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Title: Spadacrene Anglica - The English Spa Fountain
Author: Deane, Edmund
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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SPADACRENE ANGLICA. OR, _The English Spa Fountain._


The First Work on the Waters of Harrogate.



KENT & CO. LTD. 1922


If the Author of "Spadacrene Anglica" could see our modern Harrogate,
for whose existence he is to no small extent responsible, he would be
justly entitled to consider his labours as well spent, however surprised
he might be at the change that had taken place in the village as he knew
it in the year 1626. For so was Harrogate in those years, a small
scattered hamlet, part of that great Royal Forest of Knaresborough,
extending westward from the town of Knaresborough for about 20 miles
towards Bolton Abbey, with an average depth of about 8 miles from North
to South, a Royal Forest, as Grainge in his History thereof premises,
from the year 1130 until 1775. Not only the change in the physical
aspect of Harrogate would have been noted by our author. Since his days,
within a radius of a few miles, have been found over 80 mineral springs,
whereby Harrogate is distinguished from all other European health
resorts. Not that the curative powers of these waters were altogether
unknown before Edmund Deane extolled the merits of the Tuewhit Well in
"Spadacrene Anglica." Indeed, he would be a bold man who would
dogmatically lay down at what period the powers of these waters were
unknown. Thus, in mediæval times the waters of St. Mungo's and St.
Robert's were accredited with miraculous powers. The Tuewhit Well itself
derives its name, according to some authorities, from its association in
pre-Roman times with the pagan God Teut.

"Spadacrene Anglica" was published by Dr. Edmund Deane, an eminent
physician of York, in the year 1626, and passed through three editions
after his death. All these editions are very scarce, and although there
are copies of the four editions in the British Museum, there are only
two other copies known to exist. I was indeed fortunate, therefore, when
some seventeen years ago I picked up a copy in a well-known second-hand
book shop in Harrogate. Now I am reprinting it, not so much for its
interest to my professional brethren as a quaint and learned
contribution to medical literature in the seventeenth century, but
because it is the earliest and most indispensable source of the history
of the waters of Harrogate.

A careful study of it will correct a number of remarkable errors, which
now pass current as historical facts in connection with the rise into
fame of Harrogate as our premier Spa. These errors would never have
arisen had there been a more free access to this very scarce book. Most
writers appear to have depended for their knowledge of its contents
upon the summary of it contained in Dr. Thomas Short's "History of
Mineral Waters," published about a century after the publication of
"Spadacrene Anglica." In commenting on this and other works abridged in
his History, the learned author states:

"Some of them are very scarce and rare. Therefore, such as have them
not, have here their whole _substance_, and need not trouble themselves
for the treatises." Unfortunately, they did not have their "whole
substance," and hence these errors.

"Spadacrene Anglica" deals mainly with the Tuewhit Well or the English
Spa. It is not my intention to discuss here either the history of its
distinguished author or the early history of the English Spa. This task
has been kindly undertaken for me by my friend and colleague, Dr.
Alexander Butler, to whom I take this opportunity to express my grateful
thanks for his very suggestive contribution.

Suffice it for the purpose of this short introduction to state that the
medicinal qualities of the Tuewhit Well were discovered about fifty-five
years prior to the publication of "Spadacrene Anglica," the credit of
the discovery being due to a certain Mr. William Slingsby, not to his
nephew, Sir William Slingsby as has been persistently but erroneously
stated. The Tuewhit Well was first designated "The English Spa" in or
about the year 1596 by Timothy Bright, M.D., sometime rector of both
Methley and Barwick in Elmet, near Leeds, which goes far to support the
well established belief that the waters of the Tuewhit Well were the
first to be used internally for medicinal purposes in England. To-day
the word Spa is, of course, a general term for a health resort
possessing mineral waters, but in the days of Dr. Timothy Bright no such
meaning attached to it; Spa was the celebrated German health resort, and
one can readily conceive with what patriotic enthusiasm Dr. Timothy
Bright would proclaim the Tuewhit Well as "The English Spa" when the
medicinal properties of this Well were found to resemble those of the
two famous medicinal springs of Sauveniere and Pouhon at Spa.

"Spadacrene Anglica" (as already mentioned) was published in 1626. Later
in the same year appeared another work on Harrogate, entitled "News out
of Yorkshire," by Michael Stanhope, Esq. Further, the time of Mr.
William Slingsby's birth has been traced back to between the years 1525
and 1527. The year 1926 is therefore the tercentenary of the publication
of Deane's "Spadacrene Anglica," and Stanhope's "News out of Yorkshire,"
and may also be regarded as the quatercentenary of the birth of Mr.
William Slingsby. What a triple event for commemoration!

In this edition of "Spadacrene Anglica" the original title-page and
initial letters have been artistically reproduced by the publishers;
the text has not been modernized except in the case of the old vowel
forms I and U for the consonants J and V. Otherwise, the original
spelling and the use of capitals and italics have been retained. The
long S has not been retained. With these slight changes one cannot but
admire the forceful English in which it is written, and the clearness of
the style of the author.

I am indebted to my daughter Dorothy for the sketch of the Tuewhit Well.


_Saint Mungo,
  12, York Road,
    Harrogate, 1921._

_Biographical Notes_ OF _Edmund Deane, M.D. and others in relation to
the Tuewhit Well, The English Spa_.



_=of Edmund Deane and others in relation to the English Spa.=_

The present reprint of "Spadacrene Anglica" should arouse a keen
literary interest in its author, Edmund Deane, and in the early history
of Harrogate. As one who had the privilege of reading the original
edition of this work, belonging to Dr. Rutherford, I was struck by the
marked contrast between Deane's account of the history of the medicinal
waters of Harrogate, and that which is to be found in more recent
writings on that subject.

These modern accounts cannot be better or more authoritatively
exemplified than by taking a short extract from the article "Harrogate"
in the "Encyclopædia Britannica."[1]

     "The principal chalybeate Springs are the Tewitt well called by Dr.
     Bright, who wrote the first account of it, the English Spaw,
     discovered by Captain William Slingsby of Bilton Hall, near the
     close of the 16th. Century...."

This paragraph, as a statement of facts, accurately sets out what is to
be found in more or less detail in the accessible literature of to-day
and will be referred to afterwards as the recognised history of
Harrogate. It has received the express or tacit sanction of the
Corporation of Harrogate and is embodied in its publications. Further a
memorial has been erected to Sir William Slingsby, the Captain William
Slingsby of Bilton Hall referred to in the above quotation, as the
discoverer of the Tuewhit Well.

Notwithstanding the complete credence that has been given to this
account for many years, I think there can be no doubt that it is
entirely erroneous, and that unmerited fame has been given to Sir
William Slingsby as the discoverer of the medicinal qualities of the
Tuewhit Well, and to Dr. Bright as the author who first wrote an account
of it.

Deane's history of the medicinal springs of Harrogate in the Elizabethan
period is to be found in the earlier chapters of his book. It is
therefore only necessary to mention here that, according to "Spadacrene
Anglica" the Tuewhit Well was _not_ discovered by Captain (or Sir)
William Slingsby, it was _not_ discovered near the close of the 16th
Century, and Dr. Bright did _not_ write an account of it. It is hardly
credible that the history as given in the extract from the "Encyclopædia
Britannica" is actually derived from "Spadacrene Anglica." Yet such is
the case. Owing to the great rarity of the first edition of that book,
and the fact that the later editions were all, more or less, abridged or
incomplete, a series of plausible conjectures by later writers founded
on these imperfect editions has evolved a history of Harrogate in this
period which is, as regards the main facts, largely fictitious. The
object of the following biographical notes is, briefly, to restate the
history of Harrogate during the Elizabethan period, in terms of the only
reliable source for such a purpose, and to trace the accumulated errors,
as far as possible, to their origin and source, an inquiry which the
reprint of "Spadacrene Anglica" at the present time makes not

No history of Harrogate should be written, unless preceded by a
biographical note of the author of "Spadacrene Anglica," to whom and to
whose work Harrogate doubtless owes its position as the premier Spa of
this country; and it is with no little sense of the fickleness of fame
that one finds his name so little known, and his worth as a writer
unrecognized. As far as I know, no biography has been written
heretofore, nor is his life given in the various collective records of
the lives of British medical men, such as Aikin, etc.[2] The same
neglect of him occurs in the "Dictionary of National Biography," where
in view of the national importance of the Spas of this country, a
biography of Deane might not unreasonably be expected. Here and there
one is able to glean some small scraps of information about him, but the
result of all the gleanings from contemporary records, so far, can be
condensed in a very small compass. It does not seem amiss therefore to
record here what is known of the "father of Harrogate" albeit at present
unrecognized by his off-spring.

Deane was descended from a family who for many generations lived at
Saltonstall, a hamlet in Warley in the parish of Halifax, and whose
history appears to have been quite uneventful.[3] Owing to the frequency
with which the same Christian names occur in the Parish Registers, it is
by no means easy to identify the several families of the name of Deane,
but in 1612 the family from which the author of "Spadacrene Anglica" was
descended, recorded in the College of Arms a short entry of pedigree, of
which a copy is appended. His parents were Gilbert Deane of Saltonstall
and Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Jennings of Seilsden in Craven, and
their family consisted of four sons, viz. Gilbert, Richard, Edmund and
Symon (twins). The date of birth of Edmund is not known, but the entry
of baptism is on 23rd of March 1572.[4] The mother seems to have died at
their birth, for the date of her funeral is but two days' later.[5]

  Gilbert Deane of Saltonstall,-+-..... dau. of .....
  Co. York                      | Horsfold under the
                                | bank, near Heptonstall
   |               |                                      |  |
Richard Deane  Gilbert Deane of-+-Elizabeth dau.         William 3
    s.p.       Saltonstall      | of Edm. Jennings       Roger 4
                                | of Seilsden in Craven
 |                       |           |                       |  |
Gilbert               Richard     Edmund Deane--Anne       Michaell
Deane -+-Susan        Deane,      of the City   dau of     Symon s.p.
       | dau of       Bishop of   of York,      ... Faurie
       | ... Bentley  Ossory in   Doctor of     of Leicester,
       |              Ireland     Phisick       & Widow of
       |                                        Marmaduke
       |                                        Haddesley of
       |                                        Hull, Alderman
                John Deane, son & heir.

Of the brothers of Edmund, Gilbert, the eldest, apparently lived at
Saltonstall, and it was his son, John Deane, who eventually became the
chief beneficiary under the Will of Edmund. Symon (or Michaell Symon),
the twin brother, died at the age of seven years. His remaining brother,
Richard, born in 1570, entered Merton College, Oxford, in 1589, and in
1609 succeeded Dr. Horsfall as Bishop of Ossory. He died in 1614.

Edmund also entered Merton College, matriculating 26th March, 1591, and
took the degree of B.A. on the 11th of December, 1594. He then "retired
to St. Alban's Hall, where prosecuting his geny which he had to the
faculty of physic" he was licensed to practise medicine on the 28th
March, 1601, subsequently taking his degrees of M.B. and M.D. as a
member of that hall on the 28th of June, 1608. He was incorporated at
Cambridge in 1614. After taking his degrees in medicine he retired to
York and practised in that city till his death in 1640.[6]

Nothing further is known of his life in York, except that Camidge[7]
states that he occupied a house adjoining the residence of Mr. Laurence
Rawden in the street called Pavement, a name, it has been suggested[8],
derived from the Hebrew Judgement seat "in a place that is called the
Pavement,"--this being that part of the City of York where punishment
was inflicted and where the Pillory was a permanent erection. It is not
unreasonable to suppose that this fact was responsible for Deane's
tender pity for the "poore prisoners" in his Will.

In 1626, Deane published his "Spadacrene Anglica" which is here
reprinted. "Spadacrene Anglica" is a model of lucid and logical
exposition. It provides a quaint and interesting epitome of the medical
opinion of the day, but it is of more special interest as the source for
the earliest history of the Harrogate waters. Its importance from this
particular standpoint will be considered later.

