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Title: Military Memoirs of Capt. George Carleton
Author: Defoe, Daniel, 1661-1731
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Military Memoirs of Capt. George Carleton" ***

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THE Military Memoirs


Capt. _George Carleton_

DUTCH WAR, 1672.
In which he Serv'd, to the

Conclusion of the Peace at
UTRECHT, 1713.


Some of the most Remarkable TRANSACTIONS, both by Sea
and Land, during the Reigns of King _Charles_ and King
_James II_. hitherto unobserved by all the Writers of those

Together with

An exact Series of the War in _Spain_; and a particular Description
of the several Places of the Author's Residence in
many Cities, Towns, and Countries; their Customs,
Manners, _&c_. Also Observations on the Genius of the
_Spaniards_ (among whom he continued some Years a
Prisoner) their Monasteries and Nunneries (especially that
fine one at _Montserat_) and on their publick Diversions;
more particularly their famous BULL-FEASTS.

_LONDON_, Printed for E. SYMON, over against the Royal
Exchange, _Cornhill_, MDCCXXVIII.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Spencer_ Lord _Wilmington_,

_Knight of the_ Bath, _and one of his Majesty's most Honourable Privy

'Twas my fortune, my Lord, in my juvenile Years, _Musas cum Marte
commutare_, and truly I have Reason to blush, when I consider the small
Advantage I have reap'd from that Change. But lest it should be imputed
to my Want of Merit, I have wrote these Memoirs, and leave the World to
judge of my Deserts. They are not set forth by any fictitious Stories,
nor imbelished with rhetorical Flourishes; plain Truth is certainly most
becoming the Character of an old Soldier. Yet let them be never so
meritorious, if not protected by some noble Patron, some Persons may
think them to be of no Value.

To you therefore, my Lord, I present them; to you, who have so eminently
distinguished your self, and whose Wisdom has been so conspicuous to the
late Representatives of _Great Britain_, that each revolving Age will
speak in your Praise; and if you vouchsafe to be the _Mecoenas_ of these
Memoirs, your Name will give them sufficient Sanction.

An old Soldier I may truly call my self, and my Family allows me the
Title of a Gentleman; yet I have seen many Favourites of Fortune,
without being able to discern why they should be so happy, and my self
so unfortunate; but let not that discourage your Lordship from receiving
these my Memoirs into your Patronage; for the Unhappy cannot expect
Favour but from those who are endued with generous Souls.

Give me Leave, my Lord, to congratulate this good Fortune, that neither
Whig nor Tory (in this complaining Age) have found fault with your
Conduct. Your Family has produced Heroes, in defence of injured Kings;
and you, when 'twas necessary, have as nobly adher'd to the Cause of

_My_ LORD,
_Your Lordship's
Most obedient
And most devoted
Humble Servant_,


_The Author of these Memoirs began early to distinguish himself in
martial Affairs, otherwise he could not have seen such Variety of
Actions both by Sea and Land. After the last Dutch War he went into
Flanders, where he not only serv'd under the Command of his Highness the
Prince of Orange, whilst he was Generalissimo of the Dutch Forces, but
likewise all the time he reign'd King of Great Britain. Most of the
considerable Passages and Events, which happened during that time, are
contained in the former Part of this Book_.

_In the Year 1705, the Regiment in which he serv'd as Captain was
order'd to embark for the West Indies; and he, having no Inclination to
go thither, chang'd with an half-pay Captain; and being recommended to
the Earl of Peterborow by the late Lord Cutts, went with him upon that
noble Expedition into Spain_.

_When the Forces under his Lordship's Command were landed near
Barcelona, the Siege of that Place was thought by several impracticable,
not only for want of experienc'd Engineers, but that the Besieged were
as numerous as the Besiegers; yet the Courage of that brave Earl
surmounted those Difficulties, and the Siege was resolv'd upon_.

_Our Author having obtain'd, by his long Service, some Knowledge of the
practick Part of an Engineer, and seeing at that critical Time the great
Want of such, readily acted as one, which gave him the greater
Opportunity of being an Eye-Witness of his Lordship's Actions; and
consequently made him capable of setting them forth in these his

_It may not be perhaps improper to mention that the Author of these
Memoirs was born at Ewelme in Oxfordshire, descended from an ancient and
an honourable Family. The Lord Dudley Carleton, who died Secretary of
State to King Charles I. was his Great Uncle; and in_ _the same Reign
his Father was Envoy at the Court of Madrid, whilst his Uncle, Sir
Dudley Carleton, was Embassador to the States of Holland, Men in those
Days respected both for their Abilities and Loyalty._



_English Officer, &c._

In the year one Thousand six Hundred seventy two, War being proclaimed
with _Holland_, it was looked upon among Nobility and Gentry, as a
Blemish, not to attend the Duke of _York_ aboard the Fleet, who was then
declared Admiral. With many others, I, at that Time about twenty Years
of Age, enter'd my self a Voluntier on board the _London_, commanded by
Sir _Edward Sprage_, Vice-Admiral of the _Red_.

The Fleet set Sail from the _Buoy of the Nore_ about the beginning of
_May_, in order to join the _French_ Fleet, then at Anchor in St.
_Hellen's Road_, under the Command of the _Count de Estrée_. But in
executing this Design we had a very narrow Escape: For _De Ruyter_, the
Admiral of the _Dutch_ Fleet, having Notice of our Intentions, waited to
have intercepted us at the Mouth of the River, but by the Assistance of
a great Fog we pass'd _Dover_ before he was aware of it; and thus he
miscarried, with the poor Advantage of taking only one small Tender.

A Day or two after the joining of the _English_ and _French_, we sailed
directly towards the _Dutch_ Coast, where we soon got sight of their
Fleet; a Sand called the _Galloper_ lying between. The _Dutch_ seem'd
willing there to expect an Attack from us: But in regard the _Charles_
Man of War had been lost on those Sands the War before; and that our
Ships drawing more Water than those of the Enemy, an Engagement might be
render'd very disadvantageous; it was resolv'd in a Council of War to
avoid coming to a Battle for the present, and to sail direftly for
_Solebay_, which was accordingly put in Execution.

We had not been in _Solebay_ above four or five Days, when _De Ruyter_,
hearing of it, made his Signal for sailing in order to surprize us; and
he had certainly had his Aim, had there been any Breeze of Wind to
favour him. But though they made use of all their Sails, there was so
little Air stirring, that we could see their Fleet making towards us
long before they came up; notwithstanding which, our Admirals found
difficulty enough to form their Ships into a Line of Battle, so as to be
ready to receive the Enemy.

It was about Four in the Morning of the 28th of _May_, being _Tuesday_
in _Whitson Week_, when we first made the Discovery; and about Eight the
same Morning the Blue Squadron, under the Command of the Earl of
_Sandwich_, began to engage with Admiral _Van Ghent_, who commanded the
_Amsterdam_ Squadron; and about Nine the whole Fleets were under a
general Engagement. The Fight lasted till Ten at Night, and with equal
Fury on all Sides, the _French_ excepted, who appeared stationed there
rather as Spectators than Parties; and as unwilling to be too much upon
the Offensive, for fear of offending themselves.

During the Fight the _English_ Admiral had two Ships disabled under him;
and was obliged about Four in the Afternoon to remove himself a third
Time into the _London_, where he remain'd all the rest of the Fight, and
till next Morning. Nevertheless, on his Entrance upon the _London_,
which was the Ship I was in, and on our Hoisting the Standard, _De
Ruyter_ and his Squadron seem'd to double their Fire upon her, as if
they resolv'd to blow her out of the Water. Notwithstanding all which,
the Duke of _York_ remain'd all the time upon Quarter Deck, and as the
Bullets plentifully whizz'd around him, would often rub his Hands, and
cry, _Sprage, Sprage, they follow us still_. I am very sensible later
Times have not been over favourable in their Sentiments of that
unfortunate Prince's Valour, yet I cannot omit the doing a Piece of
Justice to his Memory, in relating a Matter of Fact, of which my own
Eyes were Witnesses, and saying, That if Intrepidity, and Undauntedness,
may be reckon'd any Parts of Courage, no Man in the Fleet better
deserv'd the Title of Couragious, or behav'd himself with more Gallantry
than he did.

The _English_ lost the _Royal James_, commanded by the Earl of
_Sandwich_, which about Twelve (after the strenuous Endeavours of her
Sailors to disengage her from two _Dutch_ Fire Ships plac'd on her, one
athwart her Hawsers, the other on her Star-board Side) took Fire, blew
up, and perish'd; and with her a great many brave Gentlemen, as well as
Sailors; and amongst the rest the Earl himself, concerning whom I shall
further add, that in my Passage from _Harwich_ to the _Brill_, a Year or
two after, the Master of the Pacquet Boat told me, That having observ'd
a great Flock of Gulls hovering in one particular Part of the Sea, he
order'd his Boat to make up to it; when discovering a Corpse, the
Sailors would have return'd it to the Sea, as the Corpse of a _Dutch
Man_; but keeping it in his Boat, it proved to be that of the Earl of
_Sandwich_. There was found about him between twenty and thirty Guineas,
some Silver, and his Gold Watch; restoring which to his Lady, she kept
the Watch, but rewarded their Honesty with all the Gold and Silver.

This was the only Ship the _English_ lost in this long Engagement. For
although the _Katherine_ was taken, and her Commander, Sir _John
Chicheley_, made Prisoner, her Sailors soon after finding the
Opportunity they had watch'd for, seiz'd all the _Dutch_ Sailors, who
had been put in upon them, and brought the Ship back to our own Fleet,
together with all the _Dutch Men_ Prisoners; for which, as they
deserv'd, they were well rewarded. This is the same Ship which the Earl
of _Mulgrave_ (afterwards Duke of _Buckingham_) commanded the next Sea
Fight, and has caus'd to be painted in his House in St. _James's Park_.

I must not omit one very remarkable Occurrence which happened in this
Ship, There was a Gentleman aboard her, a Voluntier, of a very fine
Estate, generally known by the Name of _Hodge Vaughan_. This Person
receiv'd, in the beginning of the Fight, a considerable Wound, which the
great Confusion, during the Battle, would not give them leave to inquire
into; so he was carried out of the Way, and disposed of in the Hold.
They had some Hogs aboard, which the Sailor, under whose Care they were,
had neglected to feed; these Hogs, hungry as they were, found out, and
fell upon the wounded Person, and between dead and alive eat him up to
his very Scull, which, after the Fight was over, and the Ship retaken,
as before, was all that could be found of him.

Another Thing, less to be accounted for, happen'd to a Gentleman
Voluntier who was aboard the same Ship with my self. He was of known
personal Courage, in the vulgar Notion of it, his Sword never having
fail'd him in many private Duels. But notwithstanding all his
Land-mettle, it was observ'd of him at Sea, that when ever the Bullets
whizz'd over his Head, or any way incommoded his Ears, he immediately
quitted the Deck, and ran down into the Hold. At first he was gently
reproach'd; but after many Repetitions he was laugh'd at, and began to
be despis'd; sensible of which, as a Testimonial of his Valour, he made
it his Request to be ty'd to the Main Mast. But had it been granted him,
I cannot see any Title he could have pleaded from hence, to true
Magnanimity; since to be ty'd from running away can import nothing less,
than that he would have still continued these Signs of Cowardice, if he
had not been prevented. There is a Bravery of Mind which I fansy few of
those Gentlemen Duellists are possess'd of. True Courage cannot proceed
from what Sir _Walter Raleigh_ finely calls _the Art_ or _Philosophy of
Quarrel_. No! It must be the Issue of Principle, and can have no other
Basis than a steady Tenet of Religion. This will appear more plain, if
those Artists in Murder will give themselves leave cooly to consider,
and answer me this Question, Why he that had ran so many Risques at his
Sword's Point, should be so shamefully intimidated at the Whiz of a
Cannon Ball?

_The Names of those English Gentlemen who lost their Lives, as I
remember, in this Engagement_.

Commissioner Cox, Captain of the _Royal Prince_, under the Command of
the Admiral; and Mr. _Travanian_, Gentleman to the Duke of _York_; Mr.
_Digby_, Captain of the _Henry_, second Son to the Earl of _Bristol_;
Sir _Fletchvile Hollis_, Captain of the _Cambridge_, who lost one of his
Arms in the War before, and his Life in this; Captain _Saddleton_, of
the _Dartmouth_; the Lord _Maidstone_, Son to the Earl of _Winchelsea_,
a Voluntier on board the _Charles_, commanded by Sir _John Harman_,
Vice-Admiral of the Red.

Sir _Philip Carteret_, Mr. _Herbert_, Mr. _Cotterel_, Mr. _Peyton_, Mr.
_Gose_, with several other Gentlemen unknown to me, lost their Lives
with the Earl of _Sandwich_, on board the _Royal James_; Mr. _Vaughan_,
on board the _Katherine_, commanded by Sir _John Chicheley_.

In this Engagement, Sir _George Rook_ was youngest Lieutenant to Sir
_Edward Sprage_; Mr. _Russel_, afterwards Earl of _Orford_, was Captain
of a small Fifth Rate, called the _Phnix_; Mr. _Herbert_, afterwards
Earl of _Torrington_, was Captain of a small Fourth Rate, called the
_Monck_; Sir _Harry Dutton Colt_, who was on board the _Victory_,
commanded by the Earl of _Offery_, is the only Man now living that I can
remember was in this Engagement.

       *       *       *       *       *

But to proceed, the _Dutch_ had one Man of War sunk, though so near the
Shore, that I saw some part of her Main Mast remain above Water, with
their Admiral _Van Ghent_, who was slain in the close Engagement with
the Earl of _Sandwich_. This Engagement lasted fourteen Hours, and was
look'd upon the greatest that ever was fought between the _English_ and
the _Hollander_.

I cannot here omit one Thing, which to some may seem trifling; though I
am apt to think our Naturalists may have a different Opinion of it, and
find it afford their Fansies no undiverting Employment in more curious,
and less perilous Reflections. We had on board the _London_ where, as I
have said, I was a Voluntier, a great Number of Pidgeons, of which our
Commander was very fond. These, on the first firing of our Cannon,
dispers'd, and flew away, and were seen no where near us during the
Fight. The next Day it blew a brisk Gale, and drove our Fleet some
Leagues to the Southward of the Place where they forsook our Ship, yet
the Day after they all returned safe aboard; not in one Flock, but in
small Parties of four or five at a Time. Some Persons at that Time
aboard the Ship admiring at the Manner of their Return, and speaking of
it with some Surprize, Sir _Edward Sprage_ told them, That he brought
those Pidgeons with him from the _Streights_; and that when, pursuant to
his Order, he left the _Revenge_ Man of War, to go aboard the _London_,
all those Pidgeons, of their own accord, and without the Trouble or Care
of carrying, left the _Revenge_ likewise, and removed with the Sailors
on board the _London_, where I saw them; All which many of the Sailors
afterwards confirm'd to me. What Sort of Instinct this could proceed
from, I leave to the Curious.

Soon after this Sea Engagement I left the Fleet. And the Parliament, the
Winter following, manifesting their Resentments against two of the
Plenipotentiaries, _viz. Buckingham_ and _Arlington_, who had been sent
over into _Holland_; and expressing, withal, their great Umbrage taken
at the prodigious Progress of the _French_ Arms in the _United
Provinces_; and warmly remonstrating the inevitable Danger attending
_England_ in their Ruin. King _Charles_ from all this, and for want of
the expected Supplies, found himself under a Necessity of clapping up a
speedy Peace with _Holland_.

This Peace leaving those youthful Spirits, that had by the late Naval
War been rais'd into a generous Ferment, under a perfect Inactivity at
Home; they found themselves, to avoid a Sort of Life that was their
Aversion, oblig'd to look out for one more active, and more suitable to
their vigorous Tempers Abroad.

I must acknowledge my self one of that Number; and therefore in the Year
1674,1 resolv'd to go into _Flanders_, in order to serve as Voluntier in
the Army commanded by his Highness the Prince of _Orange_. I took my
Passage accordingly at _Dover_ for _Calais_, and so went by way of
_Dunkirk_ for _Brussels_.

Arriving at which Place, I was inform'd that the Army of the
Confederates lay encamp'd not far from _Nivelle_; and under the daily
Expectation of an Engagement with the Enemy. This News made me press
forward to the Service; for which Purpose I carry'd along with me proper
Letters of Recommendation to Sir _Walter Vane_, who was at that time a
Major-General. Upon further Enquiry I understood, that a Party of Horse,
which was to guard some Waggons that were going to Count _Montery's_
Army, were to set out next Morning; so I got an _Irish_ Priest to
introduce me to the Commanding Officer, which he readily oblig'd me in;
and they, as I wish'd them, arriv'd in the Camp next day.

I had scarce been there an Hour, when happen'd one of the most
extraordinary Accidents in Life. I observ'd in the East a strange dusty
colour'd Cloud, of a pretty large Extent, riding, not before the Wind
(for it was a perfect Calm) with such a precipitate Motion, that it was
got over our Heads almost as soon as seen. When the Skirts of that Cloud
began to cover our Camp, there suddenly arose such a terrible
Hurricaine, or Whirlwind, that all the Tents were carry'd aloft with
great Violence into the Air; and Soldiers' Hats flew so high and thick,
that my Fansy can resemble it to nothing better than those Flights of
Rooks, which at Dusk of Evening, leaving the Fields, seek their roosting
Places. Trees were torn up by the very Roots; and the Roofs of all the
Barns, _&c._ belonging to the Prince's Quarters, were blown quite away.
This lasted for about half an Hour, until the Cloud was wholly past over
us, when as suddenly ensued the same pacifik Calm as before the Cloud's
Approach. Its Course was seemingly directly West; and yet we were soon
after inform'd, that the fine Dome of the great Church at _Utrecht_ had
greatly suffer'd by it the same Day. And, if I am not must mistaken, Sir
_William Temple_, in his Memoirs, mentions somewhat of it, which he felt
at _Lillo_, on his Return from the Prince of _Orange's_ Camp, where he
had been a Day or two before.

As soon after this, as I could get an Opportunity, I deliver'd, at his
Quarters, my recommendatory Letters to Sir _Walter Vane_; who receiv'd
me very kindly, telling me at the same time, that there were six or
seven _English_ Gentlemen, who had enter'd themselves Voluntiers in the
Prince's own Company of Guards: And added, that he would immediately
recommend me to Count _Solmes_, their Colonel. He was not worse than his
Word, and I was enter'd accordingly. Those six Gentlemen were as
follows, ---- _Clavers_, who since was better known by the Title of Lord
_Dundee_; Mr. _Collier_, now Lord _Portmore_; Mr. _Rooke_, since
Major-General; Mr. _Hales_, who lately died, and was for a long time
Governor of _Chelsea-Hospital_; Mr. _Venner_, Son of that _Venner_
remarkable for his being one of the Fifth-Monarchy Men; and Mr. _Boyce_.
The four first rose to be very eminent; but Fortune is not to all alike

In about a Week's Time after, it was resolv'd in a Council of War, to
march towards _Binch_, a small wall'd Town, about four Leagues from
_Nivelle_; the better to cut off the Provisions from coming to the
Prince of _Condé's_ Camp that Way.

Accordingly, on the first Day of _August_, being _Saturday_, we began
our March; and the _English_ Voluntiers had the Favour of a Baggage
Waggon appointed them. Count _Souches_, the Imperial General, with the
Troops of that Nation, led the Van; the main Body was compos'd of
_Dutch_, under the Prince of _Orange_. as Generalissimo; and the
_Spaniards_, under Prince _Vaudemont_, with some Detachments, made the
Rear Guard.

As we were upon our March, I being among those Detachments which made up
the Rear Guard, observ'd a great Party of the Enemy's Horse upon an
Ascent, which, I then imagin'd, as it after prov'd, to be the Prince of
_Condé_ taking a View of our Forces under March. There were many
Defiles, which our Army must necessarily pass; through which that Prince
politickly enough permitted the _Imperial_ and _Dutch_ Forces to pass
unmolested. But when Prince _Vaudemont_, with the _Spaniards_, and our
Detachments, thought to have done the like, the Prince of _Condé_ fell
on our Rear Guard; and, after a long and sharp Dispute, entirely routed
'em; the Marquiss of _Assentar_, a _Spanish_ Lieutenant-General, dying
upon the spot.

Had the Prince of _Condé_ contented himself with this Share of good
Fortune, his Victory had been uncontested: But being pushed forward by a
vehement Heat of Temper (which he was noted for) and flush'd with this
extraordinary Success, he resolv'd to force the whole Confederate Army
to a Battle. In order to which, he immediately led his Forces between
our Second Line, and our Line of Baggage; by which means the latter were
entirely cut off; and were subjected to the Will of the Enemy, who fell
directly to plunder; in which they were not a little assisted by the
routed _Spaniards_ themselves, who did not disdain at that time to share
with the Enemy in the plundering of their Friends and Allies.

The _English_ Voluntiers had their Share of this ill Fortune with the
rest; their Waggon appointed them being among those intercepted by the
Enemy; and I, for my Part, lost every Thing but Life, which yet was
saved almost as unaccountably as my Fellow-Soldiers had lost theirs. The
Baggage, as I have said, being cut off, and at the Mercy of the Enemy,
every one endeavour'd to escape through, or over the Hedges. And as in
all Cases of like Confusion, one endeavours to save himself upon the
Ruins of others: So here, he that found himself stopt by another in
getting over the Cap of a Hedge, pull'd him back to make way for
himself, and perhaps met with the same Fortune from a Third, to the
Destruction of all. I was then in the Vigour of my Youth, and none of
the least active, and perceiving how it had far'd with some before me,
I clapt my left Leg upon the Shoulders of one who was thus contending
with another, and with a Spring threw my self over both their Heads and
the Hedge at the same time. By this Means I not only sav'd my Life (for
they were all cut to Pieces that could not get over) but from an
Eminence, which I soon after attain'd, I had an Opportunity of seeing,
and making my Observations upon the remaining Part of that glorious

It was from that advantageous Situation, that I presently discover'd
that the Imperialists, who led the Van, had now join'd the main Body.
And, I confess, it was with an almost inexpressible Pleasure, that I
beheld, about three a-Clock, with what intrepid Fury they fell upon the
Enemy. In short, both Armies were universally engag'd, and with great
Obstinacy disputed the Victory till Eleven at Night. At which Time the
_French_, being pretty well surfeited, made their Retreat. Nevertheless,
to secure it by a Stratagem, they left their lighted Matches hanging in
the Hedges, and waving with the Air, to conceal it from the Confederate

About two Hours after, the Confederate Forces follow'd the Example of
their Enemies, and drew off. And tho' neither Army had much Reason to
boast; yet as the Prince of _Orange_ remained last in the Field; and die
_French_ had lost what they before had gain'd, the Glory of the Day fell
to the Prince of _Orange_; who, altho' but twenty-four Years of Age, had
the Suffrage of Friend and Foe, of having play'd the Part of an old and
experienc'd Officer.

There were left that Day on the Field of Battle, by a general
Computation, not less than eighteen Thousand Men on both Sides, over and
above those, who died of their Wounds: The Loss being pretty equal, only
the _French_ carried off most Prisoners. Prince _Waldeck_ was shot
through the Arm, which I was near enough to be an Eye-witness of; And my
much lamented Friend, Sir _Walter Vane_, was carried off dead. A Wound
in the Arm was all the Mark of Honour, that I as yet could boast of,
though our Cannon in the Defiles had slain many near me.

The Prince _of Condé_ (as we were next Day inform'd) lay all that Night
under a Hedge, wrapp'd in his Cloke: And either from the Mortification
of being disappointed in his Hopes of Victory; or from a Reflection of
the Disservice, which is own natural over Heat of Temper had drawn upon
him, was almost inconsolable many Days after. And thus ended the famous
Battle of _Seneff_.

But though common Vogue has given it the Name of a Battle, in my weak
Opinion, it might rather deserve that of a confus'd Skirmish; all Things
having been forcibly carried on without Regularity, or even Design
enough to allow it any higher Denomination: For, as I have said before,
notwithstanding I was advantagiously stationed for Observation, I found
it very often impossible to distinguish one Party from another. And this
was more remarkably evident on the Part of the Prince of _Orange_, whose
Valour and Vigour having led him into the Middle of the Enemy, and being
then sensible of his Error, by a peculiar Presence of Mind, gave the
Word of Command in _French_, which he spoke perfectly well. But the
_French_ Soldiers, who took him for one of their own Generals, making
Answer, that their Powder was all spent, it afforded Matter of
Instruction to him to persist in his Attack; at the same Time, that it
gave him a Lesson of Caution, to withdraw himself, as soon as he could,
to his own Troops.

However, the Day after the Prince of _Orange_ thought proper to march to
_Quarignan_, a Village within a League of _Mons_; where he remain'd some
Days, till he could be supply'd from _Brussells_ with those Necessaries
which his Army stood in need of.

From thence we march'd to _Valenciennes_, where we again encamp'd, till
we could receive Things proper for a Siege. Upon the Arrival whereof,
the Prince gave Orders to decamp, and march'd his Army with a Design to
besiege _Aeth_. But having Intelligence on our March, that the Mareschal
_De Humiers_ had reinforc'd that Garrison, we march'd directly to
_Oudenard_, and immediately invested it.

This Siege was carried on with such Application and Success, that the
Besiegers were in a few Days ready for a Storm; but the Prince of
_Condé_ prevented them, by coming up to its Relief. Upon which the
Prince of _Orange_, pursuant to the Resolution of a Council of War the
Night before, drew off his Forces in order to give him Battle; and to
that purpose, after the laborious Work of filling up our Lines of
Contravallation, that the Horse might pass more freely, we lay upon our
Arms all Night. Next Morning we expected the Imperial General, Count
_Souches_, to join us; but instead of that, he sent back some very
frivolous Excuses, of the Inconveniency of the Ground for a Battle; and
after that, instead of joining the Prince, marched off quite another
way; the Prince of _Orange_, with the _Dutch_ and _Spanish_ Troops,
marched directly for _Ghent_; exclaiming publickly against the Chicanery
of _Souches_, and openly declaring, That he had been advertis'd of a
Conference between a _French_ Capuchin and that General, the Night
before. Certain it is, that that General lay under the Displeasure of
his Master, the Emperor, for that Piece of Management; and the Count _de
Sporck_ was immediately appointed General in his Place.

The Prince of _Orange_ was hereupon leaving the Army in great Disgust,
till prevail'd upon by the Count _de Montery_, for the general Safety,
to recede from that Resolution. However, seeing no likelihood of any
Thing further to be done, while _Souches_ was in Command, he resolv'd
upon a Post of more Action, though more dangerous; wherefore ordering
ten Thousand Men to march before, he himself soon after foliow'd to the
Siege of _Grave_.

The _Grave_, a strong Place, and of the first Moment to the
_Hollanders_, had been block'd up by the _Dutch_ Forces all the Summer;
the Prince of _Orange_ therefore leaving the main Army under Prince
_Waldeck_ at _Ghent_, follow'd the Detachment he had made for the Siege
of that important Place, resolving to purchase it at any Rate. On his
Arrival before it, Things began to find new Motion; and as they were
carried on with the utmost Application and Fury, the Besieged found
themselves, in a little Time, oblig'd to change their haughty Summer
Note for one more suitable to the Season.

The Prince, from his first coming, having kept those within hotly ply'd
with Ball, both from Cannon and Mortars, Monsieur _Chamilly_, the
Governor, after a few Days, being weary of such warm Work, desired to
capitulate; upon which Hostages were exchanged, and Articles agreed on
next Morning. Pursuant to which, the Garrison march'd out with Drums
beating and Colours flying, two Days after, and were conducted to

By the taking this Place, which made the Prince of _Orange_ the more
earnest upon it, the _French_ were wholly expell'd their last Year's
astonishing Conquests in _Holland_. And yet there was another
Consideration, that render'd the Surrender of it much more considerable.
For the _French_ being sensible of the great Strength of this Place, had
there deposited all their Cannon and Ammunition, taken from their other
Conquests in _Holland_, which they never were able to remove or carry
off, with tolerable Prospect of Safety, after that Prince's Army first
took the Field.

The Enemy being march'd out, the Prince enter'd the Town, and
immediately order'd public Thanksgivings for its happy Reduction. Then
having appointed a Governor, and left a sufficient Garrison, he put an
End to that Campaign, and return'd to the _Hague_, where he had not been
long before he fell ill of the Small Pox. The Consternation this threw
the whole Country into, is not to be express'd; Any one that had seen it
would have thought, that the _French_ had made another Inundation
greater than the former. But when the Danger was over, their Joy and
Satisfaction, for his Recovery, was equally beyond Expression.

The Year 1675 yielded very little remarkable in our Army. _Limburgh_ was
besieged by the _French_, under the Command of the Duke of _Enguien_,
which the Prince of _Orange_ having Intelligence of, immediately
decamp'd from his fine Camp at _Bethlem_, near _Louvain_, in order to
raise the Siege. But as we were on a full March for that purpose, and
had already reach'd _Ruremond_, Word was brought, that the Place had
surrender'd the Day before. Upon which Advice, the Prince, after a short
Halt, made his little Army (for it consisted not of more than thirty
Thousand Men) march back to _Brabant_. Nothing of moment, after this,
occurr'd all that Campaign.

In the Year 1676, the Prince of _Orange_ having, in concert with the
_Spaniards_, resolv'd upon the important Siege of _Maestrich_ (the only
Town in the _Dutch_ Provinces, then remaining in the Hands of the
_French_) it was accordingly invested about the middle of _June_, with
an Army of twenty Thousand Men, under the Command of his Highness Prince
_Waldeck_, with the grand Army covering the Siege. It was some Time
before the heavy Cannon, which we expected up the _Maes_, from
_Holland_, arrived; which gave Occasion to a Piece of Raillery of
Monsieur _Calvo_, the Governor, which was as handsomely repartec'd. That
Governor, by a Messenger, intimating his Sorrow to find, we had pawn'd
our Cannon for Ammunition Bread. Answer was made, That in a few Days we
hoped to give him a Taste of the Loaves, which he should find would be
sent him into the Town in extraordinary plenty. I remember another Piece
of Raillery, which pass'd some Days after between the _Rhingrave_ and
the same _Calvo_. The former sending Word, that he hoped within three
Weeks to salute that Governor's Mistress within the Place. _Calvo_
reply'd, He'd give him leave to kiss her all over, if he kiss'd her any
where in three Months.

But our long expected Artillery being at last arriv'd, all this Jest and
Merriment was soon converted into earnest. Our Trenches were immediately
open'd towards the _Dauphin_ Bastion, against which were planted many
Cannon, in order to make a Breach; my self as a Probationer being twice
put upon the forlorn Hope to facilitate that difficult Piece of Service.
Nor was it long before such a Breach was effected, as was esteem'd
practicable, and therefore very soon after it was ordered to be

The Disposition for the Attack was thus ordered; two Serjeants with
twenty Grenadiers, a Captain with fifty Men, my self one of the Number;
then a Party carrying Wool Sacks, and after them two Captains with one
Hundred Men more; the Soldiers in the Trenches to be ready to sustain
them, as Occasion should require.

The Signal being given, we left our Trenches accordingly, having about
one Hundred Yards to run, before we could reach the Breach, which we
mounted with some Difficulty and Loss; all our Batteries firing at the
same instant to keep our Action in countenance, and favour our Design.
When we were in Possession of the Bastion, the Enemy fir'd most
furiously upon us with their small Cannon through a thin brick Wall, by
which, and their hand Grenadoes, we lost more Men than we did in the
Attack it self.

But well had it been had our ill Fortune stopp'd there; for as if
Disaster must needs be the Concomitant of Success, we soon lost what we
had thus gotten, by a small, but very odd Accident. Not being furnished
with such Scoopes as our Enemies made use of, in tossing their hand
Grenadoes some distance off, one of our own Soldiers aiming to throw one
over the Wall into the Counterscarp among the Enemy, it so happen'd that
he unfortunately miss'd his Aim, and the Grenade fell down again on our
side the Wall, very near the Person who fir'd it. He starting back to
save himself, and some others who saw it fall, doing the like, those who
knew nothing of the Matter fell into a sudden Confusion, and imagining
some greater danger than there really was, every body was struck with a
panick Fear, and endeavour'd to be the first who should quit the
Bastion, and secure himself by a real Shame from an imaginary Evil. Thus
was a Bastion, that had been gloriously gain'd, inadvertently deserted;
and that too, with the Loss of almost as many Men in the Retreat, as had
been slain in the Onset, and the Enemy most triumphantly again took
Possession of it.

Among the Slain on our Side in this Action, was an Ensign of Sir _John
Fenwick_'s Regiment; and as an Approbation of my Services his Commission
was bestowed upon me.

A few Days after it was resolv'd again to storm that Bastion, as before;
out of three _English_, and one _Scotch_ Regiment, then in the Camp, a
Detachment was selected for a fresh Attack. Those Regiments were under
the Command of Sir _John Fenwick_ (who was afterwards beheaded) Colonel
_Ralph Widdrington_, and Colonel _Ashley_, of the _English_; and Sir
_Alexander Collier_, Father of the present Lord _Portmore_, of the
_Scotch_. Out of every of these four Regiments, as before, were detach'd
a Captain, a Lieutenant, and an Ensign, with fifty Men: Captain _Anthony
Bamwell_, of Sir _John Fenwick's_ Regiment, who was now my Captain,
commanding that Attack.

At break of Day the Attack was begun with great Resolution; and though
vigorously maintain'd, was attended with the desir'd Success. The
Bastion was again taken, and in it the commanding Officer, who in
Service to himself, more than to us, told us, that the Center of the
Bastion would soon be blown up being to his Knowledge undermin'd for
that purpose. But this Secret prov'd of no other use, than to make us,
by way of Precaution, to keep as much as we could upon the Rampart. In
this Attack Captain _Barnwell_ lost his Life; and it happened my new
Commission was wetted (not, as too frequently is the Custom, with a
Debauch) but with a Bullet through my Hand, and the Breach of my Collar
Bone with the Stroke of a Halberd.

After about half an hour's Possession of the Bastion, the Mine under it,
of which the _French_ Officer gave us warning, was sprung; the Enemy at
the same Time making a furious Sally upon us. The Mine did a little,
though the less, Execution, for being discovered; but the Sally no way
answer'd their End, for we beat them back, and immediately fix'd our
Lodgment; which we maintain'd during the Time of the Siege. But to our
double Surprize, a few Days after they fir'd another Mine under, or
aside, the former, in which they had plac'd a quantity of Grenadoes,
which did much more Execution than the other: Notwithstanding all which,
a Battery of Guns was presently erected upon that Bastion, which very
considerably annoy'd the Enemy.

The Breach for a general Storm was now render'd almost practicable; yet
before that could be advisably attempted, there was a strong Horn-work
to be taken. Upon this Exploit the _Dutch_ Troops only were to signalize
themselves; and they answered the Confidence repos'd in them; for though
they were twice repuls'd, at the third Onset they were more successful,
and took Possession; which they likewise kept to the Raising of the

There was a Stratagem lay'd at this Time, which in its own Merit one
would have thought should not have fail'd of a good Effect; but to shew
the Vanity of the highest human Wisdom it miscarry'd. On the other side
of the _Maes_, opposite to _Maestrich_, lies the strong Fortress of
_Wyck_, to which it is join'd by a stone Bridge of six fair Arches. The
design was, by a false Attack on that regular Fortification to draw the
Strength of the Garrison to its Defence, which was but very natural to
imagine would be the Consequence. Ready to attend that well concerted
false Attack, a large flat bottom'd Boat, properly furnish'd with
Barrels of Gun-Powder, and other Necessaries, was to fall down under one
of the middle Arches, and when fix'd there, by firing the Powder to have
blown up the Bridge, and by that means to have prevented the Return of
the Garrison to oppose a real Attack at that instant of Time to be made
upon the Town of _Maestrich_ by the whole Army.

The false Attack on _Wyck_ was accordingly made, which, as propos'd,
drew the Main of the Garrison of _Maestrich_ to its Defence, and the
Boat so furnish'd fell down the River as projected, but unfortunately,
before it could reach the Arch, from the Darkness of the Night, running
upon a Shoal, it could not be got off; for which Reason the Men in the
Boat were glad to make a hasty Escape for fear of being discovered; as
the Boat was, next Morning; and the whole Design laid open.

This Stratagem thus miscarrying, all Things were immediately got ready
for a general Storm, at the main Breach in the Town; and the rather,
because the Prince of _Orange_ had receiv'd incontestable Intelligence,
That Duke _Schomberg_, at the Head of the _French_ Army, was in full
march to relieve the Place. But before every Thing could be rightly got
ready for the intended Storm (though some there were who pretended to
say, that a Dispute rais'd by the _Spaniards_ with the _Dutch_, about
the Propriety of the Town, when taken, was the Cause of that Delay) we
heard at some distance several Guns fir'd as Signals of Relief; upon
which we precipitately, and, as most imagin'd, shamefully drew off from
before the Place, and join'd the grand Army under Prince _Waldeck_. But
it was Matter of yet greater Surprize to most on the Spot, that when the
Armies were so joyn'd, we did not stay to offer the Enemy Battle. The
well known Courage of the Prince, then Generalissimo, was so far from
solving this Riddle, that it rather puzzled all who thought of it;
however, the prevailing Opinion was, that it was occasion'd by some
great Misunderstanding between the _Spaniards_ and the _Dutch_. And
Experience will evince, that this was not the only Disappointment of
that Nature, occasion'd by imperfect Understandings.

Besides the Number of common Soldiers slain in this Attack, which was
not inconsiderable, we lost here the brave _Rhingrave_, a Person much
lamented on account of his many other excellent Qualifications, as well
as that of a General. Colonel _Ralph Widdrington_, and Colonel _Doleman_
(who had not enjoy'd _Widdrington's_ Commission above a Fortnight).
Captain _Douglas_, Captain _Barnwell_, and Captain _Lee_, were of the
Slain among the _English_; who, indeed, had born the whole brunt of the
Attack upon the _Dauphin_'s Bastion.

I remember the Prince of _Orange_, during the Siege, receiv'd a Shot
through his Arm; which giving an immediate Alarm to the Troops under his
Command, he took his Hat off his Head with the wounded Arm, and smiling,
wav'd it, to shew them there was no danger. Thus, after the most gallant
Defence against the most couragious Onsets, ended the Siege of
_Maestrich_; and with it all that was material that Campaign.

Early in the Spring, in the Year 1677, the _French_ Army, under the Duke
of _Orleans_, besieged at once, both _Cambray_ and _Saint Omers_. This
last the Prince of _Orange_ seem'd very intent and resolute to relieve.
In order to which, well knowing by sad Experience, it would be to little
purpose to wait the majestick Motions of the _Spaniards_, that Prince
got together what Forces he could, all in _Dutch_ Pay, and marching
forward with all speed, resolv'd, even at the Hazard of a Battle, to
attempt the Raising the Siege. Upon his appearing the Duke of _Orleans_,
to whose particular Conduct the Care of that Siege was committed, drew
off from before the Place, leaving scarce enough of his Men to defend
the Trenches. The Prince was under the Necessity of marching his Forces
over a Morass; and the Duke, well knowing it, took care to attack him
near _Mont Cassel_, before half his little Army were got over. The
Dispute was very sharp, but the Prince being much out number'd, and his
Troops not able, by the Straitness of the Passage, to engage all at
once, was oblig'd at last to retreat, which he did in pretty good Order.
I remember the _Dutch_ Troops did not all alike do their Duty; and the
Prince seeing one of the Officers on his fullest speed, call'd to him
over and over to halt; which the Officer in too must haste to obey, the
Prince gave him a Slash over the Face, saying, _By this Mark I shall
know you another Time_. Soon after this Retreat of the Prince, Saint
_Omers_ was surrender'd.

Upon this Retreat the Prince marching back, lay for some time among the
Boors, who from the good Discipline, which he took care to make his
Troops observe, did not give us their customary boorish Reception. And
yet as secure as we might think our selves, I met with a little Passage
that confirm'd in me the Notions, which the generality as well as I, had
imbib'd of the private Barbarity of those People, whenever an
Opportunity falls in their Way. I was stroling at a Distance from my
Quarters, all alone, when I found my self near one of their Houses; into
which, the Doors being open, I ventur'd to enter. I saw no body when I
came in, though the House was, for that Sort of People, well enough
furnish'd, and in pretty decent Order. I call'd, but no body answering,
I had the Curiosity to advance a little farther, when, at the Mouth of
the Oven, which had not yet wholly lost its Heat, I spy'd the Corpse of
a Man so bloated, swoln and parch'd, as left me little room to doubt,
that the Oven had been the Scene of his Destiny. I confess the Sight
struck me with Horror; and as much Courage and Security as I enter'd
with, I withdrew in haste, and with quite different Sentiments, and
could not fansy my self out of Danger till I had reach'd our Camp. A
wise Man should not frame an Accusation on Conjectures; but, on Inquiry,
I was soon made sensible, that such barbarous Usage is too common among
those People; especially if they meet with a Straggler, of what Nation

This made me not very sorry when we decamp'd, and we soon after receiv'd
Orders to march and invest _Charleroy_; before which Place we stay'd
somewhat above a Week, and then drew off. I remember very well, that I
was not the only Person then in the Camp that was at a Loss to dive into
the Reason of this Investiture and Decampment: But since I at that time,
among the Politicians of the Army, never heard a good one, I shall not
venture to offer my Sentiments at so great a Distance.

We, after this march'd towards _Mons_; and, in our March, pass'd over
the very Grounds on which the Battle of _Seneff_ had been fought three
Years before. It was with no little Pleasure, that I re-survey'd a
Place, that had once been of so much Danger to me; and where my Memory
and Fansy now repeated back all those Observations I had then made under
some unavoidable Confusion. Young as I was, both in Years and
Experience, from my own Reflections, and the Sentiments of others, after
the Fight was over, methought I saw visibly before me the well order'd
Disposition of the Prince of _Condé_; the inexpressible Difficulties
which the Prince of _Orange_ had to encounter with; while at the same
Moment I could not omit to repay my Debt to the Memory of my first
Patron, Sir _Walter Vane_, who there loosing his Life, left me a
solitary Wanderer to the wide World of Fortune.

But these Thoughts soon gave place to new Objects, which every Hour
presented themselves in our continu'd March to _Enghien_, a Place famous
for the finest Gardens in all _Flanders_, near which we encamp'd, on the
very same Ground which the _French_ chose some Years after at the Battle
of _Steenkirk_: of which I shall speak in its proper Place. Here the
Prince of _Orange_ left our Army, as we afterwards found, to pass into
_England_; where he marry'd the Princess _Mary_, Daughter of the Duke of
_York_. And after his Departure, that Campaign ended without any thing
further material.

Now began the Year 1678, famous for the Peace, and no less remarkable
for an Action previous to it, which has not fail'd to employ the Talents
of Men, variously, as they stood affected. Our Army, under the Prince of
_Orange_, lay encamp'd at _Soignies_, where it was whisper'd that the
Peace was concluded. Notwithstanding which, two Days after, being
_Sunday_ the 17th Day of _August_, the Army was drawn out, as most
others as well as my self apprehended, in order to _feux de Joye_; but
in lieu of that, we found our March order'd towards St. _Dennis_, where
the Duke of _Luxembourg_ lay, as he imagin'd, safe in inaccessible

About three of the Clock our Army arriv'd there, when we receiv'd Orders
to make the Attack. It began with a most vigorous Spirit, that promis'd
no less than the Success which ensu'd. The three _English_ and three
_Scotch_ Regiments, under the Command of the ever renown'd Earl of
_Ossory_, together with the Prince of _Orange_'s Guards, made their
Attack at a Place call'd the _Château_; where the _French_ took their
Refuge among a Parcel of Hop-Poles; but their Resource was as weak as
their Defence; and they were soon beaten out with a very great

It was here that a _French_ Officer having his Pistol directed at the
Breast of the Prince, Monsieur _D'Auverquerque_ interpos'd, and shot the
Officer dead upon the Spot.

The Fight lasted from three in the Afternoon till Nine at Night; when
growing dark, the Duke of _Luxembourg_ forsook his Entrenchments, into
which we march'd next Morning. And to see the sudden Change of Things!
that very Spot of Ground, where nothing but Fire and Fury appear'd the
Day before, the yest saw solac'd with the Proclamation of a Peace.

About an Hour before the Attack began, the Duke of _Monmouth_ arriv'd in
the Army, being kindly receiv'd by the Prince of _Orange_, bravely
fighting by his Side, all that Day. The Woods and the Unevenness of the
Ground, render'd the Cavalry almost useless; yet I saw a Standard, among
some others, which was taken from the Enemy, being richly embroidered
with Gold and Silver, bearing the Sun in the Zodiack, with these haughty
Words, _Nihil obstabit eunte_. On the News of this unexpected Victory,
the States of _Holland_ sent to congratulate the Prince; and to testify
how much they valued his Preservation, they presented Monsieur
_D'Auverquerque,_ who had so bravely rescued him, with a Sword, whose
Handle was of massy Gold set with Diamonds. I forgot to mention that
this Gentleman receiv'd a Shot on his Head at the Battle of _Seneff_;
and truly in all Actions, which were many, he nobly distinguished
himself by his Bravery. He was Father of this present Earl of

_The Names of the English Officers which I knew to be killed in this

Lieut. Col. Archer,      Capt. Pemfield,
Capt. Charleton,         Lieut. Charleton,
Capt. Richardson,        Lieut. Barton,
Capt. Fisher,            Ensign Colville.
With several others, whose Names I have forgot.

Lieut. Col. _Babington_, who began the Attack, by beating the _French_
out of the Hop Garden, was taken Prisoner. Col. _Hales_, who was a long
time Governor of _Chelsea College_, being then a Captain, received a
Shot on his Leg, of which he went lame to his dying Day.

The War thus ended by the Peace of _Nimeugen_, The Regiment in which I
serv'd, was appointed to be in Garrison at the _Grave_. We lay there
near four Years, our Soldiers being mostly employ'd about the
Fortifications. It was here, and by that Means, that I imbib'd the
Rudiments of Fortification, and the practick Part of an Enginier, which
in my more advanc'd Years was of no small Service to me.

Nevertheless, in the Year 1684, our Regiment receiv'd Orders to march to
_Haren_, near _Brussels_, where, with other Forces, we encamp'd, till we
heard that _Luxemburg_, invaded by the _French,_ in a Time of the
profoundest Peace, had surrender'd to them. Then we decamp'd, and
march'd to _Mechlin_; where we lay in the Field till near _November_.
Not that there was any War proclaim'd; but as not knowing, whether those
who had committed such Acts of Hostility in time of Peace might not take
it in their Heads to proceed yet further. In _November_ we march'd into
that Town, where Count _Nivelle_ was Governor: The Marquiss _de Grana_,
at the same time, governing the _Netherlands_ in the Jurisdiction of

Nothing of any Moment happen'd after this, till the Death of King
_Charles_ II. The Summer after which, the three _English_ and three
_Scotch_ Regiments receiv'd Orders to pass over into _England_, upon the
Occasion of _Monmouth's_ Rebellion; where, upon our Arrival, we receiv'd
Orders to encamp on _Hounslow-Heath_. But that Rebellion being soon
stifled, and King _James_ having no farther Need of us, those Regiments
were order'd to return again to _Holland_, into the proper Service of
those who paid them.

Tho' I am no stiff Adherer to the Doctrine of Predestination, yet to the
full Assurance of a Providence I never could fail to adhere. Thence came
it, that my natural Desire to serve my own native Country prevail'd upon
me to quit the Service of another, though its Neighbour and Allie.
Events are not always to direct the Judgment; and therefore whether I
did best in following those fondling Dictates of Nature, I shall neither
question nor determine.

However, it was not long after my Arrival in _England_ before I had a
Commission given me by King _James_, to be a Lieutenant in a new rais'd
Regiment under the Command of Colonel _Tufton_, Brother to the Earl of
_Thanet_. Under this Commission I sojourn'd out two peaceable Campaigns
on _Hounslow-Heath;_ where I was an Eye-Witness of one mock Siege of
_Buda_: After which our Regiment was order'd to _Berwick_, where I
remained till the Revolution.

King _James_ having abdicated the Throne, and the Prince of _Orange_
accepting the Administration, all Commissions were order'd to be renew'd
in his Name. The Officers of our Regiment, as well as others, severally
took out theirs accordingly, a very few excepted, of which Number was
our Colonel; who refusing a Compliance, his Commission was given to Sir
_James Lesley._

The Prince of _Orange_ presently after was declar'd and proclaim'd King,
and his Princess Queen, with a conjunctive Power. Upon which our
Regiment was order'd into _Scotland_, where Affairs appear'd under a
Face of Disquietude. We had our Quarters at _Leith_, till the Time the
Castle of _Edinburgh_, then under the Command of the Duke of _Gordon_,
had surrender'd. After which, pursuant to fresh Orders, we march'd to
_Inverness_, a Place of no great Strength, and as little Beauty; though
yet I think I may say, without the least Danger of an _Hyperbole_, that
it is as pleasant as most Places in that Country. Here we lay two long
Winters, perpetually harrass'd upon Parties, and hunting of somewhat
wilder than their wildest Game, namely, the _Highlanders,_ who were, if
not as nimble footed, yet fully as hard to be found.

But General _Mackay_ having receiv'd Orders to build a Fort at
_Inverlochy_, our Regiment, among others, was commanded to that Service.
The two Regiments appointed on the same Duty, with some few Dragoons,
were already on their March, which having join'd, we march'd together
through _Louquebar_. This sure is the wildest Country in the
_Highlands_, if not in the World. I did not see one House in all our
March; and their Oeconomy, if I may call it such, is much the same with
that of the _Arabs_ or _Tartars_. Hutts, or Cabins of Trees and Trash,
are their Places of Habitation; in which they dwell, till their
half-horn'd Cattle have devour'd the Grass, and then remove, staying no
where longer than that Convenience invites them.

In this March, or rather, if you please, most dismal Peregrination, we
could be very rarely go two on a Breast; and oftner, like Geeze in a
String, one after another. So that our very little Army had sometimes,
or rather most commonly, an Extent of many Miles; our Enemy, the
_Highlanders_, firing down upon us from their Summits all the Way. Nor
was it possible for our Men, or very rarely at least, to return their
Favours with any Prospect of Success; for as they pop'd upon us always
on a sudden, they never stay'd long enough to allow any of our Soldiers
a Mark; or even time enough to fire: And for our Men to march, or climb
up those Mountains, which to them were natural Champion, would have been
as dangerous as it seem'd to us impracticable. Nevertheless, under all
these disheartning Disadvantages, we arriv'd at _Inverlochy_, and there
perform'd the Task appointed, building a Fort on the same Spot where
_Cromwell_ had rais'd one before. And which was not a little remarkable,
we had with us one _Hill_, a Colonel, who had been Governor in
_Oliver's_ Time, and who was now again appointed Governor by General
_Mackay_. Thus the Work on which we were sent being effected, we march'd
back again by the Way of _Gillycrancky_, where that memorable Battle
under _Dundee_ had been fought the Year before.

