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Title: Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party
Author: Delany, Martin Robinson
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party" ***

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VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY ***


OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY

by

MARTIN R DELANY

Published 1861



_Contents_


  Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party


    Section I. Political Movements                                    229

   Section II. Succeeding Conventions                                 234

  Section III. History of the Project                                 236

   Section IV. Arrival and Reception in Liberia                       254

    Section V. Liberia--Climate, Soil,
               Productions, etc.                                      263

   Section VI. Diseases--Cause--Remedy                                278

  Section VII. The Interior--Yoruba                                   284

 Section VIII. Topography, Climate, etc.                              288

   Section IX. Diseases of This Part of Africa,
               Treatment, Hygiene, Aliment                            312

    Section X. Missionary Influence                                   332

   Section XI. What Africa Now Requires                               338

  Section XII. To Direct Legitimate Commerce                          345

 Section XIII. Cotton Staple                                          351

  Section XIV. Success in Great Britain                               361

   Section XV. Commercial Relations in Scotland                       379

  Section XVI. The Time to Go to Africa                               387

 Section XVII. Concluding Suggestions                                 391



I

POLITICAL MOVEMENTS


On or about the latter part of July, 1853, the following document was
sent on, and shortly appeared in the columns of "FREDERICK DOUGLASS'
PAPER," Rochester, N.Y., and the "ALIENED AMERICAN," published and
edited by William Howard Day, Esq., M.A., at Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.,
which continued in those papers every issue, until the meeting of the
Convention:

CALL FOR A NATIONAL EMIGRATION
CONVENTION OF COLORED MEN
_To be held in Cleveland, Ohio, on the 24th, 25th, and
26th of August, 1854_

     MEN AND BRETHREN: The time has fully come when we, as an oppressed
     people, should do something effectively, and use those means
     adequate to the attainment of the great and long desired end--do
     something to meet the actual demands of the present and prospective
     necessities of the rising generation of our people in this country.
     To do this, we must occupy a position of entire _equality_, of
     _unrestricted_ rights, composing in fact, an acknowledged
     _necessary_ part of the _ruling element_ of society in which we
     live. The policy _necessary_ to the _preservation_ of this
     _element_ must be _in our favor_, if ever we expect the enjoyment,
     freedom, sovereignty, and equality of rights anywhere. For this
     purpose, and to this end, then, all colored men in favor of
     Emigration out of the United States, and _opposed_ to the American
     Colonization scheme of leaving the Western Hemisphere, are
     requested to meet in CLEVELAND, OHIO, TUESDAY, the 24th day of
     AUGUST, 1854, in a great NATIONAL CONVENTION, then and there to
     consider and decide upon the great and important subject of
     Emigration from the United States.

     No person will be admitted to a seat in the Convention, who would
     introduce the subject of Emigration to the Eastern
     Hemisphere--either to Asia, Africa, or Europe--as our object and
     determination are to consider our claims to the West Indies,
     Central and South America, and the Canadas. This restriction has no
     reference to _personal_ preference, or _individual_ enterprise; but
     to the great question of national claims to come before the
     Convention.

     All persons coming to the Convention must bring credentials
     properly authenticated, or bring verbal assurance to the Committee
     on Credentials--appointed for the purpose--of their fidelity to the
     measures and objects set forth in this call, as the Convention is
     specifically by and for the friends of Emigration, and none
     others--and no opposition to them will be entertained.

     The question is not whether our condition can be bettered by
     emigration, but whether it can be made worse. If not, then, there
     is no part of the wide spread universe, where our social and
     political condition are not better than here in our native country,
     and nowhere in the world as here, proscribed on account of color.

     We are friends to, and ever will stand shoulder to shoulder by our
     brethren, and all our friends in all good measures adopted by them
     for the bettering of our condition in this country, and surrender
     no rights but with our last breath; but as the subject of
     Emigration is of vital importance, and has ever been shunned by all
     delegated assemblages of our people as heretofore met, we cannot
     longer delay, and will not be farther baffled; and deny the right
     of our most sanguine friend or dearest brother, to prevent an
     intelligent inquiry into, and the carrying out of these measures,
     when this can be done, to our entire advantage, as we propose to
     show in Convention--as the West Indies, Central and South
     America--the majority of which are peopled our brethren, or those
     identified with us in race, and what is more, _destiny_, on this
     continent--all stand with open arms and yearning hearts,
     importuning us in the name of suffering humanity to come--to make
     common cause, and share one common fate on the continent.

     The Convention will meet without fail at the time fixed for
     assembling, as none but those favorable to Emigration are
     admissible; therefore no other gathering may prevent it. The number
     of delegates will not be restricted--except in the town where the
     Convention may be held--and there the number will be decided by the
     Convention when assembled, that they may not too far exceed the
     other delegations.

     The time and place fixed for holding the Conventions are ample;
     affording sufficient time, and a leisure season generally--and as
     Cleveland is now the centre of all directions--a good and favorable
     opportunity to all who desire to attend. Therefore, it may
     reasonably be the greatest gathering of the colored people ever
     before assembled in a Convention in the United States.

     Colonizationists are advised, that no favors will be shown to them
     or their expatriating scheme, as we have no sympathy with the
     enemies of our race.

     All colored men, East, West, North, and South, favorable to the
     measures set forth in this Call will send in their names
     (post-paid) to M. R. DELANY, or REV. WM. WEBB, Pittsburgh, Pa.,
     that there may be arranged and attached to the Call, _five_ names
     from each State.

     We must make an issue, create an event, and establish a position
     _for ourselves_. It is glorious to think of, but far more glorious
     to carry out.

     REV. WM. WEBB, M. R. DELANY, H. G. WEBB, THOS. A. BROWN, JOHN
     JONES, R. L. HAWKINS, SAMUEL VENERABLE, JOHN WILLIAMS, A. F.
     HAWKINS, S. W. SANDERS, JEFFERSON MILLER, _Pittsburgh, Pa._; REV.
     A. R. GREEN, P. L. JACKSON, J. H. MAHONEY, G. HARPER, JONATHAN
     GREEN, H. A. JACKSON, E. R. PARKER, SAMUEL BRUCE, _Allegheny City_;
     J. J. GOULD BIAS, M.D., REV. M. M. CLARK, A. M. SUMNER, JOHNSON
     WOODLIN, _Philadelphia_; JAMES M. WHITFIELD, JOHN N. STILL, STANLEY
     MATTHEWS, _New York_.

     This Call was readily responded to by the addition of names from
     other States, which appeared in subsequent issues.

            *       *       *       *       *

     At the Convention, which according to the Call sat in Cleveland
     successively on Thursday, 24th, Friday, 25th, and Saturday, 26th of
     August, 1854, the following States were represented: Rhode Island,
     New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana,
     Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Virginia, and the
     Canadas; the great body consisting of nearly sixteen hundred
     persons. W. H. DAY, Esq., editor of the _Aliened American_, entered
     the Convention, and the Chairman invited him forward, offering him
     the privileges of the Convention, stating that wherever colored
     people were, William Howard Day was free--whether or not he
     altogether agreed in sentiment on minor points; and the Convention
     unanimously concurred in the invitation given.

     Mr. Day subsequently proffered to the Convention any books or
     documents at his command for the use of that body.

     The following permanent Institution was established:

     ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS

     _Central Commissioners, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania_--M. R. DELANY,
     President; WM. WEBB, Vice-President; THOS. A. BROWN, Treasurer;
     EDW. R. PARKER, Auditor; CHAS. W. NIGHTEN, Secretary; PROFESSOR M.
     H. FREEMAN, A.M., Special For. Sec.; SAMUEL VENERABLE, ALFRED H.
     JOHNS, SAMUEL BRUCE, PARKER SORRELL.

     DEPARTMENTS

     _Committee on Domestic Relations._--SAMUEL BRUCE, Chairman; SAMUEL
     VENERABLE, CHARLES W. NIGHTEN. _Financial Relations._--THOMAS A.
     BROWN, Chairman; PARKER SORRELL, ALFRED H. JOHNS. _Foreign
     Relations._--REV. WM. WEBB, Chairman; M. R. DELANY, EDW. R. PARKER.
     _Special Foreign Secretary._ PROF. MARTIN H. FREEMAN, A. M. _State
     Commissioners._--_Massachusetts_--WM. C. NELL, _Boston_; C. L.
     REMOND, Salem. _New York, Buffalo._--JAMES M. WHITFIELD, J.
     THEODORE HOLLY. _Ohio, Cincinnati._--AUGUSTUS R. GREEN, PHILLIP
     TOLIVAR, Jun. _Michigan, Detroit._--WILLIAM C. MUNROE, WILLIAM
     LAMBERT. _Kentucky, Louisville._--CONAWAY BARBOUR, JAMES H. GIPSON.
     _Missouri, St. Louis._--REV. RICH'D ANDERSON, REV. JORDAN BROWN.
     _Virginia, Richmond._--RICHARD HENDERSON, JOHN E. FERGUSON.
     _Tennessee, Nashville._--ELDER PETER A. H. LOWRY, CHARLES BARRATT.
     _Louisiana, New Orleans._--JORDAN B. NOBLE, REV. JOHN GARROW.
     _California, San Francisco._--HENRY M. COLLINS, ORANGE LEWIS.



     II

     SUCCEEDING CONVENTIONS


     The Second Convention, pursuant to a call, was held in Cleveland,
     in August, 1856, when some modification and amendments were made in
     the Constitution, and some changes in the officers of the Board;
     but the president was unanimously re-elected, and continued in
     office until the close of the of the Third Convention, which met
     pursuant to a call in the town of Chatham, Canada West, in August,
     1858, when, resigning his position in the Board, the following
     officers succeeded to the

     GENERAL BOARD OF
     COMMISSIONERS

     CENTRAL COMMISSIONERS--CHATHAM, CANADA
     WILLIAM HOWARD DAY, President
     MATISON F. BAILEY, Vice-President
     GEORGE WASH. BRODIE, Secretary
     JAMES MADISON BELL, Treasurer
     ALFRED WHIPPER, Auditor
     MARTIN R. DELANY, Foreign Secretary

     NOTE.--The names only of the Central Commissioners are here given,
     the others being re-elected as chosen in 1856, at Cleveland.

     OTHER MEMBERS

     ABRAM D. SHADD
     J. HENRY HARRIS
     ISAAC D. SHADD

     At an Executive Council Meeting of the Board, September 1st, 1858,
     the following resolution, as taken from the Minutes, was adopted:
     That Dr. Martin R. Delany, of Chatham, Kent Country, Canada West,
     be a Commissioner to explore in Africa, with full power to choose
     his own colleagues.



     III

     HISTORY OF THE PROJECT


     In the winter of 1831-32, being then but a youth, I formed the
     design of going to Africa, the land of my ancestry; when in the
     succeeding winter of 1832-33, having then fully commenced to study,
     I entered into a solemn promise with the Rev. Molliston Madison
     Clark, then a student in Jefferson College, at Cannonsburg,
     Washington County, Pennsylvania, being but seventeen miles from
     Pittsburgh, where I resided (his vacations being spent in the
     latter place), to complete an education, and go on an independent
     and voluntary mission--to travel in Africa--I as a physician and he
     as a clergyman, for which he was then preparing.

     During these vacations of about seven weeks each, Mr. Clark was of
     great advantage to me in my studies, he being then a man of
     probably thirty years of age, or more, and in his senior year (I
     think) at college.

     This design I never abandoned, although in common with my race in
     America, I espoused the cause, and contended for our political and
     moral elevation on equality with the whites, believing then, as I
     do now, that merit alone should be the test of individual claims in
     the body politic. This cause I never have nor will abandon;
     believing that no man should hesitate or put off any duty for
     another time or place, but "act, act in the _living present_, act,"
     _now_ or _then_. This has been the rule of my life, and I hope ever
     shall be.

     In 1850, I had fully matured a plan for an adventure, and to a
     number of select intelligent gentlemen (of African descent, of
     course) fully committed myself in favor of it. They all agreed that
     the scheme was good; and although neither of them entered
     personally into it, all fully sanctioned it, bidding me God-speed
     in my new adventure, as a powerful handmaid to their efforts in
     contending for our rights in America.

                 *       *       *       *       *

     In 1854, at the great Emigration Convention in Cleveland, my paper,
     read and adopted as a "Report on the Political Destiny of the
     Colored Race on the American Continent," set forth fully my views
     on the advantages of Emigration.

                 *       *       *       *       *

     Although the Call itself strictly prohibits the introduction of the
     question of emigration from the American Continent or Western
     Hemisphere, the qualification which directly follows--"This
     restriction has no reference to _personal_ preference, or
     _individual_ enterprise"--may readily be understood. It was a mere
     policy on the part of the authors of those documents, to confine
     their scheme to America (including the West Indies), whilst they
     were the leading advocates of the regeneration of Africa, lest they
     compromised themselves and their people to the avowed enemies of
     the race.

                 *       *       *       *       *

     The Convention (at Cleveland, 1854), in its Secret Sessions made,
     Africa, with its rich, inexhaustible productions, and great
     facilities for checking the abominable Slave Trade, its most
     important point of dependence, though each individual was left to
     take the direction which in his judgment best suited him. Though
     our great gun was leveled, and the first shell thrown at the
     American Continent, driving a slaveholding faction into despair,
     and a political confusion from which they have been utterly unable
     to extricate themselves, but become more and more complicated every
     year, _Africa was held in reserve, until by the help of an All-wise
     Providence we could effect what has just been accomplished with
     signal success_--a work which the most sanguine friend of the cause
     believed would require at least the half of a century.

     It is a curious, and not less singular historical fact, that a
     leading political journal, and the first newspaper which nominated
     Mr. James Buchanan, many years ago, for the Presidency of the
     United States; and at a time whilst he was yet at the court of St.
     James (1854), as Envoy Extraordinary, this paper was strongly
     urging his claims as such, thus expresses itself, which gives a
     fair idea of the political pro-slavery press generally, especially
     in Pennsylvania, Mr. Buchanan's native State. I intended to give
     the article entire, as alarm will be seen even at the commencement;
     but pressure for space will prevent my quoting but a few sentences.
     It is from the Pittsburgh _Daily Morning Post_, Wednesday, October
     18th, 1854:


     A GRAND SCHEME FOR THE COLORED RACE

     In August last, a National Convention of colored people was held at
     Cleveland, Ohio. It was composed of delegates from most of the
     States. It was called the 'National Emigration Convention,' and its
     objects were to consider the political destinies of the black race;
     and recommend a plan of Emigration to countries where they can
     enjoy political liberty, and form nations 'free and independent.'

     The Committee then proceeds to mark out a grand scheme by which the
     Negro race may be regenerated, and formed into free, intelligent,
     and prosperous nations. The West India Islands, Central America,
     and all the Northern and middle portions of South America,
     including the whole of Brazil, are designated as the regions
     desired; and that can be obtained as the seat of Negro civilization
     and empire. These regions and islands together are represented as
     containing twenty-four and a half millions of population; but
     one-seventh of which, some three and a half millions, are whites of
     pure European extraction; and the remainder, nearly twenty-one
     millions, are colored people of African and Indian origin. This
     immense preponderance of the colored races in those regions, it is
     supposed, will enable them, with the aid of Emigration from the
     United States, to take possession of all those countries and
     islands, and become the ruling race in the empires to be formed out
     of those wide and fruitful realms. The Committee expresses full
     confidence in the practicability of this great undertaking; and
     that nothing is wanting to its success at no distant day but
     unanimity of sentiment and action among the masses of the colored
     people. The climate of those regions is represented as entirely
     congenial to the colored race, while to the European races it is
     enervating and destructive; and this fact, added to the present
     immense superiority of numbers on the part of the negroes, is
     relied on as a sure guarantee of the success of the great
     enterprise; and that their race could forever maintain the
     possession and control of those regions.

     Other great events, it is supposed, will follow in the train of
     this mighty movement. With the West India Islands, and Central and
     South America, composing free negro nations, slavery in the United
     States would, they suppose, soon be at an end. The facility of
     escape, the near neighborhood of friends and aid, it is urged,
     would rapidly drain off from the Southern States all the most
     intelligent, robust, and bold of their slaves.

     Dr. M. R. Delany, of Pittsburgh, was the chairman of the committee
     that made this report to the convention. It was, of course,
     adopted.

     If Dr. D. drafted this report, it certainly does him much credit
     for learning and ability; and cannot fail to establish for him a
     reputation for vigor and brilliancy of imagination never yet
     surpassed. It is a vast conception of impossible birth. The
     Committee seem to have entirely overlooked the strength of the
     'powers on earth' that would oppose the Africanization of more than
     half the Western Hemisphere.

     We have no motive in noticing this gorgeous dream of 'the
     Committee,' except to show its fallacy--its impracticability, in
     fact, its absurdity. No sensible man, whatever his color, should be
     for a moment deceived by such impracticable theories.

     On the African coast already exists a thriving and prosperous
     Republic. It is the native home of the African race; and there he
     can enjoy the dignity of manhood, the rights of citizenship, and
     all the advantages of civilization and freedom. Every colored man
     in this country will be welcomed there as a free citizen; and there
     he can not only prosper, and secure his own comfort and happiness,
     but become a teacher and benefactor of his kindred races; and
     become an agent in carrying civilization and Christianity to a
     benighted continent. That any one will be turned aside from so
     noble a mission by the delusive dream of conquest and empire in the
     Western Hemisphere is an absurdity too monstrous and mischievous to
     be believed. Yet 'the Committee's Report' was accepted, and
     adopted, and endorsed by a 'National Convention;' and is published
     and sent forth to the world.

In July, 1855, Rev. James Theodore Holly, an accomplished black
gentleman, now rector of St. Luke's Church, New Haven, Connecticut,
U.S., was commissioned to Faustin Soulouque, Emperor of Hayti, where he
was received at court with much attention, interchanging many official
notes during a month's residence there, with favorable inducements to
laborers to settle.

During the interval from the first convention, 1854 to 1858, as
President of the Council, I was actively engaged corresponding in every
direction, among which were several States of Central and South America,
as well as Jamaica and Cuba; the Rev. J. T. Holly, who, during two years
of the time, filled the office of Foreign Secretary, contributing no
small share in its accomplishment.

Immediately after the convention of 1856, from which I was absent by
sickness, I commenced a general correspondence with individuals,
imparting to each the basis of my adventure to Africa to obtain
intelligent colleagues. During this time (the Spring of 1857), "Bowen's
Central Africa" was published, giving an interesting and intelligent
account of that extensive portion of Africa known on the large
missionary map of that continent as Yoruba. Still more encouraged to
carry out my scheme at this juncture, Livingstone's great work on Africa
made its appearance, which seemed to have stimulated the
Africo-Americans in many directions, among others, those of Wisconsin,
from whom Mr. Jonathan J. Myers, a very respectable grocer, was
delegated as their Chairman to counsel me on the subject. In the several
councils held between Mr. Myers and myself, it was agreed and understood
that I was to embody their cause and interests in my mission to Africa,
they accepting of the policy of my scheme.

At this time, I made vigorous efforts to accomplish my design, and for
this purpose, among others, endeavored to obtain goods in Philadelphia
to embark for Loando de St. Paul, the Portuguese colony in Loango, South
Africa, where the prospect seemed fair for a good trade in beeswax and
ivory, though Lagos, West Central Africa, was my choice and destination.
Robert Douglass, Esq., artist, an accomplished literary gentleman
(landscape, portrait painter, and photographer) of Philadelphia with
whom I was in correspondence, sent me the following note:


     MR. M. R. DELANY:--PHILADELPHIA, June 17, 1858

     DEAR SIR--I think very highly of the intended Expedition to the
     'Valley of the Niger.' I would be pleased to accompany it
     professionally, if I were to receive a proper outfit and salary.
     Dr. Wilson declines; but Mr. Robert Campbell, of the 'Institute for
     Colored Youth,' a very accomplished Chemist, &c., &c., &c., says he
     will gladly accompany the Expedition, if a proper support for his
     family in his absence were assured. Rev. William Douglass, in
     conversation with me, has expressed very favorable views. Hoping
     you may be very successful, I remain in expectation of receiving
     more detailed accounts of the plan, its prospects and progress,

     Your friend and well-wisher,
                    ROBERT DOUGLASS

     _661, N. Thirteenth St., Phil._


Up to this time, I had never before known or heard of Mr. Campbell, who
is a West India gentleman, native bred in Jamaica, but the
recommendation of Mr. Douglass, an old acquaintance and gentleman of
unsullied integrity, accompanied as it was by the following note from
Dr. Wilson, also an accomplished gentleman of equal integrity, a
physician, surgeon, and chemist, who, being selected by me as Surgeon
and Naturalist of the party, also recommended Mr. Campbell in a detached
note which has been mislaid, was sufficient at the time:


     DR. DELANY:--PHILADELPHIA, June 7th, 1858

     DEAR SIR--I received your note of May 25th, through the kindness of
     R. Douglass, Jr., and can truly say, I am highly gratified to learn
     of so laudable an enterprise and expedition; and would be happy and
     proud to be numbered with the noble hearts and brilliant minds,
     identified with it. Yet, whilst I acknowledge (and feel myself
     flattered by) the honor conferred upon me in being selected for so
     important and honorable position, I regret to inform you, that it
     will be wholly out of my power to accept.

     Very respectfully,
          JAMES H. WILSON

     _838, Lombard Street._


I have been the more induced to give the letters of Mr. Douglass and Dr.
Wilson in favor of Mr. Campbell, because some of my friends were
disposed to think that I "went out of the way to make choice of an
entire stranger, unknown to us, instead of old and tried acquaintances,"
as they were pleased to express it. I had but one object in view--the
Moral, Social, and Political Elevation of Ourselves, and the
Regeneration of Africa, for which I desired, as a _preference_, and
indeed the only _adequate_ and _essential_ means by which it is to be
accomplished, men of African descent, properly qualified and of pure and
fixed principles. These I endeavored to select by corresponding only
with such of my acquaintances.

At the Council which appointed me Commissioner to Africa, having
presented the names of Messrs. Douglass and Campbell, asking that they
also might be chosen; at a subsequent meeting the following action took
place:

Whereas, Dr. Martin R. Delany, Commissioner to Africa, having presented
the names of Messrs. Robert Douglas and Robert Campbell of
Philadelphia, Pa., U.S., requesting that they be appointed
Commissioners, the Board having made him Chief Commissioner with full
power to appoint his own Assistants, do hereby sanction the appointment
of these gentlemen as Assistant Commissioners.

A paper was then laid before the Council, presenting the name and scheme
of the party, which was received and adopted.

Dr. Amos Aray, surgeon, a highly intelligent gentleman, and Mr. James W.
Purnell, also an intelligent young gentleman, bred to mercantile
pursuits, having subsequently sent in their names and received
appointments by the Chief Commissioner, the following document was made
out:


     AFRICAN COMMISSION

     The President and Officers of the General Board of Commissioners,
     viz: William H. Day, A.M., President; Matison F. Bailey,
     Vice-President; George W. Brodie, Secretary; James Madison Bell,
     Treasurer; Alfred Whipper, Auditor; Dr. Martin R. Delany, Special
     Foreign Secretary; Abram D. Shadd, James Henry Harris, and Isaac D.
     Shadd, the Executive Council in behalf of the organization for the
     promotion of the political and other interests of the Colored
     Inhabitants of North America, particularly the United States and
     Canada.

     To all, unto whom these letters may come, greeting: The said
     General Board of Commissioners, in Executive Council assembled,
     have this day chosen, and by these presents do hereby appoint and
     authorize Dr. Martin Robison Delany, of Chatham, County of Kent,
     Province of Canada, Chief Commissioner; and Robert Douglass, Esq.,
     Artist, and Prof. Robert Campbell, Naturalist, both of
     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, one of the United States of America, to
     be Assistant Commissioners; Amos Aray, Surgeon; and James W
     Purnell, Secretary and Commercial Reporter, both of Kent County,
     Canada West, of a Scientific Corps, to be known by the name of

     THE NIGER VALLEY EXPLORING PARTY

    The object of this Expedition is to make a Topographical, Geological
    and Geographical Examination of the Valley of the River Niger, in
    Africa, and an inquiry into the state and condition of the people of
    that Valley, and other parts of Africa, together with such other
    scientific inquiries as may by them be deemed expedient, for the
    purposes of science and for general information; and without any
    reference to, and with the Board being entirely opposed to any
    Emigration there as such. Provided, however, that nothing in this
    Instrument be so construed as to interfere with the right of the
    Commissioners to negotiate in their own behalf, or that of any other
    parties, or organization for territory.

    The Chief-Commissioner is hereby authorized to add one or more
    competent Commissioners to their number; it being agreed and
    understood that this organization is, and is to be exempted from the
    pecuniary responsibility of sending out this Expedition.

    Dated at the Office of the Executive Council, Chatham, county of
    Kent, Province of Canada, this Thirtieth day of August, in the year
    of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-eight.

    By the President,
    WILLIAM HOWARD DAY
    ISAAC D. SHADD, Vice-President[1]
    GEORGE W. BRODIE, Secretary

So soon as these names with their destined mission were officially
published, there arose at once from mistaken persons (_white_) in
Philadelphia, a torrent of opposition, who presuming to know more about
us (the blacks) and our own business than we did ourselves, went even so
far as to speak to one of our party, and tell him that we were _not
ready_ for any such _important_ undertaking, nor could be in _three
years yet to come_! Of course, as necessary to sustain this, it was
followed up with a dissertation on the _disqualification_ of the Chief
of the Party, mentally and physically, _external_ appearances and all.
So effectually was this opposition prosecuted, that colored people in
many directions in the United States and the Canadas, were not only
affected by it, but a "Party" of three had already been chosen and
appointed to supersede us! Even without any knowledge on my part, claims
were made in England in behalf of the "Niger Valley Exploring Party,"
solely through the instrumentality of these Philadelphians.

