends away north-north-west, and the east side east-south-east.
This island lies in latitude 3 degrees 4 minutes south; and the meridian
distance from Babao, 500 and 12 miles east. After we were out to sea we
plied to get to the northward; but met with such a strong current against
us that we got but little. For if the wind favoured us in the night, that
we got 3 or 4 leagues; we lost it again and were driven as far astern
next morning, so that we plied here several days.

The 14th, being past a point of land that we had been 3 days getting
about, we found little or no current; so that, having the wind at
north-west by west and west-north-west, we stood to the northward, and
had several soundings: at 3 o'clock, 38 fathom; the nearest part of New
Guinea being about 3 leagues distance: at 4, 37; at 5, 36; at 6, 36; at
8, 33 fathom; then the cape was about 4 leagues distant; so that as we
ran off we found our water shallower. We had then some islands to the
westward of us, at about four leagues distance.


A little after noon we saw smokes on the islands to the west of us; and,
having a fine gale of wind, I steered away for them: at 7 o'clock in the
evening we anchored in 35 fathom, about two leagues from an island, good
soft oazie ground. We lay still all night, and saw fires ashore. In the
morning we weighed again, and ran farther in, thinking to have shallower
water; but we ran within a mile of the shore, and came to in 38 fathom,
good soft holding ground. While we were under sail 2 canoes came off
within call of us: they spoke to us, but we did not understand their
language, nor signs. We waved to them to come aboard, and I called to
them in the Malayan language to do the same; but they would not; yet they
came so nigh us that we could show them such things as we had to truck
with them; yet neither would this entice them to come aboard; but they
made signs for us to come ashore, and away they went. Then I went after
them in my pinnace, carrying with me knives, beads, glasses, hatchets,
etc. When we came near the shore I called to them in the Malayan
language: I saw but 2 men at first, the rest lying in ambush behind the
bushes; but as soon as I threw ashore some knives and other toys they
came out, flung down their weapons, and came into the water by the boat's
side, making signs of friendship by pouring water on their heads with one
hand which they dipped into the sea. The next day in the afternoon
several other canoes came aboard and brought many roots and fruits, which
we purchased.

This island has no name in our charts but the natives call it Pulo
Sabuda. It is about 3 leagues long and 2 miles wide, more or less. It is
of a good height so as to be seen 11 or 12 leagues. It is very rocky; yet
above the rocks there is good yellow and black mould; not deep yet
producing plenty of good tall trees, and bearing any fruits or roots
which the inhabitants plant. I do not know all its produce; but what we
saw were plantains, coconuts, pineapples, oranges, papaws, potatoes, and
other large roots. Here are also another sort of wild jacas, about the
bigness of a man's two fists, full of stones or kernels, which eat
pleasant enough when roasted. The libby-tree grows here in the swampy
valleys, of which they make sago cakes: I did not see them make any but
was told by the inhabitants that it was made of the pith of the tree in
the same manner I have described in my Voyage round the World. They
showed me the tree whereof it was made, and I bought about 40 of the
cakes. I bought also 3 or 4 nutmegs in their shell, which did not seem to
have been long gathered; but, whether they be the growth of this island
or not, the natives would not tell whence they had them, and seemed to
prize them very much. What beasts the island affords I know not: but here
are both sea- and land-fowl. Of the first boobies and men-of-war-birds
are the chief; some galdens, and small milk-white crab-catchers. The
land-fowls are pigeons, about the bigness of mountain-pigeons in Jamaica;
and crows about the bigness of those in England, and much like them; but
the inner part of their feathers are white, and the outside black; so
that they appear all black, unless you extend the feathers. Here are
large sky-coloured birds, such as we lately killed on New Guinea; and
many other small birds unknown to us. Here are likewise abundance of
bats, as big as young coneys; their necks, head, ears and noses, like
foxes; their hair rough; that about their necks is of a whitish yellow,
that on their heads and shoulders black; their wings are 4 foot over from
tip to tip: they smell like foxes. The fish are bass, rock-fish, and a
sort of fish like mullet, old-wives, whip-rays, and some other sorts that
I know not, but no great plenty of any; for it is deep water till within
less than a mile of the shore; then there is a bank of coral rocks within
which you have shoal water, white clean sand: so there is no good fishing
with the seine.

This island lies in latitude 2 degrees 43 minutes south and meridian
distance from Port Babao on the island Timor 486 miles. Besides this
island here are 9 or 10 other small islands, as they are laid down in the

The inhabitants of this island are a sort of very tawny Indians, with
long black hair; who in their manners differ but little from the
Mindanayans, and others of these eastern islands. These seem to be the
chief; for besides them we saw also shock curl-pated New Guinea negroes;
many of which are slaves to the others, but I think not all. They are
very poor, wear no clothes, but have a clout about their middle, made of
the rinds of the tops of palmetto-trees; but the women had a sort of
calico cloths. Their chief ornaments are blue and yellow beads, worn
about their wrists. The men arm themselves with bows and arrows, lances,
broad swords like those of Mindanao; their lances are pointed with bone.


They strike fish very ingeniously with wooden fishgigs, and have a very
ingenious way of making the fish rise: for they have a piece of wood,
curiously carved and painted much like a dolphin (and perhaps other
figures) these they let down into the water by a line with a small weight
to sink it; when they think it low enough they haul the line into their
boats very fast, and the fish rise up after this figure; and they stand
ready to strike them when they are near the surface of the water. But
their chief livelihood is from their plantations. Yet they have large
boats, and go over to New Guinea where they get slaves, fine parrots,
etc., which they carry to Goram and exchange for calicos. One boat came
from thence a little before I arrived here; of whom I bought some
parrots; and would have bought a slave but they would not barter for
anything but calicos, which I had not. Their houses on this side were
very small, and seemed only to be for necessity; but on the other side of
the island we saw good large houses. Their proas are narrow with
outlagers on each side, like other Malayans. I cannot tell of what
religion these are; but I think they are not Mahomedans, by their
drinking brandy out of the same cup with us without any scruple. At this
island we continued till the 20th instant, having laid in store of such
roots and fruits as the island afforded.

On the 20th at half hour after 6 in the morning I weighed and, standing
out, we saw a large boat full of men lying at the north point of the
island. As we passed by they rowed towards their habitations, where we
supposed they had withdrawn themselves for fear of us (though we gave
them no cause of terror) or for some differences among themselves.

We stood to the northward till 7 in the evening; then saw a rippling;
and, the water being discoloured, we sounded, and had but 22 fathom. I
went about and stood to the westward till 2 next morning, then tacked
again and had these several soundings: at 8 in the evening, 22; at 10,
25; at 11, 27; at 12, 28 fathom; at 2 in the morning 26; at 4, 24; at 6,
23; at 8, 28; at 12, 22.


We passed by many small islands and among many dangerous shoals without
any remarkable occurrence till the 4th of February, when we got within 3
leagues of the north-west cape of New Guinea, called by the Dutch Cape
Mabo. Off this cape there lies a small woody island, and many islands of
different sizes to the north and north-east of it. This part of New
Guinea is high land, adorned with tall trees that appeared very green and
flourishing. The cape itself is not very high, but ends in a low sharp
point; and on either side there appears another such point at equal
distances, which makes it resemble a diamond. This only appears when you
are abreast of the middle point; and then you have no ground within 3
leagues of the shore.


In the afternoon we passed by the cape and stood over for the islands.
Before it was dark we were got within a league of the westermost; but had
no ground with 50 fathom of line. However, fearing to stand nearer in the
dark, we tacked and stood to the east, and plied all night. The next
morning we were got 5 or 6 leagues to the eastward of that island; and,
having the wind easterly, we stood in to the northward among the islands,
sounded, and had no ground. Then I sent in my boat to sound, and they had
ground with 50 fathom near a mile from the shore. We tacked before the
boat came aboard again for fear of a shoal that was about a mile to the
east of that island the boat went to; from whence also a shoal point
stretched out itself till it met the other: they brought with them such a
cockle as I have mentioned in my Voyage round the World, found near
Celebes; and they saw many more, some bigger than that which they brought
aboard, as they said; and for this reason I named it Cockle Island. I
sent them to sound again, ordering them to fire a musket if they found
good anchoring; we were then standing to the southward, with a fine
breeze. As soon as they fired I tacked and stood in: they told me they
had 50 fathom when they fired. I tacked again, and made all the sail I
could to get out, being near some rocky islands and shoals to leeward of
us. The breeze increased, and I thought we were out of danger; but,
having a shoal just by us, and the wind falling again, I ordered the boat
to tow us, and by their help we got clear from it. We had a strong tide
setting to the westward.


At 1 o'clock, being past the shoal and finding the tide setting to the
westward, I anchored in 35 fathom, coarse sand with small coral and
shells. Being nearest to Cockle Island I immediately sent both the boats
thither; one to cut wood, and the other to fish. At 4 in the afternoon,
having a small breeze at south-south-west, I made a sign for my boats to
come aboard. They brought some wood and a few small cockles, none of them
exceeding 10 pound weight; whereas the shell of the great one weighed 78
pound; but it was now high-water and therefore they could get no bigger.
They also brought on board some pigeons, of which we found plenty on all
the islands where we touched in these seas. Also in many places we saw
many large bats, but killed none, except those I mentioned at Pulo
Sabuda. As our boats came aboard we weighed and made sail, steering
east-south-east as long as the wind held; in the morning we found we had
got 4 or 5 leagues to the east of the place where we weighed. We stood to
and fro till 11; and, finding that we lost ground, anchored in 42 fathom,
coarse gravelly sand with some coral. This morning we thought we saw a


In the afternoon I went ashore on a small woody island about 2 leagues
from us. Here I found the greatest number of pigeons that ever I saw
either in the east or West Indies, and small cockles in the sea round the
island in such quantities that we might have laden the boat in an hour's
time: these were not above 10 or 12 pound weight. We cut some wood and
brought off cockles enough for all the ship's company; but having no
small shot we could kill no pigeons. I returned about 4 o'clock; and then
my gunner and both mates went thither, and in less than three-quarters of
an hour they killed and brought off 10 pigeons. Here is a tide: the flood
sets west and the ebb east; but the latter is very faint and but of small
continuance. And so we found it ever since we came from Timor.


The winds we found easterly, between north-east and east-south-east; so
that, if these continue, it is impossible to beat farther to the eastward
on this coast against wind and current. These easterly winds increased
from the time we were in the latitude of about 2 degrees south; and as we
drew nigher the Line they hung more easterly. And now, being to the north
of the continent of New Guinea where the coast lies east and west, I find
the tradewind here at east; which yet in higher latitudes is usually at
north-north-west and north-west; and so I did expect them here, it being
to the south of the Line.


The 7th in the morning I sent my boat ashore on Pigeon Island and stayed
till noon. In the afternoon my men returned, brought 22 pigeons, and many
cockles, some very large, some small: they also brought one empty shell
that weighed 258 pound.


At 4 o'clock we weighed, having a small westerly wind and a tide with us;
at 7 in the evening we anchored in 42 fathom, near King William's Island,
where I went ashore the next morning, drank His Majesty's health, and
honoured it with his name. It is about 2 leagues and a half in length,
very high, and extraordinarily well clothed with woods. The trees are of
divers sorts, most unknown to us, but all very green and flourishing;
many of them had flowers, some white, some purple, others yellow; all
which smelt very fragrantly. The trees are generally tall and
straight-bodied, and may be fit for any uses. I saw one of a clean body,
without knot or limb, 60 are 70 foot high by estimation. It was 3 of my
fathoms about, and kept its bigness without any sensible decrease even to
the top. The mould of the island is black but not deep; it being very
rocky. On the sides and top of the island are many palmetto-trees whose
heads we could discern over all the other trees, but their bodies we
could not see.

About 1 in the afternoon we weighed and stood to the eastward, between
the main and King William's Island; leaving the island on our larboard
side and sounding till we were past the island; and then we had no
ground. Here we found the flood setting east by north, and the ebb west
by south. There were shoals and small islands between us and the main,
which caused the tide to set very inconstantly, and make many whirlings
in the water; yet we did not find the tide to set strong any way, nor the
water to rise much.


