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Title: Acetaria: A Discourse of Sallets
Author: Evelyn, John, 1620-1706
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "Acetaria: A Discourse of Sallets" ***

[Illustration: Joannes Evelyn Arm^r]



       *       *       *       *       *


Author of the _Kalendarium_

       *       *       *       *       *


Published by the _Women's Auxiliary_,



_Printed in the United States of America_

_Publisher's Note_

This edition of Acetaria is a faithful reprint of the First Edition of
1699, with the correction of a few obvious typographical errors, and
those noted in the Errata of the original edition. Whereas no attempt
has been made to reproduce the typography of the original, the spirit
has been retained, and the vagaries of spelling and punctuation have
been carefully followed; also the old-style S [s] has been retained.
Much of the flavour of Acetaria is lost if it is scanned too hurriedly;
and one should remember also that Latin and Greek were the gauge of a
man of letters, and if the titles and quotations seem a bit ponderous,
they are as amusing a conceit as the French and German complacencies of
a more recent generation.

_Foreword to Acetaria_

John Evelyn, famous for his "Diary," was a friend and contemporary of
Samuel Pepys. Both were conscientious public servants who had held minor
offices in the government. But, while Pepys' diary is sparkling and
redolent of the free manners of the Restoration, Evelyn's is the record
of a sober, scholarly man. His mind turned to gardens, to sculpture and
architecture, rather than to the gaieties of contemporary social life.
Pepys was an urban figure and Evelyn was "county." He represents the
combination of public servant and country gentleman which has been the
supreme achievement of English culture.

Horace Walpole said of him in his Catalogue of Engravers, "I must
observe that his life, which was extended to eighty-six years, was a
course of inquiry, study, curiosity, instruction and benevolence."

Courtiers, artists, and scientists were his friends. Grinling Gibbons
was brought to the King's notice by Evelyn, and Henry Howard, Duke of
Norfolk, was persuaded by him to present the Arundel Marbles to the
University of Oxford. In London he engaged in divers charitable and
civic affairs and was commissioner for improving the streets and
buildings in London. He had charge of the sick and wounded of the Dutch
War and also, with the fineness of character typical of his kind, he
remained at his post through the Great Plague. Evelyn was also active in
organizing the Royal Society and became its first secretary.

In the country he spent his time studying, writing and in developing
his own and his brother's estates. He translated several French books,
one of them by Nicolas de Bonnefons was entitled "The French Gardener;
instructions how to cultivate all sorts of fruit-trees." Evelyn
undoubtedly knew another book of de Bonnefons called "_Les Delices de
la Campagne_." Delights of the country, according to de Bonnefons,
consisted largely in delights of the palate, and perhaps it was this
book which suggested to Evelyn to write a cookery-garden book such
as Acetaria. He also translated Jean de la Quintinie's "The Compleat
Gardener." His "Sylva, or a discourse of Forest Trees" was written as
a protest against the destruction of trees in England being carried
on by the glass factories and iron furnaces, and the book succeeded
in inducing landowners to plant millions of trees.

The list of Evelyn's writings shows a remarkable diversity in subject
matter. There was a book on numismatics and translations from the Greek,
political and historical pamphlets, and a book called "Fumifugium or the
inconvenience of the Aer and Smoke of London dissipated," in which he
suggests that sweet-smelling trees should be planted to purify the air
of London. He also wrote a book called "Sculpture, or the History of
Chalcography and Engraving in Copper."

Living in the country and cultivating his fruits and vegetables, Evelyn
grew to be an ardent believer in vegetarianism and is probably the first
advocate in England of a meatless diet. He was so keen on preparing
foods without meat that, like another contemporary, Sir Kenelm Digby,
he collected recipes. These, interspersed with delightful philosophic
comments and some directions about gardening, were assembled in the
little book Acetaria. This was published in 1699 along with the ninth
edition of the "Kalendarium Hortense," a gardener's almanac.

The material for _Acetaria_ was gathered as early as 1679 with the
idea of making it one chapter of an encyclopedic work on horticulture.
The _Plan of a Royal Garden_, was Evelyn's outline for that
ambitious work.

The recipes are unusual and delicious and some of them are practical
for today, especially for the owner of a garden where pot herbs are
cultivated. Evelyn uses the pot herbs for flavoring soups, egg dishes,
"salletts" and puddings. The eggs with sweet herbs prepared in ramikins
and the pudding flavored with the petals of calendulas are particularly

The book reveals his zest for living and the culture of his mind. It
also shows the thought and life of a country gentleman during the reign
of Charles the Second. Evidently, in Evelyn's home, the spirit of
scientific investigation prevailed and there was a delight in new ideas.
Evelyn supervised the garden and knew how to instruct the cook to
prepare new dishes.

Although Acetaria is a book of directions for gardening and cooking, it
is not the least didactic but is written in a discoursive style and with
a leisureliness and in a rhythm suited to the slow pace of a horse
trotting through the winding lanes of the English countryside. As we
read, we can almost see the butler bringing a fragrant pudding to the
family assembled around the dining table in the wood-panelled room. Or
again we can almost smell the thyme, mint, and savory growing in tidy
rows in the well-tilled and neatly ordered garden of John Evelyn.

_Helen M. Fox_

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: _Facsimile of Title Page of First Edition_]

       *       *       *       *       *

_To the Right Honourable_


Lord Somers

_of Evesham_

Lord _High-Chancellor_ of England,

and _President_ of the _Royal-Society_.

       *       *       *       *       *

_My Lord_,

The _Idea_ and _Plan_ of the _Royal-Society_ having been first conceiv'd
and delineated by a _Great_ and _Learned Chancellor_, which High Office
your Lordship deservedly bears; not as an Acquisition of Fortune, but
your Intellectual Endowments; Conspicuous (among other Excellencies) by
the Inclination Your Lordship discovers to promote _Natural Knowledge_:
As it justifies the Discernment of that _Assembly_, to pitch upon Your
Lordship for their _President_, so does it no less discover the Candor,
yea, I presume to say, the Sublimity of your Mind, in so generously
honoring them with your _Acceptance_ of the _Choice_ they have made.

A [1]_Chancellor_, and a very Learned Lord, was the _First_ who honoured
the _Chair_; and a no less Honorable and Learned _Chancellor_, resigns
it to Your Lordship: So as after all the Difficulties and Hardships
the _Society_ has hitherto gone through; it has thro' the Favour and
Protection of its _Presidents_, not only preserv'd its Reputation from
the Malevolence of Enemies and Detracters, but gone on _Culminating_,
and now _Triumphantly_ in Your Lordship: Under whose propitious
Influence, I am perswaded, it may promise it self _That_, which indeed
has hitherto been wanting, to justifie the Glorious _Title_ it bears of
a ROYAL SOCIETY. The _Emancipating_ it from some Remaining and
Discouraging Circumstances, which it as yet labours under; among which,
that of a _Precarious_ and unsteady Abode, is not the least.

This _Honor_ was reserv'd for Your Lordship; and an _Honor_, permit
me to call it, not at all unworthy the Owning of the Greatest Person
living: Namely, the Establishing and Promoting _Real Knowledge_; and
(next to what is _Divine_) truly so called; as far, at least, as Humane
Nature extends towards the Knowledge of Nature, by enlarging her Empire
beyond the Land of _Spectres, Forms, Intentional Species, Vacuum, Occult
Qualities_, and other _Inadequate Notions_; which, by their Obstreperous
and Noisy Disputes, affrighting, and (till of late) deterring Men from
adventuring on further Discoveries, confin'd them in a lazy
Acquiescence, and to be fed with _Fantasms_ and fruitless Speculations,
which signifie nothing to the _specifick_ Nature of Things, solid and
useful knowledge; by the _Investigation of Causes, Principles, Energies,
Powers_, and _Effects_ of _Bodies_, and _Things Visible_; and to improve
them for the Good and Benefit of Mankind.