Later in the same year Michael Stanhope published his "Newes out of
Yorkshire," and in this book he gives a lively description of his
journey with Deane to the Well "called at this day by the country
people, Tuit Well, it seemes for no other cause but that those birdes
(being our greene Plover) do usually haunt the place." The following
extract of the first recorded visit to Harrogate will, I think, be of

     "In the latter end of the summer 1625, being casually with Dr. Dean
     (a Physitian of good repute at his house at York, one who is far
     from the straine of many of his profession, who are so chained in
     their opinion to their Apothecary Shops, that they renounce the
     taking notice of any vertue not confined within that circuit) he
     took occasion to make a motion to me (the rather for that he
     remembered I had been at the Spa in Germany) of taking the aire,
     and to make our rendez-vouz at Knaresbrough to the end wee might be
     the better opportuned to take a view of the Tuit-well (whereof he
     had sparingly heard) for that it was by some compared to the so
     much fam'd Spa in Germany. I was not nice to give way to the
     summons of his desire: the match was soon made, and the next day,
     accompanied with a worthy Knight and judicious admirer, and curious
     speculator of rarities, and three other physitians of allowable
     knowledge, we set forwards for Knaresbrough, being about fourteen
     miles from Yorke. We made no stay at the towne, but so soone as we
     could be provided of a guide, we made towards the Well, which we
     found almost two miles from the Towne. It is scetuate upon a rude
     barren Moore, the way to it in a manner a continual ascent. Upon
     our first approach to the Spring we were satisfied that former
     times had taken notice of it, by reason it was encloased with
     stone, and paved at the bottome, but withal we plainely perceived
     that it had been long forgotten[9], which the filth wherewith it
     was choaked did witnesse, besides that through neglect the current
     of other waters were suffered to steale into it. Before any
     peremptory triall was made of it, it was thought fit first to
     clense the Well, and to stop the passage of any other waters
     intermixture, which within the compasse of an hour we effected. The
     bottom now cleared, we plainely descried where the waters did
     spring up, and then the Physitians began to try their experiments.

     But, first of all I dranke of it and finding it to have a perfect
     Spa relish (I confesse) I could not contain but in a tone louder
     than ordinary I bad them welcome to the Spa. Presently they all
     took essai of it, and though they could not denie, but that it had
     a different smack from all other common waters, most confessing
     that it did leave in the pallate a kinde of acidnesse, yet the
     better to be assured whether it did partake with Vitrioll, the
     prime ingredient in the natural Spa, they mixed in a glasse the
     powder of Galls with this water, knowing by experience if this
     Minerall had any acquaintance with the Spring, the powder would
     discolour the water and turne it to a Claret die; wherein they were
     not deceived, for presently (to their both wonder and joy) the
     water changed colour, and seemed to blush in behalf of the Country,
     who had amongst them so great a jewell and made no reckoning of
     it.... You may suppose (being met together at our Inne, where we
     found ourselves very well accomodated for our provision) we could
     finde no other talke but of this our new Spa.... Three days after
     our return to York, Dr. Deane (whose thirst for knowledge is not
     superficially to be satisfied) by the consent of his
     fellow-physitians sent for a great quantity of the water in large
     violl glasses, entending partly by evaporation and partly by some
     other chimical means to experiment it...."

It would certainly appear from a perusal of the above, that at the
latter end of the year 1625, Deane knew little of the medicinal value
of the English Spaw. But such a conclusion is entirely opposed to the
dedication and text of "Spadacrene Anglica," which clearly indicates
that Deane was a close personal friend of the eminent physicians Dr.
Timothy Bright, and Dr. Anthony Hunton of Newark-upon-Trent, who for
years had been recommending the waters to their friends and patients.
Moreover Deane himself had paid many visits to the English Spaw with the
physicians of York, and had been at last induced to commit his knowledge
to print. Is it permissible to use imaginative license and see in Deane
a humorist who persuaded Stanhope "of taking the aire" while professing
no intimate knowledge of the spring, yet going the length of taking the
powder of Galls in his pocket to produce a stage effect, which he had
never found to fail?[10]

Stanhope readily adopts the plover origin of the name Tuewhit, but the
silence of Deane is suggestive of his doubt, and especially so as he
mentions the pigeons haunting the sulphur springs as "an arguement of
much salt in them." There is no obvious reason of this kind for the
plovers frequenting the Tuewhit Well in preference to any other spring
in the neighbourhood.

In 1630, Deane published a number of Tracts which had been left more or
less incomplete by Samuel Norton. His share in the authorship of the
different tracts varies. The titles of one or two will sufficiently
indicate the nature of the subjects, and it can be seen that his studies
included the philosophical stone, and other subjects receiving attention
at the present time, such as "culture pearls."

"Mercurius Redivivus, seu modus conficiendi Lapidem Philosophicum."

"Saturnus Saturatus Dissolutus et Coelo restitutus, seu modus
componendi Lapidem Philosophicum ... e plumbo...."

"Metamorphosis Lapidem ignobilium in gemmas quasdam pretiosas, seu modus
transformandi perlas parvas ... in magnas et nobilis ..." etc. etc.

Edmund Deane married twice, first to Anne, widow of Marmaduke Haddersley
of Hull; the date is not known, though it was before the entry of
pedigree was recorded in 1612. In 1625, he had a license at York to
marry Mary Bowes of Normanton at Normanton. There does not appear to
have been a family by either of his wives.

He died in 1640, and was buried in St. Crux Church, York. This church
was demolished about the year 1885, as it was considered structurally
unsafe, but there does not appear to have been any memorial erected to
him in the church. The manuscript Registers of the Parish of St. Crux
are in the College of Arms: the manuscript extracts do not commence
until the year 1678. His Will, however, is preserved. It is dated 30th
of Oct. 1639, and was proved at York on the 14th of April, 1640.

In a biography it should be the task of the writer to visualise the
personality of his subject as well as to record merely the material
events of his life. In this instance it would be quite impossible to do
so from lack of material, but yet from his works, and from the opinion
held of him by Michael Stanhope, and last, but not least, from the
contents of his own Will, I think some picture can be painted of him. A
man of learning is shown from his writings: a perusal of "Spadacrene
Anglica" will exhibit both the clearness of his intellect and the
forcibleness of his style. For many years he successfully practised
medicine at York. He was held in high esteem among his professional
brethren, and was recognized by them as a leader in the profession with
a broad mind, ready to listen to and investigate new ideas. His
personality is fully and finely revealed in his Will, and as this is the
only biography, as it were, written by himself, I append an extract from
it, so that he may speak for himself.

     In the name of God, Amen.

     I Edmund Deane of the Cittye of Yorke Doctor of Phisicke being some
     what weake of bodye, yett in good & pfect remembrance of mynd &
     understanding (praised be God therefore) and calling to mynd the
     uncertainety of this my naturall life & my mortality, not knowing
     howe soone I shall laye downe this my earthly Tabernackle & be
     gathered to sleepe in the grave wth my fathers doe therefore
     accordinge to the holy Ghost directions make, constitute, ordayne &
     declare this my last Will and Testament for the better setleing of
     peace & concord amongst my wife, friends & kindred heareby
     revokeing in acte, deede and in lawe all other former Wills &
     testaments whatsoever. In manner & forme following.

     That is to say first & principally I comend & bequeath my soule
     unto the ever blessed hands of Almighty God my heavenly father my
     maker & creator, whoe out of his meer mercy, free will & love to
     mankinde & to me in pticuler did vouchsafe to send his onely
     begotten sonne before all eternity, Christ Jesus the pmissed
     Messias into this world to save sinners (whereof w^th S^t. Paull I
     confesse my selfe the greatest) to laye downe his life for mankinde
     & that he dyed for me & for my salvac̅on, & that he rose againe
     the third day for my iustificac̅on, that where he now is, I shall
     be there alsoe after my dissolution & I hope & looke to be saved
     only by his mirritts, death & passion alone, & by noe other meanes
     whatsoever, & when itt shall please Almighty God to putt an end &
     period to these my dayes here on earth, ending this my pilgrimage,
     and layeing downe this my earthly Tabernackle.

     Then I comitt & bequeath this my nowe liveing body to the earth
     from whence itt came, & the same to be buryed (yf I fortune to dye
     in Yorke or otherwise yf itt may be done wth convenyency) in the
     p'ish Church of St. Crux w^{th}in the said Citty of Yorke in the
     Chancell of the said Church & to be enterred as neare as may be
     unto the body of my late dearely beloved wife Anne Deane deceased
     w^{th}out any bowelling or embalmeing, & there to be decently
     enterred by toarch light, w^{th}out any further funerall pompe or
     solempnity whatsoever, beinge (as I thinke) a custome not
     altogeither laudable to banquett & feast att funeralls w^ch rather
     ought to be a tyme of mourneing, then banqueting and feasting

     w^th said body of myne I knowe & beleive assuredly that I shall
     rise againe att the last day, & be reunited & ioyned againe unto my
     soule & that itt shall be made like unto Christ his glorious body,
     that where he is, there I shall be alsoe liveing and reigneing w^th
     him in his everlasting kingdome for ever.

     Now concerning my temporall Estate w^ch God in his mercy hath
     vouchsafed to bestowe on me (or rather lent me as his steward) I
     bequeath it thus as followeth

     First I give & bequeath to Mr. Roger Belwood my pastor thirty

     Item I give to the poore people of the Cittye of Yorke three pounds
     XX^s whereof to be distributed to the poore of the Warde where I
     now live and the remmant to the poore of the other three Wardes
     equally to be divided.

     Item I give to the poore prisoners of the castle of Yorke XX^s and
     to the poore prisoners on Ousebridge called the Kidcoate X^s and to
     the poore prisoners of S^t. Peters prison in Yorke X^s.

     Item I give to the poore people of the old hospitall or massing
     dewes of the Citty of Yorke thirty shillings. Item whereas....

     Item my Will meaninge and harty desire is that my nowe loveing wife
     Mary Deane shall & may quietly have & enjoye all her widdowe rights
     whatsoever according to this pvince of Yorke w^{th}out any further
     trouble molestac̅on or vexac̅on or suite in lawe and that my
     Executor shall not make any claime to any such goods or plate as
     she the said Mary had in her former widdowhood & brought w^th her
     to me att her marriage w^th me. Item I give to my said nowe loveing
     wife as a legacy my coatch horses & furniture & what hay or oates,
     coales, turfes & fuell shall be in my howse att my death. Item I

     Item I give to Margery Smeton yf shee be my servant at my death
     forty shillings and to each other of my servants att my death tenn

     All the rest of my goods & chattells unbequeathed, my debts and
     funerall expenses discharged I give and bequeath to my loveing
     nephewe Mr. John Deane of Saltonstall Atturney in his Maty Court of
     Com̅on Pleas att Westminster & eldest sonne of my late brother
     Gilbert Deane of Saltonstall deceased w^ch said John Deane I doe
     ordayne constitute & make my sole & onely Executor of this my last
     Will & Testament

     And for as much as most of my Estate doth consist in debts, w^ch
     will require tyme for gathering in, my Will & meaneing is that this
     my said executor shall have twelvemonethes tyme for the payment of
     the greater legacies....

     And further my meaneing is That for as much as my said Executor
     John Deane by Gods pvidence is likely to be lame by a fall & not to
     live & followe his profession as an Atturney to London (but as it
     weare undone) whome I have made my onely & sole Executor of this my
     last Will & Testament. Therefore all my nephews & kindred may know
     I have given them small legacy to doe him good

     In Witness.... etc.

In "Spadacrene Anglica" Deane mentions that "out of the divers fountains
springing hereabouts" five are worthy the observation of physicians.
These are--

1.--The Dropping Well.

2.--The Sulphur Well at Bilton Park.

3.--The Sulphur Well near Knaresborough.

4.--The Sulphur Well at "Haregate head."

5.--The Tuewhit Well, or The English Spaw.

The number of springs worthy the observation of physicians has largely
increased and the relative importance of the five mentioned has altered
considerably since Deane wrote. But in 1626, The Tuewhit Well, or The
English Spaw, was regarded as the most worthy of fame. This well,
according to the later writers, was discovered by Captain (afterwards
Sir) William Slingsby:--in Chapter 6 of "Spadacrene Anglica," however, a
Mr. William Slingsby is given as the discoverer.

     "The first discoverer of it to have any medicinall quality (so far
     forth as I can learn), was one Mr. William Slingesby, a Gentleman
     of many good parts, of an ancient and worthy Family neere thereby:
     who having travelled in his younger time, was throughly acquainted
     with the taste, use, and faculties of the two Spaw fountaines. In
     his latter time, about 55 yeeres agoe it was his good fortune to
     live for a little while at a grange house very neare to this
     fountaine, and afterwards in Bilton Parke all his life long."

