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Title: Fairy Tales from Brazil - How and Why Tales from Brazilian Folk-Lore
Author: Eells, Elsie Spicer, 1880-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Fairy Tales from Brazil - How and Why Tales from Brazilian Folk-Lore" ***

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FAIRY TALES FROM BRAZIL

How and Why Tales from Brazilian Folk-Lore

by

ELSIE SPICER EELLS

With Illustrations by Helen M. Barton



This special edition is published by arrangement with the
publisher of the regular edition, Dodd, Mead & Company.

Cadmus Books
E. M. Hale and Company
Chicago

Copyright, 1917,
by Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT


Thanks are due to the publishers of _Little Folks_,
_Kindergarten-Primary Magazine_, _Everyland_, _Mayflower and Story
Tellers' Magazine_ for the privilege of reprinting stories which they
have published.

ELSIE SPICER EELLS

       *       *       *       *       *



PREFACE


It is late afternoon in my Brazilian garden. The dazzling blue of sea
and sky which characterises a tropical noonday has become subdued and
already roseate tints are beginning to prepare the glory of the sunset
hour. A lizard crawls lazily up the whitewashed wall. The song of the
_sabiá_, that wonderful Brazilian thrush, sounds from the royal palm
tree. The air is heavy with the perfume of the orange blossom. There
is no long twilight in the tropics. Night will leap down suddenly upon
my Brazilian garden from out of the glory of the sunset sky.

Theresa, the _ama_, stands before us on the terrace under the mango
trees, and we, her _yáyázinhas_ and _yóyózinhos_, know that the story
hour has come. Theresa, daughter of the mud huts under the palm trees,
_ama_ in the _sobrado_ of the foreign _senhora_, is a royal queen of
story land. For her the beasts break silence and talk like humans. For
her all the magic wonders of her tales stand forth as living truth.
Her lithe body sways backwards and forwards to the rhythm of her words
as she unfolds her tales to us. She is a picture to remember as she
stands under the mango trees on our terrace. Her spotless white
"_camiza_" is decorated with beautiful pillow lace, her own handiwork.
Her skirt of stiffly starched cotton is red and purple in colour. A
crimson flowered folded shawl hangs over her right shoulder and great
strings of beads ornament the ebony of her neck and arms. To sit at
the feet of Theresa, the _ama_, is to enter the gate of story land.



CONTENTS


       PREFACE

I.     HOW NIGHT CAME

II.    HOW THE RABBIT LOST HIS TAIL

III.   HOW THE TOAD GOT HIS BRUISES

IV.    HOW THE TIGER GOT HIS STRIPES

V.     WHY THE LAMB IS MEEK

VI.    WHY THE TIGER AND THE STAG FEAR EACH OTHER

VII.   HOW THE SPECKLED HEN GOT HER SPECKLES

VIII.  HOW THE MONKEY BECAME A TRICKSTER

IX.    HOW THE MONKEY AND THE GOAT EARNED THEIR REPUTATIONS

X.     HOW THE MONKEY GOT A DRINK WHEN HE WAS THIRSTY

XI.    HOW THE MONKEY GOT FOOD WHEN HE WAS HUNGRY

XII.   WHY THE BANANAS BELONG TO THE MONKEY

XIII.  HOW THE MONKEY ESCAPED BEING EATEN

XIV.   WHY THE MONKEY STILL HAS A TAIL

XV.    HOW BLACK BECAME WHITE

XVI.   HOW THE PIGEON BECAME A TAME BIRD

XVII.  WHY THE SEA MOANS

XVIII. HOW THE BRAZILIAN BEETLES GOT THEIR GORGEOUS COATS



I

How Night Came


Years and years ago at the very beginning of time, when the world had
just been made, there was no night. It was day all the time. No one
had ever heard of sunrise or sunset, starlight or moonbeams. There
were no night birds, nor night beasts, nor night flowers. There were
no lengthening shadows, nor soft night air, heavy with perfume.

In those days the daughter of the GREAT SEA SERPENT, who dwelt in the
depths of the seas, married one of the sons of the great earth race
known as MAN. She left her home among the shades of the deep seas and
came to dwell with her husband in the land of daylight. Her eyes grew
weary of the bright sunlight and her beauty faded. Her husband watched
her with sad eyes, but he did not know what to do to help her.

"O, if night would only come," she moaned as she tossed about wearily
on her couch. "Here it is always day, but in my father's kingdom there
are many shadows. O, for a little of the darkness of night!"

Her husband listened to her moanings. "What is night?" he asked her.
"Tell me about it and perhaps I can get a little of it for you."

"Night," said the daughter of the GREAT SEA SERPENT, "is the name we
give to the heavy shadows which darken my father's kingdom in the
depths of the seas. I love the sunlight of your earth land, but I grow
very weary of it. If we could have only a little of the darkness of my
father's kingdom to rest our eyes part of the time."

Her husband at once called his three most faithful slaves. "I am about
to send you on a journey," he told them. "You are to go to the kingdom
of the GREAT SEA SERPENT who dwells in the depths of the seas and ask
him to give you some of the darkness of night that his daughter may
not die here amid the sunlight of our earth land."

The three slaves set forth for the kingdom of the GREAT SEA SERPENT.
After a long dangerous journey they arrived at his home in the depths
of the seas and asked him to give them some of the shadows of night
to carry back to the earth land. The GREAT SEA SERPENT gave them a big
bag full at once. It was securely fastened and the GREAT SEA SERPENT
warned them not to open it until they were once more in the presence
of his daughter, their mistress.

The three slaves started out, bearing the big bag full of night upon
their heads. Soon they heard strange sounds within the bag. It was the
sound of the voices of all the night beasts, all the night birds, and
all the night insects. If you have ever heard the night chorus from
the jungles on the banks of the rivers you will know how it sounded.
The three slaves had never heard sounds like those in all their lives.
They were terribly frightened.

"Let us drop the bag full of night right here where we are and run
away as fast as we can," said the first slave.

"We shall perish. We shall perish, anyway, whatever we do," cried the
second slave.

"Whether we perish or not I am going to open the bag and see what
makes all those terrible sounds," said the third slave.

Accordingly they laid the bag on the ground and opened it. Out rushed
all the night beasts and all the night birds and all the night insects
and out rushed the great black cloud of night. The slaves were more
frightened than ever at the darkness and escaped to the jungle.

The daughter of the GREAT SEA SERPENT was waiting anxiously for the
return of the slaves with the bag full of night. Ever since they had
started out on their journey she had looked for their return, shading
her eyes with her hand and gazing away off at the horizon, hoping with
all her heart that they would hasten to bring the night. In that
position she was standing under a royal palm tree, when the three
slaves opened the bag and let night escape. "Night comes. Night comes
at last," she cried, as she saw the clouds of night upon the horizon.
Then she closed her eyes and went to sleep there under the royal palm
tree.

When she awoke she felt greatly refreshed. She was once more the happy
princess who had left her father's kingdom in the depths of the great
seas to come to the earth land. She was now ready to see the day
again. She looked up at the bright star shining above the royal palm
tree and said, "O, bright beautiful star, henceforth you shall be
called the morning star and you shall herald the approach of day. You
shall reign queen of the sky at this hour."

Then she called all the birds about her and said to them, "O,
wonderful, sweet singing birds, henceforth I command you to sing your
sweetest songs at this hour to herald the approach of day." The cock
was standing by her side. "You," she said to him, "shall be appointed
the watchman of the night. Your voice shall mark the watches of the
night and shall warn the others that the _madrugada_ comes." To this
very day in Brazil we call the early morning the _madrugada_. The cock
announces its approach to the waiting birds. The birds sing their
sweetest songs at that hour and the morning star reigns in the sky as
queen of the _madrugada_.

When it was daylight again the three slaves crept home through the
forests and jungles with their empty bag.

"O, faithless slaves," said their master, "why did you not obey the
voice of the GREAT SEA SERPENT and open the bag only in the presence
of his daughter, your mistress? Because of your disobedience I shall
change you into monkeys. Henceforth you shall live in the trees. Your
lips shall always bear the mark of the sealing wax which sealed the
bag full of night."

To this very day one sees the mark upon the monkeys' lips, where they
bit off the wax which sealed the bag; and in Brazil night leaps out
quickly upon the earth just as it leapt quickly out of the bag in
those days at the beginning of time. And all the night beasts and
night birds and night insects give a sunset chorus in the jungles at
nightfall.



II

How the Rabbit Lost His Tail


Once upon a time, ages and ages ago, the rabbit had a long tail, but
the cat had none. She looked with envious eyes at the one which the
rabbit had. It was exactly the sort of a tail she longed to have.

The rabbit was always a thoughtless careless little beast. One day he
went to sleep with his beautiful long tail hanging straight out behind
him. Along came Mistress Puss carrying a sharp knife, and with one
blow she cut off Mr. Rabbit's tail. Mistress Puss was very spry and
she had the tail nearly sewed on to her own body before Mr. Rabbit
saw what she was doing.

"Don't you think it looks better on me than it did on you?" asked
Mistress Puss.

"It surely is very becoming to you," replied the generous unselfish
rabbit. "It was a little too long for me anyway and I'll tell you what
I'll do. I'll let you keep it if you will give me that sharp knife in
exchange for it."

The cat gave Mr. Rabbit the knife and he started out into the deep
forest with it. "I've lost my tail but I've gained a knife," said he;
"I'll get a new tail or something else just as good."

Mr. Rabbit hopped along through the forest for a long time and at last
he came to a little old man who was busily engaged in making baskets.
He was making the baskets out of rushes and he was biting them off
with his teeth. He looked up and spied Mr. Rabbit with the knife in
his mouth.

"O, please, Mr. Rabbit," said he, "will you not be so kind as to let
me borrow that sharp knife you are carrying? It is very hard work to
bite the rushes off with my teeth."

Mr. Rabbit let him take the knife. He started to cut off the rushes
with it, when _snap_ went the knife! It broke into halves.

"O, dear! O, dear!" cried Mr. Rabbit. "What shall I do! What shall I
do! You have broken my nice new knife."

The little old man said that he was very sorry and that he did not
mean to do it.

Then Mr. Rabbit said, "A broken knife is of no use to me but perhaps
you can use it, even if it is broken. I'll tell you what I'll do.
I'll let you keep the knife if you will give me one of your baskets in
exchange for it."

The little old man gave Mr. Rabbit a basket and he started on through
the deep forest with it. "I lost my tail but I gained a knife. I've
lost my knife but I've gained a basket," said he. "I'll get a new tail
or something else just as good."

Mr. Rabbit hopped along through the deep forest for a long time until
at last he came to a clearing. Here there was an old woman busily
engaged in picking lettuce. When she had gathered it she put it into
her apron. She looked up and spied Mr. Rabbit hopping along with his
basket.

"O, please, Mr. Rabbit," said she, "will you not be so kind as to let
me borrow that nice basket you are carrying?"

Mr. Rabbit let her take the basket. She began to put her lettuce into
it when out fell the bottom of the basket.

"O, dear! O, dear!" cried Mr. Rabbit. "What shall I do! What shall I
do! You have broken the bottom out of my nice new basket."

The old woman said that she was very sorry and that she did not mean
to do it.

Then said Mr. Rabbit, "I'll tell you what I'll do. I'll let you keep
that broken basket if you will give me some of your lettuce."

The old woman gave Mr. Rabbit some lettuce and he hopped along with
it, saying, "I lost my tail but I gained a knife. I lost my knife but
I gained a basket. I lost my basket but I gained some lettuce."

