Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Elements of Plumbing
Author: Dibble, Samuel Edward, 1882-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Elements of Plumbing" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                        ELEMENTS

                           OF

                        PLUMBING

                           BY
                  SAMUEL EDWARD DIBBLE

     HEAD OF SANITARY EQUIPMENT AND INSTALLATION DEPT.
             CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


                     FIRST EDITION

              MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.
              239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK

            LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., LTD.
                6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C.
                         1918



                COPYRIGHT, 1918, BY THE
              MCGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.



                THE MAPLE PRESS YORK PA



PREFACE


In preparing this manuscript the author has had in mind the needs
of young men having no technical instruction who are anxious to
become proficient in the art of Plumbing. As a consequence each
exercise is minutely described and illustrated; so much so,
perhaps, that an experienced mechanic may find it too simple for
skilled hands and a mature mind. But the beginner will not find the
exercises too elaborately described and will profit by careful
study. Years of experience and observation have shown the author
that the methods herein described are entirely practical and are in
common use today.

The various exercises in lead work will acquaint the beginner with
the correct use of tools and metals. The exercises in iron pipe
work have also been detailed to show the correct installation of
jobs.

Together with the study of this book the subjects of Mathematics,
Physics, Chemistry, Drawing and English should be taken. These
subjects as they bear on Plumbing are invaluable to the mechanic in
his future connection with the trade.

The author is indebted for the illustrations of fixtures in the
chapter covering the development of plumbing fixtures, to the
Thomas Maddock's Sons Co., Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co., and The
Trenton Potteries Co.

                              SAMUEL EDWARD DIBBLE.
                              PITTSBURGH, _December, 1917_.



CONTENTS

                                                                  PAGE

     PREFACE                                                         v

     CHAPTER

     I. Plumbing Fixtures and Trade                                  1

     II. The Use and Care of the Soldering Iron--Fluxes--Making
     Different Soldering Joints                                     11

     III. Mixtures of Solders for Soldering Iron and Wiping--Care
     of Solders--Melting Points of Metals and Alloys                21

     IV. Making and Caring of Wiping Cloths                         24

     V. Preparing and Wiping Joints                                 27

     VI. Preparing and Wiping Joints (_Continued_)                  37

     VII. Laying Terra-cotta and Making Connections to Public
     Sewers--Water Connections to Mains in Streets                  69

     VIII. Installing of French or Sub-soil Drains                  82

     IX. Storm and Sanitary Drainage with Sewage Disposal in
     View                                                           86

     X. Soil and Waste Pipes and Vents--Tests                       95

     XI. House Traps, Fresh-air Connections, Drum Traps, and
     Non-syphoning Traps                                           104

     XII. Pipe Threading                                           110

     XIII. Cold-water Supply--Test                                 118

     XIV. Hot-water Heaters--Instantaneous Coil and Storage
     Tanks--Return Circulation, Hot-water Lines and Expansion      124

     XV. Insulation of Piping to Eliminate Conduction, Radiation,
     Freezing and Noise                                            131

     XVI. "Durham" or "Screw Pipe" Work--Pipe and Fittings         134

     XVII. Gas Fittings, Pipe and Fittings, Threading, Measuring
     and Testing                                                   141

     XVIII. Plumbing Codes                                         153

     INDEX                                                         167



ELEMENTS OF PLUMBING



CHAPTER I

PLUMBING FIXTURES AND TRADE


Modern plumbing as a trade is the arranging and running of pipes to
supply pure water to buildings, the erecting of fixtures for the
use of this supply, and the installing of other pipes for the
resulting waste water. The work of the trade divides itself
therefore into two parts: first the providing an adequate supply of
water; and second, the disposing of this water after use. The first
division offers few problems to the plumber, little variety in the
layout being possible, and the result depending mostly upon the
arrangement of the pipes and fittings; but the second division
calls for careful study in the arrangement, good workmanship in the
installing, and individual attention to each fixture.

The trade had its beginnings in merely supplying fresh water to a
community. This was done by means of trenching, or conveying water
from lakes, rivers, or springs through wooden pipes or open
troughs. By easy stages the trade improved and enlarged its scope,
until at the present time it is able to provide for the adequate
distribution of tons of water under high pressure furnished by the
city water works.

In the early years of the trade the question of the disposal of the
waste water was easily answered, for it was allowed to be
discharged onto the ground to seek its own course. But with the
increased amount of water available, the waste-water problem has
enlarged until today it plays the most important part of plumbing,
and the trade has had to change to meet this waste-water problem.

The first simple system of a pipe running from the sink to a point
outside the building was sufficient. As larger buildings came into
use and communities were more thickly populated, the plumbing
problem demanded thought and intense study. The waste pipes from
fixtures had to be so arranged that it would be impossible for foul
odors and germ-laden air to enter the building through a plumbing
fixture. The importance of this is evidenced by the plumbing laws
now in use throughout the country.

One of the first plumbing fixtures put into common use was a
hollowed-out stone which served as a sink. It was with considerable
interest that the writer saw a sink of this kind in actual use in
the summer of 1915, at a house in a New England village. This sink
had been in service for about 100 years. From this beginning the
well-known fixtures of today have developed. The demand for
moderate priced, sanitary closets, lavatories, and baths has led to
the rapid improvement seen in plumbing fixtures. In the development
of these fixtures, as soon as a bad feature was recognized the
fixture was at once discarded, until now the market offers fixtures
as mechanically fine as can be produced. Plumbing fixtures were at
first manufactured so that it was necessary to support them on a
wooden frame, and this frame was enclosed in wood. The enclosure
made by this framework soon became foul and filthy and a breeding
place for all kinds of disease germs and vermin. This bad feature
was overcome by the introduction of open plumbing, that is,
fixtures so made that the enclosure of wood could be done away
with. The open plumbing allowed a free circulation of air around
the fixture and exposed pipes, thereby making the outside of the
fixture and its immediate surroundings free from all the bad
features of the closed plumbing. Plenty of fresh air and plenty of
light are necessary for good sanitary plumbing.

The materials of which the first open-plumbing fixtures were made
consisted of marble, copper, zinc, slate, iron, and clay. Time soon
proved that marble and slate were absorbent, copper and zinc soon
leaked from wear, iron rusted, and clay cracked and lacked
strength; therefore these materials soon became insanitary, and
foul odors were easily detected rising from the fixture. Besides
these materials being insanitary, the fact that a fixture was
constructed using a number of sections proved that joints and seams
were insanitary features on a fixture. For instance, in a marble
lavatory constructed by using one piece for the top, another for
the bowl, and still another for the back, filth accumulated at
every joint and seam. Following this condition, developed the iron
enameled and earthenware fixtures, constructed without seams and
with a smooth, even, glossy white finish. The fact that these
fixtures are made of material that is non-absorbent adds to their
value as sanitary plumbing fixtures.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Pan closet (_English_).]

Another problem which is as important as the foregoing is the
proper flushing, that is, the supplying of sufficient water in a
manner designed to cleanse the fixture properly.

The development of sanitary earthenware illustrates how the above
problems were satisfactorily solved. In the city of London a law
compelling the use of drains was enforced, and in the early 70's
the effect of this law was felt in this country. The introduction
at this time of the mechanical water closet, known as the "pan
closet," and the English plumbing material which was brought to
this country was the beginning of "American plumbing," which today
outstrips that of any other country in the world. The "pan closet"
continued in use for some time until the "valve closet" was
introduced as a more sanitary fixture. Closely following these
closets, in 1880, the plunger closet became popular as a still more
sanitary fixture. The plunger closet continued in use until the
present all-earthenware closet bowl drove all other makes from the
market. The American development of the earthenware closet bowl
put the American sanitary fixture far ahead of the English
improvements, as the American earthenware is superior and the
sanitary features of the bowls are nearer perfection.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Pan closet (_American_).]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Plunger closet.]

When the washout bowl was introduced it was considered perfection.
The hopper closet bowl, which was nothing more than a funnel-shaped
bowl placed on top of a trap, was placed in competition with the
washout bowl. There are a number of these bowls now in use and also
being manufactured. However, large cities prohibit their use.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Plunger closet.]

To quote Thomas Maddock's Sons Co.: "In 1876 Wm. Smith of San
Francisco patented a water closet which employed a jet to assist in
emptying the bowl and the development of this principle is due
entirely to the potter, who had gradually and by costly experiment
become the determining factor in the evolution of the water
closet." With this improvement it became possible to do away with
the boxing-in of the bowl which up to this time had been necessary.
Closet bowls of today are made of vitreous body which does not
permit crazing or discoloring of the ware. A study of the
illustrations which show the evolution of the closet bowl should be
of interest to the student as well as to the apprentice and
journeyman. The bath tub developed from a gouged-out stone, in
which water could be stored and used for bathing purposes, to our
present-day enameled iron and earthenware tubs. The development did
not progress very rapidly until about 25 years ago. Since then
every feature of the tub has been improved, and from a sanitary
standpoint the tubs of today cannot be improved. The bath tub has
become an American custom, as the people in this country have
demanded that they have sanitary equipment in their homes, while in
the European countries this demand has not developed.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Modern low-tank closet.]

The first tubs used in this country were of wood lined with copper
or zinc, and were built in or boxed in with wood panelling. The
plumbing ordinances of today prohibit this boxing as it proved to
be a breeding place for vermin, etc. As the illustration shows, the
woodwork encasing the tub was in a great many cases beautifully
carved and finished.

The placing on the market of a steel-clad tub, a steel tub with a
copper lining, which did away with the boxing, was a big
improvement as far as sanitary reasons were concerned as well as a
reduction in cost of tubs. These tubs were set up on legs which
permitted cleaning and provided good ventilation all around. With
these features they drove all other tubs from the market. The
copper and zinc were found to be hard to keep clean and they were
soon replaced by the iron enamelled and earthenware tubs. The
finish on these tubs being white and non-absorbent makes
them highly acceptable as sanitary fixtures. A study of the
illustrations will show how progress has been made in design as
well as in sanitary features.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Encased bath tub.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Steel tub on legs.]

THE WASH BOWL.--Succeeding the hand basin the first wash basins
used in this country were made of marble or slate, with a round
bowl of crockery. The bowl was 14 inches in diameter originally,
but later was changed to an oval bowl. Like the bath tub these
wash stands were encased in wood, the encasing being used to
support the marble top. Ornamental brackets were introduced and the
wood encasement done away with.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Modern built-in tub.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Encased wash bowl.]

About 1902 the iron-enamelled lavatory appeared on the market and
drove all other kinds from the market at once. The reason for this
is clear. The marble stands were absorbent and were made with three
parts, top, back, and bowl; the enamelled iron lavatory is made
all in one piece of material non-absorbent. A study of the
illustrations will show clearly how the lavatory has been
improved. Strange to say, in all plumbing fixtures, and especially
the lavatory, as improvements were made to make them more sanitary
a reduction has been made in the price of an individual fixture.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Bath room of early 80's. All fixtures are
enclosed.]

The development of the urinal, showers, wash trays, drinking
fountains and other fixtures I will not attempt to cover. As the
demand has been evident for fixtures of certain types, the plumber
has been alert to anticipate and supply it. There is need,
however, for improvement in all our fixtures, especially that part
which connects with the waste pipes, also the hanging, that is the
arrangement or lack of arrangement for hanging fixtures to the
wall. The waste and overflow of all fixtures need considerable
change to make them sanitary. The opportunity is, therefore, before
anyone who will apply himself to this development. Much money,
thought, and time have been spent by the manufacturers of iron
enamelled ware and by the potteries to gather suggestions made by
the plumber in regard to fixtures, and then to perfect them. To
these manufacturers is due the beautiful design, stability, and
perfect sanitary material which make up our plumbing fixtures of
today.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]



CHAPTER II

THE USE AND CARE OF THE SOLDERING IRON. FLUXES. MAKING DIFFERENT
SOLDERING JOINTS


[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Copper.]

THE SOLDERING IRON.--The soldering iron is one of the first tools a
plumber has to master. This tool is sometimes called a "copper bit"
as it is made of copper; and so throughout this book the words
"soldering iron," "copper bit," "iron," and "bit" are used
synonymously. There are several different-shaped irons in common
use today, but an iron shaped like the one in Fig. 13 is the one
for use in the following work. Take the iron as it is purchased,
having a wooden handle and the copper exposed on pointed end.
Before it can be used the point must be faced and tinned. To do
this, proceed as follows:

     _First_, heat the iron on the furnace.

     _Second_, place in vise and file the four surfaces of the point.

     _Third_, run a file over edges and point.

     _Fourth_, heat the iron until it will melt solder.

     _Fifth_, put 6 or 8 drops of solder and a piece of rosin the size
     of a chestnut on an ordinary red brick. (This rosin is called a
     flux.)

     _Sixth_, take the hot iron and melt the solder and rosin on the
     brick.

     _Seventh_, rub the four surfaces of the point of the iron on the
     brick keeping the point in the melted solder.

The solder will soon stick to the copper surfaces and then the iron
is ready for use.

Another way to tin the iron that is in common use is to rub the
point of a hot iron on a piece of sal-ammoniac, or dip the hot iron
in reduced muriatic acid, then rub the stick of solder on the iron.
The use of muriatic acid in tinning the iron is not recommended. In
the first place, it is not always possible to carry it, and in the
second place it eats holes in the surface of iron, which makes it
necessary to file and smooth the surfaces again. The constant use
of muriatic acid on the copper soon wears it away and makes it
unfit for use. Rosin is easily carried and applied and is by far
the best to use in regular work.

POINTS TO REMEMBER IN THE CARE OF THE SOLDERING IRON.--

     _First_, proper tinning is absolutely necessary for rapid and
     good work.

     _Second_, do not allow the iron to heat red hot.

     _Third_, keep the point of the iron properly shaped.

     _Fourth_, use the same flux in tinning as is to be used in
     soldering.

     _Fifth_, when filing iron, file as little as possible.

     _Sixth_, keep in use two irons of the same size.


FLUX

A flux is used to clean the surfaces of joints and seams to be
soldered, also to keep them from oxidizing and to help the metals
to fuse.

The following list gives the names of various fluxes in common use,
how they are applied, and on what material they are most commonly
used:

     Flux                      How applied      Used on

     Rosin                     Sprinkled on     Lead, tin, and brass
     Tallow                    Melted           Lead and brass
     Muriatic acid (reduced)   With swab        Copper, galvanized iron
                                                  and brass
     Muriatic acid (raw)       With swab        Dirty galvanized iron

ROSIN.--Rosin is purchased by the pound and comes in chunks. It is
very brittle and powders easily. Plumbers generally take a piece of
1-1/4 N. P. brass tubing, solder a trap screw in one end and a
cone-shaped piece of copper on the other. The point of the cone is
left open. Rosin is put into this tube and is easily sprinkled on
work when needed.

TALLOW.--A plumber's _tallow candle_ answers the purpose for tallow
flux. Some plumbers carry a can for the tallow, making it cleaner
to handle.

MURIATIC ACID.--Muriatic acid or hydrochloric acid is used both raw
and reduced. Raw acid is not diluted or reduced. Reduced acid is
made as follows: Put some zinc chips in a lead receptacle and then
pour in the muriatic acid. The acid will at once act on the zinc.
The fumes should be allowed to escape into the outer air. When
chemical action ceases, the liquid remaining is called reduced
acid.


PLUMBERS' SOILS AND PASTE

It is necessary when soldering or wiping a joint to cover the parts
of pipe adjoining the portion that is to be soldered or wiped so
that the solder will not stick to it. There are a number of
preparations for this. The one used by the best mechanics today is
paste, made as follows:

     8 teaspoons of flour.
     1 teaspoon of salt.
     1 teaspoon of sugar.
     Mix with water and boil down to a thick paste.

The advantages of paste as a soil are many:

     _First_, it is made of materials easily obtained.

     _Second_, solder will not stick to it.

     _Third_, if pipe is thoroughly cleaned, the paste will not rub
     off easily.

     _Fourth_, poor workmanship cannot be covered up.

     _Fifth_, when the work is completed, a wet cloth will wipe it
     off and leave the work clean.

Another soil used is _lampblack_ and _glue_. A quantity of glue is
melted and then lampblack is added. This needs to be heated and
water added each time it is used. This soil is put on pipes with a
short stubby brush. The work when completed with the silvery joint
and jet black borders appears to the uninitiated very artistic and
neat, but when the black soil is worn away the uneven edges of the
joint appear, disclosing the reason for using a black soil that
covers all defects. The mechanic of today who takes pride in his
ability for good workmanship will not cover his work with black
soil.

It can readily be seen that the use of lampblack soil encourages
poor workmanship, while the use of paste forces, to a certain
extent, good workmanship on the part of the mechanic.

Before soil or paste is applied, the pipe needs to be cleansed.
Grease and dirt accumulate on the pipe. The methods employed to
remove all foreign matter are simply to scrape the surface with
fine sand or emery paper; sand and water will also answer for this
purpose. This cleans the surface and allows the soil or paste to
stick to the pipe.


MAKING DIFFERENT SOLDER JOINTS

The tools used in making the different solder joints as described
and illustrated in this chapter are shown in Fig. 14.

CUP JOINT.--The materials necessary for the work (Fig. 15): 12
inches of 1/2-inch AA lead pipe, paste, rosin, 1/2 and 1/2 solder.

If a gas furnace is not on the bench to heat the iron, then a
gasoline furnace is necessary.

Each of the following operations must be done thoroughly to insure
a perfect job:

     _First_, with the SAW cut off 12 inches of 1/2-inch AA lead pipe
     from the coil. When cutting off a piece of lead pipe from a coil or
     reel, always straighten out 1 foot more than is needed. This leaves
     1 foot of straight pipe always on the coil.

     [Illustration: FIG. 14.--Tools used for making solder joints.]

     _Second_, with the flat side of the RASP, square the ends of the
     12-inch piece of pipe. (A good way to do this is to hold the pipe
     at right angles with the edge of the bench, run the rasp across the
     end of the pipe, keeping the rasp _parallel_ with the edge of the
     bench. Apply this to all work when necessary to square the ends of
     pipe.)

     _Third_, cut the pipe with the saw, making two pieces each 6 inches
     in length.

     _Fourth_, square the ends just cut.

     _Fifth_, rasp the edges of one end as shown in the cut. Hold the
     work in such a way that the stroke of the rasp can be seen without
     moving the pipe.

     _Sixth_, take the other 6-inch piece of pipe and with the TURN PIN
     spread one end of it. The turn pin must be struck squarely in the
     center with the HAMMER, the point of the turn pin being kept in the
     center of the pipe. The pipe should be turned after each blow of
     the hammer. The pipe must not rest on the bench but should be held
     in the hand while using the turn pin. If the pipe bends, it can be
     straightened with BENDING IRONS. If the pipe is spread more on one
     side than the other, the turn pin should be hit on the opposite
     side so as to even the spread.

     [Illustration: FIG. 15.]

     _Seventh_, when the pipes are properly fitted, moisten the tips of
     the fingers with paste and rub the paste on parts of pipe marked
     "paste." Put the pipe aside to allow the paste to dry.

     _Eighth_, put the soldering iron on to heat.

     _Ninth_, with the SHAVE HOOK scrape off the paste and surface dirt
     as shown in the figure. The inside of the cup will look bright, but
     must be scraped.

     [Illustration: FIG. 16.--Cup joint.]

     _Tenth_, place the two pieces into position as shown in Fig. 16,
     sprinkle rosin on the joint, melt a few drops of solder on the
     joint and with the iron melt the solder on the joint, drawing the
     iron around the pipe keeping the solder melted around the iron all
     the time.

     _Eleventh_, fill the joint with solder and continue to draw the hot
     iron around the joint until a smooth and bright surface is
     obtained. To master the correct use of the soldering iron in this
     work, considerable practice will be necessary.

OVERCAST JOINTS.--(Fig. 17.)

     NOTE.--Each operation must be performed thoroughly.

     _First_, saw off from a coil of 1-1/2-inch D lead pipe a 10-inch
     piece of pipe.

     _Second_, square the ends with the rasp, as previously explained.

     _Third_, take a 1-1/2-inch DRIFT PLUG and drive through the pipe
     (Fig. 18).

     _Fourth_, saw the pipe into two pieces of 5 inches each.

     _Fifth_, square the ends of the pipe with the rasp.

     _Sixth_, rasp off the outside edge of one end of the pipe as shown.

     _Seventh_, rasp off the inside edge of one end of the pipe.

     _Eighth_, finish rasped surfaces with a file. Both surfaces should
     have the same angle.

     [Illustration: FIG. 17.]

     [Illustration: FIG. 18.]

     [Illustration: FIG. 19.--Overcast joint.]

     _Ninth_, with a shave hook scrape the outside surface of each pipe
     for about 1 inch from the end.

     _Tenth_, put the soldering iron on to heat.

     _Eleventh_, paste paper on the joint as shown in the cut.

     _Twelfth_, fit the pieces together and lay on the bench. Drop some
     melted solder on the joint and with the hot iron proceed to flow
     the solder around the joint by turning the pipe. Use plenty of flux
     (rosin). The pipes must be tacked in three or four places at first
     or they will have a tendency to spread.

     _Thirteenth_, to finish the joint, lift the iron straight up.

This joint when finished will have a bright smooth finish. The two
foregoing joints need considerable practice and should be perfectly
mastered before going on to the next job.


SEAMS

A description of the making of wiped seams for lead-lined tanks
will not be attempted as very few are made now. The plumber,
however, is often called upon to make a seam joining two pieces of
sheet lead. The beginner will do well to go over the following
exercise carefully and practice it thoroughly.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--Flat seam.]

MATERIALS.--Two pieces of 8-pound sheet lead, 6 by 10 inches each;
one bar of 1/2 and 1/2 solder; paste, paper, and rosin.

TOOLS.--Rasp, shave hook, and soldering iron.

The 10-inch side of each piece is rasped and fitted together. The
edges are cleaned and paper is pasted on leaving 1/4 inch for
solder. Paste without the paper can be put on. This will make a
joint 1/2 inch wide.

Apply the rosin to the joint, then with the heated iron and some
solder tack the seam on the top, then on the bottom and middle.
This will prevent the seam from spreading when the lead is heated.
Solder and rosin can now be put on the full length of the joint.
With a hot iron proceed to float the solder down the seam. The
soldering iron must not rest at full length on the pieces of lead
or it will melt the lead and render the work useless. The solder
will flow and form a clean neat seam, if the iron is at the right
heat and the right amount of solder is put on. If the iron is too
hot, the solder will flow instantly when the iron is laid on it and
the solder will disappear as it runs through the seam. If the iron
is too cold the solder will not melt enough to flow. Too much
solder on the seam will cause it to overflow, that is, the solder
will spread beyond the papered edges. After a little practice this
surplus solder can be drawn in on the seam with the iron and
carried along the seam to some point that has not enough solder.
When the seam is completed the edges should be perfectly straight
and even. The iron is carried along the seam with one stroke which
makes the seam appear smooth and bright.



CHAPTER III

MIXTURES OF SOLDERS FOR SOLDERING IRON AND WIPING. CARE OF SOLDERS.
MELTING POINTS OF METALS AND ALLOYS


The importance of good solder, that is, solder correctly mixed and
thoroughly cleaned, should not be overlooked. Work is more quickly
and neatly done and the job presents a more finished appearance
when solder that is correctly made is used.

The solder used in the following work with the soldering iron is
called 1/2 and 1/2. This means 1/2 (50 per cent.) lead and 1/2 (50
per cent.) tin.

In the mixture of solder, only pure metals should be used. The lead
should be melted first and all the dross cleaned off. The tin
should then be added and mixed.

The solder to be used in wiping the joints in the following chapter
is a mixture of 37 per cent. tin and 63 per cent. lead. This is
called wiping solder.

The following table gives the melting points, etc.:

     ---------------+---------+------------------------------------------
                    | Melting |
          Metal     |  point  |      Mixture
     ---------------+---------+------------------------------------------
     Sulphur        |  228    | Pure
     Tin            |  446    | Pure
     Lead           |  626    | Pure
     Zinc           |  680    | Pure
     Fine solder    |  400    | 50 per cent. tin, 50 per cent. lead (wt.)
     Wiping solder  |  370    | 37 per cent. tin, 63 per cent. lead (wt.)
     ---------------+---------+------------------------------------------

To recognize fine solder, run off a bar into a mold and let it
cool. If there is a frosted streak in the center, the metal has not
enough tin. The surface should be bright. To recognize wiping
solder, pour some on a brick. When this is cool, the top should be
frosty and the under side should have four or five bright spots.
The amount poured on the brick should be about the size of a half
dollar. If poured on iron, the metal will cool too quickly and show
bright all over the under side.

TO MAKE 1/2 AND 1/2 SOLDER OR PLUMBER'S FINE SOLDER.--The
possibility of getting pure clean metals to mix solder is very
remote. Old pieces of lead pipe, lead trap, old block tin pipe are
used to make solder when pure metals are not at hand.

     _First_, in a cast-iron pot melt the lead to about 800°, or a dull
     red.

     _Second_, clean off the dross.

     _Third_, add (to a 15-pound pot) 1/2 pound of sulphur in three
     applications. Each time mix the sulphur thoroughly with the metal
     with a long stick.

     _Fourth_, add tin before the last application of sulphur. Mix
     thoroughly.

     _Fifth_, pour off two bars and look for the frosty streak in the
     center. Add a little more tin, if necessary.

TO MIX WIPING SOLDER.--

     _First_, proceed as described in 1/2 and 1/2, melting the metals
     and _burning_ out with sulphur, adding the percentage of tin
     according to the preceding table. Then test the solder for bright
     spots on the under side.

     _Second_, keep the metal thoroughly mixed when burning and keep
     all dross cleaned off the surface.

The working heat of wiping solder is 500°F. Sulphur is used to
collect all zinc and dross. The sulphur should come in contact with
all parts of the metal. This is why the metal should be stirred
when the sulphur is put in.

A few good points in the economical care of solder are listed
below.

CARE OF 1/2 AND 1/2 SOLDER.--

     _First_, do not drop melted solder on the floor or dirty bench.

     _Second_, use all small ends by melting on a new bar.

     _Third_, put clean paper under work and use droppings.

     _Fourth_, have the mold free from dirt when pouring.

CARE OF WIPING SOLDER.--

     _First_, do not heat red hot.

     _Second_, do not file brass where the filings will get into the
     solder.

     _Third_, do not allow lead chips to get into the solder.

     _Fourth_, clean the solder occasionally.

     _Fifth_, learn to distinguish solder from lead by its hardness.

     _Sixth_, have different-shaped pot for lead and solder.

     _Seventh_, do not _tin_ brass by dipping into solder.

     _Eighth_, do not put cold or wet ladle into hot solder.

A pot holding about 15 pounds of solder is the size commonly in
use.



CHAPTER IV

MAKING AND CARE OF WIPING CLOTHS


A good wiping cloth is essential for wiping joints. The exact size
and the flexibility of the cloth depend a great deal upon the
mechanic who handles the cloth. Some mechanics like a stiff cloth,
but the writer has always used a flexible cloth. The sizes, shape,
and methods of folding and breaking in as shown in Fig. 21 below
have proved successful. Cloths made of whalebone ticking are
inexpensive and make the best for ordinary use.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--Folding a wiping cloth.]