Some time after, Sir _Thomas Levingston_, afterwards Earl of _Tiviot_,
having receiv'd Intelligence that the _Highlanders_ intended to fall
down into the lower Countries, in a considerable Body, got together a
Party of about five Hundred (the Dragoons, call'd the _Scotch Greys_,
inclusive) with which he resolv'd, if possible, to give them a Meeting.
We left _Inverness_ the last Day of _April_, and encamp'd near a little
Town call'd _Forrest_, the Place where, as Tradition still confidently
avers, the Witches met _Mackbeth_, and greeted him with their diabolical
Auspices. But this Story is so naturally display'd in a Play of the
immortal _Shakespear_, that I need not descend here to any farther

Here Sir _Thomas_ receiv'd Intelligence, that the _Highlanders_ design'd
to encamp upon the _Spey_, near the Laird of _Grant's_ Castle. Whereupon
we began our March about Noon; and the next Day, about the Break
thereof, we came to that River, where we soon discover'd the
_Highlanders_ by their Fires. Sir _Thomas_ immediately, on Sight of it,
issued his Orders for our fording the River, and falling upon them as
soon after as possible. Both were accordingly perform'd, and with so
good Order, Secrecy and Success, that _Cannon_ and _Balfour_, their
Commanders, were obliged to make their Escape naked.

They were about one Thousand in Number, of which were kill'd about three
Hundred; we pursued them, till they got up _Crowdale-Hill,_ where we
lost them in a Fog. And, indeed so high is that Hill, that they, who
perfectly knew it, assured me that it never is without a little dark Fog
hanging over it. And to me, at that Instant of Time, they seem'd rather
to be People receiv'd up into Clouds, than flying from an Enemy.

Near this there was an old Castle, call'd _Lethendy_, into which about
Fifty of them made their Retreat, most of them Gentlemen, resolving
there to defend themselves to the last. Sir _Thomas_ sent a Messenger to
them, with an Offer of Mercy, if they would surrender: But they refus'd
the profer'd Quarter, and fir'd upon our Men, killing two of our
Grenadiers, and wounding another. During my Quarters at the _Grave_,
having learnt to throw a Grenado, I took three or four in a Bag, and
crept down by the Side of a Ditch, or Dyke, to an old thatch'd House
near the Castle, imagining, on my mounting the same, I might be near
enough to throw them, so as to do execution. I found all Things answer
my Expectation; and the Castle wanting a Cover, I threw in a Grenado,
which put the Enemy immediately into Confusion. The Second had not so
good Success, falling short, and the Third burst as soon as it was well
out of my Hand, though without Damage to my self. But throwing the
Fourth in at a Window, it so increas'd the Confusion, which the first
had put them into, that they immediately call'd out to me, upon their
Parole of Safety, to come to them.

Accordingly I went up to the Door, which they had barricaded, and made
up with great Stones; when they told me they were ready to surrender
upon Condition of obtaining Mercy. I return'd to Sir _Thomas_; and
telling him what I had done, and the Consequence of it, and the Message
they had desir'd me to deliver (a great many of the _Highland_
Gentlemen, not of this Party, being with him) Sir _Thomas_, in a high
Voice, and broad _Scotch_, best to be heard and understood, order'd me
back to tell 'em, _He would cut them all to Pieces, for their Murder of
two of his Grenadiers, after his Proffer of Quarter_.

I was returning full of these melancholy Tidings, when Sir _Thomas_,
advancing after me a little Distance from the rest of the Company; _Hark
ye, Sir_, says he, _I believe there may be among 'em some of our old
Acquaintance_ (for we had serv'd together in the Service of the _States_
in _Flanders_) _therefore tell them they shall have good Quarter_. I
very willingly carry'd back a Message to much chang'd to my Mind; and
upon delivering of it, without the least Hesitation, they threw down the
Barricado, open'd the Door, and out came one _Brody_, who, as he then
told me, had had a Piece of his Nose taken off by one of my Grenadoes. I
carry'd him to Sir _Thomas_, who confirming my Message, they all came
out, and surrendered themselves Prisoners. This happen'd on _May Day_ in
the Morning; for which Reason we return'd to _Inverness_ with our
Prisoners, and Boughs in our Hats; and the _Highlanders_ never held up
their Heads so high after this Defeat.

Upon this Success Sir _Thomas_ wrote to Court, giving a full Account of
the whole Action. In which being pleas'd to make mention of my
Behaviour, with some Particularities, I had soon after a Commission
order'd me for a Company in the Regiment under the Command of Brigadier

My Commission being made out, sign'd, and sent to me, I repair'd
immediately to _Portsmouth_, where the Regiment lay in Garrison. A few
Days after I had been there, Admiral _Russel_ arriv'd with the Fleet,
and anchor'd at St. _Hellen's_, where he remain'd about a Week. On the
18th of _May_ the whole Fleet set Sail; and it being my Turn the same
Day to mount the Main Guard, I was going the Rounds very early, when I
heard great shooting at Sea. I went directly to acquaint the Governor,
and told him my Sentiments, that the two contending Fleets were actually
engag'd, which indeed prov'd true; for that very Night a Pinnace, which
came from our Fleet, brought News that Admiral _Russel_ had engag'd the
_French_ Admiral _Turvile_; and, after a long and sharp Dispute, was
making after them to their own Coasts.

The next Day, towards Evening, several other Expresses arriv'd, one
after another, all agreeing in the Defeat of the _French_ Fleet, and in
the Particulars of the burning their _Rising Sun_, together with many
other of their Men of War, at _la Hogue_. All which Expresses were
immediately forwarded to Court by Mr. _Gibson_, our Governor.

About two Months after this, our Regiment, among many others, was,
according to Order, shipp'd off on a Secret Expedition, under the
Command of the Duke of _Leinster_, no Man knowing to what Place we were
going, or on what Design; no, not the Commander himself. However, when
we were out at Sea, the General, according to Instructions, opening his
Commission, we were soon put out of our Suspence, and inform'd, that our
Orders were to attack _Dunkirk_. But what was so grand a Secret to those
concern'd in the Expedition, having been intrusted to a Female
Politician on Land, it was soon discover'd to the Enemy; for which
Reason our Orders were countermanded, before we reach'd the Place of
Action, and our Forces receiv'd Directions to land at _Ostend_.

Soon after this happen'd that memorable Battle at _Steenkirk_, which as
very few at that Time could dive into the Reason of, and mistaken
Accounts of it have pass'd for authentick, I will mention somewhat more
particularly: The Undertaking was bold; and, as many thought, bolder
than was consistent with the Character of the wise Undertaker.
Nevertheless, the _French_ having taken _Namure_; and, as the
Malecontents alledg'd, in the very Sight of a superior Army; and nothing
having been done by Land of any moment, Things were blown into such a
dangerous Fermentation, by a malicious and lying Spirit, that King
_William_ found himself under a Necessity of attempting something that
might appease the Murmurs of the People. He knew very well, though spoke
in the Senate, that it was not true, that his Forces at the Siege of
_Namure_ exceeded those of the Enemy; no Man could be more afflicted
than he at the overflowing of the _Mehaigne_, from the continual Rains,
which obstructed the Relief he had designed for that important Place;
yet since his Maligners made an ill Use of these false Topicks, to
insinuate that he had no Mind to put an End to the War, he was resolv'd
to evince the contrary, by shewing them that he was not afraid to
venture his Life for the better obtaining what was so much desired.

To that Purpose, receiving Intelligence that the Duke of _Luxemburg_ lay
strongly encamp'd at _Steenkirk_, near _Enghien_ (tho' he was sensible
he must pass through many Defiles to engage him; and that the many
Thickets between the two Armies would frequently afford him new
Difficulties) he resolv'd there to attack him. Our Troops at first were
forc'd to hew out their Passage for the Horse; and there was no one
difficulty that his Imagination had drawn that was lessen'd by
Experience; and yet so prosperous were his Arms at the Beginning, that
our Troops had made themselves Masters of several Pieces of the Enemy's
Cannon. But the farther he advanc'd, the Ground growing straiter, so
strait as not to admit his Army's being drawn up in Battalia, the Troops
behind could not give timely Succour to those engag'd, and the Cannon we
had taken was forcibly left behind in order to make a good Retreat. The
_French_ had lost all their Courage in the Onset; for though they had
too fair an Opportunity, they did not think fit to pursue it; or, at
least, did it very languidly. However, the Malecontents at Home, I
remember, grew very well pleas'd after this; for so long as they had but
a Battle for their Money, like true _Englishmen_, lost or won, they were

Several Causes, I remember, were assign'd for this Miscarriage, as they
call'd it; Some there were who were willing to lay it upon the _Dutch_;
and alledge a Saying of one of their Generals, who receiving Orders to
relieve some _English_ and _Scotch_ that were over-power'd, was heard to
say, _Dam 'em, since they love Fighting let 'em have their Bellies
full_. But I should rather impute the Disappointment to the great Loss
of so many of our bravest Officers at the very first Onset. General
_Mackay_, Colonel _Lanier_, the Earl of _Angus_, with both his
Field-Officers, Sir _Robert Douglas_, Colonel _Hodges_, and many others
falling, it was enough to put a very considerable Army into Confusion. I
remember one particular Action of Sir _Robert Douglas_, that I should
think my self to blame should I omit: Seeing his Colours on the other
Side the Hedge, in the Hands of the Enemy, he leap'd over, slew the
Officer that had them, and then threw them over the Hedge to his
Company; redeeming his Colours at the Expense of his Life. Thus the
_Scotch_ Commander improv'd upon the _Roman_ General; for the brave
_Posthumius_ cast his Standard in the Middle of the Enemy for his
Soldiers to retrieve, but _Douglas_ retriev'd his from the Middle of the
Enemy, without any Assistance, and cast it back to his Soldiers to
retain, after he had so bravely rescued it out of the Hands of the

From hence our Regiment receiv'd Orders to march to _Dixmuyd_, where we
lay some time employ'd in fortifying that Place. While we were there, I
had one Morning stedfastly fix'd my Eyes upon some Ducks, that were
swimming in a large Water before me; when all on a sudden, in the Midst
of a perfect Calm, I observ'd such a strange and strong Agitation in the
Waters, that prodigiously surpriz'd me. I was at the same Moment seiz'd
with such a Giddiness in my Head, that, for a Minute or two, I was
scarce sensible, and had much a-do to keep on my Legs. I had never felt
any thing of an Earthquake before, which, as I soon after understood
from others, this was; and it left, indeed, very apparent Marks of its
Force in a great Rent in the Body of the great Church, which remains to
this Day.

Having brought the intended Fortifications into some tolerable Order, we
receiv'd a Command out of hand to reimbarque for _England_. And, upon
our Landing, Directions met us to march for _Ipswich_, where we had our
Quarters all that Winter. From thence we were order'd up to _London_, to
do Duty in the _Tower_. I had not been there long, before an Accident
happen'd, as little to be accounted for, without a divine Providence, as
some would make that Providence to be, that only can account for it.

There was at that Time, as I was assur'd by my Lord _Lucas_, Constable
of it, upwards of twenty Thousand Barrels of Gun-powder, in that they
call the _White-Tower_, when all at once the middle Flooring did not
only give way, or shrink, but fell flat down upon other Barrels of
Powder, together with many of the same combustible Matter which had been
placed upon it. It was a Providence strangely neglected at that Time,
and hardly thought of since; But let any considerate Man consult the
Consequences, if it had taken fire; perhaps to the Destruction of the
whole City, or, at least, as far as the _Bridge_ and Parts adjacent. Let
his Thoughts proceed to examine, why, or how, in that precipitate Fall,
not one Nail, nor one Piece of Iron, in that large Fabrick, should
afford one little Spark to enflame that Mass of sulphurous Matter it was
loaded with; and if he is at a loss to find a Providence, I fear his
Friends will be more at a loss to find his Understanding. But the
Battle of _Landen_ happening while our Regiment was here on Duty, we
were soon remov'd to our Satisfaction from that pacifick Station, to one
more active in _Flanders_.

Notwithstanding that fatal Battle the Year preceding, namely, _A.D._
1694, the Confederate Army under King _William_ lay encamp'd at _Mont.
St. André_, an open Place, and much expos'd; while the _French_ were
entrench'd up to their very Teeth, at _Vignamont_, a little Distance
from us. This afforded Matter of great Reflection to the Politicians of
those Times, who could hardly allow, that if the Confederate Army
suffer'd so much, as it really did in the Battle of _Landen_, it could
consist with right Conduct to tempt, or rather dare a new Engagement.
But those sage Objectors had forgot the well-known Courage of that brave
Prince, and were as little capable of fathoming his Designs. The Enemy,
who to their Sorrow had by Experience been made better Judges, was
resolv'd to traverse both; for which Purpose they kept close within
their Entrenchments; so that after all his Efforts, King _William_
finding he could no way draw them to a Battle, suddenly decamp'd, and
march'd directly to _Pont Espiers_, by long Marches, with a Design to
pass the _French_ Lines at that Place.

But notwithstanding our Army march'd in a direct Line, to our great
Surprize, we found the Enemy had first taken possession of it. They gave
this the Name of the _Long March_, and very deservedly; for though our
Army march'd upon the String, and the Enemy upon the Bow, sensible of
the Importance of the Post, and the Necessity of securing it, by double
horseing with their Foot, and by leaving their Weary and Weak in their
Garrisons, and supplying their Places with fresh Men out of them, they
gain'd their Point in disappointing us. Though certain it is, that March
cost 'em as many Men and Horses as a Battle. However their Master, the
_French_ King, was so pleas'd with their indefatigable and auspicious
Diligence, that he wrote, with his own Hand, a Letter of Thanks to the
Officers, for the great Zeal and Care they had taken to prevent the
Confederate Army from entring into _French Flanders_.

King _William_, thus disappointed in that noble Design, gave immediate
Orders for his whole Army to march through _Oudenard_, and then ecamp'd
at _Rofendale_; after some little Stay at that Camp we were remov'd to
the _Camerlins_, between _Newport_ and _Ostend_, once more to take our
Winter Quarters there among the Boors.

We were now in the Year 1695 when the strong Fortress of _Namur_, taken
by the _French_ in 1692 and since made by them much stronger, was
invested by the Earl of _Athlone_. After very many vigorous Attacks,
with the Loss of many Men, the Town was taken, the Garrison retiring
into the Castle. Into which soon after, notwithstanding all the
Circumspection of the Besiegers, Mareschal _Bouflers_ found means, with
some Dragoons, to throw himself.

While King _William_ was thus engag'd in that glorious and important
Siege, Prince _Vaudemont_ being posted at _Watergaem_, with about fifty
Battallions, and as many Squadrons, the Mareschal _Villeroy_ laid a
Design to attack him with the whole _French_ Army. The Prince imagin'd
no less, therefore he prepar'd accordingly, giving us Orders to fortify
our Camp, as well as the little time we had for it would permit. Those
Orders were pursu'd; nevertheless, I must confess, it was beyond the
Reach of my little Reason to account for our so long Stay in the Sight
of an Army so much superior to ours. The Prince in the Whole could
hardly muster thirty Thousand; and _Villeroy_ was known to value himself
upon having one Hundred Thousand effective Men. However, the Prince
provisionally sent away all our Baggage that very Morning to _Ghent_,
and still made shew as if he resolv'd to defend himself to the last
Extremity in our little Entrenchments. The enemy on their Side began to
surround us; and in their Motions for that Purpose, blew up little Bags
of Gun-powder, to give the readier Notice how far they had acomplish'd
it. Another Captain, with my self, being plac'd on the Right, with one
Hundred Men (where I found Monsieur _Montal_ endeavouring, if possible,
to get behind us) I could easily observe, they had so far attain'd their
Aim of encompassing us, as to the very Fashion of a Horse's Shoe. This
made me fix my Eyes so intently upon the advancing Enemy, that I never
minded what my Friends were doing behind me; though I afterwards found
that they had been fileing off so very artfully and privately, by that
narrow Opening of the Horse-Shoe, that when the Enemy imagin'd us past a
Possibility of Escape, our little Army at once, and of a sudden, was
ready to disappear. There was a large Wood on the Right of our Army,
through which lay the Road to _Ghent_, not broader than to admit of more
than Four to march a breast. Down this the Prince had slid his Forces,
except to that very small Party which the Captain and my self commanded,
and which was designedly left to bring up the Rear. Nor did we stir till
Captain _Collier_, then _Aid de Camp_ to his Brother, now Earl of
_Portmore_, came with the Word of Command for us to draw off.

When _Villeroy_ was told of our Retreat, he was much surpriz'd, as
thinking it a Thing utterly impossible. However, at last, being sensible
of the Truth of it, he gave Orders for our Rear to be attack'd; but we
kept fireing from Ditch to Ditch, and Hedge to Hedge, till Night came
upon us; and so our little Army got clear of its gigantick Enemy with
very inconsiderable Loss. However, the _French_ fail'd not, in their
customary Way, to express the Sense of their vexation, at this
Disappointment, with Fire and Sword in the Neighbourhood round. Thus
Prince _Vaudemont_ acquir'd more Glory by that Retreat than an intire
Victory could have given him; and it was not, I confess, the least Part
of Satisfaction in Life, that my self had a Share of Honour under him to
bring off the Rear at that his glorious Retreat at _Arfeel_.

However, in further Revenge of this political Chicane of the Prince of
_Vaudemont_, and to oblige, if possible, King _William_ to raise the
Siege from before _Namur, Villeroy_ enter'd into the Resolution of
Bombarding _Brussells_. In order to which he encamp'd at _Anderleck_,
and then made his Approaches as near as was convenient to the Town.
There he caus'd to be planted thirty Mortars, and rais'd a Battery of
ten Guns to shoot hot Bullets into the Place.

But before they fir'd from either, _Villeroy_, in complement to the Duke
of _Bavaria_, sent a Messenger to know in what Part of the Town his
Dutchess chose to reside, that they might, as much as possible, avoid
incommoding her, by directing their Fire to other Parts. Answer was
return'd that she was at her usual Place of Residence, the Palace; and
accordingly their fireing from Battery or Mortars little incommoded them
that Way.

Five Days the Bombardment continu'd; and with such Fury, that the Centre
of that noble City was quite lay'd in Rubbish. Most of the Time of
Bombarding I was upon the Counterscarp, where I could best see and
distinguish; and I have often counted in the Air, at one time, more than
twenty Bombs; for they shot whole Vollies out of their Mortars all
together. This, as it must needs be terrible, threw the Inhabitants into
the utmost Confusion. Cartloads of Nuns, that for many Years before had
never been out of the Cloister, were now hurry'd about from Place to
Place, to find Retreats of some Security. In short, the Groves, and
Parts remote, were all crowded; and the most spacious Streets had hardly
a Spectator left to view their Ruins. Nothing was to be seen like that
Dexterity of our People in extinguishing the Fires; for where the
red-hot Bullets fell, and rais'd new Conflagrations, not Burghers only,
but the vulgar Sort, stood stareing, and with their Hands impocketted,
beheld their Houses gradually consume; and without offering prudent or
charitable Hand to stop the growing Flames.

But after they had almost thus destroy'd that late fair City,
_Villeroy_, finding he could not raise the Siege of _Namur_, by that
vigorous Attack upon _Brussels_, decamp'd at last from before it, and
put his Army on the March, to try if he could have better Success by
exposing to Show his Pageant of one Hundred Thousand Men. Prince
_Vaudemont_ had timely Intelligence of the Duke's Resolution and Motion;
and resolv'd, if possible to get there before him. Nor was the Attempt
fruitless: He fortunately succeeded, though with much Fatigue, and no
little Difficulty, after he had put a Trick upon the Spies of the Enemy,
by pretending to encamp, and so soon as they were gone ordering a full

The Castle of _Namur_ had been all this Time under the Fire of the
Besieger's Cannon; and soon after our little Army under the Prince was
arriv'd, a Breach, that was imagin'd practicable, being made in the
_Terra Nova_ (which, as the Name imports, was a new Work, rais'd by the
_French_, and added to the Fortifications, since it fell into their
Hands in 1692 and which very much increas'd the Strength of the Whole) a
Breach, as I have said, being made in this _Terra Nova_, a Storm, in a
Council of War, was resolv'd upon. Four entire Regiments, in conjunction
with some Draughts made out of several others, were order'd for that
Work, my self commanding that Part of 'em which had been drawn out of
Colonel _Tiffins_. We were all to rendevouze at the Abbey of _Salsines_,
under the Command of the Lord Cutts; the Signal, when the Attack was to
be made, being agreed to be the blowing up of a Bag of Gun-powder upon
the Bridge of Boats that lay over the _Sambre_.

So soon as the Signal was made, we march'd up to the Breach with a
decent Intrepidity, receiving all the Way we advanc'd the full Fire of
the _Cohorn_ Fort. But as soon as we came near enough to mount, we found
it vastly steep and rugged. Notwithstanding all which, several did get
up, and enter'd the Breach; but not being supported as they ought to
have been, they were all made Prisoners. Which, together with a Wound my
Lord _Cutts_ receiv'd, after he had done all that was possible for us,
necessitated us to retire with the Loss of many of our Men.

_VILLEROY_ all this while lay in fight, with his Army of One Hundred
Thousand Men, without making the least Offer to incommode the Besiegers;
or even without doing any thing more than make his Appearance in favour
of the Besieged, and reconnoitring our Encampment: And, at last, seeing,
or imagining that he saw, the Attempt would be to little purpose, with
all the good Manners in the World, in the Night, he withdrew that
terrible Meteor, and reliev'd our poor Horses from feeding on Leaves,
the only Inconvenience he had put us to.

This Retreat leaving the Garrison without all Hope of Relief, they in
the Castle immediately capitulated. But after one of the Gates had been,
according to Articles, delivered up and Count _Guiscard_ was marching
out at the Head of the Garrison, and _Bouflers_ at the Head of the
Dragoons; the latter was, by order of King _William_, arrested, in
reprize of the Garrison of _Dixmuyd_ (who, contrary to the _Cartel_, had
been detain'd Prisoners) and remain'd under Arrest till they were set

At the very Beginning of the Year 1696 was discover'd a Plot, fit only
to have had its Origin from Hell or _Rome_. A Plot, which would have put
_Hottentots_ and Barbarians out of Countenance. This was call'd the
_Assassination Plot_, from the Design of it, which was to have
assassinated King _William_ a little before the Time of his usual
leaving _England_ to head the Army of the Confederates in _Flanders_.
And as nothing could give a nobler Idea of the great Character of that
Prince than such a nefarious Combination against him; so, with all
considerate Men, nothing could more depreciate the Cause of his
inconsiderate Enemies. If I remember what I have read, the Sons of
ancient _Rome_, though Heathens, behav'd themselves against an Enemy in
a quite different Manner. Their Historians afford us more Instances than
a few of their generous Intimations to Kings and Generals, under actual
Hostilities, of barbarous Designs upon their Lives. I proceed to this of
our own Countrymen.

Soon after the Discovery had been made, by Persons actually engag'd in
that inhuman Design, the Regiment, in which I served, with some others
then in _Flanders_, receiv'd Orders, with all Expedition, to embarque
for _England_; though, on our Arrival at _Gravesend_, fresh Orders met
us to remain on board the Transports, till we had surther Directions.

On my going to _London_, a few Days after, I was told, that two
Regiments only were now design'd to come a-shore; and that the rest
would be remanded to _Flanders_, the Danger apprehended being pretty
well over. I was at _White Hall_ when I receiv'd this Notice; where
meeting my Lord _Cutts_ (who had ever since the storming of the _Terra
Nova_ at _Namur_ allow'd me a Share in his Favour) he express'd himself
in the most obliging Manner; and at parting desir'd he might not fail of
seeing me next Morning at his House; for he had somewhat of an
extraordinary Nature to communicate to me.

At the time appointed, I waited on his Lorship, where I met Mr. _Steel_
(now Sir _Richard_, and at that time his Secretary) who immediately
introduc'd me. I found in company with him three Gentlemen; and after
common Salutations, his Lordship deliver'd into my Hands, an Order from
the King in Council to go along with Captain _Porter_, Mr. _de la Rue_,
and Mr. _George Harris_ (who prov'd to be those three with him) to
search all the Transports at _Gravesend_, in order to prevent any of
the Conspirators getting out of _England_ that Way. After answering,
that I was ready to pay Obedience, and receiving, in private, the
further necessary Instructions, we took our Leave, and Oars soon after
for _Gravesend_. 'Twas in our Passage down, that I understood that they
had all been of the Conspiracy, but now reluctant, were become

When we came to _Gravesend_, I produc'd my Authority to the Commanding
Officer, who very readily paid Obedience, and gave Assistance; But after
our most diligent Search, finding nothing of what we look'd for, we
return'd that very Night to _London_.

Next Day a Proclamation was to come out for the apprehending three of
four Troopers, who were sent over by King _James_, with a thousand
Pounds Reward for each: Mr. _George Harris_, who was the fourth, being
the only Evidence against the other three. No sooner were we return'd
from _Gravesend_, but _Harris_ had Intelligence brought him, that
_Cassells_, one of the three, was at Mr. _Allens_ in the _Savoy_, under
the Name of _Green_. Upon which we went directly to the Place; and
enquiring for Mr. _Green_, we were told he lodg'd there, and was in his

I was oblig'd by my Order to go along with them, and assist 'em; and
very well was it that I was so: For in consideration of the Reward in
the Proclamation, which, as I have said, was to come out the next Day,
_Harris_ and the rest were for deferring his Seizure, till the coming
out of that Proclamation; but making answer, that in case of his Escape
that Night, I must be responsible to my Superiors; who, under the most
favourable Aspect, would construe it a Neglect of Duty, they were forc'd
to comply; and so he was taken up, and his Name that Night struck out of
the Proclamation. It is very true, by this faithful Discharge of my
Trust, I did save the Government one Thousand Pounds; but it is equally
so, that I never had of my Governors one Farthing Consideration for what
others term'd an over-officious Piece of Service; though in Justice it
must be own'd a Piece of exact and disinterested Duty.

Some few Days after, attending by Direction at the Secretary's Office,
with Mr. _Harris_, there came in a _Dutchman_, spluttering and making a
great Noise, that he was sure he could discover one of the Conspirators;
but the Mein and the Behaviour of the Man, would not give any Body Leave
to give him any Credit or Regard. However, the Man persisting in his
Assertions, I spoke to Mr. _Harris_ to take him aside, and ask him what
Sort of a Person he was; _Harris_ did so; and the _Dutchman_ describing
him, says _Harris_, returning to me, I'll be hang'd if it be not
_Blackburn_. Upon which we had him question'd somewhat more narrowly;
when having no room to doubt, and understanding where he was, Colonel
_Rivet_ of the Guards was sent for, and order'd to go along with us to
seize him. We went accordingly; and it proving to be _Blackburn_, the
_Dutchman_ had five Hundred Pounds, and the Colonel and others the
Remainder. _Cassels_ and _Blackburn_, if still alive, are in _Newgate_,
confin'd by Act of Parliament, one only Witness, which was _Harris_,
being producible against them.

When _Blackburn_ was seiz'd, I found in the Chamber with him, one
_Davison_, a Watch-maker, living in _Holbourn_. I carry'd him along with
me to the Secretary of State; but nothing on his Examination appearing
against him, he was immediately discharg'd. He offer'd afterwards to
present me with a fine Watch of his own making, which I refus'd; and he
long after own'd the Obligation.

So soon as the Depth of this Plot was fathom'd, and the intended Evil
provided against, as well as prevented, King _William_ went over into
_Flanders_, and our Regiment thereupon receiv'd Orders for their
immediate Return. Nothing of any Moment occurr'd till our Arrival at our
old Quarters, the _Camerlins_, where we lay dispers'd amongst the
Country Boors or Farmers, as heretofore. However, for our better
Security in those Quarters, and to preserve us from the Excursions of
the neighbouring Garrison of Furnes, we were oblig'd to keep an
Out-guard at a little Place call'd _Shoerbeck_. This Guard was every
forty-eight Hours chang'd, and remounted with a Captain, a Lieutenant,
an Ensign, and threescore Men.

When it came to my Turn to relieve that Guard, and for that Purpose I
was arriv'd at my Post, it appear'd to me with the Face of a Place of
Debauch, rather than Business; there being too visible Tokens, that the
hard Duty of both Officers and Soldiers had been that of hard Drinking,
the foulest Error that a Soldier can commit, especially when on his

To confirm my Apprehensions, a little after I had taken Possession of my
Guard, the Man of the House related to me such Passages, and so many
of'em, that satisfy'd me, that if ten sober Men had made the Attack,
they might have fairly knock'd all my Predecessors of the last Guard on
the Head, without much Difficulty. However, his Account administer'd
Matter of Caution to me, and put me upon taking a narrower View of our
Situation. In consequence whereof, at Night I plac'd a Centinel a
Quarter of a Mile in the Rear, and such other Centinels as I thought
necessary and convenient in other Places; with Orders, that upon Sight
of an Enemy the Centinel near should fire; and that upon hearing that,
all the other Centinels, as well as he, should hasten in to strengthen
our Main Guard.

What my Jealousy, on my Landlord's Relation, had suggested, happen'd
accordingly: For about one in the Morning I was alarm'd with the Cry of
one of my Centinels, _Turn out for God's sake_; which he repeated, with
Vehemence, three or four times over. I took the Alarm, got up suddenly;
and with no little Difficulty got my Men into their Ranks, when the
Person who made the Outcry came running in, almost spent, and out of
Breath. It was the Centinel, that I had luckily plac'd about a Quarter
of a Mile off, who gave the Alarm, and his Musket flashing in the Pan,
without going off, he endeavour'd to supply with his Voice the Defect of
his Piece. I had just got my Men into their Ranks, in order to receive
the Enemy, when by the Moonlight, I discover'd a Party advancing upon
us. My out Centinel challeng'd 'em, and as I had precaution'd, they
answer'd, _Hispanioli_; though I knew 'em to be _French_.

However, on my Survey of our Situation by Day-light, having mark'd in my
Mind a proper Place for drawing up my Men in Case of an Attack, which
was too narrow to admit of more than two on a Breast; and which would
secure between us and the Enemy a Ditch of Water: I resolv'd to put in
practice what had entertain'd me so well in the Theory. To that Purpose
I order'd my first Rank to keep their Post, stand still and face the
Enemy, while the other two Ranks stooping should follow me to gain the
intended Station; which done, the first Rank had Orders to file off and
fall behind. All was perform'd in excellent Order; and I confess it was
with no little Pleasure, that I beheld the Enemy, for the best Part of
an Hour, in Consultation whether they should attack us or no. The
result, nevertheless, of that Consultation ended in this; that, seeing
us so well upon our Guard, it was most adviseable to draw off. They soon
put their Resolution into practice, which I was very glad to see; on
Examination a little before having found that my Predecessor, as in
other Things, had fail'd of Conduct in leaving me a Garrison without

Next Morning I was very pleasingly surpriz'd with a handsome Present of
Wine, and some other necessary Refreshments. At first I made a little
Scruple and Hesitation whether or no to receive 'em; till the Bearer
assur'd me, that they were sent me from the Officers of the next
Garrison, who had made me a Visit the Night before, as a candid
Acknowledgment of my Conduct and good Behaviour. I return'd their
Compliment, that I hop'd I should never receive Men of Honour otherwise
than like a Man of Honour; which mightily pleas'd them. Every of which
Particulars the _Ghent Gazettier_ the Week after publish'd.

We had little to do except Marching and Counter-marching all the
Campaign after; till it was resolv'd in a Council of War, for the better
preserving of _Brussels_ from such Insults, as it had before sustain'd
from the _French_, during the Siege of _Namur_, to fortify _Anderlech_;
upon which our Regiment, as well as others, were commanded from our more
pacifick Posts to attend that Work. Our whole Army was under Movement to
cover that Resolution; and the Train fell to my Care and Command in the
March. There accompany'd the Train a Fellow, seemingly ordinary, yet
very officious and courteous, being ready to do any thing for any
Person, from the Officer to the common Soldier. He travell'd along and
mov'd with the Train, sometimes on Foot, and sometimes getting a Ride in
some one or other of the Waggons; but ever full of his Chit-chat and
Stories of Humour. By these insinuating Ways he had screw'd himself into
the general good Opinion; but the Waggoners especially grew particularly
fond of him. At the End of our March all our Powder-Waggons were plac'd
breast a-breast, and so close, that one miscarrying would leave little
doubt of the Fate of all the rest. This in the Camp we commonly call
_the Park_; and here it was that our new Guest, like another _Phaeton_,
though under Pretence of Weariness, not Ambition, got Leave of the very
last Carter to the Train to take a Nap in his Waggon. One who had
entertain'd a Jealousy of him, and had watch'd him, gave Information
against him; upon which he was seiz'd and brought to me as Captain of
the Guard. I caus'd him to be search'd; and upon search, finding Match,
Touchwood, and other dangerous Materials upon him; I sent him and them
away to the Provoe. Upon the Whole, a Council of War was call'd, at
which, upon a strict Examination, he confess'd himself a hir'd
Incendiary; and as such receiv'd his Sentence to be burnt in the Face of
the Army. The Execution was a Day or two after: When on the very Spot,
he further acknowledged, that on Sight or Noise of the Blow, it had been
concerted, that the _French_ Army should fall upon the Confederates
under those lamentable Circumstances.

The Peace of _Riswick_ soon after taking place, put an End to all
Incendiarisms of either Sort. So that nothing of a Military Kind, which
was now become my Province, happen'd of some Years after. Our Regiment
was first order'd into _England_; and presently after into _Ireland_:
But as these Memoirs are not design'd for the Low Amuzement of a
Tea-Table, but rather of the Cabinet, a Series of inglorious Inactivity
can furnish but very little towards 'em.

Yet as little as I admir'd a Life of Inactivity, there are some Sorts of
Activity, to which a wise Man might almost give Supineness the
Preference: Such is that of barely encountring Elements, and wageing War
with Nature; and such, in my Opinion, would have been the spending my
Commission, and very probably my Life with it, in the _West Indies_. For
though the Climate (as some would urge) may afford a Chance for a very
speedy Advance in Honour, yet, upon revolving in my Mind, that those
Rotations of the Wheel of Fortune are often so very quick, as well as
uncertain, that I my self might as well be the First as the Last; the
Whole of the Debate ended in somewhat like that Couplet of the excellent

_Then he, that ran away and fled,
Must lie in Honour's Truckle-bed._

However, my better Planets soon disannull'd those melancholy Ideas,
which a Rumour of our being sent into the _West Indies_ had crowded my
Head and Heart with: For being call'd over into _England_, upon the very
Affairs of the Regiment, I arriv'd there just after the Orders for their
Transportation went over; by which Means the Choice of going was put out
of my Power, and the Danger of Refusing, which was the Case of many, was
very luckily avoided.

It being judg'd, therefore, impossible for me to return soon enough to
gain my Passage, one in Power propos'd to me, that I should resign to an
Officer then going over; and with some other contingent Advantages, to
my great Satisfaction, I was put upon the Half-pay List. This was more
agreeable, for I knew, or at least imagin'd my self wise enough to
foretel, from the over hot Debate of the House of Commons upon the
Partition Treaty, that it could not be long before the present Peace
would, at least, require patching.

Under this Sort of uncertain Settlement I remain'd with the Patience of
a _Jew_, though not with Judaical Absurdity, a faithful Adherer to my
Expectation. Nor did the Consequence fail of answering, a War was
apparent, and soon after proclaim'd. Thus waiting for an Opportunity,
which I flatter'd my self would soon present, the little Diversions of
_Dublin_, and the moderate Conversation of that People, were not of
Temptation enough to make my Stay in _England_ look like a Burden.

But though the War was proclaim'd, and Preparations accordingly made for
it, the Expectations from all receiv'd a sudden Damp, by the as sudden
Death of King _William_. That Prince, who had stared Death in the Face
in many Sieges and Battles, met with his Fate in the Midst of his
Diversions, who seiz'd his Prize in an Hour, to human Thought, the least
adapted to it. He was a Hunting (his customary Diversion) when, by an
unhappy Trip of his Horse, he fell to the Ground; and in the Fall
displac'd his Collar-bone. The News of it immediately alarm'd the Court,
and all around; and the sad Effects of it soon after gave all _Europe_
the like Alarm. _France_ only, who had not disdain'd to seek it sooner
by ungenerous Means, receiv'd new Hope, from what gave others Motives
for Despair. He flatter'd himself, that that long liv'd Obstacle to his
Ambition thus remov'd, his Successor would never fall into those
Measures, which he had wisely concerted for the Liberties of _Europe_;
but he, as well as others of his Adherents, was gloriously deceiv'd;
that God-like Queen, with a Heart entirely _English_, prosecuted her
royal Predecessor's Counsels; and to remove all the very Faces of
Jealousy, immediately on her Accession dispatch'd to every Court of the
great Confederacy, Persons adequate to the Importance of the Message, to
give Assurances thereof.

This gave new Spirit to a Cause, that at first seem'd to languish in its
Founder, as it struck its great Opposers with a no less mortifying
Terror; And well did the great Successes of her Arms answer the Prayers
and Efforts of that royal Soul of the Confederacies; together with the
Wishes of all, that, like her, had the Good, as well as the Honour of
their Country at Heart, in which the Liberties of _Europe_ were
included. The first Campaign gave a noble Earnest of the Future. _Bon_,
_Keyserwaert_, _Venlo_, and _Ruremond_, were sound Forerunners only of
_Donawert_, _Hochstet_, and _Blenheim_. Such a March of _English_ Forces
to the Support of the tottering Empire, as it gloriously manifested the
ancient Genius of a warlike People; so was it happily celebrated with a
Success answerable to the Glory of the Undertaking, which concluded in
Statues and princely Donatives to an _English_ Subject, from the then
only Emperor in _Europe_. A small Tribute, it's true, for ransom'd
Nations and captiv'd Armies, which justly enough inverted the
Exclamations of a _Roman_ Emperor to the _French_ Monarch, who
deprecated his Legions lost pretty near the same Spot; but to a much
superior Number, and on a much less glorious Occasion.

But my good Fortune not allowing me to participate in those glorious
Appendages of the _English_ Arms in _Flanders_, nor on the _Rhine_, I
was resolv'd to make a Push for it the first Opportunity, and waste my
Minutes no longer on Court Attendances. And my Lord _Cutts_ returning
with his full Share of Laurels, for his never to be forgotten Services
at _Venlo_, _Ruremond_, and _Hochstet_, found his active Genius now to
be repos'd, under the less agreeable Burden of unhazardous Honour, where
Quiet must provide a Tomb for one already past any Danger of Oblivion;
deep Wounds and glorious Actions having anticipated all that could be
said in Epitaphs or litteral Inscriptions. Soon after his Arrival from
_Germany_, he was appointed General of all her Majesty's Forces in
_Ireland_; upon which going to congratulate him, he was pleas'd to
enquire of me several Things relating to that Country; and particularly
in what Part of _Dublin_ I would recommend his Residence; offering at
the same time, if I would go over with him, all the Services that should
fall in his Way.

But Inactivity was a Thing I had too long lamented; therefore, after I
had, as decently as I could, declin'd the latter Part, I told his
Lordship, that as to a Place of Residence, I was Master of a House in
_Dublin_, large enough, and suitable to his great Quality, which should
be at his Service, on any Terms he thought fit. Adding withal, that I
had a Mind to see _Spain_, where my Lord _Peterborow_ was now going; and
that if his Lordship would favour me with a Recommendation, it would
suit my present Inclinations much better than any further tedious
Recess. His Lordship was so good to close with both my Overtures; and
spoke so effectually in my Favour, that the Earl of _Peterborow_, then
General of all the Forces order'd on that Expedition, bad me speedily
prepare my self; and so when all Things were ready I embarqu'd with that
noble Lord for _Spain_, to pursue his well concerted Undertaking; which,
in the Event, will demonstrate to the World, that little Armies, under
the Conduct of auspicious Generals, may sometimes produce prodigious

The _Jews_, in whatever Part of the World, are a People industrious in
the increasing of _Mammon_; and being accustom'd to the universal
Methods of Gain, are always esteem'd best qualify'd for any Undertaking,
where that bears a Probability of being a Perquisite. Providing Bread,
and other Requisites for an Army, was ever allow'd to carry along with
it a Profit answerable; and _Spain_ was not the first Country where that
People had engag'd in such an Undertaking. Besides, on any likely
Appearance of great Advantage, it is in the Nature as well as Practice
of that Race, strenuously to assist one another; and that with the
utmost Confidence and prodigious Alacrity. One of that Number, both
competent and willing enough to carry on an Undertaking of that kind,
fortunately came at that Juncture to solicit the Earl of _Peterborow_ to
be employ'd as Proveditor to the Army and Troops, which were, or should
be sent into _Spain_.

It will easily be admitted, that the Earl, under his present Exigencies,
did not decline to listen. And a very considerable Sum being offer'd, by
way of Advance, the Method common in like Cases was pursu'd, and the Sum
propos'd accepted; by which Means the Earl of _Peterborow_ found himself
put into the happy Capacity of proceeding upon his first concerted
Project. The Name of the _Jew_, who sign'd the Contract, was _Curtisos_;
and he and his Friends, with great Punctuality, advanc'd the expected
Sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds Sterling, or very near it; which was
immediately order'd into the Hands of the Pay-master of the Forces. For
though the Earl took Money of the _Jews_, it was not for his own, but
public Use. According to Agreement, Bills were drawn for the Value from
_Lisbon_, upon the Lord _Godolphin_ (then Lord Treasurer) all which
were, on that Occasion, punctually comply'd with.

The Earl of _Peterborow_ having thus fortunately found Means to supply
himself with Money, and by that with some Horse, after he had obtain'd
Leave of the Lord _Galoway_ to make an Exchange of two Regiments of
Foot, receiv'd the Arch-Duke, and all those who would follow him, aboard
the Fleet; and, at his own Expense, transported him and his whole
Retinue to _Barcelona_: For all which prodigious Charge, as I have been
very lately inform'd, from very good Hands, that noble Earl never to
this Day receiv'd any Consideration from the Government, or any Person

We sail'd from _Lisbon_, in order to join the Squadron under Sir
_Cloudsley Shovel:_ Meeting with which at the appointed Station off
_Tangier_, the Men of War and Transports thus united, made the best of
their Way for _Gibraltar_. There we stay'd no longer than to take aboard
two Regiments out of that Garrison, in lieu of two out of our Fleet.
Here we found the Prince of _Hesse_, who immediately took a Resolution
to follow the Arch-Duke in this Expedition. He was a Person of great
Gallantry; and having been Vice-Roy of _Catalonia_, was receiv'd on
board the Fleet with the utmost Satisfaction, as being a Person capable
of doing great Service in a Country where he was well known, and as well

Speaking _Latin_ then pretty fluently, it gave me frequent Opportunies
of conversing with the two Father Confessors of the Duke of _Austria_;
and upon that Account I found my self honour'd with some Share in the
Favour of the Arch-Duke himself. I mention this, not to gratify any vain
Humour, but as a corroborating Circumstance, that my Opportunities of
Information, in Matters of Consequence, could not thereby be suppos'd to
be lessen'd; but that I might more reasonably be imagin'd to arrive at
Intelligence, that not very often, or at least not so soon, came to the
Knowledge of others.

From _Gibraltar_ we sail'd to the Bay of _Altea_, not far distant from
the City of _Valencia_, in the Road of which we continu'd for some Days.
While we were there, as I was very credibly inform'd, the Earl of
_Peterborow_ met with some fresh Disappointment; but what it was,
neither I nor any Body else, as far as I could perceive, could ever dive
into: Neither did it appear by any outward Tokens, in that noble
General, that it lay so much at his Heart, as those about him seem'd to
assure me it did.

However, while we lay in _Altea_ Bay, two Bomb-Vessels, and a small
Squadron, were order'd against _Denia_, which had a small Castle; but
rather fine than strong. And accordingly, upon our Offer to bring to
bear with our Cannon, and preparing to fix our Bomb-Vessels, in order to
bombard the Place, it surrender'd; and acknowledg'd the Arch-Duke as
lawful King of _Spain_, and so proclaim'd him. From this time,
therefore, speaking of that Prince, it shall be under that Title.
General _Ramos_ was left Commander here; a Person who afterwards acted a
very extraordinary Part in the War carry'd on in the Kingdom of

But notwithstanding no positive Resolutions had been taken for the
Operations of the Campaign, before the Arch Duke's Departure from
_Lisbon_, the Earl of _Peterborow_, ever solicitous of the Honour of his
Country, had premeditated another Enterprize, which, had it been
embrac'd, would in all Probability, have brought that War to a much more
speedy Conclusion; and at the same time have obviated all those
Difficulties, which were but too apparent in the Siege of _Barcelona_.
He had justly and judiciously weigh'd, that there were no Forces in the
Middle Parts of _Spain_, all their Troops being in the extream Parts of
the Kingdom, either on the Frontiers of _Portugal_, or in the City of
_Barcelona_; that with King _Philip_, and the royal Family at _Madrid_,
there were only some few Horse, and those in a bad Condition, and which
only serv'd for Guards: if therefore, as he rightly projected within
himself, by the taking of _Valencia_, or any Sea-Port Town, that might
have secur'd his Landing, he had march'd directly for _Madrid_; what
could have oppos'd him? But I shall have occasion to dilate more upon
this Head a few Pages hence; and therefore shall here only say, that
though that Project of his might have brought about a speedy and
wonderful Revolution, what he was by his Orders afterwards oblig'd to,
against his Inclinations, to pursue, contributed much more to his great
Reputation, as it put him under a frequent Necessity of overcoming
Difficulties, which, to any other General, would have appear'd

_VALENCIA_ is a City towards the Centre of _Spain_, to the Seaward,
seated in a rich and most populous Country, just fifty Leagues from
_Madrid_. It abounds in Horses and Mules; by reason of the great
Fertility of its Lands, which they can, to great Advantage, water when,
and as they please. This City and Kingdom was as much inclin'd to the
Interest of King _Charles_ as _Catalonia_ it self; for even on our first
Appearance, great Numbers of People came down to the Bay of _Altea_,
with not only a bare Offer of their Services, but loaded with all Manner
of Provisions, and loud Acclamations of _Viva Carlos tercero, Viva_.
There were no regular Troops in any of the Places round about it, or in
the City it self. The nearest were those few Horse in _Madrid_, one
hundred and fifty Miles distant; nor any Foot nearer than _Barcelona_,
or the Frontiers of _Portugal_.

On the contrary, _Barcelona_ is one of the largest and most populous
Cities in all _Spain_, fortify'd with Bastions; one Side thereof is
secur'd by the Sea; and the other by a strong Fortification call'd
_Monjouick_. The Place is of so large a Circumference, that thirty
thousand Men would scarce suffice to form the Lines of Circumvallation.
It once resisted for many Months an Army of that Force; and is almost
at the greatest Distance from _England_ of any Place belonging to that

This short Description of these two Places will appear highly necessary,
if it be consider'd, that no Person without it would be able to judge of
the Design which the Earl of _Peterborow_ intended to pursue, when he
first took the Arch-Duke aboard the Fleet. Nevertheless the Earl now
found himself under a Necessity of quitting that noble Design, upon his
Receipt of Orders from _England_, while he lay in the Bay of _Altea_, to
proceed directly to _Catalonia_; to which the Arch-Duke, as well as many
Sea and Land Officers, were most inclin'd; and the Prince of _Hesse_
more than all the rest.

On receiving those Orders, the Earl of _Peterborow_ seem'd to be of
Opinion, that from an Attempt, which he thought under a Probability of
Success, he was condemn'd to undertake what was next to an Impossibility
of effecting; since nothing appear'd to him so injudicious as an Attempt
upon _Barcelona_. A Place at such a Distance from receiving any
Reinforcement or Relief; the only Place in which the _Spaniards_ had a
Garrison of regular Forces; and those in Number rather exceeding the
Army he was to undertake the Siege with, was enough to cool the Ardour
of a Person of less Penetration and Zeal than what the Earl had on all
Occasions demonstrated. Whereas if the General, as he intended, had made
an immediate March to _Madrid_, after he had secur'd _Valencia_, and the
Towns adjacent, which were all ready to submit and declare for King
_Charles_; or if otherwise inclin'd, had it not in their Power to make
any considerable Resistance; to which, if it be added, that he could
have had Mules and Horses immediately provided for him, in what Number
he pleas'd, together with Carriages necessary for Artillery, Baggage,
and Ammunition; in few Days he could have forc'd King _Philip_ out of
_Madrid_, where he had so little Force to oppose him. And as there was
nothing in his Way to prevent or obstruct his marching thither, it is
hard to conceive any other Part King _Philip_ could have acted in such
an Extremity, than to retire either towards _Portugal_ or _Catalonia_.
In either of which Cases he must have left all the middle Part of
_Spain_ open to the Pleasure of the Enemy; who in the mean time would
have had it in their Power to prevent any Communication of those Bodies
at such opposite Extreams of the Country, as were the Frontiers of
_Portugal_ and _Barcelona_, where only, as I said before, were any
regular Troops.

And on the other Side, as the Forces of the Earl of _Peterborow_ were
more than sufficient for an Attempt where there was so little Danger of
Opposition; so if their Army on the Frontiers of _Portugal_ should have
march'd back upon him into the Country; either the _Portugueze_ Army
could have enter'd into _Spain_ without Opposition; or, at worst,
supposing the General had been forc'd to retire, his Retreat would have
been easy and safe into those Parts of _Valencia_ and _Andahzia_, which
he previously had secur'd. Besides, _Gibraltar_, the strongest Place in
_Spain_, if not in the whole World, was already in our Possession, and a
great Fleet at Hand ready to give Assistance in all Places near the Sea.
From all which it is pretty apparent, that in a little time the War on
our Side might have been supported without entering the _Mediterranean_;
by which Means all Reinforcements would have been much nearer at Hand,
and the Expences of transporting Troops and Ammunition very considerably

But none of these Arguments, though every one of them is founded on
solid Reason, were of Force enough against the prevailing Opinion for an
Attempt upon _Catalonia_. Mr. _Crow_, Agent for the Queen in those
Parts, had sent into _England_ most positive Assurances, that nothing
would be wanting, if once our Fleet made an invasion amongst the
_Catalans_: The Prince of _Hesse_ likewise abounded in mighty Offers and
prodigious Assurances; all which enforc'd our Army to that Part of
_Spain_, and that gallant Prince to those Attempts in which he lost his
Life. Very much against the Inclination of our General, who foresaw all
those Difficulties, which were no less evident afterwards to every one;
and the Sense of which occasion'd those Delays, and that Opposition to
any Effort upon _Barcelona_, which ran thro' so many successive Councils
of War.

