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´╗┐Title: A Full Description of the Great Tornado in Chester County, Pa.
Author: Darlington, Richard
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Full Description of the Great Tornado in Chester County, Pa." ***

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TORNADO IN CHESTER COUNTY, PA.***


A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THE GREAT TORNADO IN CHESTER COUNTY, PA.

by

RICHARD DARLINGTON, Jr.,
Principal of "Ercildoun Seminary."



West Chester, Pa.:
F. S. Hickman, Printer & Publisher.
1877.



The unprecedented destruction of property by the tornado which passed
through the western part of our county on the first of July last,
created in the minds of many a desire to have a full account of the
movement, conduct, and origin of the storm cloud, together with such
scientific explanation as would throw some light upon this remarkable
phenomenon. After some weeks had elapsed, I gave the subject
considerable attention, and have prepared this pamphlet, which I trust
will meet some of the wants of intelligent inquirers upon this
subject, and will also be the means of enabling the people to have a
better knowledge of the loss sustained by those living along the route
of the storm. This account has been prepared at the suggestion of a
number who are interested in the subject.

R. D.

_West Chester, Aug. 15, 1877._



THE GREAT TORNADO.


The Summer of 1877 has been remarkable in some localities for the
severity of its storms. These, in several instances, have partaken of
the character of tornadoes. Mt. Carmel, in Illinois, was nearly
destroyed about the 20th of June last; Pensaukee, in Wisconsin, was
nearly ruined on the 8th of July, and Pittston, in Massachusetts,
suffered terribly from a tornado on the same day. While these great
moving storm-clouds occur occasionally in some of the Southern States,
they generally move through sparsely settled districts, and the damage
inflicted excites but little attention elsewhere. In the West Indies,
and in other tropical regions, these tornadoes are of frequent
occurrence, and the damage is often fearful, whole towns being
completely swept away. In the East Indies, and on the coast of India,
these storms are known as Cyclones, because of their rotary
motion--the Greek word _Ruklos_, from which "Cyclone" is derived,
meaning "_a whirl_". A cyclone frequently extends across a great belt,
and is from fifty to five hundred miles in width. It may last for
hours, and if it occurs on the ocean it destroys most of the vessels
within its reach. In the dreadful hurricane that fell upon Coringa, in
India, in 1839, the town was destroyed and twenty thousand people lost
their lives.

Cyclones or hurricanes of this class, do not occur in our northern
States; tornadoes, however, do in rare instances. These extend in
width not more than a few hundred yards, or even feet, and come and go
within the space of one or two minutes. In power and violence,
however, they are as destructive as the cyclones. In tornadoes the
storm-cloud, in nearly all instances, has a rotary motion; the wind
also sweeping forward progressively at the rate of from five to twenty
miles an hour. Science has shown that in the latitude where these rare
visitors come, they nearly always proceed from south-west to
north-east. In the great Illinois hurricane in May, 1855, that passed
over Cook county, it is said that a family of nine persons was carried
up in the air in a frame house, four of the nine being killed outright
and the remainder severely injured. The house went to pieces amid the
fury of the storm. Generally these great storms are accompanied by
peculiar electrical phenomena, though not in all instances. Rain and
hail often go with them. The storm-cloud of a tornado is nearly always
funnel-shaped, the small end of the funnel extending downward. It
looks like an immense balloon, and revolves on its axis with fearful
rapidity. The air beyond the limits of this cloud is also in rapid
motion, but merely partakes of the character of a very high wind and
is not particularly destructive. The death-dealing and destructive
power of the storm is confined to the limit of the conical cloud. All
movements for personal safety must extend entirely beyond the
circumference established by the rotary motion. The primary cause of
these tornadoes is probably due to a low barometric condition of the
atmosphere accompanied by a high temperature, and spreading over an
area of very irregular shape. An area of high barometer, accompanied
by a low temperature, encroaches upon the former, and then comes the
mighty effort to equalize these two different conditions of the
atmosphere and restore the equilibrium, which is the constant effort
of nature. The more diverse these two conditions are, the greater will
be the struggle of the giants in the contest. Of course the electrical
condition of the atmosphere existing at the time may form a very
important factor in the tornado which may follow. What was the
character and condition of the atmosphere on the memorable first of
July last, when the storm-cloud which spread desolation over a narrow
belt of not more than two hundred yards at most, swept across the
western half of Chester county, Penn'a? The middle part of the day was
hot and oppressive; the thermometer stood at about 92 and the
barometer about 29.6. The atmosphere seemed very close, and the
inhaling of air in the lungs was attended with rather more difficulty
than usual. I remarked to a friend that there was a peculiar condition
of the atmosphere, and yet who could have foretold the terrible
results of that afternoon? The oldest inhabitant had never heard of a
tornado in this section of country, and yet one was at hand. To give a
faithful and accurate description of the movements and conduct of this
storm-cloud, made it necessary for me to pass over the route of the
moving mass and observe critically its results, and also to inquire of
those living along and near its track what was its appearance, what
was the direction of its sweep through the forest trees, how far the
_debris_ were carried, what amount of life was destroyed, what was the
width of its track, and how the rotary motion of the cloud seemed to
affect the buildings and obstacles that vainly attempted to resist its
march in a direction a little south of east.

The first point of interest in connection with the tornado was about
one mile south-east of the Gap station, on the Penn'a Rail Road, and
about two miles west of the boundary line between Chester and
Lancaster counties. From this point the storm-cloud proceeded for
about two miles in a direction south 70 degrees east, or about 20
degrees south of a line running due east. About three-fourths of a
mile east of Sadsbury Meeting House a slight change of direction
occurred in the movement of the cloud, and it took a direction a
little to the north, running south 75 degrees east. It proceeded, with
slight local variations, for about eight miles in a direct line, and
cutting a track about 200 yards wide, until it reached the property of
William Hamill, in East Fallowfield township, near Newlin's Mill, and
here it widened to about 300 yards, destroying the fences, crops,
etc., on his property. At this point a slight change of direction
occurred towards the south, bringing it into contact with the timber
tracts of E. Phipps and Thos. Shields, in which a terrible destruction
of forest trees occurred. It now veered to the north about ten
degrees, and passed through the southern half of the village of
Ercildoun in a line south 83 degrees east, or in a direction nearly
due east, and continued thence until it arose in the air about
half-a-mile east of Ercildoun, and proceeded, at a higher elevation,
for about seven miles, relieving the farms and property of the
intervening country from destruction. As it approached Broad Run,
about a mile west of Marshallton, it descended sufficiently long to
unroof and almost destroy the barns and out-buildings of two
properties, owned respectively by Richard Baily and Joseph Marshall,
of West Bradford township. Here it came to an end in its mad and
reckless career. The two opposing currents of air had no doubt now
become thoroughly blended and partook of the character of a high wind,
fully relieved of its devastating properties. The storm-cloud was
dissolved, or had permanently taken a higher elevation over a still
greater amount of territory. The whole route of the tornado, as
measured by its effects, was about 22 miles. The width of its track
was from 100 to 300 yards, averaging generally about 200 yards. The
following points also have been pretty clearly established by the use
of the compass, and also by careful observation along the route of the
storm:

_First._ That the general direction of the storm-cloud during the
first half of its journey, to a point near Newlin's Mill, one mile
west of Ercildoun, was south 75 deg. east, but at that point it
changed and its course afterwards was south 83 deg. east, or nearly
due east. _Second._ That the destruction of property was generally
greater as the cloud moved across a valley. _Third._ That the velocity
of the moving mass varied at different periods from 5 to 15 miles an
hour, but twelve miles an hour would be considered a fair average.
_Fourth._ That the trees along the southern side of the track of
desolation were generally thrown with their tops towards the north, or
at right angles to the direction of the progressive motion of the
cloud, while those on the northern side were thrown in the opposite
direction. _Fifth._ That in some instances houses and buildings near
the _centre_ of the track were but slightly injured. These cases,
however, were rare. _Sixth._ That from local and other causes, the
lower part of the conical cloud frequently moved out of a straight
course, while the upper or larger part of the cone kept in a line very
nearly direct. _Seventh._ That as soon as the cloud was formed, a
roaring sound commenced, which continued without interruption during
its entire course. This sound was not unlike continuous thunder.
_Eighth._ That the movement of the storm-cloud was unaccompanied with
much rain or hail, though one or the other fell at some distance north
or south of the track, the sun frequently shining at the time. To
explain some of these phenomena, even with the aid of science, is
difficult. The storm-cloud itself was an entirely exceptional
phenomenon in this latitude. Such an event had never occurred before
in eastern Pennsylvania, and we are without the benefit of previous
observation and experience. The great destruction of property in
crossing valleys has excited marked attention. The cloud undoubtedly
required an immense amount of air to feed it as it went along. Persons
near its track say that they breathed with the greatest difficulty.
The surrounding air must have been very rare; in fact, a partial
exhaustion must have resulted from the absorption of air by the moving
mass. In crossing a valley at right angles, or nearly so, the dense
air up and down on either side, would be at hand to furnish it with
the necessary material, thus increasing its power and devastation;
this is one explanation. Another theory, which is probably the correct
one, could safely be advanced upon plausible grounds. Supposing
electricity to be the primal cause of the cloud itself, in passing
across deep and irregular valleys with rugged surface, more
electricity would be developed, and greater power would be infused
into the revolving cone as it moved forward. When passing over a
smooth, level plateau, it would excite less of the electrical fluid,
and would hence be disarmed of a portion of its ability to destroy
buildings and fences.

The second important point that we must consider is the increased
destruction of property and great violence exhibited on the right side
of the centre of the revolving axis of the storm-cloud, and a
corresponding diminution of destructive power on the left side. The
movement of the whirl was undoubtedly from right to left; the fallen
trees indicate it. The forward motion of the hurricane would create a
great inrushing of wind on the right side, and greater damage would
result than upon the other side where the wind was returning to
complete the rotary movement. While it is true the trees were
overthrown to some extent in all directions, yet they mostly fell in
the direction in which the wind struck them as it moved around in its
whirling motion. The southern side of the track of desolation,
however, presents evidence of the greatest power. The maple and other
forest trees were frequently twisted entirely off, showing
conclusively, that while they were first struck by the progressive
motion, the rotary motion was sufficiently quick to locate the falling
trunk. The great power of the storm-cloud was due to its revolution.
In fact, this marks the difference between the high wind and the
hurricane or tornado. The phenomena observed in connection with the
storm of July first, are almost identical with those of similar
character in the Southern States and West Indies.

The third subject presented for our consideration is the upward and
downward currents which seemed to exist within the cloud. Objects were
thrown upward to an immense distance, and the distance to which some
objects were driven into the earth must convince us that there was a
force downward of great power. It is true that a falling body, when
influenced by gravity alone, will descend with great force, especially
if started from a high point, but the deep excavations found in the
track of the storm can only be accounted for by a downward current.
The funnel-shaped cloud enlarging its circumference towards the top,
would, with its centrifugal force resulting from its revolution, hurl
bodies to a great distance, and we find the _debris_ of this tornado
hundreds of yards outside of its track, proving that when an object
was carried up in the whirl, it was often thrown off, laterally for a
great distance. A remarkable feature in connection with the tornado
is the preservation of buildings in the track of the storm. Property
on both sides of a house was sometimes destroyed, and yet the building
itself was scarcely injured. This gap in the storm must have occurred
from local causes, and from the gradual elevation and descent of the
progressive movement of the cloud, thus carrying it over and beyond
some of the objects in its track. Some cases of this character will be
mentioned in the subsequent pages of this book.

The color and appearance of the storm cloud is worthy of
consideration. By some who viewed it as it passed along, it is
represented as being an immense balloon, extending to the height of
several hundred feet, spreading out at the top, forming a funnel. It
moved along at times with great rapidity, and at other times it seemed
to halt, as if gathering strength for another effort. The color was
variegated, the whole presenting rather a luminous appearance.
Missiles of every kind could be distinctly seen in and through the
body of the cloud. At first sight it seemed to be a barn on fire--the
burning embers flying in every direction; but a closer inspection
proved it not to be fire, but dirt and hay and timbers, intermingled
with leaves and other light substances, giving it the appearance of an
immense wind storm, which was the correct conclusion. Those who had a
side view of the cloud state that it was quite light in appearance as
it passed over grass fields and timber tracts, but when it reached a
plowed field or a potato patch, it gathered up the dirt and loose
material and became a very dark mass of matter, and presented a
frightful appearance as it traveled forward with a velocity of a mile
in four or five minutes. Such was its character as it approached the
village of Ercildoun.