     Size of cloth open               Size of cloth folded
     14-1/2 by 14-1/2 inches  equals  3-1/4 by  3-1/4 inches
     13-1/2 by 13-1/2 inches  equals  3     by  3     inches
      8-1/2 by 12-1/2 inches  equals  2     by  3     inches

For the joint-wiping jobs to follow, the above sizes are the best.
The largest size, 14-1/2 by 14-1/2 inches is used for _catch
cloth_. The 13-1/2 by 13-1/2 inches is the _wiping cloth_. The
8-1/2 by 12-1/2 inches is the _branch cloth_.

Proceed as follows to cut and complete a cloth:

     _First_, lay the ticking on the flat bench and square the sides
     14-1/2 by 14-1/2 inches.

     _Second_, the ticking should be cut off with shears and not torn
     or cut with a knife.

     _Third_, fold as shown in the cut.

Each fold should be moistened with a little water and pressed with
a hot iron. The cloth should not be pulled or stretched, but should
be kept as square as possible.

The first and second folds require a little care; the corners when
folded to the center should be kept in a little, thus making the
outside edge slightly rounded. If this is done, the corners will
not stick out when the cloth is finished. After the cloth is
carefully folded, pressed, and dried, take a needle and thread and
sew the open corners about 1/2 inch in from the edge of the cloth.
By carefully studying the cut, one can readily see each operation
and, by following directions, make a perfect cloth.

When the cloth is done, an amount of oil sufficient to soak through
about three layers of cloth should be applied and then rubbed on a
smooth surface. The oil should be rubbed in well about the edges.
It will not be necessary to apply anything else to the cloth to
prepare it for wiping. Paste, soil, chalk, etc., are not needed and
do not benefit the cloth. When using oil on the cloth, it must not
be used too freely, that is, the cloth must not be soaked in oil,
as oil is a rapid conductor of heat and the cloth would soon become
too hot to handle.

CARE OF WIPING CLOTHS.--The ticking will burn if allowed to become
too hot. If hot solder is poured directly on the cloth, it will
soon burn and be destroyed.

Keep the surface on both sides of the cloth well oiled.

Use both sides of the cloth.

Use both wiping edges of the cloth.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--Wiping cloth folded has 16 thicknesses of
ticking.]

When the cloth is not in use, it should not be thrown in with the
other tools and allowed to curl up into all sorts of shapes, but
should be kept in some flat place. A good way to keep the cloths is
to have two pieces of wood between which the cloths may be kept and
held there by means of a strap. The length of time which a wiping
cloth can be used depends a great deal upon its making and upon the
care which is given it.



CHAPTER V

PREPARING AND WIPING JOINTS


When the writer first started to carry the tools for a plumber and
to prepare joints for wiping, the remark was often heard that joint
wiping would soon be a thing of the past. I have heard this many
times since from many different sources. Personally, I fail to see
the passing of the wiped joint. More lead pipe is being made today
than ever before, which goes to show that lead pipe is being used
and the only successful way of joining is with the wiped joint.
Some plumbers' helpers of today seem to think that joint wiping is
of no account. To a certain extent, I can sympathize with them.
Most of these boys are learning a trade in large cities and working
for concerns that do nothing but a large contracting business. This
large work is carried on differently from the small work.
Wrought-iron or steel pipes are used to a great extent in this work
and a very small amount of lead is used. Sometimes the job will be
completed without the use of lead. The boy who works continually on
this kind of work soon comes to think that lead pipes are no longer
in use. The writer has found that a boy who has learned to do
nothing but screw-pipe work is absolutely lost and cannot perform
the duties of a plumber, other than screw-pipe work. It must be
borne in mind that lead pipe and cast-iron pipe work are being used
today in all parts of the country and in some parts more than in
others. Therefore, the boy must grasp all branches of the trade
that he has chosen to follow and not be a one-sided man. Joint
wiping belongs to the plumber alone. The plumbing trade differs
from all other trades in that it has joint wiping for its
distinctive feature.

A few attempts at joint wiping will convince the beginner that it
is not the easiest thing in the world to learn. Let me caution the
beginner not to get discouraged. He must have patience and a firm
resolve to master the art of joint wiping and not let it master him
and keep him back.

So, as we now start on exercises of joint wiping, let the beginner
constantly keep in mind that all boys must become perfectly skilled
in the art of joint wiping before they can be considered plumbers.
Keep in mind also that the examination that one must take to get a
plumber's license contains an actual exercise in joint wiping. The
one word of advice is not to get discouraged. Continued practice is
the only way to success.

The soldering iron is, or should be, conquered by this time. As
joint wiping is the next exercise, I shall go over a few general
points that experience has taught me and cannot fail to be of
assistance to the beginner if they are heeded. In fact, to become
proficient, the beginner should remember all the points suggested
under this heading. It is necessary in wiping to have good solder.
In the chapter on solder, I have given the correct mixtures and how
to recognize the proper mixtures. The place where wiping is to be
done should be considered. No draught should be allowed to blow
across the work as it tends to chill the solder and pipe. Proper
support for the work should be procured. If gasoline is to be used
for fuel to heat the solder, make sure that the tank is full before
starting, otherwise the fire may go out just when the heat is
needed most and the solder in the pot has become too cool to wipe
with. Have a catch pan and keep all the solder droppings to put
back into the pot, otherwise the solder will pile up and the
fingers are likely to be pushed into the pile and badly burned.
Hold the ladle about 2 inches above the work, the catch cloth
about 1 inches below. Do not drop the solder in the same place.
Keep moving the ladle. Do not pour the solder on the pipe in a
steady stream, but drop it on. It is not a large amount of solder
that is wanted on the joint at first, it is heat that is needed.
This can be secured better by dropping the solder on than by
pouring a large quantity on the pipe. The edges of the joint cool
very quickly; therefore heat the edges well and keep them covered
with molten solder until the joint is ready to wipe. When preparing
joints for wiping, always do the work thoroughly and fit the pieces
together tightly so that no solder can get through.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, good solder.

     _Second_, place of wiping.

     _Third_, support.

     _Fourth_, full tank of gasoline.

     _Fifth_, drip pan.

     _Sixth_, ladle 2 inches above the work.

     _Seventh_, cloth 1 inches below the work.

     _Eighth_, move the ladle continually.

     _Ninth_, _drop_ the solder.

     _Tenth_, _heat_, not solder wanted at first.

     _Eleventh_, heat the edges.

     _Twelfth_, careful preparation.

     _Thirteenth_, clean grease from the pipe.

     _Fourteenth_, cut clean straight edges on paper.


HALF-INCH ROUND WIPED JOINT

PREPARATION.--Take 12 inches of 1/2-inch strong lead pipe and
square off the ends with a rasp. Take the shave hook and scrape the
center of the pipe perfectly bright; a space 3 inches each side of
the center is correct. The size of the joint when completed should
be 2-1/2 inches long. If we should undertake to wipe the joint
with the pipe in the present condition, the solder would adhere to
all the pipe that was shaved bright. Therefore, we take a piece of
paper sufficient to encircle the pipe twice and after putting paste
on one side of the paper wrap it around the pipe so that the edge
that is cut straight and even is 1-1/4 inches from the center of
the pipe. Another piece of paper is pasted on the other side of the
center leaving a clean, bright space of 2-1/2 inches. All the pipe
should be covered with paper except the 2-1/2 inches in the center.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.]

TO PUT THE PIPE IN POSITION FOR WIPING.--The most practical way is
to take two common red bricks with the 2 by 8 face down and place
them 9 inches apart. Lay the pipe on the bricks and place a weight
on each end. The solder will drop on to the bench, so it is best to
place a piece of paper or a pan of black iron under the pipe to
catch the solder that drops. The pan or paper can then be taken up
and the solder put back into the pot without waste. A cast-iron
pot holding 15 pounds of solder is then placed on the furnace. When
the solder has melted and has reached 500° it is ready for use.
This can best be determined by putting a piece of paper in the
solder. If the paper scorches, the solder is at the right heat; if
the paper catches fire, it is too hot.

Now take a 3-inch ladle and heat it over the fire and then dip it
into the solder and skim off any dross that may have collected.

WIPING.--With the ladle full of solder in the right hand and the
large cloth or the catch cloth in the left hand, begin to drop the
solder on the joint. The cloth should catch all the solder as it
falls off the pipe. If hot solder is held against the bottom of the
pipe, it is heated to the proper heat. Always begin to drop the
solder on the paper edges, then drop the solder on the joint
itself. Bear in mind that the solder should not be poured on, but
dropped on slowly. After the first few drops do not drop the solder
directly on to the lead pipe but on to the solder previously put on
the pipe. This will save the pipe from burning through. The pipe
must be the same heat as the solder before the proper heat is
obtained for good wiping. The beginner should practice dropping the
solder on the joint, catching the solder and working it around the
pipe. By doing this, one becomes familiar with the feeling of hot
solder, which is the secret of successful wiping. When the solder
works easily around the pipe, drop the ladle and take the smaller
wiping cloth in the right hand and with both cloths draw all the
solder on top of the pipe. With fingers on the corners of both
cloths, clean off the left-hand edge and with the right hand draw
the surplus solder across to the right-hand edge. Next, clean the
right-hand edge of the joint pushing the surplus solder onto the
cloth in the right hand. Work this solder on to the bottom of the
joint. Now discard the catch cloth. Holding the wiping cloth with
the index fingers on lower opposite corners, shape the under and
front side of the joint. With the middle fingers on opposite lower
corners of the cloth shape the back and top. Keep the index and
middle fingers on the edge of the cloth and the edge of the cloth
on the edge of the joint. This position together with the size and
shape of the cloth will give the joint the desired form and
appearance. Particular attention is called to the position of the
fingers as shown in the figure.

The last wipe should be a quick stroke coming off of joint on a
tangent. If the solder is at right heat, the cloth will not leave a
noticeable mark. If, however, the solder is too cold, a ragged edge
will result. Sometimes a cross wipe is made for the last stroke and
a good finish obtained.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, width of the joint, 2-1/2 inches.

     _Second_, allow no soil or paste to get on the joint.

     _Third_, a 3-inch ladle should be used.

     _Fourth_, 500° is the working heat of solder.

     _Fifth_, paper test for solder heat.

     _Sixth_, position of wiping cloths.

     _Seventh_, do not drop solder on the lead pipe.

     _Eighth_, hold the ladle 2 inches above the pipe.

     _Ninth_, wipe the edges of the joint first.

     _Tenth_, wipe and shape the joint quickly.

The above procedure of wiping will be found to work out very easily
if followed closely. Do not pour the hot solder onto the cloth as
the cloth will burn through and soon be useless. A little more oil
should be put on the cloth after using it for awhile. The cloth
should be turned around and the opposite side also used. The cloth
will last considerably longer if sides are changed frequently. The
solder should not accumulate on the pan, but should be continually
put back into the pot. The "metal," as solder is sometimes called,
should never be allowed to become red hot.

The above method of preparing pipe is suggested for beginners only
and will be found to be a great help to them. In actual practice
the joint must be prepared differently. The method used in trade is
as follows:

The joint is used to join two pieces of lead pipe. Take two pieces
and rasp the four ends square. With the tap borer clean out the end
of one pipe a trifle, then with the turn pin enlarge this end just
a little as shown in the figure. Then rasp the edge off about 1/8
inch as shown. Take the other piece of pipe and rasp one end as was
done in the cup joint, making it fit into the first piece. Then
place the two ends together and with the bending iron beat the
pipe, making the joint as tight as possible.


ROUND JOINT--45° TO RIGHT

The next position in which the beginner is to wipe a joint is on an
angle of 45° to the right.

PREPARATION.--To prepare this joint, proceed as in the horizontal
round joint. I will enumerate a few of these points. A piece 12
inches long of 1/2-inch pipe is cut off and the ends squared. A
strip in the center, 6 inches long, is shaved clean. Paper and
paste are put over the pipe except 2-1/2 inches in the center.
Grease can be put on the pipe in between the pieces of paper and
will keep the lead from oxidizing.

PLACING PIPE IN POSITION.--There is no need of an elaborate system
of holding the pipe in position. Take a red brick and place the 4
by 8 face down. This will do for the bottom pipe. For the top of
pipe to rest on, place two bricks one above the other; this will
give the correct position. Place the pipe on the brick and with a
ladle full of half molten solder pour a clamp of solder over the
end of the pipe. This will hold the pipe firm for wiping. Place a
catch pan under the joint for solder to fall in.

WIPING.--The method of wiping this joint is practically the same as
wiping the horizontal joint. The catch cloth should be held
parallel with the bench tilting a little from front toward the
back. The ladle is held the same and solder is dropped on as
before. The ladle should be continually moving while dropping
solder, not allowing the solder to drop twice in the same place.
When the solder has been worked around the pipe and is at working
heat, the solder is drawn up with both cloths and the top edge
wiped first, then the bottom edge; the surplus solder is put on the
underside of the joint, and then with three or four wipes the joint
is made symmetrical and finished.

THINGS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, prepare like the horizontal joint.

     _Second_, use brick to place in position.

     _Third_, hold tools as in horizontal joint.

     _Fourth_, top edge cools first, therefore, wipe it first.

     _Fifth_, hold the wiping cloth at an angle of 45° when wiping,
     with fingers placed as noted in previous joint.

     _Sixth_, make solder clamp for holding the pipe.


ROUND JOINT 45°--LEFT

When the preceding joint is well mastered and a number of good
joints have been wiped, turn the pipe on an angle of 45° to the
left.

PREPARATION.--The preparation for this joint is exactly the same as
for the horizontal joint. The beginner should turn back and read
carefully concerning the perfection of the joint. Bear in mind that
the pipe must be correctly prepared or a good joint cannot be made.
The edge of the paper must be cut not torn.

PLACING PIPE IN POSITION.--This pipe can be placed in position the
same as the preceding one. If heavy weights are placed on the ends
of the pipe, a bad habit may be formed by the one learning to wipe.
That is, the habit of pressing hard on the joint when wiping. In
the preceding joint, if the beginner presses too hard, the pipe
will fall off the bricks.

WIPING.--Proceed as described for previous joints. The top edge
must be favored a little. The hot solder will run down to the
bottom edge; therefore less solder should be dropped on it than on
the top edge. When the solder is at the proper heat for wiping it
requires only a light touch to wipe the joint. If it appears
necessary to press hard on the joint to wipe off surplus solder, it
shows that the solder is not at the correct wiping heat.


ROUND JOINT--VERTICAL

PREPARATION.--This joint can be prepared exactly like the preceding
one. In fact, the same piece of pipe can be used throughout. When
preparing this joint the end that is to be on the bottom should be
well covered with paper.

PLACING IN POSITION.--The best way to hold this joint in position
for wiping is to stand the pipe upright on one end with the pan
underneath. A piece of furring strip should be run from the top of
the pipe to the wall. Secure the strip to the wall and drive a nail
through the strip into the bore of the pipe. Place a weight on top
of the strip and the pipe is ready.

WIPING.--The procedure of wiping this joint is entirely different
from that in the other positions. The solder is thrown onto the
joint from the ladle. The catch cloth is held up to the pipe and as
much solder as possible is held on to the pipe. Move the ladle
around the joint, throwing a little solder on as the ladle is
moved. Notice now that all the solder runs to the bottom edge,
leaving the top edge cold. The solder that accumulates on the
bottom edge should be drawn up to the top edge with the cloth.
Then splash more solder on to the top edge and as the solder runs
down the pipe catch it with the cloth and draw it up again. The
solder can be worked around and up and down the joint, but always
keep the top edge covered with hot solder. The solder is likely to
drop off the joint entirely unless watched closely. When the
correct heat is obtained, drop the ladle. Take the wiping cloth in
the right hand and with the fingers spread, clean off the top edge
quickly, then shape the joint with the one cloth. With a little
practice you will gain this knack. The joint can then be wiped. The
left hand can steady the pipe. Spread the index finger and third
finger to opposite sides of the cloth and wipe around the joint.



CHAPTER VI

PREPARING AND WIPING JOINTS (_Continued_)


TWO-INCH BRASS FERRULE

MATERIALS.--The beginner should continue wiping the vertical round
joint until he is able to obtain a symmetrical bulb. A joint should
be wiped in each of the foregoing positions for exhibition
purposes, so that the beginner can have before him the best work
and strive to make the next joint better. This next joint, the
2-inch brass ferrule, is wiped in an upright position. The
materials necessary are the 2-inch brass ferrule, 6 inches of
2-inch light lead pipe, paste and paper, 1/2 and 1/2 solder, rosin,
wiping solder, catch pan, and supports.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

TOOLS REQUIRED.--The tools necessary for this work are as follows:
the saw, rasp, drift plug, dresser, file, soldering iron, bending
irons, wiping cloths, shave hook, and ladle.

PREPARATION.--The lead pipe must be fitted into the brass ferrule.
The brass ferrule has to be tinned first. To do this, proceed as
follows: file the ferrule for about 2 inches on the tapered end. Do
not file too deep, but just enough to expose the pure bright metal.
Now measure from the small end 1-1/4 inches down toward the beaded
end. From this point to the bead, cover the brass with paste and
paper. No paste must get on the 1-1/4-in. filed end. This end
should not be touched with the fingers. If paste gets on it, the
process of filing must be done over again as the solder will not
stick where there is paste. If the brass ferrule is filed while the
paper is on the brass, the filing will destroy the straight edge of
the paper and an even joint cannot be made. It would therefore be
necessary to re-paper the brass. Take some powdered rosin and cover
the filed end of the ferrule with molten solder using the rosin as
a flux. Do not dip the end of the ferrule into the hot wiping
solder to tin it or pour wiping solder on the brass ferrule. This
method of tinning the ferrule will spoil the wiping solder. Always
use the soldering iron to tin the ferrule as explained above. A
little practice will develop the use of the iron in the hands of
the beginner so that this tinning process will be done very
rapidly. The iron should be put on to heat when the paper is being
pasted on the brass; the iron will then be ready for use when
needed.

PREPARING THE LEAD.--The ends of the lead pipe must be squared with
the rasp. All kinks and dents are taken out by using the drift plug
and driving it through the pipe. Take a piece of smooth pine stick
and start to beat in the end of the lead pipe to fit the brass
ferrule. The pipe should be beaten in starting about 3/4 inches
from the end. It should be beaten in very slowly until it fits the
ferrule. The pipe is held in the hand all the time and considerable
time should be spent on this as it is the first time the beating in
of lead pipe has been called for. The knack of doing this comes
only by slow and continued practice. The lead must be "humored"
into shape and not "driven" into shape. The end of the pipe is
tapered still more by rasping off the end. About 3/4 inch should
extend into the brass ferrule. With the bending irons, the lead
extending into the brass ferrule is beaten against the inside wall
of the ferrule. A good way to do this is to wedge the lead pipe in
as much as possible at first, then lay the work flat on the bench,
in which position it is more easily worked. The sketch should be
thoroughly studied and each notation be perfectly understood,
before proceeding with the work. Now that the lead pipe is
perfectly fitted into place, it is prepared for wiping. The joint
overall will be 2-1/2 inches. As we have already allowed 1-1/4
inches on the brass ferrule for the joint, the lead will have to be
cleaned that much more. With the shave hook, shave the end of the
pipe that has been fitted into the brass ferrule. A space about 4
inches should be cleaned. This will give a cleaned surface free
from dirt and grease for the paste and paper to adhere to. Next
paste the paper in place. The lead pipe can be entirely covered, or
3 or 4 inches only, above the 1-1/4 inches allowed for the joint.
The space between the paper on the brass and the paper on the lead
should now be 2-1/2 inches. The paste and paper should now be
allowed to dry.

SUPPORTING THE PIPE.--This joint is wiped with the ferrule down on
the bench. A flat pan is laid on the bench and the ferrule stood
upon it. A weight on top of the lead pipe is all that is necessary.
If this does not make the pipe rigid enough for the beginner, then
a support similar to the round vertical joint support can be used.
The beginner is advised, however, to practice the wiping of this
joint with only the weight to hold it in position. The beginner
will then be required to wipe the joint while the solder is hot,
when it does not require a heavy pressure against the solder to
wipe it in shape. These wiped joints should be supported in place
near the furnace that heats the solder so that the solder will be
handy for wiping.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Two-inch brass ferrule.]

WIPING.--Wiping this joint brings in some of the methods of the
round vertical joint. If that joint was thoroughly mastered, this
joint will be wiped considerably more easily. The ladle is held in
the right hand and the solder splashed on the joint. The catch
cloth is held in the left hand and some of the solder is caught and
brought up on the top edge. The top edge cools quickly as all the
hot solder runs down to the bottom edge and into the pan. As the
solder accumulates on the bottom edge, it is drawn up on the top
edge, and in this manner the top edge is kept hot. When the solder
can be worked freely around the pipe and the edges are hot, the
joint is ready to wipe. The ladle is laid down and the wiping cloth
is taken in the right hand and the top edge of the joint cleaned on
one side. Then the wiping cloth is changed to the left hand and the
other side of the top edge is cleaned. Holding the cloth in one
hand with the index and the third fingers spread to the outside
corners of the cloth, the cloth is passed around the joint quickly.
To get an even and symmetrical joint, it is necessary to make two
or three passes around the joint holding the cloth first in the
right and then in the left hand. The free hand is used to steady
the work. This joint should be wiped very slim to allow room for
the caulking irons to pass by it and get into the hub of the pipe.
Constant wiping on the brass ferrule will result in the tinning on
the brass ferrule coming off. The ferrule will look black when this
happens and will thus be recognized. The wiping should then be
stopped and the ferrule filed and tinned in the same manner as it
was done at first.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, material--6 inches of 2-inch light lead pipe and one
     2-inch brass ferrule.

     _Second_, tin ferrule, using soldering iron.

     _Third_, use a soft pine stick for a dresser.

     _Fourth_, fit the lead into the ferrule.

     _Fifth_, clean and paper the lead.

     _Sixth_, secure the pipe into position.

     _Seventh_, using the catch cloth and ladle, splash solder on
     the joint.

     _Eighth_, keep the top edge covered with solder.

     _Ninth_, wipe the top edge first.

     _Tenth_, shape and finish wiping with a few strokes.

     _Eleventh_, tools used.

     _Twelfth_, wipe a slim joint.

     _Thirteenth_, steady the work with the free hand.

     _Fourteenth_, re-tin the ferrule, if necessary.


FOUR-INCH BRASS FERRULE

The 4-inch brass ferrule joint is the same as the 2-inch, except
for size. The materials needed for this joint are 6 inches of
4-inch, 8-pound lead pipe, and one 4-inch brass ferrule, one _full_
pot of solder, some paste and paper, rosin, and 1/2 and 1/2 solder.

TOOLS NECESSARY.--The tools required for this joint are as follows:
saw, rasp, file, ladle, soldering iron, dresser, bending irons,
shave hook, and wiping cloths.

PREPARATION.--_Lead Pipe._--With the saw cut off 6 inches of
4-inch lead pipe. This pipe comes in lengths and should be for this
work about 8 pounds to the foot in weight. The pipe may be dented
badly, but these dents can be taken out as follows: Take a piece of
2-inch iron pipe and put it in a vise. The lead pipe can be slipped
over this iron pipe and any dents taken out easily by beating with
the dresser. One end of the lead pipe is beaten with the dresser
until it fits into the ferrule. The end is then rasped a little.
Then, after the brass ferrule has been tinned, the pipe is fitted
into it and beaten out against the inside wall of the brass ferrule
and a tight joint is made. The lead is next cleaned with the shave
hook and paper is pasted on as explained under the 2-inch brass
ferrule, the description of which should now be read over.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--Four-inch brass ferrule.]

_Brass Ferrule._--The first thing to do with the brass ferrule is
to file the end that is to be wiped. When the brass ferrule is
filed, it should be done away from any part of the room where the
filings are likely to get into the solder. After the filing has
been done, paper is pasted on all of it except the part that is to
be tinned and no paste must get on to this part of the ferrule. If
any paste does get on to it, the filing will have to be done over
again. When using paste and paper, neatness must be cultivated, or
paste will be spread over parts of the pipe that are supposed not
to have any paste on them. Next, take the soldering iron and heat
it. Take some rosin and put it on the exposed part of the ferrule.
With the hot soldering iron proceed to tin the brass ferrule, as
explained before, with 1/2 and 1/2 solder, using rosin as a flux.
Now the lead pipe that has previously been prepared is fitted into
the ferrule.

SUPPORTING.--Set the brass ferrule on a catch pan. The lead pipe is
upright. A weight placed on top of the lead pipe will steady the
pipe for wiping. When the joint is wiped the free hand can hold the
pipe if the weight is not sufficient to support it.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Four-inch brass ferrule.]

WIPING.--Splash the solder on the joint from the ladle, in the same
manner as was employed in the two preceding joints. To get the
proper heat on the 4-inch joint a little more speed is necessary,
also the constant working of the solder around the pipe. The ladle
is constantly moved around the pipe so that all parts of the pipe
will be evenly heated and come into contact with the hot solder
direct from the ladle. When the solder works freely around the pipe
and the top edge is hot, the joint is shaped by holding the wiping
cloth in the right hand, with the index and the middle fingers
spread to the opposite corners of the cloth. The fingers are placed
one on the top edge and one on the bottom edge. The cloth is then
passed around the joint as far as possible. Then the cloth is taken
in the left hand, with the fingers spread, and passed around the
rest of the joint. If the solder does not take the shape of the
cloth readily, then the solder is not at the right heat. This joint
should be wiped very slim to allow room for the caulking tools.
When this joint is once started, it should not be left until it
has been wiped, otherwise a large amount of solder will accumulate
on the joint and will be hard to get off.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, material.

     _Second_, tools.

     _Third_, tin ferrule.

     _Fourth_, use the dresser to fit the lead into the ferrule.

     _Fifth_, clean the lead with the shave hook, and paper.

     _Sixth_, use the catch cloth and ladle.

     _Seventh_, keep the top edge covered with hot solder.

     _Eighth_, wipe the top edge first.

     _Ninth_, make a slim joint.

     _Tenth_, steady the work with the free hand.


STOP COCK

MATERIALS REQUIRED.--The materials used for this joint are as
follows: two pieces of 5/8-inch extra strong lead pipe 9 inches
long, each; one 1/2-inch plug stop cock for lead pipe; paste and
paper; solder; 1/2 and 1/2 solder; rosin; catch pan and supports.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.]

TOOLS NECESSARY.--The tools necessary for this job are as follows:
saw, rasp, file, turn plug, shave hook, bending irons, hammer,
ladle, soldering iron, and wiping cloths.

PREPARATION.--There are two joints to be wiped on this job and the
stop cock is supported only by the rigid fitting of the lead pipe.
Therefore the preparation must be thoroughly done. The brass stop
will be prepared first.

_Brass._--The two ends of the stop cock are filed bright, then
papered and tinned. This operation is the same, only on a smaller
scale, as the tinning of the 2-inch and the 4-inch brass ferrule.
The paper is pasted over the entire stop cock, except the two ends,
which are tinned for about 1-1/4 inches.