However, pursuant to his Instructions from _England_, the repeated
Desires of the Arch-Duke, and the Importunities of the Prince of
_Hesse_, our General gave Orders to sail from _Altea_ towards the Bay of
_Barcelona_, the chief City of _Catalonia_. Nevertheless, when we
arriv'd there, he was very unwilling to land any of the Forces, till he
saw some Probability of that Assistance and Succour so must boasted of,
and so often promis'd. But as nothing appear'd but some small Numbers of
Men, very indifferently arm'd, and without either Gentlemen or Officers
at the Head of them; the Earl of _Peterborow_ was of Opinion, this could
not be deem'd sufficient Encouragement for him to engage in an
Enterprize, which carry'd so poor a Face of Probability of Success along
with it. In answer to this it was urg'd, that till a Descent was made,
and the Affairs thoroughly engag'd in, it was not to be expected that
any great Numbers would appear, or that Persons of Condition would
discover themselves. Upon all which it was resolv'd the Troops should be

Accordingly, our Forces were disembark'd, and immediately encamp'd;
notwithstanding which the Number of Succours increas'd very slowly, and
that after the first straggling Manner. Nor were those that did appear
any way to be depended on; coming when they thought fit, and going away
when they pleas'd, and not to be brought under any regular Discipline.
It was then pretended, that until they saw the Artillery landed as well
as Forces, they would not believe any Siege actually intended. This
brought the General under a sort of Necessity of complying in that also.
Though certainly so to do must be allow'd a little unreasonable, while
the Majority in all Councils of War declar'd the Design to be
impracticable; and the Earl of _Peterborow_ had positive Orders to
proceed according to such Majorities.

At last the Prince of _Hesse_ was pleas'd to demand Pay for those
Stragglers, as Officers and Soldiers, endeavouring to maintain, that it
could not be expected that Men should venture their Lives for nothing.
Thus we came to _Catalonia_ upon Assurances of universal Assistance; but
found, when we came there, that we were to have none unless we paid for
it. And as we were sent thither without Money to pay for any thing, it
had certainly been for us more tolerable to have been in a Country where
we might have taken by Force what we could not obtain any other way.

However, to do the _Miquelets_ all possible Justice, I must say, that
notwithstanding the Number of 'em, which hover'd about the Place, never
much exceeded fifteen Hundred Men; if sometimes more, oftner less; and
though they never came under any Command, but planted themselves where
and as they pleas'd; yet did they considerable Service in taking
Possession of all the Country Houses and Convents, that lay between the
Hills and the Plain of _Barcelona_; by means whereof they render'd it
impossible for the Enemy to make any _Sorties_ or Sallies at any
Distance from the Town.

And now began all those Difficulties to bear, which long before by the
General had been apprehended. The Troops had continu'd under a State of
Inactivity for the Space of three Weeks, all which was spent in
perpetual Contrivances and Disputes amongst our selves, not with the
Enemy. In six several Councils of War the Siege of _Barcelona_, under
the Circumstances we then lay, was rejected as a Madness and
Impossibility. And though the General and Brigadier _Stanhope_
(afterward Earl _Stanhope_) consented to some Effort should be made to
satisfy the Expectation of the World, than with any Hopes of Success.
However, no Consent at all could be obtain'd from any Council of War;
and the _Dutch_ General in particular declar'd, that he would not obey
even the Commands of the Earl of _Peterborow_, if he should order the
Sacrifice of the Troops under him in so unjustifiable a Manner, without
the Consent of a Council of War.

And yet all those Officers, who refus'd their Consent to the Siege of
_Barcelona_, offer'd to march into the Country, and attempt any other
Place, that was not provided with so strong and numerous a Garrison;
taking it for granted, that no Town in _Catalonia, Barcelona_ excepted,
could make long Resistance; and in case the Troops in that Garrison
should pursue them, they then might have an Opportunity of fighting them
at less Disadvantage in the open Field, than behind the Walls of a Place
of such Strength. And, indeed, should they have issu'd out on any such
Design, a Defeat of those Troops would have put the Province of
_Catalonia_, together with the Kingdoms of _Aragon_ and _Valencia_,
into the Hands of King _Charles_ more effectually than the taking _of
Barcelona_ it self.

Let it be observ'd, _en passant_, that by those Offers of the Land
Officers in a Council of War, it is easy to imagine what would have been
the Success of our Troops, had they march'd directly from _Valencia_ to
_Madrid_. For if after two Months Alarm, it was thought reasonable, as
well as practicable, to march into the open Country rather than attempt
the Siege of _Barcelona_, where Forces equal, if not superior in Number,
were ready to follow us at the Heels; what might not have been expected
from an Invasion by our Troops when and where they could meet with
little Opposition? But leaving the Consideration of what might have
been, I shall now endeavour at least with great Exactness to set down
some of the most remarkable Events from our taking to the Relief of

The repeated Refusals of the Councils of War for undertaking the Siege
of so strong a Place, with a Garrison so numerous, and those Refusals
grounded upon such solid Reasons, against a Design so rash, reduc'd the
General to the utmost Perplexity. The Court of King _Charles_ was
immerg'd in complaint; all belonging to him lamenting the hard Fate of
that Prince, to be brought into _Catalonia_ only to return again,
without the Offer of any one Effort in his Favour. On the other Hand,
our own Officers and Soldiers were highly dissatisfy'd, that they were
reproach'd, because not dispos'd to enter upon and engage themselves in
Impossibilities. And, indeed, in the Manner that the Siege was propos'd
and insisted upon by the Prince of _Hesse_, in every of the several
Councils of War, after the Loss of many Men, thrown away to no other
purpose, but to avoid the Shame (as the Expression ran) of coming like
Fools and going away like Cowards, it could have ended in nothing but a
Retreat at last.

It afforded but small Comfort to the Earl to have foreseen all these
Difficulties, and to have it in his Power to say, that he would never
have taken the Arch-Duke on Board, nor have propos'd to him the Hopes of
a Recovery of the _Spanish_ Monarchy from King _Philip_, if he could
have imagin'd it probable, that he should not have been at liberty to
pursue his own Design, according to his own Judgment. It must be allow'd
very hard for him, who had undertaken so great a Work, and that without
any Orders from the Government; and by so doing could have had no
Justification but by Success; I say, it must be allow'd to be very hard
(after the Undertaking had been approv'd in _England_) that he should
find himself to be directed in this Manner by those at a Distance, upon
ill grounded and confident Reports from Mr. _Crow_; and compell'd, as
it were, though General, to follow the Sentiments of Strangers, who
either had private Views of Ambition, or had no immediate Care or
Concern for the Troops employ'd in this Expedition.

Such were the present unhappy Circumstanches of the Earl of _Peterborow_
in the Camp before _Barcelona_: Impossibilities propos'd; no Expedients
to be accepted; a Court reproaching; Councils of War rejecting; and the
_Dutch_ General refusing the Assistance of the Troops under his Command;
and what surmounted all, a Despair of bringing such Animosities and
differing Opinions to any tolerable Agreement. Yet all these
Difficulties, instead of discouraging the Earl, set every Faculty of his
more afloat; and, at last, produc'd a lucky Thought, which was happily
attended with Events extraordinary, and Scenes of Success much beyond
his Expectation; such, as the General himself was heard to confess, it
had been next to Folly to have look'd for; as certainly, _in prima
facie_, it would hardly have born proposing, to take by Surprize a Place
much stronger than _Barcelona_ it self. True it is, that his only Hope
of succeeding consisted in this: That no Person could suppose such an
Enterprize could enter into the Imagination of Man; and without doubt
the General's chief Dependence lay upon what he found true in the
Sequel; that the Governor and Garrison of _Monjouick_, by reason of
their own Security, would be very negligent, and very little upon their

However, to make the Experiment, he took an Opportunity, unknown to any
Person but an _Aid de Camp_ that attended him, and went out to view the
Fortifications: And there being no Horse in that strong Fortress; and
the _Miquelets_ being possess'd of all the Houses and Gardens in the
Plain, it was not difficult to give himself that Satisfaction, taking
his Way by the Foot of the Hill. The Observation he made of the Place it
self, the Negligence and Supineness of the Garrison, together with his
own uneasy Circumstances, soon brought the Earl to a Resolution of
putting his first Conceptions in Execution, satisfy'd as he was, from
the Situation of the Ground between _Monjouick_ and the Town, that if
the first was in our Possession, the Siege of the latter might be
undertaken with some Prospect of Success.

From what has been said, some may be apt to conclude that the Siege
afterward succeeding, when the Attack was made from the Side of
_Monjouick_, it had not been impossible to have prevail'd, if the Effort
had been made on the East Side of the Town, where our Forces were at
first encamp'd, and where only we could have made our Approaches, if
_Monjouick_ had not been in our Power. But a few Words will convince any
of common Experience of the utter Impossibility of Success upon the East
Part of the Town, although many almost miraculous Accidents made us
succeed when we brought our Batteries to bear upon that Part of
_Barcelona_ towards the West. The Ground to the East was a perfect Level
for many Miles, which would have necessitated our making our Approaches
in a regular Way; and consequently our Men must have been expos'd to the
full Fire of their whole Artillery. Besides, the Town is on that Side
much stronger than any other; there is an Out-work just under the Walls
of the Town, flank'd by the Courtin and the Faces of two Bastions, which
might have cost us half our Troops to possess, before we could have
rais'd a Battery against the Walls. Or supposing, after all, a competent
Breach had been made, what a wise Piece of Work must it have been to
have attempted a Storm against double the Number of regular Troops

On the contrary, we were so favoured by the Situation, when we made the
Attack from the Side of _Monjouick_, that the Breach was made and the
Town taken without opening of Trenches, or without our being at all
incommoded by any Sallies of the Enemy; as in truth they made not one
during the whole Siege. Our great Battery, which consisted of upwards of
fifty heavy Cannon, supply'd from the Ships, and manag'd by the Seamen,
were plac'd upon a Spot of rising Ground, just large enough to contain
our Guns, with two deep hollow Ways on each Side the Field, at each End
whereof we had rais'd a little Redoubt, which serv'd to preserve our Men
from the Shot of the Town. Those little Redoubts, in which we had some
Field Pieces, flank'd the Battery, and render'd it intirely secure from
any Surprize of the Enemy. There were several other smaller Batteries
rais'd upon the Hills adjacent, in Places not to be approach'd, which,
in a manner, render'd all the Artillery of the Enemy useless, by reason
their Men could not play 'em, but with the utmost Danger; whereas ours
were secure, very few being kill'd, and those mostly by random Shot.

But to return to the General; forc'd, as he was, to take this
extraordinary Resolution, he concluded, the readiest Way to surprize his
Enemies was to elude his Friends. He therefore call'd a Council of War
a-shore, of the Land Officers; and aboard, of the Admirals and Sea
Officers: In both which it was resolv'd, that in case the Siege of
_Barcelona_ was judg'd impracticable, and that the Troops should be
re-imbark'd by a Day appointed, an Effort should be made upon the
Kingdom of _Naples_. Accordingly, the Day affix'd being come, the heavy
Artillery landed for the Siege was return'd aboard the Ships, and every
thing in appearance prepar'd for a Re-imbarkment. During which, the
General was oblig'd to undergo all the Reproaches of a dissatisfy'd
Court; and what was more uneasy to him, the Murmurings of the Sea
Officers, who, not so competent Judges in what related to Sieges, were
one and all inclin'd to a Design upon _Barcelona_; and the rather,
because as the Season was so far spent, it was thought altogether
improper to engage the Fleet in any new Undertaking. However, all Things
were so well disguis'd by our seeming Preparations for a Retreat, that
the very Night our Troops were in March towards the Attack of
_Monjouick_, there were publick Entertainments and Rejoicings in the
Town for the raising of the Siege.

The Prince of _Hesse_ had taken large Liberties in complaining against
all the Proceedings in the Camp before _Barcelona_; even to
Insinuations, that though the Earl gave his Opinion for some Effort in
public, yet us'd he not sufficient Authority over the other General
Officers to incline them to comply; throwing out withal some Hints, that
the General from the Beginning had declar'd himself in favour of other
Operations, and against coming to _Catalonia_; the latter Part whereof
was nothing but Fact. On the other Side, the Earl of _Peterborow_
complain'd, that the boasted Assistance was no way made good; and that
in failure thereof, his Troops were to be sacrificed to the Humours of a
Stranger; one who had no Command; and whose Conduct might bear a
Question whether equal to his Courage. These Reproaches of one another
had bred so much ill Blood between those two great Men, that for above
a Fortnight they had no Correspondence, nor ever exchang'd one Word.

The Earl, however, having made his proper Dispositions, and deliver'd
out his Orders, began his March in the Evening with twelve Hundred Foot
and two Hundred Horse, which of necessity were to pass by the Quarters
of the Prince of _Hesse_. That Prince, on their Appearance, was told
that the General was come to speak with him; and being brought into his
Apartment, the Earl acquainted him, that he had at last resolv'd upon an
Attempt against the Enemy; adding, that now, if he pleas'd, he might be
a Judge of their Behaviour, and see whether his Officers and Soldiers
had deserv'd that Character which he had so liberally given 'em. The
Prince made answer, that he had always been ready to take his Share; but
could hardly believe, that Troops marching that way could make any
Attempt against the Enemy to satisfaction. However, without further
Discourse he call'd for his Horse.

By this we may see what Share Fortune has in the greatest Events. In all
probability the Earl of _Peterborow_ had never engag'd in such a
dangerous Affair in cold Blood and unprovok'd; and if such an Enterprize
had been resolv'd on in a regular Way, it is very likely he might have
given the Command to some of the General Officers; since it is not
usual, nor hardly allowable, for one, that commands in chief, to go in
Person on such kind of Services. But here we see the General and Prince,
notwithstanding their late indifferent Harmony, engag'd together in this
most desperate Undertaking.

Brigadier _Stanhope_ and Mr. _Methuen_ (now Sir _Paul_) were the
General's particular Friends, and those he most consulted, and most
confided in; yet he never imparted this Resolution of his to either of
them; for he was not willing to engage them in a Design so dangerous,
and where there was so little Hope of Success; rather choosing to
reserve them as Persons most capable of giving Advice and Assistance in
the Confusion, great enough already, which yet must have been greater,
if any Accident had happen'd to himself. And I have very good Reason to
believe, that the Motive, which mainly engag'd the Earl of _Peterborow_
in this Enterprize, was to satisfy the Prince of _Hesse_ and the World,
that his Diffidence proceeded from his Concern for the Troops committed
to his Charge, and not for his own Person. On the other Hand, the great
Characters of the two Gentlemen just mention'd are so well known, that
it will easily gain Credit, that the only Way the General could take to
prevent their being of the Party, was to conceal it from them, as he did
from all Mankind, even from the Archduke himself. And certainly there
never was a more universal Surprize than when the firing was heard next
Morning from _Monjouick_.

But I now proceed to give an exact Account of this great Action; of
which no Person, that I have heard of, ever yet took upon him to deliver
to Posterity the glorious Particulars; and yet the Consequences and
Events, by what follows, will appear so great, and so very
extraordinary, that few, if any, had they had it in their Power, would
have deny'd themselves the Pleasure or the World the Satisfaction of
knowing it.

The Troops, which march'd all Night along the Foot of the Mountains,
arriv'd two Hours before Day under the Hill of _Monjouick_, not a
Quarter of a Mile from the outward Works: For this Reason it was taken
for granted, whatever the Design was which the General had propos'd to
himself, that it would be put in Execution before Day-light; but the
Earl of _Peterborow_ was now pleas'd to inform the Officers of the
Reasons why he chose to stay till the Light appear'd. He was of opinion
that any Success would be impossible, unless the Enemy came into the
outward Ditch under the Bastions of the second Enclosure; but that if
they had time allow'd them to come thither, there being no Palisadoes,
our Men, by leaping in upon them, after receipt of their first Fire,
might drive 'em into the upper Works; and following them close, with
some Probability, might force them, under that Confusion, into the
inward Fortifications.

Such were the General's Reasons then and there given; after which,
having promis'd ample Rewards to such as discharg'd their Duty well, a
Lieutenant, with thirty Men, was order'd to advance towards the Bastion
nearest the Town; and a Captain, with fifty Men, to support him. After
the Enemy's Fire they were to leap into the Ditch, and their Orders were
to follow 'em close, if they retir'd into the upper Works: Nevertheless,
not to pursue 'em farther, if they made into the inner Fort; but to
endeavour to cover themselves within the Gorge of the Bastion.

A Lieutenant and a Captain, with the Like Number of Men and the same
Orders, were commanded to a Demi-Bastion at the Extremity of the Fort
towards the West, which was above Musket-Shot from the inward
Fortification. Towards this Place the Wall, which was cut into the Rock,
was not fac'd for about twenty Yards; and here our own Men got up; where
they found three Pieces of Cannon upon a Platform, without many Men to
defend them.

Those appointed to the Bastion towards the Town were sustain'd by two
hundred Men; with which the General and Prince went in Person. The like
Number, under the Directions of Colonel _Southwell_, were to sustain the
Attack towards the West; and about five hundred Men were left under the
Command of a _Dutch_ Colonel, whose Orders were to assist, where, in his
own Judgment, he should think most proper; and these were drawn up
between the two Parties appointed to begin the Assault. My Lot was on
the Side where the Prince and Earl were in Person; and where we
sustain'd the only Loss from the first Fire of the Enemy.

Our men, though quite expos'd, and though the Glacis was all escarp'd
upon the live Rock, went on with an undaunted Courage; and immediately
after the first Fire of the Enemy, all, that were not kill'd or wounded,
leap'd in, _pel-mel_, amongst the Enemy; who, being thus boldly
attack'd, and seeing others pouring in upon 'em, retir'd in great
Confusion; and some one Way, some another, ran into the inward Works.

There was a large Port in the Flank of the principal Bastion, towards
the North-East, and a cover'd Way, through which the General and the
Prince of _Hesse_ follow'd the flying Forces; and by that Means became
possess'd of it. Luckily enough here lay a Number of great Stones in the
Gorge of the Bastion, for the Use of the Fortification; with which we
made a Sort of Breast-Work, before the Enemy recover'd of their Amaze,
or made any considerable Fire upon us from their inward Fort, which
commanded the upper Part of that Bastion.

We were afterwards inform'd, that the Commander of the Citadel,
expecting but one Attack, had call'd off the Men from the most distant
and western Part of the Fort, to that Side which was next the Town; upon
which our Men got into a Demi-Bastion in the most extream Part of the
Fortification. Here they got Possession of three Pieces of Cannon, with
hardly any Opposition; and had Leisure to cast up a little Retrenchment,
and to make use of the Guns they had taken to defend it. Under this
Situation, the Enemy, when drove into the inward Fort, were expos'd to
our Fire from those Places we were possess'd of, in case they offer'd to
make any Sally, or other Attempt against us. Thus we every Moment became
better and better prepar'd against any Effort of the Garrison. And as
they could not pretend to assail us without evident Hazard; so nothing
remain'd for us to do, till we could bring up our Artillery and Mortars.
Now it was that the General sent for the thousand Men under Brigadier
_Stanhope's_ Command, which he had posted at a Convent, halfway between
the Town and _Monjouick_.

There was almost a total Cessation of Fire, the Men on both Sides being
under Cover. The General was in the upper Part of the Bastion; the
Prince of _Hesse_ below, behind a little Work at the Point of the
Bastion, whence he could only see the Heads of the Enemy over the
Parapet of the inward Fort. Soon after an Accident happen'd which cost
that gallant Prince his Life.

The Enemy had Lines of Communication between _Barcelona_ and
_Monjouick_. The Governor of the former, upon hearing the firing from
the latter, immediately sent four hundred Dragoons on Horseback, under
Orders, that two Hundred dismounting should reinforce the Garrison, and
the other two Hundred should return with their Horses back to the Town.

When those two Hundred Dragoons were accordingly got into the inward
Fort, unseen by any of our Men, the _Spaniards_, waving their Hats over
their Heads, repeated over and over, _Viva el Rey, Viva_. This the
Prince of _Hesse_ unfortunately took for a Signal of their Desire to
surrender. Upon which, with too much Warmth and Precipitancy, calling to
the Soldiers following, _They surrender, they surrender_, he advanc'd
with near three Hundred Men (who follow'd him without any Orders from
their General) along the Curtain which led to the Ditch of the inward
Fort. The Enemy suffered them to come into the Ditch, and there
surrounding 'em, took two Hundred of them Prisoners, at the same time
making a Discharge upon the rest, who were running back the Way they
came. This firing brought the Earl of _Peterborow_ down from the upper
Part of the Bastion, to see what was doing below. When he had just
turn'd the Point of the Bastion, he saw the Prince of _Hesse_ retiring,
with the Men that had so rashly advanc'd. The Earl had exchang'd a very
few Words with him, when, from a second Fire, that Prince receiv'd a
Shot in the great Artery of the Thigh, of which he died immediately,
falling down at the General's Feet, who instantly gave Orders to carry
off the Body to the next Convent.

Almost the same Moment an Officer came to acquaint the Earl of
_Peterborow_, that a great Body of Horse and Foot, at least three
Thousand, were on their March from _Barcelona_ towards the Fort. The
Distance is near a Mile, all uneven Ground; so that the Enemy was either
discoverable, or not to be seen, just as they were marching on the Hills
or in the Vallies. However, the General directly got on Horseback, to
take a View of those Forces from the rising Ground without the Fort,
having left all the Posts, which were already taken, well secur'd with
the allotted Numbers of Officers and Soldiers.

But the Event will demonstrate of what Consequence the Absence or
Presence of one Man may prove on great Occasions; No sooner was the Earl
out of the Fort, the Care of which he had left under the Command of the
Lord _Charlemont_ (a Person of known Merit and undoubted Courage, but
somewhat too flexible in his Temper) when a panick Fear (tho' the Earl,
as I have said, was only gone to take a View of the Enemy) seiz'd upon
the Soldiery, which was a little too easily comply'd with by the Lord
_Charlemont_, then commanding Officer. True it is; for I heard an
Officer, ready enough to take such Advantages, urge to him, that none of
all those Posts we were become Masters of, were tenable; that to offer
at it would be no better than wilfully sacrificing human Lives to
Caprice and Humour; and just like a Man's knocking his Head against
Stone Walls, to try which was hardest. Having over-heard this Piece of
Lip-Oratory, and finding by the Answer that it was too likely to
prevail, and that all I was like to say would avail nothing. I slipt
away as fast as I could, to acquaint the General with the Danger

As I pass'd along, I took notice that the Panick was upon the Increase,
the general Rumor affirming, that we should be all cut off by the Troops
that were come out of _Barcelona_, if we did not immediately gain the
Hills, or the Houses possess'd by the _Miquelets_. Officers and
Soldiers, under this prevailing Terror, quitted their Posts; and in one
united Body (the Lord _Charlemont_ at the Head of them) march'd, or
rather hurry'd out of the Fort; and were come halfway down the Hill
before the Earl of _Peterborow_ came up to them. Though on my
acquainting him with the shameful and surprizing Accident he made no
Stay, but answering, with a good deal of Vehemence, _Good God, is it
possible?_ hastened back as fast as he could.

I never thought my self happier than in this Piece of Service to my
Country. I confess I could not but value it, as having been therein more
than a little instrumental in the glorious Successes which succeeded;
since immediately upon this Notice from me, the Earl gallop'd up the
Hill, and lighting when he came to Lord _Charlemont_, he took his
Half-pike out of his Hand; and turning to the Officers and Soldiers,
told them, if they would not face about and follow him, they should have
the Scandal and eternal Infamy upon them of having deserted their Posts,
and abandon'd their General.

It was surprizing to see with what Alacrity and new Courage they fac'd
about and follow'd the Earl of _Peterborow_. In a Moment they had forgot
their Apprehensions; and, without doubt, had they met with any
Opposition, they would have behav'd themselves with the greatest
Bravery. But as these Motions were unperceiv'd by the Enemy, all the
Posts were regain'd, and anew possess'd in less than half an Hour,
without any Loss: Though, had our Forces march'd half Musket-shot
farther, their Retreat would have been perceiv'd, and all the Success
attendant on this glorious Attempt must have been intirely blasted.

Another Incident which attended this happy Enterprize was this: The two
hundred Men which fell into the Hands of the Enemy, by the unhappy
Mistake of the Prince of _Hesse_, were carry'd directly into the Town.
The Marquis of _Risburg_, a Lieutenant-General, who commanded the three
thousand Men which were marching from the Town to the Relief of the
Fort, examin'd the Prisoners, as they pass'd by; and they all agreeing
that the General and the Prince of _Hesse_ were in Person with the
Troops that made the Attack on _Monjouick_, the Marquis gave immediate
Orders to retire to the Town; taking it for granted, that the main Body
of the Troops attended the Prince and General; and that some Design
therefore was on foot to intercept his Return, in case he should venture
too far. Thus the unfortunate Loss of our two hundred Men turn'd to our
Advantage, in preventing the Advance of the Enemy, which must have put
the Earl of _Peterborow_ to inconceivable Difficulties.

The Body of one Thousand, under Brigadier _Stanhope_, being come up to
_Monjouick_, and no Interruption given us by the Enemy, our Affairs were
put into very good Order on this Side; while the Camp on the other Side
was so fortify'd, that the Enemy, during the Siege, never made one
Effort against it. In the mean time, the Communication between the two
Camps was secure enough; although our Troops were obliged to a tedious
March along the Foot of the Hills, whenever the General thought fit to
relieve those on Duty on the Side of the Attack, from those Regiments
encamp'd on the West Side of _Barcelona_.

The next Day, after the Earl of _Peterborow_ had taken Care to secure
the first Camp to the Eastward of the Town, he gave Orders to the
Officers of the Fleet to land the Artillery and Ammunition behind the
Fortress to the Westward. Immediately upon the Landing whereof, two
Mortars were fix'd; from both which we ply'd the Fort of _Monjouick_
furiously with our Bombs. But the third or fourth Day, one of our Shells
fortunately lighting on their Magazine of Powder, blew it up; and with
it the Governor, and many principal Officers who were at Dinner with
him. The Blast, at the same Instant, threw down a Face of one of the
smaller Bastions; which the vigilant _Miquelets_, ready enough to take
all Advantages, no sooner saw (for they were under the Hill, very near
the Place) but they readily enter'd, while the Enemy were under the
utmost Confusion. If the Earl, no less watchful than they, had not at
the same Moment thrown himself in with some regular Troops, and
appeas'd the general Disorder, in all probability the Garrison had been
put to the Sword. However, the General's Presence not only allay'd the
Fury of the _Miquelets_; but kept his own Troops under strictest
Discipline: So that in a happy Hour for the frighted Garrison, the
General gave Officers and Soldiers Quarters, making them Prisoners of

How critical was that Minute wherein the General met his retreating
Commander? a very few Steps farther had excluded us our own Conquests,
to the utter Loss of all those greater Glories which ensu'd. Nor would
that have been the worst; for besides the Shame attending such an ill
concerted Retreat from our Acquests on _Monjouick_, we must have felt
the accumulative Disgrace of infamously retiring aboard the Ships that
brought us; but Heaven reserv'd for our General amazing Scenes both of
Glory and Mortification.

I cannot here omit one Singularity of Life, which will demonstrate Men's
different Way of Thinking, if not somewhat worse; when many Years after,
to one in Office, who seem'd a little too dead to my Complaints, and by
that Means irritating my human Passions, injustice to my self, as well
as Cause, I urged this Piece of Service, by which I not only preserv'd
the Place, but the Honour of my Country, that _Minister petite_, to
mortify my Expectations and baffle my Plea, with a Grimace as odd as his
Logick, return'd, that, in his Opinion, the Service pretended was a
Disservice to the Nation; since Perseverance had cost the Government
more Money than all our Conquests were worth, could we have kept 'em. So
irregular are the Conceptions of Man, when even great Actions thwart the
Bent of an interested Will!

The Fort of _Monjouick_ being thus surprizingly reduc'd, furnish'd a
strange Vivacity to Mens Expectations, and as extravagantly flatter'd
their Hopes; for as Success never fails to excite weaker Minds to pursue
their good Fortune, though many times to their own Loss; so is it often
too apt to push on more elevated Spirits to renew the Encounter for
atchieving new Conquests, by hazarding too rashly all their former
Glory. Accordingly, every Body now began to make his utmost Efforts; and
look'd upon himself as a Drone, if he was not employ'd in doing
something or other towards pushing forward the Siege of _Barcelona_ it
self, and raising proper Batteries for that Purpose. But, after all, it
must in Justice be acknowledg'd, that notwithstanding this prodigious
Success that attended this bold Enterprize, the Land Forces of
themselves, without the Assistance of the Sailors, could never have
reduc'd the Town. The Commanders and Officers of the Fleet had always
evinc'd themselves Favourers of this Project upon _Barcelona_. A new
Undertaking so late in the Year, as I have said before, was their utter
Aversion, and what they hated to hear of. Elated therefore with a
Beginning so auspicious, they gave a more willing Assistance than could
have been ask'd, or judiciously expected. The Admirals forgot their
Element, and acted as General Officers at Land: They came every Day from
their Ships, with a Body of Men form'd into Companies, and regularly
marshall'd and commanded by Captains and Lieutenants of their own.
Captain _Littleton_ in particular, one of the most advanced Captains in
the whole Fleet, offer'd of himself to take care of the Landing and
Conveyance of the Artillery to the Camp. And answerable to that his
first Zeal was his Vigour all along, for finding it next to an
Impossibility to draw the Cannon and Mortars up such vast Precipices by
Horses, if the Country had afforded them, he caus'd Harnesses to be made
for two hundred Men; and by that Means, after a prodigious Fatigue and
Labour, brought the Cannon and Mortars necessary for the Siege up to the
very Batteries.

In this Manner was the Siege begun; nor was it carry'd on with any less
Application; the Approaches being made by an Army of Besiegers, that
very little, if at all, exceeded the Number of the Besieg'd; not
altogether in a regular Manner, our few Forces would not admit it; but
yet with Regularity enough to secure our two little Camps, and preserve
a Communication between both, not to be interrupted or incommoded by the
Enemy. We had soon erected three several Batteries against the Place,
all on the West Side of the Town, _viz_. one of nine Guns, another of
Twelve, and the last of upwards of Thirty. From all which we ply'd the
Town incessantly, and with all imaginable Fury; and very often in whole

Nevertheless it was thought not only adviseable, but necessary, to erect
another Battery, upon a lower Piece of Ground under a small Hill; which
lying more within Reach, and opposite to those Places where the Walls
were imagin'd weakest, would annoy the Town the more; and being design'd
for six Guns only, might soon be perfected. A _French_ Engeneer had the
Direction; and indeed very quickly perfected it. But when it came to be
consider'd which way to get the Cannon to it, most were of opinion that
it would be absolutely impracticable, by reason of the vast Descent;
tho' I believe they might have added a stronger Reason, and perhaps more
intrinsick, that it was extremely expos'd to the Fire of the Enemy.

Having gain'd some little Reputation in the Attack of _Monjouick_, this
Difficulty was at last to be put upon me; and as some, not my Enemies,
suppos'd, more out of Envy than good Will. However, when I came to the
Place, and had carefully taken a View of it, though I was sensible
enough of the Difficulty, I made my main Objection as to the Time for
accomplishing it; for it was then between Nine and Ten, and the Guns
were to be mounted by Day-light. Neither could I at present see any
other Way to answer their Expectations, than by casting the Cannon down
the Precipice, at all Hazards, to the Place below, where that fourth
Battery was erected.

This wanted not Objections to; and therefore to answer my Purpose, as to
point of Time, sixty Men more were order'd me, as much as possible to
facilitate the Work by Numbers; and accordingly I set about it. Just as
I was setting all Hands to work, and had given Orders to my Men to begin
some Paces back, to make the Descent more gradual, and thereby render
the Task a little more feasible, Major _Collier_, who commanded the
Train, came to me; and perceiving the Difficulties of the Undertaking,
in a Fret told me, I was impos'd upon; and vow'd he would go and find
out Brigadier _Petit_, and let him know the Impossibility, as well as
the Unreasonableness of the Task I was put upon. He had scarce utter'd
those Words, and turn'd himself round to perform his Promise, when an
unlucky Shot with a Musket-Ball wounded him through the Shoulder; upon
which he was carry'd off, and I saw him not till some considerable time

By the painful Diligence, and the additional Compliment of Men, however,
I so well succeeded (such was my great good Fortune) that the Way was
made, and the Guns, by the Help of Fascines, and other lesser
Preparations below, safely let down and mounted; so that that fourth
Battery began to play upon the Town before Break of Day; and with all
the Success that was propos'd.

In short, the Breach in a very few Days after was found wholly
practicable; and all Things were got ready for a general Storm. Which
Don _Valasco_ the Governor being sensible of, immediately beat a Parley;
upon which it was, among other Articles, concluded, that the Town should
be surrender'd in three Days; and the better to ensure it, the Bastion,
which commanded the Port St. _Angelo_, was directly put into our

But before the Expiration of the limited three Days, a very unexpected
Accident fell out, which hasten'd the Surrender. Don _Valasco_, during
his Government, had behav'd himself very arbitrarily, and thereby
procur'd, as the Consequence of it, a large Proportion of ill will, not
only among the Townsmen, but among the _Miquelets_, who had, in their
Zeal to King _Charles_, flock'd from all Parts of _Catalonia_ to the
Siege of their Capital; and who, on the Signing of the Articles of
Surrender, had found various Ways, being well acquainted with the most
private Avenues, to get by Night into the Town: So that early in the
Morning they began to plunder all that they knew Enemies to King
_Charles_, or thought Friends to the Prince his Competitor.

Their main Design was upon _Valasco_ the Governor, whom, if they could
have got into their Hands, it was not to be question'd, but as far as
his Life and Limbs would have serv'd, they would have sufficiently
satiated their Vengeance upon. He expected no less; and therefore
concealed himself, till the Earl of _Peterborow_ could give Orders for
his more safe and private Conveyance by Sea to _Alicant_.

Nevertheless, in the Town all was in the utmost Confusion; which the
Earl of _Peterborow_, at the very first hearing, hastened to appease;
with his usual Alacrity he rid all alone to Port St. _Angelo_, where at
that time my self happen'd to be; and demanding to be admitted, the
Officer of the Guard, under Fear and Surprise, open'd the Wicket,
through which the Earl enter'd, and I after him.

Scarce had we gone a hundred Paces, when we saw a Lady of apparent
Quality, and indisputable Beauty, in a strange, but most affecting
Agony, flying from the apprehended Fury of the _Miquelets_; her lovely
Hair was all flowing about her Shoulders, which, and the Consternation
she was in, rather added to, than any thing diminish'd from the Charms
of an Excess of Beauty. She, as is very natural to People in Distress,
made up directly to the Earl, her Eyes satisfying her he was a Person
likely to give her all the Protection she wanted. And as soon as ever
she came near enough, in a Manner that declar'd her Quality before she
spoke, she crav'd that Protection, telling him, the better to secure it,
who it was that ask'd it. But the generous Earl presently convinc'd her,
he wanted no Intreaties, having, before he knew her to be the Dutchess
of _Popoli_, taken her by the Hand, in order to convey her through the
Wicket which he enter'd at, to a Place of Safety without the Town.

I stay'd behind, while the Earl convey'd the distress'd Dutchess to her
requested _Asylum_; and I believe it was much the longest Part of an
Hour before he return'd. But as soon as ever he came back, he, and my
self, at his Command, repair'd to the Place of most Confusion, which the
extraordinary Noise full readily directed us to; and which happened to
be on the Parade before the Palace. There it was that the _Miquelets_
were making their utmost Efforts to get into their Hands the almost sole
Occasion of the Tumult, and the Object of their raging Fury, the Person
of Don _Valasco_, the late Governor.

It was here that the Earl preserv'd that Governor from the violent, but
perhaps too just Resentments of the _Miquelets_; and, as I said before,
convey'd him by Sea to _Alicant_. And, indeed, I could little doubt the
Effect, or be any thing surpriz'd at the Easiness of the Task, when I
saw, that wherever he appear'd the popular Fury was in a Moment allay'd,
and that every Dictate of that General was assented to with the utmost
Chearfulness and Deference. _Valasco_, before his Embarkment, had given
Orders, in Gratitude to his Preserver, for all the Gates to be deliver'd
up, tho' short of the stipulated Term; and they were accordingly so
delivered, and our Troops took Possession so soon as ever that Governor
was aboard the Ship that was to convey him to _Alicant_.

During the Siege of _Barcelona_, Brigadier _Stanhope_ order'd a Tent to
be pitch'd as near the Trenches as possibly could be with Safety; where
he not only entertain'd the chief Officers who were upon Duty, but
likewise the _Catalonian_ Gentlemen who brought _Miquelets_ to our
Assistance. I remember I saw an old Cavalier, having his only Son with
him, who appear'd a fine young Gentleman, about twenty Years of Age, go
into the Tent, in order to dine with the Brigadier. But whilst they were
at Dinner, an unfortunate Shot came from the Bastion of St. _Antonio_,
and intirely struck off the Head of the Son. The father immediately rose
up, first looking down upon his headless Child, and then lifting up his
Eyes to Heaven, whilst the Tears ran down his Cheeks, he cross'd
himself, and only said, _Fiat voluntas tua_, and bore it with a
wonderful Patience. 'Twas a sad Spectacle, and truly it affects me now
whilst I am writing.

The Earl of _Peterborow_, tho' for some time after the Revolution he had
been employ'd in civil Affairs, return'd to the military Life with great
Satisfaction, which was ever his Inclination. Brigadier _Stanhope_, who
was justly afterwards created an Earl, did well deserve this Motto, _Tam
Marte quam Mercurio_; for truly he behav'd, all the time he continu'd in
_Spain_, as if he had been inspir'd with Conduct; for the Victory at
_Almanar_ was intirely owing to him; and likewise at the Battle of
_Saragosa_ he distinguish'd himself with great Bravery. That he had not
Success at _Bruhega_ was not his Fault; for no Man can resist Fate; for
'twas decreed by Heaven that _Philip_ should remain King of _Spain_, and
_Charles_ to be Emperor of _Germany_. Yet each of these Monarchs have
been ungrateful to the Instruments which the Almighty made use of to
preserve them upon their Thrones; for one had not been King of _Spain_
but for _France_; and the other had not been Emperor but for _England_.

_Barcelona_, the chief Place in _Catalonia_, being thus in our Hands, as
soon as the Garrison, little inferior to our Army, had march'd out with
Drums beating, Colours flying, _&c_. according to the Articles,
_Charles_ the Third made his publick Entry, and was proclaim'd King, and
receiv'd with the general Acclamations, and all other Demonstrations of
Joy suitable to that great Occasion.

Some Days after which, the Citizens, far from being satiated with their
former Demonstrations of their Duty, sent a Petition to the King, by
proper Deputies for that Purpose appointed, desiring Leave to give more
ample Instances of their Affections in a public _Cavalcade_. The King
granted their Request, and the Citizens, pursuant thereto, made their

On the Day appointed, the King, plac'd in a Balcony belonging to the
House of the Earl of _Peterborow_, appear'd ready to honour the Show.
The Ceremonial, to speak nothing figuratively, was very fine and grand:
Those of the first Rank made their Appearance in decent Order, and upon
fine Horses; and others under Arms, and in Companies, march'd with
native Gravity and Grandeur, all saluting his Majesty as they pass'd by,
after the _Spanish_ Manner, which that Prince return'd with the Movement
of his Hand to his Mouth; for the Kings of _Spain_ are not allow'd to
salute, or return a Salute, by any Motion to, or of, the Hat.

After these follow'd several Pageants; the first of which was drawn by
Mules, set off to the Height with stateliest Feathers, and adorn'd with
little Bells. Upon the Top of this Pageant appear'd a Man dress'd all in
Green; but in the Likeness of a Dragon. The Pageant making a Stop just
over-against the Balcony where the King sate, the Dragonical
Representative diverted him with great Variety of Dancings, the Earl of
_Peterborow_ all the time throwing out Dollars by Handfuls among the
Populace, which they as constantly receiv'd with the loud Acclamation
and repeated Cries of _Viva, Viva, Carlos Terceros, Viva la Casa

When that had play'd its Part, another Pageant, drawn as before, made a
like full Stop before the same Balcony. On this was plac'd a very large
Cage, or Aviary, the Cover of which, by Springs contriv'd for that
Purpose, immediately flew open, and out of it a surprizing Flight of
Birds of various Colours. These, all amaz'd at their sudden Liberty,
which I took to be the Emblem intended, hover'd a considerable space of
time over and about their Place of Freedom, chirping, singing, and
otherwise testifying their mighty Joy for their so unexpected

There were many other Pageants; but having little in them very
remarkable, I have forgot the Particulars. Nevertheless, every one of
them was dismiss'd with the like Acclamations of _Viva, Viva_; the
Whole concluding with Bonfires and Illuminations common on all such

I cannot here omit one very remarkable Instance of the Catholick Zeal of
that Prince, which I was soon after an Eye-witness of. I was at that
time in the Fruit-Market, when the King passing by in his Coach, the
Host (whether by Accident or Contrivance I cannot say) was brought, at
that very Juncture, out of the great Church, in order, as I after
understood, to a poor sick Woman's receiving the Sacrament. On Sight of
the Host the King came out of his Coach, kneel'd down in the Street,
which at that time prov'd to be very dirty, till the Host pass'd by;
then rose up, and taking the lighted Flambeau from him who bore it, he
follow'd the Priest up a streight nasty Alley, and there up a dark
ordinary Pair of Stairs, where the poor sick Woman lay. There he stay'd
till the whole Ceremony was over, when, returning to the Door of the
Church, he very faithfully restor'd the lighted Flambeau to the Fellow
he had taken it from, the People all the while crying out _Viva, Viva_;
an Acclamation, we may imagine, intended to his Zeal, as well as his

Another remarkable Accident, of a much more moral Nature, I must,
injustice to the Temperance of that, in this truly inimitable People,
recite. I was one Day walking in one of the most populous Streets of
that City, where I found an uncommon Concourse of People, of all Sorts,
got together; and imagining so great a Croud could not be assembled on a
small Occasion, I prest in among the rest; and after a good deal of
Struggling and Difficulty, reach'd into the Ring and Centre of that
mix'd Multitude. But how did I blush? with what Confusion did I appear?
when I found one of my own Countrymen, a drunken Granadier, the
attractive Loadstone of all that high and low Mob, and the Butt of all
their Merriment? It will be easily imagin'd to be a Thing not a little
surprizing to one of our Country, to find that a drunken Man should be
such a wonderful Sight; However, the witty Sarcasms that were then by
high and low thrown upon that senseless Creature, and as I interpreted
Matters, me in him, were so pungent, that if I did not curse my
Curiosity, I thought it best to withdraw my self as fast as Legs could
carry me away.

_BARCELONA_ being now under King _Charles_, the Towns of _Gironne,
Tarragona, Tortosa_, and _Lerida_, immediately declar'd for him. To
every one of which Engeneers being order'd, it was my Lot to be sent to
_Tortosa_. This Town is situated on the Side of the River _Ebro_, over
which there is a fair and famous Bridge of Boats. The Waters of this
River are always of a dirty red Colour, somewhat fouler than our Moorish
Waters; yet is it the only Water the Inhabitants drink, or covet to
drink; and every House providing for its own Convenience Cisterns to
preserve it in, by a few Hours standing it becomes as clear as the
clearest Rock-water, but as soft as Milk. In short, for Softness,
Brightness, and Pleasantness of Taste, the Natives prefer it to all the
Waters in the World. And I must declare in favour of their Opinion, that
none ever pleas'd me like it.

This Town was of the greater Moment to our Army, as opening a Passage
into the Kingdom of _Valencia_ on one Side, and the Kingdom of _Arragon_
on the other: And being of it self tolerably defensible, in human
Appearance might probably repay a little Care and Charge in its Repair
and Improvement. Upon this Employ was I appointed, and thus was I
busy'd, till the Arrival of the Earl of _Peterborow_ with his little
Army, in order to march to _Valencia_, the Capital of that Province.
Here he left in Garrison Colonel _Hans Hamilton_'s Regiment; the Place,
nevertheless, was under the Command of a _Spanish_ Governor, appointed
by King _Charles_.

While the Earl stay'd a few Days at this Place, under Expectation of the
promis'd Succours from _Barcelona_, he receiv'd _a Proprio_ (or Express)
from the King of _Spain_, full of Excuses, instead of Forces. And yet
the very same Letter, in a paradoxical Manner, commanded him, at all
Events, to attempt the Relief of _Santo Mattheo_, where Colonel _Jones_
commanded, and which was then under Siege by the _Conde de los Torres_
(as was the Report) with upwards of three thousand Men. The Earl of
_Peterborow_ could not muster above one thousand Foot, and about two
hundred Horse; a small Force to make an Attempt of that Nature upon such
a superior Power: Yet the Earl's Vivacity (as will be occasionally
further observ'd in the Course of these Memoirs) never much regarded
Numbers, so there was but room, by any Stratagem, to hope for Success.
True it is, for his greater Encouragement and Consolation, the same
Letter intimated, that a great Concourse of the Country People being up
in Arms, to the Number of many Thousands, in Favour of King _Charles_,
and wanting only Officers, the Enterprize would be easy and unattended
with much Danger. But upon mature Enquiry, the Earl found that great
Body of Men all _in nubibus_; and that the _Conde_, in the plain Truth
of the Matter, was much stronger than the Letter at first represented.

_Santo Mattheo_ was a Place of known Importance; and that from its
Situation, which cut off all Communication between _Catalonia_ and
_Valencia_; and, consequently, should it fall into the Hands of the
Enemy, the Earl's Design upon the latter must inevitably have been
postpon'd. It must be granted, the Commands for attempting the Relief of
it were pressing and peremptory; nevertheless, the Earl was very
conscious to himself, that as the promis'd Reinforcements were
suspended, his Officers would not approve of the Attempt upon the Foot
of such vast Inequalities; and their own declar'd Sentiments soon
confirm'd the Dictates of the Earl's Reason. He therefore addresses
himself to those Officers in a different Manner: He told 'em he only
desir'd they would be passive, and leave it to him to work his own Way.
Accordingly, the Earl found out and hired two _Spanish_ Spies, for whose
Fidelity (as his great Precaution always led him to do) he took
sufficient Security; and dispatch'd 'em with a Letter to Colonel
_Jones_, Governor of the Place, intimating his Readiness, as well as
Ability, to relieve him; and, above all, exhorting him to have the
_Miquelets_ in the Town ready, on Sight of his Troops, to issue out,
pursue, and plunder; since that would be all they would have to do, and
all he would expect at their Hands. The Spies were dispatch'd
accordingly; and, pursuant to Instructions, one betray'd and discover'd
the other who had the Letter in charge to deliver to Colonel _Jones_.
The Earl, to carry on the Feint, having in the mean time, by dividing
his Troops, and marching secretly over the Mountains, drawn his Men
together, so as to make their Appearance on the Height of a neighbouring
Mountain, little more than Cannot-shot from the Enemy's Camp. The Tale
of the Spies was fully confirm'd, and the _Conde_ (though an able
General) march'd off with some Precipitation with his Army; and by that
Means the Earl's smaller Number of twelve Hundred had Liberty to march
into the Town without Interruption. I must not let slip an Action of
Colonel _Jones_'s just before the Earl's Delivery of them: The _Conde_,
for want of Artillery, had set his Miners to work; and the Colonel,
finding they had made some dangerous Advances, turned the Course of a
Rivulet, that ran through the Middle of the Town, in upon them, and made
them quit a Work they thought was brought to Perfection.

_SANTO Mattheo_ being reliev'd, as I have said, the Earl, though he had
so far gain'd his Ends, left not the flying Enemy without a Feint of
Pursuit; with such Caution, nevertheless, that in case they should
happen to be better inform'd of his Weakness, he might have a Resource
either back again to _Santo Mattheo_, or to _Vinaros_ on the Sea-side;
or some other Place, as occasion might require. But having just before
receiv'd fresh Advice, that the Reinforcements he expected were anew
countermanded; and that the Duke of _Anjou_ had increas'd his Troops to
twelve thousand Men; the Officers, not enough elated with the last
Success to adventure upon new Experiments, resolv'd, in a Council of
War, to advise the Earl, who had just before receiv'd a discretionary
Commission in lieu of Troops, so to post the Forces under him, as not to
be cut off from being able to assist the King in Person; or to march to
the Defence of _Catalonia_, in case of Necessity.

Pursuant to this Resolution of the Council of War, the Earl of
_Peterborow_, tho' still intent upon his Expedition into _Valencia_
(which had been afresh commanded, even while his Supplies were
countermanded) orders his Foot, in a truly bad Condition, by tedious
Marches Day and Night over the Mountains, to _Vinaros_; and with his two
hundred Horse, set out to prosecute his pretended Design of pursuing the
flying Enemy; resolv'd, if possible, notwithstanding all seemingly
desperate Circumstances, to perfect the Security of that Capital.

To that Purpose, the Earl, with his small Body of Patrolers, went on
frightning the Enemy, till they came under the Walls of _Nules_, a Town
fortify'd with the best Walls, regular Towers, and in the best Repair of
any in that Kingdom. But even here, upon the Appearance of the Earl's
Forlorn (if they might not properly at that time all have pass'd under
that Character) under the same Panick they left that sensible Town,
with only one Thousand of the Town's People, well arm'd, for the Defence
of it. Yet was it scarce to be imagin'd, that the Earl, with his small
Body of two hundred Horse, should be able to gain Admission; or, indeed,
under such Circumstances, to attempt it. But bold as the Undertaking
was, his good Genius went along with him; and so good a Genius was it,
that it rarely left him without a good Effect. He had been told the Day
before, that the Enemy, on leaving _Nules_, had got Possession of _Villa
Real_, where they put all to the Sword. What would have furnish'd
another with Terror, inspir'd his Lordship with a Thought as fortunate
as it was successful. The Earl rides up to the very Gates of the Town,
at the Head of his Party, and peremptorily demands the chief Magistrate,
or a Priest, immediately to be sent out to him; and that under Penalty
of being all put to the Sword, and us'd as the Enemy had us'd those at
_Villa-Real_ the Day or two before. The Troops, that had so lately left
the Place, had left behind 'em more Terror than Men; which, together
with the peremptory Demand of the Earl, soon produc'd some Priests to
wait upon the General. By their Readiness to obey, the Earl very justly
imagin'd Fear to be the Motive; wherefore, to improve their Terror, he
only allow'd them six Minutes time to resolve upon a Surrender, telling
them, that otherwise, so soon as his Artillery was come up, he would lay
them under the utmost Extremities. The Priests return'd with this
melancholy Message into the Place; and in a very short time after the
Gates were thrown open. Upon the Earl's Entrance he found two hundred
Horse, which were the Original of his Lordship's forming that Body of
Horse, which afterwards prov'd the saving of _Valencia_.

The News of the taking of _Nules_ soon overtook the flying Enemy; and so
increas'd the Apprehensions of their Danger, that they renew'd their
March, the same Day; though what they had taken before would have
satisfy'd them much better without it. On the other hand, the Earl was
so well pleas'd with his Success, that leaving the Enemy to fly before
their Fears, he made a short Turn towards _Castillon de la Plana_, a
considerable, but open Town, where his Lordship furnish'd himself with
four hundred Horses more; and all this under the Assurance that his
Troops were driving the Enemy before them out of the Kingdom. Hence he
sent Orders to Colonel _Pierce's_ Regiment at _Vinaros_ to meet him at
_Oropesa_, a Place at no great Distance; where, when they came, they
were very pleasingly surpriz'd at their being well mounted, and
furnish'd with all Accoutrements necessary. After which, leaving 'em
canton'd in wall'd Towns, where they could not be disturb'd without
Artillery, that indefatigable General, leaving them full Orders, went on
his way towards _Tortosa_.