The rabbit was getting very hungry and how nice the lettuce smelled!
He took a bite. It was just the very best thing he had ever tasted in
all his life. "I don't care if I did lose my tail," said he, "I've
found something I like very much better."

From that day to this no rabbit has ever had a tail. Neither has there
ever been a rabbit who cared because he had no tail. From that time to
this there has never been a rabbit who did not like lettuce to eat and
who was not perfectly happy and contented if there was plenty of it.



III

How the Toad Got His Bruises


Once upon a time, ages and ages ago, the toad had a smooth skin. In
those days he was a great gad about. He never could be found in his
own house. If any one had a party he was sure to go, no matter how far
away from home it was held, or how long it took to get there.

One day the toad received an invitation to attend a party in the sky.
"You never can get to this party," said his friend, the armadillo.
"You know how slowly you travel here upon earth."

"Wait and see whether or not I go to the party," said the toad.

Not far from the toad's house there lived a big black buzzard. No one
liked the buzzard. He was very unpopular with all the birds and
beasts. The toad hopped over to the buzzard's house. The buzzard was
outside the door making music on his violin.

"Good morning, Friend Buzzard," said the toad. "Are you going to
attend the party in the sky?"

The buzzard replied that he was planning to go.

"That is good," said the toad. "May I have the pleasure of your
company for the trip?"

The buzzard was delighted to have the toad seek his company. It was a
new experience.

"I'll be charmed to go to the party with you," replied the buzzard.
"What time shall we start?"

"We'll start at four o'clock," said the toad. "Come to my house and
we'll go on from there. Be sure to bring your violin with you."

Promptly at four o'clock the buzzard arrived at the toad's house. He
had his violin with him, of course, because the toad had asked him to
bring it.

"I'm not quite ready to go," the toad called out. "Just leave your
violin there by the door and step inside. It will take me only a
minute to finish my toilet."

The buzzard laid his violin carefully outside the door and went inside
the toad's house. The toad jumped through the window and hid himself
inside the violin.

The buzzard waited and waited for the toad to get ready but he did not
hear a word from the toad. Finally he got tired of waiting. He picked
up his violin and started.

When he arrived at the party he was a trifle late but he explained how
he had waited for the toad.

"How foolish to wait a minute for the toad," said his hosts. "How
could the toad ever get to a party in the sky? We just asked him as a
joke because he is such a great gad about. Lay down your violin and
come to the feast."

The buzzard laid down his violin. As soon as there was no one looking,
out hopped the toad. He was laughing from ear to ear. "So they
thought I would not come to the party! What a joke! How surprised they
will be to see me here!" he said.

There was nobody at the feast who was as gay as the toad. When the
buzzard asked how he arrived he said: "I'll tell you some other day."
Then he went on eating and dancing.

The buzzard did not have a very good time at the party. He decided
that he would go home early. He went away without saying good-bye to
his hosts and without taking his violin with him.

At the end of the party the toad hopped inside the violin and waited
and waited for the buzzard to take him home. Nobody picked up the
violin and the toad began to be very much worried. He almost wished
he had not come.

After a while the falcon noticed the violin. "That violin belongs to
the buzzard. He must have forgotten to take it home. I'll carry it
back for him," he said.

The falcon flew towards earth with the violin. The toad shook about
terribly inside of the violin. He got very tired. The falcon got
tired, too.

"I'm not going to carry this heavy old violin of the buzzard's another
minute," said the falcon. "I was foolish to offer to carry it in the
first place. The buzzard is no friend of mine."

He let the violin fall. Down, down toward earth it fell.

"O, little stones, O, little stones, get out of my way," called the
toad as he fell. The little stones had deaf ears. They did not get
out of the way.

When the toad crawled out of the wrecked violin he was so covered with
bruises that he could hardly hop home.

The buzzard never knew what became of his violin or why the toad had
lost his good looks. To this very day the toad shows his bruises. And
he is entirely cured of being a gad about.



IV

How the Tiger Got His Stripes


Once upon a time, ages and ages ago, so long ago that the tiger had no
stripes upon his back and the rabbit still had his tail, there was a
tiger who had a farm. The farm was very much overgrown with underbrush
and the owner sought a workman to clear the ground for him to plant.

The tiger called all the beasts together and said to them when they
had assembled, "I need a good workman at once to clear my farm of the
underbrush. To the one of you who will do this work I offer an ox in
payment."

The monkey was the first one to step forward and apply for the
position. The tiger tried him for a little while but he was not a good
workman at all. He did not work steadily enough to accomplish
anything. The tiger discharged him very soon and he did not pay him.

Then the tiger hired the goat to do the work. The goat worked
faithfully enough but he did not have the brains to do the work well.
He would clear a little of the farm in one place and then he would go
away and work on another part of it. He never finished anything
neatly. The tiger discharged him very soon without paying him.

Next the tiger tried the armadillo. The armadillo was very strong and
he did the work well. The trouble with him was that he had such an
appetite. There were a great many ants about the place and the
armadillo could never pass by a sweet tender juicy ant without
stopping to eat it. It was lunch time all day long with him. The tiger
discharged him and sent him away without paying him anything.

At last the rabbit applied for the position. The tiger laughed at him
and said, "Why, little rabbit, you are too small to do the work. The
monkey, the goat, and the armadillo have all failed to give
satisfaction. Of course a little beast like you will fail too."

However, there were no other beasts who applied for the position so
the tiger sent for the rabbit and told him that he would try him for a
little while.

The rabbit worked faithfully and well, and soon he had cleared a
large portion of the ground. The next day he worked just as well. The
tiger thought that he had been very lucky to hire the rabbit. He got
tired staying around to watch the rabbit work. The rabbit seemed to
know just how to do the work anyway, without orders, so the tiger
decided to go away on a hunting trip. He left his son to watch the
rabbit.

After the tiger had gone away the rabbit said to the tiger's son, "The
ox which your father is going to give me is marked with a white spot
on his left ear and another on his right side, isn't he?"

"O, no," replied the tiger's son. "He is red all over with just a tiny
white spot on his right ear."

The rabbit worked for a while longer and then he said, "The ox which
your father is going to give me is kept by the river, isn't he?"

"Yes," replied the tiger's son.

The rabbit had made a plan to go and get the ox without waiting to
finish his work. Just as he started off he saw the tiger returning.
The tiger noticed that the rabbit had not worked so well when he was
away. After that he stayed and watched the rabbit until the whole farm
was cleared. Then the tiger gave the rabbit the ox as he had promised.

"You must kill this ox," he said to the rabbit, "in a place where
there are neither flies nor mosquitoes."

The rabbit went away with the ox. After he had gone for some distance
he thought he would kill him. He heard a cock, however, crowing in
the distance and he knew that there must be a farm yard near. There
would be flies of course. He went on farther and again he thought that
he would kill the ox. The ground looked moist and damp and so did the
leaves on the bushes. Since the rabbit thought there would be
mosquitoes there he decided not to kill the ox. He went on and on and
finally he came to a high place where there was a strong breeze
blowing. "There are no mosquitoes here," he said to himself. "The
place is so far removed from any habitation that there are no flies,
either." He decided to kill the ox.

Just as he was ready to eat the ox, along came the tiger. "O, rabbit,
you have been such a good friend of mine," said the tiger, "and now I
am so very, very hungry that all my ribs show, as you yourself can
see. Will you not be a good kind rabbit and give me a piece of your
ox?"

The rabbit gave the tiger a piece of the ox. The tiger devoured it in
the twinkling of an eye. Then he leaned back and said, "Is that all
you are going to give me to eat?"

The tiger looked so big and savage that the rabbit did not dare refuse
to give him any more of the ox. The tiger ate and ate and ate until he
had devoured that entire ox. The rabbit had been able to get only a
tiny morsel of it. He was very, very angry at the tiger.

One day not long after the rabbit went to a place not far from the
tiger's house and began cutting down big staves of wood. The tiger
soon happened along and asked him what he was doing.

"I'm getting ready to build a stockade around myself," replied the
rabbit. "Haven't you heard the orders?" The tiger said that he hadn't
heard any orders.

"That is very strange," said the rabbit. "The order has gone forth
that every beast shall fortify himself by building a stockade around
himself. All the beasts are doing it."

The tiger became very much alarmed. "O, dear! O, dear! What shall I
do," he cried. "I don't know how to build a stockade. I never could do
it in the world. O, good rabbit! O, kind rabbit! You are such, a very
good friend of mine. Couldn't you, as a great favour, because of our
long friendship, build a stockade about me before you build one
around yourself?"

The rabbit replied that he could not think of risking his own life by
building the tiger's fortifications first. Finally, however, he
consented to do it.

The rabbit cut down great quantities of long sharp sticks. He set them
firmly in the ground about the tiger. He fastened others securely over
the top until the tiger was completely shut in by strong bars. Then he
went away and left the tiger.

The tiger waited and waited for something to happen to show him the
need of the fortifications. Nothing at all happened.

He got very hungry and thirsty. After a while the monkey passed that
way.

The tiger called out, "O, monkey, has the danger passed?"

The monkey did not know what danger the tiger meant, but he replied,
"Yes."

Then the tiger said, "O, monkey, O, good, kind monkey, will you not
please be so kind as to help me out of my stockade?"

"Let the one who got you in there help you out," replied the monkey
and he went on his way.

Along came the goat and the tiger called out, "O, goat, has the danger
passed?"

The goat did not know anything about any danger, but he replied,
"Yes."

Then the tiger said, "O, goat, O, good kind goat, please be so kind as
to help me out of my stockade."

"Let the one who got you in there help you out," replied the goat as
he went on his way.

Along came the armadillo and the tiger called out, "O, armadillo, has
the danger passed?"

The armadillo had not heard of any danger, but he replied that it had
passed.

Then the tiger said, "O, armadillo, O, good, kind armadillo, you have
always been such a good friend and neighbour. Please help me now to
get out of my stockade."

"Let the one who got you in there help you out," replied the armadillo
as he went on his way.

The tiger jumped and jumped with all his force at the top of the
stockade, but he could not break through. He jumped and jumped with
all his might at the front side of the stockade, but he could not
break through. He thought that never in the world would he be able to
break out. He rested for a little while and as he rested he thought.
He thought how bright the sun was shining outside. He thought what
good hunting there was in the jungle. He thought how cool the water
was at the spring. Once more he jumped and jumped with all his might
at the back side of the stockade. At last he broke through. He did not
get through, however, without getting bad cuts on both his sides from
the sharp edges of the staves. Until this day the tiger has stripes on
both his sides.



V

Why the Lamb Is Meek


Once upon a time there was a little lamb frisking gaily about the
pasture. The bright sunshine and the soft breezes made him very happy.
He had just finished a hearty meal and that made him happy too. He was
the very happiest little lamb in all the world and he thought that he
was the most wonderful little lamb.

A big toad sat on the ground and watched him. After a while the toad
said: "O, little lamb, how are you feeling today?"

The lamb replied that he had never felt better in all his life.

"Even though you are feeling very strong I can pull you into the sea,"
said the toad.

The little lamb laughed and laughed until he rolled over on the
ground.

"Just take hold of this rope and I'll show you how easy it is to pull
you into the sea," said the toad.

The lamb took hold of the rope. Then the toad said, "Please wait a
minute while I get a good long distance away from you. I can pull
better when I'm not too near you."

The lamb waited and the toad hopped down to the sea. He hopped up into
a tree which hung over the water's edge and from there he hopped on to
the whale's back. He fastened the end of the rope around the whale
and then he called out to the lamb: "All ready. Now we'll see how hard
you can pull."

