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Title: A Guide to Methods and Observation in History - Studies in High School Observation
Author: Davis, Calvin Olin
Language: English
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A GUIDE TO METHODS AND OBSERVATION IN HISTORY


STUDIES IN HIGH SCHOOL OBSERVATION



By

CALVIN OLIN DAVIS

_Assistant Professor of Education
in the University of Michigan_



RAND McNALLY & COMPANY
NEW YORK       CHICAGO


_Copyright, 1914_,
By Rand, McNally & Company

The Rand-McNally Press
_Chicago_



INTRODUCTION


The outlines herewith presented have grown out of the necessities of a
course conducted by the writer in the training of teachers in the
University of Michigan. The course has been styled "Methods and High
School Observations in History." It has been open only to seniors and
graduate students who have specialized in history and who expect to
teach that subject in high schools. The work has consisted of one class
meeting per week for eighteen weeks, and of twenty hour-observations of
history teaching in the Ann Arbor High School. The outlines, therefore,
were designed to serve as a guide to these observations and as a basis
for subsequent discussions.

In order that the students might have a deeper appreciation of the
meaning of history and the various conceptions that have been held
regarding it, and in order that they might possess at least a general
knowledge of the place history has occupied in the schools, the
elements composing historical events, and the values attributed to
historical study, it seemed appropriate to preface the special queries
respecting method by some introductory suggestions of a general
character. This fact explains the inclusion of such material as is
found in the first few pages of the present booklet.

In the hope, therefore, that students of Education in other colleges,
universities, and normal schools may find suggestions in the material
here brought together, and that teachers in active school work may also
receive some practical help therefrom, the writer has been encouraged
to place the outlines at the disposal of the public. If they shall
prove of service to his colleagues and their students elsewhere, his
aim and purpose will be fully met.

CALVIN OLIN DAVIS

_University of Michigan_
_April, 1914_



THE CONTENTS

                                                             PAGE

_Introduction_                                                iii

    I. DEFINITIONS                                              1

   II. ASPECTS OF HISTORY                                       1

  III. SOURCE MATERIAL FOR HISTORY                              2

   IV. CONCEPTIONS OF THE PURPOSE AND CONTENT OF HISTORY        6

    V. NOTABLE INFLUENCES AND PERSONS THAT HAVE MODIFIED
       THE CONCEPTION OF THE MEANING OF HISTORY IN THE
       LAST CENTURY                                             7

   VI. HISTORY IN THE CURRICULUM                                9

  VII. VALUE AND AIMS OF HISTORY                               11

 VIII. ELEMENTS OF HISTORY                                     18

   IX. METHODS OF APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF HISTORY             22

    X. THE PROCESS OF LEARNING HISTORY                         23

   XI. THE ORGANIZATION OF HISTORY IN HIGH SCHOOLS             25

  XII. THE HISTORY TEACHER'S PREPARATION AND EQUIPMENT         26

 XIII. THE PUPIL'S PREPARATION AND EQUIPMENT                   27

  XIV. THE CLASSROOM                                           28

   XV. THE ASSIGNMENT OF THE LESSON                            29

  XVI. THE STUDY LESSON                                        30

 XVII. THE RECITATION LESSON                                   31

XVIII. THE REVIEW LESSON                                       35

  XIX. THE LESSON IN CIVICS                                    35

   XX. SOME PRINCIPLES OF HISTORY DOGMATICALLY STATED          36

  XXI. SOME POSITIVE GUIDES AND SUGGESTIONS                    37

_Bibliography on Methods_                                      40

_A Selected List of American Historical Fiction_               42



A GUIDE TO METHODS AND OBSERVATION IN HISTORY


STUDIES IN HIGH SCHOOL OBSERVATION



I. _Definitions._


1. History is the science of the development of men in their
activity as social beings.--_Bernheim._

2. History is the biography of a political society or
commonwealth.--_Arnold._

3. History is the story of man living in social relations in the
world.--_Hinsdale._

4. History is a record of the actions of men.--_Anon._

5. History is past politics.--_Freeman._


QUERIES

1. Which of the above definitions appeals to you most? Why?

2. Are there any criticisms to be made respecting any of the above
definitions?

3. What common idea runs through all the above definitions?

4. Quote at least one other definition of history.

5. Formulate for yourself a thoroughly satisfying definition of
history.



II. _Aspects of History._

1. Military.

2. Political and Constitutional.

3. Ecclesiastical.

4. Economic, Industrial, and Commercial.

5. Educational.

6. Literary.

7. Social.


QUERIES

1. Which of the above mentioned aspects should receive the chief
emphasis in the elementary school? In the high school?

2. Would the constituency of the schools affect the answer?

3. Would the year in which the course is offered in the high school
affect the answer?

4. Can you name other factors that would affect the answer?

5. Precisely what phases of history would be included under each of the
above aspects?

6. Do the aspects mentioned exhaust the categories?

7. So far as you have observed, are the practices in the high school,
respecting the aspects of history to be taught, in accord with your
ideals and theories?



III. _Source Material for History._


1. Primary Source Material.

   (_a_) Monuments, inscriptions, buildings, tablets, columns, coins,
   tools and utensils, tapestries, pottery, implements, and all
   archæological and antiquarian material.

   (_b_) Legal documents, e.g., statute books, charters, petitions,
   declarations, decrees, orders, court records, proclamations,
   treaties.

   (_c_) Literary forms, e.g., manuscripts, notes, books, diaries,
   letters, paper money, newspapers.

   (_d_) Narrative material, e.g., biographies, chronicles, memoirs,
   and accounts of customs, superstitions, ceremonials, etc.

2. Quasi-Primary Source Material, or the Auxiliary Sources of History.

   (_a_) Historical geography, involving a consideration of the
   "origin, meaning, distribution, and changes of geographical names."

   (_b_) Ethnology and sociology.

   (_c_) Geology, paleontology, and physical geography.

   (_d_) Paleography, or the science of ancient writings.

   (_e_) Diplomatics, or treatises on official documents.

   (_f_) Epigraphy, or the science of inscriptions.

   (_g_) Numismatics, or the study of coins.

   (_h_) Languages.

3. Secondary Authorities.

   (_a_) Textbooks.

   (_b_) Large historical works, e.g., Parkman's, Bancroft's,
   McMaster's, Fiske's.

   (_c_) Biographies of historical personages, e.g., _The Life of
   Cavour_; _The True George Washington_; _Bismarck_.

   (_d_) Compendiums of History, e.g., Green's _Short History of the
   English People_.

   (_e_) Special treatises of historical epochs, e.g., Thwaites' _The
   Colonies_; Wilson's _Division and Reunion_.

   (_f_) Encyclopædic articles, e.g., "Waterloo" in _Encyclopædia
   Britannica_; Cyclopedias of History; Paul Monroe's _Cyclopædia of
   Education_.

   (_g_) Dictionaries of historical names and references, e.g., Low's
   _Dictionary of English History_ or Larned's _History for Ready
   Reference_, 6 vols.

   (_h_) Philosophical, legal, and constitutional treatises bearing on
   history, e.g., Bryce's _American Commonwealth_; Ostrogorski's
   _Democracy_ and _The Party System_; Montesquieu's _The Spirit of
   the Laws_.