At _Vinaros_ the Earl met with Advice, that the _Spanish_ Militia of the
Kingdom of _Valencia_ were assembled, and had already advanc'd a Day's
March at least into that Country. Upon which, collecting, as fast as he
could, the whole Corps together, the Earl resolv'd to penetrate into
_Valencia_ directly; notwithstanding this whole collected Body would
amount to no more than six hundred Horse and two thousand Foot.

But there was a strong Pass over a River, just under the Walls of
_Molviedro_, which must be first disputed and taken. This Brigadier
_Mahoni_, by the Orders of the Duke of _Arcos_, who commanded the Troops
of the Duke of _Anjou_ in the Kingdom of _Valencia_, had taken care to
secure. _Molviedro_, though not very strong, is a wall'd Town, very
populous of it self; and had in it, besides a Garrison of eight hundred
Men, most of _Mahoni_'s Dragoons. It lies at the very Bottom of a high
Hill; on the upper Part whereof they shew the Ruins of the once famous
SAGUNTUM; famous sure to Eternity, if Letters shall last so long, for an
inviolable Fidelity to a negligent Confederate, against an implacable
Enemy. Here yet appear the visible _Vestigia_ of awful Antiquity, in
half standing Arches, and the yet unlevell'd Walls and Towers of that
once celebrated City. I could not but look upon all these with the Eyes
of Despight, in regard to their Enemy _Hannibal_; with those of Disdain,
in respect to the uncommon and unaccountable Supineness of its
Confederates, the _Romans_; but with those of Veneration, as to the
Memory of a glorious People, who rather than stand reproach'd with a
Breach of Faith, or the Brand of Cowardice, chose to sacrifice
themselves, their Wives, Children, and all that was dear to them, in the
Flames of their expiring City.

In _Molviedro_, as I said before, _Mahoni_ commanded, with eight
hundred Men, besides Inhabitants; which, together with our having but
little Artillery, induc'd the Officers under the Earl of _Peterborow_
reasonably enough to imagine and declare, that there could be no visible
Appearance of surmounting such Difficulties. The Earl, nevertheless,
instead of indulging such Despondencies, gave them Hope, that what
Strength serv'd not to accomplish, Art might possibly obtain. To that
Purpose he proposed an Interview between himself and _Mahoni_; and
accordingly sent an Officer with a Trumpet to intimate his Desire. The
Motion was agreed to; and the Earl having previously station'd his
Troops to advantage, and his little Artillery at a convenient Distance,
with Orders they should appear on a slow March on the Side of a rising
Hill, during the time of Conference, went to the Place appointed; only,
as had been stipulated, attended with a small Party of Horse. When they
were met, the Earl first offer'd all he could to engage _Mahoni_ to the
Interest of King _Charles_; proposing some Things extravagant enough (as
_Mahoni_ himself some time after told me) to stagger the Faith of a
Catholick; but all to little Purpose: _Mahoni_ was inflexible, which
oblig'd the Earl to new Measures.

Whereupon the Earl frankly told him, that he could not however but
esteem the Confidence he had put in him; and therefore, to make some
Retaliation, he was ready to put it in his Power to avoid the
Barbarities lately executed at _Villa-Real_.

"My Relation to you," continued the General, "inclines me to spare a
Town under your Command. You see how near my Forces are; and can hardly
doubt our soon being Masters of the Place: What I would therefore offer
you, said the Earl, is a Capitulation, that my Inclination may be held
in Countenance by my Honour. Barbarities, however justified by Example,
are my utter Aversion, and against my Nature; and to testify so much,
together with my good Will to your Person, was the main Intent of this

This Frankness so far prevail'd on _Mahoni_, that he agreed to return an
Answer in half an Hour. Accordingly, an Answer was returned by a
_Spanish_ Officer, and a Capitulation agreed upon; the Earl at the same
time endeavouring to bring over that Officer to King _Charles_, on much
the same Topicks he us'd with _Mahoni_. But finding this equally
fruitless, whether it was that he tacitly reproach'd the Officer with a
Want of Consideration in neglecting to follow the Example of his
Commander, or what else, he created in that Officer such a Jealousy of
_Mahoni_, that was afterward very serviceable to him in his further

To forward which to a good Issue, the Earl immediately made choice of
two Dragoons, who, upon promise of Promotion, undertook to go as Spies
to the Duke of _Arcos_, whose Forces lay not far off, on the other Side
a large Plain, which the Earl must unavoidably pass, and which would
inevitably be attended with almost insuperable Dangers, if there
attack'd by a Force so much superior. Those Spies, according to
Instructions, were to discover to the Duke, that they over-heard the
Conference between the Earl and _Mahoni_; and at the same time saw a
considerable Number of Pistoles deliver'd into _Mahoni_'s Hands, large
Promises passing at that Instant reciprocally: But above all, that the
Earl had recommended to him the procuring the March of the Duke over the
Plain between them. The Spies went and deliver'd all according to
Concert; concluding, before the Duke, that they would ask no Reward, but
undergo any Punishment, if _Mahoni_ did not very soon send to the Duke a
Request to march over the Plain, in order to put the concerted Plot in
execution. It was not long after this pretended Discovery before
_Mahoni_ did send indeed an Officer to the Duke, desiring the March of
his Forces over the Plain; but, in reality, to obstruct the Earl's
Passage, which he knew very well must be that and no other way. However,
the Duke being prepossess'd by the Spies, and what those _Spanish_
Officers that at first escap'd had before infus'd, took Things in their
Sense; and as soon as _Mahoni_, who was forc'd to make the best of his
way over the Plain before the Earl of _Peterborow_, arriv'd at his Camp,
he was put under Arrest and sent to _Madrid_. The Duke having thus
imbib'd the Venom, and taken the Alarm, immediately decamp'd in
Confusion, and took a different Rout than at first he intended; leaving
that once formidable Plain open to the Earl, without an Enemy to
obstruct him. In some little time after he arriv'd at _Madrid_, _Mahoni_
made his Innocence appear, and was created a General; while the Duke of
_Arcos_ was recall'd from his Post of Honour.

The Day after we arriv'd at _Valencia_, the Gates of which fine City
were set open to us with the highest Demonstrations of Joy. I call'd it
a fine City; but sure it richly deserves a brighter Epithet, since it is
a common Saying among the _Spaniards_, that the Pleasures of _Valencia_
would make a _Jew_ forget _Jerusalem_. It is most sweetly situated in a
very beautiful Plain, and within half a League of the _Mediterranean_
Sea. It never wants any of the Fragrancies of Nature, and always has
something to delight the most curious Eye. It is famous to a Proverb for
fine Women; but as infamous, and only in that so, for the Race of
Bravoes, the common Companions of the Ladies of Pleasure in this
Country. These Wretches are so Case-hardened, they will commit a Murder
for a Dollar, tho' they run their Country for it when they have done.
Not that other Parts of this Nation are uninfested with this sort of
Animals; but here their Numbers are so great, that if a Catalogue was to
be taken of those in other Parts of that Country, perhaps nine in ten
would be found by Birth to be of this Province.

But to proceed, tho' the Citizens, and all Sorts of People, were
redundant in their various Expressions of Joy, for an Entry so
surprizing, and utterly lost to their Expedition, whatever it was to
their Wishes, the Earl had a secret Concern for the Publick, which lay
gnawing at his Heart, and which yet he was forced to conceal. He knew
that he had not four thousand Soldiers in the Place, and not Powder or
Ammunition for those; nor any Provisions lay'd in for any thing like a
Siege. On the other Hand, the Enemy without were upwards of seven
Thousand, with a Body of four Thousand more, not fifteen Leagues off, on
their March to join them. Add to this, the Marechal de _Thesse_ was no
farther off than _Madrid_, a very few Days' March from _Valencia_; a
short Way indeed for the Earl (who, as was said before, was wholly
unprovided for a Siege, which was reported to be the sole End of the
Mareschal's moving that Way.) But the Earl's never-failing Genius
resolv'd again to attempt that by Art, which the Strength of his Forces
utterly disallow'd him. And in the first Place, his Intelligence telling
him that sixteen twenty-four Pounders, with Stores and Ammunition
answerable for a Siege, were ship'd off for the Enemy's Service at
_Alicant_, the Earl forthwith lays a Design, and with his usual Success
intercepts 'em all, supplying that way his own Necessities at the
Expence of the Enemy.

The four thousand Men ready to reinforce the Troops nearer _Valencia_,
were the next Point to be undertaken; but _hic labor, hoc opus;_ since
the greater Body under the Conde _de las Torres_ (who, with _Mahoni_,
was now reinstated in his Post) lay between the Earl and those Troops
intended to be dispers'd. And what inhaunc'd the Difficulty, the River
_Xucar_ must be passed in almost the Face of the Enemy. Great
Disadvantages as these were, they did not discourage the Earl. He
detach'd by Night four hundred Horse and eight hundred Foot, who march'd
with such hasty Silence, that they surpriz'd that great Body, routed
'em, and brought into _Valencia_ six hundred Prisoners very safely,
notwithstanding they were oblig'd, under the same Night-Covert, to pass
very near a Body of three Thousand of the Enemy's Horse. Such a
prodigious Victory would hardly have gain'd Credit in that City, if the
Prisoners brought in had not been living Witnesses of the Action as well
as the Triumph. The Conde _de las Torres_, upon these two military
Rebuffs, drew off to a more convenient Distance, and left the Earl a
little more at ease in his new Quarters.

Here the Earl of _Peterborow_ made his Residence for some time. He was
extreamly well belov'd, his affable Behaviour exacted as much from all;
and he preserv'd such a good Correspondence with the Priests and the
Ladies, that he never fail'd of the most early and best Intelligence, a
thing by no means to be slighted in the common Course of Life; but much
more commendable and necessary in a General, with so small an Army, at
open War, and in the Heart of his Enemy's Country.

The Earl, by this Means, some small time after, receiving early
Intelligence that King _Philip_ was actually on his March to
_Barcelona_, with an Army of upwards of twenty five thousand Men, under
the Command of a Mareschal of _France_, began his March towards
_Catalonia_, with all the Troops that he could gather together, leaving
in _Valencia_ a small Body of Foot, such as in that Exigence could best
be spar'd. The whole Body thus collected made very little more than two
thousand Foot and six hundred Horse; yet resolutely with these he sets
out for _Barcelona_: In the Neighbourhood of which, as soon as he
arriv'd, he took care to post himself and his diminutive Army in the
Mountains which inviron that City; where he not only secur'd 'em against
the Enemy; but found himself in a Capacity of putting him under
perpetual Alarms. Nor was the Mareschal, with his great Army, capable of
returning the Earl's Compliment of Disturbance; since he himself, every
six or eight Hours, put his Troops into such a varying Situation, that
always when most arduously fought, he was farthest off from being found.
In this Manner the General bitterly harrass'd the Troops of the Enemy;
and by these Means struck a perpetual Terror into the Besiegers. Nor did
he only this way annoy the Enemy; the Precautions he had us'd, and the
Measures he had taken in other Places, with a View to prevent their
Return to _Madrid_, though the Invidious endeavour'd to bury them in
Oblivion, having equally contributed to the driving of the Mareschal of
_France_, and his Catholick King, out of the _Spanish_ Dominions.

But to go on with the Siege: The Breaches in the Walls of that City,
during its Siege by the Earl, had been put into tolerable Repair; but
those of _Monjouick_, on the contrary, had been as much neglected.
However, the Garrison made shift to hold out a Battery of twenty-three
Days, with no less than fifty Pieces of Cannon; when, after a Loss of
the Enemy of upwards of three thousand Men (a Moiety of the Army
employ'd against it when the Earl took it) they were forc'd to surrender
at Discretion. And this cannot but merit our Observation, that a Place,
which the _English_ General took in little more than an Hour, and with
inconsiderable Loss, afforded the Mareschal of _France_ a Resistance of
twenty-three Days.

Upon the taking of Fort _Monjouick_, the Mareschal _de Thess_ gave
immediate Orders for Batteries to be rais'd against the Town. Those
Orders were put in Execution with all Expedition; and at the same time
his Army fortify'd themselves with such Entrenchments, as would have
ruin'd the Earl's former little Army to have rais'd, or his present much
lesser Army to have attempted the forcing them. However, they
sufficiently demonstrated their Apprehensions of that watchful General,
who lay hovering over their Heads upon the Mountains. Their main Effort
was to make a Breach between Port St. _Antonio_ and that Breach which
our Forces had made the Year before; to effect which they took care to
ply them very diligently both from Cannon and Mortars; and in some few
Days their Application was answer'd with a practicable Breach for a
Storm. Which however was prudently deferr'd for some time, and that
thro' fear of the Earl's falling on the Back of them whenever they
should attempt it; which, consequently, they were sensible might put
them into some dangerous Disorder.

And now it was that the Earl of _Peterborow_ resolv'd to put in practice
the Resolution he had some time before concerted within himself. About
nine or ten Days before the Raising of the Siege, he had receiv'd an
Express from Brigadier _Stanhope_ (who was aboard Sir _John Leake's_
Fleet appointed for the Relief of the Place, with the Reinforcements
from _England_) acquainting the Earl, that he had us'd all possible
Endeavours to prevail on the Admiral to make the best of his way to
_Barcelona_. But that the Admiral, however, persisted in a positive
Resolution not to attempt the _French_ Fleet before that Place under the
Count _de Thoulouse_, till the Ships were join'd him which were expected
from _Ireland_, under the Command of Sir _George Bing_. True it was, the
Fleet under Admiral _Leake_ was of equal Strength with that under the
_French_ Admiral; but jealous of the Informations he had receiv'd, and
too ready to conclude that People in Distress were apt to make
Representations too much in their own Favour; he held himself, in point
of Discretion, oblig'd not to hazard the Queen's Ships, when a
Reinforcement of both cleaner and larger were under daily Expectation.

This unhappy Circumstance (notwithstanding all former glorious
Deliverances) had almost brought the Earl to the Brink of Despair; and
to increase it, the Earl every Day receiv'd such Commands from the King
within the Place, as must have sacrificed his few Forces, without the
least Probability of succeeding. Those all tended to his forcing his Way
into the Town; when, in all human Appearance, not one Man of all that
should make the Attempt could have done it, with any Hope or Prospect of
surviving. The _French_ were strongly encamp'd at the Foot of the
Mountains, distant two Miles from _Barcelona_; towards the Bottom of
those Hills, the Avenues into the Plain were possess'd and fortify'd by
great Detachments from the Enemy's Army. From all which it will be
evident, that no Attempt could be made without giving the Enemy time to
draw together what Body of Foot they pleas'd. Or supposing it feasible,
under all these difficult Circumstances, for some of them to have forc'd
their Passage, the Remainder, that should have been so lucky to have
escap'd their Foot, would have found themselves expos'd in open Field to
a Pursuit of four thousand Horse and Dragoons; and that for two Miles
together; when in case of their inclosing them, the bravest Troops in
the World, under such a Situation, would have found it their best way to
have surrender'd themselves Prisoners of War.

Nevertheless, when Brigadier _Stanhope_ sent that Express to the Earl,
which I just now mention'd, he assur'd him in the same, that he would
use his utmost Diligence, both by Sea and Land, to let him have timely
Notice of the Conjunction of the Fleets, which was now all they had to
depend upon. Adding withal, that if the Earl should at any time receive
a Letter, or Paper, though directed to no Body, and with nothing in it,
but a half Sheet of Paper cut in the Middle, he, the Earl, might
certainly depend upon it, that the two Fleets were join'd, and making
the best of their Way for _Barcelona_. It will easily be imagin'd the
Express was to be well paid; and being made sensible that he ran little
or no Hazard in carrying a Piece of blank Paper, he undertook it, and as
fortunately arriv'd with it to the Earl, at a Moment when Chagrin and
Despair might have hurry'd him to some Resolution that might have prov'd
fatal. The Messenger himself, however, knew nothing of the Joining of
the Fleets, or the Meaning of his Message.

As soon as the Earl of _Peterborow_ receiv'd this welcome Message from
Brigadier _Stanhope_, he march'd the very same Night, with his whole
little Body of Forces, to a Town on the Sea-Shore, call'd _Sigeth_. No
Person guess'd the Reason of his March, or knew any thing of what the
Intent of it was. The Officers, as formerly, obey'd without Enquiry; for
they were led to it by so many unaccountable Varieties of Success, that
Affiance became a second Nature, both in Officer and Soldier.

The Town of _Sigeth_ was about seven Leagues to the Westward of
_Barcelona_; where, as soon as the Earl with his Forces arriv'd, he took
care to secure all the small Fishing-Boats, _Feluccas_, and _Sattées_;
nay, in a Word, every Machine in which he could transport any of his
Men: So that in two Days' time he had got together a Number sufficient
for the Conveyance of all his Foot.

But a Day or two before the Arrival of the _English_ Fleet off _Sigeth_,
The Officers of his Troops were under a strange Consternation at a
Resolution their General had taken. Impatient of Delay, and fearful of
the Fleets passing by without his Knowledge, the Earl summon'd them
together a little before Night, at which time he discover'd to the whole
Assembly, that he himself was oblig'd to endeavour to get aboard the
_English_ Fleet; and that, if possible, before the _French_ Scouts
should be able to make any Discovery of their Strength: That finding
himself of no further Use on Shore, having already taken the necessary
Precautions for their Transportation and Security, they had nothing to
do but to pursue his Orders, and make the best of their Way to
_Barcelona_, in the Vessels which he had provided for them: That they
might do this in perfect Security when they saw the _English_ Fleet pass
by; or if they should pass by in the Night, an Engagement with the
_French_, which would give them sufficient Notice what they had to do

This Declaration, instead of satisfying, made the Officers ten times
more curious: But when they saw their General going with a Resolution to
lie out all Night at Sea, in an open Boat, attended with only one
Officer; and understood that he intended to row out in his _Felucca_
five or six Leagues distance from the Shore, it is hardly to be
express'd what Amazement and Concern surpriz'd them all. Mr. _Crow_, the
Queen's Minister, and others, express'd a particular Dislike and
Uneasiness; but all to no purpose, the Earl had resolv'd upon it.
Accordingly, at Night he put out to Sea in his open _Felucca_, all which
he spent five Leagues from Shore, with no other Company than one Captain
and his Rowers.

In the Morning, to the great Satisfaction of all, Officers and others,
the Earl came again to Land; and immediately began to put his Men into
the several Vessels which lay ready in Port for that Purpose. But at
Night their Amaze was renew'd, when they found their General ready to
put in execution his old Resolution, in the same Equipage, and with the
same Attendance. Accordingly, he again _felucca'd_ himself; and they saw
him no more till they were landed on the Mole in _Barcelona_.

When the Earl of _Peterborow_ first engag'd himself in the Expedition to
_Spain_, he propos'd to the Queen and her Ministry, that Admiral
_Shovel_ might be join'd in Commission with him in the Command of the
Fleet. But this Year, when the Fleet came through the Straites, under
Vice-Admiral _Leake_, the Queen had sent a Commission to the Earl of
_Peterborow_ for the full Command, whenever he thought fit to come
aboard in Person. This it was that made the General endeavour, at all
Hazards, to get aboard the Fleet by Night; for he was apprehensive, and
the Sequel prov'd his Apprehensions too well grounded, that _Admiral
Leake_ would make his Appearance with the whole Body of the Fleet, which
made near twice the Number of the Ships of the Enemy; in which Case it
was natural to suppose, that the Count _de Tholouse_, as soon as ever
the _French_ Scouts should give Notice of our Strength, would cut his
Cables and put out to Sea, to avoid an Engagement. On the other hand,
the Earl was very sensible, that if a Part of his Ships had kept
a-stern, that the Superiority might have appear'd on the _French_ Side,
or rather if they had bore away in the Night towards the Coast of
_Africa_, and fallen to the Eastward of _Barcelona_ the next Day, a
Battle had been inevitable, and a Victory equally certain; since the
Enemy by this Means had been tempted into an Engagement, and their
Retreat being cut off, and their whole Fleet surrounded with almost
double their Number, there had hardly been left for any of them a
Probability of Escaping.

Therefore, when the Earl of _Peterborow_ put to Sea again the second
Evening, fearful of loosing such a glorious Opportunity, and impatient
to be aboard to give the necessary Orders, he order'd his Rowers to
obtain the same Station, in order to discover the _English_ Fleet. And
according to his Wishes he did fall in with it; but unfortunately the
Night was so far advanc'd, that it was impossible for him then to put
his Project into practice. Captain _Price_, a Gentleman of _Wales_, who
commanded a Third Rate, was the Person he first came aboard of; but how
amaz'd was he to find, in an open Boat at open Sea, the Person who had
Commission to command the Fleet? So soon as he was enter'd the Ship,
the Earl sent the Ship's Pinnace with Letters to Admiral _Leake_, to
acquaint him with his Orders and Intentions; and to Brigadier _Stanhope_
with a Notification of his safe Arrival; but the Darkness of the Night
prov'd so great an Obstacle, that it was a long time before the Pinnace
could reach the Admiral. When Day appear'd, it was astonishing to the
whole Fleet to see the _Union_ Flag waving at the Main-top-mast Head. No
body could trust his own Eyes, or guess at the Meaning, till better
certify'd by the Account of an Event so singular and extraordinary.

When we were about six Leagues Distance from _Barcelona_, the Port we
aim'd at, one of the _French_ Scouts gave the Alarm, who making the
Signal to another, he communicated it to a Third, and so on, as we
afterward sorrowfully found, and as the Earl had before apprehended: The
_French_ Admiral being thus made acquainted with the Force of our Fleet,
hoisted sail, and made the best of his Way from us, either pursuant to
Orders, or under the plausible Excuse of a Retreat.

This favourable Opportunity thus lost, there remain'd nothing to do but
to land the Troops with all Expedition; which was executed accordingly:
The Regiments, which the Earl of _Peterborow_ embark'd the Night before,
being the first that got into the Town. Let the Reader imagine how
pleasing such a Sight must be to those in _Barcelona_, reduc'd as they
were to the last Extremity. In this Condition, to see an Enemy's Fleet
give way to another with Reinforcements from _England_, the Sea at the
same Instant cover'd with little Vessels crouded with greater Succours;
what was there wanting to compleat the glorious Scene, but what the
General had projected, a Fight at Sea, under the very Walls of the
invested City, and the Ships of the Enemy sinking, or tow'd in by the
victorious _English_? But Night, and a few Hours, defeated the latter
Part of that well intended Landskip.

King _Philip_, and the Mareschal of _France_, had not fail'd to push on
the Siege with all imaginable Vigour; but this Retreat of the Count _de
Tholouse_, and the News of those Reinforcements, soon chang'd the Scene.
Their Courage without was abated proportionably, as theirs within was
elated. In these Circumstances, a Council of War being call'd, it was
unanimously resolv'd to raise the Siege. Accordingly, next Morning, the
first of _May_, 1706, while the Sun was under a total Eclypse, in a
suitable Hurry and Confusion, they broke up, leaving behind them most of
their Cannon and Mortars, together with vast Quantities of all sorts of
Ammunition and Provisions, scarce stopping to look back till they had
left all but the very Verge of the disputed Dominion behind them.

King _Charles_ look'd with new Pleasure upon this lucky Effort of his
old Deliverers. Captivity is a State no way desirable to Persons however
brave, of the most private Station in Life; but for a King, within two
Days of falling into the Hands of his Rival, to receive so seasonable
and unexpected a Deliverance, must be supposed, as it really did, to
open a Scene to universal Rejoicing among us, too high for any Words to
express, or any Thoughts to imagine, to those that were not present and
Partakers of it. He forthwith gave Orders for a Medal to be struck
suitable to the Occasion; one of which, set round with Diamonds, he
presented to Sir _John Leake_, the _English_ Admiral. The next Orders
were for re-casting all the damag'd brass Cannon which the Enemy had
left; upon every one of which was, by order, a Sun eclyps'd, with this
Motto under it: _Magna parvis obscurantur_.

I have often wonder'd that I never heard any Body curious enough to
enquire what could be the Motives to the King of _Spain's_ quitting his
Dominions upon the raising of this Siege; very certain it is that he had
a fine Army, under the Command of a Mareschal of _France_, not very
considerably decreas'd, either by Action or Desertion: But all this
would rather increase the Curiosity than abate it. In my Opinion then,
though Men might have Curiosity enough, the Question was purposely
evaded, under an Apprehension that an honest Answer must inevitably give
a higher Idea of the General than their Inclinations led them to. At
first View this may carry the Face of a Paradox; yet if the Reader will
consider, that in every Age Virtue has had its Shaders or Maligners, he
will himself easily solve it, at the same time that he finds himself
compell'd to allow, that those, who found themselves unable to prevent
his great Services, were willing, in a more subtil Manner, to endeavour
at the annulling of them by Silence and Concealment.

This will appear more than bare Supposition, if we compare the present
Situation, as to Strength, of the two contending Powers: The _French_,
at the Birth of the Siege, consisted of five thousand Horse and
Dragoons, and twenty-five thousand Foot, effective Men. Now grant, that
their kill'd and wounded, together with their Sick in the Hospitals,
might amount to five Thousand; yet as their Body of Horse was entire,
and in the best Condition, the Remaining will appear to be an Army of
twenty-five Thousand at least. On the other Side, all the Forces in
_Barcelona_, even with their Reinforcements, amounted to no more than
seven thousand Foot and four hundred Horse. Why then, when they rais'd
their Siege, did not they march back into the Heart of _Spain_, with
their so much superior Army? or, at least, towards their Capital? The
Answer can be this, and this only; Because the Earl of _Peterborow_ had
taken such provident Care to render all secure, that it was thereby
render'd next to an Impossibility for them so to do. That General was
satisfy'd, that the Capital of _Catalonia_ must, in course, fall into
the Hands of the Enemy, unless a superior Fleet remov'd the Count _de
Tholouse_, and threw in timely Succours into the Town: And as that could
not depend upon him, but others, he made it his chief Care and assiduous
Employment to provide against those Strokes of Fortune to which he found
himself again likely to be expos'd, as he often had been; and therefore
had he Resource to that Vigilance and Precaution which had often
retriev'd him, when to others his Circumstances seem'd to be most

The Generality of Mankind, and the _French_ in particular, were of
opinion that the taking _Barcelona_ would prove a decisive Stroke, and
put a Period to the War in _Spain_; and yet at that very Instant I was
inclin'd to believe, that the General flatter'd himself it would be in
his Power to give the Enemy sufficient Mortification, even though the
Town should be oblig'd to submit to King _Philip_. The wise Measures
taken induc'd me so to believe, and the Sequel approv'd it; for the Earl
had so well expended his Caution, that the Enemy, on the Disappointment,
found himself under a Necessity of quitting _Spain_; and the same would
have put him under equal Difficulties had he carry'd the Place. The
_French_ could never have undertaken that Siege without depending on
their Fleet, for their Artillery, Ammunition, and Provisions; since
they must be inevitably forc'd to leave behind them the strong Towns of
_Tortosa_, _Lerida_, and _Taragona_. The Earl, therefore, whose
perpetual Difficulties seem'd rather to render him more sprightly and
vigorous, took care himself to examine the whole Country between the
_Ebro_ and _Barcelona_; and, upon his doing so, was pleasingly, as well
as sensibly satisfy'd, that it was practicable to render their Return
into the Heart of _Spain_ impossible, whether they did or did not
succeed in the Siege they were so intent to undertake.

There were but three Ways they could attempt it: The first of which was
by the Sea-side, from _Taragona_ towards _Tortosa_; the most barren, and
consequently the most improper Country in the Universe to sustain an
Army; and yet to the natural, the Earl had added such artificial
Difficulties, as render'd it absolutely impossible for an Army to
subsist or march that Way.

The middle Way lay through a better Country indeed, yet only practicable
by the Care which had been taken to make the Road so. And even here
there was a Necessity of marching along the Side of a Mountain, where by
vast Labour and Industry, a high Way had been cut for two Miles at least
out of the main Rock. The Earl therefore, by somewhat of the same
Labour, soon made it impassable. He employ'd to that End many Thousands
of the Country People, under a few of his own Officers and Troops, who
cutting up twenty several Places, made so many Precipices, perpendicular
almost as a Wall, which render'd it neither safe, or even to be
attempted by any single Man in his Wits, much less by an Army. Besides,
a very few Men, from the higher Cliffs of the Mountain, might have
destroy'd an Army with the Arms of Nature only, by rolling down large
Stones and Pieces of the Rock upon the Enemy passing below.

The last and uppermost Way, lay thro' the hilly Part of _Catalonia_, and
led to _Lerida_, towards the Head of the _Ebro_, the strongest Place we
had in all _Spain_, and which was as well furnish'd with a very good
Garrison. Along this Road there lay many old Castles and little Towns in
the Mountains, naturally strong; all which would not only have afforded
Opposition, but at the same time had entertain'd an Enemy with variety
of Difficulties; and especially as the Earl had given Orders and taken
Care that all Cattle, and every Thing necessary to sustain an Army,
should be convey'd into Places of Security, either in the Mountains or
thereabouts. These three Ways thus precautiously secur'd, what had the
Earl to apprehend but the Safety of the Arch-Duke; which yet was through
no Default of his, if in any Danger from the Siege?

For I well remember, on Receipt of an Express from the Duke of _Savoy_
(as he frequenly sent such to enquire after the Proceedings in _Spain_)
I was shew'd a Letter, wrote about this time by the Earl of _Peterborow_
to that Prince, which rais'd my Spirits, though then at a very low Ebb.
It was too remarkable to be forgot; and the Substance of it was, That
his Highness might depend upon it, that he (the Earl) was in much better
Circumstances than he was thought to be: That the _French_ Officers,
knowing nothing of the Situation of the Country, would find themselves
extreamly disappointed, since in case the Siege was rais'd, their Army
should be oblig'd to abandon _Spain_: Or in case the Town was taken,
they should find themselves shut up in that Corner of _Catalonia_, and
under an Impossibility of forcing their Way back, either through
_Aragon_ or _Valencia_: That by this Means all _Spain_, to the _Ebro_,
would be open to the Lord _Galoway_, who might march to _Madrid_, or any
where else, without Opposition. That he had no other Uneasiness or
Concern upon him, but for the Person of the Arch-Duke, whom he had
nevertheless earnestly solicited not to remain in the Town on the very
first Appearance of the intended Siege.

_BARCELONA_ being thus reliev'd, and King _Philip_ forc'd out of
_Spain_, by these cautious Steps taken by the Earl of _Peterborow_,
before we bring him to _Valencia_, it will be necessary to intimate,
that as it always was the Custom of that General to settle, by a Council
of War, all the Measures to be taken, whenever he was oblig'd for the
Service to leave the Arch-Duke; a Council of War was now accordingly
held, where all the General Officers, and those in greatest Employments
at Court assisted. Here every thing was in the most solemn Manner
concerted and resolv'd upon; here Garrisons were settled for all the
strong Places, and Governors appointed: But the main Article then agreed
upon was, that King _Charles_ should immediately begin his Journey to
_Madrid_, and that by the Way of _Valencia_. The Reason assign'd for it
was, because that Kingdom being in his Possession, no Difficulties could
arise which might occasion Delay, if his Majesty took that Rout. It was
likewise agreed in the same Council, that the Earl of _Peterborow_
should embark all the Foot, not in Garrisons, for their more speedy, as
well as more easy Conveyance to _Valencia_. The same Council of War
agreed, that all the Horse in that Kingdom should be drawn together, the
better to insure the Measures to be taken for the opening and
facilitating his Majesty's Progress to _Madrid_.

Accordingly, after these Resolutions were taken, the Earl of
_Peterborow_ embarks his Forces and sails for _Valencia_, where he was
doubly welcom'd by all Sorts of People upon Account of his safe Arrival,
and the News he brought along with it. By the Joy they express'd, one
would have imagin'd that the General had escap'd the same Danger with
the King; and, in truth, had their King arriv'd with him in Person, the
most loyal and zealous would have found themselves at a loss how to have
express'd their Satisfaction in a more sensible Manner.

Soon after his Landing, with his customary Vivacity, he apply'd himself
to put in execution the Resolutions taken in the Councils of War at
_Barcelona_; and a little to improve upon them, he rais'd an intire
Regiment of Dragoons, bought them Horses, provided them Cloaths, Arms,
and Acoutrements; and in six Weeks time had them ready to take the
Field; a thing though hardly to be parallell'd, is yet scarce worthy to
be mentioned among so many nobler Actions of his; yet in regard to
another General it may merit Notice, since while he had _Madrid_ in
Possession near four Months, he neither augmented his Troops, nor lay'd
up any Magazines; neither sent he all that time any one Express to
concert any Measures with the Earl of _Peterborow_, but lay under a
perfect Inactivity, or which was worse, negotiating that unfortunate
Project of carrying King _Charles_ to _Madrid_ by the roundabout and
ill-concerted Way of _Aragon_; a Project not only contrary to the solemn
Resolutions of the Council of War; but which in reality was the Root of
all our succeeding Misfortunes; and that only for the wretched Vanity of
appearing to have had some Share in bringing the King to his Capital;
but how minute a Share it was will be manifest, if it be consider'd
that another General had first made the Way easy, by driving the Enemy
out of _Spain_; and that the French General only stay'd at _Madrid_ till
the Return of those Troops which were in a manner driven out of _Spain_.

And yet that Transaction, doughty as it was, took up four most precious
Months, which most certainly might have been much better employ'd in
rendering it impossible for the Enemy to re-enter _Spain_; nor had there
been any Great Difficulty in so doing, but the contrary, if the General
at _Madrid_ had thought convenient to have join'd the Troops under the
Earl of _Peterhorow_, and then to have march'd directly towards
_Pampelona_, or the Frontiers of _France_. To this the Earl of
_Peterborow_ solicited the King, and those about him; he advis'd,
desir'd, and intreated him to lose no time, but to put in Execution
those Measures resolv'd on at _Barcelona_. A Council of War in
_Valencia_ renew'd the same Application; but all to no Purpose, his Rout
was order'd him, and that to meet his Majesty on the Frontiers of
_Arragon_. There, indeed, the Earl did meet the King; and the _French_
General an Army, which, by Virtue of a decrepid Intelligence, he never
saw or heard of till he fled from it to his Camp at _Guadalira_.
Inexpressible with the Confusion in this fatal Camp: The King from
_Arragon_, The Earl of _Peterborow_ from _Valencia_ arriving in it the
same Day, almost the same Hour that the Earl of _Galoway_ enter'd under
a hasty Retreat before the _French_ Army.

But to return to Order, which a Zeal of Justice has made me somewhat
anticipate; the Earl had not been long at _Valencia_ before he gave
Orders to Major-General _Windham_ to march with all the Forces he had,
which were not above two thousand Men, and lay Siege to _Requina_, a
Town ten Leagues distant from _Valencia_, and in the Way to _Madrid_.
The Town was not very strong, nor very large; but sure the odliest
fortify'd that ever was. The Houses in a Circle conneftively compos'd
the Wall; and the People, who defended the Town, instead of firing from
Hornworks, Counterscarps, and Bastions, fir'd out of the Windows of
their Houses.

Notwithstanding all which, General _Windham_ found much greater
Opposition than he at first imagin'd; and therefore finding he should
want Ammunition, he sent to the Earl of _Peterborow_ for a Supply; at
the same time assigning, as a Reason for it, the unexpected Obstinacy of
the Town. So soon as the Earl receiv'd the Letter he sent for me; and
told me I must repair to _Requifia_, where they would want an Engineer;
and that I must be ready next Morning, when he should order a
Lieutenant, with thirty Soldiers and two Matrosses, to guard some Powder
for that Service. Accordingly, the next Morning we set out, the
Lieutenant, who was a _Dutchman_, and Commander of the Convoy, being of
my Acquaintance.

We had reach'd Saint _Jago_, a small Village about midway between
_Valencia_ and _Requina_, when the Officer, just as he was got without
the Town, resolving to take up his Quarters on the Spot, order'd the
Mules to be unloaded. The Powder, which consisted of forty-five Barrels,
was pil'd up in a Circle, and cover'd with Oil-cloth, to preserve it
from the Weather; and though we had agreed to sup together at my
Quarters within the Village, yet being weary and fatigu'd, he order'd
his Field-Bed to be put up near the Powder, and so lay down to take a
short Nap. I had scarce been at my Quarters an Hour, when a sudden Shock
attack'd the House so violently, that it threw down Tiles, Windows,
Chimneys and all. It presently came into my Head what was the Occasion;
and as my Fears suggested so it prov'd: For running to the Door I saw a
Cloud ascending from the Spot I left the Powder pitch'd upon. In haste
making up to which, nothing was to be seen but the bare Circle upon
which it had stood. The Bed was blown quite away, and the poor
Lieutenant all to pieces, several of his Limbs being found separate, and
at a vast Distance each from the other; and particularly an Arm, with a
Ring on one of the Fingers. The Matrosses were, if possible, in a yet
worse Condition, that is, as to Manglement and Laceration. All the
Soldiers who were standing, and any thing near, were struck dead. Only
such as lay sleeping on the Ground escap'd, and of those one assur'd me,
that the Blast remov'd him several Foot from his Place of Repose. In
short, enquiring into this deplorable Disaster, I had this Account: That
a Pig running out of the Town, the Soldiers endeavour'd to intercept its
Return; but driving it upon the Matrosses, one of them, who was jealous
of its getting back into the Hands of the Soldiers, drew his Pistol to
shoot it, which was the Source of this miserable Catastrophe. The
Lieutenant carry'd along with him a Bag of Dollars to pay the Soldiers'
Quarters, of which the People, and the Soldiers that were say'd, found
many; but blown to an inconceivable Distance.

With those few Soldiers that remain'd alive, I proceeded, according to
my Order, to _Requina_; where, when I arriv'd, I gave General _Windham_
an Account of the Disaster at St. _Jago_. As such it troubled him, and
not a little on account of the Disappointment. However, to make the best
of a bad Market, he gave Orders for the forming of a Mine under an old
Castle, which was part of the Wall. As it was order'd, so it was begun,
more _in Terrorem_, than with any Expectation of Success from it as a
Mine. Nevertheless, I had scarce began to frame the Oven of the Mine,
when those within the Town desir'd to capitulate. This being all we
could aim at, under the Miscarriage of our Powder at St. _Jago_ (none
being yet arriv'd to supply that Defect) Articles were readily granted
them; pursuant to which, that Part of the Garrison, which was compos'd
of _Castilian_ Gentry, had Liberty to go wherever they thought best, and
the rest were made Prisoners of War. _Requina_ being thus reduc'd to the
Obedience of _Charles_ III a new rais'd Regiment of _Spaniards_ was left
in Garrison, the Colonel of which was appointed Governor; and our Supply
of Powder having at last got safe to us, General _Windham_ march'd his
little Army to _Cuenca_.

_CUENCA_ is a considerable City and a Bishoprick; therefore to pretend
to sit down before it with such a Company of Forragers, rather than an
Army, must be plac'd among the hardy Influences of the Earl of
_Peterborow_'s auspicious Administration. On the out Part of _Cuenca_
there stood an old Castle, from which, upon our Approach, they play'd
upon us furiously: But as soon as we could bring two Pieces of our
Cannon to bear, we answered their Fire with so good Success, that we
soon oblig'd them to retire into the Town. We had rais'd a Battery of
twelve Guns against the City, on their Rejection of the Summons sent
them to come under the Obedience of King _Charles_; going to which from
the old Castle last reduc'd, I receiv'd a Shot on the Toe of one of my
Shoes, which carry'd that Part of the Shoe intirely away, without any
further Damage.

When I came to that Battery we ply'd them warmly (as well as from three
Mortars) for the Space of three Days, their Nights included; but
observing, that in one particular House, they were remarkably busy;
People thronging in and out below; and those above firing perpetually
out of the Windows, I was resolv'd to have one Shot at that Window, and
made those Officers about me take Notice of it. True it was, the
Distance would hardly allow me to hope for Success; yet as the
Experiment could only be attended with the Expence of a single Ball, I
made it. So soon as the Smoak of my own Cannon would permit it, we could
see Clouds of Dust issuing from out of the Window, which, together with
the People's crouding out of Doors, convinc'd the Officers, whom I had
desir'd to take Notice of it, that I had been no bad Marksman.

Upon this, two Priests were sent out of the Place with Proposals; but
they were so triflingly extravagant, that as soon as ever the General
heard them, he order'd their Answer in a fresh Renewal of the Fire of
both Cannon and Mortars. And it happen'd to be with so much Havock and
Execution, that they were soon taught Reason; and sent back their
Divines, with much more moderate Demands. After the General had a little
modell'd these last, they were accepted; and according to the Articles
of Capitulation, the City was that very Day surrender'd into our
Possession. The Earl of _Duncannon's_ Regiment took Guard of all the
Gates; and King _Charles_ was proclaim'd in due Form.

The Earl of _Peterborow_, during this Expedition, had left _Valencia_,
and was arriv'd at my Lord _Galway's_ Camp at _Guadalaxara_; who for the
Confederates, and King _Charles_ in particular, unfortunately was
order'd from _Portugal_, to take the Command from a General, who had all
along been almost miraculously successful, and by his own great Actions
pay'd the Way for a safe Passage to that his Supplanter.

Yet even in this fatal Place the Earl of _Peterborow_ made some
Proposals, which, had they been embrac'd, might, in all Probability,
have secur'd _Madrid_ from falling into the Hands of the Enemy; But, in
opposition thereto, the Lord _Galway_, and all his _Portugueze_
Officers, were for forcing the next Day the Enemy to Battle. The almost
only Person against it was the Earl of _Peterborow_; who then and there
took the Liberty to evince the Impossibility of coming to an Engagement.
This the next Morning too evidently made apparent, when upon the first
Motion of our Troops towards the River, which they pretended to pass,
and must pass, before they could engage, they were so warmly saluted
from the Batteries of the Enemy, and their small Shot, that our
Regiments were forc'd to retire in Confusion to their Camp. By which
Rebuff all heroical Imaginations were at present laid aside, to consider
how they might make their Retreat to _Valencia_.

The Retreat being at last resolv'd on, and a Multiplicity of Generals
rendering our bad Circumstances much worse, the Earl of _Peterborow_ met
with a fortunate Reprieve, by Solicitations from the Queen, and Desires
tantamount to Orders, that he would go with the Troops left in
_Catalonia_ to the Relief of the Duke of _Savoy_. It is hardly to be
doubted that that General was glad to withdraw from those Scenes of
Confusion, which were but too visible to Eyes even less discerning than
his. However, he forebore to prepare himself to put her Majesty's
Desires in execution, as they were not peremptory, till it had been
resolv'd by the unanimous Consent of a Council of War, where the King,
all the Generals and Ministers were present. That it was expedient for
the Service that the Earl of _Peterborow_, during the Winter Season,
should comply with her Majesty's Desires, and go for _Italy_; since he
might return before the opening of the Campaign, if it should be
necessary. And return indeed he did, before the Campaign open'd, and
brought along with him one hundred thousand Pounds from _Genoa_, to the
great Comfort and Support of our Troops, which had neither Money nor
Credit. But on his Return, that noble Earl found the Lord _Galway_ had
been near as successful against him, as he had been unsuccessful against
the Enemy. Thence was the Earl of _Peterborow_ recall'd to make room for
an unfortunate General, who the next Year suffer'd himself to be decoy'd
into that fatal Battle of _Almanza_.

The Earl of _Peterborow_, on his leaving _Valencia_, had order'd his
Baggage to follow him to the Camp at _Guadalaxara_; and it arriv'd in
our little Camp, so far safe in its way to the greater at _Guadalaxara_.
I think it consisted of seven loaded Waggons; and General _Windham_ gave
Orders for a small Guard to escorte it; under which they proceeded on
their Journey: But about eight Leagues from _Cuenca_, at a pretty Town
call'd _Huette_, a Party from the Duke of _Berwick's_ Army, with Boughs
in their Hats, the better to appear what they were not (for the Bough in
the Hat is the Badge of the _English_, as white Paper is the Badge of
the _French_) came into the Town, crying all the way, _Viva Carlos
Tercero, Viva_. With these Acclamations in their Mouths, they advanc'd
up to the very Waggons; when attacking the Guards, who had too much
deluded themselves with Appearances, they routed 'em, and immediately
plunder'd the Waggons of all that was valuable, and then march'd off.

The Noise of this soon reach'd the Ears of the Earl of _Peterborow_ at
_Guadalaxara_. When leaving my Lord _Galways_ Camp, pursuant to the
Resolutions of the Council of War, with a Party only of fourscore of
_Killigrew's_ Dragoons, he met General _Windham's_ little Army within a
League of _Huette_, the Place where his Baggage had been plunder'd. The
Earl had strong Motives of Suspicion, that the Inhabitants had given
Intelligence to the Enemy; and, as is very natural, giving way to the
first Dictates of Resentment, he resolv'd to have lay'd the Town in
Ashes: But when he came near it, the Clergy and Magistrates upon their
Knees, disavowing the Charge, and asserting their Innocence, prevail'd
on the good Nature of that generous Earl, without any great Difficulty,
to spare the Town, at least not to burn it.

We march'd however into the Town, and that Night took up our Quarters
there; and the Magistrates, under the Dread of our avenging our selves,
on their part took Care that we were well supplied. But when they were
made sensible of the Value of the Loss, which the Earl had sustain'd;
and that on a moderate Computation it amounted to at least eight
thousand Pistoles; they voluntarily presented themselves next Morning,
and of their own accord offer'd to make his Lordship full Satisfaction,
and that, in their own Phrase, _de Contado, in Ready Money_. The Earl
was not displeas'd at their Offer; but generously made Answer, That he
was just come from my Lord _Galway's_ Camp at _Chincon_, where he found
they were in a likelihood of wanting Bread; and as he imagin'd it might
be easier to them to raise the Value in Corn, than in ready Money; if
they would send to that Value in Corn to the Lord _Galway's_ Camp, he
would be satisfy'd. This they with Joy embrac'd, and immediately
complied with.

I am apt to think the last Century (and I very much fear the Current
will be as deficient) can hardly produce a parallel Instance of
Generosity and true public Spiritedness; And the World will be of my
Opinion, when I have corroborated this with another Passage some Years
after. The Commissioners for Stating the Debts due to the Army, meeting
daily for that Purpose at their House in _Darby_ Court in _Channel Row_,
I there mentioned to Mr. _Read_, Gentleman to his Lordship, this very
just and honourable Claim upon the Government, as Monies advanced for
the Use of the Army. Who told me in a little Time after, that he had
mention'd it to his Lordship, but with no other Effect than to have it
rejected with a generous Disdain.

While we stayed at _Huette_ there was a little Incident in Life, which
gave me great Diversion. The Earl, who had always maintain'd a good
Correspondence with the fair Sex, hearing from one of the Priests of the
Place, That on the Alarm of burning the Town, one of the finest Ladies
in all _Spain_ had taken Refuge in the Nunnery, was desirous to speak
with her.

The Nunnery stood upon a small rising Hill within the Town; and to
obtain the View, the Earl had presently in his Head this Stratagem; he
sends for me, as Engineer, to have my Advice, how to raise a proper
Fortification upon that Hill out of the Nunnery. I waited upon his
Lordship to the Place, where declaring the Intent of our coming, and
giving plausible Reasons for it, the Train took, and immediately the
Lady Abbess, and the fair Lady, came out to make Intercession, That his
Lordship would be pleas'd to lay aside that Design. The divine Oratory
of one, and the beautiful Charms of the other, prevail'd; so his
Lordship left the Fortification to be the Work of some future

From _Huette_ the Earl of _Peterborow_ march'd forwards for _Valencia_,
with only those fourscore Dragoons, which came with him from _Chincon_,
leaving General _Windham_ pursuing his own Orders to join his Forces to
the Army then under the Command of the Lord _Galway_. But stopping at
_Campilio_, a little Town in our Way, his Lordship had Information of a
most barbarous Fact committed that very Morning by the _Spaniards_, at a
small _Villa_, about a League distant, upon some _English_ Soldiers.

A Captain of the _English_ Guards (whose Name has slip'd my Memory, tho'
I well knew the Man) marching in order to join the Battalion of the
Guards, then under the Command of General _Windham_, with some of his
Soldiers, that had been in the Hospital, took up his Quarters in that
little _Villa_. But on his marching out of it, next Morning, a Shot in
the Back laid that Officer dead upon the Spot: And as it had been before
concerted, the _Spaniards_ of the Place at the same Time fell upon the
poor, weak Soldiers, killing several; not even sparing their Wives. This
was but a Prelude to their Barbarity; their savage Cruelty was only
whetted, not glutted. They took the surviving few; hurried and dragg'd
them up a Hill, a little without the _Villa_. On the Top of this Hill
there was a Hole, or Opening, somewhat like the Mouth of one of our
Coal-Pits, down this they cast several, who, with hideous Shrieks and
Cries, made more hideous by the Ecchoes of the Chasm, there lost their

This Relation was thus made to the Earl of _Peterborow_, at his Quarters
at _Campilio_; who immediately gave Orders for to sound to Horse. At
first we were all surpriz'd; but were soon satisfy'd, that it was to
revenge, or rather, do Justice, on this barbarous Action.

As soon as we enter'd the _Villa_ we found that most of the Inhabitants,
but especially the most Guilty, had withdrawn themselves on our
Approach. We found, however, many of the dead Soldiers Cloaths, which
had been convey'd into the Church, and there hid. And a strong
Accusation being laid against a Person belonging to the Church, and full
Proof made, that he had been singularly Industrious in the Execution of
that horrid Piece of Barbarity on the Hill, his Lordship commanded him
to be hang'd up at the Knocker of the Door.

After this piece of military Justice, we were led up to the fatal Pit or
Hole, down which many had been cast headlong. There we found one poor
Soldier alive, who, upon his throwing in, had catch'd fast hold of some
impending Bushes, and sav'd himself on a little Jutty within the
Concavity. On hearing us talk _English_ he cry'd out; and Ropes being
let down, in a little Time he was drawn up; when he gave us an ample
Detail of the whole Villany. Among other Particulars, I remember he told
me of a very narrow Escape he had in that obscure Recess. A poor Woman,
one of the Wives of the Soldiers, who were thrown down after him,
struggled, and roared so much, that they could not, without all their
Force, throw her cleaverly in the Middle; by which means falling near
the Side, in her Fall she almost beat him from his Place of Security.