Jos. Brinton, who resides at Newlin's station, on the Penn'a and
Delaware Rail Road, states that he observed the storm carefully as it
came from the west. He was standing on his barn bridge at the time,
and on looking over the high hill at the west of his residence his
eyes were directed to a point just above the funnel of the cloud. He
saw the clouds rise up at the circumference to a great height, and
then pour over into the central cavity from all sides; this continued
for some time. The funnel next appeared in full view, after the space
of ten minutes. Then the body of a tree appeared above; it appeared
motionless, and grew larger and larger as the cloud approached--the
tree being carried with the storm; finally it disappeared. The body of
the storm-cloud was now full of missiles, having the appearance of
millions of birds sailing through the air, the whole moving mass being
of a very dark color. As it moved forward these missiles were
discharged in every direction. The conical column now became very
tall, and was of a white color, in appearance not unlike the under
cloud of a great rain storm. As clouds of smoke and dirt rolled up
through the mass and were carried around by the rotary motion, the
appearance was that of an immense building on fire. He pronounces the
sight to have been awfully grand, and terrible beyond description.

[Illustration: APPEARANCE OF THE STORM-CLOUD WHILE MOVING THROUGH
JOSEPH BRINTON'S FIELD.]

With a view of having correct data of the tornado, and placing the
same upon record, in company with my friend and schoolmate Edwin
Walton, of Highland township, I passed along the route of the
storm-cloud. The first point of observation was near the residence of
Jos. D. Pownell, Lancaster Co., Pa. He gave us a short account of the
cloud, and of the movement of the currents of air which formed it. As
he sat upon the front porch of his residence, he saw a strong current
of air blowing from the south-west. To the north a storm had just
passed, and a powerful current set in from that direction and blew
directly across, coming in conflict with the current from the
south-west. The whirl commenced on their coming together, and was set
in motion about half-a-mile from his house and one mile south-east of
the Gap station. This rotary motion or "whirl" probably resulted from
the resistance encountered by these opposing currents of air, in their
attempt to ascend vertically, there being less resistance in a lateral
than in a vertical direction. The first movements of the cloud thus
formed were of a decided character. Some children that were playing in
a field near by, saw the danger ahead and fled to a lime-kiln, thus
saving their lives. The cloud now reached a stream of water, and Mr.
Pownell says the water was taken up and carried into the funnel of the
cloud, leaving the bed of the stream dry.

It now approached his house with a continuous roaring sound, and he
fled within. It passed along the north side of his house, overthrew
his orchard, destroyed part of his corn crop, carried an apple tree
fifty yards, and cut a track 150 yards wide and proceeded in the
direction of Sadsbury Meeting House. His loss was about $300. The
first building struck was a tenement house on the property of Elwood
Pownell. It was located on the top of a hill that overlooked the
surrounding country; an old colored man named Robert Johnston occupied
it. The building was leveled to the ground. He stated that he was
coming up the hill as the cloud approached, and sought safety by
leaning against the bank and holding firmly to the fence; he was not
injured. He is now living in the _cellar_ of the house and crawls out
into daylight when it is necessary; no movement is being made towards
rebuilding his dwelling. Loss, $200. The storm-cloud next passed over
Elwood Pownell's property. His wagon shed and carriage house are gone,
and a large number of his apple trees was overthrown. His farming
utensils were swept away, and the barn itself was moved fourteen
inches from its foundation. The fences on the property were more or
less demolished, but his whole loss was not very great. He states that
his father-in-law was paying him a visit on that afternoon, but was
unable to get home in the evening as his carriage was seized by the
storm and carried away. Mr. Pownell further states that he saw the
wind coming, and with the greatest difficulty reached the house, being
unable to find the door-latch after he got there. He also experienced
great difficulty in breathing. His loss was estimated at about $200.
The storm now passed in the direction of a property on which Thomas
Bonsall, Jr., resides, distant about one mile from Christiana.
Two-thirds of the roof of his barn was carried off, and the eastern
gable end fell with a crash, as the wind struck it. His orchard was
destroyed, and also many of the fences on his property. The loss
sustained on this property was about $300.

About a mile distant from Mr. Bonsall's buildings was a barn, said to
be owned by a Building Association of West Chester. The roof of this
building was carried off, and about $200 damage was sustained. The
storm-cloud had now acquired rapid motion and passed with great
violence over the property of Frank Paxson, who lives almost directly
east from the other properties mentioned. Mr. Paxson is quite an old
man, and told his story with considerable frankness. He was lying down
on that Sabbath afternoon and had his attention suddenly called to a
great roaring sound without. He had scarcely time to go to his front
door and examine the situation, when his large stone structure
encountered a tremendous blast of wind, and all was over in a moment.
He then looked out upon the scene: his barn was entirely demolished,
and also all his out-buildings. The trap door of his house was carried
off, and all his carriages and farming utensils were gone. The trees
near his dwelling, strange to say, were saved, while his orchard was
uprooted from one end to the other. I observed one of his large apple
trees, not only blown over, but carried about fifty feet from its
proper place. Mr. Paxson evidently felt his loss deeply, but was
cheerful. We asked him if he had received assistance from any source?
He replied--"not any." He was slowly beginning the work of
"reconstruction," but his place looked desolate indeed. His grain was
stacked, and bore evidence of having been severely handled by the
storm. His loss was estimated at about two thousand dollars. The next
property in the track of the storm was that of Madison Irvin. Part of
the roof of his barn was gone, and his wagon shed was overthrown; a
few fences and trees also were swept away. One hundred dollars would
probably cover his loss.

We were now beginning to advance up the North Valley Hill, and were
about three miles from Parkesburg. This hill, on its north side, is
heavily wooded, and a great number of small properties is located
along that section. Some of these men are poor, but had succeeded in
securing for themselves small homes and residences. Stables here and
there dotted the hillside, and a long line of forest trees extended in
a northeasterly direction as far as the eye could reach. The great
storm-cloud, in its onward movement, traveled over several of these
properties. Wayne Woodland owns a farm of about seventy acres as the
rise of the hill was reached. He had a full force of mechanics at work
on a new barn, the old one having been a victim of the storm. The roof
had been carried off his house and fifty-one of his apple trees were
prostrate. The spring house had lost its roof, and his carriages and
wagons were not to be found; in fact, the work of destruction had been
nearly complete. His house, it is true, was standing, but he informed
us that sixty panes of glass had been swept out of it. Mr. Woodland
was about one hundred yards from his residence when he saw the storm
approaching; he ran for his life and barely saved it. He estimated his
loss at fifteen hundred dollars, and the estimate did not appear
unreasonable.

Some small properties were now encountered, in the following order,
viz: Robert Bradford, stable down, loss about fifty dollars. William
Cephas, roof off his house and stable, loss one hundred dollars. Henry
Miller, stable destroyed, loss about fifty dollars. Next came Michael
M. McGuigan and John Murphy, whose losses were of a similar character,
amounting, respectively, to about fifty and one hundred dollars.

