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Title: Saratoga and How to See It
Author: Dearborn, R. F.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Saratoga and How to See It" ***

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by Cornell University Digital Collections)

[Illustration: PRICE 25 CENTS.





       *       *       *       *       *

    Drs. STRONGS,

Is unsurpassed for beauty of location and accessibility to the
principal Springs. This Institution was established in 1855, for the
special treatment of

    Lung, Female and Various Chronic Diseases.

During the Fall and Winter the Institute has been doubled in size to
meet the necessities of its increased patronage. It is now the largest
health institution in Saratoga, and is unsurpassed in the variety or
its remedial appliances by any in this country. In the elegance and
completeness of its appointments, it is unequaled. The building is
heated by steam, so that in the coldest weather the air of the house
is like that of Summer.

The proprietors, Drs. S.S. and S.E. Strong, are graduates of the
Medical Department of the New York University, and are largely
patronized by the medical profession.

In addition to the ordinary remedial agencies used in general practice
they employ

    Oxygen Gas, Gymnastics, &c, &c.

For particulars of the Institution, call or send for Circulars on
Lung, Female and Chronic Diseases and on our Appliances. Address

    Drs. S.S. & S.E. STRONG,

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: MAP OF SARATOGA SPRINGS _by R.F. Dearborn_.]


    The Attractions and Objects of Interest
    OF THE
    OF THE


         *       *       *       *       *


    Entered according to act of Congress in the year 1872, by
    In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



  PART I--_The Saratoga Mineral Springs_

    The Saratoga Valley
    General Properties of the Springs
    Discovery of the Springs
    Are They Natural
    Commercial Value
    Medicinal Value
    Analysis by Prof. Chandler
    Individual Characteristics
    History and Properties of each Spring
    Congress Spring
    Columbian Spring
    Crystal Spring
    Ellis Spring
    Empire Spring
    Eureka Spring
    Excelsior Spring
    Geyser Spring
    Glacier Spring
    Hamilton Spring
    Hathorn Spring
    High Rock Spring
    Pavilion Spring
    Putnam Spring
    Red Spring
    Saratoga "A" Spring
    Seltzer Spring
    Star Spring
    Ten Springs
    United States Spring
    Washington Spring
    White Sulphur Spring
    Directions for Drinking the Water
    Saratoga Abroad
    Special Notice

  PART II--_Saratoga as a Watering Place_

    Places of Interest
    Routes and Distances
    Railway Station
    The Village
    Hotel Accommodations
    Congress Hall
    Grand Union
    Grand Central Hotel
    Everett House
    Alphabetical List of hotels
    Temple Grove
    The Climate
    Drs. Strong
    YMCA Rooms
    Real Estate
    Hack Fares
    Drives and Walks
    Moon's Lake House
    Saratoga Lake
    Chapman's Hill
    Wagman's Hill
    Hagerty Hill
    Wearing Hill
    Lake Lovely
    Stiles Hill
    Corinth Falls
    Lake George
    Glen Mitchell
    Excelsior Grove
    Walk to Excelsior Spring
    Congress Park
    Gridley's Trout Ponds
    Saratoga Battle Ground
    Surrender Ground
    The Village Cemetery
    Verd-Antique Marble Works
    Josh Billings
    Routine for a Lady
    Indian Camp
    Circular Railway
    Saratoga in Winter
    Saratoga Society




The design of this work is not to give a history of the village of
Saratoga. That, as well as a more elaborate description of the geology
of the county, may be found in a very interesting book, published
several years since, by R.L. ALLEN, M.D., entitled the "Hand
Book of Saratoga and Stranger's Guide." We acknowledge our
indebtedness to the work for several items in regard to the history of
the Springs.

Our thanks are due also to Prof. C.H. CHANDLER, Ph.D., of the
Columbia School of Mines, for the Analyses of the Springs, and for
electroplates and valuable suggestions from the _American Chemist_, of
which he is the distinguished editor.

We would acknowledge here also, the assistance and uniform courtesy
which we have received from the Superintendents and officers of the
various Springs. The failure of an engraving company to fulfill their
agreement has delayed the issue of the work and prevented the
insertion of several other engravings.


SARATOGA. _June, 1872_


  The Analysis, History and Properties

       *       *       *       *       *

Mineral Springs of Saratoga.

The region of Mineral Springs in Eastern New York consists of a long,
shallow and crescent-shaped valley, extending northeast from Ballston,
its western horn, to Quaker Springs, its eastern extremity. The entire
valley abounds in mineral fountains of more or less merit, and in the
central portion bubble up the Waters of Healing, which have given to
SARATOGA its world-wide celebrity.

Professor CHANDLER, of the Columbia School of Mines, thus
describes the

Geology of the County.

     "Beginning with the uppermost, the rocks of Saratoga county

     1. The Hudson river and Utica shales and slates.

     2. The Trenton limestone.

     3. The calciferous sand rock, which is a silicious limestone.

     4. The Potsdam sand stone; and

     5. The Laurentian formation of gneiss and granite, of unknown

     "The northern half of the county is occupied by the elevated
     ranges of Laurentian rocks; flanking these occur the Potsdam,
     Calciferous and Trenton beds, which appear in succession in
     parallel bands through the central part of the county. These
     are covered in the southern half of the county by the Utica and
     Hudson river slates and shales.


     "The most remarkable feature is, however, the break, or
     vertical fissure, which occurs in the Saratoga valley, which
     you see indicated in the cut. Notice, especially, the fact that
     the strata on one side of the fissure have been elevated above
     their original position, so that the Potsdam sandstone on the
     left meets the edges of the calciferous sand rock, and even the
     Trenton limestone on the right. It is in the line of this
     fissure, or _fault_, in the towns of Saratoga and Ballston that
     the springs occur.

     "The Laurentian rocks, consisting of highly crystalline gneiss,
     granite and syenite, are almost impervious, while the overlying
     Potsdam sandstone is very porous, and capable of holding large
     quantities of water. In this rock the mineral springs of
     Saratoga probably have their origin. The surface waters of the
     Laurentian hills, flowing down over the exposed edges of the
     Potsdam beds, penetrate the porous sandstones, become saturated
     with mineral matter, partly derived, perhaps, from the
     limestones above, and are forced to the surface at a lower
     level, by hydrostatic pressure. The valley in which the springs
     all occur indicates the line of a fault or fracture in the
     rocky crust, the strata on the west side of which are hundreds
     of feet above the corresponding strata on the east.

     "The mineral waters probably underlie the southern half of the
     entire county, many hundred feet below the surface; the
     accident of the fault determining their appearance as springs
     in the valley of Saratoga Springs, where, by virtue of the
     greater elevation of their distant source, they reach the
     surface through crevices in the rocks produced by the fracture.

     "It is probable that water can be obtained anywhere in the
     southern portion of the county by tapping the underlying
     Potsdam sandstone. In these wells the water usually rises to
     and above the surface. Down in the rocky reservoir the water
     is charged with gases under great pressure. As the water is
     forced to the surface, the pressure diminishes, and a portion
     of gas escapes with effervescence. The spouting wells deliver,
     therefore, enormous volumes of gas with the water, a perfect
     suds of water, carbonic acid and carburetted hydrogen.

     "The common origin of the springs is shown by the analysis: all
     contain the same constituents in essentially the same order of
     abundance; they differ in the degree of concentration merely.
     Those from the deepest strata are the most concentrated. The
     constituents to which the taste of the water and its most
     immediate medicinal effects are due, are: Chloride of sodium,
     bicarbonate of lime, bicarbonate of magnesia, bicarbonate of
     soda and free carbonic acid. Other important, though less
     speedily active, constituents are: Bicarbonate of iron,
     bicarbonate of lithia, iodide of sodium and bromide of sodium."

The solvent power which holds all these solid substances in solution,
and which contributes to their agreeable taste, is the carbonic acid
gas with which the water is so freely charged. This free carbonic acid
gas is probably formed by the decomposition of the carbonates which
compose the rock. The water, impregnated with it, becomes a powerful
solvent, and, passing through different strata, absorbs the various
mineral substances which compose its solid constituents.

General Properties.

Writers upon mineral springs generally divide them into the following
classes: Carbonated or acidulous, saline, chalybeate or iron,
alkaline, sulphur or hepatic, bitter and thermal springs.

The Saratoga waters embrace nearly all of these except the last two;
some of the springs being saline, some chalybeate, some sulphur, and
nearly all carbonated; and in the list may be found cathartic,
alterative, diuretic and tonic waters of varied shade and differing
strength. The cathartic waters are the most numerous and the most
extensively used. The curative agents prepared in the vast and
mysterious laboratories of Nature are very complex in constitution and
different in temperature, and on that account do not, like iron,
opium, quinia, etc., exhibit single effects; they exercise rather,
with rare exceptions, combined effects, and these are again modified
by various modes of employment and the time and circumstances of their

The Discovery of the Springs.

All the older springs have been found in beds of blue marl, or clay
rather, which cover the valley more or less throughout its whole
extent. On digging into this clay to any considerable depth, we are
pretty certain to find traces of mineral water. In some places, at the
depth of six or eight feet, it has been discovered issuing from a
fissure or seam in the underlying limestone, while at other places it
seems to proceed from a thin stratum of quicksand which is found to
alternate with the marl at distances of from ten to forty feet, below
which bowlders of considerable size are found.

The spouting springs have been found by experimental boring. As this
is the cheapest and more certain method, it is "the popular thing" at
present, and the day may not be far distant when all Saratoga will be
punched through with artesian wells reaching hundreds of feet, if not
through to China, and thus an open market made for the Saratoga waters
among "the Heathen Chinee."

Mr. Jessie Button, to whom we are indebted for both the Glacier and
the Geyser springs, seems best to understand the process of
successfully boring artesian wells, having made these his special
study and profession. Like Moses of old, he strikes, or taps, the rock
and behold streams of water gush forth.

Are the Springs Natural?

Is a question that will probably seem absurd to those who are at all
familiar with mineral springs or Saratoga waters. Nevertheless, it is
a not unfrequent and amusing occurrence to hear remarks from strangers
and greenies who have a preconceived notion that the springs are
doctored, and that a mixture of salts, etc., is tipped in every night
or early in the morning! Strange that the art should be limited to the
village of Saratoga! The _incredulity_ of some people is the most
ridiculous credulity known. Such wonders as the spouting springs, the
"strongest" in Saratoga, come from so small an orifice in the ground,
as to preclude the least possibility of adulteration. Besides, the
manufactured article would be too costly to allow such immense
quantities to flow away unused.

But to argue this question would be a _reductio ad absurdum_. _Nature
is far better than the laboratory._ Artificial waters may simulate the
natural in taste and appearance, but fall far short of their
therapeutic effects.

The Commercial Value

Of the various springs differs as widely as does people's estimate of
their individual merits. Spring water property is very expensive. It
costs large sums of money to manage some of the springs. The old
method of tubing, by sinking a curb, may cost several thousand
dollars, and is uncertain then. Moreover, it is no small work to keep
the springs in perfect repair, and in a clean and pure condition.

The artesian wells cost not far from $6 per foot for the boring, and
are much less expensive.

Most of the springs are owned by stock companies, with a capital
ranging from several hundred thousand to a million dollars. _On dit_
that the proprietors of the Geyser Spring were offered $175,000 for
their fountain, and probably the Congress could not be purchased for
quadruple that amount. It would not be a _very_ profitable bargain if
some of the springs could be bought for a song, even, and yet there is
not enough mineral water in all the springs now discovered in the
Saratoga valley to supply New York alone, if artificial waters were to
be abandoned. The only profit of the springs is in the sale of the
water in bottles and barrels; and as the method of bottling requires
great care, and is expensive, the per cent. of profit is not enormous.
The use of mineral water, both as a beverage and for medicinal
purposes, is increasing, and there may be "a good time coming," when
these springs will bring wealth to the owner as they give health to
the drinker.

The Medicinal Value of the Waters.

There is no doubt of their power to promote evacuations of effete
accumulations from the kidneys, skin and bowels.

Dr. Draper, an eminent physician, in speaking of the springs, says:
"They restore suppressed, and correct vitiated secretions, and so
renovate health, and are also the means of introducing many medicines
into the system in a state of minute subdivision, in which they exert
a powerful alterative and curative action."

The value of mineral water has been shown in the treatment of obscure
and chronic diseases. In many instances persons have been restored to
health, or greatly relieved, by the use of mineral waters when all
other remedies had proved of no avail.

The best known waters are now prescribed by the faculty in certain
diseases with as much confidence as any preparation known to the
apothecary. Indeed, no prescription is known equally beneficial to
such differently made patients.

A large majority of those who resort to the springs for their health
have tried other means of cure without relief.

It may also be considered a marked compliment to the medicinal
properties of the waters, that the thousands who come here for
pleasure merely, living fast and indulging in dissipation while here,
return to their homes in better health--as they almost always do--than
when they came.

Unlike certain other springs, whose wonderful properties and vaunted
cures are found in pompous advertisements, the Saratoga waters have
not made their celebrity by printer's ink. Their reputation has
depended upon their own intrinsic merits, and steadily and surely has
their renown advanced.

To repeat all the disorders which they have been known to benefit,
would be very nearly to copy the sad list of ailments to which our
creaky frames are subject.

In short, spring water is good for the stomach, good for the skin,
good for ladies of all possible ages, and for all sorts and conditions
of men.

Individual Characteristics.

In stating the special properties of the individual springs, we have
conscientiously endeavored to make this work as reliable and accurate
as possible. Those who are familiar with the reputation and claims of
some of the several springs in past years will notice many changes,
but it is believed that the information herein given is on the best
authority, and brought down to the latest date.

  _The Analyses of the Saratoga Waters,
  by C.F. Chandler, Ph.D., of the Columbia School of Mines._

  Compounds as they exist    | Star    |  High   | Seltzer | Pavilion| United
  in Solution in the Waters. | Spring. |  Rock   | Spring. |  Spring.| States
                             |         | Spring. |         |         | Spring.
  Chloride of sodium         | 398.361 | 390.127 | 134.291 | 459.903 | 141.872
  Chloride of potassium      |   9.695 |   8.974 |   1.335 |   7.660 |   8.624
  Bromide of sodium          |   0.571 |   0.731 |   0.630 |   0.987 |   0.844
  Iodide of sodium           |   0.126 |   0.086 |   0.031 |   0.071 |   0.047
  Fluoride of calcium        |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Bicarbonate of lithia      |   1.586 |   1.967 |   0.899 |   9.486 |   4.847
  Bicarbonate of soda        |  12.662 |  34.888 |  29.428 |   3.764 |   4.666
  Bicarbonate of magnesia    |  61.912 |  54.924 |  40.339 |  76.267 |  72.883
  Bicarbonate of lime        | 124.459 | 131.739 |  89.869 | 120.169 |  93.119
  Bicarbonate of strontia    |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   0.018
  Bicarbonate of baryta      |   0.096 |   0.494 |  Trace. |   0.875 |   0.909
  Bicarbonate of iron        |   1.213 |   1.478 |   1.703 |   2.570 |   0.714
  Sulphate of potassa        |   5.400 |   1.608 |   0.557 |   2.032 |  Trace.
  Phosphate of soda          |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   0.007 |   0.016
  Biborate of soda           |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Alumina                    |  Trace. |   1.223 |   0.374 |   0.329 |   0.094
  Silica                     |   1.283 |   2.260 |   2.561 |   3.155 |   3.184
  Organic Matter             |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.    Trace. |  Trace.
  Total per                  |         |         |         |         |
     U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in.| 617.367 | 630.500 | 302.017 | 687.275 | 331.837
  Carbonate acid gas         | 407.650 | 409.458 | 324.080 | 332.458 | 245.734
  Density                    |  1.0091 |  1.0092 |  1.0034 |  1.0095 |  1.0035
  Temperature                |  52°F.  |  52°F.  |  50°F.  |   ...   |   ...

