Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Infantry Drill Regulations, United States Army, 1911 - Corrected to April 15, 1917 (Changes Nos. 1 to 19)
Author: Department, United States War
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Infantry Drill Regulations, United States Army, 1911 - Corrected to April 15, 1917 (Changes Nos. 1 to 19)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

STATES ARMY, 1911***


Special thanks to Daniel Emerson Griffith for creating the Lilypond sound
and image files for the bugle calls.



      file which includes sound clips of bugal calls and
      the numerous original graphic illustrations.
Transcriber's note:

      Nearly all of the italicized text in the original book is
      also in bold typeface. For ease of reading, bold typeface
      is not indicated in this e-book. Both bold and italics are
      indicated by _underscores_.



Infantry Drill Regulations

UNITED STATES ARMY

1911

CORRECTED TO APRIL 15, 1917
(Changes Nos. 1 to 19)


MILITARY PUBLISHING CO.
42 BROADWAY
NEW YORK


WAR DEPARTMENT
Document No. 394
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF



WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF,
_Washington, August 19, 1911._

board of officers consisting of Lieut. Col. John F. Morrison,
Infantry; Capt. Merch B. Stewart, Eighth Infantry; and Capt. Alfred W.
Bjornstad, Twenty-eighth Infantry, is approved and is published for
the information and government of the Regular Army and the Organized
Militia of the United States. With a view to insure uniformity
throughout the Army, all infantry drill formations not embraced in
this system are prohibited, and those herein prescribed will be
strictly observed.

By order of the Secretary of War:

LEONARD WOOD,
_Major General, Chief of Staff._



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PART I--_Drill._                                  Paragraph.

 1. Introduction                                        1-30
 2. Orders, commands and signals                       31-47
 3. School of the soldier                             48-100
 4. School of the squad                              101-158
 5. School of the company                            159-257
      (_a_) Close order                              167-198
      (_b_) Extended order                           199-231
      (_c_) Fire                                     232-257
 6. The battalion                                    258-326
      (_a_) Close order                              263-289
      (_b_) Combat principles                        290-326
 7. The regiment                                     327-346
      (_a_) Close order                              333-341
      (_b_) Combat principles                        342-346
 8. The brigade                                      347-349

PART II--_Combat._

 1. Introduction                                     350-357
 2. Leadership                                       358-388
      (_a_) General considerations                   358-370
      (_b_) Teamwork                                 371-377
      (_c_) Orders                                   378-383
      (_d_) Communication                            384-388
 3. Combat reconnaissance                            389-399
 4. Fire superiority                                 400-424
      (_a_) Purpose and nature                       400-401
      (_b_) Fire direction and control               402-424
 5. Deployment                                       425-441
 6. Attack                                           442-488
      (_a_) Deployment for attack                    449-452
      (_b_) Advancing the attack                     453-457
      (_c_) The fire attack                          458-463
      (_d_) The charge                               464-475
      (_e_) Pursuit                                  476-480
      (_f_) Attack of fortifications                 481-484
      (_g_) Holding attack                           485-488
 7. Defense                                          489-519
      (_a_) Positions and intrenchments              489-494
      (_b_) Deployment for defense                   495-510
      (_c_) Counterattack                            511-516
      (_d_) Delaying action                          517-519
 8. Meeting engagements                              520-530
 9. Withdrawal from action                           531-535
10. Miscellaneous                                    537-622
      (_a_) Machine guns                             537-546
      (_b_) Ammunition supply                        547-553
      (_c_) Mounted scouts                           554-557
      (_d_) Night operations                         558-568
      (_e_) Infantry against Cavalry                 569-574
      (_f_) Infantry against Artillery               575-578
      (_g_) Artillery supports                       579-583
      (_h_) Intrenchments                            584-595
      (_i_) Minor warfare                            596-603
      (_j_) Patrols                                  604-622

PART III--_Marches and camps._

 1. Marches                                          623-660
      (_a_) Training and discipline                  623-635
      (_b_) Protection of the march                  636-660
 2. Camps                                            661-707
      (_a_) Sanitation                               661-677
      (_b_) Protection of camp or bivouac            678-707

PART IV--_Ceremonies and inspections._

 1. Ceremonies                                       708-765
      (_a_) Reviews                                  711-731
      (_b_) Parades                                  732-735
      (_c_) Escorts                                  736-744
 2. Inspections                                      745-754
 3. Muster                                           755-757
 4. Honors and salutes                               758-765

PART V.--_Manuals._

 1. The color                                        766-778
 2. The band                                         779-781
 3. Manual of the saber                              782-791
 4. Manual of tent pitching                          792-803
 5. Manual of the bugle                              804-807
      (_a_) Bugle calls.
      (_b_) Bugle signals.



INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS.

UNITED STATES ARMY, 1911.



DEFINITIONS.


_Alignment:_ A straight line upon which several elements are formed,
or are to be formed; or the dressing of several elements upon a
straight line.

_Base:_ The element on which a movement is regulated.

_Battle sight:_ The position of the rear sight when the leaf is laid
down.

_Center:_ The middle point or element of a command.

_Column:_ A formation in which the elements are placed one behind
another.

_Deploy:_ To extend the front. In general to change from column to
line, or from close order to extended order.

_Depth:_ The space from head to rear of any formation, including the
leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed to be 12
inches.

_Distance:_ Space between elements in the direction of depth. Distance
is measured from the back of the man in front to the breast of the man
in rear. The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both line and
column.

_Element:_ A file, squad, platoon, company, or larger body, forming
part of a still larger body.

_File:_ Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of the
rear rank. The front-rank man is the _file leader_. A file which has
no rear-rank man is a _blank file_. The term _file_ applies also to a
single man in a single-rank formation.

_File closers:_ Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a
company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, all men
posted in the line of file closers.

_Flank:_ The right or left of a command in line or in column; also the
element on the right or left of the line.

_Formation:_ Arrangement of the elements of a command. The placing of
all fractions in their order in line, in column, or for battle.

_Front:_ The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in line
or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 inches. Front
also denotes the direction of the enemy.

_Guide:_ An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom the
command or elements thereof regulates its march.

_Head:_ The leading element of a column.

_Interval:_ Space between elements of the same line. The interval
between men in ranks is 4 inches and is measured from elbow to elbow.
Between companies, squads, etc., it is measured from the left elbow of
the left man or guide of the group on the right, to the right elbow of
the right man or guide of the group on the left.

_Left:_ The left extremity or element of a body of troops.

_Line:_ A formation in which the different elements are abreast of
each other.

_Order, close:_ The formation in which the units, in double rank, are
arranged in line or in column with normal intervals and distances.

_Order, extended:_ The formation in which the units are separated by
intervals greater than in close order.

_Pace:_ Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time.

_Point of rest:_ The point at which a formation begins. Specifically,
the point toward which units are aligned in successive movements.

_Rank:_ A line of men placed side by side.

_Right:_ The right extremity or element of a body of troops.



PART I.--DRILL.



INTRODUCTION.


1. Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training;
success may be looked for only when the training is intelligent and
thorough.

2. Commanding officers are accountable for the proper training of
their respective organizations within the limits prescribed by
regulations and orders.

The excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency.
The field efficiency of an organization depends primarily upon its
effectiveness as a whole. Thoroughness and uniformity in the training
of the units of an organization are indispensable to the efficiency of
the whole; it is by such means alone that the requisite teamwork may
be developed.

3. Simple movements and elastic formations are essential to correct
training for battle.

4. The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide the
principles for training and for increasing the probability of success
in battle.

In the interpretation of the regulations, the spirit must be sought.
Quibbling over the minutiæ of form is indicative of failure to grasp
the spirit.

5. The principles of combat are considered in Part II of these
regulations. They are treated in the various schools included in Part
I only to the extent necessary to indicate the functions of the
various commanders and the division of responsibility between them.
The amplification necessary to a proper understanding of their
application is to be sought in Part II.

6. The following important distinctions must be observed:

(_a_) Drills executed at _attention_ and the ceremonies are
_disciplinary exercises_ designed to teach precise and soldierly
movement, and to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience
which is essential to proper military control. To this end, smartness
and precision should be exacted in the execution of every detail. Such
drills should be frequent, but short.

(_b_) The purpose of _extended order drill_ is to teach the
_mechanism_ of deployment, of the firings, and, in general, of the
employment of troops in combat. Such drills are in the nature of
disciplinary exercises and should be frequent, thorough, and exact in
order to habituate men to the firm control of their leaders. Extended
order drill is executed _at ease_. The company is the largest unit
which executes extended order drill.

(_c_) _Field exercises_ are for instruction in the duties incident to
campaign. Assumed situations are employed. Each exercise should
conclude with a discussion, on the ground, of the exercise and
principles involved.

(_d_) The _combat exercise, a form of field exercise_ of the company,
battalion, and larger units, consists of the _application of tactical
principles_ to assumed situations, employing in the execution the
appropriate formations and movements of close and extended order.

Combat exercises must simulate, as far as possible, the battle
conditions assumed. In order to familiarize both officers and men with
such conditions, companies and battalions will frequently be
consolidated to provide war-strength organizations. Officers and
noncommissioned officers not required to complete the full quota of
the units participating are assigned as observers or umpires.

The firing line can rarely be controlled by the voice alone; thorough
training to insure the proper use of prescribed signals is necessary.

The exercise should be followed by a brief drill at attention in order
to restore smartness and control.

7. In field exercises the enemy is said to be _imaginary_ when his
position and force are merely assumed; _outlined_ when his position
and force are indicated by a few men; _represented_ when a body of
troop acts as such.


_General Rules for Drills and Formations._

8. When the _preparatory_ command consists of more than one part, its
elements are arranged as follows:

(1) For movements to be executed successively by the subdivisions or
elements of an organization: (_a_) Description of the movement; (_b_)
how executed, or on what element executed.

(2) For movements to be executed simultaneously by the subdivisions of
an organization: (_a_) The designation of the subdivisions; (_b_) the
movement to be executed.

9. Movements that may be executed toward either flank are explained as
toward but one flank, it being necessary to substitute the word "left"
for "right," and the reverse, to have the explanation of the
corresponding movement toward the other flank. The commands are given
for the execution of the movements toward either flank. The substitute
word of the command is placed within parentheses.

10. Any movement may be executed either from the halt or when
marching, unless otherwise prescribed. If at a halt, the command for
movements involving marching need not be prefaced by _forward_, as 1.
_Column right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

11. Any movement not specially excepted may be executed in double
time.

If at a halt, or if marching in quick time, the command _double time_
precedes the command of execution.

12. In successive movements executed in double time the leading or
base unit marches in _quick time_ when not otherwise prescribed; the
other units march in _double time_ to their places in the formation
ordered and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit. If
marching in double time, the command _double time_ is omitted. The
leading or base unit marches in _quick time_; the other units continue
at double time to their places in the formation ordered and then
conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.

13. To hasten the execution of a movement begun in quick time, the
command: 1. _Double time_, 2. _MARCH_, is given. The leading or base
unit continues to march in quick time, or remains at halt if already
halted; the other units complete the execution of the movement in
double time and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.

14. To stay the execution of a movement when marching, for the
correction of errors, the command: 1. _In place_, 2. _HALT_, is given.
All halt and stand fast, without changing the position of the pieces.
To resume the movement the command: 1. _Resume_, 2. _MARCH_, is given.

15. To revoke a preparatory command, or, being at a halt, to begin
anew a movement improperly begun, the command, _AS YOU WERE_, is
given, at which the movement ceases and the former position is
resumed.

16. Unless otherwise announced, the guide of a company or subdivision
of a company in line is _right_; of a battalion in line or line of
subdivisions or of a deployed line, _center_; of a rank in column of
squads, toward the side of the guide of the company.

To march with guide other than as prescribed above, or to change the
guide: _Guide (right, left_, or _center)_.

In successive formations into line, the guide is toward the point of
rest; in platoons or larger subdivisions it is so announced.

The announcement of the guide, when given in connection with a
movement, follows the command of execution for that movement.
Exception: 1. _As skirmishers, guide right (left_ or _center)_, 2.
_MARCH_. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

17. _The turn on the fixed pivot_ by subdivisions is used in all
formations from line into column and the reverse.

_The turn on the moving pivot_ is used by subdivisions of a column in
executing changes of direction.

18. Partial changes of direction may be executed:

By interpolating in the preparatory command the word _half_, as
_Column half right (left)_, or _Right (left) half turn_. A change of
direction of 45° is executed.

By the command: _INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT)_. The guide, or guiding
element, moves in the indicated direction and the remainder of the
command conforms. This movement effects slight changes of direction.

19. The designations _line of platoons_, _line of companies_, _line of
battalions_, etc., refer to the formations in which the platoons,
companies, battalions, etc., each in column of squads, are in line.

20. Full distance in column of subdivisions is such that in forming
line to the right or left the subdivisions will have their proper
intervals.

In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is
charged with the step and direction; the guides in rear preserve the
trace, step, and distance.

21. In close order, all details, detachments, and other bodies of
troops are habitually formed in double rank.

To insure uniformity of interval between files when falling in and in
alignments, each man places the palm of the left hand upon the hip,
fingers pointing downward. In the first case the hand is dropped by
the side when the next man on the left has his interval; in the second
case, at the command _front_.

22. The posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, special units
(such as band or machine-gun company), etc., in the various formations
of the company, battalion, or regiment, are shown in plates.

In all changes from one formation to another involving a change of
post on the part of any of these, posts are promptly taken by the most
convenient route as soon as practicable after the command of execution
for the movement; officers and noncommissioned officers who have
prescribed duties in connection with the movement ordered, take their
new posts when such duties are completed.

As instructors, officers and noncommissioned officers go wherever
their presence is necessary. As file closers it is their duty to
rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness in the ranks.

23. Except at ceremonies, the special units have no fixed places. They
take places as directed; in the absence of directions, they conform as
nearly as practicable to the plates, and in subsequent movements
maintain their relative positions with respect to the flank or end of
the command on which they were originally posted.

24. General, field, and staff officers are habitually mounted. The
staff of an officer forms in single rank 3 paces in rear of him, the
right of the rank extending 1 pace to the right of a point directly in
rear of him. Members of the staff are arranged in order from right to
left as follows: General staff officers, adjutant, aids, other staff
officers, arranged in each classification in order of rank, the senior
on the right. The flag of the general officer and the orderlies are 3
paces in rear of the staff, the flag on the right. When necessary to
reduce the front of the staff and orderlies, each line executes _twos
right_ or _fours right_, as explained in the Cavalry Drill
Regulations, and follows the commander.

When not otherwise prescribed, staff officers draw and return saber
with their chief.

25. In making the about, an officer, mounted, habitually turns to the
left.

When the commander faces to give commands, the staff, flag, and
orderlies do not change position.

26. When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting out of
doors, all officers will salute.

Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when the
salute is introductory to a report made at a military ceremony or
formation, to the representative of a common superior (as, for
example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), the officer
making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first; the officer
to whom the report is made will acknowledge by saluting that he has
received and understood the report.

(_C.I.D.R., Nos. 6 and 17._)

27. For ceremonies, all mounted enlisted men of a regiment or smaller
unit, except those belonging to the machine-gun organizations, are
consolidated into a detachment; the senior present commands if no
officer is in charge. The detachment is formed as a platoon or squad
of cavalry in line or column of fours; noncommissioned staff officers
are on the right or in the leading ranks.

28. For ceremonies, such of the noncommissioned staff officers as are
dismounted are formed 5 paces in rear of the color, in order of rank
from right to left. In column of squads they march as file closers.

29. Other than for ceremonies, noncommissioned staff officers and
orderlies accompany their immediate chiefs unless otherwise directed.
If mounted, the noncommissioned staff officers are ordinarily posted
on the right or at the head of the orderlies.

30. In all formations and movements a noncommissioned officer
commanding a platoon or company carries his piece as the men do, if he
is so armed, and takes the same post as an officer in like situation.
When the command is formed in line for ceremonies, a noncommissioned
officer commanding a company takes post on the right of the right
guide after the company has been aligned.



ORDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS.


31. _Commands_ only are employed in drill at attention. Otherwise
either a _command_, _signal_, or _order_ is employed, as best suits
the occasion, or one may be used in conjunction with another.

32. Signals should be freely used in instruction, in order that
officers and men may readily know them. In making arm signals the
saber, rifle, or headdress may be held in the hand.

33. Officers and men fix their attention at the first word of command,
the first note of the bugle or whistle, or the first motion of the
signal. A signal includes both the preparatory command and the command
of execution; the movement commences as soon as the signal is
understood, unless otherwise prescribed.

34. Except in movements executed at _attention_, commanders or leaders
of subdivisions repeat orders, commands, or signals whenever such
repetition is deemed necessary to insure prompt and correct execution.

Officers, battalion noncommissioned staff officers, platoon leaders,
guides, and musicians are equipped with whistles.

The major and his staff will use a whistle of distinctive tone; the
captain and company musicians a second and distinctive whistle; the
platoon leaders and guides a third distinctive whistle.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 15._)

35. Prescribed signals are limited to such as are essential as a
substitute for the voice under conditions which render the voice
inadequate.

Before or during an engagement special signals may be agreed upon to
facilitate the solution of such special difficulties as the particular
situation is likely to develop, but it must be remembered that
simplicity and certainty are indispensable qualities of a signal.


_Orders._

36. In these regulations an _order_ embraces instructions or
directions given orally or in writing in terms suited to the
particular occasion and not prescribed herein.

_Orders_ are employed only when the _commands_ prescribed herein do
not sufficiently indicate the will of the commander.

Orders are more fully described in paragraphs 378 to 383, inclusive.


_Commands._

37. In these regulations a _command_ is the will of the commander
expressed in the phraseology prescribed herein.

38. There are two kinds of commands:

The _preparatory_ command, such as _forward_, indicates the movement
that is to be executed.

The command of _execution_, such as _MARCH_, _HALT_, or _ARMS_, causes
the execution.

_Preparatory_ commands are distinguished by _italics_, those of
_execution_ by _CAPITALS_.

Where it is not mentioned in the text who gives the commands
prescribed, they are to be given by the commander of the unit
concerned.

The _preparatory_ command should be given at such an interval of time
before the command of _execution_ as to admit of being properly
understood: the command of _execution_ should be given at the instant
the movement is to commence.

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness
proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

Each _preparatory_ command is enunciated distinctly, with a rising
inflection at the end, and in such manner that the command of
_execution_ may be more energetic.

The command of _execution_ is firm in tone and brief.

39. Majors and commanders of units larger than a battalion repeat such
commands of their superiors as are to be executed by their units,
facing their units for that purpose. The battalion is the largest unit
that executes a movement at the command of execution of its commander.

40. When giving commands to troops it is usually best to face toward
them.

Indifference in giving commands must be avoided as it leads to laxity
in execution. Commands should be given with spirit at all times.


_Bugle Signals._

41. The authorized bugle signals are published in Part V of these
regulations.

The following bugle signals may be used off the battle field, when not
likely to convey information to the enemy:

_Attention:_ Troops are brought to attention.

_Attention to orders:_ Troops fix their attention.

_Forward, march:_ Used also to execute quick time from double time.

_Double time, march._

_To the rear, march:_ In close order, execute _squads right about_.

_Halt._

_Assemble, march._

The following bugle signals may be used on the battle field:

_Fix bayonets._

_Charge._

_Assemble, march._

These signals are used only when intended for the entire firing line;
hence they can be authorized only by the commander of a unit (for
example, a regiment or brigade) which occupies a distinct section of
the battle field. Exception: _Fix bayonet_. (See par. 318.)

The following bugle signals are used in exceptional cases on the
battle field. Their principal uses are in field exercises and practice
firing.

_Commence firing:_ Officers charged with fire direction and control
open fire as soon as practicable. When given to a firing line, the
signal is equivalent to _fire at will_.

_Cease firing:_ All parts of the line execute _cease firing_ at once.

These signals are not used by units smaller than a regiment, except
when such unit is independent or detached from its regiment.


_Whistle Signals._

42. _Attention to orders._ A _short blast_ of the whistle. This signal
is used on the march or in combat when necessary to fix the attention
of troops, or of their commanders or leaders, preparatory to giving
commands, orders, or signals.

When the firing line is firing, each squad leader suspends firing and
fixes his attention at a _short blast_ of his platoon leader's
whistle. The platoon leader's subsequent commands or signals are
repeated and enforced by the squad leader. If a squad leader's
attention is attracted by a whistle other than that of his platoon
leader, or if there are no orders or commands to convey to his squad
he resumes firing at once.

_Suspend firing._ A _long blast_ of the whistle.

All other whistle signals are prohibited.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 15._)


_Arm Signals._

43. The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either
arm may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line
"repeat back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.

_Forward, march._ Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold
the arm horizontally, thrusting it in direction of march.

This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.

_Halt._ Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and
hold the arm vertically.

_Double time, march._ Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust
the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

_Squads right, march._ Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry
it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times
between the vertical and horizontal positions.

_Squads left, march._ Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry
it downward to the side and swing it several times between the
downward and horizontal positions.

_Squads right about, march_ (if in close order) or, _To the rear,
march_ (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above the
head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it several
times between the vertical and downward positions.

_Change direction_ or _Column right (left), march._ The hand on the
side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried
across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then
swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new
direction.

_As skirmishers, march._ Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

_As skirmishers, guide center, march._ Raise both arms laterally until
horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return
to the horizontal; repeat several times.

_As skirmishers, guide right (left), march._ Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in
the horizontal position; swing the other upward until vertical and
return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

_Assemble, march._ Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and
describe horizontal circles.

_Range_, or _Change elevation._ To announce _range_, extend the arm
toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist
closed; by keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated; by
opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number
equal to the hundreds of yards; to add 50 yards describe a short
horizontal line with forefinger. _To change elevation_, indicate the
_amount of increase_ or _decrease_ by fingers as above; point upward
to indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.

_What range are you using?_ or _What is the range?_ Extend the arms
toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting
on the other hand, fist closed.

_Are you ready?_ or _I am ready._ Raise the hand, fingers extended and
joined, palm toward the person addressed.

_Commence firing._ Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm
down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.

_Fire faster._ Execute rapidly the signal "Commence firing."

_Fire slower._ Execute slowly the signal "Commence firing."

_To swing the cone of fire to the right, or left._ Extend the arm in
full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to
right (left), and point in the direction of the new target.

_Fix bayonet._ Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix
bayonet" (par. 95).

_Suspend firing._ Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal
position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

_Cease firing._ Raise the forearm as in _suspend firing_ and swing it
up and down several times in front of the face.

_Platoon._ Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader;
describe small circles with the hand. (See par. 44.)

_Squad._ Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing
the hand up and down from the wrist. (See par. 44.)

_Rush._ Same as _double time_. (_C.I.D.R., Nos. 2 and 14._)

44. The signals _platoon_ and _squad_ are intended primarily for
communication between the captain and his platoon leaders. The signal
_platoon_ or _squad_ indicates that the platoon commander is to cause
the signal which follows to be executed by platoon or squad.


_Flag Signals._

45. The signal flags described below are carried by the company
musicians in the field.

In a regiment in which it is impracticable to make the permanent
battalion division alphabetically, the flags of a battalion are as
shown; flags are assigned to the companies alphabetically, within
their respective battalions, in the order given below.

First battalion:
  Company A. Red field, white square.
  Company B. Red field, blue square.
  Company C. Red field, white diagonals.
  Company D. Red field, blue diagonals.

Second battalion:
  Company E. White field, red square.
  Company F. White field, blue square.
  Company G. White field, red diagonals.
  Company H. White field, blue diagonals.

Third battalion:
  Company I. Blue field, red square.
  Company K. Blue field, white square.
  Company L. Blue field, red diagonals.
  Company M. Blue field, white diagonals.

46. In addition to their use in visual signaling, these flags serve to
mark the assembly point of the company when disorganized by combat,
and to mark the location of the company in bivouac and elsewhere, when
such use is desirable.

47. (1) For communication between the firing line and the reserve or
commander in the rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps codes) are
prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission, their concealment
from the enemy's view should be insured. In the absence of signal
flags, the headdress or other substitute may be used.

--------------+--------------------------------+---------------------------
 Letter of    |If signaled from the rear to    |If signaled from the firing
 alphabet.    |      the firing line.          |     line to the rear.
--------------+--------------------------------+---------------------------
AM            |Ammunition going forward.       |Ammunition required.
CCC           |Charge (mandatory at all times).|Am about to charge if no
              |                                | instructions to the
              |                                | contrary.
CF            |Cease firing.                   |Cease firing.
DT            |Double time or "rush".          |Double time or "rush".
F             |Commence firing.                |Commence firing.
FB            |Fix bayonets.                   |Fix bayonets.
FL            |Artillery fire is causing us    |Artillery fire is causing
              | losses.                        | us losses.
G             |Move forward.                   |Preparing to move forward.
HHH           |Halt.                           |Halt.
K             |Negative.                       |Negative.
LT            |Left.                           |Left.
O             |What is the (R.N. etc.)?        |What is the (R.N. etc.)?
(Ardois       | Interrogatory.                 | Interrogatory.
and           |                                |
semaphore     |                                |
only.)        |                                |
_ _ __ __ _ _ |                                |
              |What is the (R.N. etc.)?        |What is the (R.N. etc.)?
(All          | Interrogatory.                 | Interrogatory.
methods       |                                |
but ardois    |                                |
and           |                                |
semaphore.)   |                                |
P             |Affirmative.                    |Affirmative.
R             |Acknowledgment.                 |Acknowledgment.
RN            |Range.                          |Range.
RT            |Right.                          |Right.
SSS           |Support going forward.          |Support needed.
SUF           |Suspend firing.                 |Suspend firing.
T             |Target.                         |Target.
--------------+--------------------------------+---------------------------

(2) THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.

(See illustrations on pages following.)

(_C.I.D.R., No. 13._)


TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.


48. The instructor explains briefly each movement, first executing it
himself if practicable. He requires the recruits to take the proper
positions unassisted and does not touch them for the purpose of
correcting them, except when they are unable to correct themselves. He
avoids keeping them too long at the same movement, although each
should be understood before passing to another. He exacts by degrees
the desired precision and uniformity.

49. In order that all may advance as rapidly as their abilities
permit, the recruits are grouped according to proficiency as
instruction progresses. Those who lack aptitude and quickness are
separated from the others and placed under experienced drill masters.


_INSTRUCTION WITHOUT ARMS._

50. For preliminary instruction a number of recruits, usually not
exceeding three or four, are formed as a squad in single rank.


_Position of the Soldier, or Attention._

51. Heels on the same line and as near each other as the conformation
of the man permits.

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45°.

Knees straight without stiffness.

Hips level and drawn back slightly; body erect and resting equally on
hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and falling equally.

Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of the
trousers.

Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that the axis
of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front.

Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls of the
feet.


_The Rests._

52. Being at a halt, the commands are: _FALL OUT_; _REST_; _AT EASE_;
and 1. _Parade_, 2. _Rest_.

At the command _fall out_, the men may leave the ranks, but are
required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their former
places, at attention, at the command _fall in_.

At the command _rest_ each man keeps one foot in place, but is not
required to preserve silence or immobility.

At the command _at ease_ each man keeps one foot in place and is
required to preserve silence but not immobility.

53. 1. _Parade_, 2. _REST_. Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to
the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands, without
constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers joined, left
hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and forefinger of the
right hand; preserve silence and steadiness of position.

54. To resume the attention: 1. _Squad_, 2. _ATTENTION_. The men take
the position of the soldier.


_Eyes Right or Left._

55. 1. _Eyes_, 2. _RIGHT (LEFT)_, 3. _FRONT_.

At the command _right_, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes fixed
on the line of eyes of the men in, or supposed to be in, the same
rank. At the command _front_, turn the head and eyes to the front.


_Facings._

56. To the flank: 1. _Right (left)_, 2. _FACE_.

Raise slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right, turning
on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of the
left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left face is
executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.

_Right (left) half face_ is executed similarly, facing 45°.

"To face in marching" and advance, turn on the ball of either foot and
step off with the other foot in the new line of direction; to face in
marching without gaining ground in the new direction, turn on the ball
of either foot and mark time.

57. To the rear: 1. _About_, 2. _FACE_.

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the rear
and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing the
position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the right on
the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by the side of the
left.


_Salute with the Hand._

58. 1. _Hand_, 2. _SALUTE_.

Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches
the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye, thumb
and fingers extended and joined, palm to the left, forearm inclined at
about 45°, hand and wrist straight; at the same time look toward the
person saluted. (_TWO_) Drop the arm smartly by the side.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes," paragraphs
758-765.

(_C.I.D.R., Nos. 3, 6, and 18._)


_STEPS AND MARCHINGS._

59. All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right step,
begin with the left foot.

60. The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured
from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps per
minute.

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence
is at the rate of 180 steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step by
calling _one, two, three, four_, or _left, right_, the instant the
left and right foot, respectively, should be planted.

61. All steps and marchings and movements involving march are executed
in _quick time_ unless the squad be marching in _double time_, or
_double time_ be added to the command; in the latter case _double
time_ is added to the preparatory command. Example: 1. _Squad right,
double time_, 2. _MARCH_ (School of the Squad).


_Quick Time._

62. Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1. _Forward_, 2.
_MARCH_.

At the command _forward_, shift the weight of the body to the right
leg, left knee straight.

At the command _march_, move the left foot smartly straight forward 30
inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it without
shock; next, in like manner, advance the right foot and plant it as
above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

63. Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double
time: 1. _Double time_, 2. _MARCH_.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the
right leg. At the command _march_, raise the forearms, fingers closed,
to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run
with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging
motion to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command _march_, given as either
foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step
off in double time.

64. To resume the quick time: 1. _Quick time_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick
time, dropping the hands by the sides.


_To Mark Time._

65. Being in march: 1. _Mark time_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and
continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 2 inches
and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command _march_, raise and plant the feet as
described above.


_The Half Step._

66. 1. _Half step_, 2. _MARCH_.

Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time.

67. _Forward_, _half step_, _halt_, and _mark time_ may be executed
one from the other in quick or double time.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 1. _Forward_, 2.
_MARCH_.


_Side Step._

68. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. _Right (left) step_, 2. _MARCH_.

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring the left
foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed in
double time.

If at order arms, the side step is executed _at trail_ without
command.


_Back Step._

69. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. _Backward_, 2. _MARCH_.

Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.

The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed in
double time.

If at order arms, the back step is executed _at trail_ without
command.


_To Halt._

70. To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. _Squad_, 2.
_HALT_.

At the command _halt_, given as either foot strikes the ground, plant
the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first foot by the
side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands by the sides.


_To March by the Flank._

71. Being in march: 1. _By the right (left) flank_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot, then face to the right in marching
and step off in the new direction with the right foot.


_To March to the Rear._

72. Being in march: 1. _To the rear_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the balls
of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four steps
in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the left foot.


_Change Step._

73. Being in march: 1. _Change step_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot near
the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The change on the right foot is similarly executed, the command
_march_ being given as the left foot strikes the ground.


_MANUAL OF ARMS._

74. As soon as practicable the recruit is taught the use, nomenclature
(Pl. I), and care of his rifle; when fair progress has been made in
the instruction without arms, he is taught the manual of arms;
instruction without arms and that with arms alternate.

75. The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber
or the magazine except when specifically ordered. When so loaded, or
supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with
the _safety lock_ turned to the "safe." At all other times it is
carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately
inspected at the commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. _ARMS_; 3. _Order
(Right shoulder, port)_, 4. _ARMS_.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed
and placed in the belt.

Third. The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when cartridges are
actually used.

Fourth. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard,
or for combat.

Fifth. _Fall in_ is executed with the piece at the order arms. _Fall
out_, _rest_, and _at ease_ are executed as without arms. On resuming
_attention_ the position of order arms is taken.

Sixth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is
brought to the right shoulder at the command _march_, the three
motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be
executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the
words _at trail_; as, 1. _At trail, forward_, 2. _MARCH_; the trail is
taken at the command _march_.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or
distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece
to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Seventh. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution
of the order begins when the halt is completed.

Eighth. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without
arms.

[Illustration: Plate I. [Transcriber's Note: Plate number omitted in
original.]]

76. The following rules govern the execution of the manual of arms:

First. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center of
gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the sling is
included in the grasp of the hand.

Second. In all positions of the piece "diagonally across the body" the
position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same as in port arms.

Third. In resuming the order from any position in the manual, the
motion next to the last concludes with the butt of the piece about 3
inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left hand above and
near the right, steadying the piece, fingers extended and joined,
forearm and wrist straight and inclining downward, all fingers of the
right hand grasping the piece. To complete the order, lower the piece
gently to the ground with the right hand, drop the left quickly by the
side, and take the position of order arms.

Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground, or
other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing the
manual, is prohibited.

Fourth. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the recruits
are first required to give their whole attention to the details of the
motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as they become
accustomed to handling their pieces. The instructor may require them
to count aloud in cadence with the motions.

Fifth. The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are, for the
purpose of instruction, divided into motions and executed in detail;
in this case the command of _execution_ determines the prompt
execution of the first motion, and the commands, _two_, _three_,
_four_, that of the other motions.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions: _By
the numbers_; all movements divided into motions are then executed as
above explained until he cautions: _Without the numbers_; or commands
movements other than those in the manual of arms.

Sixth. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions of the
manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without regard to the
previous position of the piece.

Under exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may be
carried in any manner directed.

77. _Position of order arms standing:_ The butt rests evenly on the
ground, barrel to the rear, toe of the butt on a line with toe of, and
touching, the right shoe, arms and hands hanging naturally, right hand
holding the piece between the thumb and fingers.

78. Being at order arms: 1. _Present_, 2. _ARMS_.

With the right hand carry the piece in front of the center of the
body, barrel to the rear and vertical, grasp it with the left hand at
the balance, forearm horizontal and resting against the body. (_TWO_)
Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand.

79. Being at order arms: 1. _Port_, 2. _ARMS_.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the
body, grasp it smartly with both hands; the right, palm down, at the
small of the stock; the left, palm up, at the balance; barrel up,
sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction of the neck
with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal; left forearm resting
against the body; the piece in a vertical plane parallel to the front.

80. Being at present arms: 1. _Port_, 2. _ARMS_.

Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take the position of
port arms.

81. Being at port arms: 1. _Present_, 2. _ARMS_.

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center of the
body and take the position of present arms.

82. Being at present or port arms: 1. _Order_, 2. _ARMS_.

Let go with the right hand; lower and carry the piece to the right
with the left hand; regrasp it with the right hand just above the
lower band; let go with the left hand, and take the next to the last
position in coming to the order. (_TWO_) Complete the order.

83. Being at order arms: 1. _Right shoulder_, 2. _ARMS_.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across the
body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, embracing it, the heel
between the first two fingers. (_TWO_) Without changing the grasp of
the right hand, place the piece on the right shoulder, barrel up and
inclined at an angle of about 45° from the horizontal, trigger guard
in the hollow of the shoulder, right elbow near the side, the piece in
a vertical plane perpendicular to the front; carry the left hand,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, to the small of the stock, tip
of the forefinger touching the cocking piece, wrist straight and elbow
down. (_THREE_) Drop the left hand by the side.

84. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Order_, 2. _ARMS_.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the
body, the right hand retaining the grasp of the butt. (_TWO_),
(_THREE_) Execute order arms as described from port arms.

85. Being at port arms: 1. _Right shoulder_, 2. _ARMS_.

Change the right hand to the butt. (_TWO_), (_THREE_) As in right
shoulder arms from order arms.

86. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Port_, 2. _ARMS_.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across the
body, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. (_TWO_) Change
the right hand to the small of the stock.

87. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Present_, 2. _ARMS_.

Execute port arms. (_THREE_) Execute present arms.

88. Being at present arms: 1. _Right shoulder_, 2. _ARMS_.

Execute port arms. (_TWO_), (_THREE_), (_FOUR_) Execute right shoulder
arms as from port arms.

89. Being at port arms: 1. _Left shoulder_, 2. _ARMS_.

Carry the piece with the right hand and place it on the left shoulder,
barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder; at the same
time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel between first and second
fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock. (_TWO_) Drop the right
hand by the side.

Being at left shoulder arms: 1. _Port_, 2. _ARMS_.

Grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock. (_TWO_)
Carry the piece to the right with the right hand, regrasp it with the
left, and take the position of port arms.

_Left shoulder arms_ may be ordered directly from the order, right
shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command _arms_ execute
_port arms_ and continue in cadence to the position ordered.

90. Being at order arms: 1. _Parade_, 2. _REST_.

Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee slightly
bent; carry the muzzle in front of the center of the body, barrel to
the left; grasp the piece with the left hand just below the stacking
swivel, and with the right hand below and against the left.

Being at parade rest: 1. _Squad_, 2. _ATTENTION_.

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece opposite the right
hip.

91. Being at order arms: 1. _Trail_, 2. _ARMS_.

Raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and incline the muzzle
forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30° with the
vertical.

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others, the
piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered until the
piece is horizontal; a similar position in the left hand may be used.

92. Being at trail arms: 1. _Order_, 2. _ARMS_.

Lower the piece with the right hand and resume the order.


_Rifle Salute._

93. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Rifle_, 2. _SALUTE_.

Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm
horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined,
forefinger touching end of cocking piece; look toward the person
saluted. (_TWO_) Drop left hand by the side; turn head and eyes to the
front. (_C.I.D.R., No. 6._)

94. Being at order or trail arms: 1. _Rifle_, 2. _SALUTE_.

Carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand down,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger against piece near
the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. (_TWO_) Drop the left hand
by the side; turn the head and eyes to the front.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes" (pars. 758-765).


_The Bayonet._

95. Being at order arms: 1. _Fix_, 2. _BAYONET_.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest;
grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward the body;
draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the barrel, glancing
at the muzzle; resume the order.

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: Draw the bayonet with the
left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner.

96. Being at order arms: 1. _Unfix_, 2. _BAYONET_.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest;
grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing
the spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise the bayonet
until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece;
drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and,
glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing
between the left arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right
hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the
most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the
original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity but
not in cadence.

97. _CHARGE BAYONET._ Whether executed at halt or in motion, the
bayonet is held toward the opponent as in the position of _guard_ in
the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in the
Manual for Bayonet Exercise.


_The Inspection._

98. Being at order arms: 1. _Inspection_, 2. _ARMS_.

At the second command take the position of port arms. (_TWO_) Seize
the bolt handle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, turn
the handle up, draw the bolt back, and glance at the chamber. Having
found the chamber empty, or having emptied it, raise the head and eyes
to the front.

99. Being at inspection arms: 1. _Order (Right shoulder, port)_, 2.
_ARMS_.

At the preparatory command push the bolt forward, turn the handle
down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command arms,
complete the movement ordered.


_To Dismiss the Squad._

100. Being at halt: 1. _Inspection_, 2. _ARMS_, 3. _Port_, 4. _ARMS_,
5. _DISMISSED_.



SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD.


101. Soldiers are grouped into squads for purposes of instruction,
discipline, control, and order.

102. The squad proper consists of a corporal and seven privates.

The movements in the School of the Squad are designed to make the
squad a fixed unit and to facilitate the control and movement of the
company. If the number of men grouped is more than 3 and less than 12,
they are formed as a squad of 4 files, the excess above 8 being posted
as file closers. If the number grouped is greater than 11, 2 or more
squads are formed and the group is termed a platoon.

For the instruction of recruits, these rules may be modified.

103. The corporal is the squad leader, and when absent is replaced by
a designated private. If no private is designated, the senior in
length of service acts as leader.

The corporal, when in ranks, is posted as the left man in the front
rank of the squad.

When the corporal leaves the ranks to lead his squad, his rear rank
man steps into the front rank, and the file remains blank until the
corporal returns to his place in ranks, when his rear rank man steps
back into the rear rank.

104. In battle officers and sergeants endeavor to preserve the
integrity of squads; they designate new leaders to replace those
disabled, organize new squads when necessary, and see that every man
is placed in a squad.

Men are taught the necessity of remaining with the squad to which they
belong and, in case it be broken up or they become separated
therefrom, to attach themselves to the nearest squad and platoon
leaders, whether these be of their own or of another organization.

105. The squad executes the _halt_, _rests_, _facings_, _steps_ and
_marchings_, and the _manual of arms_ as explained in the School of
the Soldier.


_To Form the Squad._

106. To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in front
of where the center is to be and commands: _FALL IN_.

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are arranged
by the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable in order of
height from right to left, each man dropping his left hand as soon as
the man on his left has his interval. The rear rank forms with
distance of 40 inches.

The instructor then commands: _COUNT OFF_.

At this command all except the right file execute _eyes right_, and
beginning on the right, the men in each rank count _one_, _two_,
_three_, _four_; each man turns his head and eyes to the front as he
counts.

Pieces are then inspected.


_Alignments._

107. To align the squad, the base file or files having been
established: 1. _Right (Left)_, 2. _DRESS_, 3. _FRONT_.

At the command _dress_ all men place the left hand upon the hip
(whether dressing to the right or left); each man, except the base
file, when on or near the new line executes _eyes right_, and, taking
steps of 2 or 3 inches, places himself so that his right arm rests
lightly against the arm of the man on his right, and so that his eyes
and shoulders are in line with those of the men on his right; the rear
rank men cover in file.

The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the right
flank and orders up or back such men as may be in rear, or in advance,
of the line; only the men designated move.

At the command _front_, given when the ranks are aligned, each man
turns his head and eyes to the front and drops his left hand by his
side.

In the first drills the basis of the alignment is established on, or
parallel to, the front of the squad; afterwards, in oblique
directions.

Whenever the position of the base file or files necessitates a
considerable movement by the squad, such movement will be executed by
marching to the front or oblique, to the flank or backward, as the
case may be, without other command, and at the trail.

108. To preserve the alignment when marching: _GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT)_.

The men preserve their intervals from the side of the guide, yielding
to pressure from that side and resisting pressure from the opposite
direction; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradually opening out
or closing in; they recover alignment by slightly lengthening or
shortening the step; the rear rank men cover their file leaders at 40
inches.

In double rank, the front-rank man on the right, or designated flank,
conducts the march; when marching faced to the flank, the leading man
of the front rank is the guide.