   (_i_) Historical novels, e.g., Hugo's _Les Miserables_; historical
   dramas, e.g., Shakespeare's _Merchant of Venice_; historical poems,
   e.g., Longfellow's _Courtship of Miles Standish_; historical essays
   and monographs, e.g., articles in the _Historical Review_ and other
   contemporary magazines.

   (_j_) Writings on local history, e.g., Cooley's _History of
   Michigan_; Putnam's _Primary and Secondary Education in Michigan_;
   Michigan Pioneer Collection Articles.


QUERIES

1. How can primary source material be employed by teachers of history
in the elementary and high school?

2. To what extent ought it to be employed?

3. Would the course of history offered, the year in which it is taught,
and the character of the school and its pupils, affect the answer? If
so, how?

4. What place in the high school has such a book as Hill's _Liberty
Documents_?

5. To what extent do the observations made by you coincide with your
views respecting the use of primary source material?

6. Make a list of ten or more "source materials" you personally could
use in your teaching of history. Why would you select the "material"
you have?


1. How can the quasi-primary source material be used in elementary
schools and high schools?

2. What phases of such material do you plan to use?

3. What is the basis for your selection?

4. Could every high school teacher of history make effective use of the
material you mention?

5. What deduction follows from your answer?

6. What have been your observations respecting the employment of
material of this kind? Would such material lend itself to use in every
recitation period?


 1. Should more than one textbook be used in a given course in history?
Why?

 2. Does the grade in which the subject is taught affect the answer?

 3. How can the larger historical works, biographies, and compendiums of
history be used in the high school?

 4. Is it practicable to have "special reports" from such sources made
daily?

 5. Should the teacher expect all pupils to make frequent "special
reports"?

 6. In how far is it feasible to supplement the textbook by means of
definite class-readings?

 7. Should class-readings be assigned on a page basis, or on a topical
basis, or be left to individual selection and spontaneous effort?

 8. Should exact references be given or should pupils be encouraged to
master the art of finding for themselves, _within given_ limits, the
supplementary data sought?

 9. Precisely how can a high school teacher make use of such a treatise
as Montesquieu's _The Spirit of the Laws_?

10. Make a list of at least twenty selections from historical novels,
historical dramas, poems, essays, and monographs that you, as a teacher
of history, could employ in the high school. What fact or event would
you attempt to illustrate by each of these selections?

11. What use should high school teachers and pupils make of material
dealing with local history?

12. What constitutes a good textbook in history for high school use?

13. Make a list of some of the modern textbooks on each of the
following phases of history: (_a_) Ancient; (_b_) Mediæval and Modern;
(_c_) English; (_d_) French; (_e_) American; (_f_) Civil Government.
What would be your first and your second choices of texts in each of
these six divisions, and why, specifically, would you make those
choices?

14. What texts are used in the high schools you have observed?

15. What school authorities ought to select the texts to be used in the
high school? 16. How far have your observations in the high school been
in accord with your ideals and theories with respect to the kinds and
uses of historical "material" of all kinds?



IV. _Conceptions of the Purpose and Content of History._[1]


1. As polite literature: the Greek and Roman idea, e.g., Herodotus,
Thucydides, Xenophon, Livy, Sallust, Cæsar, Tacitus.

2. As annals and chronicles only: the Mediæval idea, e.g., Gregory of
Tours, Froissart, Einhard.

3. As a basis for governmental policies and as a means of interpreting
literature: the Renaissance idea, e.g., Machiavelli, Petrarch,
Boccaccio.

4. As a basis for theological dogma and religious practices: the
Reformation idea, e.g., Luther, Melanchthon, and the Jesuits.

5. As a basis for interpreting legal institutions and practices: the
idea of the 17th century, e.g., the Jurists.

6. As a foundation for philosophical speculation and a means of
discovering the deeper influences that affect humanity and hence
influence action and produce events: the idea of the 18th century,
e.g., Voltaire and Montesquieu. [Voltaire held that human nature is the
same under all circumstances and at all times, and hence sought to
judge historical events by abstract universal standards. The "natural
man" was his ideal man. Montesquieu, in _The Spirit of the Laws_,
sought to show that events in history are but the manifestation of
spiritual law, as revealed in conditions of climate, geography, soil,
natural resources, racial temperament, etc.]

7. As a foundation for personal reactions, e.g., criticisms,
interpretation, moralizing, personal philosophizing, or as mere facts
entertainingly told: the idea of the early 19th century.

8. History as science, i.e., as explanatory of existing social
institutions, customs, beliefs: the idea of the 20th century.

      [1] The fundamental purpose of historical writing has ever been
      the recording of events. In addition, however, different ages
      have stressed other aims.



V. _Some Notable Influences and Persons that have modified the
Conception of the Meaning of History in the Last Century._


 1. Romantic School (late 18th century and early 19th century), with its
deep reverence for the Middle Ages. Hence sympathetic treatment of
history.

 2. Herder (1744-1803), with his philosophy of "becoming" or
development. Herder sought to show that all events are but the
manifestation of a deity striving to work out an ideal universe. Hence
all events must be judged by the standards of the time and country in
which they appear, i.e., be judged by the characteristics of the age
and people affected.

 3. Hegel (1770-1831) carried the theory of Herder to more complete
conclusions.

 4. Niebuhr (1776-1831), "one of the most acute historical critics and
philologists of modern times." Niebuhr was among the first to emphasize
the need of a critical examination of source material, and of the
building up the past out of these data.

 5. Ranke, Leopold von (1795-1886). His aim was to set before the reader
the entire picture of events "with their causes, relations, and
consequences."

 6. Guizot, François P. G. (1787-1874). His great influence was in
extending the scope of history so as to include universal history, not
merely national history, or the history of isolated and local events.

 7. Carlyle (1795-1881), through his keen insight into character and his
love of hero-worship, introduced the vividly realistic and picturesque
element.

 8. Buckle (1821-1862) included economic forces in his studies and
sought the spirit of history apart from particular men and events.

 9. Macaulay (1800-1859) presented historical philosophy and the laws
and theories of government in eloquent and fascinating style, thus
bringing to the popular mind an interest that had heretofore been
slight.

10. Froude (1818-1894), in charming literary style but with
carelessness of detail, emphasized the personal element in history and
set himself the ideal of "simply recording human actions without
theorizing theron."

11. Stubbs (1825-1901) "introduced the critical study of mediæval
sources into England," employed exact methods of work, and gave impetus
to constitutional history.

12. Green (1837-1883) depicted the progress of the life of the people
and dealt only incidentally with the political history of the state.

13. Schmoller (1838- ) emphasized the economic aspects of history.



VI. _History in the Curriculum._


1. Pre-Renaissance Period: Incidental historical study made in
connection with the study of biography and literature.

2. Renaissance Period: Historical studies pursued as auxiliary to the
interpretation of the classics.

3. Post-Renaissance Period in Europe.

   (_a_) Heraldry and local, contemporary historical incidents and
   events taught in Ritterakedemien after 1648.

   (_b_) In Germany, the systematic study of history in schools really
   dates from about 1806, though an independent status was given
   history in the universities (particularly in Göttingen) in the 18th
   century.

   (_c_) In France, historical study was introduced by Guizot (about
   1833) but received no great attention until after 1860, though
   there was nominally a chair of history in the Collège de France
   after 1769.