_My Lord_, That which the _Royal Society_ needs to accomplish an entire
Freedom, and (by rendring their Circumstances more easie) capable to
subsist with Honor, and to reach indeed the Glorious Ends of its
_Institution_, is an Establishment in a more Settl'd, _Appropriate_,
and _Commodious Place_; having hitherto (like the _Tabernacle_ in the
_Wilderness_) been only _Ambulatory_ for almost _Forty Years_: But
_Solomon_ built the First _Temple_; and what forbids us to hope, that as
Great a _Prince_ may build _Solomon's House_, as that Great _Chancellor_
(one of Your Lordship's Learned _Predecessors_) had design'd the _Plan_;
there being nothing in that _August_ and _Noble Model_ impossible, or
beyond the _Power_ of _Nature_ and Learned Industry.

Thus, whilst King _Solomon's_ Temple was _Consecrated_ to the _God_
of _Nature_, and his true Worship; _This_ may be _Dedicated_, and set
apart for the _Works_ of _Nature_; deliver'd from those Illusions and
Impostors, that are still endeavouring to cloud and depress the True,
and _Substantial Philosophy_: A _shallow_ and _Superficial Insight_,
wherein (as that Incomparable Person rightly observes) having made so
many _Atheists_: whilst a _profound_ and thorow _Penetration_ into her
_Recesses_ (which is the _Business_ of the _Royal Society_) would lead
Men to the _Knowledge_, and _Admiration_ of the _Glorious Author_.

And now, _My Lord_, I expect some will wonder what my Meaning is, to
usher in a _Trifle_, with so much Magnificence, and end at last in a
fine _Receipt_ for the _Dressing_ of a _Sallet_ with an Handful of
_Pot-Herbs_! But yet, _My Lord_, this _Subject_, as low and despicable
as it appears, challenges a Part of _Natural History_, and the Greatest
Princes have thought it no Disgrace, not only to make it their
_Diversion_, but their _Care_, and to promote and encourage it in the
midst of their weightiest Affairs: He who wrote of the _Cedar_ of
_Libanus_, wrote also of the _Hysop which grows upon the Wall_.

To verifie this, how much might I say of _Gardens_ and _Rural
Employments_, preferrable to the Pomp and Grandeur of other Secular
Business, and that in the Estimate of as Great Men as any Age has
produc'd! And it is of such _Great Souls_ we have it recorded; That
after they had perform'd the Noblest Exploits for the Publick, they
sometimes chang'd their _Scepters_ for the _Spade_, and their _Purple_
for the Gardiner's _Apron_. And of these, some, My _Lord_, were
_Emperors, Kings, Consuls, Dictators_, and Wise _Statesmen_; who amidst
the most important Affairs, both in Peace and War, have quitted all
their Pomp and Dignity in Exchange of this Learned Pleasure: Nor that
of the most _refin'd_ Part of _Agriculture_ (the _Philosophy_ of the
_Garden_ and _Parterre_ only) but of _Herbs_, and wholesom _Sallets_,
and other plain and useful Parts of _Geoponicks_, and Wrote _Books_ of
_Tillage_ and _Husbandry_; and took the _Plough-Tackle_ for their
_Banner_, and their _Names_ from the _Grain_ and _Pulse_ they sow'd,
as the Marks and Characters of the highest Honor.

But I proceed no farther on a _Topic_ so well known to Your Lordship:
Nor urge I Examples of such Illustrious Persons laying aside their
Grandeur, and even of deserting their Stations; (which would infinitely
prejudice the Publick, when worthy Men are in Place, and at the Helm)
But to shew how consisent the Diversions of the _Garden_ and _Villa_
were, with the highest and busiest Employment of the _Commonwealth_, and
never thought a Reproch, or the least Diminution to the Gravity and
Veneration due to their Persons, and the Noble Rank they held.

Will Your Lordship give me Leave to repeat what is said of the Younger
_Pliny_, (Nephew to the _Naturalist_) and whom I think we may parallel
with the Greatest of his time (and perhaps of any since) under the
Worthiest _Emperor_ the _Roman_ world ever had? A Person of vast
Abilities, Rich, and High in his Master's Favour; that so Husbanded his
time, as in the Midst of the weightiest Affairs, to have Answer'd, and
by his [2]_Example_, made good what I have said on this Occasion. The
Ancient and best Magistrates of _Rome_ allow'd but the _Ninth_ Day for
the _City_ and _Publick Business_; the rest for the _Country_ and the
_Sallet Garden_: There were then fewer _Causes_ indeed at the _Bar_;
but never greater _Justice_, nor _better Judges_ and _Advocates_. And
'tis hence observed, that we hardly find a Great and Wise Man among
the Ancients, _qui nullos habuit hortos_, excepting only _Pomponius
Atticus_; wilst his Dear _Cicero_ professes, that he never laid out his
Money more readily, than in the purchasing of _Gardens_, and those sweet
Retirements, for which he so often left the _Rostra_ (and Court of the
Greatest and most flourishing State of the World) to visit, prune, and
water them with his own Hands.

But, _My Lord_, I forget with whom I am talking thus; and a _Gardiner_
ought not to be so bold. The present I humbly make your Lordship, is
indeed but a _Sallet_ of _Crude Herbs_: But there is among them that
which was a _Prize_ at the _Isthmian Games_; and Your Lordship knows
who it was both accepted, and rewarded as despicable an Oblation of
this kind. The Favor I humbly beg, is Your Lordship's Pardon for this
Presumption. The Subject is _mean_, and requires it, and my _Reputation_
in danger; should Your Lordship hence suspect that one could never write
so much of _dressing Sallets_, who minded anything serious, besides the
gratifying a Sensual Appetite with a Voluptuary _Apician_ Art.

Truly, _My Lord_, I am so far from designing to promote those _Supplicia
Luxuriæ_, (as _Seneca_ calls them) by what I have here written; that
were it in my Power, I would recall the World, if not altogether to
their Pristine _Diet_, yet to a much more _wholsome_ and _temperate_
than is now in Fashion: And what if they find me like to some who are
eager after _Hunting_ and other Field-Sports, which are _Laborious_
Exercises? and _Fishing_, which is indeed a _Lazy_ one? who, after all
their Pains and Fatigue, never eat what they take and catch in either:
For some such I have known: And tho' I cannot affirm so of my self,
(when a well drest and excellent _Sallet_ is before me) I am yet a very
moderate Eater of them. So as to this _Book-Luxury_, I can affirm, and
that truly what the _Poet_ says of himself (on a less innocent Occasion)
_Lasciva pagina, vita proba._ God forbid, that after all I have advanc'd
in Praise of _Sallets_, I should be thought to plead for the Vice I
censure, and chuse that of _Epicurus_ for my _Lemma_; _In hac arte
consenui_; or to have spent my time in nothing else. The _Plan_ annext
to these Papers, and the _Apparatus_ made to superstruct upon it, would
acquit me of having bent all my Contemplations on _Sallets_ only. What
I humbly offer Your Lordship, is (as I said) Part of _Natural History_,
the Product of _Horticulture_, and the _Field_, dignified by the most
illustrious, and sometimes tilled _Laureato Vomere_; which, as it
concerns a Part of _Philosophy_, I may (without Vanity) be allow'd to
have taken some Pains in Cultivating, as an inferior Member of the
_Royal Society_.

But, _My Lord_, wilst You read on (if at least You vouchsafe me that
Honor to read at all) I am conscious I rob the Publick of its most
Precious Moments.