Such were the effects of this, that our preparatory progress was not
only seriously retarded (I having to spend eight months in New York city
to counteract the influence, where six weeks only would have been
required), but three years originally intended to be spent in exploring
had to be reduced to one, and the number of Commissioners from five to
two, thereby depriving Mr. Robert Douglass from going, an old friend and
most excellent gentleman, whose life, as well as that of his father
before him, had been spent in efforts, not only of self-elevation, but
the elevation also of his people. Many years ago, the accomplished
articles of "Robert Douglass, Jun," to the _United States Gazette_, and
other public journals, forced those negro-hating periodicals to respect
at least the writer, if not his race. Dr. Aray, also an excellent
gentleman who had given up business to join the party, was doomed to
disappointment. And of Mr. Jas. W. Purnell--who met me in New York two
weeks after my arrival, and through the whole eight months of adversity
and doubtful progress, stood by me, performing the duty of Secretary,
writing in every direction, copying, and from dictation for hours at a
time--I cannot say too much. For a young gentleman inexperienced in such
matters, he has no superior; and for integrity, true heartedness, and
trustworthiness, in my estimation, he has few if any rivals. To his
great and good uncle, under whom he was brought up, much of his
character is to be credited.

As an expression of the feelings of the most intelligent emigrationists
with whom I corresponded generally in America, I give below two extracts
from letters of Professor Freeman. The Professor is now as he then was,
the Principal of Avery College.


     ALLEGHANY CITY, April 14, 1858

     MY DEAR FRIEND--Your letter of condolence was duly received, for
     which we tender you our warmest thanks.

     I have read Bowen's work, and shall to-day purchase Livingstone's.
     I am more and more convinced that Africa is the country to which
     all colored men who wish to attain the full stature of manhood, and
     bring up their children to be men and not creeping things, should
     turn their steps; and I feel more and more every day, that I made a
     great mistake in not going there, when I was untrammelled by family
     ties, and had the opportunity.

     Respectfully yours,
              M. H. Freeman

Again the Professor says:

     I see that Emigration has broken out in the East, and that ---- can
     notice one now without scoffing at, which he could not in 1854.
     Well, people can grow wondrously wise in four years. But it will
     take several more _Olympiads_ to bring the leaders among us up to
     the old Cleveland Platform of 1854.

     All the fault of that movement was this, that it was at least one
     generation ahead of the colored heads of our people. We may, if we
     please, refuse to emigrate, and crouch like spaniels, to lick the
     hand that beats us; but children's children at the farthest, will
     have outgrown such pitiful meanness, and will dare to do all that
     others have dared and done for the sake of freedom and
     independence. Then all this cowardly cant about the unhealthy
     climate, the voracious beasts, and venomous reptiles of Africa,
     will be at a discount, instead of passing current as now for wisdom
     and prudence.

Mr. Campbell, who finally agreed voluntarily to be one of the "Niger
Valley Exploring Party," spent some time with us in New York and some
time in Philadelphia, but finally, in consequence of the doubtful
prospects of my success, left, it would seem, at the suggestion and with
the advice and recommendation of parties in Philadelphia, disconnected
with and unknown to me, from whom he received letters of introduction
for England. In justice to myself and party as organized, as well as the
great cause and people whom I represent, I here simply remark, that this
was no arrangement of mine nor our party, as such at the time; and
whatever of success the visit was attended with, and benefit thereby
accrued mutually to us in Africa, I as frankly decline any authority in
the matter and credit to myself, as I should had the result proved what
it might have done otherwise. I am only willing to claim that which is
legitimately mine, and be responsible for my own doings whether good or
bad; but this act the integrity of the Party was forced to acknowledge,
as the following circular published in England will show:


     EXPEDITION TO AFRICA TO PROMOTE THE CULTIVATION OF COTTON AND OTHER
     PRODUCTS OF SLAVE-LABOR BY EMIGRANTS FROM AMERICA

     A party, consisting of Martin R. Delany, M.D., Robert Campbell, J.
     W. Purnell, Robert Douglass, and Amos Aray, M.D., (the last two
     subsequently omitted) has been commissioned by a Convention of
     Colored Persons, held at Chatham, C.W., to proceed to Africa, and
     select a location for the establishment of an Industrial Colony.

     While such an enterprise is of importance in the Evangelization and
     Civilization of Africa, and in affording an asylum in which the
     oppressed descendants of that country may find the means of
     developing their mental and moral faculties unimpeded by unjust
     restrictions, it is regarded as of still greater importance in
     facilitating the production of those staples, particularly Cotton,
     which now are supplied to the world chiefly by Slave Labor. The
     effect of this would be to lessen the profits of Slavery, to render
     in time the slave a burden to his owner, and thus furnish an
     irresistible motive to Emancipation. Africa possesses resources
     which, properly developed, must doubtless render her eventually a
     great, if not the greatest, producer of all the products of Slave
     Labor. And how would all good men rejoice to see the blow which
     shall effectually prostrate the giant Slavery, struck by the Black
     Man's arm! It is necessary, however, that civilized influences be
     diffused in her midst or, at least, that facilities for rendering
     available her products, be supplied equal to the demand for them.

     It is the purpose of the party to proceed to Lagos, thence through
     Abbeokuta to Rabba, on the Niger, about 350 miles from the coast;
     to study the Agricultural and Commercial facilities of the country,
     and the disposition of the Natives towards strangers as settlers;
     also to negotiate for the grant or purchase of land, and to
     ascertain the conditions on which we might be protected in the
     usages of civilized life.

     These objects being accomplished, the party will return and report
     the result of their labors, when a considerable number of
     intelligent and enterprising persons from the United States and
     Canada, many of them intimately acquainted with the production of
     Cotton, and its preparation for market, will be prepared to
     emigrate.

     Towards defraying the expenses of this undertaking, £500 has been
     subscribed in America. This amount has been expended in providing
     for the families of two of the party in their absence; in paying
     the passage of Martin R. Delany and J. W. Purnell to Africa, direct
     from America, and providing them a few articles of outfit; in
     defraying the current expenses of the party since the 1st December
     ult., while engaged in soliciting subscriptions and otherwise
     forwarding the objects of the Expedition; and in providing the
     Subscriber with the means of coming hither.

     It is desired to raise in this country, in time to enable the
     Subscriber to depart for Africa in June by the steamer from
     Liverpool, an additional sum of £250, with which to provide other
     articles of outfit, and goods for trading with the natives for the
     means of subsistence, as well as to provide for other necessary and
     contingent expenses.

     The Subscriber will take the liberty of calling upon you
     personally, at an early day, to solicit your aid in this
     enterprise.

     MANCHESTER, May 13th, 1859 ROBERT CAMPBELL

Grant, for charity's sake, that it was done with the best of motives, it
was flagrantly and fatally at variance with every principle of
intelligent--to say nothing of enlightened--organizations among
civilized men, and in perfect harmony with that mischievous interference
by which the enemies of our race have ever sought to sow discord among
us, to prove a natural contempt for the Negro and repugnance to his
leadership, then taunt us with incapacity for self-government. These
flambeaus and rockets directed with unerring precision, taking effect in
the very centre of our magazine, did not cause, in those for whom it was
intended, a falter nor a wince in their course, but steadily and
determinedly they pressed their way to the completion of their object
under prosecution. In this design the enemy was thwarted.

I drop every reflection and feeling of unpleasantness towards my young
brother Campbell, who, being a West Indian, probably did not understand
those _white Americans_, and formed his opinion of American _blacks_ and
their capacity to "lead," from the estimate they set upon them. I owe it
to posterity, the destiny of my race, the great adventure into which I
am embarked and the position I sustain to it, to make this record with
all Christian (or _African_, if you please) forgiveness, against this
most glaring and determined act of theirs to blast the negro's prospects
in this his first effort in the Christian Era, to work out his own moral
and political salvation, by the regeneration of his Fatherland, through
the medium of a self-projected scheme; and thereby take the credit to
themselves. It was too great an undertaking for negroes to have the
credit of, and therefore they _must_ go _under_ the auspices of some
white American Christians. To be black, it would seem, was necessarily
to be "ungodly"; and to be white was necessarily to be "godly," or
Christian, in the estimation of some.

With a grateful heart, I here as freely record as an equal duty I owe to
posterity, my unfeigned thanks to all those gentlemen who took an active
part and in any way aided the mission on my behalf, either from the
pulpit, by the contribution of books, stationery, charts, instruments,
or otherwise, especially those who made each the _one hundred dollar
contribution_, and the two in New York, through whose instrumentality
and influence these were obtained. Those disinterested and voluntary
acts of kindness I never shall forget whilst reason occupies her throne,
and would here willingly record their names, had I their consent to do
so.

I sailed from New York May 24th, in the fine _barque Mendi_--Captain
M'Intyre--vessel and cargo owned by Johnson, Turpin and Dunbar, three
enterprising colored gentlemen of Monrovia, Liberia, all formerly of New
York, U.S. In the name of the General Board of Commissioners for the
promotion of the political and other interest of the colored people of
the United States and the Canadas, by self-exertion, I thank them.

I cannot close this section without expressing my obligations to Captain
M'Intyre for his personal kindness to me; and also to his first officer,
Captain Vernon Locke, (himself a ship-master, who took the position of
first officer for the voyage, and who had been, for the last three or
four years, collecting scientific information by astronomical,
meteorological, and other observations, for Lieutenant Maury, Director
of the Observatory at Washington, D.C., U.S.,) I am greatly indebted for
many acts of kindness in facilitating my microscopic and other
examinations and inquiries, during the voyage. Concerning the _nautilus
and whale_, I learned more through this accomplished seaman than I had
ever learned before. The first by examination of the mollusca, which
were frequently caught by Captain L. for my accommodation--and of the
latter, by oral information received from him (who had been a great
whaler) on frequently observing those huge monsters during the
voyage.[2]

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Mr. Shadd was elected Vice-President in the place of Mr. Bailey, who
left the Province for New Caledonia.

[2] On the 16th day of June, lat. 35 deg. 35 min., long. 38 deg. 39
min., a very large school (the largest Captain Locke said that he had
ever seen or read of), probably _five hundred_, of sperm whales made
their appearance in the segment of a circle to windward and leeward of
the vessel about noon, continuing in sight, blowing and spouting,
filling the air with spray for a long time, to our amusement and
delight. The captain said, though an old whaler, he had never known of
sperm whales in that latitude before; and from the immense number, and
as they were frequently seen as we approached Africa many times on
different days afterwards, that he thought a new whaling point had been
discovered. Other whales were also seen frequently in these
latitudes--lazy, shy, "old bulls," which floated with their huge backs
and part of their heads out of water, so as to expose their eyes, when
they would suddenly disappear and as quickly appear again; but the great
quantity of _squid spawn_, the peculiar _mollusca_ upon which the sperm
whale feeds, made it ominous, according to the opinion of Captain Locke,
that a great new sperm whale fishery had been discovered, the spawn
being seen during several days' sail before and after observing the
great school.

NOTE.--I should not close this part of my report without stating that,
during the year 1858, Mr. Myers wrote to the Royal Geographical Society,
London; Thomas Clegg, Esq., Manchester; Dr. Livingstone, and perhaps
others, all over _my name_ as secretary and himself chairman. The
letters referred to were written (without my knowledge) by a son of Mr.
Myers; and I only mention the fact here because I am unwilling to claim
the honor of the authorship of correspondence carried on through a lad
of sixteen years of age.



IV

ARRIVAL AND RECEPTION IN LIBERIA


Arrival in Africa

Saturday, July 10th.--I landed on the beach at Grand Cape Mount,
Robertsport, in company with Messrs. the Hon. John D. Johnson, Joseph
Turpin, Dr. Dunbar, and Ellis A. Potter, amid the joyous acclamations of
the numerous natives who stood along the beautiful shore, and a number
of Liberians, among whom was Reverend Samuel Williams, who gave us a
hearty reception. Here we passed through the town (over the side of the
hill), returning to the vessel after night.


Monrovia

Monday, July 12th.--The roadstead of Monrovia was made about noon, when
I, in company with B. E. Castendyk, Esq., a young German gentleman
traveling for pleasure, took lodgings at Widow Moore's, the residence of
Rev. John Seys, the United States consular agent, and commissioner for
recaptured Africans.

On the day after my arrival, the following correspondence took place:


     Residence of the United States Consular Agent Monrovia, Liberia,
     July 12th, 1859

     To His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Liberia:
     SIR--By a Convention of Colored People of the United States and the
     Canadas, Martin R. Delany, Robert Douglass, Robert Campbell, Amos
     Aray, and James W. Purnell, were appointed as Commissioners under
     the name of the 'Niger Valley Exploring Party,' to make an
     Exploration through different parts of Africa.

     I have arrived, Sir, near your Government, and expect soon to meet
     other members of the party. Any aid, orally, documentary, or in the
     person of an Official Commissioner, which you may please to give to
     facilitate the mission in Liberia will be gratefully and highly
     appreciated. I ask the favor of an interview with your Excellency,
     either privately or in Cabinet Council, or with any other gentlemen
     that the occasion may suggest, at such time as may be designated.

     I am happy, Sir, of the opportunity of giving your Excellency
     assurance of my most distinguished consideration.

     M. R. DELANY


     His Excellency, President Benson. Government House, Monrovia,
     July 13, 1859

     SIR--I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
     the 12th instant, conveying to me the information of your
     appointment (in connection with colleagues expected soon to
     arrive), by a Convention of the colored people of the United States
     and the Canadas, 'Commissioners,' under the name of 'The Niger
     Valley Exploring Party'; and of your arrival near this Government.
     You have also been pleased to signify, that you will duly
     appreciate any aid, oral, documentary or in the form of an official
     Commissioner this Government may feel disposed to afford you, in
     facilitation of the enterprise.

     In reply, I have to express my deep regret, that the receipt of
     your very interesting note is on the very eve of my leaving this
     city on an official visit to the leeward counties, which will, for
     the present, deprive me of the pleasure I had anticipated of an
     interview with you on the very interesting and highly important
     objects of your mission.

     The Hon. John N. Lewis, Secretary of State, with whom I will
     converse on the subject matter of your note before leaving, will be
     pleased to grant you an audience; and will, with pleasure, meet
     your wishes, so far as he can consistently.

     Please be reassured of the deep interest I feel in your very
     laudable enterprise; and that, if it were not for very important
     despatches received last week from the county of Maryland, which
     make it absolutely necessary that I should delay no time in
     reaching there, I would defer my departure a couple of days for the
     express purpose of consultation with you in person.

     I have the honor to be most respectfully,
                   Your very obedient servant,

     To M. R. Delany, Esq., &c.   STEPHEN A. BENSON

       *       *       *       *       *

     Monrovia, July 13, 1859 Martin R. Delany, Esq.:

     DEAR SIR--The undersigned, citizens of the city of Monrovia, having
     long heard of you and your efforts in the United States to elevate
     our down-trodden race, though those efforts were not infrequently
     directed against Liberia, are glad to welcome you, in behalf of the
     community to these shores; recognizing, as they do in you, an
     ardent and devoted lover of the African race, and an industrious
     agent in promoting their interests. And they take this opportunity
     of expressing to you their most cordial sympathy with the
     enterprise which has brought you to these shores, sincerely
     praying that your endeavors may be crowned with complete success.

     The undersigned, further, in the name and behalf of the members of
     this community, respectfully request that you would favor the
     citizens with a lecture to-morrow evening, or on any other evening
     you may choose to appoint, at half-past seven o'clock, on any
     subject you may be pleased to select.

     On receiving your reply notices will be issued accordingly.

     B. P. YATES       H. W. DENNIS
     D. B. WARNER      URIAS A. MCGILL
     SAML. F. MCGILL    H. A. JOHNSON
     B. V. R. JAMES    EDW. W. BLYDEN
     SAML. MATTHEWS


     Residence of the United States Consular Agent, Monrovia, July
     13th, 1859

     GENTLEMEN--Your note of to-day has been received, for the honor of
     which I thank you, and beg to say that numerous engagements prevent
     me from complying with your request on to-morrow evening.

     You are mistaken, gentlemen, in supposing that I have ever spoken
     directly 'against Liberia,' as wherever I have been I have always
     acknowledged a unity of interests in our race wherever located; and
     any seeming opposition to Liberia could only be constructively
     such, for which I am not responsible.

     Should it be your pleasure, I will do myself the honor serving you
     on Monday evening next, or any other evening during the week, by a
     discourse on the 'Political Destiny of the African Race,' and
     assure you of the pleasure with which I have the honor to be,

     Your most obedient servant,
                    M. R. DELANY

     Col. B. P. Yates; Hon. D. B. Warner; S. F. McGill, M.D.; Hon. B. V.
     R. James; Rev. Saml. Matthews; Urias McGill, Esq.; Rev. Edw. W.
     Blyden; H. W. Dennis, Esq.; H. A. Johnson, Esq., District Attorney.

            *       *       *       *       *

     M. R. Delany, Esq.: Monrovia, July 14, 1859

     SIR--We have the honor to acknowledge your note of to-day in reply
     to an invitation of yesterday from us requesting that you would
     favor us, with many others, with an address on to-morrow evening,
     or at any other time agreeable to yourself. Having signified to us
     that next Monday evening you would be pleased to comply with the
     request, we tender you our thanks and will be happy to listen to a
     discourse on the 'Political destiny of the African Race.'

     We have the honor to be, very respectfully, &c., yours,

     B. V. R. JAMES
     SAML. MATTHEWS
     And others


Reception

On Monday evening, the 19th of July, having addressed a crowded audience
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, Ex-Governor McGill in the chair, T.
M. Chester, Esq., Secretary; Ex-President Roberts rose and in a short
speech, in the name of the Liberians, welcomed me to Africa. By a vote
of thanks and request to continue the discourse on a subsequent
evening, this request was complied with on the following Tuesday
evening.


     Dr. M. R. Delany, Monrovia, July 28, 1859

     DEAR SIR--The undersigned citizens of Monrovia having been much
     edified by listening to two very interesting lectures delivered by
     you in the Methodist church, avail themselves of this method to
     express their appreciation of the same, and to respectfully request
     that you will favor the community with a popular lecture on
     'Physiology' on Friday evening, the 29th inst.

     HENRY J. ROBERTS
     SAML. F. MCGILL
     B. P. YATES
     HENRY W. DENNIS
     EDWD. W. BLYDEN


Public Lecture

The reply to this polite invitation of Doctors Roberts and McGill, and
others, having been mislaid, I simply remark here that the request was
complied with on the evening of August 3d, in the Methodist Church, to a
crowded house of the most intelligent citizens of Monrovia, of both
sexes and all ages.


Departure from Monrovia.
Coasting, Cape Palmas

On the evening of August 5th, I left Monrovia in the bark Mendi,
stopping at Junk, Little Bassa, Grand Bassa mouth of St. John's River,
Sinou, arriving at Cape Palmas Sabbath noon, August 20th.


Missionary Greeting

Half an hour after my arrival, I was called upon by the Rev. Mr.
Hoffman, Principal of the Female Orphan Asylum, at the residence of John
Marshall, Esq., whose hospitality I was then receiving, and in the name
of the white Missionaries welcomed to that part of Liberia. Before Mr.
Hoffman left I was honored by a visit also from Rev. Alexander Crummell,
Principal of Mount Vaughan High School, where, after partaking of the
hospitality of Mr. Marshall during that day and evening, I took up my
residence during a month's stay in this part of Liberia.


Correspondence

Having taken the _acclimating fever_ on the 5th of the month, the day I
left Monrovia, and besides regularly a dessert spoonful of a solution of
the sulphate of _quinia_ three times a day, and the night of my arrival
two eight grain doses of Dover's Powder, the reference to "the state of
my health" in the following correspondence, will be understood:


     To Dr. M. R. Delany:

     DEAR SIR--We, the undersigned citizens of the county of Maryland,
     Liberia, beg to tender you a heartfelt welcome to our neighborhood,
     and to assure you of our warmest interest in the important mission
     which has called you to the coast of Africa. Perhaps you will
     consent, should your health permit, to favor us with a public
     interview before you leave. We would be most happy to hear your
     views concerning the interest of our race in general, and of your
     mission in particular. Moreover, by so doing, you will afford us an
     opportunity of paying you that respect which your reputation,
     talents, and noble mission command, and which it is our sincere
     desire to pay you.

     If Thursday or Friday will suit your convenience it will be
     agreeable to us; but we leave the character of the meeting to be
     designated by yourself.

     Aug. 23,1859
     D. R. FLETCHER    THOS. FULLER
     B. J. DRAYTON     RICHD. W. KNIGHT
     J. T. GIBSON      JOHN MARSHALL
     C. H. HARMON      GILES ELEM
     S. B. D'LYON     T. S. DENT
     L. R. HAMILTON    A. WOOD
     BENJAMIN COOK     J. W WILLIAMS
     H. W. MOULTON     WM. W. PEARCE
     ANSBURN TUBMAN    R. A. GRAY
     JAMES M. MOULTON  JAS. ADAMS
     N. JACKSON, JUN.  J. W. COOPER
     JNO. E. MOULTON

       *       *       *       *       *

     Mount Vaughan, near Harper, Cape Palmas
                           August 27th, 1859

     Gentlemen--Your note of the 23rd inst., requesting me, should my
     health permit, to appear before the citizens of your county, is
     before me, and for the sentiments therein expressed I thank you
     most kindly.

     As I have reason to believe that I am now convalescent from my
     second attack of native fever, should my health continue to improve
     I shall start on an exploration for the head of Kavalla river on
     Monday next ensuing, to return on Friday evening.

     Should it be your pleasure, gentlemen, and my health will permit, I
     will meet you on Monday, the 5th of September, the place and hour
     to be hereafter named according to circumstances.

     I assure you of the pleasure, Gentlemen, with which I have the
     honor to be,

     Your most obedient servant,
                   M. R. DELANY

     Gen. Wood; Judge Drayton; Rev. Alex. Crummell; John
     Marshall, Esq.; Hon. J. T. Gibson; C. H. Harmon,
     Esq.; J. W. Cooper, Esq.; Dr. Fletcher; Giles Elem,
     Esq.; Jas. M. Moulton, Esq.; Benjamin Cook, Esq.; S.
     B. D'Lyon, M.D., and others, Committee, &c., &c.


Reception Meeting at Palmas

On the evening of the 14th this request was complied with in the
Methodist Church at Latrobe, an out-village of Harper, by addressing a
crowded assemblage of both sexes and all ages of the most respectable
people of the Cape, on the part of whom I was most cordially welcomed by
Rev. Alexander Crummell.



V

LIBERIA--CLIMATE, SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, ETC.


Territory, Climate

Liberia extends from a point north of Grand Cape Mount, about 7 deg. 30
min. north lat., on sea shore, northeasterly to the western extremity of
the most southern range of the Kong Mountains, lat. 4 deg. 30 min. The
climate is generally salubrious, and quite moderate. But it is
frequently somewhat oppressive, though mild and genial, and the high
hills and mountain ranges sometimes enervating to strangers or
foreigners from temperate climates, in consequence of the "air being
freighted with _fragrance_" from the _flowers_ and _aroma_ of the
exuberant, rich, rank growth of vegetable matter, as trees, shrubbery,
and other herbage.


Temperature

The temperature is seldom or never great, the average being 85 deg.
Fahr.[5] This, it will be perceived, is but 5 deg. above _summer_
temperature in the temperate _zone_ of America, according to
Fahrenheit's scale.


Comparative Temperature Bees

It is worthy of observation that, by a natural law, we are enabled to
compare the temperature in many parts of Africa satisfactorily with that
of some other countries. There are parts of India, and also Central and
South America, where it is said that _bees_ cannot propagate, in
consequence of their inability to build their cells because of the heat,
the cera or wax melting in their hive or habitation. While in Africa
such is not the case, there being no part known to civilized travelers
where bees are not seen ever busy on every blossom, gathering their
store, leaving laden with the rich delicacies of the blooming flowers;
and Doctor Livingstone not only speaks most frequently of the profusion
of honey in the extensive country through which he traveled, but says
that, while near the coast in Loango, he encountered many persons laden
with "tons of _beeswax_" carried on their heads exposed to the sun, on
their way to the trading posts. And during our stay at Abbeokuta, Mr.
Campbell my colleague, had two swarms of bees; the first taken by him
when in _transitu_ (swarmed) and hived, which bred a new swarm in the
hive at the Mission House where we resided.


Soil, Stone, Minerals, Productions

The soil is very rich, which, like that of other parts of Africa through
which I traveled, rates from a sandy loam to a rich alluvial, resting on
strata of granite, limestone, and quartz with a large percentage of
mica, profusely incorporated with iron, and doubtless other rich
minerals not yet discovered. Palm oil and camwood are abundant,
comprising the principal articles of native products for exportation; a
good deal of ivory from the interior through the Golah country, but not
so much as formerly; palm nuts, which principally go to France; ginger,
arrowroot, pepper, coffee, sugar and molasses, to which three latter
articles (as well as pepper, ginger and arrowroot,) the industrious
citizens of Liberia have, during the last six years, turned their
attention.


Domestic Animals, Fowls, Goats, Sheep, Swine, Cattle

The stock consists of fowls of various kinds--as chickens, ducks, common
and Muscovy; Guinea fowls in abundance; turkeys, and on one farm--the
_Gaudilla farm_ of William Spencer Anderson, Esq., sugar planter, on the
St. Paul River--geese. Neither are the cows so small as supposed to be
from the general account given of them by travelers. Those which are
common to, and natives of this part of Africa, which I shall classify as
the _Bassa_ (pronounced _Bassaw_) cattle, are handsome and well-built,
comparing favorably in size (though neither so long-legged nor
long-bodied) with the small cattle in the interior counties of
Pennsylvania, U.S., where no attention is paid scientifically to the
breeding of cattle; though the Liberia or Bassa are much the heaviest,
and handsomely made like the _Golah_, or _Fulatah_, hereafter to be
described, resembling the Durham cattle of England in form. Also swine,
goats, and sheep are plentiful.


Horses, None. Why?