  Compounds as they exist    | Hathorn | Crystal |Congress | Geyser
  in Solution in the Waters. | Spring. | Spring. | Spring. |spouting
        (Continued)          |         |         |         | well.
  Chloride of sodium         | 509.968 | 328.468 | 400.444 | 562.080
  Chloride of potassium      |   9.597 |   8.327 |   8.049 |  42.634
  Bromide of sodium          |   1.534 |   0.414 |   8.559 |   2.212
  Iodide of sodium           |   0.198 |   0.066 |   0.138 |   0.248
  Fluoride of calcium        |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Bicarbonate of lithia      |  11.447 |   4.326 |   4.761 |   7.004
  Bicarbonate of soda        |   4.288 |  10.064 |  10.775 |  71.232
  Bicarbonate of magnesia    | 176.463 |  75.161 | 121.757 | 149.343
  Bicarbonate of lime        | 170.646 | 101.881 | 143.339 | 170.392
  Bicarbonate of strontia    |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   0.425
  Bicarbonate of baryta      |   1.737 |   0.726 |   0.928 |   2.014
  Bicarbonate of iron        |   1.128 |   2.038 |   0.340 |   0.979
  Sulphate of potassa        |  Trace. |   2.158 |   0.889 |   0.318
  Phosphate of soda          |   0.006 |   0.009 |   0.016 |  Trace.
  Biborate of soda           |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Alumina                    |   0.131 |   0.305 |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Silica                     |   1.260 |   3.213 |   0.840 |   0.665
  Organic Matter             |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Total per                  |         |         |         |
     U.S. gallon, 231 cu. in.| 888.403 | 537.155 | 700.895 | 991.546
  Carbonate acid gas         | 375.747 | 317.452 | 392.289 | 454.082
  Density                    |  1.0115 |  1.0060 |   1.096 |  1.0120
  Temperature                |   ...   |  50°F.  |  52°F.  |  46°F.

    Bases and Acids as   |  Star   |  High   | Seltzer | Pavilion| United
   actually found in the | Spring. |  Rock   | Spring. | Spring. | States
    Analysis uncombined  |         | Spring. |         |         | Spring.
  Potassium              |   7.496 |   5.419 |   0.949 |   4.931 |   4.515
  Sodium                 | 160.239 | 163.216 |  61.003 | 182.084 |  57.259
  Lithium                |   0.163 |   0.202 |   0.093 |   0.976 |   0.499
  Lime                   |  43.024 |  45.540 |  31.066 |  41.540 |  32.189
  Strontia               |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   0.009
  Baryta                 |   0.056 |   0.292 |  Trace. |   0.517 |   0.537
  Magnesia               |  16.992 |  15.048 |  11.051 |  20.895 |  19.968
  Protoiyde of iron      |   0.491 |   0.598 |   0.689 |   1.040 |   0.289
  Alumina                |  Trace. |   1.223 |   0.374 |   0.329 |   0.094
  Chlorine               | 246.357 | 241.017 |  82.128 | 282.723 |  90.201
  Bromine                |   0.443 |   0.568 |   0.489 |   0.767 |   0.656
  Iodine                 |   0.106 |   0.072 |   0.026 |   0.060 |   0.039
  Fluorine               |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Sulphuric acid         |   2.483 |   0.739 |   0.256 |   0.934 |  Trace.
  Phosphoric acid        |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   0.004 |   0.008
  Boracic acid           |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Carbonic acid in       |         |         |         |         |
            carbonates   |  56.606 |  62.555 |  44.984 |  60.461 |  50.380
  Carbonic acid for      |         |         |         |         |
            bicarbonates |  56.606 |  62.555 |  44.984 |  60.461 |  50.380
  Silica                 |   1.283 |   2.260 |   2.561 |   3.155 |   3.184
  Organic matter         |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace.
  Water in bicarbonates  |  23.160 |  25.591 |  18.405 |  24.736 |  20.613
  Oxygen in KO (SO_{3}). |   0.496 |   0.148 |   0.051 |   0.187 |    ...
  Oxygen in LiO          |         |         |         |         |
          (HO_{2} CO_{2})|   0.187 |   0.232 |   0.105 |   1.116 |   0.570
  Oxygen in NaO          |         |         |         |         |
         (HO_{2} CO_{2}) |   1.206 |   3.323 |   2.803 |   0.358 |   0.444
  Oxygen in 2 NaO        |         |         |         |         |
             (HO, PO_{5})|    ...  |    ...  |    ...  |   0.001 |   0.002
  Total per U.S. gallon, |         |         |         |         |
              231 cu. in.| 617.367 | 630.500 | 302.007 | 687.275 | 331.837
  Total residue by       |         |         |         |         |
              evaporation| 537.600 | 542.350 | 238.970 | 602.080 | 260.840

    Bases and Acids as   | Hathorn | Crystal | Congress| Geyser
   actually found in the | Spring. | Spring. | Spring. |spouting
    Analysis uncombined  |         |         |         | well.
       (Continued)       |         |         |         |
  Potassium              |   5.024 |   5.326 |   4.611 |  13.039
  Sodium                 | 102.058 | 132.006 | 162.324 | 251.031
  Lithium                |   1.179 |   0.445 |   0.490 |   0.720
  Lime                   |  58.989 |  35.218 |  49.569 |  58.901
  Strontia               |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   0.211
  Baryta                 |   1.026 |   0.429 |   0.549 |   1.190
  Magnesia               |  48.346 |  20.592 |  33.358 |  40.915
  Protoiyde of iron      |   0.456 |   0.824 |   0.137 |   0.396
  Alumina                |   0.131 |   0.305 |  Trace. |   Trace
  Chlorine               | 214.037 | 203.292 | 246.834 | 352.825
  Bromine                |   1.188 |   0.322 |   6.645 |   1.718
  Iodine                 |   0.166 |   0.055 |   0.117 |   0.208
  Fluorine               |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   Trace
  Sulphuric acid         |  Trace. |   0.992 |   0.409 |   0.146
  Phosphoric acid        |   0.003 |   0.004 |   0.008 |   Trace
  Boracic acid           |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   Trace
  Carbonic acid in       |         |         |         |
            carbonates   |  04.928 |  54.984 |  80.249 | 112.880
  Carbonic acid for      |         |         |         |
            bicarbonates |  04.928 |  54.984 |  80.249 | 112.880
  Silica                 |   1.260 |   3.213 |   0.840 |   0.665
  Organic matter         |  Trace. |  Trace. |  Trace. |   Trace
  Water in bicarbonates  |  42.929 |  22.496 |  33.828 |  46.183
  Oxygen in KO (SO_{3})  |   ...   |   0.199 |   0.082 |   0.029
  Oxygen in LiO          |         |         |         |
          (HO_{2} CO_{2})|   1.347 |   0.509 |   0.560 |   0.824
  Oxygen in NaO          |         |         |         |
         (HO_{2} CO_{2}) |   0.408 |   0.959 |   1.024 |   6.785
  Oxygen in 2 NaO        |         |         |         |
             (HO, PO_{5})|   0.001 |    ...  |    .002 |    ...
  Total per U.S. gallon, |         |         |         |
              231 cu. in.| 688.403 | 537.155 | 700.895 | 991.546
  Total residue by       |         |         |         |
              evaporation| 540.550 | 439.670 | 588.818 | 832.483


  _Table showing the total quantities of mineral matter left by
  evaporation, and of some of the more important constituents._

                    | Total solids
                    | as left by
                    | evaporation.
                    |        | Chlorides of
                    |        | sodium and
                    |        | potassium.
                    |        |        | All other solids
                    |        |        | left by evaporation;
                    |        |        | carbonates of lime,
                    |        |        | magnesia, etc.
                    |        |        |        | Bicarbonate
                    |        |        |        | of lime (CaO,
                    |        |        |        | HO, 2CO_{2}).
                    |        |        |        |        | Bicarbonate of
                    |        |        |        |        | magnesia (MgO,
                    |        |        |        |        | HO, 2CO_{2}).
                    |        |        |        |        |      | Bicarbonate
                    |        |        |        |        |      | of iron
                    |        |        |        |        |      | (FeO, HO,
  SPRING.           |        |        |        |        |       \ 2CO_{2}).
  Geyser Spouting   |        |        |        |        |        |
    well            | 832.48 | 586.71 | 245.77 | 170.39 | 149.34 | 0.98
  Hathorn spring    | 740.55 | 519.55 | 221.00 | 170.65 | 176.46 | 1.13
  Hamilton spring   | 611.71 | 411.00 | 200.71 | 144.84 | 104.80 | 1.80
  Congress spring   | 588.82 | 408.49 | 180.33 | 143.40 | 121.76 | 0.34
  High Rock spring  | 542.35 | 399.10 | 143.25 | 131.74 |  54.92 | 1.48
  Washington spring | 353.23 | 215.00 | 138.23 | 110.23 |  40.56 | 2.40
  Excelsior spring  | 611.05 | 473.00 | 138.05 |  90.38 |  72.27 | 2.84
  Pavilion spring   | 602.08 | 467.56 | 134.51 | 120.17 |  76.73 | 2.57
  Putnam spring     | 354.79 | 220.50 | 134.27 | 110.72 |  60.01 | 3.97
  Columbian spring  | 353.08 | 219.00 | 134.08 | 104.89 |  78.05 | 3.26
  Star spring       | 537.60 | 408.05 | 129.55 | 124.46 |  61.91 | 1.21
  Crystal spring    | 459.67 | 336.79 | 122.88 | 101.88 |  75.16 | 2.04
  Eureka spring     | 280.16 | 171.00 | 119.16 |  94.02 |  63.75 | 3.36
  United States     |        |        |        |        |        |
     spring         | 260.84 | 150.49 | 110.35 |  93.12 |  72.88 | 0.71
  Empire spring     | 460.32 | 355.16 | 105.16 | 113.54 |  48.10 | 1.34
  Seltzer spring    | 238.97 | 135.62 | 103.35 |  89.87 |  40.34 | 1.70
  Red spring        | 155.53 |  73.50 |  82.03 |  79.80 |  27.84 | 2.51
  Village spring,   |        |        |        |        |        |
    Ballston        | 153.09 |  75.00 |  78.09 |  65.08 |  21.59 | 2.00

Individuals have their preferences, and opinions may differ in regard
to the relative value of the springs, particularly when parties are
interested in them. We have no interest in one more than in all, and
have brought to our task, we believe, no partiality. The manuscript
has been submitted to leading physicians of Saratoga before
publication, and is approved by them. The arrangement is alphabetical.


In Congress Park, opposite Grand Central Hotel. Congress and Empire
Spring Company are the proprietors. The New York office is at 94
Chambers street.


Congress Spring was discovered in 1792, by a party of three gentlemen,
who were out upon a hunting excursion. Among the party was John Taylor
Gilman, an ex-member of Congress from New Hampshire. Probably in that
day, office conferred more honor than at the present time, and as a
compliment to so distinguished a person, the spring was then and there
christened the Congress. The attention of the hunters was attracted to
the spot by the foot-prints of large numbers of deer, the first
patrons, it seems, of the sparkling water. Although more especially
esteemed by pretty dears of a different character at the present day,
the liquid-eyed fawn, who grace Congress Park, are among those who
take their daily rations. At the time of discovery, the low ground
about the spring was a mere swamp, and the country in the immediate
vicinity a wilderness. The mineral water issued in a small stream from
an aperture in the side of the rock, which formed the margin of a
small brook, and was caught by pressing a glass to the side of the
rock. The flow of water was only about one quart per minute.

From the date of its discovery to the present time this celebrated
spring has been the center of attraction at Saratoga. Its name has
become a household word through out the land, and the whole civilized
world are its customers.

At one time Mr. Putnam had three large potash kettles evaporating the
water. The salts thus precipitated were sold in small packages to the
amount of several hundred dollars. It was not long, however, before it
was discovered that _Congress water_ was not obtained by re-dissolving
the salts, as might have been expected if the nature of the water had
been considered.

About the year 1820, Dr. John Clarke, the proprietor of the first soda
fountain opened in this country, purchased the Congress Spring
property. By him the water was first bottled for transportation and
sale, and to him the village is indebted for much of its beauty and

The simple and tasteful Doric colonnade over the Congress, and the
pretty Grecian dome over the Columbian were erected by him. Dr. Clarke
realized a handsome income from the sale of the water. He died in
1846, but the property continued in the hands of his heirs, under the
firm name of Clarke & White, until 1865, when it was purchased by an
incorporated company, under the title of "Congress and Empire Spring
Company." The capital is $1,000,000, and the company is composed of a
large number of individual stockholders. The present proprietors of
Congress Spring have contributed not a little to the beauty and
attractiveness of this favorite watering place.

[Illustration: CONGRESS SPRING.]


When taken before breakfast the water is a very pleasant and effective
cathartic. Drank in moderate quantities throughout the day, it is a
delightful, wholesome beverage, its effects being alterative and
slightly tonic. It is successfully used in affections of the liver
and kidneys; and for chronic constipation, dyspepsia and gout it is
highly valued. It has been employed in cases of renal calculi with
decidedly beneficial results.

Crowds gather round the fountain in the early summer morning to win
appetite for breakfast and life for the pleasures of the day. Old and
young, sick and well, everybody, drinks, for the Congress fountain is
as much the morning exchange as the ball-room is the resort of the

Prof. G.F. Chandler, the leading chemist in America, says: "The
peculiar excellence of the far-famed Congress spring is due to the
fact that it contains very much less iron than any other spring, and
that it contains, in the most desirable proportions, those substances
which produce its agreeable flavor and satisfactory medicinal effects;
neither holding them in excess, nor lacking in anything that is
desirable in this class of waters."

In submitting a new analysis (which appears elsewhere) Prof. Chandler
writes,--"A comparison of this with the analysis made by Dr. John H.
Steel in 1832, proves that Congress water still retains its original
strength, and all the virtues which established its well merited
reputation." Higher authority there is none.

Bottling the Water.

It should be remembered that the water of this spring is sold in
_bottles only_. What purports to be Congress water for sale on draught
in various places throughout the country is not genuine. The
artificial preparations thus imposed upon the public may have a
certain resemblance in taste and appearance, but are frequently worse
than worthless for medicinal purposes.