I therefore Humbly again Implore Your Lordship's Pardon: Nor indeed
needed I to have said half this, to kindle in Your Breast, that which is
already shining there (Your Lordship's Esteem of the _Royal Society_)
after what You were pleas'd to Express in such an Obliging manner, when
it was lately to wait upon Your Lordship; among whom I had the Honor
to be a Witness of Your Generous, and Favourable Acceptance of their
Addresses, who am,

_My Lord,
  Your Lordship's Most Humble
    and Most Obedient Servant,


       *       *       *       *       *


The _Favourable Entertainment which the_ Kalendar _has found,
encouraging the_ Bookseller _to adventure upon_ a Ninth Impression, I
_could not refuse his Request of my Revising, and Giving it the best
Improvement I was capable_, to an Inexhaustible Subject, _as it regards
a Part of_ Horticulture; _and offer some little Aid to such as love a
Diversion so Innocent and Laudable. There are those of late, who have
arrogated, and given the Glorious Title_ of Compleat _and_ Accomplish'd
Gardiners, _to what they have Publish'd; as if there were nothing
wanting, nothing more remaining, or farther to be expected from the
Field; and that_ Nature _had been quite emptied of all her fertile
Store: Whilst those who thus magnifie their Discoveries, have after
all, penetrated but a very little Way into this Vast, Ample, and as
yet, Unknown Territory; Who see not, that it would still require the
Revolution of many Ages; deep, and long_ Experience, _for any Man to
Emerge that Perfect, and Accomplish'd Artist_ Gardiner _they boast
themselves to be: Nor do I think, Men will ever reach the End, and far
extended Limits of the_ Vegetable Kingdom, _so incomprehensible is the
Variety it every Day produces, of the most Useful, and Admirable of all
the Aspectable Works of God; since almost all we_ see, _and_ touch,
_and_ taste, _and_ smell, eat _and_ drink, are clad _with, and_ defended
(_from the Greatest_ Prince _to the Meanest_ Peasant) _is furnished from
that Great and Universal Plantation_, Epitomiz'd _in our_ Gardens,
_highly worth the Contemplation of the most Profound Divine, and
Deepest_ Philosopher.

_I should be asham'd to acknowledge how little I have advanced, could
I find that ever any Mortal Man from_ Adam, Noah, Solomon, Aristotle,
Theophrastus, Dioscorides, _and the rest of Nature's Interpreters, had
ever arriv'd to the perfect Knowledge of any one_ Plant, _or_ Vulgar
Weed _whatsoever: But this perhaps may yet possibly be reserv'd for
another State of Things, and a_ [3]_longer Day; that is_, When Time
shall be no more, but Knowledge shall be encreas'd.

_We have heard of one who studied and contemplated the Nature of_
Bees _only, for_ Sixty Years: _After which, you will not wonder,
that a Person of my Acquaintance, should have spent almost_ Forty,
_in Gathering and Amassing Materials for an_ Hortulan _Design, to
so enormous an Heap, as to fill some_ Thousand Pages; _and yet be
comprehended within two, or three Acres of Ground; nay, within the
Square of less than_ One (_skilfully Planted and Cultivated) sufficient
to furnish, and entertain his Time and Thoughts all his Life long, with
a most Innocent, Agreeable, and Useful Employment. But you may justly
wonder, and Condemn the Vanity of it too, with that Reproach_, This Man
began to build, but was not able to finish! _This has been the Fate of
that Undertaking; and I dare promise, will be of whosoever imagines
(without the Circumstances of extraordinary Assistance, and no ordinary
Expence) to pursue the_ Plan, _erect, and finish the_ Fabrick _as it
ought to be_.

_But this is that which_ Abortives _the Perfection of the most Glorious
and Useful Undertakings; the Unsatiable Coveting to Exhaust all that
should, or can be said upon every Head: If such a one have any thing
else to mind, or do in the World, let me tell him, he thinks of Building
too late; and rarely find we any, who care to superstruct upon the
Foundation of another, and whose_ Ideas _are alike. There ought
therefore to be as many_ Hands, _and_ Subsidiaries _to such a Design_
(_and those_ Matters _too_) _as there are distinct Parts of the Whole
(according to the subsequent Table) that those who have the Means and
Courage, may_ (_tho' they do not undertake the_ Whole) _finish a_ Part
_at least, and in time Unite their Labours into one Intire, Compleat,
and Consummate Work indeed_.

_Of_ One _or_ Two _of these_, I _attempted only a_ Specimen _in my_
SILVA _and the_ KALENDAR; Imperfect, _I say, because they are both
capable of Great Improvements: It is not therefore to be expected_
(_Let me use the Words of an Old, and Experienced_ Gardiner) Cuncta
me dicturum, quae vastitas ejus scientiæ contineret, sed plurima; nam
illud in unius hominis prudentiam cadere non poterit, neque est ulla
Disciplina aut Ars, quæ singulari consummata sit ingenio.

_May it then suffice_ aliquam partem tradidisse, _and that I have done
my Endeavour_.

   ... Jurtilis olim
   Ne Videar vixisse.

_Much more might I add upon this Charming, and Fruitful Subject (I mean,
concerning_ Gardening:) _But this is not a Place to Expatiate, deterr'd,
as I have long since been, from so bold an Enterprize, as the Fabrick
I mentioned. I content my self then with an_ Humble Cottage, _and a
Simple_ Potagere, _Appendant to the_ Calendar; _which, Treating only
(and that briefly) of the_ Culture _of_ Moderate Gardens; _Nothing
seems to me, shou'd be more_ Welcome _and_ Agreeable, _than whilst the
Product of them is come into more_ Request _and_ Use _amongst us, than
heretofore (beside what we call, and distinguish by the Name of_ Fruit)
_I did annex some particular Directions concerning_ S A L L E T S.

       *       *       *       *       *



_OF A_


Describing, and Shewing the _Amplitude_, and _Extent_ of that Part of
_Georgicks_, which belongs to _Horticulture_.

       *       *       *       *       *

In Three Books

       *       *       *       *       *


_Chap. I_. Of _Principles and Elements_ in general.

_Chap. II_. Of the Four (vulgarly reputed) Elements; _Fire, Air, Water;

_Chap. III_. Of the Celestial _Influences_, and particularly of the
_Sun, Moon_, and of the _Climates_.

_Chap. IV_. Of the Four _Annual Seasons_.

_Chap. V_. Of the Natural _Mould_ and _Soil_ of a Garden.

_Chap. VI_. Of _Composts_, and _Stercoration, Repastination, Dressing_
and _Stirring_ the _Earth_ and _Mould_ of a Garden.


_Chap. I_. A Garden _Derived_ and _Defin'd;_ its _Dignity, Distinction_,
and _Sorts_.

_Chap. II_. Of a _Gardiner_, how to be _qualify 'd, regarded_ and
_rewarded_; his _Habitation, Cloathing, Diet_, Under-_Workmen_ and

_Chap. III_. Of the _Instruments_ belonging to a Gardiner; their various
_Uses_, and _Machanical_ Powers.

_Chap. IV_. Of the _Terms_ us'd, and affected by Gardiners.

_Chap. V_. Of _Enclosing, Fencing, Plotting_, and disposing of the
Ground; and of _Terraces, Walks, Allies, Malls, Bowling-Greens, &c._

_Chap. VI_. Of a _Seminary, Nurseries_; and of Propagating _Trees,
Plants_ and _Flowers, Planting_ and _Transplanting, &c._

_Chap. VII_. Of _Knots, Parterres, Compartiments, Borders, Banks_ and

_Chap. VIII_. Of _Groves, Labyrinths, Dedals, Cabinets, Cradles,
Close-Walks, Galleries, Pavilions, Portico's, Lanterns_, and other
_Relievo's_; of _Topiary_ and _Hortulan Architecture_.

_Chap. IX_. Of _Fountains, Jetto's, Cascades, Rivulets, Piscinas,
Canals, Baths_, and other Natural, and Artificial _Water-works_.

_Chap. X_. Of _Rocks, Grotts, Cryptæ, Mounts, Precipices, Ventiducts,
Conservatories_, of _Ice_ and _Snow_, and other Hortulan Refreshments.

_Chap. XI_. Of _Statues, Busts, Obelisks, Columns, Inscriptions, Dials,
Vasa's, Perspectives, Paintings_, and other Ornaments.

_Chap. XII_. Of _Gazon-Theatres, Amphitheatres_, Artificial _Echo's,
Automata_ and _Hydraulic Musck_.