We were now at the top of the North Valley Hill, and on looking over
the broad expanse of country to the east and to the south, we could
distinctly see the track of desolation, as it extended across fields,
over dwellings and barns, and through forests. The line of its course
was almost direct, and no obstacle seemed to sway it much from its
direct track. We traveled slowly down the hill, and then along the
road that leads to Parkesburg. The farm and residence of Ezekiel Young
gave conclusive evidence that he had not been spared from the terrors
of that July day. His land was made fenceless, his barn destroyed, (a
good stone structure,) his slaughter house, wagon shed, and three
tenement houses were unroofed, three stables were overthrown, his
spring house was uncovered, and his carriages, wagons, and farming
implements were wrecked. Part of the orchard was destroyed, and on
looking over into the meadow, towards the south, a huge tree, about
eight feet in diameter, was prostrate. Mr. Young is a good farmer,
keeps his buildings in fine repair, and was thoroughly overmatched for
once by this monster that traveled over his premises. He was cheerful,
but was deeply impressed by the immense mischief it had done him. His
buildings were all being repaired. His loss may safely be put down at
two thousand dollars.

A remarkable incident occurred on the Strasburg road, near Mr. Young's
buildings. A German by the name of Jacob Eisinberger, was leisurely
walking along the road; he was almost unconscious of the approach of
the storm; on looking around he saw the fence blow away, and
immediately found himself in the whirl. He was carried along for about
two hundred yards in an unconscious state, and was then left in an
adjoining field, his jaw being broken, his shoulder blade fractured,
and various minor injuries were experienced. He was taken to the
hospital at Lancaster, and remained there for a time under treatment.
This was probably the only instance in which the tornado carried a
human being along with it. In all other instances personal safety was
sought within dwellings, and in most cases with good success.

The track of the storm now extended through the southern part of the
borough of Parkesburg; only the extreme south-western portion of the
village, however, was destroyed. First came the new residence of Mr.
Geo. Paxson, Superintendent of the Penn'a and Delaware R. R. This was
a building of rather modest pretensions, long and narrow, and
constructed of frame. It had been finished, and his family were
preparing to move in on the following day. The dwelling was said to
have been erected by contract, the cost to be about fifteen hundred
dollars. The cloud on encountering the building, entirely demolished
it; a pump stood on the north or kitchen end, solitary and alone, and
it was evident that the structure had been near the centre of the
storm track. Several dwellings were now encountered towards the east
in the following order: First, was Mrs. Fulton's; her house was so
badly injured that it will probably have to be built again from the
foundation. The loss, which it is said falls partly upon the
Parkesburg Building Association, cannot fall much below eight hundred
dollars. Next was Charles Hennings's residence; the east end of it was
destroyed, with the loss of between one and two hundred dollars.
Vincent Rice, who came next in order, and had a house in course of
erection, sustained a loss of probably two hundred dollars. This
includes, I believe, most, if not all the destruction within the
immediate limits of Parkesburg.

We now saw ahead of us, and a little to the south of the main road,
the residence of Samuel Jackson. His barn was gone, his house unroofed
and otherwise injured; his orchard was overthrown, and all his
out-buildings, some of which contained a large amount of grain, were
entirely missing; his fences were nowhere to be seen, and there was
the usual story of the destruction of farming implements, carriages,
etc. The injury done to Mr. Jackson's property was very great indeed.
He informed us that he was standing next to the door in one of the
front rooms, and the great blast of wind blew the door off its hinges,
striking him a blow which fractured several of his ribs, and left him
entirely senseless. For several hours he remained in that condition,
finding himself, eventually, in one of the neighbor's houses, and
under medical treatment. Mr. Jackson's buildings were again in course
of erection, though he stated that he hesitated considerably when he
came to consider the question, whether or not he should re-erect them.
He seemed very much surprised that _he_ should have received such an
unfortunate overthrow, while his neighbors, of some of whom he spoke
very highly, were passed by entirely. His loss will amount in the
aggregate, to about two thousand dollars, which will fall upon
himself, as no assistance, up to the time of his repairing, had been
rendered him.

The track of the storm-cloud now extended along the southern side of
Buck Run Valley, mounting the hill as it approached Stottsville, and
cutting a road through the forest trees south of the buildings on the
property of Mr. Thomas Hoffman. It then came down squarely into the
valley, which turns abruptly to the right south of Stottsville, and
struck the track of the Pomeroy and Delaware City Rail Road, removing
the rails for a considerable distance; the substantial bridge that
crosses Buck Run, near the same point, was then demolished, the water
in the bed of the stream being raised up _en masse_ by the whirl. The
loss to the Rail Road Company is probably six hundred dollars. The
storm, on its northern border, had caught the barn, orchard, etc., of
a property owned by Dr. Murphy, of Parkesburg; it ran through a
portion of his farm and did damage to the amount of six or seven
hundred dollars.

The next property that felt the fury of the hurricane as it proceeded
in its course towards Ercildoun, is owned and managed by William
Hamill, and is within the limits of East Fallowfield township. Here
the storm-cloud widened to about three hundred yards, extending across
the valley, running east and west through his farm, reaching his barn,
and on its northern border, unroofing it and destroying the gable
ends, inflicting a damage to the extent of three hundred dollars on
the barn, and on the property itself of about twice that amount.

We now approach the locality known as Newlin's Mills. These were not
quite reached by the southern border of the storm track, but the
timber tract of E. Phipps, a quarter of a mile north, was absolutely
destroyed, and as the cloud poured into the valley that divides the
properties of Mr. Phipps and Thos. Shields, a destruction of timber
occurred that absolutely beggars description. Forest trees by the
thousand were overthrown, many of which were broken off about half-way
down the trunk, and others were uprooted; others again were twisted
and interwoven in every conceivable shape. This mighty mass of
material lies there to-day untouched, and thousands of people have
visited the spot, amazed at the immense power which wind exerts when
under the influence of rotary and progressive motion. Such a sight was
never before seen in this latitude. In the valley that divides these
tracts of timber, was a humble frame dwelling two stories high,
occupied by a family of colored people named Hopkins. They heard the
roaring of the storm as it approached from the west; the mother of the
family, Mary Hopkins, rushed up stairs to close the windows, and as
her hand was upon the sash, the house was overturned and the joists of
the upper floor fell upon her, and she was found dead, having been
crushed to death between the joists of the upper story and the
rafters. The children below, or rather above her, as was the case at
this time, were uninjured. This was the only person whose life was
taken by the tornado, though a great number of narrow escapes was
made. The loss sustained by Messrs. Phipps and Shields would amount to
about twelve hundred dollars each. The entire amount of timber
destroyed on these two properties, and also on the property of Joseph
Brinton, south east of them, is about thirty acres.