On the 9th, being to the eastward of King William's Island, we plied all
day between the main and other islands, having easterly winds and fair
weather till 7 the next morning. Then we had very hard rain till 8 and
saw many shoals of fish. We lay becalmed off a pretty deep bay on New
Guinea, about 12 or 14 leagues wide and 7 or 8 leagues deep, having low
land near its bottom, but high land without. The eastermost part of New
Guinea seen bore east by south, distant 12 leagues: Cape Mabo
west-south-west half south, distant 7 leagues.

At 1 in the afternoon it began to rain and continued till 6 in the
evening; so that, having but little wind and most calms, we lay still off
the forementioned bay, having King William's Island still in sight,
though distant by judgment 15 or 16 leagues west. We saw many shoals of
small fish, some sharks, and 7 or 8 dolphins; but caught none. In the
afternoon, being about 4 leagues from the shore, we saw an opening in the
land which seemed to afford good harbour: in the evening we saw a large
fire there; and I intended to go in (if winds and weather would permit)
to get some acquaintance with the natives.

Since the 4th instant that we passed Cape Mabo to the 12th we had small
easterly winds and calms, so that we anchored several times; where I made
my men cut wood, that we might have a good stock when a westerly wind
should present; and so we plied to the eastward, as winds and currents
would permit; having not got in all above 30 leagues to the eastward of
Cape Mabo. But on the 12th, at 4 in the afternoon, a small gale sprang up
at north-east by north with rain: at 5 it shuffled about to north-west,
from thence to the south-west, and continued between those 2 points a
pretty brisk gale; so that we made sail and steered away north-east, till
the 13th in the morning, to get about the Cape of Good Hope. When it was
day we steered north-east half east, then north-east by east till 7
o'clock; and being then 7 or 8 leagues off shore we steered away east;
the shore trending east by south. We had very much rain all night, so
that we could not carry much sail; yet we had a very steady gale. At 8
this morning the weather cleared up and the wind decreased to a fine
top-gallant gale, and settled at west by south. We had more rain these 3
days past than all the voyage in so short time. We were now about 6
leagues from the land of New Guinea, which appeared very high; and we saw
2 headlands, about 20 leagues asunder; the one to the east, and the other
to the west, which last is called the Cape of Good Hope. We found
variation east 4 degrees.


The 15th in the morning between 12 and 2 o'clock it blew a very brisk
gale at north-west and looked very black in the south-west. At 2 it flew
about at once to the south-south-west and rained very hard. The wind
settled some time at west-south-west, and we steered east-north-east till
3 in the morning: then, the wind and rain abating, we steered east half
north for fear of coming near the land. Presently after, it being a
little clear, the man at the bowsprit-end called out, "Land on our
starboard bow." We looked out and saw it plain. I presently sounded and
had but 10 fathom soft ground. The master, being somewhat scared, came
running in haste with this news, and said it was best to anchor: I told
him no, but sound again; then we had 12 fathom; the next cast, 13 and a
half; the 4th, 17 fathom; and then no ground with 50 fathom line. However
we kept off the island and did not go so fast but that we could see any
other danger before we came nigh it. For here might have been more
islands not laid down in my charts besides this. For I searched all the
charts I had, if perchance I might find any island in the one which was
not in the others; but I could find none near us. When it was day we were
about 5 leagues off the land we saw; but, I believe, not above 5 mile, or
at most 2 leagues, off it when we first saw it in the night.


This is a small island but pretty high; I named it Providence. About 5
leagues to the southward of this there is another island which is called
William Schouten's Island and laid down in our charts: it is a high
island and about 20 leagues long.

It was by mere Providence that we missed the small island. For had not
the wind come to west-south-west and blown hard, so that we steered
east-north-east, we had been upon it by our course that we steered
before, if we could not have seen it. This morning we saw many great
trees and logs swim by us; which it is probable came out of some great
rivers on the main.


On the 16th we crossed the Line, and found variation 6 degrees 26 minutes
east. The 18th by my observation at noon we found that we had had a
current setting to the southward, and probably that drew us in so nigh
Schouten's Island. For this 24 hours we steered east by north with a
large wind, yet made but an east by south half south course; though the
variation was not above 7 degrees east.

The 21st we had a current setting to the northward, which is against the
true trade monsoon, it being now near the full moon. I did expect it
here, as in all other places. We had variation 8 degrees 45 minutes east.
The 22nd we found but little current; if any, it set to the southward.


On the 23rd in the afternoon we saw 2 snakes; and the next morning
another, passing by us, which was furiously assaulted by 2 fishes that
had kept us company 5 or 6 days. They were shaped like mackerel and were
about that bigness and length, and of a yellow-greenish colour. The snake
swam away from them very fast, keeping his head above water; the fish
snapped at his tail; but when he turned himself that fish would withdraw,
and another would snap; so that by turns they kept him employed; yet he
still defended himself and swam away a great pace till they were out of

The 25th betimes in the morning we saw an island to the southward of us
at about 15 leagues distance. We steered away for it, supposing it to be
that which the Dutch call Wishart's Island; but, finding it otherwise, I
called it Matthias; it being that saint's day. This island is about 9 or
10 leagues long, mountainous and woody, with many savannahs, and some
spots of land which seemed to be cleared.


At 8 in the evening we lay by, intending, if I could, to anchor under
Matthias Isle. But the next morning, seeing another island about 7 or 8
leagues to the eastward of it, we steered away for it; at noon we came up
fair with its south-west end, intending to run along by it and anchor on
the south-east side: but the tornadoes came in so thick and hard that I
could not venture in. This island is pretty low and plain, and clothed
with wood; the trees were very green, and appeared to be large and tall,
as thick as they could stand one by another. It is about 2 or 3 leagues
long, and at the south-west point there is another small low woody island
about a mile round, and about a mile from the other. Between them there
runs a reef of rocks which joins them. (The biggest I named Squally


Seeing we could not anchor here I stood away to the southward to make the
main. But, having many hard squalls and tornadoes, we were often forced
to hand all our sails and steer more easterly to go before it. On the
26th at 4 o'clock it cleared up to a hard sky, and a brisk settled gale;
then we made as much sail as we could. At 5 it cleared up over the land
and we saw, as we thought, Cape Solomaswer bearing south-south-east
distance 10 leagues. We had many great logs and trees swimming by us all
this afternoon, and much grass; we steered in south-south-east till 6,
then the wind slackened and we stood off till 7, having little wind; then
we lay by till 10, at which time we made sail and steered away east all
night. The next morning, as soon as it was light, we made all the sail we
could, and steered away east-south-east, as the land lay; being fair in
sight of it, and not above 7 leagues distance. We passed by many small
low woody islands which lay between us and the main, not laid down in our
charts. We found variation 9 degrees 50 minutes east.

The 28th we had many violent tornadoes, wind, rain, and some spouts; and
in the tornadoes the wind shifted. In the night we had fair weather, but
more lightning than we had seen at any time this voyage. This morning we
left a large high island on our larboard side, called in the Dutch charts
Wishart's Isle, about 6 leagues from the main; and, seeing many smokes
upon the main, I therefore steered towards it.




The mainland at this place is high and mountainous, adorned with tall
flourishing trees; the sides of the hills had many large plantations and
patches of cleared land; which, together with the smokes we saw, were
certain signs of its being well inhabited; and I was desirous to have
some commerce with the inhabitants. Being nigh the shore we saw first one
proa; a little after, 2 or 3 more; and at last a great many boats came
from all the adjacent bays. When they were 46 in number they approached
so near us that we could see each other's signs, and hear each other
speak; though we could not understand them, nor they us. They made signs
for us to go in towards the shore, pointing that way; it was squally
weather, which at first made me cautious of going too near; but, the
weather beginning to look pretty well, I endeavoured to get into a bay
ahead of us, which we could have got into well enough at first; but while
we lay by we were driven so far to leeward that now it was more difficult
to get in. The natives lay in their proas round us; to whom I showed
beads, knives, glasses, to allure them to come nearer; but they would
come so nigh as to receive anything from us. Therefore I threw out some
things to them, namely a knife fastened to a piece of board, and a glass
bottle corked up with some beads in it, which they took up and seemed
well pleased. They often struck their left breast with their right hand,
and as often held up a black truncheon over their heads, which we thought
was a token of friendship; wherefore we did the like. And when we stood
in towards their shore they seemed to rejoice; but when we stood off they
frowned, yet kept us company in their proas, still pointing to the shore.
About 5 o'clock we got within the mouth of the bay and sounded several
times, but had no ground though within a mile of the shore. The basin of
this bay was above 2 miles within us, into which we might have gone; but,
as I was not assured of anchorage there, so I thought it not prudence to
run in at this time; it being near night and seeing a black tornado
rising in the west, which I most feared: besides we had near 200 men in
proas close by us. And the bays on the shore were lined with men from one
end to the other, where there could not be less than 3 or 400 more. What
weapons they had we know not, nor yet their design. Therefore I had, at
their first coming near us, got up all our small arms, and made several
put on cartouch boxes to prevent treachery. At last I resolved to go out
again: which, when the natives in their proas perceived, they began to
fling stones at us as fast as they could, being provided with engines for
that purpose (wherefore I named this place Slingers Bay). But at the
firing of one gun they were all amazed, drew off and flung no more
stones. They got together as if consulting what to do; for they did not
make in towards the shore, but lay still, though some of them were killed
or wounded; and many of them had paid for their boldness, but that it was
unwilling to cut off any of them; which, if I had done, I could not hope
afterwards to bring them to treat with me.


The next day we sailed close by an island where we saw many smokes, and
men in the bays; out of which came 2 canoes, taking much pains to
overtake us, but they could not, though we went with an easy sail; and I
could not now stay for them. As I passed by the south-east point I
sounded several times within a mile of the sandy bays, but had no ground:
about 3 leagues to the northward of the south-east point we opened a
large deep bay, secured from west-north-west and south-west winds. There
were 2 other islands that lay to the north-east of it which secured the
bay from north-east winds; one was but small, yet woody; the other was a
league long, inhabited and full of coconut-trees. I endeavoured to get
into this bay; but there came such flaws off from the high land over it
that I could not; besides we had many hard squalls which deterred me from
it; and, night coming on, I would not run any hazard, but bore away to
the small inhabited island to see if we could get anchoring on the east
side of it. When we came there we found the island so narrow that there
could be no shelter; therefore I tacked and stood towards the greater
island again: and, being more than midway between both, I lay by,
designing to endeavour for anchorage next morning. Between 7 and 8 at
night we spied a canoe close by us; and, seeing no more, suffered her to
come aboard. She had 3 men in her who brought off 5 coconuts, for which I
gave each of them a knife and a string of beads to encourage them to come
off again in the morning: but before these went away we saw 2 more canoes
coming; therefore we stood away to the northward from them and then lay
by again till day. We saw no more boats this night; neither designed to
suffer any to come aboard in the dark.

By nine o'clock the next morning we were got within a league of the great
island, but were kept off by violent gusts of wind. These squalls gave us
warning of their approach by the clouds which hung over the mountains,
and afterwards descended to the foot of them; and then it is we expect
them speedily.


On the 3rd of March, being about 5 leagues to leeward of the great
island, we saw the mainland ahead; and another great high island to
leeward of us, distance about 7 leagues; which we bore away for. It is
called in the Dutch charts Gerrit Denis Isle. It is about 14 or 15
leagues round; high and mountainous, and very woody: some trees appeared
very large and tall; and the bays by the seaside are well stored with
coconut-trees; where we also saw some small houses. The sides of the
mountains are thick set with plantations; and the mould in the new
cleared land seemed to be of a brown-reddish colour. This island is of no
regular figure, but is full of points shooting forth into the sea;
between which are many sandy bays, full of coconut-trees. The middle of
the isle lies in 3 degrees 10 minutes south latitude.


It is very populous; the natives are very black, strong, and well-limbed
people; having great round heads, their hair naturally curled and short,
which they shave into several forms, and dye it also of divers colours,
namely red, white and yellow. They have broad round faces with great
bottle noses, yet agreeable enough, till they disfigure them by painting,
and by wearing great things through their noses as big as a man's thumb
and about four inches long; these are run clear through both nostrils,
one end coming out by one cheek-bone, and the other end against the
other; and their noses so stretched that only a small slip of them
appears about the ornament. They have also great holes in their ears,
wherein they wear such stuff as in their noses.