_Chap. XIII_. Of _Aviaries, Apiaries, Vivaries, Insects, &c._

_Chap. XIV_. Of _Verdures, Perennial Greens_, and _Perpetual Springs_.

_Chap. XV_. Of _Orangeries, Oporotheca's, Hybernacula, Stoves_, and
Conservatories of Tender _Plants_ and _Fruits_, and how to order them.

_Chap. XVI_. Of the _Coronary_ Garden: _Flowers_ and _Rare Plants_, how
they are to be _Raised, Governed_ and _Improved_; and how the Gardiner
_is_ to keep his _Register_.

_Chap. XVII_. Of the _Philosophical Medical_ Garden.

_Chap. XVIII_. Of _Stupendous_ and _Wonderful_ _Plants_.

_Chap. XIX_. Of the _Hort-Yard_ and _Potagere_; and what _Fruit-Trees,
Olitory_ and _Esculent_ _Plants_, may be admitted into a Garden of

_Chap. XX_. Of _Sallets_.

_Chap. XXI_. Of a _Vineyard_, and Directions concerning the making of
_Wine_ and other _Vinous_ Liquors, and of _Teas_.

_Chap. XXII_. Of _Watering, Pruning, Plashing, Pallisading, Nailing,
Clipping, Mowing, Rowlling, Weeding, Cleansing, &c._

_Chap. XXIII_. Of the _Enemies_ and _Infirmities_ to which Gardens are
obnoxious, together with _Remedies_.

_Chap. XXIV_. Of the Gardiner's _Almanack_ or _Kalendarium Hortense_,
directing what he is to do Monthly, and what _Fruits_ and _Flowers_ are
in prime.


_Chap. I_. Of _Conserving, Properating, Retarding, Multiplying,
Transmuting_, and Altering the

_Species, Forms_, and (reputed) _Substantial Qualities_ of _Plants,
Fruits_ and _Flowers_.

_Chap. II_. Of the Hortulan _Elaboratory_; and of _distilling_ and
_extracting_ of _Waters, Spirits, Essences, Salts, Colours_,
Resuscitation of _Plants_, with other rare Experiments, and an Account
of their _Virtues_.

_Chap. III_. Of Composing the _Hortus Hyemalis_, and making Books, of
_Natural, Arid Plants_ and _Flowers_, with several Ways of Preserving
them in their _Beauty_.

_Chap. IV_. Of _Painting_ of Flowers, Flowers _enamell'd, Silk,
Callico's, Paper, Wax, Guns, Pasts, Horns, Glass, Shells, Feathers,
Moss, Pietra Comessa, Inlayings, Embroyderies, Carvings_, and other
Artificial Representations of them.

_Chap. V_. Of _Crowns, Chaplets, Garlands, Festoons, Encarpa,
Flower-Pots, Nosegays, Poeses, Deckings_, and other Flowery _Pomps_.

_Chap. VI_. Of _Hortulan Laws_ and _Privileges_.

_Chap. VII_. Of the _Hortulan Study_, and of a _Library, Authors_ and
_Books_ assistant to it.

_Chap. VIII_. Of _Hortulan Entertainments, Natural, Divine, Moral_, and
_Political_; with divers _Historical_ Passages, and Solemnities, to shew
the _Riches, Beauty, Wonder, Plenty, Delight_, and Universal Use of

_Chap. IX_. Of Garden _Burial_.

_Chap. X_. Of _Paradise_, and of the most _Famous Gardens_ in the World,
_Ancient_ and _Modern_.

_Chap. XI_. The Description of a _Villa_.

_Chap. XII_. The _Corollary_ and _Conclusion_.

  ----_Laudato ingentia rura_,
  _Exiguum colito_.----

       *       *       *       *       *



A Discourse of Sallets

       *       *       *       *       *

Sallets in general consist of certain _Esculent_ Plants and Herbs,
improv'd by Culture, Industry, and Art of the _Gard'ner_: Or, as others
say, they are a Composition of _Edule_ Plants and Roots of several
kinds, to be eaten _Raw_ or _Green, Blanch'd_ or _Candied_: simple--and
_per se_, or intermingl'd with others according to the Season. The
Boil'd, Bak'd, Pickl'd, or otherwise disguis'd, variously accommodated
by the skilful Cooks, to render them grateful to the more feminine
Palat, or Herbs rather for the Pot, _&c._ challenge not the name of
_Sallet_ so properly here, tho' sometimes mention'd; And therefore,

Those who _Criticize_ not so nicely upon the Word, seem to distinguish
the [4]_Olera_ (which were never eaten _Raw_) from _Acetaria_, which
were never _Boil'd;_ and so they derive the Etymology of _Olus_, from
_Olla, the Pot_. But others deduce it from [Greek: Olos], comprehending
the _Universal Genus_ of the Vegetable Kingdom; as from [Greek: Pan]
_Panis;_ esteeming that he who had [5]_Bread_ and _Herbs_, was
sufficiently bless'd with all a frugal Man cou'd need or desire: Others
again will have it, _ab Olendo_, i.e. _Crescendo_, from its continual
_growth and springing up_: So the younger _Scaliger_ on _Varro_: But his
Father _Julius_ extends it not so generally to all Plants, as to all
the _Esculents_, according to the Text: _We call those_ Olera (says
[6]_Theophrastus) which are commonly eaten_, in which sense it may be
taken, to include both _Boil'd_ and _Raw_: Last of all, _ab Alendo_,
as having been the Original, and genuine Food of all Mankind from the

A great deal more of this Learned Stuff were to be pick'd up from the
_Cumini Sectores_, and impertinently Curious; whilst as it concerns
the business in hand, we are by _Sallet_ to understand a particular
Composition of certain _Crude_ and fresh Herbs, such as usually are,
or may safely be eaten with some _Acetous_ Juice, _Oyl, Salt_, &c. to
give them a grateful Gust and _Vehicle_; exclusive of the [8][Greek:
psuchrai trapezai], eaten without their due Correctives, which the
Learned [9]_Salmasius_, and, indeed generally, the [10]old _Physicians_
affirm (and that truly) all _Crude_ and raw [Greek: lachana] require
to render them wholsome; so as probably they were from hence, as
[11]_Pliny_ thinks, call'd _Acetaria_: and not (as _Hermolaus_ and
some others) _Acceptaria ab Accipiendo_; nor from Accedere, though so
[12]ready at hand, and easily dress'd; requiring neither _Fire, Cost_,
or _Attendance_, to boil, roast, and prepare them as did Flesh, and
other Provisions; from which, and other Prerogatives, they were always
in use, _&c._ And hence indeed the more frugal _Italians_ and _French_,
to this Day, gather _Ogni Verdura_, any thing almost that's _Green_
and Tender, to the very Tops of _Nettles_; so as every Hedge affords
a _Sallet_ (not unagreeable) season'd with its proper _Oxybaphon_ of
_Vinegar, Salt, Oyl_, &c. which doubtless gives it both the Relish
and Name of _Salad, Emsalada_[13], as with us of _Sallet_; from the
_Sapidity_, which renders not _Plants_ and _Herbs_ alone, but _Men_
themselves, and their Conversations, pleasant and agreeable: But of
this enough, and perhaps too much; least whilst I write of _Salt_ and
_Sallet_, I appear my self _Insipid_: I pass therefore to the
Ingredients, which we will call

Furniture _and_ Materials

The _Materials_ of _Sallets_, which together with the grosser _Olera_,
consist of _Roots, Stalks, Leaves, Buds, Flowers_, &c. _Fruits_
(belonging to another Class) would require a much ampler Volume, than
would suit our Kalendar, (of which this pretends to be an _Appendix_
only) should we extend the following _Catalogue_ further than to a brief
enumeration only of such _Herbaceous_ Plants, _Oluscula_ and smaller
_Esculents_, as are chiefly us'd in _Cold Sallets_, of whose Culture we
have treated there; and as we gather them from the _Mother_ and _Genial
Bed_, with a touch only of their _Qualities_, for Reasons hereafter

1. Alexanders, _Hipposelinum; S. Smyrnium vulgare_ (much of the
nature of _Persly_) is moderately hot, and of a cleansing Faculty,
Deobstructing, nourishing, and comforting the Stomach. The gentle fresh
Sprouts, Buds, and Tops are to be chosen, and the Stalks eaten in the
Spring; and when _Blanch'd_, in Winter likewise, with _Oyl, Pepper,
Salt_, &c. by themselves, or in Composition: They make also an excellent
_Vernal_ Pottage.