From this it appears that the discovery was made by Mr. William Slingsby
in his later years, about the year 1571, but if the Mr. William Slingsby
here referred to was Sir William Slingsby he would have been a youth of
some 8 or 9 years in 1571. Secondly, one would judge from the text that
the Mr. William Slingsby referred to by the writer was dead at the time
that he wrote, namely 1626, whereas, as a matter of fact, Sir William
Slingsby was alive until the year 1634. Thirdly, it is impossible to
conceive that Edmund Deane would refer to Sir William Slingsby as Mr.
William Slingsby, seeing that the former was knighted in 1603, or 23
years prior to the publication of Deane's work. It is therefore
abundantly clear that Sir William Slingsby--a very gallant
gentleman--has no claim to the fame which history has insisted upon
according him.

The fact is that the Mr. William Slingsby referred to[11] was the fourth
son of Thomas Slingsby of Scriven, who married Joan, daughter of Sir
John Mallory of Studley, and who had a family of six sons and four
daughters. The name of the eldest son was Francis, and, as just
mentioned, William was the fourth son. Sir William Slingsby was the
seventh son of Francis and the nephew therefore of Mr. William Slingsby.
Mr. William Slingsby was buried at Knaresborough on the 8th of Oct.,
1606, but the date of his birth does not seem to have been recorded. His
elder brother, Francis, died in 1600 at the age of 78, so that he was
born in 1522. It is not unreasonable to suppose that William, his
brother, one of a large family, was born between the years 1525 and
1527. He would therefore be somewhere between 44 and 46 years of age,
when he discovered the medicinal qualities of the Tuewhit Well, which
equally accords with Deane's statement that in his younger days he had
travelled in Germany.

So far as I can trace, Hargrove[12] is the first author to confuse the
uncle and the nephew. He writes that the well

     "was discovered by Capt. William Slingsby, about the year 1571.
     This Gentleman, in the early part of his life, had travelled in
     Germany, where he made himself acquainted with the Spaws of that
     country. He lived sometime at Grange House, near the Old Spaw, from
     whence he removed to Bilton Park, where he spent the remainder of
     his days. He made severall trials of this water, and finding it
     like the German, he walled it about, and paved it at the bottom,
     leaving a small opening for the free access of the water. Its
     current is always near the same, and is about the quantity of the
     Sauvenir, to which Mr. Slingsby thought it preferable."

From this quotation it is clearly apparent that Hargrove erroneously
inferred that Mr. Slingsby and Capt. Slingsby were the one and the same
person instead of being uncle and nephew. In the 3rd edition of the
"History of Knaresborough," published in 1782, the reference to Mr.
Slingsby is omitted and from that edition onwards, Captain Slingsby
appears as the discoverer of the Tuewhit Well in 1571, a discovery
clearly inconsistent with the fact that he was born in the year 1562.

The source of Hargrove's information in the above quotation is, without
doubt, the summary of "Spadacrene Anglica," published by Dr. Short in
1734 in his History of Mineral waters.[13] The summary by Short of
Chapter 6 of "Spadacrene Anglica" is as follows:--

     "This fifth Spaw is a Mile and half from Knaresburgh, up a very
     gentle ascent, near Harrigate, has much the same Situation as the
     foresaid Spaws in Germany. It was discovered first about fifty
     years ago, by one Mr. William Slingsby, who had travelled in
     Germany in his younger Years, seen, and been acquainted with
     theirs; and as he was of an ancient Family near the place, so he
     had fine Parts and was a capable Judge. He lived some time at a
     Grange-House near it; then removed to Bilton-Park, where he spent
     the rest of his Days. He, using this Water yearly, found it exactly
     like the German Spaw. He made several Tryals of it, then walled it
     about, and paved it in the bottom with two large Stone-flags, with
     a Hole in their sides for the free Access of the Water, which
     springs up only at the bottom, through a Chink or Cranny left on
     purpose. Its current is always near the same, and is about the
     quantity of the Sauvenir, to which Mr. Slingsby thought it
     preferable being more brisk and lively, fuller of Mineral Spirits,
     of speedier Operation; he found much benefit by it. Dr. Tim.
     Bright, about thirty years ago, first gave it the name of the
     English Spaw: Having spent some time at those in Germany, he was
     Judge of both; and had so good an Opinion of ours, that he sent
     many Patients hither yearly, and every Summer drank the Waters
     himself. And Dr. Anthony Hunter, late Physician at
     Newark-upon-Trent, often chided us Physicians in York, for not
     writing upon it, and deservedly setting it upon the Wings of Fame."

A more consistent form has been given to the error by Grainge, who in
1862 published a memoir of the Life of Sir William Slingsby, Discoverer
of the first Spaw at Harrogate. Grainge, like Hargrove, had only access
to Short's summary, but he sees the difficulty to which I have alluded,
for he writes[14]:--

     "From the uncertain expression of the Dr. 'about 50 years ago' the
     date of this discovery is generally fixed in the year 1576, though
     it is probably twenty years or more too early, as at that time
     Slingsby would only be fourteen years of age: and could not have
     travelled much in Germany or elsewhere: while the expression 'in
     his younger days' would infer that the discovery was not made until
     he had attained middle age at least."

Grainge accordingly dates Captain (or Sir) William Slingsby's discovery
to 1596 or later, the origin of the expression "near the close of the
16th Century" of the recognised history.

In the first place Dr. Short is inaccurate in that Deane states it was
discovered "55" years ago, and not "50." In the second place, the only
authority whom Grainge could rely upon was Deane, either directly or
indirectly, and Deane could not have made the discoverer to be a boy of
nine years of age (not fourteen) for he must have known Sir William
Slingsby, a contemporary. Finally, Grainge only consulted the summary of
"Spadacrene Anglica" and not the actual work, and it is to be noted that
Deane in Chapter 6 says the first discoverer "so far forth as I can
learn." These words are not in the summary, but they show that Deane had
given care to his work, and if Sir William Slingsby had been the
discoverer, Deane could have obtained his information at first hand, and
would have given Sir William Slingsby as his authority.

Grainge was an eminent and careful historian, and he has written a
number of valuable works. He had the acumen to see that Sir William
Slingsby could not possibly have been the discoverer in 1571, and it is
fairly certain that if he had had access to Deane's work, he would have
rectified the error as regards Sir William, instead of questioning the
accuracy of Deane's statement.

Little has been added to the account of Mr. William Slingsby as given by
Deane, but it has been shown at any-rate that the facts of his life fit
in perfectly with that account.

The medicinal qualities of the Tuewhit Well having been discovered by
Mr. William Slingsby in or about the year 1571, this gentleman did
"drink the water every yeare after all his life time" and averred that
"it was much better, and did excell the tart fountaines beyond the
seas." Much pains were taken to bring the waters into notoriety in the
interests of humanity, and by reason of a pardonable national pride that
the country could boast of a health resort in every way comparable with
the famous German health resort of Spa. Chief among these early
advocates of this home fountain was Dr. Timothy Bright, who is
responsible for naming the well the "English Spa," which name was
apparently adopted by the gentry partaking of the water, whereas the
common folk still cling to the ancient name of Tuewhit Well.

Timothy Bright has had a varied literary history. For about three
centuries he was almost entirely forgotten, and some of his works even
ascribed to purely imaginary authors. In recent years full justice has
been done to his name as the "father of shorthand" following the
publication by J.H. Ford in 1888 of the tercentenary edition of his work
entitled "Characterie," and since that year there has been much written
of him. The curious may therefore consult the works mentioned in the
footnote,[15] but it will suffice for my purpose to give a brief sketch
of his life, not as the "father of shorthand," but as one of the
fathers of Harrogate.

Timothy Bright was born in Cambridge in the year 1551, matriculated in
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1565, and took his B.A. in 1567-8. He
then went to Paris to study medicine, and in 1572 narrowly escaped the
Massacre at Paris on St. Bartholomew's Eve by taking shelter at the
house of Sir Francis Walsingham, the English ambassador. Returning to
England he graduated M.B. in 1574 and M.D. in 1579. In 1584 he was well
launched on his medical career, for he was the physician at St.
Bartholomew's Hospital. By this time he had achieved some reputation as
a writer and had obtained the friendship of the powerful Cecil Lord
Burghley, Sir Francis Walsingham and Sir Philip Sidney, which probably
explains how his now famous work "Characterie" was in 1588 dedicated to
Queen Elizabeth. His connection with these powerful personages led to a
change in his profession and incidentally to his connection with
Harrogate, for on July 5th, 1591, the Queen presented him to the Rectory
of Methley in Yorkshire, and on the 30th of Dec., 1594, also to the
Rectory of Barwick in Elmet in the same county. He held both these
livings till his death, which took place in 1615. By his Will he left
his body "to be buried when and where it shall please God." He was no
mean linguist for he bequeathed his Hebrew Bible and a Syriac Testament
as well as Greek, Latin and Italian works to his brother. His books of
Phisick and Philosophie he bequeathed to his sonne Titus Bright, M.D. He
was fond of music and possessed the standard work on harmony by Joseph
Zarlino. This he left, along with some instruments of music, a Theorbo
and an Irish harp, "which I most usuallye played upon" to his brother.

In spite of the fact that he took holy orders, it is evident from
"Spadacrene Anglica" that he was held in high esteem as a physician
(albeit non-practising) by his contemporaries in Yorkshire, and his
travel abroad in Germany well fitted him for the post of advocate, which
from humane and patriotic motives he assumed on behalf of the English

Deane states that Bright first gave the name of English Spaw "about
thirty years since, or more," that is, in 1596 or earlier. This would
seem to indicate that Bright's association with Harrogate began shortly
after he was presented to the Rectory of Barwick in Elmet in 1594.

Dr. Bright was a prolific writer and the names of his works are given in
a footnote.[16] Some of his books passed through several editions.
Burton's "Anatomy of Melancholy" is said to have been suggested by his
"Treatise of Melancholy," and Shakespere was evidently acquainted with
his book, "Characterie, an Arte of shorte, swifte and secrete Writing by

       "This is not my writing,
    Though, I confess, much like the character"

    Twelfth Night. Act V, Sc. 1.

    "All my engagements I will construe to thee,
    All the characterie of my sad brows."

    Julius Cæsar. Act ii, Sc. 1.

Hargrove appears also to be the earliest to assert that Bright was the
first writer on Harrogate. In his "History of Knaresborough" it is
merely stated "soon after its discovery Dr. Bright wrote on its virtues
and uses."[17] There is no authority for that assertion in any of the
works of Dr. Bright mentioned in the footnote, and the only evidence in
support of Hargrove is that given by Wheater,[18] who writes:--

     "Dr. Bright was first to rush into description and he acquits
     himself with true Elizabethan flavour. He observes regarding the
     water that 'It occasions the retention of nothing that should be
     evacuated and by relaxation evacuates nothing that should be
     retained. It dries nothing but what's too moist and flaccid, and
     heats nothing but what's too cold, and e contra: that though no
     doubt there are some accidents and objections to the contrary, it
     makes the lean fat, the fat lean, cures the cholic and the
     melancholy, and the vapours: and that it cures all aches speedily
     and cheereth the heart.' Such a recommendation," &c.

This quotation, which is apparently the only evidence in support of
Hargrove's assertion that Bright wrote the first account of the English
Spa, is not taken from Bright's writings at all, but from Dr. Short's
summary of "The Yorkshire Spaw." "The Yorkshire Spaw" was a treatise
written by Dr. John French in 1652, and so far therefore from being
written by Dr. Bright, was actually written thirty-seven years after
Bright's death.

It is perhaps only fair to the memory of both Hargrove and Wheater to
state that neither of them would have fallen into this error if they had
had the privilege of reading Deane's dedication to "Spadacrene Anglica,"
in which he states that Dr. Bright intended to write an account "in case
hee had longer lived." No edition after the original edition contains
this dedication, for, as will be shown later, this very important part
of Deane's work was omitted by John Taylor in the second edition and was
not restored in any of the later. Moreover it is quite clear from the
dedication of Taylor's edition, in 1649 that copies of the original
edition were even then unobtainable, owing probably to the commotions
which had accompanied the civil war.

I may here therefore emphasise the good service that has been done to
restore the true history of the medicinal waters of Harrogate, by the
reprinting of the original edition of "Spadacrene Anglica" by my friend
Dr. Rutherford.