From some cause not fully explainable, the cloud of wind, after
striking this forest tract, changed its course about eight deg. to the
north, proceeding in a line south 83 deg. east, or nearly due east.
This change brought the storm directly into the southern half of the
village of Ercildoun, one mile distant. Before reaching that point,
however, the property of Joseph Brinton had to be traveled over. His
loss was heavy. His barn, carriage-house, and the north porch of his
dwelling were destroyed; the house, from some cause, was not much
injured. This was rather a strange circumstance, as the large trees on
both sides of it were overthrown, and also the fences. There appeared
to be two storm tracks at this point, but it was probably the same
cloud that had divided for a few moments from some local cause. The
hurricane also went through the orchard and wheat field on this
property, destroying the trees, the whole of the wheat crop, and the
fences in every direction. Mr. Brinton estimated his loss at
twenty-five hundred dollars, and his estimate was not an extravagant
one.

I now come to that locality over which my own observation extended,
and concerning which--"_Haud ignota loquor_"--I can speak with a good
degree of accuracy. The southern half of the village of Ercildoun came
next in the track of the storm-cloud. As this is the only village over
which the tornado traveled, a brief description would not be
inappropriate.

This village contains about twenty dwellings. Twenty-five years ago it
had considerable reputation as a manufacturing locality--large
quantities of agricultural implements being made every year, and in
addition a foundry was kept in full operation. It had at that time a
daily mail, a valuable library, and many other attractions not then
found in many villages of like size. Two Friends' Meeting Houses are
located here, one in the centre and the other at the western extremity
of the place. In the days when the anti-slavery agitation was
beginning to rouse the people to a sense of the great evil of our
country, and when it required something akin to heroism to feed and
protect the fugitive slave on his road to the north, this little
settlement of Friends did its whole duty in the cause of humanity, and
was pretty widely known as a safe place for those fleeing from
bondage. A public hall was erected in 1847, and dedicated to free
discussion. The motto, "Let Truth and Error Grapple," was emblazoned
on its front in bold letters, and the lecturers and leading reformers
of the day often held discussions there which would have been a credit
to towns and villages of much greater pretensions. In 1851 "Ercildoun
Seminary for Young Men and Boys," was established, with Smedley
Darlington as Principal. It was a four-story structure, of good
dimensions, and could accommodate about fifty pupils. As such, it was
conducted for about three years, when the proprietor changed it to a
boarding school for girls, and continued it thus for seven years, when
it passed into the hands of its present proprietor, and afterwards was
known as "Ercildoun Seminary for Young Ladies," and was kept in full
operation to the present time. This Institution was remodeled in 1870,
and additional wings were added to it. Nearly two thousand pupils have
received instruction here, and its patronage extended over a wide
extent of country, including all the adjoining States, and many
others. Almost unvarying success attended the school in its efforts to
promote the cause of education. With this brief description of the
place and of its leading features, it will now fall to my lot to
tell the story of the terrible damage inflicted upon it by the great
tornado of July 1st.

[Illustration: SEMINARY BUILDINGS OF RICHARD DARLINGTON, Jr., AT
ERCILDOUN, AFTER THE TORNADO.]

My school had been vacated three days before, and all the pupils,
together with their baggage, had gone. We felt, on that Sabbath
afternoon, a full sense of relief from responsibility and care. About
3 o'clock in the afternoon, while engaged in reading, I was informed
by my wife that an unusual rumbling and loud noise could be heard in
the west. I remarked that it must be a thunderstorm and nothing more.
The loud roar, however, continued, and became clearer and more
distinct. I arose hastily, took a position and listened to the sound.
In a few moments my mother-in-law, who resides with us, called to me
in a loud voice to come to the west window on the main hall of the
second story. I hurried thither, and on looking toward the west saw
the great storm-cloud approaching, distant at that time perhaps half a
mile, and coming over the level plain of the intervening fields. It
was a novel and terrible sight to behold. The great conical mass
seemed to be carrying along with it the timbers and burning embers of
a barn on fire; vast masses of dirt and other dark objects appeared to
be also in motion and coming directly towards my school buildings. No
time must be lost; the whole establishment _might_ blow away, but in
any event the safest place seemed to be the basement story. Thither I
asked my family to go immediately; they did so. On reaching the story
immediately above the basement I halted, passed to the front porch,
and took a position for observation, thinking that possibly our plans
for safety would have to be modified. In a few moments the cloud
struck the building; it came apparently with the force of two or three
batteries of artillery, and the question was about to be decided
whether the brick walls could stand the shock; if they could not, our
lives must be sacrificed. It was all over in less than one minute. I
had withdrawn to a front room on the first heavy fall of brick through
the porch roof, for the upper story seemed to be coming down bodily
upon the lower floors. After it was over I stepped to the east end of
that part of the porch which was remaining, and viewed the situation;
it was enough to sadden the stoutest heart. Not a solitary building
without was standing; the fourth story of the Seminary was completely
gone. Our new dwelling house was in course of erection and was nearly
completed. Although it was a large structure, thirty-six by fifty
feet, not a vestige of it remained above the cellar walls; even these
were partially overthrown. My barn, carriage-house and stable,
together with every other out-building, were nowhere to be seen. Such
a sight was never witnessed in this part of the country. The horses
were still alive, though one of them, which had been in the barn, was
gasping for life more than fifty yards from the building, and was
badly mutilated; the other appeared unhurt, having kept just outside
of the storm track. The cow, which had been grazing in the pasture
field adjoining, had been lifted up bodily by the revolving mass and
was thrown over a hedge twenty feet high, and was dead--the fall
having probably killed her. The three hogs upon the premises looked as
though they had crawled out of the earth, for they were covered with
dirt; they seemed to breathe with the greatest difficulty and one of
them soon died. About fifty chickens were lying around dead. The
beautiful lawn in front of the Seminary, containing thirty varieties
of trees and ornamental shrubbery, was badly damaged, more than half
of the trees being either twisted off or uprooted. Not a fence could
be seen anywhere. I turned away from the sad and sickening scene. The
storm had broken nearly everything; the ground in all directions was
covered with timber and with the _debris_ of buildings and of trees.