When the whale felt the lamb pulling at the rope he swam away from the
shore. No matter how hard the lamb pulled or how much force he exerted
it did not do one bit of good. He was dragged down to the water's edge
as easily as could be.

"I give up," said the lamb as he reached the water's edge.

After that, although the sunshine was just as bright as ever, any one
who watched that little lamb could see that he was a little more meek.

One day not long afterwards the sunshine was again very bright and the
little lamb was again feeling frisky. He was so happy and gay that he
had forgotten all about how the toad had pulled him down to the water
until the toad spoke to him. Then he remembered.

"O, little lamb, how are you feeling today?" asked the toad. The
little lamb replied that he was very well.

"Let us run a race," said the toad, "I think I can beat you."

"You may be strong enough to pull me into the sea," said the lamb,
"but surely I can run faster than you. I've watched you hopping about
my pasture. You can't run fast at all. However, I'll gladly run a race
with you to prove what I say."

The toad set a goal and told the lamb to call out every little while
during the race so he could see how much farther ahead the lamb was.
Then the toad and the lamb started.

The toad had assembled all his brothers and his sisters and his
cousins and his uncles and his aunts before the race and had stationed
them at various points along the path of the race. He had told them
that whenever any of them should hear the lamb calling out, "Laculay,
laculay, laculay," the toad which was nearest should answer,
"Gulugubango, bango lay."

The lamb ran and ran as fast as he could. Then he remembered his
promise and called out, "Laculay, laculay, laculay." He expected to
hear the toad answer from a long, long distance behind him. He was
much surprised to hear some one near him answer, "Gulugubango, bango
lay." After that he ran faster than ever.

After running on for some distance farther the lamb again called out,
"Laculay, laculay, laculay." Again he heard the answer at only a short
distance away, "Gulugubango, bango lay." He ran and ran until his
little heart was beating so fast that it seemed as if it would burst.
At last he arrived at the goal of the race which the toad had set and
there sat the toad's brother who looked so much like him that the lamb
couldn't tell them apart. The lamb went back to his pasture very
meekly and quietly. He acknowledged that he had been beaten in the
race.

The next morning the toad said to him, "Even though you did not run
fast enough to win the race, still you are a very fast runner. I have
told the daughter of the king about you and I have said to her that
some day she shall see me riding on your back with a bridle in your
mouth as if you were my horse."

The lamb was very angry. "Perhaps you are strong enough to pull me
into the sea, and perhaps you can beat me when we run a race," said
the lamb, "but never, never in the world will I be your horse."

Time passed and the sunshine was very bright and the soft, gentle
breezes were very sweet. The lamb was so happy again that he forgot
all about how the toad had pulled him into the sea, and how the toad
had beaten him at running the race. He was very sorry for the toad
when he saw him all humped up in a disconsolate little heap one day.
"O, poor toad, are you sick?" he asked. "Isn't there something I can
do to help you?"

The toad told him how very sick he was. "There is something you could
do to help me," he said, "but I don't believe that you are quite
strong enough or can travel quite fast enough."

The lamb took a deep breath and blew out his chest. "I'll show you,"
he said. "Just tell me what it is."

The toad replied that he had promised to be at a party that afternoon
at the house of the king's daughter and he did not see how he could
possibly get there unless some one would carry him.

"Jump on my back," said the lamb. "I'll carry you."

The toad shook about on the lamb's back after they had started so that
it seemed as if he would surely fall off. After a little he said, "I
can not possibly stand riding like this. It jars all my sore spots.
I'll have to get off." He tried it a little while longer and shook
about worse than ever. Then he said, "Do you know, I think I could
endure this painful ride a little better if only I had something to
hold myself by? Do you mind if I take a piece of grass and put it in
your mouth? I can hold on to that when I shake about and my sore spots
will not hurt so much."

The lamb let the toad put a piece of grass in his mouth.

After a while the toad asked for a little stick. "The flies and
mosquitoes annoy me terribly," he said. "If only I had a little stick
I could wave it about over my head and frighten them away. It is very
bad for any one in my weak, nervous condition to be bothered by flies
and mosquitoes." The lamb let the toad have a little stick to wave
over his head.

At last the lamb and the toad drew near to the palace of the king. The
king's daughter was leaning out of the window watching for them. The
toad dug his feet into the lamb's sides, pulled hard on the piece of
the grass in the lamb's mouth and waved the little stick about over
the lamb's head. "Go on, horse," he said and the king's daughter heard
him. She laughed and laughed, and when all the rest of the people in
the palace saw the toad arriving mounted on the lamb's back and
driving him like a horse they laughed too. The lamb went meekly home
to his pasture and from that day to this when one wishes to speak of
meekness one says "as meek as a lamb."



VI

Why the Tiger and the Stag

Fear Each Other


Once upon a time there was a large handsome stag with great branching
horns. One day he said to himself, "I am tired of having no home of my
own, and of just living anywhere. I shall build me a house." He
searched on every hill, in every valley, by every stream, and under
all the trees for a suitable place. At last he found one that was just
right. It was not too high, nor too low, not too near a stream and not
too far away from one, not under too thick trees and not away from the
trees out under the hot sun. "I am going to build my house here," he
said, and he began to clear a place for it at once. He worked all day
and did not go away until night.

Now in that same country there lived a large handsome tiger, with
sharp, sharp teeth and bright, cruel eyes. One day the tiger said to
himself, "I am tired of having no home of my own,--of just living
around anywhere! I shall build me a house." Accordingly the tiger
searched for a place to build his house. He searched on every hill, in
every valley, by every stream, and under all the trees. At last he
found a place which was just right. It was not too high nor too low,
not too near a stream and not too far away from one, not under too
thick trees and yet not away from the trees out in the hot sun. The
tiger said to himself, "I am going to build my house here. The place
is all ready for me for there isn't very much underbrush here." He
began at once and finished clearing the place. Then it became daylight
and he went away.

At daylight the stag came back to do more work on his new house.
"H'm," he said when he looked at the clearing. "Somebody is helping
me. The place is cleared and ready for me to build the foundation."

He began to work at once and worked all day. At night when the
foundation was laid, he went away.

At night the tiger came to work at his new house. "H'm," he said when
he looked at it. "Somebody is helping me. The foundations of my house
are all laid." He began to work at once and built the sides of the
house. He worked all night and went away at daybreak, leaving the
house with the sides completed. There was a big door and a funny
little window in the side.

At daybreak the stag came back to work on his house. When he saw it he
rubbed his eyes for he thought that he must be dreaming. The sides of
the house were completed with a big door and a funny little window.
"Somebody must surely be helping me," he said to himself as he began
to work to put on the roof. He worked hard all day and when the sun
went down, there was a roof of dried grass on the house. "I can sleep
in my own house to-night," he said. He made his bed in the corner and
soon was sound asleep.

At night the tiger came back to work on his new house. When he saw it
he rubbed his eyes for he thought that he must be dreaming. There was
a roof of dried grass on the house.

"Somebody must surely be helping me," he said to himself as he entered
the door. The first thing he saw when he entered the door was the stag
sound asleep in his bed in the corner. "Who are you and what are you
doing in my house?" he said in his deepest voice.

The stag woke up with a start. "Who are you and what are you doing in
my house?" said the stag in his deepest voice.

"It is not your house. It is mine. I built it myself," said the
tiger.

"It is my house," said the stag. "I built it myself."

"I made the clearing for the house," said the tiger, "I built the
sides and made the door and window."

"I started the clearing," said the stag. "I laid the foundations and
put on the roof of dried grass."

The stag and the tiger quarrelled all night about whose house it was.
At daybreak they decided that they would live together there.

The next night the tiger said to the stag, "I'm going hunting. Get the
water and have the wood ready for the fire. I shall be almost famished
when I return."

The stag got the wood and water ready. After a while the tiger came
back. He brought home for dinner a great handsome stag. The stag had
no appetite at all and he didn't sleep a wink that night.

The next day the stag said that he was going hunting. He told the
tiger to have the wood and water ready when he got back. The tiger got
the wood and water ready. By and by the stag came back bringing with
him the body of a great tiger.

"I am nearly famished," said the stag. "Let's have dinner right away."
The tiger hadn't any appetite at all and he could not eat a mouthful.

That night neither the tiger nor the stag could sleep a wink. The
tiger was afraid the stag would kill him if he shut his eyes for a
minute, and the stag was afraid the tiger would kill him if he slept
or even pretended to be asleep. Accordingly he kept wide awake too.

Toward morning the stag got very cramped from keeping in one position
so long. He moved his head slightly. In doing this his horns struck
against the roof of the house. It made a terrible noise. The tiger
thought that the stag was about to spring upon him and kill him. He
made a leap for the door and ran out of it as fast as he could. He ran
and ran until he was far, far away from the house with the roof of
dried grass.

The stag thought that the tiger was about to spring upon him and kill
him. He, too, made a leap for the door and ran and ran until he was
far, far away from the house with the roof of dried grass. The tiger
and the stag are still running away from each other until this very
day.

The house with the roof of dried grass waited and waited there in the
place which was neither too high nor too low, too near the river nor
too far away, not under too thick trees nor out in the hot sun. It
waited and waited until it go so tired it fell down in a heap.



VII

How the Speckled Hen Got

Her Speckles


Once upon a time, ages and ages ago, there was a little white hen. One
day she was busily engaged in scratching the soil to find worms and
insects for her breakfast. As she worked she sang over and over again
her little crooning song, "Quirrichi, quirrichi, quirrichi." Suddenly
she noticed a tiny piece of paper lying on the ground. "Quirrichi,
quirrichi, what luck!" she said to herself. "This must be a letter.
One time when the king, the great ruler of our country, held his court
in the meadow close by, many people brought him letters and laid them
at his feet. Now I, too, even I, the little white hen, have a letter.
I am going to carry my letter to the king."

The next morning the little white hen started bravely out on her long
journey. She carried the letter very carefully in her little brown
basket. It was a long distance to the royal palace where the king
lived. The little white hen had never been so far from home in all her
life.

After a while she met a friendly fox. Foxes and little white hens are
not usually very good friends, you know, but this fox was a friend of
the little white hen. Once upon a time she had helped the fox to
escape from a trap and the fox had never forgotten her kindness to
him.

"O, little white hen, where are you going?" asked the fox.

"Quirrichi, quirrichi," replied the little white hen, "I am going to
the royal palace to carry a letter to the king."

"Indeed, little white hen," said the fox, "I should like to go with
you. Give me your permission to accompany you on your journey."

"I shall be glad to have you go with me," said the little white hen.
"It is a very long journey to the royal palace where the king lives.
Wouldn't you like me to carry you in my little brown basket?"

The fox climbed into the little brown basket. After the little white
hen had gone on for some distance farther she met a river. Once upon a
time the little white hen had done the river a kindness. He had, with
great difficulty, thrown some ugly worms upon the bank and he was
afraid they would crawl back in again. The little white hen had eaten
them for him. Always after that the river had been her friend.

"O, little white hen, where are you going?" the river called out as
soon as he saw her.

"Quirrichi, quirrichi, I am going to the royal palace to carry a
letter to the king," replied the little white hen.

"O, little white hen, may I go with you?" asked the river.

The little white hen told the river that he might go with her and
asked him to ride in the little brown basket. So the river climbed
into the little brown basket.

After the little white hen had journeyed along for a time she came to
a fire. Once upon a time, when the fire had been dying the little
white hen had brought some dried grass. The grass had given the fire
new life and always after that he had been the friend of the little
white hen.