2. Artichaux, _Cinara_, (_Carduus Sativus_) hot and dry. The Heads being
slit in quarters first eaten raw, with _Oyl_, a little _Vinegar, Salt_,
and _Pepper_, gratefully recommend a Glass of _Wine_; Dr. _Muffet_ says,
at the end of Meals.

They are likewise, whilst tender and small, fried in fresh _Butter_
crisp with _Persley_. But then become a most delicate and excellent
Restorative, when full grown, they are boil'd the common way. The
_Bottoms_ are also bak'd in _Pies_, with _Marrow, Dates_, and other rich
Ingredients: In _Italy_ they sometimes broil them, and as the Scaly
Leaves open, baste them with fresh and sweet _Oyl_; but with Care
extraordinary, for if a drop fall upon the Coals, all is marr'd; that
hazard escap'd, they eat them with the Juice of _Orange_ and _Sugar_.

The Stalk is _Blanch'd_ in Autumn, and the _Pith_ eaten raw or boil'd.
The way of preserving them fresh all Winter, is by separating the
_Bottoms_ from the _Leaves_, and after Parboiling, allowing to every
_Bottom_, a small earthen glaz'd Pot; burying it all over in fresh
melted _Butter_, as they do Wild-Fowl, _&c._ Or if more than one, in
a larger Pot, in the same Bed and Covering, _Layer_ upon _Layer_.

They are also preserv'd by stringing them on Pack-thread, a clean Paper
being put between every _Bottom_, to hinder them from touching one
another, and so hung up in a dry place. They are likewise _Pickl'd_.

'Tis not very long since this noble _Thistle_ came first into _Italy_,
Improv'd to this Magnitude by Culture; and so rare in _England_, that
they were commonly sold for _Crowns_ a piece: But what _Carthage_ yearly
spent in them (as _Pliny_ computes the Sum) amounted to _Sestertia Sena
Millia_, 30000 _l. Sterling_.

_Note_, That the _Spanish Cardon_, a wild and smaller _Artichoak_, with
sharp pointed Leaves, and lesser Head; the Stalks being _Blanch'd_ and
tender, are serv'd-up _a la Poiverade_ (that is with _Oyl, Pepper_, &c.)
as the _French_ term is.

3. Basil, _Ocimum_ (as _Baulm_) imparts a grateful Flavour, if not too
strong, somewhat offensive to the Eyes; and therefore the tender Tops
to be very sparingly us'd in our _Sallet_.

4. Baulm, _Melissa, Baum_, hot and dry, Cordial and exhilarating,
sovereign for the Brain, strengthning the Memory, and powerfully chasing
away _Melancholy_. The tender Leaves are us'd in Composition with other
Herbs; and the Sprigs fresh gather'd, put into _Wine_ or other Drinks,
during the heat of Summer, give it a marvellous quickness: This noble
Plant yields an incomparable _Wine_, made as is that of _Cowslip_-Flowers.

5. Beet, _Beta_; of which there is both _Red, Black_, and _White_: The
_Costa_, or Rib of the _White Beet_ (by the _French_ call'd the _Chard_)
being boil'd, melts, and eats like Marrow. And the _Roots_ (especially
of the _Red_) cut into thin slices, boil'd, when cold, is of it self a
grateful winter _Sallet_; or being mingl'd with other _Oluscula, Oyl,
Vinegar, Salt_, &c. 'Tis of quality Cold and Moist, and naturally
somewhat _Laxative_: But however by the _Epigrammatist_ stil'd
_Foolish_ and _Insipid, as Innocentior quam Olus_ (for so the Learned
[14]_Harduin_ reads the place) 'tis by _Diphilus_ of old, and others
since, preferr'd before _Cabbage_ as of better Nourishment: _Martial_
(not unlearn'd in the Art of _Sallet_) commends it with _Wine_ and
_Pepper_: He names it indeed--_Fabrorum prandia_, for its being so
vulgar. But eaten with _Oyl_ and _Vinegar_, as usually, it is no
despicable _Sallet_. There is a _Beet_ growing near the Sea, which is
the most delicate of all. The Roots of the _Red Beet_, pared into thin
Slices and Circles, are by the _French_ and _Italians_ contriv'd into
curious Figures to adorn their _Sallets_.

_6_. Blite, _Blitum_; English _Mercury_, or (as our Country House wives
call it) _All-good_, the gentle _Turiones_, and Tops may be eaten as
_Sparagus_, or sodden in Pottage: There is both a white and red, much
us'd in _Spain_ and _Italy_; but besides its humidity and detersive
Nature, 'tis _Insipid_ enough.

7. Borrage, _Borrago_ (_Gaudia semper ago_) hot and kindly moist,
purifying the Blood, is an exhilarating Cordial, of a pleasant Flavour:
The tender Leaves, and Flowers especially, may be eaten in Composition;
but above all, the Sprigs in _Wine_, like those of _Baum_, are of known
Vertue to revive the _Hypochondriac_, and chear the hard Student. See

8. Brooklime, _Anagallis aquatica_; moderately hot and moist, prevalent
in the _Scorbute_, and _Stone_.

9. Bugloss, _Buglossum_; in mature much like _Borrage_, yet something
more astringent. The Flowers of both, with the intire Plant, greatly
restorative, being Conserv'd: And for the rest, so much commended by
_Averroes_; that for its effects, cherishing the Spirits, justly call'd
_Euphrosynum_; Nay, some will have it the _Nepenthes_ of _Homer_: But
indeed, what we now call _Bugloss_, was not that of the Ancients, but
rather _Borrage_, for the like Virtue named _Corrago_.

Burnet, See _Pimpinella_.

10. Buds, _Gemmæ, Turiones_; the first Rudiments and Tops of most
_Sallet_-Plants, preferrable to all other less tender Parts; such as
_Ashen-Keys, Broom-buds_, hot and dry, retaining the vertue of _Capers_,
esteem'd to be very opening, and prevalent against the _Spleen_ and
_Scurvy_; and being _Pickl'd_, are sprinkl'd among the _Sallets_, or
eaten by themselves.

11. Cabbage, _Brassica_ (and its several kinds) _Pompey's_ beloved Dish,
so highly celebrated by old [15]_Cato_, _Pythagoras_, and _Chrysippus_
the Physician (as the only _Panacea_) is not so generally magnify'd
by the rest of Doctors, as affording but a crass and melancholy Juice;
yet _Loosening_ if but moderately boil'd, if over-much, _Astringent_,
according to _C. Celsus_; and therefore seldom eaten raw, excepting
by the _Dutch_. The _Cymæ_, or Sprouts rather of the _Cole_ are very
delicate, so boil'd as to retain their Verdure and green Colour. In
raising this _Plant_ great care is to be had of the Seed. The best comes
from _Denmark_ and _Russia_, especially the _Cauly-flower_, (anciently
unknown) or from _Aleppo_. Of the _French_, the _Pancaliere a la large
Costé_, the white, large and ponderous are to be chosen; and so the
_Cauly-flower_: After boiling some steep them in Milk, and seethe them
again in Beef-Broth: Of old they added a little _Nitre_. The _Broccoli_
from _Naples_, perhaps the _Halmyridia_ of _Pliny_ (or _Athenæus_
rather) _Capiata marina_ & _florida_, our _Sea-keele_ (the ancient
_Crambe_) and growing on our Coast, are very delicate, as are the
_Savoys_, commended for being not so rank, but agreeable to most
_Palates_, and of better Nourishment: In general, _Cabbages_ are thought
to allay Fumes, and prevent Intoxication: But some will have them
noxious to the Sight; others impute it to the _Cauly-flower_ rather: But
whilst the Learned are not agreed about it, _Theophrastus_ affirms the
contrary, and _Pliny_ commends the Juice raw, with a little _Honey_, for
the moist and weeping Eye, not the dry or dull. But after all, _Cabbage_
('tis confess'd) is greatly accus'd for lying undigested in the Stomach,
and provoking Eructations; which makes me wonder at the Veneration we
read the Ancients had for them, calling them _Divine_, and Swearing,
_per Brassicam_. 'Tis scarce an hundred Years since we first had
_Cabbages_ out of _Holland_. Sir _Anth. Ashley_ of _Wiburg St. Giles_
in _Dorsetshire_, being (as I am told) the first who planted them in

12. Cardon, See _Artichaux_.

13. Carrots, _Dauci_, or _Pastinaca Sativa_; temperately warm and dry,
Spicy; the best are yellow, very nourishing; let them be rais'd in
Ground naturally rich, but not too heavy.