I saw but one horse in Liberia, and that on the Gaudilla farm of Mr.
Anderson; and though, as the Liberians themselves informed me, they have
been taken there by the Mandingo and Golah traders, they never lived.
And why--if they live in other parts of Africa, on the western coast,
which they do, even near the _Mangrove swamps_, as will hereafter be
shown--do they not live in Liberia, the civilized settlements of which
as yet, except on the St. Paul and at Careysburg, are confined to the
coast? There are certainly causes for this, which I will proceed to
show.


Horse Feed, Pasturage, Hay

In the first place, horses, like all other animals, must have feed
naturally adapted to their sustenance. This consists mainly of grass,
herbage, and grains, especially the latter when the animal is
domesticated. Secondly, adequate shelter from sun and weather, as in the
wild state by instinct they obtain these necessary comforts for
themselves.


No Cultivated Farms--No Shelter for Horses

Up to the time, then, when the Liberians ceased the experiment of
keeping horses, they had not commenced in any extensive manner to
cultivate farms, consequently did not produce either maize (Indian
corn), Guinea corn (an excellent article for horses in Africa,
resembling the American broom corn both in the stock, blade, and grain,
the latter being larger and browner than those of the broom corn, and
more nutritious than oats); peas, nor any other grain upon which those
animals are fed, and the great, heavy, rich, rank, pseudo reed-grass of
the country was totally unfit for them, there being no grass suited
either for pasturage or hay. Again, I was informed by intelligent,
respectable Liberians, that to their knowledge there never had been a
stable or proper shelter prepared for a horse, but that they had, in one
or more instances, known horses to be kept standing in the sun the
entire day, and in the open air and weather during the entire night,
while their owners had them.


No Horses; Why, and Why Not

It is very evident from this, that horses could not live in Liberia, and
since the _tsetse_ fly introduced to the notice of the scientific world
recently by Doctor Livingstone the African Explorer, has never been seen
nor heard of in this part of the continent, nor any other insect that
tormented them, those must have been the prime causes of fatality to
these noble and most useful domestic creatures. I have been thus
explicit in justice to Liberia, even in opposition to the opinion of
some very intelligent and highly qualified gentlemen in that country
(among whom is my excellent friend, Doctor Roberts, I think,) because I
believe that horses can live there as well as in other parts of Africa,
when fairly and scientifically inquired into and tested. Proper feed and
care, I have no doubt, will verify my opinion; and should I but be
instrumental, by calling the attention of my brethren in Liberia to
these facts, in causing them _successfully_ to test the matter, it will
be but another evidence of the fact, that the black race should take
their affairs in their own hands, instead of placing them in the hands
of others.


Exploration. Farms, Sugar, Coffee

My explorations in Liberia extended to every civilized settlement in the
Republic except Careysburg, and much beyond these limits up the Kavalla
River. There is much improvement recently up the St. Paul River, by the
opening up of fine, and in some cases, extensive farms of coffee and
sugar; also producing rice, ginger, arrowroot, and pepper, many of which
have erected upon them handsome and well-constructed dwellings; also
sugar mills and machinery for the manufacture of sugar and molasses,
which articles manufactured, compare favorably with the best produced in
other countries. There has, as yet, been no improvement introduced in
the hulling and drying of coffee, there being probably not enough
produced to induce the introduction of machinery. I am informed that
there have also been commenced several good farms on the Junk River,
which district, farther than the settlement at the mouth, I did not
visit. The people are willing and anxious for improvement, and on
introducing to many of the farmers the utility of cutting off the centre
of each young coffee-tree so soon as it grew above the reach of a man
of ordinary height, I had the satisfaction of seeing them immediately
commence the execution of the work. The branches of the tree spread, in
proportion to the checking of the height; hence, instead of eight feet
apart, as some of the farmers have done, the trees should be planted at
least twenty feet apart, thus leaving ample space between for the
spreading of the branches. The tree should never be permitted to grow
too high to admit of the berry being picked from the ground, or at least
from a stand which may be stepped upon without climbing.


Schools

The schools are generally good, every settlement being amply
accommodated with them; and in Monrovia and at Cape Palmas the classics
are being rigidly prosecuted.[4]


Churches Missionaries

Churches are many and commodious, of every Christian
denomination--except, I believe, the Roman Catholic. The Missionaries
seem to be doing a good work, there being many earnest and faithful
laborers among them of both sexes, black and white, and many native
catechists and teachers, as well as some few preachers.


Business, Professions, Theology, Medicine, Law

The principal business carried on in Liberia is that of trading in
native and foreign produce, the greater part being at the Capital. The
greater part of merchants here are Liberians; but there are also three
white houses--two German and one American. And along the coast there are
a number of native trading-posts, the proprietors of which are white
foreigners, with black agents. Many of the Liberian Clergy of all
denominations are well educated gentlemen; and the Medical Profession is
well represented by highly accomplished Physicians; but of all the
professions, the Law is the most poorly represented--there being, as I
learnt when there, but one young gentlemen at the bar who had been bred
to the profession; and not a Judge on the bench who was learned in the
law. This I do not mention in disparagement of the gentlemen who fill
those honorable positions of presiding over the legal investigations of
their country, as many--indeed, I believe the majority of them--are
clergymen, who from necessity have accepted those positions, and fill
their own legitimate callings with credit. I sincerely hope that the day
is not far distant when Liberia will have her learned counsellors and
jurists--dispensing law, disseminating legal opinions, and framing
digests as well as other countries, for the benefit of nations.


Council

At Grand Bassa I held a Council with some of the most eminent Liberians,
among whom were several members of the National Legislature--the
venerable Judge Hanson in the chair. Several able speeches were
made--the objects of my mission and policy approved; and I shall never
forget the profound sensation produced at that ever-memorable Council,
and one of the most happy hours of my life. When the honored old judge
and sage, sanctioning my adventure, declared that, rather than it should
fail, he would join it himself, and with emotion rose to his feet; the
effect was inexpressible, each person being as motionless as a statue.


Public Affairs, Municipal and Public Improvements

The laws of Liberia seem to be well constructed, and framed to suit the
wants of the people, and their public affairs are quite well and
creditably conducted. But there is a great deficiency in public
improvements, and, as I learned--and facts from actual observation
verified until comparatively recent--also in public spirit. There are no
public buildings of note, or respectable architectural designs; no
harbor improvements, except a lighthouse each on the beautiful summit
rock-peaks of Cape Messurado and Cape Palmas--not even a buoy to
indicate the shoal; no pier, except a little one at Palmas; nor an
attempt at a respectable wharfage for canoes and lighters (the large
keels owned by every trading vessel, home and foreign, which touches
there.) And, with the exception of a handsome wagon-road, three and a
half miles out from Harper, Cape Palmas, beyond Mount Vaughan, there is
not a public or municipal road in all Liberia. Neither have I seen a
town which has a paved street in it, although the facilities for paving
in almost all the towns are very great, owing to the large quantities of
stone everywhere to be had.


The Capital No City

And what is surprising, Monrovia, although the capital, has not a city
municipality to give it respectability as such; hence, there is neither
mayor nor council (city council I mean) to give character to any public
occasion, but His Excellency the President, the Chief Executive of the
nation, must always be dragged down from his reserved and elevated
position, and made as common as a common policeman to head every little
petty affair among the people. The town was once, by the wisdom of some
legislators, chartered into a city, and Dr. T. F. M'Gill (ex-governor)
chosen mayor, who, by his high intelligence and fitness for the office,
had commenced the most useful and commendable improvements; but the
wisdom of other legislators, after a year's duration, in consequence of
the heavy expenses incurred to "make Monrovia, where big folks lived, a
fine place," repealed the act, degrading their Capital to a town. That
is the same as declaring that a court shall not have a judge--the nation
a President or Executive, or there shall be no head at all; hence, to
reduce the judge to the grade of a lawyer, the lawyer to that of the
clerk of the court, the President of the nation to that of the county
magistrate, and the county magistrate to that of a constable. How much
respect would a people be entitled to who would act thus? They must
understand that nothing is greater than its head, and the people of a
nation cannot rise above the level of the head of their nation any more
than the body of the individual in its natural position can be raised
above the head. It is just so with a town population. A villager is a
villager, a citizen is a citizen, and a metropolitan is a
metropolitan--each of which is always expected to have a standing
commensurate with his opportunities.


Self-Reliance, Ways and Means

One word as a suggestion in political economy to the young politician of
Liberia: Always bear in mind, that the fundamental principle of every
nation is _self-reliance_, with the _ability to create their own ways
and means_: without this, there is no capacity for _self-government_. In
this short review of public affairs, it is done neither to disparage nor
under-rate the gentlemen of Liberia with whom, from the acquaintance I
have made with them in the great stride for black nationality, I can
make common cause, and hesitate not to regard them, in unison with
ourselves, a noble band of brothers.


Executive Munificence

There has been much progress made in the various industrial vocations
within a few years past by the munificence of President Benson, aided by
the wisdom of the Legislature, through the agency of a national
agricultural fair, with liberal premiums on samples exhibited in a
spacious receptacle prepared each season for the purpose, in the Public
Square in front of the President's mansion, called Palm Palace. Like his
predecessor President Roberts, in pressing the claims of his country
before the nations of Europe, President Benson has spared no authority
which he possessed in developing the agricultural resources of his
country. Every man has his _forte_, and in his turn probably becomes a
_necessity_ for the time being, according to his faculty. Consequently
my opinion is, that the _forte_ and mission of President Roberts for the
time being were the establishment of a Nationality, and that of
President Benson the development of its resources, especially the
agricultural. Neither of these gentlemen, therefore, might be
under-rated, as each may have been the instrument which God in his
wisdom appointed to a certain work.


Official and Personal Favors

To John Moore, Esq., Government Surveyor; the Hon. B. P. Yates,
ex-Vice-President of the Republic; Hon. John Seys, U.S. Agent for
Re-captured Africans, and Consular Agent, I am much indebted for acts of
kindness in facilitating my Explorations in Liberia. The Hon. Mr. Seys
and Mr. Moore, for personally accompanying me up the St. Paul River; and
Colonel Yates, for the loan of his fine canvas-covered boat for my use.
Also to Dr. Henry J. Roberts, for remedies and medicines for my own use;
Dr. Thomas F. M'Gill, for offering to make advances on articles of
merchandise which I took out on trade to bear expenses, much beyond the
market price; and to those excellent gentlemen, Messrs. Johnson, Turpin,
and Dunbar, also for large advances made above market price in cash for
my commodity, as well as other favors, especially on the part of Mr.
Johnson, who, having for years been a resident in Monrovia, did
everything to advance my mission and make my duty an agreeable one.

To the Rev. Alexander Crummell, who accompanied me up the Kavalla, above
the Falls, making my task an easy one; to Drs. Fletcher and D'Lyon, who
rendered me professional aid, and also to our excellent, faithful, and
reliable guide, Spear Mehia is, a native civilized Christian Prince, the
son of the old friend of the missionaries, Nmehia, the deceased King of
Kavalla, I here make acknowledgments. And I cannot close this section
without an acknowledgment that, wherever I went, the people of the
country generally did everything to make me happy--Esquire Wright at
Junk, Dr. Smith at Grand Bassa, and the Hon. Mr. Priest at Sinou whose
guest I was, all here will receive my thanks for their aid in
facilitating my mission.


Settlement and Sites of Towns

I conclude this section by remarking, that Monrovia is one of the
handsomest and most eligible sites for a city that I ever saw, and only
lacks the population and will of the people to make it a most beautiful
place; and how much it is to be regretted that the charter was repealed,
and Mayor M'Gill and the City Council cut off in the beginning of the
first steps towards a national pride, which was to have a Capital City
in reality as well as name.[3] How unsightly to a stranger, as he steps
from the boat at the mouth of Stockton Creek, on the Messurado River, is
the rude and rugged steep, leading by simple pathways in true native
style, from the warehouses up to the town, which, if improved as it
might and should be, would be one of the most pleasing as well as
attractive approaches to any city in the world. Not even is there a
respectable public market-house or market space in town. But wisdom
decreed it otherwise, and for the present it must be so. "Wisdom" in
this case "hath" _not_ "built her house" neither "hath she hewn out" the
stone "pillars" leading from the beach.

Another good site for a city is Edina, on the northeast side of the St.
John River, opposite Buchanan, Grand Bassa, which doubtless in time
Buchanan will include. This is also a handsome place, from the gradually
rising elevation. Edina is the residence of that great-hearted, good old
gentleman, Judge Hanson. Junk, Little Bassa, and Sinou, are also good,
but each of these are low, and consequently not so imposing.

Next to Monrovia is Cape Palmas for beauty of location and scenery, and
a stranger will more readily be pleased at first sight with Harper than
the Capital. A beautiful city will in time occupy the extensive Cape for
several miles back, including Mount Vaughan and the country around; and
it may be remarked, that this place presents greater evidences of public
improvement than any town in Liberia, and the only place in the country
which has a regular wagon road with ox-teams running upon it.


Buildings

The private buildings in Liberia are generally good and substantial, and
especially those of Monrovia, built of brick. Many of them are handsome
and quite extensive mansions, the warehouses mostly being built of
stone. The wooden houses generally are well-built frames, and
"weather-boarded," and not, as some romancers and wonder-vendors would
have it, being either log, bamboo, or mud huts. To take the settlers
generally, there cannot be much fault found with their style of living,
except perhaps in some instances, rather a little too much extravagance.
Caldwell, Clay-Ashland, and Millsburg on the St. Paul, are pleasant and
prospectively promising villages, and deserve a notice in this place.
Clay-Ashland is the residence of Judge Moore, to whom I am indebted for
personal favors and much useful information when examining the land
over his extensive sugar and coffee farms. And to my excellent friend
Dr. Daniel Laing, of the same place, for similar acts of courtesy and
kindness, I am much indebted.


Public Meeting

I addressed the citizens in a very long political meeting in the
Methodist church, on the evening of my visit there.

FOOTNOTES:

[3] This day, August 2, 1861, while revising this Report, the
thermometer Fahr. stands in the most favorable shade in the town of
Chatham, Kent county, C. W., 96 deg. (98 is the general test of this
day) and in the sun 113--being one degree above _fever heat_. A fact to
which my attention was called by an intelligent Liberian--and which
science may hereafter account for--that the nearer the approach to the
equator, the more moderate is the heat. Has the sun the same effect upon
the general bulk of the earth that it has upon particular locations--the
greater the elevation the cooler--or is it because of the superior
velocity of this part, that a _current_ is kept up by its passage
through the _atmosphere_ surrounding it? It is a settled fact that the
earth is "elevated at the equator and depressed at the poles," and hills
are cool, while valleys and plains are hot, because of their peculiar
property of attracting and reflecting heat.

[4] The "Liberia College" has been fully established since my visit
there, by the erection of a fine stone edifice, and the choice of the
Hon. Ex-President Joseph Jenkins Roberts, President and Professor of
Jurisprudence and International Law; Rev. Alexander Crummell, A.B.,
Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy and English Literature;
Rev. Edward Welmot Blydon, Professor of Greek and Latin Languages and
Literature. This is a grand stride in the march of African Regeneration
and Negro Nationality.

[5] I am happy to learn by advices recently received from Liberia, that
Monrovia has again been created and organized a City Municipality,
ex-Judge James Mayor; and I should have named in connection with the
public spirit of Liberia, three newspapers--the _Liberia Herald_, _Star
of Liberia_, and _Christian Advocate_--the last, a religious journal,
under the auspices of that excellent Christian gentleman, Bishop Burns
the Methodist Missionary-Bishop of Liberia.



VI DISEASES--CAUSE--REMEDY


First Symptoms

The first sight and impressions of the coast of Africa are always
inspiring, producing the most pleasant emotions. These pleasing
sensations continue for several days, more or less, until they gradually
merge into feelings of almost intense excitement, not only mentally, but
the entire physical system share largely in it, so that it might be
termed a hilarity of feeling almost akin to approaching intoxication; or
as I imagine, like the sensation produced by the beverage of champagne
wine. Never having enjoyed the taste for it, I cannot say from
experience.


Second Stage of Symptoms

The first symptoms are succeeded by a relaxity of feelings, in which
there is a disposition to stretch, gape, and yawn, with fatigue.


Third Stage of Symptoms

The second may or may not be succeeded by actual febrile attacks, with
nausea, chills, or violent headache; but whether or not such symptoms
ensue, there is one most remarkable, as almost (and I think quite) a
necessary affection, attendant upon the acclimation at this incipient
stage: _a feeling of regret that you left your native country for a
strange one; an almost frantic desire to see friends and nativity; a
despondency and loss of the hope of ever seeing those you love at home
again_.

These feelings, of course, must be resisted, and _regarded as a mere
morbid affection of the mind_ at the time, arising from an approaching
disease, which is not necessarily serious, and may soon pass off; which
is really the case.


Its Effects

It is generally while laboring under this last-described symptom, that
persons send from Africa such despairing accounts of their
disappointments and sufferings, with horrible feelings of dread for the
worst to come.


Recovery

When an entire recovery takes place, the love of the country is most
ardent and abiding. I have given the symptoms _first_, to make a proper
impression first.


Diseases

I have thought it proper to give a section in my Report entirely to the
diseases of Liberia, which are the same as those in other parts of
Africa, with their complication with diseases carried from America by
the settlers.


Native Diseases, Peculiar Character in Liberia

The native diseases are mainly the native fever, which is nothing but
the _intermittent fever_ of America, known in different parts as _ague_,
_chills and fever_, _fever and ague_, with its varied forms of
_bilious_, _intermittent_, _remittent_, _continued_, and its worst form
of _inflammatory_ when it most generally assumes the _congestive_ type
of the American Southern States. In this condition, the typhoid symptoms
with _coma_, give unmistakable evidence of the character of the malady.
The native fever which is common to all parts of Africa, in Liberia
while to my judgment not necessarily fatal (and in by far the greater
percentage of cases in the hands of an intelligent, skilful physician,
quite manageable), is generally much worse in its character there than
in the Yoruba country, where I have been. The symptoms appear to be much
more aggravated and the patient to suffer more intensely.


_Causes_

The density and rankness of the vegetable growth, the saturation of the
air continually with fragrance, and other _miasma_, and the _malaria_
from the mangrove swamps, I assign as the cause of difference in the
character of the same disease in different parts of the continent. The
habits also of the settlers, have much to do with the character of the
disease. A free indulgence in improper food and drink, which doubtless
is the case in many instances, are exciting causes to take the malady,
and aggravating when suffering under it.


_Complication_

There are several other diseases that might be named, which I reserve
for a section on another part of Africa, and confine my remarks simply
to the complication of the native with foreign. All _scorbutic_,
_scrofulous_, or _syphilitic_ persons, where the affection has not been
fully suppressed, may become easy victims to the fever in Liberia, or
lingering sufferers from _ulcers_, _acute rheumatism_, or
_elephantiasis_--a frightful enlargement of the limbs. _Ulcerated
opthalmia_ is another horrible type, that disease in such chronically
affected persons may assume. But any chronic affection--especially lung,
liver, kidney, and rheumatic--when not too deeply seated, may, by
favorable acclimation, become eliminated, and the ailing person entirely
recover from the disease.


_Remedies, Natural and Artificial_

The natural remedy for the permanent decrease of the native fever, is
the clearing up and cultivation of the land, which will be for some time
yet to come, tardy; as emigration to Liberia is very slow, and the
natives very unlike those of Yoruba--cultivate little or nothing but
rice, cassaba, and yams, and these in comparative small patches, so that
there is very little need for clearing off the forest. Neither have they
in this part of Africa any large towns of substantial houses, all of
which would necessitate a great deal of clearing; but instead, they
consist of small clusters of reed or bamboo huts in a circle, always in
the densest of the forest, which can scarcely ever be seen (except they
be situated on a high hill) until you are right upon them. The clearing
away of the mangrove swamps--which is practicable--will add greatly to
the sanitary condition of Liberia; but this also will take time, as it
must be the work of a general improvement in the country, brought about
by populating and civilizing progress.


_Treatment_

The treatment of the native fever must be active and prudential. But the
remedies are simple and easily obtained, being such as may be had at any
well-kept apothecary's shop. The _sulphate of quinia_, in moderate
doses, three or four times a day, with the usual attention to the
febrile changes, gentle _aperients_, _effervescent_ and _acidulous_
drinks, taking care to prevent acridness in the stomach. In my advice to
persons going to Africa, I shall speak more pointedly of the domestic or
social customs to be avoided.


Locality

I observed that all elevated places, as Monrovia and Freetown, subject
to severe visitations of disease, are situated near mangrove swamps;
consequently, from the _rising_ of the _malaria_, they are much more
unhealthy than those in low plains, such as Lagos and many other places,
_above_ which the _miasma_ generally rises for the most part passing off
harmlessly.

I left Cape Palmas, Liberia, on Thursday, 2 P.M. the 15TH of Sept., on
the British Royal Mail African steamer, "Armenian," Captain Walker, to
whom and his officers, I make acknowledgments for acts of kindness.



VII THE INTERIOR--YORUBA


Coasting. Cape Coast Castle, Bight of Benin

Thursday, the 20th of September, about noon, after stopping at
Cape-Coast Castle for twelve hours, on the Coast of Benin, the steamer
made her moorings in the roadstead, Bight of Benin, Gulf of Guinea, off
Lagos. I disembarked, going ashore with the mail-boat managed by
natives; from whence, by the politeness of the gentlemanly young clerk
(a native gentleman) of Captain Davies', a native merchant, I was taken
in a sail-boat, also manned by natives, up the bay, and landed at the
British Consulate; whence I was met by Mr. Carew, the native agent of
the Rev. J. M. Harden, a most excellent man, Missionary, and conducted
to the Baptist Mission House.

After a stay of five weeks, visiting almost everything and place worthy
of note, being called upon by many of the most noted persons, among whom
were several chiefs, having several interviews with the authorities, and
meeting the most active, intelligent, Christian young men, in several of
their associated gatherings, I was waited on by the messenger of the
king; when after several interchanges of "words" between us, the
following instrument of writing was "duly executed, signed, sealed, and
delivered," I, and Mr. Harden being present, and witnessing the
measurement of the land, according to the present custom in that place:


     TITLE DEED
     DR. M. R. DELANY

     Lagos, October 25th, 1859

     _Know all Men by these Presents:_

     That I DOCEMO, King of Lagos and the Territories thereunto
     belonging, have this day granted, assigned, and made over, unto
     Doctor Martin R. Delany, for his use and the use of his Heirs and
     Assigns forever, All that Piece of Ground, situated on the South of
     the Premises and Ground occupied by Fernando, in the field at Okai
     Po, Po, measuring as follows, Three Hundred and Thirty Feet square.

     Witness my Stamp hereunto affixed, and the Day and Year above
     written.


     _KING_
     DOCEMO
     OF LAGOS.

            *       *       *       *       *

     BRITISH CONSULATE,
     Lagos, October 28th, 1859

     I CERTIFY that the Circular Stamp, as above, with KING DOCEMO, of
     LAGOS in the centre, is the Official Stamp of Docemo, King of
     Lagos, and is used by him as his signature to all Letters, Deeds,
     and Documents.

     {SEAL} EDWD. F. LODDER

     _Acting Consul._

     The Deed of Land above, granted to Doctor Martin R. Delany, by King
     Docemo of Lagos, has this 18th day of October, 1859, been
     registered in the Registry Book of the British Consulate, and
     numbered.

     JOHN P. BOYLE, _Clerk_

On the 30th of October, I left Lagos, proceeding _via_ Ogun river, to
Abbeokuta, which I reached on Saturday, the 5th of November.


Explorations. Abbeokuta

Here I met for the first time with my colleague and Assistant
Commissioner, Mr. Robert Campbell, from whom, at Lagos, I found a letter
waiting for my arrival in the hands of Acting Consul, Lieut. Edward F.
Lodder, of Her Majesty's war vessel "Brun," which continually lies in
the harbor, directly opposite and near to the Consulate. Consul Campbell
(since deceased), had paid an official visit to England, and Lieut.
Lodder was supplying his place.


Towns from Abbeokuta

From Abbeokuta, population 110,000, we proceeded to Ijaye, population
78,000, reckoned by the white missionaries and officers of the Niger
Expedition of Her Majesty's service, who passed through once, at 80,000;
Oyo, population, 75,000; Ogbomoso, population 70,000; Illorin,
population 120,000; returning back, _via_ Ogbomoso to Oyo: when by
arrangement, Mr. Campbell leaving me at Oyo, returned to Abbeokuta by a
new route through Isen and Biolorin-Pellu, small places: whence I, a
week later, also by another strange route, returned, passing through
Iwo, population 75,000; and Ibaddan, population 150,000 an immense city,
the estimated number of inhabitants by the Civil Corps who passed
through, being 250,000. It will be seen that I have made a liberal
deduction of two-fifths, or 100,000 from this estimate; still, the
population is immense and the city extensive, the walls embracing an
outline of at least twenty-three miles.


Return to Lagos

From Abbeokuta, the water being very low, it was thought advisable that
Mr. Campbell take charge of all our luggage, and proceed by way of the
Ogun to Lagos, (he having disposed of his horse at Abbeokuta) whilst I,
on horseback, with William Johnson our cook, the only servant we
retained--a civilized native--as guide and attendant, proceeded by land,
both reaching Lagos three days after, in the same hour of the same day.



VIII TOPOGRAPHY, CLIMATE, ETC.


Topography, Climate

The whole face of the country extending through the Aku region or
Yoruba, as it is laid down on the large missionary map of Africa, is
most beautifully diversified with plains, hills, dales, mountains, and
valleys, interlined with numerous streams, some of which are merely
temporary or great drains; whilst the greater part are perennial, and
more or less irrigating the whole year, supplying well the numerous
stocks of cattle and horses with which that country is so well
everywhere provided. The climate is most delightful.


First Plateau and Second Plateau, or Table Lands

The first plateau or low land from Lagos, extends about thirty-five or
forty miles interiorly, with but occasionally, small rugged or rocky
elevations breaking the surface, when it almost abruptly rises into
elevated lands, undulating and frequently craggy, broken often by deep
declivities of glens and dales.