Some strange incidents occurred in connection with the destruction of
property. Three carriages within the same building had their wheels
deposited at different points of the compass, more than one hundred
yards distant from the building and from each other. The spokes and
axles were mostly gone. The buildings had been covered with tin, and
this tin roof was found in every direction at an almost equal radius
from its former location. In several instances the roofing material
was interwoven with the branches of trees, and was wound around the
same two or three times. A large apple tree had been carried more than
one hundred yards. A chestnut tree of huge dimensions in the front
lawn had been stripped of nearly all its foliage, but had not been
overthrown. Over a hundred quilts and blankets from the Seminary were
lodged in the neighboring forests, torn into shreds. The upper section
of a pump at the new dwelling had been lifted bodily into the air and
deposited without the building. The grain in the barn, used for
feeding the horses, was sown by the storm over more than half an acre
of ground, and asserted its presence by a new and rapid growth. Most
of the evergreen trees on the lawn were broken off and the tops
carried away. The apple trees in every case, however, were uprooted.
The growing potatoes in one of my fields lost their green tops, the
bare ground alone remaining. Five hundred dollars' worth of school
furniture in the upper story of the Seminary, was carried away and
entirely destroyed. An immense quantity of letters that had been
stored, immediately under the roof of the building, were blown away,
many of which were read by persons living ten miles distant. A hedge
along the northern side of the Seminary property, nearly twenty feet
high, had the appearance, after the storm, of having been overrun by
an immense flood. About a hundred loads of material of every character
and description, were strewn around the premises, and were gathered up
after the storm. Several tons of hay that had been stored away in the
barn, were blown away, and not a vestige of it could be seen anywhere.
The timbers of the new dwelling were not only scattered around, but
were shattered so effectually that an entire piece of lumber could
with difficulty be found. Pillars of brick weighing several tons were
rolled out of their places near the top of the Seminary, and were
buried in the earth to a considerable depth. Some of the school books
were carried away for four miles or more, and were safely deposited
near the farm houses in the surrounding country.

Other incidents might be given of the effects of the storm on this
property. But it is unnecessary. The damage was immense. The loss in
real and personal property, and every kind of damage inflicted upon
the Ercildoun Seminary property, cannot fall much below ten thousand
dollars.

Let us now consider the injury done to the remaining part of the
village. Cyrus Coates resides immediately to the north of the school
buildings. He owns a small farm, and a very fine orchard is located on
the southern side of it. The northern part of the storm track passed
over a portion of his property. His barn was demolished. A good wagon
house was carried away, and all his carriages and wagons went with it.
The greater part of his farming utensils were either missing or
destroyed. Two-thirds of his orchard, including about fifty trees,
were overthrown. The fences in the track were carried away, and a
large quantity of old grain that had been stored in his barn, was
missing. Mr. Coates estimates his loss at over two thousand dollars. A
house and barn, and a small lot of land immediately to the east of the
Seminary, are owned by Elizabeth Meredith, an aged woman, who resides
there most of the time in company with her grand-daughter--a little
girl of eight years. With some difficulty this young girl induced her
aged grand-parent to descend from her room to the lower floor, as the
storm was approaching. She accomplished her purpose and the lives of
both of them were thus saved. The house was a stone and frame one,
one-half being built of each. The storm-cloud passed almost directly
over this dwelling and completely dismantled it. The slate roof was
carried off, and the upper story went with it--the eastern part of the
frame structure being blown forward into the adjoining road. The barn
was completely blown away, and the fences shared the same fate. Her
loss, including house, barn and fences, cannot fall below eight
hundred dollars.

A row of houses, owned and occupied by several families of colored
people next encountered the fury of the storm. Lewis Miller, who
resides at the southern extremity, sustained a loss of about one
hundred dollars. James Richardson, who is next in order, had his house
badly damaged, and was himself struck by missiles, and disabled for
several weeks. His property was damaged to the extent of about two
hundred dollars. A double building belonging to James and William
Long, shared a similar fate. It was unroofed and nearly torn to
pieces. Their loss will be near three hundred dollars. The last
building, at the north end of the row, belongs to Wm. Harvey, a
blacksmith. It encountered the full force of the northern track of the
storm, and was unroofed, and fearfully injured. The shed adjoining was
nowhere to be found. His whole loss was about four hundred dollars.
The Fallowfield Meeting House property was now reached. A beautiful
grove of trees in the western part was nearly destroyed, the trees
lying in every direction. Some of the oaks were very large, but were
completely twisted off by the furious blast. The sheds for the
protection of horses were all overthrown, and the upper part of the
grave-yard wall was blown away, roof and all. The damage sustained by
this property was not less than three hundred dollars. George Walton,
who owns a farm to the south of the Meeting House, sustained some loss
in the destruction of a portion of his oats crop, and of his fences.
He estimates the damage inflicted upon him at near three hundred
dollars. Another property located on the south side of the road,
passing through the place from east to west, was that of Priscilla
Walton. Her buildings were untouched, but nearly every tree of a
thriving young apple orchard on the premises, was destroyed beyond
reparation. Her fences in the track of the storm were overthrown, and
her loss cannot fall short of three hundred dollars. On leaving the
village the tempest of wind made a complete wreck of all the buildings
on the property of Jacob Carter, a colored man residing thereon. He
was absent from home at the time of the storm, and on returning found
that his new house, erected of gravel and cement, was nowhere to be
seen. He loses by the storm about seven hundred dollars. We now leave
the village of Ercildoun, the damage to which I have enumerated with
considerable care. We are also reaching a point at which the
storm-cloud arose to a higher elevation, and passed above the farms
and buildings, extending from Susan Pierce's property to a point near
Broad Run, one mile west of Marshallton. Mrs. Pierce was also a loser
by the tornado. The east gable end of her barn, and also part of one
side, though built of stone, fell to the ground when the cloud struck
it. Her loss, including fences and growing crops, amounts to about two
hundred dollars.

We now find that the storm-cloud passes to a higher elevation, or
disappears, and for eight miles no buildings are touched. It descended
in a modified form near Broad Run, and overturned and destroyed the
barn of Richard Bailey, and leveled his fruit trees, inflicting a
damage of about twelve hundred dollars. Only one more property was
encountered. The buildings of Jos. Marshall to the north of the
Strasburg road, were struck. His barn was destroyed and a portion of
his house was demolished. He sustained a loss of near eighteen hundred
dollars.

The end of the track of desolation is now reached. The storm is at an
end. The cloud has disappeared, and the story is nearly finished. The
loss of property sustained by the persons living along the route of
the storm-cloud is put in tabular form at the end of this work. It
amounts to over thirty-five thousand dollars.