"O, little white hen, where are you going?" the fire asked.

"Quirrichi, quirrichi, I am going to the royal palace to carry a
letter to the king," replied the little white hen.

"O, little white hen, may I go with you?" asked the fire. "I have
never been to the royal palace and I have never had even a peep at the
king."

The little white hen told the fire that he might go with her and asked
him to climb into the little brown basket. By this time the little
brown basket was so full, that, try as they might, they couldn't make
room for the fire. At last they thought of a plan. The fire changed
himself into ashes and then there was room for him to get into the
basket.

The little white hen journeyed on and on, and finally she arrived at
the royal palace.

"Who are you and what are you carrying in your little brown basket?"
asked the royal doorkeeper when he opened the door.

"I am the little white hen and I am carrying a letter to the king,"
replied the little white hen. She didn't say a word about the fox and
the river and the fire which she had in her little brown basket. She
was so frightened before the great royal doorkeeper of the palace that
she could hardly find her voice at all.

The royal doorkeeper invited the little white hen to enter the palace
and he led her to the royal throne where the king was sitting. The
little white hen bowed very low before the king--so low, in fact, that
it mussed up all her feathers.

"Who are you and what is your business?" asked the king in his big,
deep, kingly voice.

"Quirrichi, quirrichi, I am the little white hen," replied the little
white hen in her low, frightened, little voice. "I have come to bring
my letter to your royal majesty." She handed the king the piece of
paper which had remained all this time at the bottom of the little
brown basket. There were marks of dirt upon it where the friendly
fox's feet had rested. It was damp where the river had lain. It had
tiny holes in it where the fire had sat after he had turned himself
into hot ashes.

"What do you mean by bringing me this dirty piece of paper?" shouted
the king in his biggest, deepest, gruffest voice. "I am highly
offended. I always knew that hens were stupid little creatures but you
are quite the stupidest little hen I ever saw in all my life."

"Here," and he turned to one of the attendants standing by the throne,
"take this stupid, little white hen and throw her out into the royal
poultry yard. I think we will have her for dinner to-morrow."

The little white hen was roughly seized by the tallest royal attendant
and carried down the back stairs, through the back gate, out into the
royal poultry yard. She still clung to the little brown basket which
she had brought with her on her long journey to the royal palace and
through all the sad experiences she had met there.

When the little white hen reached the royal poultry yard all the royal
fowls flew at her. Some plucked at her rumpled white feathers. Others
tried to pick out her eyes. One pulled off the cover of the little
brown basket.

Out sprang the fox from the little brown basket and in the twinkling
of an eye he fell upon the fowls of the royal poultry yard. Not a
single fowl was left alive.

There was such a great commotion that the king, the queen, the royal
attendants and all the royal servants of the palace came rushing out
to see what was the matter. The fox had already taken to his heels and
the little white hen lost no time in running away too. She did not,
however, forget to take her little brown basket with her.

The royal household all ran after her in swift pursuit. They had
almost caught her when the river suddenly sprang out of the little
brown basket and flowed between the little white hen and her royal
pursuers. They couldn't get across without canoes.

While they were getting the canoes and climbing into them the little
white hen had time to run a long way. She had almost reached a thick
forest where she could easily hide herself when the royal pursuers
again drew near. Then the fire which had changed itself into hot ashes
jumped out of the little brown basket. It immediately became dark, so
dark that the royal household could not even see each other's faces
and, of course, they could not see in which direction the little
white hen was running. There was nothing for them to do but to return
to the royal palace and live on beef and mutton.

The fire which had turned itself into ashes sprang out of the little
brown basket so suddenly that it scattered ashes all over the little
white hen. From that day she was always speckled where the ashes fell
upon her. The chickens of the little white hen (who was now a little
speckled hen) were all speckled too. So were their chickens and their
chickens and their chickens' chickens, even down to this very day.
Whenever you see a speckled hen you may know that she is descended
from the little white hen who carried a letter to the king, and who,
in her adventures, became the first speckled hen.



VIII

How the Monkey Became a

Trickster


Once upon a time there was a beautiful garden in which grew all sorts
of fruits. Many beasts lived in the garden and they were permitted to
eat of the fruits whenever they wished. But they were asked to observe
one rule. They must make a low, polite bow to the fruit tree, call it
by its name, and say, "Please give me a taste of your fruit." They had
to be very careful to remember the tree's correct name and not to
forget to say "please." It was also very important that they should
remember not to be greedy. They must always leave plenty of fruit for
the other beasts who might pass that way, and plenty to adorn the tree
itself and to furnish seed so that other trees might grow. If they
wished to eat figs they had to say, "O, fig tree, O, fig tree, please
give me a taste of your fruit;" or, if they wished to eat oranges they
had to say, "O, orange tree, O, orange tree, please give me a taste of
your fruit."

In one corner of the garden grew the most splendid tree of all. It was
tall and beautiful and the rosy-cheeked fruit upon its wide spreading
branches looked wonderfully tempting. No beast had ever tasted of that
fruit, for no beast could ever remember its name.

In a tiny house near the edge of the garden dwelt a little old woman
who knew the names of all the fruit trees which grew in the garden.
The beasts often went to her and asked the name of the wonderful fruit
tree, but the tree was so far distant from the tiny house of the
little old woman that no beast could ever remember the long, hard name
by the time he reached the fruit tree.

At last the monkey thought of a trick. Perhaps you do not know it, but
the monkey can play the guitar. He always played when the beasts
gathered together in the garden to dance. The monkey went to the tiny
house of the little old woman, carrying his guitar under his arm. When
she told him the long hard name of the wonderful fruit tree he made up
a little tune to it, all his own, and sang it over and over again all
the way from the tiny house of the little old woman to the corner of
the garden where the wonderful fruit tree grew. When any of the other
beasts met him and asked him what new song he was singing to his
guitar, he said never a word. He marched straight on, playing his
little tune over and over again on his guitar and singing softly the
long hard name.

At last he reached the corner of the garden where the wonderful fruit
tree grew. He had never seen it look so beautiful. The rosy-cheeked
fruit glowed in the bright sunlight. The monkey could hardly wait to
make his bow, say the long hard name over twice and ask for the fruit
with a "please." What a beautiful colour and what a delicious odour
that fruit had! The monkey had never in all his life been so near to
anything which smelled so good. He took a big bite. What a face he
made! That beautiful sweet smelling fruit was bitter and sour, and it
had a nasty taste. He threw it away from him as far as he could.

The monkey never forgot the tree's long hard name and the little tune
he had sung. Nor did he forget how the fruit tasted. He never took a
bite of it again; but, after that, his favourite trick was to treat
the other beasts to the wonderful fruit just to see them make faces
when they tasted it.



IX

How the Monkey and the Goat

Earned Their Reputations


Once upon a time the tiger sent an invitation to the goat asking the
goat to accompany him on a visit. The goat promptly accepted the
invitation and at the appointed day they started on their journey to
the house of the tiger's friend. On the way there they came to a
dangerous marsh. The tiger was afraid to cross it, but he pretended to
be very brave. He said to the goat: "Friend Goat, how very pale you
look when you think about crossing the marsh. Don't be afraid. Just go
ahead."

The goat assured the tiger that he was no coward. He thrust out his
chest and marched along toward the marsh like a brave soldier. As
soon, however, as he stepped into the marsh, he fell into the mud and
barely got through it alive. The tiger went around the marsh and
walked on dry ground.

After the tiger and the goat had come together again they came to some
banana trees. The tiger said to the goat: "Friend Goat, aren't you
hungry? Let us stop here and eat some bananas. You climb up and pluck
the bananas. Give me the ripe ones, and keep the green ones yourself."
The goat climbed up and picked the bananas. He gave the ripe ones to
the tiger and the tiger had a good meal. The goat went hungry.

The tiger and the goat walked along and after going for some distance
they saw a cobra lying in the path. "Friend Goat," said the tiger,
"here you have the opportunity to procure a beautiful necklace for
your daughter, free of cost. Just pick it up and it is yours." The
goat started forward to pick up the snake, but the tiger told him to
let it alone if he did not want to be killed.

When the tiger and the goat arrived at the house of the tiger's friend
it was very late. They soon went to bed in hammocks hung close
together. At midnight the tiger rose quietly, walked on tip toe to the
door, opened it, and went out. He hurried to the place where the sheep
were kept, killed the fattest lamb of the flock, and had a feast. Then
he went back to the hammock, wiped the blood on the goat, and went to
sleep.

Early the next morning the host discovered that one of his lambs was
missing. He hastened to the room where the tiger and the goat were
sleeping and accused the tiger of having killed the lamb. The tiger
looked up at him with an innocent expression and asked, "Do you see
any blood on me?" There was no blood on the tiger, but the host looked
into the next hammock and saw the goat all covered with blood. "I know
now who killed my fattest lamb," he said, and he gave the goat such a
beating that the poor goat barely escaped with his life. From that day
to this when one speaks of a person who has been easily imposed upon
he calls him "the goat."

Things happened very differently with the monkey. One day not long
afterward the tiger invited the monkey to accompany him when he went
to visit his friend. The monkey accepted, and the tiger and the monkey
set out on the journey. When they came to the marsh the tiger said to
the monkey, "Friend Monkey, how very pale you look when you think
about crossing the marsh. Don't be afraid. Just go ahead."

"You go ahead yourself," replied the monkey. The tiger went through
the marsh and fell into the mud so that he was barely able to get out
again. The monkey went around the marsh and walked on dry ground.

After a while the tiger and the monkey came to the banana trees.
"Friend Monkey," said the tiger, "aren't you hungry? Let us stop here
and eat some bananas. You climb up and pluck the bananas. Give the
ripe ones to me and you may keep the green ones for yourself." The
monkey climbed up and picked the bananas but he ate all the ripe ones
himself and threw the green ones down to the tiger. The tiger was
forced to go hungry but the monkey had a good meal.

Finally the tiger and the monkey came to a cobra lying in the path.
"Friend Monkey," said the tiger, "here you have the opportunity to
procure a beautiful necklace for your daughter, free of cost. Pick it
up and it is yours."

"Pick it up yourself," replied the monkey.

When the tiger and the monkey arrived at the house of the tiger's
friend it was very late. They went to bed in hammocks hung up close
together. The monkey had seen enough of the tiger that day to make him
decide that he had better sleep with one eye open. Accordingly he
pretended he was asleep, but he was really awake. At midnight he saw
the tiger crawl quietly out of his hammock, walk on tip toe to the
door, open it gently, and go out. The monkey decided to watch and see
what happened when the tiger came back.

The tiger went to the place where the sheep were kept, killed the
fattest lamb of the flock and had a feast. When he came back he tried
to wipe the lamb's blood on the monkey. The monkey saw him and gave
him a push so that he spilled the blood all over himself and his own
hammock. Not a single drop went on the monkey.

Early the next morning when the host missed one of his lambs he came
to the room where his guests were sleeping. He saw the tiger all
covered with blood and he cried, "O ho, I have at last caught the one
who kills my lambs." Then he gave the tiger such a beating that he
barely escaped with his life. It was all he could do to crawl home
again.



X

How the Monkey Got a Drink

When He Was Thirsty


Once upon a time the monkey made the tiger very angry. This is how it
happened. The monkey was seated high up among the leafy branches of a
mango tree playing upon his guitar. The tiger passed that way and lay
down under the tree to rest. Just to tease him the monkey played and
sang this little song:

    "_Tango ti tar, tango ti tar,
    The tiger's bones are in my guitar.
    Tee hee, Tee hee._"

The tiger was very angry. "Just wait until I catch you, Mr. Monkey,"
he said. "Then I'll show you a trick or two with bones."