In Congress Park, under the Grecian Dome, near the Congress spring,
Congress and Empire Spring Co., proprietors.

[Illustration: COLUMBIAN SPRING.]

History and Peculiarities.

This spring was opened in 1806 by Gideon Putnam. The water issues from
the natural rock about seven feet below the surface of the ground, and
is protected by heavy wooden tubing. It is the most popular spring
among the residents of Saratoga. The escaping bubbles of free carbonic
acid gas give to the fountain a boiling motion. Large quantities of
the gas can easily be collected at the mouth of the spring at any


It is a fine chalybeate or iron water, possessing strong tonic
properties. It also has a diuretic action and is extensively used for
that purpose. The water is recommended to be drank in small quantities
frequently during the day, generally _preceded_ by the use of the
cathartic waters taken before breakfast.

Only from one-half to one glass should be taken at a time. When taken
in large quantities or before breakfast its effects might remind one
of that great race in northern and central Europe,--the Teutonic
(_too_ tonic). A peculiar headache would certainly be experienced.

The proper use of this water is found to strengthen the tone of the
stomach and to increase the red particles of the blood which,
according to Liebeg, perform an important part in respiration. It has
been proved by actual experiments that the number of red particles of
the blood may be _doubled_ by the use of preparations of iron.

Though containing but 3.26 grains of iron in one gallon of
water--Prof. Chandler's analysis--it is an evident and remarkable fact
that the water thus weakly impregnated has a most perceptible iron
taste in every drop. Is it much to be wondered at, then, that a
mineral which has so extensive a power of affecting the palate, should
possess equally extensive influence over the whole system? Many
minerals in a dilute state of solution may pass easily through the
absorbents, while in a more concentrated state they may be excluded.
Carbonic acid gas, for instance, when diluted is readily inhaled, but
when concentrated acts in a peculiar manner upon the wind-pipe so as
to prevent its admission. So the happy medicinal effects of these iron
waters seem to consist--to some extent--in the minute division of the
mineral properties so that they are readily taken into the system.



Is under the southern extremity of the new hotel. The proprietors have
named it the Crystal Spring from the crystalline appearance of the
water, which does not rise to the surface, but is pumped up from a
depth of several feet. It was discovered in 1870 by experimental
excavation. The characteristic, and to many disagreeable odor of
sulphuretted hydrogen, is readily perceived. Sulphur veins, or iron
pyrites, are found in all sections of this valley; one of the most
provoking problems of the owners of the springs being to keep their
fountains from a sulphur taint, the quantity and quality of which is
not considered beneficial, while it injures the sale of the bottled

The Crystal Spring is somewhat alterative in its therapeutic effects.


Is near the railroad, between the Glacier and Geyser Springs. It has
been known for a long time. The water flows through the _slate rock_,
and, unlike any other spring at Saratoga, issues in a horizontal
direction from the side of the hill. It is a very fine chalybeate, but
is not bottled.


Situated on Spring avenue, at the head of Circular street, and near
the base of a high limestone bluff, in the northerly part of the
village, a few rods above the Star Spring, and about three-fourths of
a mile from the Congress. Owned by the Congress and Empire Spring
Company. O.H. Cromwell, Superintendent.


Mineral water was known to trickle down the bank at this point ever
since the land was cleared of its primitive shrubs. It was not till
the year 1846 that the fountain was taken in charge. The tubing is
eleven feet, and fits closely to the rock. Messrs. Weston and Co., the
early proprietors, made extensive improvements in the grounds
surrounding, planting shade trees, etc., and during the past year the
opening of Spring avenue has rendered the place more attractive.


The water of this spring has a general resemblance to that of the
Congress. In the cathartic effects of the two waters the difference is
scarcely appreciable, although from the presence of a larger quantity
of magnesia in the Congress, its operation is perhaps somewhat more
pungent. The Empire is highly esteemed for the treatment of obscure
and chronic diseases requiring alterative and diuretic remedies. It is
also recommended as a preventive or remedy for the diseases natural to
warm climates, especially intermittent, gastric and bilious fevers,
dysenteries and disorders of the liver. The directions for using are
the same as for the Congress.


Is situated on Lake avenue, and on Spring avenue, about a mile east of
Broadway, and a few rods beyond the Excelsior Spring. Eureka Spring
Company, proprietors. A.R. Dyett, Esq., President.

The location of the spring is in the midst of very romantic and
picturesque scenery, embracing a beautiful park of some twenty-five
acres. Since the water was analyzed the fountain has been retubed, and
its quality improved. It is serviceable in dyspepsia and all diseases
and affections of the liver and kidneys, and is classed among saline
and cathartic waters.

It resembles in taste and appearance the other Saratoga waters. The
New York office of the Eureka Spring Company, for the sale of their
bottled water, is at No. 7 Hudson R.R.R. Depot, Varick street. Mr
Benj. J. Levy is the agent.

Within a few steps of the Eureka, and belonging to the same company,
is the White Sulphur Spring and bathing-house. The water of the White
Sulphur Spring is an hepatic water of an excellent character,
possessing, as the company claim every essential element to render it
equal for internal use to the best White Sulphur waters in this State,
and far superior to most of them. The company have erected a
commodious bath-house, containing fifty bath-rooms, with every
convenience for warm and cold baths, at a moderate price.

Frequent omnibuses convey passengers to and from these springs for 25
cents, passing the principal hotels.



Is found in a beautiful valley, and amid most romantic scenery, about
a mile east of the town hall. The principal entrance to this spring is
on Lake avenue, about half a mile east of Circular street. Another
route is via Spring avenue, by which we pass a majority of the other
springs, and also the Loughberry water-works which supply the village
of Saratoga Springs with water from the Excelsior Lake by the
celebrated Holly system. Just before us, as we reach a point where the
avenue turns towards the Excelsior, is the fine summer hotel known as
the Mansion House, and the pretty cottage residence of Mr. Henry

[Illustration: BOTTLE MARK.]

[Illustration: TRADE MARK.]


The Excelsior Spring has been appreciated for its valuable qualities
by some of the oldest visitors of Saratoga for more than half a
century. The water, however, was not generally known to the public
until in 1859, when Mr. H.H. Lawrence, the former owner, and father of
the present proprietors, retubed the spring at a considerable expense,
having excavated it to a depth of fifty-six feet, eleven of which are
in the solid rock. By this improvement the water flows with all its
properties undeteriorated, retaining from source to outlet its
original purity and strength. Since then, the present proprietors,
under the firm of A.R. Lawrence & Co., by a new and improved method of
bottling and barreling the Excelsior water under its own hydrostatic
pressure, have given it an increased reputation and it is rapidly
attaining a wide-spread popularity.


The water of this spring is a pleasant _cathartic_, and has also
alterative and tonic properties, and is moreover a very delightful
beverage. Two or three glasses in the morning is the dose as a
cathartic. As an alterative and diuretic, it should be taken in small
quantities during the day. We have seen stronger commendations of this
water from the highest medical authority than of any other.

Exportation of the Water.

After a refreshing draught from this sparkling and delicious fountain,
let us not fail to examine the proprietors' peculiar and very perfect
method of bottling and barreling the Excelsior water by its own
hydrostatic pressure. Since last season a handsome brick
bottling-house has replaced the ancient wooden structure. Entering
this bottling-house we find our way to a capacious and well-lighted
cellar, in which we discover a perpendicular opening some ten feet in
diameter; this proves to be a circular brick vault, in whose depths
the process of filling is performed. Twelve feet below the surface of
the spring a block tin tube conveys the water into reservoirs placed
at the bottom of this vault. These reservoirs are strong oak barrels,
lined with pure block tin in such a manner as to be perfectly
gas-tight, and furnished with two tubes, one quite short and the other
extending from the top to the bottom of the reservoir. Then, by
filling the reservoirs through the long tube by hydrostatic pressure,
the air is excluded, while the gas is not allowed to escape. When sold
on draught, it is necessary simply to connect the long tube with the
draught tube, and the short tube with an air pump, when the water can
be forced out by the pressure of the air, and will flow forth
sparkling and delicious as at the spring, without being re-charged
with gas.


Having concluded our investigation, and tarried to notice the
MINNEHAHA, UNION, and other springs which bubble up in this
immediate vicinity, we have now the choice of continuing along the
banks of a winding stream to the Eureka and White Sulphur Springs, or
of returning by the way of Lake avenue. But should we prefer the
healthful exercise of walking, we may dismiss our carriage and stroll
into those magnificent woods that border the hill and valley for half
a mile between Excelsior Spring and the village. Through them there is
a wide and shady path, well known to visitors who love the
picturesque, and along its winding way is found the shortest walk to
the center of the village.

The beauty of this region would seem to indicate it as the proper site
for the future Central Park of Saratoga.


Is about a mile and a half below the village, on the Ballston road,
and near the railroad. Business address, "Geyser Spring."


This wonderful mineral fountain was discovered in February. 1870.
There had been indications of mineral water in this neighborhood,
which had been noticed for a long time. The building which is now used
as a bottling-house, and beneath which the spring was found, was used
as a bolt factory. The proprietors, Messrs. Vail and Seavy, determined
to bore for a spring. They were successful, and when they had reached
a point 140 feet below the surface rock, they struck the mineral vein.
The water immediately burst forth with vehemence, and the marvelous
phenomenon of a spouting spring was established.

The orifice bored in the rock is five and a half inches in diameter
and 140 feet deep. The tubing is a block tin pipe, encased with iron,
eighty-five feet in length and two inches in diameter. The diameter of
the orifice of the tube is three-eighths of an inch. The tube is
firmly secured at the bottom, and "seed bags" are filled in around it,
so that all the water and gas is compelled to enter the tube, thereby
preventing the possibility of adulteration. The fact that the spring
is located 140 feet beneath the solid rock renders it free from all
impurities of surface waters.


The water is thrown up by the action of its own carbonic acid gas,
with great force, producing a fountain jet very attractive in
appearance. The height of the fountain is twenty-five feet. A portion
of the stream is allowed to flow through a hollow globe of glass, and
large bubbles of gas of a bright pearl color rising in rapid
succession through the water, form a beautiful addition to the
attractiveness of the fountain. The curious will find an opportunity
to obtain a sniff of pure gas at a wooden tube, near the bottling
room, where water is drawn for bottling.

It is noticeable that when a portion of the stream is allowed to flow
through another tube to the bottling-room, the fountain spouts to an
unusual height.


The water, as shown by the analysis, is a powerful _cathartic_, and
contains a larger amount of valuable medicinal properties than any
other spring at Saratoga. The dose is from one to two glasses. The
temperature of the spring is 46 deg. Fahr., being only 14 deg. from
the freezing point. As the water is drawn from the fountain it foams
like soda water, from the great abundance of carbonic acid gas, which
gives to the water its agreeable taste.

During the two years since its discovery the water has been
introduced all over the Union, and is now to be obtained in the
principal cities of America and Europe.

A beautiful ravine, cascade and lake, and a sulphur spring also are in
the immediate vicinity south of the spring. Seats are provided and the
pleasure seeker will find a few hours in this locality a delightful
recreation. The Geyser Spring is one of the chief attractions of
Saratoga, and no visitor should fail to see it and taste its sparkling


  "Sparkling, rippling, and dancing about,
  Freighted with health and brilliant with light,
  Soothing the ear and entrancing the sight."

May be found in a little valley east of the railroad and directly
opposite the Geyser Spring, about a mile south of the village. Button
& Gibbs, proprietors.

[Illustration: GLACIER SPRING]

It was discovered in Sept. 1871, and is the most remarkable fountain
in the world. It discharges from four to eight gallons per minute,
spouting through a quarter inch nozzle to a height of fifty-two feet,
or through a half inch nozzle forty feet, pouring forth a perfect suds
of water and gas.


In the spring of 1870, Mr. Jesse Button, having been employed to sink
the Geyser well, was so successful that he was induced to bore for
another spring on land owned by D. Gibbs, Esq., in this locality.
Mineral water was found at no great depth, but in no considerable
quantity. The well was sunk 220 feet in the slate rock, reaching the
magnesian limestone. At this point the mineral water could be made to
spout for a few moments, occasionally, by agitating it with a
sand-pump. The stream, however, was quite small, and as Mr. Button was
called elsewhere, the project was temporarily abandoned. In Sept.,
1871, boring was resumed. The diameter of the well which had been sank
was four and three-fourths inches. It was made an inch larger,
tapering toward the bottom, and the well was continued through the
magnesian limestone to the Trenton limestone, making a total depth of
300 feet. Having reached this point the water spouted forth with great
force. The well was at once carefully tubed.


The water is very concentrated, and small doses are all that is
required. It will bear dilution with fresh water much better then
milk. It seems to have not only strong cathartic properties, but a
special action upon the kidneys and liver. For medicinal purposes it
promises to equal any in Saratoga.

As an object of curiosity and interest, the Glacier Spring is
unequaled in Saratoga, and it will doubtless speedily become a popular


On Spring street, corner of Putnam, in the rear of Congress Hall, and
a short distance from Hathorn Spring. Its principal action is
_diuretic_ and, in large doses, cathartic. The mineral ingredients are
the same as those of the other springs, but, owing to the peculiar
combination, the medicinal effects are widely different. It has been
found of great service in kidney complaints. From one to three glasses
during the day is the usual dose. It should be used under the
prescription of a physician, and warm drinks should not be taken
immediately after. Persons suffering from "a cold" should not drink
this water. It is not bottled.


Is situated immediately north of Congress Hall, on Spring street. H.H.
Hathorn, proprietor.


The spring was discovered in 1868 by workmen engaged in excavating for
the foundations of a brick building for Congress Hall ball-room. At
the time of discovery its waters contained more mineral substances
than any other spring at Saratoga. During the past winter a defect in
the tubing has led the proprietors to retube it very carefully and at
great expense. At the recent retubing two streams were found and
carefully tubed, one of which discharges sixty gallons per minute.


It is a powerful _cathartic_. Since its discovery it has achieved a
wonderful popularity and a high reputation in all sections of the
country. In nearly all cases when a powerful cathartic is needed its
effects are excellent, benefiting those on whom the milder waters
produce little effect.

Persons whose alimentary organs are very sensitive, or in an
inflammatory condition, should not imbibe large quantities.

There is an unusual amount of lithia in the water, which increases its
medicinal value.


Is located on Willow walk, between the Seltzer and the Star Springs.

[Illustration: HIGH ROCK SPRING.]

The High Rock is the oldest in point of discovery of the Saratoga
springs. As early as 1767, Sir Wm. Johnson was brought to it on a
litter by his Indian friends. It is noted for the most remarkable
natural curiosity of the vicinity, certainly. The following
interesting description of this rock is by Prof. Chandler: "The spring
rises in a little mound of stone, three or four feet high, which
appears like a miniature volcano, except that sparkling water instead
of melted lava flows from its little crater. When Sir William Johnson
visited the spring, and in fact until quite recently, the water did
not overflow the mound, but came to within a few inches of the summit;
some other hidden outlet permitting its escape. The Indians had a
tradition, however, which was undoubtedly true, that the water
formerly flowed over the rim of the opening. A few years ago (1866)
the property changed hands, and the new owners, convinced that by
stopping the lateral outlet they could cause the water to issue again
from the mouth of the rock, employed a number of men to undermine the
mound, and with a powerful hoisting derrick to lift it off and set it
one side, that the spring might be explored.