_Lead Pipe._--After the lead pipe has been cut off from the coil,
the ends are squared with the rasp. One end of each piece is reamed
out a little with the tap borer and spread a trifle with the turn
pin. With the rasp, take off the outside edge of the end that has
been spread. The sketch will show this and give the angle at which
the edge is to be rasped. The stop cock is now fitted into the lead
pipe. The brass should enter at least 1/4 inch, then the lead is
beaten against the brass until a tight joint is made. The other end
of the brass stop is fitted into the other piece of the lead pipe
and a perfect fit is made. The fitting of these two joints must be
rigid as upon them depends the stability of the joint support. When
these ends of the lead pipe have been fitted, the pipe is cleaned
with the shave hook and paper is pasted on, allowing 1-1/2 inches
for the joint. Both pieces of pipe are prepared at the same time as
both ends are wiped at the same time.

SUPPORTING.--The three pieces of pipe should be so wedged together
that they will not fall apart when put in position for wiping. The
bricks for supporting the pipe are placed the same as in the
support of the horizontal round joint. The lead pipe ends are laid
on the bricks. This brings the stop cock in the center without any
support. If it were not for the substantial fit between it and the
lead pipe, it would not stay in place. Solder straps can be put
over each end of the lead pipe. Weights can be used to advantage.

WIPING.--When getting the heat up for these joints, pour the solder
over the two joints and over the stop cock. This gets the heat
properly distributed, so that both joints can be wiped while the
brass stop is heated. Get the proper heat up on one joint and then
the other. Come back to the first joint and wipe it and then the
second one. Both joints should be wiped so as to have the same
shape. The novice will experience some trouble when wiping this
joint in getting the brass edge hot. Heating up the two joints
together will in a large degree offset this trouble. Some mechanics
take out the lever handle stop to lessen the amount of brass to
heat. This is never done by a good mechanic as the two pieces will
never fit together again and make a tight joint. If the plug is
left in place, both the plug and body will expand equally and the
pieces will fit perfectly. When wiping is started on these joints,
the beginner must stay at it continually. When the brass is heated,
the finished wiping can be tried over and over again. If this way
is not followed, the beginner will find that most of his time will
be spent trying to get a heat on the brass.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--Stop cock.]


BRANCH JOINT

MATERIALS NEEDED.--The materials necessary to complete this job are
as follows: 12 inches of 5/8-inch extra strong lead pipe for the
run; 6 inches of 1/2-inch extra strong lead pipe for the branch;
paste and paper, and solder.

TOOLS NECESSARY.--The tools necessary for this job are the saw,
bending irons, rasp, tap borer, ladle, wiping cloths, and the shave
hook.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--Branch joint.]

PREPARATION.--The preparation of this joint requires the skill of
the beginner more than any of the preceding joints. The tapping of
the 5/8 pipe for the branch connection, pasting and cutting the
paper, require the utmost care and precision. The 5/8-inch pipe is
tapped with the tap borer in the center. The tap borer is used by
grasping the handle firmly and putting the cutting point on the
mark and then pressing down on the handle. This forces the point
into the lead. Now turn the tool and a piece of lead will be bored
out. Continue this operation and a hole will very soon appear in
the lead. A hole just large enough to allow the bending irons to
enter is made. The opening of the hole is completed with the
bending iron, working the lead back slowly into place. Do not
attempt to drive the lead back around the hole with a few strokes.
One bending iron is inserted and this iron is struck with another
iron or hammer. After a number of strokes the opening will be of
sufficient size. The bent end of iron is inserted into the hole and
the bent part enters the bore of the pipe. This iron is struck in
such a way as to force the lead around the hole up, rather than
back. Now with the straight end of irons open the sides. When the
wall of pipe has been driven up a little the hole can be enlarged
by driving back the lead. This procedure will form a collar around
the hole to steady the branch pipe. Good workmanship will result in
having a good substantial collar around the opening. The branch
should now be fitted. Clean the pipe with the shave hook for about
2 inches on each side of the opening. With compasses set at 1-1/8
inches, mark off a space on each side of the branch on the run, or
on the 5/8-inch pipe. On the sides of the pipe the two lines should
be joined with an even and symmetrical curve. A good way to make
this curve is with the shave hook. Now take a folded piece of paper
and cut out the shape of one-half of the joint, then open the fold
and the entire ellipse will be made. When this paper is cut, a
sharp knife is used, otherwise a ragged edge will be made and a
good finish of joint is impossible. The paper is now pasted and put
on the pipe. The surplus paste on the edge of the paper should be
wiped off with the fingers before the paper is put on the pipe.
This prevents any paste squeezing out on the joint. The branch is
now taken and perfectly fitted into the run. The end is cleaned
with the shave hook and paper is pasted on the pipe, leaving 1-1/8
inches of cleaned surface for wiping. The paste and the paper
should now be allowed to dry. The position for wiping this joint is
to have the run horizontal and the branch on an angle of 45°
pointing away from the wiper. Figure 30 will bring out the above
explanation very vividly.

SUPPORTING.--The run of this joint is laid flat on the table and
the branch inserted in its proper place. With one hand hold it in
place, with the other, use the bending iron, tap the collar on the
run against the branch, wedging it in place good and strong so that
no solder can leak through. If the branch is tapered with the rasp
as shown the joint can be made very tight. The run of the pipe is
now laid on two bricks as was done with the horizontal joint. The
branch is laid over on a pile of bricks or wood at an angle of 45°.
The best way to secure this joint is to pour some half-molten
solder on the ends of pipe and brick, making a solder clamp. This
branch does not need any clamp or weight if it is properly entered
into the run. A strap of solder can be run over the end of pipe if
found necessary. Place the catch pan under the joint and then the
pipe will be ready to wipe.

WIPING.--In wiping this joint, the catch cloth is used not only to
catch the solder as it drops off from the pipe, but also to hold
the hot solder against the pipe to heat the under side of the
joint. Test the solder and see if it is the correct heat for
wiping. If so, prepare for wiping. After heating the ladle, take
some solder in it and proceed to drop the molten solder on the
joint. The ladle is moved constantly as the solder is dropped on
the run and then on the branch to get the entire joint to the
proper heat. As the solder drops off from the joint, it is caught
on the catch cloth and brought up on the top of the joint where it
is re-melted by dropping hot solder on it. Then the hot solder is
held in the cloth against the under side of the joint to get the
under side properly heated. The solder is worked around all parts
of the joint. When the heat is got up sufficiently and the solder
works freely around the joint, the branch cloth is taken and each
edge of the joint is wiped clean. Any surplus solder is brought up
on top of the joint and then wiped on the catch cloth. This solder
is then put on the under side of the joint. With the branch cloth
reach way around the joint and wipe each side, bringing the cloth
each time to the top and then off the joint. The last wipe is
directly across the top, wiping off any surplus solder that may
have accumulated from wiping the sides. The difficulty with this
joint is in getting the top and bottom to have an equal amount of
solder. With a little practice and by watching each motion your
faults can be noted and remedied. If the paper starts to come off,
it should be re-papered at once. When the joint is finished, it
should be left in position until the solder has had time to set and
cool, otherwise the branch will break off and considerable time
will be lost in correcting the trouble.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, the use of the tap borer.

     _Second_, the use of the bending irons.

     _Third_, do not allow the bending irons to touch the inside walls
     of the pipe when stretching the opening.

     _Fourth_, secure the branch into the run.

     _Fifth_, secure the pipes into position for wiping.

     _Sixth_, spread the heat on the edges and the bottom of the joint.

     _Seventh_, wipe with the branch cloth.

     _Eighth_, cut the paper.

     _Ninth_, mark the outline of the joint.


BRANCH JOINT PLACED FLAT

When the wiper has mastered the branch joint placed at an angle of
45°, he can proceed to wipe the joint placed in the next position,
which is flat.

PREPARATION.--The preparation of this joint is identical with the
preceding one placed at an angle of 45°. If a new joint is to be
prepared, it would be well to pay strict attention to the details,
such as keeping the paste on the paper only and having the edge of
the paper cut perfectly smooth and even. Before putting on the
paper see that the pipe is free from all grease and dirt. The paste
and paper will stick better if all the dirt is removed. The branch
should be well fitted into the run of the pipe so that no solder
will get into the bore of the pipe. The branch should not extend
into the run of pipe enough to obstruct the bore of it. If the
instructions for preparing the pipe are not carried out as
detailed, the wiper will experience some trouble that he may find
hard to overcome.

SUPPORTING.--The run can be supported on bricks. The branch can be
supported on a brick placed at its end the same height as the run.
This will bring the joint in the correct flat position. The branch
should point away from the wiper. Solder straps can now be poured
over the ends of each pipe. If weights are used to hold the pipe
firm instead of solder straps, they should be so placed that they
will not interfere with the hands when wiping.

WIPING.--The wiping of this joint is more difficult as the beginner
will experience trouble in heating the bottom and keeping the
solder on the bottom. Solder is dropped on the joint and along the
pipe so as to bring the pipe to the proper wiping heat. Some solder
will accumulate on top of the joint. This is melted off on the
catch cloth and this hot solder held against the bottom of the
joint. This operation is repeated until the bottom as well as the
top of the joint is heated properly. When the solder can be worked
freely around the pipe, the branch cloth is taken and each side is
wiped from the bottom toward the top. Solder is accumulated on the
top where it is wiped off on the catch cloth and put on the bottom
of the joint. Now reach way around each side and wipe the edge and
body of the joint, a wipe across the top completing the joint. The
bottom can be wiped with a cross wipe also if desired. The top and
the bottom should be identical. Notice carefully the drawing of
this joint and endeavor to have the same lines. The perfecting of
these joints comes only with patient practice. The beginner must
not get discouraged because of a burn or two. As soon as confidence
in oneself has been gained, the possibility of burning the fingers
is entirely eliminated.


BRANCH VERTICAL

The materials, tools, and preparation for this joint placed in a
vertical position are just the same, practically, as those in the
preceding branch joints. One or two points wherein they differ are
mentioned below. To rigidly support the joint for wiping, allow the
run of the pipe to rest on some bricks as before mentioned, with
the branch looking up. Now take a piece of wood and drive a nail
through one end of it about 1 inch from the edge. Let this nail
enter the bore of the vertical branch. The wood is allowed to rest
on the back of the bench or is braced against the wall. Supporting
the pipes in this way will allow the wiper perfect freedom. When
wiping this joint, splash the solder on from the ladle as on the
upright joint. As all the sides of this joint can be seen, it is
not a difficult matter to make a perfectly symmetrical solder bulb.
When the proper heat is gained, the top edge of the joint is wiped
first, then the lower curved edge, using the branch cloth. The body
of the joint is then wiped and the joint finished with a cross
wipe, if necessary.


BRANCH HORIZONTAL

The next position for this joint is to have the branch pipe
horizontal and the run vertical. The materials, tools and
preparation for this joint are the same as for the preceding ones.
The supporting and wiping differ a little.

SUPPORTING.--One end of the run is placed on the catch pan. The
other end is held in place the same way as the branch was held in
the preceding joint. If the pictures of this joint are carefully
looked over, the methods employed to hold the pipe will be readily
noted. The branch is best held by inserting one end of a bending
iron in the bore of the pipe and placing the other end of the iron
on a brick built up to the right height. The iron should be
weighted to keep the joint from swaying.

WIPING.--The solder is now dropped on the branch as in the round
joint, and splashed on the vertical run as in the upright joint.
Sufficient solder is put on the joint to keep the edges covered
with hot solder. Solder is worked around the joint until all parts
of it are thoroughly heated and the solder works easily, then all
the edges are wiped clean. The top half is then wiped evenly and
the bottom half wiped to match the top half. A cross wipe in front
completes the joint. When this cross wipe is made on any joint, a
thick edge of solder must not be left. The edge must be wiped
clean. This joint should be wiped first with the branch pointing to
the right and then with the branch pointing to the left. It will
take the beginner some time to master these branch joints, for not
only must they be wiped symmetrically for the sake of appearances,
but they must be wiped while the solder is hot to secure a tight
joint. A joint that is wiped with solder that is too cold will be
porous and will leak when put under pressure. With care the same
pipe can be used throughout for all the positions of this branch
joint.


ONE AND ONE-HALF-INCH BRANCH JOINT

Upon the completion of the small sized branch joint in its various
angles, the 1-1/2-inch branch joint is to be wiped. This branch
joint is wiped in the same positions as the 5/8 branch was wiped.
The pipe being larger, there is more solder for the wiper to
handle, and the edges to keep clean and to wipe are longer.

MATERIALS NEEDED.--The materials needed for this job are 12 inches
of 1-1/2-inch light lead pipe for the run, and 6 inches of
1-1/2-inch pipe for the branch, paste, paper, solder, and catch
pan.

TOOLS NEEDED.--The tools necessary for this job are the saw, rasp,
shave hook, bending irons, drift plug, hammer, ladle, wiping
cloths, and tap borer.

PREPARATION.--To an experienced wiper, the procedure of preparing
this joint and wiping it are so near like the 5/8-branch joint that
a detailed description would be unnecessary; but for the benefit of
the beginner, I will repeat the details as they apply to this
particular joint and thereby avoid any error. We will take the
preparation of the run first. Square the two ends of the pipe with
the rasp. Mark off the center of the pipe. With the round part of
the rasp, held at right angles with the pipe, proceed to rasp down
the crown of pipe where the center mark was made. Do not rasp
through the wall of the pipe, but just enough so that the tap borer
will enter the pipe with only a slight pressure. With the tap
borer, tap a hole large enough for the bending irons to enter. Now
proceed to enlarge the hole, first forcing the edges up and then
forcing them back, making the hole larger and making a collar
around the hole at the same time. Continue to open the pipe until
the aperture is large enough for the branch pipe to enter. The
bending irons must not come into contact with the inside wall of
the pipe, for if they do the inside bore will be marred and be very
ragged. As these joints are usually used on waste lines, these
ragged places make an ideal place for lint and grease to collect
and cause a stoppage. To make the inside of the hole even, a piece
of 1/2-inch pipe can be used in place of the bending irons. To cut
out the oval from a piece of paper to fit the joint, fold the
paper and cut out one-half of the oval. Now unfold the paper and
the complete oval is obtained. The measurements of the oval are
taken from Fig. 30, 1-1/8 inches each side of the branch lengthwise
of the run. These two lines are connected with a curved line as
shown. This curved line can be made with the shave hook. Take the
large edge of the shave hook and roll it along between the lines to
be joined. A little practice will perfect one in doing this
quickly. The beginner should make a number of these ovals so that
he can get them perfect. The graceful appearance of this joint
depends upon the neatness with which it is prepared. I do not want
the beginner to think that a graceful shape of the joint is all
that is to be desired or that it is the most essential point.
Further along, perhaps, more vital requirements will be brought out
and the beginner will be made acquainted with them.

The ends of the 6-inch piece are now squared with the rasp. The
edges of one end are rasped off as shown in the sketch, making a
wedged fit into the run. This end is then cleaned with the shave
hook. Paper is then pasted on to cover the pipe except the 1-1/8
inches cleaned on the end. This cleaned part forms part of the
joint, therefore no paste or paper must be put on it. The pipe is
now fitted into the run and the collar beaten against it with the
bending irons. The run is now cleaned with the shave hook for about
3 inches each side of the center. The paper oval cut out is now
pasted on the joint. The paste and paper are then allowed to dry
before they are handled further.

SUPPORTING.--The supporting of this joint, which is placed with the
branch on an angle of 45° pointing away from the wiper, is not a
difficult matter. The beginner can use his own ingenuity for
supporting the pipe if conditions do not warrant the using of the
methods previously described.

WIPING.--The solder should now be tested for heat. If the solder is
at the proper heat, the ladle is taken and heated. Take a ladle
full of solder and drop the solder on the joint. The lead of which
this branch joint is made is considerably lighter than any lead
that has been used before. Therefore, the beginner must drop the
solder on carefully, making sure that the solder is not dropped on
the same spot, for a hole can be burned through the pipe very
quickly. The ladle must be kept moving, then the solder will not
burn through the pipe. The heat is got up on the pipe by dropping
the solder on the run and on the branch, catching the surplus
solder on the catch cloth and heating the under side of the joint
with it. To form the joint, distribute the solder and then wipe it
into shape. Notice that I said wipe it into shape. A beginner is
very apt to try to push or poke it into shape. This must not be
done as it has a tendency to make the joint lumpy. All the edges
are wiped off clean first, then the body of the joint is shaped and
wiped. When forming the joint, be sure that the bottom and the top
are symmetrical. Do not have one-half larger than the other. The
last wiping strokes are made swiftly and rapidly. If the wiper will
watch his movements and note the results and then try to improve
them, keeping in mind that a symmetrical joint is wanted with thin
edges, perfection in wiping will come much more quickly than if no
attention is paid to the strokes made when wiping.


BRANCH JOINT WIPED FLAT

The materials required for this joint do not differ from the
preceding one. If the pipe used for the branch joint at a 45° angle
is in good shape, it can be used for this joint by simply changing
positions. The tools needed will not be any different. The ladle
and the wiping cloths, of course will be required. A pair of pliers
can be used to advantage in picking up the hot solder. The wiping
cloths should receive a little more oil to keep them soft and
pliable. Oil the edges of the cloths well.

SUPPORTING.--To support this pipe for wiping have each end rest on
a brick. Each end can be weighted to hold it in place.

WIPING.--To wipe this joint, proceed to drop the solder on the
joint. When the pipe is thoroughly heated and the solder works
freely around the pipe the joint can be wiped. The procedure is
like the preceding one. The wiper is cautioned to move the ladle
constantly while dropping the solder.


BRANCH HELD VERTICAL

After a number of the previous joints have been wiped successfully,
the pipe is placed in such a position that the branch will be
vertical. The supporting of the pipe to hold the joint in this
position for wiping is very easily done after handling the 5/8-in.
joint in this position. The following points may be found helpful:
The solder is splashed on the joint from the ladle. The top edge of
the joint is kept hot by keeping the solder covering it. When the
proper heat has been got up, the top edge is wiped first, then the
bottom edges both front and back. The body of the joint is wiped
last and a cross wipe finishes the joint. I have found that the
beginner in many cases, when this joint is reached, tries to wipe
it with many short strokes. The habit is a bad one and should be
stopped as soon as noticed. Learn to wipe the top edge with only
two strokes, the bottom edge with not more than four, the body of
the joint with four, and one cross wipe to finish. This joint
should be finished as symmetrically as possible and wiped while the
solder is hot.


RUN HELD VERTICALLY

When the vertical branch has been conquered and the wiper can get a
good joint every time it is tried, the pipe can be changed to a
different position. The run is placed in a vertical position and
the branch horizontally to the left. The catch pan is put under the
end of the pipe. Follow the same directions for supporting this
joint as were given under the 5/8-in. branch placed in a similar
position. The wiping of this joint is so nearly like the preceding
branch joints that I will not give any instructions at all. This
joint is finished at the same point that the other branch joints
are finished. However, there are one or two matters that should be
kept in mind. Some of the small matters are often overlooked and
should be called to mind occasionally. Do not allow the solder to
accumulate in the pan. If the cloths are burned, they should be
turned, or new ones made. If the paper has started to come off from
the pipe, new paper should be put on at once. Test the solder
occasionally and see that it does not get too hot. Upon completion
of the joint in this position, the branch joint in its various
positions is finished. The beginner has found out while wiping
these various joints a number of points that were not mentioned in
my description. No amount of detailed description will make a good
joint wiper. Patience and practice are as important in joint wiping
as good preparation and good solder.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, materials--18 inches of 1-1/2-in. lead pipe.

     _Second_, use of tools.

     _Third_, keep bending irons away from the wall of the pipe.

     _Fourth_, make a good collar around the opening.

     _Fifth_, make a tight fit with branch and run.

     _Sixth_, hot solder will quickly burn through the lead.

     _Seventh_, use branch cloth for wiping.

     _Eighth_, cut out paper for joint even and symmetrical.


BIB

This joint is another brass to lead, and is the last single joint
to be wiped in this course of joint wiping.

MATERIALS NEEDED.--The materials required for this joint are as
follows: 10 inches of 5/8-inch extra strong lead pipe; one 1/2-inch
brass sink bib for lead pipe; one pot of solder, paste and paper,
1/2 and 1/2 solder, catch pan, and supports.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.]

TOOLS REQUIRED.--The tools required for this job are the saw, rasp,
tap borer, bending irons, file, ladle, wiping cloths, shave hook,
knife and rule, soldering iron.

PREPARATION.--To prepare the lead pipe after cutting from the coil
and squaring the ends with the rasp is very similar to the 5/8-inch
branch joint. The center of the pipe is marked and a hole is made
in it with the tap borer large enough to admit the bending irons.
The hole is enlarged with the irons. A good substantial collar is
made around the hole to hold the bib in place. One and one-eighth
inches are marked off on each side of the branch and an easy curve
connects the two. The paper is then cut out and pasted on the pipe
after it has been scraped with the shave hook.

The end of the brass bib is filed bright and tinned with the
soldering iron and 1/2 and 1/2 solder. Before the tinning is done,
paper is put on the brass, leaving only 1-1/8 inches exposed. The
tinning must be thoroughly done, or it will come off and have to be
re-tinned.

SUPPORTING.--The bib is fitted into the lead opening and the collar
is forced against the bib to hold it in place and prevent any
solder from leaking through into the bore of the pipe. The bib
must not extend too far into the lead pipe or it will obstruct the
flow of water. The lead pipe is laid on two bricks the same as the
round joint. The bib is laid on an angle of 45° pointing away from
the wiper. Some bricks can be piled up to the right height to hold
the bib in place and a solder strap can be made to hold it steady.
The lead pipe can be held steady by weighting each end. The catch
pan is now placed under the joint and everything is ready for
wiping.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Bib.]

WIPING.--When the solder is hot, getting the heat on the pipe is
started. Solder should be dropped oftener on the brass bib than on
the lead pipe. It takes more heat to heat the brass thoroughly than
it does the lead. If this is followed out, little difficulty will
be had in getting up the heat and in wiping. Use the branch cloth
for wiping and make sure that all edges are perfectly cleaned
before making the final strokes. As this is the only position that
the joint will be wiped in, practice should be continued until
perfect joints can be obtained.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, materials needed.

     _Second_, tools needed.

     _Third_, use tap borer.

     _Fourth_, enlarge hole with bending irons.

     _Fifth_, make substantial collar around the opening.

     _Sixth_, paper the lead.

     _Seventh_, file the bib, then paper.

     _Eighth_, tin the bib.

     _Ninth_, place in position and wipe.


DRUM TRAP

The making of the drum trap will bring out the skill of the
beginner. The entire trap is made of lead pipe. The lead will
require a great deal of handling. Therefore, care must be exercised
in all operations to turn the trap out in a workmanlike manner.

MATERIALS NEEDED.--The materials needed to complete this job are:
10 inches of 4-inch 8-pound lead pipe; 18 inches of 1-1/2-inch
light lead pipe; paste and paper, support, solder, and catch pan.

TOOLS NEEDED.--The tools required for this job are: saw, rasp,
bending irons, shave hook, bending spring, tap borer, dresser,
ladle, drift plug, and wiping cloths.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--Drum trap.]

PREPARING.--Take the 10-inch piece of lead pipe and hold it in one
hand, in the other hand take a pine dresser. Strike the lead pipe
with the dresser. The pipe is struck about 2 inches from the end
and is beaten evenly all around. The pipe is then struck nearer the
end until finally the bore of the pipe is almost closed. This
closed end should be rounding and symmetrical. To get this shape
the pipe must be continually moved and turned. One side must not be
forced in more than the other. If there are any dents in the pipe
or part of the pipe is forced in too much it may be driven out as
follows: Take an old piece of 1/2-inch lead pipe and round one end
of it with a hammer; this can be used by hitting the inside of the
closed end of the drum and forcing out the dents. The rounded end
of the trap is not quite closed and a hole about 3/4 inch is left.
This opening is closed by shaping the edges of it with the knife,
making them smooth and beveled. Then a piece of lead is cut out of
some scrap, the same shape as the hole and fitted into it. The top
surface of this fitted piece should be a little lower than the
surface of the pipe. Strike a circle, using the compasses, the
center of the circle being the center of the inserted piece of
lead. The lead inside of this circle is shaved clean with the shave
hook, including the inserted piece. Paper is then pasted outside of
the circle and should cover entirely the rest of the pipe. The
inserted piece is wiped on the pipe as follows:

WIPING END.--Stand the 4-in. pipe in a pan with the rounded end of
the pipe up. Be sure that the inserted piece is fitted securely.
The solder is now dropped on the paper and shaved portion of the
pipe. Exercise considerable care not to burn a hole in the pipe. As
the hot solder runs off, catch some of it and draw it back on the
joint. When the solder can be manipulated freely and the pipe is
hot, the joint can be wiped. The cloth is drawn across the joint,
cleaning all the edges with one stroke. The joint should be shaped
to complete the rounding surface of the pipe. The joint is
comparatively easy and will not occupy much time. As soon as it is
wiped, cover the solder with paper. This will preserve the
freshness of the joint until all wiping is completed.


PREPARING INLET PIPE

After the above joint is completed, the 1-1/2-in. branch inlet pipe
is prepared and wiped in place. The center of this branch is
marked on the 4-inch pipe and a hole is tapped in the pipe, using
the tap borer. A hole large enough to admit the bending irons is
made. The hole is enlarged with the bending irons, bending the lead
first _up_, then _back_. A piece of 1/2-inch iron pipe can be used
as a tool to finish the opening. The iron pipe is larger in
diameter than the bending irons and leaves a more finished surface.
The opening is made of sufficient size to admit the rasped end of
the 1-1/2-inch pipe. When using the irons to enlarge the opening in
the pipe, be sure not to bruise any part of the trap. The
1-1/2-inch pipe is now taken. The ends of this pipe are squared
with the rasp. The drift plug is then driven through the pipe to
take out any bruises or flattened places. The edge of one end is
rasped off to fit the opening made in the 4-inch pipe. The beginner
must strive to make a perfect fit. The accuracy with which these
preparations are made is what helps in a large degree to bring
about a successful job. The next operation is to paper the parts
not to be wiped. The sizes of the joint should be followed as shown
on the sketch. The pipe is first shaved with the shave hook, after
which the paper is pasted on. No paste is allowed to get on the
joint proper. The beginner should by this time have formed the
habit of being neat with his work. Therefore the getting of paste
on the joint surface shows that he is not as neat or as far
advanced as he should be.

SUPPORTING.--The drum is laid lengthwise on the bench and blocks
are put on each side to keep it from rolling, the branch uppermost.
The 1-1/2-inch pipe is held in position the same way as the
vertical branch was held. The catch pan is put under the drum to
catch the surplus solder.