   (_d_) In England, none but incidental attention was given
   historical study until after the middle of the 19th century, though
   there was a professorship of ancient history at Oxford in 1622, and
   professorships of modern history were found at both Oxford and
   Cambridge in 1724.

4. Historical Study in America.

   (_a_) History was taught incidentally by professors of philosophy
   in most of the universities from their founding.

   (_b_) Yale had a professorship of ecclesiastical history in
   1778-1795.

   (_c_) Harvard established the first professorship in history (in
   the general sense of the term) in 1839, Jared Sparks being the
   first incumbent.

   (_d_) Columbia University and the University of Michigan
   established chairs of history in 1857.

   (_e_) Yale established a chair of history in 1865.

   (_f_) The first seminary in history was established at the
   University of Michigan in 1869 by Prof. C. K. Adams.

   (_g_) General history and ancient history were found in normal
   schools after about 1850.

   (_h_) In secondary schools (first in academies, then later in high
   schools) history was taught as a separate study from about 1830.
   General history or ancient history received almost the sole
   emphasis, though English history was sometimes taught. In 1847
   Harvard first began the practice of requiring history for
   admission.

   (_i_) History work in elementary schools grew out of the study of
   geography, and became a separate study about 1845.

   (_j_) Until about 1893 the only course given really serious
   attention in the high school was that of Ancient History in the
   classical course. The courses in General History, English History
   and American History were, for the most part, bookish, superficial,
   and devitalized.

   (_k_) The Madison Conference (instituted by the N. E. A. in 1892)
   gave the first concerted impetus to the serious study of history in
   American public schools.

   (_l_) The Report of the Committee of Ten of the N. E. A. in 1893
   contains extensive and almost revolutionizing suggestions for
   improving the organization, study, and presentation of history in
   the schools.

   (_m_) The Report of the Committee of Seven of the American
   Historical Association in 1896 supplemented the contemporary
   efforts at reform.

   (_n_) The Report of the Committee of Five of the American
   Historical Association in 1907 embodied the best ideas which the
   decade had developed looking to further improvement of historical
   study and teaching.

   (_o_) The Committee of Eight has still more recently sought to
   perfect the art of studying and teaching the subject.



VII. _Values and Aims of History._


1. Psychological.

   (_a_) It develops the power of constructive imagination through the
   visualizing of scenes, events, and characters, and the effort to
   put oneself back into the past.

   (_b_) It trains the reasoning faculty through the necessity of
   analyzing data, seeking causes and effects, and following
   historical development wherever it may lead.

   (_c_) It develops the power of associative memory through the
   necessity of bringing facts into their essential and definite
   relations.

   (_d_) It trains the judgment, through requiring the mind to make
   estimates respecting

         (1) The probability of the fact recorded.

         (2) The possibility and probability of accurate statement on
         the part of the one recording the event.

         (3) The efficiency of the adjustment of means to ends.

         (4) The righteousness of the act.

         (5) The motives and ideals that dominated the act.

   (_e_) It develops the power of comparison through demanding
   attention to similarities and differences in motives, agents,
   means, processes, events, places, dates, and results.

   (_f_) It develops the power of classification--of coördinating and
   subordinating data.

   (_g_) It develops the habit of forming generalizations from
   detailed facts.

   (_h_) It gives a real conception of the meaning of time, through
   the considerations of man's slow evolution in social relations.

   (_i_) It gives ability to take a large view of life's affairs and
   interests,--to see things in their essential relations.

2. Social, Political, and Civic.

   (_a_) It gives habits of analyzing the aims and motives of men, and
   the means they employ to attain their ends, i.e., it gives insight
   into character and hence makes social adjustment easier.

   (_b_) It develops tolerance for the opinions, convictions, and
   ideals of others, and tends to prevent hard, dogmatic, and
   uncompromising judgments and attitudes.

   (_c_) It gives appreciation of the civic and political institutions
   of to-day--their origin, development, and purposes--and hence
   teaches the rights and obligations that are inherent in
   citizenship.

   (_d_) It inspires patriotism "through arousing noble emotions that
   revolve about inherited responsibilities." ["A study of the times
   that tried men's souls tends to form souls that are capable of
   enduring trial."--_Hinsdale._]

   (_e_) It reveals the slow evolutionary processes that operate in
   social life, and hence tends to encourage one to put himself in
   harmony with the laws of social evolution and to strive for social
   betterment while he at the same time is patient with existing
   conditions.

   (_f_) It breaks down provincialism through revealing the relations,
   common traits, and interdependence of one community with another,
   and one nation with all other nations.

3. Moral and Religious.

   (_a_) It habituates to weighing motives and actions as regards
   their righteousness.

   (_b_) It implants ideals of personal character by disclosing the
   personal qualities and moral accomplishments of men and women who
   have, in large ways, affected history, and who have in consequence
   received lasting honor and renown.

   (_c_) It teaches us to see something of the intangible forces that
   override personal preferences and hinder the direct application of
   principles sincerely held.

   (_d_) It inspires a love of truth.

   (_e_) It develops charity for the past; forbearance for the
   present; and faith and hope for the future.

4. Æsthetic (appealing to the sense of order, beauty, and proportion).

   (_a_) It stirs to an appreciation of the beauties of man's handwork
   in sculpture, architecture, painting, musical and literary form,
   industry and commerce.

   (_b_) It reveals the beauties of human genius in adapting
   institutions and governmental forms and processes to desired ends.

   (_c_) It refines and enriches the emotions by bringing them into
   contact with the emotional expressions of the race.

   (_d_) It develops literary expression, and a taste for good
   reading.

   (_e_) It thrills and inspires, and incites to more thorough-going
   efforts to attain ideals of proportion and order.

5. Practical.

   (_a_) It aids in interpreting many allusions in literature and
   current expressions.

   (_b_) It vitalizes geography.

   (_c_) It gives a perspective for viewing all other branches of
   study, and hence for a fairer comprehension of them.

   (_d_) It makes the experiences of travel intelligible.

   (_e_) It gives a fund of information for use in conversation and
   public utterances.

   (_f_) It breaks down provincialism; develops toleration, sympathy,
   and human interest; and hence makes intercourse with fellowmen more
   frictionless and cordial. (See Social Value.)

   (_g_) It creates an interest in the resources, raw materials,
   tools, and processes of one's vocation, and fosters pride and
   contentment with labor.

   (_h_) It explains racial, economic, religious, and social cleavages
   and prejudices, and makes for a truer democracy of feeling.

   (_i_) It gives insight into legal, governmental, and business
   institutions and forms, and hence makes easier the adjustment to
   governmental and business requirements. (See Social Value.)

6. Cultural or Personal.

   (_a_) It gives an elevated viewpoint from which better to observe
   all aspects of civilization to-day and thereby to comprehend them
   more fully.

   (_b_) It furnishes an inexhaustible source of pleasure and
   satisfaction for leisure hours and for the consolation of old age.


QUERIES

 1. Can you name any other "values" that should be included in the study
of history?

 2. Does the study of history yield equal value in each of the groups
mentioned?

 3. Which one of the groups of "values" seems to you most important and
hence should receive greatest emphasis?

 4. Can you suggest other items under each group of values?

 5. Illustrate how a teacher might proceed to exercise the power of
(_a_) imagination; (_b_) reasoning; (_c_) memory; (_d_) judgment; (_e_)
comparison; (_f_) classification; (_g_) generalization.