The monkey leaped from one tree to another keeping himself so well hid
by the foliage that the tiger could not see him. Then he came down out
of the trees and hid himself in a hole in the ground. When the tiger
came near he again played and sang his little song:

    "_Tango ti tar, tango ti tar,
    The tiger's bones are in my guitar.
    Tee hee, Tee hee._"

The tiger put his paw into the hole and caught the monkey's leg. "Oh,
ho, Mr. Tiger!" said the monkey. "You think that you have caught my
leg but what you really have is just a little stick. Oh, ho! Oh, ho!"
Then the tiger let go of the monkey's leg.

The monkey crawled farther back into the hole in the ground where the
tiger's paw could not reach him. Then he said: "Thank you so much, Mr.
Tiger, for letting go of my leg. It really was my leg, you know."
Again he played and sang his little song:

    "_Tango ti tar, tango ti tar,
    The tiger's bones are in my guitar.
    Tee hee, Tee hee._"

The tiger was angrier than ever. He waited and waited for the monkey
to come out of the hole in the ground but the monkey did not come. He
had discovered another way out and once more from the high tree tops
he sang down to the waiting tiger:

    "_Tango ti tar, tango ti tar,
    The tiger's bones are in my guitar.
    Tee hee, Tee hee._"

There had been a great drought in the land and there was only one
watering place where the beasts could drink. The tiger knew that the
monkey would have to go there when he was thirsty so he decided to
wait for him and catch him when he came to drink.

When the monkey went to the watering place to get a drink he found the
tiger there waiting for him. He ran away as fast as the wind for he
was really very much afraid of the tiger.

He waited and waited until he thought he should die of thirst, but the
tiger did not go away from the watering place for a single minute. At
last the monkey thought of a trick by which he would be able to get a
drink.

He lay down by the side of the pathway as if he were dead. After a
while an old woman came along the path carrying a dish of honey in a
basket upon her head. She saw the monkey lying there by the path and,
thinking that he was dead, she picked him up and put him into the
basket with the dish of honey. When the monkey saw that it was honey
in the dish he was very happy. He opened the dish and covered himself
all over with the soft sticky honey. Then as the old woman walked
under the trees he lightly sprang out of the basket into the trees.
The old woman did not miss him until she got home and found only part
of her dish of honey in the basket. "Why, I thought I had brought
home a dead monkey in my basket," she said to her children. "Now
there is no monkey here and my dish is only half full of honey. The
monkey must have been playing one of his tricks."

The monkey had, in the meantime, stuck leaves from the trees into the
honey all over his body so that he was completely disguised. His own
mother would never have recognised him. He looked something like a
porcupine; but instead of sharp quills there were green leaves
sticking out all over him. In this fashion he went to the drinking
place and the tiger did not recognise him. He took a long, deep drink.
He was so thirsty and the water tasted so good that he stayed in the
drinking place too long. The leaves came out of the honey which had
held them and the tiger saw that it was really the monkey. The monkey
was barely able to escape.

He was so badly frightened that he waited and waited a long, long time
before he again went to the drinking place. At last he got so thirsty
that he couldn't wait any longer. He went to the resin tree and
covered himself with resin. Then he stuck leaves into the resin and
again went to the drinking place.

The tiger saw him, but as the tiger expected to see the leaves come
off just as soon as the monkey got into the water, he thought he would
wait and catch him in his bare skin. This time the leaves did not come
off, for the resin held them fast and was not in the least affected by
the water. The tiger thought that it was not the monkey and that he
must have made a mistake. The monkey drank all he wished and then
strolled away leisurely without the tiger's attacking him. He used the
resin and leaves every time he wanted a drink after that. He kept up
the trick until the rainy season arrived and he could find plenty of
water in other places than the big drinking place.



XI

How the Monkey Got Food

When He Was Hungry


Once upon a time the monkey was hungry. He wanted to make some
porridge, but he did not have any money to buy meal to make the
porridge. So he went to the house of the hen to borrow some meal. The
hen gave him some meal.

"Come to my house to-morrow at one o'clock," he said to the hen, "I'll
pay back the meal then."

Then the monkey went to the house of the fox and said, "O, friend fox,
please lend me some meal. Come to my house to-morrow at two o'clock
and I'll pay you then." The fox gave him some meal.

Then the monkey went to the house of the dog and said, "O, friend dog,
please lend me some meal. Come to my house to-morrow at three o'clock
and I'll pay you back then." The dog gave him some meal.

Then the monkey went to the house of the tiger and said, "O, friend
tiger, please lend me some meal. Come to my house to-morrow at four
o'clock and I'll pay you back then." The tiger gave the monkey some
meal.

The monkey went home and made a great pot of porridge. He feasted and
feasted until he couldn't eat any more, but there was still plenty of
porridge left in the pot. Then the monkey made his bed and took care
to fix it high up from the floor.

The next day, at midday, he ate some more of the porridge. Then he
bound a cloth about his head and went to bed pretending that he was
sick.

At one o'clock the hen came and knocked at the door. The monkey in a
low, weak voice asked her to enter. He told her how very sick he was
and the hen was very sorry for him.

At two o'clock the fox came and knocked at the door. The hen was
frightened almost to death. "Never mind," said the monkey, "you can
hide here under my bed."

The hen hid under the monkey's bed and the monkey in a weak, low voice
invited the fox to enter. The monkey told the fox how very ill he was
and the fox was very sorry for him.

At three o'clock the dog came and knocked at the door. The fox was
frightened almost to death. "Never mind," said the monkey; "hide here
under my bed and everything will be all right."

The fox hid under the monkey's bed and the monkey, in a low, weak
voice, invited the dog to enter. The monkey told the dog how very sick
he was and the dog was very sorry for him.

At four the tiger came and knocked at the door. The dog was frightened
almost to death. "Never mind," said the monkey. "Hide here under my
bed and everything will be all right."

The dog hid under the monkey's bed. Then the monkey invited the tiger
to enter. He told, the tiger how very sick he was but the tiger was
not at all sorry for him. He sprang at the bed, demanding in a loud,
fierce voice that the monkey pay back the meal at once, as he had
promised to do. The monkey escaped to the tree tops, but the bed broke
down under the tiger's weight.

Then the fox ate up the hen and the dog ate up the fox and the tiger
ate up the dog. The tiger is still trying to catch the monkey.



XII

Why the Bananas Belong to

the Monkey


Perhaps you do not know it, but the monkeys think that all the bananas
belong to them. When Brazilian children eat bananas they say, "I am a
monkey." I once knew a little boy in Brazil who was very, very fond of
bananas. He always said, "I am _very much_ of a monkey." If you are
fond of bananas the Brazilian children would tell you that you are a
monkey, too. This is the story they tell to show us how it all came
about.

Once upon a time when the world had just been made and there was only
one kind of banana, but very many kinds of monkeys, there was a little
old woman who had a big garden full of banana trees. It was very
difficult for the old woman to gather the bananas herself, so she made
a bargain with the largest monkey. She told him that if he would
gather the bunches of bananas for her she would give him half of them.
The monkey gathered the bananas. When he took his half he gave the
little old woman the bananas which grow at the bottom of the bunch and
are small and wrinkled. The nice big fat ones he kept for himself and
carried them home to let them ripen in the dark.

The little old woman was very angry. She lay awake all night trying to
think of some way by which she could get even with the monkey. At
last she thought of a trick.

The next morning she made an image of wax which looked just like a
little black boy. Then she placed a large flat basket on the top of
the image's head and in the basket she placed the best ripe bananas
she could find. They certainly looked very tempting.

After a little while the biggest monkey passed that way. He saw the
image of wax and thought that it was a boy peddling bananas. He had
often pushed over boy banana peddlers, upset their baskets and then
had run away with the bananas. This morning he was feeling very
good-natured so he thought that he would first try asking politely for
the bananas.

"O, peddler boy, peddler boy," he said to him, "please give me a
banana." The image of wax answered never a word.

Again the monkey said, this time in a little louder voice, "O, peddler
boy, peddler boy, please give me a banana, just one little, ripe
little, sweet little banana." The image of wax answered never a word.

Then the monkey called out in his loudest voice, "O, peddler boy,
peddler boy, if you don't give me a banana I'll give you such a push
that it will upset all of your bananas." The image of wax was silent.

The monkey ran toward the image of wax and struck it hard with his
hand. His hand remained firmly embedded in the wax.

"O, peddler boy, peddler boy, let go my hand," the monkey called out.
"Let go my hand and give me a banana or else I'll give you a hard,
hard blow with my other hand." The image of wax did not let go.

The monkey gave the image a hard, hard blow with his other hand. The
other hand remained firmly embedded in the wax.

Then the monkey called out, "O, peddler boy, peddler boy, let go my
two hands. Let go my two hands and give me a banana or else I will
give you a kick with my foot." The image of wax did not let go.

The monkey gave the image a kick with his foot and his foot remained
stuck fast in the wax.

"O, peddler boy, peddler boy," the monkey cried, "let go my foot. Let
go my two hands and my foot and give me a banana or else I'll give
you a kick with my other foot." The image of wax did not let go.

Then the monkey who was now very angry, gave the image of wax a kick
with his foot and his foot remained stuck fast in the wax.

The monkey shouted, "O, peddler boy, peddler boy, let go my foot. Let
go my two feet and my two hands and give me a banana or else I'll give
you a push with my body." The image of wax did not let go.

The monkey gave the image of wax a push with his body. His body
remained caught fast in the wax.

"O, peddler boy, peddler boy," the monkey shouted, "let go my body!
Let go my body and my two feet and my two hands or I'll call all the
other monkeys to help me!" The image of wax did not let go.

Then the monkey made such an uproar with his cries and shouts that
very soon monkeys came running from all directions. There were big
monkeys and little monkeys and middle-sized monkeys. A whole army of
monkeys had come to the aid of the biggest monkey.

It was the very littlest monkey who thought of a plan to help the
biggest monkey out of his plight. The monkeys were to climb up into
the biggest tree and pile themselves one on top of another until they
made a pyramid of monkeys. The monkey with the very loudest voice of
all was to be on top and he was to shout his very loudest to the sun
and ask the sun to come and help the biggest monkey out of his
dreadful difficulty.

This is what all the big-sized, little-sized, middle-sized monkeys
did. The monkey with the loudest voice on top of the pyramid made the
sun hear. The sun came at once.

The sun poured his hottest rays down upon the wax. After a while the
wax began to melt. The monkey was at last able to pull out one of his
hands. The sun poured down more of his hottest rays and soon the
monkey was able to pull out his two hands. Then he could pull out one
foot, then another, and in a little while his body, too. At last he
was free.

When the little old woman saw what had happened she was very much
discouraged about raising bananas. She decided to move to another
part of the world where she raised cabbages instead of bananas. The
monkeys were left in possession of the big garden full of banana
trees. From that day to this the monkeys have thought that they own
all the bananas.



XIII

How the Monkey Escaped

Being Eaten


Once upon a time, ages and ages ago, people ate fruits and nuts. Then
there came a time when the fruits and nuts became scarce. People had
to eat meat. So they began killing the various beasts to see which
ones were the best to eat. They skinned them and cut them in pieces
and cooked them over the fire. Some of the beasts were good to eat and
others were not good at all.