Soil

The soil of the first plateau, for ten or fifteen miles, is moist and
sandy, more or less, gradually incorporating with a dark rich earth,
which, extending quite through the second plateau, continually varies in
quality, consistence, and color, from a sandy loam and clay-red iron
pyrite appearance to a potter's-clay, and rich alluvial color and
quality, the whole being exceedingly fertile and productive; as no
district through which we traveled was without cultivation more or less,
and that always in a high degree, whatever the extent of ground under
cultivation or the produce cultivated.


Stone Formation

The stone formation throughout these regions consist of primitive
dark-gray granite, quartz, and conglomerates, with, occasionally, strata
of felspar and mica, which are found mainly in the beautiful mountain
regions (which are detailed extensions of the great mountains of Kong),
having in these sections always beautiful gaps or passes of delightful
valleys.


Minerals, Iron, Copper, Zinc

The minerals consist of iron in the greatest abundance, which at present
is smelted by the natives from the clay, and every town of any note or
size has not only its blacksmiths' shops, but the largest all have iron
smelting works. At Ijaye there is quite an extensive and interesting
establishment of the kind. And, as they manufacture _brass_, there must
be also zinc and copper found there--indications of the last-named
metal being often seen by the color of certain little water surfaces.
The stone formation bears the usual indications of aqueous and igneous
deposits, but more of the former than the latter.


Productions Timber

The timber is numerous, and for the following classification I am
indebted to my learned friend the Rev. Alexander Crummell, Episcopal
missionary and Principal of the Mount Vaughn High School at Cape Palmas:
Teak, ebony, lignum vitae, mahogany, brimstone, rosewood, walnut,
hickory, oak, cedar, unevah, and mangrove.


Medical Productions

Gum Yoruba (the same as gum Arabic), acacia or senna, castor oil, croton
oil, rhubarb root, colomba-root, ipecacuanha, quasia, nux-vomica,
cubebs, tobacco, and many others.


Fruits

All the fruits common to the tropics are found in these regions; in
fact, so redundant is Africa with these productions, that she combines
the whole within herself; that is, there are some fruits found in the
tropical parts of Asia, South America, the Asiatic and West India
Islands, common or peculiar to one which may not be found in the other,
but all of which, it may safely be said, can be found in Africa.
Pineapples the most delicious in flavor and taste conceivable oranges
the same, bananas the finest, plantains equally so, mangrove plums (a
peculiar but delightful and wholesome fruit, said by the natives to be a
_febrifuge_), guavas, and "soursops," a delightful _febrifuge_ of pure
_citric acid_, without the least acridness, as well as a hundred others
which I cannot now name. The papaw or tree-melon also grows very finely
here, and is a very useful and wholesome fruit. When green, "stewed and
mashed," and well-flavored with the usual culinary spices, it cannot be
distinguished from the best green apple-sauce--for which reason it makes
excellent pies. When fully ripe, it cannot be told from the finest
muskmelon or cantelope.


Agricultural Products

The Agricultural labor of this part of Africa is certainly very great,
and merits the attention of every intelligent inquirer; from the simple
fact that, so far as it exhibits the industry of the inhabitants, it
shows the means which may be depended upon for a development of the
commercial resources of the country.


Palm Oil

Palm oil is produced in great abundance, as a staple commodity among
themselves, as well as for exportation since the common light for houses
consists of palm oil burnt in native manufactured lamps, some
constructed of iron and others of earthenware. The oil of the nut is the
most general in use among the natives, both for light and cooking,
because it is the richest, being the most unctuous. This use of the
nut-oil is certainly an antiquated custom among the people of this
region, whilst those contiguous to Liberia have recently learned that
the kernels could be put to commercial use, by the discovery or rather
practical application by Mr. Herron, of Grand Bassa, Liberia, and
subsequent demand by the French traders. The fact that the Yorubas
generally produce their charcoal from the hull of the palm nut, is an
evidence of the long-continued and abundant use of the latter article
for the manufacture of oil. They have regular establishments for the
manufacture of the palm oil, with vats and apparatus (simple though they
be), places and persons for each process: as bruising the fruit from the
nut, boiling, carrying the pulp to a vat, where it is pressed and washed
to extract the oil; one to skim it off from the top of the
liquid--another to carry off the fiber of the pulp or bruised fruit,
which fiber is also appropriated to kindling and other uses. There is no
such method of extracting the oil, as the mistaken idea so frequently
reported by African traders from Europe and America, that the natives
bruise the nut with stones in holes made in the ground, thereby losing a
large percentage of the oil. Even among the crudest they know better
than this, and many use shallow troughs, made of wood in some parts of
Africa, as the Grebo, Golah, and some other peoples on the western
coast, adjacent to Liberia.


Palm Trees Cultivated. Camwood. Ivory

All through the Yoruba country the palm tree is cultivated, being
regularly trimmed and pruned, and never cut down in clearing a farm,
except when from age the tree has ceased to bear, or is of the male
species, when it is cut down for the wine, which is the sap, extracted
from the trunk, in a horizontal position, by boring a hole near the top
and catching it in a vessel, when it is drunk either before, during, or
after fermentation.

Camwood is also very plentiful, but owing to its great weight and the
inconvenience at present of transportation, it does not enter
extensively into the commerce of these parts, except as dyestuffs in the
native markets. Gum elastic or India rubber is plentiful.

Ivory enters largely into commerce, being brought by "middle men" from
the distant interior.


Indian Corn or Maize, Peas, Beans, Ginger, Pepper, Arrowroot, &c

Indian corn, the finest in the world (usually white), is here raised in
the greatest quantities, we having frequently passed through hundreds of
acres in unbroken tracts of cultivated land, which is beginning to enter
into foreign commerce; Guinea corn in great abundance--an excellent
article for horses, spoken of in another place; also peas, such as are
raised for horse and cattle feed in Canada and other parts of America;
white beans in great quantities, as well as those of all colors;
black-eye peas; horse beans; in fact, all of the pulse vegetables; also
ginger, arrowroot, red pepper in pods (the cayenne of commerce), and
black pepper, all of which are articles of commerce; indigo; they also
produce salt, and pea-nuts.


Kitchen Vegetables

Yams, cassaba, sweet potatoes, onions, cucumbers, and many other
culinary roots and vegetables; and I am certain that beets, parsnips,
and carrots, which we did not see under cultivation, could be
successfully raised, if desired. Cabbage grows freely in all parts of
Africa, if planted in the right season.


Potatoes, None

Whether or not the common potato of America and Europe can be propagated
here has not been tested, but such is the excellence of the yam, that
served up in the same manner, there is little or no difference between
them and potatoes; and I am certain that when well cooked, "mashed" and
seasoned, the best judge could not tell them from good potatoes. I mean
good yams, because they differ in quality like potatoes.


Manufactories Iron, Brass, Glass

Crockeryware is manufactured very extensively, of almost every
conceivable size and kind of vessel, for various purposes. Some of them
are quite handsome, and all nearly of the ancient oriental mould. The
largest earthen vessels I ever saw are made by these people, some of
them being large enough for small cisterns. Iron implements for
agricultural and military, as well as other domestic purposes, are made
by them in every large city. They make excellent razors, which shave
quite well, as also other steel-bladed knives, which prove that they
have the art of tempering iron. Brass as well as glass ornaments and
trinkets are made in considerable quantities.


Inhabitants

The people are of fine physical structure and anatomical conformation,
well and regularly featured; not varying more in this particular from
the best specimen of their own race than the Caucasian or Anglo-Saxon
from that of theirs. They are very polite--their language abounding in
vowels, and consequently euphonious and agreeable--affable, sociable,
and tractable, seeking information with readiness, and evincing
willingness to be taught. They are shrewd, intelligent, and industrious,
with high conceptions of the Supreme Being, only using their images
generally as mediators. "So soon," said an intelligent missionary, "as
you can convince them that there is a mediator to whom you _may talk,
but cannot see_, just so soon can you make Christians of them"; their
idea being that God is too great to be directly approached; therefore
there must be a mediator to whom they must talk that they can see, when
God will listen and answer if pleased.


How Received by Them

After my arrival at Abbeokuta, not going out for two days, they
expecting me through information from Mr. Campbell, the third day the
Chief Atambala called upon me, inviting me in turn to call and see him.
In a few days after, the king had a popular religious festival in the
great public space, where there were assembled many chiefs and elders;
but, on our approach, the old king sent his messenger to escort us to
the porch of the piazza upon which he was seated, eagerly grasping me by
the hand, bidding me welcome to Abbeokuta and his court; telling me,
pointing to Mr. Campbell, that he was acquainted with him, and had heard
of me through him.


Native Estimate of Civilized Educated Men

In December, a meeting of the native cotton-traders, chiefs, and others,
was held at the residence of the great chief Ogubonna concerning the
price of cotton. On the meeting assembling, and finding that we were not
present, the chief at once despatched a messenger, requesting our
immediate attendance, as "we knew how things ought to be done." On going
down, we found a large assemblage waiting, among whom were Messrs.
Samuel and Josiah Crowther, H. Robbing, J. C. During, F. Rebeiro, and C.
W. Faulkner, civilized native gentlemen; also Mr. J. G. Hughes, an
English gentleman. By a motion from myself, seconded by J. Crowther, the
chief Ogubonna was chosen chairman, and, upon a motion by Mr. Campbell,
seconded by J. G. Hughes, Mr. Robbing was chosen vice-chairman. The
meeting went off well, we making many suggestions during the
proceedings, which were always received with approbation.

The following from the native minister, being his own writing and
composition, will explain itself:

     ABBEOKUTA, Igbore, 23rd Dec., 1857

     M. R. DELANY, Esq.:

     DEAR SIR--A meeting of the Wesleyan Missionary Society will be held
     at the Wesleyan Chapel, on Monday next, the 26th instant, at ten
     o'clock, A.M., precisely. You are sincerely and respectfully
     solicited to be the Chairman on the occasion.

     The object of the Meeting is to offer Thanksgiving to Almighty God
     for the past years' success; and to pray for an outpouring of the
     Holy Spirit's influence upon the Church, for a further success, &c.

     Collection will be made at the close of the above.

     Yours respectfully and affectionately,
     EDWD. BICKERSTETH
     Wesleyan Minister

     P.S. An early answer will be much obliged.

I replied in the affirmative to this kind invitation (the copy of reply
is now mislaid), when, at the appointed time, a crowded house was
assembled.


Influence of Civilization--Native Demonstration

In a simple and comprehensive address made to them (being interpreted by
the minister as I proceeded), such was the effect that it not only
produced their unanimous applause, but aroused Mr. During (a native
civilized merchant, who had never before spoken in public) to his feet,
who approved of what I had said, with such an appeal of native
eloquence, that when he ceased, sixty bags of cowries (£54 or $270,
estimating them at 18s, or $4.50 a bag; the then current value of
cowries) were paid down on the spot, to aid the spread of civilization
through the gospel and education. Many, very many were the thanks given
me that day by these, my native kinsmen and women. Several other
gentlemen, among them Surgeon Samuel Crowther, the Pastor, Mr. Rebeiro,
and Mr. Campbell my colleague, also addressed them.


Official Transactions

Many had been the social, friendly, and official interchanges between us
and the king and chiefs during our stay in Abbeokuta, when, on the
twenty-seventh, the day after the missionary meeting, the following
document was duly executed, with the express understanding that no
heterogeneous nor promiscuous "masses" or companies, but select and
intelligent people of high moral as well as religious character were to
be induced to go out. And I am sure that every good and upright person
in that region, whether native or foreign missionary, would exceedingly
regret to see a reckless set of religion-spurning, God-defying persons
sent there--especially by disinterested white societies in America,
which interferingly came forward in a measure which was originated
solely by ourselves (and that, too, but a few of us), as our only hope
for the regeneration of our race from the curse and corrupting
influences of our white American oppressors.


     TREATY

     This Treaty, made between His Majesty, OKUKENU, Alake; SOMOYE,
     Ibashorun; SOKENU, OGUBONNA, and ATAMBALA, Chiefs and Balaguns, of
     Abbeokuta, on the first part; and MARTIN ROBISON DELANY, and ROBERT
     CAMPBELL, of the Niger Valley Exploring Party, Commissioners from
     the African race, of the United States and the Canadas in America,
     on the second part, covenants:

     ART. 1. That the King and Chiefs on their part, agree to grant and
     assign unto the said Commissioners, on behalf of the African race
     in America, the right and privilege of settling in common with the
     Egba people, on any part of the territory belonging to Abbeokuta,
     not otherwise occupied.

     ART. 2. That all matters, requiring legal investigation among the
     settlers, be left to themselves, to be disposed of according to
     their own custom.

     ART. 3. That the Commissioners, on their part, also agree that the
     settlers shall bring with them, as an equivalent for the privileges
     above accorded, Intelligence, Education, a Knowledge of the Arts
     and Sciences, Agriculture, and other Mechanical and Industrial
     Occupations, which they shall put into immediate operation, by
     improving the lands, and in other useful vocations.

     ART. 4. That the laws of the Egba people shall be strictly
     respected by the settlers; and, in all matters in which both
     parties are concerned, an equal number of commissioners, mutually
     agreed upon, shall be appointed, who shall have power to settle
     such matters.

                 *       *       *       *       *

     As a pledge of our faith, and the sincerity of our hearts, we each
     of us hereunto affix our hand and seal this Twenty-seventh day of
     December, ANNO DOMINI, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-nine.

     His Mark, + OKUKENU, Alake
     His Mark, + SOMOYE, Ibashorum
     His Mark, + SOKENU, Balagun
     His Mark, + OGUBONNA, Balagun
     His Mark, + ATAMBALA, Balagun
     His Mark, + OGUSEYE, Anaba
     His Mark, + NGTABO, Balagun, O.S.O.
     His Mark, + OGUDEMU, Ageoko
     M. R. DELANY
     ROBERT CAMPBELL

     Witness--SAMUEL CROWTHER, Jun.
     Attest--SAMUEL CROWTHER, Sen.



Executive Council, and Ratification of the Treaty

On the next evening, the 28th, the king, with the executive council of
chiefs and elders, met at the palace in Ake, when the treaty was
ratified by an unanimous approval. Such general satisfaction ran through
the council, that the great chief, his highness Ogubonna, mounting his
horse, then at midnight, hastened to the residence of the Surgeon
Crowther, aroused his father the missionary and author, and hastily
informed him of the action of the council.


Native Confidence; Hopes in Educated Blacks; Princess Tinuba

On our return from the interior, having previously made the acquaintance
of, and had several interviews with, and visits to and from the Princess
Tinuba, being a called upon by her, I informed her that during our tour
I learned that she had supplied the chief of Ijaye with the means and
implements for carrying on the war, which that chief was then waging
against Oyo and Ibaddan.

I had previous to that, obtained her fullest confidence as an adviser, a
person of integrity, a friend of my race and of Africa. She had
previously expressed to a friend of mine, that she had more hope of a
regeneration of Africa through me than ever before. She had promised to
place the entire management of her extensive business in my hands, as
much advantage was taken of her by foreigners. She has attached to her
immediate household about sixty persons, and keeps constantly employed
about three hundred and sixty persons bringing her in palm-oil and
ivory. She had come with a private retinue of six or seven persons, her
secretary, a man and several maid-servants, to counsel and give me a
written statement of what she desired me to do. Having conversed for
some time, after receiving my admonition concerning the part which I had
learned she had taken with Arie of Ijaye, she sat some time after,
positively negativing the accusation, when, bidding me farewell, and
saying that she would "_send_ me a letter," retired. In the course of
the afternoon, her secretary, "Charles B. Jones," a native, came to the
house, and presenting his mistress's compliments, with her final adieu,
handed me a written paper, from which I take the following extracts,
simply to show the general feeling and frankness of these people, as
well as the hopes and confidence they have in our going there:


   DR. MARTIN R. DELANEY: Abbeokuta, April 3rd, 1860

   SIR--This is to certify you, that it is with a willing mind I come to
   you for help: and I trust you will do according to your promise.... I
   return you my sincere gratitude for your kind information gave me while
   at your house, and can assure you that all what you heard is false
   respecting my sending guns and powder to Arie, the Chief of Ijaye.... I
   beg to say, you must not forget to find the Clerk who will stop at Lagos
   to ship my cargo ... and make agreement with him before you send him
   here.... I need not say much more about the affairs, as you yourself
   have known my statements. With hopes that you are well, I am, dear Sir,

   Your humble servant,

   TINUBA

   P.S. You must not forget to send the two gauge-rods. I beg you ...
   Yours, &c.,--TINUBA

   Per Charles B. Jones.

I have preferred to give these extracts just as they were written,
without correcting the composition in any way.


Royal Deference to Black Men

The liberality which is here accorded to the people of Abbeokuta may be
also accorded to most other places. The king of Illorin sat in his court
exposed to our view, because, he said, we were "his people"; a privilege
which he never allowed "a strange white man," who was never permitted to
look upon his royal black face publicly. He also sent with us an escort
of a horseman and five footmen, with sword and spear, as a guard of
honor, sending us cowries to pay the expenses. The king of Oyo paid us
distinguished honors through his great Arie Kufu, calling me a relative,
and sending the chief to inquire after our health. On my leaving Oyo
finally, he sent with me a very large escort, at the head of whom was
his commander-in-chief Kufu, as a guard of honor, and three native
gentlemen, high in rank, as my special carriers. These gentle men
complained to the missioners, Mr. and Mrs. Hinderer at Ibaddan, that I
was quite mistaken as to their true social position at home. To this I
plead guilty, as they were quite right.


Domestic Animals; Fowls, Chickens, Ducks, Muscovy, Turkeys Swine;
Common, Guinea

Chickens (and eggs plentifully) the sweetest and tenderest, ducks and
turkeys; also Guinea fowls, as well as the fine Muscovy, are abundant.

The swine consist of two distinct classes; the common, descended from
the wild--a long, lean, gaunt, long-eared, long-nosed, sharp-featured,
hungry-looking brute, like the American hog; and the Guinea, a
short-legged, heavy-bodied, short-nosed, short-eared, fat-jawed,
full-headed, jolly-looking animal, closely resembling the Berkshire of
English breeding.


Goats, Sheep

The goats are the most beautiful, shiny, plump, active, saucy creatures,
the mutton being most excellent flesh; and the sheep, though hairy
instead of woolly, in every other particular are like other sheep, and
the mutton frequently equaling English mutton in flavor and sweetness. I
suspect the common sheep of this country to be of another genus, as
there are some very fine woolly sheep in the interior. We intend testing
the woolly sheep when we get settled there.


Cattle--Mandingo and Golah

The cattle are of two classes, and merit particular attention. The
windward or Mandingo, a tall, long-horned, beautiful animal, the type of
the Herefordshire; and the leeward or Golah, a short-legged,
short-horned, heavy-bodied, broad-backed ox, the exact conformation of
the splendid English Durham beeves.


Horses; Aku, Bornou

The horses are of two distinct classes, and not only merit much
attention here, but must be regarded as among the most surprising
evidences (as well as the cattle and improved breed of swine) of the
high degree of intelligence and heathen civilization attained by the
people.


Aku, or Yoruba Horse

The Aku or Yoruba, is a small, well-built, generally sprightly animal,
equal in size to the largest American-Indian pony. They are great
travelers, and very enduring, and when broke to the shafts or traces
will be excellent in harness as family hackneys.


Bornou, or Soudan Horse

The Bornou, a noble horse, from twelve to seventeen hands high, finely
proportioned and symmetrically beautiful, and the type of the
description of the sire of the great first English blood horse,
Godolphin, is exceedingly high-spirited, and fleet in the race or chase.
These noble animals abound in all this part of Africa; are bred in
Bornou, where great attention is paid to the rearing of them, from
whence they are taken by the Ishmaelitish traders, in exchange for their
commodities, to Arabia; from thence they are sent to Europe as their own
production; just as, a few years since, and probably up to the present
day, mules were reared in great numbers in Mexico, purchased by Ohio and
Kentucky muleteers, who sold them in the eastern and northern States of
America, where for years the people supposed and really believed that
they were bred in the western States, from whence they were purported to
come. The fine Bornou, known as the Arabian horse, is a native of
Africa, and raised in great numbers. Denham and Clapperton, as long ago
as thirty-five or forty years, wrote, after visiting that part of
Africa, "It is said that Bornou can muster fifteen thousand Shonaas in
the field mounted. They are the greatest breeders of cattle in the
country, and annually supply Soudan with from two to three thousand
horses." These animals are used for riding, and well exercised, as the
smallest boys are great riders, every day dashing at fearful speed along
the roads and over the plains.


Game; Quadrupeds

Game is also very plentiful. Deer, antelopes, wild hogs, hedge hogs,
porcupines, armadillos, squirrels, hares and rabbits, raccoons and
opossums, are among the most common quadruped game.


Wild Fowl

Wild turkey, wild ducks of various kinds, wild pigeons, ocpara (a very
fine quail, much larger, fatter and plumper than the American pheasant),
and the wild Guinea fowl, are among the most common biped game.


Markets, and Domestic Habits of the People

The markets are also worthy of note, and by their regular establishment
and arrangement indicate to a certain extent the self-governing element
and organized condition of the people. Every town has its regular
market-place or general bazaar, and everything to be had in the town
may be found, in more or less quantities, in these market-places. In
describing the large cities through which Mr. Campbell my colleague, and
I passed, and those through which I passed alone (none of which were
under seventy thousand of a population) there were numerous smaller
places of various sizes, from very small villages of one hundred to two
thousand inhabitants, which were not mentioned in the enumerated towns.
Of these market-places I may mention that Illorin has five, the area of
the largest comprising about ten acres, and the general market of
Abbeokuta comprising more than twelve altogether, whilst that of Ijaye
contains fully twenty acres or more, in which, like the markets
generally, everything may be obtained. These markets are systematically
regulated and orderly arranged, there being parts and places for
everything, and "everything in their places," with officially appointed
and excellent managing market-masters. The cattle department of the
Abbeokuta and Ijaye markets, as well as Illorin are particularly
attractive, there being as many as eight hundred sheep at one time in
either of the two former, and horses and mules, as well as sheep and
goats exhibited in the latter. When approaching the city of Ibaddan, I
saw at a brook, where they had been let out of their cages or coops to
drink and wash themselves, as many as three thousand pigeons and squabs
going to the Ibaddan market.

The following description of the Illorin market, extracted from "Bowen's
Central Africa," is truthful as far as it goes, and will give a general
idea of markets in the great cities of Africa:


     The most attractive object next to the curious old town itself--and
     it is always old--is the market.... Here the women sit and chat all
     day, from early morn till nine o'clock at night, to sell their
     various merchandise. Some of the sheds however, are occupied by
     barbers, who shave people's heads and faces; and by leather
     dressers, who make charms like Jewish phylacteries, and bridle
     reins, shoes, sandals, &c.; and by dozens and scores of men, who
     earn an honest living by dressing calabashes, and ornamenting them
     with various neat engravings.[6] ... The principal market hour, and
     proper time to see all the wonders, is in the evening.... As the
     shades of evening deepen, if the weather allow the market to
     continue and there is no moon, every woman lights her little lamp,
     and presently the market presents, to the distant observer, the
     beautiful appearance of innumerable stars.

     The commodities sold in market are too tedious to mention, even if
     all could be remembered. Besides home productions, there are
     frequently imported articles from the four quarters of the globe.
     Various kinds of meat, fowls, sheep, goats, dogs, rats, tortoises,
     eggs, fish, snails, yams, Indian corn, Guinea corn, sweet potatoes,
     sugar-cane, ground peas, onions, pepper, various vegetables,
     palm-nuts, oil, tree-butter, seeds, fruits, firewood, cotton in the
     seeds, spun cotton, domestic cloth, imported cloth, as calico,
     shirting, velvets, &c., gun-powder, guns, flints, knives, swords,
     paper, raw silk, Turkey-red thread, needles, ready-made clothing,
     as trowsers, caps, breeches shirts without sleeves, baskets,
     brooms, and no one knows what all.

This description was given by Mr. Bowen in his (in many respects)
admirable work, published in 1857, after a missionary residence and tour
of seven years, from 1850 to the time of writing, among the people of
whom he wrote.


Native Houses and Cities

The houses are built of unburnt clay which hardens in the sun, covered
with a beautiful thatch-long, peculiar grass--exhibiting only the walls
to the streets, the doors all opening inside of these walls, which are
entered by a gate or large doorway; the streets generally irregular and
narrow, but frequently agreeably relieved by wider ones, or large, open
spaces or parks shaded with trees; all presenting a scene so romantic
and antiquated in appearance, that you cannot resist the association
with Babylon, Nineveh, Tyre, and Thebais. The buildings are heavy and
substantial for their kind, many of which are very extensive. These
towns and cities are all entrenched and walled; extending entirely
around them; that of Abbeokuta with the new addition being twenty-seven
miles, though the population is less by forty thousand than Ibaddan,
which embraces about twenty-three miles.


Conjugal and Filial Affection. Activity of Children

Great affection exists between husband and wife, the women being mostly
restricted to household work, trading, and gathering in the fields, and
aiding in carrying, whilst the men principally do the digging, planting,
chopping, and other hard work. The children are also passionately
beloved by their parents, sometimes with too much indulgence. They are
very active, and every day some of them of all sizes may be seen dashing
along a road or over a plain at fearful speed on horseback. They are
great vaulters and ankle-springers, and boys may frequently be seen to
spring from the ground whirling twice--turning _two_ summersets--before
lighting on their feet.


Population of Monrovia and the State

It may not be out of place here to add, that the population of the
capital of Liberia is certainly not above three thousand, though they
claim for it five thousand. And what has been said of the lack and
seeming paucity of public improvement may be much extenuated when it is
considered that the entire population of settlers only number at present
some 15,000 souls; the native population being 250,000, or 300,000, as
now incorporated.


Canine and Feline

As the enquiry has been frequently made of me as to "whether there are
really dogs and cats in Africa," and if so, "whether they are like other
dogs and cats"; and since a very intelligent American clergyman said to
me that he had read it somewhere as a fact in natural history, that dogs
in Africa could not bark; I simply here inform the curious enquirer,
that there are dogs and cats plentifully in Africa, which "look like
other dogs and cats," and assure them that the dogs bark, eat, and
_bite_, just like "other dogs."