Upon the Conclusion of this tragical Relation of the Soldier thus saved,
his Lordship gave immediate Orders for the Firing of the _Villa_, which
was executed with due Severity: After which his Lordship march'd back to
his Quarters at _Campilio_; from whence, two Days after, we arriv'd at
_Valencia_, Where, the first Thing presented to that noble Lord, was all
the Papers taken in the Plunder of his Baggage, which the Duke of
_Berwick_ had generously order'd to be return'd him, without waste or

It was too manifest, after the Earl's arrival at this City, that the
Alteration in the Command of the _English_ Forces, which before was only
receiv'd as a Rumour, had deeper Grounds for Belief, than many of his
Friends in that City could have wish'd. His Lordship had gain'd the Love
of all by a Thousand engaging Condescensions; even his Gallantries being
no way prejudicial, were not offensive; and though his Lordships did his
utmost to conceal his Chagrin, the Sympathy of those around him made
such Discoveries upon him, as would have disappointed a double Portion
of his Caution. They had seen him un-elated under Successes, that were
so near being unaccountable, that in a Country of less Superstition than
_Spain_, they might almost have pass'd for miraculous; they knew full
well, that nothing, but that Series of Successes had pav'd a Passage for
the General that was to supersede him; those only having removed all the
Difficulties of his March from _Portugal_ to _Madrid_; they knew him the
older General; and therefore not knowing, that in the Court he came
from, Intrigue was too often the Soul of Merit, they could not but be
amazed at a Change, which his Lordship was unwilling any body should
perceive by himself.

It was upon this Account, that, as formerly, he treated the Ladies with
Balls, and to pursue the Dons in their own Humour, order'd a _Tawridore_
or _Bull-Feast_. In _Spain_ no sort of public Diversions are esteemed
equal with this. But the Bulls provided at _Valencia_, not being of the
right Breed, nor ever initiated in the Mysteries, did not acquit
themselves at all masterly; and consequently, did not give the
Diversion, or Satisfaction expected. For which Reason I shall omit
giving a Description of this Bull-Feast; and desire my Reader to suspend
his Curiosity till I come to some, which, in the _Spanish_ Sense, were
much more entertaining; that is, attended with much greater Hazards and

But though I have said, the Gallantries of the General were mostly
political at least very inoffensive; yet there happen'd about this Time,
and in this Place, a piece of Gallantry, that gave the Earl a vast deal
of Offence and Vexation; as a Matter, that in its Consequences might
have been fatal to the Interest of King _Charles_, if not to the
_English_ Nation in general; and which I the rather relate, in that it
may be of use to young Officers, and others; pointing out to them the
Danger, not to say Folly, of inadvertent and precipitate Engagements,
under unruly Passions.

I have said before, that _Valencia_ is famous for fine Women. It indeed
abounds in them; and among those, are great Numbers of Courtezans not
inferior in Beauty to any. Nevertheless, two of our _English_ Officers,
not caring for the common Road, however safe, resolv'd to launch into
the deeper Seas, though attended with much greater Danger. Amours, the
common Failing of that fair City, was the Occasion of this Accident, and
two Nuns the Objects. It is customary in that Country for young People
in an Evening to resort to the Grates of the Nunneries, there to divert
themselves, and the Nuns, with a little pleasant and inoffensive
Chit-chat. For though I have heard some relate a World of nauseous
Passages at such Conversations, I must declare, that I never saw, or
heard any Thing unseemly; and therefore whenever I have heard any such
from such Fabulists, I never so much wrong'd my Judgment as to afford
them Credit.

Our two Officers were very assiduous at the Grates of a Nunnery in this
Place; and having there pitch'd upon two Nuns, prosecuted their Amours
with such Vigour, that, in a little time, they had made a very great
Progress in their Affections, without in the least considering the
Dangers that must attend themselves and the Fair; they had exchang'd
Vows, and prevail'd upon the weaker Vessels to endeavour to get out to
their Lovers. To effect which, soon after, a Plot was lay'd; the Means,
the Hour, and every thing agreed upon.

It is the Custom of that Nunnery, as of many others, for the Nuns to
take their weekly Courses in keeping the Keys of all the Doors. The two
Love-sick Ladies giving Notice to their Lovers at the Grate, that one of
their Turns was come, the Night and Hour was appointed, which the
Officers punctually observing, carry'd off their Prey without either
Difficulty or Interruption.

But next Morning, when the Nuns were missing, what an Uproar was there
over all the City? The Ladies were both of Quality; and therefore the
Tidings were first carry'd to their Relations. They receiv'd the News
with Vows of utmost Vengeance; and, as is usual in that Country, put
themselves in Arms for that Purpose. There needed no great canvassing
for discovering who were the Aggressors: The Officers had been too
frequent, and too publick, in their Addresses, to leave any room for
question. Accordingly, they were complain'd of and sought for, but
sensible at last of their past Temerity, they endeavour'd, and with a
great deal of Difficulty perfected their Escape.

Less fortunate were the two fair Nuns; their Lovers, in their utmost
Exigence, had forsaken them; and they, poor Creatures, knew not where to
fly. Under this sad Dilemma they were taken; and, as in like Offences,
condemn'd directly to the Punishment of _immuring_. And what greater
Punishment is there on Earth than to be confin'd between four narrow
Walls, only open at the Top; and thence to be half supported with Bread
and Water, till the Offenders gradually starve to Death?

The Earl of _Peterborow_, though highly exasperated at the Proceedings
of his Officers, in compassion to the unhappy Fair, resolv'd to
interpose by all the moderate Means possible. He knew very well, that no
one Thing could so much prejudice the _Spaniard_ against him, as the
countenancing such an Action; wherefore he inveigh'd against the
Officers, at the same time that he endeavour'd to mitigate in favour of
the Ladies: But all was in vain; it was urg'd against those charitable
Intercessions, that they had broke their Vows; and in that had broke in
upon the Laws of the Nunnery and Religion; the Consequence of all which
could be nothing less than the Punishment appointed to be inflicted. And
which was the hardest of all, the nearest of their Relations most
oppos'd all his generous Mediations; and those, who according to the
common Course of Nature should have thank'd him for his Endeavours to be
instrumental in rescuing them from the impending Danger, grew more and
more enrag'd, because he oppos'd them in their Design of a cruel

Notwithstanding all which the Earl persever'd; and after a deal of
Labour, first got the Penalty suspended; and, soon after, by the Dint of
a very considerable Sum of Money (a most powerful Argument, which
prevails in every Country) sav'd the poor Nuns from immuring; and at
last, though with great Reluctance, he got them receiv'd again into the
Nunnery. As to the Warlike Lovers, one of them was the Year after slain
at the Battle of _Almanza_; the other is yet living, being a Brigadier
in the Army.

While the Earl of _Peterborow_ was here with his little Army of great
Hereticks, neither Priests nor People were so open in their
superstitious Fopperies, as I at other times found them. For which
Reason I will make bold, and by an Antichronism in this Place, a little
anticipate some Observations that I made some time after the Earl left
it. And as I have not often committed such a Transgression, I hope it
may be the more excusable now, and no way blemish my Memoirs, that I
break in upon the Series of my Journal.

_VALENCIA_ is a handsome City, and a Bishoprick; and is considerable not
only for the Pleasantness of its Situation and beautiful Ladies; but
(which at some certain Times, and on some Occasions, to them is more
valuable than both those put together) for being the Birth-place of
Saint _Vincent_, the Patron of the Place; and next for its being the
Place where _Santo Domingo_, the first Institutor of the _Dominican_
Order had his Education. Here, in honour of the last, is a spacious and
very splendid Convent of the _Dominicans_. Walking by which, I one Day
observ'd over the Gate, a Figure of a man in stone; and near it a Dog
with a lighted Torch in his Mouth. The Image I rightly enough took to
intend that of the Saint; but inquiring of one of the Order, at the
Gate, the Meaning of the Figures near it, he very courteously ask'd me
to walk in, and then entertain'd me with the following Relation:

When the Mother of _Santo Domingo_, said that Religious, was with Child
of that future Saint, she had a Dream which very much afflicted her. She
dreamt that she heard a Dog bark in her Belly; and inquiring (at what
Oracle is not said) the Meaning of her Dream, she was told, _That that
Child should bark out the Gospel_ (excuse the Bareness of the
Expression, it may run better in _Spanish_; tho', if I remember right,
_Erasmus_ gives it in _Latin_ much the same Turn) _which should thence
shine out like that lighted Torch_. And this is the Reason, that
wherever you see the Image of that Saint, a Dog and a lighted Torch is
in the Group.

He told me at the same time, that there had been more Popes and
Cardinals of that Order than of any, if not all the other. To confirm
which, he led me into a large Gallery, on each Side whereof he shew'd me
the Pictures of all the Popes and Cardinals that had been of that Order;
among which, I particularly took Notice of that of Cardinal _Howard_,
great Uncle to the present Duke of _Norfolk_. But after many _Encomiums_
of their Society, with which he interspers'd his Discourse, he added one
that I least valu'd it for; That the sole Care and Conduct of the
Inquisition was intrusted with them.

Finding me attentive, or not so contradictory as the _English_ Humour
generally is, he next brought me into a fair and large Cloister, round
which I took several Turns with him; and, indeed, The Place was too
delicious to tire, under a Conversation less pertinent or courteous than
that he entertain'd me with. In the Middle of the Cloister was a small
but pretty and sweet Grove of Orange and Lemon-trees; these bore Fruit
ripe and green, and Flowers, all together on one Tree; and their Fruit
was so very large and beautiful, and their Flowers so transcendently
odoriferous, that all I had ever seen of the like Kind in _England_
could comparatively pass only for Beauty in Epitome, or Nature imitated
in Wax-work. Many Flocks also of pretty little Birds, with their
chearful Notes, added not a little to my Delight. In short, in Life I
never knew or found three of my Senses at once so exquisitely gratify'd.

Not far from this, Saint _Vincent_, the Patron, as I said before, of
this City, has a Chapel dedicated to him. Once a Year they do him Honour
in a sumptuous Procession. Then are their Streets all strow'd with
Flowers, and their Houses set off with their richest Tapestries, every
one strives to excel his Neighbour in distinguishing himself by the
Honour he pays to that Saint; and he is the best Catholick, as well as
the best Citizen, in the Eye of the _religious_, who most exerts himself
on this Occasion.

The Procession begins with a Cavalcade of all the Friars of all the
Convents in and about the City. These walk two and two with folded Arms,
and Eyes cast down to the very Ground, and with the greatest outward
Appearance of Humility imaginable; nor, though the Temptation from the
fine Women that fill'd their Windows, or the rich Tapestries that
adorn'd the Balconies might be allow'd sufficient to attract, could I
observe that any one of them all ever mov'd them upwards.

After the Friars is borne, upon the Shoulders of twenty Men at least, an
Imagine of that Saint of solid Silver, large as the Life; It is plac'd
in a great Chair of Silver likewise; the Staves that bear him up, and
upon which they bear him, being of the same Metal. The whole is a most
costly and curious Piece of Workmanship, such as my Eyes never before or
since beheld.

The Magistrates follow the Image and its Supporters, dress'd in their
richest Apparel, which is always on this Day, and on this Occasion,
particularly sumptuous and distinguishing. Thus is the Image, in the
greatest Splendor, borne and accompany'd round that fine City; and at
last convey'd to the Place from whence it came: And so concludes that
annual Ceremony.

The _Valencians_, as to the Exteriors of Religion, are the most devout
of any in _Spain_, though in common Life you find them amorous, gallant,
and gay, like other People; yet on solemn Occasions there shines
out-right such a Spirit as proves them the very Bigots of Bigotry: As a
Proof of which Assertion, I will now give some Account of such
Observations, as I had time to make upon them, during two _Lent_
Seasons, while I resided there.

The Week before the _Lent_ commences, commonly known by the Name of
_Carnaval Time_, the whole City appears a perfect _Bartholomew_ Fair;
the Streets are crouded, and the Houses empty; nor is it possible to
pass along without some Gambol or Jack-pudding Trick offer'd to you;
Ink, Water, and sometimes Ordure, are sure to be hurl'd at your Face or
Cloaths; and if you appear concern'd or angry, they rejoyce at it,
pleas'd the more, the more they displease; for all other Resentment is
at that time out of Season, though at other times few in the World are
fuller of Resentment or more captious.

The younger Gentry, or Dons, to express their Gallantry, carry about
them Egg-shells, fill'd with Orange or other sweet Water, which they
cast at Ladies in their Coaches, or such other of the fair Sex as they
happen to meet in the Streets.

But after all, if you would think them extravagant to Day, as much
transgressing the Rules of common Civility, and neither regarding
Decency to one another, nor the Duty they owe to Almighty God; yet when
_Ash-Wednesday_ comes you will imagine them more unaccountable in their
Conduct, being then as much too excessive in all outwards Indications of
Humility and Repentance. Here you shall meet one, bare-footed, with a
Cross on his Shoulder, a Burden rather fit for somewhat with four Feet,
and which his poor Two are ready to sink under, yet the vain Wretch
bears and sweats, and sweats and bears, in hope of finding Merit in an
Ass's Labour.

Others you shall see naked to their Wastes, whipping themselves with
Scourges made for the Purpose, till the Blood follows every Stroke; and
no Man need be at a Loss to follow them by the very Tracks of Gore they
shed in this frentick Perambulation. Some, who from the Thickness of
their Hides, or other Impediments, have not Power by their Scourgings to
fetch Blood of themselves, are follow'd by Surgeons with their Lancets,
who at every Turn, make use of them, to evince the Extent of their
Patience and Zeal by the Smart of their Folly. While others, mingling
Amour with Devotion, take particular Care to present themselves all
macerated before the Windows of their Mistresses; and even in that
Condition, not satisfy'd with what they have barbarously done to
themselves, they have their Operators at hand, to evince their Love by
the Number of their Gashes and Wounds; imagining the more Blood they
lose, the more Love they shew, and the more they shall gain. These are
generally Devoto's of Quality; though the Tenet is universal, that he
that is most bloody is most devout.

After these Street-Exercises, these ostentatious Castigations are over,
these Self-sacrificers repair to the great Church, the bloodier the
better; there they throw themselves, in a Condition too vile for the Eye
of a Female, before the Image of the Virgin _Mary_; though I defy all
their Race of Fathers, and their infallible holy Father into the
Bargain, to produce any Authority to fit it for Belief, that she ever
delighted in such sanguinary Holocausts.

During the whole Time of _Lent_, you will see in every Street some
Priest or Frier, upon some Stall or Stool, preaching up Repentance to
the People; and with violent Blows on his Breast crying aloud, _Mia
Culpa, mia maxima Culpa_, till he extract reciprocal Returns from the
Hands of his Auditors on their own Breasts.

When _Good Friday_ is come they entertain it with the most profound Show
of Reverence and Religion, both in their Streets and in their Churches.
In the last, particularly, they have contriv'd about twelve a-Clock
suddenly to darken them, so as to render them quite gloomy. This they do
to intimate the Eclipse of the Sun, which at that time happen'd. And to
signify the Rending of the Vail of the Temple, you are struck with a
strange artificial Noise at the very same Instant.

But when _Easter_ Day appears, you find it in all Respects with them a
Day of Rejoicing; for though Abstinence from Flesh with them, who at no
time eat much, is not so great a Mortification as with those of the same
Persuasion in other Countries, who eat much more, yet there is a visible
Satisfaction darts out at their Eyes, which demonstrates their inward
Pleasure in being set free from the Confinement of Mind to the
Dissatisfaction of the Body. Every Person you now meet greets you with a
_Resurrexit Jesus_; a good Imitation of the primitive Christians, were
it the real Effect of Devotion. And all Sorts of the best Musick (which
here indeed is the best in all _Spain_) proclaim an auspicious
Valediction to the departed Season of superficial Sorrow and stupid
Superstition. But enough of this: I proceed to weightier Matters.

While we lay at _Valencia_, under the Vigilance and Care of the
indefatigable Earl, News was brought that _Alicant_ was besieg'd by
General _Gorge_ by Land, while a Squadron of Men of War batter'd it from
the Sea; from both which the Besiegers play'd their Parts so well, and
so warmly ply'd them with their Cannon, that an indifferent practicable
Breach was made in a little time.

_Mahoni_ commanded in the Place, being again receiv'd into Favour; and
clear'd as he was of those political Insinuations before intimated, he
now seem'd resolv'd to confirm his Innocence by a resolute Defence.
However, perceiving that all Preparations tended towards a Storm, and
knowing full well the Weakness of the Town, he withdrew his Garrison
into the Castle, leaving the Town to the Defence of its own Inhabitants.

Just as that was doing, the Sailors, not much skill'd in Sieges, nor at
all times capable of the coolest Consideration, with a Resolution
natural to them, storm'd the Walls to the Side of the Sea; where not
meeting with much Opposition (for the People of the Town apprehended the
least Danger there) they soon got into the Place; and, as soon as got
in, began to Plunder. This oblig'd the People, for the better Security
of themselves, to open their Gates, and seek a Refuge under one Enemy,
in opposition to the Rage of another.

General _Gorge_, as soon as he enter'd the Town, with a good deal of
seeming Lenity, put a stop to the Ravages of the Sailors; and ordered
Proclamation to be made throughout the Place, that all the Inhabitants
should immediately bring in their best Effects into the great Church for
their better Security. This was by the mistaken Populace, as readily
comply'd with; and neither Friend nor Foe at all disputing the Command,
or questioning the Integrity of the Intention; the Church was presently
crouded with Riches of all sorts and sizes. Yet after some time
remaining there, they were all taken out, and disposed of by those, that
had as little Property in 'em, as the Sailors, they were pretended to be
preserv'd from.

The Earl of _Peterborow_ upon the very first News of the Siege had left
_Valencia_, and taken Shipping for _Alicant_; where he arrived soon
after the Surrender of the Town, and that Outcry of the Goods of the
Townsmen. Upon his Arrival, _Mahoni_, who was block'd up in the Castle,
and had experienced his indefatigable Diligence, being in want of
Provisions, and without much hope of Relief, desired to capitulate. The
Earl granted him honourable Conditions, upon which he delivered up the
Castle, and _Gorge_ was made Governor.

Upon his Lordship's taking Ship at _Valencia_, I had an Opportunity of
marching with those Dragoons, which escorted him from _Castile_, who had
received Orders to march into _Murcia_. We quarter'd the first Night at
_Alcira_, a Town that the River _Segra_ almost surrounds, which renders
it capable of being made a Place of vast Strength, though now of small

The next Night we lay at _Xativa_, a Place famous for its steadiness to
King _Charles_. General _Basset_, a _Spaniard_, being Governor; it was
besieg'd by the Forces of King _Philip_; but after a noble Resistance,
the Enemy were beat off, and the Siege raised; for which Effort, it is
supposed, that on the Retirement of King _Charles_ out of this Country,
it was depriv'd of its old Name _Xativa_, and is now called _San
Felippo_; though to this day the People thereabouts much dissallow by
their Practice, that novel Denomination.

We march'd next Morning by _Monteza_; which gives Name to the famous
Title of Knights of _Monteza_. It was at the Time that Colonel _O
Guaza_, an _Irish-man_, was Governor, besieg'd by the People of the
Country, in favour of King _Charles_; but very ineffectually, so it
never chang'd its Sovereign. That Night we quarter'd at _Fonte dalas
Figuras_, within one League of _Almanza_; where that fatal and
unfortunate Battle, which I shall give an Account of in its Place, was
fought the Year after, under the Lord _Galway_.

On our fourth days March we were oblig'd to pass _Villena_, where the
Enemy had a Garrison. A Party of _Mahoni's_ Dragoons made a part of that
Garrison, and they were commanded by Major _O. Rairk_ an _Irish_
Officer, who always carried the Reputation of a good Soldier, and a
brave Gentleman.

I had all along made it my Observation, that Captain _Matthews_, who
commanded those Dragoons, that I march'd with, was a Person of much more
Courage than Conduct; and he us'd as little Precaution here, though just
marching under the Eye of the Enemy, as he had done at other Times. As
I was become intimately acquainted with him, I rode up to him, and told
him the Danger, which, in my Opinion, attended our present March. I
pointed out to him just before _Villena_ a jutting Hill, under which we
must unavoidably pass; at the turning whereof, I was apprehensive the
Enemy might he, and either by Ambuscade or otherwise, surprize us; I
therefore intreated we might either wait the coming of our Rear Guard;
or at least march with a little more leisure and caution. But he taking
little notice of all I said, kept on his round March; seeing which, I
press'd forward my Mule, which was a very good one, and rid as fast as
her Legs could carry her, till I had got on the top of the Hill. When I
came there, I found both my Expectation, and my Apprehensions answered:
For I could very plainly discern three Squadrons of the Enemy ready
drawn up, and waiting for Us at the very winding of the Hill.

Hereupon I hastened back to the Captain with the like Speed, and told
him the Discovery I had made; who nevertheless kept on his March, and it
was with a good deal of Difficulty, that I at last prevail'd on him to
halt, till our Rear Guard of twenty Men had got up to us. But those
joining us, and a new Troop of _Spanish_ Dragoons, who had march'd
towards us that Morning, appearing in Sight; our Captain, as if he was
afraid of their rivalling him in his Glory, at the very turn of the
Hill, rode in a full Gallop, with Sword in Hand, up to the Enemy. They
stood their Ground, till we were advanc'd within two hundred Yards of
them, and then in Confusion endeavoured to retire into the Town.

They were obliged to pass over a small Bridge, too small to admit of
such a Company in so much haste; their crouding upon which obstructed
their Retreat, and left all that could not get over, to the Mercy of our
Swords, which spar'd none. However narrow as the Bridge was, Captain
_Matthews_ was resolved to venture over after the Enemy; on doing which,
the Enemy made a halt, till the People of the Town, and the very Priests
came out to their Relief with fire Arms. On so large an Appearance,
Captain _Matthews_ thought it not adviseable to make any further
Advances; so driving a very great flock of Sheep from under the Walls,
he continued his March towards _Elda_. In this Action we lost Captain
_Topham_, and three Dragoons.

I remember we were not marched very far from the Place, where this
Rencounter happen'd; when an _Irish_ Dragoon overtook the Captain, with
a civil Message from Major _O Rairk_, desiring that he would not
entertain a mean Opinion of him for the Defence that was made; since
could he have got the _Spaniards_ to have stood their Ground, he should
have given him good Reason for a better. The Captain return'd a
complimental Answer, and so march'd on. This Major _O Rairk_, or _O
Roork_, was the next Year killed at _Alkay_, being much lamented, for he
was esteemed both for his Courage and Conduct, one of the best of the
_Irish_ Officers in the _Spanish_ Service. I was likewise informed that
he was descended from one of the ancient Kings of _Ireland_; the Mother
of the honourable Colonel _Paget_, one of the Grooms of the Bedchamber
to his present Majesty, was nearly related to this Gallant Gentleman.

One remarkable Thing I saw in that Action, which affected and surprised
me; A _Scotch_ Dragoon, of but a moderate Size, with his large
basket-hilted Sword, struck off a _Spaniard's_ Head at one stroke, with
the same ease, in appearance, as a Man would do that of a Poppy.

When we came to _Elda_ (a Town much in the Interest of King _Charles_,
and famous for its fine Situation, and the largest Grapes in _Spain_)
the Inhabitants received us in a manner as handsome as it was peculiar;
all standing at their Doors with lighted Torches; which considering the
Time we enter'd was far from an unwelcome or disagreeable Sight.

The next Day several requested to be the Messengers of the Action at
_Villena_ to the Earl of _Peterborow_ at _Alicant_; but the Captain
return'd this Answer to all, that in consideration of the Share that I
might justly claim in that Day's Transactions, he could not think of
letting any other Person be the Bearer. So giving me his Letters to the
Earl, I the next Day deliver'd them to him at _Alicant_. At the
Delivery, Colonel _Killigrew_ (whose Dragoons they were) being present,
he expressed a deal of Satisfaction at the Account, and his Lordship was
pleased at the same time to appoint me sole Engineer of the Castle of

Soon after which, that successful General embark'd for _Genoa_,
according to the Resolutions of the Council of War at _Guadalaxara_, on
a particular Commission from the Queen of _England_, another from
_Charles_ King of _Spain_, and charged at the same time with a Request
of the Marquiss _das Minas_, General of the _Portugueze_ Forces, to
negotiate Bills for one hundred thousand Pounds for the use of his
Troops. In all which, tho' he was (as ever) successful; yet may it be
said without a figure, that his Departure, in a good measure, determin'd
the Success of the confederate Forces in that Kingdom. True it is, the
General return'd again with the fortunate, Fruits of those Negotiations;
but never to act in his old auspicious Sphere: And therefore, as I am
now to take leave of this fortunate General, let me do it with Justice,
in an Appeal to the World, of the not to be parallel'd Usage (in these
latter Ages, at least) that he met with for all his Services; such a
vast variety of Enterprizes, all successful, and which had set all
_Europe_ in amaze; Services that had given occasion to such solemn and
public Thanksgivings in our Churches, and which had received such very
remarkable Approbations, both of Sovereign and Parliament; and which had
been represented in so lively a Manner, in a Letter wrote by the King
_of Spain_, under his own Hand, to the Queen of _England_, and
communicated to both Houses in the Terms following:

Madam, my Sister,

I should not have been so long e'er I did my self the Honour to repeat
the Assurances of my sincere Respects to you, had I not waited for the
good Occasion which I now acquaint you with, that the City of
_Barcelona_ is surrendered to me by Capitulation. I doubt not but you
will receive this great News with intire Satisfaction, as well, because
this happy Success is the Effect of your Arms, always glorious, as from
the pure Motives of that Bounty and maternal Affection you have for me,
and for every Thing which may contribute to the Advancement of my

I must do this Justice to all the Officers and common Soldiers, and
particularly to my Lord _Peterborow_, that he has shown in this whole
Expedition, a Constancy, Bravery, and Conduct, worthy of the Choice that
your Majesty has made of him, and that he could no ways give me better
Satisfaction than he has, by the great Zeal and Application, which he
has equally testified for my Interest, and for the Service of my Person.
I owe the same Justice to Brigadier _Stanhope_, for his great Zeal,
Vigilance, and very wise Conduct, which he has given Proofs of upon all
Occasions: As also to all your Officers of the Fleet, particularly to
your worthy Admiral _Shovel_, assuring your Majesty, that he has
assisted me in this Expedition, with an inconceivable Readiness and
Application, and that no Admiral will be ever better able to render me
greater Satisfaction, than he has done. During the Siege of _Barcelona_,
some of your Majesty's Ships, with the Assistance of the Troops of the
Country, have reduc'd the Town of _Tarragona_, and the officers are made
Prisoners of War. The Town of _Girone_ has been taken at the same time
by Surprize, by the Troops of the Country. The Town of _Lerida_ has
submitted, as also that of _Tortosa_ upon the _Ebro_; so that we have
taken all the Places of _Catalonia_, except _Roses_. Some Places in
_Aragon_ near _Sarrogosa_ have declared for me, and the Garrison of the
Castle of _Denia_ in _Valencia_ have maintained their Post, and repulsed
the Enemy; 400 of the Enemies Cavalry have enter'd into our Service, and
a great number of their Infantry have deserted.

This, Madam, is the State that your Arms, and the Inclination of the
People have put my Affairs in. It is unnecessary to tell you what stops
the Course of these Conquests, it is not the Season of the Year, nor the
Enemy; these are no Obstacles to your Troops, who desire nothing more
than to act under the Conduct that your Majesty has appointed them. The
taking of Barcelona, with so small a Number of Troops, is very
remarkable; and what has been done in this Siege is almost without
Example; that with seven or eight thousand Men of your Troops, and two
hundred Miquelets, we should surround and invest a Place, that thirty
thousand _French_ could not block up.

After a March of thirteen Hours, the Troops climb'd up the Rocks and
Precipices, to attack a Fortification stronger than the Place, which the
Earl of _Peterborow_ has sent you a Plan of; two Generals, with the
Grenadiers, attack'd it Sword in Hand. In which Action the Prince of
_Hesse_ died gloriously, after so many brave Actions: I hope his Brother
and his Family will always have your Majesty's Protection. With eight
hundred Men they forc'd the cover'd Way, and all the Intrenchments and
Works, one after another, till they came to the last Work which
surrounded it, against five hundred Men of regular Troops which defended
the Place, and a Reinforcement they had receiv'd; and three Days
afterwards we became Masters of the Place. We afterwards attack'd the
Town on the Side of the Castle. We landed again our Cannon, and the
other Artillery, with inconceivable Trouble, and form'd two Camps,
distant from each other three Leagues, against a Garrison almost as
numerous as our Army, whose Cavalry was double the Strength of ours. The
first Camp was so well intrench'd, that 'twas defended by two thousand
Men and the Dragoons; whilst we attack'd the Town with the rest of our
Troops. The Breach being made, we prepar'd to make a general Assault
with all the Army. These are Circumstances, Madam, which distinguish
this Action, perhaps, from all others.

Here has happen'd an unforeseen Accident. The Cruelty of the pretended
Viceroy, and the Report spread abroad, that he would take away the
Prisoners, contrary to the Capitulation, provok'd the Burghers, and some
of the Country People, to take up Arms against the Garrison, whilst they
were busy in packing up their Baggage, which was to be sent away the
next Day; so that every thing tended to Slaughter: But your Majesty's
Troops, entering into Town with the Earl of _Peterborow_, instead of
seeking Pillage, a Practice common upon such Occasions, appeas'd the
Tumult, and have say'd the Town, and even the Lives of their Enemies,
with a Discipline and Generosity without Example.

What remains is, that I return you my most hearty Thanks for sending so
great a Fleet, and such good and valiant Troops to my Assistance. After
so happy a Beginning, I have thought it proper, according to the
Sentiments of your Generals and Admirals, to support, by my Presence,
the Conquests that we have made; and to shew my Subjects, so
affectionate to my Person, that I cannot abandon them. I receive such
succours from your Majesty, and from your generous Nation, that I am
loaded with your Bounties; and am not a little concern'd to think that
the Support of my Interest should cause so great an Expence. But, Madam,
I sacrifice my Person, and my Subjects in Catalonia expose also their
Lives and Fortunes, upon the Assurances they have of your Majesty's
generous Protection. Your Majesty and your Council knows better than we
do, what is necessary for our Conservation. We shall then expect your
Majesty's Succours, with an entire Confidence in your Bounty and Wisdom.
A further Force is necessary: We give no small Diversion to _France_,
and without doubt they will make their utmost Efforts against me as soon
as possible; but I am satisfy'd, that the same Efforts will be made by
my Allies to defend me. Your Goodness, Madam, inclines you, and your
Power enables you, to support those that the Tyranny of France would
oppress. All that I can insinuate to your Wisdom, and that of your
Allies, is, that the Forces employ'd in this Country will not be
unprofitable to the public Good, but will be under an Obligation and
Necessity to act with the utmost Vigour against the Enemy. I am,

With an inviolable Affection,
Respect, and most
Sincere Acknowledgment,
Madam, my Sister,
Your most affectionate

And yet, after all, was this noble General not only recall'd, the
Command of the Fleet taken from him, and that of the Army given to my
Lord _Galway_, without Assignment of Cause; but all Manner of Falsities
were industriously spread abroad, not only to dimish, if they could, his
Reputation, but to bring him under Accusations of a malevolent Nature. I
can hardly imagine it necessary here to take Notice, that afterward he
disprov'd all those idle Calumnies and ill-invented Rumours; or to
mention what Compliments he receiv'd, in the most solemn Manner, from
his Country, upon a full Examination and thorough canvassing of his
Actions in the House of Lords. But this is too notorious to be omitted,
That all Officers coming from _Spain_ were purposely intercepted in
their Way to _London_, and craftily examin'd upon all the idle Stories
which had pass'd tending to lessen his Character: And when any Officers
had asserted the Falsity of those Inventions (as they all did, except a
military Sweetner or two) and that there was no Possibility of laying
any thing amiss to the Charge of that General--they were told, that they
ought to be careful however, not to speak advantagiously of that Lord's
Conduct, unless they were willing to fall Martyrs in his Cause--A Thing
scarce to be credited even in a popish Country. But _Scipio_ was
accus'd--tho' (as my Author finely observes) by Wretches only known to
Posterity by that stupid Accusation.

As a mournful Valediction, before I enter upon any new Scene, the Reader
will pardon this melancholy Expostulation. How mortifying must it be to
an _Englishman_, after he has found himself solac'd with a Relation of
so many surprising Successes of her Majesty's Arms, under the Earl of
_Peterborow_; Successes that have lay'd before our Eyes Provinces and
Kingdoms reduc'd, and Towns and Fortresses taken and reliev'd; where we
have seen a continu'd Series of happy Events, the Fruits of Conduct and
Vigilance; and Caution and Foresight preventing Dangers that were held,
at first View, certain and unsurmountable: to change this glorious
Landskip, I say, for Scenes every way different, even while our Troops
were as numerous as the Enemy, and better provided, yet always baffled
and beaten, and flying before the Enemy till fatally ruin'd in the
Battle of _Almanza_: How mortifying must this be to any Lover of his
Country! But I proceed to my Memoirs.

_ALICANT_ is a Town of the greatest Trade of any in the Kingdom of
_Valencia_, having a strong Castle, being situated on a high Hill, which
commands both Town and Harbour. In this Place I resided a whole Year;
but it was soon after my first Arrival, that Major _Collier_ (who was
shot in the Back at _Barcelona_, as I have related in the Siege of that
Place) hearing of me, sought me out at my Quarters; and, after a
particular Enquiry into the Success of that difficult Task that he left
me upon, and my answering all his Questions to satisfaction (all which
he receiv'd with evident Pleasure) he threw down a Purse of Pistoles
upon the Table; which I refusing, he told me, in a most handsome Manner,
his Friendship was not to be preserved but by my accepting it.

After I had made some very necessary Repairs, I pursu'd the Orders I had
receiv'd from the Earl of _Peterborow_, to go upon the erecting a new
Battery between the Castle and the Town. This was a Task attended with
Difficulties, neither few in Number, nor small in Consequence; for it
was to be rais'd upon a great Declivity, which must render the Work both
laborious and precarious. However, I had the good Fortune to effect it
much sooner than was expected; and it was call'd _Gorge's_ Battery, from
the Name of the Governor then commanding; who, out of an uncommon
Profusion of Generosity, wetted that Piece of Gossiping with a
distinguishing Bowl of Punch. Brigadier _Bougard_, when he saw this Work
some time after, was pleas'd to honour it with a singular Admiration and
Approbation, for its Compleatness, notwithstanding its Difficulties.

This Work, and the Siege of _Cartagena_, then in our Possession, by the
Duke of _Berwick_, brought the Lord _Galway_ down to this place.
_Cartagena_ is of so little Distance from _Alicant_, that we could
easily hear the Cannon playing against, and from it, in our Castle,
where I then was. And I remember my Lord _Galway_, on the fourth Day of
the Siege, sending to know if I could make any useful Observations, as
to the Success of it; I return'd, that I was of Opinion the Town was
surrender'd, from the sudden Cessation of the Cannon, which, by our News
next Day from the Place, prov'd to be fact. _Cartagena_ is a small
Sea-Port Town in _Murcia_; but has so good an Harbour, that when the
famous Admiral _Doria_ was ask'd, which were the three best Havens in
the _Mediterranean_, he readily return'd, _June, July_, and _Cartagena_.

Upon the Surrender of this Place, a Detachment of Foot was sent by the
Governor, with some Dragoons, to _Elsha_; but it being a Place of very
little Strength they were soon made Prisoners of War.

The Siege of _Cartagena_ being over, the Lord _Galway_ return'd to his
Camp; and the Lord _Duncannon_ dying in _Alicant_, the first Guns that
were fir'd from _Gorge's_ Battery, were the Minute-Guns for his Funeral.
His Regiment had been given to the Lord _Montandre_, who lost it before
he had Possession, by an Action as odd as it was scandalous.

That Regiment had received Orders to march to the Lord _Galway's_ Camp,
under the Command of their Lieutenant-Colonel _Bateman_, a Person before
reputedly a good Officer, tho' his Conduct here gave People, not
invidious, too much Reason to call it in Question. On his March, he was
so very careless and negligent (though he knew himself in a Country
surrounded with Enemies, and that he was to march through a Wood, where
they every Day made their Appearance in great Numbers) that his Soldiers
march'd with their Muskets slung at their Backs, and went one after
another (as necessity had forc'd us to do in _Scotland_) himself at the
Head of 'em, in his Chaise, riding a considerable way before.

It happened there was a Captain, with threescore Dragoons, detach'd from
the Duke of _Berwick's_ Army, with a Design to intercept some Cash, that
was order'd to be sent to Lord _Galway's_ Army from _Alicant_. This
Detachment, missing of that intended Prize, was returning very
disconsolately, _Re infecta_; when their Captain, observing that
careless and disorderly March of the _English_, resolv'd, boldly enough,
to attack them in the Wood. To that Purpose he secreted his little Party
behind a great Barn; and so soon as they were half passed by, he falls
upon 'em in the Center with his Dragoons, cutting and slashing at such a
violent Rate, that he soon dispersed the whole Regiment, leaving many
dead and wounded upon the Spot. The three Colours were taken; and the
gallant Lieutenant-Colonel taken out of his Chaise, and carried away
Prisoner with many others; only one Officer who was an Ensign, and so
bold as to do his Duty, was kill'd.

The Lieutenant who commanded the Granadiers, received the Alarm time
enough to draw his Men into a House in their way; where he bravely
defended himself for a long Time; but being killed, the rest immediately
surrender'd. The Account of this Action I had from the Commander of the
Enemy's Party himself, some Time after, while I was a Prisoner. And
Captain _Mahoni_, who was present when the News was brought, that a few
_Spanish_ Dragoons had defeated an _English_ Regiment, which was this
under _Bateman_, protested to me, that the Duke of _Berwick_ turn'd pale
at the Relation; and when they offer'd to bring the Colours before him,
he would not so much as see them. A little before the Duke went to
Supper, _Bateman_ himself was brought to him, but the Duke turn'd away
from him without any further Notice than coldly saying, that _he thought
he was very strangely taken_. The Wags of the Army made a thorough jest
of him, and said his military Conduct was of a piece with his Oeconomy,
having two Days before this March, sent his young handsome Wife into
_England_, under the Guardship of the young Chaplain of the Regiment.

_April_ 15. In the Year 1707, being _Easter Monday_, we had in the
Morning a flying Report in _Alicant_, that there had been the Day before
a Battle at _Almanza_, between the Army under the Command of the Duke of
_Berwick_, and that of the _English_, under Lord _Galway_, in which the
latter had suffer'd an entire Defeat. We at first gave no great Credit
to it: But, alas, we were too soon woefully convinced of the Truth of
it, by Numbers that came flying to us from the conquering Enemy. Then
indeed we were satisfied of Truths, too difficult before to be credited.
But as I was not present in that calamitous Battle, I shall relate it,
as I received it from an Officer then in the Duke's Army.

To bring the Lord _Galway_ to a Battle, in a Place most commodious for
his purpose, the Duke made use of this Stratagem: He ordered two
_Irishmen_, both Officers, to make their way over to the Enemy as
Deserters; putting this Story in their Mouths, that the Duke of
_Orleans_ was in a full March to join the Duke of _Berwick_ with twelve
thousand Men; that this would be done in two Days, and that then they
would find out the Lord _Galway_, and force him to Fight, where-ever
they found him.

Lord _Galway_, who at this Time lay before _Villena_, receiving this
Intelligence from those well instructed Deserters, immediately rais'd
the Siege; with a Resolution, by a hasty March, to force the Enemy to
Battle, before the Duke of _Orleans_ should be able to join the Duke of
_Berwick_. To effect this, after a hard March of three long _Spanish_
Leagues in the heat of the Day; he appears a little after Noon in the
face of the Enemy with his fatigu'd Forces. Glad and rejoyc'd at the
Sight, for he found his Plot had taken; _Berwick_, the better to receive
him, draws up his Army in a half Moon, placing at a pretty good Advance
three Regiments to make up the Centre, with express Order, nevertheless,
to retreat at the very first Charge. All which was punctually observ'd,
and had its desired Effect; For the three Regiments, at the first Attack
gave way, and seemingly fled towards their Camp; the _English_, after
their customary Manner, pursuing them with Shouts and Hollowings. As
soon as the Duke of _Berwick_ perceiv'd his Trap had taken, he order'd
his right and left Wings to close; by which Means, he at once cut off
from the rest of their Army all those who had so eagerly pursu'd the
imaginary Runaways. In short, the Rout was total, and the most fatal
Blow that ever the _English_ receiv'd during the whole War with _Spain_.
Nor, as it is thought, with a great probability of Reason, had those
Troops that made their Retreat to the Top of the Hills, under Major
General _Shrimpton_, met with any better Fate than those on the Plain,
had the _Spaniards_ had any other General in the Command than the Duke
of _Berwick_; whose native Sympathy gave a check to the Ardour of a
victorious Enemy. And this was the sense of the _Spaniards_ themselves
after the Battle. Verifying herein that noble Maxim, _That Victory to
generous Minds is only an Inducement to Moderation_.

The Day after this fatal Battle (which gave occasion to a _Spanish_
piece of Wit, _that the English General had routed the French_) the Duke
of _Orleans_ did arrive indeed in the Camp, but with an Army of only
fourteen Attendants.

The fatal Effects of this Battle were soon made visible, and to none
more than those in _Alicant_. The Enemy grew every Day more and more
troublesome; visiting us in Parties more boldly than before: and often
hovering about us so very near, that with our Cannon we could hardly
teach 'em to keep a proper Distance. _Gorge_ the Governor of _Alicant_
being recall'd into _England_, Major General _Richards_ was by King
_Charles_ appointed Governor in his Place. He was a Roman Catholick, and
very much belov'd by the Natives on that Account; tho' to give him his
due, he behaved himself extremely well in all other Respects. It was in
his Time, that a Design was laid of surprising _Guardamere_, a small
Sea-port Town, in _Murcia_: But the military Bishop (for he was in a
literal Sense excellent _tam Marte, quam Mercurio_, among his many
others Exploits), by a timely Expedition, prevented that.

Governor _Richards_, my Post being always in the Castle, had sent to
desire me to give notice whenever I saw any Parties of the Enemy moving.
Pursuant to this Order, discovering one Morning a considerable body of
Horse towards _Elsha_, I went down into the Town, and told the Governor
what I had seen; and without any delay he gave his Orders, that a
Captain with threescore Men should attend me to an old House about a
Mile distance. As soon as we had got into it, I set about barricading
all the open Places, and Avenues, and put my Men in a Posture ready to
receive an Enemy, as soon as he should appear; upon which the Captain,
as a feint, ordered a few of his men to shew themselves on a rising
Ground just before the House. But we had like to have caught a Tartar:
For tho' the Enemy took the Train I had laid, and on sight of our small
Body on the Hill, sent a Party from their greater Body to intercept
them, before they could reach the Town; yet the Sequel prov'd, we had
mistaken their Number and it soon appeared to be much greater than we at
first imagin'd. However our Out-scouts, as I may call 'em, got safe into
the House; and on the Appearance of the Party, we let fly a full Volly,
which laid dead on the Spot three Men and one Horse. Hereupon the whole
Body made up to the House, but stood a-loof upon the Hill without reach
of our Shot. We soon saw our Danger from the number of the Enemy: And
well for us it was, that the watchful Governor had taken notice of it,
as well as we in the House. For observing us surrounded with the Enemy,
and by a Power so much superior, he marched himself with a good part of
the Garrison to our Relief. The Enemy stood a little time as if they
would receive 'em; but upon second thoughts they retir'd; and to our no
little Joy left us at Liberty to come out of the House and join the

Scarce a Day pass'd but we had some visits of the like kind attended
sometimes with Rencounters of this Nature; in so much that there was
hardly any stirring out in Safety for small Parties, tho' never so
little away. There was within a little Mile of the Town, an old
Vineyard, environed with a loose stone Wall: An Officer and I made an
Agreement to ride thither for an Airing. We did so, and after a little
riding, it came into my Head to put a Fright upon the Officer. And very
lucky for us both was that unlucky Thought of mine; pretending to see a
Party of the Enemy make up to us, I gave him the Alarm, set Spurs to my
Horse, and rid as fast as Legs could carry me. The Officer no way bated
of his Speed; and we had scarce got out of the Vineyard but my Jest
prov'd Earnest, twelve of the Enemy's Horse pursuing us to the very
Gates of the Town. Nor could I ever after prevail upon my
Fellow-Traveller to believe that he ow'd his Escape to Merriment more
than Speed.

Soon after my Charge, as to the Fortifications, was pretty well over, I
obtain'd Leave of the Governor to be absent for a Fortnight, upon some
Affairs of my own at _Valencia_. On my Return from whence, at a Town
call'd _Venissa_, I met two Officers of an _English_ Regiment, going to
the Place from whence I last came. They told me, after common
Congratulations, that they had left Major _Boyd_, at a little Place
call'd _Capel_, hiring another Mule, that he rode on thither having
tir'd and fail'd him; desiring withal, that if I met him, I would let
him know that they would stay for him at that Place. I had another
Gentleman in my Company, and we had travell'd on not above a League
further, whence, at a little Distance, we were both surpriz'd with a
Sight that seem'd to have set all Art at defiance, and was too odd for
any thing in Nature. It appear'd all in red, and to move; but so very
slowly, that if we had not made more way to that than it did to us, we
should have made it a Day's Journey before we met it. My Companion could
as little tell what to make of it as I; and, indeed, the nearer it came
the more monstrous it seem'd, having nothing of the Tokens of Man,
either Walking, Riding, or in any Posture whatever. At last, coming up
with this strange Figure of a Creature (for now we found it was
certainly such) what, or rather who, should it prove to be, but Major
_Boyd_? He was a Person of himself far from one of the least Proportion,
and mounted on a poor little Ass, with all his warlike Accoutrements
upon it, you will allow must make a Figure almost as odd as one of the
old _Centaurs_. The Morocco Saddle that cover'd the Ass was of Burden
enough for the Beast without its Master; and the additional Holsters
and Pistols made it much more weighty. Nevertheless, a Curb Bridle of
the largest Size cover'd his little Head, and a long red Cloak, hanging
down to the Ground, cover'd Jackboots, Ass, Master and all. In short, my
Companion and I, after we could specifically declare it to be a Man,
agreed we never saw a Figure so comical in all our Lives. When we had
merrily greeted our Major (for a _Cynick_ could not have forborn
Laughter) He excus'd all as well as he could, by saying he could get no
other Beast. After which, delivering our Message, and condoling with him
for his present Mounting, and wishing him better at his next Quarters,
he settled into his old Pace, and we into ours, and parted.

We lay that Night at _Altea_, famous for its Bay for Ships to water at.
It stands on a high Hill; and is adorn'd, not defended, with an old

Thence we came to _Alicant_, where having now been a whole Year, and
having effected what was held necessary, I once more prevail'd upon the
Governor to permit me to take another Journey. The Lord _Galway_ lay at
_Tarraga_, while _Lerida_ lay under the Siege of the Duke of _Orleans_;
and having some Grounds of Expectation given me, while he was at
_Alicant_, I resolv'd at least to demonstrate I was still living. The
Governor favour'd me with Letters, not at all to my Disadvantage; so
taking Ship for _Barcelona_, just at our putting into the Harbour, we
met with the _English_ Fleet, on its Return from the Expedition to
_Toulon_ under Sir _Cloudsly Shovel_.

I stay'd but very few Days at _Barcelona_, and then proceeded on my
intended Journey to _Tarraga_; arriving at which Place I deliver'd my
Packet to the Lord _Galway_, who receiv'd me with very great Civility;
and to double it, acquainted me at the same time, that the Governor of
_Alicant_ had wrote very much in my Favour: But though it was a known
Part of that noble Lord's Character, that the first Impression was
generally strongest, I had Reason soon after to close with another
Saying, equally true, _That general Rules always admit of some
Exception_. While I was here we had News of the taking of the Town of
_Lerida_; the Prince of _Hesse_ (Brother to that brave Prince who lost
his Life before _Monjouick_) retiring into the Castle with the
Garrison, which he bravely defended a long time after.

When I was thus attending my Lord _Galway_ at _Tarraga_, he receiv'd
Intelligence that the Enemy had a Design to lay Siege to _Denia_;
whereupon he gave me Orders to repair there as Engineer. After I had
receiv'd my Orders, and taken Leave of his Lordship, I set out,
resolving, since it was left to my Choice, to go by way of _Barcelona_,
and there take Shipping for the Place of my Station; by which I propos'd
to save more time than would allow me a full Opportunity of visiting
_Montserat_, a Place I had heard much Talk of, which had fill'd me with
a longing Desire to see it. To say Truth, I had been told such
extravagant Things of the Place, that I could hardly impute more than
one half of it to any thing but _Spanish_ Rhodomontado's, the Vice of
extravagant Exaggeration being too natural to that Nation.

_MONTSERAT_ is a rising lofty Hill, in the very Middle of a spacious
Plain, in the Principality of _Catalonia_, about seven Leagues distant
from _Barcelona_ to the Westward, somewhat inclining to the North. At
the very first Sight, its Oddness of Figure promises something
extraordinary; and given at that Distance the Prospect makes somewhat of
a grand Appearance: Hundreds of aspiring Pyramids presenting themselves
all at once to the Eye, look, if I may be allowed so to speak, like a
little petrify'd Forrest; or, rather, like the awful Ruins of some
capacious Structure, the Labour of venerable Antiquity. The nearer you
approach the more it affects; but till you are very near you can hardly
form in your Mind any thing like what you find it when you come close to
it. Till just upon it you would imagine it a perfect Hill of Steeples;
but so intermingled with Trees of Magnitude, as well as Beauty, that
your Admiration can never be tir'd, or your Curiosity surfeited. Such I
found it on my Approach; yet much less than what I found it, was so soon
as I enter'd upon the very Premisses.

Now that stupendious Cluster of Pyramids affected me in a Manner
different to all before; and I found it so finely group'd with verdant
Groves, and here and there interspers'd with aspiring, but solitary
Trees, that it no way lessened my Admiration, while it increased my
Delight. Those Trees, which I call solitary, as standing single, in
opposition to the numerous Groves, which are close and thick (as I
observ'd when I ascended to take a View of the several Cells) rise
generally out of the very Clefts of the main Rock, with nothing, to
Appearance, but a Soil or bed of Stone for their Nurture. But though
some few Naturalists may assert, that the Nitre in the Stone may afford
a due Proportion of Nourishment to Trees and Vegetables; these, in my
Opinion, were all too beautiful, their Bark, Leaf, and Flowers, carry'd
too fair a Face of Health, to allow them even to be the Foster-children
of Rock and Stone only.

Upon this Hill, or if you please, Grove of Rocks, are thirteen Hermits
Cells, the last of which lies near the very Summit. You gradually
advance to every one, from Bottom to Top, by a winding Ascent; which to
do would otherwise be Impossible, by reason of the Steepness; but though
there is a winding Ascent to every Cell, as I have said, I would yet set
at defiance the most observant, if a Stranger, to find it feasible to
visit them in order, if not precaution'd to follow the poor _Borigo_, or
old Ass, that with Paniers hanging on each Side of him, mounts
regularly, and daily, up to every particular Cell. The Manner is as

In the Paniers there are thirteen Partitions; one for every Cell. At the
Hour appointed, the Servant having plac'd the Paniers on his Back, the
Ass, of himself, goes to the Door of the Convent at the very Foot of the
Hill, where every Partition is supply'd with their several Allowances of
Victuals and Wine. Which, as soon as he has receiv'd, without any
further Attendance, or any Guide, he mounts and takes the Cells
gradually, in their due Course, till he reaches the very uppermost.
Where having discharg'd his Duty, he descends the same Way, lighter by
the Load he carry'd up. This the poor stupid Drudge fails not to do, Day
and Night, at the stated Hours.