Before passing to the Bibliography of "Spadacrene Anglica," a brief
mention must be made of Michael Stanhope, Esquire, whose two books did
much to add to the celebrity of the English Spa, and were afterwards
associated with the later editions of "Spadacrene Anglica." His first
work was published towards the end of 1626, and is entitled,

     "Newes out of Yorkshire, or an account of a journey, in the true
     discovery of a sovereigne Minerall, Medicinal Water in the
     West-Riding of Yorkeshire, neere an Ancient Towne called
     Knaresbrough, not inferior to the Spa in Germany. Also a taste of
     Other Minerall Waters of severall natures adjoyning" By M.S.

     Ecclest. 38. 4. The Lord hath created Medicines out of the Earth:
     he that is wise will not despise them.

A large extract has already been given from this book, which was
dedicated "To the Right Honourable, the Vertuous, and Religious Lady,
the Lady Katherine Stanhope, wife to the Lord Philip Stanhope, Baron of

Stanhope's other work was entitled,

     "Cures without Care, or, a summons to all who finde little or no
     help by the use of ordinary physick to repaire to the Northerne
     Spa. Wherein by many Presidents of a few late yeares, it is
     evidenced to the world, that infirmities in their own nature
     desperate and of long continance have received perfect recovery in
     the west Riding of Yorkshire. Also a description of the said water,
     and of other rare and usefull springs adjoyning, the nature and
     efficacie of the Mineralls contained in them, with other not
     impertinent notes. Faithfully collected for the publique good by M.

     Tibul.   "felix quicunque dolore
       alterius disces posse carere tuo,"
     London, 1632.

Stanhope dedicated this work "To The Right Honourable, Thomas Lord
Wentworth, etc., Lord President of his Majesties Council established in
the North." Lord Wentworth is better known as the Earl of Strafford, and
was beheaded in 1642. In it is contained a catalogue of persons who
have received either benefit or cure by the waters.

An abridgement of the two works of Stanhope was made by John Taylor and
published in 1649 under the title "Spadacrene Anglica ... Treatise of
the learned Dr. Deane and the sedulous observations of the ingenious
Michael Stanhope, Esquire." The ingenious Michael Stanhope, Esquire,
also appears in the 1654 edition, but in that published in 1736,
Stanhope appears as Dr. Stanhope. Short[19] seems to have been the first
to make Stanhope a member of the medical profession. His opinion was
soon adopted by others, and has apparently never been questioned. After
a perusal of "Newes out of Yorkshire" and "Cures without Care," it is
difficult to understand how Short arrived at his conclusion, for the
internal evidence is entirely opposed to it. Even in the extract from
"Newes out of Yorkshire" already quoted, it is obvious that Stanhope
dissociates himself from the physicians with the party, for he writes,
"then the physitians began to try their experiments," "three other
physitians of allowable knowledge," and he refers to Deane as "one who
is far from the straine of many of his profession." This extract was
selected for an entirely different purpose, yet it is clearly not the
language of a fellow-physician in practice in York. Short himself
partially recognizes this. He only summarised "Cures without Care," and
he justly remarks of the cures therein related that "some whereof are
perhaps the greatest and most remarkable in the Authentic Records of
Physic down from Hippocrates to this day." Short writes fully a century
after "Cures without Care" was published, whereas Taylor was a
Apothecary in York and a contemporary of both Deane and Stanhope there,
and is accordingly the best authority on the status of Stanhope.

     Sir Michael Stanhope, Knt.,-+
     had a grant of Shelford     |
     Manor: beheaded in 1552     |
            |                 |                              |
   Sir Thomas Stanhope-+     Sir Edward Stanhope            Other
   of Shelford, Knt.,  |     of Grimston, 2nd son,-+        issue
   died 1596           |     M.P. for Co. York     |
                       |                           |
         +-------------+----+         +------------+-----+---------+
         |                  |         |                  |         |
Sir John Stanhope-+      Other    George              Michael    Other
of Elvaston       |      issue    Stanhope, D.D.      Stanhope   issue
                  |               Precentor of York,
                  |               Buried 26/7/1644
       |                                                        |
Sir Philip Stanhope, Knt.      ----+-Katherine, daur. of       Other
Cr. Baron of Shelford, 7/11/1616   | Francis, Lord Hastings    issue
and Earl of Chesterfield, 4/8/1628 |
Died 1656, Aged 71                 |

A clue to the identity of Stanhope offers itself in the dedication of
"Newes out of Yorkshire" to Lady Katherine Stanhope, wife to the Lord
Philip Stanhope, afterwards the Earl of Chesterfield. An outline of the
pedigree of the Stanhope family was obtained from the College of Arms
and is here partly reproduced to show the relationship of Stanhope to
Lady Katherine Stanhope.

A Michael Stanhope entered Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1597-8, and
Gray's Inn in 1593-4, but there is no evidence to identify him with
Michael Stanhope the second son of Sir Edward Stanhope, and the author
of "Newes out of Yorkshire" and "Cures without Care." It may be
mentioned that in the latter book, Stanhope discovers and describes the
well at present known as John's well.



First Edition.


"Spadacrene Anglica," the English Spaw, or The Glory of Knaresborough.
Springing from Severall famous Fountaines there adjacent, called the
Vitrioll, Sulphurous, and dropping Wells: and also other Minerall
Waters. Their nature, Physical use, Situation and many admirable Cures
being exactly exprest in the subsequent Treatise of the learned Dr. Dean
and the sedulous observations of the ingenious Michael Stanhope,
Esquire. Wherein it is proved by Reason and Experience, that the
Vitrioline Fountain is equall (and not inferior) to the Germaine Spaw.
Aris[t]on men udôr. Published (with other additions) by John
Taylor, Apothecary in York, and there printed by Tho: Broad, etc., 1649.

The important and felicitous letter of dedication in the first edition
is discarded, and one of Taylor's own composition, of a very different
character is substituted for it. In it occurs the following, which is of
bibliographical interest: "The importunate desire of my friends has
forced me to reprint this little Treatise of Dr. Dean's Spadacrene
Anglica, which the vacillation of these distracted and ruinous times had
almost lost and obliterated. To this of Dr. Dean's I have added the
Observations of Michael Stanhope, Esquire, which I have excerpted forth
of his two books of the Spaw."


"Spadacrene Anglica," etc., York, printed by Tho: Broad, etc., 1654. The
title is the same as the 1649 reprint, except for the fact that
Taylor's name does not appear on it. His dedication is also omitted.


Thomas Short, M.D., "The Natural, Experimental and Medicinal History of
Mineral Waters."

In this volume, there are summaries of Deane's "Spadacrene Anglica":
Stanhope's "Cures without Care": and French's "The Yorkshire Spaw," etc.


"Spadacrene Anglica, or The English Spaw." Being An Account of the
Situation, Nature, Physical Use, and admirable Cures, performed by the
Waters of Harrogate, and Parts adjacent. By the late learned and eminent
Physician, Dr. Dean of York, and also the Observations of the ingenious
Dr. Stanhope. Wherein it is proved by Reason and Experience the
vitrioline Fountain is equal to the German Spaw. To which are added Some
Observations (Collected from modern Authors) of the Nature, Vertues and
Manner of Using the Sweet and Sulphur Waters at Harrogate, Leeds, etc.,


The present edition, reprinted from the 1626 edition.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Footnote 1: "Encyclopædia Britannica," 11th ed., 1910-11, vol. xiii,
page 27.]

[Footnote 2: J. Aikin, "Biographical Memoirs of Medicine in Great
Britain from the Revival of Literature to the time of Harvey," 1780. Wm.
MacMichael, "Lives of British Physicians," 1830. T.J. Pettigrew,
"Medical Portrait Gallery," 1838. G.T. Bettany, "Eminent Doctors, their
Lives and their Works," 1885.]

[Footnote 3: Watson, J., "The History and Antiquities of the Parish of
Halifax in Yorkshire," 1775.]

[Footnote 4: "The Register of Halifax," Part 1, 1910, page 205.]

[Footnote 5: "The Register of Halifax," Part 2, 1914, page 253, The
Yorkshire Parish Register Society.]

[Footnote 6: Anthony A. Wood, "Athenæ Oxoniensis," ed. Bliss, vol. ii,
page 660. "Alumni Oxoniensis," arranged by Joseph Foster. Vol. 1,

[Footnote 7: Camidge, Wm., "Ye Olde Streete of Pavement," York, c.

[Footnote 8: Davies, R., "Walks through the City of York," 1880, page

[Footnote 9: cf. "Spadacrene Anglica," page 125.]

[Footnote 10: "Spadacrene Anglica," page 92.]

[Footnote 11: "Pedigrees of the County Families of Yorkshire," Joseph
Foster, 1874, Vol. 1 (West Riding).]

[Footnote 12: E. Hargrove, "The History of the Castle, Town, and Forest
of Knaresbrough, with Harrogate and its medicinal Springs." 2nd. ed.,
1775, page 45. I have not seen the 1769 ed.]

[Footnote 13: Thomas Short, M.D. "The Natural Experimental and Medicinal
History of the Mineral Waters, etc." 1734, page 238.]

[Footnote 14: Grainge, W., "Memoir of the Life of Sir Wm. Slingsby."
1862. Page 16.]

[Footnote 15: "Athenæ Oxoniensis," ed. by P. Bliss, 1815, vol. 2, 174,
footnote by Rev. Joseph Hunter. Dictionary of Nat. Biography, 1886, vol.
VI. "Dr. Timothy Bright, Some Troubles of an Elizabethan Rector," by
Rev. H. Armstrong Hall, 1905, in vol. xv; and "The History of the Parish
of Barwick in Elmet," by F.S. Colman, M.A., Rector, 1908, in vol. xvii
of the Publications of the Thoresby Society. "William Shakespeare and
Timothy Bright," by M. Levy, 1910. "Timothe Bright, Doctor of Physicke,
A Memoir of the Father of Shorthand," 1911, by W.J. Carlton. His Will is
published in "Yorkshire Archæological Journal," 1902, vol 17.]

[Footnote 16: "A Treatise: wherein is declared the sufficiencie of
English Medicines for the cure of all diseases cured with medicine,"
T.B. 1580.

"Hygieina, id est de sanitate tuenda, Medicinæ Pars prima." 1581.

"Medicinæ Therapeutiæ pars: de dyscrasia corporis humani." 1583.

"Therapeutica, hoc est de sanitate restituenda. Medicinæ Pars altera."

"In Physimam G.A. Scribonii Animadversiones." 1584.

"A Treatise of Melancholie. Containing the causes thereof, & reasons of
the strange effects it worketh in our mindes and bodies, with the
phisicke, cure, and spirituall consolation for such as have therto
adjoyned an afflicted conscience, etc." 1586.

"Characterie, an Arte of shorte, swifte and secrete Writing by
Character. Invented by Timothe Bright, Doctor of Physike." 1588.

"An Abridgement of the Book of Acts and Monumentes of the Church." 1589.
Better known as "Foxe's Book of the Martyrs."]

[Footnote 17: E. Hargrove, "The History of Knaresbrough." 2nd ed., 1775,
page 45.]

[Footnote 18: W. Wheatear, "A Guide to and History of Harrogate," 1890,
page 58.]

[Footnote 19: Thomas Short, M.D., "History of Mineral Water," 1734, page


[Illustration: Original title page of Deane's manuscript.]

Spadacrene Anglica.


Being A BRIEFE TREATISE of the acide, or tart Fountaine in the Forest of
_Knaresborow_, in the West-Riding of _Yorkshire_.

As also a Relation of other medicinall Waters in the said Forest.

BY _Edmund Deane_, D^r. in Physicke, _Oxon_. dwelling in the City of

_LONDON_, Printed for _John Grismand_: and are to be sold by _Richard
Foster_, neere the Minster-gate in _Yorke_. 1626.




_Though it was my fortune first of all to set a new edge on this
businesse; yet my journeyes to this Fountaine have not been made without
your good companies and association, nor the severall tryals had there,
and at home, performed without your worthy helpes and assistance; nor
this little Treatise begun without your instigations and incitements.
Therefore I find none so fit and meet to patronize it, as your_
selves: being able out of your owne knowledge and observation to defend
it against all malicious detractions. To extoll it above the_ Germaine
Spaw, _may be thought in me either indiscretion, or too much partiality;
but why I may not parallele them (being in natures and qualities so
agreeable) nor I, nor you (I suppose) know any inducing, much lesse
perswading argument. Wherefore being thus confident, I thought it no
part of our duties, either to God, our King, or Country, to conceale so
great a benefit, as may thereby arise and accrue not onely unto this
whole Kingdome and his Majesties loving subjects, but also in time
(after further notice taken of it) to other foraigne nations and
countries, who may perhaps with more benefit, lesse hazard and danger of
their lives, spoiling and robbing, better partake of this our_ English
Spaw _Fountaine, then of those in_ Germanie.