"If you will examine the cut which presents a vertical section of the
spring, you will be able to follow me as I tell you what they found.

"Just below the mound were found four logs, two of which rested upon
the other, two at right angles, forming a curb. Under the logs were
bundles of twigs resting upon the dark-brown or black soil of a
previous swamp. Evidently some ancient seekers after health had found
the spring in the swamp, and to make it more convenient to secure the
water had piled brush around it, and then laid down the logs as a
curb. But you inquire, how came the rock, which weighed several tons,
above the logs? The rock was formed by the water. It is composed of
tufa, carbonate of lime, and was formed in the same manner as
stalactites and stalagmites are formed. As the water flowed over the
logs, the evaporation of a portion of the carbonic acid gas caused the
separation of an equivalent quantity of insoluble carbonate of lime,
which, layer by layer, built up the mound. A fragment of the rock
which I possess contains leaves, twigs, hazel nuts, and snail shells,
which, falling from time to time upon it, were incrusted and finally
imprisoned in the stony mass.

[Illustration: SECTION OF HIGH ROCK]

  Analysis of a Fragment of the Rock

  Carbonate of lime                       95.17
  Carbonate of magnesia                    2.49
  Sesquioxide of iron                      0.07
  Alumina                                  0.22
  Sand and clay                            0.09
  Organic matter                           1.11
  Moisture                                 0.39
  Undetermined                             0.46

"Below the rocks the workmen followed the spring through four feet of
tufa and muck. Then they came to a layer of solid tufa two feet thick,
then one foot of muck in which they found another log. Below this were
three feet of tufa, and there seventeen feet below the apex of the
mound they found the embers and charcoal of an ancient fire. By whom
and when could the fire have been built? The Indian tradition went
back only to the time when the water overflowed the rock. How many
centuries may have elapsed since even the logs were placed in their
position? A grave philosopher of the famous watering-place,
remembering that botanists determine the age of trees by counting the
rings on the section of the stems and noticing the layers in the tufa
rock, polished a portion of the surface, and counted eighty-one layers
to the inch. He forthwith made the following calculation:

  High Rock, 4 feet 80 lines to the inch       3,840 years
  Muck and tufa, 7 feet low estimate             400   "
  Tufa, 2 feet 25 lines to the inch              600   "
  Muck, 1 foot                                   130   "
  Tufa, 3 feet                                   900   "
       Time since the fire was built           5,870   "

"As I have seen half an inch of tufa formed in two years on a brick
which received the overflow from a spout of water containing only
twenty grams of carbonate of lime in a gallon, I am inclined to think
our antiquarian's estimates are not entirely reliable."[A]

[Illustration: PAVILION SPRING.]

The rock has been replaced over the spring, and the water now flows
over it. A very beautiful and expensive colonnade has been built over
the rock by the "High Rock Congress Spring Company." This company was
formed in 1866, and was inaugurated under favorable auspices and with
brilliant prospects of success. But though _founded on a rock_, it was
not successful in withstanding the storms. Whether the rock was too
slippery, or the Spring rains too severe, or what was the slip-up, or
rather slip-down, we do not presume to say, but the company failed,
and the spring was sold at auction during the present month for

Those who invested their dollars in it sank them in a _well_, and
unlike "bread cast upon the waters," they do not seem to return again.

A new company has been organized, and under their direction the spring
is being retubed. With honest and careful management it ought to be
profitable to the owners and conducive to the health of the public.


[A] A lecture on Water by C.H. Chandler, Ph.D., delivered at the
American Institute.


A few steps from Broadway, in a somewhat secluded valley, though in
the very centre of Saratoga and directly at the head of Spring avenue
(now being completed), bubble up the clear and sparkling water of the
Pavilion Spring.

The pleasure seeker strolling up Broadway is directed by a modest sign
down Lake avenue to "Pavilion Spring and Park." A few steps, less than
half a block, brings him to the handsome arched gateway of this very
pretty park in which one can pass the time as pleasantly as could be
wished. The colonnade over the spring is one of the most elegant of
its class. It was erected in 1869, at a cost of over $6,000, and is a
fine ornament to the park. The United States Spring is under the same
colonnade. Our cut is a very faithful likeness of the grounds.


The spring was originally owned by the Walton family. Though long
known, its situation was such, being in the midst of a deep morass,
that the owners took no steps towards tubing it. In 1839 it passed
into the hands of Mr. Daniel McLaren, who tubed it at a heavy expense
and trouble by sinking a crib twenty-two feet square to a depth of
forty feet. A tube was constructed in the form of a boot, and to
render the ground dry and firm around it several tons of iron filings
from Troy were packed around.

When the work was finished, the water was bottled to some extent and
was a favorite drink with many of the citizens. It was then esteemed
as a tonic spring. In 1868 it was retubed and the tube extended down
ten feet further to the sandstone rock. Clay was used for the packing,
and the water has since been of a finer flavor and of cathartic
properties. At this time the spring became the property of the
Pavilion and United States Spring Co., composed of enterprising
business men, under whose management the grounds have been rendered
quite attractive and the water is becoming celebrated as one of the
leading cathartic springs of far-famed Saratoga.


There is a liveliness and pungency to this water which makes it a
pleasant beverage. An abundance of gas, so much desired in a mineral
spring, is so intimately associated with the water, and is so well
"fixed" as to hold the medicinal constituents in a clear and permanent
solution. The property of the water is cathartic, affecting more or
less, however, all the secretions. It is of special service in
dyspepsia, biliousness, rheumatism, etc. A half a glass to a glass,
drank after hearty meals, will relieve at once the distress from which
so many suffer. Medical men recommend the water also for kidney

While stronger than the milder waters which require so large potions
to be effective, it is not characterized by the harshness and
irritating power of some of the more recently discovered springs. It
seems to us a sort of golden mean between the two extremes.

The water bottles nicely, and is sent to every part of the Union. It
is also sold on draught. Persons becoming attached to it while at
Saratoga, can thus easily obtain it at any time in a manner only
equaled by that dipped from the spring. The sale of this, as well as
of nearly all mineral waters, is conducted almost exclusively by

The business address of the proprietors is "Pavilion & U.S. Spring
Company, 113 Chambers street, N.Y.," to whom orders should be


On Phila street, near Broadway. Used chiefly for bathing purposes. It
is a tonic or chalybeate, and, as this goes to press, is being
retubed. The proprietor, Mr. Lewis Putnam, is the oldest native
resident of Saratoga.


This spring is located on Spring avenue, a short distance beyond the
Empire, at the junction of Geneva and Warren streets. Red Spring Co.,

[Illustration: RED SPRING.]


It was discovered soon after the Revolutionary war, by a Mr. Norton,
who had been driven from the place from fear of hostile Indians
during the war, and who returned about the year 1784 to re-occupy and
improve some buildings erected by him for the accommodation of a few
invalids who came to visit the High Rock, Flat Rock, President and Red
Springs. No other springs were known at that time, or for many years
after. Nearly a hundred years ago the first bath-house ever built at
Saratoga was erected at the Red Spring, and was used for the cure of
all kinds of eruptive and skin diseases for many years. Through the
neglect of the owners, this spring, with others near, was allowed to
fall into an impure condition; the tubes rotted out, and for a number
of years the water of the Red Spring was only used for washing sore
eyes, bad ulcers, and the cure of salt rheum, etc. The springs of
Ballston, and the valuable qualities of Congress water, drew public
attention away from these springs, and it was only a few years since
that the present owners of the spring retubed and secured this
valuable water for public use. The reputation it had long sustained as
a powerful alterative for the cure of blood diseases was confirmed;
and for several years this water has been used with growing confidence
and wonderful results.


In a general sense its therapeutic effects are alterative, and it
possesses a particular adaptation to inflamed mucous surfaces;
scrofula in all its forms, dyspepsia in its worst conditions, and
kidney difficulties, with every kind of skin disease, including salt
rheum, which it never fails to cure, are prominent among the diseases
cured by the use of this water.

Its general effect is to tone up the system, regulate the secretions
and vitalize the blood, thereby creating a better appetite and better

The analysis of this water does not indicate any properties that can
account for its astonishing effects on disease, but they are supposed
to be owing to its _peculiar combination_. Scientific men, however,
differ in regard to this point and in regard to the analysis.

A greater number of _invalids_ are now using this water than from all
the other springs in the place. This water is not used as a beverage.
More than a hundred gallons per day are taken away by _real invalids_,
besides that drank at the spring. To become acquainted with its
wonderful cures one needs only to go there and spend an hour
conversing with those who are using it for their various ailments. The
water is used at all hours of the day and a short time is all that is
needed to learn the high estimation in which it is held as a remedial


The "A" Spring is situated on Spring avenue, a little beyond the
Empire Spring, on the eastern side of a steep bluff of calciferous
sand rock, upon grounds which could be made quite attractive by a
moderate outlay.


The memory of that reverend being, the oldest inhabitant does not
recall the time when the existence of mineral water in this immediate
locality was not known. As the merits of spring waters were so little
known and understood in the earlier days of their discovery, the
demand was far below the supply, and no attempt was made to introduce
this spring to public attention, nor any provision for the use of its
waters. In 1865, Messrs. Western & Co. purchased the property, and at
once instituted plans for securing the fountain; and a shaft twelve
feet square was sunk to the depth of sixteen feet. The surface above
the rock consists of bluish marl, similar to that found all along
this mineral valley. A tube, in the usual form, was placed over the
spring, and clay was used as packing around it. In the spring of the
next year the fountain was more perfectly secured by a new tubing, and
the water was bottled and shipped all over the country.

An ill wind seemed to be blowing, and in 1867 the bottling-house was
nearly destroyed by fire; and the spring was again retubed to the
depth of _thirty-two_ feet, going down to the solid rock, where one of
the most perfect veins of water was found flowing in all its original
purity, which was secured with the greatest care, in order to prevent
the mixture of sulphurous or other waters, and carried to the surface
through a tube made of maple.

At present the spring itself is protected by a temporary structure,
while the water is bottled in a portion of the original building which
was not destroyed by fire. The spring is at some little distance from
the business part of Saratoga, and, since the bottling-house was
destroyed no special efforts have been made to attract a crowd of
visitors, though many who know the virtues of the water take the pains
and trouble to go out of their way to obtain it, fresh from the spring
in all its purity, as it is held in the highest estimation by all who
have used it. We believe it is the intention of the present management
to rebuild the houses and ornament the surroundings either this summer
or next.

Of the original company, Jay Gould was President, and John F. Henry,
Secretary. The officers of the present company are, John F. Henry,
President; B.S. Barrett, Secretary, and Edwin F. Stevens, Treasurer.
Mr. Henry is well known as the leading druggist in America and the
largest dealer in proprietary medicines in the world.


The water possesses a very agreeable taste and flavor, resembling in
many respects the favorite Congress. Its principal action is
alterative and cathartic.


"Saratoga Seltzer Spring Co.," proprietors. Perhaps no one of the
springs gratifies the curious more than the Seltzer.

It is situated about 150 feet from the High Rock Spring, but, although
in such close proximity thereto, its water is entirely different, thus
illustrating the wonderful extent and capacity of nature's
subterranean laboratory.


The owners of the Seltzer Spring have an ingenious contrivance for
exhibiting the flow of the water and its gas. It consists of a glass
tube, three feet in height and fifteen inches in diameter, nicely
adjusted to the mouth of the spring, through which the sweet, clear,
sparkling water gushes in a steady volume, while, faster than the
water, bubble up the glittering globules of pure carbonic acid gas.


The spring was discovered several years ago, but only recently was it
tubed so as to be available. The tube extends down thirty-four feet to
the surface of the foundation rock. The crevice in the rock through
which the water issues is about twelve inches by five. The column of
water above the rock is thirty-seven feet high. The flow of gas is
abundant and constant, but every few minutes, as the watchful visitor
will observe, there is a momentary ebullition of an extraordinary
quantity which causes the water in the tube to boil over the rim. When
the sunshine falls upon the fountain it presents a beautiful

This is a genuine Seltzer spring. The character of the water is almost
identical with that of the celebrated Nassau Spring of Germany, which
is justly esteemed so delicious by the natives of the "Fatherland."
Our German citizens, with their usual sagacity, have discovered this
fact, and the consumption of the water by them is daily on the

The importance of this American Seltzer Spring will be somewhat
appreciated by the reader, when informed of the fact that nearly two
millions of stone jugs, holding one quart each, of the Nassau Seltzer
are annually exported from Germany.


The water of this spring is very pleasant to the taste, being slightly
acidulous and saline, but much milder than that of the other Saratoga
springs. It is an agreeable and wholesome beverage. When mixed with
still wines, etc., it adds the peculiar flavor only to be derived from
a pure, natural Seltzer. It enlivens them and gives them the character
of sparkling wines.

Saratoga possesses numerous objects of interest for the German
population, surpassing even the famous Spas of Europe, and the
discovery of the Seltzer will doubtless attract large numbers of this
intelligent and genial people.

The analyses of the Saratoga and the German Seltzer springs are almost

No people in the world, perhaps, consider a summer's excursion to a
watering place so absolutely essential to life, physically,
dietetically, morally and politically considered, as the Germans, and
we are happy to know that they are beginning to realize the
attractions of Saratoga.

[Illustration: STAR SPRING.]

The United States Spring is also successfully used for mixing with
the still wines, and is attaining a popularity among the Germans.


Is located on Spring avenue near the termination of Circular street.
Star Spring Co., proprietors, Melvin Wright, Superintendent.


Under the name of President Spring, and afterwards Iodine Spring, the
fountain now called the Star has been known for nearly a century; long
enough to test its merits and long enough to sink it in oblivion if it
possessed no merits. Its lustre is undimmed, and it promises to be a
star that shall never set. During these many years a goodly proportion
of tottering humanity have found in this spring an amendment to their
several crippled constitutions. It was first tubed in 1835. In 1865
the Star Spring Co. was formed, and in the following year the spring
was retubed under their direction. In 1870 they erected the finest
bottling-house in Saratoga. Great care is taken to preserve the spring
in a pure condition and perfect repair. The water has become immensely
popular in New England, where it is "the spring," and throughout the
United States and Canada.

For Commercial Use.

The water is sold in cases of quarts and pints, and besides, owing to
the large amount of gas which is finely incorporated with the water,
the company are enabled to supply families with it in kegs of fifteen
gallons, in which the water keeps as well as in bottles, and at
one-fourth to one-sixth the cost. This method seems to give entire
satisfaction and is fast coming into general use. This is the only
spring that supplies the water in bulk to families. The price to
druggists in bulk is twenty cents per gallon, to families $4 per half
barrel, to the trade in cases at $21 per gross for pints, and $30 per
gross for quarts.