Two Gentlemen, who had join'd me on the Road, alike led by Curiosity,
seem'd alike delighted, that the End of it was so well answer'd. I could
easily discover in their Countenances a Satisfaction, which, if it did
not give a Sanction to my own, much confirm'd it, while they seem'd to
allow with me that these reverend Solitaries were truly happy Men; I
then thought them such; and a thousand times since, reflecting within my
self, have wish'd, bating their Errors, and lesser Superstitions, my
self as happily station'd: For what can there be wanting to a happy
Life, where all things necessary are provided without Care? Where the
Days, without Anxiety or Troubles, may be gratefully passed away, with
an innocent Variety of diverting and pleasing Objects, and where their
Sleep sand Slumbers are never interrupted with any thing more offensive,
than murmuring Springs, natural Cascades, or the various Songs of the
pretty feather'd Quiristers.

But their Courtesy to Strangers is no less engaging than their Solitude.
A recluse Life, for the Fruits of it, generally speaking, produces
Moroseness; Pharisaical Pride too often sours the Temper; and a mistaken
Opinion of their own Merit too naturally leads such Men into a Contempt
of others; But on the contrary, these good Men (for I must call them as
I thought them) seem'd to me the very Emblems of Innocence; so ready to
oblige others, that at the same Instant they seem'd laying Obligations
upon themselves. This is self-evident, in that Affability and
Complaisance they use in shewing the Rarities of their several Cells;
where, for fear you should slip any thing worthy Observation, they
endeavour to instil in you as quick a Propensity of asking, as you find
in them a prompt Alacrity in answering such Questions of Curiosity as
their own have inspir'd.

In particular, I remember one of those reverend old Men, when we were
taking Leave at the Door of his Cell, to which out of his great Civility
he accompany'd us, finding by the Air of our Faces, as well as our
Expressions, that we thought ourselves pleasingly entertain'd; to divert
us afresh, advanc'd a few Paces from the Door, when giving a Whistle
with his Mouth, a surprising Flock of pretty little Birds, variegated,
and of different Colours, immediately flock'd around him. Here you
should see some alighting upon his Shoulders, some on his awful Beard;
others took Refuge on his snow-like Head, and many feeding, and more
endeavouring to feed out of his Mouth; each appearing emulous and under
an innocent Contention, how best to express their Love and Respect to
their no less pleased Master.

Nor did the other Cells labour under any Deficiency of Variety: Every
one boasting in some particular, that might distinguish it in something
equally agreeable and entertaining. Nevertheless, crystal Springs
spouting from the solid Rocks were, from the highest to the lowest,
common to them all; and, in most of them, they had little brass Cocks,
out of which, when turn'd, issu'd the most cool and crystalline Flows of
excellent pure Water. And yet what more affected me, and which I found
near more Cells than one, was the natural Cascades of the same
transparent Element; these falling from one Rock to another, in that
warm, or rather hot Climate, gave not more delightful Astonishment to
the Eye, than they afforded grateful Refreshment to the whole Man. The
Streams falling from these, soften, from a rougher tumultuous Noise,
into such affecting Murmurs, by Distance, the Intervention of Groves, or
neighbouring Rocks, that it were impossible to see or hear them and not
be chann'd.

Neither are those Groves grateful only in a beautiful Verdure; Nature
renders them otherwise delightful, in loading them with Clusters of
Berries of a perfect scarlet Colour, which, by a beautiful Intermixture,
strike the Eye with additional Delight. In short, it might nonplus a
Person of the nicest Taste, to distinguish or determine, whether the
Neatness of their Cells within, or the beauteous Varieties without, most
exhaust his Admiration. Nor is the Whole, in my Opinion, a little
advantag'd by the frequent View of some of those pyramidical Pillars,
which seem, as weary of their own Weight, to recline and seek Support
from others in the Neighbourhood.

When I mention'd the outside Beauties of their Cells, I must be thought
to have forgot to particularize the glorious Prospects presented to your
Eye from every one of them; but especially from that nearest the Summit.
A Prospect, by reason of the Purity of the Air, so extensive, and so
very entertaining that to dilate upon it properly to one that never saw
it, would baffle Credit; and naturally to depaint it, would confound
Invention. I therefore shall only say, that on the _Mediterranean_ Side,
after an agreeable Interval of some fair Leagues, it will set at
defiance the strongest Opticks; and although _Barcelona_ bounds it on
the Land, the Eyes are feasted with the Delights of such an intervening
Champion (where beauteous Nature does not only smile, but riot) that the
Sense must be very temperate, or very weak, that can be soon or easily

Having thus taken a View of all their refreshing Springs, their
grateful Groves, and solitary Shades under single Trees, whose Clusters
prov'd that even Rocks were grown fruitful; and having ran over all the
Variety of Pleasures in their several pretty Cells, decently set off
with Gardens round the, equally fragrant and beautiful, we were brought
down again to the Convent, which, though on a small Ascent, lies very
near the Foot of this terrestrial Paradise, there to take a Survey of
their sumptuous Hall, much more sumptuous Chapel, and its adjoining
Repository; and feast our Eyes with Wonders of a different Nature; and
yet as entertaining as any, or all, we had seen before.

Immediately on our Descent, a Priest presented himself at the Door of
the Convent, ready to shew us the hidden Rarities. And though, as I
understood, hardly a Day passes without the Resort of some Strangers to
gratify their Curiosity with the Wonders of the Place; yet is there, on
every such Occasion, a superior Concourse of Natives ready to see over
again, out of meer Bigotry and Superstition, what they have seen,
perhaps, a hundred times before. I could not avoid taking notice,
however, that the Priest treated those constant Visitants with much less
Ceremony, or more Freedom, if you please, than any of the Strangers of
what Nation soever; or, indeed, he seem'd to take as much Pains to
disoblige those, as he did Pleasure in obliging us.

The Hall was neat, large and stately; but being plain and unadorn'd with
more than decent Decorations, suitable to such a Society, I hasten to
the other.

When we enter'd the Chapel, our Eyes were immediately attracted by the
Image of our Lady of _Montserat_ (as they call it) which stands over the
Altar-Piece. It is about the natural Stature; but as black and shining
as Ebony it self. Most would imagine it made of that Material; though
her Retinue and Adorers will allow nothing of the Matter. On the
contrary, Tradition, which with them is, on some Occasions, more than
tantamount to Religion, has assur'd them, and they relate it as
undoubted Matter of Fact, that her present Colour, if I may so call it,
proceeded from her Concealment, in the Time of the _Moors_, between
those two Rocks on which the Chapel is founded; and that her long lying
in that dismal Place chang'd her once lovely White into its present
opposite. Would not a Heretick here be apt to say, That it was greaty
pity that an Image which still boasts the Power of acting so many
Miracles, could no better conserve her own Complexion? At least it must
be allow'd, even by a good Catholick, to carry along with it Matter of
Reproach to the fair Ladies, Natives of the Country, for their unnatural
and excessive Affection of adulterating, if not defacing, their
beautiful Faces, with the ruinating Dauberies of _Carmine_?

As the Custom of the Place is (which is likewise allow'd to be a
distinguishing Piece of Civility to Strangers) when we approach the
black Lady (who, I should have told you, bears a Child in her Arms; but
whether maternally Black, or of the _Mulatto_ Kind, I protest I did not
mind) the Priest, in great Civility, offers you her Arm to salute; at
which Juncture, I, like a true blue Protestant, mistaking my Word of
Command, fell foul on the fair Lady's Face. The Displeasure in his
Countenance (for he took more Notice of the Rudeness than the good Lady
her self) soon convinc'd me of my Error; However, as a greater Token of
his Civility, having admitted no _Spaniards_ along with my Companions
and me, is pass'd off the better; and his after Civilities manifested,
that he was willing to reform my Ignorance by his Complaisance.

To demonstrate which, upon my telling him that I had a Set of Beads,
which I must entreat him to consecrate for me, he readily, nay eagerly
comply'd; and having hung them on her Arm for the Space of about half,
or somewhat short of a whole Minute, he return'd me the holy Baubles
with a great deal of Address and most evident Satisfaction. The Reader
will be apt to admire at this curious Piece of Superstition of mine,
till I have told him, that even rigid Protestants have, in this Country,
thought it but prudent to do the like; and likewise having so done, to
carry them about their Persons, or in their Pockets: For Experience has
convinc'd us of the Necessity of this most Catholick Precaution; since
those who have here, travelling or otherwise, come to their Ends,
whether by Accident, Sickness, or the Course of Nature, not having these
sanctifying Seals found upon them, have ever been refus'd Christian
Burial, under a superstitious Imagination, that the Corps of a Heretick
will infect every thing near it.

Two instances of this kind fell within my Knowledge; one before I came
to _Montserat_, the other after. The first was of one _Slunt_, who had
been _Bombardier_ at _Monjouick_; but being kill'd while we lay at
_Campilio_, a Priest, whom I advis'd with upon the Matter, told me, that
if he should be buried where any Corn grew, his Body would not only be
taken up again, but ill treated, in revenge of the Destruction of so
much Corn, which the People would on no account be persuaded to touch;
for which Reason we took care to have him lay'd in a very deep Grave, on
a very barren Spot of Ground. The other was of one Captain _Bush_, who
was a Prisoner with me on the Surrender of _Denia_; who being sent, as I
was afterwards, to Saint _Clemente la Mancha_, there dy'd; and, as I was
inform'd, tho' he was privately, and by Night, bury'd in a Corn-Field,
he was taken out of his Grave by those superstitious People, as soon as
ever they could discover the Place where his Body was deposited. But I
return to the Convent at _Montserat_.

Out of the Chapel, behind the High-Altar, we descended into a spacious
Room, the Repository of the great Offerings made to the Lady. Here,
though I thought in the Chapel it self I had seen the Riches of the
Universe, I found a prodigious Quantity of more costly Presents, the
superstitious Tribute of most of the Roman-Catholick Princes in
_Europe_. Among a Multitude of others, they show'd me a Sword set with
Diamonds, the Offering of _Charles_ the Third, then King of _Spain_, but
now Emperor of _Germany_. Though I must confess, being a Heretick, I
could much easier find a Reason for a fair Lady's presenting such a
Sword to a King of _Spain_, than for a King of _Spain's_ presenting such
a Sword to a fair Lady: And by the Motto upon it, _Pulchra tamen nigra_,
it was plain such was his Opinion. That Prince was so delighted with the
Pleasure's of this sweet Place, that he, as well as I, stay'd as long as
ever he could; though neither of us so long as either could have wish'd.

But there was another Offering from a King of _Portugal_, equally
glorious and costly; but much better adapted; and therefore in its
Propriety easier to be accounted for. That was a Glory for the Head of
her Ladiship, every Ray of which was set with Diamonds, large at the
Bottom, and gradually lessening to the very Extremity of every Ray.
Each Ray might be about half a Yard Long; and I imagin'd in the Whole
there might be about one Hundred of them. In short, if ever her Ladiship
did the Offerer the Honour to put it on, I will though a Heretick,
venture to aver, she did not at that present time look like a humane

To enumerate the rest, if my Memory would suffice, would exceed Belief.
As the upper Part was a plain Miracle of Nature, the lower was a
compleat Treasury of miraculous Art.

If you ascend from the lowest Cell to the very Summit, the last of all
the thirteen, you will perceive a continual Contention between Pleasure
and Devotion; and at last, perhaps, find your self at a Loss to decide
which deserves the Preheminence: For you are not here to take Cells in
the vulgar Acceptation, as the little Dormitories of solitary Monks: No!
Neatness, Use, and Contrivance appear in every one of them; and though
in an almost perfect Equality, yet in such Perfection, that you will
find it difficult to discover in any one of them any thing wanting to
the Pleasure of Life.

If you descend to the Convent near the Foot of that venerable Hill; you
may see more, much more of the Riches of the World; but less, far less
Appearance of a celestial Treasure. Perhaps, it might be only the
Sentiment of a Heretick; but that Awe and Devotion, which I found in my
Attendant from Cell to Cell grew languid, and lost in meer empty Bigotry
and foggy Superstition, when I came below. In short, there was not a
great Difference in their Heights, than in the Sentiments they inspir'd
me with.

Before I leave this Emblem of the beatific Vision, I must correct some
thing like a Mistake, as to the poor _Borigo_. I said at the Beginning
that his Labour was daily; but the _Sunday_ is to him a Day of rest, as
it is to the Hermits, his Masters, a Day of Refection. For to save the
poor faithful Brute the hard Drudgery of that Day, the thirteen Hermits,
if Health permit, descend to their _Canobium_, as they call it; that is,
to the Hall of the Convent; where they dine in common with the Monks of
the Order, who are _Benedictines_.

After seven Days Variety of such innocent Delight (the Space allow'd for
the Entertainment of Strangers), I took my Leave of this pacifick
Hermitage, to pursue the more boisterous Duties of my Calling. The Life
of a Soldier is in every Respect the full _Antithesis_ to that of a
Hermit; and I know not, whether it might not be a Sense of that, which
inspir'd me with very great Reluctancy at parting. I confess, while on
the Spot, I over and over bandy'd in my Mind the Reasons which might
prevail upon _Charles_ the Fifth to relinquish his Crown; and the
Arguments on his Side never fail'd of Energy, I could persuade my self
that this, or some like happy Retreat, was the Reward of abdicated

Full of these Contemplations (for they lasted there) I arriv'd at
_Barcelona_; where I found a Vessel ready to sail, on which I embarked
for _Denia_, in pursuance of my Orders. Sailing to the Mouth of the
_Mediterranean_, no Place along the _Christian_ Shore affords a Prospect
equally delightful with the Castle of _Denia_. It was never designed for
a Place of great Strength, being built, and first design'd, as a Seat of
Pleasure to the Great Duke of _Lerma_. In that Family it many Years
remain'd; tho', within less than a Century, that with two other
Dukedoms, have devolv'd upon the Family of the Duke _de Medina Celi_,
the richest Subject at this time in all _Spain_.

_DENIA_ was the first Town, that in our Way to _Barcelona_, declar'd for
King _Charles_; and was then by his Order made a Garrison. The Town is
but small, and surrounded with a thin Wall; so thin, that I have known a
Cannon-Ball pierce through it at once.

When I arriv'd at _Denia_, I found a _Spaniard_ Governor of the Town,
whose Name has slipt my Memory; tho' his Behaviour merited everlasting
Annals. Major _Percival_, an _Englishman_, commanded in the Castle, and
on my coming there, I understood, it had been agreed between 'em, that
in case of a Siege, which they apprehended, the Town should be defended
wholly by _Spaniards_, and the Castle by the _English_.

I had scarce been there three Weeks before those Expectations were
answered. The Place was invested by Count _D'Alfelt_, and Major General
_Mahoni_; two Days after which, they open'd Trenches on the East Side of
the Town. I was necessitated upon their so doing, to order the
Demolishment of some Houses on that Side, that I might erect a Battery
to point upon their Trenches, the better to annoy them. I did so; and it
did the intended Service; for with that, and two others, which I rais'd
upon the Castle (from all which we fir'd incessantly, and with great
Success) the Besiegers were sufficiently incommoded.

The Governor of the Town (a _Spaniard_ as I said before, and with a
_Spanish_ Garrison) behav'd very gallantly; insomuch, that what was said
of the Prince of _Hesse_, when he so bravely defended _Gibraltar_
against the joint Forces of _France_ and _Spain_, might be said of him,
that he was Governor, Engineer, Gunner, and Bombardier all in one; For
no Man could exceed him, either in Conduct or Courage; nor were the
_Spaniards_ under him less valiant or vigilant; for in case the Place
was taken, expecting but indifferent Quarter, they fought with Bravery,
and defended the Place to Admiration.

The Enemy had answer'd our Fire with all the Ardour imaginable; and
having made a Breach, that, as we thought was practicable, a Storm was
expected every Hour. Preparing against which to the great Joy of all the
Inhabitants, and the Surprize of the whole Garrison, and without our
being able to assign the least Cause, the Enemy suddenly raised the
Siege, and withdrew from a Place, which those within imagined in great

The Siege thus abdicated (if I may use a modern Phrase) I was resolved
to improve my Time, and make the best Provision I could against any
future Attack. To that purpose I made several new Fortifications,
together with proper Casemets for our Powder, all which render'd the
Place much stronger, tho' Time too soon show'd me that Strength it self
must yield to Fortune.

Surveying those works, and my Workmen, I was one Day standing on the
great Battery, when casting my Eye toward the _Barbary_ Coast, I
observ'd an odd sort of greenish Cloud making to the _Spanish_ Shoar.
Not like other Clouds with Rapidity or Swiftness, but with a Motion so
slow, that Sight itself was a long time before it would allow it such.
At last, it came just over my Head, and interposing between the Sun and
me, so thickened the Air, that I had lost the very Sight of Day. At this
moment it had reach'd the Land; and tho' very near me in my Imagination,
it began to dissolve, and lose of its first Tenebrity, when all on a
sudden there fell such a vast multitude of Locusts, as exceeded the
thickest storm of Hail or Snow that I ever saw. All around me was
immediately cover'd with those crauling Creatures; and they yet
continu'd to fall so thick, that with the swing of my Cane I knock'd
down thousands. It is scarce imaginable the Havock I made in a very
little space of time; much less conceivable is the horrid Desolation
which attended the Visitation of those _Animalcula_. There was not in a
Day or two's time, the least Leaf to be seen upon a Tree, nor any green
Thing in a Garden. Nature seem'd buried in her own Ruins; and the
vegetable World to be Supporters only to her Monument. I never saw the
hardest Winter, in those Parts, attended with any equal Desolation.
When, glutton like, they had devoured all that should have sustained
them, and the more valuable Part of God's Creation (whether weary with
gorging, or over thirsty with devouring, I leave to Philosophers) they
made to Ponds, Brooks, and standing Pools, there revenging their own
Rape upon Nature, upon their own vile Carkasses. In every of these you
might see them lie in Heaps like little Hills; drown'd indeed, but
attended with Stenches so noisome, that it gave the distracted
Neighbourhood too great Reason to apprehend yet more fatal Consequences.
A Pestilential Infection is the Dread of every Place, but especially of
all Parts upon the _Mediterranean_. The Priests therefore repair'd to a
little Chapel, built in the open Fields, to be made use of on such like
Occasions, there to deprecate the miserable Cause of this dreadful
Visitation. In a Week's time, or there abouts, the Stench was over, and
every Thing but verdant Nature in its pristin Order.

Some few Months after this, and about eight Months from the former
Siege, Count _D'Alfelt_ caus'd _Denia_ to be again invested; and being
then sensible of all the Mistakes he had before committed, he now went
about his Business with more Regularity and Discretion. The first Thing
he set upon, and it was the wisest Thing he could do, was to cut off our
Communication with the Sea. This he did, and thereby obtained what he
much desired. Next, he caus'd his Batteries to be erected on the West
side of the Town, from which he ply'd it so furiously, that in five
Days' time a practicable Breach was made; upon which they stormed and
took it. The Governor, who had so bravely defended it in the former
Seige, fortunately for him had been remov'd; and _Francis_ _Valero_,
now in his Place, was made Prisoner of War with all his Garrison.

After the taking the Town, they erected Batteries against the Castle,
which they kept ply'd with incessant Fire, both from Cannon and Mortars.
But what most of all plagu'd us, and did us most Mischief, was the vast
showers of Stones sent among the Garrison from their Mortars. These,
terrible in Bulk and Size, did more Execution than all the rest put
together. The Garrison could not avoid being somewhat disheartened at
this uncommon way of Rencounter; yet, to a Man, dedar'd against
hearkening to any Proposals of Surrender, the Governor excepted; who
having selected more Treasure than he could properly, or justly call his
own, was the only Person that seem'd forward for such a Motion. He had
more than once thrown out Expressions of such a Nature, but without any
effect. Nevertheless, having at last secretly obtained a peculiar
Capitulation for himself, Bag, and Baggage; the Garrison was sacrific'd
to his private Interest, and basely given up Prisoners of War. By these
Means indeed he saved his Money, but lost his Reputation; and soon
after, Life it self. And sure every Body will allow the latter loss to
be least, who will take Pains to consider, that it screened him from the
consequential Scrutinies of a Council of War, which must have issued as
the just Reward of his Demerits.

The Garrison being thus unaccountably delivered up and made Prisoners,
were dispersed different ways: Some into _Castile_, others as far as
_Oviedo_, in the Kingdom of _Leon_. For my own part, having received a
Contusion in my Breast; I was under a necessity of being left behind
with the Enemy, till I should be in a Condition to be remov'd, and when
that time came, I found my self agreeably ordered to _Valencia_.

As Prisoner of War I must now bid adieu to the active Part of the
military Life; and hereafter concern my self with Descriptions of
Countries, Towns, Palaces, and Men, instead of Battles. However, if I
take in my way Actions of War, founded on the best Authorities, I hope
my Interspersing such will be no disadvantage to my now more pacifick

So soon as I arriv'd at _Valencia_, I wrote to our Pay-master Mr.
_Mead_, at _Barcelona_, letting him know, that I was become a Prisoner,
wounded, and in want of Money. Nor could even all those Circumstances
prevail on me to think it long before he returned a favourable Answer,
in an Order to Monsieur _Zoulicafre_, a Banker, to pay me on Sight fifty
Pistoles. But in the same Letter he gave me to understand, that those
fifty Pistoles were a Present to me from General (afterward Earl)
_Stanhope_; and so indeed I found it, when I return'd into _England_, my
Account not being charged with any part of it: But this was not the only
Test I received of that generous Earl's Generosity. And where's the
Wonder, as the World is compell'd to own, that Heroick Actions and
Largeness of Soul ever did discover and amply distinguish the genuine
Branches of that illustrious Family.

This Recruit to me however was the more generous for being seasonable.
Benefits are always doubled in their being easily conferr'd and well
tim'd; and with such an Allowance as I constantly had by the order of
King _Philip_, as Prisoner of War, _viz._ eighteen Ounces of Mutton _per
diem_ for my self, and nine for my Man, with Bread and Wine in
proportion, and especially in such a Situation; all this I say was
sufficient to invite a Man to be easy, and almost forget his want of
Liberty, and much more so to me if it be consider'd, that, that want of
Liberty consisted only in being debarr'd from leaving the pleasantest
City in all _Spain_.

Here I met with the _French_ Engineer, who made the Mine under the Rock
of the Castle at _Alicant_. That fatal Mine, which blew up General
_Richards_, Colonel _Syburg_, Colonel _Thornicroft_, and at least twenty
more Officers. And yet by the Account, that Engineer gave me, their Fate
was their own choosing: The General, who commanded at that Siege being
more industrious to save them, than they were to be say'd: He
endeavour'd it many ways: He sent them word of the Mine, and their
readiness to spring it; he over and over sent them Offers of Leave to
come, and take a view of it, and inspect it: Notwithstanding all which,
tho' Colonel _Thornicroft_, and Captain _Page_, a _French_ Engineer, in
the Service of King _Charles_, pursued the Invitation, and were
permitted to view it, yet would they not believe; but reported on their
Return, that it was a sham Mine, a feint only to intimidate 'em to a
Surrender, all the Bags being fill'd with Sand instead of Gun-powder.

The very Day on which the Besiegers design'd to spring the Mine, they
gave Notice of it; and the People of the Neighbourhood ran up in Crowds
to an opposite Hill in order to see it: Nevertheless, altho' those in
the Castle saw all this, they still remain'd so infatuated, as to
imagine it all done only to affright 'em. At length the fatal Mine was
sprung, and all who were upon that Battery lost their Lives; and among
them those I first mentioned. The very Recital hereof made me think
within my self, _who can resist his Fate_?

That Engineer added further, that it was with an incredible Difficulty,
that he prepar'd that Mine; that there were in the Concavity thirteen
hundred Barrels of Powder; notwithstanding which, it made no great Noise
without, whatever it might do inwardly; that only taking away what might
be not improperly term'd an Excrescence in the Rock, the Heave on the
Blast had render'd the Castle rather stronger on that Side than it was
before, a Crevice or Crack which had often occasioned Apprehensions
being thereby wholly clos'd and firm.

Some further Particulars I soon after had from Colonel _Syburg's_
Gentleman; who seeing me at the Play-house, challenged me, tho' at that
Time unkown to me. He told me, that the Night preceeding the unfortunate
Catastrophe of his Master, he was waiting on him in the Casemet, where
he observed, sometime before the rest of the Company took notice of it,
that General _Richards_ appeared very pensive and thoughtful, that the
whole Night long he was pester'd with, and could not get rid of a great
Flie, which was perpetually buzzing about his Ears and Head, to the
vexation and disturbance of the rest of the Company, as well as the
General himself; that in the Morning, when they went upon the Battery,
under which the Mine was, the General made many offers of going off; but
Colonel _Syburg_, who was got a little merry, and the rest out of a
Bravado, would stay, and would not let the General stir; that at last it
was propos'd by Colonel _Syburg_ to have the other two Bottles to the
Queen's Health, after which he promised they would all go off together.

Upon this my Relator, _Syburg's_ Gentleman, said, he was sent to fetch
the stipulated two Bottles; returning with which, Captain _Daniel
Weaver_, within thirty or forty Yards of the Battery, ran by him,
vowing, he was resolv'd to drink the Queen's Health with them; but his
Feet were scarce on the Battery, when the Mine was sprung, which took
him away with the rest of the Company; while Major _Harding_ now a
Justice in _Westminster_ coming that very Moment off Duty, exchang'd

If Predestination, in the Eyes of many, is an unaccountable Doctrine,
what better Account can the wisest give of this Fatality? Or to what
else shall we impute the Issue of this whole Transaction? That Men shall
be solicited to their Safety; suffered to survey the Danger they were
threatened with; among many other Tokens of its approaching Certainty,
see such a Concourse of People crowding to be Spectators of their
impending Catastrophe; and after all this, so infatuated to stay on the
fatal Spot the fetching up of the other two Bottles; whatever it may to
such as never think, to such as plead an use of Reason, it must
administer Matter worthy of the sedatest Consideration.

Being now pretty well recover'd of my Wounds, I was by Order of the
Governor of _Valencia_, removed to _Sainte Clemente de la Mancha_, a
Town somewhat more Inland, and consequently esteem'd more secure than a
Semi-Seaport. Here I remain'd under a sort of Pilgrimage upwards of
three Years. To me as a Stranger divested of Acquaintance or Friend (for
at that instant I was sole Prisoner there) at first it appear'd such,
tho' in a very small compass of Time, I luckily found it made quite
otherwise by an agreeable Conversation.

_SAINTE Clemente de la Mancha_, is rendered famous by the renown'd _Don
Michael Cerviantes_, who in his facetious but satyrical Romance, has
fix'd it the Seat and Birth Place of his Hero _Don Quixot_.

The Gentlemen of this Place are the least Priest-ridden or Sons of
Bigotry, of any that I met with in all _Spain_; of which in my
Conversation with them I had daily Instances. Among many others, an
Expression that fell from _Don Felix Pacheco_, a Gentleman of the best
Figure thereabout, and of a very plentiful Fortune, shall now suffice. I
was become very intimate with him; and we us'd often to converse
together with a Freedom too dangerous to be common in a Country so
enslav'd by the Inquisition. Asking me one Day in a sort of a jocose
manner, who, in my Opinion, had done the greatest Miracles that ever
were heard of? I answer'd, Jesus Christ.

"It is very true," says he, "Jesus Christ did great Miracles, and a
great one it was to feed five Thousand People with two or three small
Fishes, and a like number of Loaves: But _Saint Francis_, the Founder of
the _Franciscan_ Order, has found out a way to feed daily one hundred
Thousand Lubbards with nothing at all"; meaning the _Franciscans_, the
Followers of Saint _Francis_, who have no visible Revenues; yet in their
way of Living come up to, if they do not exceed any other Order.

Another Day talking of the Place, it naturally led us into a Discourse
of the Knight of _la Mancha, Don Quixot_. At which time he told me, that
in his Opinion, that Work was a perfect Paradox, being the best and the
worst Romance, that ever was wrote.

"For," says he, "tho' it must infallibly please every Man, that has any
taste of Wit; yet has it had such a fatal Effect upon the Spirits of my
Countrymen, that every Man of Wit must ever resent; for," continu'd he,
"before the Appearance in the World of that Labour of _Cerviantes_, it
was next to an Impossibility for a Man to walk the Streets with any
Delight, or without Danger. There were seen so many Cavaliero's prancing
and curvetting before the Windows of their Mistresses, that a Stranger
would have imagin'd the whole Nation to have been nothing less than a
Race of Knight Errants. But after the World became a little acquainted
with that notable History; the Man that was seen in that once celebrated
Drapery, was pointed at as a _Don Quixot_, and found himself the Jest of
High and Low. And I verily believe," added he, "that to this, and this
only we owe that dampness and poverty of Spirit, which has run thro' all
our Councils for a Century past, so little agreeable to those nobler
Actions of our famous Ancestors."

After many of these lesser sorts of Confidences, _Don Felix_ recommended
me to a Lodging next Door to his own. It was at a Widow's, who had one
only Daughter, her House just opposite to a _Francisan_ Nunnery. Here I
remain'd somewhat upwards of two Years; all which time, lying in my Bed,
I could hear the Nuns early in the Morning at their _Matins_, and late
in the Evening at their _Vespers_, with Delight enough to my self, and
without the least Indecency in the World in my Thoughts of them. Their
own Divine Employ too much employ'd every Faculty of mine to entertain
any Thing inconsentaneous or offensive.

This my Neighbourhood to the Nunnery gave me an opportunity of seeing
two Nuns invested; and in this I must do a Justice to the whole Country,
to acknowledge, that a Stranger who is curious (I would impute it rather
to their hopes of Conversion, than to their Vanity) shall be admitted to
much greater Freedoms in their religious Pageantries, than any Native.

One of these Nuns was of the first Quality, which render'd the Ceremony
more remarkably fine. The manner of investing them was thus: In the
Morning her Relations and Friends all met at her Father's House; whence,
she being attir'd in her most sumptuous Apparel, and a Coronet plac'd on
her Head, they attended her, in Cavalcade, to the Nunnery, the Streets
and Windows being crowded, and fill'd with Spectators of all sorts.

So soon as she enter'd the Chapel belonging to the Nunnery, she kneel'd
down, and with an appearance of much Devotion, saluted the Ground; then
rising up, she advanced a Step or two farther, when on her Knees she
repeated the Salutes: This done she approached to the Altar, where she
remained till Mass was over: After which, a Sermon was preach'd by one
of the Priests in Praise, or rather in an exalted Preference of a single
Life. The Sermon being over, the Nun elect fell down on her Knees before
the Altar; and after some short mental Oraisons, rising again, she
withdrew into an inner Room, where stripping off all her rich Attire,
she put on her Nun's Weeds: In which making her Appearance, she, again
kneeling, offer'd up some private Devotions; which being over, she was
led to the Door of the Nunnery, where the Lady and the rest of the Nuns
stood ready to receive her with open Arms. Thus enter'd, the Nuns
conducted her into the Quire, where after they had entertained her with
Singing, and playing upon the Organ, the Ceremony concluded, and every
one departed to their proper Habitations.

The very same Day of the Year ensuing the Relations and Friends of the
fair Novitiate meet again in the Chapel of the Nunnery, where the Lady
Abbess brings her out, and delivers her to them. Then again is there a
Sermon preach'd on the same Subject as at first; which being over, she
is brought up to the Altar, in a decent, but plain Dress, the fine
Apparel, which she put off on her Initiation, being deposited on one
side of the Altar, and her Nun's Weeds on the other. Here the Priest in
Latin cries, _Utrum horum mavis, accipe_: to which she answers, as her
Inclination, or as her Instruction directs her. If she, after this her
Year of Probation, show any Dislike, she is at Liberty to come again
into the World: But if aw'd by Fear (as too often is the Case) or won by
Expectation, or present real Inclination, she makes choice of the Nun's
Weeds, she is immediately invested, and must never expect to appear
again in the World out of the Walls of the Nunnery. The young Lady I
thus saw invested was very beautiful, and sang the best of any in the

There are in the Town three Nunneries, and a Convent to every one of
them; _viz_. one of _Jesuits_, one of _Carmelites_, and the other of
_Franciscans_. Let me not be so far mistaken to have this taken by way
of Reflection. No! Whatever some of our Rakes of the Town may assert, I
freely declare, that I never saw in any of the Nunneries (of which I
have seen many both in _Spain_ and other Parts of the World) any thing
like indecent Behaviour, that might give occasion for Satyr or
Disesteem. It is true, there may be Accidents, that may lead to a
Misinterpretation, of which I remember a very untoward Instance in

When the _English_ Forces first laid Siege to that Town, the Priests,
who were apprehensive of it, having been long since made sensible of the
profound Regard to Chastity and Modesty of us Hereticks, by the
ignominious Behaviour of certain Officers at _Rota_ and _Porta St.
Maria_, the Priests, I say, had taken care to send away privately all
the Nuns to _Majorca_. But that the Heretick Invaders might have no
Jealousy of it, the fair _Curtezans_ of the Town were admitted to supply
their Room. The Officers, both of Land and Sea, as was by the Friars
pre-imagin'd, on taking the Town and Castle, immediately repair'd to the
Grates of the Nunnery, toss'd over their Handkercheifs, Nosegays, and
other pretty Things; all which were, doubtless, very graciously received
by those imaginary Recluses. Thence came it to pass, that in the space
of a Month or less, you could hardly fall into Comany of any one of our
younger Officers, of either sort, but the Discourse, if it might
deserve the Name, was concerning these beautiful Nuns; and you wou'd
have imagin'd the Price of these Ladies as well known as that of Flesh
in their common Markets. Others, as well as my self, have often
endeavour'd to disabuse those Glorioso's, but all to little purpose,
till more sensible Tokens convinced them, that the Nuns, of whose
Favours they so much boasted, could hardly be perfect Virgins, tho' in a
Cloyster. And I am apt to think, those who would palm upon the World
like vicious Relations of Nuns and Nunneries, do it on much like
Grounds. Not that there are wanting Instances of Nunneries
disfranchis'd, and even demolish'd, upon very flagrant Accounts; but I
confine myself to _Spain_.

In this Town of _la Mancha_ the _Corrigidore_ always has his Presidence,
having sixteen others under his Jurisdiction, of which _Almanza_ is one.
They are changed every three Years, and their Offices are the Purchase
of an excessive Price; which occasions the poor People's being
extravagantly fleeced, nothing being to be sold but at the Rates they
impose; and every Thing that is sold paying the _Corrigidore_ an
Acknowledgment in specie, or an Equivalent to his liking.

While I was here, News came of the Battle of _Almanar_ and _Saragosa_;
and giving the Victory to that Side, which they espous'd (that of King
_Philip_) they made very great Rejoycings. But soon, alas, for them, was
all that Joy converted into Sorrow: The next Courier evincing, that the
Forces of King _Charles_ had been victorious in both Engagements. This
did not turn to my present Disadvantage: For Convents and Nunneries, as
well as some of those Dons, whom afore I had not stood so well with,
strove now how most to oblige me; not doubting, but if the victorious
Army should march that way, it might be in my Power to double the most
signal of their Services in my Friendship.

Soon after an Accident fell out, which had like to have been of an
unhappy Consequence to me. I was standing in Company, upon the Parade,
when a most surprizing flock of Eagles flew over our Heads, where they
hover'd for a considerable time. The Novelty struck them all with
Admiration, as well as my self. But I, less accustomed to like
Spectacles, innocent saying, that in my Opinion, it could not bode any
good to King _Philip_, because the Eagle compos'd the Arms of
_Austria_; some busie Body, in hearing, went and inform'd the
_Corrigidore_ of it. Those most magisterial Wretches embrace all
Occasions of squeezing Money; and more especially from Strangers.
However finding his Expectations disappointed in me, and that I too well
knew the length of his Foot, to let my Money run freely; he sent me next
Day to _Alercon_; but the Governor of that Place having had before
Intelligence, that the _English_ Army was advancing that way, refus'd to
receive me, so I return'd as I went; only the Gentlemen of the Place, as
they had condol'd the first, congratulated the last; for that
_Corrigidore_ stood but very indifferently in their Affections. However,
it was a warning to me ever after, how I made use of _English_ Freedom
in a _Spanish_ Territory.

As I had attain'd the Acquaintance of most of the Clergy, and Religious
of the Place; so particularly I had my aim in obtaining that of the
Provincial of the _Carmelites_. His Convent, tho' small, was exceeding
neat; but what to me was much more agreeable, There were very large
Gardens belonging to it, which often furnished me with Sallading and
Fruit, and much oftner with Walks of Refreshment, the most satisfactory
Amusement in this warm Climate. This Acquaintance with the Provincial
was by a little Incident soon advanced into a Friendship; which was
thus: I was one Day walking, as I us'd to do, in the long Gallery of the
Convent, when observing the Images of the Virgin _Mary_, of which there
was one at each end; I took notice that one had an Inscription under it,
which was this, _Ecce, Virgo peperit filium_: but the other had no
Inscription at all; upon which, I took out my Pencil, and wrote
underneath, this Line:

     _Sponsa Dei, patrisque parens, & filia filii_.

The Friars, who at a little distance had observed me, as soon as I was
gone, came up and read what I had writ; reporting which to the
Provincial, he order'd them to be writ over in Letters of Gold, and
plac'd just as I had put 'em; saying, doubtless, such a fine Line you'd
proceed from nothing less than Inspiration. This secur'd me ever after
his and their Esteem; the least advantage of which, was a full Liberty
of their Garden for all manner of Fruit, Sallading, or whatever I
pleased: And as I said before, the Gardens were too fine not to render
such a Freedom acceptable.

They often want Rain in this Country: To supply the Defect of which, I
observed in this Garden, as well as others, an Invention not unuseful.
There is a Well in the Middle of the Garden, and over that a Wheel with
many Pitchers, or Buckets, one under another, which Wheel being turned
round by an Ass, the Pitchers scoop up the Water on one Side, and throw
it out on the other into a Trough, that by little Channels conveys it,
as the Gardiner directs, into every part of the Garden. By this Means
their Flowers and their Sallading are continually refresh'd, and
preserved from the otherwise over-parching Beams of the Sun.

The Inquisition, in almost every Town in _Spain_ (and more especially,
if of any great Account) has its Spies, or Informers, for treacherous
Intelligence. These make it their Business to ensnare the simple and
unguarded; and are more to be avoided by the Stranger, than the Rattle
Snake. Nature have appointed no such happy Tokens in the former to
foreshew the Danger. I had Reason to believe, that one of those Vermin
once made his Attack upon me in this place: And as they are very rarely,
if ever known to the Natives themselves, I being a Stranger, may be
allowed to make a guess by Circumstances.

I was walking by my self, when a Person, wholly unknown to me, giving me
the civil Salute of the Day, endeavour'd to draw me into Conversation.
After Questions had passed on general Heads, the fellow ensnaringly
asked me, how it came to pass, that I show'd so little Respect to the
Image of the crucify'd Jesus, as I pass'd by it in such a Street, naming
it? I made Answer, that I had, or ought to have him always in my Heart
crucified. To that he made no Reply: But proceeding in his
Interrogatories, question'd me next, whether I believ'd a Purgatory? I
evaded the Question, as I took it to be ensnaring; and only told him,
that I should be willing to hear him offer any Thing that might convince
me of the Truth, or Probability of it. Truth? He reply'd in a Heat:
There never yet was Man so Holy as to enter Heaven without first passing
through Purgatory. In my Opinion, said I, there will be no Difficulty in
convincing a reasonable Man to the contrary. What mean you by that,
cry'd the Spy? I mean, said I, that I can name one, and a great Sinner
too, who went into Bliss without any Visit to Purgatory. Name him, if
you can, reply'd my Querist. What think you of the Thief upon the Cross,
said I? to whom our dying Saviour said, _Hodie eris mecum in Paradiso_.
At which being silenced tho' not convicted, he turned from me in a
violent Rage, and left me to my self.

What increas'd my first Suspicion of him was, that a very short time
after, my Friend the Provincial sent to speak with me; and repeating all
Passages between the holy Spy and me, assur'd me that he had been forc'd
to argue in my Favour, and tell him that I had said nothing but well:
_For_ says he, _all ought to have the Holy Jesus crucified in their

"Nevertheless," continu'd he, "it is a commendable and good Thing to
have him represented in the high Ways: For, suppose," said he, "a Man
was going upon some base or profligate Design, the very Sight of a
cruficied Saviour may happen to subvert his Resolution, and deter him
from committing Theft, Murder, or any other of the deadly Sins." And
thus ended that Conference.

I remember upon some other occasional Conversation after, the Provincial
told me, that in the _Carmelite_ Nunnery next to his Convent, and under
his Care, there was a Nun, that was Daughter to _Don Juan_ of _Austria_;
if so, her Age must render her venerable, as her Quality.

Taking notice one Day, that all the People of the Place fetch'd their
Water from a Well without the Town, altho' they had many seemingly as
good within; I spoke to _Don Felix_ of it, who gave me, under the Seal
of Secrecy, this Reason for it:

"When the Seat of the War," said he, "lay in these Parts, the _French_
Train of Artillery was commonly quarter'd in this Place; the Officers
and Soldiers of which were so very rampant and rude, in attempting to
debauch our Women, that there is not a Well within the Town, which has
not some _French_ Mens Bones at the bottom of it; therefore the Natives,
who are sensible of it, choose rather to go farther a field."

By this Well there runs a little Rivulet, which gives head to that
famous River call'd the _Guadiana_; which running for some Leagues under
Ground, affords a pretence for the Natives to boast of a Bridge on which
they feed many Thousands of Sheep. When it rises again, it is a fine
large River, and after a Currency of many Leagues, empties it self into
the _Atlantick_ Ocean.

As to military Affairs, _Almanar_ and _Saragosa_ were Victories so
compleat, that no Body made the least doubt of their settling the Crown
of _Spain_ upon the Head of _Charles_ the Third, without a Rival. This
was not barely the Opinion of his Friends, but his very Enemies resign'd
all Hope or Expectation in favour of King _Philip_. The _Castilians_,
his most faithful Friends, entertain'd no other Imagination; for after
they had advis'd, and prevail'd that the Queen with the Prince of
_Asturias_ should be sent to _Victoria_; under the same Despondency, and
a full Dispiritedness, they gave him so little Encouragement to stay in
_Madrid_, that he immediately quitted the Place, with a Resolution to
retire into his Grandfather's Dominions, the Place of his Nativity.

In his way to which, even on the last Day's Journey, it was his great
good Fortune to meet the Duke of _Vendome_, with some few Troops, which
his Grandfather _Lewis_ XIV. of _France_ had order'd to his Succour,
under that Duke's Command. The Duke was grievously affected at such an
unexpected Catastrophe; nevertheless, he left nothing unsaid or undone,
that might induce that Prince to turn back; and at length prevailing,
after a little Rest, and a great deal of Patience, by the Coming in of
his scatter'd Troops, and some few he could raise, together with those
the Duke brought with him, he once more saw himself at the Head of
twenty thousand Men.

While Things were in this Manner, under Motion in King _Philip's_
Favour, _Charles_ the third, with his victorious Army, advances forward,
and enters into _Madrid_, of which he made General _Stanhope_ Governor.
And even here the _Castilians_ gave full Proof of their Fidelity to
their Prince; even at the Time when, in their Opinion, his Affairs were
past all Hopes of Retrieve, they themselves having, by their Advice,
contributed to his Retreat. Instead of prudential Acclamations
therefore, such as might have answered the Expectations of a victorious
Prince, now entering into their Capital, their Streets were all in a
profound Silence, their Balconies unadorn'd with costly Carpets, as was
customary on like Occasions; and scarce an Inhabitant to be seen in
either Shop or Window.

This doubtless was no little Mortification to a conquering Prince;
however his Generals were wife enough to keep him from shewing any other
Tokens of Resentment, than marching through the City with Unconcern, and
taking up his Quarters at _Villa-verda_, about a League from it.

Nevertheless King _Charles_ visited, in his March, the Chapel of the
Lady _de Atocha_, where finding several _English_ Colours and Standards,
taken in the Battle of _Almanza_, there hung up; he ordered 'em to be
taken down, and restor'd 'em to the _English_ General.

It was the current Opinion then, and almost universal Consent has since
confirm'd it, that the falsest Step in that whole War was this
Advancement of King _Charles_ to _Madrid_. After those two remarkable
Victories at _Almanar_ and _Saragosa_, had he directed his March to
_Pampeluna_, and obtain'd Possession of that Place, or some other near
it, he had not only stopt all Succours from coming out of _France_, but
he would, in a great Measure, have prevented the gathering together of
any of the routed and dispers'd Forces of King _Philip_: And it was the
general Notion of the _Spaniards_, I convers'd with while at _Madrid_,
that had King _Philip_ once again set his Foot upon _French_ Land,
_Spain_ would never have been brought to have re-acknowledged him.

King _Charles_ with his Army having stay'd some Time about _Madrid_, and
seeing his Expectations of the _Castilians_ joining him not at all
answered, at last resolved to decamp, and return to _Saragosa_:
Accordingly with a very few Troops that Prince advanced thither; while
the main Body, under the Command of the Generals _Stanhope_ and
_Staremberg_, passing under the very Walls of _Madrid_, held on their
March towards _Aragon_.

After about three Days' March, General _Stanhope_ took up his Quarters
at _Breuhiga_, a small Town half wall'd; General _Staremberg_ marching
three Leagues farther, to _Cisuentes_. This choice of Situation of the
two several Armies not a little puzzled the Politicians of those Times,
who could very indifferently account for the _English_ General's lying
expos'd in an open Town, with his few _English_ Forces, of which General
_Harvey's_ Regiment of fine Horse might be deem'd the Main; and General
_Staremberg_ encamping three Leagues farther off the Enemy. But to see
the Vicissitudes of Fortune, to which the Actions of the bravest, by an
untoward Sort of Fatality, are often forced to contribute! None, who had
been Eye-witnesses of the Bravery of either of those Generals at the
Battles of _Almanar_ and _Saragosa_, could find Room to call in question
either their Conduct or their Courage; and yet in this March, and this
Encampment will appear a visible ill Consequence to the Affairs of the
Interest they fought for.

The Duke of _Vendome_ having increas'd the Forces which he brought from
_France_, to upwards of twenty thousand Men, marches by _Madrid_
directly for _Breuhiga_, where his Intelligence inform'd him General
_Stanhope_ lay, and that so secretly as well as swiftly, that that
General knew nothing of it, nor could be persuaded to believe it, till
the very Moment their Bullets from the Enemy's Cannon convinc'd him of
the Truth. _Breuhiga_, I have said, was wall'd only on one Side, and yet
on that very side the Enemy made their Attack. But what could a Handful
do against a Force so much superior, though they had not been in want of
both Powder and Ball; and in want of these were forc'd to make use of
Stones against all Sorts of Ammunition, which the Enemy ply'd them with?
The Consequence answered the Deficiency; they were all made Prisoners of
War, and _Harvey_'s Regiment of Horse among the rest; which, to augment
their Calamity, was immediately remounted by the Enemy, and march'd
along with their Army to attack General _Staremberg_.

That General had heard somewhat of the March of _Vendome_; and waited
with some Impatience to have the Confirmation of it from General
_Stanhope_, who lay between, and whom he lay under an Expectation of
being joined with: However he thought it not improper to make some
little Advance towards him; and accordingly breaking up from his Camp at
_Cisuentes_, he came back to _Villa viciosa_, a little Town between
_Cisuentes_ and _Breuhiga_; there he found _Vendome_ ready to attack
him, before he could well be prepared for him, but no _English_ to join
him, as he had expected; nevertheless, the Battle was hot, and
obstinately fought; although _Staremberg_ had visibly the Advantage,
having beat the Enemy at least a League from their Cannon; at which Time
hearing of the Misfortune of _Breuhiga_, and finding himself thereby
frustrated of those expected Succours to support him, he made a handsome
Retreat to _Barcelona_, which in common Calculation is about one
hundred Leagues, without any Disturbance of an Enemy that seem'd glad to
be rid of him. Nevertheless his Baggage having fallen into the Hands of
the Enemy, at the Beginning of the Fight, King _Philip_ and the Duke of
_Vendome_ generously returned it unopen'd, and untouched, in
acknowledgement of his brave Behaviour.

I had like to have omitted one material Passage, which I was very
credibly informed of; That General _Carpenter_ offered to have gone, and
have join'd General _Staremberg_ with the Horse, which was refus'd him.
This was certainly an Oversight of the highest Nature; since his going
would have strengthen'd _Staremberg_ almost to the Assurance of an
intire Victory; whereas his Stay was of no manner of Service, but quite
the contrary: For, as I said before, the Enemy, by re-mounting the
_English_ Horse (which perhaps were the compleatest of any Regiment in
the World) turn'd, if I may be allowed the Expression, the Strength of
our Artillery upon our Allies.

Upon this Retreat of _Staremberg_, and the Surprize at _Breuhiga_, there
were great Rejoicings at _Madrid_, and everywhere else, where King
_Philip's_ Interest prevailed. And indeed it might be said, from that
Day the Interest of King _Charles_ look'd with a very lowering Aspect. I
was still a Prisoner at _la Mancha_, when this News arriv'd; and very
sensibly affected at that strange Turn of Fortune. I was in bed, when
the Express pass'd through the Town, in order to convey it farther; and
in the Middle of the Night I heard a certain _Spanish_ Don, with whom, a
little before, I had had some little Variance, thundering at my Door,
endeavouring to burst it open, with, as I had Reason to suppose, no very
favourable Design upon me. But my Landlady, who hitherto had always been
kind and careful, calling Don _Felix_, and some others of my Friends
together, sav'd me from the Fury of his Designs, whatever they were.

Among other Expressions of the general Joy upon this Occasion, there was
a Bull-Feast at _la Mancha_; which being much beyond what I saw at
_Valencia_, I shall here give a Description of. These Bull-Feasts are
not so common now in _Spain_ as formerly, King _Philip_ not taking much
Delight in them. Nevertheless, as soon as it was publish'd here, that
there was to be one, no other Discourse was heard; and in the Talk of
the Bulls, and the great Preparations for the Feast, Men seem'd to have
lost, or to have lay'd aside, all Thoughts of the very Occasion. A
Week's time was allow'd for the Building of Stalls for the Beasts, and
Scaffolds for the Spectators; and other necessary Preparations for the
setting off their Joy with the most suitable Splendour.

On the Day appointed for the bringing the Bulls into Town, the
_Cavalieroes_ mounted their Horses, and, with Spears in their Hands,
rode out of Town about a League, or somewhat more to meet them: If any
of the Bulls break from the Drove, and make an Excursion (as they
frequently do) the _Cavaliero_ that can make him return again to his
Station among his Companions, is held in Honour, suitable to the
Dexterity and Address he performs it with. On their Entrance into the
Town, all the Windows are fill'd with Spectators; a Pope passing in
grand Procession could not have more; for what can be more than all? And
he or she who should neglect so rare a Show, would give Occasion to have
his or her Legitimacy call'd in Question.