_It were to be wished, that those two famous Physitians, Dr._ Hunton
_and Dr._ Bright _had beene yet living, to_ _have given testimony of
the great good hopes and expectation they conceived of it. The former of
which did oftentimes request me to publish it to the world: and the
other was resolved (in case hee had longer lived) to have done it
himselfe. So carefull were they both to promote their countries good,
and studious to procure the health of their Countrimen._

_I am as briefe and plaine, as possibly I may, to the end the Reader may
not be wearied, nor the patient deluded; and, if for these causes I may
seem to bee censured, yet I am well assured, that to your selves brevity
and perspicuity cannot, but bee acceptable. So wishing you all
happinesse, I shall ever rest and remaine_

From my house in _Yorke_,
this 20th. of April,

Your assured friend,
_Edm; Deane_.

The English Spaw.

       *       *       *       *       *

_CHAP_. 1.

_=Of the situation of the Towne of_ Knaresborow.=

_Gnaresbrugh_ (commonly called _Knaresborow_) is a very ancient Market
towne in the West-Riding of _Yorkeshire_, distant 14 miles from the City
of _Yorke_; where the Pole is elevated 54 degrees, and 20 odde minutes.
On the South-west part thereof is that faire, and goodly Fort, so much
renowned, both for the pleasant situation, and remarkable strength,
knowne by the name of _Knaresborow Castle_, seated on a most ragged and
rough Rock; whence (as learned Mr. _Camden_ saith) it is so named.

Both the Castle and the Towne are fenced on the South and West parts
with the River _Nid_: which is beautified here with two faire Bridges of
stone, which lead from the Towne into the Forest adjoyning, as also unto
a large empaled Park of his Majesties, called _Bilton-parke_, well
stored with fallow Deere: part whereof is bordered with the said river.

The Towne it selfe standeth on a hill, having almost on every side an
ascent to it; and about it are divers fruitfull valleyes well
replenished with grasse, corne, and wood. The waters there are wholesome
and cleare; the ayre dry and pure. In briefe, there is nothing wanting,
that may fitly serve for a good and commodious habitation, and the
content and entertainment of strangers.

Many things are very observable in this place, which because they rather
do appertaine to the volumes of Geographers, & Antiquaries, then to the
purpose intended in this little treatise, are here omitted.

_CHAP_. 2.

_=Of the severall earths, stones, and mineralls found neere and about
this place.=_

Although there are in sundry places of this Kingdome as many, or moe
severall kinds, and sorts of earths quarreyes of stone, minerals, and
mines of mettalls, then in any other Realme whatsoever; notwithstanding
no one place hath beene observed to have them either in such plentie, or
variety in so small a distance, as this. For here is found not onely
white and yellow marle, plaister, oker, rudd, or rubricke, free-stone,
an hard greet-stone, a soft reddish stone, iron-stone, brimstone,
vitreall, nitre, allum, lead, copper, (and without doubt diverse
mixtures of these) but also many other mineralls might (perhaps) be
found out by the diligent search and skilfull industrie of those, who
would take paines to labour a little herein.

All which do manifestly demonstrate, that nature hath stored this little
territorie with a greater diversitie of hidden benefits, then great and
spacious Countries otherwise abounding in outward native commodities,
and that the fountaines, or springs of water hereabouts cannot otherwise
then participate of their severall natures, and properties.

_CHAP_. 3.

_=Of the fountaines, of pure and simple waters neere, and about the

As generally most parts of the West Riding of _Yorkeshire_ (especially
the hilly and more mountaineous places thereof) are stored with
fountaines and springs of cleare, limpide, and pure simple waters; so
likewise the territorie here abouts is not without plenty of them. Two
whereof have gotten and purchased that reputation, as to be saincted:
The one called by the name of Saint _Magnus_, or _Mugnus-Well_: th'
other, that of Saint _Roberts_.

These, formerly for a yeere, or two, have beene in great request in
these parts amongst the common sort, much sought unto by many, and great
concourse of people have daily gathered and flocked to them both neere,
and a farre off, as is most commonly seene, when any new thing is first
found out. _Fama enim grescit eundo_, even unto incredible wonders and
miracles, or rather fictions, and lyes. All which commeth to passe as
wee may well suppose, through our overmuch English credulity, or (as I
may better say) rather superstition. For to any such like Well, will
swarme at first both yong and old (especially the female sexe, as ever
more apt to bee deluded) halt, lame, blind, deafe, dumbe, yea, almost
all, and that for all manner of maladies and diseases, both inward and

But for as much, as these are springs of pure, and simple waters
meerely, without any mixture at all of minerals to make them become
medicinable, it is verily thought, that the many & severall cures, which
have bin attributed unto them in those times, when they were so
frequented, were rather fained, and imaginary, then true, and reall;
and that those, who then visited them, were desirous (either to uphold,
and maintaine the credit, and reputation of their Saints, or else, to
avoyd the scorne and derision of their owne delusion) to have others
likewise deceived.

Time hath quite worne all their strength, and consumed all their
vertues; so that nothing of worth now remaines with them, saving onely
their bare names and titles: _Sic magna sua mole ruunt_.

Wherefore to omit these, as scarce worthy the mentioning; those are
chiefly here to be described, which doe participate of minerall vertues,
and faculties.

_CHAP_. 4.

_=Of five fountaines neare unto the town, which doe participate of
minerall vertues.=_

Out of the divers Fountaines springing hereabouts, five are worthy the
observation of Physitians. The first whereof is very neare unto the
river banke, over against the Castle, called by the name of the
_Dropping-well_, for that it droppeth, distilleth, and trickleth downe
from the hanging rocke above. The water whereof hath a certaine quality
or property to turne any thing, that lieth in it, into a stony substance
in a very short space.

Three of the others (being all of them much of one, and the same nature)
are termed by the country people thereabouts the _Stinking-wels_, in
regard they have an ill, and fetide smell, consisting most of
Sulphure-vive, or quicke brimstone. One of them, and that which hath the
greatest current, or streame of water, is in _Bilton park_.

The other two are in the sayd Forest; one is neare unto the towne; the
other is further off, almost two miles from it, beyond a place called
_Haregate head_, in a bottome on the right hand of it, as you goe, and
almost in the side of a little brooke.

The fift, and last (for which I have principally undertaken to write
this short Discourse) is an acide, or tart fountaine in the said Forest,
commonly named by the vulgar sort, _Tuewhit-well_, and the _English
Spaw_, by those of the better rank, in imitation of those two most
famous acide fountaines at the _Spaw_ in _Germany_, to wit,
_Sauvenir_, and _Pouhon_: whereof the first (being the prime one) is
halfe a league from the _Spa_, or _Spaw_ village; the other is in the
middle of the towne.

_CHAP_. 5.

_=A more particular recitall of the first foure Wells.=_

I purpose to speake somewhat more in this place of the first foure
Springs mentioned in the former Chapter, in regard the consideration of
them may perhaps give some light to those, who shall hereafter search
further into the secrets, which nature may seeme to afford in the
Country hereabouts.

The first is the _Dropping-well_, knowne almost to all, who have
travelled unto this place. The water whereof distilleth and trickleth
downe from the hanging Rocke over it, not onely dropping wise, but also
falling in many pretty little streames.

This water issueth at first out of the earth, not farre from the said
hanging rocke, and running a while in one entire current, continueth
so, till it commeth almost to the brim of the cragg; where being opposed
by a damme (as it were artificiall) of certaine spongy stones, is
afterwards divided into many smaller branches, and falleth from on high
in manner aforesaid.

It is therefore very likely, that Mr. _Camden_ in person did not see
this Fountaine, but rather that hee had it by relation from others; or
at least wise (if he did see it) that hee did not marke, and duly
observe the originall springing up of the water, when in his _Britannia_
he saith thus: _The waters thereof spring not up out of the veines of
the earth_, &c.

Concerning the properties and qualities thereof, I have nothing more to
write at this time (there being formerly little tryall had of it) saving
that divers inhabitants thereabouts say, and affirme, that it hath beene
found to bee very effectuall in staying any flux of the body: which
thing I easily beleeve.

The other three are sulphureous fountaines, and cast forth a stinking
smell a farre off, especially in the winter season, and when the weather
is coldest. They are all noysome to smell to, and cold to touch, without
any manifest, or actuall heat at all; by reason (as may most probably be
thought) their mynes, and veines of brimstone, are not kindled under the
earth; being (perhaps) hindred by the mixture of salt therewith.

Those, who drinke of their waters, relate, they verily thinke there is
gunpowder in them, and that now and then they vomit after drinking

The waters, as they runne along the earth, doe leave behind them on the
grasse and leaves a gray slimy substance, which being set on fire, hath
the right savour of common brimstone. They are much haunted with
Pigeons, an argument of much salt in them; of which in the evaporation
of the water by fire, wee found a good quantity remaining in the
bottome of the vessell.

One thing further was worth observation; that white mettall (as silver)
dipped into them, presently seemeth to resemble copper: which we first
noted by putting a silver porrenger into one of these; unto which _Sir
Francis Trapps_ did first bring us. Which tincture these waters give by
reason of their sulphur.

Touching their vertues, and effects, there may in generall the like
properties be ascribed unto them, as are attributed unto other
sulphureous Bathes actually cold, participating also of salt.

The vulgar sort drinke these waters (as they say) to expell reefe, and
fellon; yea, many, who are much troubled with itches, scabs, morphewes,
tetters, ring-wormes, and the like, are soone holpen, and cured by
washing the parts ill affected therewith. Which thing they might much
more conveniently, and more commodiously doe, if at that in _Bilton_
parke were framed 2 capacious Bathes, the one cold, the other to be made
hot, or warme, by art, for certaine knowne howers a day.

_CHAP_. 6.

_=A more particular description of the fift, or last fountaine, called
the_ English Spaw.=

This, being the principall subject of this whole Treatise, is in the
said forest, about halfe a league, or a mile and a halfe west from the
towne; from whence there is almost a continuall rising to it, but
nothing so great, as the ascent is from the _Spaw_ village to the
_Sauvenir_. This here springeth out of a mountainous ground, and almost
at the height of the ascent, at _Haregate-head_; having a great descent
on both sides the ridge thereof; and the Country thereabouts somewhat
resembleth that at the _Spaw_ in _Germany_.

The first discoverer of it to have any medicinall quality (so far forth
as I can learn) was one Mr. _William Slingesby_, a Gentleman of many
good parts, of an ancient, and worthy Family neere thereby; who having
travelled in his younger time, was throughly acquainted with the taste,
use, and faculties of the two Spaw fountaines.

In his latter time, about 55 yeeres agoe it was his good fortune to live
for a little while at a grange house very neare to this fountaine, and
afterwards in _Bilton_ Parke all his life long. Who drinking of this
water, found it in all things to agree with those at the _Spaw_.
Whereupon (greatly rejoycing at so good and fortunate an accident) he
made some further triall and assay: That done, he caused the fountaine
to be well, and artificially walled about, and paved at the bottome (as
it is now at this day) with two faire stone flags, with a fit hole in
the side thereof, for the free passage of the water through a little
guttered stone. It is open at the top, and walled somewhat higher, then
the earth, as well to keepe out filth, as Cattle for comming and
approaching to it. It is foure-square, three foot wide, and the water
within is about three quarters of a yard deepe.

First we caused it to be laded dry, as well to scoure it, as also to see
the rising up of the water, which we found to spring up onely at the
bottome at the chinke or cranny, betweene two stones, so left purposely
for the springing up of the water at the bottome: Which as _Pliny_
observeth in his 31 booke of his Naturall History and the third Chapter,
is a signe above all of the goodnesse of a fountaine.

"And above all (saith he,) one thing would bee observed, and seene unto,
that the source, which feedeth it, spring and boyle up directly from the
bottome, and not issue forth at the sides: which also is a maine point
that concerneth the perpetuity thereof, and whereby wee may collect,
that it will hold still, and be never drawne drye."