Slavery

A word about slavery. It is simply preposterous to talk about slavery,
as that term is understood, either being legalized or existing in this
part of Africa. It is nonsense. The system is a patriarchal one, there
being no actual difference, socially, between the slave (called by their
protector _son or daughter_) and the children of the person with whom
they live. Such persons intermarry, and frequently become the heads of
state: indeed, generally so, as I do not remember at present a king or
chief with whom I became acquainted whose entire members of the
household, from the lowest domestic to the highest official, did not
sustain this relation to him, they calling him _baba_ or "father," and
he treating them as children. And where this is not the case, it either
arises from some innovation among them or those exceptional cases of
despotism to be found in every country. Indeed, the term "slave" is
unknown to them, only as it has been introduced among them by whites
from Europe and America. So far from abject slavery, not even the old
feudal system, as known to exist until comparatively recent in
enlightened and Christian Europe, exists in this part of Africa.

Criminals and prisoners of war are _legally sold_ into slavery among
themselves, just as was the custom in almost every civilized country in
the world till very lately, when nothing but advanced intelligence and
progressive Christianity among the people put a stop to it. There is no
place, however, but Illorin, a _bona fide_ Mohammedan kingdom, where we
ever witnessed any exhibition of these facts.


How Slaves Are Obtained

Slaves are abducted by marauding, kidnapping, depraved natives, who,
like the organized bands and gangs of robbers in Europe and America, go
through the country thieving and stealing helpless women and children,
and men who may be overpowered by numbers. Whole villages in this way
sometimes fall victims to these human monsters, especially when the
strong young men are out in the fields at work, the old of both sexes in
such cases being put to death, whilst the young are hurried through
some private way down to the slave factories usually kept by Europeans
(generally Portuguese and Spaniards) and Americans, on some secluded
part of the coast. And in no instances are the parents and relatives
known to sell their own children or people into slavery, except, indeed,
in cases of base depravity, and except such miserable despots as the
kings of Dahomi and Ashantee; neither are the heads of countries known
to sell their own people; but like the marauding kidnapper, obtain them
by war on others.

FOOTNOTES:

[6] Lagos is an exception to this, the market commencing early in the
day, and closing at night.



IX

DISEASES OF THIS PART OF AFRICA, TREATMENT, HYGIENE, ALIMENT


Diseases, Face of the Country, Spring Water

The diseases in this part of Africa are still more simple than those of
Liberia; and even the _native fever_, for known causes, generally is
much less severe. In Liberia, and all that part of Africa, the entire
country (except the cleared farms in the republic and the limited
rice-fields of the natives) is a dense, heavy-wooded, _primitive_
forest, rank with the growth and putrified vegetation of a thousand
ages. But the entire Aku country, throughout the second plateau,
presents a very different phase. Here, one is struck with the beautiful
clear country which continually spreads out in every direction around;
and (except the thickets or forests left as defences, ambuscades, and
arbors of rest, rugged hilltops, and gullies), there is nothing but
recent timber to be found growing on the lands. Timber in Africa is
reproduced very speedily; hence may be found in some parts designedly
left very heavy timber; but the greatest unbroken forest through which
we passed at any one time, of this description, never exceeded, I think,
ten miles. All the spring (shallow wells generally) and other living
water, as perennial streams, is both good-tasted, and if the constant
use of running stream water be a fair test, I would decide as wholesome.
There are some good springs in Africa, and good water doubtless may
everywhere be obtained by digging suitable wells.


To Keep Water Cool. Kind of Vessels

Drinking water in the tropics should always be kept in large vessels of
crockery ware (usually termed "stone" and "earthen ware") and smaller
bottle or decanter-shaped jugs or vessels for table convenience. If
earthen or crockery ware cannot be obtained for table use, by all means
use glass bottles--the more globular, or balloon-shaped, the better.


Cool Water

To make and keep water cool in any crockery or glass vessel, wrap around
it a cloth or any kind, but especially _woolen_--flannel or blanket
being the best--which keep simply _wet_, and the water in the vessel, by
_evaporation_ from the _cloth_, can be made or kept almost ice cool.


To Keep the Cloth Wet. Apparatus

A most simple method by which the cloth may be kept wet, and evaporation
thereby kept up, is to have a large vessel, with the water in for common
use, so placed that a small vessel with water can be suspended over it
in such a manner that a _drip_ can be kept constantly on the cloth. The
cloth being first saturated, it will readily be seen that a very small
drip is required to keep up the dampness. The drip may be arranged,
where convenient, with a small _faucet_ so as to regulate the drop, or
the more primitive method of a little _spiggot_ or _sharpened stick_ put
into a hole made in the vessel, so regulated as to keep up a sufficient
dripping to keep the cloth of sufficient dampness. Simple as this may
appear to the reader, it is an important sanitary measure, besides
adding greatly to the immediate comfort of the traveler or resident in
those regions.


Atmosphere

The atmosphere in this region of the continent is much purer than that
of Liberia and the region round about; and, although incorporated with
odors, these are pleasant and seem familiar to the sense, and not
obnoxious with the rich rank fragrance so sensibly experienced in that
country. There is little, comparatively, of the decayed vegetation,
which sends up malaria from the surface in Liberia; and the immense
fields and plains of grass not under cultivation at the time, are burnt
down during the dry season, thereby bringing to bear, though probably
unawares to them, a sanitary process throughout that extensive country
at least once every year.


Kinds of Disease

_Intermittent fever_, as described in section VI., page 280 on Liberia,
though generally of a mild type, _diarrhoea_, _dysentery_ (neither of
which is difficult to subdue by a little rational treatment),
_opthalmia_, and _umbilical hernia_, and sometimes, but not frequently,
_inguinal hernia_, are the principal diseases. The opthalmia I suspected
as originating from taint, probably having been primarily carried from
the coast, as it was not so frequently met with as to warrant the idea
of its being either a contagion or the effects of poisonous sands or
winds, as supposed to exist. The hernia is caused by the absence of
proper _umbilical attention_ and _abdominal support_ to the child after
_parturition_. Umbilical hernia is fearfully common all through Africa,
I having frequently seen persons, especially females, with the hernial
tumor as large as their own head, and those of little children fully as
large as the head of an infant a month old.


Guinea Worm

A singular disease affects some persons, though I have never seen this
upon a native, and believe it to be peculiar to the region round about
Liberia. The person whose case I examined had formerly resided in
Liberia, where, doubtless, the disease commenced, but for the last three
years previously had resided at Ijaye, in the capacity of cook, for the
American Baptist Missionaries, Revs. A. D. Phillips and J. R. Stone and
lady, and then resided at Abbeokuta. This is a peculiar ulceration of
the leg, immediately above the ankle-bone, where they say it usually
commences; the edges of the ulcer, and the cuticle quite up to the edge,
and all the surrounding parts, having a healthy appearance, as though a
portion of the flesh had been recently torn out, leaving the cavity as
it then was. The most peculiar feature of this singular disease is a
_white fiber_, which, coming out from the integuments of the muscles of
the leg above, hangs suspended in the cavity (ulcer) the lower end
loose, and somewhat inclined to coil (and when _straightened_ out,
resuming again the serpentine curves, of course from the _elasticity_
with _motion_), is supposed to be a _worm_; hence its name--_Guinea
worm_. The fibre seems in color and texture to be in a normal condition;
indeed, there appear to be little or no pathological symptoms about the
parts at all, except a slight appearance of _vermillion_ inflammation
over the surface of the ulcer, which is more apparent sometimes than
others.


What Is Guinea Worm?

I have examined closely this fibre, and from its appearance, color,
size, and texture, especially as it is sensibly felt high up in the leg
near the tuberosity of the tibia, when pulled by the dangling end, my
own impression is that the so-called "Guinea worm" is nothing more than
the _external saphenus_ or _communis tibiae_ (nerve) exposed in a
peculiar manner, probably by a disease, which, by a curious pathological
process, absorbs away the muscular parts, leaving the bare nerve
detached at its lower extremity, suspended loose in this unnatural
space. I have never seen but this one case of Guinea worm, but had
frequent opportunities of examining it; indeed, the patient consulted me
concerning it, and by the advice and consent of the very clever native
gentleman, Samuel Crowther, Esq., who received his professional
education at the Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields,
London, insisted on my taking the case, which I declined, partly for the
want of time to do justice to the patient, and aside from courtesy and
equity to the surgeon who had the case in hand, mainly because I _knew
nothing about it_--the best reason of all. The patient was an American
quadroon, black nearly in complexion, of one-fourth white blood, from
North Carolina. This, of course was a black quadroon.

I should add, that the fiber at times entirely _disappears_ from the
cavity (by _contraction_, of course), when again it is seen suspended as
before. This is one reason why it is believed to be a _worm_, and
supposed to _creep_ up and down in the flesh.


Treatment of Diseases--Diarrhoea

The treatment of fever in this part of Africa should be the same as that
in Liberia, given on page 280. The best remedy which I have found for
diarrhoea is:

    [TN: symbol: Rx]. Pulv. Rad. Rhei. [TN: symbol: drachm] j.; Syr.
    Simp. [TN: symbol: ounce] jv.; Spts. Terebinth, [TN: symbol: dracm] j.;
    Tinct. Opii., gtt. x. M. ft.

Pulverized rhubarb, one drachm, (or one-eighth of an ounce); simple
syrup, four ounces (or eight large tablespoonfuls); laudanum, ten drops;
spirits of turpentine, one spoonful. Mix this well together to take.


Dysentery

For dysentery the recipe is:

    [TN: symbol: Rx]. Pulv. Rad. Rhei. Pulv. C. Catech. a. a.,
    [TN: symbol: drachm] j.; Syr. Simp. f. [TN: symbol: ounce] jv.; Spts.
    Terebinth. Spis. Ammon. Arromat., a. a. f.
    [TN: symbol: drachm] j.; Tinct. Opii. gtt. x.M.ft.

Pulverized rhubarb and pulverized gum catechu, each, one-eighth of an
ounce; simple syrup, eight large tablespoonfuls; spirits of turpentine
and aromatic spirits of ammonia, of each one teaspoonful; laudanum, ten
drops. Mix this well together to take. Of this take one teaspoonful (if
very bad, a dessert spoonful) every three hours, or four times a day
(always beginning at least one hour before breakfast), till the symptoms
cease.


Fever Antidote

During the presence of febrile symptoms, in the absence of all diarrhoea
and dysenteric symptoms, even when the person is not complaining, an
excellent simple antidote to be taken at discretion, not oftener than
once every hour during the day, is:

    [TN: symbol: Rx] Syr. Simp., [TN: symbol: ounce] jv.; Spts. Ammon.
    Arromat. [TN: symbol: drachm] jss. M. ft.

Simple syrup, eight large tablespoonfuls; aromatic spirits of ammonia,
one and a-half teaspoonfuls. Mix this well together. Take a teaspoonful
of this preparation in a little cold water, or a glass of lemonade if
preferred, and the condition of the bowels will admit, as often as
thought advisable under the circumstances.

I have thus thought proper to simplify this treatment, that it may be in
the reach of every person going to the tropics, as I am certain that
there has been a great deficiency in the treatment and discovery of
remedies in diseases of that continent especially. These prescriptions,
as compounded, are entirely new, originating with the writer, who has
only to add that he is in hopes that they prove as advantageous and
successful in other hands as they have been in his.


Regimen

Persons laboring under fever should eat moderately of such food as best
agrees with their appetite; but frequently, if required or desired,
that the system may be well supported. When there is _diarrhoea_ or
_dysentery_ present, there should be no solid food taken, but the
patient or ailing person should be confined strictly to a thin milk
porridge of fine Guinea-corn flour, which is always obtainable in
Africa, crumbled crackers or soda biscuits, light (leavened) wheat bread
if to be had, or well-done rice boiled to a pulp. The soda-biscuit as a
porridge with milk rather aggravates the bowels of most persons;
therefore, whenever it is found to have this effect, its use should be
immediately abandoned. In many instances, where there is either
diarrhoea or dysentery present, without other prominent symptoms, I have
found the mere use of cooked milk (merely "scalded," as women usually
term it--being heated to the boiling point without permitting it to
boil), taken as food alone, to be the only remedy required.


Hygiene--Eating

The laws of health should be particularly observed in going to Africa.
In respect to eating, there need be no material change of food, but each
individual observing those nourishments which best agree with him or
her. When there is little inclination to eat, eat but little; and when
there is none, eat nothing. I am certain that a large percentage of the
mortality which occurs may be attributed to too free and too frequent
indulgence in eating, as was the case with the Lewis family of five at
Clay-Ashland, in Liberia--all of whom died from that cause; as well as
others that might be mentioned.


Coffee, Air, Fruits

So soon as you have taken your bath and put your morning wrapper, even
before dressing, you may eat one or more sweet oranges, then take a cup
of coffee, creamed and sweetened, or not, to your taste. Make your
toilet, and walk out and take the cool air, always taking your umbrella
or parasol, because no foreigner, until by a long residence more or less
acclimated, can expose himself with impunity to a tropical sun. If
preferred coffee should always be taken with cream or milk and sugar,
because it is then less irritating to the stomach. One of the symptoms
of native fever is said to be _nervous irritability of the stomach_;
hence, all exciting causes to irritation of that part should be avoided
as much as possible. Such fruits as best agree with each individual
should be most indulged in; indeed, all others for the time should be
dispensed with; and when it can be done without any apparent risk to the
person, a little fruit of some kind might be taken every day by each new
comer. Except oranges, taken as directed above, all fruits should be
eaten _after_, and _not_ before breakfast. The fruits of the country
have been described in another place.


Drinks

Let your habits be strictly temperate, and for human nature's sake,
abstain from the erroneous idea that some sort of malt or spirituous
drink is necessary. This is not the case; and I am certain that much of
the disease and dire mortality charged against Africa, as a "land of
pestilence and death," should be charged against the Christian lands
which produce and _send bad spirits_ to destroy those who go to Africa.
Whenever wine, brandy, whisky, gin, rum, or pure alcohol are required
as a medical remedy, no one will object to its use; but, in all cases in
which they are used as a beverage in Africa, I have no hesitation in
pronouncing them deleterious to the system. The best British porter and
ale may, in convalescence from fever, be used to advantage as a tonic,
because of the bitter and farinaceous substances they contain--not
otherwise is it beneficial to the system in Africa. Water, lemonade,
effervescent drinks--a teaspoonful of super-carbonate of soda, to a
glass of lemonade--all may be drunk in common, when thirsty, with
pleasure to the drinker as well as profit. Pure ginger-beer is very
beneficial.


Bathing

Bathing should be strictly observed by every person at least once every
day. Each family should be provided with a large sponge, or one for each
room if not for each person, and free application of water to the entire
person, from head to foot, should be made every morning.


Early Rising--Breezes

Every person should rise early in Africa, as the air is then coolest,
freshest, and purest; besides the effect upon the senses, the sight and
song of the numerous birds to be seen and heard, produce a healthful
influence upon the mental and physical system. The land and sea-breezes
blow regularly and constantly from half-past three o'clock P.M. till
half-past ten o'clock A.M., when there is a cessation of about five
hours till half-past three again.


Never Sultry

The evenings and mornings are always cool and pleasant, _never sultry_
and oppressive with heat, as frequently in temperate climates during
summer and autumn. This wise and beneficent arrangement of Divine
Providence makes this country beautifully, in fact, delightfully
pleasant; and I have no doubt but in a very few years, so soon as
scientific black men, her own sons, who alone must be more interested in
her development than any other take the matter in hand, and produce
works upon the diseases, remedies, treatment, and sanitary measures of
Africa, there will be no more contingency in going to Africa than any
other known foreign country. I am certain, even now, that the native
fever of Africa is not more trying upon the system, when properly
treated, than the native fever of Canada, the Western and Southern
States and Territories of the United States of America.


Dress, Avoid Getting Wet

Dress should be regulated according to the feeling, with sometimes more
and sometimes less clothing. But I think it advisable that adults should
wear flannel (thin) next to their person always when first going to
Africa. It gradually absorbs the moisture, and retaining a proper degree
of heat, thus prevents any sudden change of temperature from affecting
the system. Avoid getting wet at first, and should this accidentally
happen, take a thoroughly good bath, rub the skin dry, and put on dry
clothes, and for two or three hours that day, keep out of the sun; but
if at night, go to bed. But when it so happens that you are out from
home and cannot change clothing, continue to exercise until the clothes
dry on your person. It is the abstraction of heat from the system by
evaporation of water from the clothing, which does the mischief in such
cases. I have frequently been wet to saturation in Africa, and nothing
ever occurred from it, by pursuing the course here laid down. Always
sleep in clean clothes.


Sanitary Measures

I am sure I need inform no one, however ignorant, that all measures of
cleanliness of person, places, and things about the residences,
contribute largely to health in Africa, as in other countries.


Ventilation of Houses

All dwellings should be _freely ventilated_ during the _night_ as well
as day, and it is a great mistake to suppose, as in Liberia (where every
settler sleeps with every part of his house closely shut--doors,
windows, and all) that it is deletereous to have the house ventilated
during the evening, although they go out to night meetings, visit each
other in the evening, and frequently sit on their porches and piazzas
till a late hour in the night, conversing, without any injurious effects
whatever. Dr. Roberts, and I think Dr. McGill and a few other gentlemen,
informed me that their sleeping apartments were exceptions to the custom
generally in Liberia. This stifling custom to save themselves does not
prevail among the natives of Africa anywhere, nor among the foreigners
anywhere in the Yoruba country, that I am aware of, and I am under the
impression that it was the result of fear or precaution, not against the
night air, but against the imaginary (and sometimes real) creeping
things--as insects and reptiles--which might find their way into the
houses at night.


Test of Night Air

While in Liberia, I have traversed rivers in an open boat at night,
slept beyond the Kavalla Falls in open native houses, and at the
residence of Rev. Alexander Crummel, Mount Vaughan, Cape Palmas, I slept
every evening while there with both window and door as ventilators. The
window was out and the door inside. In Abbeokuta, Ijaye, Oyo, and
Ogbomoso, we slept every night with ventilated doors and windows, when
we slept at all in a house. But in Illorin we always slept out of doors
by preference, and only retired to repose in-doors (which were always
open) when it was too cool to sleep out, as our bedding consisted only
of a native mat on the ground, and a calico sheet spread over us. And I
should here make acknowledgments to my young colleague, Mr. Campbell,
for the use of his large Scotch shawl when I was unwell, and indeed
almost during our entire travel--it being to me a great accommodation, a
comfort and convenience which I did not possess.


Test of Exposure

I have started two and three hours before daybreak, laying on my bed in
an open canoe, ascending the Ogun river, at different times during the
six days' journey up to Abbeokuta; Mr. Campbell and myself have
frequently slept out in open courts and public market-places, without
shed or piazza covering; and when journeying from Oyo to Ibaddan, for
three successive evenings I lay in the midst of a wilderness or forest,
on a single native mat without covering, the entire night; and many
times during our travels we arose at midnight to commence our journey,
and neither of us ever experienced any serious inconvenience from it.


Improved Window and Door Ventilation

That houses in Africa may be properly ventilated during the night
without annoyance, or, what is equally as bad, if not worse, the
continual fear and imagination of the approach of venomous insects,
creeping things, and reptiles, the residents should adapt them to the
place and circumstances, without that rigid imitation of European and
American order of building. Every house should be well ventilated with
windows on opposite sides of the rooms, when and wherever this is
practicable, and the same may be said of doors. And where the room will
not admit of opposite windows, or windows at least on two sides of a
room, whether opposite or otherwise, a chimney or ventilating flue
should be constructed on the opposite side to the window--which window
should always be to the windward, so as to have a continual draught or
current of fresh air. Persons, however, should always avoid sitting in a
_draught_, though a free circulation of air should be allowed in each
room of every house.

Instead of window-sashes with glass, as in common use, I would suggest
that the windows have a sash of four, or but two (if preferred) panels,
to each window (two upper and two lower, or one upper and one lower--or
one lower and two upper, which would make a neat and handsome window),
each panel or space for panes being neatly constructed with a
sieve-work, such as is now used as screens during summer season in the
lower part of parlor windows. To prevent too great oxydization or too
rapid decay of so delicate a structure as the wire must be, it should be
made of brass, copper, or some composition which would not readily
corrode. Inside or outside doors of the same material, made to close and
open like the Venetian jalousies now in use in civilized countries,
would be found very convenient, and add much to the comfort and health
of dwellings as a sanitary measure. The frames of the panels or sashes
should be constructed of maple, cherry, walnut, or mahogany, according
to the means of the builder and elegance of the building--as these
articles seasoned are not only more neat and durable, but, from their
solidity, are less liable to warp or shrink. This would afford such a
beautiful and safe protection to every dwelling against the intrusion of
all and every living thing, even the smallest insect--while a full and
free circulation of fresh air would be allowed--that a residence in
Africa would become attractive and desirable, instead of, as now (from
imagination), objectionable.


Sanitary Effects of Ants--Termites, and Drivers

A word about ants in Africa--so much talked of, and so much
dreaded--will legitimately be in place here, regarding them as a
sanitary means, provided by Divine Providence. The _termites_, bug-a-bug
or white double ant, shaped like two ovals somewhat flattened, joined
together by a cylinder somewhat smaller in the middle, with a head at
one end of one of the ovals, is an herbivorous insect, and much abused
as the reputed destroyers of books, papers, and all linen or muslin
clothing. They feed mainly on such vegetable matter as is most subject
to decay--as soft wood, and many other such, when void of vitality--and
there is living herbage upon which they feed, and thereby prove a
blessing to a country with a superabundance of rank vegetable matter. It
is often asserted that they destroy whole buildings, yet I have never
seen a person who knew of such a disaster by them, although they may
attack and do as much mischief in such cases at times as the wood-worms
of America; and, in regard to clothing, though doubtless there have been
instances of their attack upon and destruction of clothing, yet I will
venture to assert that there is no one piece of clothing attacked and
destroyed by these creatures, to ten thousand by the moths which get
into the factories and houses in civilized countries, where woolen goods
are kept. In all my travels in Africa, I never had anything attacked by
the termite; but during my stay of seven months in Great Britain, I had
a suit of woolen clothes completely eaten up by moths in Liverpool.


Drivers

Drivers, as every person already knows, are black ants, whose reputation
is as bad for attacking living animals, and even human beings, as the
termites' for attacking clothing. This creature, like its white cousin,
is also an instrument in the hands of Providence as a sanitary means,
and to the reverse of the other is carnivorous, feeding upon all flesh
whether fresh or putrified. Like the white, for the purpose of
destroying the superabundance of vegetable, certainly these black ants
were designed by Providence to destroy the excess of animal life which
in the nature of things would be brought forth, with little or no
destruction without them; and although much is said about their
attacking persons, I will venture the opinion that there is not one of
these attacks a person to every ten thousand musquitoes in America, as
it is only by chance, and _not by search after it_, that drivers attack
persons.


How They Travel

They usually go in search of food in narrow rows, say from half an inch
to a hand's breadth, as swiftly as a running stream of water, and may in
their search enter a house in their course--if nothing attract them
around it--when, in such cases, they spread over the floor, walls, and
ceiling; and finding no insect or creeping thing to destroy, they gather
again on the floor, and leave the premises in the regular order in which
they entered. Should they encounter a person when on these excursions,
though in bed, does he but lie still and not disturb them, the
good-hearted negro insects will even pass over the person without harm
or molestation; but, if disturbed, they will retaliate by a sting as
readily as a bee when the hive is disturbed, though their sting, so far
from being either dangerous or severe, is simply like the severe sting
of a musquito. An aged missionary gentleman, of twenty-five years'
experience, informed me that an entire myriad (this term is given to a
multitude of drivers, as their number can never be less than ten
thousand--and I am sure that I have seen as many millions together)
passed over him one night in bed, without one stinging him. Indeed, both
the black and white ants are quite harmless as to personal injury, and
very beneficial in a sanitary point.


How to Drive Them Out of the Houses

There is much more in the imagination than the reality about these
things; and one important fact I must not omit, that, however great the
number of drivers, a simple _light set in the middle of the floor_ will
clear the room of them in ten minutes. In this case they do not form in
column, but go out in hasty confusion, each effecting as quick retreat
and safe escape for himself as possible, forming their line of march
outside of the house, where they meet from all quarters of their points
of escape.


How to Destroy Them

_Chloride of sodium_ or common salt (fine), slightly damped, will
entirely destroy the termites; and _acetum_ or vinegar, or _acetic acid_
either, will destroy or chase off the drivers. These means are simple,
and within the reach of every person, but, aside from this, both classes
or races of these creatures disappear before the approach of
civilization. In a word, moths, mice, roaches, and musquitoes are much
greater domestic annoyances, and certainly much more destructive in
America and Europe than the bug-a-bug or driver is in Africa.


Their Pugnacious and Martial Character

I cannot endorse the statement from personal knowledge of the desperate
hostility which the drivers manifest towards the termites, as given by
Dr. Livingstone, who, calling them "black rascals," says "they stand
deliberately and watch for the whites, which, on coming out of their
holes, they instantly seize, putting them to death." Perhaps the whites
were _kidnappers_, in which case they served the white _rascals_ right.
Though I have never seen an encounter, it is nevertheless true, that the
blacks do subdue the whites whenever they meet. In fact, they go, as do
no other creatures known to natural science, in immense incalculable
numbers--and I do not think that I exaggerate if I say that I have more
than once seen more than six hogsheads of them traveling together, had
they been measured--and along the entire line of march, stationed on
each side of the columns, there are warriors or soldiers to guard them,
who stand sentry, closely packed side by side with their heads towards
the column, which passes on as rapidly as a flowing stream of water. I
have traced a column for more than a mile, whose greatest breadth was
more than a yard, and the least not less than a foot. It is
inconceivable the distance these creatures travel in a short time.
Should anything disturb the lines, the soldiers sally out a few feet in
pursuit of the cause, quickly returning to their post when meeting no
foe. The guards are much larger than the common drivers, being about the
length of a barley-corn, and armed with a pair of curved horns, like
those of the large American black beetle, called "pinching bug." There
are no bed-bugs here.