WIPING.--Splash the solder on the branch pipe, also on the drum.
The burning through of the drum is an easy matter. Therefore do not
keep dropping the solder on one place, but keep the ladle moving
continually. With the catch cloth draw the solder up on the branch
covering the top edge of the prepared surface. Splashing the solder
on this top edge melts the solder already on and allows it to run
down on the 4-inch pipe where it is caught with the cloth and again
brought up on the top edge of the branch. When the solder works
freely all around the joint, the top edge is wiped clean and even.
Then any surplus solder is wiped off. The bottom edge is next wiped
clean, after which the body of the joint is wiped into shape,
together with both edges. The edges are wiped very thin so that
when the paper is removed the outline of the joint stands out very
distinctly. A thick edge on a joint gives an unworkmanlike
appearance to the work. The joint is finished with a cross wipe.

The other joints are prepared and wiped the same as the one just
completed. The 1-1/2-inch branch connection taken out of the bottom
of the trap is bent. As this is the first time it has been
necessary to bend lead pipe in these jobs, I will cover this
operation in detail. The pipe is first straightened and the drift
plug driven through it. The pipe is marked where the bend is to be
made. The bending spring, size 1-1/2 inches, is put into the pipe,
the center of the spring coming about where the bend is to be made.
The pipe is then heated where it was marked to be bent. The proper
heat for this pipe is just so that the hand cannot stand being laid
against it. The pipe is held in the hands and on the end nearest
the heat is hit against the floor at an angle. The pipe, with the
first blow, will start to bend. With a few more strokes the desired
bend will be obtained. The bending spring can now be pulled out.
Put a little water in the pipe, then put one end of the spring in
the vise, twist the pipe, and the spring will come out when the
pipe is pulled away from it. The bending spring holds the pipe
cylindrical while it is being bent. Without the spring, the pipe
would be badly crushed at the bend and rendered almost unfit for
service. Another good way to bend pipe is to plug one end and fill
the pipe full of sand, then plug the open end. The pipe is then
heated where the bend is to be made. The pipe can then be bent over
the knee. When all the joints are wiped, the paper should be taken
off and the lead cleaned with sand and water. The trap is now
complete except the brass clean-out to be soldered on the top. The
inside of the trap should not have any rough edges or drops of
solder in it.

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--Drum trap.]

There are two other drum traps to be made. The materials needed are
the same as for the above trap except for 18 inches more of
1-1/2-inch lead pipe. The support, preparation, and wiping are the
same. The beginner by this time should feel very well acquainted
with lead and solder. Therefore, the details of these two drum
traps can be left for the beginner to work out for himself. The
sketches are very distinct and readable and will be of considerable
assistance. The beginner should make these traps.

POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED.--

     _First_, use 4-inch lead pipe, 8 pounds to the foot.

     _Second_, dresser and spring are new tools. Study their use.

     _Third_, gradually work the trap into shape with the dresser.

     _Fourth_, plug the hole with a piece of lead pipe.

     _Fifth_, prepare and wipe the plugged hole first.

     _Sixth_, prepare and wipe the 1-1/2-inch branches.

     _Seventh_, special care should be taken to keep the work neat.

     _Eighth_, two ways of using the bending spring.

     _Ninth_, wipe thin edges on joints.

     _Tenth_, do not handle finished work.

     _Eleventh_, clean and finish the work neatly.


THE PRACTICAL USE OF THE PRECEDING EXERCISES

In the foregoing exercises, I have confined myself to the actual
work of making the various joints. Now I will explain the practical
use of them.

SOLDERING IRON.--The soldering iron is a tool that is used in work
that requires heat to fuse solder and the parts to be united. Every
plumber should have at least two irons in his kit.

THE CUP JOINT.--While the cup joint is not employed to any great
extent in modern plumbing, yet it has its use in the installation
of some fixtures. Lavatories, bath and toilets are sometimes
connected with a short piece of lead on the supply. The tail pieces
on the faucets can be soldered on the lead by means of a cup joint.
A cup joint well made with a deep cup and the solder well fused is
as strong as a wiped joint in a place of this kind. The evil of the
cup joint is that some mechanics will only fuse the surface and
leave the deep cup only filled with solder and not fused. This
makes a tight joint, but extremely weak. On tin-lined pipe and
block-tin pipe the cup joint is commonly used. When making a cup
joint on block-tin pipe the soldering iron must not touch the pipe
and fine solder should be used. When tin-lined pipe is being
soldered, the tin lining must not be melted.

OVERCAST JOINT.--The overcast joint is not commonly used, but when
there is considerable lead work to do the plumber finds it very
handy in places where a wiped joint would take up too much room. We
use it for an exercise for the reason that it teaches the beginner
very rapidly the use and control of the soldering iron.

FLAT SEAMS.--These seams are used in the construction of roof
flashers, tanks (Sec. 33, Chapter XVIII) and lead safe wastes (Sec.
27, plumbing code). A hatchet iron is sometimes used on these
seams.

WIPING CLOTHS.--The wiping cloths made of whalebone ticking make
good, serviceable, and lasting cloths. Oil only should be used to
break the cloth in. Moleskin cloths are very good, but they are
very hard to get and cost considerably more. A plumber should
always keep a good supply of ticking cloths on hand. The cloths are
used only for wiping.

1/2-INCH ROUND JOINT.--This joint is the one most often required in
actual practice. It serves to connect two pieces of lead pipe of
the same or different diameters. It is also used to connect lead
and other materials of which pipe is made. The workman, when he
gets out on the job, finds that his work cannot be supported for
wiping in such an easy and convenient position as illustrated in
the exercises. It will be necessary to wipe the joint at almost
every conceivable angle and position. The workman must employ his
ingenuity to overcome any difficulties that may arise. Any draught
of air should be avoided as it will make the solder cool quickly.

2-INCH BRASS FERRULE.--When it is found necessary to connect
cast-iron and lead pipe, it is done by means of a brass ferrule
wiped on the lead pipe. This joint is a very common joint and is
found on sink, tray, and bath connections, as well as in many other
connections that have lead and cast-iron pipes for wastes.

4-INCH BRASS FERRULE.--The 4-inch brass ferrule wiped on lead pipe
is found under almost every closet. There is generally a piece of
lead connecting the toilet with the soil pipe. Therefore, a brass
ferrule is wiped on the lead and the ferrule connected with the
soil pipe. This joint is also found on rain leader connections near
the roof, connecting the gutter with the rain leader stack.

STOP COCK.--When a shut-off is required in a line of lead water
pipe, these joints are used. Where it is necessary to joint lead
and brass, this joint is required. The art of heat control over the
lead and the brass is the essential point in these joints.

BRANCH JOINTS 5/8 AND 1/2 INCHES.--Where it is found necessary to
take a branch from a water pipe, this joint is used at the
connection. In practice, this joint may have to be wiped in
positions that are rather difficult to reach, so the wiping of
joints in the positions called for in the exercises is exceedingly
good practice.

BRANCH JOINTS 1-1/2 INCHES.--These joints are very common and are
found on waste and vent pipes. They are also found on urinal
flush-pipe connections where the branch often is brass and the run
lead.

BIB.--When lead supplies are run directly to the bib on a sink,
this joint is necessary. It becomes necessary to wipe in a piece of
brass for a brass-pipe connection from a lead pipe, in which case
this joint is called for.

THE DRUM TRAP.--The drum trap is used under sinks, baths, showers,
and trays.



CHAPTER VII

LAYING TERRA-COTTA AND MAKING CONNECTIONS TO PUBLIC SEWERS. WATER
CONNECTIONS TO MAINS IN STREETS


TERRA-COTTA PIPE

One of the first pieces of work which a plumber is called upon to
do, when building operations commence, is to run in the terra-cotta
sewer from the street sewer into the foundation wall.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Connection of house sewer to main sewer.]

When the street sewer is laid, Y-branches are left every few feet.
A record of the branches and their distance from the manhole is
kept generally in the Department of Sewers or Public Works.
Therefore, the exact measurement of any branch can be obtained and
the branch found by digging down to the depth of the sewer. A
branch should be chosen so that the pipe can be laid with a pitch,
the same way as the main sewer pitches. This can be done by getting
the measurements of two of these branches and choosing the one that
will serve best. When there is a brick sewer in the street and no
branches left out, the sewer must be tapped wherever the house
sewer requires it (see Fig. 35).

DIGGING TRENCHES.--After the measurements and location of the house
sewer and sewer branches are properly located, the digging of the
trench is started. The methods employed to dig the trench vary
according to the nature of the ground, that is, whether it is sand,
rock, or wet ground. A line should be struck from sewer to
foundation wall to insure a straight trench.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--Laying of plank for trench dug in sandy
ground.]

SANDY GROUND.--If the ground is sandy, the sides of the trench will
have to be sheathed or planked and the planks braced so as to
prevent the bank caving in. As the trench is dug deeper, the planks
are driven down. When the trench is very deep, a second row of
planking is necessary. The planks must be kept well down to the
bottom of the trench and close together, otherwise the sand will
run in. It is well to test the planking as progress is made by
tamping the sand on the bank side of the planks.

GRAVEL.--Where the ground is mostly gravel and well packed, the
above method of planking is unnecessary. The bank should have a few
stringers and braces to support it. When only a few planks are used
the term "corduroy the bank" is used (see Fig. 37).

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--Arrangement of plank for gravel.]

ROCK.--Where rock is encountered, blasting is resorted to. The
plumber should not attempt to handle a job requiring the use of
powder. It is dangerous in the hands of a person not used to
handling it and the work should be sublet.

A sketch of the two methods above for planking trenches is given
and a little study will make them clear.


LAYING OF PIPE

The pipe should be laid on the bottom of the trench to a pitch of
at least 1/4 inch per foot fall. In laying, the start should be
made at the street sewer with hubs of pipe toward the building. The
trench should be dug within a few inches of the bottom of the
pipe, then as the pipe is laid the exact depth is dug out, the
surplus dirt being thrown on the pipe already laid. The body length
of pipe should be on solid foundation. A space dug out for each hub
as shown in Fig. 38 allows for this, also allows for the proper
cementing of joints. To get the proper pitch of pipe, take for
example 1/4 inch per foot, a level 2 feet long with a piece of wood
or metal on one end 1/2 inch thick will answer. The end with the
1/2-inch piece on should be on the lower hub and the other end
resting on the hub of the pipe about to be put in place. When the
bubble shows level, then the pipe has the 1/4-inch fall per foot.
If a tile trap is used, it should be laid level, otherwise the seal
will be weakened or entirely broken.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--Laying terra-cotta pipe.]

CUTTING.--The cutting of tile is not difficult, but must be done
carefully or the pipe will crack or a piece will be broken out,
thus making the pipe worthless. To cut tile or terra-cotta pipe,
stand the pipe on end with the hub down, fill the pipe with sand to
the point of cutting. With a sharp chisel and hammer cut around the
pipe two or three times and the pipe will crack around practically
straight.

CEMENTING.--If the pipe is free from cracks, the only possible way
roots can get into the inside of terra-cotta pipe is through the
cement joint. There are two ways of making these joints. Both ways
are explained below and are used today on terra-cotta work.

     _First._--The bottom of the hub of pipe in place is filled with
     cement and the straight end of the next piece of pipe is laid in
     place, then more cement is placed into the hub until the space
     between the hub and the pipe is filled. In a trench, a trowel is
     rather unhandy to work with, while the hands can be used to better
     advantage. The cement can be forced into place with the hands and
     then surfaced with a trowel. The rest of the operation is to swab
     out the inside joint to remove any cement that perchance was forced
     through the joint (see Fig. 39). The cement used should be 1/2
     cement and 1/2 clean sharp sand.

     _Second._--Half of the space between the hub and the pipe is first
     packed with oakum and then the other half filled with cement of the
     same proportions as that used above.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--Showing use of the swab.]


LAYING PIPE IN TUNNELS

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--Pushing pipe through tunnel.]

If the pipe must be run through a tunnel and there are perhaps
three or four joints that cannot be reached, they should be put
into place as follows: The pipe should be laid in the trench from
the sewer in the street as far as the tunnel, then start at the
other end of the tunnel. Lay the first piece of pipe on a board,
lengthwise with the board, nail two cleats in the shape of a >
(Fig. 40) for the pipe to rest in; push this pipe and board into
the tunnel and then cement into its hub a second piece; push the
two pieces in 2 feet, cement a third length into the second piece
and push the three pieces along 2 feet. A workman can be on the
sewer side of the tunnel and receive the end of the pipe as it is
pushed through the tunnel, and steer the pipe into the hub. The
joints in the tunnel will not be as secure as those outside. This
explains how pipe is run through a tunnel.

CONNECTING.--The proper method of connecting the house sewer with
the street sewer is shown in Fig. 35. The connection should be made
above the spring of the arch. The pipe should extend well into the
sewer so the sewage will discharge into water and not drop on
sides.

INSERTING.--To insert a tee in a line of pipe already laid, pursue
the following method (see Fig. 41): Cut or break out one joint,
preserve the bottom of the hub of pipe that is in. Cut away the top
of the hub on the pipe to be inserted, then place the pipe in
position and turn around until the part of the hub on the piece
inserted is on the bottom. The bottom part of the pipes now will
have a hub to receive the cement. The top part will have to be
cemented carefully, as it is within easy access. This can be done
without difficulty.

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--Inserting length of pipe.]

While laying the pipe a stopper is used to prevent the sewer gases
and foul odors from escaping. This stopper sometimes is of tile,
sometimes a plug of paper or burlap. This stopper is sometimes
cemented in by inexperienced men and the trouble created can only
be guessed at. If a stopper is used, the workman must see that it
is taken out.

REFILLING.--After the pipe is laid and cemented, it should be
covered and allowed to stand 24 hours to give the cement time to
harden. The dirt should then be thrown in and settled by means of a
tamper or by flooding with water. The planks should not be taken
out until the trench is well filled. To pull the plank, a chain or
shoe and lever will have to be used. Where the tunnels are, dirt
will have to be rammed in with a long rammer, care being taken not
to disturb the pipe. If the refill is not well rammed and tamped,
the trench will settle and cause a bad depression in the street
surface.

TERRA-COTTA PIPE.--Terra-cotta pipe should be straight, free from
fire cracks, and salt-glazed. The inside of the hub and outside of
the plain end should not be glazed. This allows the cement to take
hold.

     TABLE OF STANDARD TERRA-COTTA PIPE

     ------+------------+-----------------+----------+--------------
     Size  | Thickness, | Weight per ft., | Depth of | Annular space
           |   inches   |     pounds      |  socket  |
     ------+------------+-----------------+----------+--------------
      3    |      1/2   |         7       |  1-1/2   |    1/4
      4    |      1/2   |         9       |  1-5/8   |    3/8
      5    |      5/8   |        12       |  1-3/4   |    3/8
      6    |      5/8   |        15       |  1-7/8   |    3/8
      8    |      3/4   |        23       |  2       |    3/8
      9    |     13/16  |       23        |  2       |    3/8
     10    |      7/8   |        35       |  2-1/8   |    3/8
     12    |    1       |       45        |  2-1/4   |    1/2
     15    |    1-1/8   |       60        |  2-1/2   |    1/2
     18    |    1-1/4   |       85        |  2-3/4   |    1/2
     20    |    1-3/8   |      100        |  3       |    1/2
     ------+------------+-----------------+----------+--------------

Terra-cotta pipe should not be permitted in filled-in ground.

Roots of trees find their way into the pipe through cracks or
cement joints. When the roots get inside of the pipe they grow
until the pipe is stopped up. As the roots cannot be forced or
wired out, the sewer must be relaid. The writer has seen a solid
mass of roots 10 feet long taken out of a tile sewer.

In case terra-cotta is laid in filled-in ground, there is only one
way to insure the pipe from breaking. The pipe should be laid on
planks. Then, if the ground settles, the pipe will not be broken.


WATER CONNECTION AND SERVICE

TAPPING MAIN.--The water service for a building is put in at the
same time as the sewer is connected and run into the house. For a
1-1/4-service pipe a 1/2-inch tap is furnished. The water company
taps the main, at the expense of the plumber, and inserts a
corporation cock.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--Showing water main and sewer in same
ditch.]

DIGGING TRENCH.--The trench for the water main should be dug at
least 4-1/2 feet deep or below frost level and the trench should be
kept straight. When the sewer is put in at the same time, one side
of the sewer trench can be cut out after it is filled up to the
level of the water main. The water pipe can then be laid on this
shelf at least 2 feet away from the original trench of sewer.
Sometimes the surface of the ground must not be disturbed. In this
case small holes are dug and the pipe is pushed through or driven
through under that portion not dug. These places are often
tunnelled (see Fig. 42).

In digging in city streets, care should be taken not to destroy any
of the numerous pipes encountered.


LAYING PIPE

The trench should be dug straight out from the house so the pipe
can be laid and the main tapped straight out from the building. The
water companies keep a record of these taps so that in case of
trouble the street can be opened and the water shut off. In laying
the water service, the pipe from the curb to the main should be
laid first. This takes in all the pipe in the street. At the main
there is a shut-off in the tap. Another stop with T or wheel handle
must be placed just inside the curb line. This is called a curb
cock (see Fig. 43). One trench either outside or inside of the curb
should be at least 15 feet long so that a full length of pipe can
be laid in the trench. It is generally impossible to open a trench
the full length the pipe is to be run. A trench 10 feet long is
dug, then 8 feet left, and another 10- or 8-foot trench is dug and
the two are connected with a small tunnel and pipe pushed through.
When the pipe has been put in place between the curb and main, the
water is turned on and the pipe flushed out. The valve at the curb
should now be shut off, and if there are any leaks they will show.
The street part is now ready to fill in. At this point Fig. 43
should be studied. Note the piece of lead attached to the pipe and
corporation cock. This piece of lead should be extra heavy and
always laid in place the shape of the letter S or goose neck. In
case the street should settle, this piece of lead will allow for
it. These "lead connections" or "goose necks" are made as follows:
3 ft. of 5/8 lead pipe; 1-inch brass solder nipple (wiped on); one
brass corporation cock coupling (wiped on).

LAYING PIPE.--This lead connection can be screwed on the pipe after
the pipe is laid, then bent and coupled on the main with the
coupling.

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--Water main from street to foundation
wall.]

After the pipe has been tested as far as the curb, the trench in
the street can be filled as described later. The pipe from the curb
to the building can now be laid. If necessary to push the pipe
through a tunnel, the end of the pipe should first be capped. Start
by screwing a length in the curb cock. If the other end of the pipe
comes in a tunnel an additional length must be put on before
putting in place so that an end will come in the open trench. When
the building is reached and before the stop cock is put on, the
valve at the curb should be opened full and the pipe flushed out.
The valve can then be put on and water turned on to test the pipe.

SETTING CURB BOX.--A cast-iron box, adjustable length, with cover
should extend from the curb cock to the surface. This makes it
possible with a long rod to control the water service into the
building. To set a curb box some flat stones should be laid around
the curb cock and the box set on these stones. Then the space
around the box and pipe should be closed in with brick or other
covering to keep the sand from washing in on the curb cock. The box
should be adjusted for height and then held in place by placing the
curb key rod in place and holding the rod and box while the trench
is filled. The refill should be tamped evenly on all sides of the
box.

REFILL.--In refilling the trench around the corporation cock and
goose neck, the greatest care should be taken. The writer has seen
cases when indifferent workmen have tossed heavy stones in the
ditch and broken off the corporation cock or destroyed the goose
neck. After the pipe is covered with 18 inches of refill and
tunnels have been filled, water can be run in the trench and will
settle the refill.

There are a number of special points concerning water services and
taps at mains that should not be overlooked. Take for example a
water service pipe which must be run through ground where
electricity is escaping under trolley tracks, around power houses,
etc. The electricity will enter the pipe and wherever it leaves the
pipe a hole is burned. The surface of the pipe in a short time will
be full of small pith marks and will soon leak. A good way to add
to the life of the pipe under these conditions is to make a star of
copper and solder it on to the pipe in the street. Another piece of
copper should be put on the pipe near the building. The electricity
will leave the pipe by way of the points on the star. This method
may not be a cure for electrolysis, but will add to the life of the
pipe. Another method employed is to put the pipe in the center of a
square box, then fill the box with hot pitch. When this is hardened
the pipe will have a covering that will keep out any moisture and
bar electricity to a marked degree.

MATERIALS USED.--Galvanized steel pipe does not last under ground.

Galvanized iron, heavy lead, and brass are used. Wooden pipes were
once used and stood years of service. No service smaller than 1-1/4
should be used.

When the water service pipe passes through the foundation wall, the
pipe should not be built in, but a small arch should be built over
the pipe or a piece of XX cast-iron pipe can be used as a sleeve
(Fig. 44).

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--Free space around pipe passing through
wall.]

POINTS TO REMEMBER.--


SEWER INSTALLATION

     _First_, select good sound pipe and fittings.

     _Second_, locate branch connection in street sewer.

     _Third_, lay out run of house sewer.

     _Fourth_, take out necessary permits from departments of sewer.

     _Fifth_, dig trench in the street, then into the house.

     _Sixth_, lay pipe and cement joints.

     _Seventh_, refill trench, tamping every foot.

     _Eighth_, cast-iron pipe for sewer is found under another heading.


WATER SERVICE

     _First_, take out necessary permits.

     _Second_, list material and deliver to job.

     _Third_, lay out and dig trench.

     _Fourth_, have main tapped.

     _Fifth_, lay pipe to curb and test.

     _Sixth_, fill in street trench.

     _Seventh_, lay pipe into building and test.

     _Eighth_, set curb box.

     _Ninth_, refill trench.

     _Tenth_, thoroughly consider any special conditions.

     _Street Sewer._--Large pipe in streets to receive all soil and
     waste from buildings.

     _House Sewer._--Conveys sewage from building to street sewer,
     extends from foundation wall to sewer.

     _Street Main._--Water pipe running parallel with the street,
     belonging to the water company.

     _Service Pipe._--Runs from the street main into the building.

     _Corporation Cock._--Brass stop tapped into street main.

     _Goose Neck._--Lead pipe which connects the street main and service
     pipe.

     _Trench._--Hole dug to receive pipe.

     _Main Tapped._--Hole drilled through wall of main and a thread made
     on it while pressure is on.

     _Curb Cock._--Brass shut-off placed at curb.

     _Solder Nipple._--Piece of brass pipe with thread on one end and
     plain on the other end which connects lead and iron.

     _Coupling._--Fitting which connects two pieces of pipe.

     _Stop Cock._--Brass fitting for stopping flow of water.

     _Curb Box._--Iron box extending from curb cock to surface.

     _Curb Key._--A long key to fit in side of curb box to operate curb
     cock.

     _Swab._--Stick with ball of rags or paper on one end.



CHAPTER VIII

INSTALLING OF FRENCH OR SUB-SOIL DRAINS


[Illustration: FIG. 45.--Sub-soil drain.]

When a building is erected on a site that is wet or springy, some
means of carrying off the surplus water in the ground must be
provided for, or the basement of the building will be flooded with
water. For the thorough understanding of the methods employed in
laying a drain of this kind, I will go over it carefully and the
beginner can read it and then study it, and understand just how it
is done. A site may appear to be dry on the surface of the ground
and yet be very wet under the surface. If no information can be had
regarding the site, it is always well to drain the site if it is on
a slope or near a body of water and on the water shed of a river or
lake. If a building is a large one and the foundation goes down
very deep, the site should always be drained. The drain is laid
under the basement floor and around the outside of the foundation
wall on a level with or lower than the basement floor. The value of
draining a building site when the building is first started is very
often overlooked. The cost of the drain will be saved in a few
years as the basement will be free from all excessive dampness. The
expense of installing a sub-soil after the building is up and in
use is great as well as inconvenient. The drain is called "sub-soil
drain" on account of its location under the ground and on account
of its duty of taking off all surplus water that is underground.
With the surface water taken off by the surface drains and the
sub-soil drained by the sub-soil drains, a wet building site can be
made practically dry (see Fig. 45).

MATERIALS USED IN SUB-SOIL CONSTRUCTION.--The object of the drain
is to collect water and carry it away from the building by means of
pipes. Terra-cotta pipes, with or without hubs, are used.
Perforated tile pipe is sometimes used. This pipe is unglazed
terra-cotta pipe with 1-inch holes in the sides about 3 or 4 inches
from the center. These holes allow the surplus water to enter the
bore of the pipe and thus be carried off beyond the building site.

When the sub-soil of a small building needs draining, the trenches
made for the house drain and its branches are used as a drain in
the following manner: The trenches are dug deeper than is required
for the house drain. The trenches are then filled to the correct
level with broken stones. There is space between these stones for
the water to find passage to a point away from the building. When
this method is employed, some provision must be made to prevent the
house drain from settling. When locating the drain, we must
consider approximately the amount of water that is likely to be in
the soil and required to be carried off. If there is considerable
water, the pipes should extend all around the outside of the
building foundation wall, also a main pipe running under the cellar
bottom with six branches, three branches on each side.

If there is not a great deal of surplus water in the soil, the
drain around the outside of the foundation wall should be put in
and one drain line running through the basement will be sufficient.

LAYING THE PIPE.--The drain pipe should be handled with care, for
it is easily broken. The trench should be laid out and dug, then
the pipe can be laid in it with a grade toward the outlet or
discharge. If pipes with a hub on one end are used, the hub should
not be cemented. A little oakum is packed in the hub to steady the
pipe and keep sand out, the bottom of joint is cemented, a piece of
tar paper can be laid over the top of the joint to keep the sand
out. With joints made this way, the water can find its way to the
bore of the pipe and yet the sand will be kept out of the pipe. As
soon as the water gets into the bore of the pipe it has a clear
passageway to some discharge point away from the building. If tile
pipes without any hubs are used, some covering should be put around
the joint to keep out the sand and still allow the water to find
its way into the pipes.

DISCHARGE OF SUB-SOIL DRAIN.--The water that accumulates in a
sub-soil drain must be carried off to some point away from the
building. As the pipes are generally under the cellar bottom and
under the house drain, it is very evident that this drain cannot
discharge into the house drain sewer, directly. If the building
site is on a hill, the drain can be carried out and discharged on
the surface at a point that is somewhat lower than the level of the
pipe under the building. Where this cannot be done, it will be
necessary to have the different lines of pipes discharge into a
pit. The water is accumulated in this pit until it is filled, then
it will automatically empty itself as later explained.

PIT CONSTRUCTION.--The pit for the sub-soil water is constructed of
cement. A pit 2 feet square or 2 feet in diameter and 3 feet deep
will answer all requirements. A pit of this depth will allow a
pitch for all lines of pipe, and is large enough for ordinary
installations. The pit is built up to the surface of the cemented
floor of the basement and covered with a removable iron cover.

CELLAR DRAINER OR PUMP.--A cellar drainer is employed to empty the
above-mentioned pit. The cellar drainer works automatically. When
the pit is filled with water, the drainer operates and empties the
pit and discharges the water into a sink or open sewer connection.
When the pit is emptied, the drainer shuts off. The cellar drainer
is operated by water pressure. When the valve is opened, a small
jet of water is discharged into a larger pipe. The velocity of this
small jet of water creates a suction and carries along with it some
of the water in the pit. This suction continues until the tank is
empty. There should always be a strainer on the suction pipe, also
on the supply pipe, to prevent any particles of dirt getting into
the valve. The pipes leading to and from the drainer should empty
into an open sink where it can be seen. There is a possibility of
the drainer valve leaking and then the water pressure will leak
through it, causing a waste of water. If this leakage can be seen
where it discharges, then the trouble can be rectified. The cellar
drainer is connected directly with the water pressure and should
have a valve close to the connection to control the supply.