The streame of water, which passeth away by the hole in the side
thereof, is much one, and about the proportion of the current of the

The above named Gentleman did drinke the water of this Fountaine every
yeare after all his life time, for helping his infirmities, and
maintaining of his health, and would oftentimes say and averre, that it
was much better, and did excell the tart fountaines beyond the seas, as
being more quicke and lively, and fuller of minerall spirits; effecting
his operation more speedily, and sooner passing through the body.

Moreover Doctor _Timothy Bright_ of happy memory, a learned Physitian,
(while hee lived, my very kind friend, and familiar acquaintance) first
gave the name of the _English Spaw_ unto this Fountaine about thirty
yeares since, or more. For he also formerly had spent some time at the
_Spaw_ in _Germany_; so that he was very able to compare those with
this of ours. Nay, hee had futhermore so good an opinion, and so high a
conceit of this, that hee did not onely direct, and advise others to it,
but himselfe also (for most part) would use it in the Sommer season.

Likewise Doctor _Anthony Hunton_ lately of _Newarke_ upon _Trent_,
a Physitian of no lesse worth and happy memory, (to whom for his true love
to mee, and kind respect of mee, I was very much beholden) would often
expostulate with mee at our meetings, and with other Gentlemen of
_Yorkeshire_, his patients, how it came to passe, that I, and the
Physitians of _Yorke_, did not by publike writing make the fame and
worth thereof better knowne to the world?

_CHAP_. 7.

_=Of the difference of this Fountaine from those at the_ Spaw,
_to wit_, Sauvenir, _and_ Pouhon.=

This springeth almost at the top of the ascent (as formerly hath beene
said) from a dry, and somewhat sandy earth: The water whereof running
South-East, is very cleare, pure, full of life, and minerall

We find it chiefly to consist of a vitrioline nature and quality, with a
participation also of those other minerals, which are said to be in the
_Sauvenir_ fountaine; but in a more perfect, and exquisite mixture and
temper (as wee deeme) and therefore to be supposed better and nobler,
then it. The difference betweene them will be found to be onely
_secundum majus & minus_, that is, according to more, or lesse, which
maketh no difference in kind, but in degrees. This partaketh in greater
measure of the qualities, and lesser of the substances of the minerals,
then that doth; and for that cause it is of a more quicke and speedy
operation; as also for the same reason, his tenuity of body, and
fulnesse of minerall spirits therein contained, it cannot be so farre
transported from its owne source, and spring, without losse, and
diminution of his strength, and goodnesse. For being caried no further,
then to the towne it selfe (though the glasse or vessell be closely
stopt) it becommeth somewhat weaker: if as farre as to _Yorke_, much
more: but if 20 or 30 miles further, it will then bee found to be of
small force, or validity, as we have often observed.

Whereas contrariwise the water of the lower fountaine at the _Spaw_,
called _Pouhon_, is frequently and usually caried and conveyed into
other Countries farre off, and remote, as into _France_, _England_,
_Scotland_, _Ireland_, divers parts of _Germany_, and some parts of
_Italy_; yea, and that of _Sauvenir_, (which is the better fountaine,
and whose water cannot be caried so farre away, as the other may) is
oftentimes used nowadayes at _Paris_, the chiefe City of _France_.

But this of ours cannot be sent away any whit so farre off without losse
and decay of his efficacy, and vertue; so ayrie, subtill, and piercing
are its spirits, and minerall exhalations, that they soone passe,
vanish, and flye away. Which thing wee have esteemed to be a principall
good signe of the worthy properties of this rare Fountaine. So that this
water, being newly taken up at the Well, and presently after drunke,
cannot otherwise, but sooner passe by the Hypochondries and through the
body, and cause a speedier effect, then those in _Germany_ can. Whereby
any one may easily collect, and gather, that this getteth his soveraign
faculties better in its passage by and through the variety of minerals,
included in the earth (which only afford unto it an halitious body) then
those doe.

If then wee bee desirous to have this of ours become commodious either
for preserving of our healths, or for altering any distemper, or curing
any infirmity (for which it is proper and availeable) it ought chiefly
to bee taken at the fountaine it selfe, before the minerall spirits bee

_CHAP_. 8.

_=That Vitriol is here more predominant, then any other minerall.=_

We have sufficiently beene satisfied by experience and trialls, through
what minerals this water doth passe: but to know in what proportion they
are exactly mixed therewith, it is beyond humane invention to find out;
nature having reserved this secret to her selfe alone. Neverthelesse it
may very well be conjectured, that as in the frame, and composition of
the most noble creature, Man (the lesser world) there is a temper of the
foure elements rather _ad justitiam_ (as Philosophers say) then _ad
pondus_; so nature in the mixture of these minerals, hath likewise taken
more of some, and lesse of others, as shee thought to be most fit, and
expedient for the good and behoofe of mans health, and the recovery and
restitution of it decayed; being indeed such a worke, as no Art is able
to imitate.

That _Vitriolum_ (otherwise called _Chalcanthum_) is here most
predominant, there needs no other proofe, then from the assay of the
water it selfe; which both in the tart and inky smack thereof, joyned
with a piercing and a pricking quality, and in the savour (which is
somewhat a little vitrioline,) is altogether like unto the ancient
_Spaw_ waters; which according to the consent of all those, who have
considered their naturall compositions, doe most of all, and chiefly
participate of vitrioll.

Notwithstanding, for a more manifest, and fuller tryall hereof, put as
much powder of galls, as will lye on two-pence, or three-pence, into a
glasse full of this water newly taken up at the fountaine, you shall see
it by and by turned into the right and perfect colour of Claret wine,
that is fully ripe, cleare, and well fined, which may easily deceive
the eye of the skilfullest Vintner.

This demonstration hath beene often made, not without the admiration of
those, who first did see it. For the same quantity of galles mingled
with so much common water, or any other fountaine water thereabouts,
will not alter it any thing at all; unlesse to these you also adde
Vitrioll, and then the colour will appeare to be of a blewish violet,
somewhat inkish, not reddish, as in the former, which hath an exquisite
and accurate conjunction of other minerall exhalations, besides the
vitrioline. But this probation will not hold, if so be you make triall
with the said water being caried farre from the well; by reason of the
present dissipation of his spirits.

_CHAP_. 9.

_=Of the properties, and effects of Vitrioll, according to the ancient
and moderne Writers.=_

The qualities of Vitrioll, according to _Dioscorides, Galen, Ætius,
Paulus Ægineta_, and _Oribasius_, are to heate and dry, to bind, to
resist putrefaction, to give strength and vigour to the interiour parts,
to kill the flat wormes of the belly, to remedy venemous mushromes, to
preserve flesh over moyst from corruption, consuming the moysture
thereof by its heat, and constipating by his astriction the substance of
it, and pressing forth the serous humidity.

And according to _Matthiolus_ in his Commentaries upon _Dioscorides_, it
is very profitable against the plague and pestilence, and the chymicall
oyle thereof is very availeable (as himselfe affirmeth to have
sufficiently proved) against the stone and stopping of urine, and many
other outward maladies and diseases, (_Andernæus_ and _Gesner_ adde to
these the Apoplexy) all which, for avoyding of prolixity, I doe here
purposely omit.

Neither will I further trouble the Reader with the recitall of divers
and sundry excellent remedies, and medicines, found out and made of it
in these latter times, by the Spagyricke Physitians, and others: In so
much that _Joseph Quercetanus_, one of those, is verily of opinion,
that out of this one individuall minerall, well and exquisitely prepared,
there might be made all manner of remedies and medicines sufficient for
the storing and furnishing of a whole Apothecaries shop.

But it will (perhaps) be objected by some one or other in this manner:
If vitrioll, which as most doe hold, is hote and dry in the third
degree, or beginning of the fourth, nay, of a causticke quality, and
nature (as _Discorides_ is of opinion) should here be predominant, then
the water of this fountaine must needs bee of great heat and acrimony;
and so become not onely unprofitable, but also very hurtfull for mans
use to be drunke, or inwardly taken.

To which objection (not to take any advantage of the answer, which many
learned Physitians doe give, _viz_. that vitrioll is not hot, but cold)
I say:

First, that although all medicinall waters doe participate of those
mineralls, by which they doe passe, yet they have them but weakly
(_viribus refractis_) especially when in their passages they touch, and
meet with divers others minerals of opposite tempers and natures.

Secondly I answer, that in all such medicinall fountaines, as this,
simple water doth farre surpasse and exceed in quantity, whatsoever is
therewith intermixed; by whose coldnesse it commeth to passe, that the
contrary is scarce, or hardly perceived. For example, take one
proportion of any boyling liquor to 100. or more, of the same cold, and
you will hardly find in it any heat at all. Suppose then vitrioll to be
hot in the third degree, it doth not therefore follow, that the water,
which hath his vertue chiefly from it, should heat in the same degree.
This is plainly manifest not onely in this fountaine, but also in all
others, which have an acide taste, being indeed rather cold, then hot,
for the reasons above mentioned.

_CHAP_. 10.

_=Of the effects, which this fountaine worketh, and produceth in those
who drinke of it.=_.

Experience sheweth sufficiently, besides reason, that this water first,
and in the beginning cooleth such, as use it: But being continued it
heateth and dryeth; and this for the most part it doth in all, yet not
alwayes. For (as we shall more fully declare afterwards) it effecteth
cures of opposite, and quite contrary natures, by the second and third
qualities, wherewith it is endowed, curing diseases both hot, cold, dry,
and moist.

Those waters (saith _Renodæus_) which are replenished with a vitrioline
quality, as those at the _Spaw_, doe presently heale, and (as it were)
miraculously cure diseases, which are without all hope of recovery;
having that notable power, and faculty from vitrioll; by the vertue and
efficacy whereof, they passe through the meanders, turnings, and
windings of all parts of the whole body. Whatsoever is hurtfull, or
endammageth it, that they sweepe and carie away: what is profitable and
commodious, they touch not, nor hurt; that, which is flaccid, and loose,
they bind and fasten: that, which is fastened, and strictly tyed, they
loose: what is too grosse and thicke, they incide, dissolve, attenuate,
and expell.

More particularly, the water of this fountaine hath an incisive and
abstersive faculty to cut, and loosen the viscous and clammy humours of
the body, and to make meable the grosse: as also by its piercing and
penetrating power, subtilty of parts, and by his deterging and
desiccative qualities to open all the obstructions, or oppilations of
the mesentery (from whence the seeds of most diseases doe arise and
spring) liver, splen, kidneis, and other interiour parts, and (which is
more to be noted and observed) to coole and contemperate their
unnaturall heat, helping, and removing also all the griefes and
infirmities depending thereupon.

Besides all this, it comforteth the stomacke by the astriction it hath
from other minerals, especially iron, so that (without doubt) of a
thousand, who shall use it discreetly and with good advice (their bodies
first being well and orderly prepared by some learned and skilfull
Physitian, according to the states thereof, and as their infirmities
shall require) there will scarcely be any one found who shall not
receive great profit thereby.

Moreover, it clenseth, and purifieth the whole masse of blood contained
in the veynes, by purging it from the seresity peccant, and from
cholericke, phlegmaticke, and melancholike humours; and that principally
by urine, which passeth through the body very cleare, and in great
quantity, leaving behind it the minerall forces, and vertues.

Their stooles, who drinke of it, are commonly of a blackish, or dark
greene colour, partly because it emptieth the liver and splen from adult
humours, and melancholy, or the sediment of blood: but more especially,
because the mineralls intermixed doe produce and give such a tincture.

_CHAP_. 11.

_=In what diseases the water of this Fountaine is most usefull and

Over and besides the peculiar and specificall faculties, which this
fountaine hath, it sheweth divers and sundry other manifest effects and
qualities in evacuating the noxious humours of the body, for most part
by urine especially when there is any obstruction about the kidneyes,
ureters and bladder: Or by urine and stoole both, if the mesentery,
liver, or splen, chance to bee obstructed. But, if the affect or griefe
be in the matrix or womb, then it clenseth that way according to the
accustomed and usuall manner of women.

In melancholike people it purgeth by provoking the hæmorrhoides, and in
cholericke by siege, or stoole. If it causeth either vomit or sweat, it
is very seldome and rare.

See here a most admirable worke guided by the omnipotency and wisedom of
the Almighty, that a naturall, cleare, and pure water, should produce so
many and severall effects and operations, being all of them in a manner
contrary one to another, which few medicines composed by art can easily
performe without hurt and damage to the party. Wherefore being drunke
with those cautions and circumstances necessarily required thereunto, it
is to be preferred before many other remedies, as not onely procuring
these evacuations; but also (which is more to be noted) staying them,
when they grow to any excesse. For seeing that here are minerals
contained both hot, cold, dry, aperitive, astringent, &c. there is none
so simple but must needs thinke and grant, that it cannot otherwise bee
but good and wholesome in grievances, and diseases, which in their owne
natures are opposite.