 6. From your observations do the teachers consciously strive to realize
these values in the class?

 7. Do the teachers seek to get back of the records of events and to
discover the motives, ideas, and ideals that produced those events?
What is the method used to do so?

 8. Do the teachers assume "hard, dogmatic, and uncompromising"
attitudes toward the interpretation of the facts, or do they give
students opportunity to use their own judgment?

 9. Does it seem to you that students really do put themselves back in
imagination and live through the period they are studying? What is the
secret of attaining this ideal?

10. Are students constantly seeking for "causes" of the historical
events? How does the teacher secure this effort?

11. Are the textbook facts remembered largely as words, or do the
students really enter into the spirit and significance of them? What
evidences have you for your conclusions?

12. Does rote memory or associative memory receive the emphasis?

13. Does the teacher correlate the history lesson with other subjects
of study? If so, how is this done?

14. Does the teacher correlate the history lesson with the life
interests of the pupils? If so, how is this done?

15. Does the teacher explain the institutions, forms, and procedures of
the past by reference to their counterparts of to-day? Are such
interpretative means employed with sufficient frequency, completeness,
variety, and clearness?

16. Does the teacher inspire patriotism? If so, how is this
accomplished?

17. Is the work of such a character that students are infused with a
spirit of toleration, sympathy, and respect for others outside their
immediate circle of interest?

18. Does the teacher encourage the weighing of motives and actions with
reference to their righteousness? Do you approve of this practice?

19. Does the teacher seek to have the students "be like" noble
characters in history? What can you say for and against this practice?

20. Ought the teacher to strive consciously to use history to develop
ethical ideas in pupils?

21. How does history exert a religious influence on its students?

22. Does history "inspire a love of truth" to any different degree than
does any other subject of study?

23. Does the teacher seek to bring out the æsthetic values of history?
How does she do so?

24. Should appeal be made frequently to the emotional side of pupils'
natures?

25. Is adequate opportunity given pupils to develop literary
expression? How is this done?

26. Are you satisfied that a taste for historical reading is being
developed in the pupils? What observations make you think as you do?

27. Does the teacher so conduct the class work that the "practical
values" of history are realized?

28. Does the class really appear to enjoy the work? What evidences have
you of this?

29. Does the class feel that the recitation period is a delight or a
bore? What evidences have you that this is so?

30. Which phases of the work receive the greatest emphasis: (_a_)
acquisition of facts, (_b_) mental training, (_c_) moral training,
(_d_) arousing interest in independent historical study, (_e_)
development of patriotism and public spirit, or (_f_) power of judging
men? Do you approve of this distribution of emphasis?

31. Which of the following aims should the teaching of history in the
high school emphasize, viz., (_a_) giving to youths the knowledge and
power for the right interpretation of the civilizations of the past,
(_b_) assisting youths to an understanding of the development and
significance of present-day civilizations and aiding them to adjust
themselves to these civilizations; (_c_) giving a perspective from
which to pre-view, in part, the trend of the future and to plan one's
career accordingly?

32. From your observations do the teachers stress the events, or the
motives, the ideals, and the ideas that gave rise to the events? What
would be your aim here?

33. Of what does thinking consist?

34. Are pupils in the classes observed expected to think for
themselves? Are they encouraged to express their personal reactions to
the facts presented?

35. What guiding principle should a high school teacher or textbook
writer set for himself in selecting from the infinite mass of data
recorded the material to be used in the high school, (_a_) that which
reveals the development of personal liberty--political, religious,
economic; (_b_) that which reveals the development of democratic
institutions; (_c_) that which reveals the growth of altruism or the
humanitarian spirit; (_d_) that which reveals the development of
commerce, industry, and finance; (_e_) that which reveals the
development of thought and the institutions that aim to develop and
train it; or (_f_) that which reveals the development of social
relations and activities?



VIII. _Elements of History._


1. Time Element: The when, or chronology.

   (_a_) Units of measurement: day, month, year, decade, century,
   administration, sovereignty, ministry, epoch, era, and the unit
   determined by the movement of the events themselves as they
   naturally cohere.

   (_b_) Dates as agencies for assigning definite position in time.

2. Place Element: The where, or geography.

   (_a_) Units of location: continent, nation, empire, kingdom, state,
   section, region, district, town, city, county, and the geographical
   groups or centers formed by the events themselves as they cohere.

3. Physical Element:

   (_a_) Climate and meteorology affecting

         (1) Character of the people.

         (2) Occupations.

   (_b_) Topography, affecting

         (1) Movement of races, armies, productions, etc.

         (2) Size and boundaries of states.

         (3) Location and character of cities.

         (4) Industries.

         (5) Trade and transportation.

   (_c_) Natural resources, soil, and products, affecting

         (1) Livelihood.

         (2) Character of people.

   (_d_) Violent and infrequent phenomena of nature, earthquakes,
   storms, eclipses, comets, volcanic eruptions, etc., affecting

         (1) Beliefs and actions of people.

4. Human Element.

   (_a_) The national or race spirit.

   (_b_) The religious emotions and aspirations.

   (_c_) The sentimental interests.

   (_d_) The _Zeitgeist_ or spirit of the age.

   (_e_) The genius of individuals.

5. Superhuman Element.

   (_a_) The moral order in the universe, or the seeming law that
   rules thoughts, feelings, and actions of men--the law of cause and
   effect.


QUERIES

 1. Which time-units are most commonly used in the classes you have
observed? Do you approve of the custom?

 2. What advantage is gained from the use of such units over what is
gained in using other units?

 3. Are there any of the units mentioned that ought to be used
sparingly, if at all?

 4. Does the teacher observed stress dates sufficiently? Does she
over-stress them?

 5. Under what circumstances should a date be learned?

 6. What is the best method of getting pupils to remember dates?

 7. How many dates ought to be required in any course in history in the
high school?

 8. What principle of selection ought to guide in the choice?

 9. Is it wise to require the learning of some dates for the recitation
period only with the expectation that they shall then fade from the
mind?

10. Is it wise to drill on dates frequently?

11. What is the value of memorized dates?

12. What would be your views respecting the following list of dates
(learned in their full significance) as the only fixed required dates
for the entire high school course: B.C. 1000; 776; 594; 500; 459; 323;
264; 146; 59; 31; A.D. 313; 395; 476; 527; 622; 732; 800; 843; 962;
1066; 1095; 1215; 1400; 1453; 1492; 1517; 1588; 1598; 1603; 1609; 1620;
1648; 1688; 1776; 1789: 1815; 1830; 1848; 1861; 1867; 1871; 1898.

13. Does the teacher always seek to connect historical events with
geography?

14. Is such connection real or merely verbal?

15. What methods are used to bring about this permanent association of
event and place in the minds of the pupils?

16. What "unit of location" is chiefly used? Is this wise?

17. What is the real importance of stressing geography while studying
history?

18. Are students expected to make use of outline maps?

19. How many such maps does each student make during the semester?

20. Are the maps made during given recitation periods under the
supervision of the teacher, or at the convenience of the students?
Which is the better plan?