Edwin Walton, of Highland township, who had a good lateral view of the
movement and appearance of the tornado, gives the following account of
it:

As the cyclone or tornado is a phenomenon of such rare occurrence in
this part of the country, and having an excellent opportunity of
witnessing the one which commenced in the eastern border of Lancaster
county, and passed through portions of Sadsbury, Highland, and East
Fallowfield townships, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, on the
afternoon of July 1st, 1877, I will endeavor to give as correct a
description of it as possible, as it appeared to me. About two o'clock
on the afternoon above mentioned, after arousing from a nap, I
observed that clouds were gathering and distant thunder was muttering
to the north-west. The day was warm, the thermometer indicating a
temperature of about 90 deg. Fahrenheit, though no heated term (as it
is sometimes called) had been experienced; the weather for several
days previous having been rather cool and moist for the season. A
strong wind was blowing from the south-west, producing (as I have been
accustomed to term it) an active condition of the atmosphere, when
storms quickly gather, move rapidly, and are apt to be severe, though
not of long duration.

I walked out into one of the fields and occupied an elevated position
that afforded a good opportunity of witnessing what was, unexpectedly,
soon to take place. I had been there from a half to three-quarters of
an hour, when the gust, which had been gathering to the north-west
presented a threatening appearance, a heavy rain apparently passing
round to the northward. Suddenly, a dark cloud made its appearance to
the south-west, forming rapidly from the atmosphere, and moving with
the lower current of air, to the northward. As soon as it reached the
vicinity of the gust, the usual play of electricity commenced, which
is frequently observed when clouds of unequal temperature meet. My
attention was soon directed to a constant roaring or boiling noise
that suddenly commenced at a point in the heavens to the north-west of
me, and near the western extremity of the two clouds, a noise not
quite resembling thunder, which, however, I supposed it to be, and
said to myself, "can it be that the main body of the storm is in that
direction when it looks so much darker and more threatening farther to
the north?" for the clouds in the immediate vicinity of the noise were
of a light appearance. The constant roaring, however, continued for
probably five to eight minutes, when I first observed in the direction
whence it proceeded, a dark cloud of smoky appearance rising from the
earth and whirling in a terrible manner, with streams of lightning
darting in quick succession from different directions into it, and a
whitish, funnel-shaped cloud suspended over it. I was considerably
startled, remarked that a cyclone was coming, halted a moment to
ascertain the direction in which it was traveling, which appeared to
be towards me, and started in haste to the house. I soon found that it
would pass a little to the north, and would not strike us, though the
air was thick with objects nearly overhead, many of which, to an
observer at a considerable distance, closely resembled buzzards
sailing round. I immediately took my stand on the upper porch at the
east end of the house, when an almost uninterrupted view could be had
all the way to the village of Ercildoun, and here the grandest and
most terrible sight that I ever beheld, suddenly burst into view, as
the tornado passed from behind the hill north of the house, and
crossed the narrow-wooded valley near Brinton's Mill, on the road
leading to Coatesville. This spot was heavily set with white-oak
timber of good growth, but the moment it was struck by the whirlwind,
the sturdy oaks, which had been standing for probably a century, were
instantly thrown to the ground, many of them raising tons of earth
and stones upon their roots, while others, not willing to leave the
soil that had nourished them so long, were broken off at different
heights and scattered around in confusion, or carried up in the
winding funnel to be dashed from the earth far from where they grew.
It is needless to attempt a description of the power exerted by the
storm at this point, as many visitors who have been there declare that
no description they had of it previously, conveyed any clear idea of
the reality, and the mind is utterly powerless to conceive how any
force can be generated to move an element so light and soft as the
atmosphere we breathe, with such tremendous velocity as that required
to produce the effect seen here, and many other places along its line
of travel. As it passed from this valley over the hill, in the
direction of Ercildoun, at a distance of about three-eights of a mile
from where I stood, I could distinctly see the branches of trees
flying rapidly as they were thrown off by the centrifugal force of the
whirl, the center being so densely filled with dust, leaves, etc., and
the motion so rapid, that in it nothing could be recognized. It now
moved across a cornfield but lately cultivated, belonging to Joseph
Brinton, and here the most terrible-looking sight yet beheld presented
itself, for the astonishing quantities of dust rolling upward,
together with the dreadful roaring, and the sun almost shining,
presented the appearance of a great moving fire, and such many
supposed it to be. Our nearest neighbors left their house
terror-stricken, and came towards ours, believing, the world was on
fire and the Judgment Day had surely come, a belief maintained by
others as well as by them, while the horses ran as far as they could
get from the frightful object.

It could now be distinctly seen that Ercildoun lay directly in its
pathway, and I was almost horrified to think of such a destructive
power moving through a village, for it seemed to a beholder as though
no structure erected by human hands could, for a moment, stand before
it, and it seems marvellous, considering the destruction done at this
place, that not a single human life was lost, and only one in its
whole line of about 20 miles travel. The new dwelling house being
erected by Richard Darlington, was about the first in the vicinity to
share the fate of destruction, and the moment it was struck the
timbers could be seen flying high in the air and scattering in all
directions. The next instant the school building was obscured from
view, but in a moment reappeared again, showing it to be on the
outside of the center, and not in the full force of the storm.

After passing through the town and completely destroying many of the
buildings, the cone or funnel, which had accompanied the Tornado like
a dreaded omen, disappeared, showing that the whirling motion of the
air had ceased, and the storm for the time being was spent. The rotary
movement was to the left, which may be shown by standing upon one heel
and turning around in that direction. This was evident from the fact
that being on the south side, objects flying off from the center were
thrown forward, while to a beholder on the north side, as the storm
moved eastward, they were thrown backward. The cone appeared to be a
cloud of vapor, nearly white, connecting at the base or upper end with
a smooth surface of cloud somewhat darker, and tapering in a slightly
concave manner for about two-thirds of its whole length, terminating
in a tail of nearly equal thickness, about one-third of the whole
length and at a height varying, probably, from 100 to 200 feet from
the ground. The upper portion of the cone appeared to move nearly in a
straight line, and at a uniform rate of speed, while the tail or lower
end was frequently seen to bend considerably in different directions,
showing that the storm was somewhat swayed from its true course in
passing around the hills or crossing valleys at oblique angles, a fact
verified by observation. Sometimes it would seem to stop entirely for
a few minutes, and then move on faster than before, and was quite as
destructive on low ground and in narrow valleys as elsewhere. The
appearance of fire frequently spoken of, especially by those toward
whom the storm was approaching, I am satisfied was produced by the
sunlight against the constantly rising dust, the light being partly
transmitted and partly reflected. No rain fell in the track of the
storm, but hail stones of large size and in considerably quantity fell
in some localities on the north side of it.