But I may instance in some few, for which it is good and profitable, and
therein observe some order and methode; It dryeth the over moist braine,
and helpeth the evils proceeding therefrom, as rhumes, catarrhs,
palsies, cramps, &c.

It is also good and availeable against inveterate headaches, migrims,
turnings, and swimmings of the head and braine, dizzinesse, epilepsie,
or falling sicknesse, and the like cold and moist diseases of the head.

It cheereth and reviveth the spirits, strengtheneth the stomacke,
causeth a good and quicke appetite, and furthereth digestion.

It helpeth the blacke and yellow Jaundisse, and the evill, which is
accompanied with strange feare and excessive sadnesse without any
evident occasion, or necessary cause, called _Melancholia
Hypochondriaca_. Likewise the cachexy, or evill habit of the body, and
the dropsie in the beginning thereof, before it be too farre gone. For
besides that it openeth obstructions, it expelleth the redundant water
contained in the belly, and contemperateth the unnaturall heat of the

It cooleth the kidneyes or reynes, and driveth forth sand, gravell, and
stones out of them, and also hindreth the encrease or breeding of any
new, by the concretion, and saudering of gravell, bred of a viscous and
clammy humour, or substance. The same it performeth to the bladder, for
which it is also very beneficiall, if it chance to have any evill
disposition either in the cavity thereof, or in the necke of it, and
shutting muscle called _Sphincter_, whereby the whole part or member is
let and hindred in his office and function.

Moreover, if there chance to be any ulcer in the parts last specified,
or any sore, or fistula in _perinaeo_ through an impostume ill cured,
this water is a good remedy for it, in regard of its clensing,
cicatrizing and constringing power, and vertue; and for that cause it is
very proper and commodious for the acrimony and sharpnesse of urine, and
against the stopping and suppression of urine, difficulty of making
water, and the strangury.

Although it is very availeable against the stone in the kidneyes, and
against the breeding, and increase of any new there; yea, and against
little ones, that are loose in the bladder; yet notwithstanding it will
afford little or small benefit to those, in whom it is growne to bee
very great and big in the bladder: Because nothing will then serve to
breake it, as _Brassavolus_ saith, but a Smiths anvile and hammar.
Neverthelesse, if in this case incision be used, it will be very
commodious both for mundifying and consolidating the wound, made for the
extraction of it.

It shall not bee needfull to speake much of the profit, which will
ensue by the fit administration of it in the inveterat venereous
Gonorrhæa, causing it to cease and stay totally, and correcting the
distemper, and the evill ulcerous disposition of the seed vessels, & the
vicine parts.

There are very few infirmities properly incident to women, which this
water may not seeme to respect much. The use whereof, after the advice
and councell had of the learned Physitian, for the well and orderly
preparing their bodies, is singular good against the greene sicknesse,
and also very commodious and behoovefull to procure their monthly
evacuations, as also to stay their over much flowing; as well to
correct, as to stay their white floods; as well to dry the wombe being
too moist, as to heat it being too cold, through which causes and
distempers conception (for the most part) is let and hindered in cold
Northerne Countries, as _England_, and the like. For by the helpe of it
these distempers are changed and altered, the superfluous humidities
and mucosities are taken away, the part is corroborated, and the
retentive vertue is strengthned.

This hath beene so much, and so often observed at the ancient _Spaw_,
that it cannot otherwise, but bee also verified at this in aftertimes,
when it shall bee frequented (as those have beene) with the company of
Ladyes, and Gentlewomen: Divers whereof, having beene formerly barren
for the space of ten, twelve yeares, or moe, and drinking of those
waters for curing and helping some other infirmities, then for want of
fruitfulnesse, have shortly conceived after their returne home to their
husbands, beyond their hopes and expectations.

Besides all this, it is good for these women, who, though otherwise apt
enough to conceive, yet by reason of the too much lubricity of their
wombes, are prone to miscarry and abort, if before conception they shall
use it with those cautions and directions requisite.

Also it respecteth very much the hard scirrhous and cancarous tumours,
and the grievous soares, and dangerous ulcers of the matrix. All these
excellent helpes and many moe it performeth to women with more speedy
successe, if it be also received by injection. But here by the way, all
such women, who are with child, are to be admonished, that they forbeare
to use it during that time.

In children it killeth and expelleth the wormes of the guts and belly,
and letteth and hindreth the breeding and new encrease of any moe.

I will here forbeare to write any thing of the benefits which it
affordeth against old and inveterate itches, morphewes, leprosies, &c.
in regard the other three sulphurous fountaines, before mentioned, doe
more properly respect such like grievances. Neither will I now spend any
more time in shewing what vertues it hath in the cure of the Indian,
commonly called the French, or rather Spanish disease: because
experience hath found out a more certaine and sure remedy against it.

_CHAP_. 12.

_=Of the necessity of preparing the body before the use of this water.=_

It is not in most things the bare and naked knowledge or contemplation
of them, that makes them profitable to us; but rather their right use,
and oppertune and fit administration. Medicines are not said to be
_Deorum manus_, that is, the hands of the Gods, (as _Herophilus_ calleth
them) or _Deorum dona_; that is, the gifts of the Gods (as _Hippocrates_
beleeved) till they be fitly applyed and seasonably administered by the
counsell and advice of the learned and skilfull Physitian, according to
the true rules, and method of Art.

    _Temporibus medicina valet, data tempore prosunt,
    Et data non apto tempore vina nocent._

That is,

    Medicines availe in their due times,
    And profit is got by drinking wines
    In timely sort; but in all reason
    They doe offend, drunke out of season.

Therefore to know th' originall mineralls, faculties, and vertues of
this worthy acide fountaine, will bee to no end, or to small purpose for
them, who understand not the right and true use, nor the fit and orderly
administration of it. For not only Physicke or medicines, but also
meats, and drinks taken disorderly, out of due time and without measure,
bringeth oftentimes detriment to the partie; who otherwise might receive
comfort and strength thereby: So likewise this water, if it be not
drunke at a convenient time and season, in due fashion and proportion,
yea, and that after preparatives and requisite purging and evacuation of
the body, may easily hurt those, whose infirmities otherwise it doth
principally respect. For medicines ought not to be taken rashly, and
unadvisably, as most doe hand over head without any consideration of
time, place, and other circumstances; as that ignorant man did, who
getting the recipt of that medicine, wherewith formerly he had been
cured, made triall of it againe long after for the same infirmity
without any helpe or good at all, whereat greatly marvailing, received
this answer fro his Physitian: I confesse (said hee) it was the selfe
same medicine, but because I did not give it, therefore it did you no

To the end therefore, that no occasion may hereafter be either given, or
taken by the misgovernment, or overrashnesse of any in using it to
calumniate and traduce the worth, and goodnesse of this fountaine, I
will briefly here shew, what course is chiefly to be followed and
observed by those who shall stand in need of it.

First then, because very few men are thoroughly and sufficiently
informed concerning the natures, and causes of their grievances, it
will be necessary that every one shold apply himselfe to some one, or
other, who either out of his judgement, or experience, or both, may
truely be able to give him counsell and good advice concerning the
conveniency of this fountaine. And if he shall be avised to use it, then
let the party (in the feare of God) addresse himselfe for his way to it,
against the fit season of it, without making any long and tedious daies
journeys, which cause lassitude, and wearinesse.

Then, being come to the place, he ought after a dayes rest, or two, to
have his body wel prepared, & gently clensed with easie lenitives, or
purgatives, both fit, and appropriate, as well to the habite and
constitution thereof, as also for the disease it selfe, and as occasion
shall require, according to the rule of method, which teacheth that
universal or generall remedies ought ever to precede and goe before
particulars. Now what these are in speciall, to fit every ones case in
particular, it is impossible for me here, or any else to define
precisely. _Ars non versatur circa individua._ We may see it true in
mechanicall trades. No one shoemaker can fit all by one Last; nor any
one taylor can suite all by one, and the selfe same measure.

Yet in regard it may perhaps bee expected that something should be said
herein, I say, that in the beginning (if occasion serve) some easie
Clyster may very fitly bee given, as well for emptying the lower
intestines from their usuall excrements, as for carying away and
clensing the mucose slimes contained therein. After that, it will be
convenient to prepare the body by some Julep or Apozeme, or to give some
lenitive medicine to free the first region of the body from excrements.
For otherwise the water might peradventure convey some part of them, or
other pecca̅t matter, which it findeth in his passage either into the
bladder, or to some other weake, and infirme member of the body, to the
increase of that evill disposition which is to be removed, or else to
the breeding of some other new infirmity.

_Object_. Some perhaps will here object and say, that the time of the
yeere, in which this fountaine will be found to bee most usefull, will
be the hottest season thereof; or (if you like to call it) the
dog-daies, when it will be no fit time to purge at all.

_Answ_. 1. To this I answer and say: First, the purging medicines here
required are not strong, and generous but gentle, mild and weake, such
as are styled _Benedicta medicamenta_: which may with great safetie and
profit bee given either then or at any other time of the yeere without
any danger, or respect of any such like circumstance at all.

2. Secondly I answer; Although this observation of the dog-dayes might
perhaps be of some moment in hotter countries, as _Greece_, where
_Hippocrates_ lived, who first made mention of those dales: Yet in
colder climates, as _England_, and such like Countries, they are of
little or small force at all, and almost not to be regarded any whit,
either in using mild & temperate purgatives, or almost in any other; or
in blood-letting: though very many, or most doe erroniously say and
thinke the contrary. So that (if there be cause) they may as well and
safely then purge, as at any other time: Or, if occasion shall urge, as
in plethoricall bodies, and many other cases, a veine may safely (or
rather most commodiously) be then opened and so much blood taken away,
as the skilfull Physitian shall thinke in his discretion and wisdome to
be needfull and requisite.

Let no man here think, that this is any strange position, or a new
paradoxe (for the learned know the contrary) or that I am studious of
innovation, but rather desirous to roote out an old and inveterate
errour, which in all probabilitie hath cost moe Englishmens lives, then
would furnish a royall army, in neglecting those two greater helpes or
remedies, to wit, Purging, and Blood-letting in hot seasons of the
yeare: which in all likelihood might have saved many of their lives,
while expecting more temperate weather, they have beene summoned in the
meane time, or _interim_ by the messenger of pale death to appeare in an
other world.

Wherefore let all those who are yet living, bee admonished hereafter by
their examples, not obstinately and wilfully to eschue and shunne these
two remedies in hot seasons, and in the time of the Dog-dayes, (much
lesse all other manner of physicall helpes) not once knowing so much as
why, or wherefore, and without any reason at all, following blind and
superstitious tradition, and error, haply first broched by some unworthy
and ignorant Physitian, not rightly understanding _Hippocrates_ his
saving in all likelyhood, or at least wise misapplying it. Which hath
so prevailed in these times, that it hath not onely worne out the use of
purging, but also of all other physicke for that season, because most
people by the name of physicke understanding purging onely, and nothing
else. As though the art and science of Physicke was nothing else, but to
give a potion or purge. Then we rightly and truly might say, _Filia
devor avit matrem_.

But for as much as most people are altogether ignorant of the true
ground or reason, from whence this so dangerous an error concerning the
Dog-dayes did first spring and arise, give me leave a little to goe on
with this my digression, for their better instruction, and satisfaction:
and I will briefly, and in a few lines shew the case, and the mistake
somewhat more plainly.

_Hippocrates_ in his fourth booke of Aphorismes, the fift, hath these
words: _Sub canicula, & ante caniculam difficiles sunt purgationes._
That is, under the canicular, or dog-star, and before the dog-star,
purgations are painfull and difficill. This is all that is there said of
them, or brought against them for that season, or time of the yeare. A
great stumbling-blocke against which many have dashed their feet, and
knockt their shinnes, and a fearfull scar-crow, whereat too many have
nicely boggled. Here you doe not find or see purging medicines to bee
then prohibited, or forbidden to be given at all (much lesse all other
physicke) but onely said to be difficill in their working: partly
because (as all expositors agree) nature is then somewhat enfeebled by
the great heat of the weather; partly because the humours being then, as
it were, accended are more chaffed by the heat of the purging medicines;
partly, and lastly, because two contrary motions seeme then to be at one
and the same time, which may offend nature; as the great heat of the
weather leading the humours of the body outwardly to the circumference
thereof, and the medicine drawing them inwardly to the center. All which
circumstances in our cold region are little, or nothing at all (as
formerly hath beene mentioned) to be regarded. For as _Jacobus
Hollerius_, a French Physitian, much honoured for his great learning and
judgement, hath very well observed in his Comment upon this Aphorisme;
_Hippocrates_ speaketh here onely of those purging medicines, which are
strong, and vehement, or hot and fiery; and that this precept is to take
place in most hot Regions, but not in these cold Countries, as _France_,
_England_, and the like.