The Star water is mildly cathartic, has a pleasant, slightly acid
taste, gentle and healthy in its action, and yet powerful in its

It is far more desirable for general use as a cathartic than the
preparations of the apothecary.

Rev. Dr. Cuyler, in one of his peculiarly charming letters, gives the
Star Water preference over all others as an active and efficient


This is the name which was formerly given to several springs in the
immediate vicinity of the Excelsior, and embracing the Union and the
Minnehaha, which have been recently tubed. The other springs have been
neglected, and the name "Ten Springs" has been abandoned.


Is located under the same colonnade as the Pavilion, and less than ten
feet distant from it. When the Pavilion was being retubed, in 1868, a
new spring was discovered flowing from the east (the Pavilion and
nearly all the other springs flowing from the west). It has been
carefully tubed and christened the United States. It seems to be tonic
in its properties, with only a very slight cathartic effect. It is now
used for mixing with the still wines by our German citizens, who find
in it the virtues of their own Nassau Spring. There are very few of
the Saratoga waters that can be used successfully with the red and
white wines, the presence of a very large proportion of chloride of
sodium being considered an objection. The United States Spring seems
to fully answer the purpose, giving to the wines a rich flavor and
sparkling character.

It is a matter of surprise to visitors that two springs, welling up
their waters so near together, should yet be widely different. Where
nature in her subterranean laboratory obtains all the elements, and
how she can manage that from one crevice shall issue a water whose
ingredients shall never materially differ, and whose temperature shall
remain constant throughout the year, while within a few feet she sends
up an equally unvarying, and yet widely different spring, is indeed a
problem, and the oftener one reflects on subjects of this kind, the
oftener is the old fashioned observation repeated, that "let a man go
where he will, Omnipotence is never from his view."


Is situated in the grounds of the Clarendon Hotel, on South Broadway.


This fountain was the first tubed in this mineral valley, being opened
by Gideon Putnam, in 1806. It was used for bathing purposes chiefly.
Dr. Steel writes of it in 1828, that it is "found of eminent service
when applied to old, ill-conditioned ulcers, and obstinate eruptions
of the skin." A cluster of bushes formed a shelter for the external
use of the water.

In 1858 a shaft eleven feet square was sunk round the spring to a
depth of thirty feet. The stream seemed to come from a lateral
direction, and a tunnel was excavated for a distance of thirty feet.
At this point the earth gave way, and the water and gas flowed in so
suddenly that the workmen hardly escaped with their lives, leaving
their tools behind them. In fifteen minutes 12,000 gallons of water,
and double that quantity of gas, filled the excavation. Rotary pumps,
worked by a steam engine, were insufficient to remove the water.
Another shaft, near the end of the tunnel, was sunk to a depth of
twenty-eight feet, when the water burst into this also, and it had to
be abandoned. A third shaft, twenty feet in diameter, and held by a
strong coffer dam, was sunk southeast of the former. When the rock was
reached two streams were found issuing from a fissure; one of them was
tubed, and water rose to the surface.

This brief sketch will give a little idea of the difficulties and
dangers incident to the tubing of some of these springs.


This is a chalybeate or iron spring, having _tonic_ and diuretic
properties. It is not a saline water, and the peculiar inky taste of
iron is perceptible. It should be drank in the afternoon or evening,
before or after meals, or just before retiring. One glass is
sufficient for tonic purposes. Many regard this as the most agreeable
beverage in Saratoga. It is frequently called the "Champagne Spring"
from its sparkling properties.

The grounds in the immediate vicinity are very picturesque, and in the
evening are lighted by gas. The Clarendon Band discourse their music
on the neighboring piazza, and large numbers of fashionably attired
people throng beneath the majestic pines, forming one of those
peculiar group pictures which render Saratoga so charming.


Is about a mile east of Broadway and only a few rods distant from the
Eureka Mineral and the Ten Springs. Lake avenue and Spring avenue lead
directly to it. Stages run between the spring and the village every
hour, passing the principal hotels. Eureka Spring Co. are the

This is _the_ Sulphur Spring of Saratoga. _It is said to be
unsurpassed by any Sulphur spring in the State._ Sulphuretted or
hepatic waters acquire their peculiar properties from beds of pyrites
or by passing through strata of bituminous shale and foetic-oolitic
beds. These we regard as organic sulphuretted waters, while the others
are mineral.

The mere presence of hydrosulphuric acid gas does not constitute an
hepatic water: for the solid ingredients are essential; and these are
found in that of the Eureka White Sulphur Spring, proving it to be a
very valuable water. It is successfully used in the long list of
diseases for which, sulphur water, both internally and externally, is
so highly recommended by the medical faculty. Sulphur waters are very
useful in the treatment of rheumatism, gout, neuralgia, and kindred
diseases, and in glandular affections and certain chronic diseases of
the stomach, liver, intestines, spleen, kidneys, bladder and uterus,
and in dropsy, scrofula, chlorosis and mercurial diseases. It is
beneficial, used both internally and externally in the form of baths
at different degrees of temperature, best determined in each case by
the physician under whose advice, as a general rule, they should be
used. The water is highly beneficial in cutaneous diseases, inflamed
eyes, etc. If the person is dyspeptic the non-gaseous water should be
used in small doses. It may be as well to add that such waters should
not be used if there is a tendency to cerebral disease, or in cases of
consumption and cancer.


The water of this sulphur spring is remarkably pellucid. The fountain
discharges upwards of 20,000 gallons per day.

A large and commodious bathing-house, containing fifty bath-rooms,
with excellent and ample accommodations and superior facilities,
affords _warm_ and _cold_ sulphur water baths. They are a real luxury.

This completes our list of the important springs. Mineral water of
considerable merit has been found in several other places in the
village and its vicinage, which, if situated elsewhere, would
doubtless excite marked attention and popularity, but in the midst of
Saratoga's brilliant galaxy and in the absence of any distinguishing
peculiarity, they possess at present "no name."


The CATHARTIC  waters, as a cathartic, should be taken only
before breakfast in the morning, and possibly before retiring at
night, because in the morning the body, refreshed by sleep, is best
prepared for the water, and the stomach is empty. Two or three glasses
are usually sufficient, if drank within a short interval and only a
few minutes before breakfast. Many physicians attribute the cathartic
effect to the "stimulus of distention" as well as to the absorption of
the mineral properties, and for this purpose the water should not be
sipped but _drank_. Before eating, the sipping of a little tea or
coffee will make the waters more efficacious.

None of the cathartic waters should be drank in _large quantities_
immediately before, during or within two hours after meals, as they
are then liable to disturb digestion and prevent nutrition.

[Illustration: WASHING AND FILLING.]

When suffering from a cold the cathartic waters should be avoided.
Those affected with lung complaints should not drink these waters.

As an ALTERATIVE, the waters should be drank in small
quantities at various intervals during the day. As their alterative
effect is from the absorption of the water, the quantity taken should
be small.

The chalybeate or TONIC  waters are liable to cause headache
when taken before breakfast. They may be used with benefit before or
after dinner and tea. Only from a half to one glass should be taken at
a time.

The DIURETIC  waters should be drank before meals, and at
night, and should not be followed by warm drinks. Walking and other
exercise increase the diuretic effect.

Attention to system should characterize the use of these as of other

It is impossible to give _complete and invariable_ directions for
drinking any of the waters.

The experience and necessities of each individual can alone determine
many things in regard to their use.

It is advisable to consult some experienced resident physician.

A moderate use of the waters will be found most beneficial.

The enormous quantities of water which some persons imbibe at the
popular springs is perfectly shocking, and can only be injurious. It
is no uncommon occurrence to see persons drink from five to ten
glasses of Congress or Hathorn water with scarcely any interval, and
the writer has heard of a lady who swallowed within a few minutes
fourteen glasses of one of the springs. It is to be presumed that her
thirst was satisfied, as no further account of her has been given.

Those who are taking a course of mineral water will usually find their
appetite increased thereby.


An abundance of vegetables should be avoided, and only those which
are perfectly fresh should be used.

Frequent bathing in mineral water and otherwise will be found

Raising the temperature of the spring water, by placing a bottle of it
in boiling water, makes it more efficacious as a cathartic, and is
said to remove the iron. Heating the water makes it better for bathing


[B] This article is _copy righted_. Parties who wish to copy the
entire article, or a portion of it, will please give credit.

The Saratoga Waters at a Distance from the Springs.

If the Saratoga waters are really what they have the reputation of
being--and certainly no one who has witnessed their effects can deny
their wonderful power--the purity of the water which is supplied to
invalids, at a distance from the springs, becomes a matter of the
utmost consequence.

"The fashionable and the rich," writes an eminent divine, "who fill
these splendid saloons, are not alone the people for whom the
beneficent Creator opened these health-giving fountains; but they are
also those who occupy the sick chambers in all parts of the earth, who
have never seen Saratoga, but who are relieved and comforted by its

Personally the writer has found in several cities more or less
difficulty in obtaining the genuine water. He therefore offers a few
suggestions on the present mode of exportation.

For many years the sale of spring water has been chiefly conducted by
druggists. In the earlier days the business was conducted with
fairness and profit to all concerned, but the small cost of
manufacturing an artificial water imitating the natural in taste and
appearance, and made even more sparkling and pungent by a heavy
charging with gas, the enormous extent of the patent medicine business
which has protruded itself in all directions, and to an overwhelming
extent, and the large percentage of profit which druggists now realize
on their goods, all these have interfered with the sale of pure
natural spring water. We assert as an indisputable fact that the
sale of artificial waters has been a serious and unjust detriment to
the reputation of natural mineral water.


Very little of the water sold on draught by druggists is genuine.
Several instances have fallen under the immediate notice of the
writer, in which druggists have obtained the photographs and trade
marks of a certain spring, by the purchase of a small quantity of
water, and then manufactured that which they sold on draught; and
instances are numerous in which druggists have overcharged consumers
for the bottled water.

We cannot too strongly urge those who wish to obtain Saratoga water
pure and fresh, to send _direct to the spring_ whose waters they

To the Superintendents of springs we suggest the supplying of the
waters through _grocers_, who can best handle both the barreled and
the bottled water, and will be most likely to sell it in its purity.
It should be made a _staple article_, and its merits as a beverage and
a preventive of disease brought to public notice. The use of the water
increases the appetite, and grocers would find its extended sale would
be an advantage to their business.

We believe our country would be better, and biliousness, dyspepsia,
fevers, and a long range of diseases more rare, if the natural waters
which God has provided were to become a standard article in our

     Special Notice.--The subscriber is desirous of making a
     special study of the mineral springs of Saratoga. He will
     gladly receive any reliable information which may be
     communicated to him in regard to the history, properties, etc.,
     of the various springs, or their effects in particular cases.
     Such information will be acknowledged in future editions of
     this work.

     _Invalids who have received benefit or injury_ from the use of
     the waters are earnestly requested to give a statement of their
     experience. Communications of this sort will be held

     Proprietors of springs in other places are also requested to
     send circulars and other information in regard to their several

     _Saratoga Springs, N.Y._



       *       *       *       *       *


    Bemis Heights,
    Benedict's Sulphur Spring,
    Chapman's Hill,
    Circular Railway,
    Columbian Spring,
    Cohoes Falls,
    Congress Park,
    Congress Spring,
    Corinth Falls,
    Crystal Spring,
    Diamond Spring,
    Drs. Strongs Turkish Baths,
    Ellis Spring,
    Empire Spring,
    Eureka Spring,
    Excelsior Grove,
    Excelsior Spring,
    Excelsior Lake,
    Geyser Spring,
    Glass Factory,
    Glacier Spring,
    Glen Mitchel,
    Hagerty Hill,
    Hamilton Spring,
    Hathorn Spring,
    High Rock Spring,
    Indian Encampment,
    Indian Spring,
    Lake Lovely,
    Lake Saratoga,
    Marble Works,
    Pavilion Spring,
    Putnam's Spring,
    Race Course,
    Red Spring,
    Saratoga "A" Spring,
    Seltzer Spring,
    Star Spring,
    Stiles' Hill,
    Surrender Ground,
    Ten Springs,
    Trout Ponds,
    United States Spring,
    Verd Antique Marble Works,
    Washington Spring,
    Wagman's Hill,
    Water Works,
    Wearing Hill,
    White Sulphur Springs,
    Y.M.C.A. Rooms,

Photographs of the above can be had of Baker & Record.

For the location of these places see map.

No charge is made to visitors for the use of the waters, except a
trifling fee to the "dipper boys," and even this is at the option of
the visitor.

Saratoga as a Watering Place.

The question "where to spend the Summer?" is usually discussed by
paterfamilias, anxious mammas and uneasy children long before the
summer solstice drives them from the pent-up confines of the busy
metropolis to the pure air and quite recreation of country life. Many
will visit the seaside, some will climb the mountains or explore the
forests. Fashion, in most instances, determines the place of resort,
and has fixed on certain localities, or courts of its acknowledged
leaders, where not to have been seen at least is to have been buried
for the season.

One place has held through the many years the highest rank, both from
intrinsic merit, and from an unfluctuating devotion of the fashionable
world, and has been aptly termed "The Queen of American Watering

The village of Saratoga, where dwells the benign goddess Hygeia, in
the midst of her far-famed waters of life and health, is pleasantly
situated within the heart of a broad stretch of varied table-land, in
the upper part and near the eastern boundary of New York.

The History

Of this fashionable resort embraces a century. The muse of history has
marked the spot with one of her red battleflags, and thus
distinguished her from the herd of new places whose mushroom growth is
like that of the gentility which they harbor.

[Illustration: ROUTES TO LAKE GEORGE.]

The first white visitor who is known to have drank from these "rivers
of Pactolus" is no less a distinguished person than Sir Wm. Johnson,
Bart., who was conducted hither, in 1767, by his Mohawk friends. At
that early day America could boast of little in the way of
aristocracy, and it was not till 1803 that the career of Saratoga, as
a fashionable watering place, was inaugurated. In this year, when the
village consisted of only three or four cabins, Gideon Putnam opened
the Union Hotel, and displayed his primitive sign of "Old Put and the

It was Putnam's ambition, when a boy even, to build him a great house,
and in his time the Union Hotel, then 70 feet long, seemed to him
doubtless comparatively as large as the present Grand Union seems to

It is not necessary for us to follow Saratoga through its misfortunes
and its successes, its fires and its improvements, until it has
reached its present reputation and attractiveness.

Year after year the water wells up its sparkling currents; year after
year a little paint and plaster new-decks the great caravansaries;
year after year belles blush and sigh away the summer, or, linking
their destinies, rejoice or repine at leisure; and year after year,
for a short four months of sequence, the little town swarms and
rejoices with merry glee.

Routes to Saratoga.