_To Take Intervals and Distances._

109. Being in line at a halt: 1. _Take interval_, 2. _To the right
(left)_, 3. _MARCH_, 4. _Squad_, 5. _HALT_.

At the second command the rear-rank men march backward 4 steps and
halt; at the command _march_ all face to the right and the leading man
of each rank steps off; the other men step off in succession, each
following the preceding man at 4 paces, rear-rank men marching abreast
of their file leaders.

At the command _halt_, given when all have their intervals, all halt
and face to the front.

110. Being at intervals, to assemble the squad: 1. _Assemble, to the
right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

The front-rank man on the right stands fast, the rear-rank man on the
right closes to 40 inches. The other men face to the right, close by
the shortest line, and face to the front.

111. Being in line at a halt and having counted off: 1. _Take
distance_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Squad_, 4. _HALT_.

At the command _march_ No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to the
front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of
the rear rank, in the order named, move straight to the front, each
stepping off so as to follow the preceding man at 4 paces. The command
_halt_ is given when all have their distances.

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the
movement as above. The guide of each rank of numbers is right.

112. Being at distances, to assemble the squad: 1. _Assemble_, 2.
_MARCH_.

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other numbers move forward to
their proper places in line.


_To Stack and Take Arms._

113. Being in line at a halt: _STACK ARMS_.

Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the left hand
at the upper band and rests the butt between his feet, barrel to the
front, muzzle inclined slightly to the front and opposite the center
of the interval on his right, the thumb and forefinger raising the
stacking swivel; each even number of the rear rank then passes his
piece, barrel to the rear, to his file leader, who grasps it between
the bands with his right hand and throws the butt about 2 feet in
advance of that of his own piece and opposite the right of the
interval, the right hand slipping to the upper band, the thumb and
forefinger raising the stacking swivel, which he engages with that of
his own piece; each odd number of the front rank raises his piece with
the right hand, carries it well forward, barrel to the front; the left
hand, guiding the stacking swivel, engages the lower hook of the
swivel of his own piece with the free hook of that of the even number
of the rear rank; he then turns the barrel outward into the angle
formed by the other two pieces and lowers the butt to the ground, to
the right of and against the toe of his right shoe.

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the even numbers
of the front rank.

When each man has finished handling pieces, he takes the position of
the soldier.

114. Being in line behind the stacks: _TAKE ARMS_.

The loose pieces are returned by the even numbers of the front rank;
each even number of the front rank grasps his own piece with the left
hand, the piece of his rear-rank man with his right hand, grasping
both between the hands; each odd number of the front rank grasps his
piece in the same way with the right hand, disengages it by raising
the butt from the ground and then, turning the piece to the right,
detaches it from the stack; each even number of the front rank
disengages and detaches his piece by turning it to the left, and then
passes the piece of his rear-rank man to him, and all resume the
order.

115. Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 rear rank
takes the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and breaking the stack;
the stacks made or broken, he resumes his post.

Pieces not used in making the stack are termed _loose pieces_.

Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed.


_The Oblique March._

116. For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column or
correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face half right
or half left, points out to the men their relative positions, and
explains that these are to be maintained in the oblique march.

117. 1. _Right (Left) oblique_, 2. _MARCH_.

Each man steps off in a direction 45° to the right of his original
front. He preserves his relative position, keeping his shoulders
parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right front of the line
or column), and so regulates his steps that the ranks remain parallel
to their original front.

At the command _halt_ the men halt faced to the front.

To resume the original direction: 1. _Forward_, 2. _MARCH_.

The men half face to the left in marching and then move straight to
the front.

If at _half step_ or _mark time_ while obliquing, the oblique march is
resumed by the commands: 1. _Oblique_, 2. _MARCH_.


_To Turn on Moving Pivot._

118. Being in line: 1. _Right (Left) turn_, 2. _MARCH_.

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on the same
ground. At the second command, the pivot man of the front rank faces
to the right in marching and takes the half step; the other men of the
rank oblique to the right until opposite their places in line, then
execute a second right oblique and take the half step on arriving
abreast of the pivot man. All glance toward the marching flank while
at half step and take the full step without command as the last man
arrives on the line.

_Right (Left) half turn_ is executed in a similar manner. The pivot
man makes a half change of direction to the right and the other men
make quarter changes in obliquing. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)


_To Turn on Fixed Pivot._

119. Being in line, to turn and march: 1. _Squad right (left)_, 2.
_MARCH_.

At the second command, the right flank man in the front rank faces to
the right in marching and marks time; the other front rank men oblique
to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time.
In the rear rank the third man from the right, followed in column by
the second and first, moves straight to the front until in rear of his
front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching and mark time;
the other number of the rear rank moves straight to the front four
paces and places himself abreast of the man on his right. Men on the
new line glance toward the marching flank while marking time and, as
the last man arrives on the line, both ranks execute _forward, march_,
without command.

120. Being in line, to turn and halt: 1. _Squad right (left)_, 2.
_MARCH_, 3. _Squad_, 4. _HALT_.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is
executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all men,
on arriving on the new line, mark time until the fourth command is
given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last
man arrives on the line.

121. Being in line, to turn about and march: 1. _Squad right (left)
about_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the second command, the front rank twice executes _squad right_,
initiating the second _squad right_ when the man on the marching flank
has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear rank the third man from
the right, followed by the second and first in column, moves straight
to the front until on the prolongation of the line to be occupied by
the rear rank; changes direction to the right; moves in the new
direction until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the
right in marching, mark time, and glance toward the marching flank.
The fourth man marches on the left of the third to his new position;
as he arrives on the line, both ranks execute _forward, march_,
without command.

122. Being in line, to turn about and halt: 1. _Squad right (left)
about_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Squad_, 4. _HALT_.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The turn is
executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except that all men,
on arriving on the new line, mark time until the fourth command is
given, when all halt. The fourth command should be given as the last
man arrives on the line.


_To Follow the Corporal._

123. Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without
unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front of it and
commands: _FOLLOW ME_.

If in line or skirmish line, No. 2 of the front rank follows in the
trace of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men conform to the
movements of No. 2, guiding on him and maintaining their relative
positions.

If in column; the head of the column follows the corporal.


_To Deploy as Skirmishers._

124. Being in any formation, assembled: 1. _As skirmishers_, 2.
_MARCH_.

The corporal places himself in front of the squad, if not already
there. Moving at a run, the men place themselves abreast of the
corporal at half-pace intervals, Nos. 1 and 2 on his right, Nos. 3 and
4 on his left, rear-rank men on the right of their file leaders, extra
men on the left of No. 4; all then conform to the corporal's gait.

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly formed on
No. 2 of the front rank, who stands fast or continues the march, as
the case may be; the corporal places himself in front of the squad
when advancing and in rear when halted.

When deployed as skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces at the
trail unless otherwise ordered.

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 front rank
is the guide.

125. The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half pace,
resulting practically in one man per yard of front. The front of a
squad thus deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces.


_To Increase or Diminish Intervals._

126. If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the
normal interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or
decrease the interval: 1. _As skirmishers, (so many) paces_, 2.
_MARCH_.

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If already
deployed, the men move by the flank toward or away from the guide.


_The Assembly._

127. Being deployed: 1. _Assemble_, 2. _MARCH_.

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places.

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double time,
form, and follow him.

The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed.


_Kneeling and Lying Down._

128. If standing: _KNEEL_.

Half face to the right; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the left
rear of the left heel; kneel on right knee, sitting as nearly as
possible on the right heel; left forearm across left thigh; piece
remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping it above the
lower band.

129. If standing or kneeling: _LIE DOWN_.

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel; carry back the left foot
and lie flat on the belly, inclining body about 35° to the right;
piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground and pointed to the
front; elbows on the ground; left hand at the balance, right hand
grasping the small of the stock opposite the neck. This is the
position of order arms, lying down.

130. If kneeling or lying down: _RISE_.

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked by the
left heel.

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to the front,
on the ground marked by the knees.

131. If lying down: _KNEEL_. Raise the body on both knees; take the
position of kneel.

132. In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying down are
ordinarily used only for the better utilization of cover.

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position may be taken in lieu
of the position kneeling.


_LOADINGS AND FIRINGS._

133. The commands for loading and firing are the same whether
standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed at
a halt.

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank does not
load, aim, or fire.

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only.

134. Pieces having been ordered loaded are kept loaded without command
until the command _unload_, or _inspection arms_, fresh clips being
inserted when the magazine is exhausted.

135. The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. This may be
done before or after announcing the sight setting. Both are indicated
before giving the command for firing, but may be omitted when the
target appears suddenly and is unmistakable; in such case battle sight
is used if no sight setting is announced.

136. The target or aiming point having been designated and the sight
setting announced, such designation or announcement need not be
repeated until a change of either or both is necessary.

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point or
target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until a change
is ordered.

137. If the men are not already in the position of load, that position
is taken at the announcement of the sight setting; if the announcement
is omitted, the position is taken at the first command for firing.

138. When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accurate firing
is discretionary with each man.


_To Load._

139. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. _With dummy (blank or
ball) cartridges_, 2. _LOAD_.

At the command _load_ each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half
right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such
position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the
body; raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into the left hand at
the balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height
of the breast, and turns the cut-off up. With the right hand he turns
and draws the bolt back, takes a loaded clip and inserts the end in
the clip slots, places the thumb on the powder space of the top
cartridge, the fingers extending around the piece and tips resting on
the magazine floor plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by
pressing down with the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the
bolt home, turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the
"safe" and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear rank
man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite the
interval to the right of his front rank man, muzzle of the piece
extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly
as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the
elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand
steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt
resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down)
are designated as that of _load_.

140. For instruction in loading: 1. _Simulate_, 2. _LOAD_.

Executed as above described except that the cut-off remains "off" and
the handling of cartridges is simulated.

The recruits are first taught to _simulate_ loading and firing; after
a few lessons dummy cartridges may be used. Later, blank cartridges
may be used.

141. The rifle may be used as a single loader by turning the magazine
"off." The magazine may be filled in whole or in part while "off" or
"on" by pressing cartridges singly down and back until they are in the
proper place. The use of the rifle as a single loader is, however, to
be regarded as exceptional.


_To Unload._

142. _UNLOAD._

Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move bolt
alternately back and forward until all the cartridges are ejected.
After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by first
thrusting the bolt slightly forward to free it from the stud holding
it in place when the chamber is open, pressing the follower down and
back to engage it under the bolt and then thrusting the bolt home; the
trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and
returned to the belt and the piece is brought to the order.


_To Set the Sight._

143. _RANGE, ELEVEN HUNDRED (EIGHT-FIFTY, etc.)_, or _BATTLE SIGHT_.

The sight is set at the elevation indicated. The instructor explains
and verifies sight settings.


_To Fire by Volley._

144. 1. _READY_, 2. _AIM_, 3. _Squad_, 4. _FIRE_.

At the command _ready_ turn the safety lock to the "ready;" at the
command _aim_ raise the piece with both hands and support the butt
firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder, right thumb clasping
the stock, barrel horizontal, left elbow well under the piece, right
elbow as high as the shoulder; incline the head slightly forward and a
little to the right, cheek against the stock, left eye closed, right
eye looking through the notch of the rear sight so as to perceive the
object aimed at, second joint of forefinger resting lightly against
the front of the trigger and taking up the slack; top of front sight
is carefully raised into, and held in, the line of sight.

Each rear-rank man aims through the interval to the right of his file
leader and leans slightly forward to advance the muzzle of his piece
beyond the front rank.

In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, point of
elbow in front of kneecap. In aiming sitting, the elbows are supported
by the knees.

In aiming lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest on both
elbows and press the butt firmly against the right shoulder.

At the command _fire_ press the finger against the trigger; fire
without deranging the aim and without lowering or turning the piece;
lower the piece in the position of _Load_ and load. (_C.I.D.R., No.
2._)

145. To continue the firing: 1. _AIM_, 2. _Squad_, 3. _FIRE_.

Each command is executed as previously explained. _Load_ (from
magazine) is executed by drawing back and thrusting home the bolt with
the right hand, leaving the safety lock at the "ready."


_To Fire at Will._

146. _FIRE AT WILL._

Each man, independently of the others, comes to the _ready_, aims
carefully and deliberately at the aiming point or target, _fires_,
_loads_, and continues the firing until ordered to _suspend_ or _cease
firing_.

147. To increase (decrease) the rate of fire in progress the
instructor shouts: _FASTER (SLOWER)_.

Men are trained to fire at the rate of about three shots per minute at
effective ranges and five or six at close ranges, devoting the minimum
of time to loading and the maximum to deliberate aiming. To illustrate
the necessity for deliberation, and to habituate men to combat
conditions, small and comparatively indistinct targets are
designated.


_To Fire by Clip._

148. _CLIP FIRE._

Executed in the same manner as _fire at will_, except that each man,
after having exhausted the cartridges then in the piece, _suspends
firing_.


_To Suspend Firing._

149. The instructor blows a _long blast_ of the whistle and repeats
same, if necessary, or commands: _SUSPEND FIRING_.

Firing stops; pieces are held loaded and locked, in a position of
readiness for instant resumption of firing, rear sights unchanged. The
men continue to observe the target or aiming point, or the place at
which the target disappeared, or at which it is expected to reappear.

This whistle signal may be used as a preliminary to _cease firing_.


_To Cease Firing._

150. _CEASE FIRING._

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of
load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartridge
is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, sights
are laid down, and the piece is brought to the order.

_Cease firing_ is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of
position or to steady the men.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 7._)

151. Commands for suspending or ceasing fire may be given at any time
after the preparatory command for firing whether the firing has
actually commenced or not.


_THE USE OF COVER._

152. The recruit should be given careful instruction in the individual
use of cover.

It should be impressed upon him that, in taking advantage of natural
cover, he must be able to tire easily and effectively upon the enemy;
if advancing on an enemy, he must do so steadily and as rapidly as
possible; he must conceal himself as much as possible while firing and
while advancing. While setting his sight he should be under cover or
lying prone.

153. To teach him to fire easily and effectively, at the same time
concealing himself from the view of the enemy, he is practiced in
simulated firing in the prone, sitting, kneeling, and crouching
positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps of earth or rocks, from
depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways, or windows. He is taught to
fire around the right side of his concealment whenever possible, or,
when this is not possible, to rise enough to fire over the top of his
concealment.

When these details are understood, he is required to select cover with
reference to an assumed enemy and to place himself behind it in proper
position for firing.

154. The evil of remaining too long in one place, however good the
concealment, should be explained. He should be taught to advance from
cover to cover, selecting cover in advance before leaving his
concealment.

It should be impressed upon him that a man running rapidly toward an
enemy furnishes a poor target. He should be trained in springing from
a prone position behind concealment, running at top speed to cover and
throwing himself behind it. He should also be practiced in advancing
from cover to cover by crawling, or by lying on the left side, rifle
grasped in the right hand, and pushing himself forward with the right
leg.

155. He should be taught that, when fired on while acting
independently, he should drop to the ground, seek cover, and then
endeavor to locate his enemy.

156. The instruction of the recruit in the use of cover is continued
in the combat exercises of the company, but he must then be taught
that the proper advance of the platoon or company and the
effectiveness of its fire is of greater importance than the question
of cover for individuals. He should also be taught that he may not
move about or shift his position in the firing line except the better
to see the target.


_OBSERVATION._

157. The ability to use his eyes accurately is of great importance to
the soldier. The recruit should be trained in observing his
surrounding from positions and when on the march.

He should be practiced in pointing out and naming military features of
the ground; in distinguishing between living beings; in counting
distant groups of objects or beings; in recognizing colors and forms.

158. In the training of men in the mechanism of the firing line, they
should be practiced in repeating to one another target and aiming
point designations and in quickly locating and pointing out a
designated target. They should be taught to distinguish, from a prone
position, distant objects, particularly troops, both with the naked
eye and with field glasses. Similarly, they should be trained in
estimating distances.



SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.


159. The captain is responsible for the theoretical and practical
instruction of his officers and noncommissioned officers, not only in
the duties of their respective grades, but in those of the next higher
grades.

160. The company in line is formed in double rank with the men
arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from right to
left, the tallest on the right.

The original division into squads is effected by the command: _COUNT
OFF_. The squads, successively from the right, count off as in the
School of the Squad, corporals placing themselves as Nos. 4 of the
front rank. If the left squad contains less than six men, it is either
increased to that number by transfers from other squads or is broken
up and its members assigned to other squads and posted in the line of
file closers. These squad organizations are maintained, by transfers
if necessary, until the company becomes so reduced in numbers as to
necessitate a new division into squads. No squad will contain less
than six men.

161. The company is further divided into two, three, or four platoons,
each consisting of not less than two nor more than four squads. In
garrison or ceremonies the strength of platoons may exceed four
squads.

162. At the formation of the company the platoons or squads are
numbered consecutively from right to left and these designations do
not change.

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the
designations, _right_, _center_, _left_, when in line, and _leading_,
_center_, _rear_, when in column, are applied to platoons or squads.
These designations apply to the actual right, left, center, head, or
rear, in whatever direction the company may be facing. The _center
squad_ is the middle or right middle squad of the company.

The designation "So-and-so's" squad or platoon may also be used.

163. Platoons are assigned to the lieutenants and noncommissioned
officers, in order of rank, as follows: 1, right; 2, left; 3, center
(right center); 4, left center.

[Illustration: Plate II. THE COMPANY.]

The noncommissioned officers next in rank are assigned as guides, one
to each platoon. If sergeants still remain, they are assigned to
platoons as additional guides. When the platoon is deployed, its
guide, or guides, accompany the platoon leader.

During battle, these assignments are not changed: vacancies are filled
by noncommissioned officers of the platoon, or by the nearest
available officers or noncommissioned officers arriving with
reenforcing troops.

164. The first sergeant is never assigned as a guide. When not
commanding a platoon, he is posted as a file closer opposite the third
file from the outer flank of the first platoon; and when the company
is deployed he accompanies the captain.

The quartermaster sergeant, when present, is assigned according to his
rank as a sergeant.

Enlisted men below the grade of sergeant, armed with the rifle, are in
ranks unless serving as guides; when not so armed, they are posted in
the line of file closers.

Musicians, when required to play, are at the head of the column. When
the company is deployed, they accompany the captain.

165. The company executes the _halt_, _rests_, _facings_, _steps_ and
_marchings_, _manual of arms_, _loadings_ and _firings_, _takes
intervals_ and _distances_ and _assembles_, _increases_ and
_diminishes intervals_, resumes _attention_, _obliques_, resumes the
direct march, preserves alignments, _kneels_, _lies down_, _rises_,
_stacks_ and _takes arms_, as explained in the Schools of the Soldier
and the Squad, substituting in the commands _company_ for _squad_.

The same rule applies to platoons, detachments, details, etc.,
substituting their designation for _squad_ in the commands. In the
same manner these execute the movements prescribed for the company,
whenever possible, substituting their designation for _company_ in the
commands.

166. A company so depleted as to make division into platoons
impracticable is led by the captain as a single platoon, but retains
the designation of company. The lieutenants and first sergeant assist
in fire control; the other sergeants place themselves in the firing
line as skirmishers.


CLOSE ORDER.

_Rules._

167. The guides of the right and left, or leading and rear, platoons,
are the right and left, or leading and rear, guides, respectively, of
the company when it is in line or in column of squads. Other guides
are in the line of file closers.

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at the head of
the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the guiding flank if
in line. When a platoon has two guides their original assignment to
flanks of the platoon does not change.

168. The guides of a column of squads place themselves on the flank
opposite the file closers. To change the guides and file closers to
the other flank, the captain commands: 1. _File closers on left
(right) flank_; 2. _MARCH_. The file closers dart through the column;
the captain and guides change.

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the side
of the guide.

169. Men in the line of file closers do not execute the loadings or
firings.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the manual
of arms during the drill unless specially excused, when they remain at
the order. During ceremonies they execute all movements.

170. In _taking intervals and distances_, unless otherwise directed,
the right and left guides, at the first command, place themselves in
the line of file closers, and, with them, take a distance of 4 paces
from the rear rank. In taking intervals, at the command _march_, the
file closers face to the flank and each steps off with the file
nearest him. In _assembling_ the guides and file closers resume their
positions in line.

171. In movements executed simultaneously by platoons (as _platoons
right_ or _platoons, column right_), platoon leaders repeat the
preparatory command (_platoon right_, etc.), applicable to their
respective platoons. The command of execution is given by the captain
only.


_To Form the Company._

172. At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes position
6 paces in front of where the center of the company is to be, faces
it, draws saber, and commands: _FALL IN_.

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the front,
where the right of the company is to rest, and at such point that the
center of the company will be 6 paces from and opposite the first
sergeant; the squads form in their proper places on the left of the
right guide, superintended by the other sergeants, who then take their
posts.

The first sergeant commands: _REPORT_. Remaining in position at the
order, the squad leaders, in succession from the right, salute and
report: _All present_; or, _Private(s) ---- absent_. The first
sergeant does not return the salutes of the squad leaders; he then
commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. _ARMS_, 3. _Order_, 4. _ARMS_, faces
about, salutes the captain, reports: _Sir, all present or accounted
for_, or the names of the unauthorized absentees, and, without
command, takes his post.

If the company can not be formed by squads, the first sergeant
commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. _ARMS_, 3. _Right shoulder_, 4. _ARMS_,
and calls the roll. Each man, as his name is called, answers _here_
and executes order arms. The sergeant then effects the division into
squads and reports the company as prescribed above.

The captain places himself 12 paces in front of the center of, and
facing, the company in time to receive the report of the first
sergeant, whose salute he returns, and then draws saber.

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has reported
and draw saber with the captain. The company, if not under arms, is
formed in like manner omitting reference to arms.

173. For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the company,
when small, may be formed in single rank. In this formation close
order movements only are executed. The single rank executes all
movements as explained for the front rank of a company.


_To Dismiss the Company._

174. Being in line at a halt, the captain directs the first sergeant:
_Dismiss the company_. The officers fall out; the first sergeant
places himself faced to the front, 3 paces to the front and 2 paces
from the nearest flank of the company, salutes, faces toward opposite
flank of the company, and commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. _ARMS_, 3.
_Port_, 4. _ARMS_, 5. _DISMISSED_. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)


_Alignments._

175. The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School of the
Squad, the guide being established instead of the flank file. The
rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his head and eyes to the front
and covers his file leader.

At each alignment the captain places himself in prolongation of the
line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the dress is
made, verifies the alignment, and commands: _FRONT_.

Platoon leaders take a like position when required to verify
alignments.


_Movements on the Fixed Pivot._

176. Being in line, to turn the company: 1. _Company right (left)_, 2.
_MARCH_, 3. _Company_, 4. _HALT_; or, 3. _Forward_, 4. _MARCH_.

At the second command the right-flank man in the front rank faces to
the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank men oblique
to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot, and mark time; in
the rear rank the third man from the right, followed in column by the
second and first, moves straight to the front until in rear of his
front-rank man, when all face to the right in marching and mark time;
the remaining men of the rear rank move straight to the front 4 paces,
oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the third man, cover
their file leaders, and mark time; the right guide steps back, takes
post on the flank, and marks time.

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace in rear of the
new line.

The command _halt_ may be given at any time after the movement begins;
only those halt who are in the new position. Each of the others halts
upon arriving on the line, aligns himself to the right, and executes
_front_ without command.

177. Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the reverse: 1.
_Platoons right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Company_, 4. _HALT_; or 3.
_Forward_, 4. _MARCH_.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the flank
toward which the movement is to be executed are covering. This is
effected by previously announcing the guide to that flank.

178. Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse; or,
being in line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or the reverse:
1. _Squads right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_; or, 1. _Squads right (left)_, 2.
_MARCH_, 3. _Company_, 4. _HALT_.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side of the
file closers, they dart through the column and take posts in rear of
the company at the second command. If the column of squads be formed
from line, the file closers take posts on the pivot flank, abreast of
and 4 inches from the nearest rank. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)


_Movements on the Moving Pivot._

179. Being in line, to change direction: 1. _Right (Left) turn_, 2.
_MARCH_, 3. _Forward_, 4. _MARCH_.

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except that the men
do not glance toward the marching flank and that all take the full
step at the fourth command. The right guide is the pivot of the front
rank. Each rear-rank man obliques on the same ground as his file
leader.

180. Being in column of platoons, to change direction: 1. _Column
right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the first command the leader of the leading platoon commands:
_Right turn_. At the command _march_ the leading platoon turns to the
right on moving pivot; its leader commands: 1. _Forward_, 2. _MARCH_,
on completion of the turn. Rear platoons march squarely up to the
turning point of the leading platoon and turn at command of their
leaders.

181. Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. _Column right
(left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad turns to the
right on moving pivot as in the School of the Squad; the other ranks,
without command, turn successively on the same ground and in a similar
manner.

182. Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or the
reverse: 1. _Platoons, column right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

183. Being in line, to form column of squads and change direction: 1.
_Squads right (left), column right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_; or, 1. _Right
(Left) by squads_, 2. _MARCH_.

In the first case the right squad initiates the _column right_ as soon
as it has completed the _squad right_.

In the second case, at the command _march_, the right squad marches
_forward_; the remainder of the company executes _squads right,
column left_, and follows the right squad. The right guide, when he
has posted himself in front of the right squad, takes four short
steps, then resumes the full step; the right squad conforms.

184. Being in line, to form line of platoons: 1. _Squads right (left),
platoons, column right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_; or, 1. _Platoons, right
(left) by squads_, 2. _MARCH_.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company in the preceding
paragraph.


_Facing or Marching to the Rear._

185. Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or
squads, to face or march to the rear: 1. _Squads right (left) about_,
2. _MARCH_; or, 1. _Squads right (left) about_, 2. _MARCH_, 3.
_Company_, 4. _HALT_.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be in column of squads, the file closers
turn about toward the column, and take their posts; if in line, each
darts through the nearest interval between squads. (_C.I.D.R., No.
2._)

186. To march to the rear for a few paces: 1. _About_, 2. _FACE_, 3.
_Forward_, 4. _MARCH_.

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, now the
front rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain their relative
positions. No other movement is executed until the line is faced to
the original front.


_On Right (Left) Into Line._

187. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right or
left: 1. _On right (left) into line_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Company_, 4.
_HALT_, 5. _FRONT_.

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands: _Right
turn_. The leaders of the other units command: _Forward_, if at a
halt. At the second command, the leading unit turns to the right on
moving pivot. The command _halt_ is given when the leading unit has
advanced the desired distance in the new direction; it halts; its
leader then commands: _Right dress_.

The units in rear continue to march straight to the front; each, when
opposite the right of its place in line, executes _right turn_ at the
command of its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of
its leader, who then commands: _Right dress_. All dress on the first
unit in line.

If executed in double time, the leading squad marches in double time
until halted.


_Front Into Line._

188. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line to the front:
1. _Right (Left) front into line_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Company_, 4.
_HALT_, 5. _FRONT_.

At the first command the leaders of the units in rear of the leading
one command: _Right oblique_. If at a halt, the leader of the leading
unit commands: _Forward_. At the second command the leading unit moves
straight forward; the rear units oblique as indicated. The command
_halt_ is given when the leading unit has advanced the desired
distance; it halts; its leader then commands: _Left dress_. Each of
the rear units, when opposite its place in line, resumes the original
direction at the command of its leader; each is halted on the line at
the command of its leader, who then commands: _Left dress_. All dress
on the first unit in line.

189. Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, or being in
line of platoons, to form the company in line: 1. _Platoons, right
(left) front into line_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Company_, 4. _HALT_, 5.
_FRONT_.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. In forming the
company in line, the dress is on the left squad of the left platoon.
If forming column of platoons, platoon leaders verify the alignment
before taking their posts; the captain commands _front_ when the
alignments have been verified.

When _front into line_ is executed in double time the commands for
halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward the side of
the first unit in line.


_AT EASE AND ROUTE STEP._

190. The column of squads is the habitual column of route, but _route
step_ and _at ease_ are applicable to any marching formation.

191. To march at route step: 1. _Route step_, 2. _MARCH_. Sabers are
carried at will or in the scabbard; the men carry their pieces at
will, keeping the muzzles elevated; they are not required to preserve
silence, nor to keep the step. The ranks cover and preserve their
distance. If halted from route step, the men stand _at rest_.

192. To march at ease: 1. _At ease_, 2. _MARCH_.

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is
preserved; when halted, the men remain _at ease_.

193. Marching at route step or at ease: 1. _Company_, 2. _ATTENTION_.

At the command _attention_ the pieces are brought to the right
shoulder and the cadenced step in quick time is resumed.


_TO DIMINISH THE FRONT OF A COLUMN OF SQUADS._

194. Being in column of squads: 1. _Right (left) by twos_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_ all files except the two right files of the
leading squad execute _in place halt_; the two left files of the
leading squad oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the
right files at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining squads
follow successively in like manner. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

195. Being in column of squads or twos: 1. _Right (left) by file_, 2.
_MARCH_.

At the command _march_, all files execute _in place halt_ except the
right file of the leading two or squad. The left file or files of the
leading two or squad oblique successively to the right when disengaged
and each follows the file on its right at the shortest practicable
distance. The remaining twos or squads follow successively in like
manner. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

196. Being in column of files or twos, to form column of squads; or,
being in column of files, to form column of twos: 1. _Squads (Twos),
right (left) front into line_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_, the leading file or files halt. The remainder
of the squad, or two, obliques to the right and halts on line with the
leading file or files. The remaining squads or twos close up and
successively form in rear of the first in like manner.

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered _right_ or
_left_, so as to restore the files to their normal relative positions
in the two or squad.

197. The movements prescribed in the three preceding paragraphs are
difficult of execution at attention and have no value as disciplinary
exercises.

198. Marching by twos or files can not be executed without serious
delay and waste of road space. Every reasonable precaution will be
taken to obviate the necessity for these formations.


EXTENDED ORDER.

_Rules for Deployment._

199. The command _guide right (left_ or _center)_ indicates the base
squad for the deployment; if in line it designates the actual _right
(left_ or _center)_ squad; if in column the command _guide right
(left)_ designates the _leading_ squad, and the command _guide center_
designates the _center_ squad. After the deployment is completed, the
guide is _center_ without command, unless otherwise ordered.

200. At the preparatory command for forming skirmish line, from either
column of squads or line, each squad leader (except the leader of the
base squad, when his squad does not advance), cautions his squad,
_follow me_ or _by the right (left) flank_, as the case may be; at the
command _march_, he steps in front of his squad and leads it to its
place in line.

201. Having given the command for forming skirmish line, the captain,
if necessary, indicates to the corporal of the base squad the point on
which the squad is to march; the corporal habitually looks to the
captain for such directions.

202. The base squad is deployed as soon as it has sufficient interval.
The other squads are deployed as they arrive on the general line; each
corporal halts in his place in line and commands or signals, _as
skirmishers_; the squad deploys and halts abreast of him.

If tactical considerations demand it, the squad is deployed before
arriving on the line.

203. Deployed lines preserve a general alignment toward the guide.
Within their respective fronts, individuals or units march so as best
to secure cover or to facilitate the advance, but the general and
orderly progress of the whole is paramount.

On halting, a deployed line faces to the front (direction of the
enemy) in all cases and takes advantage of cover, the men lying down
if necessary.

204. The company in skirmish line _advances_, _halts_, moves _by the
flank_, or _to the rear_, _obliques_, resumes _the direct march_,
passes from _quick_ to _double time_ and the reverse by the same
commands and in a similar manner as in close order; if at a halt, the
movement _by the flank_ or _to the rear_ is executed by the same
commands as when marching. _Company right (left, half right, half
left)_ is executed as explained for the front rank, skirmish intervals
being maintained.

205. A platoon or other part of the company is deployed and marched in
the same manner as the company, substituting in the commands,
_platoon_ (_detachment_, etc.) for _company_.


_Deployments._

206. Being in line, to form skirmish line to the front: 1. _As
skirmishers, guide right (left_ or _center)_, 2. _MARCH_.

If marching, the corporal of the base squad moves straight to the
front; when that squad has advanced the desired distance, the captain
commands: 1. _Company_, 2. _HALT_. If the guide be _right (left)_, the
other corporals move to the _left (right)_ front, and, in succession
from the base, place their squads on the line; if the guide be center,
the other corporals move to the _right_ or _left_ front, according as
they are on the right or left of the center squad, and in succession
from the center squad place their squads on the line.

If at a halt, the base squad is deployed without advancing; the other
squads may be conducted to their proper places by the flank; interior
squads may be moved when squads more distant from the base have gained
comfortable marching distance.

207. Being in column of squads, to form skirmish line to the front: 1.
_As skirmishers, guide right (left_ or _center)_, 2. _MARCH_.

If marching, the corporal of the base squad deploys it and moves
straight to the front; if at a halt, he deploys his squad without
advancing. If the guide be _right (left)_, the other corporals move to
the _left (right) front_, and, in succession from the base, place
their squads on the line; if the guide be _center_, the corporals in
front of the center squad move to the right (if at a halt, to the
right rear), the corporals in rear of the center squad move to the
left front, and each, in succession from the base, places his squad on
the line.

The column of twos or files is deployed by the same commands and in
like manner.

208. The company in line or in column of squads may be deployed in an
oblique direction by the same commands. The captain points out the
desired direction; the corporal of the base squad moves in the
direction indicated; the other corporals conform.

209. To form skirmish line to the flank or rear the line or the column
of squads is turned by squads to the flank or rear and then deployed
as described.

210. The intervals between men are increased or decreased as described
in the School of the Squad, adding to the preparatory command, _guide
right (left_ or _center)_ if necessary.


_The Assembly._

211. The captain takes his post in front of, or designates, the
element on which the company is to assemble and commands: 1.
_Assemble_, 2. _MARCH_.

If in skirmish line the men move promptly toward the designated point
and the company is re-formed in line. If assembled by platoons, these
are conducted to the designated point by platoon leaders, and the
company is re-formed in line.

Platoons may be assembled by the command: 1. _Platoons, assemble_, 2.
_MARCH_.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

One or more platoons may be assembled by the command: 1. _Such
platoon(s), assemble_, 2. _MARCH_.

Executed by the designated platoon or platoons as described for the
company.


_The Advance._

212. The advance of a company into an engagement (whether for attack
or defense) is conducted in close order, preferably column of squads,
until the probability of encountering hostile fire makes it advisable
to deploy. After deployment, and before opening fire, the advance of
the company may be continued in skirmish line or other suitable
formation, depending upon circumstances. The advance may often be
facilitated, or better advantage taken of cover, or losses reduced by
the employment of the _platoon_ or _squad columns_ or by the use of a
_succession of thin lines_. The selection of the method to be used is
made by the captain or major, the choice depending upon conditions
arising during the progress of the advance. If the deployment is found
to be premature, it will generally be best to assemble the company and
proceed in close order.

Patrols are used to provide the necessary security against surprise.

213. Being in skirmish line: 1. _Platoon columns_, 2. _MARCH_.

The platoon leaders move forward through the center of their
respective platoons; men to the right of the platoon leader march to
the left and follow him in file; those to the left march in like
manner to the right; each platoon lender thus conducts the march of
his platoon in double column of files; platoon guides follow in rear
of their respective platoons to insure prompt and orderly execution of
the advance.

214. Being in skirmish line: 1. _Squad columns_, 2. _MARCH_.

Each squad leader moves to the front; the members of each squad
oblique toward and follow their squad leader in single file at easy
marching distances.

215. _Platoon columns_ are profitably used where the ground is so
difficult or cover so limited as to make it desirable to take
advantage of the few favorable routes; no two platoons should march
within the area of burst of a single shrapnel.[1] _Squad columns_ are
of value principally in facilitating the advance over rough or
brush-grown ground; they afford no material advantage in securing
cover.

[Footnote 1: Ordinarily about 20 yards wide.]

216. To deploy platoon or squad columns: 1. _As skirmishers_, 2.
_MARCH_.

Skirmishers move to the right or left front and successively place
themselves in their original positions on the line.

217. Being in platoon or squad columns: 1. _Assemble_, 2. _MARCH_.

The platoon or squad leaders signal _assemble_. The men of each
platoon or squad, as the case may be, advance and, moving to the right
and left, take their proper places in line, each unit assembling on
the leading element of the column and re-forming in line. The platoon
or squad leaders conduct their units toward the element or point
indicated by the captain, and to their places in line; the company is
re-formed in line.

218. Being in skirmish line, to advance by a succession of thin lines:
1. _(Such numbers), forward_, 2. _MARCH_.

The captain points out in advance the selected position in front of
the line occupied. The designated number of each squad moves to the
front; the line thus formed preserves the original intervals as nearly
as practicable; when this line has advanced a suitable distance
(generally from 100 to 250 yards, depending upon the terrain and the
character of the hostile fire), a second is sent forward by similar
commands, and so on at irregular distances until the whole line has
advanced. Upon arriving at the indicated position, the first line is
halted. Successive lines, upon arriving, halt on line with the first
and the men take their proper places in the skirmish line.

Ordinarily each line is made up of one man per squad and the men of a
squad are sent forward in order from right to left as deployed. The
first line is led by the platoon leader of the right platoon, the
second by the guide of the right platoon, and so on in order from
right to left.

The advance is conducted in quick time unless conditions demand a
faster gait.

The company having arrived at the indicated position, a further
advance by the same means may be advisable.

219. The advance in a succession of thin lines is used to cross a wide
stretch swept, or likely to be swept, by artillery fire or heavy,
long-range rifle fire which can not profitably be returned. Its
purpose is the building up of a strong skirmish line preparatory to
engaging in a fire fight. This method of advancing results in serious
(though temporary) loss of control over the company. Its advantage
lies in the fact that it offers a less definite target, hence is less
likely to draw fire.

220. The above are suggestions. Other and better formations may be
devised to fit particular cases. The best formation is the one which
advances the line farthest with the least loss of men, time, and
control.


_The Fire Attack._

221. The principles governing the advance of the firing line in attack
are considered in the School of the Battalion.

When it becomes impracticable for the company to advance as a whole by
ordinary means, it advances by rushes.

222. Being in skirmish line: 1. _By platoon_ (_two platoons, squad,
four men_, etc.), _from the right (left)_, 2. _RUSH_.

The platoon leader on the indicated flank carefully arranges the
details for a prompt and vigorous execution of the rush and puts it
into effect as soon as practicable. If necessary, he designates the
leader for the indicated fraction. When about to rush, he causes the
men of the fraction to cease firing and to hold themselves flat, but
in readiness to spring forward instantly. The leader of the rush (at
the signal of the platoon leader, if the latter be not the leader of
the rush) commands: _Follow me_, and, running at top speed, leads the
fraction to the new line, where he halts it and causes it to open
fire. The leader of the rush selects the new line if it has not been
previously designated.

The first fraction having established itself on the new line, the next
like fraction is sent forward by its platoon leader, without further
command of the captain, and so on, successively, until the entire
company is on the line established by the first rush.

If more than one platoon is to join in one rush, the junior platoon
leader conforms to the action of the senior.

A part of the line having advanced, the captain may increase or
decrease the size of the fractions to complete the movement.

223. When the company forms a part of the firing line, the rush of the
company as a whole is conducted by the captain, as described for a
platoon in the preceding paragraph. The captain leads the rush;
platoon leaders lead their respective platoons; platoon guides follow
the line to insure prompt and orderly execution of the advance.

224. When the foregoing method of rushing, by running, becomes
impracticable, any method of advance that _brings the attack closer to
the enemy_, such as crawling, should be employed.

For regulations governing the charge, see paragraphs 318 and 319.


_The Company in Support._

225. To enable it to follow or reach the firing line, the support
adopts suitable formations, following the principles explained in
paragraphs 212-218.

The support should be kept assembled as long as practicable. If after
deploying a favorable opportunity arises to hold it for some time in
close formation, it should be reassembled. It is redeployed when
necessary.

226. The movements of the support as a whole and the dispatch of
reenforcements from it to the firing line are controlled by the major.

A reenforcement of less than one platoon has little influence and will
be avoided whenever practicable.

The captain of a company in support is constantly on the alert for the
major's signals or commands.

227. A reenforcement sent to the firing line joins it deployed as
skirmishers. The leader of the reenforcement places it in an interval
in the line, if one exists, and commands it thereafter as a unit. If
no such suitable interval exists, the reenforcement is advanced with
increased intervals between skirmishers; each man occupies the nearest
interval in the firing line, and each then obeys the orders of the
nearest squad leader and platoon leader.

228. A reenforcement joins the firing line as quickly as possible
without exhausting the men.

229. The original platoon division of the companies in the firing line
should be maintained and should not be broken up by the mingling of
reenforcements.

Upon joining the firing line, officers and sergeants accompanying a
reenforcement take over the duties of others of like grade who have
been disabled, or distribute themselves so as best to exercise their
normal functions. Conditions will vary and no rules can be prescribed.
It is essential that all assist in mastering the increasing
difficulties of control.


_The Company Acting Alone._

230. In general, the company, when acting alone, is employed according
to the principles applicable to the battalion acting alone; the
captain employs platoons as the major employs companies, making due
allowance for the difference in strength.

The support may be smaller in proportion or may be dispensed with.

231. The company must be well protected against surprise. Combat
patrols on the flanks are specially important. Each leader of a flank
platoon details a man to watch for the signals of the patrol or
patrols on his flank.


FIRE.

232. Ordinarily pieces are loaded and extra ammunition is issued
before the company deploys for combat.

In close order the company executes the firings at the command of the
captain, who posts himself in rear of the center of the company.

Usually the firings in close order consist of saluting volleys only.

233. When the company is deployed, the men execute the firings at the
command of their platoon leaders; the latter give such commands as are
necessary to carry out the captain's directions, and, from time to
time, add such further commands as are necessary to continue, correct,
and control the fire ordered.

234. The voice is generally inadequate for giving commands during fire
and must be replaced by signals of such character that proper fire
direction and control is assured. To attract attention, signals must
usually be preceded by the whistle signal (short blast). A fraction of
the firing line about to rush should, if practicable, avoid using the
long blast signal as an aid to _cease firing_. Officers and men behind
the firing line can not ordinarily move freely along the line, but
must depend on mutual watchfulness and the proper use of the
prescribed signals. All should post themselves so as to see their
immediate superiors and subordinates.