They are very dexterous active fellows in their proas, which are very
ingeniously built. They are narrow and long with outlagers on one side;
the head and stern higher than the rest, and carved into many devices,
namely some fowl, fish, or a man's head, painted or carved: and though it
is but rudely done, yet the resemblance appears plainly, and shows an
ingenious fancy. But with what instruments they make their proas or
carved work I know not; for they seem to be utterly ignorant of iron.
They have very neat paddles with which they manage their proas
dexterously and make great way through the water. Their weapons are
chiefly lances, swords and slings, and some bows and arrows: they have
also wooden fishgigs for striking fish. Those that came to assault us in
Slingers Bay on the main are in all respects like these; and I believe
these are alike treacherous. Their speech is clear and distinct; the
words they used most when near us were "vacousee allamais," and then they
pointed to the shore. Their signs of friendship are either a great
truncheon, or bough of a tree full of leaves put on their heads; often
striking their heads with their hands.


The next day, having a fresh gale of wind, we got under a high island,
about 4 or 5 leagues round, very woody, and full of plantations upon the
sides of the hills; and in the bays by the waterside are abundance of
coconut-trees. It lies in the latitude of 3 degrees 25 minutes south, and
meridian distance from Cape Mabo 1316 miles. On the south-east part of it
or 3 or 4 other small woody islands; one high and peaked, the other low
and flat; all bedecked with coconut-trees and other wood. On the north
there is another island of an indifferent height, and of a somewhat
larger circumference than the great high island last mentioned. We passed
between this and the high island. The high island is called in the Dutch
charts Anthony Cave's Island. As for the flat low island and the other
small one, it is probable they were never seen by the Dutch; nor the
islands to the north of Gerrit Dennis Island.


As soon as we came near Cave's Island some canoes came about us and made
signs for us to come ashore, as all the rest had done before; probably
thinking we could run the ship aground anywhere, as they did their proas;
for we saw neither sail nor anchor among any of them, though most eastern
Indians have both. These had proas made of one tree, well dug, with
outlagers on one side: they were but small yet well shaped. We
endeavoured to anchor but found no ground within a mile of the shore: we
kept close along the north side, still sounding till we came to the
north-east end, but found no ground; the canoes still accompanying us;
and the bays were covered with men going along as we sailed: many of them
strove to swim off to us but we left them astern. Being at the north-east
point we found a strong current setting to the north-west; so that though
we had steered to keep under the high island, yet we were driven towards
the flat one. At this time 3 of the natives came aboard: I gave each of
them a knife, a looking-glass, and a string of beads. I showed them
pumpkins and coconut-shells, and made signs to them to bring some aboard,
and had presently 3 coconuts out of one of the canoes. I showed them
nutmegs, and by their signs I guessed they had some on the island. I also
showed them some gold-dust, which they seemed to know, and called out
"manneel, manneel," and pointed towards the land. A while after these men
were gone 2 or 3 canoes came from the flat island, and by signs invited
us to their island; at which the others seemed displeased, and used very
menacing gestures and (I believe) speeches to each other. Night coming on
we stood off to sea; and, having but little wind all night, were driven
away to the north-west. We saw many great fires on the flat island. These
last men that came off to us were all black, as those we had seen before
with frizzled hair: they were very tall, lusty, well-shaped men; they
wear great things in their noses, and paint as the others, but not much;
they make the same signs of friendship, and their language seems to be
one: but the others had proas, and these canoes. On the sides of some of
these we saw the figures of several fish neatly cut; and these last were
not so shy as the others.


Steering away from Cave's Island south-south-east we found a strong
current against us, which set only in some places in streams; and in them
we saw many trees and logs of wood which drove by us. We had but little
wood aboard; wherefore I hoisted out the pinnace and sent her to take up
some of this driftwood. In a little time she came aboard with a great
tree in a tow, which we could hardly hoist in with all our tackles. We
cut up the tree and split it for firewood. It was much worm-eaten and had
in it some live worms above an inch long, and about the bigness of a
goose-quill, and having their heads crusted over with a thin shell.


After this we passed by an island called by the Dutch St. John's Island,
leaving it to the north of us. It is about 9 or 10 leagues round and very
well adorned with lofty trees. We saw many plantations on the sides of
the hills, and abundance of coconut-trees about them; as also thick
groves on the bays by the seaside. As we came near it 3 canoes came off
to us but would not come aboard. They were such as we had seen about the
other islands: they spoke the same language, and made the same signs of
peace; and their canoes were such as at Cave's Island.


We stood along by St. John's Island till we came almost to the south-east
point; and then, seeing no more islands to the eastward of us, nor any
likelihood of anchoring under this, I steered away for the main of New
Guinea; we being now (as I supposed) to the east of it, on this north
side. My design of seeing these islands as I passed along was to get wood
and water, but could find no anchor-ground, and therefore could not do as
I purposed. Besides, these islands are all so populous that I dared not
send my boat ashore unless I could have anchored pretty nigh. Wherefore I
rather chose to prosecute my design on the main, the season of the year
being now at hand; for I judged the westerly winds were nigh spent.


On the 8th of March we saw some smokes on the main, being distant from it
4 or 5 leagues. It is very high, woody land, with some spots of savannah.
About 10 in the morning 6 or 7 canoes came off to us: most of them had no
more than one man in them; they were all black, with short curled hair;
having the same ornaments in their noses, and their heads so shaved and
painted, and speaking the same words, as the inhabitants of Cave's Island
before mentioned.


There was a headland to the southward of us beyond which, seeing no land,
I supposed that from thence the land trends away more westerly. This
headland lies in the latitude of 5 degrees 2 minutes south, and meridian
distance from Cape Mabo 1290 miles. In the night we lay by for fear of
over-shooting this headland. Between which and Cape St. Maries the land
is high, mountainous and woody; having many points of land shooting out
into the sea, which make so many fine bays. The coast lies
north-north-east and south-south-west.

The 9th in the morning a huge black man came off to us in a canoe but
would not come aboard. He made the same signs of friendship to us as the
rest we had met with; yet seemed to differ in his language, not using any
of those words which the others did. We saw neither smokes nor
plantations near this headland. We found here variation 1 degree east.


In the afternoon, as we plied near the shore, 3 canoes came off to us;
one had 4 men in her, the others 2 apiece. That with the 4 men came
pretty nigh us, and showed us a coconut and water in a bamboo, making
signs that there was enough ashore where they lived; they pointed to the
place where they would have us go, and so went away. We saw a small round
pretty high island, about a league to the north of this headland, within
which there was a large deep bay, whither the canoes went; and we strove
to get thither before night, but could not; wherefore we stood off, and
saw land to the westward of this headland, bearing west by south half
south, distance about 10 leagues; and, as we thought, still more land
bearing south-west by south, distance 12 or 14 leagues: but, being
clouded, it disappeared and we thought we had been deceived. Before night
we opened the headland fair and I named it Cape St. George. The land from
hence trends away west-north-west about 10 leagues, which is as far as we
could see it; and the land that we saw to the westward of it in the
evening, which bore west by south half south, was another point about 10
leagues from Cape St. George; between which there runs in a deep bay for
20 leagues or more. We saw some high land in spots like islands down in
that bay at a great distance; but whether they are islands or the main
closing there we know not. The next morning we saw other land to the
south-east of the westermost point, which till then was clouded; it was
very high land, and the same that we saw the day before, that disappeared
in a cloud. This Cape St. George lies in the latitude of 5 degrees 5
minutes south; and meridian distance from Cape Mabo 1290 miles. The
island off this cape I called St. George's Isle; and the bay between it
and the west point I named St. George's Bay. Note: no Dutch charts go so
far as this cape, by 10 leagues. On the 10th in the evening we got within
a league of the westermost land seen, which is pretty high and very
woody, but no appearance of anchoring. I stood off again, designing (if
possible) to ply to and fro in this bay till I found a conveniency to
wood and water. We saw no more plantations, nor coconut-trees; yet in the
night we discerned a small fire right against us. The next morning we saw
a burning mountain in the country. It was round, high, and peaked at top
(as most volcanoes are) and sent forth a great quantity of smoke. We took
up a log of driftwood and split it for firing; in which we found some
small fish.


The day after we passed by the south-west cape of this bay, leaving it to
the north of us: when we were abreast of it I called my officers
together, and named it Cape Orford, in honour of my noble patron;
drinking his lordship's health. This cape bears from Cape St. George
south-west about 18 leagues. Between them there is a bay about 25 leagues
deep, having pretty high land all round it, especially near the capes,
though they themselves are not high. Cape Orford lies in the latitude of
5 degrees 24 minutes south by my observation; and meridian distance from
Cape St. George 44 miles west. The land trends from this cape north-west
by west into the bay, and on the other side south-west per compass, which
is south-west 9 degrees west, allowing the variation which is here 9
degrees east. The land on each side of the cape is more savannah than
woodland, and is highest on the north-west side. The cape itself is a
bluff point of an indifferent height with a flat tableland at top. When
we were to the south-west of the cape it appeared to be a low point
shooting out; which you cannot see when abreast of it. This morning we
struck a log of driftwood with our turtle-irons, hoisted it in, and split
it for firewood. Afterwards we struck another but could not get it in.
There were many fish about it.

We steered along south-west as the land lies, keeping about 6 leagues off
the shore; and, being desirous to cut wood and fill water if I saw any
conveniency, I lay by in the night, because I would not miss any place
proper for those ends, for fear of wanting such necessaries as we could
not live without. This coast is high and mountainous, and not so thick
with trees as that on the other side of Cape Orford.


On the 14th, seeing a pretty deep bay ahead, and some islands where I
thought we might ride secure, we ran in towards the shore and saw some
smokes. At 10 o'clock we saw a point which shot out pretty well into the
sea, with a bay within it which promised fair for water; and we stood in
with a moderate gale. Being got into the bay within the point we saw many
coconut-trees, plantations, and houses. When I came within 4 or 5 mile of
the shore 6 small boats came off to view us, with about 40 men in them
all. Perceiving that they only came to view us and would not come aboard,
I made signs and waved to them to go ashore; but they did not or would
not understand me; therefore I whistled a shot over their heads out of my
fowling-piece, and then they pulled away for the shore as hard as they
could. These were no sooner ashore but we saw 3 boats coming from the
islands to leeward of us, and they soon came within call; for we lay
becalmed. One of the boats had about 40 men in her, and was a large
well-built boat; the other 2 were but small. Not long after I saw another
boat coming out of that bay where I intended to go: she likewise was a
large boat, with a high head and stern painted and full of men; this I
thought came off to fight us, as it is probable they all did; therefore I
fired another small shot over the great boat that was nigh us, which made
them leave their babbling and take to their paddles. We still lay
becalmed; and therefore they, rowing wide of us, directed their course
toward the other great boat that was coming off: when they were pretty
near each other I caused the gunner to fire a gun between them which he
did very dexterously; it was loaded with round and partridge-shot; the
last dropped in the water somewhat short of them, but the round shot went
between both boats and grazed about 100 yards beyond them; this so
affrighted them that they rowed away for the shore as fast as they could,
without coming near each other; and the little boats made the best of
their way after them: and now, having a gentle breeze at
south-south-east, we bore in to the bay after them. When we came by the
point I saw a great number of men peeping from under the rocks: I ordered
a shot to be fired close by to scare them. The shot grazed between us and
the point; and, mounting again, flew over the point, and grazed a second
time just by them. We were obliged to sail along close by the bays; and,
seeing multitudes setting under the trees, I ordered a third gun to be
fired among the coconut-trees to scare them; for, my business being to
wood and water, I thought it necessary to strike some terror into the
inhabitants, who were very numerous, and (by what I saw now and had
formerly experienced) treacherous. After this I sent my boat to sound;
they had first 40, then 30, and at last 20 fathom water. We followed the
boat and came to anchor about a quarter of a mile from the shore in 26
fathom water, fine black sand and oaze. We rode right against the mouth
of a small river where I hoped to find fresh water. Some of the natives
standing on a small point at the river's mouth, I sent a small shot over
their heads to fright them; which it did effectually.