The ox was found to be very good, and so was the sheep, and the
armadillo. Then one day a man thought that he would try to eat the
monkey.

The monkey was playing his guitar. "Lee, lee, lee, lee, lee lay, lee
lay, lee ray, lee ray." The man came close to him and said, "Come
here, little monkey, and let me hear your music. I enjoy it very
much." All the time the man was coming closer and closer to the
monkey. Just as he was about to stretch out his hand and seize the
monkey, the monkey gave a sudden leap to the tree and hurried away to
the tree top.

After that every time the man heard the monkey play the guitar he
would come near and try to catch him. The monkey grew afraid of the
man, so afraid that he gave up playing his guitar at all. For a long,
long time he did not play upon it. One day he felt that he just _must_
have some music. He hid in a hole in the ground and there he played
upon his guitar. He did not think that the man would hear him, but the
man had very sharp ears. When he got through playing he started to
come out of the hole in the ground. There was the man waiting for him!
He crawled quickly back,--so far back that the man could not catch
him. The monkey waited and waited for the man to go away, but the man
did not go away.

After a while the man became thirsty and went to get a drink. He left
his little boy in his place to watch for the monkey. After the man had
gone away the monkey called out to the little boy, "O, little boy, O,
little boy, don't you wish that you could see the monkey dance?"

The little boy replied that he wished he could.

"Just put your eyes down to the door of my little cave, and I'll let
you see the monkey dance, little boy," said the monkey.

The little boy put his eyes down close to the hole in the ground. No
sooner had he done so than the monkey threw dirt into the little boy's
eyes. When the little boy was rubbing his eyes to get the dirt out of
them the monkey made a sudden dash out of the cave and escaped to the
tree tops. When the man returned the little boy did not dare to tell
him that the monkey had escaped. The man waited and waited and waited
there by the hole in the ground. At last he became tired of waiting
and went away.

After that the man tried harder than ever to catch the monkey. If he
had not had the good luck to catch the monkey napping one day there is
no knowing when he would have got his hands upon him. One day,
however, he caught the monkey napping. He shut him up in a box and
carried him home to the children for supper.

The man put a big dish full of water over the fire ready to cook the
monkey. Then he went away to collect more fuel for the fire. The
monkey and his guitar were shut up in the box, and there, inside the
box, the monkey played on his guitar. "Lee, lee, lee, lee, lee lay,
lee lay, lee ray, lee ray." The children came crowding close to the
box.

"O, children, O, children," said the monkey, "don't you wish that you
could see the monkey dance?"

The children replied that they wished they could.

"This box is so small that there is not room enough for me to dance
here," said the monkey. "Just let me out and I'll show you how well I
can dance."

The children opened the box and let the monkey out into the room. The
monkey played on his guitar, "Lee, lee, lee, lee, lee lay, lee lay,
lee ray, lee ray," and he danced about the room. Then he said, "O,
children! O, children! You have nothing at all cooking in that pot
over the fire. Let us put something into the pot to cook."

The children thought that it would not be polite to tell the monkey
what the pot of water was waiting for, so they let the monkey fill
the pot as he liked. He put into it some little dry sticks and an
empty cocoanut shell. Then he said, "O, children, O, children, I
cannot dance any more. It is so hot here in this room."

The children begged him to dance some more.

"If you will open the door a little bit so that I can have more air to
breathe I'll show you a new dance," said the monkey.

The children opened the door. The monkey danced over to the door and
out of the door away to the tree top. That was the last they ever saw
of him. He moved to another part of the country after that experience.

When the man came home with fuel for the fire the children did not
dare to tell him that the monkey had escaped. They let him think that
the sticks and the cocoanut shell in the pot was the monkey. He built
a big roaring fire under the pot and soon it was boiling merrily.
After the pot had boiled a while he called the children to come to
supper with him. The children let him taste first. He fished a hard
stick out of the pot and bit into it. "This is not the monkey's leg.
It is just a dry stick," he said, as he made a wry face. Then he
fished the empty cocoanut shell out of the pot. "That is not the
monkey's head," he said as he tasted it, "That is just an empty
cocoanut shell." He couldn't find a single trace of the monkey in that
monkey stew. He never wished to make a monkey stew again.



XIV

Why the Monkey Still Has

a Tail


Once upon a time the monkey and the rabbit made a contract. The monkey
was to kill all the butterflies and the rabbit was to kill all the
snakes.

One day the rabbit was taking a nap when the monkey passed that way.
The monkey thought that he would play a trick on the rabbit so he
pulled the rabbit's ears, pretending that he thought they were
butterflies. The rabbit awoke very angry at the monkey and he plotted
how he might revenge himself on the monkey.

The rabbit and the armadillo are very good friends. The armadillo is
very, very strong, you know, so it was he whom the rabbit asked to
help him.

One day the rabbit caught the monkey napping. He had watched and
waited a long, long time to catch the monkey napping, but at last he
succeeded. Even the monkey sometimes takes a nap. The rabbit called
the armadillo at once and together they rolled a big stone upon the
monkey's tail. The monkey pulled so hard to get his tail out from
under the stone that it broke off. The cat, who at that time had no
tail of her own, spied the tail and ran away with it. The monkey was
very angry at the rabbit. "O, we thought it was just a snake lying
there," said the rabbit. "When you pulled my ears, you know, you
thought they were butterflies."

That did not help the monkey to feel any better. How was he to live
without his tail! How could he climb without it! He simply had to have
it back so he at once set out to find the cat.

At last he found the cat and said to her, "O, kind cat, please give me
back my tail."

"I will give it to you," replied the cat, "if you will get me some
milk."

"Where shall I get the milk?" asked the monkey.

"Go ask the cow for some," replied the cat.

The monkey went to the cow and said, "O, kind cow, please give me some
milk that I may give the milk to the cat so that the cat will give
back my tail to me."

"I will give you the milk," replied the cow, "if you will get me some
grass."

"Where shall I get the grass?" asked the monkey.

"Go ask the farmer," responded the cow.

The monkey went to the farmer and said, "O, kind farmer, please give
me some grass that I may give the grass to the cow so that the cow
will give me some milk so that I may give the milk to the cat so that
the cat will give back my tail to me."

The farmer said, "I will give you some grass if you will give me some
rain."

"Where shall I get the rain?" asked the monkey.

"Go ask the clouds," responded the farmer.

The monkey went to the clouds and said, "O, kind clouds, please send
me down some rain that I may give the rain to the farmer so that the
farmer will give me some grass so that I may give the grass to the cow
so that the cow will give me some milk so that I may give the milk to
the cat so that the cat will give me back my tail."

"I will give you some rain," replied the clouds, "if you will get me
some fog."

"Where shall I get the fog?" asked the monkey.

"Go ask the rivers," replied the clouds.

The monkey went to the river and said, "O, kind river, please give me
a fog that I may give the fog to the clouds so that the clouds will
give some rain so that I may give the rain to the farmer so that the
farmer will give me some grass so that I may give the grass to the cow
so that the cow will give me some milk so that I may give the milk to
the cat so that the cat will give me back my tail."

"I will give you a fog," replied the river, "if you will find a new
spring to feed me."

"Where shall I find a spring?" asked the monkey.

"Go search for one among the rocks upon the hillside," replied the
river.

Then the monkey climbed up the steep hill and searched and searched
among the rocks until at last he found a little spring to feed the
river. He brought the spring to the river and the river gave him a
fog. He took the fog to the clouds and the clouds gave him rain. He
took the rain to the farmer and the farmer gave him grass. He took the
grass to the cow and the cow gave him milk. He took the milk to the
cat and the cat gave him back his tail. The monkey was so glad to have
his tail again that he danced and danced with glee. Ever since that
time the monkey has been very careful to guard his tail. He still has
one and he is still happy because of it.



XV

How Black Became White


One often hears the saying that one cannot make black white or white
black. I said something about it once upon a time to my Brazilian
_ama_ and she stared at me in surprise. "O, yes, one can," she said.
"It happened once and no one can ever tell but that it may happen
again. Perhaps the _Senhora_ has not heard the story?" I begged her to
tell me the story and this is the tale:

Once upon a time there was a little old woman who lived all alone with
her little black son who was just as black as black can be. The little
old woman had not always lived alone with the little black boy. She
had once been the mother of three beautiful daughters, the very
loveliest maidens in all the country round. They were so handsome that
they attracted the attention of the wicked fairy who lived in an
enchanted castle nearby, and this fairy had been very jealous of them.
By the aid of magic she tied them up in sacks which could be opened
only by burning the sacks over a fire built from magic wood. The
little old woman and her little black son searched long and diligently
for magic wood, but they were never able to find any.

It was a terrible thing to have one's daughters shut up in magic
sacks. The little old woman had grown bent and weak and cross in her
search to find the magic wood. If it had not been for the little
black boy she would have given up entirely. The little black boy was
always gay and cheerful and always sure that some day they would
succeed in finding the magic wood.

One day the little old woman took her big water jar upon her head and
carried it down to the stream to fill. It was so very heavy when she
had filled it with water that she could not lift it to her head even
with the help of the little black boy. Three fine looking
_cavalheiros_ happened to be passing on horseback. She sent the little
black boy to ask them if they would help her. They said they couldn't
possibly stop. The little old woman was very angry. She did not know
that they were on their way to the magic castle and _couldn't_ stop.
The same wicked fairy who had shut the little old woman's beautiful
daughters up in the sacks, was leading them on.

If the little old woman had known all about the three _cavalheiros_
she would not have been angry. She would have wanted to help them
instead. The three _cavalheiros_ were very good and very wise, so they
managed to get along very well. As soon as they reached the enchanted
castle the fairy showed them to their beds. She had marked each bed
with a candle. No one before had ever been wise enough to blow out
these candles. These _cavalheiros_ blew out the candles and that took
away the fairy's power over them. They were able to escape from the
palace. When the wicked fairy came to put them in her magic sacks she
found the beds empty.

The three _cavalheiros_ took their horses and rode back by the same
road by which they had come. They stopped at a little shop on a corner
which was kept by a good fairy and bought one _vintem's_ worth of
ashes, one _vintem's_ worth of salt and one _vintem's_ worth of pins.

After a while the three _cavalheiros_ approached the house of the
little old woman and the little black boy. The little old woman was
still angry because they had refused to stop and help her lift her
water jar to her head. When she saw them coming she threw stones at
them. Of course that was a very stupid thing to do.

When the three _cavalheiros_ saw what was happening they were greatly
surprised. They had forgotten all about the little black boy and the
little old woman whom he had asked them to help. When they saw her
coming with the stones they thought that she must be a wicked fairy in
the form of a little old woman.

The _cavalheiro_ who had one _vintem's_ worth of ashes in his pocket
threw the ashes at her. It became night. The little old woman came on
with her stones just the same.

The _cavalheiro_ who had one _vintem's_ worth of salt in his pocket
threw the salt at her. Immediately a sea of salt water appeared
between the three _cavalheiros_ and the little old woman. The little
old woman came on with her stones just the same.

The _cavalheiro_ who had one _vintem's_ worth of pins in his pocket
threw the pins at her. Immediately a high, thorny hedge sprang out of
the ground between the little old woman and the three _cavalheiros_.

The little old woman was too angry to think clearly. If she had not
been so angry she would have known at once that this must be magic
wood. The little black boy, however, had his wits about him. He
hastened to gather the branches even though the thorns tore his hands.
Soon he had brought together a great pile of wood like the piles which
they make in the streets to burn on a _festa_ night.