235. The musicians assist the captain by observing the enemy, the
target, and the fire effect, by transmitting commands or signals, and
by watching for signals.

236. Firing with blank cartridges at an _outlined_ or _represented_
enemy at distances less than 100 yards is prohibited.

237. The effect of fire and the influence of the ground in relation
thereto, and the individual and collective instruction in
marksmanship, are treated in the Small-Arms Firing Manual.


_Ranges._

238. For convenience of reference ranges are classified as follows:

     0 to 600 yards, close range.
     600 to 1,200 yards, effective range.
     1,200 to 2,000 yards, long range.
     2,000 yards and over, distant range.

239. The distance to the target must be determined as accurately as
possible and the sights set accordingly. Aside from training and
morale, this is the most important single factor in securing effective
fire at the longer ranges.

240. Except in a deliberately prepared defensive position, the most
accurate and only practicable method of determining the range will
generally be to take the mean of several estimates.

Five or six officers or men, selected from the most accurate
estimators in the company, are designated as _range estimators_ and
are specially trained in estimating distances.

Whenever necessary and practicable, the captain assembles the range
estimators, points out the target to them, and adopts the mean of
their estimates. The range estimators then take their customary posts.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)


_Classes of Firing._

241. _Volley firing_ has limited application. In defense it may be
used in the early stages of the action if the enemy presents a large,
compact target. It may be used by troops executing _fire of position_.
When the ground near the target is such that the strike of bullets can
be seen from the firing line, _ranging volleys_ may be used to correct
the sight setting.

In combat, volley firing is executed habitually by platoon.

242. _Fire at will_ is the class of fire normally employed in attack
or defense.

243. _Clip fire_ has limited application. It is principally used: 1.
In the early stages of combat, to steady the men by habituating them
to brief pauses in firing. 2. To produce a short burst of fire.


_The Target._

244. Ordinarily the major will assign to the company an objective in
attack or sector in defense; the company's target will lie within the
limits so assigned. In the choice of target, tactical considerations
are paramount; the nearest hostile troops within the objective or
sector will thus be the usual target. This will ordinarily be the
hostile firing line; troops in rear are ordinarily proper targets for
artillery, machine guns, or, at times, infantry employing fire of
position.

Change of target should not be made without excellent reasons
therefor, such as the sudden appearance of hostile troops under
conditions which make them more to be feared than the troops
comprising the former target.

245. The distribution of fire over the entire target is of special
importance.

The captain allots a part of the target to each platoon, or each
platoon leader takes as his target that part which corresponds to his
position in the company. Men are so instructed that each fires on
that part of the target which is directly opposite him.

246. All parts of the target are equally important. Care must be
exercised that the men do not slight its less visible parts. A section
of the target not covered by fire represents a number of the enemy
permitted to fire coolly and effectively.

247. If the target can not be seen with the naked eye, platoon leaders
select an object in front of or behind it, designate this as the
_aiming target_, and direct a sight setting which will carry the cone
of fire into the target.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)


_Fire Direction._

248. When the company is large enough to be divided into platoons, it
is impracticable for the captain to command it directly in combat. His
efficiency in managing the firing line is measured by his ability to
enforce his will through the platoon leaders. Having indicated clearly
what he desires them to do, he avoids interfering except to correct
serious errors or omissions.

249. The captain _directs_ the fire of the company or of designated
platoons. He designates the target, and, when practicable, allots a
part of the target to each platoon. Before beginning the fire action
he determines the range, announces the sight setting, and indicates
the class of fire to be employed and the time to open fire.
Thereafter, he observes the fire effect, corrects material errors in
sight setting, prevents exhaustion of the ammunition supply, and
causes the distribution of such extra ammunition as may be received
from the rear.


_Fire Control._

250. In combat the platoon is the _fire unit_. From 20 to 35 rifles
are as many as one leader can control effectively.

251. Each platoon leader puts into execution the commands or
directions of the captain, having first taken such precautions to
insure correct sight setting and clear description of the target or
aiming target as the situation permits or requires; thereafter, he
gives such additional commands or directions as are necessary to exact
compliance with the captain's will. He corrects the sight setting when
necessary. He designates an aiming target when the target can not be
seen with the naked eye.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)

252. In general, _platoon leaders_ observe the target and the effect
of their fire and are on the alert for the captain's commands or
signals; they observe and regulate the rate of fire. The _platoon
guides_ watch the firing line and check every breach of fire
discipline. _Squad leaders_ transmit commands and signals when
necessary, observe the conduct of their squads and abate excitement,
assist in enforcing fire discipline and participate in the firing.

253. The best troops are those that submit longest to fire control.
Loss of control is an evil which robs success of its greatest results.
To avoid or delay such loss should be the constant aim of all.

Fire control implies the ability to stop firing, change the sight
setting and target, and resume a well directed fire.


_Fire Discipline._

254. "Fire discipline implies, besides a habit of obedience, a control
of the rifle by the soldier, the result of training, which will enable
him in action to make hits instead of misses. It embraces taking
advantage of the ground; care in setting the sight and delivery of
fire; constant attention to the orders of the leaders, and careful
observation of the enemy; an increase of fire when the target is
favorable, and a cessation of fire when the enemy disappears; economy
of ammunition." (Small-Arms Firing Manual.)

In combat, shots which graze the enemy's trench or position and thus
reduce the effectiveness of his fire have the approximate value of
hits; such shots only, or actual hits, contribute toward fire
superiority.

Fire discipline implies that, in a firing line without leaders, each
man retains his presence of mind and directs effective fire upon the
proper target.

255. To create a correct appreciation of the requirements of fire
discipline, men are taught that the rate of fire should be as rapid as
is consistent with accurate aiming; that the rate will depend upon the
visibility, proximity, and size of the target; and that the proper
rate will ordinarily suggest itself to each trained man, usually
rendering cautions or commands unnecessary.

In attack the highest rate of fire is employed at the halt preceding
the assault, and in pursuing fire.

256. In an advance by rushes, leaders of troops in firing positions
are responsible for the delivery of heavy fire to cover the advance of
each rushing fraction. Troops are trained to change slightly the
direction of fire so as not to endanger the flanks of advanced
portions of the firing line.

257. In defense, when the target disappears behind cover, platoon
leaders suspend fire, prepare their platoons to fire upon the point
where it is expected to reappear, and greet its reappearance instantly
with vigorous fire.



SCHOOL OF THE BATTALION.


258. The battalion being purely a tactical unit, the major's duties
are primarily those of an instructor in drill and tactics and of a
tactical commander. He is responsible for the theoretical and
practical training of the battalion. He supervises the training of the
companies of the battalion with a view to insuring the thoroughness
and uniformity of their instruction.

In the instruction of the battalion as a whole, his efforts will be
directed chiefly to the development of tactical efficiency, devoting
only such time to the mechanism of drill and to the ceremonies as may
be necessary in order to insure precision, smartness, and proper
control.

259. The movements explained herein are on the basis of a battalion of
four companies; they may be executed by a battalion of two or more
companies, not exceeding six.

260. The companies are generally arranged from right to left according
to the rank of the captains present at the formation. The arrangement
of the companies may be varied by the major or higher commander.

After the battalion is formed, no cognizance is taken of the relative
order of the companies.

261. In whatever direction the battalion faces, the companies are
designated numerically from right to left in line, and from head to
rear in column, _first company_, _second company_, etc.

The terms _right_ and _left_ apply to actual right and left as the
line faces; if the about by squads be executed when in line, the right
company becomes the left company and the right center becomes the left
center company.

The designation center company indicates the right center or the
actual center company according as the number of companies is even or
odd.

262. The band and other special units, when attached to the battalion,
take the same post with respect to it as if it were the nearest
battalion shown in Plate IV.


CLOSE ORDER.

_Rules._

[Illustration: Plate III. THE BATTALION.]

263. Captains repeat such preparatory commands as are to be
immediately executed by their companies, as _forward_, _squads right_,
etc.; the men execute the commands _march_, _halt_, etc., if applying
to their companies, when given by the major. In movements executed in
route step or at ease the captains repeat the command of execution, if
necessary. Captains do not repeat the major's commands in executing
the manual of arms, nor those commands which are not essential to the
execution of a movement by their companies, as _column of squads_,
_first company_, _squads right_, etc.

In giving commands or cautions captains may prefix the proper letter
designations of their companies, as _A Company, HALT_; _B Company,
squads right_, etc.

264. At the command _guide center (right_ or _left)_, captains
command: _Guide right_ or _left_, according to the positions of their
companies. _Guide center_ designates the left guide of the center
company.

265. When the companies are to be dressed, captains place themselves
on that flank toward which the dress is to be made, as follows:

The battalion in line: Beside the guide (or the flank file of the
front rank, if the guide is not in line) and facing to the front.

The battalion in column of companies: Two paces from the guide, in
prolongation of and facing down the line.

Each captain, after dressing his company, commands: _FRONT_, and takes
his post.

The battalion being in line and unless otherwise prescribed, at the
captain's command _dress_, or at the command _halt_, when it is
prescribed that the company shall dress, the guide on the flank away
from the point of rest, with his piece at right shoulder, dresses
promptly on the captain and the companies beyond. During the dress he
moves, if necessary, to the right and left only; the captain dresses
the company on the line thus established. The guide takes the position
of order arms at the command _front_. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

266. The battalion executes the _halt_, _rests_, _facings_, _steps_
and _marchings_, _manual of arms_, resumes _attention_, _kneels_,
_lies down_, _rises_, _stacks_ and _takes arms_, as explained in the
Schools of the Soldier and Squad, substituting in the commands
_battalion_ for _squad_.

The battalion executes _squads right (left)_, _squads right (left)
about_, _route step_ and _at ease_, and _obliques_ and resumes the
_direct march_, as explained in the School of the Company.

267. The battalion in column of platoons, squads, twos, or files
changes direction; in column of squads forms column of twos or files
and re-forms columns of twos or squads, as explained in the School of
the Company.

268. When the formation admits of the simultaneous execution by
companies or platoons of movements in the School of the Company the
major may cause such movement to be executed by prefixing, when
necessary, _companies (platoons)_ to the commands prescribed therein:
as 1. _Companies, right front into line_, 2. _MARCH_. To complete such
simultaneous movements, the commands _halt_ or _march_, if
prescribed, are given by the major. The command _front_, when
prescribed, is given by the captains.

269. The battalion as a unit executes the loadings and firings only in
firing saluting volleys. The commands are as for the company,
substituting _battalion_ for _company_. At the first command for
loading, captains take post in rear of the center of their respective
companies. At the conclusion of the firing, the captains resume their
posts in line.

On other occasions, when firing in close order is necessary, it is
executed by company or other subdivision under instructions from the
major.


_To Form the Battalion._

270. For purposes other than ceremonies: The battalion is formed in
column of squads. The companies having been formed, the adjutant posts
himself so as to be facing the column, when formed, and 6 paces in
front of the place to be occupied by the leading guide of the
battalion; he draws saber; _adjutant's call_ is sounded or the
adjutant signals _assemble_.

The companies are formed, at attention, in column of squads in their
proper order. Each captain, after halting his company, salutes the
adjutant; the adjutant returns the salute and, when the last captain
has saluted, faces the major and reports: _Sir, the battalion is
formed_. He then joins the major.

271. For ceremonies or when directed: The battalion is formed in line.

The companies having been formed, the adjutant posts himself so as to
be 6 paces to the right of the right company when line is formed, and
faces in the direction in which the line is to extend. He draws saber;
_adjutant's call_ is sounded; the band plays if present.

The right company is conducted by its captain so as to arrive from the
rear, parallel to the line; its right and left guides precede it on
the line by about 20 paces, taking post facing to the right at order
arms, so that their elbows will be against the breasts of the right
and left files of their company when it is dressed. The guides of the
other companies successively prolong the line to the left in like
manner and the companies approach their respective places in line as
explained for the right company. The adjutant, from his post, causes
the guides to cover.

When about 1 pace in rear of the line, each company is halted and
dressed to the right against the arms of the guides.

The band, arriving from the rear, takes its place in line when the
right company is halted; it ceases playing when the left company has
halted.

When the guides of the left company have been posted, the adjutant,
moving by the shortest route, takes post facing the battalion midway
between the post of the major and the center of the battalion.

The major, staff, noncommissioned staff, and orderlies take their
posts.

When all parts of the line have been dressed, and officers and others
have reached their posts, the adjutant commands: 1. _Guides_, 2.
_POSTS_, 3. _Present_, 4. _ARMS_. At the second command guides take
their places in the line. The adjutant then turns about and reports to
the major: _Sir, the battalion is formed_; the major directs the
adjutant: _Take your post, Sir_; draws saber and brings the battalion
to the order. The adjutant takes his post, passing to the right of the
major.


_To Dismiss the Battalion._

272. _DISMISS YOUR COMPANIES._

Staff and noncommissioned staff officers fall out; each captain
marches his company off and dismisses it.


_To Rectify the Alignment._

273. Being in line at a halt, to align the battalion: 1. _Center
(right_ or _left)_, 2. _DRESS_.

The captains dress their companies successively toward the center
(right or left) guide of the battalion, each as soon as the captain
next toward the indicated guide commands: _Front_. The captains of the
center companies (if the dress is _center_) dress them without waiting
for each other.

274. To give the battalion a new alignment: 1. _Guides center (right_
or _left) company on the line_, 2. _Guides on the line_, 3. _Center
(right_ or _left)_, 4. _DRESS_, 5. _Guides_, 6. _POSTS_.

At the first command, the designated guides place themselves on the
line (par. 271) facing the center (right or left). The major
establishes them in the direction he wishes to give the battalion.

At the second command, the guides of the other companies take posts,
facing the center (right or left), so as to prolong the line.

At the command _dress_, each captain dresses his company to the flank
toward which the guides of his company face.

At the command _posts_, given when all companies have completed the
dress, the guides return to their posts.


_To Rectify the Column._

275. Being in column of companies, or in close column, at a halt, if
the guides do not cover or have not their proper distances, and it is
desired to correct them, the major commands: 1. _Right (left)_, 2.
_DRESS_.

Captains of companies in rear of the first place their right guides so
as to cover at the proper distance; each captain aligns his company to
the right and commands: _FRONT_.


_On Right (Left) into Line._

276. Being in column of squads or companies: 1. _On right (left) into
line_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Battalion_, 4. _HALT_.

Being in column of squads: At the first command, the captain of the
leading company commands: _Squads right_. If at a halt each captain in
rear commands: _Forward_. At the second command the leading company
marches in line to the right; the companies in rear continue to march
to the front and form successively on the left, each, when opposite
its place, being marched in line to the right.

The fourth command is given when the first company has advanced the
desired distance in the new direction; it halts and is dressed to the
right by its captain; the others complete the movement, each being
halted 1 pace in rear of the line established by the first company,
and then dressed to the right.

Being in column of companies: At the first command, the captain of the
first company commands: _Right turn_. If at a halt, each captain in
rear commands: _Forward_. Each of the captains in rear of the leading
company gives the command: 1. _Right turn_, in time to add, 2.
_MARCH_, when his company arrives opposite the right of its place in
line.

The fourth command is given and the movement completed as explained
above.

Whether executed from column of squads or column of companies, each
captain places himself so as to march beside the right guide after his
company forms line or changes direction to the right.

If executed in double time, the leading company marches in double time
until halted.


_Front into Line._

277. Being in column of squads or companies: 1. _Right (Left) front
into line_, 2. _MARCH_.

Being in column of squads: At the first command, the captain of the
leading company commands: _Column right_; the captains of the
companies in rear, _column half right_. At the second command the
leading company executes column right, and, as the last squad
completes the change of direction, is formed in line to the left,
halted, and dressed to the left. Each of the companies in rear is
conducted by the most convenient route to the rear of the right of the
preceding company, thence to the right, parallel to and 1 pace in rear
of the new line; when opposite its place, it is formed in line to the
left, halted, and dressed to the left.

Being in column of companies: If marching, the captain of the leading
company gives the necessary commands to halt his company at the second
command; if at a halt, the leading company stands fast. At the first
command, the captain of each company in rear commands: _Squads right_,
or _Right by squads_, and after the second command conducts his
company by the most convenient route to its place in line, as
described above.

Whether executed from column of squads or column of companies, each
captain halts when opposite or at the point where the left of his
company is to rest.


_To Form Column of Companies Successively to the Right or Left._

278. Being in column of squads: 1. _Column of companies, first
company, squads right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

The leading company executes _squads right_ and moves forward. The
other companies move forward in column of squads and successively
march in line to the right on the same ground as the leading company
and in such manner that the guide covers the guide of the preceding
company.


_To Form Column of Squads Successively to the Right or Left._

279. Being in column of companies: 1. _Column of squads, first
company, squads right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

The leading company executes _squads right_ and moves forward. The
other companies move forward in column of companies and successively
march in column of squads to the right on the same ground as the
leading company.


_To Change Direction._

280. Being in column of companies or close column: 1. _Column right
(left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

The captain of the first company commands: _Right turn_.

The leading company turns to the right on moving pivot, the captain
adding: 1. _Forward_, 2. _MARCH_, upon its completion.

The other companies march squarely up to the turning point; each
changes direction by the same commands and means as the first and in
such manner that the guide covers the guide of the preceding company.

281. Being in line of companies or close line: 1. _Battalion right
(left)_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Battalion_, 4. _HALT_.

The right company changes direction to the right; the other companies
are conducted by the shortest line to their places abreast of the
first.

The fourth command is given when the right company has advanced the
desired distance in the new direction; that company halts; the others
halt successively upon arriving on the line.

282. Being in column of squads, the battalion changes direction by the
same commands and in the manner prescribed for the company.


_Mass Formations._

282 1-2. Being in column of squads, to form a line of columns of
companies or company subdivisions, facing in any desired direction, at
any desired interval, on the right or left of the leading element of
the battalion: 1. _Line of companies (half companies, platoons), at
(so many) paces, guide right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_, 3. _Battalion_, 4.
_HALT_.

The leading company (or subdivision) marches in the direction
previously indicated by the major until the command halt is given and
then halts. Each succeeding company (or subdivision) marches by the
most direct route to its place at the prescribed interval on the left
(right) of the next preceding company (or subdivision), halting when
it is abreast of the leading element of the battalion.

If the battalion be in any formation other than column of squads, the
major indicates the desired direction to the leading element. The
entire command forms column of squads and executes the movement in
conformity with the principles indicated above. (_C.I.D.R., No. 19._)

283. Being in line, line of companies, or column of companies: 1.
_Close on first (fourth) company_, 2. _MARCH_.

If at a halt, the indicated company stands fast; if marching, it is
halted; each of the other companies is conducted toward it and is
halted in proper order in close column.

If the battalion is in line, companies form successively in rear of
the indicated company; if in column of squads, companies in rear of
the leading company form on the left of it.

In close column formed from line on the first company, the left guides
cover; formed on the fourth company, right guides cover. If formed on
the leading company, the guide remains as before the formation. In
close line, the guides are halted abreast of the guide of the leading
company.

The battalion in column closes on the leading company only.
(_C.I.D.R., No. 19._)


_To Extend the Mass._

284. Being in close column or in close line: 1. _Extend on first
(fourth) company_, 2. _MARCH_.

Being in close line: If at a halt, the indicated company stands fast;
if marching, it halts; each of the other companies is conducted away
from the indicated company and is halted in its proper order in line
of companies.

Being in close column, the extension is made on the fourth company
only. If marching, the leading company continues to march; companies
in rear are halted and successively resume the march in time to follow
at full distance. If at halt, the leading company marches; companies
in rear successively march in time to follow at full distance.

Close column is not extended in double time.

285. Being in close column: 1. _Right (left) front into line_, 2.
_MARCH_. Executed as from column of companies.

286. Being in close column: 1. _Column of squads, first (fourth)
company, squads right (left)_, 2. _MARCH_.

The designated company marches in column of squads to the right. Each
of the other companies executes the same movement in time to follow
the preceding company in column.

287. Being in close line: 1. _Column of squads, first (fourth)
company, forward_, 2. _MARCH_.

The designated company moves forward. The other companies (halting if
in march) successively take up the march and follow in column.


_Route Step and At Ease._

288. The battalion marches in _route step_ and _at ease_ as prescribed
in the School of the Company. When marching in column of companies or
platoons, the guides maintain the trace and distance.

In route marches the major marches at the head of the column; when
necessary, the file closers may be directed to march at the head and
rear of their companies.


_Assembly._

289. The battalion being wholly or partially deployed, or the
companies being separated: 1. _Assemble_, 2. _MARCH_.

The major places himself opposite to or designates the element or
point on which the battalion is to assemble. Companies are assembled
and marched to the indicated point. As the companies arrive the major
or adjutant indicates the formation to be taken.


COMBAT PRINCIPLES.

_Orders._

290. The following references to orders are applicable to attack or
defense.

291. In extended order, the company is the largest unit to execute
movements by prescribed commands or means. The major, assembling his
captains if practicable, directs the disposition of the battalion by
means of _tactical orders_. He controls its subsequent movements by
such _orders_ or _commands_ as are suitable to the occasion.

292. In every disposition of the battalion for combat the major's
order should give subordinates sufficient information of the enemy, of
the position of supporting and neighboring troops, and of the object
sought to enable them to conform intelligently to the general plan.

The order should then designate the companies which are to constitute
the _firing line_ and those which are to constitute the _support_. In
attack, it should designate the direction or the objective, the order
and front of the companies on the firing line, and should designate
the right or left company as base company. In defense, it should
describe the front of each company and, if necessary, the sector to be
observed by each.

293. When the battalion is operating alone, the major provides for the
reconnaissance and protection of his flanks; if part of a larger
force, the major makes similar provisions, when necessary, without
orders from higher authority, unless such authority has specifically
directed other suitable reconnaissance and protection.

294. When the battalion is deployed upon the initiative of the major,
he will indicate whether extra ammunition shall be issued; if deployed
in pursuance of orders of higher authority, the major will cause the
issue of extra ammunition, unless such authority has given directions
to the contrary.


_Deployment._

295. The following principles of deployment are applicable to attack
or defense.

296. A premature deployment involves a long, disorganizing and
fatiguing advance of the skirmish line, and should be avoided. A
greater evil is to be caught by heavy fire when in dense column or
other close order formation; hence advantage should be taken of cover
in order to retain the battalion in close order formation until
exposure to heavy hostile fire may reasonably be anticipated.

297. The major regulates the depth of the deployment and the extent
and density of the firing line, subject to such restrictions as a
senior may have imposed.

Companies or designated subdivisions and detachments are conducted by
their commanders in such manner as best to accomplish the mission
assigned to them under the major's orders. Companies designated for
the firing line march independently to the place of deployment, form
skirmish line, and take up the advance. They conform, in general, to
the base company.

298. The commander of a battalion, whether it is operating alone or as
part of a larger force, should hold a part of his command out of the
firing line. By the judicious use of this force the major can exert an
influence not otherwise possible over his firing line and can control,
within reasonable limits, an action once begun. So if his battalion be
assigned to the _firing line_ the major will cause one, two, or three
companies to be deployed on the firing line, retaining the remaining
companies or company as a _support_ for that firing line. The division
of the battalion into firing line and support will depend upon the
front to be covered and the nature and anticipated severity of the
action.

299. If the battalion be part of a larger command, the number of
companies in the firing line will generally be determinable from the
regimental commander's order; the remainder constitutes the support.
If the battalion is acting alone, the support must be strong enough to
maintain the original fire power of the firing line, to protect the
flanks, and to perform the functions of a reserve, whatever be the
issue of the action. See paragraph 346.

300. If the battalion is operating alone, the support may, according
to circumstances, be held in one or two bodies and placed behind the
center, or one or both flanks of the firing line, or echeloned beyond
a flank. If the battalion is part of a larger force, the support is
generally held in one body.

301. The distance between the firing line and the supporting group or
groups will vary between wide limits; it should be as short as the
necessity for protection from heavy losses will permit. When cover is
available, the support should be as close as 50 to 100 yards; when
such cover is not available, it should not be closer than 300 yards.
It may be as far as 500 yards in rear if good cover is there
obtainable and is not obtainable at a lesser distance.

302. In exceptional cases, as in a meeting engagement, it may be
necessary to place an entire battalion or regiment in the firing line
at the initial deployment, the support being furnished by other
troops. Such deployment causes the early mingling of the larger units,
thus rendering leadership and control extremely difficult. The
necessity for such deployment will increase with the inefficiency of
the commander and of the service of information.


_Fire._

303. Fire direction and fire control are functions of company and
platoon commanders. The major makes the primary apportionment of the
target--in defense, by assigning sectors of fire; in attack, by
assigning the objective. In the latter case each company in the firing
line takes as its target that part of the general objective which lies
in its front.

304. The major should indicate the point or time at which the fire
fight is to open. He may do this in his order for deployment or he may
follow the firing line close enough to do so at the proper time. If it
be impracticable for him to do either, the senior officer with the
firing line, in each battalion, selects the time for opening fire.


_Attack._

305. The battalion is the _attack unit_, whether operating alone or as
part of a larger unit.

306. If his battalion be one of several in the firing line, the major,
in executing his part of the attack, pushes his battalion forward as
vigorously as possible within the front, or section, assigned to it.
The great degree of independence allowed to him as to details demands,
in turn, the exercise of good judgment on his part. Better leadership,
better troops, and more favorable terrain enable one battalion to
advance more rapidly in attack than another less fortunate, and such a
battalion will insure the further advance of the others. The leading
battalion should not, however, become isolated; isolation may lead to
its destruction.

307. The deployment having been made, the firing line advances without
firing. The predominant idea must be to close with the enemy as soon
as possible without ruinous losses. The limited supply of ammunition
and the uncertainty of resupply, the necessity for securing fire
superiority in order to advance within the shorter ranges, and the
impossibility of accomplishing this at ineffective ranges, make it
imperative that fire be not opened as long as the advance can be
continued without demoralizing losses. The attack which halts to open
fire at extreme range (over 1,200 yards) is not likely ever to reach
its destination. Every effort should be made, by using cover or
inconspicuous formations, or by advancing the firing line as a whole,
to arrive within 800 yards of the enemy before opening fire.

308. Except when the enemy's artillery is able to effect an unusual
concentration of fire, its fire upon deployed infantry causes losses
which are unimportant when compared with those inflicted by his
infantry; hence the attacking infantry should proceed to a position as
described above, and from which an effective fire can be directed
against the hostile infantry with a view to obtaining fire
superiority. The effectiveness of the enemy's fire must be reduced so
as to permit further advance. The more effective the fire to which the
enemy is subjected the less effective will be his fire.

309. Occasionally the fire of adjacent battalions, or of infantry
employing fire of position, or of supporting artillery, will permit
the further advance of the entire firing line from this point, but it
will generally be necessary to advance by rushes of fractions of the
line.

The fraction making the rush should be as large as the hostile fire
and the necessity for maintaining fire superiority will permit.
Depending upon circumstances, the strength of the fraction may vary
from a company to a few men.

The advance is made as rapidly as possible without losing fire
superiority. The smaller the fraction which rushes, the greater the
number of rifles which continue to fire upon the enemy. On the other
hand, the smaller the fraction which rushes the slower will be the
progress of the attack.

310. Enough rifles must continue in action to insure the success of
each rush. Frequently the successive advances of the firing line must
be effected by rushes of fractions of decreased size; that is,
advances by rushes may first be made by company, later by half company
or platoon, and finally by squads or files; but no subsequent
opportunity to _increase_ the rate of advance, such as better cover or
a decrease of the hostile fire, should be overlooked.

311. Whenever possible, the rush is begun by a flank fraction of the
firing line. In the absence of express directions from the major, each
captain of a flank company determines when an advance by rushes shall
be attempted. A flank company which inaugurates an advance by rushes
becomes the base company, if not already the base. An advance by
rushes having been inaugurated on one flank, the remainder of the
firing line conforms; fractions rush successively from that flank and
halt on the line established by the initial rush.

The fractions need not be uniform in size; each captain indicates how
his company shall rush, having due regard to the ground and the state
of the fire fight.

312. A fraction about to rush is sent forward when the remainder of
the line is firing vigorously; otherwise the chief advantage of this
method of advancing is lost.

The length of the rush will vary from 30 to 80 yards, depending upon
the existence of cover, positions for firing, and the hostile fire.

313. When the entire firing line of the battalion has advanced to the
new line, fresh opportunities to advance are sought as before.

314. Two identical situations will never confront the battalion; hence
at drill it is prohibited to arrange the details of an advance before
the preceding one has been concluded, or to employ a fixed or
prearranged method of advancing by rushes.

315. The major posts himself so as best to direct the reenforcing of
the firing line from the support. When all or nearly all of the
support has been absorbed by the firing line, he joins, and takes full
charge of, the latter.

316. The reenforcing of the firing line by driblets of a squad or a
few men has no appreciable effect. The firing line requires either no
reenforcement or a strong one. Generally one or two platoons will be
sent forward under cover of a heavy fire of the firing line.

317. To facilitate control and to provide intervals in which
reenforcements may be placed, the companies in the firing line should
be kept closed in on their centers as they become depleted by
casualties during the advance.

When this is impracticable, reenforcements must mingle with and
thicken the firing line. In battle the latter method will be the rule
rather than the exception, and to familiarize the men with such
conditions the combat exercises of the battalion should include both
methods of reenforcing. Occasionally, to provide the necessary
intervals for reenforcing by either of these methods, the firing line
should be thinned by causing men to drop out and simulate losses
during the various advances. Under ordinary conditions the depletion
of the firing line for this purpose will be from one-fifth to one-half
of its strength.

318. The major or senior officer in the firing line determines when
bayonets shall be fixed and gives the proper command or signal. It is
repeated by all parts of the firing line. Each man who was in the
front rank prior to deployment, as soon as he recognizes the command
or signal, suspends firing, quickly fixes his bayonet, and immediately
resumes firing; after which the other men suspend firing, fix
bayonets, and immediately resume firing. The support also fixes
bayonets. The concerted fixing of the bayonet by the firing line at
drill does not simulate battle conditions and should not be required.
It is essential that there be no marked pause in the firing. Bayonets
will be fixed generally before or during the last, or second last,
advance preceding the charge.

319. Subject to orders from higher authority, the major determines the
point from which the charge is to be made. The firing line having
arrived at that point and being in readiness, the major causes the
_charge_ to be sounded. The signal is repeated by the musicians of all
parts of the line. The company officers lead the charge. The
skirmishers spring forward shouting, run with bayonets at charge, and
close with the enemy.

The further conduct of the charging troops will depend upon
circumstances; they may halt and engage in bayonet combat or in
pursuing fire; they may advance a short distance to obtain a field of
fire or to drive the enemy from the vicinity; they may assemble or
reorganize, etc. If the enemy vacates his position every effort should
be made to open fire at once on the retreating mass, reorganization of
the attacking troops being of secondary importance to the infliction
of further losses upon the enemy and to the increase of his confusion.
In combat exercises the major will assume a situation and terminate
the assault accordingly.


_Defense._

320. In defense, as in attack, the battalion is the tactical unit best
suited to independent assignment. Defensive positions are usually
divided into sections and a battalion assigned to each.

321. The major locates such fire, communicating, and cover trenches
and obstacles as are to be constructed. He assigns companies to
construct them and details the troops to occupy them.

322. The major reenforces the firing line in accordance with the
principles applicable to, and explained in connection with, the
attack, maintaining no more rifles in the firing line than are
necessary to prevent the enemy's advance.

323. The supply of ammunition being usually ample, fire is opened as
soon as it is possible to break up the enemy's formation, stop his
advance, or inflict material loss, but this rule must be modified to
suit the ammunition supply.

324. The major causes the firing line and support to fix bayonets when
an assault by the enemy is imminent. Captains direct this to be done
if they are not in communication with the major and the measure is
deemed advisable.

Fire alone will not stop a determined, skillfully conducted attack.
The defender must have equal tenacity; if he can stay in his trench or
position and cross bayonets, he will at least have neutralized the
hostile first line, and the combat will be decided by reserves.

325. If ordered or compelled to withdraw under hostile infantry fire
or in the presence of hostile infantry, the support will be posted so
as to cover the retirement of the firing line.

326. When the battalion is operating alone, the support must be strong
and must be fed sparingly into the firing line, especially if a
counterattack is planned. Opportunities for counterattack should be
sought at all times.



THE REGIMENT.


[Illustration: Plate IV. THE REGIMENT.]

327. Normally, the regiment consists of three battalions, but these
regulations are applicable to a regiment of two or more battalions.
Special units, such as band, machine-gun company, and mounted scouts,
have special formations for their own use. Movements herein
prescribed are for the battalions; special units conform thereto
unless otherwise prescribed or directed.

328. The colonel is responsible for the theoretical instruction and
practical training of the regiment as a whole. Under his immediate
supervision the training of the units of the regiment is conducted by
their respective commanders.

329. The colonel either gives his commands or orders orally, by bugle,
or by signal, or communicates them by staff officers or orderlies.

Each major gives the appropriate commands or orders, and, in
close-order movements, causes his battalion to execute the necessary
movements at his command of execution. Each major ordinarily moves his
battalion from one formation to another, in column of squads, in the
most convenient manner, and, in the presence of the enemy, in the most
direct manner consistent with cover.

Commanders of the special units observe the same principles as to
commands and movements. They take places in the new formation as
directed by the colonel; in the absence of such directions they
conform as nearly as practicable to Plate IV, maintaining their
relative positions with respect to the flank or end of the regiment on
which they are originally posted.

330. When the regiment is formed, and during ceremonies, the
lieutenant colonel is posted 2 paces to the left of, and 1 pace less
advanced than the colonel. In movements subsequent to the formation of
the regiment and other than ceremonies, the lieutenant colonel is on
the left of the colonel.

331. In whatever formation the regiment may be, the battalions retain
their permanent administrative designations of _first_, _second_,
_third battalion_. For convenience, they may be designated, when in
line, as _right_, _center_, or _left battalion_; when in column, as
_leading_, _center_, or _rear battalion_. These designations apply to
the actual positions of the battalions in line or column.

332. Except at ceremonies, or when rendering honors, or when otherwise
directed, after the regiment is formed, the battalions march and stand
_at ease_ during subsequent movements.


CLOSE ORDER.

_To Form the Regiment._

333. Unless otherwise directed, the battalions are posted from right
to left, or from head to rear, according to the rank of the battalion
commanders present, the senior on the right or at the head. A
battalion whose major is in command of the regiment retains its place.

334. For ordinary purposes, the regiment is formed in column of squads
or in column of masses.

The adjutant informs the majors what the formation is to be. The
battalions and special units having been formed, he posts himself and
draws saber. _Adjutant's call_ is sounded, or the adjutant signals
_assemble_.

If forming in column of squads, the adjutant posts himself so as to be
facing the column when formed, and 6 paces in front of the place to be
occupied by the leading guide of the regiment; if forming in column of
masses, he posts himself so as to be facing the right guides of the
column when formed, and 6 paces in front of the place to be occupied
by the right guide of the leading company. Later, he moves so as best
to observe the formation.

The battalions are halted, at attention, in column of squads or close
column, as the case may be, successively from the front in their
proper order and places. The band takes its place when the leading
battalion has halted. Other special units take their places in turn
when the rear battalion has halted.

The majors and the commanders of the machine-gun company and mounted
scouts (or detachment) each, when his command is in place, salutes the
adjutant and commands: _At ease_; the adjutant returns the salutes.
When all have saluted and the band is in place, the adjutant rides to
the colonel, reports: _Sir, the regiment is formed_, and takes his
post. The colonel draws saber.

The formation in column of squads may be modified to the extent
demanded by circumstances. Prior to the formation the adjutant
indicates the point where the head of the column is to rest and the
direction in which it is to face: he then posts himself so as best to
observe the formation. At _adjutant's call_ or _assemble_ the leading
battalion marches to, and halts at, the indicated point. The other
battalions take positions from which they may conveniently follow in
their proper places.

335. For ceremonies, or when directed, the regiment is formed in line
or line of masses.

The adjutant posts himself so as to be 6 paces to the right of the
right or leading company of the right battalion when the regiment is
formed and faces in the direction in which the line is to extend.
_Adjutant's call_ is sounded; the band plays.

The adjutant indicates to the adjutant of the right battalion the
point of rest and the direction in which the line is to extend, and
then takes post facing the regiment midway between the post of the
colonel and the center of the regiment. Each of the other battalion
adjutants precedes his battalion to the line and marks its point of
rest.

The battalions, arriving from the rear, each in line or close column,
as the case may be, are halted on the line successively from right to
left in their proper order and places. Upon halting, each major
commands: 1. _Right_, 2. _DRESS_. The battalion adjutant assists in
aligning the battalion and then takes his post.

The band, arriving from the rear, takes its place in line when the
right battalion has halted; it ceases playing when the left battalion
has halted. The machine-gun company and the mounted scouts (or
detachment) take their places in line after the center battalion has
halted.

The colonel and those who accompany him take post.

When all parts of the line have been dressed, and officers and all
others have reached their posts, the adjutant commands: 1. _Present_,
2. _ARMS_. He then turns about and reports to the colonel: _Sir, the
regiment is formed_; the colonel directs the adjutant: _Take your
post, Sir_, draws saber and brings the regiment to the order. The
adjutant takes his post, passing to the right of the colonel.


_To Dismiss the Regiment._

336. Being in any formation: _DISMISS YOUR BATTALIONS_. Each major
marches his battalion off and dismisses it.


_Movements by the Regiment._

337. The regiment executes the _halt_, _rests_, _facings_, _steps_ and
_marchings_, _manual of arms_, resumes _attention_, _kneels_, _lies
down_, _rises_, _stacks_ and _takes arms_, as explained in the Schools
of the Soldier and Squad, substituting in the commands, when
necessary, _battalions_ for _squad_.

The regiment executes _squads right (left)_, _squads right (left)
about_, _route step_ and _at ease_, _obliques_ and resumes the direct
march as explained in the School of the Company.

The regiment in column of files, twos, squads, or platoons, changes
direction, and in column of squads forms column of twos or files and
re-forms column of twos or squads, as explained in the School of the
Company. In column of companies, it changes direction as explained in
the School of the Battalion.

338. When the formation admits of the simultaneous execution, by
battalions, companies, or platoons, of movements prescribed in the
School of the Company or Battalion, the colonel may cause such
movements to be executed by prefixing, where necessary, _battalions
(companies, platoons)_, to the commands prescribed therein.

339. The column of squads is the usual column of march; to shorten the
column, if conditions permit, a double column of squads may be used,
the companies of each battalion marching abreast in two columns.
Preliminary to an engagement, the regiment or its units will be placed
in the formation best suited to its subsequent tactical employment.

340. To assume any formation, the colonel indicates to the majors the
character of the formation desired, the order of the battalions, and
the point of rest. Each battalion is conducted by its major, and is
placed in its proper order in the formation, by the most convenient
means and route.

Having halted in a formation, no movements for the purpose of
correcting minor discrepancies in alignments, intervals, or distances
are made unless specially directed by the colonel or necessitated by
conditions of cover.

341. To correct intervals, distances, and alignments, the colonel
directs one or more of the majors to rectify their battalions. Each
major so directed causes his battalion to correct its alignment,
intervals, and distances, and places it in its proper position in the
formation.


_COMBAT PRINCIPLES._

342. The regiment is deployed by the colonel's order to the commanders
of battalions and special units. The order should give them
information of the situation and of the proposed plan of action. In
attack, the order should assign to each battalion not in reserve its
objective or line of advance. In defense, it should assign to each its
sector. In either case it should designate the troops for, and the
position of, the reserve and prescribe the employment of the machine
guns and mounted scouts.

Both in attack and defense the order may fix the front to be covered
in the deployment.

Encroachment upon the proper functions of subordinates and unnecessary
details should be studiously avoided. When the regiment deploys, the
colonel habitually places the band at the disposal of the surgeon for
employment in caring for the wounded. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

343. The regiment, when operating alone and attacking, should
undertake an enveloping attack if it does not result in overextension.

Assuming a regiment of 1,500 rifles, an extension of more than 1,000
yards between its extreme flanks when making an enveloping attack
alone is seldom justifiable; when part of a battle line, a front of
500 yards can rarely be exceeded.

344. In defense the front occupied when acting alone or posted on or
near the flank of a battle line should seldom exceed 600 yards; when
posted as an interior regiment, the front may be increased to 800
yards. The front may be somewhat longer than in the attack, since
smaller battalion supports are justifiable. When the regiment is
operating alone, however, the regimental reserve should be as strong
in the defense as in the attack unless the flanks are secure.

345. The colonel should always hold out a reserve--generally one
battalion; but when the regiment is operating alone, it is generally
advisable to hold out more at first.

346. Whereas the support held out in each battalion of the firing line
is intended to thicken the diminishing firing line at the proper times
and sometimes to lengthen it, the reserve held out in a regiment
operating alone is used for this purpose only as a last resort. Its
primary functions are: In attack, to protect the flanks, to improve
fully the advantage following a victory, or to cover defeat; in
defense, to prolong the firing line, to effect a counterattack, or to
cover withdrawal. It is the colonel's chief means of influencing an
action once begun. It should be conserved to await the proper moment
for its employment; the combat will seldom come to a successful issue
without its employment in some form.

The reserve of a regiment operating as part of a large force becomes a
local reserve. It replaces depleted supports and in attack strengthens
and protects the firing line in the charge.



THE BRIGADE.


347. The brigade does not engage in prescribed drills. It engages in
route marches and battle or other tactical exercises. These are
conducted pursuant to commands or orders formulated to suit the
conditions of the proposed movement or exercise, and, in general, in
accordance with the principles applicable to the regiment.

348. A brigade of about 4,000 rifles, as part of a general battle
line, would be deployed on a front of not more than 1,200 yards in
attack or 1,600 yards in defense.

When acting alone the distance between extreme flanks in an enveloping
attack should not exceed 2,000 yards at the time the attacking
infantry opens fire.

When acting alone, the front in defense should not exceed 1,600 yards.

These limits apply to the original deployment of the brigade for
combat and presuppose an enemy of equal or nearly equal training and
morale. The limits necessitated by the subsequent progress of the
combat can not be foreseen.