One remarkable feature observed by those near its passage, was the
difference between the wind then blowing and that of ordinary winds,
the tornado acting with a drawing or sucking force, trees and other
objects seemed to give way more readily than if acted upon by the
pushing force of the wind behind them. The size of the central
portion, or that in which the power of the storm seemed to be
generated, did not appear to be more than 50 to 75 feet in width. One
person towards whom it was approaching, and but a short distance off,
thought it about the size of a large balloon, though trees, buildings,
and other objects, were prostrated for the width of 150 to 300 feet.

The tornado of July 1st has assumed so much importance because of its
novelty, and of the scientific points involved in its movements, that
its history would be incomplete without some reference to the events
which followed it, and which had direct connection with it. The
suffering among the poorer classes in the village of Ercildoun was of
so decided a character, that a meeting was organized and a committee
of relief was appointed, composed of the following persons, viz:
Abraham Gibbons, Margaretta Walton, R. B. Ramsey, David Young, William
Webster, Charles Huston, Jr., and B. Fredd. This committee undertook
the task of raising a sum of money to repair and rebuild the houses of
those unable of themselves to do so. After considerable effort, in
which the people of the borough of Coatesville, and also of West
Chester and other places, made generous contributions, the sum of
nearly two thousand dollars was raised for that purpose. This amount
of money was generously distributed among the sufferers in sums
varying from one to four hundred dollars, and most of the dwellings of
the class referred to have been repaired, or are in course of
erection, and erelong the desolate appearance of the place will not
exist, and these people will be placed in a position as favorable as
they were in before the storm. No relief has been rendered to any of
the sufferers from Insurance Companies, or from any public
corporation.

After the storm had passed through the village of Ercildoun on that
Sabbath afternoon, a tide of visitors set in, entirely unprecedented
in this part of the country. The sun shone out beautifully; a terrible
scene of desolation was spread out in every direction, buildings on
every hand having been either blown away or overthrown; fences
nowhere; the grass apparently parched and destroyed; trees filling all
the roads and pathways; the _debris_ of dwellings spread over all the
fields; animals gasping for breath or dying; crops shorn to a level
with the ground, and human beings running in every direction. Before
evening had come, upwards of a thousand people were gazing with
astonishment at the scene; carriages and vehicles of all descriptions
were to be seen. On the following day, in fact, during the whole of
the next three weeks, the number of visitors did not seem to diminish.
On July 8th, the Sabbath after the storm, it is estimated that the
number was swelled to five thousand. All the roads leading to
Ercildoun were absolutely obstructed with vehicles. Reporters for the
press, artists for the illustrated papers, and photographers, were
busily attending to their duties. Some of these visitors came in the
interest of science, others to extend sympathy and aid to the
sufferers, but the great mass of them came with no such purpose. They
gazed upon the scene as they would upon a great natural curiosity,
and gave the subject little profound thought. They regarded it as a
grand "show," and were certainly well repaid for their many miles of
travel thither. The citizens of the village kept watch for a few days
to prevent pilfering, but were not entirely successful, as many
valuables were stolen.

It is estimated that about fifteen thousand people visited the ruins
in and around Ercildoun. The damage done to the Seminary property at
Ercildoun--amounting to one-fourth of the injury along the whole track
of the storm--was so great, and the general outlook upon the lawn--in
which most of the trees were either overthrown, broken off, or
otherwise injured--was of so unfavorable a character, that it was
deemed best by the proprietor to change its location. He purchased a
valuable property containing twenty-six acres of land and very fine
improvements, in the vicinity of the borough of West Chester, twelve
miles east of its former location. Additional buildings of the most
approved character were erected thereon, and its capacity for a Young
Ladies' Seminary or Boarding School, is greater than it was at
Ercildoun, and it is believed that some advantages of a decided
character will accrue to it in consequence of it being more easy of
access, and of its close proximity to one of the most beautiful towns
in the State of Pennsylvania.

The story of the great storm seems now to be fully told. It is one of
the phenomena of the century. It has no rival or parallel in this
latitude. Its track was extremely narrow, not more than two hundred
yards in width, yet it destroyed nearly forty thousand dollars worth
of property, principally in buildings. We may never see the like
again, but those of us that endured its terrors and suffered its
losses, will never forget it. The storm-cloud, in its long journey of
twenty-two miles, killed but one person and severely injured three
others, but it imperiled the lives of several hundred, who are justly
thankful for their narrow escape from death. We have not been
accustomed to fear much the thunder, the lightning and the storms of
heaven. That calm Sabbath July afternoon has, however, reminded us
that a passing cloud may be lashed into the wildest fury and deal out
death and destruction on every hand. Whilst we cannot foolishly regard
this storm as a dispensation of Providence, as some have said, but
rather the wild fury of the elements, acting according to fixed laws,
we are, nevertheless, impressed with the dangers to human life on
every hand, and with the power of God as he carries out his laws,
irrespective of man's wishes or expectations.



ESTIMATED LOSS FROM THE TORNADO.


    Jos. D. Pownell,              $ 300 00
    Elwood Pownell,                 200 00
    Robert Johnston,                200 00
    Thos. Bonsall, Jr.,             300 00
    Building Association of W. C.,  200 00
    Frank Paxson,                  2000 00
    Madison Irvin,                  100 00
    Wayne Woodland,                1500 00
    Robert Bradford,                 50 00
    William Cephas,                 100 00
    Henry Miller,                    50 00
    Michael McGuigan,                50 00
    John Murphy,                     50 00
    Ezekiel Young,                 2000 00
    Geo. Paxson,                   1200 00
    Mrs. Fulton,                    800 00
    Chas. Hennings,                 100 00
    Vincent Rice,                   200 00
    Samuel Jackson,                2000 00
    Dr. Murphy,                     600 00
    Penn'a & Del. R. R.,            600 00
    William Hamill,                 700 00
    Joseph Brinton,                2500 00
    Elisha Phipps,                 1000 00
    Thomas Shields,                1200 00
    Richard Darlington, Jr.,       9500 00
    Cyrus Coates,                  2200 00
    Elizabeth Meredith,             800 00
    Lewis Miller,                   100 00
    Junius Richardson,              200 00
    Jas. & Wm. Long,                300 00
    William Harvey,                 400 00
    Fallowfield Meeting House,      300 00
    Geo. Walton,                    200 00
    Priscilla Walton,               300 00
    Jacob Carter,                   700 00
    Susan Pierce,                   200 00
    Richard Bailey,                1200 00
    Joseph Marshall,               1600 00
                                 ---------
                                 $36000 00





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+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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