The little old woman saw what he was doing and ran to get the magic
sacks in which her daughters were imprisoned. They laid the sacks on
top of the pile of magic wood and lighted the fire. There was a great
noise like thunder. Out of the three magic sacks there sprang three
beautiful maidens who had been preserved alive in the sacks by a
miracle of _Nossa Senhora_.

The little old woman and her three beautiful daughters turned to thank
the little black boy for what he had done. The little black boy was no
longer black. He had been turned white.

The three _cavalheiros_ married the three beautiful maidens and the
little boy who was now white, grew up to be the greatest _cavalheiro_
of them all.



XVI

How the Pigeon Became a

Tame Bird


Once upon a time there was a father with three sons who had reached
the age when they must go out into the world to earn their own living.
When the time for parting came he gave to each of them a large melon
with the advice that they open the melons only at a place where there
was water nearby.

The three brothers set out from their father's house, each taking a
different path. As soon as the eldest son was out of sight of the
house he opened his melon. A beautiful maiden sprang out of the melon
saying, "Give me water or give me milk." There was no water nearby and
neither did the young man have any milk to give her. She fell down
dead.

The second son left his father's house by a path which led over a
steep hill. The large melon was heavy to carry and in a little while
he became very tired and thirsty. He saw no water nearby and feared
that there was no possibility of finding any soon, so he thought he
would open the melon and use it to quench his thirst. Accordingly he
opened his melon. To his great surprise, a beautiful maiden sprang
forth saying, "Give me water or give me milk." Of course he had
neither to give her and she fell down dead.

The third son also travelled by a path which led over a steep hill.
He, too, became very tired and thirsty and he often thought how much
he would like to open his melon. However, he remembered his father's
advice to open it only where there was water nearby. So he travelled
on and on hoping to find a spring of water on the hillside. He did not
have the good fortune to pass near a spring either going up the hill
or coming down on the opposite side. At the foot of the hill there was
a town and in the centre of the town there was a fountain. The young
man hurried straight to the fountain and took a long refreshing drink.
Then he opened his melon. A beautiful maiden sprang forth saying,
"Give me water or give me milk." The young man gave her a drink of
water. Then he helped her to a hiding place among the thick branches
of the tree which grew beside the fountain and went away in search of
food.

Soon a little black servant girl came to the fountain to fill a big
water jar which she carried on her head. The maiden in the tree above
the fountain peeped out through the branches. When the little black
servant girl bent over the water to fill her jar she saw the
reflection of a charming face in the water. "How beautiful I have
become," she said to herself. "How ridiculous that any one as
beautiful as I am should carry water on her head." She threw her water
jar upon the ground in disdain and it broke into a thousand pieces.

When the little maid reached home with neither water nor water jar her
mistress punished her severely and sent her again to the fountain
with a new water jar to fill. This time the maiden in the tree gave a
little silvery laugh when the black servant girl bent over the water.
The little maid looked up and spied her in the tree. "O, it is you, is
it, who are responsible for my beating?" she said. She pulled a pin
out of her camisa and, reaching up, she stuck it savagely into the
beautiful maiden in the tree. Then a strange thing happened. There was
no longer any beautiful maiden in the tree. There was just a pigeon
there.

At that moment the young man came back to the tree with the food he
had procured. When the little black maid heard his footsteps she was
frightened nearly to death. She hid herself quickly among the thick
branches of the tree. The young man was very much surprised to find a
little black maid in the tree in the place of the beautiful maiden he
had left there. "What has happened to you during my absence" he asked
in horror as soon as he saw her. "The sun has burned my complexion.
That is all. It is nothing. I shall be myself again when I get away
from this hot place," the little maid replied.

The young man married the little black maid and took her away out of
sunny places hoping that she would soon be again the beautiful maiden
she was when he left her by the fountain in search of food. But she
always remained black.

Years passed and the young man became very rich. He lived in a
beautiful mansion. All around the house there was a wonderful garden
full of lovely flowers and splendid trees where birds loved to sing
sweet songs and build their nests. In spite of his beautiful home the
young man was not very happy. It was a great trial to have a wife who
was so black. He often walked up and down the paths in his garden at
the close of the day and thought about how beautiful his wife had been
the first time he ever saw her. As he walked in the garden there was
always a pigeon which followed him about. It flew about his head in a
way that annoyed him, so one day when his wife was sick and asked for
a pigeon to be roasted for her dinner he commanded that this
particular pigeon should be killed.

When the cook was preparing the pigeon for her mistress to eat for
dinner she noticed a black speck on the pigeon's breast. She thought
that it was a speck of dirt and tried to brush it away. To her
surprise she could not brush it off easily because it was a pin firmly
embedded in the pigeon's breast. She pulled and pulled but could not
pull it out so she sent for her master to come and see what he could
do to remove it. He at once pulled out the pin and then a wonderful
thing happened. The pigeon was transformed into a beautiful maiden. He
at once recognised her as the same lovely maiden who had sprung forth
from his melon by the fountain and whom he had left hidden in the
tree.

When the young man's black wife learned that her husband had found the
beautiful maiden again after all these years she confessed her deceit
and soon died. The young man married the beautiful maiden who was
still just as beautiful as she was the first time he saw her. They
were very happy together but the wife never forgot about the time she
had been a pigeon.

Up to that time pigeons had been wild birds who built their nests in
the deep forest. The wife often wished that they would build their
nests in her beautiful garden so she had little bird houses built and
set up there.

One day a pigeon, bolder than the rest, flew through the garden and
spied the little bird houses. He moved his family there at once and
told the other pigeons that there were other houses there for them
too. The other pigeons were timid and so they waited to see what
terrible calamity might happen to the bold pigeon and his family, but
not a single unpleasant thing occurred. They were just as happy as
happy could be in their new home.

After a while other pigeon families moved into the garden and were
happy too. Thus it came about that after years and years the pigeons
no longer build their nests in the deep forest, but they always make
their homes near the homes of men. The pigeons, themselves, do not
know how it all came about, but the beautiful woman who was once a
pigeon, when she had children of her own, told them about it, and they
told their children. Thus it happens that the mothers in Brazil tell
their children this story about the pigeon.



XVII

Why the Sea Moans


Once upon a time there was a little princess who lived in a
magnificent royal palace. All around the palace there was a beautiful
garden full of lovely flowers and rare shrubs and trees. The part of
the garden which the princess liked most of all was a corner of it
which ran down to the sea. She was a very lonely little princess and
she loved to sit and watch the changing beauty of the sea. The name of
the little princess was Dionysia and it often seemed to her that the
sea said, as it rushed against the shore, "Di-o-ny-si-a,
Di-o-ny-si-a."

One day when the little princess was sitting all alone by the sea she
said to herself, "O! I am so lonely. I do so wish that I had somebody
to play with. When I ride out in the royal chariot I see little girls
who have other little boys and girls to play with them. Because I am
the royal princess I never have anybody to play with me. If I have to
be the royal princess and not play with other children I do think I
might have some sort of live thing to play with me."

Then a most remarkable thing happened. The sea said very slowly and
distinctly and over and over again so there couldn't be any mistake
about it, "Di-o-ny-si-a, Di-o-ny-si-a."

The little princess walked up close to the sea, just as close as she
dared to go without danger of getting her royal shoes and stockings
wet. Straight out of the biggest wave of all there came a sea serpent
to meet her. She knew that it was a sea serpent from the pictures in
her royal story books even though she had never seen a sea serpent
before, but somehow this sea serpent looked different than the
pictures. Instead of being a fierce monster it looked kind and gentle
and good. She held out her arms to it right away.

"Come play with me," said Dionysia.

"I am Labismena and I have come to play with you," replied the sea
serpent.

After that the little princess was very much happier. The sea serpent
came out of the sea to play with her every day when she was alone. If
any one else came near Labismena would disappear into the sea so no
one but Dionysia ever saw her.

The years passed rapidly and each year the little princess grew to be
a larger and larger princess. At last she was sixteen years old and a
very grown-up princess indeed. She still enjoyed her old playmate,
Labismena, and they were often together on the seashore.

One day when they were walking up and down together beside the sea the
sea serpent looked at Dionysia with sad eyes and said, "I too have
been growing older all these years, dear Dionysia. Now the time has
come that we can no longer play together. I shall never come out of
the sea to play with you any more, but I shall never forget you and I
shall always be your friend. I hope that you will never have any
trouble, but if you ever should, call my name and I will come to help
you." Then the sea serpent disappeared into the sea.

About this time the wife of a neighbouring king died and as she lay
upon her death bed she gave the king a jewelled ring. "When the time
comes when you wish to wed again," she said, "I ask you to marry a
princess upon whose finger this ring shall be neither too tight nor
too loose."

After a while the king began to look about for a princess to be his
bride. He visited many royal palaces and tried the ring upon the
finger of many royal princesses. Upon some the ring was too tight and
upon others it was too loose. There was no princess whose finger it
fitted perfectly.

At last in his search the king came to the royal palace where the
princess Dionysia lived. The princess had dreams of her own of a young
and charming prince who would some day come to wed her, so she was not
pleased at all. The king was old and no longer handsome, and when he
tried the ring upon Dionysia's finger she hoped with all her heart
that it would not fit. It fitted perfectly.

The princess Dionysia was frightened nearly to death. "Will I really
have to marry him?" she asked her royal father. Her father told her
what a very wealthy king he was with a great kingdom and a wonderful
royal palace ever so much more wonderful and grand than the palace
the princess Dionysia had always had for her home. Her father had no
patience at all with her for not being happy about it. "You ought to
consider yourself the most fortunate princess in all the world," he
said.

Dionysia spent her days and nights weeping. Her father was afraid that
she would grow so thin that the ring would no longer fit her finger,
so he hastened the plans for the wedding.

One day Dionysia walked up and down beside the sea, crying as if her
heart would break. All at once she stopped crying. "How stupid I have
been," she said. "My old playmate Labismena told me that if ever I was
in trouble she would come back and help me. With all my silly crying I
had forgotten about it."

Dionysia walked up close to the sea and called softly, "Labismena,
Labismena." Out of the sea came the sea serpent just as she used to
come. The princess told the sea serpent all about the dreadful trouble
which was threatening to spoil her life.

"Have no fear," said Labismena, "tell your father that you will marry
the king when the king presents you with a dress the colour of the
fields and all their flowers and that you will not marry him until he
gives it to you." Then the sea serpent disappeared again into the sea.

Dionysia sent word through her father to her royal suitor that she
would wed him only when he procured her a dress the colour of the
fields and all their flowers. The king was very much in love with
Dionysia, so he was secretly filled with joy at this request. He
searched everywhere for a dress the colour of the fields and all their
flowers. It was a very difficult thing to find but at last he procured
one. He sent it to Dionysia at once.

When Dionysia saw that the king had really found the dress for her she
was filled with grief. She thought that there was no escape and that
she would have to marry the king after all. As soon as she could get
away from the palace without being noticed she ran down to the sea and
again called, "Labismena, Labismena."

The sea serpent at once came out of the sea. "Do not fear," she said
to Dionysia. "Go back and say that you will not wed the king until he
gives you a dress the colour of the sea and all its fishes."

When the king heard this new request of Dionysia's he was rather
discouraged. However he searched for the dress and, at last, after
expending a great sum of money, he procured such a gown.

When Dionysia saw that a dress the colour of the sea and all its
fishes had been found for her she again went to seek counsel from her
old playmate. "Do not be afraid," Labismena again said to her. "This
time you must ask the king to get you a dress the colour of the sky
and all its stars. You may also tell him that this is the last present
you will ask him to make you."