349. Units larger than the brigade are generally composed of all arms.
Combined tactics are considered in the Field Service Regulations.



PART II.--COMBAT.



INTRODUCTION.


350. Part II of these regulations treats only of the basic principles
of combat tactics as applied to infantry and to the special units,
such as machine guns and mounted scouts, which form a part of infantry
regiments and battalions.

The combat tactics of the arms combined are considered in Field
Service Regulations.

351. Modern combat demands the highest order of training, discipline,
leadership, and morale on the part of the infantry. Complicated
maneuvers are impracticable; efficient leadership and a determination
to win by simple and direct methods must be depended upon for success.

352. The duties of infantry are many and difficult. All infantry must
be fit to cope with all conditions that may arise. Modern war requires
but one kind of infantry--good infantry.

353. The infantry must take the offensive to gain decisive results.
Both sides are therefore likely to attempt it, though not necessarily
at the same time or in the same part of a long battle line.

In the local combats which make up the general battle the better
endurance, use of ground, fire efficiency, discipline, and training
will win. It is the duty of the infantry to win the local successes
which enable the commanding general to win the battle.

354. The infantry must have the tenacity to hold every advantage
gained, the individual and collective discipline and skill needed to
master the enemy's fire, the determination to close with the enemy in
attack, and to meet him with the bayonet in defense. Infantry must be
trained to bear the heaviest burdens and losses, both of combat and
march.

Good infantry can defeat an enemy greatly superior in numbers, but
lacking in training, discipline, leadership, and morale.

355. It is impossible to establish fixed forms or to give general
instructions that will cover all cases. Officers and noncommissioned
officers must be so trained that they can apply suitable means and
methods to each case as it arises. Study and practice are necessary to
acquire proper facility in this respect. Theoretical instruction can
not replace practical instruction; the former supplies correct ideas
and gives to practical work an interest, purpose, and definiteness not
otherwise obtainable.

356. After the mechanism of extended order drill has been learned with
precision in the company, every exercise should be, as far as
practicable, in the nature of a maneuver (combat exercise) against an
_imaginary_, _outlined_, or _represented_ enemy.

Company extended order drill may be conducted without reference to a
tactical situation, but a combat exercise, whatever may be the size of
the unit employed, should be conducted under an assumed tactical
situation.

357. An effective method of conducting a combat exercise is to outline
the enemy with a few men equipped with flags. The umpire or inspector
states the situation and the commander leads his troops with due
regard to the assumptions made.

Changes in the situation, the results of reconnaissance, the character
of artillery fire, etc., are made known to the commander when
necessary by the umpire or inspector, who, in order to observe and
influence the conduct of the exercise, remains in rear of the firing
line. From this position he indicates, with the aid of prearranged
signals, the character of the fire and movements of the hostile
infantry. These signals are intended for the men outlining the enemy.
These men repeat the signals; all officers and men engaged in the
exercise and in sight of the outlined enemy are thus informed of the
enemy's action and the exercise is conducted accordingly.

Assistant umpires, about one for each company in the firing line, may
assist in indicating hostile fire and movements and in observing the
conduct of the exercise.

An outlined enemy may be made to attack or defend.

Situations should be simple and natural. During or after the exercise
the umpire or inspector should call attention to any improper
movements or incorrect methods of execution. He will prohibit all
movements of troops or individuals that would be impossible if the
enemy were real. The slow progress of events to be expected on the
battle field can hardly be simulated, but the umpire or inspector will
prevent undue haste and will attempt to enforce a reasonably slow rate
of progress.

The same exercise should not be repeated over the same ground and
under the same situation. Such repetitions lead to the adoption of a
fixed mode of attack or defense and develop mere drill masters. Fixed
or prearranged systems are prohibited.



LEADERSHIP.


_General Considerations._

358. The art of leadership consists of applying sound tactical
principles to concrete cases on the battle field.

Self-reliance, initiative, aggressiveness, and a conception of
teamwork are the fundamental characteristics of successful leadership.

359. A correct grasp of the situation and a definite plan of action
form the soundest basis for a successful combat.

A good plan once adopted and put into execution should not be
abandoned unless it becomes clear that it can not succeed.
Afterthoughts are dangerous, except as they aid in the execution of
details in the original plan.

360. Combats that do not promise success or some real advantage to the
general issue should be avoided; they cause unnecessary losses, impair
the morale of one's own troops, and raise that of the enemy.

361. Complicated maneuvers are not likely to succeed in war. All plans
and the methods adopted for carrying them into effect must be simple
and direct.

362. Order and cohesion must be maintained within the units if success
is to be expected.

363. Officers must show themselves to be true leaders. They must act
in accordance with the spirit of their orders and must require of
their troops the strictest discipline on the field of battle.

364. The best results are obtained when leaders know the capacity and
traits of those whom they command; hence in making detachments units
should not be broken up, and a deployment that would cause an
intermingling of the larger units in the firing line should be
avoided.

365. Leading is difficult when troops are deployed. A high degree of
training and discipline and the use of close order formations to the
fullest extent possible are therefore required.

366. In order to lighten the severe physical strain inseparable from
infantry service in campaign, constant efforts must be made to spare
the troops unnecessary hardship and fatigue; but when necessity
arises, the limit of endurance must be exacted.

367. When officers or men belonging to fighting troops leave their
proper places to carry back, or to care for, wounded during the
progress of the action, they are guilty of skulking. This offense must
be repressed with the utmost vigor.

368. The complete equipment of the soldier is carried into action
unless the weather or the physical condition of the men renders such
measure a severe hardship. In any event, only the pack[2] will be laid
aside. The determination of this question rests with the regimental
commander. The complete equipment affords to men lying prone
considerable protection against shrapnel.

[Footnote 2: The "pack" includes blanket, poncho, and shelter tent.]

369. The post of the commander must be such as will enable him to
observe the progress of events and to communicate his orders.
Subordinate commanders, in addition, must be in position to transmit
the orders of superiors.

Before entering an action the commander should be as far to the front
as possible in order that he personally may see the situation, order
the deployment, and begin the action strictly in accordance with his
own wishes.

During the action, he must, as a rule, leave to the local leaders the
detailed conduct of the firing line, posting himself either with his
own reserve or in such a position that he is in constant, direct, and
easy communication with it.

A commander takes full and direct charge of his firing line only when
the line has absorbed his whole command.

When their troops are victorious, all commanders should press forward
in order to clinch the advantage gained and to use their reserves to
the best advantage.

370. The latitude allowed to officers is in direct proportion to the
size of their commands. Each should see to the general execution of
his task, leaving to the proper subordinates the supervision of
details, and interfering only when mistakes are made that threaten to
seriously prejudice the general plan.


_Teamwork._

371. The comparatively wide fronts of deployed units increase the
difficulties of control. Subordinates must therefore be given great
latitude in the execution of their tasks. The success of the whole
depends largely upon how well each subordinate coordinates his work
with the general plan.

A great responsibility is necessarily thrown upon subordinates, but
responsibility stimulates the right kind of an officer.

372. In a given situation it is far better _to do any intelligent
thing_ consistent with the aggressive execution of the general plan,
than to search hesitatingly for the ideal. This is the true rule of
conduct for subordinates who are required to act upon their own
initiative.

A subordinate who is reasonably sure that his intended action is such
as would be ordered by the commander, were the latter present and in
possession of the facts, has enough encouragement to go ahead
confidently. He must possess the loyalty to carry out the plans of his
superior and the keenness to recognize and to seize opportunities to
further the general plan.

373. Independence must not become license. Regardless of the number of
subordinates who are apparently supreme in their own restricted
spheres, there is but one battle and but one supreme will to which all
must conform.

Every subordinate must therefore work for the general result. He does
all in his power to insure cooperation between the subdivisions under
his command. He transmits important information to adjoining units or
to superiors in rear and, with the assistance of information received,
keeps himself and his subordinates duly posted as to the situation.

374. When circumstances render it impracticable to consult the
authority issuing an order, officers should not hesitate to vary from
such order when it is clearly based upon an incorrect view of the
situation, is impossible of execution, or has been rendered
impracticable on account of changes which have occurred since its
promulgation. In the application of this rule the responsibility for
mistakes rests upon the subordinate, but unwillingness to assume
responsibility on proper occasions is indicative of weakness.

Superiors should be careful not to censure an apparent disobedience
where the act was done in the proper spirit and to advance the general
plan.

375. When the men of two or more units intermingle in the firing line,
all officers and men submit at once to the senior. Officers and
platoon guides seek to fill vacancies caused by casualties. Each
seizes any opportunity to exercise the functions consistent with his
grade, and all assist in the maintenance of order and control.

Every lull in the action should be utilized for as complete
restoration of order in the firing line as the ground or other
conditions permit.

376. Any officer or noncommissioned officer who becomes separated from
his proper unit and can not rejoin must at once place himself and his
command at the disposal of the nearest higher commander.

Anyone having completed an assigned task must seek to rejoin his
proper command. Failing in this, he should join the nearest troops
engaged with the enemy.

377. Soldiers are taught the necessity of remaining with their
companies, but those who become detached must join the nearest company
and serve with it until the battle is over or reorganization is
ordered.


_Orders._

378. Commands are deployed and enter the combat by the orders of the
commander to the subordinate commanders.

The initial combat orders of the division are almost invariably
written; those of the brigade are generally so. The written order is
preferable and is used whenever time permits.

If time permits, subsequent orders are likewise written, either as
field orders or messages.

379. The initial combat orders of regiments and smaller units are
given verbally. For this purpose the subordinates for whom the orders
are intended are assembled, if practicable, at a place from which the
situation and plan can be explained.

Subsequent orders are verbal or in the form of verbal or written
messages. Verbal messages should not be used unless they are short and
unmistakable.

380. The initial combat order of any commander or subordinate is based
upon his definite plan for executing the task confronting him.

Whenever possible the formation of the plan is preceded by a personal
reconnaissance of the terrain and a careful consideration of all
information of the enemy.

381. The combat order gives such information of the enemy and of
neighboring or supporting friendly troops as will enable subordinates
to understand the situation.

The general plan of action is stated in brief terms, but enough of the
commander's intentions is divulged to guide the subsequent actions of
the subordinates.

Clear and concise instructions are given as to the action to be taken
in the combat by each part of the command. In this way the commander
assigns tasks, fronts, objectives, sectors or areas, etc., in
accordance with his plan. If the terms employed convey definite ideas
and leave no loopholes, the conduct of subordinates will generally be
correspondingly satisfactory.

Such miscellaneous matter relating to special troops, trains,
ammunition, and future movements of the commander is added as concerns
the combat itself.

Combat orders should prescribe communication, reconnaissance, flank
protection, etc., when some special disposition is desired or when an
omission on the part of a subordinate may reasonably be feared.

382. When issuing orders, a commander should indicate clearly _what_
is to be done by each subordinate, but not _how_ it is to be done. He
should not encroach upon the functions of a subordinate by prescribing
details of execution unless he has good reason to doubt the ability or
judgment of the subordinate, and can not substitute another.

Although general in its terms, an order must be definite and must be
the expression of a fixed decision. Ambiguity or vagueness indicates
either vacillation or the inability to formulate orders.

383. Usually the orders of a commander are intended for, and are given
to, the commanders of the next lower units, but in an emergency a
commander should not hesitate to give orders directly to any
subordinate. In such case he should promptly inform the intermediate
commander concerned.


_Communication._

384. Communication is maintained by means of staff officers,
messengers, relay systems, connecting files, visual signals,
telegraph, or telephone.

385. The signal corps troops of the division establish lines of
information from division to brigade headquarters. The further
extension of lines of information in combat by signal troops is
exceptional.

386. Each regiment, employing its own personnel, is responsible for
the maintenance of communication from the colonel back to the brigade
and forward to the battalions. For this purpose the regiment uses the
various means which may be furnished it. The staff and orderlies,
regimental and battalion, are practiced in the use of these means and
in messenger service. Orderlies carry signal flags.

387. Connection between the firing line and the major or colonel is
practically limited to the prescribed flag, arm, and bugle signals.
Other means can only be supplemental. Company musicians carry company
flags and are practiced in signaling.

388. The artillery generally communicates with the firing line by
means of its own staff officers or through an agent who accompanies
some unit in or near the front. The infantry keeps him informed as to
the situation and affords him any reasonable assistance. When the
infantry is dependent upon the artillery for fire support, perfect
coordination through this representative is of great importance.



COMBAT RECONNAISSANCE.


389. Combat reconnaissance is of vital importance and must not be
neglected. By proper preliminary reconnaissance, deployments on wrong
lines, or in a wrong direction, and surprises may generally be
prevented.

390. Troops deployed and under fire can not change front and thus they
suffer greatly when enfiladed. Troops in close order formation may
suffer heavy losses in a short time if subjected to hostile fire. In
both formations troops must be protected by proper reconnaissance and
warning.

391. The difficulty of reconnaissance increases in proportion to the
measures adopted by the enemy to screen himself.

The strength of the reconnoitering party is determined by the
character of the information desired and the nature of the hostile
screen. In exceptional cases as much as a battalion may be necessary
in order to break through the hostile screen and enable the commander
or officer in charge to reconnoiter in person.

A large reconnoitering party is conducted so as to open the way for
small patrols, to serve as a supporting force or rallying point for
them, and to receive and transmit information. Such parties maintain
signal communication with the main body if practicable.

392. Each separate column moving forward to deploy must reconnoiter to
its front and flank and keep in touch with adjoining columns. The
extent of the reconnaissance to the flank depends upon the isolation
of the columns.

393. Before an attack a reconnaissance must be made to determine the
enemy's position, the location of his flanks, the character of the
terrain, the nature of the hostile field works, etc., in order to
prevent premature deployment and the resulting fatigue and loss of
time.

It will frequently be necessary to send forward a thin skirmish line
in order to induce the enemy to open fire and reveal his position.

394. It will frequently be impossible to obtain satisfactory
information until after the action has begun. The delay that may be
warranted for the purpose of reconnaissance depends upon the nature of
the attack and the necessity for promptness. For example, in a meeting
engagement, and sometimes in a holding attack, the reconnaissance may
have to be hasty and superficial, whereas in an attack against an
enemy carefully prepared for defense there will generally be both time
and necessity for thorough reconnaissance.

395. In defense, reconnaissance must be kept up to determine the
enemy's line of advance, to ascertain his dispositions, to prevent his
reconnaissance, etc.

Patrols or parties posted to prevent hostile reconnaissance should
relieve the main body of the necessity of betraying its position by
firing on small bodies of the enemy.

396. Reconnaissance continues throughout the action.

A firing or skirmish line can take care of its front, but its flanks
are especially vulnerable to modern firearms. The moral effect of
flanking fire is as great as the physical effect. Hence, combat
patrols to give warning or covering detachments to give security are
indispensable on exposed flanks. This is equally true in attack or
defense.

397. The fact that cavalry patrols are known to be posted in a certain
direction does not relieve infantry commanders of the responsibility
for reconnaissance and security.

To be surprised by an enemy at short range is an unpardonable offense.

398. The commander of a battalion on a flank of a general line
invariably provides for the necessary reconnaissance and security on
that flank unless higher authority has specifically ordered it. In any
event, he sends out combat patrols as needed.

Where his battalion is on a flank of one section of the line and a
considerable interval lies between his battalion and the next section,
he makes similar provision.

399. Battalion commanders in the first line establish patrols to
observe and report the progress or conduct of adjoining troops when
these can not be seen.



FIRE SUPERIORITY.


_PURPOSE AND NATURE._

400. In a decisive battle success depends on gaining and maintaining
fire superiority. Every effort must be made to gain it early and then
to keep it.

Attacking troops must first gain fire superiority in order to reach
the hostile position. Over open ground attack is possible only when
the attacking force has a decided fire superiority. With such
superiority the attack is not only possible, but success is probable
and without ruinous losses.

Defending troops can prevent a charge only when they can master the
enemy's fire and inflict heavy losses upon him.

401. To obtain fire superiority it is necessary to produce a heavy
volume of accurate fire. Every increase in the effectiveness of the
fire means a corresponding decrease in the effectiveness of the
enemy's fire.

The volume and accuracy of fire will depend upon several
considerations:

(_a_) _The number of rifles employed._ On a given front the greatest
volume of fire is produced by a firing line having only sufficient
intervals between men to permit the free use of their rifles. The
maximum density of a firing line is therefore about one man per yard
of front.

(_b_) The _rate_ of fire affects its volume; an excessive rate reduces
its accuracy.

(_c_) _The character of the target_ influences both volume and
accuracy. Larger dimensions, greater visibility, and shorter range
increase the rate of fire; greater density increases the effect.

(_d_) _Training and discipline_ have an important bearing on the rate
or volume of fire, but their greatest influence is upon accuracy.

The firing efficiency, of troops is reduced by fatigue and adverse
psychological influences.

(_e_) _Fire direction and control_ improve collective accuracy. The
importance of fire direction increases rapidly with the range. Control
exerts a powerful influence at all ranges.


_FIRE DIRECTION AND CONTROL._

_Opening Fire._

402. Beyond effective ranges important results can be expected only
when the target is large and distinct and much ammunition is used.

Long-range fire is permissible in pursuit on account of the moral
effect of any fire under the circumstances. At other times such fire
is of doubtful value.

403. In attack, the desire to open fire when losses are first felt
must be repressed. Considerations of time, target, ammunition, and
morale make it imperative that the attack withhold its fire and press
forward to a first firing position close to the enemy. The attacker's
target will be smaller and fainter than the one he presents to the
enemy.

404. In defense, more ammunition is available, ranges are more easily
determined, and the enemy usually presents a larger target. The
defender may therefore open fire and expect results at longer ranges
than the attacker, and particularly if the defenders intend a delaying
action only.

If the enemy has a powerful artillery, it will often be best for the
defending infantry to withhold its fire until the enemy offers a
specially favorable target. Vigorous and well-directed bursts of fire
are then employed. The troops should therefore be given as much
artificial protection as time and means permit, and at an agreed
signal expose themselves as much as necessary and open fire.

405. In unexpected, close encounters a great advantage accrues to the
side which first opens rapid and accurate fire with battle sight.


_Use of Ground._

406. The position of the firers must afford a suitable field of fire.

The ground should permit constant observation of the enemy, and yet
enable the men to secure some cover when not actually firing.

Troops whose target is for the moment hidden by unfavorable ground,
either move forward to better ground or seek to execute cross fire on
another target.

407. The likelihood of a target being hit depends to a great extent
upon its visibility. By skillful use of ground, a firing line may
reduce its visibility without loss of fire power. Sky lines are
particularly to be avoided.


_Choice of Target._

408. The target chosen should be the hostile troops most dangerous to
the firers. These will usually be the nearest hostile infantry. When
no target is specially dangerous, that one should be chosen which
promises the most hits.

409. Frequent changes of target impair the fire effect. Random changes
to small, unimportant targets impair fire discipline and accomplish
nothing. Attention should be confined to the main target until
substantial reason for change is apparent.

410. An opportunity to deliver flanking fire, especially against
artillery protected in front by shields, is an example warranting
change of target and should never be overlooked. Such fire demoralizes
the troops subjected to it, even if the losses inflicted are small.
In this manner a relatively small number of rifles can produce
important results.


_The Range._

411. Beyond close range, the correct setting of the rear sight is of
primary importance, provided the troops are trained and well in hand.
The necessity for correct sight setting increases rapidly with the
range. Its importance decreases as the quality of the troops decrease,
for the error in sight setting, except possibly at very long ranges,
becomes unimportant when compared with the error in holding and
aiming.

412. In attack, distances must usually be estimated and corrections
made as errors are observed. Mechanical range finders and ranging
volleys are practicable at times.

In defense, it is generally practicable to measure more accurately the
distances to visible objects and to keep a record of them for future
use.


_Distribution of Fire and Target._

413. The purpose of fire superiority is to get hits whenever possible,
but at all events to keep down the enemy's fire and render it
harmless. To accomplish this the target must be covered with fire
throughout its whole extent. Troops who are not fired upon will fire
with nearly peace-time accuracy.

The target is roughly divided and a part is assigned to each unit. No
part of the target is neglected. In attack, by a system of overlapping
in assigning targets to platoons, the entire hostile line can be kept
under fire even during a rush.


_Observation._

414. The correctness of the sight setting and the distribution of fire
over the target can be verified only by careful observation of the
target, the adjacent ground, and the effect upon the enemy.

415. Observation only can determine whether the fire fight is being
properly conducted. If the enemy's fire is losing in accuracy and
effect, the observer realizes that his side is gaining superiority. If
the enemy's fire remains or becomes effective and persistent, he
realizes that corrective measures are necessary to increase either
volume or accuracy, or both.


_Discipline._

416. Discipline makes good direction and control possible and is the
distinguishing mark of trained troops.

417. The discipline necessary in the firing line will be absent unless
officers and noncommissioned officers can make their will known to the
men. In the company, therefore, communication must be by simple
signals which, in the roar of musketry, will attract the attention and
convey the correct meaning.


_Expenditure of Ammunition._

418. In attack the supply is more limited than in defense. Better
judgment must be exercised in expenditure. Ordinarily, troops in the
firing line of an attack can not expect to have that day more
ammunition than they carry into the combat, except such additions as
come from the distribution of ammunition of dead and wounded and the
surplus brought by reinforcements.

419. When a certain fire effect is required, the necessary ammunition
must be expended without hesitation. Several hours of firing may be
necessary to gain fire superiority. True economy can be practiced only
by closing on the enemy before first opening fire and thereafter
suspending fire when there is nothing to shoot at.


_Supporting Artillery._

420. Artillery fire is the principal aid to the infantry in gaining
and keeping fire superiority, not only by its hits, but by the moral
effect it produces on the enemy.

421. In attack, artillery assists the forward movement of the
infantry. It keeps down the fire of the hostile artillery and seeks to
neutralize the hostile infantry by inflicting losses upon it,
destroying its morale, driving it to cover, and preventing it from
using its weapons effectively.

In defense, it ignores the hostile artillery when the enemy's attack
reaches a decisive stage and assists in checking the attack, joining
its fire power to that of the defending infantry.

422. Troops should be accustomed to being fired over by friendly
artillery and impressed with the fact that the artillery should
continue firing upon the enemy until the last possible moment. The
few casualties resulting from shrapnel bursting short are trifling
compared with those that would result from the increased effectiveness
of the enemy's infantry fire were the friendly artillery to cease
firing.

Casualties inflicted by supporting artillery are not probable until
the opposing infantry lines are less than 200 yards apart.

423. When the distance between the hostile infantry lines becomes so
short as to render further use of friendly artillery inadvisable, the
commander of the infantry firing line, using a preconcerted signal,[3]
informs the artillery commander. The latter usually increases the
range in order to impede the strengthening of the enemy's foremost
line.

[Footnote 3: With a 4-foot white and red regimental signal flag.]


_Fire of Position._

424. Infantry is said to execute fire of position when it is posted so
as to assist an attack by firing over the heads, or off the flank, of
the attacking troops and is not itself to engage in the advance; or
when, in defense, it is similarly posted to augment the fire of the
main firing line.

Machine guns serve a like purpose.

In a decisive action, fire of position should be employed whenever the
terrain permits and reserve infantry is available.



DEPLOYMENT.


425. Troops are massed preparatory to deployment when the nature of
their deployment can not be foreseen or it is desirable to shorten the
column or to clear the road. Otherwise, in the deployment of large
commands, whether in march column, in bivouac, or massed, and whether
forming for attack or for defense, they are ordinarily first formed
into a line of columns to facilitate the extension of the front prior
to deploying.

The rough line or lines of columns thus formed enable troops to take
advantage of the terrain in advancing and shorten the time occupied in
forming the firing line.

426. In deploying the division each brigade is assigned a definite
task or objective. On receipt of his orders, the brigade commander
conducts his brigade in column or in line of regiments until it is
advisable that it be broken into smaller columns. He then issues his
order, assigning to each regiment its task, if practicable. In a
similar manner the regimental commanders lead their regiments forward
in column, or in line of columns, until the time arrives for issuing
the regimental order. It is seldom advisable to break up the battalion
before issuing orders for its deployment.

427. Each subordinate commander, after receiving his order for the
action, should precede his command as far as possible, in order to
reconnoiter the ground personally, and should prepare to issue his
orders promptly.

428. Each commander of a column directs the necessary reconnaissance
to front and flank; by this means and by a judicious choice of ground
he guards against surprise.

429. The premature formation of the firing line causes unnecessary
fatigue and loss of time, and may result in a faulty direction being
taken. Troops once deployed make even minor changes of direction with
difficulty, and this difficulty increases with the length of the
firing line.

430. In the larger units, when the original deployment is found to be
in the wrong direction, it will usually be necessary to deploy the
reserve on the correct front and withdraw and assemble the first line.

431. To gain decisive results, it will generally be necessary to use
all the troops at some stage of the combat. But in the beginning,
while the situation is uncertain, care should be taken not to engage
too large a proportion of the command. On the other hand, there is no
greater error than to employ too few and to sacrifice them by
driblets.

432. When it is intended to fight to a decision, fire superiority is
essential. To gain this, two things are necessary: A heavy fire and a
fire well directed and controlled. Both of these are best obtained
when the firing line is as dense as practicable, while leaving the men
room for the free use of their rifles.

If the men are too widely separated, direction and control are very
difficult, often impossible, and the intensity of fire is slight in
proportion to the front occupied.

433. In an attack or stubborn defense the firing line should have a
density of one man per yard of front occupied.

Where the tactical situation demands the holding of a line too long to
be occupied throughout at this density, it is generally better to
deploy companies or platoons at one man per yard, leaving gaps in the
line between them, than to distribute the men uniformly at increased
intervals.

434. A relatively thin firing line may be employed when merely
covering the movements of other forces; when on the defensive against
poor troops; when the final action to be taken has not yet been
determined; and, in general, when fire superiority is not necessary.

435. The length of the firing line that the whole force may employ
depends upon the density of the line and the _strength in rear_
required by the situation.

Supports and reserves constitute the strength in rear.

In a decisive attack they should be at least strong enough to replace
a heavy loss in the original firing line and to increase the charging
line to a density of at least one and one-half men per yard and still
have troops in rear for protection and for the other purposes
mentioned above.

436. In the original deployment the strength of the reserve held out
by each commander comprises from one-sixth to two-thirds of his unit,
depending upon the nature of the service expected of the reserve.

A small force in a covering or delaying action requires very little
strength in rear, while a large force fighting a decisive battle
requires much. Therefore, depending upon circumstances, the original
deployment, including the strength in rear, may vary from 1 to 10 men
per yard. Against an enemy poorly disciplined and trained, or lacking
in morale, a thinner deployment is permissible.

437. The density of the whole deployment increases with the size of
the command, because the larger the command the greater the necessity
for reserves. Thus, a battalion acting alone may attack with two men
per yard of front, but a regiment, with three battalions, may only
double the front of the one battalion.

438. By the assignment of divisions or larger units to parts of a line
of battle several miles long, a series of semi-independent battle, or
local combat, districts are created.

The general deployment for a long line of battle comprising several
battle districts is not directly considered in these regulations. The
deployments treated of herein are those of the infantry within such
districts.

The density of deployment in these districts may vary greatly,
depending upon the activity expected in each. Within these battle
districts, as well as in smaller forces acting alone, parts of the
line temporarily of less importance may be held weakly, in order to
economize troops and to have more at the decisive point.

439. The front that a unit may occupy when deployed depends also upon
whether its flanks are secured. If both flanks are secured by other
troops, the unit may increase its front materially by reducing its
reserve or supports. If only one flank is so secured, the front may
still be somewhat increased, but the exposed flank must be guarded by
posting the supports or reserve toward that flank.

Natural obstacles that secure the flanks have practically the same
effect upon deployment.

440. Except when assigned as supports or reserve, regiments in the
brigade, battalions in the regiment, and companies in the battalion
are, when practicable, deployed side by side.

441. In the deployment, battalions establish the firing line, each
furnishing its own support.

In each unit larger than the battalion a reserve is held out, its
strength depending upon circumstances. In general, the reserve is
employed by the commander to meet or improve conditions brought about
by the action of the firing line. It must not be too weak or too split
up. It must be posted where the commander believes it will be needed
for decisive action, or where he desires to bring about such action.
When necessary, parts of it reenforce or prolong the firing line.



ATTACK.


442. An attack is bound to succeed if fire superiority is gained and
properly used.

To gain this superiority generally requires that the attack employ
more rifles than the defense; this in turn means a longer line, as
both sides will probably hold a strong firing line.

443. With large forces, a direct frontal attack gives the attacker
little opportunity to bring more rifles to bear. However, if the enemy
is unduly extended, a frontal attack may give very decisive results.

444. Owing to the difficulty of control and the danger of the parts
being defeated in detail, wide turning movements are seldom allowable
except in large forces.

445. If the attack can be so directed that, while the front is
covered, another fraction of the command strikes a flank more or less
obliquely (an enveloping attack) the advantages gained are a longer
line and more rifles in action; also a converging fire opposed to the
enemy's diverging fire.

446. An envelopment of both flanks should never be attempted without a
very decided superiority in numbers.

447. The enveloping attack will nearly always result locally in a
frontal attack, for it will be met by the enemy's reserve. The
advantage of envelopment lies in the longer concentric line, with its
preponderance of rifles and its converging fire.

448. Cooperation between the frontal and enveloping attacks is
essential to success. Both should be pushed vigorously and
simultaneously, and ordinarily both should move simultaneously to the
charge; but at the final stage of the attack conditions may sometimes
warrant one in charging while the other supports it with fire.

The envelopment of a flank is brought about with difficulty when made
by troops already deployed in another direction or by their reserves.
The two attacks should be deployed at a suitable distance apart, with
the lines of attack converging in rear of the hostile position. The
troops that are to make the enveloping attack should deploy in the
proper direction at the start and should be given orders which enable
them to gain their point of deployment in the most direct and
practical manner.

The enveloping attack is generally made the stronger, especially in
small forces.


_DEPLOYMENT FOR ATTACK._

449. Where open terrain exposes troops to hostile artillery fire it
may be necessary to make the deployment 2 miles or more from the
hostile position.

The foreground should be temporarily occupied by covering troops. If
the enemy occupies the foreground with detachments, the covering
troops must drive them back.

450. To enable large forces to gain ground toward the enemy, it may
sometimes be cheaper and quicker in the end to move well forward and
to deploy at night. In such case the area in which the deployment is
to be made should, if practicable, be occupied by covering troops
before dark.

The deployment will be made with great difficulty unless the ground
has been studied by daylight. The deployment gains little unless it
establishes the firing line well within effective range of the enemy's
main position. (See Night Operations.)

451. Each unit assigned a task deploys when on its direction line, or
opposite its objective, and when it has no longer sufficient cover for
advancing in close order. In the firing line, intervals of 25 to 50
yards should be maintained as long as possible between battalions. In
the larger units it may be necessary to indicate on the map the
direction or objective, but to battalion commanders it should be
pointed out on the ground.

452. The reserve is kept near enough to the firing line to be on hand
at the decisive stage. It is posted with reference to the attack, or
to that part of the attacking line, from which the greater results are
expected; it is also charged with flank protection, but should be kept
intact.

Supports are considered in paragraphs 225 to 228, inclusive, and 298
to 302, inclusive.


_ADVANCING THE ATTACK._

453. The firing line must ordinarily advance a long distance before it
is justified in opening fire. It can not combat the enemy's artillery,
and it is at a disadvantage if it combats the defender's long-range
rifle fire. Hence it ignores both and, by taking full advantage of
cover and of the discipline of the troops, advances to a first firing
position at the shortest range possible.

Formations for crossing this zone with the minimum loss are considered
in paragraphs 212 to 220, inclusive. These and other methods of
crossing such zones should be studied and practiced.

454. The best protection against loss while advancing is to escape the
enemy's view.

455. Each battalion finds its own firing position, conforming to the
general advance as long as practicable and taking advantage of the
more advanced position of an adjacent battalion in order to gain
ground.

The position from which the attack opens fire is further considered in
paragraphs 306 to 308, inclusive.

456. It will frequently become necessary for infantry moving to the
attack to pass through deployed artillery. This should be done so as
to interfere as little as possible with the latter's fire, and never
so as to cause that fire to cease entirely. As far as practicable,
advantage should be taken of intervals in the line, if any. An
understanding between artillery and infantry commanders should be had,
so as to effect the movement to the best advantage.

457. In advancing the attack, advanced elements of the firing line or
detachments in front of it should not open fire except in defense or
to clear the foreground of the enemy. Fire on the hostile main
position should not be opened until all or nearly all of the firing
line can join in the fire.


_THE FIRE ATTACK._

458. At the first firing position the attack seeks to gain fire
superiority. This may necessitate a steady, accurate fire for a long
time. The object is to subdue the enemy's fire and keep it subdued so
that the attacking troops may advance from this point to a favorable
place near the enemy from which the charge may be made. Hence, in the
advance by rushes, sufficient rifles must be kept constantly in action
to keep down the enemy's fire; this determines the size of the
fraction rushing.

459. To advance without fire superiority against a determined defense
would result in such losses as to bring the attack to a standstill or
to make the apparent success barren of results.

460. Diminution of the enemy's fire and a pronounced loss in
effectiveness are the surest signs that fire superiority has been
gained and that a part of the firing line can advance.

461. The men must be impressed with the fact that, having made a
considerable advance under fire and having been checked, it is
suicidal to turn back in daylight.

If they can advance no farther, they must intrench and hold on until
the fall of darkness or a favorable turn in the situation develops.

Intrenching is resorted to only when necessary. Troops who have
intrenched themselves under fire are moved forward again with
difficulty.

462. Supports and reserves occupying intrenchments vacated by the
firing line should improve them, but they must not be held back or
diverted from their true missions on this account.

463. Paragraphs 309 to 317, inclusive, deal more in detail with the
conduct of the fire attack.


_THE CHARGE._

464. Fire superiority beats down the enemy's fire, destroys his
resistance and morale, and enables the attacking troops to close on
him, but an actual or threatened occupation of his position is needed
to drive him out and defeat him.

The psychological moment for the charge can not be determined far in
advance. The tactical instinct of the responsible officer must decide.

465. The defenders, if subjugated by the fire attack, will frequently
leave before the charge begins. On the other hand, it may be necessary
to carry the fire attack close to the position and follow it up with a
short dash and a bayonet combat. Hence the distance over which the
charge may be made will vary between wide limits. It may be from 25 to
400 yards.

The charge should be made at the earliest moment that promises
success; otherwise the full advantage of victory will be lost.

466. The commander of the attacking line should indicate his approval,
or give the order, before the charge is made. Subordinate commanders,
usually battalion commanders, whose troops are ready to charge signal
that fact to the commander. It may be necessary for them to wait until
other battalions or other parts of the line are ready or until the
necessary reserves arrive.

At the signal for the charge the firing line and nearby supports and
reserves rush forward. See paragraphs 318 and 319.

The charge is made simultaneously, if possible, by all the units
participating therein, but, once committed to the assault, battalions
should be pushed with the utmost vigor and no restraint placed on the
ardor of charging troops by an attempt to maintain alignment.

467. Before ordering the charge the commander should see that enough
troops are on hand to make it a success. Local reserves joining the
firing line in time to participate in the charge give it a strong
impetus. Too dense a mass should be avoided.

468. The line should be strengthened by prolongation, if practicable,
and remaining troops kept in formation for future use; but rather than
that the attack should fail, the last formed body will be sent in,
unless it is very apparent that it can do no good.

469. To arrive in the hostile position with a very compact firing line
and a few formed supports is sufficient for a victory, but an
additional force kept well in hand for pursuit is of inestimable
value.

470. A premature charge by a part of the line should be avoided, but
if begun, the other parts of the line should join at once if there is
any prospect of success. Under exceptional conditions a part of the
line may be compelled to charge without authority from the rear. The
intention to do so should be signaled to the rear.

471. Confidence in their ability to use the bayonet gives the
assaulting troops the promise of success.

472. If the enemy has left the position when the charging troops reach
it, the latter should open a rapid fire upon the retreating enemy, if
he is in sight. It is not advisable for the mixed and disordered units
to follow him, except to advance to a favorable firing position or to
cover the reorganization of others.

473. The nearest formed bodies accompanying or following the charge
are sent instantly in pursuit. Under cover of these troops order is
restored in the charging line. If the captured position is part of a
general line or is an advanced post, it should be intrenched and
occupied at once.

The exhaustion of officers and men must not cause the neglect of
measures to meet a counterattack.

474. If the attack receives a temporary setback and it is intended to
strengthen and continue it, officers will make every effort to stop
the rearward movement and will reestablish the firing line in a
covered position as close as possible to the enemy.

475. If the attack must be abandoned, the rearward movement should
continue with promptness until the troops reach a feature of the
terrain that facilitates the task of checking and reorganizing them.
The point selected should be so far to the rear as to prevent
interference by the enemy before the troops are ready to resist. The
withdrawal of the attacking troops should be covered by the artillery
and by reserves, if any are available.

See Night Operations.


_PURSUIT._

476. To reap the full fruits of victory a vigorous pursuit must be
made. The natural inclination to be satisfied with a successful charge
must be overcome. The enemy must be allowed no more time to reorganize
than is positively unavoidable.

477. The part of the reserve that is still formed or is best under
control is sent forward in pursuit and vigorously attacks the enemy's
main body or covering detachments wherever found.

The artillery delivers a heavy fire upon the retreating enemy; the
disordered attacking troops secure the position, promptly re-form, and
become a new reserve.

478. If the captured position is a section of the general line, the
breach should be heavily occupied, made wider, and strongly secured by
drawing on all reserves in the vicinity.

479. After the pursuit from the immediate battle field, pursuit by
parallel roads is especially effective where large commands are
concerned.

480. Artillery and cavalry are very effective in pursuit.


_ATTACK OF FORTIFICATIONS._

481. Few modifications enter into the problem of attacking
fortifications. Such as are to be considered relate chiefly to the
greater time and labor of advancing, the more frequent use of darkness
and the use of hand grenades to augment the fire.

482. If the enemy is strongly fortified and time permits, it may be
advisable to wait and approach the charging point under cover of
darkness. The necessary reconnaissance and arrangements should be made
before dark. If the charge is not to be made at once, the troops
intrench the advanced position, using sand bags if necessary. Before
daylight the foreground should be cleared of obstacles.

483. If the distance is short and other conditions are favorable, the
charge may be made without fire preparation. If made, it should be
launched with spirit and suddenness at the break of day. (See Night
Operations.)

484. In siege operations troops are usually advanced to the charging
point by sapping. This method, however, presupposes that an early
victory is not necessary or that it is clearly inadvisable to attempt
more direct methods.


_HOLDING ATTACK._

485. The holding attack must be vigorous enough to hold the enemy in
position and must present a front strong enough to conceal the
secondary nature of the attack.

The holding attack need have comparatively little strength in rear,
but conceals the fact by a firing line not distinguishable from that
of a decisive attack.

486. Supports and reserves are kept at short distances. Their strength
is less if the object is merely to hold the enemy fast than if the
object is, in addition, to compel him to use up reserves.

487. Holding attacks which may later develop into decisive attacks
should be correspondingly strong in rear.

488. All feint attacks should employ dense firing lines. Their
weakness is in rear and is concealed.



DEFENSE.


_POSITIONS AND INTRENCHMENTS._

489. The first requirement of a good position is a clear field of fire
and view to the front and exposed flanks to a distance of 600 to 800
yards or more. The length of front should be suitable to the size of
the command and the flanks should be secure. The position should have
lateral communication and cover for supports and reserves. It should
be one which the enemy can not avoid, but must attack or give up his
mission.

A position having all these advantages will rarely, if ever, be found.
The one should be taken which conforms closest to the description.

490. The natural cover of the position should be fully utilized. In
addition, it should be strengthened by fieldworks and obstacles.

The best protection is afforded by deep, narrow, inconspicuous
trenches. If little time is available, as much as practicable must be
done. That the fieldworks may not be needed should not cause their
construction to be omitted, and the fact that they have been
constructed should not influence the action of a commander, if
conditions are found to be other than expected.

491. When time and troops are available the preparations include the
necessary communicating and cover trenches, head cover, bombproofs,
etc. The fire trenches should be well supplied with ammunition.

The supports are placed close at hand in cover trenches when natural
cover is not available.

492. Dummy trenches frequently cause the hostile artillery to waste
time and ammunition and to divert its fire.

493. The location, extent, profile, garrison, etc., of fieldworks are
matters to be decided by the infantry commanders. Officers must be
able to choose ground and properly intrench it. (See Intrenchments.)

494. In combat exercises, when it is impracticable to construct the
trenches appropriate to the exercise, their trace may be outlined by
bayonets, sticks, or other markers, and the responsible officers
required to indicate the profile selected, method and time of
construction, garrisons, etc.


_DEPLOYMENT FOR DEFENSE._

495. The density of the whole deployment depends upon the expected
severity of the action, the character of the enemy, the condition of
the flanks, the field of fire, the terrain, and the available
artificial or natural protection for the troops.

496. If exposed, the firing line should be as dense in defense as in
attack. If the firing line is well intrenched and has a good field of
fire, it may be made thinner.

Weaker supports are permissible. For the same number of troops the
front occupied on the defensive may therefore be longer than on the
offensive, the battalions placing more companies in the firing line.

497. If it is intended only to delay the enemy, a fairly strong
deployment is sufficient, but if decisive results are desired, a
change to the offensive must be contemplated and the corresponding
strength in rear provided. This strength is in the reserve, which
should be as large as the demands of the firing line and supports
permit. Even in a passive defense the reserve should be as strong as
in the attack, unless the flanks are protected by other means.

498. Supports are posted as close to the firing line as practicable
and reinforce the latter according to the principles explained in the
attack. When natural cover is not sufficient for the purpose,
communicating and cover trenches are constructed. If time does not
permit their construction, it is better to begin the action with a
very dense firing line and no immediate supports than to have supports
greatly exposed in rear.

499. The reserve should be posted so as to be entirely free to act as
a whole, according to the developments. The distance from firing line
to reserve is generally greater than in the attack. By reason of such
a location the reserve is best able to meet a hostile enveloping
attack; it has a better position from which to make a counter attack;
it is in a better position to cover a withdrawal and permit an orderly
retreat.