21. Do the students devote much time to map-making?

22. Do they merely "color" the map, or do they fill in all important
geographical and historical items?

23. Are maps ever drawn, roughly, on the blackboards by either teacher
or pupils? If so, is there decided merit in so doing?

24. Are wall maps used frequently? If so, who indicates
locations--teacher or pupils?

25. Is it advisable to conduct the class in person to near-by historic
places?

26. Would it be wise to employ analogously formed geographical
territory that is familiar to the students to vivify and interpret
far-distant historical places?

27. Does the teacher seek to impress the importance of "physical
elements" in shaping history?

28. Does the teacher emphasize this element of history sufficiently?

29. How, in detail, can such influences be revealed to high school
students so that their real significance can be recognized?

30. Is the significance of national or race spirit in producing history
sufficiently emphasized by the teacher?

31. Can you give an illustration of its notable operation?

32. Has the influence of religious emotions and aspirations been shown
by the teacher in its full significance?

33. Can you give an illustration of the complete modification of
history because of "sentimental interests"?

34. Are such modifications somewhat common and important?

35. Does the teacher impress this fact upon his pupils?

36. Does the teacher make clear the significance of the _Zeitgeist_, or
spirit of the age, in shaping history?

37. How much attention is given to the study of notable characters in
history?

38. Ought biography to occupy a more important place in the high school
course in history?

39. How is such study secured in the school you have observed,--through
collateral readings by the class, individual reports, or incidental
classroom discussions?

40. Does the teacher sufficiently stress the fact that all history is
but the operation of cause and effect?

41. Are students _required_ to seek for causes back of the events?

42. Are students encouraged and expected to _trace causes_ through the
various sequences of effects?



IX. _Methods of Approach to the Study of History._


1. Chronologically, since there is a continuity in the subject, and
cause precedes effect. "The childhood of history is best for the child,
the boyhood of history for the boy, the youthhood of history for the
youth, and the manhood of history for the man."--_S. S. Laurie_,
Sch. Rev. 4:650.

2. Counter-chronologically, i.e., from the present time and immediate
surroundings to remote ages and distant peoples.

3. Spirally, i.e., covering the entire field of study in an elementary
manner; then repeating the course on a more advanced plane; then taking
up the work a third and fourth time, supplementing and expanding with
each new attack.

4. Biographically, i.e., by means of biographies only.

5. Topically, i.e., tracing the development of particular elements in
history, continuously and uninterruptedly, from the early stages to
complete forms.


QUERIES

1. Which, to you, seems the best approach to the study of history?

2. May several of the above-mentioned modes be employed simultaneously?

3. Is it largely true that the personal or biographic appeals most to
the child; the speculative, to the boy; the vitally and concretely
constructive, to the youth; and the critical and philosophical to the
adult? If so, what should be the character of the work in history in
the high school?



X. _The Process of Learning History._


1. Acquiring and relating detailed facts.

2. Formulating a mental picture of the events.

3. Analyzing the conditions and determining the vital, distinguishing
characteristics.

4. Getting back of the outer forms, visible expression, or the vital
facts to the real life of the people--their ideals, ideas, emotions,
and beliefs.

5. Discovering the motives that produced the events considered.

6. Deducing the principles that operate in human relations.

7. Applying those principles to contemporary civilization to-day, and
foreshadowing the probable trend of society in the future.

8. Holding consciously to the fact that history is dynamic, not static,
i.e., that all historical material constitutes a unity that is revealed
under the two laws of continuity and differentiation.

   "There are no breaks or leaps in the life of a people. Development
   may hasten or may slacken, and may seem to cease for a time, but
   it is always continuous; it always proceeds out of antecedent
   conditions, and if it be arrested for a time it begins again at
   the point where it ended."

   "Since the essence of history is the real life of a people--their
   ideas and feelings--history develops as ideas and feelings develop.
   But thoughts and feelings never exhibit themselves repeatedly in
   the same forms, but take on new modes of expression in the very
   process of growth."--_Mace._


QUERIES

 1. Does the teacher observed lay emphasis on details as ends in
themselves or as means to other ends?

 2. Is there a "richness" of details or is there a dearth of them?

 3. Are details presented in a vivid manner, with many gripping
tentacles, or are they set forth in bold, uninteresting forms only?

 4. Are the details intimately fused or correlated?

 5. Is effort made to get each pupil to develop a mental picture of the
scene represented by the details?

 6. When the image is fashioned, is an effort made to discriminate and
to abstract the dominant characteristics?

 7. Is effort made to get at the spirit of the historical fact, and to
discover the motives that operated to produce it?

 8. Are generalizations and principles of human thought, feeling, and
conduct deduced from the study?

 9. Is effort made to test the validity of such principles among social
relationships of to-day?

10. Does the teacher make history appear what it is, i.e., a ceaseless
development, a unity, or does she leave the impression among the pupils
that history is a mass of disconnected dead facts?



XI. _The Organization of History in High Schools._


+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|    PLAN 1                      |    PLAN  2        |    PLAN  3        |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
| 9th grade} General History     |Ancient History    |                   |
|10th grade}                     |Med. & Mod. History|Anc. & Med. Hist.  |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|11th grade} American History    |English History    |Modern History     |
|12th grade}                     |U.S. Hist. & Civics|U.S. Hist. & Civics|
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|                                |                   |                   |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|    PLAN 4                      |    PLAN 5         |    PLAN 6         |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
| 9th grade  Loc. Hist., Civics  |Ancient History    |Recent history     |
|             and Industries     |                   | Local Civics      |
|                                |                   | Local Indust.     |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|10th grade  Ancient History     |Med. & Mod. Hist.  |{Indust. Hist. 1/2 |
|                                |                   |{Commer. Hist. 1/2 |
|                                |                   | Ancient History   |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|11th grade  Med. & Mod. Hist.   |{Eng. History 1/2  |Mod. & Med. or     |
|                                |{U. S. History 1/2 | Eng. History      |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|12th grade  U. S. Hist. & Civics|{U. S. History 1/2 |U. S. History      |
|                                |{Civics 1/2        | Civics            |
+--------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+


QUERIES

 1. Which of the above plans appeals to you most? Why so?

 2. What is the plan of organization in the school observed?

 3. What courses are prescribed, and what are elective? Do you approve?

 4. How many recitation periods per week are allotted to the work in
each course? Is this wise?

 5. Is there one period per week devoted to "unassigned" or "unprepared"
class work?

 6. If so, how is the period employed?

 7. Do you approve of such a period as a regular feature of the course?

 8. What justification is there in making the first year's work consist
of "Local History, Civics, and Industries"?

 9. What argument is there for placing Ancient History in the 12th
grade, and making it an elective study?

10. Is the work in Advanced Civics presented in a separate course, or
is it correlated and interwoven with the work in U. S. History?

11. What arguments can you give for and against the practice?

12. What is the scope and aim of each of the courses Of history you
have observed?



XII. _The History Teacher's Preparation and Equipment._


 1. Has the teacher the kind of personality you could wish for yourself?

 2. Is her voice melodious and pleasing?

 3. Has she winsome manners?

 4. Is she sympathetic with her students?

 5. Does she show distinctive qualities of leadership?

 6. Has she evidently had a good general training in literature,
sociology, philosophy, biology, and psychology?

 7. Has she evidently had extensive and special training in history and
political science?

 8. Has she had professional training in educational psychology, history
of education, methods, and general administration of school work?