When the king heard about the demand for a dress the colour of the sky
and all its stars he was completely disheartened, but when he heard
that Dionysia had promised that this would be the last present she
would ask he decided that it might be a good investment after all. He
set out to procure the dress with all possible speed. At last he found
one.

When Dionysia saw the dress the colour of the sky and all its stars
she thought that this time there was no escape from marrying the king.
She called the sea serpent with an anxious heart for she was afraid
that now even Labismena could do nothing to help her.

Labismena came out of the sea in answer to her call.

"Go home to the palace and get your dress the colour of the field and
all its flowers," said the sea serpent, "and your dress the colour of
the sea and all its fishes, and your dress the colour of the sky and
all its stars. Then hurry back here to the sea for I have been
preparing a surprise for you."

All the time the king had been procuring the wonderful gowns for
Dionysia the sea serpent had been building a ship for her. When
Dionysia returned from the royal palace with her lovely dresses all
carefully packed in a box there was a queer little boat awaiting her.
It was not at all like any other boat she had ever seen and she was
almost afraid to get into it when Labismena asked her to try it. "This
little ship which I have built for you," said Labismena, "will carry
you far away over the sea to the kingdom of a prince who is the most
charming prince in all the world. When you see him you will want to
marry him above all others."

"O, Labismena! How can I ever thank you for all you have done for
me?" cried Dionysia.

"You can do the greatest thing in the world for me," said Labismena;
"though I have never told you and I do not believe that you have ever
suspected it, I am really an enchanted princess. I shall have to
remain in the form of a sea serpent until the happiest maiden in all
the world, at the hour of her greatest happiness, calls my name three
times. You will be the very happiest girl in all the world on the day
of your marriage, and if you will remember to call my name three times
then you will break my enchantment and I shall once more be a lovely
princess instead of a sea serpent."

Dionysia promised her friend that she would remember to do this. The
sea serpent asked her to promise three times to make sure. When
Dionysia had promised three times and again embraced her old playmate
and thanked her for all that she had done she sailed away in the
little ship. The sea serpent disappeared into the sea.

Dionysia sailed and sailed in the little ship and at last it bore her
to a lovely island. She thought that she had reached her destination,
so she stepped out of the boat not forgetting to take her box of
dresses with her. As soon as she was out of the boat it sailed away.
"Now what shall I ever do?" said Dionysia. "The ship has gone away and
left me and how shall I ever earn my living? I have never done
anything useful in all my life."

Dionysia surely had to do something to earn her living immediately, so
she at once set out to see what she could find to do. She went from
house to house asking for food and work. At last she came to the royal
palace. Here at the royal palace they told her that they had great
need of a maid to take care of the hens. Dionysia thought that this
was something which she could do, so she accepted the position at
once. It was, of course, very different work from being a princess in
a royal palace but it provided her with food and shelter, and when
Dionysia thought of having to marry the old king she was never sorry
that she had left home.

Time passed and at last there was a great feast day celebrated in the
city. Everybody in the palace went except the little maid who minded
the hens. After everybody had gone away Dionysia decided that she
would go to the _festa_ too. She combed her hair and put on her gown
which was the colour of the fields and all their flowers. In this
wonderful gown she was sure nobody would ever guess that she was the
little maid who had been left at home to mind the hens. She did want
to go to the _festa_! She hurried there as fast as she could and
arrived just in time for the dances.

Everybody at the _festa_ noticed the beautiful maiden in her gown the
colour of the fields and all their flowers. The prince fell madly in
love with her. Nobody had ever seen her before and nobody could find
out who the beautiful stranger was or where she came from. Before the
_festa_ was over Dionysia slipped away, and, when the rest of the
royal household returned home there was the little maid minding the
hens just as they had left her.

The second day of the _festa_ everybody went early except the little
maid who looked after the hens. When the others had gone she put on
her dress the colour of the sea and all its fishes and went to the
_festa_. She attracted even more attention than she had the day
before.

When the _festa_ was over and the royal household had returned to the
royal palace, the prince remarked to his mother, "Don't you think that
the beautiful stranger at the _festa_ looks like the little maid who
minds our hens?"

"What nonsense," replied his mother. "How could the little maid who
minds our hens ever get such wonderful gowns to wear?" Just to make
sure, however, the prince told the royal councillor to find out if
the little maid who minds the royal hens had been to the _festa_. All
the servants told about leaving her at home with the hens and coming
back and finding her just as they had left her.

"Whoever the beautiful stranger at the _festa_ may be," said the
prince, "she is the one above all others whom I want for my wife. I
shall find her some way."

The third day of the _festa_ Dionysia went attired in her gown the
colour of the sky and all its stars. The prince fell more madly in
love with her than ever. He could not get her to tell him who she was
or where she lived but he gave her a beautiful jewel.

When the prince returned home he would not eat any food. He grew thin
and pale. Every one around the palace tried his best to invent some
dish which would tempt the prince's appetite.

Finally the little maid who took care of the hens said that she
thought she could prepare a dish which the prince would eat.

Accordingly she made a dish of broth for the prince and in the bottom
of the dish she dropped the jewel which the prince had given her.

When the broth was set before the prince he was about to send it away
untouched, just as he did everything else, but the sparkling jewel
attracted his attention.

"Who made this dish of broth?" he asked as soon as he could speak.

"It was made by the little maid who minds the hens," replied his
mother.

"Send for the little maid to come to me at once," cried the prince. "I
knew that the beautiful stranger at the _festa_ looked like our little
maid who minds the hens."

The prince married Dionysia the very next day and Dionysia was the
very happiest girl in all the world, for from the first moment that
she had seen the prince, she had known that he was the one above all
others whom she wished to marry.

Alas! In Dionysia's excitement she forgot all about calling the name
of her old playmate, Labismena, at the hour of her marriage as she had
promised to do. She thought of nothing but the prince.

There was no escape for Labismena. She had to remain in the form of a
sea serpent because of Dionysia's neglect. She had lost her chance to
come out of the sea and become a lovely princess herself and find a
charming prince of her own. For this reason her sad moan is heard in
the sea until this very day. Perhaps you have noticed it.

You will often hear the call come from the sea as it breaks against
the shore, "Dionysia, Di-o-ny-si-a." No wonder that the sea moans. It
is enough to make a sea serpent sad to be forgotten by the very person
one has done most to help.



XVIII

How the Brazilian Beetles Got

Their Gorgeous Coats


In Brazil the beetles have such beautifully coloured, hard-shelled
coats upon their backs that they are often set in pins and necklaces
like precious stones. Once upon a time, years and years ago, they had
ordinary plain brown coats. This is how it happened that the Brazilian
beetle earned a new coat.

One day a little brown beetle was crawling along a wall when a big
grey rat ran out of a hole in the wall and looked down scornfully at
the little beetle. "O ho!" he said to the beetle, "how slowly you
crawl along. You'll never get anywhere in the world. Just look at me
and see how fast I can run."

The big grey rat ran to the end of the wall, wheeled around, and came
back to the place where the little beetle was slowly crawling along at
only a tiny distance from where the rat had left her.

"Don't you wish that you could run like that?" said the big grey rat
to the little brown beetle.

"You are surely a fast runner," replied the little brown beetle
politely. Her mother had taught her always to be polite and had often
said to her that a really polite beetle never boasts about her own
accomplishments. The little brown beetle never boasted a single boast
about the things she could do. She just went on slowly crawling along
the wall.

A bright green and gold parrot in the mango tree over the wall had
heard the conversation. "How would you like to race with the beetle?"
he asked the big grey rat. "I live next door to the tailor bird," he
added, "and just to make the race exciting I'll offer a bright
coloured coat as a prize to the one who wins the race. You may choose
for it any colour you like and I'll have it made to order."

"I'd like a yellow coat with stripes like the tiger's," said the big
grey rat, looking over his shoulder at his gaunt grey sides as if he
were already admiring his new coat.

"I'd like a beautiful, bright coloured new coat, too," said the little
brown beetle.

The big grey rat laughed long and loud until his gaunt grey sides were
shaking. "Why, you talk just as if you thought you had a chance to win
the race," he said, when he could speak.

The bright green and gold parrot set the royal palm tree at the top of
the cliff as the goal of the race. He gave the signal to start and
then he flew away to the royal palm tree to watch for the end of the
race.

The big grey rat ran as fast as he could. Then he thought how very
tired he was getting. "What's the use of hurrying?" he said to
himself. "The little brown beetle can not possibly win. If I were
racing with somebody who could really run it would be very different."
Then he started to run more slowly but every time his heart beat it
said, "Hurry up! Hurry up!" The big grey rat decided that it was best
to obey the little voice in his heart so he hurried just as fast as he
could.

When he reached the royal palm tree at the top of the cliff he could
hardly believe his eyes. He thought he must be having a bad dream.
There was the little brown beetle sitting quietly beside the bright
green and gold parrot. The big grey rat had never been so surprised in
all his life. "How did you ever manage to run fast enough to get here
so soon?" he asked the little brown beetle as soon as he could catch
his breath.

The little brown beetle drew out the tiny wings from her sides.
"Nobody said anything about having to run to win the race," she
replied, "so I flew instead."

"I did not know that you could fly," said the big grey rat in a
subdued little voice.

"After this," said the bright green and gold parrot, "never judge any
one by his looks alone. You never can tell how often or where you may
find concealed wings. You have lost the prize."

Until this day, even in Brazil where the flowers and birds and beasts
and insects have such gorgeous colouring, the rat wears a plain dull
grey coat.

Then the parrot turned to the little brown beetle who was waiting
quietly at his side. "What colour do you want your new coat to be?" he
asked.

The little brown beetle looked up at the bright green and gold parrot,
at the green and gold palm trees above their heads, at the green
mangoes with golden flushes on their cheeks lying on the ground under
the mango trees, at the golden sunshine upon the distant green hills.
"I choose a coat of green and gold," she said.

From that day to this the Brazilian beetle has worn a coat of green
with golden lights upon it.

For years and years the Brazilian beetles were all very proud to wear
green and gold coats like that of the beetle who raced with the rat.

Then, once upon a time, it happened that there was a little beetle who
grew discontented with her coat of green and gold. She looked up at
the blue sky and out at the blue sea and wished that she had a blue
coat instead. She talked about it so much that finally her mother took
her to the parrot who lived next to the tailor bird.

"You may change your coat for a blue one," said the parrot, "but if
you change you'll have to give up something."

"Oh, I'll gladly give up anything if only I may have a blue coat
instead of a green and gold one," said the discontented little beetle.

When she received her new coat she thought it was very beautiful. It
was a lovely shade of blue and it had silvery white lights upon it
like the light of the stars. When she put it on, however, she
discovered that it was not hard like the green and gold one. From that
day to this the blue beetles' coats have not been hard and firm. That
is the reason why the jewellers have difficulty in using them in pins
and necklaces like other beetles.

From the moment that the little beetle put on her new blue coat she
never grew again. From that day to this the blue beetles have been
much smaller than the green and gold ones.

When the Brazilians made their flag they took for it a square of green
the colour of the green beetle's coat. Within this square they placed
a diamond of gold like the golden lights which play upon the green
beetle's back. Then, within the diamond, they drew a circle to
represent the round earth and they coloured it blue like the coat of
the blue beetle. Upon the blue circle they placed stars of silvery
white like the silvery white lights on the back of the blue beetle.
About the blue circle of the earth which they thus pictured they drew
a band of white, and upon this band they wrote the motto of their
country, "_Ordem e Progresso_, order and progress."





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