CHAPTER IX

STORM AND SANITARY DRAINAGE WITH SEWAGE DISPOSAL IN VIEW


The accompanying drawing of storm and sanitary drains should be
studied in detail by the reader. The location of each trap and
fitting should be studied carefully and the reason that it is put
in that particular place should be thoroughly understood. Below,
each plan has been taken and gone over in detail, bringing out the
reasons for fittings and traps, also the arrangement of the piping.

[Illustration: FIG. 46.]

The first thing to note in Fig. 46 is the number and kinds of
fixtures to be drained. There is in the basement a set of
three-part wash trays. This will require a 2-inch waste and a
1-1/2-inch vent. There is in the drawing a 2-inch waste extending
to the fixtures above. On the same line is a rain leader with a
trap showing also a 4-inch floor drain. There are two 4-inch rain
leaders on the opposite corners of the plan, in the rear of the
building. There is a 4-inch soil stack for fixtures above and a
4-inch soil stack in the basement on the same line for a basement
toilet. On the front there are rain leaders in each corner. These
will be connected outside of the house trap (this feature should be
noted). The outlets that are to discharge into the house drain are
as follows:

     Two 4-inch rain leaders.

     One 2-inch sink waste.

     One 2-inch wash tray waste.

     One 4-inch floor drain.

     One 4-inch soil pipe.

     One 4-inch closet connection.

     Two 4-inch front rain leaders to discharge into house
     sewer.

If we were to install this job, we would first locate each pipe
that enters the house drain. The lowest outlet would be
particularly noted, in this case the 4-inch floor drain. From this
drain we must make sure that at least 1/4 inch to the foot fall is
secured. We must then locate the house sewer where it enters the
foundation wall, then the work can be started. I will not attempt
to list the material that is necessary for this work, at this time.
With all the material at hand the house drain is started. All of
this work is installed under the ground, therefore trenches must be
dug for all the piping. The plumber must lay these trenches out and
in doing so he must have in mind all connections and the fittings
he can use so that the trenches can be dug at the right angle. The
trenches must be dug allowing a pitch for the pipe. The height of
the cellar is 8 feet below the joists. A stick is cut 8 feet long
which can be used to get the trenches below the cement floor at the
right depth. After the digging is completed, the house trap, which
is a 6-inch running trap, is caulked into a length of 6-inch
cast-iron pipe. This piece of pipe is pushed out toward the sewer
bringing the trap near the foundation wall, on the inside. The
fittings and traps and pipe are caulked in place as fast as
possible. When possible, the joints are caulked outside of the
trench in an upright position. There are a number of different ways
to caulk this pipe together, and to make it clear to the beginner
just how it is done the following exercise is suggested. This job
brings in the caulking of pipes, traps, and fittings in various
positions. Two or three can work on this job together. Fig. 47
shows how the pipe and fittings are put together, which needs no
further explanation. Therefore, we will go over in detail only the
caulking of the joints in the various positions.

[Illustration: FIG. 47.]

MATERIAL NEEDED.--One length of 4-inch extra heavy cast-iron pipe,
single hub; two lengths of 4-inch extra heavy cast-iron pipe,
double hub; one running trap, one full Y, one 4-inch 1/4 bend; two
4-inch clean-out screws with iron body; one 4-inch vent cap; one
4-inch 1/8 bend; 30 pounds of block lead; 2 pounds of oakum.

TOOLS REQUIRED.--Ladle, asbestos pourer, hammer, cold chisel,
yarning iron, two caulking irons, furnace and pot.

The beginner should start at the trap and caulk the joints with the
trap held in place. The cold chisel should be sharp as it is used
to cut the cast-iron pipe.

To caulk the straight end of cast-iron pipe into the hub end and
make a water-tight joint when the pipe is in a vertical position,
the spigot end of the pipe is entered into the hub end of another
piece. A wad of oakum is taken and forced into the hub with the
yarning iron. This piece of oakum is forced to the bottom of the
hub, then another piece is put in. The oakum is set and packed by
using the yarning iron and hammer. The hub is half filled with
oakum. The oakum is forced tight enough to make a water-tight
joint. If the oakum used comes in a bale, pieces of it will have to
be taken and rolled into long ropes about 18 inches long, the
thickness of the rope corresponding with the space between the hub
and the pipe. If rope oakum is used, the strands of the rope can be
used. After the oakum is well packed into place and the pipe is
lined up and made straight, molten lead is poured in and the hub
filled. When the lead has cooled, set the lead with the caulking
tool and hammer, making one blow on each side of the joint. This
sets the lead evenly on every side. If there is any surplus lead,
it can now be cut off, using the hammer and cold chisel. The
caulking iron is again taken and the lead next to the pipe is
tamped, striking the iron with the hammer at an angle to drive the
lead against the pipe. After this has been done all around, the
caulking iron is held in such a position that the lead around the
hub will receive the force of the blow. After this has been done,
the center of the lead is caulked and the joint should be tight.
With a little practice, this can be done very rapidly. The lead
should be poured in while it is very hot. The caulking must not be
done by hitting heavy blows as there is a possibility of splitting
the hub and thereby rendering the joint unfit for use.

CAULKING JOINT IN HORIZONTAL POSITION.--It is necessary in a great
many cases to caulk a joint in a position where the lead would run
out of the joint unless provision were made to hold it in. To
caulk a joint in a position of this kind, the pipe is lined up and
secured, then the oakum is put in and forced to the bottom of the
hub. Then a joint runner, which is an asbestos rope about 2 feet
long and about 1 inch in diameter, is fitted around the pipe and
forced against the hub where it is clamped by means of an attached
clamp. The clamp is put on the top of the pipe and so arranged that
a channel will be left in a V shape. This channel allows the hot
lead to run between the asbestos runner and the hub. When the lead
has had a chance to cool, the asbestos runner is taken off. Where
the clamp was, there will be a triangular piece of lead sticking
out beyond the face of the hub. This piece has to be cut off, but
no attempt should be made to do so until it has been caulked in
place and well set; also the rest of the lead should be set. Then
the cold chisel can be used and this extra piece of lead taken off.
The caulking of the lead in this position is the same as in the
previous position and should be carried out closely. The beginner
should understand that it is necessary to have not only the joints
tight so that running water will not leak out of them, but that the
joints must stand a water test. The testing of soil stacks is
explained under another heading. The lines of cast-iron pipe depend
to a considerable extent upon these joints to make the whole line
rigid.

CAULKING OF FITTINGS.--The caulking of fittings, while done the
same as a straight pipe, is far more difficult. The improper making
of these joints is the cause of many leaks. A long sweep fitting is
caulked without a great deal of difficulty. If a short bend fitting
is used, the matter of caulking is difficult. The fitting is so
short that it is almost impossible to get a caulking iron into the
throat. The mechanics will have to work at the throat from each
side until this part has been sufficiently caulked. I call
attention to this point, for I know it to be a failure in a large
number of jobs when it comes to put the test on. In order to caulk
the fittings, they must be put in their exact location and
positions before the lead is poured in, for after the lead is once
in the fitting cannot be moved. When there is a series of fittings
on a line, their positions in relation to each other must be
considered before the lead is poured.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.]

[Illustration: FIG. 49.]

[Illustration: FIG. 50.]

[Illustration: FIG. 51.]

Fig. 48 shows the same fixture and stack connections as Fig. 46.
Two 4-inch lines run through the cellar, one a sanitary drain, the
other a storm drain. Each 4-inch line has an intercepting trap. On
the sewer side of these traps the two lines are brought together,
beyond which point the two front rain leaders connect; each of the
two front leaders is trapped separately.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.]

Fig. 49 differs from the preceding one in only two points. First,
the two front leaders are brought into the cellar and connected
into the storm drain on the house side of the intercepting trap.
Second, the storm and sanitary drains are connected on the outside
of the building.

Fig. 50 shows the same fixtures collected into a 4-inch house
drain, and the rain leaders run entirely on the outside of the
building. This plan is a good one as all the storm water is kept
entirely outside the building. If the storm drains are kept 5 feet
away from the cellar walls (see Plumbing Code) the pipes can be of
tile. Another good feature of this plan is that all the pipes under
the cellar are 4-inch.

Fig. 51 is similar to Fig. 46, the difference being in the location
of the floor drain and the connection of the two rear rain leaders,
into the house drain.

In Fig. 52 the drains shown take the waste and storm water from the
apartment building, also a building set in the rear. The leader
pipes in this case are trapped on the outside of the wall. The
building in the rear you will note has a separate fresh air inlet
and house trap, and the house sewer is continued through the front
house and connected into the house drain of the front building, on
the sewer side of the intercepting trap.

These drawings should be studied carefully and the student should
in each case list correctly all of the material required for the
installation of these jobs.

[Illustration: FIG. 53.--Cutting cast-iron pipe.]

CUTTING CAST-IRON PIPE.--To cut cast-iron pipe, a sharp cold chisel
and hammer are needed. The pipe is marked all around, just where it
is to be cut. Then it is laid with the part of the pipe that is to
be cut resting on a block of wood. A groove is cut with the hammer
and chisel around the pipe. One person can turn the pipe while the
other does the cutting. After a little experience one man can cut
and roll the pipe alone. This groove is cut deeper and deeper until
the pipe breaks apart. If standard pipe is being cut, a file is
generally resorted to for cutting the groove. On account of the
lightness of the pipe, a hammer and chisel will crack the pipe
lengthwise. When cutting extra heavy cast-iron pipe, a good heavy
blow must be struck to cause the chisel to cut into the iron. After
a few cuts, the beginner will understand the weight of blow that
must be struck to cut the pipe quickly.



CHAPTER X

SOIL AND WASTE PIPES AND VENTS. TESTS


SOIL PIPES

The term "soil pipes" means pipe that receives the discharge from
water closets. The size of a soil pipe for ordinary dwellings
should be 4 inches.

SIZE OF SOIL PIPES

     One   to three  closets--4-inch XX cast-iron.
     Four  to eight  closets--5-inch XX cast-iron.
     Eight to twelve closets--6-inch XX cast-iron.

There are cases when 3-inch XX cast-iron pipe is used, but the
practice is not recommended.

The soil pipe should be well supported and held in place. The
connection between soil pipe and closet should be of lead to allow
for any expansion of settling that might take place.

MATERIAL OF SOIL PIPES.--Soil pipe in common use today is made of
light cast iron, tar-coated, extra heavy cast iron uncoated and
coated, galvanized wrought-iron pipe, and steel pipe. The best kind
to use depends upon the job and place where it is to be used.
All kinds of bends and fittings can be had in any of the
above-mentioned materials. In choosing the material of the pipe
that is best to use, the following points should be carefully
considered.

     _First_, new work or overhauling.

     _Second_, temporary or permanent job.

     _Third_, construction of building.

     _Fourth_, amount allowed for cost of materials on job.

     _Fifth_, size of job, that is, the number of toilets.

     _Sixth_, size of chases and pipe partitions.

LOCATION OF SOIL PIPE.--The location of the soil pipe depends to a
great extent upon the location of the toilets. The soil stack
should be located on an inside partition. The horizontal pipe
should not run over expensively decorated ceilings unless run
inside of a trough made of copper or sheet lead. As far as
possible, the pipes should be confined, to runs short, and the
number of bends reduced.


SOIL-PIPE FITTINGS

Soil-pipe fittings can be had from stock almost to suit the
conditions. I will enumerate a few. The names of these fittings
should be familiar to the mechanic so that when ordering he can
give the correct name. 1/16, 1/8, 1/6, 1/4 bend, sanitary tee,
tapped tee, side outlet fitting, return bend, cross branches,
double Y, double TY, traps. The uses of these cast-iron fittings
perhaps are obvious, but a word about the use of each one will be
of service.

The 1/4 bend is used to change the direction of run of pipe 90°. A
long-sweep 1/4 bend is used on work requiring the best practice.
1/8, 1/16, and 1/6 bends are used to change the direction of pipe
45°, 22-1/2°, and 16-2/3°. Two 1/8 bends should be used in
preference to one 1/4 bend where there is sufficient room. Side
outlet 1/4 bend is used for waste connection. They can be had with
an outlet on either side of the heel. Their use is not recommended.

Return bends are used on fresh-air inlets. Tees are used for vents
only. Ys are used wherever possible. The use of a Y-branch together
with an 1/8 bend for a 90° connection with the main line is always
preferable to a TY or, as they are commonly called, sanitary T. A
tapped fitting gets its name because it is tapped for iron pipe
thread. Tapped fittings are used for venting and should not be
used for waste unless the tap enters the fitting at an angle of
45°.

These fittings and pipe are joined by first caulking with oakum and
pouring, with one continuous pour, the hub full of molten metal.
When cool, the lead should be set and then caulked around the pipe
and around the hub.

The amount of lead and oakum required for various-sized joints is
as follows:

     Pipe size       2      3      4    5      6      8   10      12   15
     Pounds of lead  1-1/2  2-1/4  3    3-3/4  4-1/2  6    7-1/2   9   11-1/4
     Oakum (ounce)   4      6      8   10     12     16   20      24   30

RUST JOINTS.--The plumber is called upon to run cast-iron pipe in
places where lead and oakum will not be of service for the joints.
In cases of this kind, a rust joint is made. This "rust" is made
according to the following formula:

      1 part flour of sulphur.
      1 part sal-ammoniac.
     98 parts iron borings (free from grease).

This mixture is made the consistency of cement, using water to mix
thoroughly and bring all parts into contact with each other. When
it hardens, it becomes very hard and makes a tight joint which
overcomes the objections to lead and oakum joints.


WROUGHT-IRON AND STEEL PIPE

This pipe comes in about 18-foot lengths and fittings of the
following makes and shapes, and their use is fully explained. The
lengths of pipe come with a thread on each end and a coupling
screwed on one end. The lengths come in bundles up to 1-1/2-inches
and in single lengths over that size. Screw pipe fittings, it will
be noted, are called by a different name than cast-iron ones. The
fittings in common use today are the 90 degree ell, 45, 22, and
16-2/3. The Y and TY, tucker fittings, and inverted Ys are used in
practically the same way as the cast-iron fittings. The 90 degree
ell, 45, 22, and 16-2/3 are used to change the run of pipe that
many degrees. All 90 degree fittings, ells, and Ts are tapped to
give the pipe a pitch of 1/4 inch to the foot. It is better to use
two 45 ells to make a 90 bend when it is possible.

[Illustration: CAST-IRON SCREW FITTINGS
FIG. 54.]

INVERTED Y.--The inverted Y is used in venting to good advantage.
The use of these fittings is illustrated in the sketches.

WASTE PIPES.--Waste pipes are the pipes that run to or convey the
discharge of waste matter to the house drain, from wash trays,
baths, lavatories, sinks, and showers.

The usual size of waste pipes is 2 inches. Waste pipes are made of
the same material as soil pipe. Lead and brass pipe are also in
common use. All exposed waste pipes in bath and toilet rooms are
brass, nickel-plated. The waste pipes under kitchen sinks and wash
trays are either lead or plain heavy brass. All waste pipes are run
with a pitch towards the house trap and should be properly vented
as explained under venting. The pipes should be easy of access,
with clean-outs in convenient places. The waste pipes under a tile
or cement floor should be covered with waterproof paper and a metal
V-shaped shield over the entire length. If the waste pipes are over
a decorated ceiling they should be in a copper-lined or lead-lined
box. This box should have a tell-tale pipe running to the open
cellar with the end of the tell-tale pipe left open. If waste pipes
are to take the discharge from sinks in which chemicals are thrown,
either chemical lead or terra-cotta pipe should be used. If
terra-cotta is used, it should have at least 6 inches reinforced
concrete around it and the joints of pipe made of keisilgar.

SIZE OF WASTE PIPES

     Urinals         2 inches
     Kitchen sink    2 inches
     Slop sink       3 inches
     Receptacles     1-1/2 inches
     Bath tubs       1-1/2 inches
     Lavatories      1-1/2 or 1-1/4 inches
     Wash trays      2 inches

TELL-TALE PIPE.--The tell-tale pipe is a small pipe that extends
from the trough, pan, or box that is under a line of pipe or
fixtures to the open cellar. When water is seen running out of this
pipe, it shows that a leak exists somewhere in the line of pipe
that is in the box or trough. The use of this pipe saves the
destruction of walls and ceilings.


VENTS

[Illustration: FIG. 55.--Circuit vent.]

Vents are the most important pipes in the plumbing system. Modern
plumbing successfully attempts to make living in crowded and
thickly populated districts, as well as in isolated buildings, free
from all unpleasant odors and annoyances. This could not be
accomplished without the use of vents. Vents relieve all pressure
in the system by furnishing an outlet for the air that is displaced
by the waste discharged from the fixtures. Another of its functions
is to supply air when syphonic action starts, thereby stopping the
action that would break the seal of the trap under fixtures. The
pipe extending from top fixture connection, up to and through the
roof, is called the ventilation pipe. All vents that do not pass
directly through the roof terminate in this ventilation pipe.

To explain the use of vents, we might well start in the basement of
a dwelling house. Suppose there is a set of wash trays in the
laundry; the 2-inch trap of these trays should have a 1-1/4-inch
vent pipe leading from the crown of the trap up along side of the
stack. On the first floor a 1-1/4-inch pipe from the crown of the
kitchen sink trap will lead into it. Here the pipe should be
increased to 2 inches. On the second floor the 1-1/4-inch pipes
leading from the lavatory and bath traps come into it. The vent
stack now extends up into the attic and connects with the
ventilation pipe. In a general way, the above is an example of
venting. The old method of venting was very complicated and is
almost beyond describing with the pen.

[Illustration: FIG. 56.--Loop vent.]

In common use today, there are several kinds of venting, namely:
circuit and loop venting, crown venting, and continuous venting.
The _circuit venting_, Fig. 55, is used in connection with the
installation of closets. Take a row of toilets in which the waste
connection of each closet discharges into a Y-branch, and there
will be a series of Y-branches. One end of this series of branches
discharges into the main stack while the other end continues and
turns up at least to the height of the top of the closet and then
enters the main vent stack. When this main vent runs up along side
of the main stack and forces the vent pipe connected to the series
of Y-branches to travel back, it is called a loop vent. This type
of vent supplies air to the complete line of toilets and is very
efficient.

[Illustration: FIG. 57.--Continuous vent.]

[Illustration: FIG. 58.]

CONTINUOUS VENTING, Figs. 57 and 58, applies more to fixtures other
than toilets. A P-trap is used and enters a T in the stack. The
lower part of the T acts as and connects with the waste pipe while
the upper half is and connects with the vent pipe. A study of the
figures will aid the reader to understand thoroughly the above
explanations. In continuous venting the waste of the lowest fixture
is discharged into the vent pipe and extended to the main waste
stack where it is connected. This is done to allow any rust scales
that occasionally drop down the vent pipe, and render it unfit to
perform its duty, to be washed away into the sewer.

CROWN VENTING, Fig. 59, is as its name implies, a vent that is
taken from the crown of the trap, thence into the main vent.

Each one of these methods of venting is used and considered good
practice, provided it is properly installed and correctly connected
with the use of proper fittings.

[Illustration: FIG. 59.--Crown venting.]

THINGS TO REMEMBER.--

     _First_, venting is to prevent traps from syphoning.

     _Second_, also to allow free passage of air.

     _Third_, circuit vent--loop vent.

     _Fourth_, continuous venting.

     _Fifth_, crown venting.

     _Sixth_, ventilation pipe extends from the top of fixture through
     roof.



CHAPTER XI

HOUSE TRAPS, FRESH-AIR CONNECTIONS, DRUM TRAPS, AND NON-SYPHONING
TRAPS


The _house trap_ is a deep seal trap placed inside the foundation
wall, and intersects the house drain and house sewer. The trap is
placed at this point for a number of reasons: first, to keep sewer
gases from entering the pipes in the house; second, this location
is where the house drain ends. This trap should have two
clean-outs, one on each side of the seal. The clean-outs should be
of extra heavy cast-iron body with a heavy brass screw cap. The cap
should have a square nut for a wrench to tighten or unscrew the
cap. This cap should be brought up flush with the floor. When a
house trap is being set, it is necessary to set it perfectly level,
otherwise the seal of the trap is weakened and sewer gases can
enter.

Sometimes the trap is located on the house sewer just outside of
the foundation wall. In this case, a pit should be built large
enough for a workman to get down to it to clean it out when
necessary.

_A mason's trap_ was formerly used to a considerable extent, but is
very poor practice to use today on modern work. This trap was built
square of brick with a center partition. The brick soon became foul
and the trap would be better termed a small cesspool than a trap.

POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT HOUSE TRAPS.--

     _First_, should be a running trap.

     _Second_, two clean-outs.

     _Third_, deep seal, at least 2 inches.

     _Fourth_, set level.

     _Fifth_, set inside foundation wall.

     _Sixth_, accessible at all times.

     _Seventh_, same size as house drain.

     _Eighth_, fresh air should connect with it.


FRESH-AIR CONNECTIONS

The term "fresh-air inlet" is, as its name implies, an inlet for
fresh air. It is placed directly on the house side of the main
trap. The connections made vary considerably. A few good
connections in common use are explained below.

When the trap is in place, one of the clean-outs can be used for
the fresh air. If this is done, a Y-branch should be placed in the
hub of the clean-out. The Y-branch should be used for the fresh air
and the run should be used for a clean-out.

A Y-fitting can be inserted directly back of the trap and the
branch used for the fresh air. An inverted Y makes a good fitting
to use directly back of the trap. These branches should be taken
off the top of the pipe. The branch taken off for the fresh-air
inlet should not have any waste discharge into it and should not be
used for a drain pipe of any description.

The fresh-air inlet should run as directly as possible into the
outer air, at least 15 feet from any window. The pipes terminate in
a number of different ways, some with a return bend, above the
ground, some with a cowl cap, some with a strainer. When necessary
to run pipe through the sidewalk, a box of brick is made with a
heavy brass strainer fitted level with the sidewalk into which the
pipe runs. If the pipe is run into the box on the side a little up
from the bottom, the possibility of becoming stopped up or filled
up is not great. The fresh-air inlet sometimes terminates above the
roof of the building.

Special care should be given this fresh-air inlet as it supplies
fresh air to the entire system and thus keeps the pipes in a much
better sanitary condition.

Sometimes when the house drain is full of sewage, air is pushed out
of the fresh-air inlet and disagreeable odors are evident. This is
why it should be located as far as possible from any window.
Special care should be taken on the part of the plumber not to
locate the fresh-air inlet nearer than 15 feet to the fresh-air
intake of the heating system.

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--Fresh-air inlet.]

When the pipe passes through the foundation wall, the same care
should be exercised as with other pipes. That is, if the pipe is 4
inches, a sleeve 6 inches should be cut in the wall for the 4-inch
pipe to pass through.

POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT FRESH AIR.--

     _First_, never should be smaller than 4 inches.

     _Second_, one size smaller than trap.

     _Third_, location, directly back of trap.

     _Fourth_, leads to outer air.

     _Fifth_, keep away from windows and intake of heating system.

     _Sixth_, always have end of pipe covered with strainer, cowl, or
     return bend.

     _Seventh_, make as few bends as possible.

     _Eighth_, supplies fresh air to system.


DRUM TRAP

The use of the drum trap is very handy to the plumber as well as
efficient and practicable when installed. The trap can be purchased
without any outlets or inlets, so the plumber can put them in
according to the necessary measurements. The making of these traps
with lead is explained in the chapter on Wiping Joints. The open
end has a brass clean-out screw on it. When this clean-out screw
comes below the floor, another brass screw cap and flange is
screwed on the floor above the trap so that the clean-out screw in
the trap is easily accessible.

[Illustration: FIG. 61.--Drum trap.]

These drum traps are called bath traps as they are used mostly on
bath wastes. They should never be installed with the clean-out
exposed to the sewer side of the trap. In the best practice, heavy
brass drum traps are used.


NON-SYPHONING TRAP

[Illustration: FIG. 62.--Flask trap.]

[Illustration: FIG. 63.--Clean-sweep trap.]

After years of experimenting to produce a trap that would not
syphon without venting, we find in use today a large variety of
non-syphoning traps. Traps that will hold their seal against all
practical forms of syphonic action, or other threatening features,
have been made and used and serve the purpose for which they are
intended. Various means to prevent the breaking of the seal of
these traps are employed. While some depend on a ball or other kind
of valve, others rely on partitions and deflections of various
kinds. All of these perform the functions for which they are
designed, yet the devices employed offer an excellent obstruction
for the free passage of waste; therefore, in time, these traps
become inoperative. It should be borne in mind that any traps with
a mechanical seal or an inside partition are not considered
sanitary. The inside partition might wear out or be destroyed and
thus break the seal without the knowledge of anyone and allow sewer
gas to enter the room. The mechanical device may also be displaced
or destroyed, leaving the trap without a seal. If the trap were
cleaned out often or examined occasionally, these traps could be
used with a greater degree of safety. Some of the forms of
non-syphon traps in common use are:

     The _Flask Trap_, Fig. 62. This trap gets its name from its
     shape. There is an inside wall upon which the seal depends.
     This trap is like the bag trap, only the two inside walls of
     the pipe are combined into one. This wall should be of heavy
     cast brass, free from sand holes.

     _Clean Sweep Trap_, Fig. 63. Some clean sweep traps are
     dependent upon an inside wall for their seals. They are made
     of 1/2-S, 3/4-S, and full S.

[Illustration: FIG. 64.--Mechanical-seal trap.]

[Illustration: FIG. 65.--Standard "S" trap.]

[Illustration: FIG. 66.--Bag trap.]

     _Sure Seal Trap._ The sure seal trap is designed to be
     non-syphoning. This trap also has an interior waterway. If
     this waterway leaks, the trap is unfit for use. If these traps
     are made as shown in the second sketch with the way inside of
     a larger pipe, it can be detected if the interior wall leaks.

     _Centrifugal Trap._ The centrifugal trap is made similar to
     the clean sweep, except that the wall of the inlet pipe is
     entirely separate from the body of the trap. The inlet enters
     the body of the trap on a tangent, thus making the trap
     self-scouring which is a good feature.



CHAPTER XII

PIPE THREADING


The proper cutting of threads on pipe is overlooked by some
mechanics. There are many different kinds of dies and different
kinds of pipe to contend with. Steel pipe threads very hard and the
adjustable dies should be used on it. These dies cut more easily
and leave a cleaner thread than other dies when used on steel pipe.
When threads are cut on wrought-iron pipe the adjustable dies
should be used as they cut a better and cleaner thread than other
dies. To preserve the life of the dies and the quality of the
thread, oil is used freely while the dies are cutting.