During the visiting season trains from the metropolis reach the place
in five hours and thirty minutes--a distance of 186 miles. You can
leave the city at nine o'clock in the morning, and upon the
soft-cushioned seats, and amid the damask and velvet of Wagman's
magnificent drawing-room cars, enjoy a pleasurable journey up the
famous Hudson, till you arrive at Saratoga early in the afternoon. Or,
by the four o'clock train, Saratoga is reached in the evening. If
pleasure is the object, and enjoyment of the lordly Hudson's
bewildering beauty is desired, one of the steam palaces that plough
the river should be taken. The most luxurious and elegant, and the
safest and surest of these are the boats of the Peoples' Line. The
contrast between the accommodations of these boats and certain others
nearly as large, is so great as to leave no question which route is

From New England and Boston the shortest and most direct route is via
Rutland and Fitchburgh. This is the only route that run Palace cars
through between Boston and Saratoga.


    Albany, 38 miles.
    Boston via Rutland, 230 miles.
    Philadelphia, 274 miles.
    Washington, 412 miles.
    Chicago, 841 miles.
    White Mountains, 322 miles.
    Boston via Albany, 250 miles.
    Troy, 32 miles.
    New York City, 186 miles.
    Niagara, 311 miles.
    Lake George, 45 miles.
    Montreal, 202 miles.
    Quebec, 392 miles.
    Rutland, 62 miles.

The Railway Station

Is naturally a place of special interest in any watering place.
Visitors are no sooner settled in their summer quarters than they
become interested in the incomings and outgoings of their fellow men,
watching eagerly if perchance any old acquaintance may turn up. The
contrast between city and country life in this respect is noticable.
Those who, amid the race for wealth in the cities, can scarcely afford
a nod to intimate friends, here greet a slight acquaintance even with
a friendliness and cordiality undreamed of in the busy town.

The station at Saratoga is elegant and tasteful, facing an open
square, adorned with fountain and shade trees. It is built of brick,
with elaborate iron trimmings from the Corrugated Iron Company of
Springfield, Mass.

[Illustration: VIEW OF CONGRESS PARK.]

The crowds are hastening away from it, and with them we will proceed

The Village.

Large enough to possess a fixed population of some 9,000, it has
double, and perhaps treble, this number in the visiting season; with
elegant and costly churches, mammoth hotels and metropolitan stores,
affording everything desirable, from a paper of pins to the rarest
diamonds and laces, it has been called "_rus in urbe_"--more properly,
_urbs in rure_.

The principal street is Broadway, miles in length, ample in breadth,
and, for the most part, shaded with a double line of graceful elms.
Its extremities are adorned with beautiful villas. The Fifth avenue of
the place, where the handsomest residences are located, is Circular
street, east of the Park. Beautiful dwellings may also be found on
Lake avenue and Franklin street. The streets are thronged with a gay
and brilliant multitude, engaged in riding, driving, walking, each
enjoying to the utmost a facinating kind of busy idleness. But by the
time the tourist has glanced at all this he will be thinking of clean
napkins, and will be interested to know what may be afforded in the
way of

Accommodations for Man and Beast.

About 15,000 visitors can at one time be quartered in the gay watering
place, and consequently to pen up all the fashionable flock within the
limits of so small a town, requires no little tact. During August,
Saratoga is always full, crowded, squeezed.

Saratoga has the largest and most extensive hotels in the world. There
are in all from thirty to forty, and in addition to them numerous
public and private boarding-houses accommodate large numbers of

Among the hotels, the gem of Saratoga, and one of the finest, if not
_the finest_, hotel in this country is

Congress Hall.

[Illustration: CONGRESS HALL.]

Extending from Spring to Congress street, with a front on Broadway of
416 feet, and reaching with its two mammoth wings 300 feet back, it is
architecturally a perfect beauty. The rooms are large and elegant. The
halls are ten feet wide, and broad, commodious stairways, with the
finest elevator in the country, render every portion readily
accessible. A front piazza, 20 feet wide and 240 feet in length, with
numerous others within the grounds, and a promenade on the top of the
hotel affording a charming view, contribute to render the house
attractive. The dining halls, parlors, etc., are superb and ample, and
everything about the house is on a scale of unequaled magnificence and

The proprieters have endeavored to incorporate into this hotel
everything that can afford comfort and pleasure, at whatever expense.

The cut of Congress Hall will give some idea of its _outlines_, but
fails to do it justice. It must be seen to be appreciated, and when
seen commands the unqualified admiration of the beholder. It was
erected in 1868, by H.H. Hathorn, Esq., the proprietor of the old
Congress Hall, and one of the most influential citizens of Saratoga.

The Grand Union Hotel.

This mammoth establishment is located on the west side of Broadway,
and with its magnificent grounds embraces a space seven acres in
extent, covering nearly an entire square. It is a splendid brick
structure, with a street frontage of 1,364 feet. The office, parlor,
dining room and dancing hall are unequaled for size, graceful
architecture and splendid equipments and finish--the former exhibiting
a lavish display of white and colored marbles, while a series of
colonnades rise from the center to the dome. Within the capacious
grounds are several elegant cottages, which are greatly sought for by
the _elite_. A vertical railway, comprising the latest improvements,
renders the six stories so easy of access as to be equally desirable
to guests.


The capacity of this house is greater than that of any other in the
world. Some idea of its immensity may be formed from the following
statistics: Length of piazzas, one mile; halls, two miles; carpeting,
twelve acres; marble tiling, one acre; number of rooms, eight hundred
and twenty-four; doors, one thousand four hundred and seventy-four;
windows, one thousand eight hundred and ninety one; the dining room is
two hundred and fifty feet by fifty-three feet and twenty feet high,
and will accommodate at one time 1,200 people.

Music on the lawn at nine in the morning and at three and a half in
the afternoon. Hops every evening; balls on Tuesday evening.

During the present year this hotel has fallen into the hands of
Messrs. Breslin, Gardner & Co., of the Gilsey House, N.Y., gentlemen
who are unsurpassed as hotel managers.

Grand Central.

"The new hotel," erected by Dr. R. Hamilton and Mr. C.R. Brown, is
located on Broadway, directly opposite Congress Park, occupying the
ground swept over by the immense conflagration which consumed the
Crescent, Park Place and other hotels last September. Untiring energy
has been manifested in its construction, and it is without doubt one
of the most perfect summer hotels in the world. It is a tasteful and
elegant structure, adding very much to the beauty and attractiveness
of Saratoga. The citizens may well be proud of it.

The exterior of the house is most imposing. It is five stories in
height, with a French roof, and has a front of 340 feet on Broadway,
and 200 feet on Congress street, and by a far-reaching wing in the
rear incloses quite a little park.

[Illustration: GENERAL OFFICE.]

The building contains 650 rooms, with bowling alleys and billiards,
and twenty-two stores in the basement. It is built of brick, with iron
trimmings. The dining room is 200 feet long. The other rooms are in
suites with bath-room attached. All parts of the house communicate
with the office through the medium of electricity. Everything is in
the most modern and improved style, and with the latest improvements.
Looking out upon the green vista of Congress Park and upon the
interesting crowds of visitors who throng around the famous spring,
affording from its windows and piazzas an ample view of the most
fashionable part of Broadway, and embracing in its outlook the
colonnades of the other large hotels, its location and surroundings
are perfectly enchanting.

Although at the present writing the hotel has not been opened to the
public, we learn that it is the purpose of the proprietors, Messrs.
Hamilton & Brown, gentlemen of experience and enviable reputation as
hotel managers, to conduct it on a very liberal scale.

The table will be made a special feature. Epicureans may rest assured

  "Whatever toothsome food or sprightly juice
  On the green bosom of this earth are found,
  Will be there displayed."

That it will be a popular and well patronized resort is
unquestionable. In its elegant furniture the house surpasses all
others, and it has the further advantage that every room has a
spacious clothes press, and is supplied with hot and cold water.

The Clarendon.

Is patronized by a very aristocratic and select class of guests. Its
location is very picturesque; and within its inclosure, magnificently
circled by elms and covered with a superb pagoda, is the celebrated
Washington spring.

[Illustration: CLARENDON HOTEL.]

The Leland Spring, named in honor of the affable proprietor of the
hotel, is also within the grounds.

The Everett House,

On South Broadway, a few steps beyond the Clarendon, is well
patronized by a wealthy and cultivated class of guests. A very
pleasant piazza surrounding the front of the house, and a pretty lawn
and cottage in the grounds, are attractive features of this summer
hotel. The house has a home-like appearance and a delightful location.
Improvements and additions are now contemplated, to be completed
before next season, which will render this one of the most beautiful
summer hotels in America.

       *       *       *       *       *

As our space is too limited to give each an individual notice, we
present below an alphabetical list of all the hotels and their
proprietors, good, bad and indifferent--several on the American plan,
and some on no plan at all. "Pay your money and take your choice."

Josh Billings says a good hotel is a good stepmother. It is is not
often that one has the opportunity to select his stepmother, but
certainly it ought not to be impossible to make a good selection from
this long

List of Hotels.

    Addison Hotel, Matilda street, Samson & Porter.
    Albemarle Hotel, Broadway, A.C. Levi.
    Albion House, Front street, Walter Balfour.
    American Hotel, Broadway, Bennett & McCaffrey.
    Broadway Hall, Broadway, J. Howland.
    Broadway House, Broadway, Wm. Wheelock.
    Cedar Bluff Hotel, Saratoga Lake, H.V. Myers.
    Circular Street House, Circular street, John Palmer.
    Clarendon Hotel, Broadway, C.E. Leland.
    Coleman House, Broadway, H.L. Murchin.
    Commercial Hotel, Church street, S.W. Smith & Co.
    Congress Hall, Broadway, Hathorn & Southgate.
    Continental Hotel, Washington street, Adams & Mann.
    Cottage Home, Broadway, Miss L. Burbanck.
    Drs. Strongs Institute, Circular street, S.S. & S.E. Strong.
    Elmwood Hall, Front street, O. Ford & Griswold.
    Empire Hotel, Front street, Wm. H. Baker.
    Exchange Hotel, Henry street.
    Everett House, South Broadway, B.V. Fraser.
    Franklin House, Church street, C.W. Salisbury.
    Glen Mitchel, North Broadway, C. Weeks Mitchel.
    Grand Central Hotel, Broadway, Hamilton & Brown.
    Grand Union Hotel, Broadway, Breslin, Gardner & Co.
    Holden House, Broadway, W.J. Riggs.
    Hotel Germania, Broadway, G. Schmidt.
    Green Mountain House, Washington St., Chaffee & Wooster.
    Huestis House, Broadway, J.L. Huestis.
    Lake House, Saratoga Lake, C.B. Moon.
    Lake Side House, Saratoga Lake, C.B. Moon, Jr.
    Manor House, South Broadway.
    Mansion House, Spring avenue near Excelsior Spring, Mrs. E.G. Chipman.
    Marvin House, Broadway, A. & D. Snyder.
    Merchants Hotel, Caroline St., cor. Henry, G.H. Burrows.
    Mount Pleasant House, Broadway, C.H. Tefft.
    National Hotel, Congress street, C. Weil.
    New Columbian Hotel, Broadway, Waugh & Co.
    New York Hotel, Lake avenue, K. Davis.
    Pitney House, Congress street, J. Pitney.
    Pavilion Hotel, Division street.
    St. James Hotel, Congress street, Van Vleck.
    Summer Resort, Franklin street.
    Spring Street House. Spring street, Wm. Carpenter.
    Temple Grove, Circular street, H.M. Dowd.
    Vermont House, Front street. B.V. Dyer.
    Washington Hall, Broadway, A.J. Starr.
    Wager House, South Broadway.
    Waverly House, Broadway, E.A. Duel.
    Western Hotel, Church street, cor. Lawrence, French & Co.
    Wilbur House, Washington street.


[Illustration: THE WAVERLY HOUSE.]


Opposite Congress Park, opened July 12th, 1872]

Temple Grove Seminary

Is beautifully situated in a grove in the eastern part of the village,
on what was formerly called Temple Hill.

Rev. Chas. F. Dowd, A.M., a graduate of Yale College, is the

The regular graduating course occupies a period of four years, and
embraces many of the studies pursued in our colleges for young men,
while every facility is afforded for the more modern and artistic
accomplishments. The endowment is found in the fact that during the
long summer vacation the building is opened as a summer resort.

The Climate

Of Saratoga is remarkably pleasant and salubrious. Mountain bulwarks
protect it from wind and tempest. We doubt if there is any place in
the world which can offer more attractions to the invalid. Those who
visit Saratoga in the pursuit of health, will find a very pleasant
home among cultivated people at the Institute of Drs. STRONG,
on Circular street.

We take pleasure in speaking of this house because it is unique in its
character, and is one of the features of Saratoga. A guide book is not
the place to discuss systems of medicine. Suffice it to say that the
doctors, while regularly educated physicians, make use also of the
varied resources of hydropathy, and of a wider range of remedial
appliances than can be found in any similar institution on the globe.


It is worth the while of every tourist in Saratoga to visit the
elegant Institute, and examine its Vacuum Cure and Movement Cure, and
its superb bath-rooms and enjoy the luxury of a Turkish or Russian
bath. The doctors are very courteous, and visitors will find a
pleasant reception.

The Institute is open throughout the year. As a _summer home_ for
people in health, it fully meets the wants of those desiring first
class accommodations. There is no appearance of invalidism about the
house, and its remedial character in no respect diminishes its
attractions. Its table is superior, and its patrons are the religious
aristocracy of the land.

The Churches

Are commodious and built with special reference to the visiting
population. They are ministered to by resident pastors of culture and
repute, and their pulpits are filled during the season by
distinguished divines from all sections of the country.

The Methodist Society have the most elegant and conveniently located
edifice. It was dedicated the present year, and is situated on the
north side of Washington street, just above the Grand Union. It is
built of brick with sandstone trimmings, and cost $116,000. Rev. J.M.
King is the pastor. Residence Phila street.

The Episcopal church is nearly opposite the Methodist, a recent
edifice of stone most pleasing in its architecture. Rev. Dr. Camp is
the rector.

The Presbyterian church is a large brick structure, some little
distance up Broadway, and beyond the new Town Hall. Rev. Mr. Newman,

The Baptist church is a brick edifice on Washington street, near the
railroad. Rev. E.A. Wood, pastor.

The Congregational church is directly over the Post Office, on Phila
street. Rev. N.F. Rowland, pastor.


The Catholic church occupies a commanding and agreeable location upon
South Broadway, just beyond the Clarendon Hotel.

The Second Presbyterian church meets in Newland Chapel on Spring
street, near Temple Grove Seminary. Rev J.N. Crocker, pastor.

The Free Methodist chapel is on Regent street.

A list of the services, and the hours of holding them, is published
every Saturday in the daily _Saratogian_. The _Saratogian_ is the "old
established" paper, and seems to be as firm in its foundation as the
rock from which the Saratoga waters issue. Eli Perkins informs us that
Saratoga was named from the _Saratogian_. Col. Ritchie is one of the
spiciest editors to be found.

The hall and reading-room of

The Y.M.C.A.

Are located on Phila street, nearly opposite the Post-Office. Daily
prayer meetings are held from 10 to 11 A.M.