 9. Is she tied to the textbook?

10. Does she have a fund of explanatory and illustrative material at
her command?

11. Is she accurate, positive, and confident?

12. Has she a sense of humor and of the fitness of things? Has she
self-control, or does she, for example, use sarcasm and ridicule?

13. Has she clearly prepared herself anew for the lesson in hand? What
evidences have you of this?

14. Does she inspire her pupils? How?

15. Is there good discipline? If so, how is it secured?

16. Does the teacher seem to be familiar with local history, local
geography, and both local and general industrial, political, and social
conditions?

17. Does she seem to be familiar with the local library and its
equipment?

18. Does she know her pupils--their interests, home life, and
ambitions?

19. Does she possess enthusiasm, energy, optimism, sympathy,
imagination, force, incisiveness, tact, judgment, geniality, social
graces, courtesy, and kindliness?

20. Does she grasp the subject in its unity and entirety?

21. Can she tell a tale simply and pleasingly?

22. Is she interested in current events?

23. Does she possess a clear insight into character and life?

24. Has she traveled?



XIII. _The Pupil's Preparation and Equipment._


 1. Have the pupils evidently had a good elementary school training?

 2. Do the pupils give evidence of having had previous historical
training in the high school? What is the basis of your conclusion?

 3. Have the pupils thoroughly prepared for the day's recitation?

 4. Have they apparently confined themselves to the text, or have they
gone outside this for material?

 5. Have they "studied the lesson together"? Do you approve of such
study?

 6. If pupils show they have not sought to prepare the lesson well, what
procedure does the teacher follow? Do you approve?

 7. Have the pupils "outlined the lesson"? Is it well that they should
do so?

 8. Apparently, have the pupils been shown _how_ to study, i.e., how to
 prepare the work most advantageously? What was the mode of doing this?

 9. Have the pupils attacked the lesson because it was made to appear
vital to the solution of some really interesting problem?

10. Have the pupils really gotten behind the facts to the spirit of the
movement?

11. Have the pupils apparently attempted to correlate geography with
the history? What evidences have you of this?

12. Have the pupils acquainted themselves with all unusual words and
phrases used in the text?



XIV. _The Classroom._


 1. Is there anything distinctive about the classrooms you have observed
that suggests their special uses?

 2. Are sittings arranged in fixed and regular forms, or is it possible
for the class to gather about the teacher's chair in a "social" group?

 3. Are there good wall maps in the room?

 4. Are there atlases, globes, and geographical dictionaries at hand?

 5. Are there reference books of common use?

 6. Does the teacher's desk contain copies of textbooks other than the
text in chief?

 7. Are there sufficient good blackboards?

 8. Is there a stereopticon?

 9. Does the school provide an adequate number of stereopticon slides?

10. Are the walls adorned with historical pictures or other historical
materials? Is there a "museum of history" in the room?

11. Are pupils encouraged to beautify the room with significant objects
of historical interest?



XV. _The Assignment of the Lesson._


 1. Is the assignment given sufficient attention by the teacher?

 2. Is it made at the beginning of the recitation period or near the
close? What advantages and disadvantages does each practice offer?

 3. Does the assignment take into consideration the character of the
work to be studied? In what ways is this true?

 4. Does the assignment vary with the stage of advancement of the
students? How?

 5. Does it "blaze a way," so to speak, through the mass of facts so
that the pupils really glimpse the significance of the material before
them, and are stimulated to attack it?

 6. Does it raise real problems for the students to solve?

 7. Does it suggest too much or too little?

 8. Does it take individual differences sufficiently into account?

 9. Does it include material outside the textbook?

10. If so, is the material well chosen and clearly indicated?

11. Does the assignment correlate the textbook material with
contemporary life and with the experiences of the pupils?

12. Is the assignment made so clearly and definitely that _all_ pupils
thoroughly understand what it is? What evidences have you that such is
the case?

13. Is the assignment too long for adequate preparation?

14. Does it contemplate that the pupils will devote "home study" to it?

15. How much time ought the assignment to require of a moderately good
student? Is this adequate?

16. Does the assignment suggest what portions of the text are to be
touched upon lightly, what to be studied for appreciation only, what to
be critically studied and mastered?

17. Does the assignment include a "review" of previous work? How much?

18. Does the assignment stress dates too much?

19. Is the assignment made with enthusiasm and interest, and does it
thus at once strike a responsive chord in the pupils?



XVI. _The Study Lesson._


 1. Are pupils encouraged to follow a definite daily schedule in
studying their lessons? Do you advise this?

 2. Is there supervised study in the school?

 3. What is the nature of the supervision given in such a period?

 4. Judging from results, have the pupils made good use of their study
periods?

 5. Is there in the school a weekly period for consultation and advice?

 6. If pupils are absent from school, is opportunity given for "making
up work"? How is this administered so far as the study of history is
concerned?

 7. Is there ever provided a period for "unassigned work"?

 8. If so, how is the period employed?

 9. Just what is the secret of getting pupils to study their lessons?

10. Are pupils encouraged to outline the lesson?

11. Are they encouraged to make personal notes on the margin of the
textbook pages? Are they shown how to annotate?

12. Are they advised to use notebooks? If so, what is the character of
these?

13. Do pupils seem merely to try to "learn the text" or really to
comprehend the spirit?

14. Can you suggest ways and means of making the study-lesson more
beneficial?

15. Does the teacher sometimes require abstracts to be made in order to
teach selection of important points?



XVII. _The Recitation Lesson._


 1. Does the class enter the room in a happy, expectant state of mind,
or does it appear as though it were about to undergo a disagreeable
operation?

 2. Does the class come to "attention" as soon as the signal is given?

 3. Is the aim of the day clearly set forth? Who does it, the teacher or
the pupils?

 4. Does the work of the day seem to grow out of some previous
discussions or conclusions?

 5. Are the "five formal steps" followed?

 6. Is emphasis placed on information, drill, review, testing, or
historical mindedness?

 7. Does the work have balance and proportion?

 8. Is there interest and attention? What is the secret of it?

 9. Are questions clear, concrete, and definite?

10. Is appeal made to more than one sense, i.e., audile, visual,
tactile, muscular?

11. Does the teacher really guide and lead, or does she carry most of
the burden?

12. Do the pupils coöperate as a team--each seeking to contribute his
portion freely and all aiming to attain a definite goal?

13. Does the recitation take on the spirit of comradeship, i.e., of
courteous and familiar discussion?

14. Is the lesson enlivened by means of anecdotes, illustrations,
stories, dramatic postures, readings, etc.?

15. Is the history lesson correlated with geography, English, foreign
language study, science, manual training, and other school studies?

16. Is it correlated with the common life experiences of the pupils,
and with the important contemporary institutions and interests of
to-day?

17. Are criticisms by the teacher made sufficiently frequent and direct
to make pupils careful, but not so frequently and pointedly as to
discourage pupils?

18. Are pupils expected to present a connected account of the topics
studied and to do this in a clear, forceful, logical manner?