Cesspools

One important fact, never referred to by travellers as such, is that the
health of large towns in Africa will certainly be improved by the
erection of _cesspools_, whereas now they have none. With the exception
of the residences of missionaries and other civilized people, there is
no such thing in Africa. Every family, as in civilized countries, should
have such conveniences. Our senses are great and good faculties--seeing,
hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling--God has so created them, and
designed them for such purposes; therefore, they should neither be
perverted nor marred when this can be avoided. Hence, we should
beautify, when required and make pleasing to the sight; modify and make
pleasant to the hearing; _cleanse_ and _purify_ to make _agreeable_ to
the smelling; improve and make good to the taste; and never violate the
feelings whenever any or all of these are at our will or control.


Wild Beasts and Reptiles

A single remark about these. The wild beasts are driven back before the
march of civilization, I having seen none, save one leopard; and but
four serpents during my entire travels, one three and a half feet long
(a water snake); one fourteen inches long; and another ten inches long;
the two last being killed by natives--and a tame one around the neck of
a charmer at Oyo. During the time I never saw a centipede, and but two
tarantulas.



X MISSIONARY INFLUENCE


To deny or overlook the fact, the all-important fact, that the
missionary influence had done much good in Africa, would be simply to do
injustice, a gross injustice to a good cause.


Protestant Missionaries

The advent of the Protestant Missionaries into Africa, has doubtless
been effective of much good, though it may reasonably be expected that
many have had their short comings. By Protestant, I mean all other
Christian denominations than the Roman Catholic. I would not be regarded
either a bigot or partialist so far as the rights of humanity are
concerned, but facts are tenable in all cases, and whilst I readily
admit that a Protestant monarch granted the first letters-patent to
steal Africans from their homes to be enslaved by a Protestant people,
and subsequently a _bona-fide_ Protestant nation has been among the most
cruel oppressors of the African race, my numerous friends among whom are
many Roman Catholics--black as well as white--must bear the test of
truth, as I shall apply it in the case of the Missionaries, as my object
in visiting my fatherland, was to enquire into and learn every fact,
which should have a bearing on this, the grandest prospect for the
regeneration of a people, that ever was presented in the history of the
world.


Influence of Roman Catholic Religion in Favor of Slavery

In my entire travels in Africa, either alone or after meeting with Mr.
Campbell at Abbeokuta, I have neither seen nor heard of any Roman
Catholic Missionaries; but the most surprising and startling fact is,
that every slave-trading point on the coast at present (which ports are
mainly situated South and East) where the traffic is carried on, are
either Roman Catholic trading-ports, or native agencies protected by
Roman Catholics; as Canot, formerly at Grand Cape Mount, Pedro Blanco,
and Domingo at Wydah in Dahomi. And still more, it is a remarkable and
very suggestive reality that at all of those places where the Jesuits or
Roman Catholic Missionaries once were stationed, the slave-trade is not
only still carried on in its worst form as far as practicable, but
slaves are held in Africa by these white foreigners at the old
Portuguese settlements along the Southern and Eastern coasts, of Loango
and Mozambique for instance; and although some three years have elapsed
since the King of Portugal proclaimed, or pretended to proclaim "Liberty
to all the people throughout his dominions," yet I will venture an
opinion, that not one in every hundred of native Africans thus held in
bondage on their own soil, are aware of any such "Proclamation." Dr.
Livingstone tells us that he came across many ruins of Roman Catholic
Missionary Stations in his travels--especially those in Loando de St.
Paul, a city of some eighteen or twenty thousand of a population--all
deserted, and the buildings appropriated to other uses, as
store-houses, and the like. Does not this seem as though slavery were
the legitimate successor of Roman Catholicism, or slave-traders and
holders of the Roman Catholic religion and Missionaries? It certainly
has that appearance to me; and a fact still more glaring is, that the
only professing Christian government which in the light of the present
period of human elevation and national reform, has attempted such a
thing, is that of Roman Catholic Spain, (still persisting in holding
Cuba for the wealth accruing from African Slaves stolen from their
native land) which recently expelled every Protestant Missionary from
the African Island of Fernando Po, that they might command it unmolested
by Christian influence, as an export mart for the African Slave-Trade.
To these facts I call the attention of the Christian world, that no one
may murmur when the day of retribution in Africa comes--which come it
must--and is fast hastening, when slave-traders must flee.


Influence of Protestant Religion against Slavery, and in Favor of
Civilization

Wherever the Protestant Missionaries are found, or have been, there are
visible evidences of a purer and higher civilization, by the high
estimate set upon the Christian religion by the natives, the deference
paid to the missionaries themselves, and the idea which generally
obtains among them, that all missionaries are opposed to slavery, and
the faith they have in the moral integrity of these militant ambassadors
of the Living God. Wherever there are missionaries, there are schools
both Sabbath and secular, and the arts and sciences, and manners and
customs, more or less of civilized life, are imparted. I have not as yet
visited a missionary station in any part of Africa, where there were
not some, and frequently many natives, both adult and children, who
could speak, read, and write English, as well as read their own
language; as all of them, whether Episcopalian, Wesleyan, Baptist, or
Presbyterian, in the Yoruba country, have Crowther's editions of
religious and secular books in the schools and churches, and all have
native agents, interpreters, teachers (assistants) and catechists or
readers in the mission. These facts prove indisputably great progress;
and I here take much pleasure in recording them in testimony of those
faithful laborers in that distant vineyard of our heavenly Father in my
fatherland. Both male and female missionaries, all seemed much devoted
to their work, and anxiously desirous of doing more. Indeed, the very
fact of there being as many native missionaries as there are now to be
found holding responsible positions, as elders, deacons, preachers, and
priests, among whom there are many finely educated, and several of them
authors of works, not only in their own but the English language, as
Revs. Crowther, King, Taylor, and Samuel Crowther, Esq., surgeon, all
show that there is an advancement for these people beyond the point to
which missionary duty can carry them.


Kindness of Missionaries and Personal Acknowledgments

I am indebted to the Missionaries generally, wherever met with, whether
in Liberia or Central Africa, for their uniform kindness and
hospitality, among whom may be named: Rev. J. M. Harden and excellent
wife, (a refined highly educated native Ibo lady at Lagos), Revs. H.
Townsend, C. H. Gollmer, J. King, E. Bickersteth and ladies in
Abbeokuta; A. D. Phillips, J. A. Stone and lady, Ijaye; T. A. Reid, and
Mr. Mekin, Oyo; and Rev. D. Hinderer and lady; Ibaddan. I am indebted to
the Baptist Missionaries for the use of their Mission House and
furniture during our residence at Abbeokuta: Rev. John Roberts and lady,
Miss Killpatrick, Reverend Bishop Burns and lady, Rev. Mr. Tyler, Rev.
Mr. Gipson, Rev. Edward W. Blyden and others, Rev. Mr. Hoffman and lady,
and Rev. Mr. Messenger and lady, all of Liberia, I am indebted for marks
of personal kindness and attention when indisposed among them, and my
kind friends, the Reverend Alexander Crumell and lady, whose guest I was
during several weeks near the Cape, and who spared no pains to render my
stay not only a comfortable, but a desirable one.


Hints to Those to Whom They Apply

I would suggest for the benefit of missionaries in general, and those to
whom it applies in particular, that there are other measures and ways by
which civilization may be imparted than preaching and praying--temporal
as well as spiritual means. If all persons who settle among the natives
would, as far as it is in their power and comes within their province
induce, by making it a rule of their house or family, every native
servant to sit on a stool or chair; eat at a table instead of on the
ground; eat with a knife and fork (or _begin_ with a spoon) instead of
with their fingers; eat in the house instead of going out in the yard,
garden, or somewhere else under a tree or shed; and sleep on a bed,
instead of on a bare mat on the ground; and have them to wear some sort
of a garment to cover the entire person above the knees, should it be
but a single shirt or chemise, instead of a loose native cloth thrown
around them, to be dropped at pleasure, at any moment exposing the
entire upper part of the person--or as in Liberia, where that part of
the person is entirely uncovered--I am certain that it would go far
toward impressing them with some of the habits of civilized life, as
being adapted to them as well as the "white man," whom they so
faithfully serve with a will. I know that some may say, this is
difficult to do. It certainly could not have been with those who never
tried it. Let each henceforth resolve for himself like the son of Nun,
"As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord."


Changing Names

I would also suggest that I cannot see the utility of the custom on the
part of Missionaries in _changing_ the names of native children, and
even adults, so soon as they go into their families to live, as though
their own were not good enough for them. These native names are
generally much more significant, and euphonious than the Saxon, Gaelic,
or Celtic. Thus, Adenigi means, "Crowns have their shadow." This was the
name of a servant boy of ours, whose father was a native cotton trader,
it is to be hoped that this custom among Missionaries and other
Christian settlers, of changing the names of the natives, will be
stopped, thereby relieving them of the impression, that to embrace the
Christian faith, implies a loss of name, and so far loss of identity.



XI

WHAT AFRICA NOW REQUIRES


What Missionary Labor Has Done

From the foregoing, it is very evident that missionary duty has reached
its _ultimatum_. By this, I mean that the native has received all that
the missionary was sent to teach, and is now really ready for more than
he can or may receive. He sees and knows that the white man, who first
carried him the Gospel, which he has learned to a great extent to
believe a reality, is of an entirely different race to himself; and has
learned to look upon everything which he has, knows and does, which has
not yet been imparted to him (especially when he is told by the
missionaries, which frequently must be the case, to relieve themselves
of the endless teasing enquiries which persons in their position are
subject to concerning all and every temporal and secular matter, law,
government, commerce, military, and other matters foreign to the
teachings of the gospel; that these things he is not sent to teach, but
simply the gospel) as peculiarly adapted and belonging to the white man.
Of course, there are exceptions to this. Hence, having reached what he
conceives to be the _maximum_ of the black man's or African's
attainments, there must be a re-action in some direction, and if not
progressive it will be retrogressive.


How It Was Done

The missionary has informed him that the white man's country is great.
He builds and resides in great houses; lives in great towns and cities,
with great churches and palaver-houses (public and legislative halls);
rides in great carriages; manufactures great and beautiful things; has
great ships, which go to sea, to all parts of the world, instead of
little canoes such as he has paddling up and down the rivers and on the
coast; that the wisdom, power, strength, courage, and wealth of the
white man and his country are as much greater than him and his, as the
big ships are larger and stronger than the little frail canoes; all of
which he is made sensible of, either by the exhibition of pictures or
the reality.


The Result, If Not Timely Aided by Legitimate Means

He at once comes to a stand. "Of what use is the white man's religion
and 'book knowledge' to me, since it does not give me the knowledge and
wisdom nor the wealth and power of the white man, as all these things
belong only to him? Our young men and women learn their book, and talk
on paper (write), and talk to God like white man (worship), but God no
hear 'em like He hear white man! Dis religion no use to black man." And
so the African _reasonably_ reasons when he sees that despite his having
yielded up old-established customs, the laws of his fathers, and almost
his entire social authority, and the rule of his household to the care
and guardianship of the missionary, for the sake of acquiring his
knowledge and power--when, after having learned all that his children
can, he is doomed to see them sink right back into their old habits,
the country continue in the same condition, without the beautiful
improvements of the white man--and if a change take place at all, he is
doomed to witness what he never expected to see and dies
regretting--himself and people entangled in the meshes of the government
of a people foreign in kith, kin, and sympathy, when he and his are
entirely shoved aside and compelled to take subordinate and inferior
positions, if not, indeed, reduced to menialism and bondage. I am
justified in asserting that this state of things has brought missionary
efforts to their _maximum_ and native progress to a pause.


Missionary Aid, Christianity and Law or Government Must Harmonize, to Be
Effective of Good

Religion has done its work, and now requires temporal and secular aid to
give it another impulse. The improved arts of civilized life must now be
brought to bear, and go hand in hand in aid of the missionary efforts
which are purely religious in character and teaching. I would not have
the standard of religion lowered a single stratum of the common breeze
of heaven. No, let it rather be raised, if, indeed, higher it can be.
Christianity certainly is the most advanced civilization that man ever
attained to, and wherever propagated in its purity, to be effective, law
and government must be brought in harmony with it--otherwise it becomes
corrupted, and a corresponding degeneracy ensues, placing its votaries
even in a worse condition than the primitive. This was exemplified by
the Author of our faith, who, so soon as he began to teach, commenced by
admonishing the people to a modification of their laws--or rather
himself to condemn them. But it is very evident that the social must
keep pace with the religious, and the political with the social
relations of society, to carry out the great measures of the higher
civilization.


Like Seeks Like

Of what avail, then, is advanced intelligence to the African without
improved social relations--acquirements and refinement without an
opportunity of a practical application of them--society in which they
are appreciated? It requires not the most astute reformer and political
philosopher to see.


Natives Desire Higher Social Relations

The native sees at once that all the higher social relations are the
legitimate result and requirements of a higher intelligence, and
naturally enough expects, that when he has attained it, to enjoy the
same privileges and blessings. But how sadly mistaken--what dire
disappointment!


Native Doubts Respecting the Eventual Good Effects of Missionary Labor

The habits, manners, and customs of his people, and the social relations
all around him are the same; improvements of towns, cities, roads, and
methods of travel are the same; implements of husbandry and industry are
the same; the methods of conveyance and price of produce (with
comparative trifling variation) are the same. All seem dark and gloomy
for the future, and he has his doubts and fears as to whether or not he
has committed a fatal error in leaving his native social relations for
those of foreigners whom he cannot hope to emulate, and who, he thinks,
will not assimilate themselves to him.


The Proper Element as Progressive Missionary Agencies

It is clear, then, that essential to the success of civilization, is the
establishment of all those social relations and organizations, without
which enlightened communities cannot exist. To be successful, these must
be carried out by proper agencies, and these agencies must be a _new
element_ introduced into their midst, possessing all the attainments,
socially and politically, morally and religiously, adequate to so
important an end. This element must be _homogenous_ in all the _natural_
characteristics, claims, sentiments, and sympathies the _descendants of
Africa_ being the only element that can effect it. To this end, then, a
part of the most enlightened of that race in America design to carry out
these most desirable measures by the establishment of social and
industrial settlements among them, in order at once to introduce, in an
effective manner, all the well-regulated pursuits of civilized life.


Precaution against Error in the First Steps

That no mis-step be taken and fatal error committed at the commencement,
we have determined that the persons to compose this new element to be
introduced into Africa, shall be well and most carefully selected in
regard to moral integrity, intelligence, acquired attainments, fitness,
adaptation, and as far as practicable, religious sentiments and
professions. We are serious in this; and so far as we are concerned as
an individual, it shall be restricted to the letter, and we will most
strenuously oppose and set our face against any attempt from any quarter
to infringe upon this arrangement and design. Africa is our fatherland
and we its legitimate descendants, and we will never agree nor consent
to see this the first voluntary step that has ever been taken for her
regeneration by her own descendants--blasted by a disinterested or
renegade set, whose only object might be in the one case to get rid of a
portion of the colored population, and in the other, make money, though
it be done upon the destruction of every hope entertained and measure
introduced for the accomplishment of this great and prospectively
glorious undertaking. We cannot and will not permit or agree that the
result of years of labor and anxiety shall be blasted at one reckless
blow, by those who have never spent a day in the cause of our race, or
know nothing about our wants and requirements. The descendants of Africa
in North America will doubtless, by the census of 1860, reach five
millions; those of Africa may number two hundred millions. I have
outgrown, long since, the boundaries of North America, and with them
have also outgrown the boundaries of their claims. I, therefore, cannot
consent to sacrifice the prospects of two hundred millions, that a
fraction of five millions may be benefitted, especially since the
measures adopted for the many must necessarily benefit the few.


National Character Essential to the Successful Regeneration of Africa

Africa, to become regenerated, must have a national character, and her
position among the existing nations of the earth will depend mainly upon
the high standard she may gain compared with them in all her relations,
morally, religiously, socially, politically, and commercially.

I have determined to leave to my children the inheritance of a country,
the possession of territorial domain, the blessings of a national
education, and the indisputable right of self-government; that they may
not succeed to the servility and degradation bequeathed to us by our
fathers. If we have not been born to fortunes, we should impart the
seeds which shall germinate and give birth to fortunes for them.



XII

TO DIRECT LEGITIMATE COMMERCE


First Steps in Political Economy

As the first great national step in political economy, the selection and
security of a location to direct and command commerce legitimately
carried on, as an export and import metropolis, is essentially
necessary. The facilities for a metropolis should be adequate--a rich,
fertile, and productive country surrounding it, with some great staple
(which the world requires as a commodity) of exportation. A convenient
harbor as an outlet and inlet, and natural facilities for improvement,
are among the necessary requirements for such a location.


The Basis of a Great Nation--National Wealth

The basis of great nationality depends upon three elementary principles:
first, territory; second, population; third, a great staple production
either natural or artificial, or both, as a permanent source of wealth;
and Africa comprises these to an almost unlimited extent. The continent
is five thousand miles from Cape Bon (north) to the Cape of Good Hope
(south), and four thousand at its greatest breadth, from Cape Guardifui
(east) to Cape de Verde (west), with an average breadth of two thousand
five hundred miles, any three thousand of which within the tropics north
and south, including the entire longitude, will produce the staple
cotton, also sugar cane, coffee, rice, and all the tropical staples,
with two hundred millions of _natives_ as an industrial element to work
this immense domain. The world is challenged to produce the semblance of
a parallel to this. It has no rival in fact.


Advantageous Location

Lagos, at the mouth of the Ogun river in the Bight of Benin, Gulf of
Guinea, 6 deg. 31 min. west coast of Africa, 120 miles north-west of the
Nun (one of the mouths of the great river Niger) is the place of our
location. This was once the greatest slave-trading post on the west
coast of Africa, and in possession of the Portuguese--the slavers
entering Ako Bay, at the mouth of the Ogun river, lying quite inland,
covered behind the island till a favorable opportunity ensued to escape
with their cargoes of human beings for America. Wydah, the great
slave-port of Dahomi, is but 70 or 80 miles west of Lagos. This city is
most favorably located at the mouth of a river which during eight months
in the year is a great thoroughfare for native produce, which is now
brought down and carried up by native canoes and boats, and quite
navigable up to Aro the port of Abbeokuta, a distance of eighty or a
hundred miles, for light-draught steamers, such as at no distant day we
shall have there. Ako Bay is an arm of the gulf, extending quite inland
for three and a half miles, where it spreads out into a great sea,
extending north ten to fifteen miles, taking a curve east and south,
passing on in a narrow strip for two or three hundred miles, till it
joins the Niger at the mouth of the Nun. It is the real harbor of Lagos,
and navigable for light-draught vessels, as the Baltimore clippers and
all other such slavers, formerly put into it; and Her Majesty's
war-steamer Medusa has been in, and H. M.'s cruiser Brun lies
continually in the bay opposite the Consulate.


Metropolis

This is the great outlet of the rich valley of the Niger by land, and
the only point of the ocean upon which the intelligent and advanced
Yorubas are settled. The commerce of this part is very great, being now
estimated at ten million pounds sterling. Besides all the rich products,
as enumerated in another section, palm oil[7] and ivory are among the
great staple products of this rich country. But as every nation, to be
potent must have some great source of wealth--which if not natural must
be artificial--so Africa has that without which the workshops of Great
Britain would become deserted, and the general commerce of the world
materially reduced; and Lagos must not only become the outlet and point
at which all this commodity must centre, but the great metropolis of
this quarter of the world.


Trade of Lagos

The trade of this port now amounts to more than two millions of pounds
sterling, or ten millions of dollars, there having been at times as many
as sixty vessels in the roadstead.

The merchants and business men of Lagos are principally native black
gentlemen, there being but ten white houses in the place--English,
German, French, Portuguese, and Sardinian--and all of the clerks are
native blacks.


Harbor Improvements

Buoys in the roadstead, lighthouses (two) and wharf improvements at the
city in the bay, with steam-tugs or tenders to tow vessels over the Ogun
bar-mouth or inlet, are all that we require to make Lagos a desirable
seaport, with one of the safest harbors in the world for light-draught
vessels.

The fish in these waters are very fine, and Ako is one of the finest
natural oyster bays in the world. The shell-fish are generally of good
size, frequently large, and finely flavored.


Religious and Philanthropic means

As a religious means, such a position must most largely contribute, by
not only giving security to the Missionary cause, but by the actual
infusion of a religious social element permanently among the natives of
the country; and as a philanthropic, by a permanent check to the
slave-trade, and also by its reflex influence on American slavery--not
only thus far cutting off the supply, but, also by superseding slavery
in the growth and supply of those articles which comprise its great
staple and source of wealth--thereby tendering slave labor _unprofitable
and worthless_, as the succeeding section will show.


Stopping the Slave Trade

As to the possibility of putting a stop to the slave-trade, I have only
to say, that we do not leave America and go to Africa to be passive
spectators of such a policy as traffic in the flesh and blood of our
kindred, nor any other species of the human race--more we might
say--that we will not live there and permit it. "_Self-preservation_ is
the first law of nature," and we go to Africa to be _self-sustaining_;
otherwise we have no business there, or anywhere else, in my opinion. We
will bide our time; _but the Slave-trade shall not continue!_


Means of Doing It

Another important point of attention: that is, the slave-trade ceases in
Africa, wherever enlightened Christian civilization gains an influence.
And as to the strength and power necessary, we have only to add, that
Liberia, with a coast frontier of seven hundred miles, and a sparse
population, which at the present only numbers fifteen thousand settlers,
has been effective in putting a stop to that infamous traffic along her
entire coast. And I here record with pleasure, and state what I know to
be the fact, and but simple justice to as noble-hearted antagonists to
slavery as live, that the Liberians are uncompromising in their
opposition to oppression and the enslavement of their race, or any other
part of the human family. I speak of them as a nation or people and
ignore entirely their Iscariots, if any there be. What they have
accomplished with less means, we, by the help of Providence, may
reasonably expect to effect with more--what they did with little, we may
do with much. And I speak with confidence when I assert, that if we in
this new position but do and act as we are fondly looked to and
expected--as I most fondly hope and pray God that, by a prudent,
discretionate and well-directed course, dependant upon Him, we may, nay,
I am certain we will do--I am sure that there is nothing that may be
required to aid in the prosecution and accomplishment of this important
and long-desired end, that may not be obtained from the greatest and
most potent Christian people and nation that ever graced the world.
There is no aid that might be wanted, which may not be obtained through
a responsible, just, and equitable negotiation.


Subsidizing the King of Dahomi

There is some talk by Christians and philanthropists in Great Britain of
subsidizing the King of Dahomi. I hope for the sake of humanity, our
race, and the cause of progressive civilization, this most injurious
measure of compensation for wrong, never will be resorted to nor
attempted.

To make such an offering just at a time when we are about to establish a
policy of self-regeneration in Africa, which may, by example and
precept, effectually check forever the nefarious system, and reform the
character of these people, would be to offer inducements to that monster
to continue, and a license to other petty chiefs to commence the traffic
in human beings, to get a reward of subsidy.

FOOTNOTES:

[7] Nine-tenths of all the Palm Oil of commerce goes from this point.



XIII

COTTON STAPLE


Natural Elements to Produce Cotton

Cotton grows profusely in all this part of Africa, and is not only
produced naturally, but extensively cultivated throughout the Yoruba
country. The soil, climate, and the people are the three natural
elements combined to produce this indispensible commodity, and with
these three natural agencies, no other part of the world can compete.


Africans the Only Reliable Producers

In India there is a difficulty and great expense and outlay of capital
required to obtain it. In Australia it is an experiment; and though it
may eventually be obtained, it must also involve an immense outlay of
capital, and a long time before an adequate supply can be had, as it
must be admitted, however reluctantly by those desirous it should be
otherwise, that the African, as has been justly said by a Manchester
merchant, has in all ages, in all parts of the world, been sought to
raise cotton wherever it has been produced.


Serious Contingencies and Uncertainty in American Cotton Supply

In America there are several serious contingencies which must always
render a supply of cotton from that quarter problematical and doubtful,
and always expensive and subject to sudden, unexpected and unjust
advances in prices. In the first place, the land is purchased at large
prices; secondly, the people to work it; thirdly, the expense of
supporting the people, with the contingencies of sickness and death;
fourthly, the uncertainty of climate and contingencies of frost, and a
backward season and consequent late or unmatured crop; fifthly,
insubordination on the part of the slaves, which is not improbable at
any time; sixthly, suspension of friendly relations between the United
States and Great Britain; and lastly, a rupture between the American
States themselves, which I think no one will be disposed now to consider
impossible. All, or any of these circumstances combined, render it
impossible for America to compete with Africa in the growth and sale of
cotton, for the following reasons:


Superior Advantages of Africa over All Other Countries in the Production
of Cotton

Firstly, landed tenure in Africa is free, the occupant selecting as much
as he can cultivate, holding it so long as he uses it, but cannot convey
it to another; secondly, the people all being free, can be hired at a
price less than the _interest_ of the capital invested in land and
people to work it--they finding their own food, which is the custom of
the country; thirdly, there are no contingencies of frost or irregular
weather to mar or blight the crop; and fourthly, we have two regular
crops a year, or rather one continuous crop, as while the trees are full
of pods of ripe cotton, they are at the same time blooming with fresh
flowers. And African cotton is planted only every seven years, whilst
the American is replanted every season. Lastly, the average product per
acre on the best Mississippi and Louisiana cotton plantations in
America, is three hundred and fifty pounds; the average per acre in
Africa, a hundred per cent more, or seven hundred pounds. As the African
soil produces two crops a year to one in America, then we in Africa
produce fourteen hundred pounds to three hundred and fifty in America;
the cost of labor a hand being one dollar or four shillings a day to
produce it; whilst in Africa at present it is nine hundred per cent
less, being only ten cents or five pence a day for adult labor. At this
price the native lives better on the abundance of produce in the
country, and has more money left at the end of a week than the European
or free American laborer at one dollar a day.