In the afternoon I sent my boat ashore to the natives who stood upon the
point by the river's mouth with a present of coconuts; when the boat was
come near the shore they came running into the water, and put their nuts
into the boat. Then I made a signal for the boat to come aboard, and sent
both it and the yawl into the river to look for fresh water, ordering the
pinnace to lie near the river's mouth while the yawl went up to search.
In an hour's time they returned aboard with some barrecoes full of fresh
water, which they had taken up about half a mile up the river. After
which I sent them again with casks; ordering one of them to fill water,
and the other to watch the motion of the natives, lest they should make
any opposition; but they did not, and so the boats returned a little
before sunset with a tun and a half of water; and the next day by noon
brought aboard about 6 tun of water.

I sent ashore commodities to purchase hogs, etc., being informed that the
natives have plenty of them, as also of yams and other good roots; but my
men returned without getting anything that I sent them for; the natives
being unwilling to trade with us: yet they admired our hatchets and axes;
but would part with nothing but coconuts; which they used to climb the
trees for; and so soon as they gave them our men they beckoned to them to
be gone; for they were much afraid of us.

The 18th I sent both boats again for water, and before noon they had
filled all my casks. In the afternoon I sent them both to cut wood; but,
seeing about 40 natives standing on the bay at a small distance from our
men, I made a signal for them to come aboard again; which they did, and
brought me word that the men which we saw on the bay were passing that
way, but were afraid to come nigh them. At 4 o'clock I sent both the
boats again for more wood, and they returned in the evening. Then I
called my officers to consult whether it were convenient to stay here
longer, and endeavour a better acquaintance with these people or go to
sea. My design of tarrying here longer was, if possible, to get some
hogs, goats, yams and other roots; as also to get some knowledge of the
country and its product. My officers unanimously gave their opinions for
staying longer here. So the next day I sent both boats ashore again to
fish and to cut more wood. While they were ashore about 30 or 40 men and
women passed by them; they were a little afraid of our people at first;
but upon their making signs of friendship they passed by quietly; the men
finely bedecked with feathers of divers colours about their heads, and
lances in their hands; the women had no ornament about them, nor anything
to cover their nakedness but a bunch of small green boughs before and
behind, stuck under a string which came round their waists. They carried
large baskets on their heads, full of yams. And this I have observed
amongst all the wild natives I have known that they make their women
carry the burdens, while the men walk before without any other load than
their arms and ornaments. At noon our men came aboard with the wood they
had cut, and had caught but 6 fishes at 4 or 5 hauls of the seine, though
we saw abundance of fish leaping in the bay all the day long.

In the afternoon I sent the boats ashore for more wood; and some of our
men went to the natives' houses, and found they were now more shy than
they used to be; had taken down all the coconuts from the trees and
driven away their hogs. Our people made signs to them to know what was
become of their hogs, etc. The natives, pointing to some houses in the
bottom of the bay, and imitating the noise of those creatures, seemed to
intimate that there were both hogs and goats of several sizes, which they
expressed by holding their hands abroad at several distances from the

At night our boats came aboard with wood, and the next morning I went
myself with both boats up the river to the watering-place, carrying with
me all such trifles and iron-work as I thought most proper to induce them
to a commerce with us; but I found them very shy and roguish. I saw but 2
men and a boy: one of the men by some signs was persuaded to come to the
boat's side, where I was; to him I gave a knife, a string of beads, and a
glass bottle; the fellow called out, "cocos, cocos," pointing to a
village hard by, and signified to us that he would go for some; but he
never returned to us. And thus they had frequently of late served our
men. I took 8 or 9 men with me and marched to their houses, which I found
very mean; and their doors made fast with withes.

I visited 3 of their villages; and, finding all the houses thus abandoned
by the inhabitants, who carried with them all their hogs etc., I brought
out of their houses some small fishing-nets in recompense for those
things they had received of us. As we were coming away we saw 2 of the
natives; I showed them the things that we carried with us and called to
them "cocos, cocos," to let them know that I took these things because
they had not made good what they had promised by their signs, and by
their calling out "cocos." While I was thus employed the men in the yawl
filled 2 hogsheads of water and all the barrecoes. About 1 in the
afternoon I came aboard and found all my officers and men very
importunate to go to that bay where the hogs were said to be. I was loth
to yield to it, fearing they would deal too roughly with the natives. By
2 o'clock in the afternoon many black clouds gathered over the land,
which I thought would deter them from their enterprise; but they
solicited me the more to let them go. At last I consented, sending those
commodities I had ashore with me in the morning, and giving them a strict
charge to deal by fair means, and to act cautiously for their own
security. The bay I sent them to was about 2 miles from the ship. As soon
as they were gone I got all things ready that, if I saw occasion, I might
assist them with my great guns. When they came to land the natives in
great companies stood to resist them; shaking their lances and
threatening them; and some were so daring as to wade into the sea,
holding a target in one hand and a lance in the other. Our men held up to
them such commodities as I had sent, and made signs of friendship; but to
no purpose; for the natives waved them off. Seeing therefore they could
not be prevailed upon to a friendly commerce, my men, being resolved to
have some provision among them, fired some muskets to scare them away;
which had the desired effect upon all but 2 or 3, who stood still in a
menacing posture till the boldest dropped his target and ran away; they
supposed he was shot in the arm: he and some others felt the smart of our
bullets but none were killed; our design being rather to fright than to
kill them. Our men landed and found abundance of tame hogs running among
the houses. They shot down 9, which they brought away, besides many that
ran away wounded. They had but little time; for in less than an hour
after they went from the ship it began to rain: wherefore they got what
they could into the boats; for I had charged them to come away if it
rained. By that time the boat was aboard and the hogs taken in it cleared
up; and my men desired to make another trip thither before night; this
was about 5 in the evening; and I consented, giving them order to repair
on board before night. In the close of the evening they returned
accordingly with 8 hogs more, and a little live pig; and by this time the
other hogs were jerked and salted. These that came last we only dressed
and corned till morning; and then sent both boats ashore for more
refreshments, either of hogs or roots: but in the night the natives had
conveyed away their provisions of all sorts. Many of them were now about
the houses, and none offered to resist our boats landing, but on the
contrary were so amicable that one man brought 10 or 12 coconuts, left
them on the shore after he had showed them to our men, and went out of
sight. Our people finding nothing but nets and images brought some of
them away; which 2 of my men brought aboard in a small canoe; and
presently after, my boats came off. I ordered the boatswain to take care
of the nets, till we came at some place where they might be disposed of
for some refreshment for the use of all the company: the images I took
into my own custody.

In the afternoon I sent the canoe the place from whence she had been
brought; and in her, 2 axes, 2 hatchets (one of them helved) 6 knives, 6
looking-glasses, a large bunch of beads, and 4 glass bottles. Our men
drew the canoe ashore, placed the things to the best advantage in her;
and came off in the pinnace which I sent to guard them. And now, being
well stocked with wood and all my water-casks full, I resolved to sail
the next morning. All the time of our stay here we had very fair weather;
only sometimes in the afternoon we had a shower of rain which lasted not
above an hour at most: also some thunder and lightning with very little
wind. We had sea- and land-breezes; the former between the
south-south-east, and the latter from north-east to north-west.


This place I named port Montague in honour of my noble patron. It lies in
the latitude of 6 degrees 10 minutes south, and meridian distance from
Cape St. George 151 miles west. The country hereabouts is mountainous and
woody, full of rich valleys and pleasant fresh-water brooks. The mould in
the valleys is deep and yellowish; that on the sides of the hills of a
very brown colour, and not very deep, but rocky underneath; yet excellent
planting land. The trees in general are neither very straight, thick, nor
tall; yet appear green and pleasant enough: some of them bore flowers,
some berries, and others big fruits; but all unknown to any of us.
Coconut-trees thrive very well here; as well on the bays by the seaside,
as more remote among the plantations. The nuts are of an indifferent
size, the milk and kernel very thick and pleasant. Here is ginger, yams,
and other very good roots for the pot, that our men saw and tasted. What
other fruits or roots the country affords I know not. Here are hogs and
dogs; other land-animals we saw none. The fowls we saw and knew were
pigeons, parrots, cockadores, and crows like those in England; a sort of
birds about the bigness of a blackbird, and smaller birds many. The sea
and rivers have plenty of fish; we saw abundance, though we caught but
few, and these were cavallies, yellow-tails and whip-rays.


We departed from hence on the 22nd of March, and on the 24th in the
evening we saw some high land bearing north-west half west; to the west
of which we could see no land, though there appeared something like land
bearing west a little southerly; but, not being sure of it, I steered
west-north-west all night, and kept going on with an easy sail, intending
to coast along the shore at a distance. At 10 o'clock I saw a great fire
bearing north-west by west, blazing up in a pillar, sometimes very high
for 3 or 4 minutes, then falling quite down for an equal space of time;
sometimes hardly visible, till it blazed up again. I had laid me down
having been indisposed this 3 days: but upon a sight of this my chief
mate called me; I got up and viewed it for about half an hour and knew it
to be a burning hill by its intervals: I charged them to look well out,
having bright moonlight. In the morning I found that the fire we had seen
the night before was a burning island; and steered for it. We saw many
other islands, one large high island, and another smaller, but pretty
high. I stood near the volcano and many small low islands with some


March the 25th 1700 in the evening we came within 3 leagues of this
burning hill, being at the same time 2 leagues from the main. I found a
good channel to pass between them, and kept nearer the main than the
island. At 7 in the evening I sounded, and had 52 fathom fine sand and
oaze. I stood to the northward to get clear of this strait, having but
little wind and fair weather. The island all night vomited fire and smoke
very amazingly; and at every belch we heard a dreadful noise like
thunder, and saw a flame of fire after it, the most terrifying that ever
I saw. The intervals between its belches were about half a minute, some
more, others less: neither were these pulses or eruptions alike; for some
were but faint convulsions in comparison of the more vigorous; yet even
the weakest vented a great deal of fire; but the largest made a roaring
noise, and sent up a large flame 20 or 30 yards high; and then might be
seen a great stream of fire running down to the foot of the island, even
to the shore. From the furrows made by this descending fire we could in
the daytime see great smokes arise, which probably were made by the
sulphureous matter thrown out of the funnel at the top which, tumbling
down to the bottom and there lying in a heap, burned till either consumed
or extinguished; and as long as it burned and kept its heat so long the
smoke ascended from it; which we perceived to increase or decrease,
according to the quantity of matter discharged from the funnel. But the
next night, being shot to the westward of the burning island, and the
funnel of it lying on the south side, we could not discern the fire there
as we did the smoke in the day when we were to the southward of it. This
volcano lies in the latitude of 5 degrees 33 minutes south, and meridian
distance from Cape St. George 332 miles west.


The eastermost part of New Guinea lies 40 miles to the westward of this
tract of land, and by hydrographers they are made joining together: but
here I found an opening and passage between, with many islands; the
largest of which lie on the north side of this passage or strait. The
channel is very good, between the islands and the land to the eastward.
The east part of New Guinea is high and mountainous, ending on the
north-east with a large promontory, which I named King William's Cape in
honour of his present majesty. We saw some smokes on it; and, leaving it
on our larboard side, steered away near the east land which ends with two
remarkable capes or heads distant from each other about 6 or 7 leagues.
Within each head were two very remarkable mountains, ascending very
gradually from the seaside; which afforded a very pleasant and agreeable
prospect. The mountains and lower land were pleasantly mixed with
woodland and savannahs. The trees appeared very green and flourishing;
and the savannahs seemed to be very smooth and even; no meadow in England
appears more green in the spring than these. We saw smokes but did not
strive to anchor here; but rather chose to get under one of the islands
(where I thought I should find few or no inhabitants) that I might repair
my pinnace, which was so crazy that I could not venture ashore anywhere
with her. As we stood over to the islands we looked out very well to the
north, but could see no land that way; by which I was well assured that
we were got through, and that this east land does not join to New Guinea;
therefore I named it New Britain. The north-west cape I called Cape
Gloucester, and the south-west point Cape Anne; and the north-west
mountain, which is very remarkable, I called Mount Gloucester.