19. Are dates and other mere facts properly subordinated to the real
ideas for which they stand?

20. Are the salient points of the lesson collected and tabulated as the
lesson proceeds?

21. Is this done by the teacher, or by the pupils, or by both?

22. Do pupils show by their attitude, facial expression, and
responsiveness that they are satisfied with the recitation as it
progresses?

23. Are formal debates and informal discussions ever permitted in the
class?

24. Is use made of the dramatic powers of pupils to interpret and
assimilate history?

25. Are visits with the class made to places and institutions of
historic interest?

26. Are mock elections and other civic procedures allowed?

27. Is map drawing required? If so, is the work done in class under the
supervision of the teacher, or at the pleasure and convenience of the
pupils?

28. Is the stress laid on artistic effects in map drawing, or on a
graphic presentation of the facts in their relations?

29. Is any use made of genealogical tables or historical charts? What
value is there in so doing?

30. Does the teacher demand thoroughness, completeness, and clearness
in the recitation of the pupils, or does she accept vague, incomplete,
and general statements?

31. Does she interrupt the pupils while they are reciting, or wait
until they are through before commenting or criticizing? Does she ask
other pupils to criticize?

32. Is the teacher alert, vivacious, enthusiastic?

33. Is she herself thoroughly interested in the work of the day?

34. Is there unexpected variety in the class procedure?

35. Does the teacher seem to enjoy clean, harmless jokes and amusing
incidents with her pupils?

36. Is everybody "into the game" all the time?

37. Is the aim of the recitation kept constantly before the class?

38. Is there steady progress toward it?

39. Does the teacher praise discriminatingly the good efforts of the
pupils?

40. Is the teacher at all times a friend of the pupils?

41. Is a definite, clear summary of the significant points of the
lesson made by the teacher at the close of the period?

42. Are important generalizations formed, and valid principles deduced?

43. Is the fifth formal step (that of application) taken? If so, how is
it done?

44. Has the recitation period seemed short or has it been a long,
tedious hour?

45. Do pupils leave the room with faces aglow and minds keyed to
earnest thought, or do they seem to go as if freed from a prison?

46. Do pupils comment on the day's work as they pass out? Are such
comments favorable or unfavorable?

47. Is the pupil's judgment here of any great weight?

48. How does the teacher busy herself between the change of classes?

49. Has the work been such as to make pupils interested in pursuing the
study of history for themselves?

50. Has the work been such as to help pupils to think for themselves,
to be accurate, to be resourceful, to develop the historical habit of
mind?

51. What was the chief weakness of the recitation period?

52. Did pupils rise and recite by topic?

53. Did pupils outline the lesson and then talk from their outlines?
What value has this?

54. Were mnemonic devices used? If so, was advantage gained thereby?



XVIII. _The Review Lesson._


 1. Is there a stated time for "reviews"? If so, how long is the time
devoted to reviews? Is this wise?

 2. Is the review lesson really a _new_ view of the subject matter,
or merely a going over the material a second time?

 3. Are definite unifying questions given out for guidance of pupils in
preparing for the review lesson?

 4. Is the review lesson conducted orally or in written form?

 5. Is there interest and enthusiasm in the review lesson?

 6. What seems to be the purpose of the review lesson--to drill, to
test, or to organize the material in new connections?

 7. Is the final review worth while, or can the same results be obtained
by constant daily reviewing?

 8. Do pupils make comparisons, judgments, reactions?

 9. Does the teacher employ any but the large organizing questions while
carrying on the review?

10. Are review questions of the kind that will confront the pupils in
real life?



XIX. _The Lesson in Civics._


 1. Does instruction in civics occupy a separate period or separate term
in the history work?

 2. Is a special textbook used?

 3. How much time is devoted to civics?

 4. On what phase of civics is emphasis laid--national, state, or local?

 5. Is the civics instruction closely correlated with history?

 6. Is it vitalized by visits to contemporary governmental institutions?

 7. Are current political events employed to illustrate the course?

 8. Is the class encouraged to organize as a civic or political body?

 9. Are governmental forms and practices brought into the school work?

10. Is emphasis placed too much on details or is effort made to get
back of practices to discover the origin, development, and purpose of
such practices?

11. Are there mock elections, court trials, debates?



XX. _Some Principles of History Dogmatically Stated._


1. "A people's life of thought and feeling obeys the law of continuity
and of differentiation. The law of continuity means there are no breaks
or leaps in the life of a people. Development may hasten or slacken and
may cease for a time, but it is always continuous; the law of
differentiation means that thoughts and feelings of a people take on
new forms in the process of growth."--_Mace._

2. History is an evolution--a continuous movement, and causes always
precede effects.

3. The historical attitude is this: Ascertainment of facts,
interpretation of actions, investigation of motives, but regarding all
events as "portions of human life."

4. The notable characteristics of the 19th century are:

   (_a_) Rise of nationality.

   (_b_) Struggle for constitutional government.

   (_c_) Enthusiasm for natural science.

   (_d_) Development of the doctrine of evolution.

   (_e_) Industrial changes.

   (_f_) Economic theory and reform.

Hence, the study of history demands that such items shall be discovered
as explain and support these elements.

5. It is desirable to develop the historic sense by working outward
from the industrial activities of the community.

6. It is necessary to reduce diversity to unity.

7. "What is logically first in a subject, i.e., the law or principle,
comes last into the possession of the unfolding mind."

8. "The worst possible form of education is an abortive education--one
that falls back on some mysterious disciplinary claim for its
justification--as if there were any true discipline in failing to
master a subject."

9. "History shows that men's actions are governed by some kind of
calculable law." The problem is to discover these laws.



XXI. _Some Positive Guides and Suggestions._


 1. Clearly set forth the problem to be investigated.

 2. Discover the facts that bear upon this problem--but only the
significant facts.

 3. Relate the facts to each other.

 4. Formulate a mental picture of the events or scenes.

 5. Seek to discover the causes that lie back of the facts--the
geographical, meteorological, geological, biological, physiographic,
and human.

 6. Seek to discover the motives, interests, and intentions of men and
societies in producing the events.

 7. Seek to discover the means employed to realize or attain the ideal,
motive, or purpose.

 8. Seek to trace the results--both immediate and remote, and both
subjective and objective--of the actions thus made.

 9. Seek for principles of unity and diversity in interpreting the
events.

10. Make use of time-wholes, space-wholes, and organic-wholes, but
avoid making artificial divisions.

11. Guide the pupils, but do not dictate their reactions.

12. Make the study stimulate the intellect, the emotions, the will.

13. Force the pupils to think for themselves--to analyze, compare,
reason, judge, and apply.

14. Show that all history,--battles, institutions, constitutions,
etc.,--are the result of conflicts of ideas, emotions, ideals, and
wills.

15. Correlate constantly.

16. Show that institutions of to-day strike their roots deep in the
past, and are but the complex development of simpler forms.

17. Put life into the dead facts; be interested and enthusiastic.

18. Be honest with the facts and with the pupils; confess ignorance
rather than endeavor to "bluff."

19. Be free from the textbook.

20. Adapt the work to the pupils' capacities.

21. Arouse, stir, stimulate the pupils and fill with a burning zeal to
study history.

22. Have variety.

23. Feed the interest once it is aroused.

24. Drill--but by means of use, not by precept.

25. Do not do for pupils what they should do for themselves.

26. Multiply associations.

27. Anticipate for the pupils what is to come, i.e., stimulate interest
by giving a bird's-eye view of the movement before it is analyzed.