When they come to the _Plaza_, where the Stalls and Scaffolds are built,
and upon which the Feats of Chivalry are to be performed, it is often
with a great deal of Difficulty that the Brutes are got in; for there
are twelve Stalls, one for every Bull, and as their Number grows less by
the enstalling of some, the Remainder often prove more untractable and
unruly: In these Stalls they are kept very dark, to render them fiercer
for the Day of Battle.

On the first of the Days appointed (for a Bull-Feast commonly lasts
three) all the Gentry of the Place, or near adjacent, resort to the
_Plaza_ in their most gaudy Apparel, every one vieing in making the most
glorious Appearance. Those in the lower Ranks provide themselves with
Spears, or a great many small Darts in their Hands, which they fail not
to cast or dart, whenever the Bull by his Nearness gives them an
Opportunity. So that the poor Creature may be said to fight, not only
with the Tauriro (or Bullhunter, a Person always hired for that Purpose)
but with the whole Multitude in the lower Class at least.

All being seated, the uppermost Door is open'd first; and as soon as
ever the Bull perceives the Light, out he comes, snuffing up the Air,
and stareing about him, as if in admiration of his attendants; and with
his Tail cock'd up, he spurns the Ground with his Forefeet, as if he
intended a Challenge to his yet unappearing Antagonist. Then at a Door
appointed for that purpose, enters the Tauriro all in white, holding a
Cloak in one Hand, and a sharp two edged Sword in the other. The Bull no
sooner sets Eyes upon him, but wildly staring, he moves gently towards
him; then gradually mends his pace, till he is come within about the
space of twenty Yards of the Tauriro; when, with a sort of Spring, he
makes at him with all his might. The Tauriro knowing by frequent
Experience, that it behoves him to be watchful, slips aside just when
the Bull is at him; when casting his Cloak over his Horns, at the same
Moment he gives him a slash or two, always aiming at the Neck, where
there is one particular Place, which if he hit, he knows he shall easily
bring him to the Ground. I my Self observ'd the truth of this Experiment
made upon one of the Bulls, who receiv'd no more than one Cut, which
happening upon the fatal Spot, so stun'd him, that he remain'd perfectly
stupid, the Blood flowing out from the Wound, till after a violent
Trembling he dropt down stone dead.

But this rarely happens, and the poor Creature oftner receives many
Wounds, and numberless Darts, before he dies. Yet whenever he feels a
fresh Wound either from Dart, Spear, or Sword, his Rage receives
addition from the Wound, and he pursues his Tauriro with an Increase of
Fury and Violence. And as often as he makes at his Adversary, the
Tauriro takes care with the utmost of his Agility to avoid him, and
reward his kind Intention with a new Wound.

Some of their Bulls will play their Parts much better than others: But
the best must die. For when they have behav'd themselves with all the
commendable Fury possible; if the Tauriro is spent, and fail of doing
Execution upon him, they set Dogs upon him: Hough him and stick him all
over with Darts, till with very loss of Blood he puts an end to their
present Cruelty.

When dead, a Man brings in two Mules dress'd out with Bells and
Feathers, and fastening a Rope about his Horns, draws off the Bull with
the Shouts and Acclamations of the Spectators; as if the Infidels had
been drove from before _Ceuta_.

I had almost forgot another very common piece of barbarous Pleasure at
these Diversions. The Tauriro will sometimes stick one of their Bull
Spears fast in the Ground, aslant, but levell'd as near as he can at his
Chest; then presenting himself to the Bull, just before the point of the
Spear, on his taking his run at the Tauriro, which, as they assur'd me,
he always does with his Eyes closed, the Tauriro slips on one side, and
the poor Creature runs with a violence often to stick himself, and
sometimes to break the Spear in his Chest, running away with part of it
till he drop.

This _Tauriro_ was accounted one of the best in _Spain_; and indeed I
saw him mount the back of one of the Bulls, and ride on him, slashing
and cutting, till he had quite wearied him; at which time dismounting,
he kill'd him with much Ease, and to the acclamatory Satisfaction of the
whole Concourse: For variety of Cruelty, as well as Dexterity,
administers to their Delight.

The _Tauriroes_ are very well paid; and in Truth so they ought to be;
for they often lose their Lives in the Diversion, as this did the Year
after in the way of his Calling. Yet is it a Service of very great
Profit when they perform dextrously: For when ever they do any Thing
remarkable, deserving the Notice of the Spectators, they never fail of a
generous Gratification, Money being thrown down to 'em in plenty.

This Feast (as they generally do) lasted three Days; the last of which
was, in my Opinion, much before either of the other. On this, a young
Gentleman, whose Name was _Don Pedro Ortega_, a Person of great Quality,
perform'd the Exercise on Horseback. The Seats, if not more crowded,
were filled with People of better Fashion, who came from Places at a
distance to grace the noble _Tauriro_.

He was finely mounted, and made a very graceful Figure; but as when the
Foot _Tauriro_ engages, the Bull first enters, so in the Contest the
_Cavaliero_ always makes his Appearance on the _Plaza_ before the Bull.
His Steed was a manag'd Horse; mounted on which he made his Entry,
attended by four Footmen in rich Liveries; who, as soon as their Master
had rid round, and paid his Devoirs to all the Spectators, withdrew from
the Dangers they left him expos'd to. The _Cavaliero_ having thus made
his Bows, and received the repeated Vivas of that vast Concourse,
march'd with a very stately Air to the very middle of the _Plaza_,
there standing ready to receive his Enemy at coming out.

The Door being open'd, the Bull appeared; and as I thought with a
fiercer and more threatning Aspect that any of the former. He star'd
around him for a considerable time, snuffing up the Air, and spurning
the Ground, without in the least taking notice of his Antagonist. But at
last fixing his Eyes upon him, he made a full run at the _Cavaliero_,
which he most dexterously avoided, and at the same moment of time,
passing by, he cast a Dart that stuck in his Shoulders. At this the
Shouts and _Vivas_ were repeated; and I observed a Handkerchief wav'd
twice or thrice, which, as I afterwards understood, was a Signal from
the Lady of his Affections, that she had beheld him with Satisfaction. I
took notice that the _Cavaliero_ endeavour'd all he could to keep aside
the Bull, for the Advantage of the Stroke, when putting his Horse on a
full Career, he threw another Dart, which fix'd in his Side, and so
enrag'd the Beast, that he seem'd to renew his Attacks with greater
Fury. The _Cavaliero_ had behav'd himself to Admiration, and escap'd
many Dangers; with the often repeated Acclamations of _Viva, Viva_; when
at last the enraged Creature getting his Horns between the Horse's
hinder Legs, Man and Horse came both together to the Ground.

I expected at that Moment nothing less than Death could be the Issue;
when to the general Surprize, as well as mine, the very civil Brute,
Author of all the Mischief, only withdrew to the other Side of the
_Plaza_, where he stood still, staring about him as if he knew nothing
of the Matter.

The _Cavaliero_ was carry'd off not much hurt, but his delicate Beast
suffer'd much more. However I could not but think afterward, that the
good natur'd Bull came short of fair Play. If I may be pardon'd the
Expression, he had us'd his Adversary with more Humanity than he met
with; at least, since, after he had the _Cavaliero_ under, he generously
forsook him; I think he might have pleaded, or others for him, for
better Treatment than he after met with.

For as the _Cavaliero_ was disabled and carry'd off, the Foot _Tauriro_
enter'd in white Accoutrements, as before; but he flatter'd himself with
an easier Conquest than he found: there is always on these Occasions,
when he apprehends any imminent Danger, a Place of Retreat ready for the
Foot _Tauriro_; and well for him there was so; this Bull oblig'd him
over and over to make Use of it. Nor was he able at last to dispatch
him, without a general Assistance; for I believe I speak within Compass,
when I say, he had more than an hundred Darts stuck in him. And so
barbarously was he mangled, and flash'd besides, that, in my Mind, I
could not but think King _Philip_ in the Right, when he said, _That it
was a Custom deserv'd little Encouragement_.

Soon after this _Tauridore_, or Bull-Feast was over, I had a Mind to
take a pleasant Walk to a little Town, call'd _Minai_, about three
Leagues off; but I was scarce got out of _la Mancha_, when an
Acquaintance meeting me, ask'd where I was going? I told him to _Minai_;
when taking me by the Hand, _Friend_ Gorgio, says he in _Spanish, Come
back with me; you shall not go a Stride further; there are_ Picarons
_that Way; you shall not go_. Inquiring, as we went back, into his
Meaning, he told me, that the Day before, a Man, who had received a Sum
of Money in Pistoles at _la Mancha_, was, on the road, set upon by some,
who had got notice of it, and murdered him; that not finding the Money
expected about him (for he had cautiously enough left it in a Friend's
Hands at _la Mancha_) they concluded he had swallowed it; and therefore
they ript up his Belly, and open'd every Gut; but all to as little
Purpose. This diverted my Walk for that time.

But some little Time after, the same Person inviting me over to the same
Place, to see his Melon-Grounds, which in that Country are wonderful
fine and pleasant; I accepted his Invitation, and under the Advantage of
his Company, went thither. On the Road I took notice of a Cross newly
erected, and a Multitude of small stones around the Foot of it: Asking
the Meaning whereof, my Friend told me, that it was rais'd for a Person
there murder'd (as is the Custom throughout _Spain_) and that every good
Catholick passing by, held it his Duty to cast a Stone upon the Place,
in Detestation of the Murder. I had often before taken Notice of many
such Crosses: but never till then knew the Meaning of their Erection, or
the Reason of the Heaps of Stones around them.

There is no Place in all _Spain_ more famous for good Wine than _Sainte
Clemente de la Mancha_; nor is it any where sold cheaper: For as it is
only an inland Town, near no navigable River, and the People temperate
to a Proverb, great Plenty, and a small Vend must consequently make it
cheap. The Wine here is so famous, that, when I came to _Madrid_, I saw
wrote over the Doors of host Houses that sold Wine, _Vino Sainte
Clemente_. As to the Temperance of the People, I must say, that
notwithstanding those two excellent Qualities of good and cheap, I never
saw, all the three Years I was Prisoner there, any one Person overcome
with Drinking.

It is true, there may be a Reason, and a political one, assign'd for
that Abstemiousness of theirs, which is this, That if any Man, upon any
Occasion, should be brought in as an Evidence against you, if you can
prove that he was ever drunk, it will invalidate his whole Evidence. I
could not but think this a grand Improvement upon the _Spartans_. They
made their Slaves purposely drunk, to shew their Youth the Folly of the
Vice by the sottish Behaviour of their Servants under it: But they never
reach'd to that noble height of laying a Penalty upon the Aggressor, or
of discouraging a voluntary Impotence of Reason by a disreputable
Impotence of Interest. The _Spaniard_ therefore, in my Opinion, in this
exceeds the _Spartan_, as much as a natural Beauty exceeds one procured
by Art; for tho' Shame may somewhat influence some few, Terrour is of
force to deter all. A Man, we have seen it, may shake Hands with Shame;
but _Interest_, says another Proverb, _will never lye_. A wise
Institution therefore doubtless is this of the _Spaniard_; but such as I
fear will never take Place in _Germany, Holland, France_, or _Great

But though I commend their Temperance, I would not be thought by any
Means to approve of their Bigotry. If there may be such a Thing as
Intemperance in Religion, I much fear their Ebriety in that will be
found to be over-measure. Under the notion of Devotion, I have seen Men
among 'em, and of Sense too, guilty of the grossest Intemperancies. It
is too common to be a rarity to see their Dons of the prime Quality as
well as those of the lower Ranks, upon meeting a Priest in the open
Streets, condescend to take up the lower part of his Vestment, and
salute it with Eyes erected as if they look'd upon it as the Seal of

When the _Ave-Bell_ is heard, the Hearer must down on his Knees upon the
very Spot; nor is he allowed the small Indulgence of deferring a
little, till he can recover a clean Place; Dirtiness excuses not, nor
will dirty Actions by any means exempt. This is so notorious, that even
at the Play-house, in the middle of a Scene, on the first sound of the
Bell, the Actors drop their Discourse, the Auditors supersede the
indulging of their unsanctified Ears, and all on their Hearts, quite a
different way, to what they just before had been employ'd in. In short,
tho' they pretend in all this to an extraordinary Measure of Zeal and
real Devotion; no Man, that lives among them any time, can be a
Proselyte to them without immolating his Senses and his Reason: Yet I
must confess, while I have seen them thus deludeing themselves with _Ave
Marias_, I you'd not refrain throwing up my Eyes to the only proper
Object of Adoration, in commiseration of such Delusions.

The Hours of the _Ave Bell_, are eight and twelve in the Morning, and
six in the Evening. They pretend at the first to fall down in beg that
God would be pleas'd to prosper them in all things they go about that
Day. At twelve they return Thanks for their Preservation to that time;
and at six for that of the whole Day. After which, one would think that
they imagine themselves at perfect Liberty; and their open Gallantries
perfectly countenance the Imagination: for tho' Adultery is look'd upon
as a grievous Crime, and punish'd accordingly; yet Fornication is
softened with the title of a Venial Sin, and they seem to practise it
under that Persuasion.

I found here, what _Erasmus_ ridicules with so much Wit and Delicacy,
the custom of burying in a _Franciscan's_ Habit, in mighty request. If
they can for that purpose procure an old one at the price of a new one;
the Purchaser wil look upon himself a provident Chap, that has secur'd
to his deceased Friend or Relation, no less than Heaven by that wise

The Evening being almost the only time of Enjoyment of Company, or
Conversation, every body in _Spain_ then greedily seeks it; and the
Streets are at that time crowded like our finest Gardens or most private
Walks. On one of those Occasions, I met a Don of my Acquaintance walking
out with his Sisters; and as I thought it became an _English_ Cavalier,
I saluted him: But to my Surprize he never return'd the Civility. When I
met him the Day after, instead of an Apology, as I had flattered my
self, I received a Reprimand, tho' a very civil one; telling me it was
the Custom in _Spain_, nor well taken of any one, that took Notice of
any who were walking in the Company of Ladies at Night.

But a Night or two after, I found by Experience, that if the Men were by
Custom prohibited taking Notice, Women were not. I was standing at the
Door, in the cool of the Evening, when a Woman seemingly genteel,
passing by, call'd me by my Name, telling me she wanted to speak with
me: She had her _Mantilio_ on; so that had I had Day-light, I could have
only seen one Eye of her. However I walk'd with her a good while,
without being able to discover any thing of her Business, nor pass'd
there between us any thing more than a Conversation upon indifferent
Matters. Nevertheless, at parting she told me she should pass by again
the next Evening; and if I would be at the Door, she would give me the
same Advantage of a Conversation, That seem'd not to displease me.
Accordingly the next Night she came, and as before we walk'd together in
the privatest parts of the Town: For tho' I knew her not, her Discourse
was always entertaining and full of Wit, and her Enquiries not often
improper. We had continu'd this Intercourse many Nights together, when
my Landlady's Daughter having taken Notice of it, stopt me one Evening,
and would not allow me to stand at the usual Post of Intelligence,
saying, with a good deal of heat, _Don Gorgio, take my Advice; go no
more along with that Woman: You may soon be brought home deprived of
your Life if you do_. I cannot say, whether she knew her; but this I
must say, she was very agreeable in Wit as well as Person. However my
Landlady and her Daughter took that Opportunity of giving me so many
Instances of the fatal Issues of such innocent Conversations, (for I
could not call it an Intrigue) that apprehensive enough of the Danger,
on laying Circumstances together, I took their Advice, and never went
into her Company after.

_Sainte Clemente de la Mancha_, where I so long remain'd a Prisoner of
War, lies in the Road from _Madrid_ to _Valencia_; and the Duke of
_Vendome_ being ordered to the latter, great Preparations were made for
his Entertainment, as he pass'd through. He stay'd here only one Night,
where he was very handsomely treated by the _Corrigidore_. He was a
tall fair Person, and very fat, and at the time I saw him wore a long
black Patch over his left Eye; but on what Occasion I could not learn.
The afterwards famous _Alberoni_ (since made a Cardinal) was in his
Attendance; as indeed the Duke was very rarely without him. I remember
that very Day three Weeks, they return'd through the same Place; the
Duke in his Herse, and _Alberoni_ in a Coach, paying his last Duties.
That Duke was a prodigious Lover of Fish, of which having eat over
heartily at _Veneros_, in the Province of _Valencia_, he took a Surfeit,
and died in three Days' time. His Corps was carrying to the _Escurial_,
there to be buried in the _Panthæon_ among their Kings.

The _Castilians_ have a Privilege by Licence from the Pope, which, if it
could have been converted into a Prohibition, might have sav'd that
Duke's Life: In regard their Country is wholly inland, and the River
_Tagus_ famous for its Poverty, or rather Barrenness; their Holy Father
indulges the Natives with the Liberty, in lieu of that dangerous
Eatable, of eating all Lent time the Inwards of Cattle. When I first
heard this related, I imagin'd, that the Garbidge had been intended, but
I was soon after this rectify'd, _by Inwards_ (for so expressly says the
Licence it self) _is meant the Heart, the Liver, and the Feet_.

They have here as well as in most other Parts of _Spain, Valencia_
excepted, the most wretched Musick in the Universe. Their _Guitars_, if
not their _Sole_, are their darling Instruments, and what they most
delight in: Tho' in my Opinion our _English_ Sailors are not much amiss
in giving them the Title of _Strum Strums_.  They are little better than
our _Jews-harps,_ tho' hardly half so Musical. Yet are they perpetually
at Nights disturbing their Women with the Noise of them, under the
notion and name of Serenadoes. From the Barber to the Grandee the
Infection spreads, and very often with the same Attendant, Danger: Night
Quarrels and Rencounters being the frequent Result. The true born
_Spaniards_ reckon it a part of their Glory, to be jealous of their
Mistresses, which is too often the Forerunner of Murders; at best
attended with many other very dangerous Inconveniences. And yet bad as
their Musick is, their Dancing is the reverse. I have seen a Country
Girl manage her Castanets with the graceful Air of a Dutchess, and that
not to common Musick; but to Peoples beating or druming a Tune with
their Hands on a Table. I have seen half a Dozen couple at a time dance
to the like in excellent order.

I just now distinguish'd, by an Exception, the Music of _Valencia_,
where alone I experienced the use of the Violin; which tho' I cannot, in
respect to other Countries, call good; yet in respect to the other parts
of _Spain_, I must acknowledge it much the best. In my Account of that
City, I omitted to speak of it; therefore now to supply that Defect, I
will speak of the best I heard, which was on this unfortunate Occasion:
Several Natives of that Country having received Sentence of Death for
their Adherence to King _Charles_, were accordingly ordered to the Place
of Execution. It is the Custom there, on all such Occasions, for all the
Musick of the City to meet near the Gallows, and play the most affecting
and melancholy Airs, to the very approach of the Condemn'd; and really
the Musick was so moving, it heightened the Scene of Sorrow, and brought
Compassion into the Eyes of even Enemies.

As to the Condemn'd, they came stript of their own Cloaths, and cover'd
with black Frocks, in which they were led along the Streets to the Place
of Execution, the Friars praying all the way. When they came through any
Street, were any public Images were fix'd, they stay'd before 'em some
reasonable time in Prayer with the Friars. When they are arriv'd at the
fatal Place, those Fathers leave 'em not, but continue praying and
giving them ghostly Encouragement, standing upon the rounds of the
Ladder till they are turn'd off. The Hangman always wears a silver Badge
of a Ladder to distinguish his Profession: But his manner of executing
his Office had somewhat in it too singular to allow of Silence. When he
had ty'd fast the Hands of the Criminal, he rested his Knee upon them,
and with one Hand on the Criminal's Nostrils, to stop his Breath the
sooner, threw himself off the Ladder along with the dying Party. This he
does to expedite his Fate; tho' considering the Force, I wonder it does
not tear Head and Body asunder; which yet I never heard that it did.

But to return to _la Mancha_; I had been there now upwards of two Years,
much diverted with the good Humour and Kindness of the Gentlemen, and
daily pleased with the Conversation of the Nuns of the Nunnery opposite
to my Lodgings; when walking one Day alone upon the _Plaza_, I found my
self accosted by a _Clerico_. At the first Attack, he told me his
Country: But added, that he now came from _Madrid_ with a _Potent_, that
was his Word, from _Pedro de Dios_, Dean of the Inquisition, to
endeavour the Conversion of any of the _English_ Prisoners; that being
an _Irish-man_, as a sort of a Brother, he had conceived a Love for the
_English_, and therefore more eagerly embraced the Opportunity which the
Holy Inquisition had put into his Hands for the bringing over to Mother
Church as many Hereticks as he could; that having heard a very good
Character of me, he should think himself very happy, if he could be
instrumental in my Salvation;

"It is very true, continu'd he, I have lately had the good Fortune to
convert many; and besides the Candour of my own Disposition, I must tell
you, that I have a peculiar knack at Conversion, which very few, if any,
ever could resist. I am going upon the same work into _Murcia_; but your
good Character is fix'd me in my Resolution of preferring your Salvation
to that of others."

To this very long, and no less surprising Address, I only return'd, that
it being an Affair of moment, it would require some Consideration; and
that by the time he return'd from _Murcia_, I might be able to return
him a proper Answer. But not at all satisfy'd with this Reply;

"Sir," says he, "God Almighty is all-sufficient: This moment is too
precious to be lost; he can turn the Heart in the twinkling of an Eye,
as well as in twenty Years. Hear me then; mind what I say to you: I will
convince you immediately. You Hereticks do not believe in
Transubstantiation, and yet did not our Saviour say in so many Words,
_Hoc est corpus meum_? And if you don't believe him, don't you give him
the Lye? Besides, does not one of the Fatherss ay, _Deus, qui est omnis
Veritas, non potest dicere falsum_?"

He went on at the same ridiculous rate; which soon convinced me, he was
a thorough Rattle. However, as a _Clerico_, and consequently in this
Country, a Man dangerous to disoblige, I invited him home to Dinner;
where when I had brought him, I found I had no way done an unacceptable
thing; for my Landlady and her Daughter, seeing him to be a Clergyman,
receiv'd him with a vast deal of Respect and Pleasure.

Dinner being over, he began to entertain me with a Detail of the many
wonderful Conversions he had made upon obstinate Hereticks; that he had
convinced the most Stubborn, and had such a _Nostrum_, that he would
undertake to convert any one. Here he began his old round, intermixing
his Harangue with such scraps and raw sentences of fustian _Latin_, that
I grew weary of his Conversation; so pretending some Business of
consequence, I took leave, and left him and my Landlady together.

I did not return till pretty late in the Evening, with Intent to give
him Time enough to think his own Visit tedious; but to my great
Surprize, I found my _Irish_ Missionary still on the Spot, ready to dare
me to the Encounter, and resolv'd, like a true Son of the Church
militant, to keep last on the Field of Battle. As soon as I had seated
my self, he began again to tell me, how good a Character my Landlady had
given me, which had prodigiously increased his Ardour of saving my Soul;
that he could not answer it to his own Character, as well as mine, to be
negligent; and therefore he had enter'd into a Resolution to stay my
Coming, though it had been later. To all which, I return'd him Abundance
of Thanks for his good Will, but pleading Indisposition and want of
Rest, after a good deal of civil Impertinence, I once more got rid of
him; at least, I took my Leave, and went to Bed, leaving him again
Master of the Field; for I understood next Morning, that he stay'd some
Time after I was gone, with my good Landlady.

Next Morning the Nuns of the Nunnery opposite, having taken Notice of
the _Clerico's_ Ingress, long Visit, and late Egress, sent to know
whether he was my Countryman; with many other Questions, which I was not
then let into the Secret of. To all which I return'd, that he was no
Countryman of mine, but an _Irish-man_, and so perfectly a Stranger to
me, that I knew no more of him than what I had from his own Mouth, that
he was going into _Murcia_. What the Meaning of this Enquiry was, I
could never learn; but I could not doubt, but it proceeded from their
great Care of their _Vicino_, as they call'd me; a Mark of their Esteem,
and of which I was not a little proud.

As was my usual Custom, I had been taking my Morning Walk, and had not
been long come home in order to Dinner, when in again drops my _Irish
Clerico_; I was confounded, and vexed, and he could not avoid taking
Notice of it; nevertheless, without the least Alteration of Countenance,
he took his Seat; and on my saying, in a cold and indifferent Tone, that
I imagin'd he had been got to _Murcia_ before this; he reply'd, with a
natural Fleer, that truely he was going to _Murcia_, but his Conscience
pricked him, and he did find that he could not go away with any
Satisfaction, or Peace of Mind, without making me a perfect Convert;
that he had plainly discovered in me a good Disposition, and had, for
that very Reason, put himself to the Charge of Man and Mule, to the
Bishop of _Cuenca_ for a Licence, under his Hand, for my Conversion: For
in _Spain_, all private Missionaries are obliged to ask Leave of the
next Bishop, before they dare enter upon any Enterprize of this Nature.

I was more confounded at this last Assurance of the Man than at all
before; and it put me directly upon reflecting, whether any, and what
Inconveniences might ensue, from a Rencounter that I, at first,
conceiv'd ridiculous, but might now reasonably begin to have more
dangerous Apprehensions of. I knew, by the Articles of War, all Persons
are exempted from any Power of the Inquisition; but whether carrying on
a Part in such a Farce, might not admit, or at least be liable to some
dangerous Construction, was not imprudently now to be considered. Though
I was not fearful, yet I resolv'd to be cautious. Wherefore not making
any Answer to his Declaration about the Bishop, he took Notice of it;
and to raise a Confidence, he found expiring, began to tell me, that his
Name was _Murtough Brennan_, that he was born near _Kilkenny_, of a very
considerable Family. This last part indeed, when I came to _Madrid_, I
found pretty well confirm'd in a considerable Manner. However, taking
Notice that he had alter'd his Tone of leaving the Town, and that
instead of it, he was advancing somewhat like an Invitation of himself
to Dinner the next Day, I resolv'd to show my self shy of him; and
thereupon abruptly, and without taking any Leave, I left the Room, and
my Landlady and him together.

Three or four Days had passed, every one of which, he never fail'd my
Lodgings; not at Dinner Time only, but Night and Morning too; from all
which I began to suspect, that instead of my Conversion, he had fix'd
upon a Re-conversion of my Landlady. She was not young, yet, for a black
Woman, handsom enough; and her Daughter very pretty: I entered into a
Resolution to make my Observations, and watch them all at a Distance;
nevertheless carefully concealing my Jealousy. However, I must confess,
I was not a little pleas'd, that any Thing could divert my own
Persecution. He was now no longer my Guest, but my Landlady's, with whom
I found him so much taken up, that a little Care might frustrate all his
former impertinent Importunities on the old Topick.

But all my Suspicions were very soon after turn'd into Certainties, in
this Manner: I had been abroad, and returning somewhat weary, I went to
my Chamber, to take, what in that Country they call, a _Cesto_, upon my
Bed: I got in unseen, or without seeing any Body, but had scarce laid my
self down, before my young Landlady, as I jestingly us'd to call the
Daughter, rushing into my Room, threw her self down on the Floor,
bitterly exclaiming. I started off my Bed, and immediately running to
the Door, who should I meet there but my _Irish Clerico_, without his
Habit, and in his Shirt? I could not doubt, by _the Dishabillé_ of the
_Clerico_, but the young Creature had Reason enough for her Passion,
which render'd me quite unable to master mine; wherefore as he stood
with his Back next the Door, I thrust him in that ghostly Plight into
the open Street.

I might, with leisure enough, have repented that precipitate Piece of
Indiscretion; if it had not been for his bad Character, and the
favourable Opinion the Town had conceived of me; for he inordinately
exclaim'd against me, calling me Heretick, and telling the People, who
were soon gathered round him, that coming to my Lodgings on the
charitable work of Conversion, I had thus abus'd him, stript him of his
Habit, and then turn'd him out of Doors. The Nuns, on their hearing the
Outcries he made, came running to their Grates, to enquire into the
Matter, and when they understood it, as he was pleas'd to relate it;
though they condemn'd my Zeal, they pity'd my Condition. Very well was
it for me, that I stood more than a little well in the good Opinion of
the Town; among the Gentry, by my frequent Conversation, and the
inferior Sort by my charitable Distributions; for nothing can be more
dangerous, or a nearer Way to violent Fate, than to insult one of the
Clergy in _Spain_, and especially, for such an one as they entitle a

My old Landlady (I speak in respect to her Daughter) however formerly my
seeming Friend, came in a violent Passion, and wrenching the Door out of
my Hands, opened it, and pull'd her _Clerico_ in; and so soon as she had
done this, she took his Part, and railed so bitterly at me, that I had
no Reason longer to doubt her thorough Conversion, under the full Power
of his Mission. However the young one stood her Ground, and by all her
Expressions, gave her many Inquirers Reason enough to believe, all was
not Matter of Faith that the _Clerico_ had advanced. Nevertheless,
holding it adviseable to change my Lodgings, and a Friend confirming my
Resolutions, I removed that Night.

The _Clerico_ having put on his upper Garments, was run away to the
_Corrigidor_, in a violent Fury, resolving to be early, as well knowing,
that he who tells his Story first, has the Prospect of telling it to
double Advantage. When he came there, he told that Officer a thousand
idle Stories, and in the worst Manner; repeating how I had abus'd him,
and not him only, but my poor Landlady, for taking his Part. The
_Corrigidor_ was glad to hear it all, and with an officious Ear fish'd
for a great deal more; expecting, according to Usage, at last to squeeze
a Sum of Money out of me. However he told the _Clerico_, that, as I was
a Prisoner of War, he had no direct Power over me; but if he would
immediately write to the President _Ronquillo_, at _Madrid_, he would
not fail to give his immediate Orders, according to which he would as
readily act against me.

The _Clerico_ resolv'd to pursue his old Maxim and cry out first; and so
taking the _Corrigidor's_ Advice, he wrote away to _Madrid_ directly. In
the mean Time the People in the Town, both high and low, some out of
Curiosity, some out of Friendship, pursu'd their Enquiries into the
Reality of the Facts. The old Landlady they could make little of to my
Advantage; but whenever the young one came to the Question, she always
left them with these Words in her Mouth, _El Diabolo en forma del
Clerico_, which rendring Things more than a little cloudy on the
_Clerico's_ Side, he was advis'd and press'd by his few Friends, as fast
as he could to get out of Town; Nuns, Clergy, and every Body taking
Part against him, excepting his new Convert, my old Landlady.

The Day after, as I was sitting with a Friend at my new Quarters,
_Maria_ (for that was the Name of my Landlady's Daughter) came running
in with these Words in her Mouth, _El Clerico, el Clerico, passa la
Calle_. We hasten'd to the Window, out of which we beheld the _Clerico,
Murtough Brennan_, pitifully mounted on the Back of a very poor Ass (for
they would neither let, nor lend him a Mule through all the Town) his
Legs almost rested on the Ground, for he was lusty, as his Ass was
little; and a Fellow with a large Cudgel march'd a-foot, driving his Ass
along. Never did _Sancha Pancha_, on his Embassage to _Dulcinea_, make
such a despicable, out of the way Figure, as our _Clerico_ did at this
Time. And what increas'd our Mirth was, their telling me, that our
_Clerico_, like that Squire (tho' upon his own Priest-Errantry) was
actually on his March to _Toboso_, a Place five Leagues off, famous for
the Nativity of _Dulcinea_, The Object of the Passion of that celebrated
Hero _Don Quixot_. So I will leave our _Clerico_ on his Journey to
_Murcia_, to relate the unhappy Sequel of this ridiculous Affair.

I have before said, that, by the Advice of the _Corrigidor, our Clerico_
had wrote to _Don Ronquillo_ at _Madrid_. About a Fortnight after his
Departure from _la Mancha_, I was sitting alone in my new Lodgings, when
two _Alguizils_ (Officers under the _Corrigidor_, and in the Nature of
our Bailiffs) came into my Room, but very civilly, to tell me, that they
had Orders to carry me away to Prison; but at the same Moment they
advis'd me, not to be afraid; for they had observed, that the whole Town
was concern'd at what the _Corrigidor_ and _Clerico_ had done; adding,
that it was their Opinion, that I should find so general a Friendship,
that I need not be apprehensive of any Danger. With these plausible
Speeches, though I afterwards experienced the Truth of them, I resign'd
my self, and went with them to a much closer Confinement.

I had not been there above a Day or two, before many Gentlemen of the
Place sent to me, to assure me, they were heartily afflicted at my
Confinement, and resolv'd to write in my Favour to _Madrid_; but as it
was not safe, nor the Custom in _Spain_, to visit those in my present
Circumstances, they hoped I would not take it amiss, since they were
bent to act all in their Power towards my Deliverance; concluding
however with their Advice, that I would not give one _Real of Plata_ to
the _Corrigidor_, whom they hated, but confide in their assiduous
Interposal, Don _Pedro de Ortega_ in particular, the Person that
perform'd the Part of the _Tauriro_ on Horseback, sometime before, sent
me Word, he would not fail to write to a Relation of his, of the first
Account in _Madrid_, and so represent the Affair, that I should not long
be debarr'd my old Acquaintance.

It may administer, perhaps, Matter of Wonder, that _Spaniards_,
Gentlemen of the stanchest Punctilio, should make a Scruple and execute
themselves from visiting Persons under Confinement, when, according to
all Christian Acceptation, such a Circumstance would render such a
Visit, not charitable only but generous. But though Men of vulgar
Spirits might, from the Narrowness of their Views, form such insipid
Excuses, those of these Gentlemen, I very well knew, proceeded from much
more excusable Topicks. I was committed under the Accusation of having
abus'd a sacred Person, one of the Clergy; and though, as a Prisoner of
War, I might deem my self exempt from the Power of the Inquisition; yet
how far one of that Country, visiting a Person, so accused, might be
esteemed culpable, was a consideration in that dangerous Climate, far
from deserving to be slighted. To me therefore, who well knew the
Customs of the Country, and the Temper of its Countrymen, their Excuses
were not only allowable, but acceptable also; for, without calling in
Question their Charity, I verily believ'd I might falsely confide in
their Honour.

Accordingly, after I had been a close Prisoner one Month to a Day, I
found the Benefit of these Gentlemen's Promises and Solicitations.
Pursuant to which, an Order was brought for my immediate Discharge;
notwithstanding, the new Convert, my old Landlady, did all she could to
make her appearing against me effectual, to the Height of her Prejudice
and Malice, even while the Daughter, as sensible of my Innocence, and
acting with a much better Conscience, endeavoured as much to justify me,
against both the Threats and Persuasions of the _Corrigidor_, and his
few Accomplices, though her own Mother made one.

After Receipt of this Order for my Enlargement, I was mightily press'd
by Don _Felix_, and others of my Friends, to go to _Madrid_, and enter
my Complaint against the _Corrigidor_ and the _Clerico_, as a Thing
highly essential to my own future Security. Without asking Leave
therefore of the _Corrigidor_, or in the least acquainting him with it,
I set out from _la Mancha_, and, as I afterwards understood, to the
terrible Alarm of that griping Officer; who was under the greatest
Consternation, when he heard I was gone; for as he knew very well, that
he had done more than he could justify, he was very apprehensive of any
Complaint; well knowing, that as he was hated as much as I was beloved,
he might assure himself of the Want of that Assistance from the
Gentlemen, which I had experienced.

So soon as I arrived at _Madrid_, I made it my Business to enquire out,
and wait upon Father _Fahy_, Chief of the _Irish College_. He received
me very courteously; but when I acquainted him with the Treatment I had
met with from _Brennan_, and had given him an Account of his other
scandalous Behaviour, I found he was no Stranger to the Man, or his
Character; for he soon confirm'd to me the Honour _Brennan_ first
boasted of, his considerable Family, by saying, that scarce an Assize
passed in his own Country, without two or three of that Name receiving
at the Gallows the just Reward of their Demerits. In short, not only
Father _Fahy_, but all the Clergy of that Nation at _Madrid_, readily
subscribed to this Character of him, _That he was a Scandal to their

After this, I had nothing more to do, but to get that Father to go with
me to _Pedro de Dios_, who was the Head of the _Dominican_ Cloyster, and
Dean of the Inquisition. He readily granted my Request, and when we came
there, in a Manner unexpected, represented to the Dean, that having some
good Dispositions towards Mother-Church, I had been diverted from them,
he feared, by the evil Practices of one _Murtough Brennan_, a Countryman
of his, tho' a Scandal to his Country; that under a Pretence of seeking
my Conversion, he had lay'd himself open in a most beastly Manner, such
as would have set a Catholick into a vile Opinion of their Religion, and
much more one that was yet a Heretick. The Dean had hardly Patience to
hear Particulars; but as soon as my Friend had ended his Narration, he
immediately gave his Orders, prohibiting _Murtough's_ saying any more
Masses, either in _Madrid_, or any other Place in _Spain_. This indeed
was taking away the poor Wretches sole Subsistence, and putting him just
upon an Equality with his Demerits.

I took the same Opportunity to make my Complaints of the _Corrigidor_;
but his Term expiring very soon, and a Process being likely to be
chargeable, I was advised to let it drop. So having effected what I came
for, I returned to my old Station at _la Mancha_.

When I came back, I found a new _Corrigidor_, as I had been told there
would, by the Dean of the Inquisition, who, at the same Time, advised me
to wait on him. I did so, soon after my Arrival, and then experienced
the Advice to be well intended; the Dean having wrote a Letter to him,
to order him to treat me with all Manner of Civility. He show'd me the
very Letter, and it was in such particular and obliging Terms, that I
could not but perceive he had taken a Resolution, if possible, to
eradicate all the evil impressions, that _Murtough's_ Behaviour might
have given too great Occasion for. This serv'd to confirm me in an
Observation that I had long before made, That a Protestant, who will
prudently keep his Sentiments in his own Breast, may command any Thing
in _Spain_; where their stiff Bigotry leads 'em naturally into that
other Mistake, That not to oppose, is to assent. Besides, it is
generally among them, almost a work of Supererogation to be even
instrumental in the Conversion of one they call a Heretick. To bring any
such back to what they call Mother Church, nothing shall be spar'd,
nothing thought too much: And if you have Insincerity enough to give
them Hopes, you shall not only live in Ease, but in Pleasure and Plenty.

I had entertain'd some thoughts on my Journey back, of taking up my old
Quarters at the Widow's; but found her so intirely converted by her
_Clerico_, that there wou'd be no room to expect Peace: For which
Reason, with the help of my fair _Vicinos_, and _Don Felix_, I took
another, where I had not been long, before I received an unhappy Account
of _Murtough's_ Conduct in _Murcia_. It seems he had kept his Resolution
in going thither; where meeting with some of his own Countrymen, though
he found 'em stanch good Catholics, he so far inveigled himself into
'em, that he brought them all into a foul chance for their Lives. There
were three of 'em, all Soldiers, in a _Spanish_ Regiment, but in a fit
of ambitious, though frantick, Zeal: _Murtough_ had wheedled them to go
along with him to _Pedro de Dios_, Dean of the Inquisition, to declare
and acknowledge before him, that they were converted and brought over to
Mother Church, and by him only. The poor Ignorants, thus intic'd, had
left their Regiment, of which the Colonel, having notice, sent after
them, and they were overtaken on the Road, their _Missionair_ with them.
But notwithstanding all his Oratory, nay, even the Discovery of the
whole Farce, one of them was hang'd for an Example to the other two.

It was not long after my Return before News arriv'd of the Peace; which
though they receiv'd with Joy, they could hardly entertain with Belief.
Upon which, the new _Corrigidor_, with whom I held a better
Correspondence than I had done with the old one, desired me to produce
my Letters from _England_, that it was true. Never did People give
greater Demonstrations of Joy, than they upon this Occasion. It was the
common cry in the Streets, _Paz con Angleterra, con todo Mundo Guerra_;
And my Confirmation did them as much Pleasure as it did Service to me;
for is possible, they treated me with more Civility than before.

But the Peace soon after being proclaimed, I received Orders to repair
to _Madrid_, where the rest of the Prisoners taken at _Denia_ had been
carried; when I, by reason of my Wounds, and want of Health, had been
left behind. Others I understood lay ready, and some were on their March
to _Bayone_ in _France_; where Ships were ordered for their
Transportation into _England_. So after a Residence of three Years and
three Months; having taken leave of all my Acquaintance, I left a Place,
that was almost become natural to me, the delicious _Sainte Clemente de
la Mancha_.

Nothing of Moment, or worth observing, met I with, till I came near
_Ocanna_; and there occurred a Sight ridiculous enough. The Knight of
the Town, I last came from, the ever renown'd _Don Quixot_, never made
such a Figure as a _Spaniard_, I there met on the Road. He was mounted
on a Mule of the largest size, and yet no way unsizeable to his Person:
He had two Pistols in his Holsters, and one on each side stuck in his
Belt; a sort of large Blunderbuss in one of his Hands, and the fellow to
it slung over his Shoulders hung at his Back. All these were accompany'd
with a right _Spanish Spado_, and an Attendant _Stiletto_, in their
customary Position. The Muletier that was my guide, calling out to him
in _Spanish_, told him he was very well arm'd; to which, with a great
deal of Gravity, the Don returned Answer, _by Saint Jago a Man cannot be
too well arm'd in such dangerous Times_.

I took up my Quarters that Night at _Ocanna_, a large, neat, and well
built Town. Houses of good Reception, and Entertainment, are very scarce
all over _Spain_; but that, where I then lay, might have pass'd for good
in any other Country. Yet it gave me a Notion quite different to what I
found: for I imagined it to proceed from my near Approach to the
Capital. But instead of that, contrary to all other Countries, the
nearer I came to _Madrid_, the Houses of Entertainment grew worse and
worse; not in their Rates do I mean (for that with Reason enough might
have been expected) but even in their Provision, and Places and way of
Reception, I could not however forbear smiling at the Reason given by my
Muletier, that it proceeded from a piece of Court Policy, in Order to
oblige all Travellers to hasten to _Madrid_.

Two small Leagues from _Ocanna_ we arrived at _Aranjuez_, a Seat of
Pleasure, which the Kings of _Spain_ commonly select for their place of
Residence during the Months of _April and May_. It is distant from
_Madrid_ about seven Leagues; and the Country round is the pleasantest
in all _Spain, Valencia_ excepted. The House it self makes but a very
indifferent Appearance; I have seen many a better in _England_, with an
Owner to it of no more than five hundred Pounds _per Annum_; yet the
Gardens are large and fine; or as the _Spaniards_ say, the finest in all
_Spain_, which with them is all the World. They tell you at the same
Time, that those of _Versailles_, in their most beautiful Parts, took
their Model from these. I never saw those at _Versailles_: But in my
Opinion, the Walks at _Aranjuez_, tho' noble in their length, lose much
of their Beauty by their Narrowness.

The Water-works here are a great Curiosity; to which the River _Tagus_
running along close by, does mightily contribute. That River is let into
the Gardens by a vast number of little Canals, which with their
pleasing _Mæanders_ divert the Eye with inexpressible Delight. These
pretty Wanderers by Pipes properly plac'd in them, afford Varieties
scarce to be believ'd or imagin'd; and which would be grateful in any
Climate; but much more, where the Air, as it does here, wants in the
Summer Months perpetual cooling.

To see a spreading Tree, as growing in its natural Soil, distinguish'd
from its pineing Neighbourhood by a gentle refreshing Shower, which
appears softly distilling from every Branch and Leaf thereof, while
Nature all around is smiling, without one liquid sign of Sorrow, to me
appear'd surprizingly pleasing. And the more when I observ'd that its
Neighbours receiv'd not any the least Benefit of that plentiful
Effusion; And yet a very few Trees distant, you should find a dozen
together under the same healthful _Sudor_. Where art imitates Nature
well, Philosophers hold it a Perfection: Then what must she exact of us,
where we find her transcendent in the Perfections of Nature?

The watry Arch is nothing less surprizing; where Art contending with
Nature, acts against the Laws of Nature, and yet is beautiful. To see a
Liquid Stream vaulting it self from the space of threescore Yards into a
perfect Semi-Orb, will be granted by the Curious to be rare and strange:
But sure to walk beneath that Arch, and see the Waters flowing over your
Head, without your receiving the minutest Drop, is stranger, if not
strange enough to stagger all Belief.

The Story of _Actæon_, pictur'd in Water Colours, if I may so express my
self, tho' pretty, seem'd to me, but trifling to the other. Those seem'd
to be like Nature miraculously displayed; this only Fable in Grotesque.
The Figures indeed were not only fine, but extraordinary; yet their
various Shapes were not at all so entertaining to the Mind, however
refreshing they might be found to the Body.

I took notice before of the straitness of their Walks: But tho' to me it
might seem a Diminution of their Beauty: I am apt to believe to the
_Spaniard_, for and by whom they were laid out, it may seem otherwise.
They, of both Sexes, give themselves so intolerably up to Amouring, that
on that Account the Closeness of the Walks may be look'd upon as an
Advantage rather than a Defect. The grand Avenue to the House is much
more stately, and compos'd as they are, of Rows of Trees, somewhat
larger than our largest Limes, whose Leaves are all of a perfect Pea
bloom Colour, together with their Grandeur, they strike the Eye with a
pleasing Beauty. At the Entrance of the Grand Court we see the Statue of
_Philip_ the Second; to intimate to the Spectators, I suppose, that he
was the Founder.

Among other Parks about _Aranjuez_ there is one intirely preserved for
Dromedaries; an useful Creature for Fatigue, Burden, and Dispatch; but
the nearest of kin to Deformity of any I ever saw. There are several
other enclosures for several sorts of strange and wild Beasts, which are
sometimes baited in a very large Pond, that was shown me about half a
League from hence. This is no ordinary Diversion: but when the Court is
disposed that way, the Beast, or Beasts, whether Bear, Lyon, or Tyger,
are convey'd into a House prepar'd for that purpose; whence he can no
other way issue than by a Door over the Water, through, or over, which
forcing or flinging himself, he gradually finds himself descend into the
very depth of the Pond by a wooden Declivity. The Dogs stand ready on
the Banks, and so soon as ever they spye their Enemy, rush all at once
into the Water, and engage him. A Diversion less to be complain'd of
than their _Tauridores_; because attended with less Cruelty to the
Beast, as well as Danger to the Spectators.

When we arrived at _Madrid_, a Town much spoken of by Natives, as well
as Strangers, tho' I had seen it before, I could hardly restrain my self
from being surprized to find it only environ'd with Mud Walls. It may
very easily be imagin'd, they were never intended for Defence, and yet
it was a long time before I could find any other use, or rather any use
at all in 'em. And yet I was at last convinc'd of my Error by a sensible
Increase of Expence. Without the Gates, to half a League without the
Town, you have Wine for two Pence the Quart; but within the Place, you
drink it little cheaper than you may in _London_. The Mud Walls
therefore well enough answer their Intent of forcing People to reside
there, under pretence of Security; but in reality to be tax'd, for other
Things are taxable, as well as Wine, tho' not in like Proportion.

All Embassadors have a Claim or Privilege, of bringing in what Wine
they please Tax-free; and the King, to wave it, will at any Time
purchase that Exemption of Duty at the price of five hundred Pistoles
_per Annum_. The Convents and Nunneries are allowed a like Licence of
free Importation; and it is one of the first Advantages they can boast
of; for, under that Licence having a liberty of setting up a Tavern near
them, they make a prodigious Advantage of it. The Wine drank and sold in
this Place, is for the most part a sort of white Wine.

But if the Mud Walls gave me at first but a faint Idea of the Place; I
was pleasingly disappointed, as soon as I enter'd the Gates. The Town
then show'd itself well built, and of Brick, and the Streets wide, long,
and spacious. Those of _Atocha_, and _Alcala_, are as fine as any I ever
saw; yet is it situated but very indifferently: For tho' they have what
they call a River, to which they give the very fair Name of _la
Mansuera_, and over which they have built a curious, long, and large
Stone Bridge; yet is the Course of it, in Summer time especially, mostly
dry. This gave occasion to that piece of Railery of a Foreign
Embassador, _That the King would have don wisely to have bought a River,
before he built the Bridge_. Nevertheless, that little Stream of a River
which they boast of, they improve as much as possible; since down the
Sides, as far as you can see, there are Coops, or little Places hooped
in, for People to wash their Linen (for they very rarely wash in their
own Houses) nor is it really an unpleasing Sight, to view the regular
Rows of them at that cleanly Operation.

The King has here two Palaces; one within the Town, the other near
adjoining. That in the Town is built of Stone, the other which is called
_Bueno Retiro_, is all of Brick. From the Town to this last, in Summer
time, there is a large covering of Canvas, propt up with tall Poles;
under which People walk to avoid the scorching heats of the Sun.

As I was passing by the Chapel of the _Carmelites_, I saw several blind
Men, some led, some groping the Way with their Sticks, going into the
Chapel. I had the curiosity to know the Reason; I no sooner enter'd the
Door, but was surprized to see such a number of those unfortunate
People, all kneeling before the Altar, some kissing the Ground, others
holding up their Heads, crying out _Misericordia_. I was informed 'twas
Saint _Lucy's_ Day, the Patroness of the Blind; therefore all who were
able, came upon that Day to pay their Devotion: So I left them, and
directed my Course towards the King's Palace.

When I came to the outward Court, I met with a _Spanish_ Gentleman of my
Acquaintance, and we went into the _Piazza's_; whilst we were talking
there, I saw several Gentlemen passing by having Badges on their
Breasts; some white, some red, and others green: My Friend informed me
that there were five Orders of Knighthood in _Spain_. That of the Golden
Fleece was only given to great Princes, but the other four to private
Gentlemen, _viz_. That of _Saint Jago, Alacantara, Saint Salvador de
Montreal_, and _Monteza_.

He likewise told me, that there were above ninety Places of Grandees,
but never filled up; who have the Privilege of being cover'd in the
Presence of the King, and are distinguished into three Ranks. The first
is of those who cover themselves before they speak to the King. The
second are those who put on their Hats after they have begun to speak.
The third are those who only put on their Hats, having spoke to him. The
Ladies of the Grandees have also great Respect show'd them. The Queen
rises up when they enter the Chamber, and offers them Cushions.

No married Man except the King lies in the Palace, for all the Women who
live there are Widows, or Maids of Honour to the Queen. I saw the Prince
of _Asturia's_ Dinner carried through the Court up to him, being guarded
by four Gentlemen of the Guards, one before, another behind, and one on
each Side, with their Carbines shoulder'd; the Queen's came next, and
the King's the last, guarded as before, for they always dine separately.
I observed that the Gentlemen of the Guards, though not on Duty, yet
they are obliged to wear their Carbine Belts.

_SAINT Isodore_, who from a poor labouring Man, by his Sanctity of Life
arrived to the Title of _Saint_, is the Patron of _Madrid_, and has a
Church dedicated to him, which is richly adorned within. The Sovereign
Court of the Inquisition is held at _Madrid_, the President whereof is
called the Inquisitor General. They judge without allowing any Appeal
for four Sorts of Crimes, _viz_. Heresy, Polygamy, Sodomy and
Witchcraft, and when any are convicted, 'tis called the Act of Faith.