THREADS.--The standard thread on pipe and fittings is a
right-handed thread. Left threads can be cut on the pipe and the
fitting can be tapped with a left thread. When a fitting is tapped
with a left thread it is marked so. The following table gives the
standard number of threads that a die will or should be allowed to
cut on the pipe:

     --------+----------------+-------------------+----------------
       Size  | Length, inches |  Threads per inch | Threads per end
     --------+----------------+-------------------+----------------
       3/8   |       9/16     |        18         |      10.825
       1/2   |       3/4      |        14         |      10.500
       3/4   |       3/4      |        14         |      10.500
       1     |       15/16    |        11-1/2     |      10.800
       1-1/4 |      1         |        11-1/2     |      11.500
       1-1/2 |      1         |        11-1/2     |      11.500
       2     |      1-1/8     |        11-1/2     |      12.930
     --------+----------------+-------------------+----------------

To acquaint the beginner with iron pipe work, the following
exercise is given. In it there are a great many of the actual
problems that come up when the pipe is put in on a job. This is the
last exercise that is required in this book. The sketch shows
clearly just what the job is and below I have gone over each
operation that is necessary to complete the job.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.]

MATERIALS NECESSARY.--Six feet of 1-inch black pipe; four 1-inch
black ells; two 1-inch tee; one 1-inch right and left coupling;
oil.

TOOLS NECESSARY.--Two 14-inch pipe wrenches, vise, pipe cutters,
stock and 1-inch follower right and left die and reamer.

The vise is made secure on a bench or post, care being taken before
it is put in place to provide room enough to swing the stocks. A
length of 1-inch pipe is put into the vise and the vise clamped
around it. The end of the pipe that is to be threaded should stick
out through the vise about 9 inches. If there is a thread on this
end, the dies should be run over it to make sure that it is a
standard thread and to clean the threads. Before proceeding further
with this exercise the dies and stocks will be described and their
use shown.

DIES.--A full set of dies is taken. The full set of stocks and dies
is composed of right and left dies from 1/8 inch up to 1 inch, with
a guide for each size, also a small wrench with which to turn the
set screws. The dies come in sets, two in a set. These are the
Armstrong patent that I am describing. Take the stock and the
handles, and a set of 1-inch right dies with the guides out of the
box. The dies will have marked on them 1" R (if 1-inch left were
wanted, the mark would be 1" L). The set screws are taken out of
the stock and the dies inserted in their proper place. There is a
deep mark on the edge of each die and under it a letter S. This
letter means "standard." This mark on the die is set even with a
similar mark on the stock and when the set screws are in place and
tightened, a standard thread will be cut. There is an adjusting
screw on the stock to make the proper adjustment on the dies.

STOCK.--The stock is taken and the handles are put into it. There
are two sets of set screws on the stock, one set for holding the
dies in place and the other set for adjusting the dies. On the
stock there is a deep mark to correspond with the standard thread
mark on the dies. On the opposite side of the stock there is a
place for the follower and a set screw to hold it in place. After
the stocks have been looked over and examined thoroughly, the
1-inch right dies are taken and inserted. Then the 1-inch follower
is put in place. The tool is now ready to cut a 1-inch thread. Now
take a piece of 1-inch pipe at least 15 inches long and put it in
the vise, letting it extend out from the vise about 9 inches. The
stock is now taken and the follower end is put on the pipe first
and the dies brought up in place to cut. The end of the pipe is
allowed to enter in between the two dies so that the teeth of each
die rest on the pipe. Now, holding the handles of the stock about 6
inches from the body of the stock and standing directly in front of
the pipe, push and turn to the right at the same time and the dies
will be started. Now put some oil on the dies and turn the stock,
taking hold of the ends of the handles and standing at one side.
The dies are run up on the pipe until the pipe extends through the
face of the dies one thread. Oil is put on the pipe and the dies at
least twice during the cutting. When the thread is long enough the
stock is turned back a little and then forward a little and the
loose chips are blown out from between the dies and pipe. If the
dies are set right, a good clean standard thread will have been
cut. This thread can now be cut off with the pipe cutters.

PIPE CUTTERS.--To cut pipe with a one-wheel pipe cutter is a simple
matter. I will not dwell at length on the cutter itself. There are
one-wheel and three-wheel cutters. We will use a one-wheel cutter
tool. This cutter is forced into the surface of the pipe with a set
screw having a long tee handle. The pressure that is brought to
bear on the pipe while being cut is sufficient to cause a large
burr to form on the inside of the pipe. Sometimes the pipe is
completely crushed and rendered unfit for use. Therefore the user
of these cutters should exercise care when cutting pipe. The pipe
is put in the vise and the cutters are so put on the pipe that the
pipe will be between the two rollers and the cutter wheel, the
cutter resting on the mark that indicates the point at which the
pipe is to be cut. The handle is screwed down and the cutters
turned around the pipe; each time the cutters make a complete turn
the handle is screwed down more. This procedure is continued until
the furrow has been cut clear through the pipe.

CUTTING AND THREADING NIPPLES.--Nipples are short pieces of pipe
threaded on each end. Pieces of pipe longer than 6 inches are not
called nipples. When a nipple is so short that the threads cut on
each end meet in the center of the piece, the nipple is called a
"close nipple." When there is a space of about 1/4 inch between the
threads, it is called a "space or shoulder" nipple. To cut and
thread these nipples a nipple chuck or nipple holder is necessary.

[Illustration: FIG. 68.--Nipple chuck and nipples.]

NIPPLE HOLDERS.--Take a piece of 1-inch pipe about 12 inches long
and on one end cut a thread that is 2 inches long. Take a 1-inch
coupling and screw it on this end until the end of the pipe is
almost through the end of the coupling. At least four threads
should be allowed at this end of the coupling. Now we have a piece
of pipe 12 inches long having a thread 2 inches long on one end
with a coupling on the thread. This is called a nipple holder. Now,
to cut a nipple, cut a thread on a piece of pipe and cut the pipe
off at any desired length, say 2 inches. Put the nipple holder in
the vise with the coupling out from the vise about 8 inches. Take
the 2-inch piece of pipe with a thread on one end, screw this
thread into the coupling until it touches the pipe that has been
screwed through from the other end. Now the stocks having the 1
dies and the follower in are put on the pipe. The follower will not
go over the coupling, therefore take the follower out of the
stock. Now the stock will slip over the coupling and the thread can
be cut. With this procedure a nipple of any length can be cut.
There are a number of patented nipple chucks on the market, but as
they are not always at hand the above method is resorted to and
serves every purpose.

LONG SCREWS.--To cut a long screw which comes in use frequently on
vent pipe work, a piece of pipe 12 inches long is taken and a
regular length thread is cut on one end, and a thread 4 inches long
is cut on the other end. Then a coupling is cut while screwed on a
pipe, so that a lock nut about 1/2 inch wide is made. The
description and use of these long screws will come under screw pipe
venting.

Now that the proper use of the tools has been explained, we will
proceed with the exercise according to the sketch. With a length of
pipe in the vise and the 1-inch dies in the stock, run over the
thread on the pipe. Note that all the measurements are center to
center. Screw an elbow on the pipe and measure off the first
length, which we will take as 12 inches center to center. Place the
rule on the pipe with one end of it at the center of the opening of
the elbow just screwed on. Mark 12 inches off on the pipe. This
mark represents the center of another ell. Now take another ell and
hold the center of one outlet on this mark. It will readily be seen
that to have the measurement come right, the pipe must be cut off
at a point where it will make up tight when screwed into the ell.
Therefore, about 1 inch will have to be cut off, making the pipe 1
inch shorter than where it was first marked. Cut the pipe, and
before taking it out of the vise make a thread on the pipe still in
the vise. After the thread is cut, take the reamer and ream out the
burr that is on the inside of the pipe caused by the pipe cutter.
An elbow can be screwed on this pipe. The next measurement is
marked off as explained, the pipe cut, then the piece in the vise
threaded and reamed. The measurements must be accurate and the
dies should be adjusted to cut all threads the same depth. When the
measurements are all out, there should be seven pieces of pipe,
each piece having one thread. Now the threads on the other end can
be cut except the 12 inch piece that screws into the right and left
coupling. This thread is a left-handed thread and must be cut with
the left dies. Change the dies now to the 1-inch left dies; turn
the stock in the opposite direction of the right-hand thread, and
the dies will cut the left thread. The pipe and the fittings can
easily be put together as shown in the sketch by following the
center to center measurements. The right and left coupling is the
only fitting that will cause the beginner trouble. A right and left
coupling can be used only when there is sufficient _give_ to the
pipe, that is, the two ends of the pipe to be coupled together are
only 1/2 inch apart. To get the coupling in place to start the
threads, the pipe must spread apart at least 2 inches. If the pipe
cannot be spread that much, a right and left coupling cannot be
used. The proper way to make up a right and left coupling is as
follows:

[Illustration: FIG. 69.--_F_ reads center of ell to end, _C_ reads
center of ell to center of valve, _D_ reads center of valve to
center of T, _E_ reads center of T to center of ell.]

Screw home the coupling on the right thread. Mark with a piece of
chalk on the coupling and the pipe showing a point on each where
the coupling makes tight. Take off the coupling and count the turns
and make note of the number. Now do the same on the left thread
and make a note of the number of threads. If the left thread has
six turns and the right has four and one-half, then to insure that
the left thread will be tight when the right thread is, the
coupling must be put on the left thread one and one-half turns
before it is started on the right thread. Now with four and
one-half turns, the right and the left threads will both be tight.
A little thought and practice will make this connection clear. If
all the measurements in this exercise are not cut accurately, the
right and left coupling will not go together.



CHAPTER XIII

COLD-WATER SUPPLY. TEST


The supplying of cold water to buildings and then piping it to the
various fixtures makes a very interesting study. We have gone over
the methods of laying and piping for the house service pipe. We
will go over the different systems now employed to supply the
water, quickly.

UNDERGROUND WATER.--In thinly populated districts the well is still
employed to supply water to the building. The water is brought to
the surface by means of a large bucket or by means of a pump. A
well point can be driven into the ground until water is reached and
then the water can be brought to the surface by means of a pump
operated by hand or by power. The water can be forced to a tank
that is open and elevated, or forced into a tank that is closed and
put under pressure. From either tank the water will flow to any
desired outlets. A windmill can be employed to furnish power to
operate the pump. Water supply that is received directly from
underground is by far the best to use. A cesspool or outhouse must
not be allowed on the premises with a well, otherwise the well will
be contaminated and unfit for domestic use. An open well is not as
sanitary as a driven well, as the surface water and leaves, etc.,
get into it and decay and pollute the water, and soon make it unfit
for domestic use.

STREAMS AND BROOKS.--The brooks and streams furnish a good source
of supply for water to a building or community of buildings. The
writer recently worked on a system of piping that supplied 15 or 20
buildings. The water supply came from a brook that was higher than
the houses. Each house had a separate pipe leading down from the
brook into a tank from which the house was piped. The owner of the
brook applied business ethics to the privileges of taking water
from it. He had a scale of prices, and the highest-priced location
was an inch or so below the bed of the brook, the next price was
level with the bottom, the next cheaper 2 inches above the bottom.
As the surface was reached, the privilege cost less. In the dry
time of the year those at the bottom of the brook always had water
while those at the top location had to wait for the water to rise,
and had to do without water during the dry time. Where the stream
is on a lower level than the building a hydraulic ram can be used.

RIVERS AND LAKES.--Rivers and lakes make an abundant supply for
water systems. A sluggish-moving river is bad, also a river that is
used for carrying off the sewage of a town. Special provision is
now made for the using of water that is polluted. A lake that is
supplied by springs is by far the best source of supply. The water
is pumped from the river or lake into a reservoir and then flows by
gravity into mains and from the mains into the buildings. The water
should always be filtered before it is allowed to enter the
distributing mains.

WATER PRESSURE.--Pressure at a fixture or outlet so that the water
will flow is generally obtained by the force of gravity. When this
method is not sufficient, a pneumatic system is employed. This
method is employed to force the water to the top floors or to
supply the whole building in high structures. The pneumatic system
requires a pump, an air-tight tank, and pipes to the various
outlets. The water pumped into the air-tight tank will occupy part
of the space generally occupied by the air. The air cannot escape
and is, therefore, compressed. Continued pumping will compress the
air until the limit of the apparatus is reached. If a valve or
faucet that is connected with the tank is opened, the air will
expand and force the water out of the opening. This explains in a
general way the operation of a pneumatic water-supply system. Water
can be pumped into this air-tight tank from a well, cistern, river,
lake, or from the city supply mains.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.--"Banjo."]

PIPING.--From the service pipe on which there has been placed a
shut-off, a line of piping, full size, is run through the basement,
overhead to a convenient place, perhaps to a partition in the
center of the cellar. The pipe is brought down and connected into
the end of a header. This header or banjo is made of Ts placed 4
inches center to center. From each T a line of pipe is run to each
isolated fixture or set of fixtures (see Fig. 70). A stop and waste
cock is placed on each line at such a point that all stop cocks
will come in a row near the header. A small pipe is run from the
waste of each stop and discharged into a larger pipe which connects
with a sink. This way of running pipes while it is expensive makes
a very neat and good job. Each stop cock has a tag on it stating
explicitly what it controls. If the building is a large one a
number of these panelled headers are used. A less expensive way to
run this pipe is to branch off from the main at points where the
branch pipe will be as short as possible and use as few fittings
as possible. Stop and waste cocks are then placed on each branch
near the main.

All pipe must follow the direct line of fitting with which it is
connected. The line of pipe should be perfectly straight. If it
seems necessary to bend the pipe to get around an obstacle, then
good judgment has not been used in placing the fitting into which
the pipe is screwed. The fitting should be re-located so that the
pipe can be run without bending. To have true alignment of pipes
the whole job or section of the job must be drawn out on paper
first and any obstacles noted and avoided before the piping is cut.
This not only saves time but it is also the forerunner of a good
job. When getting measurements for piping the same rule or tape
should be used to get out the pipe as was used to get the
measurements.

The water main and branches that run through the basement of a
building are generally hung on the ceiling. Rough hangers of wood,
rope, or wire are usually used to hold the pipe in place at first,
then neat and strong adjustable hangers are placed every 8 feet
apart. There are in use too many kinds of hangers to explain or
describe them here. The essential point of all good hangers is to
have them strong, neat, and so made that perfect alignment of the
pipe can be had. The hangers should be so placed that no strain
will come on the fitting or the valves. A hanger should be placed
near each side of unions so that when the union is taken apart
neither side of the pipe will drop and bend. Hooks and straps
should be used to hold vertical pipes rigid and in position. A
vertical pipe should be so held in place that its weight will come
on the hooks and straps that hold it rather than on the horizontal
pipe into which it connects. Where there are six or eight
horizontal lines of pipes close together, a separate hanger for
each pipe makes a rather cumbersome job and it consumes
considerable time to install them properly. A hanger having one
support run under all the pipes will allow space for proper
alignment and adjustment for drainage. Allowance must be made on
all lines of pipe for drainage. When a building is vacant during
cold weather, the water is drawn off; therefore, the pipes should
have a pitch to certain points where the pipes can be opened and
the entire system drained of water.

KINDS OF PIPE.--The kind of pipe that is used for cold-water supply
depends on and varies according to the kind of water, the kind of
earth through which it runs, and the construction of the building.
Wrought iron, steel, lead, brass, tin-lined brass, are in use.

The supply pipe to every fixture should have a stop on it directly
under the fixture. This will allow the water to be shut off for
repairs to the faucet without stopping the supply of other
fixtures.

The making of perfect threads on pipe is an important matter,
especially on water pipes. If the pipe and the dies were perfect,
and the mechanic used sufficient oil in cutting, and the fittings
were perfectly tapped to correspond to the dies used on the pipe,
of course a perfect union between pipe and fitting would result and
the joint would be found to be perfect on screwing the pipe home.
As all the above conditions are not found on the job, threads are
made tight by the use of red or white lead and oil. The lead is put
on the thread and when the thread is made up the lead will have
been forced into any imperfection that may be in the threads and
the joint will then be water-tight. White lead and oil should be
used on nickel-plated pipe as other pipe compounds are too
conspicuous and look badly. A pipe compound should be used with
discretion, for if too much is put on a burr of it will collect in
the bore of the pipe and reduce it considerably. This is not
tolerated, so only a small amount is used. Water pipes should be
run in accessible places, making it possible to get at them in case
of trouble. In climates that have freezing weather water pipes
should not be run in outside partitions. If it is found absolutely
necessary to do so, as in the case of buildings which have no
inside partitions on the first floor, the pipe should be properly
covered and protected. The different methods of covering pipes are
described in Chapter XV.



CHAPTER XIV

HOT-WATER HEATERS. INSTANTANEOUS COIL AND STORAGE TANKS. RETURN
CIRCULATION, HOT-WATER LINES AND EXPANSION


The problem of supplying hot water to plumbing fixtures is one that
has required years of study. Each job today demands considerable
thought to make it a perfect and satisfactory hot-water system. We
will find installations today where the water is red from rust,
where there is water pounding and cracking. There are also jobs
where the fixtures get practically no hot water. As each job or
individual building has its own peculiar conditions, they must be
solved by the designer or the mechanic, using the fundamental
principles of hot-water circulation. We must first know how much
hot water is to be used, also the location of the outlets and the
construction of the building; then the size of the pipes and the
size of the tanks and their locations can be settled. If the job is
a large one, a pump may be employed to insure the proper
circulation. After this the pipe sizes and connections can be
worked out. The one great enemy of hot-water circulation is air.
Therefore, no traps or air pockets should ever appear in the piping
system. The boiler, as it is often referred to, is the hot-water
storage tank. A copper or iron tank holding sufficient water to
supply all fixtures, even when every fixture demands a supply at
the same time, is installed in a convenient place and the heating
arrangement connected with it. A thermostat can be placed on the
system and the temperature of the water controlled. According to
the size of the building the problem of furnishing the plumbing
fixtures with hot water increases.

METHODS OF HEATING HOT WATER.--There are a number of ways of
furnishing hot water. Some of the installations are listed below.

A cast-iron or brass water back is placed on the fire pot of a
stove or furnace. A separate stove with the fire pot and water
jacket is used. A coil of steam pipe is placed inside a hot-water
boiler or tank. Gas coil heaters are connected with hot water
storage tank, also gas coil instantaneous heaters are connected
with the piping direct.

Combinations of the above systems are in use and serve the purpose
for which they are intended. For instance, the tank can be
connected with a coal range and a gas coil heater, heat being
furnished by the range alone or the coil heater alone, or both can
be used at the same time. This combination can be connected with
the furnace in the cellar, and during the winter months, when the
furnace is in use, the water can be heated by the furnace coil. In
warm weather, when the furnace is out, the range can supply the
necessary heat. In hot weather the coil gas heater can supply the
heat.

CONNECTIONS OF TANK AND HEATING APPARATUS.--The ordinary house
boiler or hot-water storage tank has four connections, two on top,
one on the side, and one on the bottom. The top connections are
used for the entrance of cold water into the tank and for the
supply of hot water to the fixtures (see Fig. 71). The cold-water
inlet has a tube extending into the tank below the side connection.
This tube has a small hole filed in it about 6 inches from the top.
This hole is to break any syphonic action that may occur at any
time. The side connection is for the connection of the pipe coming
from the top of the water back. The bottom opening in the tank is
for the connection of the pipe coming from the lower water back
connection, also for draining the boiler. The circulation of the
water can be followed thus: cold water enters the boiler in the
tube and discharges into the boiler below the side connection. From
here it flows out of the bottom connection into the water back,
through the upper connection into the boiler, through the side
opening, then to the top of the boiler and out to the fixtures
through the fixture supply opening.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.--Storage tank, and coil heater with
thermostatic control valve.]

Fig. 69 shows a thermostatic control valve attached to the bottom
of a heater coil, and at the side of storage tank. The best
arrangement is at the bottom, for it does not shut off the gas
supply until the boiler is full of hot water.

CONNECTING TANK AND COIL GAS HEATER.--The boiler and the coil gas
heater have a different connection. The bottom of the tank and the
bottom of the heater are connected. The top of the heater and the
top of the boiler are connected. The accompanying sketch shows how
this connection is made. If the tee on the top of the boiler into
which the gas-heater connection is made is not the first fitting
and placed as close to the outlet as possible, the water will not
circulate freely into the boiler. This connection according to the
drawing should be studied and memorized.

[Illustration: FIG. 72.--Instantaneous gas heater. Showing
circulation heater or booster.]

INSTANTANEOUS GAS-HEATER CONNECTIONS.--An instantaneous gas heater
is placed in the basement. The copper coil in it is connected at
the bottom with the cold-water supply and the top outlet of the
coil is connected with the hot-water system of piping. There is no
need of a storage tank with this heater. When a faucet is opened in
any part of the hot-water piping system, the water passing through
the water valve at the heater causes the gas valve to open so that
the whole set of burners in the heater is supplied with gas, and
the burners are lighted from a pilot light. When the faucet is
closed, the gas supply is shut off and the burners are put out. The
pilot is lighted all the time. Space will not permit going over
these connections in detail. It is a large field and requires
considerable thought.

SAFETY AND CHECK VALVES.--When a meter is used on a water system,
the water company demands that a check valve be placed on the
hot-water system to prevent the hot water from being forced back
into the meter in case the pressure got strong enough in the
boiler. If a check valve is used for this purpose, or for any other
purpose, a safety valve must be placed on the boiler piping system
to relieve any excessive pressure that may be caused by having the
check valve in use. There is today, with meters of modern type, no
reason to use a check valve or a safety valve. If an excessive
pressure is obtained in the boiler, it is relieved in the water
main.

When water is heated, it expands. If the heat becomes more intense
and steam is formed, the expansion is much greater, and some means
must be provided to allow for it. This expansion can be allowed to
relieve itself in the water main as explained above. When a check
valve is placed on the piping, this means of escape is shut off and
a safety valve must be employed. Without these reliefs, the
pressure would be so great that an explosion would result. When
steel pipe and steel boilers are used for storage tanks and
connections, the pipe and tank will shortly start to rust and parts
of the piping are stopped up with rust scales. The water also
becomes red with rust when the water becomes hot enough to
circulate. When the pipes are stopped up, steam is formed and a
snapping and cracking sound is heard. To avoid these conditions,
the piping should be of brass or lead and the storage tank should
be of copper. The installation cost of brass and copper is greater
than steel, but they will not have to be replaced in two or three
years, as is the case with other material. A valve should be placed
on the cold-water supply to control the entire hot-water piping
system. A pipe with a stop cock should be placed underneath the
boiler and should extend into a sink in the basement so that the
boiler can be drained at any time for cleaning or repairs.

CONNECTING WITH FIXTURES.--To have all fixtures properly supplied
with hot water it is necessary to run what is termed a circulating
pipe. This circulating pipe is a circuit of pipe extending from the
top of the boiler to the vicinity of the fixtures and then
returning to the boiler and connecting into the pipe leading out of
the bottom of the boiler. From this circuit all branches are taken
to supply all fixtures requiring hot water. This circulating pipe
has hot water circulating through it all the time. Therefore the
fixtures are supplied with hot water very quickly. The circulating
pipe and its branches are run without any traps or air pockets.

[Illustration: FIG. 73.--Expansion loop. Four 90° ells.]

[Illustration: FIG. 74.--Expansion loop. Five 90° ells.]

[Illustration: FIG. 75.--Expansion loop. Six 90° ells.]

When running the piping, it should be borne in mind that not only
does the water expand when heated, but the pipe expands also.
Therefore due allowance must be made for this expansion. The long
risers should have an expansion loop as shown in Figs. 73, 74 and
75. There are installed on some jobs what is known as an expansion
joint. This will allow for the expansion and contraction of the
pipe. The writer's experience with these joints has not been very
satisfactory. After a while these joints begin to leak and they
must have attention which in some cases is rather expensive. An
expansion loop as shown in the sketch, made with elbows, will prove
satisfactory. If the threads on the fittings and pipe are good, no
leak will appear on this joint.

All gas heaters must be connected with a flue to carry off the
products of combustion.



CHAPTER XV

INSULATION OF PIPING TO ELIMINATE CONDUCTION, RADIATION, FREEZING,
AND NOISE


PIPE COVERING.--Pipe covering is another important branch of
plumbing. A few years ago heating pipes were the only pipes that it
was thought necessary to cover. The ever-increasing demands made by
the public keep the wideawake plumber continually solving problems.
The water running down a waste pipe, for instance, will annoy some
people, and provision must be made to avoid this noise or to
silence it. This is one of the many problems that the plumber must
solve by the use of pipe covering.

PIPES THAT NEED COVERING.--First of all, the covering must be put
on properly to be of high service. _Hot-water circulating pipes_
need covering to reduce the amount of heat loss. If the pipes and
the tank are not covered, considerable more fuel will be needed to
supply the necessary amount of hot water than if the pipes and tank
were covered with a good covering. _Cold-water pipes_ need covering
in places to keep them from freezing. They also need covering under
some conditions to keep them from sweating. They are covered also
to prevent the material which surrounds them from coming into
direct contact with the pipe. _Waste pipes_ need covering to
prevent them from freezing and to silence the noise caused by the
rush of water through them. _Ice-water pipes_ are covered to
prevent the water from rising in temperature and to prevent any
condensation forming on the pipe. There is need for such a variety
of covering that I have listed below some of them and the methods
employed for putting them on the pipe.

Magnesia, asbestos air cell, molded asbestos, wool felt, waterproof
paper and wool felt, cork, hair felt. These coverings come in the
form of pipe covering with a cloth jacket. They also come in the
shape of fittings as well as in blocks and rolls of paper, and in
powdered form. Any thickness that is desired may be had. The pipe
covering is readily put on the pipe. The cloth jacket is pulled
back a short distance and the covering will open like a book. It
can then be clamped on the pipe and the jacket pulled back and
pasted into place. Brass bands, 1 inch wide, come with the pipe
covering. These are put on and the pipe covering is then held
securely in place. Practically all the coverings are applied in
this manner and are made up in 3-foot lengths to fit any size pipe.
To cover the fittings and valves, the same kind of sectional
covering can be obtained and applied in the same manner as the pipe
covering. Plastic covering is often applied to the fittings and
molded into the shape of the fitting. The plastic covering comes in
bags and is dry. It is mixed with warm water to the consistency of
thick cement and applied with a trowel. When the covering is put on
the pipes and fittings, it should be done thoroughly to get
satisfactory results. Each section of the covering has on one end
an extra length of the jacket. This is to allow a lap over on the
next section to make a tight joint. If the sections need fitting, a
saw can be used and the covering cut to any desired length.

     _Magnesia_ covering is employed mostly on steam pipes,
     especially high-pressure. This material can be had in the
     shape of pipe covering, in blocks, or cement.

     _Asbestos air cell_ covering is employed to cover hot-water
     circulating pipes. It is constructed of corrugated asbestos
     paper. This material is manufactured in the sectional pipe
     covering or in corrugated paper form.

     _Molded asbestos_ covering is also used on hot-water pipes,
     and is manufactured in pipe covering or in blocks.

     _Wool felt_ covering is used mostly on hot-water pipes and
     makes one of the best coverings. It is lined with asbestos
     paper and covered with a cloth jacket.

     _Waterproof paper and wool felt_ is used on cold-water pipes
     and is made in 3-foot lengths. The covering is lined with
     waterproof paper and covered with a cloth jacket.

     _Cork._--A heavy cork covering is one of the best coverings
     for ice-water pipes, and a light cork covering is used for
     cold-water pipes. This covering comes in sections as other
     coverings, also in blocks and sheets.