This island which I called New Britain has about 4 degrees of latitude:
the body of it lying in 4 degrees and the northermost part in 2 degrees
30 minutes and the southermost in 6 degrees 30 minutes south. It has
about 5 degrees 18 minutes longitude from east to west. It is generally
high, mountainous land, mixed with large valleys; which as well as the
mountains appeared very fertile; and in most places that we saw the trees
are very large, tall and thick. It is also very well inhabited with
strong well-limbed negroes, whom we found very daring and bold at several
places. As to the product of it I know no more than what I have said in
my account of Port Montague: but it is very probable this island may
afford as many rich commodities as any in the world; and the natives may
be easily brought to commerce, though I could not pretend to it under my
present circumstances.


Being near the island to the northward of the volcano I sent my boat to
sound, thinking to anchor here; but she returned and brought me word that
they had no ground, till they met with a reef of coral rocks about a mile
from the shore. Then I bore away to the north side of the island where we
found no anchoring neither. We saw several people, and some
coconut-trees, but could not send ashore for want of my pinnace which was
out of order. In the evening I stood off to sea to be at such a distance
that I might not be driven by any current upon the shoals of this island
if it should prove calm. We had but little wind, especially the beginning
of the night; but in the morning I found myself so far to the west of the
island that, the wind being at east-south-east, I could not fetch it;
wherefore I kept on to the southward and stemmed with the body of a high
island about 11 or 12 leagues long, lying to the southward of that which
I before designed for. I named this island Sir George Rook's Island.


We also saw some other islands to the westward; which may be better seen
in my chart of these lands than here described. But, seeing a very small
island lying to the north-west of the long island which was before us,
and not far from it, I steered away for that; hoping to find anchoring
there: and, having but little wind, I sent my boat before to sound;
which, when we were about 2 miles distance from the shore, came on board
and brought me word that there was good anchoring in 30 or 40 fathom
water, a mile from the isle and within a reef of the rocks which lay in a
half-moon, reaching from the north part of the island to the south-east:
so at noon we got in and anchored in 36 fathom a mile from the isle.

In the afternoon I sent my boat ashore to the island to see what
convenience there was to haul our vessel ashore in order to be mended,
and whether we could catch any fish. My men in the boat rowed about the
island, but could not land by reason of the rocks and a great surge
running in upon the shore. We found variation here 8 degrees 25 minutes

I designed to have stayed among these islands till I had got my pinnace
refitted; but, having no more than one man who had skill to work upon
her, I saw she would be a long time in repairing (which was one great
reason why I could not prosecute my discoveries further) and, the
easterly winds being set in, I found I should scarce be able to hold my

The 31st in the forenoon we shot in between 2 islands lying about 4
leagues asunder; with intention to pass between them. The southermost is
a long island with a high hill at each end; this I named Long island. The
northermost is a round high island towering up with several heads or
tops, something resembling a crown; this I named Crown Isle from its
form. Both these islands appeared very pleasant, having spots of green
savannahs mixed among the woodland: the trees appeared very green and
flourishing, and some of them looked white and full of blossoms. We
passed close by Crown Isle; saw many coconut-trees on the bays and the
sides of the hills; and one boat was coming off from the shore but
returned again. We saw no smokes on either of the islands, neither did we
see any plantations; and it is probable they are not very well peopled.
We saw many shoals near Crown Island, and reefs of rocks running off from
the points a mile or more into the sea. My boat was once overboard with
design to have sent her ashore; but, having little wind and seeing some
shoals, I hoisted her in again and stood off out of danger.


In the afternoon, seeing an island bearing north-west by west, we steered
away north-west by north, to be to the northward of it. The next morning,
being about midway from the islands we left yesterday, and having this to
the westward of us; the land of the main of New Guinea within us to the
southward appeared very high. When we came within 4 or 5 leagues of this
island to the west of us, 4 boats came off to view us: one came within
call, but returned with the other 3 without speaking to us:  so we kept
on for the island which I named Sir R. Rich's Island. It was pretty high,
woody, and mixed with savannahs like those formerly mentioned. Being to
the north of it we saw an opening between it and another island 2 leagues
to the west of it, which before appeared all in one. The main seemed to
be high land, trending to the westward.


On Tuesday the 2nd of April about 8 in the morning we discovered a high
peaked island to the westward which seemed to smoke at its top. The next
day we passed by the north side of the burning island and saw a smoke
again at its top; but, the vent lying on the south side of the peak, we
could not observe it distinctly, nor see the fire. We afterwards opened 3
more islands and some land to the southward, which we could not well tell
whether it were islands or part of the main. These islands are all high,
full of fair trees and spots of green savannahs; as well the burning isle
as the rest; but the burning isle was more round and peaked at top, very
fine land near the sea, and for two-thirds up it. We also saw another
isle sending forth a great smoke at once; but it soon vanished, and we
saw it no more. We saw also among these islands 3 small vessels with
sails, which the people on New Britain seem wholly ignorant of.


The 11th at noon, having a very good observation, I found myself to the
northward of my reckoning; and thence concluded that we had a current
setting north-west, or rather more westerly, as the land lies. From that
time to the next morning we had fair clear weather and a fine moderate
gale from south-east to east by north: but at daybreak the clouds began
to fly, and it lightned very much in the east, south-east and north-east.
At sun-rising the sky looked very red in the east near the horizon; and
there were many black clouds both to the south and north of it. About a
quarter of an hour after the sun was up there was a squall to the
windward of us; when on a sudden one of our men on the forecastle called
out that he saw something astern, but could not tell what: I looked out
for it and immediately saw a spout beginning to work within a quarter of
a mile of us, exactly in the wind. We presently put right before it. It
came very swiftly, whirling the water up in a pillar about 6 or 7 yards
high. As yet I could not see any pendulous cloud from whence it might
come; and was in hopes it would soon lose its force. In 4 or 5 minutes
time it came within a cable's length of us and passed away to leeward;
and then I saw a long pale stream coming down to the whirling water. This
stream was about the bigness of a rainbow: the upper end seemed vastly
high, not descending from any dark cloud and therefore the most strange
to me; I never having seen the like before. It passed about a mile to
leeward of us and then broke. This was but a small spout, not strong nor
lasting; yet I perceived much wind in it as it passed by us. The current
still continued at north-west a little westerly, which I allowed to run a
mile per hour.


By an observation the 13th at noon I found myself 25 minutes to the
northward of my reckoning; whether occasioned by bad steerage, a bad
account, or a current, I could not determine; but was apt to judge it
might be a complication of all; for I could not think it was wholly the
current, the land here lying east by south, and west by north, or a
little more northerly and southerly. We had kept so nigh as to see it,
and at farthest had not been above 20 leagues from it, but sometimes much
nearer; and it is not probable that any current should set directly off
from a land. A tide indeed may; but then the flood has the same force to
strike in upon the shore as the ebb to strike off from it: but a current
must have set nearly alongshore either easterly or westerly; and if
anything northerly or southerly, it could be but very little in
comparison of its east or west course, on a coast lying as this doth;
which yet we did not perceive. If therefore we were deceived by a current
it is very probable that the land is here disjoined, and that there is a
passage through to the southward, and that the land from King William's
Cape to this place is an island, separated from New Guinea by some strait
as New Britain is by that which we came through. But this being at best
but a probable conjecture I shall insist no farther upon it.


The 14th we passed by Schouten's Island and Providence Island, and found
still a very strong current setting to the north-west. On the 17th the we
saw a high mountain on the main that sent forth great quantities of smoke
from its top: this volcano we did not see in our voyage out. In the
afternoon we discovered King William's Island, and crowded all the sail
we could to get near it before night; thinking to lie to the eastward of
it till day, for fear of some shoals that lie at the west end of it.
Before night we got within 2 leagues of it and, having a fine gale of
wind and a light moon, I resolved to pass through in the night; which I
hoped to do before 12 o'clock if the gale continued; but when we came
within 2 miles of it it fell calm; yet afterwards, by the help of the
current, a small gale, and our boat, we got through before day. In the
night we had a very fragrant smell from the island.


By morning-light we were got 2 leagues to the westward of it; and then
were becalmed all the morning; and met such whirling tides that when we
came into them the ship turned quite round; and though sometimes we had a
small gale of wind yet she could not feel the helm when she came into
these whirlpools: neither could we get from amongst them till a brisk
gale sprang up; yet we drove not much any way, but whirled round like a
top. And those whirlpools were not constant to one place, but drove about
strangely; and sometimes we saw among them large ripplings of the water,
like great overfalls, making a fearful noise. I sent my boat to sound but
found no ground.


The 18th Cape Mabo bore south distance 9 leagues. By which account it
lies in the latitude of 50 minutes south and meridian distance from Cape
St. George 1243 miles. St. John's Isle lies 48 miles to the east of Cape
St. George; which, being added to the distance between Cape St. George
and Cape Mabo, makes 1291 meridional parts; which was the furthest that I
was to the east. In my outward-bound voyage I made meridian distance
between Cape Mabo and Cape St. George 1290 miles; and now in my return
but 1243; which is 47 short of my distance going out. This difference may
probably be occasioned by the strong western current which we found in
our return, which I allowed for after I perceived it; and though we did
not discern any current when we went to the eastward, except when near
the islands, yet it is probable we had one against us, though we did not
take notice of it because of the strong westerly winds. King William's
Island lies in the latitude of 21 minutes south, and may be seen
distinctly off of Cape Mabo.

In the evening we passed by Cape Mabo; and afterwards steered away
south-east half east, keeping along the shore which here trends
south-easterly. The next morning, seeing a large opening in the land with
an island near the south side, I stood in, thinking to anchor there. When
we were shot in within 2 leagues of the island the wind came to the west,
which blows right into the opening. I stood to the north shore;
intending, when I came pretty nigh, to send my boat into the opening, and
sound before I would adventure in. We found several deep bays, but no
soundings within 2 miles of the shore; therefore I stood off again. Then,
seeing a rippling under our lee, I sent my boat to sound on it; which
returned in half an hour and brought me word that the rippling we saw was
only a tide, and that they had no ground there.




The wind seeming to incline to east, as might be expected according to
the season of the year, I rather chose to shape my course as these winds
would best permit than strive to return the same way we came; which, for
many leagues, must have been against this monsoon: though indeed, on the
other hand, the dangers in that way we already knew; but what might be in
this by which we now proposed to return we could not tell.


We were now in a channel about 8 on 9 leagues wide, having a range of
islands on the north side, and another on the south side, and very deep
water between, so that we had no ground. The 22nd of April in the morning
I sent my boat ashore to an island on the north side, and stood that way
with the ship. They found no ground till within a cable's length of the
shore, and then had coral rocks; so that they could not catch any fish,
though they saw a great many. They brought aboard a small canoe, which
they found adrift. They met with no game ashore save only one
party-coloured parakeet. The land is of an indifferent height; very
rocky, yet clothed with tall trees, whose bare roots run along upon the
rocks. Our people saw a pond of salt-water but found no fresh. Near this
island we met a pretty strong tide but found neither tide nor current off
at some distance.

On the 24th, being about 2 leagues from an island to the southward of us,
we came over a shoal on which we had but 5 fathom and a half. We did not
descry it till we saw the ground under us. In less than half an hour
before the boat had been sounding in discoloured water, but had no
ground. We manned the boat presently and towed the ship about; and then
sounding had 12, 15, and 17 fathom, and then no ground with our
hand-lead. The shoal was rocky; but in 12 and 15 fathom we had oazy


We found here very strange tides that ran in streams, making a great sea;
and roaring so loud that we could hear them before they came within a
mile of us. The sea round about them seemed all broken, and tossed the
ship so that she would not answer her helm. These ripplings commonly
lasted 10 or 12 minutes, and then the sea became as still and smooth as a
mill-pond. We sounded often when in the midst of them, and afterwards in
the smooth water; but found no ground, neither could we perceive that
they drove us any way.

We had in one night several of these tides that came most of them from
the west; and, the wind being from that quarter, we commonly heard them a
long time before they came; and sometimes lowered our topsails, thinking
it was a gust of wind. They were of great length from north to south, but
their breadth not exceeding 200 yards, and they drove a great pace: for
though we had little wind to move us, yet these would soon pass away and
leave the water very smooth, and just before we encountered them we met a
great swell but it did not break.


The 26th we saw the island Ceram; and still met some ripplings, but much
fainter than those we had the 2 preceding days. We sailed along the
island Ceram to the westward, edging in withal, to see if peradventure we
might find a harbour to anchor in where we might water, trim the ship,
and refresh our men.