Most People believe that the King's greatest Revenue consists in the
Gold and Silver brought from the West Indies (which is a mistake) for
most Part of that Wealth belongs to Merchants and others, that pay the
Workmen at the Golden Mines of _Potosi_, and the Silver Mines at
_Mexico_; yet the King, as I have been informed, receives about a
Million and a half of Gold.

The _Spaniards_ have a Saying, that the finest Garden of Fruit in
_Spain_ is in the middle of _Madrid_, which is the _Plaza_ or Market
Place, and truly the Stalls there are set forth with such variety of
delicious fruit, that I must confess I never saw any Place comparable to
it; and which adds to my Admiration, there are no Gardens or Orchards of
Fruit within some Leagues.

They seldom eat Hares in _Spain_ but whilst the Grapes are growing, and
then they are so exceeding fat, they are knocked down with Sticks. Their
Rabits are not so good as ours in _England_; they have great plenty of
Patridges, which are larger and finer feather'd than ours. They have but
little Beef in _Spain_, because there is no Grass, but they have plenty
of Mutton, and exceeding good, because their Sheep feed only upon wild
Potherbs; their Pork is delicious, their Hogs feeding only upon
Chestnuts and Acorns.

_MADRID_ and _Valladolid_, though Great, yet are only accounted
Villages: In the latter _Philip_ the Second, by the persuasion of
_Parsons_ an _English_ Jesuit, erected an _English_ Seminary; and
_Philip_ the Fourth built a most noble Palace, with extraordinary fine
Gardens. They say that _Christopher Columbus_, who first discover'd the
West Indies, dyed there, tho' I have heard he lies buried, and has a
Monument at _Sevil_.

The Palace in the Town stands upon eleven Arches, under every one of
which there are Shops, which degrade it to a meer Exchange.
Nevertheless, the Stairs by which you ascend up to the Guard Room (which
is very spacious too) are stately, large, and curious. So soon as you
have pass'd the Guard Room, you enter into a long and noble Gallery, the
right Hand whereof leads to the King's Apartment, the left to the
Queen's. Entring into the King's Apartment you soon arrive at a large
Room, where he keeps his _Levee_; on one side whereof (for it takes up
the whole Side) is painted the fatal Battle of _Almanza_. I confess the
View somewhat affected me, tho' so long after; and brought to Mind many
old Passages. However, the Reflection concluded thus in favour of the
_Spaniard_, that we ought to excuse their Vanity in so exposing under a
_French_ General, a Victory, which was the only material one the
_Spaniards_ could ever boast of over an _English_ Army.

In this State Room, when the King first appears, every Person present,
receives him with a profound Homage: After which turning from the
Company to a large Velvet Chair, by which stands the Father Confessor,
he kneels down, and remains some Time at his Devotion; which being over,
he rising crosses himself, and his Father Confessor having with the
motion of his Hand intimated his Benediction, he then gives Audience to
all that attend for that purpose. He receives every Body with a seeming
Complaisance; and with an Air more resembling the French than the
_Spanish_ Ceremony. Petitions to the King, as with us, are delivered
into the Hands of the Secretary of State: Yet in one Particular they
are, in my Opinion, worthy the Imitation of other Courts; the Petitioner
is directly told, what Day he must come for an Answer to the Office; at
which Time he is sure, without any further fruitless Attendance, not to
fail of it. The Audience being over, the King returns through the
Gallery to his own Apartment.

I cannot here omit an accidental Conversation, that pass'd between
General _Mahoni_ and my self in this Place. After some talk of the
Bravery of the _English_ Nation, he made mention of General _Stanhope_,
with a very peculiar _Emphasis_.

"But," says he, "I never was so put to the Nonplus in all my Days, as
that General once put me in. I was on the road from _Paris to Madrid_,
and having notice, that that General was going just the Reverse, and
that in all likelyhood we should meet the next day: Before my setting
out in the Morning, I took care to order my gayest Regimental Apparel,
resolving to make the best Appearance I could to receive so great a Man.
I had not travell'd above four Hours before I saw two Gentlemen, who
appearing to be _English_, it induc'd me to imagine they were
Forerunners, and some of his Retinue. But how abash'd and confounded was
I? when putting the Question to one of 'em, he made answer, _Sir, I am
the Person_. Never did Moderation put Vanity more out of Countenance:
Tho' to say Truth, I cou'd not but think his Dress as much too plain
for General _Stanhope_, as I at that juncture thought my own too gay for
_Mahoni_. But," added he, "that great Man had too many inward great
Endowments to stand in need of any outside Decoration."

Of all Diversions the King takes most delight in that of Shooting, which
he performs with great Exactness and Dexterity. I have seen him divert
himself at Swallow shooting (by all, I think allow'd to be the most
difficult) and exceeding all I ever saw. The last time I had the Honour
to see him, was on his Return from that Exercise. He had been abroad
with the Duke of _Medina Sidonia_, and alighted out of his Coach at a
back Door of the Palace, with three or four Birds in his Hand, which
according to his usual Custom, he carried up to the Queen with his own

There are two Play-houses in _Madrid_, at both which they act every Day;
but their Actors, and their Music, are almost too indifferent to be
mentioned. The Theatre at the _Bueno Retiro_ is much the best; but as
much inferior to ours at _London_, as those at _Madrid_ are to that. I
was at one Play, when both King and Queen were present. There was a
splendid Audience, and a great Concourse of Ladies; but the latter, as
is the Custom there, having Lattices before them, the Appearance lost
most of its Lustre. One very remarkable Thing happen'd, while I was
there; the _Ave-Bell_ rung in the Middle of an Act, when down on their
Knees fell every Body, even the Players on the Stage, in the Middle of
their Harangue. They remained for some Time at their Devotion; then up
they rose, and returned to the Business they were before engag'd in,
beginning where they left off.

The Ladies of Quality make their Visits in grand State and Decorum. The
Lady Visitant is carry'd in a Chair by four Men; the two first, in all
Weathers, always bare. Two others walk as a Guard, one on each Side;
another carrying a large Lanthorn for fear of being benighted; then
follows a Coach drawn by six Mules, with her Women, and after that
another with her Gentlemen; several Servants walking after, more or
less, according to the Quality of the Person. They never suffer their
Servants to over load a Coach, as is frequently seen with us, neither do
Coachmen or Chairmen go or drive as if they carried Midwives in lieu of
Ladies. On the contrary, they affect a Motion so slow and so stately,
that you would rather imagine the Ladies were every one of them near
their Time, and very apprehensive of a Miscarriage.

I remember not to have seen here any Horses in any Coach, but in the
King's, or an Embassador's; which can only proceed from Custom; for
certainly finer Horses are not to be found in the World.

At the Time of my being here, Cardinal _Giudici_ was at _Madrid_; he was
a tall, proper, comely Man, and one that made the best Appearance.
_Alberoni_ was there at the same Time, who, upon the Death of the Duke
of _Vendome_, had the good Fortune to find the Princess _Ursini_ his
Patroness. An Instance of whose Ingratitude will plead Pardon for this
little Digression. That Princess first brought _Alberoni_ into Favour at
Court. They were both of _Italy_, and that might be one Reason of that
Lady's espousing his Interest: tho' some there are, that assign it to
the Recommendation of the Duke of _Vendome_; with whom _Alberoni_ had
the Honour to be very intimate, as the other was always distinguish'd by
that Princess. Be which it will, certain it is, she was _Alberoni's_
first, and sole Patroness; which gave many People afterwards a very
smart Occasion of reflecting upon him, both as to his Integrity and
Gratitude. For, when _Alberoni_, upon the Death of King _Philip's_ first
Queen, had recommended this present Lady, who was his Countrywoman, (she
of _Parma_, and he of _Placentia_, both in the same Dukedom) and had
forwarded her Match with the King, with all possible Assiduity; and when
that Princess, pursuant to the Orders she had received from the King,
passed over into _Italy_ to accompany the Queen Elect into her own
Dominions; _Alberoni_, forgetful of the Hand that first advanced him,
sent a Letter to the present Queen, just before her Landing, that if she
resolved to be Queen of _Spain_, she must banish the Princess _Ursini_,
her Companion, and never let her come to Court. Accordingly that Lady,
to evince the Extent of her Power, and the Strength of her Resolution,
dipatch'd that Princess away, on her very Landing, and before she had
seen the King, under a Detachment of her own Guards, into _France_; and
all this without either allowing her an Opportunity of justifying her
self, or assigning the least Reason for so uncommon an Action. But the
same _Alberoni_ (though afterwards created Cardinal, and for some Time
King _Philip's_ Prime Minion) soon saw that Ingratitude of his rewarded
in his own Disgrace, at the very same Court.

I remember, when at _la Mancha_, Don _Felix Pachero_, in a Conversation
there, maintain'd, that three Women, at that Time, rul'd the World,
_viz._ Queen Anne, Madam _Mantenon_, and this Princess _Ursini_.

Father _Fahy's_ Civilities, when last at _Madrid_, exacting of me some
suitable Acknowledgment, I went to pay him a Visit; as to render him due
Thanks for the past, so to give him a further Account of his Countryman
_Brennan_; but I soon found he did not much incline to hear any Thing
more of _Murtough_, not expecting to hear any Good of him; for which
Reason, as soon as I well could, I changed the Conversation to another
Topick. In which some Word dropping of the Count _de Montery_, I told
him, that I heard he had taken Orders, and officiated at Mass: He made
answer, it was all very true. And upon my intimating, that I had the
Honour to serve under him in _Flanders_, on my first entring into
Service, and when he commanded the _Spanish_ Forces at the famous Battle
of _Seneff_; and adding, that I could not but be surprized, that he, who
was then one of the brightest _Cavalieroes_ of the Age, should now be in
Orders; and that I should look upon it as a mighty Favour barely to
have, if it might be, a View of him; he very obligingly told me, that he
was very well acquainted with him, and that if I would come the next
Day, he would not fail to accompany me to the Count's House.

Punctually at the Time appointed, I waited on Father _Fahy_, who, as he
promised, carry'd me to the Count's House: He was stepping into his
Coach just as we got there; but seeing Father _Fahy_, he advanced
towards us. The Father deliver'd my Desire in as handsom a Manner as
could be, and concluding with the Reason of it, from my having been in
that Service under him; he seem'd very well pleas'd, but added, that
there were not many beside my self living, who had been in that Service
with him. After some other Conversation, he call'd his Gentleman to him,
and gave him particular Orders to give us a _Frescari_, or in _English_,
an Entertainment; so taking leave, he went into his Coach, and we to our

Coming from which, Father _Fahi_ made me observe, in the open Street, a
Stone, on which was a visible great Stain of somewhat reddish and like

"This," said he, "was occasion'd by the Death of a Countryman of mine,
who had the Misfortune to overset a Child, coming out of that House
(pointing to one opposite to us) the Child frighted, though not hurt, as
is natural, made a terrible Outcry; upon which its Father coming out in
a violent Rage (notwithstanding my Countryman beg'd Pardon, and pleaded
Sorrow as being only an Accident) stabb'd him to the Heart, and down he
fell upon that Stone, which to this Day retains the Mark of innocent
Blood, so rashly shed".

He went on, and told me, the _Spaniard_ immediately took Sanctuary in
the Church, whence some Time after he made his Escape. But Escapes of
that Nature are so common in _Spain_, that they are not worth wondering
at. For even though it were for wilful and premeditated Murder, if the
Murderer have taken Sanctuary, it was never known, that he was delivered
up to Justice, though demanded; but in some Disguise he makes his
Escape, or some Way is secured against all the Clamours of Power or
Equity. I have observed, that some of the greatest Quality stop their
Coaches over a stinking nasty Puddle, which they often find in the
Streets, and holding their Heads over the Door, snuff up the nasty Scent
which ascends, believing that 'tis extream healthful; when I was forced
to hold my Nose, passing by. 'Tis not convenient to walk out early in
the Morning, they having no necessary Houses, throw out their Nastiness
in the Middle of the Street.

After I had taken Leave of Father _Fahy_, and return'd my Thanks for all
Civilities, I went to pay a Visit to Mr. _Salter_, who was Secretary to
General _Stanhope_, when the _English_ Forces were made Prisoners of War
at _Breuhiga_; going up Stairs, I found the Door of his Lodgings a-jar;
and knocking, a Person came to the Door, who appeared under some
Surprize at Sight of me. I did not know him, but inquiring if Mr.
_Salter_ was within; He answered, as I fancy'd, with some Hesitation,
that he was but was busy in an inner Room. However, though unask'd, I
went in, resolving, since I had found him at home, to wait his Leisure.
In a little Time Mr. _Salter_ enter'd the Room; and after customary
Ceremonies, asking my Patience a little longer, he desired I would sit
down and bear Ensign _Fanshaw_ Company (for so he call'd him) adding at
going out, he had a little Business that required Dispatch; which being
over, he would return, and join Company.

The Ensign, as he call'd him, appear'd to me under a _Dishabileé_; and
the first Question he ask'd me, was, if I would drink a Glass of
_English_ Beer? Misled by his Appearance, though I assented, it was with
a Design to treat; which he would be no Means permit; but calling to a
Servant, ordered some in. We sat drinking that Liquor, which to me was a
greater Rarity than all the Wine in _Spain_; when in dropt an old
Acquaintance of mine, Mr. _Le Noy_, Secretary to Colonel _Nevil_. He sat
down with us, and before the Glass could go twice round, told Ensign
_Fanshaw_, That his Colonel gave his humble Service to him, and ordered
him to let him know, that he had but threescore Pistoles by him, which
he had sent, and which were at his Service, as what he pleas'd more
should be, as soon as it came to his Hands.

At this I began to look upon my Ensign as another guess Person than I
had taken him for; and _Le Noy_ imagining, by our setting cheek by joul
together, that I must be in the Secret, soon after gave him the Title of
Captain. This soon convinc'd me, that there was more in the Matter than
I was yet Master of; for laying Things together, I could not but argue
within my self, that as it seem'd at first, a most incredible Thing,
that a Person of his Appearance should have so large Credit, with such a
Complement at the End of it, without some Disguise, and as from an
Ensign he was risen to be a Captain, in the taking of one Bottle of
_English_ Beer; a little Patience would let me into a Farce, in which,
at present, I had not the Honour to bear any Part but that of a Mute.

At last _Le Noy_ took his leave, and as soon as he had left us, and the
other Bottle was brought in, Ensign _Fanshaw_ began to open his Heart,
and tell me, who he was. "I am necessitated," said he, "to be under this
Disguise, to conceal my self, especially in this Place.

"For you must know," continued he, "that when our Forces were Lords of
this Town, as we were for a little while, I fell under an Intrigue with
another Man's Wife; Her Husband was a Person of considerable Account;
nevertheless the Wife show'd me all the Favours that a Soldier, under a
long and hard Campaigne, could be imagined to ask. In short, her
Relations got acquainted with our Amour, and knowing that I was among
the Prisoners taken at _Breuhiga_, are now upon the Scout and Enquiry,
to make a Discovery that may be of fatal Consequence. This is the Reason
of my Disguise; this the unfortunate Occasion of my taking upon me a
Name that does not belong to me."

He spoke all this with such an Openness of Heart, that in return of so
much Confidence, I confess'd to him, that I had heard of the Affair, for
that it had made no little Noise all over the Country; that it highly
behoved him to take great Care of himself, since as the Relations on
both Sides were considerable, he must consequently be in great Danger;
That in Cases of that Nature, no People in the World carry Things to
greater Extremities, than the _Spaniards_. He return'd me Thanks for my
good Advice, which I understood, in a few Days after, he, with the
Assistance of his Friends, had taken Care to put in Practice; for he was
convey'd away secretly, and afterwards had the Honour to be made a Peer
of _Ireland_.

My Passport being at last sign'd by the Count _de las Torres_, I
prepared for a Journey, I had long and ardently wish'd for, and set out
from _Madrid_, in the Beginning of _September_, 1712, in Order to return
to my native Country.

Accordingly I set forward upon my Journey, but having heard, both before
and since my being in _Spain_, very famous Things spoken of the
_Escurial_; though it was a League out of my Road, I resolved to make it
a Visit. And I must confess, when I came there, I was so far from
condemning my Curiosity, that I chose to congratulate my good Fortune,
that had, at half a Day's Expence, feasted my Eyes with Extraordinaries,
which would have justify'd a Twelve-months' Journey on purpose.

The Structure is intirely magnificent, beyond any Thing I ever saw, or
any Thing my Imagination could frame. It is composed of eleven several
Quadrangles, with noble Cloisters round every one of them. The Front to
the West is adorn'd with three stately Gates; every one of a different
Model, yet every one the Model of nicest Architecture. The Middlemost of
the three leads into a fine Chapel of the _Hieronomites_, as they call
them; in which are entertain'd one hundred and fifty Monks. At every of
the four Corners of this august Fabrick, there is a Turret of excellent
Workmanship, which yields to the Whole an extraordinary Air of Grandure.
The King's Palace is on the North, nearest that Mountain, whence the
Stone it is built of was hew'n; and all the South Part is set off with
many Galleries, both beautiful and sumptuous.

This prodigious Pile, which, as I have said, exceeds all that I ever
saw; and which would ask, of it self, a Volume to particularize, was
built by _Philip_ the Second. He lay'd the first Stone, yet liv'd to see
it finished; and lies buryed in the _Panthæon_, a Part of it, set apart
for the Burial-place of succeeding Princes, as well as himself. It was
dedicated to Saint _Laurence_, in the very Foundation; and therefore
built in the Shape of a Gridiron, the Instrument of that Martyr's
Execution; and in Memory of a great Victory obtained on that Saint's
Day. The Stone of which it is built, contrary to the common Course,
grows whiter by Age; and the Quarry, whence it was dug, lies near
enough, if it had Sense or Ambition, to grow enamour'd of its own
wonderful Production. Some there are, who stick not to assign this
Convenience, as the main Cause of its Situation; and for my Part, I must
agree, that I have seen many other Parts of _Spain_, where that glorious
Building would have shone with yet far greater Splendour.

There was no Town of any Consequence presented it self in my Way to
_Burgos_. Here I took up my Quarters that Night; where I met with an
_Irish_ Priest, whose Name was _White_. As is natural on such
Rencounters, having answered his Enquiry, whither I was going; he very
kindly told me, he should be very glad of my Company as far as
_Victoria_, which lay in my Road; and I with equal Frankness embrac'd
the Offer.

Next Morning, when we had mounted our Mules, and were got a little
Distance from _Burgos_; he began to relate to me a great many impious
Pranks of an _English_ Officer, who had been a Prisoner there a little
before I came; concluding all, with some Vehemence, that he had given
greater Occasion of Scandal and Infamy to his native Country, than would
easily be wiped off, or in a little Time. The Truth of it is, many
Particularly, which he related to me, were too monstrously vile to admit
of any Repetition here; and highly meriting that unfortunate End, which
that Officer met with some time after. Nevertheless the just Reflection
made by that Father, plainly manifested to me the Folly of those
Gentlemen, who, by such Inadvertencies, to say no worse, cause the
Honour of the Land of their Nativity to be called in question. For tho',
no doubt, it is a very false Conclusion, from a singular, to conceive a
general Character; yet in a strange Country, nothing is more common, A
Man therefore, of common Sense, would carefully avoid all Occasions of
Censure, if not in respect to himself, yet out of a human Regard to such
of his Countrymen as may have the Fortune to come after him; and, it's
more than probable, may desire to hear a better and juster Character of
their Country, and Countrymen, than he perhaps might incline to leave
behind him.

As we travelled along, Father _White_ told me, that near the Place of
our Quartering that Night, there was a Convent of the _Carthusian_
Order, which would be well worth my seeing. I was doubly glad to hear
it, as it was an Order most a Stranger to me; and as I had often heard
from many others, most unaccountable Relations of the Severity of their
Way of Life, and the very odd Original of their Institution.

The next Morning therefore, being _Sunday_, we took a Walk to the
Convent. It was situated at the Foot of a great Hill, having a pretty
little River running before it. The Hill was naturally cover'd with
Evergreens of various Sorts; but the very Summit of the Rock was so
impending, that one would at first Sight be led to apprehend the
Destruction of the Convent, from the Fall of it. Notwithstanding all
which, they have very curious and well ordered Gardens; which led me to
observe, that, what ever Men may pretend, Pleasure was not incompatible
with the most austere Life. And indeed, if I may guess of others by
this, no Order in that Church can boast of finer Convents. Their Chapel
was completely neat, the Altar of it set out with the utmost
Magnificence, both as to fine Paintings, and other rich Adornments. The
Building was answerable to the rest; and, in short, nothing seem'd
omitted, that might render it beautiful or pleasant.

When we had taken a full Survey of all; we, not without some Regret,
return'd to our very indifferent Inn; Where the better to pass away the
Time, Father _White_ gave me an ample Detail of the Original of that
Order. I had before-hand heard somewhat of it; nevertheless, I did not
care to interrupt him, because I had a Mind to hear how his Account
would agree with what I had already heard.

     "_Bruno_," said the Father, "the Author or Founder of this
     Order, was not originally of this, but of another. He had a
     holy Brother of the same Order, that was his Cell-mate, or
     Chamber-fellow, who was reputed by all that ever saw or knew
     him, for a Person of exalted Piety, and of a most exact holy
     Life. This man, _Bruno_ had intimately known for many years;
     and agreed in his Character, that general Consent did him no
     more than Justice, having never observed any Thing in any of
     his Actions, that, in his Opinion, could be offensive to God
     or Man. He was perpetually at his Devotions; and
     distinguishably remarkable, for never permitting any Thing but
     pious Ejaculations to proceed out of his Mouth. In short, he
     was reputed a Saint upon Earth.

     "This Man at last dies, and, according to Custom, is removed
     into the Chapel of the Convent, and there plac'd with a Cross
     fix'd in his Hands: Soon after which, saying the proper Masses
     for his Soul, in the Middle of their Devotion, the dead Man
     lifts up his Head, and with an audible Voice, cry'd out,
     _Vocatus sum_. The pious Brethren, as any one will easily
     imagine, were most prodigiously surprised at such an Accident,
     and therefore they earnestly redoubled their Prayers; when
     hfting up his Head a second Time, the dead Man cried aloud,
     _Judicatus sum_. Knowing his former Piety, the pious
     Fraternity could not then entertain the least doubt of his
     Felicity; when, to their great Consternation and Confusion, he
     lifted up his Head a third Time, crying out in a terrible
     Tone, _Damnatus sum_; upon which they incontinently removed
     the Corps out of the Chapel, and threw it upon the Dunghill.

     "Good _Bruno_, pondering upon these Passages, could not fail
     of drawing this Conclusion; That if a Person to all Appearance
     so holy and devout, should miss of Salvation, it behov'd a
     wise Man to contrive some Way more certain to make his Calling
     and Election sure. To that Purpose he instituted this strict
     and severe Order, with an Injunction to them sacred as any
     Part, that every Professor should always wear Hair Cloth next
     his Skin, never eat any Flesh; nor speak to one another, only
     as passing by, to say, _Memento mori_."

This Account I found to agree pretty well with what I had before heard;
but at the same Time, I found the Redouble of it made but just the same
Impression, it had at first made upon my Heart. However having made it
my Observation, that a Spirit the least contradictory, best carries a
Man through _Spain_; I kept Father White Company, and in Humour, 'till
we arrived at _Victoria_. Where he added one Thing, by Way of Appendix,
in Relation to the _Carthusians_, That every Person of the Society, is
oblig'd every Day to go into their Place of Burial, and take up as much
Earth, as he can hold at a Grasp with one Hand, in order to prepare his

Next Day we set out for _Victoria_. It is a sweet, delicious, and
pleasant Town. It received that Name in Memory of a considerable Victory
there obtained over the _Moors_. Leaving this Place, I parted with
Father _White_; he going where his Affairs led him; and I to make the
best of my Way to _Bilboa_.

Entring into _Biscay_, soon after I left _Victoria_, I was at a Loss
almost to imagine, what Country I was got into. By my long Stay in
_Spain_, I thought my self a tolerable Master of the Tongue; yet here I
found my self at the utmost Loss to understand Landlord, Landlady, or
any of the Family. I was told by my Muletier, that they pretend their
Language, as they call it, has continued uncorrupted from the very
Confusion of _Babel_; though if I might freely give my Opinion in the
Matter, I should rather take it to be the very Corruption of all that
Confusion. Another _Rhodomontado_ they have, (for in this they are
perfect _Spaniards_) that neither _Romans, Carthaginians, Vandals,
Goths_, or _Moors_, ever totally subdued them. And yet any Man that has
ever seen their Country, might cut this Knot without a Hatchet, by
saying truly, that neither _Roman, Carthaginian_, nor any victorious
People, thought it worth while to make a Conquest of a Country, so
mountainous and so barren.

However, _Bilboa_ must be allowed, tho' not very large, to be a pretty,
clean and neat Town. Here, as in _Amsterdam_, they allow neither Cart,
nor Coach, to enter; but every Thing of Merchandize is drawn, and
carried upon Sledges: And yet it is a Place of no small Account, as to
Trade; and especially for Iron and Wooll. Here I hop'd to have met with
an opportunity of Embarking for _England_; but to my Sorrow I found my
self disappointed, and under that Disappointment, obliged to make the
best of my Way to _Bayonne_.

Setting out for which Place, the first Town of Note that I came to, was
_Saint Sebastian_. A very clean Town, and neatly pay'd; which is no
little Rarity in _Spain_. It has a very good Wall about it, and a pretty
Citadel. At this Place I met with two _English_ Officers, who were under
the same state with my self; one of them being a Prisoner of War with me
at _Denia_. They were going to _Bayonne_ to embark for _England_ as well
as my self; so we agreed to set out together for _Port Passage_. The
Road from St. _Sebastian_ is all over a well pav'd Stone Causeway;
almost at the end whereof, there accosted us a great number of young
Lasses. They were all prettily dress'd, their long Hair flowing in a
decent manner over their Shoulders, and here and there decorated with
Ribbons of various Colours, which wantonly play'd on their Backs with
the Wind. The Sight surpriz'd my Fellow Travellers no less than me; and
the more, as they advanced directly up to us, and seiz'd our Hands. But
a little time undeceiv'd us, and we found what they came for; and that
their Contest, tho' not so robust as our Oars on the _Thames_, was much
of the same Nature; each contending who should have us for their Fare.
For 'tis here a Custom of Time out of mind, that none but young Women
should have the management and profit of that Ferry. And tho' the Ferry
is over an Arm of the Sea, very broad, and sometimes very rough, those
fair Ferriers manage themselves with that Dexterity, that the Passage is
very little dangerous, and in calm Weather, very pleasant. In short, we
made choice of those that best pleased us; who in a grateful Return, led
us down to their Boat under a sort of Music, which they, walking along,
made with their Oars, and which we all thought far from being
disagreeable. Thus were we transported over to _Port Passage_; not
undeservedly accounted the best Harbour in all the Bay of _Biscay_.

We stay'd not long here after Landing, resolving, if possible, to reach
_Fonterabia_ before Night; but all the Expedition we could use, little
avail'd; for before we could reach thither the Gates were shut, and good
Nature and Humanity were so lock'd up with them, that all the Rhetorick
we were Masters of could not prevail upon the Governor to order their
being opened; for which Reason we were obliged to take up our Quarters
at the Ferry House.

When we got up the next Morning, we found the Waters so broad, as well
as rough, that we began to enquire after another Passage; and were
answer'd, that at the Isle of _Conference_, but a short League upwards,
the Passage was much shorter, and exposed to less Danger. Such good
Reasons soon determind's us: So, setting out we got there in a very
little Time; and very soon after were landed in _France_. Here we found
a House of very good Entertainment, a Thing we had long wanted, and much
lamented the want of.

We were hardly well seated in the House before we were made sensible,
that it was the Custom, which had made it the business of our Host, to
entertain all his Guests at first coming in, with a prolix Account of
that remarkable Interview between the two Kings of _France_ and _Spain_.
I speak safely now, as being got on _French_ Ground: For the _Spaniard_
in his own Country would have made me to know, that putting _Spain_
after _France_ had there been look'd upon as a meer Solecism in Speech.
However, having refiresh'd our selves, to show our deference to our
Host's Relation, we agreed to pay our Respects to that famous little
Isle he mention'd; which indeed, was the whole burden of the Design of
our crafty Landlord's Relation.

When we came there, we found it a little oval Island, over-run with
Weeds, and surrounded with Reeds and Rushes.

     "Here," said our Landlord (for he went with us) "upon this
     little Spot, were at that juncture seen the two greatest
     Monarchs in the Universe. A noble Pavilion was erected in the
     very middle of it, and in the middle of that was placed a very
     large oval Table; at which was the Conference, from which the
     Place receiv'd its Title. There were two Bridges rais'd; one
     on the _Spanish_ side, the Passage to which was a little upon
     a Descent by reason of the Hills adjacent; and the other upon
     the _French_ side, which as you see, was all upon a Level. The
     Musick playing, and Trumpets sounding, the two Kings, upon a
     Signal agreed upon, set forward at the same time; the
     _Spanish_ Monarch handing the _Infanta_ his Daughter to the
     Place of Interview. As soon as they were enter'd the Pavilion,
     on each Side, all the Artillery fired, and both Annies after
     that made their several Vollies. Then the King of _Spain_
     advancing on his side the Table with the _Infanta_, the King
     of _France_ advanced at the same Moment on the other; till
     meeting, he received the _Infanta_ at the Hands of her Father,
     as his Queen; upon which, both the Artillery and small Arms
     fir'd as before. After this, was a most splendid and sumptuous
     Entertainment; which being over, both Kings retir'd into their
     several Dominions; the King of _France_ conducting his new
     Queen to _Saint Jean de Luz_, where the Marriage was
     consummated; and the King of _Spain_ returning to _Port

After a Relation so very inconsistent with the present State of the
Place; we took Horse (for Mule-mounting was now out of Fashion) and rode
to _Saint Jean de Luz_, where we found as great a difference in our
Eating and Drinking, as we had before done in our Riding. Here they
might be properly call'd Houses of Entertainment; tho' generally
speaking, till we came to this Place, we met with very mean Fare, and
were poorly accommodated in the Houses where we lodged.

A Person that travels this way, would be esteem'd a Man of a narrow
Curiosity, who should not desire to see the Chamber where _Louis le
grand_ took his first Night's Lodging with his Queen. Accordingly, when
it was put into my Head, out of an Ambition to evince my self a Person
of Taste, I asked the Question, and the Favour was granted me, with a
great deal of _French_ Civility. Not that I found any Thing here, more
than in the Isle of _Conference_, but what Tradition only had rendered

_Saint Jean de Luz_ is esteem'd one of the greatest Village Towns in all
_France_. It was in the great Church of this Place, that _Lewis_ XIV
according to Marriage Articles, took before the high Altar the Oath of
Renunciation to the Crown of _Spain_, by which all the Issue of that
Marriage were debarred Inheritance, if Oaths had been obligatory with
Princes. The Natives here are reckon'd expert Seamen; especially in
Whale fishing. Here is a fine Bridge of Wood; in the middle of which is
a Descent, by Steps, into a pretty little Island; where is a Chapel, and
a Palace belonging to the Bishop of _Bayonne_. Here the Queen Dowager of
_Spain_ often walks to divert herself; and on this Bridge, and in the
Walks on the Island, I had the Honour to see that Princess more than

This _Villa_ not being above four Leagues from _Bayonne_, we got there
by Dinner time, where at an Ordinary of twenty _Sous_, we eat and drank
in Plenty, and with a _gusto_, much better than in any part of _Spain_;
where for eating much worse, we paid very much more.

_BAYONNE_ is a Town strong by Nature; yet the Fortifications have been
very much neglected, since the building of the Citadel, on the other
Side the River; which not only commands the Town, but the Harbour too.
It is a noble Fabrick; fair and strong, and rais'd on the side of a
Hill, wanting nothing that Art could furnish, to render it impregnable.
The Marshal _Bouflers_ had the Care of it in its erection; and there is
a fine Walk near it, from which he us'd to survey the Workmen, which
still carries his Name. There are two noble Bridges here, tho' both of
Wood, one over that River which runs on one side the Town; the other
over that, which divides it in the middle, the Tide runs thro' both with
vast Rapidity; notwithstanding which, Ships of Burden come up, and
paying for it, are often fasten'd to the Bridge, while loading or
unloading. While I was here, there came in four or five _English_ Ships
laden with Corn, the first, as they told me, that had come in to unlade
there, since the beginning of the War.

On that Side of the River where the new Citadel is built, at a very
little distance lies _Pont d' Esprit_, a Place mostly inhabited by
_Jews_, who drive a great Trade there, and are esteemed very rich, tho'
as in all other Countries mostly very rogueish. Here the Queen Dowager
of _Spain_ has kept her Court ever since the Jealousy of the present
King reclus'd her from _Madrid_. As Aunt to his Competitor _Charles_
(now Emperor) he apprehended her Intrigueing; for which Reason giving
her an Option of Retreat, that Princess made choice of this City, much
to the Advantage of the Place, and in all Appearance much to her own
Satisfaction. She is a Lady not of the lesser Size; and lives here in
suitable Splendour, and not without the Respect due to a Person of her
high Quality: Every time she goes to take the Air, the Cannon of the
Citadel saluting her, as she passes over the Bridge; and to say Truth,
the Country round is extremely pleasant, and abounds in plenty of all
Provisions; especially in wild Fowl. _Bayonne_ Hams are, to a Proverb,
celebrated all over _France_.

We waited here near five Months before the expected Transports arrived
from _England_, without any other Amusements, than such as are common to
People under Suspence. Short Tours will not admit of great Varieties;
and much Acquaintance could not be any way suitable to People, that had
long been in a strange Country, and earnestly desired to return to our
own. Yet one Accident befell me here, that was nearer costing me my
Life, than all I had before encounter'd, either in Battle or Siege.

Going to my Lodgings one Evening, I unfortunately met with an Officer,
who would needs have me along with him, aboard one of the _English_
Ships, to drink a Bottle of _English_ Beer. He had been often invited,
he said; and I am afraid our Countryman, continued he, will hold himself
slighted, if I delay it longer. _English_ Beer was a great rarity, and
the Vessel lay not at any great distance from my Lodgings; so without
any further Persuasion I consented. When we came upon the Bridge, to
which the Ship we were to go aboard was fastened, we found, as was
customary, as well as necessary, a Plank laid over from the Ship, and a
Rope to hold by, for safe Passage. The Night was very dark; and I had
cautiously enough taken care to provide a Man with a Lanthorn to prevent
Casualties. The Man with the Light went first, and out of his abundant
Complaisance, my Friend, the Officer, would have me follow the Light:
But I was no sooner stept upon the Plank after my Guide, but Rope and
Plank gave way, and Guide and I tumbled both together into the Water.

The Tide was then running in pretty strong: However, my Feet in the Fall
touching Ground, gave me an opportunity to recover my self a little; at
which Time I catch'd fast hold of a Buoy, which was plac'd over an
Anchor on one of the Ships there riding: I held fast, till the Tide
rising stronger and stronger threw me off my Feet; which gave an
Opportunity to the poor Fellow, our Lanthorn-bearer, to lay hold of one
of my Legs, by which he held as fast as I by the Buoy. We had lain thus
lovingly at Hull together, strugling with the increasing Tide, which,
well for us, did not break my hold (for if it had, the Ships which lay
breast a breast had certainly sucked us under) when several on the
Bridge, who saw us fall, brought others with Ropes and Lights to our
Assistance; and especially my Brother Officer, who had been Accessary as
well as Spectator of our Calamity; tho' at last a very small Portion of
our Deliverance fell to his share.

As soon as I could feel a Rope, I quitted my hold of the Buoy; but my
poor Drag at my Heels would not on any account quit his hold of my Leg.
And as it was next to an Impossibility, in that Posture to draw us up
the Bridge to save both, if either of us, we must still have perished,
had not the Alarm brought off a Boat or two to our Succour, who took us

I was carry'd as fast as possible, to a neighbouring House hard by,
where they took immediate care to make a good Fire; and where I had not
been long before our intended Host, the Master of the Ship, came in very
much concern'd, and blaming us for not hailing the Vessel, before we
made an Attempt to enter. For, says he, the very Night before, my Vessel
was robb'd; and that Plank and Rope were a Trap design'd for the
Thieves, if they came again; not imagining that Men in an honest way
would have come on board without asking Questions. Like the wise Men of
this World, I hereupon began to form Resolutions against a Thing, which
was never again likely to happen; and to draw inferences of Instruction
from an Accident, that had not so much as a Moral for its Foundation.

One Day after this, partly out of Business, and partly out of Curiosity,
I went to see the Mint here, and having taken notice to one of the
Officers, that there was a difference in the Impress of their Crown
Pieces, one having at the bottom the Impress of a Cow, and the other

     "Sir," reply'd that Officer, "you are much in the right in
     your Observation. Those that have the Cow, were not coin'd
     here, but at _Paw_, the chief City of _Navarr_; where they
     enjoy the Privilege of a Mint, as well as we. And Tradition
     tells," says he, "that the Reason of that Addition to the
     Impress was this: A certain King of _Navarr_ (when it was a
     Kingdom distinct from that of _France_) looking out of a
     Window of the Palace, spy'd a Cow, with her Calf standing
     aside her, attack'd by a Lyon, which had got loose out of his
     Menagery. The Lyon strove to get the young Calf into his Paw;
     the Cow bravely defended her Charge; and so well, that the
     Lyon at last, tir'd and weary, withdrew, and left her Mistress
     of the Field of Battle; and her young one. Ever since which,
     concluded that Officer, by Order of that King, the Cow is
     plac'd at the bottom of the Impress of all the Money there

Whether or no my Relator guess'd at the Moral, or whether it was Fact, I
dare not determine; But to me it seem'd apparent, that it was no
otherways intended, than as an emblematical Fable to cover, and preserve
the Memory of the Deliverance of _Henry_ the Fourth, then the young
King of _Navarr_, at that eternally ignominious Slaughter, the Massacre
of _Paris_. Many Historians, their own as well as others, agree, that
the House of _Guise_ had levell'd the Malice of their Design at that
great Prince. They knew him to be the lawful Heir; but as they knew him
bred, what they call'd a _Hugonot_, Barbarity and Injustice was easily
conceal'd under the Cloak of Religion, and the Good of Mother Church,
under the veil of Ambition, was held sufficient to postpone the Laws of
God and Man. Some of those Historians have deliver'd it as Matter of
Fact, that the Conspirators, in searching after that young King, press'd
into the very Apartments of the Queen his Mother; who having, at the
Toll of the Bell, and Cries of the Murder'd, taken the Alarm, on hearing
'em coming, plac'd her self in her Chair, and cover'd the young King her
Son with her Farthingale, till they were gone. By which means she found
an opportunity to convey him to a Place of more Safety; and so preserv'd
him from those bloody Murderers, and in them from the Paw of the Lyon.
This was only a private Reflection of my own at that Time; but I think
carries so great a Face of Probability, that I can see no present Reason
to reject it. And to have sought after better Information from the
Officer of the Mint, had been to sacrifice my Discretion to my

While I stay'd at _Bayonne_, the Princess _Ursini_ came thither,
attended by some of the King of _Spain's_ Guards. She had been to drink
the Waters of some famous Spaw in the Neighbourhood, the Name of which
has now slipt my Memory. She was most splendidly entertain'd by the
Queen Dowager of _Spain_; and the Mareschal _de Montrevel_ no less
signaliz'd himself in his Reception of that great Lady, who was at that
Instant the greatest Favourite in the _Spanish_ Court; tho' as I have
before related, she was some Time after basely undermined by a Creature
of her own advancing.

_BAYONNE_ is esteem'd the third _Emporium_ of Trade in all _France_. It
was once, and remain'd long so, in the Possession of the _English_; of
which had History been silent, the Cathedral Church had afforded evident
Demonstration; being in every respect of the _English_ Model, and quite
different to any of their own way of Building in _France_.

_PAMPELONA_ is the Capital City of the _Spanish Navarr_, supposed to
have been built by _Pompey_. 'Tis situated in a pleasant Valley,
surrounded by lofty Hills. This Town, whether famous or infamous, was
the Cause of the first Institution of the Order of the Jesuits. For at
the Siege of this Place _Ignatius Loyola_ being only a private Soldier,
receiv'd a shot on his Thigh, which made him uncapable of following that
Profession any longer; upon which he set his Brains to work, being a
subtle Man, and invented the Order of the Jesuits, which has been so
troublesome to the World ever since.

At _Saint Stephen_ near _Lerida_, an Action happened between the
_English_ and _Spaniards_, in which Major General _Cunningham_ bravely
fighting at the Head of his Men, lost his Life, being extreamly much
lamented. He was a Gentleman of a great Estate, yet left it, to serve
his Country; _Dulce est pro Patria Mori_.

About two Leagues from _Victoria_, there is a very pleasant Hermitage
plac'd upon a small rising Ground, a murmuring Rivulet running at the
bottom, and a pretty neat Chapel standing near it, in which I saw _Saint
Christopher_ in a Gigantick Shape, having a _Christo_ on his Shoulders.
The Hermit was there at his Devotion, I ask'd him (tho' I knew it
before) the reason why he was represented in so large a Shape: The
Hermit answered with great Civility, and told me, he had his Name from
_Christo Ferendo_, for when our Saviour was young, he had an inclination
to pass a River, so _Saint Christopher_ took him on his Shoulders in
order to carry him over, and as the Water grew deeper and deeper, so he
grew higher and higher.

At last we received News, that the _Gloucester_ Man of War, with two
Transports, was arrived at _Port Passage_, in order for the Transporting
of all the remaining Prisoners of War into _England_. Accordingly they
march'd next Day, and there embark'd. But I having before agreed with a
Master of a Vessel, which was loaded with Wine for _Amsterdam_, to set
me ashoar at _Dover_, stay'd behind, waiting for that Ship, as did that
for a fair Wind.

In three or four Days' Time, a fine and fair Gale presented; of which
the Master taking due Advantage, we sail'd over the Bar into the Bay of
_Biscay_. This is with Sailors, to a Proverb, reckon'd the roughest of
Seas; and yet on our Entrance into it, nothing appear'd like it. 'Twas
smooth as Glass; a Lady's Face might pass for young, and in its Bloom,
that discover'd no more Wrinkles; Yet scarce had we sail'd three
Leagues, before a prodigious Fish presented it self to our View. As near
as we could guess, it might be twenty Yards in Length; and it lay
sporting it self on the surface of the Sea, a great Part appearing out
of the Water. The Sailors, one and all, as soon as they saw it, declar'd
it the certain Forerunner of a Storm. However, our Ship kept on its
Course, before a fine Gale, till we had near passed over half the Bay;
when, all on a sudden, there was such a hideous Alteration, as makes
Nature recoil on the very Reflection. Those Seas that seem'd before to
smile upon us, with the Aspect of a Friend, now in a Moment chang'd
their flattering Countenance into that of an open Enemy; and Frowns, the
certain Indexes of Wrath, presented us with apparent Danger, of which
little on this Side Death could be the Sequel. The angry Waves cast
themselves up into Mountains, and scourg'd the Ship on every Side from
Poop to Prow: Such Shocks from the contending Wind and Surges! Such
Falls from Precipices of Water, to dismal Caverns of the same uncertain
Element! Although the latter seem'd to receive us in Order to skreen us
from the Riot of the former, Imagination could offer no other Advantage
than that of a Winding-Sheet, presented and prepared for our approaching
Fate. But why mention I Imagination? In me 'twas wholly dormant. And yet
those Sons of stormy Weather, the Sailors, had theirs about them in full
Stretch; for seeing the Wind and Seas so very boisterous, they lash'd
the Rudder of the Ship, resolv'd to let her drive, and steer herself;
since it was past their Skill to steer her. This was our Way of
sojourning most Part of that tedious Night; driven where the Winds and
Waves thought fit to drive us, with all our Sails quite lower'd and flat
upon the Deck. If _Ovid_, in the little _Archipelagian_ Sea, could whine
out his _jam jam jacturus_, &c. in this more dismal Scene, and much more
dangerous Sea (the Pitch-like Darkness of the Night adding to all our
sad Variety of Woes) what Words in Verse or Prose could serve to paint
our Passions, or our Expectations? Alas! our only Expectation was in the
Return of Morning; It came at last; yet even slowly as it came, when
come, we thought it come too soon, a new Scene of sudden Death being all
the Advantage of its first Appearance. Our Ship was driving full Speed,
towards the _Breakers_ on the _Cabritton_ Shore, between _Burdeaux_ and
_Bayonne_; which filled us with Ideas more terrible than all before,
since those were past, and these seemingly as certain. Beside, to add to
our Distress, the Tide was driving in, and consequently must drive us
fast to visible Destruction. A State so evident, that one of our
Sailors, whom great Experience had render'd more sensible of our present
Danger, was preparing to save one, by lashing himself to the main Mast,
against the expected Minute of Desolation. He was about that melancholy
Work, in utter Despair of any better Fortune, when, as loud as ever he
could bawl, he cry'd out, _a Point, a Point of Wind_. To me, who had had
too much of it, it appear'd like the Sound of the last Trump; but to the
more intelligent Crew, it had a different Sound. With Vigour and
Alacrity they started from their Prayers, or their Despair, and with all
imaginable Speed, unlash'd the Rudder, and hoisted all their Sails.
Never sure in Nature did one Minute produce a greater Scene of
Contraries. The more skilful Sailors took Courage at this happy Presage
of Deliverance. And according to their Expectation did it happen; that
heavenly Point of Wind deliver'd us from the Jaws of those _Breakers_,
ready open to devour us; and carrying us out to the much more wellcome
wide Sea, furnished every one in the Ship with Thoughts, as distant as
we thought our Danger.

We endeavoured to make _Port Passage_; but our Ship became unruly, and
would not answer her Helm; for which Reason we were glad to go before
the Wind, and make for the Harbour of _Saint Jean de Luz_. This we
attain'd without any great Difficulty, and to the Satisfaction of all,
Sailors as well as Passengers, we there cast Anchor, after the most
terrible Storm (as all the oldest Sailors agreed) and as much Danger as
ever People escap'd.

Here I took notice, that the Sailors buoy'd up their Cables with
Hogsheads; enquiring into the Reason of which, they told me, that the
Rocks at the Bottom of the Harbour were by Experience found to be so
very sharp, that they would otherwise cut their Cables asunder. Our Ship
was obliged to be drawn up into the Dock to be refitted; during which, I
lay in the Town, where nothing of Moment, or worth reciting, happen'd.

I beg Pardon for my Errors; the very Movements of Princes must always
be considerable, and consequently worth Recital. While the Ship lay in
the Dock, I was one Evening walking upon the Bridge, with the little
Island near it, (which I have before spoke of) and had a little
_Spanish_ Dog along with me, when at the further End I spy'd a Lady, and
three or four Gentlemen in Company; I kept on my Pace of Leisure, and so
did they; but when I came nearer, I found they as much out number'd me
in the Dog, as they did in the human Kind. And I soon experienced to my
Sorrow, that their Dogs, by their Fierceness and Ill-humour, were Dogs
of Quality; having, without Warning, or the least Declaration of War,
fallen upon my little Dog, according to pristine Custom, without any
honourable Regard to Size, Interest or Number. However the good Lady,
who, by the Privilege of her Sex, must be allow'd the most competent
Judge of Inequalities, out of an Excess of Condescension and Goodness,
came running to the Relief of oppressed poor _Tony_; and, in courtly
Language, rated her own oppressive Dogs for their great Incivility to
Strangers. The Dogs, in the Middle of their insulting Wrath, obey'd the
Lady with a vast deal of profound Submission; which I could not much
wonder at, when I understood, that it was a Queen Dowager of _Spain_,
who had chid them.

Our Ship being now repaired, and made fit to go out again to Sea, we
left the Harbour of _Saint Jean de Luz_, and with a much better Passage,
as the last Tempest was still dancing in my Imagination, in ten Days'
Sail we reach'd _Dover_. Here I landed on the last Day of _March_, 1713
having not, till then, seen or touch'd _English_ Shoar from the
Beginning of _May_, 1705.

I took Coach directly for _London_, where, when I arriv'd, I thought my
self transported into a Country more foreign, than any I had either
fought or pilgrimag'd in. Not foreign, do I mean, in respect to others,
so much as to it self. I left it, seemingly, under a perfect Unanimity:
The fatal Distinctions of _Whig_ and _Tory_ were then esteemed meerly
nominal; and of no more ill Consequence or Danger, than a Bee robb'd of
its Sting. The national Concern went on with Vigour, and the prodigious
Success of the Queen's Arms, left every Soul without the least Pretence
to a Murmur. But now on my Return, I found them on their old
Establishment, perfect Contraries, and as unlikely to be brought to
meet as direct Angles. Some arraigning, some extolling of a Peace; in
which Time has shown both were wrong, and consequently neither could be
right in their Notions of it, however an over prejudic'd Way of thinking
might draw them into one or the other. But _Whig_ and _Tory_ are, in my
Mind, the compleatest Paradox in Nature, and yet like other Paradoxes,
old as I am, I live in Hope to see, before I die, those seeming
Contraries perfectly reconcil'd, and reduc'd into one happy Certainty,
the Publick Good.

       *       *       *       *       *

Whilst I stay'd at _Madrid_, I made several Visits to my old
Acquaintance General _Mahoni_. I remember that he told me, when the Earl
of _Peterborow_ and he held a Conference at _Morvidro_, his Lordship
used many Arguments to induce him to leave the _Spanish_ Service.
_Mahoni_ made several Excuses, especially that none of his Religion was
suffer'd to serve in the _English_ Army. My Lord reply'd, That he would
undertake to get him excepted by an Act of Parliament. I have often
heard him speak with great Respect of his Lordship, and was strangely
surprized, that after so many glorious Successes he should be sent away.

He was likewise pleased to inform me, that at the Battle of _Saragoza_,
'twas his Fortune to make some of our Horse to give way, and he pursued
them for a considerable time; but at his Return, he saw the _Spanish_
Army in great Confusion: But it gave him the Opportunity of attacking
our Battery of Guns; which he performed with great Slaughter, both of
Gunners and Matrosses: He at the same time inquired, who 'twas that
commanded there in chief. I informed him 'twas Col. _Bourguard_, one
that understood the Oeconomy of the Train exceeding well. As for that,
he knew nothing of; but that he would vouch, he behaved himself with
extraordinary Courage, and defended the Battery to the utmost extremity,
receiving several Wounds, and deserved the Post in which he acted. A
Gentleman who was a Prisoner at _Gualaxara_, informed me, that he saw
King _Philip_ riding through that Town, being only attended with one of
his Guards.

_Saragoza_, or _Cæsar Augusta_, lies upon the River _Ebro_, being the
Capital of _Arragon_; 'tis a very ancient City, and contains fourteen
great Churches, and twelve Convents. The Church of the Lady of the
_Pillar_ is frequented by Pilgrims, almost from all Countries; 'twas
anciently a Roman Colony.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Tibi laus, tibi honor, tibi sit gloria, O gloriosa Trinitas, quia tu
dedisti mihi hanc opportunitatem, omnes has res gestas recordandi. Nomen
tuum sit benedictum, per sæcula sæculorum. Amen._


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