14. Chervile, _Chærophyllum, Myrrhis_; The sweet aromatick _Spanish
Chervile_, moderately hot and dry: The tender _Cimæ_, and Tops, with
other Herbs, are never to be wanting in our _Sallets_, (as long as they
may be had) being exceedingly wholsome and chearing the Spirits: The
_Roots_ are also boil'd and eaten Cold; much commended for Aged Persons:
This (as likewise _Spinach_) is us'd in _Tarts_, and serves alone for
divers Sauces.

  Cibbols.   \
  Cives.     / Vide Onions, _Schoenopræsson_.

15. Clary, _Horminum_, when tender not to be rejected, and in _Omlets_,
made up with _Cream_, fried in sweet _Butter_, are eaten with _Sugar_,
Juice of _Orange_, or _Limon_.

16. Clavers, _Aparine_; the tender Winders, with young _Nettle-Tops_,
are us'd in _Lenten_ Pottages.

17. Corn-sallet, _Valerianella_; loos'ning and refreshing: The Tops
and Leaves are a _Sallet_ of themselves, seasonably eaten with other
Salleting, the whole Winter long, and early Spring: The _French_ call
them _Salad de Preter_, for their being generally eaten in _Lent_.

18. Cowslips, _Paralysis_: See _Flowers_.

19. Cresses, _Nasturtium_, Garden _Cresses_; to be monthly sown: But
above all the _Indian_, moderately hot, and aromatick, quicken the
torpent Spirits, and purge the Brain, and are of singular effect against
the _Scorbute_. Both the tender Leaves, _Calices, Cappuchin Capers_,
and _Flowers_, are laudably mixed with the colder Plants. The _Buds_
being Candy'd, are likewise us'd in Strewings all Winter. There is the
_Nastur. Hybernicum_ commended also, and the vulgar _Water-Cress_,
proper in the Spring, all of the same Nature, tho' of different Degrees,
and best for raw and cold Stomachs, but nourish little.

20. Cucumber, _Cucumis_; tho' very cold and moist, the most approved
_Sallet_ alone, or in Composition, of all the _Vinaigrets_, to sharpen
the Appetite, and cool the Liver, [16]_&c._ if rightly prepar'd; that
is, by rectifying the vulgar Mistake of altogether extracting the Juice,
in which it should rather be soak'd: Nor ought it to be over _Oyl'd_,
too much abating of its grateful _Acidity_, and _palling_ the Taste from
a contrariety of Particles: Let them therefore be pared, and cut in
thin Slices, with a _Clove_ or two of _Onion_ to correct the Crudity,
macerated in the Juice, often turn'd and moderately drain'd. Others
prepare them, by shaking the Slices between two Dishes, and dress them
with very little _Oyl_, well beaten, and mingled with the Juice of
_Limon, Orange_, or _Vinegar, Salt_ and _Pepper_. Some again, (and
indeed the most approv'd) eat them as soon as they are cut, retaining
their Liquor, which being exhausted (by the former Method) have nothing
remaining in them to help the Concoction. Of old they [17]boil'd the
_Cucumber_, and paring off the Rind, eat them with _Oyl, Vinegar_, and
_Honey_; _Sugar_ not being so well known. Lastly, the _Pulp_ in Broth is
greatly refreshing, and may be mingl'd in most _Sallets_, without the
least damage, contrary to the common Opinion; it not being long, since
_Cucumber_, however dress'd, was thought fit to be thrown away, being
accounted little better than Poyson. _Tavernier_ tells us, that in
the _Levant_, if a Child cry for something to Eat, they give it a
raw _Cucumber_ instead of _Bread_. The young ones may be boil'd in
White-Wine. The smaller sort (known by the name of _Gerckems_) muriated
with the Seeds of _Dill_, and the _Mango_ Pickle are for the Winter.

21. Daisy, _Buphthalmum_, Ox-Eye, or _Bellis-major_: The young _Roots_
are frequently eaten by the _Spaniards_ and _Italians_ all the Spring
till _June_.

22. Dandelion, _Dens Leonis, Condrilla_: Macerated in several Waters,
to extract the bitterness; tho' somewhat opening, is very wholsome, and
little inferior to _Succory, Endive_, &c. The _French_ Country-People
eat the Roots; and 'twas with this homely _Sallet_, the Good-Wife
_Hecate_ entertain'd _Theseus_. See _Sowthistle_.

23. Dock, _Oxylapathum_, or sharp-pointed Dock: Emollient, and tho'
otherwise not for our _Sallet_, the _Roots_ brewed in _Ale_ or _Beer_,
are excellent for the _Scorbute_.

Earth-Nuts, _Bulbo-Castanum_; (found in divers places of _Surry_, near
_Kingston_, and other parts) the Rind par'd off, are eaten crude by
Rustics, with a little _Pepper_; but are best boil'd like other Roots,
or in Pottage rather, and are sweet and nourishing.

24. Elder, _Sambucus_; The Flowers infus'd in _Vinegar_, grateful both
to the Stomach and Taste; attenuate thick and viscid Humours; and tho'
the Leaves are somewhat rank of Smell, and so not commendable in
_Sallet_; they are otherwise (as indeed is the intire Shrub) of the most
sovereign Vertue; and the spring Buds and tender Leaves, excellently
wholsome in Pottage at that Season of the Year. See _Flowers_.

25. Endive, _Endivium, Intubum Sativum_; the largest, whitest, and
tenderest Leaves best boil'd, and less crude. It is naturally Cold,
profitable for hot Stomachs; _Incisive_ and opening Obstructions
of the Liver: The curled is more delicate, being eaten alone, or in
Composition, with the usual _Intinctus_: It is also excellent being
boil'd; the middle part of the Blanch'd-Stalk separated, eats firm, and
the ampler Leaves by many perferr'd before _Lettuce_. See _Succory_.

Eschalot. See _Onions_.

26. Fennel, _Foeniculum_: The sweetest of _Bolognia_: Aromatick,
hot, and dry; expels Wind, sharpens the Sight, and recreates the Brain;
especially the tender _Umbella_ and Seed-Pods. The Stalks are to be
peel'd when young, and then dress'd like _Sellery_. The tender Tufts and
Leaves emerging, being minc'd, are eaten alone with _Vinegar_, or _Oyl_,
and _Pepper_, and to correct the colder Materials, enter properly into
Composition. The _Italians_ eat the blanch'd Stalk (which they call
_Cartucci_) all Winter long. There is a very small _Green-Worm_, which
sometimes lodges in the Stemm of this Plant, which is to be taken out,
as the _Red_ one in that of _Sellery_.