The distance from firing line to reserve increases with the size of
the reserve.

500. When the situation is no longer in doubt, the reserve should be
held in rear of the flank which is most in danger or offers the best
opportunity for counterattack. Usually the same flank best suits both
purposes.

501. In exceptional cases, on broad fronts, it may be necessary to
detach a part of the reserve to protect the opposite flank. This
detachment should be the smallest consistent with its purely
protective mission.

502. The commander assigns to subordinates the front to be occupied by
them. These, in turn, subdivide the front among their next lower units
in the firing line.

503. An extended position is so divided into sections that each has,
if practicable, a field of fire naturally made distinct by the
terrain.

Unfavorable and unimportant ground will ordinarily cause gaps to exist
in the line.

504. The size of the unit occupying each section depends upon the
latter's natural strength, front, and importance. If practicable,
battalions should be kept intact and assigned as units to sections or
parts of sections.

505. Where important dead space lies in front of one section, an
adjoining section should be instructed to cover it with fire when
necessary, or machine guns should be concealed for the like purpose.

506. Advanced posts, or any other form of unnecessary dispersion,
should be avoided.

507. Unless the difficulty of moving the troops into the position be
great, most of the troops of the firing line are held in rear of it
until the infantry attack begins. The position itself is occupied by a
small garrison only, with the necessary outguards or patrols in front.

508. Fire alone can not be depended upon to stop the attack. The
troops must be determined to resort to the bayonet, if necessary.

509. If a night attack or close approach by the enemy is expected,
troops in a prepared position should strengthen the outguards and
firing line and construct as numerous and effective obstacles as
possible. Supports and local reserves should move close to the firing
line and should, with the firing line, keep bayonets fixed. If
practicable, the front should be illuminated, preferably from the
flanks of the section.

510. Only short range fire is of any value in resisting night attacks.
The bayonet is the chief reliance. (See Night Operations.)


_COUNTERATTACK._

511. The passive defense should be assumed only when circumstances
force it. Only the offensive wins.

512. An active defense seeks a favorable decision. A favorable
decision can not be expected without counterattack.

513. A passive defense in a position whose flanks are not protected by
natural obstacles is generally out of the question.

514. Where the defense is assumed with a view to making a
counterattack, the troops for the counterattack should be held in
reserve until the time arrives for such attack. The defensive line
should be held by as few troops as possible in order that the force
for the offensive may be as large as possible.

The force for the counterattack should be held echeloned in rear of
the flank which offers it the greatest advantage for the proposed
attack.

515. The counterattack should be made vigorously and at the proper
time. It will usually be made:

By launching the reserve against the enemy's flank when his attack is
in full progress. This is the most effective form of counterattack.

Straight to the front by the firing line and supports after repulsing
the enemy's attack and demoralizing him with pursuing fire.

Or, by the troops in rear of the firing line when the enemy has
reached the defensive position and is in disorder.

516. Minor counterattacks are sometimes necessary in order to drive
the enemy from important positions gained by him.


_DELAYING ACTION._

517. When a position is taken merely to delay the enemy and to
withdraw before becoming closely engaged, the important considerations
are:

The enemy should be forced to deploy early. The field of fire should
therefore be good at distances from 500 to 1,200 yards or more; a good
field of fire at close range is not necessary.

The ground in rear of the position should favor the withdrawal of the
firing line by screening the troops from the enemy's view and fire as
soon as the position is vacated.

518. A thin firing line using much ammunition will generally answer
the purpose. Supports are needed chiefly to protect the flanks.

The reserve should be posted well in rear to assist in the withdrawal
of the firing line.

519. Artillery is especially valuable to a delaying force.



MEETING ENGAGEMENTS.


520. Meeting engagements are characterized by the necessity for hasty
reconnaissance, or the almost total absence of reconnaissance; by the
necessity for rapid deployment, frequently under fire; and usually by
the absence of trenches or other artificial cover. These conditions
give further advantages to the offensive.

521. The whole situation will usually indicate beforehand the proper
general action to be taken on meeting the enemy.

522. Little fresh information can be expected. The boldness,
initiative, and determination of the commander must be relied upon.

523. A meeting engagement affords an ideal opportunity to the
commander who has intuition and quick decision and who is willing to
take long chances. His opponent is likely to be overcautious.

524. The amount of information that the commander is warranted in
awaiting before taking final action depends entirely upon his mission.
One situation may demand a blind attack; another may demand rapid,
partial deployment for attack, but careful and time-consuming
reconnaissance before the attack is launched.

525. A great advantage accrues to the side which can deploy the
faster. The advantage of a close-order formation, favoring rapid
deployment, becomes more pronounced with the size of the force.

526. The first troops to deploy will be able to attack with longer
firing lines and weaker supports than are required in the ordinary
case. But if the enemy succeeds in deploying a strong, defensive line,
the attack must be strengthened accordingly before it is wasted.

527. If the situation warrants the advance, the leading troops seek to
deploy faster than the enemy, to reach his flanks, check his
deployment, and get information. In any event, they seek to cover the
deployment of their own troops in rear--especially the artillery--and
to seize important ground.

528. The commander of a long column which meets the enemy should be
with the advance guard to receive information promptly and to
reconnoiter. If he decides to fight, the advance guard must hold the
enemy while the commander formulates a plan of action, issues the
necessary orders, and deploys the main body. Meantime, the column
should be closing up, either in mass or to form line of columns, so
that the deployment, when determined upon, may be made more promptly.

529. The action of the advance guard, prior to the receipt of orders,
depends upon the situation. Whether to attack determinedly or only as
a feint, or to assume the defensive, depends upon the strength of the
advance guard, the terrain, the character of the hostile force
encountered, and the mission and intentions of the commander of the
whole.

530. If the enemy is beforehand or more aggressive, or if the advance
guard is too weak, it may be necessary to put elements of the main
body into action as fast as they arrive, in order to check him. This
method should be avoided; it prevents the formation and execution of a
definite plan and compels piecemeal action. The best results are
obtained when the main body is used as a whole.



WITHDRAWAL FROM ACTION.


531. The withdrawal of a defeated force can generally be effected only
at a heavy cost. When it is no longer possible to give the action a
favorable turn and the necessity for withdrawal arises, every effort
must be made to place distance and a rear guard between the enemy and
the defeated troops.

532. Artillery gives especially valuable assistance in the withdrawal.
The long-range fire of machine guns should also be employed. Cavalry
assists the withdrawal by charging the pursuing troops or by taking
flank positions and using fire action.

533. If an intact reserve remains it should be placed in a covering
position, preferably on a flank, to check the pursuit and thus enable
the defeated troops to withdraw beyond reach of hostile fire.

The covering position of the reserve should be at some distance from
the main action, but close enough to bring the withdrawing troops
quickly under the protection of its fire. It should have a good field
of fire at effective and long ranges and should facilitate its own
safe and timely withdrawal.

534. If the general line is divided, by terrain or by organization,
into two or more parts, the firing line of the part in the least
danger from pursuit should be withdrawn first. A continuous firing
line, whose parts are dependent upon one another for fire support,
should be withdrawn as a whole, retiring by echelon at the beginning
of the withdrawal. Every effort must be made to restore the
organizations, regain control, and form column of march as soon as the
troops are beyond the reach of hostile fire.

As fast as possible without delaying the march, companies, and the
larger units should be re-formed, so that the command will again be
well in hand.

535. The commander of the whole, having given orders for withdrawal,
should go to the rear, select a rendezvous point, and devote himself
to the reorganization of his command.

The rendezvous point is selected with regard to the natural channels
of movement approximately straight to the rear. It should be distant
from the battle field and should facilitate the gathering and
protection of the command.


SUMMARY.

536. 1. Avoid combats that offer no chance of victory or other
valuable results.

2. Make every effort for the success of the general plan and avoid
spectacular plays that have no bearing on the general result.

3. Have a definite plan and carry it out vigorously. Do not vacillate.

4. Do not attempt complicated maneuvers.

5. Keep the command in hand; avoid undue extension and dispersion.

6. Study the ground and direct the advance in such a way as to take
advantage of all available cover and thereby diminish losses.

7. Never deploy until the purpose and the proper direction are known.

8. Deploy enough men for the immediate task in hand; hold out the rest
and avoid undue haste in committing them to the action.

9. Flanks must be protected either by reserves, fortifications, or the
terrain.

10. In a decisive action, gain and keep fire superiority.

11. Keep up reconnaissance.

12. Use the reserve, but not until needed or a very favorable
opportunity for its use presents itself. Keep some reserve as long as
practicable.

13. Do not hesitate to sacrifice the command if the result is worth
the cost.

14. Spare the command all unnecessary hardship and exertion.



MISCELLANEOUS.


_MACHINE GUNS._

537. Machine guns must be considered as weapons of emergency. Their
effectiveness combined with their mobility renders them of great value
at critical, though infrequent, periods of an engagement.

538. When operating against infantry only, they can be used to a great
extent throughout the combat as circumstances may indicate, but they
are quickly rendered powerless by efficient field artillery and will
promptly draw artillery fire whenever they open. Hence their use in
engagements between large commands must be for short periods and at
times when their great effectiveness will be most valuable.

539. Machine guns should be attached to the advance guard. In meeting
engagements they will be of great value in assisting their own
advance, or in checking the advance of the enemy, and will have
considerable time to operate before hostile artillery fire can silence
them.

Care must be taken not to leave them too long in action.

540. They are valuable to a rear guard which seeks to check a vigorous
pursuit or to gain time.

541. In attack, if fire of position is practicable, they are of great
value. In this case fire should not be opened by the machine guns
until the attack is well advanced. At a critical period in the attack,
such fire, if suddenly and unexpectedly opened, will greatly assist
the advancing line. The fire must be as heavy as possible and must be
continued until masked by friendly troops or until the hostile
artillery finds the machine guns.

542. In the defense, machine guns should be used in the same general
manner as described above for the attack. Concealment and patient
waiting for critical moments and exceptional opportunities are the
special characteristics of the machine gun service in decisive
actions.

543. As part of the reserve, machine guns have special importance. If
they are with the troops told off to protect the flanks, and if they
are well placed, they will often produce decisive results against a
hostile turning movement. They are especially qualified to cover a
withdrawal or make a captured position secure.

544. Machine guns should not be assigned to the firing line of an
attack. They should be so placed that fire directed upon them is not
likely to fall upon the firing line.

545. A skirmish line can not advance by walking or running when
hostile machine guns have the correct range and are ready to fire.
Machine-gun fire is not specially effective against troops lying on
the ground or crawling.

546. When opposed by machine guns and without artillery to destroy
them, infantry itself must silence them before it can advance.

An infantry command that must depend upon itself for protection
against machine guns should concentrate a large number of rifles on
each gun in turn and until it has silenced it.


_AMMUNITION SUPPLY._

547. The method of supply of ammunition to the combat trains is
explained in Field Service Regulations.

548. The combat train is the immediate reserve supply of the
battalion, and the major is responsible for its proper use. He will
take measures to insure the maintenance of the prescribed allowance at
all times.

In the absence of instructions, he will cause the train to march
immediately in rear of his battalion, and, upon separating from it to
enter an engagement, will cause the ammunition therein to be issued.
When emptied, he will direct that the wagons proceed to the proper
rendezvous to be refilled. Ordinarily a rendezvous is appointed for
each brigade and the necessary number of wagons sent forward to it
from the ammunition column.

549. When refilled, the combat wagons will rejoin their battalions,
or, if the latter be engaged, will join or establish communication
with the regimental reserve.

550. Company commanders are responsible that the belts of the men in
their companies are kept filled at all times, except when the
ammunition is being expended in action. In the firing line the
ammunition of the dead and wounded should be secured whenever
practicable.

551. Ammunition in the bandoleers will ordinarily be expended first.
Thirty rounds in the right pocket section of the belt will be held as
a reserve, to be expended only when ordered by an officer.

552. When necessary to resupply the firing line, ammunition will be
sent forward with reenforcements, generally from the regimental
reserve.

Men will never be sent back from the firing line for ammunition. Men
sent forward with ammunition remain with the firing line.

553. As soon as possible after an engagement the belts of the men and
the combat wagons are resupplied to their normal capacities.
Ammunition which can not be reloaded on combat wagons will be piled up
in a convenient place and left under guard.


_MOUNTED SCOUTS._

554. The mounted scouts should be thoroughly trained in patrolling and
reconnaissance. They are used for communication with neighboring
troops, for patrolling off the route of march, for march outposts,
outpost patrols, combat patrols, reconnaissance ahead of columns, etc.
Their further use is, in general, confined to escort and messenger
duty. They should be freely used for all these purposes, but for these
purposes only.

555. When infantry is acting alone, or when the cavalry of a mixed
command has been sent to a distance, the mounted scouts are of special
importance to covering detachments and should be used to make the
reconnaissance which would otherwise fall to cavalry.

556. In reconnaissance, scouts should be used in preference to other
troops as much as possible. When not needed for mounted duty, they
should be employed for necessary dismounted patrolling.

557. Battalion staff officers should be specially trained in
patrolling and reconnaissance work in order that they may be available
when a mounted officer's patrol is required.


_NIGHT OPERATIONS._

558. By employing night operations troops make use of the cover of
darkness to minimize losses from hostile fire or to escape
observation. Night operations may also be necessary for the purpose of
gaining time. Control is difficult and confusion is frequently
unavoidable.

It may be necessary to take advantage of darkness in order to assault
from a point gained during the day, or to approach a point from which
a daylight assault is to be made, or to effect both the approach and
the assault.

559. Offensive and defensive night operations should be practiced
frequently in order that troops may learn to cover ground in the dark
and arrive at a destination quietly and in good order, and in order to
train officers in the necessary preparation and reconnaissance.

Only simple and well-appointed formations should be employed.

Troops should be thoroughly trained in the necessary details--e.g.,
night patrolling, night marching, and communication at night.

560. The ground to be traversed should be studied by daylight and, if
practicable, at night. It should be cleared of hostile detachments
before dark, and, if practicable, should be occupied by covering
troops.

Orders must be formulated with great care and clearness. Each unit
must be given a definite objective and direction, and care must be
exercised to avoid collision between units.

Whenever contact with the enemy is anticipated, a distinctive badge
should be worn by all.

561. Preparations must be made with secrecy. When the movement is
started, and not until then, the officers and men should be acquainted
with the general design, the composition of the whole force, and
should be given such additional information as will insure cooperation
and eliminate mistakes.

During the movement every precaution must be taken to keep secret the
fact that troops are abroad.

Unfriendly guides must frequently be impressed. These should be
secured against escape, outcry, or deception.

Fire action should be avoided in offensive operations. In general,
pieces should not be loaded. Men must be trained to rely upon the
bayonet and to use it aggressively.

562. Long night marches should be made only over well-defined routes.
March discipline must be rigidly enforced. The troops should be
marched in as compact a formation as practicable, with the usual
covering detachments. Advance and rear guard distances should be
greatly reduced. They are shortest when the mission is an offensive
one. The connecting files are numerous.

563. A night advance made with a view to making an attack by day
usually terminates with the hasty construction of intrenchments in the
dark. Such an advance should be timed so as to allow an hour or more
of darkness for intrenching.

An advance that is to terminate in an assault at the break of day
should be timed so that the troops will not arrive long before the
assault is to be made; otherwise the advantage of partial surprise
will be lost and the enemy will be allowed to reenforce the threatened
point.

564. The night attack is ordinarily confined to small forces, or to
minor engagements in a general battle, or to seizure of positions
occupied by covering or advanced detachments. Decisive results are not
often obtained.

Poorly disciplined and untrained troops are unfit for night attacks or
for night operations demanding the exercise of skill and care.

Troops attacking at night can advance close to the enemy in compact
formations and without suffering loss from hostile artillery or
infantry fire. The defender is ignorant of the strength or direction
of the attack.

A force which makes a vigorous bayonet charge in the dark will often
throw a much larger force into disorder.

565. Reconnaissance should be made to ascertain the position and
strength of the enemy and to study the terrain to be traversed.
Officers who are to participate in the attack should conduct this
reconnaissance. Reconnaissance at night is especially valuable.
Features that are distinguishable at night should be carefully noted,
and their distances from the enemy, from the starting point of the
troops, and from other important points should be made known.

Preparations should have in view as complete a surprise as possible.
An attack once begun must be carried to its conclusion, even if the
surprise is not as complete as was planned or anticipated.

566. The time of night at which the attack should be made depends upon
the object sought. If a decisive attack is intended, it will generally
yield the best results if made just before daylight. If the object is
merely to gain an intrenched position for further operations, an
earlier hour is necessary in order that the position gained may be
intrenched under cover of darkness.

567. The formation for attack must be simple. It should be carefully
effected and the troops verified at a safe distance from the enemy.
The attacking troops should be formed in compact lines and with strong
supports at short distances. The reserve should be far enough in rear
to avoid being drawn into the action until the commander so desires.
Bayonets are fixed, pieces are not loaded.

Darkness causes fire to be wild and ineffective. The attacking troops
should march steadily on the enemy without firing, but should be
prepared and determined to fight vigorously with the bayonet.

In advancing to the attack the aim should be to get as close as
possible to the enemy before being discovered, then to trust to the
bayonet.

If the assault is successful, preparations must be made at once to
repel a counterattack.

568. On the defense, preparations to resist night attacks should be
made by daylight whenever such attacks are to be feared.

Obstacles placed in front of a defensive position are especially
valuable to the defense at night. Many forms of obstacles which would
give an attacker little concern in the daytime become serious
hindrances at night.

After dark the foreground should be illuminated whenever practicable
and strong patrols should be pushed to the front.

When it is learned that the enemy is approaching, the trenches are
filled and the supports moved close to the firing line.

Supports fix bayonets, but do not load. Whenever practicable and
necessary they should be used for counterattacks, preferably against a
hostile flank.

The defender should open fire as soon as results may be expected. This
fire may avert or postpone the bayonet combat, and it warns all
supporting troops. It is not likely that fire alone can stop the
attack. The defender must be resolved to fight with the bayonet.

Ordinarily fire will not be effective at ranges exceeding 50 yards.

A white rag around the muzzle of the rifle will assist in sighting the
piece when the front sight is not visible.

See paragraphs 450, 482, 483, 509, 510.


_INFANTRY AGAINST CAVALRY._

569. A cavalry charge can accomplish little against infantry, even in
inferior numbers, unless the latter are surprised, become
panic-stricken, run away, or can not use their rifles.

570. A charge from the front is easily checked by a well-directed and
sustained fire.

If the charge is directed against the flank of the firing line, the
supports, reserves, or machine guns should stop it. If this
disposition is impracticable, part of the line must meet the charge by
a timely change of front. If the flank company, or companies, in the
firing line execute _platoons right_, the successive firing lines can
ordinarily break a charge against the flank. If the cavalry line
passes through the firing line, the latter will be little damaged if
the men retain their presence of mind. They should be on the watch for
succeeding cavalry lines and leave those that have passed through to
friendly troops in rear.

571. Men standing are in the best position to meet a charge, but other
considerations may compel them to meet it lying prone.

572. In a mêlée, the infantryman with his bayonet has at least an even
chance with the cavalryman, but the main dependence of infantry is
rifle fire. Any formation is suitable that permits the free use of the
necessary number of rifles.

Ordinarily there will be no time to change or set sights. Fire at will
at battle sight should be used, whatever the range may be. It will
usually be unwise to open fire at long ranges.

573. An infantry column that encounters cavalry should deploy at once.
If attacked from the head or rear of the column, and if time is
pressing, it may form a succession of skirmish lines. Infantry, by
deploying 50 or 100 yards in rear of an obstacle, may check cavalry
and hold it under fire beyond effective pistol range.

In any situation, to try to escape the issue by running is the worst
and most dangerous course the infantry can adopt.

574. In attacking dismounted cavalry, infantry should close rapidly
and endeavor to prevent remounting. Infantry which adopts this course
will not be seriously checked by delaying cavalry.

Every effort should be made to locate and open fire on the led
horses.


_INFANTRY AGAINST ARTILLERY._

575. A frontal attack against artillery has little chance of
succeeding unless it can be started from cover at comparatively short
range. Beyond short range, the frontal fire of infantry has little
effect against the artillery personnel because of their protective
shields.

Machine guns, because their cone of fire is more compact, will have
greater effect, but on the other hand they will have fewer
opportunities and they are limited to fire attack only.

As a rule, one's own artillery is the best weapon against hostile
artillery.

576. Artillery attacked in flank by infantry can be severely damaged.
Oblique or flank fire will begin to have decisive effect when
delivered at effective range from a point to one side of the
artillery's line of fire and distant from it by about half the range.
Artillery is better protected on the side of the caisson.

577. Guns out of ammunition, but otherwise secure against infantry
attack, may be immobilized by fire which will prevent their
withdrawal, or by locating and driving off their limbers. Or they may
be kept out of action by fire which will prevent the receipt of
ammunition.

578. Artillery when limbered is helpless against infantry fire. If
caught at effective range while coming into action or while limbering,
artillery can be severely punished by infantry fire.

In attacking artillery that is trying to escape, the wheel horses are
the best targets.


_ARTILLERY SUPPORTS._

579. The purpose of the artillery support is to guard the artillery
against surprise or attack.

Artillery on the march or in action is ordinarily so placed as to be
amply protected by the infantry. Infantry always protects artillery in
its neighborhood.

580. The detail of a support is not necessary except when the
artillery is separated from the main body or occupies a position in
which its flanks are not protected.

The detail of a special support will be avoided whenever possible.

581. The formation of an artillery support depends upon circumstances.
On the march it may often be necessary to provide advance, flank, and
rear protection. The country must be thoroughly reconnoitered by
patrols within long rifle range.

582. In action, the formation and location of the support must be such
as to gain and give timely information of the enemy's approach and to
offer actual resistance to the enemy beyond effective rifle range of
the artillery's flanks. It should not be close enough to the artillery
to suffer from fire directed at the artillery. In most cases a
position somewhat to the flank and rear best fulfills these
conditions.

583. The support commander is charged only with the protection of the
artillery. The tactical employment of each arm rests with its
commander. The two should cooperate.


_INTRENCHMENTS._

(Plate V.)

584. Ordinarily, infantry intrenches itself whenever it is compelled
to halt for a considerable time in the presence of the enemy.

Infantry charged with a resisting mission should intrench whenever
there is any likelihood that the cover constructed will be of use.

585. Except in permanent fortifications or in fortifications prepared
long in advance, the infantry plans and constructs the field works
that it will occupy.

When performing their duties in this connection officers should bear
in mind that profile and construction are simple matters compared with
location and correct tactical use.

586. Intrenchments enable the commander to hold a position with the
least possible number of men and to prolong his line or increase his
reserve.

They are constructed with a view to giving cover which will diminish
losses, but they must not be so built or placed as to interfere with
the free use of the rifle. Fire effect is the first consideration.

587. The trace of a fire trench or of a system of fire trenches
depends upon the ground and the proposed density of the entire firing
line. The trenches are laid out in company lengths, if possible.

Adjoining trenches should afford each other mutual support. The flanks
and important gaps in the line should be protected by fire trenches
echeloned in rear. (Fig. 6).

588. To locate the trace, lie on the ground at intervals and select
the best field of fire consistent with the requirements of the
situation.

A profile should be selected which will permit the fire to sweep the
foreground, require the minimum of labor and time, and permit the best
concealment. No fixed type can be prescribed. The type must be
selected with due regard to the terrain, the enemy, time, tools,
materials, soil, etc.

589. _Hasty cover._ With the intrenching tool, troops can quickly
throw up a low parapet about 3 feet thick which will furnish
considerable cover against rifle fire, but scarcely any against
shrapnel. Such cover is frequently of value to an attack that is
temporarily unable to continue. In time, and particularly at night, it
may be developed into a deep fire or cover trench.

590. _Fire trenches_ should be placed and constructed so as to give a
good field of fire and to give the troops protection behind a vertical
wall, preferably with some head or overhead cover. They should be
concealed or inconspicuous in order to avoid artillery fire or to
decrease its accuracy. They should have natural or artificial
communication with their supports, but in establishing the trace this
is a secondary consideration.

The simplest form of fire trench is deep and narrow and has a flat,
concealed parapet. (Fig. 1.) In ordinary soil, and on a basis of two
reliefs and tasks of 5 feet, it can be constructed in about two hours
with intrenching tools.

This trench affords fair cover for troops subjected to fire, but not
actually firing. When it is probable that time will permit
elaboration, the simple trench should be planned with a view to
developing it ultimately into a more complete form. (Figs. 2 and 3.)
Devices should be added to increase the security of the trench and the
comfort of the men.

Where the excavated earth is easily removed, a fire trench without
parapet may be the one best suited to the soil and other conditions
affecting the choice of profile. (Fig. 4.) The enemy's infantry, as
well as his artillery, will generally have great difficulty in seeing
this type of trench.

In very difficult soil, if the time is short, it may be necessary to
dig a wider, shallower trench with a higher parapet.

[Illustration: Plate V.]

Head cover, notches, and loop holes are of value to troops when
firing, but many forms weaken and disclose the location of the
parapet. Filled sandbags kept in the trench when the men are not
firing may be thrown on the parapet to form notches or loopholes when
the troops in the trench open fire and concealment of the trench is no
longer necessary or possible.

By the use of observation stations the maximum rest and security is
afforded the troops. Stations are best located in the angles of
traverses or at the end of the trench.

591. Where the nature of the position makes it advisable to construct
traverses at regular intervals it is generally best to construct a
section of trench for each squad, with traverses between squads. (Fig.
5.)

592. _Cover trenches_ are placed as closely as practicable to their
respective fire trenches. Where natural cover is not available, each
fire trench should have artificial cover in rear for its
support--either a cover trench of its own or one in common with an
adjoining fire trench.

The cover trench is simple and rectangular in profile. Concealment is
indispensable. It is generally concealed by the contour of the ground
or by natural features, but to guard against hostile searching fire
overhead cover is frequently advisable.

Cover trenches should be made as comfortable as possible. It will
often be advisable to make them extensive enough to provide cooking
and resting facilities for the garrisons of the corresponding fire
trenches.

593. _Communicating trenches_ are frequently necessary in order to
connect fire trenches with their corresponding cover trenches where
natural, covered communication is impracticable. They are generally
rectangular in profile, deep, and narrow. They are traversed or
zigzagged to escape enfilade.

Returns or pockets should be provided for use as latrines, storerooms,
dressing stations, passing points for troops, etc.

Cover from observation while passing through the trench may insure
against loss as effectively as material cover from the enemy's fire.

_Communicating ways_, naturally or artificially screened from the
enemy's view, sometimes provide sufficient cover for the passage of
troops.

594. _Dummy trenches_ frequently draw the enemy's attention and fire
and thus protect the true fire trench.

Any type is suitable which presents to the enemy the appearance of a
true trench imperfectly concealed.

595. When it is uncertain whether time will permit the completion of
all the work planned, work should proceed with due regard to the order
of importance of the several operations. Ordinarily the order of
importance will be:

1. Clearing foreground to improve the field of fire and construction
of fire trench.

2. Head or overhead cover; concealment.

3. Placing obstacles and recording ranges.

4. Cover trenches for supports and local reserves.

5. Communicating trenches.

6. Widening and deepening of trenches; interior conveniences.

See paragraph 568.


_MINOR WARFARE._

596. Minor warfare embraces both regular and irregular operations.

Regular operations consist of minor actions involving small bodies of
trained and organized troops on both sides.

The tactics employed are in general those prescribed for the smaller
units.

597. Irregular operations consist of actions against unorganized or
partially organized forces, acting in independent or semi-independent
bodies. Such bodies have little or only crude training and are under
nominal and loose leadership and control. They assemble, roam about,
and disperse at will. They endeavor to win by stealth or by force of
superior numbers, employing ambuscades, sudden dashes or rushes, and
hand-to-hand fighting.

Troops operating against such an enemy usually do so in small units,
such as platoons, detachments, or companies, and the tactics employed
must be adapted to meet the requirements of the situation. Frequently
the enemy's own methods may be employed to advantage.

In general, such operations should not be undertaken hastily; every
preparation should be made to strike suddenly and to inflict the
maximum punishment.

598. In general, the service of information will be insufficient;
adequate reconnaissance will rarely be practicable. March and bivouac
formations must be such as to admit of rapid deployment and fire
action in any direction.

599. In the open country, where surprise is not probable, troops may
be marched in column of squads preceded, within sight, by a squad as
an advance party.

600. In close country, where surprise is possible, the troops must be
held in a close formation. The use of flank patrols becomes difficult.
Occasionally, an advance party--never less than a squad--may be sent
out. In general, however, such a party accomplishes little, since an
enemy intent on surprise will permit it to pass unmolested and will
fall upon the main body.

Under such conditions, especially when the road or trail is narrow,
the column of twos or files is a convenient formation, the officers
placing themselves in the column so as to divide it into nearly equal
parts. If rushed from a flank, such a column will be in readiness to
face and fire toward either or both flank, the ranks being back to
back; if rushed from the front, the head of the column may be
deployed, the rest of the column closing up to support it and to
protect its flanks and rear. In any event, the men should be taught to
take some form of a closed back-to-back formation.

601. The column may often be broken into two or more approximately
equal detachments separated on the march by distances of 50 to 100
yards. As a rule the detachments should not consist of less than 25
men each. With this arrangement of the column, it will rarely be
possible for an enemy to close simultaneously with all of the
detachments, one or more being left unengaged and under control to
support those engaged or to inflict severe punishment upon the enemy
when he is repulsed.

602. The site for camp or bivouac should be selected with special
reference to economical and effective protection against surprise.
Double sentinels are posted on the avenues of approach and the troops
sleep in readiness for instant action. When practicable, troops should
be instructed in advance as to what they are to do in case of attack
at night.

603. Night operations are frequently advisable. With the small forces
employed, control is not difficult. Irregular troops rarely provide
proper camp protection, and they may frequently be surprised and
severely punished by a properly conducted night march and attack.


_PATROLS._

604. The following paragraphs on patrols are placed here for
convenience. They relate in particular to the conduct of the patrol
and its leader, and apply to patrols employed in covering detachments
as well as in combat reconnaissance.

605. A patrol is a detachment sent out from a command to gain
information of the country or of the enemy, or to prevent the enemy
from gaining information. In special cases patrols may be given
missions other than these.

606. The commander must have clearly in mind the purpose for which the
patrol is to be used in order that he may determine its proper
strength, select its leader, and give the latter proper instructions.

In general, a patrol should be sent out for one definite purpose only.

607. The strength of a patrol varies from two or three men to a
company. It should be strong enough to accomplish its purpose, and no
stronger.

If the purpose is to gain information only, a small patrol is better
than a large one. The former conceals itself more readily and moves
less conspicuously. For observing from some point in plain view of the
command or for visiting or reconnoitering between outguards two men
are sufficient.

If messages are to be sent back, the patrol must be strong enough to
furnish the probable number of messengers without reducing the patrol
to less than two men. If hostile patrols are likely to be met and must
be driven off, the patrol must be strong.

In friendly territory, a weaker patrol may be used than would be used
for the corresponding purpose in hostile territory.

608. The character of the leader selected for the patrol depends upon
the importance of the work in hand.

For patrolling between the groups or along the lines of an outpost, or
for the simpler patrols sent out from a covering detachment, the
average soldier will be a competent leader.

609. For a patrol sent out to gain information, or for a distant
patrol sent out from a covering detachment, the leader must be
specially selected. He must be able to cover large areas with few men;
he must be able to estimate the strength of hostile forces, to report
intelligently as to their dispositions, to read indications, and to
judge as to the importance of the information gained. He must possess
endurance, courage, and good judgment.

His instructions should be full and clear. He must be made to
understand exactly what is required of him, where to go and when to
return. He should be given such information of the enemy and country
as may be of value to him. He should be informed as to the general
location of his own forces, particularly of those with whom he may
come in contact. If possible, he should be given a map of the country
he is to traverse, and in many cases his route may be specified.

Besides his arms and ammunition, the patrol leader should have a
compass, a watch, a pencil, a note book, and, when practicable, field
message blanks and a map of the country.

The patrol leader assembles the men detailed for the patrol. He
inspects their arms and ammunition and satisfies himself that they are
in suitable condition for the duty. He sees that none has any papers,
maps, etc., that would be of value to the enemy if captured. He sees
that their accouterments do not glisten or rattle when they move. He
then repeats his instructions to the patrol and assures himself that
every man understands them. He explains the signals to be used and
satisfies himself that they are understood. He designates a man to
take his place should he be disabled.

610. The formation and movements of the patrol must be regulated so as
to render probable the escape of at least one man should the patrol
encounter a superior force. The formation will depend upon the nature
of the ground traversed and the cover afforded. The leader must adopt
the formation and measures best suited to the accomplishment of his
object.

In general, it should have the formation of a main body with advance,
rear, and flank guards, though each be represented only by a single
man.

611. The distances separating the members of the patrol vary according
to the ground. If too close together, they see no more than one man;
if too widely separated they are likely to be lost to the control of
the leader.

With a patrol of four or five men the distances may vary from 25 to 50
yards; with a larger patrol they may be as great as 100 yards.

At times a column of files, separated by the distances prescribed, is
a satisfactory formation.

612. The country must be carefully observed as the patrol advances. In
passing over a hill, the country beyond should first be observed by
one man; houses, inclosures, etc., should be approached in a similar
manner or avoided entirely; woods should generally be reconnoitered in
a thin skirmish line.

613. The strength and composition of hostile troops must be observed.
If they can not be counted, their strength may be estimated by the
length of time a column consumes in passing a given point, or by the
area covered if in camp.

Patrol leaders should know, if practicable, the uniforms, guidons,
etc., of the enemy, as it will assist in determining the class of
troops seen when no other means for doing so are available.

Insignia from the enemy's uniforms, picked up by patrols, often convey
valuable information by indicating what troops are in the vicinity.

614. Patrols avoid fighting, except in self-defense or in order to
prevent the enemy's patrols from gaining valuable information, or when
necessary in order to accomplish their mission. In such cases, a
patrol should fight resolutely even though inferior in numbers.

615. Information gained by patrols is generally of no value unless
received in time to be of use to the commander. Patrol leaders must
therefore send back information of importance as soon as it is gained
unless the patrol itself is to return at once.

616. If written, messages should state the place, date, hour, and
minute of their dispatch. The information contained in them should be
clearly and concisely expressed. They should be signed by the patrol
leader.

The authorized message book should be used and the form therein
adhered to.

617. If the message be an oral one, the patrol leader should require
the messenger to repeat it before starting back. In general, an oral
message should cover but one point. Except when there is little chance
of error in transmission, messages should be written.

618. When in friendly territory and not very far from friendly troops,
one messenger is sufficient unless the message is very important. In
hostile territory, either two men should go together or the message
should be sent in duplicate by different routes.

619. Whether the information gained is of sufficient importance to be
reported at once or may await the return of the patrol is a question
which must be decided in each case. In case of reasonable doubt, it is
generally better to send the report promptly. If the patrol leader has
received proper instructions before starting out and has the requisite
ability to lead a patrol, he can generally decide such questions
satisfactorily as they arise.

620. Infantry patrols are generally used for work within 2 miles of
supporting troops, but cases arise where they must go to greater
distances.

621. Patrols composed of mounted scouts are conducted like cavalry
patrols and should be trained in accordance with the Cavalry Drill
Regulations.

For distant patrolling, a mounted patrol under an officer should be
used.

622. For controlling the movements of the patrol, the leader should,
when necessary, make use of the arm signals prescribed in these
regulations.

On account of the short distances separating them, ordinary
communication between members of the patrol is best effected quietly
by word of mouth.

When a member of a patrol is sent to a distant point, communication
may be effected by means of simple, prearranged signals.

When practicable, the patrol leader may communicate with the main body
by means of visual signaling.



PART III.--MARCHES AND CAMPS.



MARCHES.


_TRAINING AND DISCIPLINE._

623. Marching constitutes the principal occupation of troops in
campaign and is one of the heaviest causes of loss. This loss may be
materially reduced by proper training and by the proper conduct of the
march.

624. The training of infantry should consist of systematic physical
exercises to develop the general physique and of actual marching to
accustom men to the fatigue of bearing arms and equipment.

Before mobilization troops should be kept in good physical condition
and so practiced as to teach them thoroughly the principles of
marching. At the first opportunity after mobilization the men should
be hardened to cover long distances without loss.

625. With new or untrained troops, the process of hardening the men to
this work must be gradual. Immediately after being mustered into the
service the physical exercises and marching should be begun.
Ten-minute periods of vigorous setting-up exercises should be given
three times a day to loosen and develop the muscles. One march should
be made each day, with full equipment, beginning with a distance of 2
or 3 miles and increasing the distance daily as the troops become
hardened, until a full day's march under full equipment may be made
without exhaustion.

626. A long march should not be made with untrained troops. If a long
distance must be covered in a few days, the first march should be
short, the length being increased each succeeding day.

627. Special attention should be paid to the fitting of shoes and the
care of feet. Shoes should not be too wide or too short. Sores and
blisters on the feet should be promptly dressed during halts. At the
end of the march feet should be bathed and dressed; the socks and, if
practicable, the shoes should be changed.

628. The drinking of water on the march should be avoided. The thirst
should be thoroughly quenched before starting on the march and after
arrival in camp. On the march the use of water should, in general, be
confined to gargling the mouth and throat or to an occasional small
drink at most.

629. Except for urgent reasons, marches should not begin before an
hour after daylight, but if the distance to be covered necessitates
either breaking camp before daylight or making camp after dark, it is
better to do the former.

Night marching should be avoided when possible.

630. A halt of 15 minutes should be made after the first half or
three-quarters of an hour of marching; thereafter a halt of 10 minutes
is made in each hour. The number and length of halts may be varied,
according to the weather, the condition of the roads, and the
equipment carried by the men. When the day's march is long a halt of
an hour should be made at noon and the men allowed to eat.

631. The rate of march is regulated by the commander of the leading
company of each regiment, or, if the battalions be separated by
greater than normal distances, by the commander of the leading company
of each battalion. He should maintain a uniform rate, uninfluenced by
the movements of troops or mounted men in front of him.

The position of companies in the battalion and of battalions in the
regiment is ordinarily changed daily so that each in turn leads.

632. The marching efficiency of an organization is judged by the
amount of straggling and elongation and the condition of the men at
the end of the march.

An officer of each company marches in its rear to prevent undue
elongation and straggling.

When necessary for a man to fall out on account of sickness, he should
be given a permit to do so. This is presented to the surgeon, who will
admit him to the ambulance, have him wait for the trains, or follow
and rejoin his company at the first halt.

633. Special attention should be paid to the rate of march. It is
greater for trained than for untrained troops; for small commands than
for large ones; for lightly burdened than for heavily burdened
troops. It is greater during cool than during hot weather. With
trained troops, in commands of a regiment or less, marching over
average roads, the rate should be from 2-3/4 to 3 miles per hour. With
larger commands carrying full equipment, the rate will be from 2 to
2-1/2 miles per hour.

634. The marching capacity of trained infantry in small commands is
from 20 to 25 miles per day. This distance will decrease as the size
of the command increases. For a complete division the distance can
seldom exceed 12-1/2 miles per day unless the division camps in
column.

635. In large commands the marching capacity of troops is greatly
reduced by faulty march orders and poor march discipline.

The march order should contain such instructions as will enable the
troops to take their proper places in column promptly. Delay or
confusion in doing so should be investigated. On the other hand,
organization commanders should be required to time their movements so
that the troops will not be formed sooner than necessary.

The halts and starts of the units of a column should be regulated by
the watch and be simultaneous.

Closing up during a halt, or changing gait to gain or lose distance
should be prohibited.

(_C.I.D.R., Nos. 2 and 12._)


_PROTECTION OF THE MARCH._

_General Considerations._

636. A column on the march in the vicinity of the enemy is covered by
detachments called "advance guards," "rear guards," or "flank guards."
The object of these covering detachments is to facilitate the advance
of the main body and to protect it from surprise or observation.

They facilitate the advance of the main body by promptly driving off
small bodies of the enemy who seek to harass or delay it; by removing
obstacles from the line of advance, by repairing roads, bridges, etc.,
thus enabling the main body to advance uninterruptedly in convenient
marching formations.

They protect the main body by preventing the enemy from firing into it
when in close formation; by holding the enemy and enabling the main
body to deploy before coming under effective fire; by preventing its
size and conditions from being observed by the enemy; and, in
retreat, by gaining time for it to make its escape or to reorganize
its forces.

637. Tactical units should not be broken in making details for
covering detachments.

638. The march order of the whole command should explain the
situation, and, among other things, detail the commander and troops
for each covering detachment. It should specify the route to be taken
and the distance to be maintained between the main body and its
covering detachments. It should order such reconnaissance as the
commander specially desires to have made.

The order of the commander of a covering detachment should clearly
explain the situation to subordinates, assign the troops to the
subdivisions, prescribe their distances, and order such special
reconnaissance as may be deemed necessary in the beginning.

An advance or flank guard commander marches well to the front and,
from time to time, orders such additional reconnaissance or makes such
changes in his dispositions as the circumstances of the case demand.


_Advance Guards._

639. An _advance guard_ is a detachment of the main body which
precedes and covers it on the march.

640. The advance guard commander is responsible for its formation and
conduct. He should bear in mind that its purpose is to facilitate and
protect the march of the main body. Its own security must be effected
by proper dispositions and reconnaissance, not by timid or cautious
advance. It must advance at normal gait and search aggressively for
information of the enemy. Its action when the enemy attempts to block
it with a large force depends upon the situation and plans of the
commander of the troops.

641. The strength of the advance guard varies from one-twentieth to
one-third of the main body, depending upon the size of the main body
and the service expected of the advance guard.

642. The formation of the advance guard must be such that the enemy
will be met first by a patrol, then in turn by one or more larger
detachments, each capable of holding the enemy until the next in rear
has time to deploy before coming under effective fire.

643. Generally an advance guard consisting of a battalion or more is
divided primarily into the _reserve_ and the _support_. When the
advance guard consists of less than a battalion, the reserve is
generally omitted.