28. Emphasize the operation of cause and effect--what a nation or a
people sows, so it also reaps.

29. Avoid rote memorizing.

30. Employ recapitulation, summary, and review frequently.

31. Always have a lesson plan.

32. Have "everybody into the game."

33. Shape the work so that it presents the appearance of a real, vital,
personal problem.

34. Appear to be a learner with the pupils.

35. Make much use of blackboards and concrete material.

36. Emphasize the value of written work, outlines, map study, and
personal reactions.

37. Illustrate, expound, vivify.

38. Keep pupils looking for resemblances.

39. Teach with reference to applications.

40. Show pupils how to study history.

41. Keep in touch with current events and devote some time each week to
such events.

42. Have frequent written work, as,

   (_a_) Condensation of a few pages of notable historical works.

   (_b_) Abstracts of accounts of definite events.

   (_c_) Tests, examinations, written lessons.

   (_d_) Notebooks.

   (_e_) Outline maps.

43. Occasionally read selections of historical material before the
class.



BIBLIOGRAPHY ON METHODS


Allen, J. W. _Place of History in Education._

Barnes, M. S. _Studies in Historical Methods._

Bourne, H. E. _Teaching of History and Civics in the Elementary and
Secondary School._

Burstall, Sara A. _Impressions of American Education._ (Chap. on
Method. Edition of 1908.)

Bernheim, E. _Lehrbuch der Historischen Methode._

Committee of Ten. _Report_, pp. 162-203.

Committee of Seven. _Study of History in Schools._

Committee of Five. _Study of History in Secondary Schools._

Freeman, E. A. _Methods of Historical Study._

Hall, G. S. _Methods of Teaching History._

Hinsdale, B. A. _How to Study and Teach History._

Hartwell, E. C. _The Teaching of History._

Jäger, O. _Teaching of History._ (Tr. by H. J. Clayton.)

Keatinge, M. W. _Studies in the Teaching of History._

Langlois, C. V. and Seignobos, C. _Introduction to the Study of
History._

Mace, W. H. _Methods in History._

McMurry, C. A. _Special Method in History._

Maitland, et al. _Essays on the Teaching of History._

Robinson, J. H. _The New History_; also, _Introduction to the History
of Western Europe._

Seignobos, Charles. _La Méthode Historique Appliqué._


PERIODICAL ARTICLES ON METHODS

Barrows, A. C. _Teaching History._ Ed. 29:140.

Below, G. _Die neue historische Methode._ In Historische Zeitschrift,
N. T. V. 45, pp. 193-273.

Cheyney, E. P. _What is History?_ History Teachers' Magazine, Dec.,
1910, p. 75 ff.

Clark, L. A. _A Good Way to Teach History._ Sch. Rev. 17:255.

Davison, Ellen S. _History in German Secondary Schools._ Ed. Rev.
40:356.

Ellwood, C. A. _How History can be Taught from a Sociological Point of
View._ Ed. 30:300.

Hall, G. S. _The Pedagogy of History._ Ped. Sem. 12:339.

Hart, A. B. _How to Teach History in Secondary Schools._ Syracuse
Academy, II, Sept., Oct., 1887, pp. 256-265, 306-315.

Howard, G. E. _Study of History in Schools._ Ed. Rev. 19:257.

McMahon, E. _History in our Public Schools._ Ed. 23:109.

Robinson, J. H. _Relation of History to the Newer Sciences of Man._ Jr.
Phil. Psych. Sc. Methods. 8:141.

Salmon, L. _The Historical Museum._ Ed. Rev., Feb. 1911.

Smith, G. _Is History a Science?_ Amer. Hist. Rev., Apr., 1905.

Thorndike, L. _Scientific Presentation of History._ Pop. Sc. Mo.
74:170.

Thompson, A. _How to Study History._ Ed. Rev. 17:167.

Tucker, M. A. _Modern Methods of Teaching History._ Ed. 20:220.

Welch, C. _Outlook in Teaching History._ Ed. 31:370.

    Note: See _History Teachers' Magazine_, Philadelphia, a monthly
    journal devoted entirely to history study.


SOME GUIDES FOR TEACHERS

Allen, J. G. _Topical Studies in American History._

Bacheler, A. _American History--Library Method._

Baker, E. A. _A Guide to Historical Fiction._

Brigham, P. _Geographical Influences in American History._

Botsford, G. W. _Source-book of Ancient History._

Burdick, W. L. _Topical Outlines of Roman History._

Channing-Hart-Turner. _Guide to the Study of American History._ (Every
teacher should own this.)

Dixon, Z. A. _Guide to Fiction._

Freeman, E. A. _Historical Geography of Europe._

Hart, A. B. _Source-book of American History._

Hart, A. B. _American History Told by Contemporaries._ 4 vols.

Hill, Mabel. _Liberty Documents._

Kendall, E. K. _Source-book of English History._

Lee, Guy C. _Source-book of English History._

Major, J. R. _Guide to the Choice of Classical Books._

Sonnenschein, W. S. _Best Books._

Stephens, H. M. _Syllabus of Modern European History._

    Note: For lists of bibliography on history see Channing-Hart-Turner,
    _op. cit._; Bourne, _op. cit._; and Johnston and others in _High
    School Education_, p. 500 ff.



A SELECTED LIST OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL FICTION

(Copied from _Journal of Education_ for March 27, 1913)


This list attempts to cover American history from colonial times to the
close of the Civil War. Not all the books are of literary merit; they
have been chosen primarily with regard to their historical interest,
although many of them are of the first rank as literature. As the list
is not exhaustive, many good historical novels have probably been
omitted:


I. COLONIAL PERIOD

Austin. _Standish of Standish; Betty Alden._

Cooper. _The Water Witch; Leatherstocking Tales._

Devereux. _From Kingdom to Colony._

Hawthorne. _The Scarlet Letter._

Johnston. _To Have and to Hold; Prisoners of Hope; Audrey._

Rayner. _Free to Serve._


II. REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD

Altsheler. _In Hostile Red; The Sun of Saratoga._

Brady. _The Grip of Honor; For Love of Country._

Chambers. _Cardigan; The Reckoning._

Churchill. _Richard Carvel._

Cooper. _The Spy; The Pilot._

Ford. _Janice Meredith._

Mitchell. _Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker._

Simms. _The Partisan._

Stephens. _The Continental Dragoon._


III. FROM THE REVOLUTION TO THE CIVIL WAR

Bacheller. _D'ri and I._

Brady. _For the Freedom of the Sea._

Catherwood. _Lazarre._

Churchill. _The Crossing._

Dillon. _The Rose of Old St. Louis._

Hough. _The Mississippi Bubble._

Johnston. _Lewis Rand._

Pidgin. _Blennerhassett._

Thompson. _Alice of Old Vincennes; The King of Honey Island._


IV. CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION

Brady. _A Little Traitor to the South; The Southerners._

Cable. _The Cavalier; Kincaid's Battery._

Churchill. _The Crisis._

Dixon. _Leopard's Spots; The Clansman._

Eggleston. _Dorothy South; The Warrens of Virginia._

Fox. _The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come_.

Johnston. _The Long Roll; Cease Firing._

Page. _Red Rock._





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