In the morning we saw a sail to the north of us, steering in for the west
end of Ceram, as we likewise were. In the evening, being near the shore
on the north side of the island, I stood off to sea with an easy sail;
intending to stand in for the shore in the morning, and try to find
anchoring to fill water, and get a little fish for refreshment.
Accordingly in the morning early I stood in with the north-west point of
Ceram; leaving a small island, called Bonao, to the west. The sail we saw
the day before was now come pretty nigh us, steering in also (as we did)
between Ceram and Bonao. I shortened sail a little for him; and when he
got abreast of us not above 2 miles off I sent my boat aboard. It was a
Dutch sloop, come from Ternate, and bound for Amboina: my men whom I sent
in the boat bought 5 bags of new rice, each containing about 130 pounds,
for 6 Spanish dollars. The sloop had many rare parrots aboard for sale
which did not want price. A Malayan merchant aboard told our men that
about 6 months ago he was at Bencola, and at that time the governor
either died or was killed, and that the commander of an English ship then
in that road succeeded to that government.

In the afternoon, having a breeze at north and north-north-east, I sent
my boat to sound and, standing after her with the ship, anchored in 30
fathom water oazy sand, half a mile from the shore, right against a small
river of fresh water. The next morning I sent both the boats ashore to
fish; they returned about 10 o'clock with a few mullets and 3 or 4
cavallies, and some pan-fish. We found variation here 2 degrees 15
minutes east.

When the sea was smooth by the land-winds we sent our boats ashore for
water; who, in a few turns, filled all our casks.

The land here is low, swampy and woody; the mould is a dark grey, friable
earth. Two rivers came out within a bow-shot of each other, just opposite
to the place where we rode: one comes right down out of the country; and
the other from the south, running along by the shore, not musket-shot
from the seaside. The northernmost river is biggest, and out of it we
filled our water; our boats went in and out at any time of tide. In some
places the land is overflown with fresh water, at full sea. The land
hereabouts is full of trees unknown to us, but none of them very large or
high; the woods yield many wild fruits and berries, such as I never saw
elsewhere. We met with no land animals.


The fowls we found were pigeons, parrots, cockadores, and a great number
of small birds unknown to me. One of the master's mates killed 2 fowls as
big as crows; of a black colour, excepting that the tails were all white.
Their necks were pretty long, one of which was of a saffron-colour, the
other black. They had very large bills much like a ram's horn; their legs
were strong and short, and their claws like a pigeon's; their wings of an
ordinary length: yet they make a great noise when they fly, which they do
very heavily. They feed on berries, and perch on the highest trees. Their
flesh is sweet; I saw some of the same species at New Guinea, but nowhere


May the 3rd at 6 in the morning we weighed, intending to pass between
Bonao and Ceram; but presently after we got under sail we saw a pretty
large proa coming about the north-west point of Ceram. Wherefore I stood
to the north to speak with her, putting aboard our ensign. She, seeing us
coming that way, went into a small creek and skulked behind a point a
while: at last discovering her again I sent my boat to speak with her;
but the proa rowed away and would not come nigh it. After this, finding I
could not pass between Bonao and Ceram as I purposed, I steered away to
the north of it.

This Bonao is a small island lying about 4 leagues from the north-west
point of Ceram. I was informed by the Dutch sloop before mentioned that,
notwithstanding its smallness, it has one fine river, and that the Dutch
are there settled. Whether there be any natives on it or not I know not,
nor what its produce is. They further said that the Ceramers were their
mortal enemies; yet that they were settled on the westermost point of
Ceram in spite of the natives.

The next day as we approached the island Bouro there came off from it a
very fragrant scent, much like that from King William's Island; and we
found so strong a current setting to the westward that we could scarce
stem it. We plied to get to the southward, intending to pass between
Bouro and Keelang.

In the evening, being near the west end of Bouro, we saw a brigantine to
the north-west of us, on the north side of Bouro, standing to the
eastward. I would not stand east or west for fear of coming nigh the land
which was on each side of us, namely Bouro on the west, and Keelang on
the east. The next morning we found ourselves in mid-channel between both
islands; and having the wind at south-west we steered south-south-east,
which is right through between both. At 11 o'clock it fell calm; and so
continued till noon; by that time the brigantine which we saw astern the
night before was got 2 or 3 leagues ahead of us. It is probable she met a
strong land-wind in the evening which continued all night; she keeping
nearer the shore than I could safely do. She might likewise have a tide
or current setting easterly, where she was; though we had a tide setting
northwardly against us, we being in mid-channel.

About 8 at night the brigantine which we saw in the day came close along
by us on our weather-side: our guns were all ready before night, matches
lighted, and small arms on the quarter-deck ready loaded. She standing
one way and we another; we soon got further asunder. But I kept good
watch all the night and in the morning saw her astern of us, standing as
we did. At 10 o'clock, having little wind, I sent the yawl aboard of her.
She was a Chinese vessel laden with rice, arrack, tea, porcelain, and
other commodities, bound for Amboina. The commander said that his boat
was gone ashore for water, and asked our men if they saw her; for she had
been wanting for 2 or 3 days, and they knew not what was become of her.
They had their wives and children aboard, and probably came to settle at
some new Dutch factory. The commander also informed us that the Dutch had
lately settled at Ampoulo, Menippe, Bonao, and on a point of Ceram. The
next day we passed out to the southward between Keelang and Bouro. After
this we had for several days a current setting southerly, and a great
tumbling sea, occasioned more by the strong current than by winds, as was
apparent by the jumping of its waves against each other; and by
observation I found 25 miles more southing than our course gave us.

On the 14th we discovered the island Misacomba, and the next day sailed
along to the west on the north side of the island. In some charts it is
called Omba; it is a mountainous island, spotted with woods and
savannahs; about 20 leagues long and 5 or 6 broad. We saw no signs of
inhabitants on it. We fell in nearest to the west end of it; and
therefore I chose to pass on to the westward, intending to get through to
the southward between this and the next isle to the west of it, or
between any other 2 islands to the west, where I should meet with the
clearest passage; because the winds were now at north-east and
east-north-east, and the isle lies nearly east and west; so that if the
winds continued I might be a long time in getting to the east end of it,
which yet I knew to be the best passage. In the night, being at the west
end and seeing no clear passage, I stood off with an easy sail, and in
the morning had a fine land-wind, which would have carried us 5 or 6
leagues to the east if we had made the best of it; but we kept on only
with a gentle gale for fear of a westerly current. In the morning,
finding we had not met with any current as we expected, as soon as it was
light we made sail to the westward again.

After noon, being near the end of the isle Pentare which lies west from
Misacomba, we saw many houses and plantations in the country, and many
coconut-trees growing by the seaside. We also saw several boats sailing
across a bay or channel at the west end of Misacomba, between it and
Pentare. We had but little wind, and that at north, which blows right in
with a swell rolling in withal; wherefore I was afraid to venture in,
though probably there might be good anchoring and a commerce with the
natives. I continued steering to the west, because, the night before at
sun-setting, I saw a small round high island to the west of Pentare,
where I expected a good passage.


We could not that day reach the west end of Pentare, but saw a deep bay
to the west of us, where I thought might be a passage through, between
Pentare and Laubana. But as yet the lands were shut one within another,
that we could not see any passage. Therefore I ordered to sail 7 leagues
more westerly, and lie by till next day. In the morning we looked out for
an opening but could see none; yet by the distance and bearing of a high
round island called Potoro, we were got to the west of the opening, but
not far from it. Wherefore I tacked and stood to the east, and the
rather, because I had reason to suppose this to be the passage we came
through in the Cygnet mentioned in my Voyage round the World; but I was
not yet sure of it because we had rainy weather, so that we could not now
see the land so well as we did then. We then accidentally saw the opening
at our first falling in with the islands; which now was a work of some
time and difficul to discover. However before 10 o'clock we saw the
opening plain; and I was the more confirmed in my knowledge of this
passage by a spit of sand and 2 islands at the north-east part of its
entrance. The wind was at south-south-west and we plied to get through
before night; for we found a good tide helping us to the south. About 7
or 8 leagues to the west of us we saw a high round peaked mountain, from
whose top a smoke seemed to ascend as from a volcano. There were 3 other
very high peaked mountains, 2 on the east and one on the west of that
which smoked.

In our plying to get through between Pentare and Laubana we had (as I
said) a good tide or current setting us to the southward. And it is to be
observed that near the shores in these parts we commonly find a tide
setting northwardly or southwardly as the land lies; but the northwardly
tide sets not above 3 hours in 12, having little strength; and sometimes
it only checks the contrary current which runs with great violence,
especially in narrow passes such as this between 2 islands. It was 12 at
night before we got clear of 2 other small islands that lay on the south
side of the passage; and there we had a very violent tide setting us
through against a brisk gale of wind. Notwithstanding which I kept the
pinnace out, for fear we should be becalmed. For this is the same place
through which I passed in the year 1687, mentioned in my Voyage round the
World, only then we came out between the western small island and
Laubana, and now we came through between the two small islands. We
sounded frequently but had no ground. I said there that we came through
between Omba and Pentare: for we did not then see the opening between
those 2 islands; which made me take the west side of Pentare for the west
end of Omba, and Laubana for Pentare. But now we saw the opening between
Omba and Pentare; which was so narrow that I would not venture through:
besides I had now discovered my mistake, and hoped to meet with the other
passage again, as indeed we did, and found it to be bold from side to
side, which in the former voyage I did not know.


After we were through we made the best of our way to Timor, and on May
the 18th in the morning we saw it plain, and made the high land over
Laphao the Portuguese factory, as also the high peak over our first
watering-place, and a small round island about midway between them.

We coasted along the island Timor, intending to touch at Babao, to get a
little water and refreshments. I would not go into the bay where we first
watered, because of the currents which there whirl about very strangely,
especially at spring tides which were now setting in; besides, the
south-east winds come down in flaws from the mountains, so that it would
have been very dangerous for us.


Wherefore we crowded all the sail we could to get to Babao before night,
or at least to get sight of the sandy island at the entrance of the bay;
but could not. So we plied all night; and the next morning entered the

There being good ground all over this bay we anchored at 2 o'clock in 30
fathom water, soft oazy ground. And the morning after I sent my boat
ashore with the seine to fish. At noon she returned and brought enough
for all the ship's company. They saw an Indian boat at a round rocky
island about a mile from them.

On the 22nd I sent my boat ashore again to fish: at noon she returned
with a few fish, which served me and my officers. They caught one
whiting, the first I had seen in these seas. Our people went over to the
rocky island and there found several jars of turtle, and some hanging up
a-drying, and some cloths; their boat was about a mile off, striking
turtle. Our men left all as they found. In the afternoon a very large
shark came under our stern; I never had seen any near so big before. I
put a piece of meat on a hook for him but he went astern and returned no
more. About midnight, the wind being pretty moderate, I weighed and stood
into the bottom of the bay, and ran over nearer the south shore, where I
thought to lie and water, and at convenient times get fish for our
refreshment. The next morning I sent my pinnace with 2 hogsheads and 10
barrecoes for water; they returned at noon with the casks full of water;
very thick and muddy, but sweet and good. We found variation 15 minutes


This afternoon, finding that the breezes were set in here, and that it
blew so hard that I could neither fish nor fill water without much
difficulty and hazard of the boat; I resolved to be gone, having good
quantity of water aboard. Accordingly at half an hour after 2 in the
morning we weighed with the wind at east by south, and stood to sea. We
coasted along by the island Roti which is high land, spotted with woods
and savannahs. The trees appeared small and shrubby, and the savannahs
dry and rusty. All the north side has sandy bays by the sea. We saw no
houses nor plantations.


The next day we crowded all the sail we could to get to the west of all
the isles before night but could not; for at 6 in the evening we saw land
bearing south-west by west. For here are more islands than are laid down
in any charts that I have seen. Wherefore I was obliged to make a more
westerly course than I intended till I judged we might be clear of the
land. And when we were so I could easily perceive by the ship's motion.
For till then, being under the lee of the shore, we had smooth water; but
now we had a troubled sea which made us dance lustily. This turbulent sea
was occasioned in part by the current; which, setting out slanting
against the wind, was by it raised into short cockling seas. I did indeed
expect a south-west current here but not so very strong as we found it.