644. In an advance guard consisting of two battalions or less, the
reserve and support, if both are used, are approximately equal; in
larger advance guards, the reserve is approximately two-thirds of the
whole detachment.

In an advance guard consisting of one battalion, the machine guns, if
any, form part of the reserve. In an advance guard consisting of two
or more battalions, the machine guns form part of the support.

645. The _support_ sends forward an _advance party_. The _advance
party_, in turn, sends a patrol, called a _point_, still farther to
the front. Patrols are sent out to the flanks when necessary. When the
distance between parts of the advance guard or the nature of the
country is such as to make direct communication difficult, connecting
files march between the subdivisions to keep up communication. Each
element of the column sends the necessary connecting files to its
front.

646. A battalion acting as an advance guard should be formed about as
follows: The _reserve_, two companies; the _support_, two companies;
the _advance party_, three to eight squads (about a half company),
depending upon the strength of the companies and the reconnaissance to
be made; the _point_, a noncommissioned officer and three or four men.
Or the reserve may be omitted. In such case the advance party will
consist of one company preceded by a strong point. The remaining
companies form the support.

647. The distances separating the parts of an advance guard vary
according to the mission of the whole force, the size of the advance
guard, the proximity and character of the enemy, the nature of the
country, etc. They increase as the strength of the main body
increases; they are less when operating in rolling, broken country
than in open country; when in pursuit of a defeated enemy than against
an aggressive foe; when operating against cavalry than when against
infantry.

If there be a mounted point, it should precede the dismounted point by
250 to 600 yards. The advance party may be stronger when there is a
mounted point in front. The infantry maintains its gait without
reference to the mounted point, the latter regulating its march on the
former, (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

648. To afford protection to an infantry column, the country must be
observed on each side of the road as far as the terrain affords
positions for effective rifle fire upon the column. If the country
that it is necessary to observe be open to view from the road,
_reconnaissance_ is not necessary.

649. The advance guard is responsible for the necessary reconnaissance
of the country on both sides of the line of march.

Special reconnaissance may be directed by the commander of the troops,
or cavalry may be reconnoitering at considerable distances to the
front and flanks, but this does not relieve the advance guard from the
duty of local reconnaissance.

650. This reconnaissance is effected by patrols sent out by the
leading subdivisions of the advance guard. In a large advance guard
the support commander orders the necessary reconnaissance.

Patrols should be sent to the flanks when necessary to reconnoiter a
specified locality and should rejoin the column and their proper
subdivision as soon as practicable. When the advance party is strong
enough, the patrols should be sent out from it. When depleted by the
patrols sent out, the advance party should be reenforced during a halt
by men sent forward from the support. If it be impracticable to send
patrols from the advance party, they will be sent from the support.

Where the country is generally open to view, but localities in it
might conceal an enemy of some size, reconnaissance is necessary.
Where the road is exposed to fire and the view is restricted, a patrol
should be sent to examine the country in the direction from which
danger threatens. The object may be accomplished by sending patrols to
observe from prominent points. When the ground permits and the
necessity exists, patrols may be sent to march abreast of the column
at distances which permit them to see important features not visible
from the road.

Mounted scouts or cavalry, when available, should be used for flank
patrols.

651. Cases may arise where the best means of covering the head and
flanks of the column will be by a line of skirmishers extending for
several hundred yards to both sides of the road, and deployed at
intervals of from 10 to 50 yards. A column may thus protect itself
when passing through country covered with high corn or similar
vegetation. In such case, the vegetation forms a natural protection
from rifle fire beyond very short ranges.

652. Fixed rules for the strength, formation, or conduct of advance
guards can not be given. Each case must be treated to meet conditions
as they exist. That solution is generally the best which, with the
fewest men and unbroken units, amply protects the column and
facilitates the advance.


_Rear Guards._

653. A _rear guard_ is a detachment detailed to protect the main body
from attack in rear. In a retreat, it checks pursuit and enables the
main body to increase the distance between it and the enemy and to
re-form if disorganized.

The general formation is that of an advance guard reversed.

654. Its commander should take advantage of every favorable
opportunity to delay the pursuers by obstructing the road or by taking
up specially favorable positions from which to force the enemy to
deploy. In this latter case care must be taken not to become so
closely engaged as to render withdrawal unnecessarily difficult. The
position taken should be selected with reference to ease of withdrawal
and ability to bring the enemy under fire at long range.

655. In large commands artillery and cavalry form a very important
part of the rear guard.


_Flank Guards._

656. A _flank guard_ is a detachment detailed to cover the flank of a
column marching past, or across the front of, an enemy. It may be
placed in position to protect the passage, or it may be so marched as
to cover the passage.

657. The object of the flank guard is to hold the enemy in check long
enough to enable the main body to pass, or, like the advance guard, to
enable the main body to deploy.

Like all other detachments, it should be no larger than is necessary,
and should not be detailed except when its protection is required.

658. When a flank guard consists of a regiment or less, its distance
from the main body should not exceed a mile and a half. Practicable
communication must exist between it and the main body.

659. The flank guard is marched as a separate command; that is, with
advance or rear guards or both, as circumstances demand, and with
patrolling on the exposed flank.

660. At times it may be necessary for an advance-guard commander to
send out large reconnoitering parties which temporarily assume the
character and duties of a flank guard. Such parties should be given
specific orders as to when and where they are to rejoin the column.



CAMPS.


_SANITATION._

661. If the area of the available ground is sufficient and suitable,
the camp of the battalion or regiment should conform to the plates
published in the Field Service Regulations. Under similar favorable
conditions, the brigade may camp in column or in line of columns. In
the latter formation the interval between regiments should be about 50
yards. When the camp site has a restricted area, intervals and
distances are reduced.

Under service conditions, camp sites that will permit the encampment
of regiments and brigades as above indicated will not often be
available and regularity must be sacrificed.

662. In large commands the halt order should assign camp sites to the
next smaller commands, and the commanders of the latter should locate
their respective commands to the best advantage on the area assigned
them.


_The Selection of Camp Sites._

663. In campaign, tactical necessity may leave little choice in the
selection of camp sites, but under any conditions the requirements of
sanitation should be given every consideration consistent with the
tactical situation.

664. Great care should be exercised in selecting sites. In general,
the following principles govern:

The site should be convenient to an abundant supply of pure water.

Good roads should lead to the camp. Interior communication throughout
the camp should be easy. A camp near a main road is undesirable on
account of dust and noise.

Wood, grass, forage, and supplies should be at hand or easily
obtainable.

The ground should accommodate the command without crowding and without
compelling the troops of one unit to pass through the camp of another.

The site should be sufficiently high and rolling to drain off storm
water readily, and, if the season be hot, to catch the breeze. In cold
weather it should preferably have a southern exposure, with woods to
the north to break the cold winds. In warm weather an eastern
exposure, with the site moderately shaded by trees, is desirable.

The site should be dry. For this reason porous soil, covered with
stout turf and underlaid by a sandy or gravelly subsoil, is best. A
site on clay soil, or where the ground water approaches the surface,
is damp, cold, and unhealthful.

Alluvial soils, marshy ground, and ground near the base of hills, or
near thick woods or dense vegetation, are undesirable as camp sites on
account of dampness. Ravines and depressions are likely to be unduly
warm and to have insufficient or undesirable air currents.

Proximity to marshes or stagnant water is undesirable on account of
the dampness, mosquitoes, and the diseases which the latter transmit.
The high banks of lakes or large streams often make desirable camp
sites.

Dry beds of streams should be avoided; they are subject to sudden
freshet.

665. The occupation of old camp sites is dangerous, since these are
often permeated by elements of disease which persist for considerable
periods. Camp sites must be changed promptly when there is evidence of
soil pollution or when epidemic disease threatens, but the need for
frequent changes on this account may be a reflection on the sanitary
administration of the camp.

A change of camp site is often desirable in order to secure a change
of surroundings and to abandon areas which have become dusty and cut
up.


_Water Supply._

666. Immediately on making camp a guard should be placed over the
water supply. If the water be obtained from a stream, places should be
designated for drawing water (1) for drinking and cooking, (2) for
watering animals, (3) for bathing and washing clothing. The first
named should be drawn farthest up the stream; the others, in the order
named, downstream.

If the stream be small, the water supply may be increased by building
a dam. Small springs may be dug out and each lined with a gabion, or a
barrel or box with both ends removed, or with stones, the space
between the lining and the earth being filled with puddled clay. A rim
of clay should be built to keep out surface drainage. The same method
may be used near swamps, streams, or lakes to increase or clarify the
water supply.

667. Water that is not known to be pure should be boiled 20 minutes;
it should then be cooled and aerated by being poured repeatedly from
one clean container to another, or it may be purified by approved
apparatus supplied for the purpose.

668. Arrangements should be made for men to draw water from the
authorized receptacles by means of a spigot or other similar
arrangement. The dipping of water from the receptacles, or the use of
a common drinking cup, should be prohibited.


_Kitchens._

669. Camp kettles can be hung on a support consisting of a green pole
lying in the crotches of two upright posts of the same character.

A narrow trench for the fire, about 1 foot deep, dug under the pole,
not only protects the fire from the wind but saves fuel. A still
greater economy of fuel can be effected by digging a similar trench in
the direction of the wind and slightly narrower than the diameter of
the kettles. The kettles are then placed on the trench and the space
between the kettles filled in with stones, clay, etc., leaving the
flue running beneath the kettles. The draft can be improved by
building a chimney of stones, clay, etc., at the leeward end of the
flue.

Four such trenches radiating from a common central chimney will give
one flue for use whatever may be the direction of the wind.

A slight slope of the flue, from the chimney down, provides for
drainage and improves the draft.

670. The lack of portable ovens can be met by ovens constructed of
stone and covered with earth to better retain the heat. If no stone is
available, an empty barrel, with one head out, is laid on its side,
covered with wet clay to a depth of 6 or more inches and then with a
layer of dry earth equally thick. A flue is constructed with the clay
above the closed end of the barrel, which is then burned out with a
hot fire. This leaves a baked clay covering for the oven.

A recess can be similarly constructed with boards or even brushwood,
supported on a horizontal pole resting on upright posts, covered and
burnt out as in the case of the barrel.

When clay banks are available, an oven may be excavated therein and
used at once.

To bake in such ovens, first heat them and then close flues and ends.

671. Food must be protected from flies, dust, and sun. Facilities must
be provided for cleaning and scalding the mess equipment of the men.
Kitchens and the ground around them must be kept scrupulously clean.

672. Solid refuse should be promptly burned, either in the kitchen
fire or in an improvised crematory.

673. In temporary camps, if the soil is porous, liquid refuse from the
kitchens may be strained through gunny sacking into seepage pits dug
near the kitchen. Flies must not have access to these pits. Boards or
poles, covered with brush or grass and a layer of earth may be used
for this purpose. The strainers should also be protected from flies.
Pits of this kind, dug in clayey soil, will not operate successfully.
All pits should be filled with earth before marching.


_Disposal of Excreta._

674. Immediately on arriving in camp sinks should be dug. This is a
matter of fundamental sanitary importance, since the most serious
epidemics of camp diseases are spread from human excreta.

One sink is usually provided for each company and one for the officers
of each battalion. Those for the men are invariably located on the
side of camp opposite the kitchens. All sinks should be so placed that
they can not pollute the water supply or camp site as a result of
drainage or overflow. To insure this, their location and their
distance from camp may be varied.

When camp is made for a single night, shallow trenches, 12 inches deep
and 15 to 18 inches wide, which the men may straddle, will suffice.

In more permanent camps, the trenches should be about 2 feet wide, 6
feet deep, and 15 feet long. They should be provided with seats and
back rests made of poles, and should be screened by brush or old tent
flys.

675. In cold weather the contents of sinks should be covered once
daily with quicklime, ashes, or dry earth. When filled to within 2
feet of the top, sinks should be discontinued and filled in.

Open pits are dangerous during the fly season. However, the danger may
be greatly reduced by covering the excreta with earth or by a thorough
daily burning of the entire area of the trench. Combustible sweepings
or straw, saturated with oil, may be used for this purpose.

In fly season, trenches may be closed with seats covered down to the
ground with muslin and supplied with self-closing lids. Urinal
troughs, made of muslin and coated with oil or paint, should discharge
into the trenches.

676. In permanent camps special sanitary facilities for the disposal
of excreta will ordinarily be provided.

If necessary, urinal tubs may be placed in the company streets at
night and removed at reveille. Their location should be plainly marked
and thoroughly and frequently disinfected.

677. When troops bivouac for the night the necessity for extensive
sanitary precautions is not great; however, shallow sink trenches
should be dug to prevent general pollution of the vicinity. If the
cooking be collective, shallow kitchen sinks should be dug. If the
cooking be individual, the men should be required to build their fires
on the leeward flank of the camp or bivouac.

Before marching, all trenches should be filled in.


_PROTECTION OF CAMP OR BIVOUAC._

_General Considerations._

678. The outpost is a covering detachment detailed to secure the camp
or bivouac against surprise and to prevent an attack upon it before
the troops can prepare to resist.

679. The size and disposition of the outpost will depend upon many
circumstances, such as the size of the whole command, the proximity of
the enemy and the situation with respect to him, the nature of the
terrain, etc.

A suitable strength may vary from a very small fraction to one-third
of the whole force. For a single company in bivouac a few sentinels
and patrols will suffice; for a large command a more elaborate outpost
system must be provided. It should be no stronger than is consistent
with reasonable security.

The most economical protection is furnished by keeping close contact
with the enemy by means of outpost patrols, in conjunction with
resisting detachments on the avenues of approach.

The outpost should be composed of complete organizations.

680. In a brigade or smaller force on the march toward the enemy, the
outpost is generally formed from the advance guard, and is relieved
the following day when the new advance guard crosses the line of
outguards. In a retreat, the detail for outpost duty is generally made
from the main body. The new outpost becomes the rear guard the
following day.

681. When, as in large forces, an advance and rear guard performs such
duty for several days, the outpost, during this period, is furnished
by the advance or rear guards.

When the command is small and stationary for several days, the outpost
is relieved daily. In large commands, the outpost will, as a rule, be
relieved at intervals of several days.

682. The positions held by the subdivisions of the outpost should
generally be prepared for defense, but conditions may render this
unnecessary.

Troops on outpost keep concealed as much as is consistent with the
proper performance of their duties; especially do they avoid appearing
on the sky line.

Outpost troops do not render honors.


_Distribution of Outpost Troops._

683. The outpost will generally be divided into three parts. These, in
order from the main body, are the _reserve_, the line of _supports_,
and the line of _outguards_.

The distances separating these parts, and their distance from the main
body, will depend upon the object sought, the nature of the terrain,
and the size of the command. There can be no uniformity in the
distance between supports and reserve, nor between outguards and
supports, even in the same outpost. The avenues of approach and the
important features of the terrain will largely control their exact
positions.

The outpost of a small force should ordinarily hold the enemy beyond
effective rifle range of the main body until the latter can deploy.
For the same purpose the outpost of a large force should hold the
enemy beyond artillery range.

684. The _reserve_ constitutes the main body of the outpost and is
held at some central point from which it can readily _support the
troops in front_ or _hold a rallying position_ on which they may
retire. The reserve may be omitted when the outpost consists of less
than two companies.

The reserve may comprise one-fourth to two-thirds of the strength of
the outpost.

685. The _supports_ constitute a line of _supporting_ and _resisting_
detachments, varying in size from a half company to a battalion. They
furnish the line of _outguards_.

The supports are numbered consecutively from right to left. They are
placed at the more important points on the outpost line, usually in
the line on which resistance is to be made in case of attack.

686. As a general rule, roads exercise the greatest influence on the
location of supports, and a support will generally be placed on or
near a road. The section which it is to cover should be clearly
defined by means of tangible lines on the ground and should be such
that the support is centrally located therein.

687. The _outguards_ constitute the line of small detachments farthest
to the front and nearest to the enemy. For convenience they are
classified as _pickets_, _sentry squads_, and _cossack posts_. They
are numbered consecutively from right to left in each support.

688. A _picket_ is a group consisting of two or more squads,
ordinarily not exceeding half a company, posted in the line of
outguards to cover a given sector. It furnishes patrols and one or
more sentinels, double sentinels, sentry squads, or cossack posts for
_observation_.

Pickets are placed at the more important points in the line of
outguards, such as road forks. The strength of each depends upon the
number of small groups required to observe properly its sector.

689. A _sentry squad_ is a squad posted in _observation_ at an
indicated point. It posts a double sentinel in observation, the
remaining men resting near by and furnishing the reliefs of sentinels.
In some cases it may be required to furnish a patrol.

690. A _cossack post_ consists of four men. It is an _observation_
group similar to a sentry squad, but employs a single sentinel.

691. At night, it will sometimes be advisable to place some of the
outguards or their sentinels in a position different from that which
they occupy in the daytime. In such case the ground should be
carefully studied before dark and the change made at dusk. However, a
change in the position of the outguard will be exceptional.

692. _Sentinels_ are generally used singly in daytime, but at night
double sentinels will be required in most cases. Sentinels furnished
by cossack posts or sentry squads are kept near their group. Those
furnished by pickets may be as far as 100 yards away.

Every sentinel should be able to communicate readily with the body to
which he belongs.

693. Sentinel posts are numbered consecutively from right to left in
each outguard. Sentry squads and cossack posts furnished by pickets
are counted as sentinel posts.

694. Instead of using outguards along the entire front of observation,
part of this front may be covered by _patrols_ only. These should be
used to cover such sections of the front as can be crossed by the
enemy only with difficulty and over which he is not likely to attempt
a crossing after dark.

In daylight much of the local patrolling may be dispensed with if the
country can be seen from the posts of the sentinels. However, patrols
should frequently be pushed well to the front unless the ground in
that direction is exceptionally open.

695. Patrols or sentinels must be the first troops which the enemy
meets, and each body in rear must have time to prepare for the blow.
These bodies cause as much delay as possible without sacrificing
themselves, and gradually retire to the line where the outpost is to
make its resistance.

696. Patrols must be used to keep up connection between the parts of
the outpost except when, during daylight, certain fractions or groups
are mutually visible. After dark this connection must be maintained
throughout the outpost except where the larger subdivisions are
provided with wire communication.

697. In addition to ordinary outguards, the outpost commander may
detail from the reserve one or more _detached posts_ to cover roads or
areas not in the general line assigned to the supports.

In like manner the commander of the whole force may order _detached
posts_ to be sent from the main body to cover important roads or
localities not included in the outpost line.

The number and strength of detached posts are reduced to the absolute
needs of the situation.


_Establishing the Outpost._

698. The outpost is posted as quickly as possible so that the troops
can the sooner obtain rest. Until the leading outpost troops are able
to assume their duties, temporary protection, known as the _march
outpost_, is furnished by the nearest available troops.

699. The halt order of the commander, besides giving the necessary
information and assigning camp sites to the parts of the command,
details the troops to constitute the outpost, assigns a commander
therefor, designates the general line to be occupied, and, when
practicable, points out the position to be held in case of attack.

700. The outpost commander, upon receipt of this order, should issue
the outpost order with the least practicable delay. In large commands
it may often be necessary to give the order from the map, but usually
the outpost commander will have to make some preliminary
reconnaissance, unless he has an accurate and detailed map.

The order gives such available information of the situation as is
necessary to the complete and proper guidance of subordinates;
designates the troops to constitute the supports; assigns their
location and the sector each is to cover; provides for the necessary
detached posts; indicates any special reconnaissance that is to be
made; orders the location and disposition of the reserve; disposes of
the train if same is ordered to join the outpost; and informs
subordinates where information will be sent.

701. Generally it is preferable for the outpost commander to give
verbal orders to his support commanders from some locality which
overlooks the terrain. The time and locality should be so selected
that the support commanders may join their commands and conduct them
to their positions without causing unnecessary delay to their troops.
The reserve commander should, if possible, receive his orders at the
same time as the support commanders. Subordinates to whom he gives
orders separately should be informed of the location of other parts of
the outpost.

In large outposts, written orders are frequently most convenient.

After issuing the initial orders, the outpost commander inspects the
outpost, orders the necessary changes or additions, and sends his
superior a report of his dispositions.

702. The _reserve_ is marched to its post by its commander, who then
sends out such detachments as have been ordered and places the rest in
camp or bivouac, over which at least one sentinel should be posted.
Connection must be maintained with the main body, the supports and
nearby detached posts.

703. The _supports_ march to their posts, using the necessary covering
detachments when in advance of the march outpost. A support
commander's order should fully explain the situation to subordinates,
or to the entire command, if it be small. It should detail the troops
for the different outguards and, when necessary, define the sector
each is to cover. It should provide the necessary sentinels at the
post of the support, the patrols to be sent therefrom, and should
arrange for the necessary intrenching. Connection should be maintained
with adjoining supports and with the outguards furnished by the
support.

704. In posting his command the support commander must seek to cover
his sector in such manner that the enemy can not reach, in dangerous
numbers and unobserved, the position of the support or pass by it
within the sector intrusted to the support. On the other hand, he must
economize men on observation and patrol duty, for these duties are
unusually fatiguing. He must practice the greatest economy of men
consistent with the requirements of practical security.

705. As soon as the posting of the support is completed, its commander
carefully inspects the dispositions and corrects defects, if any, and
reports the disposition of his support, including the patrolling
ordered, to the outpost commander. This report is preferably made by
means of a sketch.

706. Each _outguard_ is marched by its commander to its assigned
station, and, especially in the case of a picket, is covered by the
necessary patrolling to prevent surprise.

Having reached the position, the commander explains the situation to
his men and establishes reliefs for each sentinel, and, if possible,
for each patrol to be furnished. Besides these sentinels and patrols,
a picket must have a sentinel at its post.

The commander then posts the sentinels and points out to them the
principal features, such as towns, roads, and streams, and gives their
names. He gives the direction and location of the enemy, if known, and
of adjoining parts of the outpost.

He gives to patrols the same information and the necessary orders as
to their routes and the frequency with which the same shall be
covered. Each patrol should go over its route once before dark.

707. Every picket should maintain connection by patrols with outguards
on its right and left. Each commander will take precaution to conceal
his outguard and will generally strengthen his position by
intrenching.



PART IV.--CEREMONIES AND INSPECTIONS.



CEREMONIES.


_General Rules for Ceremonies._

708. The order in which the troops of the various arms are arranged
for ceremonies is prescribed by Army Regulations.

When forming for ceremonies the companies of the battalion and the
battalions of the regiment are posted from right to left in line and
from head to rear in column, in the order of rank of their respective
commanders present in the formation, the senior on the right or at the
head.

The commander faces the command; subordinate commanders face to the
front.

709. At the command _present arms_, given by the colonel, the
lieutenant colonel and the colonel's staff salute; the major's staff
salute at the major's command. Each staff returns to the carry or
order when the command _order arms_ is given by its chief.

710. At the _assembly_ for a ceremony companies are formed on their
own parades and informally inspected.

At _adjutant's call_, except for ceremonies involving a single
battalion, each battalion is formed on its own parade, reports are
received, and the battalion presented to the major. At the second
sounding of _adjutant's call_ the regiment is formed.


_REVIEWS._

_General Rules._

711. The adjutant posts men or otherwise marks the points where the
column changes direction in such manner that its flank in passing will
be about 12 paces from the reviewing officer.

The post of the reviewing officer, usually opposite the center of the
line, is indicated by a marker.

Officers of the same or higher grade, and distinguished personages
invited to accompany the reviewing officer, place themselves on his
left; their staffs and orderlies place themselves respectively on the
left of the staff and orderlies of the reviewing officer; all others
who accompany the reviewing officer place themselves on the left of
his staff, their orderlies in rear. A staff officer is designated to
escort distinguished personages and to indicate to them their proper
positions.

712. While riding around the troops, the reviewing officer may direct
his staff, flag, and orderlies to remain at the post of the reviewing
officer, or that only his personal staff and flag shall accompany him;
in either case the commanding officer alone accompanies the reviewing
officer. If the reviewing officer is accompanied by his entire staff,
the staff officers of the commander place themselves on the right of
the staff of the reviewing officer.

The reviewing officer and others at the reviewing stand salute the
color as it passes; when passing around the troops, the reviewing
officer and those accompanying him salute the color when passing in
front of it.

The reviewing officer returns the salute of the commanding officer of
the troops only. Those who accompany the reviewing officer do not
salute. (_C.I.D.R., Nos. 4 and 6._)

713. In passing in review, each staff salutes with its commander.
(_C.I.D.R., Nos. 2 and 4._)

714. After saluting the reviewing officer, the commanding officer of
the troops turns out of the column, takes post on the right of the
reviewing officer, and returns saber; the members of his staff
accompanying him take post on the right of the reviewing officer's
staff and return saber. When the rear element of his command has
passed, without changing his position, the commanding officer of the
troops salutes the reviewing officer; he and the members of his staff
accompanying him then draw saber and rejoin his command. The
commanding officer of the troops and the members of his staff are the
only ones who turn out of the column.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 10._)

715. If the person reviewing the command is not mounted, the
commanding officer and his staff on turning out of the column after
passing the reviewing officer dismount preparatory to taking post. In
such case, the salute of the commanding officer, prior to rejoining
his command, is made with the hand before remounting.

716. When the rank of the reviewing officer entitles him to the honor,
each regimental color salutes at the command _present arms_, given or
repeated by the major of the battalion with which it is posted; and
again in passing in review.

717. The band of an organization plays while the reviewing officer is
passing in front of and in rear of the organization.

Each band, immediately after passing the reviewing officer, turns out
of the column, takes post in front of and facing him, continues to
play until its regiment has passed, then ceases playing and follows in
rear of its regiment; the band of the following regiment commences to
play as soon as the preceding band has ceased.

While marching in review but one band in each brigade plays at a time,
and but one band at a time when within 100 paces of the reviewing
officer.

718. If the rank of the reviewing officer entitles him to the honor,
the band plays the prescribed _national air_ or the field music sounds
_to the color_, _march_, _flourishes_, or _ruffles_ when arms are
presented. When passing in review at the moment the regimental color
salutes, the musicians halted in front of the reviewing officer, sound
_to the color_, _march_, _flourishes_, or _ruffles_. (_C.I.D.R., No.
6._)

719. The formation for review may be modified to suit the ground, and
the _present arms_ and the ride around the line by the reviewing
officer may be dispensed with.

720. If the post of the reviewing officer is on the left of the
column, the troops march in review with the guide left; the commanding
officer and his staff turn out of the column to the left, taking post
as prescribed above, but to the left of the reviewing officer; in
saluting, the captains give the command: 1. _Eyes_, 2. _LEFT_.

721. Except in the review of a single battalion, the troops pass in
review in quick time only.

722. In reviews of brigades or larger commands, each battalion, after
the rear has passed the reviewing officer 50 paces, takes the double
time for 100 yards in order not to interfere with the march of the
column in rear; if necessary, it then turns out of the column and
returns to camp by the most practicable route; the leading battalion
of each regiment is followed by the other units of the regiment.

723. In a brigade or larger review a regimental commander may cause
his regiment to stand _at ease_, _rest_, or _stack arms_ and _fall
out_ and _resume attention_, so as not to interfere with the ceremony.

724. When an organization is to be reviewed before an inspector junior
in rank to the commanding officer, the commanding officer receives
the review and is accompanied by the inspector, who takes post on his
left.


_Battalion Review._

725. The battalion having been formed in line, the major faces to the
front; the reviewing officer moves a few paces toward the major and
halts; the major turns about and commands: 1. _Present_, 2. _ARMS_,
and again turns about and salutes.

The reviewing officer returns the salute; the major turns about,
brings the battalion to order arms, and again turns to the front.

The reviewing officer approaches to about 6 paces from the major, the
latter salutes, takes post on his right, and accompanies him around
the battalion. The band plays. The reviewing officer proceeds to the
right of the band, passes in front of the captains to the left of the
line and returns to the right, passing in rear of the file closers and
the band.

On arriving again at the right of the line, the major salutes, halts,
and when the reviewing officer and staff have passed moves directly to
his post in front of the battalion, faces it, and commands: 1. _Pass
in review_, 2. _Squads right_, 3. _MARCH_.

At the first command the band changes direction if necessary, and
halts.

At the third command, given when the band has changed direction, the
battalion moves off, the band playing; without command from the major
the column changes direction at the points indicated, and column of
companies at full distance is formed successively to the left at the
second change of direction; the major takes his post 30 paces in front
of the band immediately after the second change; the band having
passed the reviewing officer, turns to the left out of the column,
takes post in front of and facing the reviewing officer, and remains
there until the review terminates.

The major and staff salute, turn the head as in _eyes right_, and look
toward the reviewing officer when the major is 6 paces from him; they
return to the carry and turn the head and eyes to the front when the
major has passed 6 paces beyond him.

Without facing about, each captain or special unit commander, except
the drum major, commands: 1. _Eyes_, in time to add, 2. _RIGHT_, when
at 6 paces from the reviewing officer, and commands _FRONT_ when at 6
paces beyond him. At the command _eyes_ the company officers armed
with the saber execute the first motion of present saber; at the
command _right_ all turn head and eyes to the right, the company
officers complete _present saber_ and the noncommissioned officers
armed with the saber execute the first motion of present saber; at the
command _front_ all turn head and eyes to the front, and officers and
noncommissioned officers armed with the saber resume the carry saber;
without arms in hand the first motion of the hand salute is made at
the command _right_ and the second motion not made until the command
_front_.

Noncommissioned staff officers, noncommissioned officers in command of
subdivisions, and the drum major salute, turn the head and eyes,
return to the front, resume the carry or drop the hand, at the points
prescribed for the major. Officers and dismounted noncommissioned
officers in command of subdivisions with arms in hand render the rifle
or saber salute. Guides charged with the step, trace, and direction do
not execute _eyes right_.

If the reviewing officer is entitled to a salute from the colors, the
regimental color salutes when at 6 paces from him, and is raised when
at 6 paces beyond him.

The major, having saluted, takes post on the right of the reviewing
officer, returns saber and remains there until the rear of the
battalion has passed, then salutes, draws saber, and rejoins his
battalion. The band ceases to play when the column has completed its
second change of direction after passing the reviewing officer.

(_C.I.D.R., Nos. 6 and 10._)

726. When the battalion arrives at its original position in column,
the major commands: 1. _Double time_, 2. _MARCH_.

The band plays in double time.

The battalion passes in review as before, except that in double time
the command _eyes right_ is omitted and there is no saluting except by
the major when he leaves the reviewing officer.

The review terminates when the rear company has passed the reviewing
officer; the band then ceases to play, and, unless otherwise directed
by the major, returns to the position it occupied before marching in
review, or is dismissed; the major rejoins the battalion and brings it
to _quick time_. The battalion then executes such movements as the
reviewing officer may have directed, or is marched to its parade
ground and dismissed.

Marching past in double time may, in the discretion of the reviewing
officer, be omitted; the review terminates when the major rejoins his
battalion.

727. At battalion review the major and his staff may be dismounted in
the discretion of the commanding officer.


_Regimental Review._

728. The regiment is formed in line or in line of masses.

In line the review proceeds as in the battalion, substituting
"colonel" for "major" and "regiment" for "battalion."

To march the regiment in review, the colonel commands: _PASS IN
REVIEW_. The band changes direction, if necessary, and halts. Each
major then commands: 1. _Squads right_, 2. _MARCH_.

The band marches at the command of the major of the leading battalion.

At the second change of direction each major takes post 20 paces in
front of his leading company.

The rear of the column having passed the reviewing officer, the
battalions, unless otherwise directed, are marched to their parades
and dismissed.

In line of masses, when the reviewing officer has passed around the
regiment, the colonel commands: _PASS IN REVIEW_. The band changes
direction, if necessary, and halts. The major of the right battalion
then commands: 1. _Column of squads, first company, squads right_, 2.
_MARCH_. At the third command the band and the leading company of the
right battalion move off. Each company and battalion in rear moves off
in time to follow at its proper distance.

729. The review of a small body of troops composed of different arms
is conducted on the principles laid down for the regiment. The troops
of each arm are formed and marched according to the drill regulations
for that arm.


_Review of Large Commands._

730. A command consisting of one regiment, or less, and detachments of
other arms is formed for review as ordered by the commanding officer.
The principles of regimental review will be observed whenever
practicable.

731. In the review of a brigade or larger command the _present arms_
and the ride around the line by the reviewing officer are omitted. The
troops form and march in the order prescribed by the commanding
officer.


_PARADES._

_General Rules._

732. If dismounted, the officer receiving the parade, and his staff,
stand at parade rest, with arms folded, while the band is sounding
off; they resume attention with the adjutant. If mounted, they remain
at attention.

733. At the command _report_, given by a battalion adjutant, the
captains in succession from the right salute and report: _A (_ or
_other) company, present_ or _accounted for_; or, _A (_or _other)
company, (so many) officers_ or _enlisted men absent_, and resume the
order saber; at the same command given by the regimental adjutant, the
majors similarly report their battalions.


_Battalion Parade._

734. At _adjutant's call_ the battalion is formed in line but not
presented. Lieutenants take their posts in front of the center of
their respective platoons at the captain's command for dressing his
company on the line. The major takes post at a convenient distance in
front of the center and facing the battalion.

The adjutant, from his post in front of the center of the battalion,
after commanding: 1. _Guides_, 2. _POSTS_, adds: 1. _Parade_, 2.
_REST_; the battalion executes parade rest. The adjutant directs the
band: _SOUND OFF_.

The band, playing in quick time, passes in front of the line of
officers to the left of the line and back to its post on the right,
when it ceases playing. At evening parade, when the band ceases
playing, _retreat_ is sounded by the field music and, following the
last note and while the flag is being lowered, the band plays the
_Star Spangled Banner_.

Just before the last note of retreat, the adjutant comes to attention,
and, as the last note ends, commands: 1. _Battalion_, 2. _ATTENTION_,
3. _Present_, 4. _ARMS_, and salutes, retaining that position until
the last note of the National Anthem. He then turns about and reports:
_Sir, the parade is formed_. The major directs the adjutant: _Take
your post, Sir_. The adjutant moves at a trot (if dismounted, in quick
time), passes by the major's right, and takes his post.

The major draws saber and commands: 1. _Order_, 2. _ARMS_, and adds
such exercises in the manual of arms as he may desire. Officers,
noncommissioned officers commanding companies or armed with the saber,
and the color guard, having once executed order arms, remain in that
position during the exercises in the manual.

The major then directs the adjutant: _Receive the reports, Sir_. The
adjutant, passing by the major's right, advances at a trot (if
dismounted, in quick time) toward the center of the line, halts
midway between it and the major, and commands: _REPORT_.

The reports received, the adjutant turns about, and reports: _Sir, all
are present or accounted for_; or _Sir, (so many) officers_ or
_enlisted men are absent_, including in the list of absentees those
from the band and field music reported to him by the drum major prior
to the parade.

The major directs: _Publish the orders, Sir_.

The adjutant turns about and commands: _Attention to orders_; he then
reads the orders, and commands: 1. _Officers_, 2. _CENTER_, 3.
_MARCH_.

At the command _center_, the company officers carry saber and face to
the center. At the command _march_, they close to the center and face
to the front; the adjutant turns about and takes his post.

The officers having closed and faced to the front, the senior
commands: 1. _Forward_, 2. _MARCH_. The officers advance, the band
playing; the left officer of the center or right center company is the
guide, and marches on the major; the officers are halted at 6 paces
from the major by the senior who commands: 1. _Officers_, 2. _HALT_.
They halt and salute, returning to the carry saber with the major. The
major then gives such instructions as he deems necessary, and
commands: 1. _Officers_, 2. _POSTS_, 3. _MARCH_.

At the command _posts_, company officers face about.

At the command _march_, they step off with guide as before, and the
senior commands: 1. _Officers_, 2. _HALT_, so as to halt 3 paces from
the line; he then adds: 1. _POSTS_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _posts_, officers face outward and, at the command
_march_, step off in succession at 4 paces distance, resume their
posts and order saber; the lieutenants march directly to their posts
in rear of their companies.

The music ceases when all officers have resumed their posts.

The major then commands: 1. _Pass in review_, 2. _Squads right_, 3.
_MARCH_, and returns saber.

The battalion marches according to the principles of review; when the
last company has passed, the ceremony is concluded.

The band continues to play while the companies are in march upon the
parade ground. Companies are formed in column of squads, without
halting, and are marched to their respective parades by their
captains.

When the company officers have saluted the major, he may direct them
to form line with the staff, in which case they individually move to
the front, passing to the right and left of the major and staff, halt
on the line established by the staff, face about, and stand at
attention. The music ceases when the officers join the staff. The
major causes the companies to pass in review under the command of
their first sergeants by the same commands as before. The company
officers return saber with the major and remain at attention.
(_C.I.D.R., No. 19._)


_Regimental Parade._

735. The regiment is formed in line or in line of masses; the
formation having proceeded up to, but not including the _present_, the
parade proceeds as described for the battalion, with the following
exceptions:

"Colonel" is substituted for "major," "regiment" for "battalion," in
the description, and "battalions" for "battalion" in the commands.

Lieutenants remain in the line of file closers.

After publishing the orders, the adjutant commands: 1. _Officers,
center_, 2. _MARCH_.

The company commanders remain at their posts with their companies.

The field and staff officers form one line, closing on the center. The
senior commands: 1. _Forward_, 2. _MARCH_.

The second major is the guide and marches on the colonel.

After being dismissed by the colonel, each major moves individually to
the front, turns outward, and followed by his staff resumes his post
by the most direct line. The colonel directs the lieutenant colonel to
march the regiment in review; the latter moves to a point midway
between the colonel and the regiment and marches the regiment in
review as prescribed. If the lieutenant colonel is not present the
colonel gives the necessary commands for marching the regiment in
review.


_ESCORTS._

_Escort of the Color._

736. The regiment being in line, or line of masses, the colonel
details a company, other than the color company, to receive and escort
the national color to its place. During the ceremony the regimental
color remains with the color guard at its post with the regiment.

The band moves straight to its front until clear of the line of field
officers, changes direction to the right, and is halted; the
designated company forms column of platoons in rear of the band, the
color bearer or bearers between the platoons.

The escort then marches without music to the colonel's office or
quarters and is formed in line facing the entrance, the band on the
right, the color bearer in the line of file closers.

The color bearer, preceded by the first lieutenant and followed by a
sergeant of the escort, then goes to obtain the color.

When the color bearer comes out, followed by the lieutenant and
sergeant, he halts before the entrance, facing the escort; the
lieutenant places himself on the right, the sergeant on the left of
the color bearer; the escort presents arms, and the field music sounds
_to the color_; the first lieutenant and sergeant salute.

Arms are brought to the order; the lieutenant and sergeant return to
their posts; the company is formed in column of platoons, the band
taking post in front of the column; the color bearer places himself
between the platoons; the escort marches in quick time, with guide
left, back to the regiment, the band playing; the march is so
conducted that when the escort arrives at 50 paces in front of the
right of the regiment, the direction of the march shall be parallel to
its front; when the color arrives opposite its place in line, the
escort is formed in line to the left; the color bearer, passing
between the platoons, advances and halts 12 paces in front of the
colonel.

The color bearer having halted, the colonel, who has taken post 30
paces in front of the center of his regiment, faces about, commands:
1. _Present_, 2. _ARMS_, resumes his front, and salutes; the field
music sounds _to the color_; and the color bearer executes the color
salute at the command _present arms_.

The colonel then faces about, brings the regiment to the order, at
which the color bearer resumes the carry and takes his post with the
color company.

The escort presents arms and comes to the order with the regiment, at
the command of the colonel, after which the captain forms it again in
column of platoons, and, preceded by the band, marches it to its
place, passing around the left flank of the regiment.

The band plays until the escort passes the left of the line, when it
ceases playing and returns to its post on the right, passing in rear
of the regiment.

The regiment may be brought to a rest when the escort passes the left
of the line. (_C.I.D.R., Nos. 6 and 19._)

737. Escort of the color is executed by a battalion according to the
same principles.


_Escorts of Honor._

738. Escorts of honor are detailed for the purpose of receiving and
escorting personages of high rank, civil or military. The troops for
this purpose are selected for their soldierly appearance and superior
discipline.

The escort forms in line, opposite the place where the personage
presents himself, the band on the flank of the escort toward which it
will march. On the appearance of the personage, he is received with
the honors due to his rank. The escort is formed into column of
companies, platoons or squads, and takes up the march, the personage
and his staff or retinue taking positions in rear of the column; when
he leaves the escort, line is formed and the same honors are paid as
before.

When the position of the escort is at a considerable distance from the
point where the personage is to be received, as for instance, where a
courtyard or wharf intervenes, a double line of sentinels is posted
from that point to the escort, facing inward; the sentinels
successively salute as he passes and are then relieved and join the
escort.

An officer is appointed to attend him and bear such communication as
he may have to make to the commander of the escort.


_Funeral Escort._

739. The composition and strength of the escort are prescribed in Army
Regulations.

The escort is formed opposite the quarters of the deceased; the band
on that flank of the escort toward which it is to march.

Upon the appearance of the coffin, the commander commands: 1.
_Present_, 2. _ARMS_, and the band plays an appropriate air; arms are
then brought to the order.

The escort is next formed into column of companies, platoons, or
squads. If the escort be small, it may be marched in line. The
procession is formed in the following order: 1. _Music_, 2. _Escort_,
3. _Clergy_, 4. _Coffin and pallbearers_, 5. _Mourners_, 6. _Members
of the former command of the deceased_, 7. _Other officers and
enlisted men_, 8. _Distinguished persons_, 9. _Delegations_, 10.
_Societies_, 11. _Civilians_. Officers and enlisted men (Nos. 6 and
7), with side arms, are in the order of rank, seniors in front.

The procession being formed, the commander of the escort puts it in
march.

The escort marches slowly to solemn music; the column having arrived
opposite the grave, line is formed facing it.

The coffin is then carried along the front of the escort to the grave;
arms are presented, the music plays an appropriate air; the coffin
having been placed over the grave, the music ceases and arms are
brought to the order.

The commander next commands: 1. _Parade_, 2. _REST_. The escort
executes _parade rest_, officers and men inclining the head.