27. Flowers, _Flores_; chiefly of the _Aromatick Esculents_ and
Plants are preferrable, as generally endow'd with the Vertues of their
_Simples_, in a more intense degree; and may therefore be eaten alone
in their proper _Vehicles_, or Composition with other _Salleting_,
sprinkl'd among them; But give a more palatable Relish, being Infus'd
in _Vinegar_; Especially those of the _Clove-Gillyflower, Elder, Orange,
Cowslip, Rosemary, Arch-Angel, Sage, Nasturtium Indicum_, &c. Some of
them are Pickl'd, and divers of them make also very pleasant and wholsome
_Theas_, as do likewise the Wild _Time, Bugloss, Mint_, &c.

28. Garlick, _Allium_; dry towards Excess; and tho' both by _Spaniards_
and _Italians_, and the more Southern People, familiarly eaten, with
almost every thing, and esteem'd of such sigular Vertue to help
Conception, and thought a Charm against all Infection and Poyson (by
which it has obtain'd the Name of the _Country-man's Theriacle_) we yet
think it more proper for our Northern Rustics, especially living in
_Uliginous_ and moist places, or such as use the _Sea_: Whilst we
absolutely forbid it entrance into our _Salleting_, by reason of its
intolerable Rankness, and which made it so detested of old; that the
eating of it was (as we read) part of the Punishment for such as had
committed the horrid'st Crimes. To be sure, 'tis not for Ladies Palats,
nor those who court them, farther than to permit a light touch on the
Dish, with a _Clove_ thereof, much better supply'd by the gentler

_Note_, That in _Spain_ they sometimes eat it boil'd, which taming its
fierceness, turns it into Nourishment, or rather _Medicine_.

Ginny-Pepper, _Capsicum_. See _Pepper_.

29. Goats-beard, _Trago-pogon:_ The _Root_ is excellent even in
_Sallet_, and very Nutritive, exceeding profitable for the Breast,
and may be stew'd and dress'd as _Scorzonera_.

30. Hops, _Lupulus_: Hot and moist, rather _Medicinal_, than fit for
_Sallet_; the _Buds_ and young _Tendrels_ excepted, which may be eaten
raw; but more conveniently being boil'd, and cold like _Asparagus_: They
are _Diuretic_; depurate the Blood, and open Obstructions.

31. Hyssop, _Hyssopus; Thymus Capitatus Creticus; Majoran,
Mary-gold_, &c. as all hot, spicy _Aromatics_, (commonly growing in
_Kitchin-Gardens_) are of Faculty to Comfort, and strengthen; prevalent
against Melancoly and Phlegm; Plants, like these, going under the Names
of _Pot Herbs_, are much more proper for _Broths_ and _Decoctions_, than
the tender _Sallet_: Yet the _Tops_ and _Flowers_ reduc'd to Powder, are
by some reserv'd for Strewings, upon the colder Ingredients;
communicating no ungrateful Fragrancy.

32. Jack-by-the-Hedge, _Alliaria_, or _Sauce-alone_; has many Medicinal
Properties, and is eaten as other _Sallets_, especially by Country
People, growing wild under their Banks and Hedges.

33. Leeks, and _Cibbols, Porrum_; hot, and of Vertue Prolifick, since
_Latona_, the Mother of _Appolo_ long'd after them: The _Welch_, who eat
them much, are observ'd to be very fruitful: They are also friendly to
the Lungs and Stomach, being sod in Milk; a few therefore of the slender
and green Summities, a little shred, do not amiss in Composition. See

34. Lettuce, _Lactuca_: Tho' by _Metaphor_ call'd [18]_Mortuorum Cibi_,
(to say nothing of [19]_Adonis_ and his sad _Mistriss_) by reason of
its _Soporiferous_ quality, ever was, and still continues the principal
Foundation of the universal _Tribe_ of _Sallets_; which is to Cool and
Refresh, besides its other Properties: And therefore in such high esteem
with the Ancients; that divers of the _Valerian_ Family, dignify'd and
enobled their Name with that of _Lactucinii_.

It is indeed of Nature more cold and moist than any of the rest; yet
less astringent, and so harmless that it may safely be eaten raw in
Fevers; for it allays Heat, bridles Choler, extinguishes Thirst, excites
Appetite, kindly Nourishes, and above all represses Vapours, conciliates
Sleep, mitigates Pain; besides the effect it has upon the Morals,
_Temperance_ and _Chastity_. Galen (whose beloved _Sallet_ it was)
from its _pinguid, subdulcid_ and agreeable Nature, says it breeds the
most laudable Blood. No marvel then that they were by the Ancients
called _Sana_, by way of eminency, and so highly valu'd by the great
[20]_Augustus_, that attributing his Recovery of a dangerous Sickness
to them, 'tis reported, he erected a _Statue_, and built an _Altar_ to
this noble Plant. And that the most abstemious and excellent Emperor
[21]_Tacitus_ (spending almost nothing at his frugal Table in other
Dainties) was yet so great a Friend to _Lettuce_, that he was us'd to
say of his Prodigality, _Somnum se mercari illa sumptus effusione_.
How it was celebrated by _Galen_ we have heard; how he us'd it he tells
himself; namely, beginning with _Lettuce_ in his younger Days, and
concluding with it when he grew old, and that to his great advantage. In
a word, we meet with nothing among all our crude Materials and _Sallet_
store, so proper to mingle with any of the rest, nor so wholsome
to be eaten alone, or in Composition, moderately, and with the usual
_Oxeloeum_ of _Vinegar, Pepper_, and _Oyl_, &c. which last does not
so perfectly agree with the _Alphange_, to which the Juice of _Orange_,
or _Limon_ and _Sugar_ is more desirable: _Aristoxenus_ is reported
to have irrigated his _Lettuce_-Beds with an _Oinomelite_, or mixture
of _Wine_ and _Honey_: And certainly 'tis not for nothing that our
Garden-Lovers, and _Brothers of the Sallet_, have been so exceedingly
Industrious to cultivate this Noble Plant, and multiply its _Species_;
for to name a few in present use: We have the _Alphange_ of
_Montpelier_, crisp and delicate; the _Arabic; Ambervelleres; Belgrade,
Cabbage, Capuchin, Coss-Lettuce, Curl'd_; the _Genoa_ (lasting all
the Winter) the _Imperial, Lambs_, or _Agnine_, and _Lobbs_ or
_Lop-Lettuces_. The _French Minion_ a dwarf kind: The _Oak-Leaf,
Passion, Roman, Shell_, and _Silesian_, hard and crimp (esteemed of
the best and rarest) with divers more: And here let it be noted, that
besides three or four sorts of this Plant, and some few of the rest,
there was within our remembrance, rarely any other _Salleting_ serv'd up
to the best Tables; with unblanch'd _Endive, Succory, Purselan_, (and
indeed little other variety) _Sugar_ and _Vinegar_ being the constant
_Vehicles_ (without _Oyl_) but now _Sugar_ is almost wholly banish'd
from all, except the more effeminate Palates, as too much palling, and
taking from the grateful _Acid_ now in use, tho' otherwise not totally
to be reproved: _Lettuce_ boil'd and _Condited_ is sometimes spoken of.

35. Limon, _Limonia, citrea mala_; exceedingly refreshing, _Cordial_,
&c. The Pulp being blended with the Juice, secluding the over-sweet or
bitter. See _Orange_.