Real Estate,

While not exorbitant, as at Newport and other watering places, the
prices of real estate in Saratoga, as might be expected, are somewhat
higher than usually reign in villages of its size. The value of real
estate is enhanced very much yearly; the _average_ rise, for several
years, has been about ten per cent per annum. The size of the village
and the number of the resident population--now about 9,000--is
constantly increasing. Numerous and costly dwellings are being erected
on almost every street. The village _thrives_, and it may be
confidently hoped that, with its numerous and peculiar attractions,
this beautiful valley will ere long become the center of a vast
population. Educational institutions and manufacturing interests
should flourish here.

[Illustration: M.E. CHURCH, SARATOGA.]

There is a great demand for tasteful cottages for summer residents.

As a permanent home, Saratoga is delightful and attractive. The
climate is excellent. The home society is very pleasant, and
uncorrupted by the flash and glitter of the summer carnival.

At one portion of the year the most distinguished, cultivated and
wealthy of our own country are gathered here--and sight-seeing can be
done at home and on our own door-steps. The many blessings which
follow in the train of wealth and culture are found here. Travelers
from other climes who visit our country seldom return until they have
drank from these celebrated fountains. An opportunity is afforded in
the various pulpits of the village to listen to the most eloquent
preachers of the day. The schools are good, and presided over by
persons of skill and experience.

Those of our readers who desire more particular information in regard
to real estate and permanent or transient homes in Saratoga, are
referred to Messrs. Wm. M. Searing & Son, of Ainsworth's block.

Hack Fares.

Saratoga cannot be called extortionate. Unlike Niagara, its prices are
not exorbitant. Most people like to drive a fast horse, and they can
do so very reasonably here. A nice single team can be obtained a whole
afternoon for only $3, and a nobby carriage and coachman will carry a
party to the Lake and back for from $3 to $6, at any time during the
season. Hack fare, in the village, is 50 cents for each passenger;
baggage, 25 cents each piece. An elegant turnout, including coachman,
can be leased by the month for $75, and this includes the exclusive
use. Excellent accommodations for those who bring their own teams can
be obtained for from $8 to $10 per week for each horse. Over three
thousand private carriages are here every summer.


Drives and Walks.

The most fashionable drive is the new Boulevard to the Lake. Until
recently there have been few attractions beside the gay and brilliant
procession of carriages with their fair occupants and superb horses.

The drive is four miles in length, with a row of trees on each side
and one in the middle. Carriages pass down on one side and return on
the other.

No sooner have we turned by the Congress Spring than we are in a long
level reach of plains, dotted here and there with trees of pine and
fir, with a few distant hills of the Green Mountains rolling along the
horizon. It is a city gala at the hotel, but the five minutes were
magical, and, among the trees and rural scenes upon the road, we
remember the city and its life as a winter's dream. The vivid and
sudden contrast of this little drive with the hotel is one of the
pleasantest points of Saratoga life. In the excitement of the day it
is like stepping out, on a summer's evening, from the glaring
ball-room upon the cool and still piazza.

Near the outlet of the lake, on a bluff fifty feet above the surface
of the water, is

Moon's Lake House,

One of the features of Saratoga. There is a row of carriages at the
sheds--a select party is dining upon those choice trout, black bass
and young woodcock. The game dinners are good, the prices are high,
and the fried potatoes are noted all over the world. They have never
been successfully imitated. Are done up in papers and sold like
confectionery. The gayly dressed ladies indulge in beatific
expressives as they feast upon them.


A capital story is told of Moon, the proprietor--indeed, he tells it
"himself." A few months after one of his "seasons" had closed he
chanced to be in Boston, where he hired a horse and buggy to drive out
to Chelsea. When he returned and called for his bill, the livery
stable keeper charged him about six times the usual price; and when an
explanation of such an extraordinary charge was demanded, replied,
"Mr. Moon. I presume you do not recognize me, but _last summer I took
dinner at your Lake House_." "Say not another word about it, my good
fellow," responded Moon in his turn, "here is your money."

Mr. Moon always has something nice _expressly for you_. When his
liability to loss in so doing is considered, his prices will not
appear so exorbitant.

Those who with Prior,

            "Charmed with rural beauty
  Chase fleeting pleasure through the maze of life,"

will be pleased with

Saratoga Lake.

It has nine miles of length and two miles and a half of breadth. Many
and varied scenes of interest and grandeur occur within this broad
range of water and shore. The whole lake is replete with quiet and
gentle beauty, striking the beholder rather with admiration than

Boating and sailing may be enjoyed upon its waters, and a small
steamer, plying from point to point, is at the command of pleasure

Formerly an abundance of trout was found here, and shad and herring
were among the annual visitors; but the lake is now filled with the
black or Oswego bass, pickerel, muscalonge and perch.

[Illustration: SARATOGA LAKE.]

But Saratoga Lake is not wholly devoted to the sportsman, or to the
frivolities of fashionable butterflies. The beautiful and familiar
hymn commencing--

  "From whence doth this union arise,
    That hatred is conquer'd by love?
  It fastens our souls in such ties,
    That nature and time can't remove,"

was composed and sang first, upon the placid waters of this lake, by
Dr. Baldwin, of Boston, and a party of clerical friends.

That charming author, N.P. Willis, relates in his own charming style
the following tradition of Saratoga Lake:

"There is," he says, "an Indian superstition attached to this lake,
which probably has its source in its remarkable loneliness and
tranquility. The Mohawks believed that its stillness was sacred to the
Great Spirit, and that if a human voice uttered a sound upon its
waters, the canoe of the offender would instantly sink. A story is
told of an Englishwoman, in the early days of the first settlers, who
had occasion to cross this lake with a party of Indians, who, before
embarking, warned her most impressively of the spell. It was a silent,
breathless day, and the canoe shot over the smooth surface of the lake
like an arrow. About a mile from the shore, near the center of the
lake, the woman, willing to convince the savages of the weakness of
their superstition, uttered a loud cry. The countenances of the
Indians fell instantly to the deepest gloom. After a moment's pause,
however, they redoubled their exertions, and in frowning silence drove
the light bark like an arrow over the waters. They reached the shore
in safety, and drew up the canoe, and the woman rallied the chief on
his credulity. 'The Great Spirit is merciful,' answered the scornful
Mohawk, 'He knows that a white woman cannot hold her tongue.'"

[Illustration: BALL ROOM GRAND UNION.]

Chapman's Hill

Is a mile beyond the Lake House, and one hundred and eighty feet above
the level of the lake. A charming view is afforded. Immediately below,
the lake presents a mirrored surface of several square miles, while
the meadows and table lands on its western shore may be traced with
all their simple beauty until they merge into the Kayaderosseras range
of mountains.

Wagman's Hill,

Which is about three miles beyond, affords a still more extended view.
This hill is two hundred and forty feet above the lake.

Hagerty Hill,

Six miles north of the village, toward Luzerne, brings to view a fine

But the most extended view and the boldest landscape may be seen from

Wearing Hill,

On the Mount Pleasant road, and about fifteen miles from Saratoga
Springs. Saratoga, Ballston, Schenectady, Waterford, Mechanicville,
Schuylerville, Saratoga Lake, Round Lake, etc., by the aid of a glass,
can all be discerned from this hill.

Lake Lovely

Is the euphonious name of an interesting little sheet of water not far
from the village on the Boulevard to Saratoga Lake. Though not of very
great extent, it has many points of considerable attraction, one of
which is a glen on the eastern bank of the lake, which forms an echo,
said to be almost as distinct and powerful as the celebrated one in
the ruined bastion of the old French fortress at Crown Point.

Stiles' Hill,

An interesting locality, revealing a varied landscape, along the
Hudson and Mohawk rivers, may be reached in a drive of a few miles
along the base of the Palmerton Mountain.

Corinth Falls,

A bold cataract in the Upper Hudson, is some fifteen miles from
Saratoga, and a mile from Jessup's Landing, on the Adirondack Railway.


A charming hamlet at the confluence of the Hudson and Sacandaga, is
twenty miles from Saratoga. It may be reached by a carriage road or
the Adirondack Railway. Lake Luzerne, a beautiful sheet of water, on
the shore of which the village is situated, affords excellent
opportunities for fishing and boating. There are two excellent
hotels--Rockwell's and the Wayside. The latter has numerous cottages
attached for summer residents. It is owned by B.C. Butler, Esq., well
known as the author of an interesting History of Lake George and Lake
Champlain, and other works.

Lake George

Is about thirty miles from Saratoga by carriage road. The Adirondack
Railway, and a stage ride of nine miles, is the pleasantest and most
convenient route. Travelers can return the same day, if necessary.

There are other and shorter drives in Saratoga, which are very
attractive. SPRING AVENUE, leading to the Excelsior and
Sulphur springs and returning by Lake Avenue, is being laid out and
will make a beautiful drive.

The road to BALLSTON  and the SPOUTING SPRINGS  has
been recently improved, and is a popular resort.

[Illustration: CONGRESS PARK.]


The entire length of BROADWAY  is a magnificent drive and
affords an interesting and picturesque ride of some five minutes.
About a mile north of Congress Hall the half-mile track and handsome
grounds of Glen Mitchel are located. The Saratoga County Agricultural
Society have their buildings here. The track is open to all who wish,
both pedestrians and carriages. At the base of a steep bluff, shaded
with numerous trees, and directly facing the race-track, is the Glen
Mitchel hotel. The grounds are maintained at great expense by the
proprietors of the hotel, and when this and the short season of
patronage is regarded, the prices for ordinary refreshments will not
be considered as extraordinary as they might otherwise seem. The drive
may be extended by turning to the east and driving round a small
lake--Excelsior--and past the water-works, returning by Spring Avenue.

most beautiful in Saratoga. To reach the grove, pedestrians and
carriages will pass along Lake Avenue a little past Circular street,
when a small sign will be found pointing the way to the "Walk to
Excelsior Spring." No tourist should fail to visit this place. A
pleasant hour may be spent in the woods, after a stroll through which,
the delicious water of the Excelsior will be refreshing indeed.

Congress Park

Is the gem of Saratoga. It consists of a small hill in the shape of a
horseshoe, covered with handsome trees, and laid out in smooth walks
encircling the low ground which surrounds the spring. The park is the
property of the Congress and Empire Spring Co., who generously keep it
in perfect repair, and open to the public.


Gridley's Trout Ponds.

Those who are fond of "speckled beauties," and would like to obtain a
fine mess without encountering the swarms of mosquitoes, gnats and
sand flies that usually infest the region where the trout may be
taken, should visit Gridley's. "Old Gridley," as he is familiarly
called, formerly kept the Pavilion, near the depot. Some three or four
years since he conceived the idea of starting a fish propagating
establishment. His place is located in a beautiful little ravine,
about one mile and a half from Congress Spring and just beyond the
race-course. There may be seen myriads of speckled trout in a
succession of small ponds situated along down the ravine, one below
the other, supplied with water of the brilliancy of a crystal, gushing
from the banks. It is a well known fact that the chief reason for this
species of fish being so scarce, is because of their devouring each
other, or, in other words, "big fish eating up little fish." Hence,
Mr. Gridley, as well as other propagators, is obliged to separate them
as to age and size--one-year olds in one pond, two-year olds in
another, and so on down.

Visitors are very cordially received by Mr. G., and provided with
fishing tackle, etc--and sometimes a bottle of Rhine wine gratis--and
are duly informed that his prices are $1 per pound--that is, for every
pound of fish caught, visitors can pay $1. The fish may be seen
tantalizingly sporting and jumping out of the water two or three
thousand at a time. For any one who contemplates indulging in the
sport, and is willing to pay for it, this is the place to come.

The Saratoga Battle Ground.

A visit to the scene of the great battle of Saratoga, in October,
1777, which ended in the surrender of the British Army, under
Burgoyne, to the Americans, under Gates, will occupy a pleasant
though somewhat long day's excursion. The battle was fought upon the
elevated lands at Bemis Heights two miles from the Hudson, in the town
of Stillwater, about 15 miles from Saratoga Springs.

[Illustration: "SET UP A CENT"--INDIAN CAMP.]

Visitors may obtain all desired information respecting the precise
localities of the struggle from Cicerones on the spot.

The Surrender Ground,

The scene of the capitulation a few weeks subsequent to the battle, is
a few miles further up the river.

The Village Cemetery,

In places that can boast but few objects of interest, is usually one
of the chief places of resort. In Saratoga there are so many "show
places" and peculiar attractions, that the cemetery visitors are
limited principally to the resident population, and those who arm in
arm, or hand in hand, stroll through its meandering paths, or while
away their hours in its shady seats nurturing the tender passion.

The old cemetery is near the Empire Spring. The village cemetery
proper is found east and south of Congress Park. In both may be found
some curious inscriptions, and from the latter we transcribe the
following additions to cemetery literature, with all respect for those
whose memories are thus enshrined:

  "My Engine is now cold and still,
  No water doth her boiler fill,
  The wood affords its flames no more,
  My days of usefulness are o'er."

  "Rest here thou early call'd, in peace,
  'Till Jesus grant a sweet release."

                "There's not an hour
  Of day or dreaming nights but I am with thee,
  And not a flower that sleeps beneath the moon
  But in its hues or fragrance tells a tale of thee."

What seemed to us perhaps the most touching inscription, we found upon
a stone bearing the date of 1792:

  "This stone is raised by a daughter and only child, as a token of respect
  For a mother whom she was too young to know, but whose virtues
  She humbly desires to imitate."

The Verd-Antique Marble Works.

Among the outside diversions which every tourist, and especially every
scientist, should visit is the steam mills of the Adirondack
Verd-Antique Marble Co. The mills are situated in this village near
the freight depot, though the quarries are in Thurman, on the
Adirondack railroad. A very interesting peculiarity of this
marble--which is quite beautiful--is, that it contains minute fossils
of the earliest forms of existence known to scientific men--the
_Eozoön Canadense_. The marble is capable of a high polish, and makes
beautiful ornaments.


Some one has said that the amusements of Saratoga life are dancing and
drinking, the one exercise being the Omega as the other is the Alpha
of its butterfly life. Saratoga, however, _abounds_ in amusements.
There are the races at the race-course and on the lake; there are
balls and hops every night; there are the Indians and the Circular
railway, and drives in all directions; there are select parties and
music by the bands, and shopping, and concerts, and, at the religious
houses, charades and tableaux, and prayer meetings; and what more
could be asked?

Besides all these,

Josh Billings

says that, "after going to Long Branch and frolicking in the water, he
relishes going to Saratoga and letting the water frolic in him."

A correspondent gives the following

Routine for a Lady.

Rise and dress; go down to the spring; drink to the music of the band;
walk around the park--bow to gentlemen; chat a little; drink again;
breakfast; see who comes in on the train; take a siesta; walk in the
parlor; bow to gentlemen; have a little small talk with gentlemen;
have some gossip with ladies; dress for dinner; take dinner an hour
and a half; sit in the grounds and hear the music of the band; ride to
the lake; see who comes by the evening train; dress for tea; get tea;
dress for the hop; attend the hop; chat awhile in the parlors, and
listen to a song from some guest; go to bed. Varied by croquet,
ladies' bowling alley, Indian camp, the mineral springs, grand balls
twice a week, concerts, etc., and the races.