Cotton, as before stated, is the great commodity of the world, entering
intimately into, being incorporated with almost every kind of fabric of
wearing apparel. All kinds of woollen goods--cloths, flannels, alpacas,
merinoes, and even silks, linen, nankin, ginghams, calicoes, muslins,
cordages, ship-sails, carpeting, hats, hose, gloves, threads, waddings,
paddings, tickings, every description of book and newspaper, writing
paper, candle wicks, and what not, all depend upon the article cotton.


Importance of the African Race in the Social and Political Relations of
the World

By this it will be seen and admitted that the African occupies a much
more important place in the social and political element of the world
than that which has heretofore been assigned him--holding the balance of
commercial power, the source of the wealth of nations in his hands. This
is indisputably true--undeniable, that cotton cannot be produced without
negro labor and skill in raising it.


The African Race Sustains Great Britain

Great Britain alone has directly engaged in the manufacture of pure
fabrics from the raw material, five millions of persons; two-thirds more
of the population depend upon this commodity indirectly for a
livelihood. The population (I include in this calculation Ireland) being
estimated at 30,000,000, we have then 25,000,000 of people, or
five-sixths of the population of this great nation, depending upon the
article cotton alone for subsistence, and the black man is the producer
of the raw material, and the source from whence it comes. What an
important fact to impart to the heretofore despised and under-rated
negro race, to say nothing of all the other great nations of Europe, as
France, for instance, with her extensive manufactures of muslin
delaines--which simply mean _cotton and wool_--more or less engaged in
the manufacture and consumption of cotton.


The Negro Race Sustains the Whites--Able to Sustain Themselves

If the negro race--as slaves--can produce cotton as an _exotic_ in
foreign climes to enrich white men who oppress them, they can, they
must, they will, they shall, produce it as an _indigene_ in their
own-loved native Africa to enrich themselves, and regenerate their race;
if a faithful reliance upon the beneficence and promise of God, and an
humble submission to his will, as the feeble instruments in his hands
through which the work is commenced, shall be available to this end.


Home Trade

The Liberians must as a policy as much as possible patronise home
manufactured, and home produced articles. Instead of using foreign, they
should prefer their own sugar, molasses, and coffee, which is equal to
that produced in any other country, and if not, it is the only way to
encourage the farmers and manufacturers to improve them. The coffee of
Liberia, is equal to any in the world, and I have drunk some of the
native article, superior in strength and flavor to Java or Mocca, and I
rather solicit competition in judgment of the article of coffee. And
singular as it may appear, they are even supplied from abroad with
spices and condiments, although their own country as also all Africa, is
prolific in the production of all other articles, as allspice, ginger,
pepper black and red, mustard and everything else.


Coast Trade

They must also turn their attention to supplying the Coast settlements
with sugar and molasses, and everything else of their own production
which may be in demand. Lagos and the Missionary stations in the
interior, now consume much of these articles, the greater part of
which--sugar and molasses--are imported from England and America. This
trade they might secure in a short time without successful competition,
because many of the Liberia merchants now own vessels, and the firm of
Johnson, Turpin and Dunbar, own a fine little coasting steamer, and soon
they will be able to undersell the foreigners; whilst at present their
trade of these articles in America is a mere _favor_ through the
benevolence of some good hearted gentlemen, personal _friends_ of
theirs, who receive and dispose of them--sugar and molasses--at a price
much above the market value, to encourage them. This can only last while
these friends continue, when it must then cease. To succeed as a state
or nation, we must become self-reliant, and thereby able to create our
own ways and means; and a trade created _in_ Africa _by_ civilized
Africans, would be a national rock of "everlasting ages."


Domestic Trade, Corn Meal, Guinea Corn and Yam Flour

The domestic trade among the natives in the interior of our part of
Africa--Yoruba--is very great. Corn meal, Guinea corn flour very fine,
and a fine flour made of yams is plentiful in every market, and cooked
food can always be had in great abundance from the women at refreshment
stands kept in every town and along the highway every few miles when
traveling.


Candy

Molasses candy or "taffy," is carried about and sold by young girls,
made from the syrup of sugar cane, which does not differ in appearance
and flavor from that of civilized countries.


Soap

Hard and soft soap are for sale in every market for domestic uses, made
from lye by percolation or dripping of water through ashes in large
earthen vessels or "hoppers."


Coloring and Dying. Making Indigo

Coloring and dying is carried on very generally, every woman seeming to
understand it as almost a domestic necessity; also the manufacturing of
indigo, the favorite and most common color of the country. Red comes
next to this which is mostly obtained of camwood, another domestic
employment of the women. Yellow is the next favorite color. Hence, blue,
red, and yellow may be designated as the colors of Yoruba or Central
Africa.


Weaving and Cloth Manufacturing; Leather

The manufactory of cotton cloth is carried on quite extensively among
them; and in a ride of an hour through the city of Illorin we counted
one hundred and fifty-seven looms in operation in several different
establishments. Beautiful and excellent leather is also manufactured,
from which is made sandals, shoes, boots, bridles, saddles,
harness-caparisons for horses, and other ornaments and uses. They all
wear clothes of their own manufacture. The inhabitants of Abbeokuta are
called Egbas, and those of all the other parts of Yoruba are called
Yorubas--all speaking the Egba language.


A Fixed Policy for the Blacks, as a Fundamental Necessity

Our policy must be--and I hazard nothing in promulging it; nay, without
this design and feeling, there would be a great deficiency of
self-respect, pride of race, and love of country, and we might never
expect to challenge the respect of nations--_Africa for the African race
and black men to rule them_. By black men I mean, men of African descent
who claim an identity with the race.


Internal Medium of Communication. Navigable Rivers

So contrary to old geographical notions, Africa abounds with handsome
navigable rivers, which during six or eight months in the year, would
carry steamers suitably built. Of such are the Gallinos, St. Paul, Junk,
and Kavalla of Liberia; the Ogun, Ossa, the great Niger and others of
and contiguous to Yoruba; the Gambia, Senegambia, Orange, Zambisi and
others of other parts. The Kavalla is a beautiful stream which for one
hundred miles is scarcely inferior to the Hudson of New York, in any
particular; and all of them equal the rivers of the Southern States of
America generally which pour out by steamers the rich wealth of the
planting States into the Mississippi. With such prospects as these; with
such a people as the Yorubas and other of the best type, as a
constituent industrial, social, and political element upon which to
establish a national edifice, what is there to prevent success? Nothing
in the world.


Native Government

The Governments in this part are generally Patriarchial, the Kings being
elective from ancient Royal families by the Council of Elders, which
consists of men chosen for life by the people, for their age, wisdom,
experience, and service among them. They are a deliberative body, and
all cases of great importance; of state, life and death, must be brought
before them. The King as well as either of themselves, is subject to
trial and punishment for misdemeanor in office, before the Council of
Elders.

Lagos is the place of the family residence of that excellent gentleman,
Aji, or the Rev. Samuel Crowther, the native Missionary; and also his
son-in-law Rev. T. B. Macaulay, who has an excellent school, assisted by
his wife an educated native lady.

"Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her
hands unto God."--Ps. lxviii. 31. With the fullest reliance upon this
blessed promise, I humbly go forward in--I may repeat--the grandest
prospect for the regeneration of a people that ever was presented in the
history of the world. The disease has long since been known; we have
found and shall apply the remedy. I am indebted to Rev. H. H. Garnet, an
eminent black clergyman and scholar, for the construction, that "soon,"
in the Scriptural passage quoted, "has reference to the period ensuing
_from the time of beginning_." With faith in the promise, and hope from
this version, surely there is nothing to doubt or fear.



XIV

SUCCESS IN GREAT BRITAIN


Departure from Africa and Arrival in England

Mr. Campbell and myself left Lagos on the 10th of April, per the British
Royal Mail steam-ship Athenian, commander Lowrie, arriving in Liverpool
May 12th, and in London on the 16th, having spent four days in the
former place.


First Meeting

On Thursday, the 17th, by a note of invitation, we met a number of
noblemen and gentlemen, interested in the progress of African
Regeneration, in the parlour of Dr. Hodgkin, F.R.G.S., among whom were
the Lord Alfred S. Churchill, Chairman; Right Hon. Lord Calthorpe; Hon.
Mr. Ashley, brother of the Earl of Shaftesbury; Colonel Walker; Charles
Buxton, Esq., M.P.; Rev. J. Baldwin Brown, A.B.; Rev. Samuel Minton,
M.A.; Dr. Hodgkin, and others. By request of the noble chairman, I made
a statement of our Mission to Africa, imparting to the first of their
knowledge, our true position as independent of all other societies and
organizations then in existence. Mr. Campbell also made some remarks.


Origin of the African Aid Society

Many subsequent meetings were held in various places, private and
public, several of which were presided over by the Lord Alfred S.
Churchill and Rt. Hon. Lord Calthorpe, at which I and Mr. Campbell both
spoke; when in June an invitation was received by each of us from the
"Committee of the National Club," to attend a "Company," on "Wednesday
evening, June 27th, 1860, when information will be given on the
Condition and Prospects of the African Race." The invitation (being the
same as sent to all other persons) went on to state that, "Among others,
Dr. Delany, of Canada West, and R. Campbell Esq., of Philadelphia,
gentlemen of color, lately returned from an exploring tour in Central
Africa, will take part in the proceedings."

This was the first great effective move in aid of our cause, though all
other previous meetings were preliminary to it. At this, as at previous
meetings, a full and thorough statement was made of our mission, several
gentlemen taking part in the discussion.

Subsequently the following note was received--Mr. Campbell receiving a
similar one--with the accompanying circular, referred to as the
"enclosed paper":--


     African Aid Society, 7, Adams Street, Strand, W.C.,

     July 14th, 1860

     DEAR SIR--The Provisional Committee of the above-named Society will
     feel obliged if you will kindly attend a meeting to be held at the
     Caledonian Hotel, Robert Street, Adelphi Terrace, on Thursday next,
     July 19th, to consider the enclosed paper, and to decide on a
     further course of action. Lord Alfred Churchill, M.P., will take
     the chair at half-past two o'clock.

     I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully,

     Dr. Delany.              WILLIAM CARDWELL, Hon. Sec.


At a meeting held at 7, Adams Street, on July 6th, 1860 (arising out of
the proceedings of a _soiree_, which took place at the National Club, on
the 27th of the previous month, when the subject of the "Condition and
Prospects of the African Race" was discussed) present, Lord Alfred
Churchill, M.P. in the chair; Lord Calthorpe; Sir C. E. Eardley, Bart;
Joseph Ferguson, Esq., late M.P. for Carlisle; Rev. Mesac Thomas,
Secretary of the Colonial Church and School Society; Rev. J. Davis; Rev.
Samuel Minton, Minister of Percy Chapel; J. Lyons Macleod, Esq., late H.
B. M.'s Consul at Mozambique; Rev. J. Baldwin Brown, Claylands Chapel;
and Rev. W Cardall, the following resolutions were unanimously passed:--

     I. That it is desirable to form a Society, to be designated the
     'African Aid Society.' II. That the noblemen now present be a
     Provisional Committee of such Society, with power to add to their
     number; and that Lord Alfred Churchill, M.P., be requested to be
     Chairman. III. That Sir C. E. Eardley, Bart., J. Lyons Macleod,
     Esq., the Rev. S. Minton, and the Rev. J. Baldwin Brown, be a
     Sub-Committee to prepare a draft statement of the proposed objects
     of the Society, and rules for its government.

At a subsequent meeting of the Committee, on a report of the
Sub-Committee, the statement of objects and rules was adopted, which is
given above.


What Black Men Want

The contents of this paper had been fully and fairly discussed at a
previous meeting to which myself and colleague were honored with an
invitation, when I then and there, fully, openly, and candidly stated to
the noblemen and gentlemen present what was desired and what we did not;
that we desired to be dealt with as men, and not children. That we did
not desire gratuities as such in the apportioning of their
benevolence--nothing eleemosynary but means _loaned_ to our people upon
their _personal obligations, to be paid in produce or otherwise_. That
we did not approve of _restriction_ as to _where_ such persons went (so
that it was to some country where the population was mainly colored, as
that was our policy) letting each choose and decide _for himself_, that
which was _best for him_.


Primary Objects of the African Aid Society

To these sentiments the noblemen and gentlemen all cordially and
heartily agreed, establishing their society, as we understand it,
expressly to aid the _voluntary_ emigration of colored people from
America in general, and our movement as originated by colored people in
particular. Indeed I here now say, as I did then and there, that I would
give nothing for it, were it not a self-reliant project originating with
ourselves. The following completes the doings of the gentlemen in
London. I should have remarked, that at many of these meetings,
especially that at White Hall on the 27th day of June, and that of the
19th July, and the preliminary ones above referred to, the respected
president of our Council, Wm. Howard Day, Esq., M.A., was present. For
some of the important preliminary meetings, he and Rev. D'Arcy Irvine
kindly made arrangements.



AFRICAN AID SOCIETY

7,[8] ADAMS STREET, STRAND, W. C., LONDON


PRESIDENT

VICE-PRESIDENTS

  *The Right Hon. Lord Calthorpe.

  The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Sierra Leone.


  COUNCIL

  *The Lord Alfred Churchill, M.P., F.R.G.S., Chairman of the Executive
  Committee

  Ashley, Hon. Wm., St. James's Palace.

  Bagnall, Thomas, Esq., J.P., Great Barr, near Birmingham

  Brown, Rev. J. Baldwin, B.A., 150, Albany Street.

  Dunlop, Hy., Esq., Craigton, Glasgow.

  *Eardley, Sir C. E., Bart., F.R.G.S., Bedwell Park.

  Ferguson, Joseph, Esq., late P.M. for Carlisle.

  *Seymour, H. Danby, Esq., M.P., F.R.G.S.

  Bullock, Edward, Esq., Handsworth, near Birmingham

  *Cardall, Rev. Wm., M.A., Sec., of the Evangelical Alliance.

  Clegg, Thomas, Esq., Manchester.

  *Davis, Rev. James, Sec. of the Evangelical Alliance.

  Shaw, Dr. Norton, Sec. of the Royal Geographical Society.

  Snopp, Rev. C. B., Perry Bar, near Birmingham.

  Fowler, R. N., Esq., F.R.G.S., 50, Cornhill.

  La Trobe, C. J., Esq., F.R.G.S., late Governor of Victoria.

  La Trobe, Rev. P., Sec. of the Moravian Missions.

  Lecke, Rear Admiral Sir H. J., K.C.B., M.P.

  *M'Arthur, Wm., Esq., Brixton-rise

  Macleod, J. Lyons, Esq., F.R.G.S. late H.B.M.'s Consul at Mozambique
  Society.

  *Minton, Rev. Samuel, M.A., Minister of Percy Chapel

  Richardson, Jonathan, Esq., M.P.

  Sykes. Col. W.H. r.i'., Vice President of the Royal Geographical
  Society.

  *Thomas, Rev. Mesac, M.A., Sec. of the Colonial Church and School
  Society.

  Thompson, Geo., Esq., Drixton.

  Tidman, Rev. Dr., Sec. Of the London Missionary Society.

  Trestrail, Rev. Fred., Sec. of the Baptist Missionary Society.

  Wingfield, R. W., Esq., J.P., Birmingham.

  William Cardall and J. Lyons Macleod, _Hon. Secretaries_

  Those marked thus (*) constitute the Executive Committee.


STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND RULES

I. That the name of the Society be the "African Aid Society."

II. That its chief objects shall be to develop the material resources of
Africa, Madagascar, and the adjacent Islands; and to promote the
Christian civilization of the African races; as by these means the
Society believes that the annihilation of the Slave Trade will
ultimately be accomplished.

III. That for the attainment of these objects it will strive to employ
the following and other suitable means:--

     1. Encourage the production of cotton, silk, indigo, sugar, palm
     oil, &c., by the introduction of skilled labor, African or
     European, into those parts of the earth which are inhabited by the
     African race.

     2. Assist, by loans or otherwise, Africans willing to emigrate from
     Canada and other parts to our West Indian Colonies, Liberia, Natal,
     and Africa generally, or to any countries that may offer a suitable
     field of labor.

     3. Form Industrial Missions in harmony, where practicable, with the
     agency already established for the extension of Christianity in
     Africa.

     4. Supply (as occasion may require) suitable Mechanical and
     Agricultural Implements for the use of the same.

     5. Procure samples of every kind of native produce, for the purpose
     of submitting the same to the mercantile and manufacturing
     communities of this country, with a view to the promotion of
     legitimate commerce.

     6. Encourage and assist exploring expeditions into the interior of
     Africa and Madagascar.

IV. That Subscribers of not less than Half a Guinea annually be Members
of this Society, during the continuance of their subscriptions; that the
subscriptions be payable in advance, and be considered due at the
commencement of each year; that Donors of Ten Guineas and Collectors of
Twenty Guineas be Life Members.

V. That the management of the Society be vested in a Patron,
Vice-Patrons, President, Vice-Presidents, and a Council consisting of
not less than Twenty Members.

VI. That a general Meeting of the Members of the Society be held in
London in the spring of each year, when the financial statement shall be
presented, and the Council elected for the year ensuing, who shall
appoint an Executive Committee to conduct the business of the Society.

VII. That the Honorary and Corresponding Members may be nominated by the
Council.

VIII. That any funded property of the Society be invested in the names
of three Trustees, to be chosen by the Council, and that all orders for
payments on account of the Society be signed by two Members of the
Executive Committee and the Secretary.

IX. That the accounts of the Society be audited annually by a
professional auditor, to be chosen by the General Meeting.

X. That the Council shall have power to appoint such officers and
assistants as they shall deem necessary for the efficient conduct of the
affairs of the Society, subject to the approval of the next Annual
Meeting.

XI. That the Council shall have power to convene Special General
Meetings of the Members of the Society when necessary.

XII. That no alteration shall be effected in the constitution of the
Society, except at the Annual Meeting, or at a Special General Meeting
convened for the purpose on the requisition of Twenty Members.

            *       *       *       *       *

In furtherance of the objects of this Society, the Executive Committee,
with the generous aid of friends to this movement, have already assisted
Dr. Delany and Professor Campbell (two colored gentlemen from America)
with funds to enable them to continue their labors and to lay before the
colored people of America the reports of the Pioneer Exploration
Expedition into Abbeokuta, in West Africa, from which they have lately
returned.

A correspondence has already been opened with Jamaica, Lagos in West
Africa, Natal, the United States of America, and "The Fugitive-Aid
Society"--which for the last _ten years_ has been receiving and
instructing fugitive Africans in agricultural and other pursuits on the
Elgin settlement--at Buxton, Canada West.

The assistance of all friends to Christianity, Freedom, and lawful
Commerce, as opposed to the Slave Trade and Slavery, is earnestly
solicited.

            *       *       *       *       *


"COTTON IS KING! IN AMERICA"
"COTTON IS BREAD! IN ENGLAND"

The free colored people of America are said to be looking forward to
their ultimate removal from the United States, and are anxiously seeking
for locations suitable for their final settlement in Africa or other
intertropical regions; where they may obtain that freedom which is the
inherent right of man, and by their industry acquire adequate
independence.

The African Aid Society has been formed to assist this movement, and to
annihilate the slave trade, by encouraging the development of the
resources of those countries inhabited by the African races generally,
as well as to cause African free labor to supersede African slavery and
degradation.

In Canada West no less than 45,000 colored persons, flying from slavery,
have now taken refuge; willing to meet the rigors of the climate, so
that they are assured of personal freedom under the aegis of the British
flag. From the enactments lately made in some States of the Union, for
the purpose of compelling all the free people of color either to leave
the country or to be again reduced to a state of slavery, a considerable
addition will, no doubt, shortly be made to the number of those who have
already found their way to Canada; while, from physical causes, Canada
can be looked upon by the colored only as a "CITY OF REFUGE."

Great Britain has for half a century been employing physical force for
the suppression of the slave trade, which after the expenditure of
upwards of forty millions sterling, and the noble sacrifice of the lives
of some of the best and bravest of her sons, still exists. It is but
just to state that the exportation of slaves from Africa has been
reduced from 150,000 to 50,000 per annum, by the persevering effort of
those who are opposed to a traffic disgraceful to Christianity.

Is the ultimate object of those who are opposed to this traffic its
suppression or its annihilation? The annihilation of the slave trade and
slavery in Africa was unquestionably the aim of the philanthropists who
originated this great movement.

The experience of half a century has proved that physical force cannot
destroy the traffic while there is a demand for slave labor. Diplomacy
must be baffled in its well-intentioned efforts to oppose this traffic
while the profits for carrying each slave from the continent of Africa
to the island of Cuba amount to the enormous return of fourteen hundred
percent.

It is a well-attested fact, that the same quality of cotton may be
obtained from Africa for twenty millions of money for which Great
Britain pays the slaveholders in America thirty millions per annum. If
cotton can be sold in the Liverpool market at anything less than 4-3/4d.
per lb., the slaveholders in America will cease to grow what, under
altered circumstances, would be unprofitable. Cotton of middling quality
(which is in the greatest demand) may be obtained in West and Eastern
Africa at 4d. per lb.; and, already, cotton from Western Africa
(Liberia) has been sent to Liverpool, there re-shipped, and sold at
Boston, in the United States, at a less cost than cotton of a similar
quality could be supplied from the Southern States of the Union.

The Executive Committee feel assured that the peaceful means adopted by
this society for the Christian civilization of the African races require
only the advocacy of _Christian Ministers_ and the _Press_ generally to
be responded to by the people of Great Britain.

The horrors of the slave trade, as perpetrated on the continent of
Africa and during the middle passage, can only be put an end to by the
establishment of a lawful and a lucrative, a powerful and a permanent,
trade between this country and Africa; which will have the effect of
destroying the slave trade, spreading the Gospel of Christ, and
civilizing the African races. For this purpose the support of the
mercantile class is earnestly solicited for a movement which--commenced
by the colored people of America flying from oppression--bids fair to
open new cotton fields for the supply of British industry, and new
markets for our commerce, realizing the sublime promise of Scripture,
"Cast thy bread upon the waters, and after many days it shall return
unto thee."

Alarmists point to the sparks in the cotton fields of America, while
thoughtful men reflect that the commercial prosperity of this great
country hangs upon a thread of cotton, which a blight of the plant, an
insurrection among the slaves, an untimely frost, or an increased demand
in the Northern States of the Union, might destroy; bringing to
Lancashire first, and then to the whole kingdom, a return of the Irish
famine of 1847, which reduced the population of that portion of the
kingdom from eight to six millions.

            *       *       *       *       *

The Southern States of the American Union are following the example of
the infatuated Louis the Fourteenth of France. As he drove into exile
thousands of his subjects engaged in manufactures and trade, who sought
refuge in England and laid the foundation of our manufacturing
supremacy, so are the Slave States now driving from their confines
thousands of freed colored men. Where are the exiles to go? The Free
States are too crowded, and Canada too cold for them. Can we not offer
them an asylum in Jamaica and other colonies? They are the cream, the
best of their race; for it is by long-continued industry and economy
that they have been enabled to purchase their freedom, and joyfully will
they seize the hand of deliverance which Great Britain holds out to
them. We only want additional labor; give us that, and we shall very
soon cultivate our own cotton.--_Slavery Doomed._

            *       *       *       *       *


FUGITIVE-AID SOCIETY IN CANADA

At a meeting held in the Town Hall, Manchester, on the 8th of August
inst., the following remarks were made by Thomas Clegg, Esq., who
presided on the occasion.

The Chairman said that they held but one opinion as to the horrors and
evils of slavery; and he thought that most of them believed that one of
the great benefits which would result from Africans trained in Canada
being sent to Africa, would be that they could there, for the advantage
of themselves and their country, grow cotton, sugar, and fifty other
articles, which we much needed. During his first year's operations in
getting cotton from Africa, all his efforts only purchased 235 lbs.; but
in 1858, he got 219,615 lbs.; and he saw from one of the London papers
of the previous day, that not less than 3,447 bales, or 417,087 lbs.,
were received from the West Coast during 1860. This rapid increase, in
the early history of the movement, showed that Africa was the place that
could grow cotton, and that Africans were the men who ought to grow it.
(Hear, hear.) There was no part of Africa, of which he had heard, where
cotton did not grow wild; there was no part of the world, except India,
perhaps, in which cotton was cultivated, where it was not sought to
obtain Africans as cultivators. Wild African cotton was worth from 1-1/2
d. to 2-1/4 d. a pound more than the wild produce of India; cultivated
cotton from the West Coast was worth, on an average, as much as New
Orleans possibly could be. (Hear, hear.) He would undertake that good
African cotton could be laid down free in Liverpool at 4-1/4 d. per
pound; that it should be equal to New Orleans; and at this moment such
cotton was worth probably 6-1/4 d. per pound. (Hear, hear.) He looked
upon this question as affecting not only the success of missions, but as
affecting also the eternal welfare of the Africans and the temporal
welfare of our people.

            *       *       *       *       *


HEATHEN AND SLAVE-TRADE HORRORS

At Lagos, communication between the town and the shipping had been
suspended for ten days, in consequence of the high surf at the entrance
of the river and along the beach, and great difficulty was experienced
in getting off the mails. The war in the interior, between the chiefs of
Ibadan and Ijaye, continued with unabated fury; the former district is
said to contain 100,000 inhabitants, and the latter 50,000. Abbeokuta
had taken side with Ijaye, but at the last battle, which took place on
the 5th of June, his people are reported to have suffered severely. The
King of Dahomey was about to make an immense sacrifice of human life to
the memory of the late King, his father. The _West African Herald_, of
the 13th ult., referring to this intention, says: His Majesty Badahung,
King of Dahomey, is about to make the 'Grand Custom' in honor of the
late King Gezo. Determined to surpass all former monarchs in the
magnitude of the ceremonies to be performed on this occasion, Badahung
has made the most extensive preparations for the celebration of the
Grand Custom. A great pit has been dug which is to contain human blood
enough to float a canoe. Two thousand persons will be sacrificed on this
occasion. The expedition to Abbeokuta is postponed, but the King has
sent his army to make some excursions at the expense of some weaker
tribes, and has succeeded in capturing many unfortunate creatures. The
young people among these prisoners will be sold into slavery, and the
old persons will be killed at the Grand Custom. Would to God this might
meet the eyes of some of those philanthropic Englishmen who have some
feeling for Africa! Oh! for some man of eloquence and influence to point
out to the people of England the comparative uselessness of their
expensive squadron out here, and the enormous benefits that must result
to this country, and ultimately to England herself, morally and
materially, if she would extend her establishments on this coast! Take
away two-thirds of your squadron, and spend one-half its cost in
creating more stations on shore, and greatly strengthening your old
stations.--_The Times_, August 13, 1860.