Over and beside all this, those churlish hot purging medicines, which
were then in frequent use in _Hippocrates_ his time, and some hundred of
yeares after, are now for most part obsolete, and quite growne out of
use, seldom brought in practice by Physitians in these dayes; because we
have within these last six hundred yeares great choice and variety of
more mild, benigne, and gentle purgatives found out by the Arabian
Physitians, which were altogether unknowne unto the ancients, to wit,
_Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Galen, &c._ which have little heat, and
acrimony, many whereof are temperate, and divers cooling, which may most
safely be given either in the hottest times and seasons of the yeare, or
in the hottest diseases. Let us adde to these the like familiar and
gentle purging medicines more lately, yea, almost daily newly found out
since the better discoveries of the East and West Indies. So that
henceforth let no man feare to take either easie purgatives, or other
inward Physicke, in the time of the canicular, or dog-dayes.

The same _Hollerius_ goeth on in the exposition and interpretation of
the said Aphorisme, and confidently saith: _Over & besides that we have
benigne medicines which we may then use, as Cassia, &c._ Wee know and
finde by experience no time here with us more wholsome and more
temperat (especially when the Etesian, or Easterly, winds do blow) then
the Canicular dayes: so that, wee finde by observation, that those
diseases which are bred in the moneths of June and July, doe end in
August, and in the Canicular dayes. Wherefore, if a disease happen in
those dayes, we feare not to open a veyne divers times, and often, as
also to prescribe more strong purging medicines.

Wherefore away henceforth with the scrupulous conceit, and too nice
feare of the Dogge-dayes, and let their supposed danger be had no more
in remembrance among us. And if any will yet remaine obstinate, and
still refuse to have their beames pulled out of their eyes, let them
still be blinde in the middest of the cleare Sun-shine, and groape on
after darkness; and let all learned Physitians rather pitty their
follies, then envy their wits.

_CHAP_. 13.

_=At what time of the yeare, and at what houre of the day it is most fit
and meet to drinke this water.=_

To speake in generall tearmes, it is a fit time to drinke it, when the
ayre is pure, cleare, hot and dry: for then the water is more tart, and
more easily digested, then at other times. On the contrary, it is best
to forbeare, when the ayre is cold, moist, darke, dull and misty: for
then it is more feeble, and harder to be concocted.

But more specially, the most proper season to undertake this our English
Spaw dyet, will be from the middest or latter end of June to the middle
of September, or longer, according as the season of the yeare shall fall
out to be hot and dry, or otherwise.

Not that in the Spring-time, and in Winter it is not also good, but for
that the ayre being more pure in Sommer, the water also must needs be of
greater force and power. Notwithstanding it may sometime so happen in
Sommer, that by reason of some extraordinary falling of raine, there may
be a cessation from it for a day or two. Or if it chance to have rained
over night, it will then be fit and necessary to refraine from drinking
of it, untill the raine bee passed away againe: or else (which I like
better) the fountaine laded dry, and filled againe, which may well be
done in an hower, or two at most.

Touching the time of the day, when it is best to drinke this water,
questionlesse the most convenient hower will be in the morning, when the
party is empty, and fasting, about seaven aclocke: Nature having first
discharged her selfe of daily excrements both by stoole and urine, and
the concoctions perfected. This time is likewise fittest for exercise,
which is a great good help, and furtherance for the better distribution
of the water, whereby it doth produce its effects more speedily.

_CHAP_. 14.

_=Of the manner of drinking this water, and the quantitie thereof.=_

Those who desire the benefit of this Fountaine, ought to goe to it
somewhat early in the morning, &, if they be able and strong of body,
they may doe very well to walke to it on foot, or at least wise some
part of the way. Such, as have weake and feeble leggs may ride on
horsebacke, or be caryed in coaches, or borne in chaires. As for those,
whose infirmities cause them to keepe their beds, or chambers, they may
drinke the water in their lodgings, it being speedily brought to them in
a vessell or glasse well stopt.

It is not my meaning or purpose to describe here particularly, what
quantitie of it is fit and meet for every one to drinke; for this is
part of the taske and office, which belongeth to the Physitian, who
shall be of counsell with the Patient in preparing and well ordering of
him; who is to consider all the severall circumstances, as well of the
maladie or disease it selfe, as of his habite and constitution, &c.
Neverthelesse I may advise, that at the first it be moderately taken,
increasing the quantitie daily by degrees, untill they shall come at
last to the full height of the proportion appointed, and thought to be
meet and necessary. There they are then to stay, and so to continue at
that quantitie, so long as it shall be needfull. For example, the first
morning may happely be 16 or 18 ounces, and so on by degrees to 20. 30.
40. 50. 60. or moe, in people, who are of good and strong constitutions.
Towards the ending, the abatement ought likewise to be made by degrees,
as the increment was formerly made by little and little.

Here by the way every one must be admonished to take notice, that it is
not alwayes best to drinke most, lest they chance to oppresse and
overcharge Nature, that would rather be content with lesse. It will
therefore be more safe, to take it rather somewhat sparingly, though for
a longer time, then liberally and for a short time. But, indeed the
truest and justest proportion of it, is ever to be made and esteemed, by
the good and laudable concoction of it, and by the due and orderly
voiding of it againe.

It will not be here amisse to adde this one observation further; That it
is better to drinke this water once a day, then twice, and that in the
mornings, after that the Sunne hath dryed up & consumed the vapors
retained through the coldnesse of the night, &c. as is formerly
declared. After drinking it, it will be needfull to abstaine from meat &
other drinke for the space of three or foure dayes. [hours?]

But if any one, who hath a good stomacke, shall be desirous to take it
twice a day; or if any shall bee necessarily compelled so to doe for
some urgent cause, by the approbation of his Physitian, let him dine
somewhat sparingly, and drinke it not againe, untill five houres after
dinner be past, or not untill the concoction of meat and drinke in the
stomacke be perfected: Observing likewise, that hee content himselfe in
the afternoones with almost halfe the quantity he useth to take in the

_CHAP_. 15.

_=Of the manner of dyet to be observed by those who shall use this

The regiment of life in meats and drinks, ought chiefly to consist in
the right and moderate use of those, which are of light and easie
digestion, and of good and wholesome nourishment, breeding laudable
juice. Therefore all those are to be avoyded, which beget crude and ill
humours. There ought furthermore speciall notice to be taken, that great
diversity of meats and dishes at one meale is very hurtfull, as also
much condiments, sauces, spice, fat, &c. in their dressing and cookery.

I commend hens, capons, pullets, chickens, partridge, phesants, turkies,
and generally all such small birds, as live in woods, hedges, and
mountaines. Likewise I doe approve of veale, mutton, kid, lambe,
rabbets, young hare or leverits, &c. All which (for the most part) are
rather to be roasted then boyled. Neverthelesse those, who are affected
with any dry distemper, or those, who otherwise are so accustomed to
feed, may have their meats sodden; but the plainer dressing, the better.

I discommend all salt meats, beefe, bacon, porke, larde, and larded
meats, hare, venison, tripes, and the entrailes of beasts, puddings made
with blood, pig, goose, swan, teale, mallard, and such like; and in
generall all water-fowle, as being of hard digestion and ill nutriment.

Amongst the severall kinds of fishes, trouts, pearches, loaches, and for
most part, all scaly fish of brookes, and fresh rivers may well bee
permitted. Moreover smelts, soales, dabs, whitings, sturbuts, gurnets,
and all such other, as are well knowne not to be ill, or unwholesome to
feed on. All which may be altered with mint, hyssope, anise, &c. Also
cre-fishes, crab-fish, lobsters, and the like, may bee permitted.

Cunger, salmon, eeles, lampries, herrings, salt-ling, all salt-fish,
sturgion, anchovies, oysters, cockles, muscles, and the like shell-fish
are to be disallowed.

White-meats, as milke, cruds, creame, old cheese, custards, white-pots,
pudding-pyes, and other like milke-meats, (except sweet butter and new
creame cheese) are to be forbidden. Soft and reer egges we doe not

Raisons with almonds, bisket-bread, marchpane-stuffe, suckets, and the
like, are not here forbidden to be eaten.

Let their bread be made of wheat, very well wrought, fermented or
leavened; and let their drinke be beere well boyled and brewed: and let
it bee stale, or old enough, but in no wise tart, sharp, or sower: And
above all let them forbeare to mixe the water of the fountaine with
their drinke at meales: for that may cause many inconveniences to
follow, and ensue.

Let me advise them to eschew apples, peares, plumbs, codlings,
gooseberries, and all such like sommer fruits, either raw, in tarts, or
other wise: Also pease, and all other pulse; all cold sallets, and raw
hearbs; onions, leekes, chives, cabbage or coleworts, pompons,
cucumbers, and the like.

In stead of cheese at the end of meales, it will not bee amisse to eate
citron, or lemon pils condited, or else fenell, anise, coriander
comfits, or biskets and carawayes, as well for to discusse and expell
wind, as to shut and close the stomacke, for the better furthering the
digestion of meats and drinkes. And for that purpose, it would bee much
better, if the Physitian, who is of counsell, should appoint and ordaine
some fit and proper Tragea in grosse powder mixed with sugar, or else
made into little cakes or morsels. Likewise marmalade of quinces, either
simple or compound, (such as the Physitians do often prescribe to their
patients) may be used very commodiously.

After dinner they ought to use no violent exercise, neither ought they
to sit still, sadly, heavy, and musing, nor to slumber, and sleepe; but
rather to stirre a little, and to raise up the spirits for an houre or
two, by some fit recreation. After supper they may take a walke into the
fields, or Castle yard.

_CHAP_. 16.

_=Of the Symtomes or accidents, which may now and then chance to happen
to some one or other in the use of this water.=_

Although those who are of good and strong constitutions, observing the
aforenamed direction, doe seldome or never receive any harme, or
detriment by drinking this water: notwithstanding it may sometime so
fall forth, that some of the weaker sort may perhaps observe some
little, or small inconvenience thereby, as retention of it in the body:
inflation of the bellie: costivenesse, and the like. Wherefore to
gratifie those, a word [or] two of every one shall suffice.

First then, for to cause a more ready and speedy passage of it by urine,
it will not be amisse to counsell the partie after his returne to his
lodging to goe to his naked bed for an houre or two, that thereby
warmnesse, and naturall heat may be brought into each part of the body,
the passages more opened, and nature by that meanes made more fit and
apt for the expulsion of it. During which time it will be very requisite
to apply hot cloathes to the stomack: but not so as to provoke sweat. Or
else, to cause it to voyd and evacuate either by urine, stoole, or
sweat, exercise will be a good helpe and furtherance: if the party be
fit for it. But if neither of these will prevaile, then a sharp glyster
ought to be administered.

The inflation or swelling of the belly hapneth principally to those, who
have feeble and weake stomacks; who may do very wel to eate anise,
fenell, or coriander comfits at the fountaine betweene every draught,
and to walke a little after; or else some carminative Lozenges, made
with grosse powders, spices and seeds for breaking of wind: or what
other thing the learned Physitian shall deeme to be most fit and proper
in his wisdome, and judgment. But if the inflation chance to be very
great, then a carminative glyster must be ordained.

Such as shall be very costive may doe well to eat moistning meats, and
to use mollifying hearbes, raisons stoned, corants, damascene prunes,
butter, or the yolkes of egges, and the like in their broths, or
pottage. If these will not be sufficient, then let a day be spared from
drinking the water, and let the party take some lenitive medicine, as
laxative corants, or some such like thing: whereof the Physitian hath
ever great choice and variety, wherewith he can fit directly every one
his case; to whom present recourse ever ought to be had, when any of
these, or the like accidents doe happen, as likewise in all other cases
of waight and moment.


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