On the 26th we continued to have a very strong current setting
southwardly; but on what point exactly I know not. Our whole distance by
log was but 82 miles, and our difference of latitude since yesterday noon
by observation 100 miles, which is 18 miles more than the whole distance;
and our course, allowing no leeway at all, was south 17 degrees west,
which gives but 76 miles difference of latitude, 24 less than we found by
observation. I did expect (as has been said) we might meet a great
current setting to the south yesterday, because there is a constant
current setting out from among those islands we passed through between
Timor and the isles to the west of it, and it is probable, in all the
other openings between the islands, even from the east end of Java to the
end of all that range that runs from thence, both to the east and west of
Timor; but, being got so far out to sea as we were, though there may be a
very great current, yet it does not seem probable to me that it should be
of so great strength as we now found: for both currents and tides lose
their force in the open sea where they have room to spread; and it is
only in narrow places or near headlands that their force is chiefly felt.
Besides, in my opinion, it should here rather set to the west than south;
being open to the narrow sea that divides New Holland from the range of
islands before mentioned.

The 27th we found that in the last 24 hours we had gone 9 miles less
south than the log gave: so that it is probable we were then out of the
southern current which we felt so much before. We saw many tropic-birds
about us. And found variation 1 degree 25 minutes west.


On June the 1st we saw several whales, the first we had at this time seen
on the coast: but when we were here before we saw many; at which time we
were nearer the shore than now. The variation now was 5 degrees 38
minutes west.


I designed to have made New Holland in about the latitude of 20 degrees,
and steered courses by day to make it, but in the night could not be so
bold; especially since we had sounding. This afternoon I steered in
south-west till 6 o'clock; then, it blowing fresh and night coming on, I
steered west-south-west till we had 40 fathom; and then stood west, which
course carries alongshore. In the morning again from 6 to 12 I steered
west-south-west to have made the land but, not seeing it, I judged we
were to the west of it. Here is very good soundings on this coast. When
we passed this way to the eastward we had, near this latitude of 19
degrees 50 minutes 38 fathom, about 18 leagues from the land: but this
time we saw not the land. The next morning I saw a great many
scuttle-fish bones which was a sign that we were not far from the land.
Also a great many weeds continually floating by us.

We found the variation increase considerably as we went westward. For on
the 3rd it was 6 degrees 10 minutes west; on the 4th, 6 degrees 20
minutes, and on the 6th, 7 degrees 20 minutes. That evening we saw some
fowls like men-of-war-birds flying north-east, as I was told; for I did
not see them, having been indisposed these 3 or 4 days.


On the 11th we found the variation 8 degrees 1 minute west; on the 12th,
6 degrees 0 minutes. I kept on my course to the westward till the 15th,
and then altered it. My design was to seek for the Tryal Rocks; but,
having been sick 5 or 6 days without any fresh provision or other good
nourishment aboard, and seeing no likelihood of my recovery, I rather
chose to go to some port in time than to beat here any longer; my people
being very negligent when I was not upon deck myself; I found the winds
variable, so that I might go any way, east, west, north, or south;
wherefore it is probable I might have found the said rocks had not
sickness prevented me; which discovery (whenever made) will be of great
use to merchants trading to these parts.


From hence nothing material happened till we came upon the coast of Java.
On the 23rd we saw Princes Isle plain, and the mouth of the Straits of
Sunda. By my computation the distance between Timor and Princes Isle is
14 degrees 22 minutes. The next day in the afternoon, being abreast of
Crockadore Island, I steered away east-north-east for an island that lies
near midway between Sumatra and Java but nearest the Java shore; which is
by Englishmen called Thwart-the-way. We had but small winds till about 3
o'clock when it freshened, and I was in good hopes to pass through before
day: but at 9 o'clock the wind fell and we got but little. I was then
abreast of Thwart-the-way, which is a pretty high long island; but before
11 the wind turned, and presently afterward it fell calm. I was then
about 2 leagues from the said island; and, having a strong current
against us, before day we were driven astern 4 or 5 leagues. In the
morning we had the wind at north-north-west; it looked black and the wind
unsettled: so that I could not expect to get through. I therefore stood
toward the Java shore, and at 10 anchored in 24 fathom water, black oazy
ground, 3 leagues from the shore. I sounded in the night when it was
calm, and had 54 fathom, coarse sand and coral.


In the afternoon before we had seen many proas; but none came off to us;
and in the night we saw many fires ashore. This day a large proa came
aboard of us, and lay by our side an hour. There were only 4 men in her,
all Javians, who spoke the Malayan language. They asked if we were
English; I answered we were; and presently one of them came aboard and
presented me with a small hen, some eggs and coconuts; for which I gave
some beads and a small looking-glass, and some glass bottles. They also
gave me some sugarcane, which I distributed to such of my men as were
scorbutic. They told me there were 3 English ships at Batavia.

The 28th at 2 in the afternoon we anchored in 26 fathom water; presently
it fell calm and began to rain very violently and so continued from 3
till 9 in the evening. At 1 in the morning we weighed with a fine
land-wind at south-south-east; but presently, the wind coming about at
east, we anchored; for we commonly found the current setting west. If at
any time it turned it was so weak that it did us little good; and I did
not think it safe to venture through without a pretty brisk leading gale;
for the passage is but narrow, and I knew not what dangers might be in
the way, nor how the tide sets in the narrow, having not been this way
these 28 years, and all my people wholly strangers: we had the opening
fair before us.


While we lay here 4 Malayan proas came from the shore, laden with
coconuts, plantains, bananas, fowls, ducks, tobacco, sugar, etc. These
were very welcome, and we purchased much refreshment of them. At 10
o'clock I dismissed all the boats, and weighed with the wind at
north-west. At half an hour past 6 in the evening we anchored in 32
fathom water in a coarse sort of oaze. We were now past the island
Thwart-the-way, but had still one of the small islands to pass. The tide
began to run strong to the west; which obliged me to anchor while I had
soundings, for fear of being driven back again or on some unknown sand. I
lay still all night. At 5 o'clock the next morning the tide began to
slacken: at 6 I weighed with the wind at south-east by east, a handsome
breeze. We just weathered the Button; and, sounding several times, had
still between 30 and 40 fathom. When we were abreast of the Button, and
about 2 leagues from the westermost point of Java, we had 34 fathom,
small peppery sand. You may either come between this island and Java, or,
if the wind is northerly, run out between the island Thwart-the-way and
this last small island.

The wind for the most part being at east and east by south I was obliged
to run over towards the Sumatra shore, sounding as I went, and had from
34 to 23 fathom. In the evening I sounded pretty quick, being got near
the Sumatra shore; and, finding a current setting to the west between 8
and 9 o'clock, we anchored in 34 fathom. The tide set to the west from 7
in the evening to 7 this morning; and then, having a small gale at
west-south-west, I weighed and stood over to the Java shore.

In the evening, having the wind between east-north-east and south-east by
east, we could not keep off the Java shore. Wherefore I anchored in 27
fathom water, about a league and a half off shore. At the same time we
saw a ship at anchor near the shore, about 2 mile to leeward of us. We
found the tide setting to the westward, and presently after we anchored
it fell calm. We lay still all night and saw many fires ashore. At 5 the
next morning, being July the 1st, we weighed and stood to the north for a
seabreeze: at 10, the wind coming out, I tacked and had a fine brisk
gale. The ship we saw at anchor weighed also and stood after us. While we
passed by Pulo Baby I kept sounding and had no less than 14 fathom. The
other ship, coming after us with all the sail she could make, I shortened
sail on purpose that she might overtake us but she did not. A little
after 5 I anchored in 13 fathom good oazy ground. About 7 in the evening
the ship that followed us passed by close under our stern; she was a
Dutch fly-boat; they told us they came directly from Holland, and had
been in their passage six months. It was now dark, and the Dutch ship
anchored within a mile of us. I ordered to look out sharp in the morning;
that so soon as the Dutchman began to move we might be ready to follow
him; for I intended to make him my pilot. In the morning at half an hour
after 5 we weighed, the Dutchman being under sail before; and we stood
directly after him. At 8, having but little wind, I sent my boat aboard
of him to see what news he had brought from Europe. Soon after we spied a
ship coming from the east, plying on a wind to speak with us, and showing
English colours. I made a signal for my boat, and presently bore away
towards her; and, being pretty nigh, the commander and supercargo came
aboard, supposing we had been the Tuscany galley which was expected then
at Batavia. This was a country ship belonging to Fort St. George, having
come out from Batavia the day before, and bound to Bencola. The commander
told me that the Fleet frigate was at anchor in Batavia Road, but would
not stay there long: he told me also that His Majesty's ships commanded
by Captain Warren were still in India, but he had been a great while from
the coast and had not seen them. He gave me a chart of these straits from
the Button and Cap to Batavia, and showed me the best way in thither. At
11 o'clock, it being calm, I anchored in 14 fathom good oazy ground.


At 2 o'clock we weighed again; the Dutch ship being under sail before,
standing close to Mansheters Island; but, finding he could not weather
it, he tacked and stood off a little while, and then tacked again. In the
meantime I stood pretty nigh the said island, sounding, but could not
weather it. Then I tacked and stood off, and the Dutch stood in towards
the island; and weathered it. I, being desirous to have room enough,
stood off longer and then went about, having the Dutch ship 4 points
under my lee. I kept after him; but as I came nearer the island I found a
tide setting to the west, so that I could not weather it. Wherefore at 6
in the evening I anchored in 7 fathom oazy ground, about a mile from the
island: the Dutch ship went about 2 miles further, and anchored also; and
we both lay still all night. At 5 the next morning we weighed again, and
the Dutch ship stood away between the island Cambusses and the main; but
I could not follow because we had a land-wind. Wherefore I went without
the Cambusses, and by noon we saw the ships that lay at the careening
island near Batavia. After the land-wind was spent, which we had at
south-east and south-south-east, the seabreeze came up at east. Then we
went about; and, the wind coming afterward at east-north-east, we had a
large wind to run us into Batavia Road: and at 4 in the afternoon we
anchored in 6 fathom soft oaze.




We found in Batavia Road a great many ships at anchor, most Dutch, and
but one English ship named the Fleet frigate, commanded by one Merry. We
rode a little without them all. Near the shore lay a stout China junk,
and a great many small vessels, namely brigantines, sloops and Malayan
proas in abundance. As soon as I anchored I sent my boat aboard the Fleet
frigate with orders to make them strike their pennant, which was done
soon after the boat went aboard. Then my clerk, whom I sent in the boat,
went for the shore, as I had directed him, to see if the government would
answer my salute: but it was now near night, and he had only time to
speak with the ship-bander, who told him that the government would have
answered my salute with the same number of guns if I had fired as soon as
I anchored; but that now it was too late. In the evening my boat came
aboard and the next morning I myself went ashore, visited the Dutch
general, and desired the privilege of buying such provision and stores as
I now wanted; which he granted me.

I lay here till the 17th of October following, all which time we had very
fair weather, some tornadoes excepted. In the meantime I supplied the
carpenter with such stores as were necessary for refitting the ship;
which proved more leaky after he had caulked her than she was before: so
that I was obliged to careen her, for which purpose I hired vessels to
take in our guns, ballast, provision and stores.