     _Hair felt_ is used to prevent pipes from freezing. It comes
     in bales containing 150 to 300 square feet of various
     thicknesses.



CHAPTER XVI

"DURHAM" OR "SCREW PIPE" WORK. PIPE AND FITTINGS


"Durham" or "screw pipe" work is the name used to denote that the
job is installed by the use of wrought-iron or steel screw pipe. We
speak of a "cast-iron job" meaning that cast-iron pipe was used for
the piping. A completely different method of work is used when
screw pipe is employed for the wastes and vents. When screw pipe is
to be used or considered for use, it is well to know something
concerning the various makes of screw pipe. Nothing but galvanized
pipe is ever used. The value of steel screw pipe and wrought-iron
screw pipe should be studied, and every person interested should,
if possible, understand how these different pipes are made and how
the material of which they are composed is made. In some places one
pipe is better than another and a study of their make-up would
enlighten the user and allow him to use the best for his peculiar
conditions. The maker's name should always be on the pipe. The
following table shows the sizes, weights, and thicknesses of screw
pipe:

     -------+-----------+-------------
      Size  | Thickness | No. threads
            |           |  per inch
     -------+-----------+-------------
      1-1/4 |   0.140   |   11-1/2
      1-1/2 |   0.145   |   11-1/2
      2     |   0.154   |   11-1/2
      2-1/2 |   0.204   |    8
      3     |   0.217   |    8
      3-1/2 |   0.226   |    8
      4     |   0.237   |    8
      5     |   0.259   |    8
      6     |   0.280   |    8
     -------+-----------+-------------

Screw pipe work came into common use with the advance of modern
steel structures. Some difficulty had been experienced in getting
the cast-iron pipe joints tight and to keep the pipe so anchored
that it would not crack. The screw pipe was found to answer all of
the requirements of modern structures and therefore has been used
extensively. The life of screw pipe is not as long as extra heavy
cast-iron pipe. This is the only serious objection to screw pipe,
which must be renewed after a term of years, while extra heavy cast
iron lasts indefinitely. Screw pipe is never used underground. When
piping is required underground, extra heavy cast-iron pipe is used.


PIPING

The pipe used in Durham work is galvanized extra heavy, or standard
wrought-iron, or steel pipe. It is almost impossible to recognize
wrought-iron from steel pipe without the aid of a chemical or a
magnifying glass. To test the pipe to distinguish its base, take a
sharp file and file through the surface of the pipe that is to be
tested. If the pipe is steel, under a magnifying glass the texture
of the filed surface will appear to be smooth and have small
irregular-shaped grains, and there will also be an appearance of
compactness. If the pipe is iron, the texture will have the
appearance of being ragged and will show streaks of slag or black.
When screw pipe is cut there is always left a large burr on the
inside of the pipe. This burr greatly reduces the bore of the pipe
and is a source of stoppage in waste pipes. After the pipe is cut
this burr should be reamed out thoroughly. One of the strong points
of screw pipe is the strength of each joint. Care should therefore
be taken to see that perfect threads are cut on the pipe and that
the threads of the fittings are perfect. The dies should be set
right and not varied on each joint. There should be plenty of oil
used when threads are cut so that the thread will be clean and
sharp. The follower or guide on stocks should be the same size as
the pipe that is being threaded, otherwise a crooked thread will
result. If a pipe-threading machine is used, the pipe is set
squarely between the jaws of the vise that holds the pipe in place.
When cutting a thread on a long length of pipe, the end sticking
out from the machine must be supported firmly so that no strain
will come on the machine as the pipe turns. It is necessary to cut
crooked threads sometimes on the pipe to allow the pipe pitch for
drainage or to bring the pipe into alignment where fitting would
take up too much room. To cut a crooked thread on a piece of pipe,
simply leave the follower out of the stock or put in the size
larger. The dies not having a guide will cut a crooked thread.
Piping should be run with as few threads as possible. With a
thorough knowledge of and the intelligent use of fittings, a
minimum number of threads will result.

The pipes in a building are run in compact parallel lines in chases
designed especially for them. The tendency is to confine the pipes
to certain localities as much as possible. This makes a very neat
job and in case repairs are needed, the work and trouble incurred
will be confined to one section.


FITTINGS

The fittings used in screw pipe work are cast-iron recess type (see
Fig. 54). The fittings are so made that the inside bores of the
pipe and the fittings come in direct line with each other, thus
making a smooth inside surface at all bends. The fittings are all
heavily galvanized. All fittings should be examined on the inside
for any lumps of metal of sufficient size to catch solid waste
matter, and these must be removed or the fitting discarded. All 90°
bends, whether Ts or elbows, are tapped to give the pipe that
connects with them a pitch of at least 1/4 inch to the foot.
Except where obligatory, 90° fittings should not be used. To make a
bend of 90° a Y-branch, a nipple and a 45° bend should be used, or
two 45° bends will make a long easy sweep of the drainage pipes and
reduce the possibility of stoppage.

Y-branches are inserted every 30 feet at least to allow for a
clean-out which can be placed in the branch of the fitting. When a
clean-out is placed an iron plug should not be used. These plugs
are not removed very often and an iron plug will rust in and be
almost impossible to get out. Brass clean-out plugs are used and
are easily taken out.

At times it is necessary to connect cast iron and wrought iron, or
in a line where a union could be used if the pipe were not a waste
pipe, a tucker fitting is used. This fitting is threaded on one end
and has a socket on the other to allow for caulking. To get a good
idea of all the fittings in general use, the reader should get a
catalogue from one of the fitting manufacturers and a survey of it
will give the names and sizes of the fittings. However, I show a
few common ones. In the writer's opinion, the studying of the
catalogue would be of more benefit than a description of fittings
at this point. The sizes used and the methods employed to vent the
waste-pipe systems are the same as in cast-iron work.


HANGERS AND SUPPORTS

The hanging of screw pipe is a very essential point. The taking of
the strain off from a fitting or line of pipe by the use of a
hanger is the means of avoiding serious trouble after a job is
completed. On horizontal runs hangers are placed not more than 8
feet apart. In a building constructed of wood, the hangers are
secured to the joists. In a building constructed of steel beams and
concrete the hangers are secured to the steel beams by means of
I-beam hangers that clamp on the beams; also in the case of
concrete the hangers are extended through the floor and a T is put
on the hanger on top of the cement floor; an iron bar or a short
piece of smaller pipe run through the T holds the hanger in place
and secures it rigidly. The finished floor is laid over the hanger
so that it does not show from the top. Hangers on the vertical
lines should be placed at every joint and under each fitting. To
have the pipe in true alignment, the hangers must be hung and
placed in line. Every riser line must have an extra support at the
base to avoid any settling of the stack which will crack the
fittings and break fixture connections.


MEASUREMENTS

The proper installation of screw pipe work requires getting correct
and accurate measurements. Every plumber is or should be able to
get correct center to center, center to end, end to end, center to
back, and end to back measurements. In Durham work 45° angles are
continually occurring. To get these measurements correctly, the
following table has been compiled as used by the author and found
to be correct. The reader should memorize it so that it may be used
without referring to the book.

     MEASUREMENTS

     ------------+------------+-------------
       Soil pipe | Screw pipe | Multiplier
     ------------+------------+-------------
       1/6  bend |     60     |    1.15
       1/8   "   |     45     |    1.41
       1/12  "   |     30     |    2.
       1/16  "   |     22-1/2 |    2.61
       1/32  "   |     11-1/4 |    5.12
       1/64  "   |      5-5/8 |   10.22
     ------------+------------+-------------

Before any measurements are taken, the lines of pipe are laid out
and the position of each fitting known. As I have stated before,
the plumber must look ahead with his work. He must have the ability
of practically seeing the pipe in place before the work is started.
This requires experience and judgment. Before the measurements are
taken and the pipe cut consideration must be given to the fact that
the fittings and pipes must be screwed into position. Therefore,
"can the fitting on the pipe be placed where it is laid out when
this is considered?" must be one of the many questions a plumber
should ask himself. Allowance must be made for the chain tongs to
swing. Whenever possible, a fitting is made up on the pipe while
the pipe is in the vise.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.--The offset is B or 12 inches center to
center. The offset is made using 45 degree fittings. Therefore the
length of A from the center of one fitting to the center of the
other is B × 1.41 = 12 × 1.41 = 16.92 inches.]


FIXTURE CONNECTIONS

The fixture connections when screw pipe is used are necessarily
different than when cast-iron pipe is used. A brass nipple is wiped
on a piece of lead pipe and then screwed into the fitting left for
the closet connection. The lead is flanged over above the floor and
the closet set on it. The lead is soldered to a brass flange. The
brass flange is secured to the floor and then the closet bowl
secured to the brass flange. Another method employed is to screw a
brass flange into the fitting so that when it is made up the flange
will come level with the floor; the closet bowl is then secured to
this flange. There are a number of patented floor flanges for
closet bowl connections that can be used to advantage. Slop sinks
have practically the same connections as the closets. Other
fixtures such as the urinal, lavatory, and bath, can be connected
with a short piece of lead wiped on a solder nipple, or the
trimmings for the fixture can be had with brass having iron pipe
size threads, and the connection can then be made directly with the
outlet on the waste line. This is a very general way to describe
the connections, but space will not allow a detailed description of
these connections. It is always well to allow for short lead
connections for fixtures so that the lead will give if the stack
settles.



CHAPTER XVII

GAS FITTING, PIPE AND FITTINGS, THREADING, MEASURING, AND TESTING


GAS AND ITS USE IN BUILDINGS

Gas is in common use in all classes of buildings today. Dwellings
use it for cooking and illuminating, factories, office buildings,
and public buildings for power. In some parts of the country
natural gas is found. In these places it is used freely for heating
fuel. The actual making of gas is something that every plumber
should understand. If space permitted I would describe a gas plant
with all of its by-products. However, we shall deal only with the
actual installation of gas piping in buildings. Gas mains are run
through the streets the same as water mains are run. Branches are
taken off these mains and extended into the buildings requiring
gas. The gas company generally installs the gas service pipe inside
of the basement wall and places a stop cock on it free of charge.
This stop that is placed on the pipe is a plug core type, the
handle for turning it off is square, and a wrench is required to
turn it. The square top has a lug on it. There is also a lug
corresponding to it on the body of the valve. When the valve is
shut off, these two lugs are together. Each lug has a hole in it
large enough for a padlock ring to pass through. This gives the gas
company absolute control of the gas in the building.

SETTING OF THE METER.--Every building that is supplied with gas has
a meter that registers the amount of gas consumed. This meter is
placed on the service pipe on the house side of the above-mentioned
stop cock. This meter is furnished free of charge with a trivial
charge made for setting up. The actual setting of this meter is not
made until the piping throughout the building has had a thorough
and satisfactory test and is found free from all leaks. The meter
must be set level on a substantial bracket and in a place, if
possible, where it will not require an artificial light to read its
dial. The dry meter is usually used in dwellings. The interesting
construction and mechanism of this meter cannot be discussed here.

[Illustration: FIG. 77.--Gas-meter dials.]

The reading of the dials on a gas meter comes in the province of
the plumber and he should be able to read them. The sketch shows
the dial plate of a meter. The ordinary house meter has only three
recording dials. Large meters have five or more. To read the amount
of gas consumed according to the meter we will read the dials as
they are indicated on Fig. 77. We will call the four dials No. 1,
No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4. In each of these dials a complete
revolution of the index hand denotes 1,000, 10,000, 100,000 and
1,000,000, cubic feet respectively. The index hands on No. 1 and
No. 3 revolve in the same direction, while No. 2 and No. 4 revolve
in the opposite direction. Two ciphers are added to the figures
that are indicated on the dials and the statement of the meter will
be had. To tell just how much gas has been consumed in a given
time, the statement of the meter is taken at the beginning of this
given time and at the end of the time. The difference in the
figures indicates the number of cubic feet of gas that have been
consumed. A gas cock should be placed on the house side of the
meter. The dials of meter read 658,800 cubic feet. The dial having
the highest number is read first No. 4 dial points to 6, this
indicates that No. 3 dial has revolved 6 times. Dial No. 3 reads 5,
therefore the reading of dial No. 3 and No. 4 is 65. Dial No. 2
reads 8 making the readings of the three dials 658. Dial No. 1
reads 8 making the readings of the four dials 6588 add two ciphers
to this figure and 658,800 is the correct reading.

[Illustration: FIG. 78.]

[Illustration: FIG. 79.]

PIPE AND FITTINGS.--The pipe used in gas fitting is wrought iron or
steel. In special places, rubber hose is used. Brass pipe is
occasionally used to advantage. The fittings used in iron pipe gas
work should be galvanized. No plain fittings should be allowed. The
plain fittings very often have sand holes in them and a leak will
result. Sometimes this leak does not appear until after the piping
has been in use some time and the expense of replacing the fitting
can only be guessed at. By using galvanized fittings, this trouble
will be eliminated. All fittings used should be of the beaded type.
The fitting and measurement of this work is practically the same as
described under iron pipe work. To have the beginner get a clearer
idea of gas-piping a building, the piping of the small building
sketched will be gone over in detail and studied. One of the first
important steps that a gas fitter is confronted with is the
locating of the various lights and openings. With these located as
shown on the plan, Figs. 78, 79 and 80, we will proceed to work
out the piping. The first floor rise will be 1-inch, the second
floor will be 1-inch. The horizontal pipe supplying the first floor
outlets will be 3/4-inch pipe. The horizontal pipe on the second
floor will be 3/4-inch. The balance of the pipe will be 3/8- or
1/2-inch. At this point your attention is called to the sketch of
piping, sizes, and measurements. This sketch should be studied and
understood in detail. The good mechanic will employ a sketch of
this kind when installing any piping. The poor mechanic will take
two or three measurements and get them out, put them in, and then
get some more. This method is extremely costly and unworkmanlike.
There is no reason, except the ability of the workman, why he
cannot take a building like the sketch and get all the piping
measurements for the job, then get them out, go to the job and put
them in. The amount of time saved in this way is so great that a
workman should not consider himself a full-fledged mechanic until
he can get the measurements this way, and get them accurately. With
a tape line, gimlet, and plumb-bob, a mechanic is fully equipped
with tools to get his measurements. If the measurements are taken
with a tape line, the same tape line should be used when measuring
the pipe and cutting it. When laying out the piping, never allow a
joist to be cut except within 6 inches of its bearing. It is good
policy never to cut timber unless absolutely necessary and then
only after consulting with the carpenter. When joists have to be
notched they should be cut only on the top side. The pipe as it is
put in place should be braced rigidly. Wherever there is an outlet
pipe extending through the wall, the pipe should be braced from
all sides so that when the fixture is screwed in it will be
perfectly rigid.

[Illustration: FIG. 80.]

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--Pipe sketch.]

The measurements on the piping sketch, Fig. 81, are taken from the
accompanying sketch of a dwelling, and if they were to be actually
put in, they would fit. The reader would do well to copy this
sketch and follow the piping and check the measurements according
to the plan, and note how the different risers, drops, etc., are
drawn. It is not necessary in a sketch of this kind to draw to a
scale. After the different measurements are the letters _C.C._,
_E.C._, _E.E._, _C.B._ and _E.B._, meaning center to center, end to
center, end to end, center to back, and end to back, respectively.
Offsetting pipe is a very convenient way of getting the pipe or
fittings back to the wall for support. To offset pipe properly and
with little trouble, take a piece of scantling 2 by 4 and brace it
between the floor and ceiling. Bore a few different-sized holes
through it and you will have a very handy device for offsetting
pipe. There is a little trick in offsetting pipe that one will have
to practice to obtain. The pipe must be held firmly in the place
where the pipe is to be bent. Large offsets and bends should not be
made; 2 to 4 inches is as large as should be used. Larger offsets
that are required should be made with fittings. Always make the
offsets true and have the ends perfectly straight. Before putting a
piece of pipe permanently in place, always look or blow through it,
to ascertain if its bore is obstructed or not. Sometimes dirt or
slag will collect and cause stoppage.

READING THE PIPE SKETCH.--Vertical lines represent vertical pipes
(see Fig. 81). Horizontal lines represent horizontal pipes running
parallel to the front. Diagonal lines represent horizontal pipes
running from back to front. Any line that is drawn perpendicular to
any other line stands for a horizontal pipe. A diagonal line
separating a vertical line or horizontal line or set of lines
represents a different horizontal plane. With this explanation the
sketch will be made clear to one after drawing it. The reader
should now take each measurement and check it on the plan. This is
easily done by using a scale rule. The height of the ceiling is
8-1/2 feet on the first floor, the second floor is 8 feet. The
first floor joists are 10 inches, the second floor joists are 9
inches. An outlet is indicated by a small circle. In the piping
sketch, this circle is connected with the riser or drop by a
horizontal line. At the junction of these two lines a short
perpendicular line is drawn, and indicates the direction of the
outlet.

Let me again emphasize the need to understand thoroughly this
piping sketch, and to become so familiar with it that it can
readily be put to use. The value of a mechanic is determined by the
quality and the quantity of work that he can turn out; and a
mechanic who can lay out his work and see it completed before he
starts, and then proceeds to install his work, is by far of more
value to his employer than the man who can see only far enough
ahead to cut out two or three measurements and spends most of his
time walking between the vise and place of installing the pipe.

TESTING.--The system of gas piping must be tested before the pipes
have been covered by the advance of building operations. If the job
is of considerable size, the job can be tested in sections, and if
found tight the sections can be covered. The necessity of having
the piping rigidily secured can be appropriately explained here. If
the test has been made and the system found tight and some pipe
that is not securely anchored is accidentally or otherwise pushed
out of place and bent by some of the mechanics working about the
building, a leak may be caused and yet not discovered until the
final test is made after the plastering is finished. The expense
and trouble thus caused is considerable and could have been avoided
by simply putting in the proper supports for the pipe.

To test the piping, an air pump and a gage connected with the pipes
are placed in a convenient position. The job should now be
thoroughly gone over, making sure that all plugs and caps are on
and that no outlet is open, also that all pipe that is to be put in
has been installed. After this has been attended to, the pump is
operated until 10 pounds is registered on the gage. The connection
leading to the pump and the piping is now shut off. If the gage
drops rapidly, there is a bad leak in the system. This leak should
be found without difficulty and repaired. If the gage drops slowly,
it denotes a very small leak, such as a sand hole or a bad thread.
This kind of leak is more troublesome to find. When it has been
found, the pipe or fitting causing the leak should be taken out and
replaced. If black caps have been used to cap the outlets, the
chances are that a sand hole will be found in one of them. Nothing
but galvanized fittings should be used. In case the small leak
mentioned above cannot be found by going over the pipe once, there
are other means of locating the leak. Two of the methods used, I
will explain. If the job is small, each fitting is painted with
soap suds until the fitting is found that causes the leak. If the
leak is not in the fittings, then the pipe can be gone over in the
same way. As soon as the soap suds strikes the leak, a large bubble
is made and the leak discovered. It is possible that there are more
leaks, so the gage is noted and if it still drops, the search
should be continued. The pump should be operated to keep the
pressure up to 10 pounds while the search is being made for the
leak. When the gage stands at 10 pounds without dropping, the job
is then tight. The pump and gage fitting should be gone over first
to ascertain if they leak. The other method employed to discover
leaks is to force a little ether or oil of peppermint (not essence)
into the system by means of the pump. A leak can readily be noted
by the odor. To make this method successful, the ether or
peppermint should not be handled by the men who are to hunt for the
leak. The bottle containing the fluid should not be opened in the
building except to pour some into the piping, otherwise the odor
will get into the building and as the odor comes out of the leak it
will not be noted. For the benefit of the gas fitter, the piping
should be tested again after the plastering is completed. The next
test is made when the fixtures are put on, and as the piping is
tight any leak that develops in this test indicates that the
fixtures leak. There are in common use various methods to stop
leaks in gas pipe when they are found. If a piece of piping or a
fitting is defective, it should be taken out and replaced. This
should be remembered so that while the piping is being installed
any defects should be noted and the defective fitting or pipe
thrown out. Before the gas job is accepted, the gas company will
inspect it and look for traps and sags in the pipe. Therefore, the
piping should be installed without any traps and it should be
arranged to pitch toward the meter, or toward a convenient place
from which any condensation can be taken out. If provision is not
made for this condensation, it will accumulate and stop the flow of
gas.


SHOWER-BATH CONNECTIONS

[Illustration: FIG. 82.--Shower stall with lead pan extending
outside of stall.]

The sketches show clearly the methods employed to make a
shower-bath waste and stall water-tight. The shower bath, as a
separate fixture, is in use and the demand for it as a separate
fixture is increasing rapidly. This demand comes from the owners of
private houses. The plumber must therefore devise some way to make
these connections tight and prevent any leak from showing in the
room below. This fixture is so constructed that all waste pipes
and trap come under the floor level with no way of getting to them
from below. Therefore the piping for this fixture must be of a
permanent nature. No pipe or trap made of material that is liable
to give out in a short time should be allowed under a shower-bath
fixture or stall. The two sketches, Figs. 82 and 83 illustrate two
methods of connecting and making tight a shower stall. A plumber
should always consider it his special duty to make his work
complete and free from all objections. He should always prepare for
any emergency that may occur in the future. This is rather a big
task, yet the plumber when accepting all of his responsibilities
has a big task. I state this to the beginner and emphasize the
all-important fact that he must learn to perform and think deeply
of the elements of plumbing to be able later on to handle
successfully the problems that present themselves in the plumbing
trade.

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--Shower stall with lead pan extending six
inches beyond strainer.]

The heavy brass trap shown in the sketch has proved itself very
satisfactory and can be made to fit almost any condition of piping
or building construction. A flashing of sheet lead is soldered on
the trap and carried out to the outside edge of the stall where it
is turned up 1 inch, or to the floor level. When the flashing is
carried out for only a foot on each side of the trap, the
possibilities of a leak are greater.



CHAPTER XVIII

PLUMBING CODES


The work of plumbing has a direct result on the health of the
occupants of buildings; therefore in order that the plumbing may
not be installed improperly and impair the health of the occupants,
it is necessary to provide a code governing the installation of
plumbing. Naturally these laws at first were under the control of
the health department of cities, but of late years the building
departments have assumed control of the codes with the result that
coöperation with the building codes is now the practice rather than
the exception.

To make certain the carrying out of the plumbing codes, it is
required that a plan indicating the run, size, and length of pipes,
location and number of fixtures of the prospective job be filed in
the building department of the city, before the work is started. If
the plan is approved by the plumbing inspector and acceptance is
sent, then the work can be started. After a job is completed a test
is made and the job is inspected by the plumbing inspector, and if
found to meet requirements a written acceptance of the work is
given by the building department. An effort is being made
throughout the country to have the plumbing codes under State
control rather than have a number of different codes in as many
different cities and towns. The State code can be so arranged that
it will apply to either city or town.

The installation of plumbing varies in different States. In the
northern part of the United States all pipes which pass through the
roof, if less than 4-inch must be increased to 4-inch. A pipe
smaller than 4-inch will be filled with hoar frost during the
winter and render the pipe useless to perform its function as a
vent pipe. Pipes laid under ground in the Northern States must be
at least 4 feet below the surface to protect them from freezing. In
the Southern States the frost does not penetrate the ground to such
a distance and the pipes can be laid on the surface.

Following is a State or City plumbing code insofar as it relates to
the actual installation of plumbing.

     SEC. 1. PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS.--There shall be a separate
     plan for each building, public or private, or any addition
     thereto, or alterations thereof, accompanied by specifications
     showing the location, size and kind of pipe, traps, closets
     and fixtures to be used, which plans and specifications shall
     be filed with the board or bureau of buildings. The said plans
     and specifications shall be furnished by the architect,
     plumber or owner, and filed by the plumber. All applications
     for change in plans must be made in writing.

     SEC. 2. FILING PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS.--Plumbers before
     commencing the construction of plumbing work in any building
     (except in case of repairs, which are here defined to relate
     to the mending of leaks in soil, vent, or waste pipes,
     faucets, valves and water-supply pipes, and shall not be
     construed to admit of the replacing of any fixture, such as
     water closets, bath tubs, lavatories, sinks, etc., or the
     respective traps for such fixtures) shall submit to the bureau
     plans and specifications, legibly drawn in ink, on blanks to
     be furnished by said board or bureau. Where two or more
     buildings are located together and on the same street, and the
     plumbing work is identical in each, one plan will be
     sufficient. Plans will be approved or rejected within 24 hours
     after their receipt.

     SEC. 3. MATERIAL OF HOUSE DRAIN AND SEWER.--House drains or
     soil pipes laid beneath floor must be extra heavy cast-iron
     pipe, with leaded and caulked joints, and carried 5 feet
     outside cellar wall. All drains and soil pipes connected with
     main drain where it is above the cellar floor shall be extra
     heavy cast-iron pipe with leaded joints properly secured or of
     heavy wrought-iron pipe with screw joints properly secured
     and carried 5 feet outside cellar wall and all arrangements
     for soil and waste pipes shall be run as direct as possible.
     Changes of direction on pipes shall be made with "Y"-branches,
     both above and below the ground, and where such pipes pass
     through a new foundation-wall a relieving arch shall be built
     over it, with a 2-inch space on either side of the pipe.

     SEC. 4.--The size of main house drain shall be determined by
     the total area of the buildings and paved surfaces to be
     drained, according to the following table, if iron pipe is
     used. If the pipe is terra-cotta the pipe shall be one size
     larger than for the same amount of area drainage.

     ----------+-----------------------------+---------------------------------
      Diameter |      Fall 1/4 inch per foot |        Fall  1/2 inch per foot
     ----------+-----------------------------+---------------------------------
      4 inches |  1,800 square feet drainage |  2,500 square feet drainage area
      5 inches |  3,000 square feet drainage |  4,500 square feet drainage area
      6 inches |  5,000 square feet drainage |  7,500 square feet drainage area
      8 inches |  9,100 square feet drainage | 13,600 square feet drainage area
     10 inches | 14,000 square feet drainage | 20,000 square feet drainage area
     ----------+-----------------------------+---------------------------------

     The main house drains may be decreased in diameter beyond the
     rain-water conductor or surface inlet by permission of the
     bureau, when the plans show that the conditions are such as to
     warrant such decrease, but in no case shall the main house
     drain be less than 4 inches in diameter.

     SEC. 5. MAIN TRAP.--An iron running trap with two clean-outs
     must be placed in the house drain near the front wall of the
     house, and on the sewer side of all connections. If placed
     outside the house or below the cellar floor the clean-outs
     must extend to surface with brass screw cap ferrules caulked
     in. If outside the house, it must never be placed less than 4
     feet below the surface of the ground.

     SEC. 6. FRESH-AIR INLET.--A fresh-air inlet pipe must be
     connected with the house drain just inside of the house trap
     and extended to the outer air, terminating with a return bend,
     or a vent cap or a grating with an open end 1 foot above grade
     at the most available point to be determined by the building
     department.

     The fresh-air inlet pipe must be 4 inches in diameter for
     house drains of 6 inches or less and as much larger as the
     building department may direct for house drains more than 6
     inches in diameter.