When the funeral services are completed and the coffin lowered into
the grave the commander causes the escort to resume attention and fire
three rounds of blank cartridges, the muzzles of the pieces being
elevated. When the escort is greater than a battalion, one battalion
is designated to fire the volleys.

A musician then sounds _taps_.

The escort is then formed into column, marched in quick time to the
point where it was assembled, and dismissed.

The band does not play until it has left the inclosure.

When the distance to the place of interment is considerable, the
escort, after having left the camp or garrison, may march _at ease_ in
quick time until it approaches the burial ground, when it is brought
to attention. The music does not play while marching _at ease_.

In marching at attention, the field music may alternate with the band
in playing.

740. When arms are presented at the funeral of a person entitled to
any of the following honors, the band plays the prescribed _national
air_, or the field music sounds _to the color_, _march_, _flourishes_,
or _ruffles_, according to the rank of the deceased, after which the
band plays an appropriate air. The commander of the escort, in forming
column, gives the appropriate commands for the different arms.
(_C.I.D.R., No. 6._)

741. At the funeral of a mounted officer or enlisted man, his horse,
in mourning caparison, follows the hearse.

742. Should the entrance of the cemetery prevent the hearse
accompanying the escort till the latter halts at the grave, the column
is halted at the entrance long enough to take the coffin from the
hearse, when the column is again put in march. The Cavalry and
Artillery, when unable to enter the inclosure, turn out of the column,
face the column, and salute the remains as they pass.

743. When necessary to escort the remains from the quarters of the
deceased to the church before the funeral service, arms are presented
upon receiving the remains at the quarters and also as they are borne
into the church.

744. The commander of the escort, previous to the funeral, gives the
clergyman and pallbearers all needful directions.



INSPECTIONS.


_Company Inspection._

745. Being in line at a halt: 1. _Open ranks_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_ the front rank executes right dress; the rear
rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and execute
right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective flanks and
take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of the center of
their respective platoons. The captain aligns the front rank, rear
rank, and file closers, takes post 3 paces in front of the right
guide, facing to the left, and commands: 1. _FRONT_, 2. _PREPARE FOR
INSPECTION_.

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain returns
saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order saber, and
stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection they carry saber,
face about, and order saber. The captain may direct the lieutenants to
accompany or assist him, in which case they return saber and, at the
close of the inspection, resume their posts in front of the company,
draw and carry saber.

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the right of
the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him, executes
_inspection arms_.

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just
above the rear sight, the man dropping his hands. The captain inspects
the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same position as in
receiving it, hands it back to the man, who takes it with the left
hand at the balance and executes _order arms_.

As the captain returns the piece the next man executes _inspection
arms_, and so on through the company.

Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes
_order arms_ as soon as the captain passes to the next man.

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left to right
in rear, of each rank and of the line of file closers.

When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes _inspection
saber_. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute _inspection pistol_
by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding it diagonally
across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front of the neck, muzzle
pointing up and to the left. The pistol is returned to the holster as
soon as the captain passes.

Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing to the
left in front of the right guide and on line with the lieutenants and
commands: 1. _Close ranks_, 2. _MARCH_.

At the command _march_ the lieutenants resume their posts in line; the
rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file leader; the
file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank.

746. If the company is dismissed, rifles are put away. In quarters,
headdress and accouterments are removed and the men stand near their
respective bunks; in camp they stand covered, but without
accouterments, in front of their tents.

If the personal field equipment has not been inspected in ranks and
its inspection in quarters or camp is ordered, each man will arrange
the prescribed articles on his bunk, if in quarters or permanent camp,
or in front of his half of the tent, if in shelter tent camp, in the
same relative order as directed in paragraph 747.

The captain, accompanied by the lieutenants, then inspects the
quarters or camp. The first sergeant precedes the captain and calls
the men to attention on entering each squad room or on approaching the
tents; the men stand at attention but do not salute. (_C.I.D.R., No.
16._)

747. If the inspection is to include an examination of the equipment
while in ranks, the captain, after closing ranks, causes the company
to stack arms, to march backward until 4 paces in rear of the stacks
and to take intervals. He then commands: 1. _UNSLING EQUIPMENT_, 2.
_OPEN PACKS_.

At the first command, each man unslings his equipment and places it on
the ground at his feet, haversack to the front end of the pack 1 foot
in front of toes.

At the second command, pack carriers are unstrapped, packs removed and
unrolled, the longer edge of the pack along the lower edge of the
cartridge belt. Each man exposes shelter tent pins, removes meat can,
knife, fork, and spoon from the meat-can pouch, and places them on the
right of the haversack, knife, fork, and spoon in the open meat can;
removes the canteen and cup from the cover and places them on the left
side of the haversack; unstraps and spreads out haversack so as to
expose its contents; folds up the carrier to uncover the cartridge
pockets; opens same; unrolls toilet articles and places them on the
outer flap of the haversack; places underwear carried in pack on the
left half of the open pack, with round fold parallel with front edge
of pack; opens first-aid pouch and exposes contents to view. Special
articles carried by individual men, such as flag kit, field glasses,
compass, steel tape, notebook, etc., will be arranged on the right
half of the open pack. Each man then resumes the attention. Plate VI
shows the relative position of all articles except underwear and
special articles.

The captain then passes along the ranks and file closers as before,
inspects the equipment, returns to the right, and commands: _CLOSE
PACKS_.

Each man rolls up his toilet articles and underwear, straps up his
haversack and its contents, replaces the meat can, knife, fork, and
spoon, and the canteen and cup; closes cartridge pockets and first-aid
pouch; restores special articles to their proper receptacles; rolls up
and replaces pack in carrier; and, leaving the equipment in its
position on the ground, resumes the attention.

All equipments being packed, the captain commands: _SLING EQUIPMENT_.

The equipments are slung and belts fastened.

The captain then causes the company to assemble and take arms. The
inspection is completed as already explained.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 16._)

748. Should the inspector be other than the captain, the latter, after
commanding _front_, adds _REST_, and faces to the front. When the
inspector approaches, the captain faces to the left, brings the
company to attention, faces to the front, and salutes. The salute
acknowledged, the captain carries saber, faces to the left, commands:
_PREPARE FOR INSPECTION_, and again faces to the front.

The inspection proceeds as before; the captain returns saber and
accompanies the inspector as soon as the latter passes him.


_Battalion Inspection._

749. If there be both inspection and review, the inspection may either
precede or follow the review.

The battalion being in column of companies at full distance, all
officers dismounted, the major commands: 1. _Prepare for inspection_,
2. _MARCH_.

At the first command each captain commands: _Open ranks_.

At the command _march_ the ranks are opened in each company, as in the
inspection of the company.

The field musicians join their companies.

The drum major conducts the band to a position 30 paces in rear of the
column, if not already there, and opens ranks.

The major takes post facing to the front and 20 paces in front of the
center of the leading company. The staff takes post as if mounted. The
color takes post 5 paces in rear of the staff.

Field and staff officers senior in rank to the inspector do not take
post in front of the column but accompany him.

The inspector inspects the major, and, accompanied by the latter,
inspects the staff officers.

The major then commands: _REST_, returns saber, and, with his staff,
accompanies the inspector.

If the major is the inspector he commands: _REST_, returns saber, and
inspects his staff, which then accompanies him.

The inspector, commencing at the head of the column, then makes a
minute inspection of the color guard, the noncommissioned staff, and
the arms, accouterments, dress, and ammunition of each soldier of the
several companies in succession, and inspects the band.

The adjutant gives the necessary commands for the inspection of the
color guard, noncommissioned staff, and band.

The color guard and noncommissioned staff may be dismissed as soon as
inspected.

[Illustration: Plate VI.]

750. As the inspector approaches each company its captain commands: 1.
_Company_, 2. _ATTENTION_, 3. _PREPARE FOR INSPECTION_, and faces to
the front; as soon as inspected he returns saber and accompanies the
inspector. The inspection proceeds as in company inspection. At its
completion the captain closes ranks and commands: _REST_. Unless
otherwise directed by the inspector, the major directs that the
company be marched to its parade and dismissed.

751. If the inspection will probably last a long time the rear
companies may be permitted to stack arms and fall out; before the
inspector approaches they fall in and take arms.

752. The band plays during the inspection of the companies.

When the inspector approaches the band the adjutant commands: _PREPARE
FOR INSPECTION_.

As the inspector approaches him each man raises his instrument in
front of the body, reverses it so as to show both sides, and then
returns it.

Company musicians execute inspection similarly.

753. At the inspection of quarters or camp the inspector is
accompanied by the captain, followed by the other officers or by such
of them as he may designate. The inspection is conducted as described
in the company inspection.


_Regimental Inspection._

754. The commands, means, and principles are the same as described for
a battalion.

The colonel takes post facing to the front and 20 paces in front of
the major of the leading battalion. His staff takes post as if
mounted. The color takes post 5 paces in rear of the staff.

The inspector inspects the colonel and the lieutenant colonel, and,
accompanied by the colonel, inspects the staff officers.

The colonel then commands: _REST_, returns saber, and, with the
lieutenant colonel and staff, accompanies the inspector.

If the colonel is the inspector he commands: _REST_, returns saber,
and inspects the lieutenant colonel and staff, all of whom then
accompany him.

The inspector, commencing at the head of the column, makes a minute
inspection of the color guard, noncommissioned staff, each battalion
in succession, and the band.

On the approach of the inspector each major brings his battalion to
attention. Battalion inspection follows.



MUSTER.


_Regimental, Battalion, or Company Muster._

755. Muster is preceded by an inspection, and, when practicable, by a
review.

The adjutant is provided with the muster roll of the field, staff, and
band, the surgeon with the hospital roll; each captain with the roll
of his company. A list of absentees, alphabetically arranged, showing
cause and place of absence, accompanies each roll.

756. Being in column of companies at open ranks, each captain, as the
mustering officer approaches, brings his company to right shoulder
arms, and commands: _ATTENTION TO MUSTER_.

The mustering officer or captain then calls the names on the roll;
each man, as his name is called, answers _Here_ and brings his piece
to order arms.

After muster, the mustering officer, accompanied by the company
commanders and such other officers as he may designate, verifies the
presence of the men reported in hospital, on guard, etc.

757. A company may be mustered in the same manner on its own parade
ground, the muster to follow the company inspection.



HONORS AND SALUTES.


758. Further rules governing honors, courtesies, etc., are prescribed
in Army Regulations.

759. (1) Salutes shall be exchanged between officers and enlisted men
not in a military formation, nor at drill, work, games, or mess, on
every occasion of their meeting, passing near or being addressed, the
officer junior in rank or the enlisted man saluting first.

(2) When an officer enters a room where there are several enlisted
men, the word "attention" is given by some one who perceives him, when
all rise, uncover, and remain standing at attention until the officer
leaves the room or directs otherwise. Enlisted men at meals stop
eating and remain seated at attention.

(3) An enlisted man, if seated, rises on the approach of an officer,
faces toward him, stands at attention, and salutes. Standing he faces
an officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain in the same
place or on the same ground, such compliments need not be repeated.
Soldiers actually at work do not cease work to salute an officer
unless addressed by him.

(4) Before addressing an officer, an enlisted man makes the prescribed
salute with the weapon with which he is armed, or, if unarmed, with
the right hand. He also makes the same salute after receiving a reply.

(5) In uniform, covered or uncovered, but not in formation, officers
and enlisted men salute military persons as follows: With arms in
hand, the salute prescribed for that arm (sentinels on interior guard
duty excepted); without arms, the right-hand salute.

(6) In civilian dress, covered or uncovered, officers and enlisted men
salute military persons with the right-hand salute.

(7) Officers and enlisted men will render the prescribed salutes in a
military manner, the officer junior in rank, or the enlisted men,
saluting first. When several officers in company are saluted, all
entitled to the salute shall return it.

(8) Except in the field under campaign or simulated campaign
conditions, a mounted officer (or soldier) dismounts before addressing
a superior officer not mounted.

(9) A man in formation shall not salute when directly addressed, but
shall come to attention if at rest or at ease.

(10) Saluting distance is that within which recognition is easy. In
general, it does not exceed 30 paces.

(11) When an officer entitled to the salute passes in rear of a body
of troops, it is brought to attention while he is opposite the post of
the commander.

(12) In public conveyances, such as railway trains and street cars,
and in public places, such as theaters, honors and personal salutes
may be omitted when palpably inappropriate or apt to disturb or annoy
civilians present.

(13) Soldiers at all times and in all situations pay the same
compliments to officers of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and
Volunteers, and to officers of the National Guard as to officers of
their own regiment, corps, or arm of service.

(14) Sentinels on post doing interior guard duty conform to the
foregoing principles, but salute by presenting arms when armed with
the rifle. They will not salute if it interferes with the proper
performance of their duties. Troops under arms will salute as
prescribed in drill regulations. (_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)

760. (1) Commanders of detachments or other commands will salute
officers of grades higher than the person commanding the unit, by
first bringing the unit to attention and then saluting as required by
subparagraph (5), paragraph 759. If the person saluted is of a junior
or equal grade, the unit need not be at attention in the exchange of
salutes.

(2) If two detachments or other commands meet, their commanders will
exchange salutes, both commands being at attention.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)

761. Salutes and honors, as a rule, are not paid by troops actually
engaged in drill, on the march, or in the field under campaign or
simulated campaign conditions. Troops on the service of security pay
no compliments whatever.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)

762. If the command is in line at a halt (not in the field) and armed
with the rifle, or with sabers drawn, it shall be brought to _present
arms_ or _present sabers_ before its commander salutes in the
following cases: When the National Anthem is played, or when _to the
color_ or _to the standard_ is sounded during ceremonies, or when a
person is saluted who is its immediate or higher commander or a
general officer, or when the national or regimental color is saluted.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)

763. At parades and other ceremonies, under arms, the command shall
render the prescribed salute and shall remain in the position of
salute while the National Anthem is being played; also at retreat and
during ceremonies when _to the color_ is played, if no band is
present. If not under arms, the organizations shall be brought to
attention at the first note of the National Anthem, _to the color_ or
_to the standard_, and the salute rendered by the officer or
noncommissioned officer in command as prescribed in regulations, as
amended herein.

(_C.I.D.R., Nos. 6 and 17._)

764. Whenever the National Anthem is played at any place when persons
belonging to the military service are present, all officers and
enlisted men not in formation shall stand at attention facing toward
the music (except at retreat, when they shall face toward the flag).
If in uniform, covered or uncovered, or in civilian clothes,
uncovered, they shall salute at the first note of the anthem,
retaining the position of salute until the last note of the anthem.
If not in uniform and covered, they shall uncover at the first note of
the anthem, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder and so
remain until its close, except that in inclement weather the headdress
may be slightly raised.

The same rules apply when _to the color_ or _to the standard_ is
sounded as when the National Anthem is played.

When played by an Army band, the National Anthem shall be played
through without repetition of any part not required to be repeated to
make it complete.

The same marks of respect prescribed for observance during the playing
of the National Anthem of the United States shall be shown toward the
national anthem of any other country when played upon official
occasions.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)

765. Officers and enlisted men passing the uncased color will render
honors as follows: If in uniform, they will salute as required by
subparagraph (5), paragraph 759; if in civilian dress and covered,
they will uncover, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder
with the right hand; if uncovered they will salute with the right-hand
salute.

(_C.I.D.R., No. 17._)



PART V.--MANUALS.



THE COLOR.


766. The word "color" implies the national color; it includes the
regimental color when both are present.

The rules prescribing the colors to be carried by regiments and
battalions on all occasions are contained in Army Regulations.

767. In garrison the colors, when not in use, are kept in the office
or quarters of the colonel, and are escorted thereto and therefrom by
the color guard. In camp the colors, when not in use, are in front of
the colonel's tent. From reveille to retreat, when the weather
permits, they are displayed uncased; from retreat to reveille and
during inclement weather they are cased.

Colors are said to be cased when furled and protected by the oil-cloth
covering.

768. The regimental color salutes in the ceremony of escort of the
color, and when saluting an officer entitled to the honor, but in no
other case.

If marching, the salute is executed when at 6 paces from the officer
entitled to the salute; the carry is resumed when 6 paces beyond him.

The national color renders no salute. (_C.I.D.R., No. 6._)


_The Color Guard._

769. The color guard consists of two color sergeants, who are the
color bearers, and two experienced privates selected by the colonel.
The senior color sergeant carries the national color; the junior color
sergeant carries the regimental color. The regimental color, when
carried, is always on the left of the national color, in whatever
direction they may face.

770. The color guard is formed and marched in one rank, the color
bearers in the center. It is marched in the same manner and by the
same commands as a squad, substituting, when necessary, _guard_ for
_squad_.

771. The color company is the center or right center company of the
center or right center battalion. The color guard remains with that
company unless otherwise directed.

772. In line the color guard is in the interval between the inner
guides of the right and left center companies.

In line of columns or in close line, the color guard is midway between
the right and left center companies and on line with the captains.

In column of companies or platoons the color guard is midway between
the color company and the company in rear of the color company and
equidistant from the flanks of the column.

In close column the color guard is on the flank of the color company.

In column of squads the color guard is in the column between the color
company and the company originally on its left.

When the regiment is formed in line of masses for ceremonies, the
color forms on the left of the leading company of the center (right
center) battalion. It rejoins the color company when the regiment
changes from line of masses. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

773. The color guard when with a battalion that takes the battle
formation, joins the regimental reserve, whose commander directs the
color guard to join a certain company of the reserve. (_C.I.D.R., No.
2._)

774. The color guard executes neither loadings nor firings; in
rendering honors, it executes all movements in the manual; in drill,
all movements unless specially excused.


_To Receive the Color._

775. The color guard, by command of the senior color sergeant,
presents arms on receiving and parting with the color. After parting
with the color, the color guard is brought to order arms by command of
the senior member who is placed as the right man of the guard.

776. At drills and ceremonies, excepting _escort of the color_, the
color, if present, is received by the color company after its
formation.

The formation of the color company completed, the captain faces to the
front; the color guard, conducted by the senior sergeant, approaches
from the front and halts at a distance of 10 paces from the captain,
who then faces about, brings the company to the present, faces to the
front, salutes, again faces about and brings the company to the order.
The color guard comes to the present and order at the command of the
captain, and is then marched by the color sergeant directly to its
post on the left of the color company.

777. When the battalion is dismissed the color guard escorts the color
to the office or quarters of the colonel.


_Manual of the Color._

778. At the _carry_ the heel of the pike rests in the socket of the
sling; the right hand grasps the pike at the height of the shoulder.

At the _order_ the heel of the pike rests on the ground near the right
toe, the right hand holding the pike in a vertical position.

At _parade rest_ the heel of the pike is on the ground, as at the
_order_; the pike is held with both hands in front of the center of
the body, left hand uppermost.

The _order_ is resumed at the command _attention_.

The left hand assists the right when necessary.

The _carry_ is the habitual position when the troops are at a
shoulder, port, or trail.

The _order_ and _parade rest_ are executed with the troops.

_The color salute:_ Being at a carry, slip the right hand up the pike
to the height of the eye, then lower the pike by straightening the arm
to the front.



THE BAND.


779. The band is formed in two or more ranks, with sufficient
intervals between the men and distances between the ranks to permit of
a free use of the instruments.

The field music, when united, forms with and in rear of the band; when
the band is not present the posts, movements, and duties of the field
music are the same as prescribed for the band; when a musician is in
charge his position is on the right of the front rank. When the
battalion or regiment turns about by squads, the band executes the
countermarch; when the battalion or regiment executes _right_, _left_,
or _about face_, the band faces in the same manner.

In marching, each rank dresses to the right.

In executing _open ranks_ each rank of the band takes the distance of
3 paces from the rank next in front; the drum major verifies the
alignment.

The field music sounds the _march_, _flourishes_, or _ruffles_, and
_to the color_ at the signal of the drum major.

780. The drum major is 3 paces in front of the center of the front
rank, and gives the signals or commands for the movements of the band
as for a squad, substituting in the commands _band_ for _squad_.


_Signals of the Drum Major._

781. Preparatory to a signal the staff is held with the right hand
near the head of the staff, hand below the chin, back to the front,
ferrule pointed upward and to the right.

_Prepare to play:_ Face toward the band and extend the right arm to
its full length in the direction of the staff. _Play:_ Bring the arm
back to its original position in front of the body.

_Prepare to cease playing:_ Extend the right arm to its full length in
the direction of the staff. _Cease playing:_ Bring the arm back to its
original position in front of the body.

_To march:_ Turn the wrist and bring the staff to the front, the
ferrule pointing upward and to the front; extend the arm to its full
length in the direction of the staff.

_To halt:_ Lower the staff into the raised left hand and raise the
staff horizontally above the head with both hands, the arms extended;
lower the staff with both hands to a horizontal position at the height
of the hips.

_To countermarch:_ Face toward the band and give the signal _to
march_. The countermarch is executed by each front-rank man to the
right of the drum major turning to the right about, each to the left,
turning to the left about, each followed by the men covering him. The
drum major passes through the center.

_To oblique:_ Bring the staff to a horizontal position, the head of
the staff opposite the neck, the ferrule pointing in the direction the
oblique is to be made; extend the arm to its full length in the
direction of the staff.

_To march by the right flank:_ Extend the arm to the right, the staff
vertical, ferrule upward, back of the hand to the rear.

_To march by the left flank:_ Extend the arm to the left, the staff
vertical, ferrule upward, back of the hand to the front.

_To diminish front:_ Let the ferrule fall into the left hand at the
height of the eyes, right hand at the height of the hip.

_To increase front:_ Let the ferrule fall into the left hand at the
height of the hip, right hand at the height of the neck.

The _march_, _flourishes_, or _ruffles_: Bring the staff to a vertical
position, hand opposite the neck, back of the hand to the front,
ferrule pointing down.

_To the color:_ Bring the staff to a horizontal position at the height
of the neck, back of the hand to the rear, ferrule pointing to the
left.

When the band is playing, in marching, the drum major beats the time
with his staff and supports the left hand at the hip, fingers in
front, thumb to the rear.

The drum major, with staff in hand, salutes by bringing his staff to a
vertical position, head of the staff up and opposite the left
shoulder.

The drum major, marching in review with staff in hand, salutes by
bringing his staff to a vertical position, head of the staff up and
opposite the left shoulder.

At a halt, and the band not playing, the drum major holds his staff
with the ferrule touching the ground about 1 inch from toe of right
foot, at an angle of about 60°, ball pointing upward to the right,
right hand grasping staff near the ball, back of the hand to the
front: left hand at the hip, fingers in front, thumb to the rear.
(_C.I.D.R., No. 6._)



MANUAL OF THE SABER.


782. 1. _Draw_, 2. _SABER_.

At the command _draw_ unhook the saber with the thumb and first two
fingers of the left hand, thumb on the end of the hook, fingers
lifting the upper ring; grasp the scabbard with the left hand at the
upper band, bring the hilt a little forward, seize the grip with the
right hand, and draw the blade 6 inches out of the scabbard, pressing
the scabbard against the thigh with the left hand.

At the command _saber_ draw the saber quickly, raising the arm to its
full extent to the right front, at an angle of about 45° with the
horizontal, the saber, edge down, in a straight line with the arm;
make a slight pause and bring the back of the blade against the
shoulder, edge to the front, arm nearly extended, hand by the side,
elbow back, third and fourth fingers back of the grip; at the same
time hook up the scabbard with the thumb and first two fingers of the
left hand, thumb through the upper ring, fingers supporting it; drop
the left hand by the side.

_This is the position of carry saber dismounted._

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber unhook the
scabbard before mounting; when mounted, in the first motion of _draw
saber_ they reach with the right hand over the bridle hand and without
the aid of the bridle hand draw the saber as before; the right hand at
the _carry_ rests on the right thigh.

On foot the scabbard is carried hooked up.

783. When publishing orders, calling the roll, etc., the saber is held
suspended from the right wrist by the saber knot; when the saber knot
is used it is placed on the wrist before drawing saber and taken off
after returning saber.

784. Being at the order or carry: 1. _Present_, 2. _SABER_ (or
_ARMS_).

At the command _present_ raise and carry the saber to the front, base
of the hilt as high as the chin and 6 inches in front of the neck,
edge to the left, point 6 inches farther to the front than the hilt,
thumb extended on the left of the grip, all fingers grasping the
grip.

At the command _saber_, or _arms_, lower the saber, point in
prolongation of the right foot and near the ground, edge to the left,
hand by the side, thumb on left of grip, arm extended. If mounted, the
hand is held behind the thigh, point a little to the right and front
of the stirrup.

In rendering honors with troops officers execute the first motion of
the salute at the command _present_, the second motion at the command
_arms_; enlisted men with the saber execute the first motion at the
command _arms_ and omit the second motion.

785. Being at a carry: 1. _Order_, 2. _SABER_ (or _ARMS_).

Drop the point of the saber directly to the front, point on or near
the ground, edge down, thumb on back of grip.

Being at the _present saber_, should the next command be _order arms_,
officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber _order
saber_; if the command be other than _order arms_, they execute _carry
saber_.

When arms are brought to the order the officers or enlisted men with
the saber drawn _order saber_.

786. The saber is held at the carry while giving commands, marching at
attention, or changing position in quick time.

When at the order sabers are brought to the carry when arms are
brought to any position except the _present_ or _parade rest_.
(_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

787. Being at the order: 1. _Parade_, 2. _REST_.

Take the position of parade rest except that the left hand is
uppermost and rests on the right hand, point of saber on or near the
ground in front of the center of the body, edge to the right.

At the command _attention_ resume the order saber and the position of
the soldier.

788. In marching in double time the saber is carried diagonally across
the breast, edge to the front; the left hand steadies the scabbard.

789. Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber, on
all duties under arms draw and return saber without waiting for
command. All commands to soldiers under arms are given with the saber
drawn.

790. Being at a carry: 1. _Return_, 2. _SABER_.

At the command _return_ carry the right hand opposite to and 6 inches
from the left shoulder, saber vertical, edge to the left; at the same
time unhook and lower the scabbard with the left hand and grasp it at
the upper band.

At the command _saber_ drop the point to the rear and pass the blade
across and along the left arm; turn the head slightly to the left,
fixing the eyes on the opening of the scabbard, raise the right hand,
insert and return the blade; free the wrist from the saber knot (if
inserted in it), turn the head to the front, drop the right hand by
the side; hook up the scabbard with the left hand, drop the left hand
by the side.

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber, when
mounted, return saber without using the left hand; the scabbard is
hooked up on dismounting.

791. At inspection enlisted men with the saber drawn execute the first
motion of _present saber_ and turn the wrist to show both sides of the
blade, resuming the carry when the inspector has passed.



MANUAL OF TENT PITCHING.


_Shelter Tents._

792. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
_FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS_.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks form a
file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first
sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the
company; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men taken
from the front rank; the remaining guide, or guides, and file closers
form on a convenient flank. Before forming column of platoons,
preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be redivided into two
or more platoons, regardless of the size of each. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

793. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad, and commands: _PITCH TENTS_.

At the command _pitch tents_, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the butt
of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front,
barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each front-rank man
then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground by the outside of
the right heel.

Equipments are unslung, packs opened, shelter half and pins removed;
each man then spreads his shelter half, small triangle to the rear,
flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, the rear-rank man's half
on the right. The halves are then buttoned together; the guy loops at
both ends of the lower half are passed through the buttonholes
provided in the lower and upper halves; the whipped end of the guy
rope is then passed through both guy loops and secured, this at both
ends of the tent. Each front-rank man inserts the muzzle of his rifle
under the front end of the ridge and holds the rifle upright, sling to
the front, heel of butt on the ground beside the bayonet. His
rear-rank man pins down the front corners of the tent on the line of
bayonets, stretching the tent taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye
of the front guy rope and drives the pin at such a distance in front
of the rifle as to hold the rope taut; both men go to the rear of the
tent, each pins down a corner, stretching the sides and rear of the
tent before securing; the rear-rank man then inserts an intrenching
tool, or a bayonet in its scabbard, under the rear end of the ridge
inside the tent, the front-rank man pegging down the end of the rear
guy ropes; the rest of the pins are then driven by both men, the
rear-rank man working on the right.

The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown back on
the tent.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges his equipment and the
contents of his pack in the tent and stands at attention in front of
his own half on line with the front guy-rope pin.

To have a uniform slope when the tents are pitched, the guy ropes
should all be of the same length.

In shelter-tent camps, in localities where suitable material is
procurable, tent poles may be improvised and used in lieu of the rifle
and bayonet or intrenching tool as supports for the shelter tent.
(_C.I.D.R., Nos. 2, 5 and 8._)

794. When the pack is not carried the company is formed for shelter
tents, intervals are taken, arms are laid aside or on the ground, the
men are dismissed and proceed to the wagon, secure their packs, return
to their places, and pitch tents as heretofore described.

795. Double shelter tents may be pitched by first pitching one tent as
heretofore described, then pitching a second tent against the opening
of the first, using one rifle to support both tents, and passing the
front guy ropes over and down the sides of the opposite tents. The
front corner of one tent is not pegged down, but is thrown back to
permit an opening into the tent.


_Single Sleeping Bag._

796. Spread the poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; fold the blanket once across its short
dimension and lay it on the poncho, folded side along the right side
of the poncho; tie the blanket together along the left side by means
of the tapes provided; fold the left half of the poncho over the
blanket and button it together along the side and bottom.


_Double Sleeping Bag._

797. Spread one poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; spread the blankets on top of the poncho;
tie the edges of the blankets together with the tapes provided; spread
a second poncho on top of the blankets, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the right; button the two ponchos together along both
sides and across the end.


_To Strike Shelter Tents._

798. The men standing in front of their tents: _STRIKE TENTS_.

Equipments and rifles are removed from the tent; the tents are
lowered, packs made up, and equipments slung, and the men stand at
attention in the places originally occupied after taking intervals.
(_C.I.D.R., No. 8._)


_Common and Wall Tents._

799. To pitch all types of Army tents, except shelter and conical wall
tents: Mark line of tents by driving a wall pin on the spot to be
occupied by the right (or left) corner of each tent. For pyramidal
tents the interval between adjacent pins should be about 30 feet,
which will give a passage of two feet between tents. Spread tripod on
the ground where the center of tent is to be, if tripod is used.
Spread the tent on the ground to be occupied, door to the front, and
place the right (or left) front wall loop over the pin. The door (or
doors, if more than one) being fastened and held together at the
bottom, the left (or right) corner wall loop is carried to the left
(or right) as far as it will go and a wall pin driven through it, the
pin being placed in line with the right (or left) corner pins already
driven. At the same time the rear corner wall loops are pulled to the
rear and outward so that the rear wall of the tent is stretched to
complete the rectangle. Wall pins are then driven through these loops.
Each corner pin should be directly in rear of the corresponding front
corner pin, making a rectangle. Unless the canvas be wet, a small
amount of slack should be allowed before the corner pins are driven.
According to the size of the tent one or two men, crawling under the
tent if necessary, fit each pole or ridge or upright into the ring or
ridge pole holes, and such accessories as hood, fly, and brace ropes
are adjusted. If a tripod be used an additional man will go under the
tent to adjust it. The tent, steadied by the remaining men, one at
each corner guy rope, will then be raised. If the tent is a ward or
storage type, corner poles will now be placed at the four corners.
The four corner guy ropes are then placed over the lower notches of
the large pins driven in prolongation of the diagonals at such
distance as to hold the walls and ends of the tent vertical and smooth
when the guy ropes are drawn taut. A wall pin is then driven through
each remaining wall loop and a large pin for each guy rope is driven
in line with the corner guy pins already driven. The guy ropes of the
tent are placed over the lower notches, while the guy ropes of the fly
are placed over the upper notches, and are then drawn taut. Brace
ropes, when used, are then secured to stakes or pins suitably placed.
(_C.I.D.R., No. 11._)

800. Rescinded. (_C.I.D.R., No. 11._)


_Conical Wall Tent._

801. Drive the door pin and center pin 8 feet 3 inches apart. Using
the hood lines with center pin as center, describe two concentric
circles with radii 8 feet 3 inches and 11 feet 3 inches. In the outer
circle drive two door guy pins 3 feet apart. At intervals of about 3
feet drive the other guy pin.

In other respects conical tents are erected practically as in the case
of pyramidal tents. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)


_To Strike Common, Wall, Pyramidal, and Conical Wall Tents._

802. _STRIKE TENTS._

The men first remove all pins except those of the four corner guy
ropes, or the four quadrant guy ropes in the case of the conical wall
tent. The pins are neatly piled or placed in their receptacle.

One man holds each guy, and when the ground is clear the tent is
lowered, folded, or rolled and tied, the poles or tripod and pole
fastened together, and the remaining pins collected.


_To Fold Tents._

803. For folding common, wall, hospital, and storage tents: Spread the
tent flat on the ground, folded at the ridge so that bottoms of side
walls are even, ends of tent forming triangles to the right and left;
fold the triangular ends of the tent in toward the middle, making it
rectangular in shape; fold the top over about 9 inches; fold the tent
in two by carrying the top fold over clear to the foot; fold again in
two from the top to the foot; throw all guys on tent except the second
from each end; fold the ends in so as to cover about two-thirds of the
second cloths; fold the left end over to meet the turned-in edge of
the right end, then fold the right end over the top, completing the
bundle; tie with the two exposed guys.


_Method of Folding Pyramidal Tent._

The tent is thrown toward the rear and the back wall and roof canvas
pulled out smooth. This may be most easily accomplished by leaving the
rear-corner wall pins in the ground with the wall loops attached, one
man at each rear-corner guy, and one holding the square iron in a
perpendicular position and pulling the canvas to its limit away from
the former front of the tent. This leaves the three remaining sides of
the tent on top of the rear side, with the door side in the middle.

Now carry the right-front corner over and lay it on the left-rear
corner. Pull all canvas smooth, throw guys toward square iron, and
pull bottom edges even. Then take the right-front corner and return to
the right, covering the right-rear corner. This folds the right side
of the tent on itself, with the crease in the middle and under the
front side of tent.

Next carry the left-front corner to the right and back as described
above; this when completed will leave the front and rear sides of the
tent lying smooth and flat and the two side walls folded inward, each
on itself.

Place the hood in the square iron which has been folded downward
toward the bottom of tent, and continue to fold around the square iron
as a core, pressing all folds down flat and smooth, and parallel with
the bottom of the tent. If each fold is compactly made and the canvas
kept smooth, the last fold will exactly cover the lower edge of the
canvas. Lay all exposed guys along the folded canvas except the two on
the center width, which should be pulled out and away from bottom edge
to their extreme length for tying. Now, beginning at one end, fold
toward the center on the first seam (that joining the first and second
widths) and fold again toward the center so that the already folded
canvas will come to within about 3 inches of the middle width. Then
fold over to the opposite edge of middle width of canvas. Then begin
folding from opposite end, folding the first width in half, then
making a second fold to come within about 4 or 5 inches of that
already folded, turn this fold entirely over that already folded. Take
the exposed guys and draw them taut across each other, turn bundle
over on the under guy, cross guys on top of bundle drawing tight. Turn
bundle over on the crossed guys and tie lengthwise.

When properly tied and pressed together this will make a package 11 by
23 by 34 inches, requiring about 8,855 cubic inches to store or pack.

Stencil the organization designation on the lower half of the middle
width of canvas in the back wall. (_C.I.D.R., Nos. 1 and 8._)



MANUAL OF THE BUGLE.


_Warning Calls._

804. _First call_, _guard mounting_, _full dress_, _overcoats_,
_drill_, _stable_, _water_, and _boots and saddles_ precede the
_assembly_ by such interval as may be prescribed by the commanding
officer.

_Mess_, _church_, and _fatigue_, classed as service calls, may also be
used as warning calls.

_First call_ is the first signal for formation for roll call and for
all ceremonies except guard mounting.

_Guard mounting_ is the first signal for guard mounting.

The field music assembles at _first call_ and _guard mounting_.

In a mixed command, _boots and saddles_ is the signal to mounted
troops that their formation is to be mounted; for mounted guard
mounting or mounted drill, it immediately follows the signal _guard
mounting_ or _drill_.

When full dress or overcoats are to be worn, the _full dress_ or
_overcoat_ call immediately follows _first call_, _guard mounting_, or
_boots and saddles_.


_Formation Calls._

805. _Assembly:_ The signal for companies or details to fall in.

_Adjutant's call:_ The signal for companies to form battalion; also
for the guard details to form for guard mounting on the camp or
garrison parade ground; it follows the _assembly_ at such interval as
may be prescribed by the commanding officer.

It is also used as a signal for the battalions to form regiment,
following the first _adjutant's call_ at such interval as the
commanding officer may prescribe.

_To the color:_ Is sounded when the color salutes.


_Alarm Calls._

806. _Fire call:_ The signal for the men to fall in, without arms, to
extinguish fire.

_To arms:_ The signal for the men to fall in, under arms, on their
company parade grounds as quickly as possible.

_To horse:_ The signal for mounted men to proceed under arms to their
horses, saddle, mount and assemble at a designated place as quickly as
possible. In extended order this signal is used to remount troops.


_Service Calls._

807. _Tattoo_, _taps_, _mess_, _sick_, _church_, _recall_, _issue_,
_officers'_, _captains'_, _first sergeants'_, _fatigue_, _school_, and
_the general_.

_The general_ is the signal for striking tents and loading wagons
preparatory to marching.

_Reveille_ precedes the _assembly_ for roll call; _retreat_ follows
the _assembly_, the interval between being only that required for
formation and roll call, except when there is parade.

_Taps_ is the signal for extinguishing lights; it is usually preceded
by _call to quarters_ by such interval as prescribed by Army
Regulations.

_Assembly_, _reveille_, _retreat_, _adjutant's call_, _to the color_,
the _flourishes_, _ruffles_, and the _marches_ are sounded by all the
field music united; the other calls, as a rule, are sounded by the
musician of the guard or orderly musician; he may also sound the
_assembly_ when the musicians are not united.

The morning gun is fired at the first note of reveille, or, if marches
be played before _reveille_, it is fired at the commencement of the
first march.

The evening gun is fired at the last note of _retreat_.


BUGLE CALLS.

1. FIRST CALL.

[Music illustration]

2. GUARD MOUNTING.

[Music illustration]

3. FULL DRESS.

[Music illustration]

4. OVERCOATS.

[Music illustration]

5. DRILL.

[Music illustration]

6. STABLE.

[Music illustration]

7. WATER.

[Music illustration]

8. BOOTS AND SADDLES.

[Music illustration]

9. ASSEMBLY.

[Music illustration]

10. ADJUTANT'S CALL.

[Music illustration]

11. TO THE COLOR.

[Music illustration]

12. FIRE.

[Music illustration]

13. TO ARMS.

[Music illustration]

14. TO HORSE.

[Music illustration]

15. REVEILLE.

[Music illustration]

16. RETREAT.

[Music illustration]

17. TATTOO.

[Music illustration]

18. CALL TO QUARTERS.

[Music illustration]

19. TAPS.

[Music illustration]

20. MESS.

[Music illustration]

21. SICK.

[Music illustration]

22. CHURCH.

[Music illustration]

23. RECALL.

[Music illustration]

24. ISSUE.

[Music illustration]

25. OFFICERS' CALL.

[Music illustration]

26. CAPTAINS' CALL.

[Music illustration]

27. FIRST SERGEANTS' CALL.

[Music illustration]

28. FATIGUE.

[Music illustration]

29. SCHOOL.

[Music illustration]

29-1/2. THE GENERAL'S MARCH.

[Music illustration]

(_C.I.D.R. No. 8, Sept. 3, 1914._)

30. THE GENERAL.

[Music illustration]

30-1/2. FLOURISHES FOR REVIEW.

[Music illustration]

(_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)


BUGLE SIGNALS.

See paragraph 41.

31. ASSEMBLE. MARCH.

Same as _Assembly_, No. 9.

32. ATTENTION.

[Music illustration]

33. ATTENTION TO ORDERS.

[Music illustration]

34. FORWARD. MARCH.

[Music illustration]

35. HALT.

[Music illustration]

36. DOUBLE TIME. MARCH.

[Music illustration]

37. TO THE REAR. MARCH.

[Music illustration]

38. COMMENCE FIRING.

[Music illustration]

39. CEASE FIRING.

[Music illustration]

40. FIX BAYONETS.

[Music illustration]

41. CHARGE.

[Music illustration]



APPENDIX A.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF,
_Washington, December 2, 1911._

The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, have been prepared for the use
of troops armed with the United States magazine rifle, model 1903. For
the guidance of organizations armed with the United States magazine
rifle, model 1898, the following alternative paragraphs are published
and will be considered as substitute paragraphs for the corresponding
paragraphs in the text: 75 (in part), 96, 98, 99, 134, 139, 141, 142,
148, and 150.

By order of the Secretary of War:

LEONARD WOOD,
_Major General, Chief of Staff_.


75.... Third. The cut-off is kept turned down, except when using the
magazine....

96. Being at order arms: 1. _Unfix, BAYONET._

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Take the position of
parade rest, grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right
hand, press the spring with the forefinger of the left hand, raise the
bayonet until the handle is about 6 inches above the muzzle of the
piece, drop the point to the left, back of hand toward the body, and,
glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing
between the left arm and body; regrasp the piece with the right hand
and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet
from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the
most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the
most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the
original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but
not in cadence.

98. Being at order arms: 1. _Inspection_, 2. _ARMS_.

At the second command, take the position of port arms. (_TWO_) With
the right hand open the magazine gate, turn the bolt handle up, draw
the bolt back and glance at the magazine and chamber. Having found
them empty, or having emptied them, raise the head and eyes to the
front.

99. Being at inspection arms: 1. _Order (Right shoulder, port)_, 2.
_ARMS_.

At the preparatory command, push the bolt forward, turn the handle
down, close the magazine gate, pull the trigger, and resume port arms.
At the command _arms_, complete the movement ordered.

134. Pieces being loaded and in the position of load, to execute other
movements with the pieces loaded: 1. _Lock_, 2. _PIECES_.

At the command _Pieces_ turn the safety lock fully to the right.

The safety lock is said to be at the "ready" when turned to the left,
and at the "safe" when turned to the right.

The cut-off is said to be "on" when turned up and "off" when turned
down.

139. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. _With dummy (blank or
ball) cartridges_, 2. _LOAD_.

At the command _load_ each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half
right and carries the right foot to the right, about one foot, to such
position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the
body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at
the balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height
of the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back,
takes a cartridge between the thumb and first two fingers find places
it in the receiver; places palm of the hand against the back of the
bolt handle; thrusts the bolt home with a quick motion, turning down
the handle, and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each
rear-rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position
opposite the interval to the right of his front-rank man, muzzle of
the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly
as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting the
elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down the left hand
steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt
resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down)
are designated as that of _load_.

141. _FILL MAGAZINE._

Take the position of load, if not already there, open the gate of the
magazine with the right thumb, take five cartridges from the box or
belt, and place them, with the bullets to the front, in the magazine,
turning the barrel slightly to the left to facilitate the insertion of
the cartridges; close the gate and carry the right hand to the small
of the stock.

To load from the magazine the command _From magazine_ will be given
preceding that of _LOAD_; the _cut-off_ will be turned up on coming to
the position of _load_.

To resume loading from the belt the command _From belt_ will be given
preceding the command _LOAD_; the _cut-off_ will be turned down on
coming to the position of _load_.

The commands _from magazine_ and _from belt_, indicating the change in
the manner of loading, will not be repeated in subsequent commands.

The words _from belt_ apply to cartridge box as well as belt.

In loading from the magazine care should be taken to push the bolt
fully forward and turn the handle down before drawing the bolt back,
as otherwise the extractor will not catch the cartridge in the
chamber, and jamming will occur with the cartridge following.

To fire from the magazine, the command _MAGAZINE FIRE_ may be given at
any time. The cut-off is turned up and an increased rate of fire is
executed. After the magazine is exhausted the cut-off is turned down
and the firing continued, loading from the belt.

_Magazine fire_ is employed only when, in the opinion of the platoon
leader or company commander, the maximum rate of fire becomes
necessary.

142. _UNLOAD._

All take the position of load, turn the _cut-off_ up, if not already
there, turn the safety lock to the left, and alternately open and
close the chamber until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last
cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed and the trigger pulled. The
cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the box or
belt, and the piece brought to the order.

148. _CLIP FIRE._

Turn the cut-off up; _fire at will_ (reloading from the magazine)
until the cartridges in the piece are exhausted; turn the cut-off
down; fill magazine; reload and take the position of _suspend firing_.

150. _CEASE FIRING._

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of
load, the cartridge is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the
trigger is pulled, sights are laid down, and the piece is brought to
the order.

_Cease firing_ is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of
position or to steady the men.



APPENDIX B.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF,
_Washington, December 2, 1911._

Paragraphs 747, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, and 798, Infantry Drill
Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops equipped with the Infantry
Equipment, model 1910. For troops equipped under General Orders, No.
23, War Department, 1906, and orders amendatory thereof, the
alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.

By order of the Secretary of War:

LEONARD WOOD,
_Major General, Chief of Staff._


747. If the inspection is to include an examination of the blanket
rolls the captain, before dismissing the company and after inspecting
the file closers, directs the lieutenants to remain in place, closes
ranks, stacks arms, dresses the company back to four paces from the
stacks, takes intervals, and commands: 1. _Unsling_, 2. _PACKS_, 3.
_Open_, 4. _PACKS_.

At the second command each man unslings his roll and places it on the
ground at his feet, rounded end to the front, square end of shelter
half to the right.

At the fourth command the rolls are untied, laid perpendicular to the
front with the triangular end of the shelter half to the front,
opened, and unrolled to the left; each man prepares the contents of
his roll for inspection and resumes the attention.

The captain then returns saber, passes along the ranks and file
closers as before, inspects the rolls, returns to the right, draws
saber and commands: 1. _Close_, 2. _PACKS_.

At the second command each man, with his shelter half smoothly spread
on the ground with buttons up and triangular end to the front, folds
his blanket once across its length and places it upon the shelter
half, fold toward the bottom, edge one-half inch from the square end,
the same amount of canvas uncovered at the top and bottom. He then
places the parts of the pole on the side of the blanket next the
square end of shelter half, near and parallel to the fold, end of pole
about 6 inches from the edge of the blanket; nests the pins similarly
near the opposite edge of the blanket and distributes the other
articles carried in the roll; folds the triangular end and then the
exposed portion of the bottom of the shelter half over the blanket.

The two men in each file roll and fasten first the roll of the front
and then of the rear rank man. The file closers work similarly two and
two, or with the front rank man of a blank file. Each pair stands on
the folded side, rolls the blanket roll closely and buckles the
straps, passing the end of the strap through both keeper and buckle,
back over the buckle and under the keeper. With the roll so lying on
the ground that the edge of the shelter half can just be seen when
looking vertically downward one end is bent upward and over to meet
the other, a clove hitch is taken with the guy rope first around the
end to which it is attached and then around the other end, adjusting
the length of rope between hitches to suit the wearer.

As soon as a file completes its two rolls each man places his roll in
the position it was in after being unslung and stands at attention.

All the rolls being completed, the captain commands: 1. _Sling_, 2.
_PACKS_.

At the second command the rolls are slung, the end containing the pole
to the rear.

The company is assembled, takes arms, and the captain completes the
inspection as before.

792. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
_FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS_.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks form a
file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first
sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the
company; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men taken
from the front rank; the remaining guide or guides, and file closers
form on a convenient flank. Before forming column of platoons,
preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be redivided into two
or more platoons regardless of the size of each. (_C.I.D.R., No. 2._)

793. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad, and commands: _PITCH TENTS_.

At the command _pitch tents_, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the butt
of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front,
barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each front rank man
then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground by the outside of
the right heel. All unsling and open the blanket rolls and take out
the shelter half, poles, and pins. Each then spreads his shelter half,
triangle to the rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, rear
rank man's half on the right. The halves are then buttoned together.
Each front rank man joins his pole, inserts the top in the eyes of the
halves, and holds the pole upright beside the bayonet placed in the
ground; his rear rank man, using the pins in front, pins down the
front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching the
canvas taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye of the rope and drives
the pin at such distance in front of the pole as to hold the rope
taut. Both then go to the rear of the tent; the rear rank man adjusts
the pole and the front rank man drives the pins. The rest of the pins
are then driven by both men, the rear rank man working on the right.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges the contents of the
blanket roll in the tent and stands at attention in front of his own
half on line with the front guy rope pin.

The guy ropes, to have a uniform slope when the shelter tents are
pitched, should all be of the same length. (_C.I.D.R., Nos. 2 and 8._)

794. When the blanket roll is not carried, intervals are taken as
described above; the position of the front pole is marked with a
bayonet and equipments are laid aside. The men then proceed to the
wagon, secure their rolls, return to their places, and pitch tents as
heretofore described.

795. To pitch double shelter tent, the captain gives the same commands
as before, except _Take half interval_ is given instead of _Take
interval_. In taking interval each man follows the preceding man at 2
paces. The captain then commands: _PITCH DOUBLE TENTS_.

The first sergeant places himself on the right of the right guide and
with him pitches a single shelter tent.

Only the odd numbers of the front rank mark the line with the bayonet.

The tent is formed by buttoning together the square ends of two single
tents. Two complete tents, except one pole, are used. Two guy ropes
are used at each end, the guy pins being placed in front of the corner
pins.

The tents are pitched by numbers 1 and 2, front and rear rank; and by
numbers 3 and 4, front and rear rank; the men falling in on the left
are numbered, counting off if necessary.

All the men spread their shelter halves on the ground the tent is to
occupy. Those of the front rank are placed with the triangular ends to
the front. All four halves are then buttoned together, first the
ridges and then the square ends. The front corners of the tent are
pinned by the front-rank men, the odd number holding the poles, the
even number driving the pins. The rear-rank men similarly pin the rear
corners.

While the odd numbers steady the poles, each even number of the front
rank takes his pole and enters the tent, where, assisted by the even
number of the rear rank, he adjusts the pole to the center eyes of the
shelter halves in the following order: (1) The lower half of the front
tent; (2) the lower half of the rear tent; (3) the upper half of the
front tent; (4) the upper half of the rear tent. The guy ropes are
then adjusted.

The tents having been pitched, the triangular ends are turned back,
contents of the rolls arranged, and the men stand at _attention_, each
opposite his own shelter half and facing out from the tent.

796. Omitted.

797. Omitted.

798. Omitted.



APPENDIX C.

MANUAL OF THE BAYONET.


WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF,
_Washington, February 20, 1918_.

The following Manual of the Bayonet, prepared by a board consisting of
Capt. Herschel Tupes, First Infantry, and Capt. Grosvenor L. Townsend,
First Infantry, is approved and issued for the information and
government of the Regular Army and the Organized Militia of the United
States.

By order of the Secretary of War.

LEONARD WOOD,
_Major General, Chief of Staff_.



MANUAL OF THE BAYONET.

UNITED STATES ARMY.


1. The infantry soldier relies mainly on fire action to disable the
enemy, but he should know that personal combat is often necessary to
obtain success. Therefore, he must be instructed in the use of the
rifle and bayonet in hand-to-hand encounters.

2. The object of this instruction is to teach the soldier how to make
effective use of the rifle and bayonet in personal combat; to make him
quick and proficient in handling his rifle; to give him an accurate
eye and a steady hand; and to give him confidence in the bayonet in
offense and defense. When skill in these exercises has been acquired,
the rifle will still remain a most formidable weapon at close quarters
should the bayonet be lost or disabled.

3. Efficiency of organizations in bayonet fighting will be judged by
the skill shown by individuals in personal combat. For this purpose
pairs or groups of opponents, selected at random from among recruits
and trained soldiers, should engage in assaults, using the fencing
equipment provided for the purpose.

4. Officers and specially selected and thoroughly instructed
noncommissioned officers will act as instructors.

5. Instruction in bayonet combat should begin as soon as the soldier
is familiar with the handling of his rifle and will progress, as far
as practicable, in the order followed in the text.

6. Instruction is ordinarily given on even ground; but practice should
also be had on uneven ground, especially in the attack and defense of
intrenchments.

7. These exercises will not be used as a calisthenic drill.

8. The principles of the commands are the same as those given in
paragraphs 9, 15, and 38, Infantry Drill Regulations. Intervals and
distances will be taken as in paragraphs 109 and 111, Infantry Drill
Regulations, except that, in formations for bayonet exercises, the men
should be at least four paces apart in every direction.

9. Before requiring soldiers to take a position or execute a movement
for the first time, the instructor executes the same for the purpose
of illustration, after which he requires the soldiers to execute the
movement individually. Movements prescribed in this manual will not be
executed in cadence as the attempt to do so results in incomplete
execution and lack of vigor. Each movement will be executed correctly
as quickly as possible by every man. As soon as the movements are
executed accurately, the commands are given rapidly, as expertness
with the bayonet depends chiefly upon quickness of motion.

10. The exercises will be interrupted at first by short and frequent
rests. The rests will be less frequent as proficiency is attained.
Fatigue and exhaustion will be specially guarded against as they
prevent proper interest being taken in the exercises and delay the
progress of the instruction. Rests will be given from the position of
order arms in the manner prescribed in Infantry Drill Regulations.


THE BAYONET.

NOMENCLATURE AND DESCRIPTION.

11. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting of three
principal parts, viz, the _blade_, _guard_, and _grip_.

[Illustration]

12. The blade has the following parts: Edge, false edge, back,
grooves, point, and tang. The length of the blade from guard to point
is 16 inches, the edge 14.5 inches, and the false edge 5.6 inches.
Length of the rifle, bayonet fixed, is 59.4 inches. The weight of the
bayonet is 1 pound; weight of rifle without bayonet is 8.69 pounds.
The center of gravity of the rifle, with bayonet fixed, is just in
front of the rear sight.


I. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE RIFLE.

13. The instructor explains the importance of good footwork and
impresses on the men the fact that quickness of foot and suppleness of
body are as important for attack and defense as is the ability to
parry and deliver a strong point or cut.

14. All foot movements should be made from the position of _guard_. As
far as practicable, they will be made on the balls of the feet to
insure quickness and agility. No hard and fast rule can be laid down
as to the length of the various foot movements; this depends entirely
on the situations occurring in combat.

15. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

1. _Bayonet exercise_, 2. _GUARD_.

At the command _guard_, half face to the right, carry back and place
the right foot about once and a half its length to the rear and about
3 inches to the right, the feet forming with each other an angle of
about 60°, weight of the body balanced equally on the balls of the
feet, knees slightly bent, palms of hands on hips, fingers to the
front, thumbs to the rear, head erect, head and eyes straight to the
front.

16. To resume the attention, 1. _Squad_, 2. _ATTENTION_. The men take
the position of the soldier and fix their attention.

17. _ADVANCE._ Advance the left foot quickly about once its length,
follow immediately with the right foot the same distance.

18. _RETIRE._ Move the right foot quickly to the rear about once its
length, follow immediately with the left foot the same distance.

19. 1. _Front_, 2. _PASS_. Place the right foot quickly about once its
length in front of the left, advance the left foot to its proper
position in front of the right.

20. 1. _Rear_, 2. _PASS_. Place the left foot quickly about once its
length in rear of the right, retire the right foot to its proper
position in rear of the left.

The passes are used to get quickly within striking distance or to
withdraw quickly therefrom.

21. 1. _Right_, 2. _STEP_. Step to the right with the right foot about
once its length and place the left foot in its proper relative
position.

22. 1. _Left_, 2. _STEP_. Step to the left with the left foot about
once its length and place the right foot in its proper relative
position.

These steps are used to circle around an enemy, to secure a more
favorable line of attack, or to avoid the opponent's attack. Better
ground or more favorable light may be gained in this way. In bayonet
fencing and in actual combat the foot first moved in stepping to the
right or left is the one which at the moment bears the least weight.


II. INSTRUCTION WITH THE RIFLE.

23. The commands for and the execution of the foot movements are the
same as already given for movements without the rifle.

24. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

1. _Bayonet exercise_, 2. _GUARD_.

At the second command take the position of guard (see par. 15); at the
same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp the rifle with
the left hand just below the lower band, fingers between the stock and
gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the left, the right hand grasping
the small of the stock about 6 inches in front of the right hip,
elbows free from the body, bayonet point at the height of the chin.

25. 1. _Order_, 2. _ARMS_.

Bring the right foot up to the left and the rifle to the position of
order arms, at the same time resuming the position of attention.

26. During the preliminary instruction, attacks and defenses will be
executed from guard until proficiency is attained, after which they
may be executed from any position in which the rifle is held.

[Illustration: Par. 27. Par. 24.]


ATTACKS.

27. 1. _THRUST._

Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left arm,
turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the bayonet at
the point to be attacked, butt covering the right forearm. At the same
time straighten the right leg vigorously and throw the weight of the
body forward and on the left leg, the ball of the right foot always on
the ground. Guard is resumed immediately without command.

The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right arm,
the left being used to direct the bayonet. The points at which the
attack should be directed are, in order of their importance, stomach,
chest, head, neck, and limbs.

[Illustration: Par. 28.]

28. 1. _LUNGE._

Executed in the same manner as the thrust, except that the left foot
is carried forward about twice its length. The left heel must always
be in rear of the left knee. Guard is resumed immediately without
command. Guard may also be resumed by advancing the right foot if, for
any reason, it is desired to hold the ground gained in lunging. In the
latter case, the preparatory common _forward_ will be given. Each
method should be practiced.

[Illustration: Par. 29.]

29. 1. _Butt_, 2. _STRIKE_.

Straighten right arm and right leg vigorously and swing butt of rifle
against point of attack, pivoting the rifle in the left hand at about
the height of the left shoulder, allowing the bayonet to pass to the
rear on the left side of the head. Guard is resumed without command.

The points of attack in their order of importance are, head, neck,
stomach, and crotch.

30. 1. _Cut_, 2. _DOWN_.

Execute a quick downward stroke, edge of bayonet directed at point of
attack. Guard is resumed without command.

31. 1. _Cut_, 2. _RIGHT (LEFT)_.

With a quick extension of the arms execute a cut to the right (left),
directing the edge toward the point attacked. Guard is resumed without
command.

The cuts are especially useful against the head, neck, and hands of an
enemy. In executing left cut it should be remembered that the false,
or back edge, is only 5.6 inches long. The cuts can be executed in
continuation of strokes, thrusts, lunges, and parries.

32. To direct an attack to the right, left, or rear the soldier will
change front as quickly as possible in the most convenient manner, for
example: 1. _To the right rear_, 2. _Cut_, 3. _DOWN_; 1. _To the
right_, 2. _LUNGE_; 1. _To the left_, 2. _THRUST_, etc.

Whenever possible the impetus gained by the turning movement of the
body should be thrown into the attack. In general this will be best
accomplished by turning on the ball of the right foot.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position of
guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

[Illustration: Par. 33. Par. 36.]

33. Good judgment of distance is essential. Accuracy in thrusting and
lunging is best attained by practicing these attacks against rings or
other convenient openings, about 3 inches in diameter, suitably
suspended at desired heights.

34. The thrust and lunges at rings should first be practiced by
endeavoring to hit the opening looked at. This should be followed by
directing the attack against one opening while looking at another.

35. The soldier should also experience the effect of actual resistance
offered to the bayonet and the butt of the rifle in attacks. This will
be taught by practicing attacks against a dummy.

36. Dummies should be constructed in such a manner as to permit the
execution of attacks without injury to the point or edge of the
bayonet or to the barrel or stock of the rifle. A suitable dummy can
be made from pieces of rope about 5 feet in length plaited closely
together into a cable between 6 and 12 inches in diameter. Old rope is
preferable. Bags weighted and stuffed with hay, straw, shavings, etc.,
are also suitable.


DEFENSES.

37. In the preliminary drills in the defenses the position of guard is
resumed, by command, after each parry. When the men have become
proficient, the instructor will cause them to resume the position of
guard instantly without command after the execution of each parry.

38. 1. _Parry_, 2. _RIGHT_.

Keeping the right hand in the guard position, move the rifle sharply
to the right with the left arm, so that the bayonet point is about 6
inches to the right.

39. 1. _Parry_, 2. _LEFT_.

Move the rifle sharply to the left front with both hands so as to
cover the point attacked.

[Illustration: Par. 40. Par 41.]

40. 1. _Parry_, 2. _HIGH_.

Raise the rifle with both hands high enough to clear the line of
vision, barrel downward, point of the bayonet to the left front.

When necessary to raise the rifle well above the head, it may be
supported between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. This
position will be necessary against attacks from higher elevations,
such as men mounted or on top of parapets.

[Illustration: Par. 41. Par. 44.]

41. 1. _Low parry_, 2. _RIGHT (LEFT)_.

Carry the point of the bayonet down until it is at the height of the
knee, moving the point of the bayonet sufficiently to the right (left)
to keep the opponent's attacks clear of the point threatened.

These parries are rarely used, as an attack below the waist, leaves
the head and body exposed.

42. Parries must not be too wide or sweeping, but sharp, short
motions, finished with a jerk or quick catch. The hands should, as far
as possible, be kept in the line of attack. Parries against _butt
strike_ are made by quickly moving the guard so as to cover the point
attacked.

43. To provide against attack from the right, left, or rear the
soldier will change front as quickly as possible in the most
convenient manner; for example: 1. _To the left rear_, 2. _Parry_, 3.
_HIGH_; 1. _To the right_, 2. _Parry_, 3. _RIGHT_, etc.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position of
guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

In changing front for the purpose of attack or defense, if there is
danger of wounding a comrade, the rifle should first be brought to a
vertical position.

[Illustration: Par. 44.]


III. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE BAYONET.

44. 1. _Club rifle_, 2. _SWING_.

Being at order arms, at the preparatory command quickly raise and turn
the rifle, regrasping it with both hands between the rear sight and
muzzle, barrel down, thumbs around the stock and toward the butt; at
the same time raise the rifle above the shoulder farthest from the
opponent, butt elevated and to the rear, elbows slightly bent and
knees straight. Each individual takes such position of the feet,
shoulders, and hands as best accords with his natural dexterity.
_SWING._ Tighten the grasp of the hands and swing the rifle to the
front and downward, directing it at the head of the opponent and
immediately return to the position of _club rifle_ by completing the
swing of the rifle downward and to the rear. Repeat by the command,
_SWING_.

The rifle should be swung with sufficient force to break through any
guard or parry that may be interposed.

Being at _club rifle_, order arms is resumed by command.

The use of this attack against dummies or in fencing is prohibited.

45. The position of _club rifle_ may be taken from any position of the
rifle prescribed in the Manual of Arms. It will not be taken in
personal combat unless the emergency is such as to preclude the use of
the bayonet.


IV. COMBINED MOVEMENTS.

46. The purpose of combined movements is to develop more vigorous
attacks and more effective defenses than are obtained by the single
movements; to develop skill in passing from attack to defense and the
reverse. Every movement to the front should be accompanied by an
attack, which is increased in effectiveness by the forward movement of
the body. Every movement to the rear should ordinarily be accompanied
by a parry and should always be followed by an attack. Movements to
the right or left may be accompanied by attacks or defenses.

47. Not more than three movements will be used in any combination. The
instructor should first indicate the number of movements that are to
be combined as _two movements_ or _three movements_. The execution is
determined by one command of execution, and the position of guard is
taken upon the completion of the last movement only.


EXAMPLES.

     _Front pass and LUNGE._
     _Right step and THRUST._
     _Left step and low parry RIGHT._
     _Rear pass, parry left and LUNGE._
     _Lunge and cut RIGHT._
     _Parry right and parry HIGH._
     _Butt strike and cut DOWN._
     _Thrust and parry HIGH._
     _Parry high and LUNGE._
     _Advance, thrust and cut RIGHT._
     _Right step, parry left and cut DOWN._
     _To the left, butt strike and cut DOWN._
     _To the right rear, cut down and butt STRIKE._

48. Attacks against dummies will be practiced. The approach will be
made against the dummies both in quick time and double time.


V. PRACTICAL BAYONET COMBAT.

49. The principles of practical bayonet combat should be taught as far
as possible during the progress of instruction in bayonet exercises.

50. The soldier must be continually impressed with the extreme
importance of the offensive due to its moral effect. Should an attack
fail, it should be followed immediately by another attack before the
opponent has an opportunity to assume the offensive. Keep the opponent
on the defensive. If, due to circumstances, it is necessary to take
the defensive, constantly watch for an opportunity to assume the
offensive and take immediate advantage of it.

51. Observe the ground with a view to obtaining the best footing. Time
for this will generally be too limited to permit more than a single
hasty glance.

52. In personal combat watch the opponent's eyes if they can be
plainly seen, and do not fix the eyes on his weapon nor upon the point
of your attack. If his eyes can not be plainly seen, as in night
attacks, watch the movements of his weapon and of his body.

53. Keep the body well covered and deliver attacks vigorously. The
point of the bayonet should always be kept as nearly as possible in
the line of attack. The less the rifle is moved upward, downward, to
the right, or to the left, the better prepared the soldier is for
attack or defense.

54. Constantly watch for a chance to attack the opponent's left hand.
His position of _guard_ will not differ materially from that described
in paragraph 24. If his bayonet is without a cutting edge, he will be
at a great disadvantage.

55. The butt is used for close and sudden attacks. It is particularly
useful in riot duty. From the position of port arms a sentry can
strike a severe blow with the butt of the rifle.

56. Against a man on foot, armed with a sword, be careful that the
muzzle of the rifle is not grasped. All the swordsman's energies will
be directed toward getting past the bayonet. Attack him with short,
stabbing thrusts, and keep him beyond striking distance of his weapon.

57. The adversary may attempt a greater extension in the thrust and
lunge by quitting the grasp of his piece with the left hand and
advancing the right as far as possible. When this is done, a sharp
parry may cause him to lose control of his rifle, leaving him exposed
to a counter attack, which should follow promptly.

58. Against odds a small number of men can fight to best advantage by
grouping themselves so as to prevent their being attacked from behind.

59. In fighting a mounted man armed with a saber every effort must be
made to get on his near or left side, because here his reach is much
shorter and his parries much weaker. If not possible to disable such
an enemy, attack his horse and then renew the attack on the horseman.

60. In receiving night attacks the assailant's movements can be best
observed from the kneeling or prone position, as his approach
generally brings him against the sky line. When he arrives within
attacking distance rise quickly and lunge well forward at the middle
of his body.


VI. FENCING EXERCISES.

61. Fencing exercises in two lines consist of combinations of thrusts,
parries, and foot movements executed at command or at will, the
opponent replying with suitable parries and returns.

62. The instructor will inspect the entire fencing equipment before
the exercise begins and assure himself that everything is in such
condition as will prevent accidents.

63. The men equip themselves and form in two lines at the order,
facing each other, with intervals of about 4 paces between files and a
distance of about 2 paces between lines. One line is designated as
number 1; the other, number 2. Also as attack and defense.

64. The opponents being at the order facing each other, the instructor
commands: _SALUTE_.

Each man, with eyes on his opponent, carries the left hand smartly to
the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and
joined, forearm horizontal, forefinger touching the bayonet. (Two.)
Drop the arm smartly by the side.

This salute is the fencing salute.

All fencing exercises and all fencing at will between individuals will
begin and terminate with the formal courtesy of the fencing salute.

65. After the fencing salute has been rendered the instructor
commands: 1. _Fencing exercise_, 2. _GUARD_.

At the command _guard_ each man comes to the position of _guard_,
heretofore defined, bayonets crossed, each man's bayonet bearing
lightly to the right against the corresponding portion of the
opponent's bayonet. This position is known as the _engage_ or _engage
right_.

66. Being at the _engage right_: _ENGAGE LEFT_.

The attack drops the point of his bayonet quickly until clear of his
opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward and to the
right; bayonets are crossed similarly as in the engaged position,
each man's bayonet bearing lightly to the left against the
corresponding portion of the opponent's bayonet.

67. Being at _engage left_: _ENGAGE RIGHT_.

The attack quickly drops the point of his bayonet until clear of his
opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward and to the
left and _engages_.

68. Being _engaged_: _ENGAGE LEFT AND RIGHT_.

The attack _engages left_ and then immediately _engages right_.

69. Being _engaged left_: _ENGAGE RIGHT AND LEFT_.

The attack _engages right_ and then immediately _engages left_.

70. 1. _Number one, ENGAGE RIGHT (LEFT)_; 2. _Number two, COUNTER_.

Number one executes the movement ordered, as above; number two quickly
drops the point of his bayonet and circles it upward to the original
position.

71. In all fencing while maintaining the pressure in the engage, a
certain freedom of motion of the rifle is allowable, consisting of the
play, or up-and-down motion, of one bayonet against the other. This is
necessary to prevent the opponent from divining the intended attack.
It also prevents his using the point of contact as a pivot for his
assaults. In changing from one engage to the other the movement is
controlled by the left hand, the right remaining stationary.

72. After some exercise in _engage_, _engage left_, and _counter_,
exercises will be given in the _assaults_.


ASSAULTS.

73. The part of the body to be attacked will be designated by name, as
head, heck, chest, stomach, legs. No attacks will be made below the
knees. The commands are given and the movements for each line are
first explained thoroughly by the instructor; the execution begins at
the command _assault_. Number one executes the attack, and number two
parries; conversely, at command, number two attacks and number one
parries.

74. For convenience in instruction _assaults_ are divided into _simple
attacks_, _counter attacks_, _attacks on the rifle_, and _feints_.


SIMPLE ATTACKS.

75. Success in these attacks depends on quickness of movement. There
are three simple attacks--the _straight_, the _disengagement_, and the
_counter disengagement_. They are not preceded by a feint.

76. In the _straight_ the bayonet is directed straight at an opening
from the engaged position. Contact with the opponent's rifle may, or
may not, be abandoned while making it. If the opening be high or low,
contact with the rifle will usually be abandoned on commencing the
attack. If the opening be near his guard, the light pressure used in
the engage may be continued in the attack.

Example: Being at the _engage right_, 1. _Number one, at neck_ (head,
chest, right leg, etc.), _thrust_; 2. _Number two, parry right_; 3.
_ASSAULT_.

77. In the _disengagement_ contact with the opponent's rifle is
abandoned and the point of the bayonet is circled _under_ or _over_
his bayonet or rifle and directed into the opening attacked. This
attack is delivered by one continuous spiral movement of the bayonet
from the moment contact is abandoned.

Example: Being at the _engage right_, 1. _Number one_, at stomach
(left chest, left leg, etc.), _thrust_; 2. _Number two, parry left_
(etc.); 3. _ASSAULT_.

78. In the _counter disengagement_ a swift attack is made into the
opening disclosed while the opponent is attempting to change the
engagement of his rifle. It is delivered by one continuous spiral
movement of the bayonet into the opening.

Example: Being at the _engage right_, 1. _Number two, engage left_; 2.
_Number one_, at chest, _thrust_; 3. _Number two, parry left_; 4.
_ASSAULT_.

Number two initiates the movement, number one thrusts as soon as the
opening is made, and number two then attempts to parry.

79. A _counter attack_ or _return_ is one made instantly after or in
continuation of a parry. The parry should be as narrow as possible.
This makes it more difficult for the opponent to recover and counter
parry. The counter attack should also be made at, or just before, the
full extension of the opponent's attack, as when it is so made, a
simple extension of the arms will generally be sufficient to reach the
opponent's body.

Example: Being at _engage_, 1. _Number two_, at chest, _lunge_; 2.
_Number one, parry right_, and at stomach (chest, head, etc.),
_thrust_; 3. _ASSAULT_.


ATTACKS ON THE RIFLE.

80. These movements are made for the purpose of forcing or disclosing
an opening into which an attack can be made. They are the _press_,
the _beat_, and the _twist_.

81. In the _press_ the attack quickly presses against the opponent's
bayonet or rifle with his own and continues the pressure as the attack
is delivered.

Example: Being at the _engage_, 1. _Number one, press_, and at chest,
_thrust_; 2. _Number two, parry right_; 3. _ASSAULT_.

82. The attack by _disengagement_ is particularly effective following
_the press_.

Example: Being at the _engage_, 1. _Number one, press_, and at
stomach, _thrust_; 2. _Number two, low parry left_; 3. _ASSAULT_.

83. The _beat_ is an attack in which a sharp blow is struck against
the opponent's rifle for the purpose of forcing him to expose an
opening into which an attack immediately follows. It is used when
there is but slight opposition or no contact of rifles.

Example: Being at the _engage_, 1. _Number one, beat_, and at stomach
(chest, etc.), _thrust_; 2. _Number two, parry left_; 3. _ASSAULT_.

84. In the _twist_ the rifle is crossed over the opponent's rifle or
bayonet and his bayonet forced downward with a circular motion and a
straight attack made into the opening. It requires superior strength
on the part of the attack.

Example: Being at the _engage_, 1. _Number one, twist_, and at
stomach, _thrust_; 2. _Number two, low parry, left_; 3. _ASSAULT_.


FEINTS.

85. Feints are movements which threaten or simulate attacks and are
made with a view to inducing an opening or parry that exposes the
desired point of attack. They are either single or double, according
to the number of such movements made by the attack.

86. In order that the attack may be changed quickly, as little force
as possible is put into a feint.

Example: Being at the _engage_, _Number one, feint_ head _thrust_; at
stomach, _lunge_; 2. _Number two, parry right and low parry right_; 3.
_ASSAULT_.

Number one executes the feint and then the attack. Number two executes
both parries.

87. In double feints first one part of the body and then another is
threatened and a third attacked.

Example: Being at the _engage_, 1. _Number one, feint straight thrust_
at chest; _disengagement_ at chest; at stomach, _lunge_; 2. _Number
two, parry right, parry left_, and _low parry left_; 3. _ASSAULT_.

88. An opening may be offered or procured by opposition, as in the
_press_ or _beat_.

89. In fencing exercises every feint should at first be parried. When
the defense is able to judge or divine the character of the attack the
feint is not necessarily parried, but may be nullified by a counter
feint.

90. A _counter feint_ is a feint following the opponent's feint or
following a parry of his attack and generally occurs in combined
movements.


COMBINED MOVEMENTS.

91. When the men have become thoroughly familiar with the various foot
movements, parries, guards, attacks, feints, etc., the instructor
combines several of them and gives the commands in quick succession,
increasing the rapidity and number of movements as the men become more
skillful. Opponents will be changed frequently.

1. Example: Being at the _engage_, 1. _Number one, by disengagement_
at chest, _thrust_; 2. _Number two, parry left, right step_ (left foot
first), and _lunge_; 3. _ASSAULT_.

2. Example: Being at _engage left_, _Number one, press_ and _lunge_;
2. _Number two, parry right, left step_, and _thrust_; 3. _ASSAULT_.

3. Example: Being at the _engage_, _Number one, by disengagement_ at
chest, _thrust_; 2. _Number two, parry left, front pass_, and at head
_butt strike_; 3. _Number one, right step_; 4. _ASSAULT_.

92. Examples 1 and 2 are typical of movements known as _cross
counters_, and example No. 3 of movements known as _close counters_.

93. A _chancery_ is an attack by means of which the opponent is
disarmed, which causes him to lose control of his rifle, or which
disables his weapon.

94. When the different combinations are executed with sufficient skill
the instructor will devise series of movements to be memorized and
executed at the command _assault_. The accuracy and celerity of the
movements will be carefully watched by the instructor, with a view to
the correction of faulty execution.

95. It is not intended to restrict the number of movements, but to
leave to the discretion of company commanders and the ingenuity of
instructors the selection of such other exercises as accord with the
object of the drill.


VII. FENCING AT WILL.

96. As satisfactory progress is made the instructor will proceed to
the exercises at will, by which is meant assaults between two men,
each endeavoring to hit the other and to avoid being hit himself.
Fencing at will should not be allowed to degenerate into random
attacks and defenses.

97. The instructor can supervise but one pair of combatants at a time.
Frequent changes should be made so that the men may learn different
methods of attack and defense from each other.

98. The contest should begin with simple, careful movements, with a
view to forming a correct opinion of the adversary; afterwards
everything will depend on coolness, rapid and correct execution of the
movements and quick perception of the adversary's intentions.

99. Continual retreat from the adversary's attack and frequent dodging
to escape attacks should be avoided. The offensive should be
continually encouraged.

100. In fencing at will, when no commands are given, opponents facing
each other at the position of order arms, salute. They then
immediately and simultaneously assume the position of guard, rifles
engaged. Neither man may take the position of guard before his
opponent has completed his salute. The choice of position is decided
before the salute.

101. The opponents being about two paces apart and the fencing salute
having been rendered, the instructor commands, _At will_, 2.
_ASSAULT_, after which either party has the right to attack. To
interrupt the contest the instructor will command _HALT_, at which the
combatants will immediately come to the order. To terminate the
contest the instructor will command, 1. _Halt_, 2. _SALUTE_, at which
the combatants will immediately come to the order, salute, and remove
their masks.

102. When men have acquired confidence in fencing at will, one
opponent should be required to advance upon the other in quick time at
_charge bayonet_, from a distance not to exceed 10 yards, and deliver
an attack. As soon as a hit is made by either opponent the instructor
commands, _HALT_, and the assault terminates. Opponents alternate in
assaulting. The assailant is likewise required to advance at double
time from a distance not exceeding 20 yards and at a run from a
distance not exceeding 30 yards.

103. The instructor will closely observe the contest and decide
doubtful points. He will at once stop the contest upon the slightest
indication of temper. After conclusion of the combat he will comment
on the action of both parties, point out errors and deficiencies and
explain how they may be avoided in the future.

[Illustration: Par. 104.]

104. As additional instruction, the men may be permitted to wield the
rifle left handed, that is on the left side of the body, left hand at
the small Of the stock. Many men will be able to use this method to
advantage. It is also of value in case the left hand is wounded.

105. After men have fenced in pairs, practice should be given in
fencing between groups, equally and unequally divided. When
practicable, intrenchments will be used in fencing of this
character.

In group fencing it will be necessary to have a sufficient number of
umpires to decide hits. An individual receiving a hit is withdrawn at
once from the bout, which is decided in favor of the group having the
numerical superiority at the end. The fencing salute is not required
in group fencing.


RULES FOR FENCING AT WILL.

106. 1. Hits on the legs below the knees will not be counted. No hit
counts unless, in the opinion of the instructor, it has sufficient
force to disable.

2. Upon receiving a hit, call out "hit."

3. After receiving a fair hit a counter attack is not permitted. A
position of engage is taken.

4. A second or third hit in a combined attack will be counted only
when the first hit was not called.

5. When it is necessary to stop the contest--for example, because of
breaking of weapons or displacement of means of protection--take the
position of the order.

6. When it is necessary to suspend the assault for any cause, it will
not be resumed until the adversary is ready and in condition to defend
himself.

7. Attacks directed at the crotch are prohibited in fencing.

8. Stepping out of bounds, when established, counts as a hit.


SUGGESTIONS FOR FENCING AT WILL.

107. When engaging in an assault, first study the adversary's position
and proceed by false attacks, executed with speed, to discover, if
possible, his instinctive parries. In order to draw the adversary out
and induce him to expose that part of the body at which the attack is
to be made, it is advisable to simulate an attack by a feint and then
make the real attack.

108. Return attacks should be frequently practiced, as they are
difficult to parry, and the opponent is within easier reach and more
exposed. The return can be made a continuation of the parry, as there
is no previous warning of its delivery although it should always be
expected. Returns are made without lunging if the adversary can be
reached by thrusts or cuts.

109. Endeavor to overcome the tendency to make a return without
knowing where it will hit. Making returns blindly is a bad habit and
leads to instinctive returns--that is, habitual returns with certain
attacks from certain parries--a fault which the skilled opponent will
soon discover.

110. Do not draw the rifle back preparatory to thrusting and lunging.

111. The purpose of fencing at will is to teach the soldier as many
forms of simple, effective attacks and defenses as possible.
Complicated and intricate movements should not be attempted.


HINTS FOR INSTRUCTORS.

112. The influence of the instructor is great. He must be master of
his weapon, not only to show the various movements, but also to lead
in the exercises at will. He should stimulate the zeal of the men and
arouse pleasure in the work. Officers should qualify themselves as
instructors by fencing with each other.

113. The character of each man, his bodily conformation, and his
degree of skill must always be taken into account. When the instructor
is demonstrating the combinations, feints, returns, and parries the
rapidity of his attack should be regulated by the skill of the pupil
and no more force than is necessary should be used. If the pupil
exposes himself too much in the feints and parries the instructor
will, by an attack, convince him of his error; but if these returns be
too swiftly or too strongly made the pupil will become overcautious
and the precision of his attack will be impaired. The object is to
teach the pupil, not to give exhibitions of superior skill.

114. Occasionally the instructor should leave himself uncovered and
fail to parry, in order to teach the pupil to take quick advantage of
such opportunities.


VIII. COMPETITIONS.

115. In competitions between different organizations none but skillful
fencers will be allowed to participate.

116. In contests between two men judges may assign values to hits as
follows:

-------------------------------------------------
                   | Thrusts |          |  Butt
                   |   and   |  Cuts.   |   of
                   | lunges. |          | rifle.
-------------------------------------------------
Stomach            |    4    |          |   1
Chest              |    3    |          |
Head               |    3    |    2     |   3
Neck               |    2    |    2     |   2
Legs               |    1    |    1     |
Arms and hands     |    1    |    1     |
-------------------------------------------------

Stepping out of bounds, 4 points.

117. When superiority between two men is decided by bouts, each bout
will be decided by itself, i.e., points won in one bout can not be
carried over to another.

118. Details other than those mentioned above will be arranged by the
officials of the competition.



[C.I.D.R. 20.]

INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS.

CHANGES }                   WAR DEPARTMENT,
No. 20  }                   WASHINGTON, _August 18, 1917_.

Paragraph 150 and paragraph 150 of Appendix A, Infantry Drill
Regulations (corrected to Apr. 15, 1917), are changed as follows, to
correct error made in printing that edition:

150. (Page 47.) _CEASE FIRING._

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of
load; those not loaded are loaded; sights are laid, pieces are locked
and brought to the order.

_Cease firing_ is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of
position, or to steady the men. (_C.I.D.R. No. 20, August 18, 1917._)

[300.73, A.G.O.]

150. (Page 220, Appendix A.) _CEASE FIRING._

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of
load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartridge
is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, sights
are laid down, and the piece is brought to the order.

_Cease firing_ is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of
position or to steady the men. (_C.I.D.R. No. 20, August 18, 1917._)

[300.73, A.G.O.]

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

H.L. SCOTT,
_Major General, Chief of Staff_.

Official:
H.P. McCAIN,
_The Adjutant General_.



Books necessary for citizens and for every man interested in home
defense and the military.

Field Service Regulations                                      .75
Regulations for the Army of the United States                 1.00
Manual for Army Bakers                                         .75
Blue Jackets Manual                                           1.00
Sanitary Troops                                                .75
Manual of Physical Training                                    .75
Rules of Land Warfare                                          .75
Coast Artillery Drill Regulations                             1.00
Provisional Drill & Service Reg. For Field Artillery          1.25
Ship and Gun Drills                                            .60
Cavalry Drill Regulations                                      .75
Small Arms Firing Manual                                       .75
United States Army Transport Service Regulations               .50
Manual for Army Cooks                                          .75
Engineer's Field Manual                                       1.25
The Deck and Boat Book                                         .60
Infantry Drill Regulations                                     .50
Drill Regulations for Machine Gun Companies                    .30
Manual of Interior Guard Duty United States Army               .50
Signal Book United States Army                                 .35
Provisional Drill Regulations for 6' Howitzers                1.25
Drill Regulations for Field Companies of Signal Corps          .75
Gunnery and Explosive                                          .35
Manual for Court Martials                                     1.10
Manual for Medical Department                                 1.10
Army Horse in Accident & Disease                               .85
Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates Manual                  .50
Provisional Drill Reg. for Horse and Light Artillery          1.25

All the above Military and Naval text books have been compiled by U.S.
Army and Navy officers and contain all changes to date.

MILITARY PUBLISHING CO.
42 BROADWAY
NEW YORK





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Infantry Drill Regulations, United States Army, 1911 - Corrected to April 15, 1917 (Changes Nos. 1 to 19)" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home