The English ships that arrived here from England were first the Liampo,
commanded by Captain Monk, bound for China; next the Panther commanded by
Captain Robinson; then the Mancel frigate, commanded by Captain Clerk.
All these brought good tidings from England. Most of them had been
unfortunate in their officers; especially Captain Robinson, who said that
some of them had been conspiring to ruin him and his voyage. There came
in also several English country vessels; first a sloop from Benjarr,
commanded by one Russel, bound to Bengal, next the Monsoon, belonging to
Bengal: she had been at Malacca at the same time that His Majesty's ship
the Harwich was there: afterwards came in also another small ship from

While we stayed here all the forenamed English ships sailed hence; the 2
Bengal ships excepted. Many Dutch ships also came in here, and departed
again before us. We had several reports concerning our men-of-war in
India, and much talk concerning rovers who had committed several spoils
upon the coast and in the Straits of Malacca. I did not hear of any ships
sent out to quash them. At my first coming in I was told that 2 ships had
been sent from Amboina in quest of me; which was lately confirmed by one
of the skippers, whom I by accident met with here. He told me they had 3
protests against me; that they came to Pulo Sabuda on the coast of New
Guinea 28 days after my departure thence, and went as far as Schouten's
Island and, hearing no further news of me, returned. Something likewise
to this purpose Mr. Merry, commander of the Fleet frigate, told me at my
first arrival here; and that the general at Batavia had a copy of my
commission and instructions; but I looked upon it as a very improbable

While we lay here the Dutch held several consultations about sending some
ships for Europe sooner than ordinary: at last the 16th of October was
agreed upon for the day of sailing, which is 2 months sooner than usual.
They lay ready 2 or 3 days before, and went out on the 10th. Their names
were the Ostresteen, bound to Zealand; the Vanheusen, for Enchiehoust;
and the 3 Crowns, for Amsterdam, commanded by skipper Jacob Uncright, who
was commodore over all the rest. I had by this time finished my business
here, namely fitted the ship, recruited myself with provision, filled all
my water; and, the time of the year to be going for Europe being now at
hand, I prepared to be gone also.


Accordingly on the 17th of October, at half an hour after 6 in the
morning, I weighed anchor from Batavia, having a good land-wind at south,
and fair weather: and by the 19th at noon came up with the 3 Dutch ships
before mentioned. The 29th of November in the morning we saw a small hawk
flying about the ship till she was quite tired. Then she rested on the
mizzen-topsail-yard, where we caught her. It is probable she was blown
off from Madagascar by the violent northerly winds; that being the
nighest land to us, though distance near 150 leagues.



The 30th December we arrived at the Cape of Good Hope and departed again
on the 11th of January, 1701. About the end of the month we saw abundance
of weeds or blubber swim by us, for I cannot determine which. It was all
of one shape and colour. As they floated on the water they seemed to be
of the breadth of the palm of a man's hand, spread out round into many
branches about the bigness of a man's finger. They had in the middle a
little knob, no bigger than the top of a man's thumb. They were of a
smoke-colour; and the branches, by their pliantness in the water, seemed
to be more simple than jellies, I have not seen the like before.


The 2nd of February we anchored in St. Helena Road and set sail again
from thence on the 13th.


On the 21st we made the island of Ascension and stood in towards it. The
22nd between 8 and 9 o'clock we sprung a leak which increased so that the
chain-pump could not keep the ship free. Whereupon I set the hand-pump to
work also, and by 10 o'clock sucked her: then wore the ship, and stood to
the southward to try if that would ease her; and then the chain-pump just
kept her free. At 5 the next morning we made sail and stood in for the
bay; and at 9 anchored in 10 and a half fathom, sandy ground. The south
point bore south-south-west distance 2 miles, and the north point of the
bay north-east half north, distance 2 miles. As soon as we anchored I
ordered the gunner to clear his powder-room that we might there search
for the leak and endeavour to stop it within board if possible; for we
could not heel the ship so low, it being within 4 streaks of the keel;
neither was there any convenient place to haul her ashore. I ordered the
boatswain to assist the gunner; and by 10 o'clock the powder-room was
clear. The carpenter's mate, gunner, and boatswain went down; and soon
after I followed them myself and asked them whether they could come at
the leak: they said they believed they might, but cutting the ceiling; I
told the carpenter's mate (who was the only person in the ship that
understood anything of carpenter's work) that if he thought he could come
at the leak by cutting the ceiling without weakening the ship he might do
it, for he had stopped one leak so before; which though not so big as
this, yet, having seen them both, I thought he might as well do this as
the other. Wherefore I left him to do his best. The ceiling being cut,
they could not come at the leak; for it was against one of the
foot-hook-timbers which the carpenter's mate said he must first cut
before it could be stopped. I went down again to see it, and found the
water to come in very violently. I told them I never had known any such
thing as cutting timbers to stop leaks; but if they who ought to be best
judges in such cases thought they could do any good I bid them use their
utmost care and diligence, promising the carpenter's mate that I would
always be a friend to him if he could and would stop it: he said by 4
o'clock in the afternoon he would make all well, it being then about 11
in the forenoon. In the afternoon my men were all employed, pumping with
both pumps; except such as assisted the carpenter's mate. About one in
the afternoon I went down again and the carpenter's mate was cutting the
after-part of the timber over the leak. Some said it was best to cut the
timber away at once; I bid them hold their tongue and let the carpenter's
mate alone; for he knew best and I hoped he would do his utmost to stop
the leak. I desired him to get everything ready for stopping the violence
of the water, before he cut any further; for fear it should overpower us
at once. I had already ordered the carpenter to bring all the oakum he
had, and the boatswain to bring all the waste cloths to stuff in upon
occasion; and had for the same purpose sent down my own bedclothes. The
carpenter's mate said he should want short stanchions to be placed so
that the upper end should touch the deck, and the under-part rest on what
was laid over the leak; and presently took a length for them. I asked the
master-carpenter what he thought best to be done: he replied till the
leak was all open, he could not tell. Then he went away to make a
stanchion, but it was too long: I ordered him to make many of several
lengths, that we might not want of any size. So once more desiring the
carpenter's mate to use his utmost endeavours I went up, leaving the
boatswain and some others there. About 5 o'clock the boatswain came to me
and told me the leak was increased, and that it was impossible to keep
the ship above water; when on the contrary I expected to have had the
news of the leak's being stopped. I presently went down and found the
timber cut away, but nothing in readiness to stop the force of the water
from coming in. I asked them why they would cut the timber before they
had got all things in readiness: the carpenter's mate answered they could
do nothing till the timber was cut that he might take the dimensions of
the place; and that there was a caulk which he had lined out, preparing
by the carpenter's boy. I ordered them in the meantime to stop in oakum,
and some pieces of beef; which accordingly was done, but all to little
purpose: for now the water gashed in with such violence, notwithstanding
all our endeavours to check it, that it flew in over the ceiling; and for
want of passage out of the room overflowed it above 2 foot deep. I
ordered the bulkhead be cut open, to give passage to the water that it
might drain out of the room; and withal ordered to clear away abaft the
bulkhead, that we might bail: so now we had both pumps going and as many
bailing as could; and by this means the water began to decrease; which
gave me some hope of saving the ship. I asked the carpenter's mate what
he thought of it; he said "Fear not; for by 10 o'clock at night I'll
engage to stop the leak." I went from him with a heavy heart; but,
putting a good countenance upon the matter, encouraged my men, who pumped
and bailed very briskly; and when I saw occasion I gave them some drams
to comfort them. About 11 o'clock at night the boatswain came to me and
told me that the leak still increased; and that the plank was so rotten
it broke away like dirt; and that now it was impossible to save the ship;
for they could not come at the leak because the water in the room was got
above it. The rest of the night we spent in pumping and bailing. I worked
myself to encourage my men, who were very diligent; but the water still
increased, and we now thought of nothing but saving our lives. Wherefore
I hoisted out the boat that, if the ship should sink, yet we might be
saved: and in the morning we weighed our anchor and warped in nearer the
shore; yet did but little good.


In the afternoon with the help of a seabreeze I ran into 7 fathom and
anchored; then carried a small anchor ashore and warped in till I came
into 3 fathom and a half. Where having fastened her I made a raft to
carry the men's chests and bedding ashore; and before 8 at night most of
them were ashore. In the morning I ordered the sails to be unbent, to
make tents; and then myself and officers went ashore. I had sent ashore a
puncheon and a 36 gallon cask of water with one bag of rice for our
common use: but great part of it was stolen away before I came ashore,
and many of my books and papers lost.


On the 26th following we, to our great comfort, found a spring of fresh
water about 8 miles from our tents, beyond a very high mountain which we
must pass over: so that now we were, by God's Providence, in a condition
of subsisting some time; having plenty of very good turtle by our tents,
and water for the fetching. The next day I went up to see the
watering-place, accompanied with most of my officers. We lay by the way
all night and next morning early got thither; where we found a very fine
spring on the south-east side of the high mountain, about half a mile
from its top: but the continual fogs make it so cold here that it is very
unwholesome living by the water. Near this place are abundance of goats
and land-crabs. About 2 mile south-east from the spring we found 3 or 4
shrubby trees, upon one of which was cut an anchor and cable, and the
year 1642. About half a furlong from these we found a convenient place
for sheltering men in any weather. Hither many of our men resorted; the
hollow rocks affording convenient lodging; the goats, land-crabs,
men-of-war-birds and boobies good food; and the air was here exceeding


About a week after our coming ashore our men that lived at this new
habitation saw two ships making towards the island. Before night they
brought me the news; and I ordered them to turn about a score of turtle
to be in readiness for their ships if they should touch here: but before
morning they were out of sight, and the turtle were released again. Here
we continued without seeing any other ship till the second of April; when
we saw 11 sail to windward of the island: but they likewise passed by.
The day after appeared 4 sail, which came to anchor in this bay. They
were His Majesty's ships the Anglesey, Hastings and Lizard; and the
Canterbury East India ship. I went on board the Anglesey with about 35 of
my men; and the rest were disposed of into the other 2 men-of-war.

We sailed from Ascension the 8th; and continued aboard till the 8th of
May: at which time the men-of-war, having missed St. Jago, where they
designed to water, bore away for Barbados: but I being desirous to get to
England as soon as possible took my passage in the ship Canterbury,
accompanied with my master, purser, gunner, and 3 of my superior



Anabao Island:
its inhabitants.

Ascension Island:
water found there.

Babao in Timor.

arrival there.
its road.
English ships there.
departure from thence.

Bird Island.

Birds, strange.

Bonao Island.

Bouro Island.

Britain, New.

Bird (strange) killed on the coast of New Guinea.

Burning island.

Burning island, another described.


Calalaloo, herb.

Cana-fistula-tree described.

Cape Orford in New Guinea.

Cape of Good Hope in New Guinea.

Cave's, Anthony, Island.

Cape, King William's.

Cape and Port Gloucester.

Cape Anne.

Ceram Island described.

Channel, a deep one.

Ciccale, Port.

Cockles, very big.

Cockle-merchant, a fish.

Cockle Island on the coast of New Guinea.

Cupang Bay in Timor (see Kupang).

Cross Island, discovered and described.

Currents (see Tides).

Distance between Cape Mabo and Cape St. George computed.

the author's parley with them.
their suspicion of the author.

Charts (Dutch), their falseness.

Dutch fort called Concordia.

Ende Island.

Fetter Island.

Figtrees of Timor described.

Fish, strange.

Fowls, strange.

Gerrit Denis (Garret Dennis) Island, inhabitants described.

Jelly found in the sea.

George, St.:
Cape and Bay in New Guinea.
another bay.
the inhabitants there.
a large account of the author's attempt to trade with them.

New Guinea coast:
their manner of fishing.
the author departs from New Guinea.

Java Island.

Indian plantation on the island Timor.

Indian proas and their traffic.

John's, St., Island.

King William's Island.

Laphao in Timor.

Laubana Island.

Leak sprung, incurable.

Long Island described.


Mabo, Cape.


Mansheter's Island.

Matthias Island.

Misacomba Island.

Port in New Guinea.
the country thereabouts described and its produce.

New Guinea.

Nova Britannia, (see New Britain).

Omba Island.

a new one conjectured.
a new one discovered.
two sorts described.

Parley with the Portuguese at Timor.

Pentare Island.

Pigeons, great numbers of them on the coast of New Guinea.

Porta Nova.

Providence Island.

Princes Isle.

Pulo Subada Isle.

Pulo Baby.

Return (the author's) to England.

Rich's (Sir R.) Island.


Rook's (Sir George) Island.

Roti (Rotee) Island.

Rosemary Island.

Sago, how made.


Schouten's Island.

Sesial Port in Timor.

Shark's Bay.

Ship lost.

Slingers Bay.



Squally Island.

Sunda Straits.

Terra Australis Incognita, what to be expected there.

Thwart-the-way Island.

Tides strange and uncertain, see Currents.

Timor Island:
the Dutch settlement.
the Portuguese settlement.
its inhabitants.
its fruits and animals.
the author's departure from it.

Trees full of worms found in the sea.

Tryal Rocks.

Turtle Isles.






Wishart's Island.

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