The three largest hotels have elegant ball-rooms, where hops take
place every evening. Balls are held every week at each of the houses.
Upon the latter occasion, the dressing becomes a matter of life and
death, and explains why such numbers of those traveling arks known as
"Saratoga trunks" are docked at the station every summer.

Balls are reported in the papers far and near, and the anxiety of some
to secure a good report of their costume is amusing. Brown's dismay
at the bills is somewhat appeased as he reads in the morning paper,
"Miss Brown, of ----, a charming graceful blonde, was attired in a
rich white corded silk, long train, with ruffles of the same,
overdress of pink gros grain, looped _en panier_, corsage low,
_decollette_, with satin bows and point lace; hair _a la Pompadour_,
with curls on white feathers, pearls and diamonds. _She was much
admired._ Miss Brown is the accomplished daughter of Mr. Brown, one of
the leading citizens of the Metropolis."

The hops are free to all the guests. An admission of $1 is customary
at the balls, and choice refreshments are served. Upon ball nights,
the tasteful iron bridge which connects Congress Hall with its
ball-room, and the grounds of the Grand Union, are illuminated by
colored lights, presenting a fairy-like scene of bewildering beauty.
Upon these occasions a large proportion of the population, both exotic
and native, come forth as upon a festal day.

The Races

Occur the middle of July, and the second week in August, and are under
the charge of the Saratoga Racing Association.

The race-course is about a mile from Congress Spring. It was laid out
in 1866, by C.H. Ballard, an accomplished surveyor, and is
unsurpassed, if equaled, by any race-course in America, not excepting
the famous Fashion course on Long Island. The swiftest and most noted
racers in the Union are brought here, and many of the most remarkable
races known to sportsmen have occurred on these grounds.

Indian Camp.

A few steps from Congress Spring, directly past the Saratoga
Club-House, leads you to a wicket gate marked "Circular, Railway and,
Indian, Camp."

The Indians are not such as figure conspicuously in the early annals
of our country and in our favorite romances--as Eli Perkins says--"far
different!" They are simply a Canadian Gypsy band, part low French and
part low Indian blood. They come here annually with an eye to
business, and open their weird camp to the public simply as a
speculation, offering for sale the various trinkets to which their
labor is directed.

The white tents glistening among the green hemlocks, and the rustic
lodges displaying the gayly decorated bow and quiver, make a picture
somewhat attractive; but the Indians themselves are dirty and homely,
and far from inviting in their appearance. The slim, blackeyed,
barefooted boys, who pester you with petitions to "set up a cent," as
a mark for their arrows, have a sort of Gypsy picturesqueness,
however; and as one walks down the little street between the
huts--half tent and half house--he may get an occasional glimpse of a
pappoose swinging in a hammock, and thank his stars for even such a
fractional view of the pristine life.

The Circular Railway

Is connected with the Indian Camp. An opportunity is here afforded for
enthusiasts and very gallant gentlemen to test their strength and
patience, by propelling themselves and friends round the circle in one
of the cars. The recreation requires the expenditure of no little
strength, and is only accomplished by the sweat of some one's brow,
but it is preferable, doubtless, to "swinging round the circle."

Within a few feet of the Circular Railway is a spring of pure soft
water. The water is quite drinkable, and is esteemed unusually pure
and wholesome. The well water of the town is good, and the water from
Excelsior Lake, which has lately been introduced throughout the
village by the Holly system, is considered superior.


Abundant opportunity is afforded those who have occasion to visit
emporiums of art and fashion on shopping designs intent. The flashing
establishments under the large hotels, as well as several others in
the village, cater entirely to the fashionable visitor. Everything
desirable in the way of laces, feathers, diamonds and ornaments, and
elegant dress goods are obtainable. It is the custom of many of the
fashionable merchants and _modistes_ of New York to open here during
the summer, branch establishments for the sale of their specialities.
There are numerous resident stores also, which would not disgrace New
York or Boston; among these the house of H. Van Deusen, on Broadway
and Phila street, near the Post-Office, takes the lead. During the
warm season, the Saratoga Broadway glitters with the brilliant display
in shop windows, and the gorgeous exhibition of goods upon the


It is only in the evening that Saratoga is in full bloom. When--

  "---- night throughout the gelid air,
  Veils with her sable wings the solar glare;
  When modest Cynthia clad in silver light
  Expands her beauty on the brow of night,
  Sheds her soft beams upon the mountain side,
  Peeps through the wood and quivers on the tide,"

then faces light up with the gas lamps. The parlors begin to fill with
elegantly attired ladies, the piazzas are thronged with chatty and
sociable gentlemen, and the streets are crowded, far more than they
are in the daytime, by pleasure strollers of either sex in elegant
array. The ball-room becomes radiant with costly chandeliers whose
effulgence is reflected by diamonds of the first water.

One dark evening, at the height of last season, in the midst of the
preparations for a brilliant ball, the gas which supplies the whole
village became suddenly exhausted. Candles were the only resource, and
there was by some mischance a limited supply of these. Bottles were
improvised for candlesticks, and stationed in the corners and on the
pianos of the massive parlors, rendering the scene grotesque and
ludicrous in the extreme, while the closer nestling of lovers and the
solemn stillness reigning on every hand gave sublimity to the picture.
The poet Saxe happened to be among the guests at Congress Hall, and
borrowed a candle from a pretty young lady. The next morning she found
under her door the following beautiful lines:

    "You gave me a candle; I give you my thanks,
      And add, as a compliment justly your due,
    There is not a girl in these feminine ranks
      Who could, if she would, hold a candle to you."

Verily "darkness brings the stars to view." On this occasion there was
no little "sparking," and though the flames of the gas lamps gave no
light, love's flame burned brighter than ever.

Saratoga in Winter.

Saratoga is not a "Country where the leaves never fall, and the
eternal day is summer-time." As the gorgeous autumnal sunsets of
October crown the golden-capped, or no longer verdant forests, the
summer beauties prepare to return to their winter homes. The falling
leaves in this vicinity are wondrously beautiful, and the cool sunsets
will richly reward those who tarry to behold them; but "the season" is
over, and the little town becomes almost a deserted village.

    "Brightly, sweet Summer, brightly,
    Thine hours have floated by."

A shade of melancholy cannot but possess those who remain after the
last polka is polked, the last light in the last ball-room is
extinguished, and the summer ended. At length the railway engine
whistles at long intervals; the mail-bags lose their plethora; the
parish preachers, shorn of occasional help, knuckle to new sermons;
the servants disperse; the head waiter retires to private life, and
the dipper-boy disappears in the shades of the pine forests; the
Indians pack up their duds, and, like the Arab, silently steal away;
while the landlords retire within their sanctums to count over their
hard-earned dollars.

After a time the village seems to become accustomed to the "new
departure," and local politics, Tammany rings and frauds, and
committees of forty agitate the public breast, until Spring returns
and Saratoga blossoms again with new beauty.


Although Saratoga is preëminently a fashionable resort, and the city
of vanity fair, it is nevertheless Cupid's summer-home; and lovers
here acknowledge the first throbbings of that passion of bright hopes,
and too many sad realities--love. The complaint is always heard that
"fish don't bite this season;" but autumn comes, the butterflies
return home, and then it is found that a goodly number have been
_caught_. Those not matrimonially inclined should know that a sojourn
at a Spa is attended with considerable danger.

Saratoga Society.

The poet says of Saratoga life:

    "Saratoga society,
    What endless variety!
    What pinks of propriety!
    What gems of sobriety!
    What garrulous old folks,
    What shy folks and bold folks,
    And warm folks and cold folks!
    Such curious dressing,
    And tender caressing,
    (Of course that is guessing.)
    Such sharp Yankee Doodles,
    And dandified noodles,
    And other pet poodles!
    Such very loud patterns,
    (Worn often by slatterns!)
    Such strait necks, and bow necks,
    Such dark necks and snow necks,
    And high necks and low necks!
    With this sort and that sort,
    The lean sort and fat sort,
    The bright and the flat sort--
    Saratoga is crammed full,
    And rammed full, and jammed full," etc.


But while we laugh at Saratoga, its dancing, dressing and flirtation,
it is yet not without its lessons for an observing eye.

            "Here the heart
    May give a useful lesson to the head,
    And Learning wiser grow without his books."

It is not all frivolity. Like every aspect of life, and like most
persons, it is a hint and suggestion of something high and poetic. It
is an oasis of repose in the desert of our American hurry. It is a
perpetual festival.

Here we step out of the worn and weary ruts of city society, and
mingle in a broad field of varied acquaintance. Here we may scent the
fairest flowers of the South, and behold the beauty of our Northern
climes. Here party distinctions and local rivalries are forgotten.
Here, too, men mingle and learn from contact and sympathy, a sweeter
temper and a more catholic consideration, so that the summer flower we
went to wreath may prove not the garland of an hour, but a firmly
linked chain in our American Union.

[Illustration: GOODBYE.



When the previous forms went to press, we were unable to give any
satisfactory and reliable statement of the Spouting Springs recently
discovered in the vicinity of the Geyser. We present, below, such
information as we are able to give in regard to them at this time,
hoping to render our description more complete in future editions of
this work.


This recently discovered Spouting Spring is located on the north side
of the road near the Geyser. The vein was struck in January of the
present year. The depth of the well is about 150 feet. The water
spouts about fifteen feet above the surface. Present appearances seem
to indicate that the spring is chalybeate, though the mineral
ingredients are not large. We are unadvised in reference to the plans
regarding it. Messrs. Verbeck and Gilbert are the proprietors.


Is located in the ramble between the railroad and the Geyser Spring,
and near the Ellis Spring.

On the 17th of June of the present year, at almost the identical hour
in which Mr. Gilmore opened his Peace Jubilee, a new mineral
fountain--a spouting spring--gushed forth from its deep origin in
mother earth to rejuvenate and bless mankind. The gas is so abundant
that if the orifice of the tube is closed for a few moments sufficient
force will accumulate to blow a steam whistle. It has not been
christened at present. We suggest that it be called the "Gilmore
Spring." The well is over a hundred feet deep, and the water rises
about thirty feet above the surface. The water is strongly saline, and
will probably be classed among the cathartic waters. It bears a strong
resemblance to the celebrated Geyser. The proprietors inform me that
several of their acquaintances have already experienced benefit from
this water. The spring promises to be valuable. The public will look
with interest to know into whose management the spring passes, as the
proprietors are plain farmers and intend to commit the spring to more
experienced hands, who will introduce it to the public favor. A neat
bottling house and a tasteful colonnade are already being constructed.
Prof. Chandler will probably make the analysis at an early date.


The spring owned by Mr. Duell, of the Waverly House, is beyond the
Geyser, and on the margin of the pond. We are unable to present
reliable information in regard to this spring, as it has just been
discovered by Mr. Jesse Button.

       *       *       *       *       *

The mother of all these spouting wells--the Geyser Spring--is rearing
quite a family of interesting children. We have heard it predicted
that the time is not very distant when every citizen of Saratoga will
have a mineral fountain in his door-yard. At present no successful
efforts have been made to obtain a spouting spring in the village. We
know of no reason to render success impossible or improbable.
Certainly, "'tis a consummation devoutly to be wished," and we should
be glad to see a fair trial of the experiment.

       *       *       *       *       *






Would call the attention of strangers, as well as citizens, to his
large and elegant assortment of


He keeps constantly on hand all the NOVELTIES OF THE SEASONS,

Rich Silks, Fine Dress Goods, Kid Gloves, Hosiery, Jewelry, Parasols,
Umbrellas, Real Laces, Cashmeres, Cloths, and everything to be found
in a First Class Dry Goods House.

I have only one price, sell exclusively for cash, and the only one
price cash house in Saratoga.


Remember the Store, Next to the Bank, 124 & 126 Broadway,


       *       *       *       *       *



St. John, Drew, Dean Richmond.

One of these STEAM PALACES will leave Albany every evening (Sundays
excepted), on arrival of the evening trains on the Rensselaer and
Saratoga, New York Central and Albany & Susquehanna Railroads.

[Symbol: Hand pointing right] Hudson River Railroad Tickets good for
State Room Passage,



Where State Rooms can be secured Daily.

    F.D. WHEELER, Jr., Agent.      J.W. HARCOURT, Agent,
            SARATOGA SPRINGS.                      ALBANY.

       *       *       *       *       *

B.F. JUDSON, Publisher, D.F. RITCHIE, Editor.



Office in St. Nicholas Building,

Corner Broadway and Phila Street,


The SARATOGIAN  is one of the best Advertising Mediums in this
section, as it has a circulation more than double that of all the
Republican press of Saratoga County combined.

The facilities of the SARATOGIAN  Office for the prompt
execution of

First Class Job Work,

are equal to those of any in the city, and all work is done at
reasonable figures.

       *       *       *       *       *


On Broadway,

A Few Doors Below the Clarendon.

B.V. FRASER,--Proprietor.

       *       *       *       *       *

Will be Published June, 1872,



Containing 50 Illustrations, including

Steel Plates and Photo-Plates.



       *       *       *       *       *

Grand Union Hotel


The Largest Summer Hotel in the World,



       *       *       *       *       *

Eureka Mineral & White Sulphur Spring Water



Lake Avenue, Saratoga Springs

SPRING, discovered last Summer is now open for visitors. The
Water is

  Equal in Quality and Strength to the best White Sulphur Springs

in this State, and FAR SUPERIOR to most of them.

The Company has erected a pleasant



And replete with every Convenience for WARM and COLD SULPHUR BATHS,

    Single Bath Tickets,               Fifty Cents.
    Coupon Tickets, good for 12 Baths, Five Dollars.


       *       *       *       *       *








Whitehall, Fort Edward, SARATOGA SPRINGS, Albany, Troy, Schenectady
and all points West.

Trains connect at Fort Edward for


The trip between Boston and Saratoga is made in one of the


provided by this Line--a luxury which cannot be enjoyed on any other
route, this being the only Line running through Day and Drawing
Room Cars between these points.

At the office of the Line in Boston (82 Washington St.,) during the
Excursion Season,


Will be on sale at


To all of the principal points in New England, New York and Canada.

_Summer tourists or invalids, traveling for health or pleasure, will
find it for their interest to send or call for circulars and
information before purchasing elsewhere._


    Boston Office,
            _C.A. FAXON, Gen. Agent._

       *       *       *       *       *


         Attorney at Law.         Notary Public.





(ROOMS 12 and 13,)



Furnished Cottages, Stores, Dwelling Houses,





Bonds, Mortgages and other Securities, Bought and Sold.


Collect Rents, Notes, Accounts and Evidences of Debt.

_Conveyancing, Searching and Examining Titles made a specialty._


Perfect satisfaction guaranteed to all parties.

By promptness, industry and fair dealing, we aim to merit the
confidence and give satisfaction to those who may entrust their
business to our charge.

        WM. M. SEARING & SON.

[Symbol: Hand pointing right] Only First Class Companies Represented.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: "CONGRESS HALL." HATHORN & SOUTHGATE, Proprietors.]

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