     SEC. 7. LAYING OF HOUSE SEWERS AND DRAINS.--House sewers and
     house drains must, where possible, be given an even grade to
     the main sewer of not less than 1/4 inch to the foot.
     Full-sized "Y"- and "T"-branch fittings for handhole
     clean-outs must be provided where required on house drain and
     its branches. No clean-out need be larger than 6 inches.

     SEC. 8. FLOOR DRAINS.--Floor or other drains will only be
     permitted when it can be shown to the satisfaction of the
     department of building that their use is absolutely necessary,
     and arrangements made to maintain a permanent water seal, and
     be provided with check or back-water valves.

     SEC. 9. WEIGHT AND THICKNESS OF CAST-IRON PIPE.--All cast-iron
     pipes must be uncoated excepting all laid under ground, which
     shall be thoroughly tarred, sound, cylindrical and smooth,
     free from cracks, sand holes and other defects, and of uniform
     thickness and of grade known to commerce as extra heavy.
     Cast-iron pipe including the hub shall weigh not less than the
     following weights per linear foot:

     2-inch pipe     5-1/2 pounds per foot.
     3-inch pipe     9-1/2 pounds per foot.
     4-inch pipe     13 pounds per foot.
     5-inch pipe     17 pounds per foot.
     6-inch pipe     20 pounds per foot.
     7-inch pipe     27 pounds per foot.
     8-inch pipe     33-1/2 pounds per foot.
     10-inch pipe    45 pounds per foot.
     12-inch pipe    54 pounds per foot.

     All cast-iron pipe must be tested to 50 pounds and marked with
     the maker's name.

     All joints in cast-iron pipe must be made with picked oakum
     and molten lead and caulked gas-tight. Twelve ounces of soft
     pig lead must be used at each joint for each inch in the
     diameter of the pipe.

     SEC. 10. WROUGHT-IRON AND STEEL PIPE.--All wrought-iron and
     steel pipe shall be galvanized. Fittings used for drainage
     must be galvanized and of recess type known as drainage
     fittings. All fittings used for venting shall be galvanized
     and of the style known as steam pattern. No plain black pipe
     or fittings will be permitted.

     SEC. 11. SUB-SOIL DRAINS.--Sub-soil drains must be discharged
     into a sump or receiving tank, the contents of which must be
     lifted and discharged into the drainage system above the
     cellar floor by some approved method. Where directly
     sewer-connected, they must be cut off from the rest of the
     building and plumbing system by a brass flap valve on the
     inlet to the catch basin and the trap on the drain from the
     catch basin must be water-supplied.

     SEC. 12. YARD AND AREA DRAINS.--All yard, area and court
     drains when sewer-connected must have connection not less than
     4 inches in diameter. They should be controlled by one
     trap--the leader trap if possible. All yards, areas and courts
     must be drained. Tenement houses and lodging houses must have
     yards, areas and courts drained into sewer.

     SEC. 13. USE OF OLD DRAINS AND SEWERS.--Old house drains and
     sewers may be used in connection with new buildings or new
     plumbing, only when they are found, on examination by the
     department of building, to conform in all respects to the
     requirements governing new sewers and drains. All extensions
     to old house drains must be of extra heavy cast-iron pipe.

     SEC. 14. LEADER PIPES.--All building shall be provided with
     proper metallic leaders for conducting water from the roofs in
     such manner as shall protect the walls and foundations of such
     buildings from injury. In no case shall the water from such
     leaders be allowed to flow upon the sidewalk but the same
     shall be conducted by a pipe or pipes to the sewer. If there
     is no sewer in the street upon which such building fronts,
     then the water from said leader shall be conducted, by proper
     pipes below the surface of the sidewalk, to the street gutter.

     Inside leaders shall be constructed of cast iron, wrought iron
     or steel, with roof connections made gas-and water-tight by
     means of heavy copper drawn tubing slipped into the pipe. The
     tubing must slip at least 7 inches into the pipe. Outside
     leaders may be of sheet metal, but they must connect with the
     house drain by means of cast-iron pipe extending vertically 5
     feet above grade level, where the building is located along
     public driveways or sidewalks. Where the building is located
     off building line, and not liable to be damaged the connection
     shall be made with iron pipe extending 1 foot above the grade
     level.

     All leaders must be trapped with running traps of cast iron,
     so placed as to prevent freezing.

     Rain leaders must not be used as soil, waste or vent pipes,
     nor shall such pipes be used as rain leaders.

     SEC. 15.--EXHAUST FROM STEAM PIPES, ETC.--No steam discharge
     or exhaust, blow-off or drip pipe shall connect with the sewer
     or the house drain, leader, soil pipe, waste or vent pipe.
     Such pipes shall discharge into a tank or condenser, from
     which suitable outlet to the sewer shall be made. Such
     condenser shall be supplied with water, to help condensation
     and help protect the sewer, and shall also be supplied with
     relief vent to carry off dry steam.

     SEC. 16. DIAMETER OF SOIL PIPE.--The smallest diameter of soil
     pipe permitted to be used shall be 4 inches. The size of soil
     pipes must not be less than those set forth in the following
     tables.

     Maximum number of fixtures connected to:

     -------------+-------------------------+------------------------------
     Size of pipe | Waste and soil combined |         Soil pipe alone
                  +------------+------------+---------------+--------------
                  |   Branch   |    Main    |     Branch    |     Main
                  |  fixtures  |  fixtures  | water closets | water closets
     -------------+------------+------------+---------------+--------------
        4-inch    |      48    |      96    |        8      |       16
      4.5-inch    |      96    |     192    |       16      |       32
        6-inch    |     268    |     336    |       34      |       68
     -------------+------------+------------+---------------+--------------

     If the building is six (6) and less than twelve (12) stories
     in height, the diameter shall not be less than 5 inches. If
     more than twelve (12) it shall be 6 inches, in diameter. A
     building six (6) or more stories in height, with fixtures
     located below the sixth floor, soil pipe 4 inches in diameter
     will be allowed to extend through the roof provided the
     number of fixtures does not exceed the number given in the
     table. All soil pipes must extend at least 2 feet above the
     highest window, and must not be reduced in size. Traps will
     not be permitted on main, vertical, soil or waste-pipe lines.
     Each house must have a separate line of soil and vent pipes.
     No soil or waste line shall be constructed on the outside of a
     building.

     Fixtures with:
       1 to 1-1/4-inch traps count as one fixture.
       1 to 1-1/2  "  traps count as one fixture.
       1 to 2      "  traps count as two fixtures.
       1 to 2-1/2  "  traps count as three fixtures.
       1 to 3      "  traps (water closets) count as four fixtures.
       1 to 4      "  traps count as five fixtures.

     SEC. 17. CHANGE IN DIRECTION.--All sewer, soil, and waste
     pipes must be as direct as possible. Changes in direction must
     be made with "Y"- or half "Y"-branches or one-eighth bends.
     Offsets in soil or waste pipes will not be permitted when they
     can be avoided, nor, in any case unless suitable provision is
     made to prevent the accumulation of rust or other obstruction.
     Offsets must be made with fourth degree bends or similar
     fittings. The use of T "Y"s (sanitary Ts) will be permitted on
     upright lines only.

     SEC. 18. JOINTS ON SOIL AND WASTE PIPES.--Connection on lead
     and cast-iron pipe shall be made with brass sleeve or ferrule,
     of the same size as the lead pipe inserted in the hub of the
     iron pipe, and caulked with lead. The lead must be attached to
     the ferrule by means of a wiped joint. Joints between lead and
     wrought-iron pipes must be made with brass nipple, of same
     size as lead pipe. The lead pipe must be attached to the brass
     nipple by means of a wiped joint. All connections of lead
     waste pipes must be made by means of wiped joints.

     Short nipples on wrought-iron and steel pipes must be of
     thickness and weight known as "extra heavy" or "extra strong."

     Brass ferrules must be best quality, extra heavy cast brass,
     not less than 4 inches long and 2-1/4, 3-1/2 and 4-1/2 inches
     in diameter and not less than the following weights:

       Diameters          Weights
     2-1/4 inches    1 pound  0 ounce.
     3-1/2 inches    1 pound 12 ounces.
     4-1/2 inches    2 pounds 8 ounces.

     SEC. 19. SOLDER NIPPLES.--Solder nipples must be heavy cast
     brass or of brass pipe, iron pipe size. When cast they must be
     not less than the following weights:

       Diameters          Weights
     1-1/2 inches    0 pound  8 ounces.
     2     inches    0 pound 14 ounces.
     2-1/2 inches    1 pound  6 ounces.
     3     inches    2 pounds 0 ounce.
     4     inches    3 pounds 8 ounces.

     SEC. 20. BRASS CLEAN-OUTS.--Brass screw caps for clean-outs
     must be extra heavy, not less than 1/8 inch thick. The screw
     cap must have a solid square or hexagonal nut not less than 1
     inch high and a least diameter of 1-1/2 inches. The body of
     the clean-out ferrule must be at least equal in weight and
     thickness to the caulking ferrule for the same size pipe.

     SEC. 21. LEAD WASTE PIPE.--All lead waste, soil vent and flush
     pipes must be of the best quality, known in commerce as "_D_,"
     and of not less than the following weights per linear foot:

       Diameters        Weights
     1-1/4 inches    2-1/2 pounds.
     1-1/2 inches    3     pounds.
     2     inches    4     pounds.
     3     inches    6     pounds.
     4     inches    8     pounds.

     All lead traps and bends must be of the same weight and
     thicknesses as their corresponding pipe branches.

     SEC. 22. ROOF FLASHERS.--Sheet lead for roof flashings must be
     6-pound lead and must extend not less than 6 inches from the
     pipe and the joint made water-tight.

     SEC. 23. TRAPS FOR BATH TUBS, WATER CLOSETS, ETC.--Every sink,
     bath tub, basin, water closet, slop hopper, or fixtures having
     a waste pipe, must be furnished with a trap, which shall be
     placed as close as practicable to the fixture that it serves
     and in no case shall it be more than 1 foot. The waste pipe
     from the bath tub or other fixtures must not be connected
     with a water-closet trap.

     SEC. 24. SIZE OF HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL WASTE PIPES, TRAPS
     AND BRANCHES.--

     Horizontal and vertical    Number of small fixtures
          1-1/4-inch                      1
          1-1/2-inch                      2
          2    -inch                      3 to 8
          2-1/2-inch                      9 to 20
          3    -inch                     21 to 44

     If building is ten (10) or more stories in height, the
     vertical waste pipe shall not be less than 3 inches in
     diameter. The use of wrought-iron pipe for waste pipe 2 inches
     or less in diameter is prohibited.

     The size of traps and waste branches, for a given fixture,
     shall be as follows:

     ---------------------------------------------+------------------
                                                  | Size in inches
                   Kind of fixtures               +-------+----------
                                                  | Trap  | Branch
     ---------------------------------------------+-------+----------
     Water closet                                 | 3     | 4
     Slop sink with trap combined                 | 3     | 3
     Slop sink ordinary                           | 2     | 2
     Pedestal urinal                              | 3     | 3
     Floor drain or wash                          | 4     | 4
     Yard drain or catch basin                    | 4     | 4
     Urinal trough                                | 2     | 2
     Laundry trays, two or five                   | 2     | 2
     Combination sink and tray (for each fixture) | 1-1/2 | 2
     Kitchen sinks, small                         | 1-1/2 | 1-1/2
     Kitchen sinks, large hotel, etc.             |       |
     Kitchen sinks, grease trap                   |       | 2
     Pantry sinks                                 | 1-1/2 | 1-1/2
     Wash basin, one only                         | 1-1/4 | 1-1/4
     Bath tub                                     | 2     | 2
     Shower baths                                 | 1-1/2 | 1-1/2
     Shower baths, floor                          | 2     | 2
     Sitz bath                                    | 1-1/2 | 1-1/2
     Drinking fountains                           | 1-1/4 | 1-1/4
     ---------------------------------------------+-------+----------

     SEC. 25. OVERFLOW PIPES.--Overflow pipes from fixtures must in
     all cases be connected on the inlet side of the traps.

     SEC. 26. SETTING OF TRAPS WITHOUT RE-VENT.--All traps must be
     substantially supported and set true with respect to their
     water levels. No pot, bottle or "D" trap will be permitted nor
     any form of trap that is not self-cleaning, nor that has
     interior chambers or mechanism nor any trap except earthenware
     ones that depend upon interior partitions for a seal. In case
     there is an additional fixture required in building and it is
     impossible to re-vent pipe for the trap, the building
     department may designate the kind of trap to be used. This
     shall not be construed to allow traps without re-vents in new
     buildings.

     SEC. 27. SAFE AND REFRIGERATOR PIPES.--Safe-waste pipes must
     not connect directly with any part of the plumbing system.
     Safe-waste pipes must discharge over an open, water-supplied,
     publicly-placed, ordinary-used sink, placed not more than
     3-1/2 feet above the cellar floor. The safe waste from a
     refrigerator must be trapped at the bottom of the line only
     and must not discharge upon the ground floor, but over an
     ordinary open pan, or some properly-trapped, water-supplied
     sink, as above. In no case shall the refrigerator waste pipe
     discharge into a sink located in a living room.

     The branches on vertical lines must be made by means of "Y"
     fittings and be carried to the safe with as much pitch as
     possible. Where there is an offset on the refrigerator waste
     pipe in the cellar, there must be clean-outs placed. These
     clean-outs must be of brass.

     In tenement and lodging houses the refrigerator waste pipe
     must extend above the roof, and not be larger than 1-1/2
     inches and the branches not smaller than 1-1/4 inches.
     Refrigerator waste pipes, except in tenement houses, and all
     safe-waste pipes, must have brass flap valve on the lower
     ends. Lead safes must be graded and neatly turned over beveled
     strips at their edges.

     SEC. 28. VENT-PIPE MATERIAL.--Material for vent pipes shall be
     of lead, brass, enameled iron or galvanized iron.

     SEC. 29. VENTILATION OF TRAPS AND SOIL LINES.--Traps shall be
     protected from siphonage or air pressure by special vent pipes
     of a size of not less than the following tables:

     -----------------+----------------+-----------------------------
                      |    Maximum     |   Number of traps vented
                      | length in feet |
       Size of pipe   +----------------+------------+----------------
                      |     Mains      |  Branch    |  Main vertical
     -----------------+----------------+------------+----------------
      1-1/4-inch vent |     20 feet    |  1         |
      1-1/2-inch vent |     40 feet    |  2 or less |
      2-inch vent     |     65 feet    | 10 or less |   20 or less
      2-1/2-inch vent |    100 feet    | 20 or less |   40 or less
      3-inch vent     |   10 or more   | 60 or less |  100 or less
                      |    stories     |            |
     -----------------+----------------+------------+----------------

     The branch vent shall not be less than the following sizes:

     1-1/4 inches in diameter for 1-1/4 inch trap.
     1-1/2 inches in diameter for 1-1/2 inch to 2-1/2 inch trap.
     2 inches in diameter for 3 inch to 4 inch trap.
     One-half their diameter, for traps 3 inches and over.

     Where two or more closets are placed side by side, on a
     horizontal branch, the branch line shall have a relief
     extended as a loop. A pipe 2 inches in diameter shall be
     sufficient as a loop vent for two closets. A pipe 3 inches in
     diameter shall be sufficient as a relief for three or four
     closets; and where more than four closets are located on the
     same branch the relief shall not be less than 4 inches in
     diameter. All house drains and soil lines on which a water
     closet is located must have a 4-inch main vent line. Where an
     additional closet is located in the cellar or basement, and
     within 10 feet of main soil or vent line, no relief vent will
     be required for said closet; but where it is more than 10
     feet, a 2-inch vent line will be required. Relief vent pipes
     for water closets must not be less than 2 inches in diameter,
     for a length of 40 feet, and not less than 3 inches in
     diameter, for more than 40 feet.

     No re-vent from traps under bell traps will be required.

     In any building having a sewer connection with a private or
     public sewer used for bell-trap connections or floor drainage
     only, a 2-inch relief line must be extended to the roof of the
     building from rear end of main. House drains, constructed for
     roof drainage only, will not require a relief vent.

     A floor trap for a shower shall be vented, unless located in
     the cellar or ground floor the paving of which renders the
     trap inaccessible.

     SEC. 30. HORIZONTAL VENT PIPES.--Where rows of fixtures are
     placed in a line, fitting of not less than 45° to the
     horizontal must be used on vent lines to prevent filling with
     rust or condensation; except on brick or tile walls, where it
     is necessary to channel same for pipes, 90° fittings will be
     allowed. Trapped vent pipes are strictly prohibited. No vent
     pipe from the house side of any trap shall connect with the
     ventilation pipe or with sewer, soil or waste pipe.

     SEC. 31. OFFSET ON VENT LINES.--All offsets on vent lines must
     be made at an angle of not less than 45° to the horizontal,
     and all lines must be connected at the bottom with a soil or
     waste pipe, or the drain, in such manner as to prevent the
     accumulation of rust, scale or condensation.

     No sheet metal, brick, or other flue shall be used as a vent
     pipe.

     SEC. 32. SETTING OF FIXTURES.--All fixtures must be set open
     and free from all enclosing woodwork. Water closets and
     urinals must not be connected directly or flushed from the
     water-supply pipes except when flushometer valves are used.
     Each water closet must be flushed from a separate cistern, the
     water from which is used for no other purpose, or may be
     flushed through flushometer valves.

     Rubber connection and elbows are not permitted.

     Pan, plunger, or hopper closets will not be permitted in any
     building. No range closet either wet or dry, nor any
     evaporating system of closets shall be constructed or allowed
     inside of any building.

     A separate building constructed especially for the purpose,
     must be provided in which such range closets shall be set.

     All earthenware traps must have heavy brass floor flange
     plates, soldered to the lead bends and bolted to the trap
     flange, and the joint made permanently secure and gas-tight.

     In all buildings sewer-connected there must be at least one
     water closet in each building. There must be a sufficient
     number of water closets so that there will never be more than
     15 people to each water closet.

     Separate water closets and toilet rooms must be provided for
     each sex in buildings used as workshops, office buildings,
     factories, hotels and all places of public assembly.

     In all buildings the water closet and urinal apartments must
     be ventilated into the outer air by windows opening on the
     same lot as the building is situated on or by a ventilating
     skylight placed over each room or apartment where such
     fixtures are located.

     In all buildings the outside partition of any water closet or
     urinal apartment must be air-tight and extend to the ceiling
     or be independently ceiled over. When necessary to light such
     apartments properly the upper part of the partition must be
     provided with translucent glass. The interior partitions of
     such apartments must be dwarfed partitions.

     In alteration work where it is not practicable to ventilate a
     closet or urinal apartment by windows or skylight to the outer
     air, there must be provided a sheet-iron duct extending to the
     outer air, the area of the duct must be at least 144 square
     inches for one water closet or urinal, and an additional 72
     square inches for each addition closet or urinal added
     therein.

     SEC. 33. URINALS.--All urinals must be constructed of
     materials impervious to moisture and that will not corrode
     under the action of urine. The floors and walls of urinal
     apartments must be lined with similar non-absorbent and
     non-corrosive material.

     The platforms and treads of urinal stalls must be connected
     independently of the plumbing system, nor can they be
     connected with any safe-waste pipe.

     The copper lining of water closet and urinal cisterns must not
     be lighter than 12 ounces copper, and must be stamped on
     lining with maker's name. Where lead is used it must not weigh
     less than 4 pounds to the square foot. All other materials are
     prohibited.

     SEC. 34. FIXTURES PROHIBITED.--Wooden wash trays, sinks, or
     bath tubs are prohibited inside buildings. Such fixtures must
     be constructed of non-absorbent materials. Cement or
     artificial stone tubs will not be permitted, unless approved
     by the plumbing inspector and building department.

     Yard water closets will not be permitted except as approved by
     the plumbing inspector and then passed by the building
     department.

     SEC. 35. PRIVY VAULTS AND CESSPOOLS.--No privy vault or
     cesspool for sewage, shall be constructed in any part of the
     city where a sewer is at all accessible. In parts of the city
     where no sewer exists privy vaults and cesspools shall not be
     located within 2 feet of party or street line nor within 20
     feet of any building. Before these are constructed application
     for permission therefore shall be made to the building
     department.

     SEC. 36. MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP.--All material used in the
     work of plumbing and drainage must be of good quality and free
     from defects. The work must be executed in a thorough and
     workmanlike manner.



INDEX



     A

     Acid, muriatic, 12


     B

     Banjo, 120

     Bath-tub, 5-6-7
       size waste, 99

     Bending irons, 15, 48, 59

     Bib, wiping, 59, 68

     Bowls, closet, 4, 5


     C

     Caulking joints, 89, 90

     Cellar drainer, 84

     Cement, pipe joint, 122

     Cementing, 72, 73

     Circulation, hot water, 124, 129

     Closets, 3, 4, 5

     Cocks, stop and waste, 120

     Code-plumbing, 153
       brass clean-outs, 160
       change in direction, 159
       diameter of soil pipes, 158
       exhaust from steam pipes, 158
       filing plans, 154
       floor drains, 156
       fresh-air inlet, 155
       joints, 159
       laying of drains, 156
       lead waste pipe, 160
       leader pipes, 157
       main trap, 155
       materials of drains, 154
       old drains and sewers, 157
       over-flow pipes, 162
       plans and specification, 154
       roof flashers, 160
       safe and refrigerator pipes, 162
       size of drains, 155
         of waste pipes, 161
       solder nipples, 160
       traps, 160
         without vents, 162
       yard and area drains, 157

     Code, fixtures prohibited, 165
       horizontal vents, 164
       material and workmanship, 166
       offsets, 164
       privy vaults and cesspools, 166
       setting of fixtures, 164
       urinals, 165
       vent, pipe material, 162
       ventilation of traps, 162

     Connecting, sewers, 74

     Connections, of fixtures, 139

     Corporation cock and tap, 76-77

     Coupling, right and left, 116

     Covering, pipe, 131

     Cup joint, 14-66

     Curb cock, 77-81
       box, 78-81

     Cutters, pipe, 113

     Cutting, terra-cotta pipe, 72
       cast-iron pipe, 93


     D

     Dies, 112

     Drainage, 2

     Drains, 82, 83, 84, 87, 92

     Drift plugs, 18

     Drum trap, 61, 65, 68, 107

     Durham work, 134


     E

     Earthenware, 3-5

     Expansion joints, 129


     F

     Ferrule, brass, 37-43

     File, 15

     Fittings, drainage, 136
       gas, 143
       screw pipe, 98
       soil pipe, 96

     Fixtures, 3

     Flushing, 3

     Flux, 12

     Fresh-air inlet, 105


     G

     Gas pipe and fittings, 143
       piping, 141, 144

     Goose neck, 81


     H

     Half and half solder, 21

     Hammer, 15

     Hangers, 121, 137

     Heaters, flue connection, 130
       gas coil, 126
       instantaneous, 127

     Hot water supply, 124

     House drains, 86
       traps, 87, 104


     I

     Inserting, terra-cotta pipe, 74

     Intercepting trap, 92, 93

     Iron enamelled ware, 3


     J

     Joints, amount of lead and oakum, 97
       caulk, 87, 89
       cup, 14
       expansion, 129
       of sub-soil, 84
       overcast, 17
       runner, 90
       rust, 97
       seams, 19
       solder, 14


     K

     Kitchen sinks, 99


     L

     Lavatories, 8, 99

     Lead connection, 78
       used in caulked joints, 89, 97

     Lead pipe, for water mains, 80
       preparing for wiping, 45
       use of, 27

     Leaders, pipes and traps, 93

     Long screws, 115


     M

     Main sewer, 81

     Mason trap, 104

     Measurements of piping, 146

     Melting point of metals, 21

     Metal, wiping, 31

     Meter, reading gas, 142


     N

     Nipples, cutting and threading, 114
       holders, 114


     O

     Oakum, use of, 89, 97

     Overcast joint, 17, 67


     P

     Paste, 13

     Pipe, brass, 80
       covering, 131
       cutting, 93
       kinds of, 122
       service, 81
       soil, location, 95
       steel, 97
       tell-tale, 100
       terra-cotta, 69
       threading, 110
       wrought iron, 97

     Pipe laying, sewer, 71
       water, 78
       in tunnel, 73

     Piping, water, 120
       drainage, 135

     Planking, 70, 71

     Pressure, water, 119


     R

     Rain leaders, 86

     Reaming, 135

     Receptors, showers, 99

     Refill, trench, 75, 79
       tunnels, 79

     Right and left couplings, 116


     S

     Sanitary drains, 91, 92

     Screw-pipe work, 134

     Seams, 19, 67

     Sewerage, system of, 86

     Sewers, 69, 81

     Shoe, use of, 75

     Shower stall, 150

     Sinks, 2

     Soil pipe, 95, 96

     Soils, 13

     Soldering iron, 11, 15, 66

     Solders, 21

     Stopcock, 45, 68, 81, 120

     Sulphur, 97

     Swab, 73, 81


     T

     Tables, angle measurements, 138, 139
       brass ferrules, 160
       fixtures and traps, 161
       lead waste pipe, 160
       measurements, 116
       roof drainage, 155
       screw-pipe, 134
       size of vent pipes, 163
         of waste pipe, 99
       soil and waste pipe, 158
       standard, threads, 110
       terra-cotta pipe, 75
       waste pipe, 161
       weight of cast-iron pipe, 156
       of solder nipples, 160

     Tallow, 13

     Tank, storage connections of, 125

     Tell-tale pipe, 100

     Terra-cotta pipe, 69, 75, 83
       cutting, 72

     Testing, gas pipe, 148

     Thermostat, 124, 126

     Tinning, brass, 38, 42, 45
       bib, 59

     Tools, bending iron, 15
       caulking iron, 89
       cold chisel, 89, 93
       file, 15
       hammer, 15
       joint runner, 90
       ladle, 29
       pipe cutters, 113
       rasp, 15
       saw, 15
       shave hook, 15
       soldering iron, 15
       tap-borer, 15, 47, 59
       turn pin, 15
       vise, 111
       yarning iron, 89

     Traps, bag, 109
       centrifugal, 109
       cleansweep, 108
       drum, 107
       flask, 108
       house, 104
       intercepting, 92
       mechanical, 109
       non-syphoning, 107
       "S," 109
       sure-seal, 109

     Trenches, digging, 70, 81, 87
       refilling, 75
       water service, 76

     Tubs, bath, 6

     Tunnels, 73


     U

     Urinals, 99


     V

     Valves, check, 128
       closet, 4
       safety, 128

     Ventilation pipe, 101

     Vents, 100-103


     W

     Wash trays, 86, 99

     Water connection, 76
       supply, 118
         rivers and lakes, 119
         streams and brooks, 118
         under pressure, 119
         underground, 118

     Wiping, 29
       bib, 59
       branch joints, 49
       cloths, 67
       drum trap, 61
       2-inch brass ferrule, 40
       4-inch brass ferrule, 43
       round joint, 31
       solder, 21
       stopcock, 45



TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


Inconsistencies in hyphenation and spelling have been retained.

Mid-paragraph illustrations have been moved for easier reading.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Elements of Plumbing" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home