The following extract from the _Times_, August 11, 1860, shows that
noble hearts across the Atlantic are ready to respond to our call:--


     A NOBLE LADY--Miss Cornelia Barbour, a daughter of the Hon. James
     Barbour, of Virginia, formerly Governor of that State, and a Member
     of President J. Q. Adams' Cabinet, has resolved to emancipate her
     numerous slaves, and locate them in a Free State, where they can
     enjoy liberty and (if they will) acquire property.--_New York
     Tribune._

    _Contributions to the Funds of this Society may be paid to the
    Chairman, the Hon. Secretary, or to the Society's account at the
    London and Westminster Bank, I, St. James's square. P.O. Orders to
    be made payable to the Honorary Secretaries at
    Charing-cross._--AUGUST, 1860.

The subjoined paper has been issued by the African Aid Society, London,
England, which I give for the benefit of those desirous of going out
under its auspices, as it will be seen that the Society is determined on
guarding well against aiding such persons as are objectionable to us,
and likely to be detrimental to our scheme:


     AFRICAN AID SOCIETY

     PAPER FOR INTENDING SETTLERS IN AFRICA

     1. Are you desirous to leave ---- and go to the Land of your
     Forefathers. 2. Name. 3. Age. 4. Married or Single. 5. What
     Children (state ages:) Boys ----, aged years; ---- Girls ----, aged
     years. 6. How many of these will you take with you? 7. Of what
     church are you a member? 8. How long have you been so? 9. Can you
     read and write? 10. Will you strive to spread the truths of the
     Gospel among the natives? 11. What work are you now doing? 12. What
     other work can you do well? 13. Have you worked on a plantation?
     14. What did you do there? 15. Will you, in the event of the
     African Aid Society sending you and your family to Africa, repay to
     it the sum of ---- Dollars, as part of the cost of your passage and
     settlement there, ---- as soon as possible, that the same money may
     assist others to go there also?

     N.B.--It is expected that persons desiring to settle in Africa,
     under the auspices of this society, should obtain Certificates from
     their Minister, and if possible from their Employer, or other
     competent person, as to their respectability, habits, and
     character. These certificates should be attached to this paper.

I have every confidence in the sincerity of the Christian gentlemen who
compose the African Aid Society, and for the information of those who
are unacquainted with the names of those noblemen and gentlemen, would
state that the Lord Alfred Churchill is the learned Oriental traveler
and Christian philanthropist, brother to His Grace the Duke of
Marlborough and son-in-law of Right Hon. Lord Calthorpe; Right Hon. Lord
Calthorpe is the great Christian nobleman who does so much for Churches
in Great Britain, and member of Her Majesty's Privy Council; Sir Culling
Eardley Eardley is the great promoter of the Evangelical Alliance;
George Thompson, Esq., is the distinguished traveler and faithful friend
of the slave, known in America as a Garrisonian Abolitionist; and J.
Lyons Macleod, Esq., the indefatigable British Consul who so
praiseworthily exerted himself, and brought the whole of his official
power to bear against the slave-trade on the Mozambique Channel. There
are other gentlemen of great distinction, whose positions are not
explained in the council list, and a want of knowledge prevents my
explaining.

Before leaving England for Scotland, I received while at Brighton, the
following letter, which indicates somewhat the importance of our
project, and shows, in a measure, the superiority of the people in our
part of Africa, and what may be expected of them compared with some in
other parts; and how the Portuguese influence has ruined them. I may
add, that the writer, Mr. Clarence, is a gentleman of respectability,
brother-in-law to Edmund Fry, Esq., the distinguished Secretary of the
London Peace Society. Mr. Clarence has resided in that part of Africa
for twenty-five years, and was then on a visit to his relatives:

     DR. DELANEY: Brighton, August 28, 1860

     MY DEAR SIR--I am sorry that I am obliged to leave Brighton before
     you deliver your lectures, and as we may not meet again, I thought
     I would write you a few lines just to revive the subject that was
     passing our minds yesterday. I cannot but think, if it were
     practicable for a few thousands, or even hundreds, of your West
     Coast men to come round to the East Coast, that is, to Port Natal,
     an immense amount of good would be derived therefrom; not only in
     assisting to abolish the barbarous customs of our natives in
     showing them that labor is honorable for man, but that the English
     population would appreciate their services and that they would be
     able to get good wages. What we want is constant and reliable
     laborers; not those who come by fits and starts, just to work for a
     month and then be off. They must select their masters, and then
     make an engagement for twelve months; or it might be after a month
     on approval. Good laborers could get fifteen shillings per month,
     and as their services increased in value they would get twenty
     shillings, and their allowance of food, which is always abundant.

     I have thought that some might work their passage down to the Cape
     of Good Hope in some of Her Majesty's Men-of-War, and from there
     they might work their passage in some of the coasting vessels that
     are continually plying backwards and forwards. My farm is only five
     miles from the Port. Should any ever come from your
     representations, direct them to me, and should I not require them
     myself I will give them such information as may lead them to find
     good masters. I have always said that Natal is the key to the
     civilization of South Africa; but, however, there are sometimes two
     keys to a door, and yours on the West, though a little north of the
     Line, may be the other; and, by God's blessing, I trust that the
     nations of the East and West may, before long, meet in Central
     Africa, not in hostile array, as African nations always have done,
     but in the bonds of Christian fellowship. Wishing you every success
     in your enterprize.

     Believe me, dear Sir, yours most sincerely,
                                    RALPH CLARENCE

     NOTE--Mr. Clarence is requesting to be sent some of our industrious
     natives from Western Africa, as he informed me that those in the
     East think it disreputable to work. The term "master" is simply
     English; it means employer. The "fifteen" and "twenty" referred to,
     means shillings sterling.

FOOTNOTES:

[8] Now 8 Adolphi Terrace, Strand.



XV

COMMERCIAL RELATIONS IN SCOTLAND


Commercial Relations

I have only to add, as a finality of my doings and mission in Great
Britain, that in Scotland I fully succeeded in establishing commercial
relations for traffic in all kinds of native African produce, especially
cotton, which businesses are to be done directly and immediately between
us and them, without the intervention or agencies of any society or
association whatever. The only agencies in the case are to be the
producers, sellers, and buyers--the Scottish house dealing with us as
men, and not children. These arrangements are made to facilitate, and
give us the assurance of the best encouragement to prosecute vigorously
commercial enterprises--especially, as before stated, the cotton
culture--the great source of wealth to any people and all civilized
nations.


Business Integrity

The British people have the fullest confidence in our integrity to carry
out these enterprises successfully, and now only await our advent there,
and commencement to do anything necessary we may desire, or that the
circumstances justify. Each individual is regarded as a man in these new
relations, and, as such, expected to make his own contracts according
to business custom, discharging in like manner his individual
obligations. It must here be expressly understood that there are to be
nothing but _business relations_ between us, their entire confidence and
dependence being in the self-reliant, independent transactions of black
men themselves. We are expected, and will be looked for, to create our
own ways and means among ourselves as other men do.


Public Endorsement

As an earnest of the estimate set upon our adventure, I subjoin the
names of a number of the leading commercial British journals--the two
first being English, and all the others Scottish, in the midst of
manufacturing districts, and all speaking favorably of the project:

The Leeds Mercury, the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, the Glasgow Herald,
the Glasgow Examiner, the Scottish Guardian, the North British Daily
Mail, the Glasgow Morning Journal, the Mercantile Advertiser, and
others. (For absence of these notices, see author's prefatory note.)

     FROM THE DAILY CHRONICLE

     _Newcastle-on-Tyne, Monday, September 17th, 1860_

     DANGER AND SAFETY.-- ... The cotton of the United States affords
     employment to upwards of three millions of people in England, and a
     famine of cotton would be far worse than a famine of bread; the
     deficiency of the latter could be supplied; but the destruction of
     the cotton crop in America would be an evil of unparalleled
     magnitude, and against which we have no present protection....
     From the district of Lagos on the Gold coast, near the kingdom of
     Dahomey, there comes amongst us Dr. Delany with promises of a
     deeply interesting exposition of the prospects of Africa, and the
     probabilities of the civilization and elevation of the black races.
     He is a _bona fide_ descendant of one of the elite families of
     Central Africa, a highly educated gentleman, whose presence at the
     International Statistical Congress was noticed by Lord Brougham,
     and whose remarks in the sanitary section of the Congress upon
     epidemics were characterized by a great knowledge of the topic
     combined with genuine modesty. He is a physician of African blood,
     educated in America, who has revisited the lands of his ancestry,
     and proposes a most reasonable and feasible plan to destroy the
     slave trade, by creating a _cordon_, or fringe of native
     civilization, through which the kidnappers could not penetrate from
     without, and through which no slaves could be transported from
     within. Dr. Delany is one of the Commissioners sent out by the
     convention of the colored people of Canada and the United States.
     He has recently returned from the Yoruba country, adjoining the
     territory of the King of Dahomey, and desires to elicit a favorable
     consideration for the African Aid Society. His explorations have
     been productive of the most promising results, his fellow blacks
     having everywhere received him with distinguished honors. His
     anecdotes are interesting, and his lectures are illustrated by
     specimens of native produce and manufactures highly curious. Of his
     lectures at Brighton and other places we have read lengthy reports,
     which represent the influence these addresses have produced, and
     which speak in eulogistic terms of Dr. Delany's matter and manner.
     The subject is one of vast importance to England, and we trust that
     we may witness ere long a proper appreciation of it.


     FROM THE GLASGOW HERALD

     All this betokens a considerable degree of intelligence. The towns
     had their market-places; in one of these, that of Ijaye Dr. Delany
     saw many thousands of persons assembled, and carrying on a busy
     traffic. What a field might thus, in the course of time, be opened
     for European commerce.


     FROM THE LEEDS MERCURY (ENGLAND)

     _Published by E. Baines, Esq., M.P., and Sons, December 8th, 1860_

     ELEVATION OF THE COLORED RACE, AND OPENING OUT OF THE RESOURCES OF
     AFRICA.--An important movement for opening out the resources of a
     vast portion of the continent of Africa has been made by some of
     the most intelligent colored people of the United States and
     Canada. Having formed a society with this object in view, among
     others, Dr. Delany and Professor Campbell were commissioned to go
     out and explore a considerable portion of Western Africa, near to
     the mouths of the Niger, and not far from the equator. A report of
     this expedition is in progress by Dr. Delany, who is himself so
     fully convinced of the advantages which the rich resources of that
     part of Africa offer, that he has concluded to remove his family
     there immediately. A meeting of the Leeds Anti-Slavery Committee
     was held on Wednesday night, Wm. Scholefield, Esq., in the chair,
     when valuable information was communicated by Dr. Delany and
     William Howard Day, Esq., M.A., from Canada, who is connected with
     this movement. The following summary of their remarks will be
     found of deep interest:--

     Wm. Howard Day, M.A., having been called upon, pointed out the
     necessity for an active anti-slavery organization in this country,
     as was so well expressed by the Chairman, to keep the heart of the
     English people warm upon the subject of human bondage.... By the
     production of cotton slavery began to be a power. So that as the
     cotton interest increased the testimony of the Church decreased.
     Cotton now is three-fifths of the production of the South. So that
     the Hon. Amasa Walker, formerly Republican Secretary of State for
     the State of Massachusetts, at the meeting held in London, August
     1, 1859, and presided over by Lord Brougham, really expressed the
     whole truth when he said--"While cotton is fourteen cents per pound
     slavery will never end." Now we propose to break the back of this
     monopoly in America by raising in Africa--in the African's own
     home--as well as in the West Indies, cotton of the same quality as
     the American, and at a cheaper rate. It had been demonstrated by
     Mr. Clegg, of Manchester, that cotton of superior quality could be
     laid down at Liverpool cheaper from Africa than America. We have
     sent my friend, Dr. Delany, to see what Africa is, and he will tell
     you the results--so very favorable--of his exploration. Then we
     feel that we have in Canada the colored men to pioneer the way--men
     reared among the cotton of the United States, and who have found an
     asylum among us. The bone and sinew is in Africa--we wish to give
     it direction. We wish thereby to save to England millions of pounds
     by the difference in price between the two cottons; we wish to ward
     off the blow to England which must be felt by four millions of
     people interested in the article to be produced if an untimely
     frost or an insurrection should take place--and, above all, to lift
     up Africa by means of her own children. After speaking of the
     organization among the colored people, which sent out Dr. Delany
     and of which Mr. Day is president, he said one of the means to
     secure these ends was the establishment of a press upon a proper
     footing in Canada among the fugitive slaves; and to collect for
     that is now his especial work. It would aid powerfully, it was
     hoped, in another way. Already American prejudice has rolled in
     upon the borders of Canada--so that schoolhouse doors are closed in
     the faces of colored children, and colored men denied a place upon
     juries merely because of their color. It was with difficulty that
     last year even in Canada they were able to secure the freedom of a
     kidnapped little boy who was being dragged through the province to
     be sold in the slave-mart of St. Louis. In view of all these
     points, hastily presented, he asked the good will and active aid of
     all the friends of liberty.

     Dr. M. R. Delany, whose name has become so celebrated in connection
     with the Statistical Congress, was invited to state what he had
     contemplated in going to Africa, and if he would kindly do so, what
     he had discovered there. Dr. Delany first dwelt upon the
     expectation which had been raised in his mind when a young man, and
     in the minds of the colored people of the United States, by the
     beginning of the anti-slavery work there by William Lloyd Garrison
     and his coadjutors. They had found, however, that all the
     anti-slavery people were not of the stamp of Mr. Garrison, who, he
     was proud to say, believed in giving to colored men just the same
     rights and privileges as to others, and that Mr. Garrison's idea
     had not, by the professed friends of the black man, been reduced to
     practice. And finding that self-reliance was the best dependence,
     he and others had struck out a path for themselves. After speaking
     of the convention of colored people, which he and others called in
     1854, to consider this subject of self-help, and of the general
     organization which began then, and in which Mr. Day succeeded him
     as president, he said he went to Africa to find a locality suitable
     for a select emigration of colored people; if possible, a large
     cotton-growing region, and with a situation accessible by
     civilization. All this he had found, with, in addition, a
     well-disposed and industrious people. The facts which Dr. Delany
     grouped together as to the climate and soil; as to productions and
     trade; as to the readiness of the people to take hold of these
     higher ideas; and as to the anxiety of the people to have him and
     his party return, were new and thrilling. An interesting
     conversation ensued on the points brought forward, and the
     following minute, moved by Mr. Wilson Armistead, and seconded by
     the Rev. Dr. Brewer, was unanimously passed:--

     That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to Dr. Delany and Wm.
     Howard Day, Esq., for the valuable information received from them,
     with an ardent desire that their plans for the elevation of their
     race may be crowned with success, and it is the opinion of this
     meeting that they be made materially to hasten the extinction of
     the slave-trade and slavery.


Character of Commercial Relations

The commercial relations entered into in Scotland are with the first
business men in the United Kingdom, among whom are Henry Dunlop, Esq.,
Ex-Lord Provost of Glasgow, one of the largest proprietors in Scotland;
Andrew Stevenson, Esq., one of the greatest cotton dealers; and Messrs.
Crum, Graham & Co., 111 Virginia Place, Glasgow, one of the heaviest
firms in that part of the old world, which is the house with which I
have negotiated for an immediate, active and practical prosecution of
our enterprise, and whose agency in Europe for any or all of our
produce, may be fully relied on. I speak from personal acquaintance
with these extensively-known, high-standing gentlemen.


Reliable Arrangements

One of the most important parts of such an adventure as this, is to have
reliable Foreign Agencies, and these have been fully secured; as whilst
these gentlemen, as should all business men, deal with us only on
business terms, yet they have entered into the matter as much as
Christians and philanthropists, to see truth and right prevail whereby
humanity may be elevated, as for anything else; because they are already
wealthy, and had they been seeking after wealth, they certainly could
and would have sought some more certainly immediate means.

I left Scotland December 3rd, and sailed from Liverpool the 13th via
Londonderry, arriving at Portland the 25th, the epoch of the Christian
Era, and in Chatham the 29th.



XVI

THE TIME TO GO TO AFRICA


Caution against Danger

The best time for going to Africa is during "the rainy season," which
commences about the middle or last of April, ending near or about the
first of November. By going during this period, it will be observed that
you have no sudden transition from cold to heat, as would be the case
did you leave in cold weather for that country. But the most favorable
time to avoid the _heavy surf_ at Lagos, is from the first of October to
the first of April, when the surges in the roadstead are comparatively
small and not imminently dangerous. And I here advise and caution all
persons intending to land there, not to venture over the heavy-rolling
surf of the bar in one of those native canoes.


Safety in Landing

Yet persons can land with safety at any season of the year; but for this
there must be a proper boat. Any person going there at present ought not
to land if the surf is high, without _Captain Davies' large sail-boat_,
which is as safe as a tug, and rides the sea like a swan. Send him word
to send his _largest boat at the best hour for landing_. The Captain is
a native merchant, and most obliging gentleman.


A Tender

So soon as we get a Tender (called in America, steam-tug and tow-boat),
which will be one of the first things done so soon as we get to Lagos,
landing will be as safe at any and all times there as in the harbor at
New York or Liverpool. For the information of many intelligent persons
who are not aware of it, I would state that a pilot or tender has to
take vessels into both of these great seaports on account of shoal
water.[9]


Rainy Season

The rainy season usually thought by foreigners to be "wet, muddy, and
disagreeable weather," so far from this, is the most agreeable season of
the year. Instead of steady rains for several days incessantly, as is
common during "rainy weather" in the temperate zones, there is seldom or
never rain during a whole day. But every day to a certainty during this
season it rains, sometimes by showers at intervals, and sometimes a
heavy rain for one, two, or three hours at a time--but seldom so long as
three hours--when it clears up beautifully, leaving an almost cloudless
sky. The rains usually come up very suddenly, and as quickly cease when
done.


Drizzling Rain, Sudden Showers

There is seldom or never such a thing in this part of Africa as a
"drizzling" or mizzling rain, all suddenly coming on and as suddenly
passing off; and should one be out and see indications of an approaching
rain, they must hurry to a near shelter, so suddenly does the shower
come on.


Tornadoes

Tornadoes are sudden gusts or violent storms of wind and rain, which are
more or less feared, but which may always be known from other storms on
their approach, by the blackness of the clouds above, with the _segment
of a circle of lighter cloud_ just beneath the dark, and above the
horizon.


Summer

The entire _wet_ season may be justly termed the _summer_ instead of
"winter," as the old writers have it; and it is observable that at the
commencement of Spring in the temperate zones (March) vegetation starts
forth in Africa with renewed vigor.


Winter

_Winter_ is during the _dry_ season, and not the "wet," for the above
reason; and it is also worthy of remark, that during autumn in the
temperate zone (from October to the last of November) the foliage in
Africa begins to fade and fall from the trees in large quantities.


Harmattans

It is during this season that the _harmattans_ prevail, (from two to
three weeks in December) which consist of a _dry cold_ and _not_ a "dry
hot" wind as we have been taught; when furniture and wooden-ware _dries_
and _cracks_ for want of moisture, and the thermometer frequently rates
as low as 54 deg. Fahr. in the evening and early in the morning; when
blankets on the bed will not be out of place, and an evening and morning
fire may add to your comfort.

FOOTNOTES:

[9] I have received information from London, that an iron steam Tender
has already been sent out to Lagos by an English house.



XVII

CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS


Native Mariners

It may not be generally known as a fact, which is of no little
importance in the industrial economy of Africa, that vessels of every
class, of all foreign nations, are manned and managed by native
Africans, so soon as they enter African waters.

The Krumen are the watermen or marines generally of Africa, going in
companies of greater or less numbers, with one in the lead called
"headman," who, hiring all the others, makes contracts with a vessel,
which is met outside of the roadsteads or harbors, to supply a certain
number of men to manage it during her coasting voyage. They usually
bring with them the recommendations of all the commanders whose vessels
they have managed on the coast. These are generally carried in the hat
to prevent getting wet, and sometimes in calabashes, stopped up like a
bottle, or in a tin can or case, (when such can be obtained,) suspended
by a string like a great square medal around the neck.

So expert have these people become in marine affairs, that, with the
exception of navigation, a vessel at sea might be managed entirely by
many of those companies of Krumen. Everything that is to be done as the
common work of seamen, is done by them during their engagement on the
coasting vessels. The agility with which they scale the shrouds and
rigging, mounting frequently to the very pinnacle of the main-mast head,
or going out to the extreme end of the yard arms, is truly surprising.
In these feats, they are far more dextrous than the white civilians.


The Fever--Stages Of

In cases of real intermittent fever--fever and ague or chills and
fever--there are usually three distinct stages when the attack comes
on--on what is usually termed _fever day_: the _cold_ or shivering
stage, the _hot_ or burning stage, succeeded by the _sweating_.

_Cold Stage_

So soon as there are symptoms of a chill, a cup of quite hot ginger or
cinnamon tea--not too strong--may be taken, the person keeping out of
the sun, and, if inclined, going to bed and covering warmly. He should
always undress, putting on a night-shirt or gown, for the convenience of
changing when required. A hot cup of tea, of any kind, is better than
nothing, when neither cinnamon nor ginger is convenient.

_Kneading or Friction-Bath. Hot Stage_

During the hot stage, the person must be kept as cool as possible, and
when the fever is at its height--and, indeed, it is well to commence
long before this--the entire person, from head to foot, should be
continually bathed by a free application of cold water, used
_plentifully_ and _frequently changed_ during the application, with a
large sponge, napkin, or cloth of some kind.

_Lime-Bath_

An excellent addition to the water is the juice of limes or lemons, and
_less_ of the first (lime) than the last is required, because of the
superior strength of the one to the other.

_Soda_

Soda may also be used in the bath as an adjuvant to the water--not with
the lime juice, of course, because they would effervesce or disagree.
When lime or lemon juice is used, care should be taken, in the use of
it, that it be not too strong: say, use two lemons, or one and a half
limes if large, to a pail of water--as it will produce irritation on all
of the tender parts of the person, and even over the general surface. A
lime bath once or twice a week, in the absence of all fever, is said to
be an excellent hygeian or prophylactic treatment. But, by all means,
don't neglect the cold water application during the hot stage.

_Sweating Stage_

So soon as the sweating commences, the patient must have sufficient
covering to prevent taking cold, which is then very readily done, in
consequence of the general relaxation of the system and open state of
the pores. When the sweating ceases, the shirt or gown must be
immediately taken off, the entire person sponged off in clear lukewarm
or air-cold water, fresh clean clothes put on, the sheets and wet
bed-clothes removed by clean ones supplying their places; and in no case
must a person ever be permitted to keep on the same clothes after the
sweating stage, as the _virus_ or fever-poison is expelled through the
medium of the sweat and pores, and consequently absorbed by the
clothing. The clothes should be changed _every day_, whether there be
perspiration or not.

_All the stages_

Either of these symptoms is to be treated as advised, independently of
the other in the order of arrangement.


Fatigue-Clothes--Caution

Persons should be careful not to sleep in sweaty clothes, especially
those in which they have traveled; and they should be cautious not to
sleep in the same clothes worn on any day, as before but slightly
alluded to. Clean, unsoiled night-clothes should be put on every
evening, and those which may be worn again should be well aired and
sunned during the day.


Colonization--an Error in Philanthropy

The Colonization Society has committed a great error in its
philanthropic arrangements of providing for _six months' passiveness_
after going to Africa. The _provisions, for those who require them_, I
do not object to, but the _passiveness_ is fatally injurious.


Activity Conducive to Health

Instead of going to Africa and quietly sitting down in utter idleness,
in anticipation _waiting in anxious expectation for the fever to
come_--in which cases the person becomes much more susceptible--did they
go directly about some active employment, to keep both mind and body
properly exercised, I am certain that there would not be one-fourth of
the mortality that there is even now, which is comparatively little.


Evidences of the Fact

This will account for the reason that, among the numerous travelers and
explorers who visit such countries, there is so much less, nay, so
seldom any mortality from disease, compared with the missionaries, whose
lives are rather easy and inactive, except the really energetic ones,
who generally are they who survive. And I have the testimony of my
friends Professor Crummell of Liberia College, late of Mount Vaughn High
School, a most industrious, persevering gentleman, and W. Spencer
Anderson, Esq., the largest sugar and coffee grower in Liberia, also a
most energetic industrious gentleman--who corroborate my opinion on this
important subject. Indeed, the people generally seem to have been long
conscious of this fact, since among them they have an adage: "The _more_
work, the _less_ fever." But no one should infer that it meant that they
should exercise without regard to care and judgment, with all the
precautions and observations on health laid down in the preceding pages.
I return of course, to Africa, with my family.


       *       *       *       *       *


CLASSICS IN BLACK STUDIES EDITORIAL BOARD


  Norm R. Allen Jr.
  Molefi Kete Asante
  Toyin Falola

  CLASSICS IN BLACK STUDIES

  THE CONDITION, ELEVATION,
  EMIGRATION, AND DESTINY
  OF THE COLORED PEOPLE
  OF THE UNITED STATES
  _and_ OFFICIAL REPORT
  OF THE NIGER VALLEY
  EXPLORING PARTY

       *       *       *       *       *

  Martin R. Delany

  WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

  Toyin Falola


  Humanity
  Books

  an imprint of Prometheus Books
  59 John Glenn Drive, Amherst, New York 14228-2197





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