36. Mallow, _Malva_; the curl'd, emollient, and friendly to the
_Ventricle_, and so rather Medicinal; yet may the Tops, well boil'd,
be admitted, and the rest (tho' out of use at present) was taken by
the Poets for all _Sallets_ in general. _Pythagoras_ held _Malvæ folium
Sanctisimum_; and we find _Epimenides_ in [22]Plato at his _Mallows_
and _Asphodel_; and indeed it was of old the first Dish at Table:
The _Romans_ had it also _in deliciis_, [23]_Malvæ salubres corpori_,
approved by [24]_Galen_ and [25]_Dioscorides_; namely the _Garden-Mallow_,
by others the _Wild_; but I think both proper rather for the _Pot_, than
_Sallet_. _Nonius_ supposes the tall _Rosea, Arborescent Holi-hocks_,
that bears the broad Flower, for the best, and very [26]_Laxative_; but
by reason of their clamminess and _Lentor_, banished from our _Sallet_,
tho' by some commended and eaten with _Oyl_ and _Vinegar_, and some with

Mercury, _Bonus Henricus_, English Mercury, or _Lapathum Unctuosum_. See

37. Melon, _Melo_; to have been reckon'd rather among _Fruits_; and tho'
an usual Ingredient in our _Sallet_; yet for its transcendent delicacy
and flavor, cooling and exhilarating Nature (if sweet, dry, weighty, and
well-fed) not only superior all the _Gourd_-kind, but Paragon with the
noblest Productions of the Garden. _Jos. Scaliger_ and _Casaubon_, think
our _Melon_ unknown to the Ancients, (which others contradict) as yet
under the name of _Cucumers_: But he who reads how artificially they
were Cultivated, rais'd under Glasses, and expos'd to the hot Sun, (for
_Tiberius_) cannot well doubt of their being the same with ours.

There is also a _Winter-Melon_, large and with black Seeds, exceedingly
Cooling, brought us from abroad, and the hotter Climates, where they
drink _Water_ after eating _Melons_; but in the colder (after all
dispute) _Wine_ is judg'd the better: That it has indeed by some been
accus'd as apt to corrupt in the Stomach (as do all things else eaten
in excess) is not deny'd: But a perfect good _Melon_ is certainly as
harmless a Fruit as any whatsoever; and may safely be mingl'd with
_Sallet_, in Pulp or Slices, or more properly eaten by it self, with
a little _Salt_ and _Pepper_; for a _Melon_ which requires _Sugar_ to
commend it, wants of Perfection. _Note_, That this Fruit was very rarely
cultivated in _England_, so as to bring it to Maturity, till Sir _Geo.
Gardner_ came out of _Spain_. I my self remembring, when an ordinary
_Melon_ would have been sold for five or six Shillings. The small unripe
Fruit, when the others are past, may be Pickl'd with _Mango_, and are
very delicate.

38. Mint, _Mentha_; the _Angustifolia Spicata_, Spear-Mint; dry and
warm, very fragrant, a little press'd, is friendly to the weak Stomach,
and powerful against all _Nervous_ Crudities: The gentler Tops of the
_Orange-Mint_, enter well into our Composition, or are grateful alone
(as are also the other sorts) with the Juice of _Orange_, and a little

39. Mushroms, _Fungi_; By the [27]Orator call'd _Terræ_, by _Porphyry
Deorum filii_, without Seed (as produc'd by the Midwifry of _Autumnal_
Thunder-Storms, portending the Mischief they cause) by the _French,
Champignons_, with all the Species of the _Boletus_, &c. for being, as
some hold, neither _Root, Herb, Flower_, nor _Fruit_, nor to be eaten
crude; should be therefore banish'd entry into our _Sallet_, were I to
order the Composition; however so highly contended for by many, as the
very principal and top of all the rest; whilst I think them tolerable
only (at least in this _Climate_) if being fresh and skilfully chosen,
they are accommodated with the nicest Care and Circumspection; generally
reported to have something malignant and noxious in them: Nor without
cause; from the many sad Examples, frequent Mischiefs, and funest
Accidents they have produc'd, not only to particular Persons, but whole
Families: Exalted indeed they were to the second Course of the _Cæsarian
Tables_, with the noble Title [Greek: Brôma theôn], a Dainty fit for
the _Gods_ alone; to whom they sent the Emperor [28]_Claudius_, as they
have many since, to the other World. But he that reads how [29]_Seneca_
deplores his lost Friend, that brave Commander _Annæus Serenus_, and
several other gallant Persons with him, who all of them perish'd at the
same Repast; would be apt to ask with the [30]_Naturalist_ (speaking of
this suspicious Dainty) _Quæ voluptas tanta ancipitis cibi_? and who
indeed would hazard it? So true is that of the Poet; He that eats
_Mushroms_, many time _Nil amplius edit_, eats no more perhaps all his
Life after. What other deterring _Epithets_ are given for our Caution,
[Greek: Barê pnigoenta mukêtôn], _heavy_ and _choaking_. (_Athenæus_
reporting of the Poet _Euripides's_, finding a Woman and her three
Children strangl'd by eating of them) one would think sufficient

Among these comes in the _Fungus Reticularis_, to be found about
_London_, as at _Fulham_ and other places; whilst at no small charge we
send for them into _France_; as we also do for _Trufles_, _Pig-nuts_,
and other subterraneous _Tubera_, which in _Italy_ they fry in Oyl,
and eat with _Pepper_: They are commonly discovered by a _Nasute Swine_
purposely brought up; being of a Chessnut Colour, and heady Smell,
and not seldom found in _England_, particularly in a Park of my Lord
_Cotton's_ at _Rushton_ or _Rusbery_ in _Northampton_-shire, and
doubtless in other [31]places too were they sought after. How these
rank and provocative Excrescences are to be [32]treated (of themselves
insipid enough, and only famous for their kindly taking any Pickle or
_Conditure_) that they may do the less Mischief we might here set down.
But since there be so many ways of Dressing them, that I can incourage
none to use them, for Reasons given (besides that they do not at all
concern our safer and innocent _Sallet_ Furniture) I forbear it; and
referr those who long after this beloved _Ragout_, and other
_Voluptuaria Venena_ (as _Seneca_ calls them) to what our Learned Dr.
_Lyster_[33] says of the many Venomous _Insects_ harbouring and
corrupting in a new found-out Species of _Mushroms_ had lately in
deliciis. Those, in the mean time, which are esteemed best, and less
pernicious, (of which see the _Appendix_) are such as rise in rich,
airy, and dry [34]Pasture-Grounds; growing on the Staff or _Pedicule_ of
about an Inch thick and high; moderately Swelling (_Target_-like) round
and firm, being underneath of a pale saffronish hue, curiously radiated
in parallel Lines and Edges, which becoming either Yellow, Orange, or
Black, are to be rejected: But besides what the Harvest-Months produce,
they are likewise rais'd [35]Artificially; as at _Naples_ in their
Wine-Cellars, upon an heap of rank Earth, heaped upon a certain supposed
_Stone_, but in truth, (as the curious and noble [36]_Peiresky_ tells
us, he found to be) nothing but an heap of old _Fungus_'s, reduc'd and
compacted to a stony hardness, upon which they lay Earth, and sprinkle
it with warm Water, in which _Mushroms_ have been steeped. And in
_France_, by making an hot Bed of _Asses_-Dung, and when the heat is
in Temper, watering it (as above) well impregnated with the Parings
and Offals of refuse _Fungus_'s; and such a Bed will last two or three
Years, and sometimes our common _Melon_-Beds afford them, besides other

40. Mustard, _Sinapi_; exceeding hot and _mordicant_, not only in the
Seed but Leaf also; especially in _Seedling_ young Plants, like those of
_Radishes_ (newly peeping out of the Bed) is of incomparable effect to
quicken and revive the Spirits; strengthening the Memory, expelling
heaviness, preventing the Vertiginous Palsie, and is a laudable
_Cephalick_. Besides it is an approv'd _Antiscorbutick_; aids
Concoction, cuts and dissipates Phlegmatick Humours. In short, 'tis the
most noble _Embamma_, and so necessary an Ingredient to all cold and raw
_Salleting_, that it is very rarely, if at all, to be left out. In
_Italy_ in making _Mustard_, they mingle _Limon_ and _Orange-Peel_, with
the Seeds. How the best is made, see hereafter.

_Nasturtium Indicum_. See _Cresses_.

41. Nettles, _Urtica_; Hot, dry, _Diuretic, Solvent_; purifies the
Blood: The Buds, and very tender _Cimae_, a little bruised, are by some
eaten raw, by others boil'd, especially in _Spring-Pottage_, with other

42. Onion, _Cepa_, _Porrum_; the best are such as are brought us out of
_Spain_, whence they of St. _Omers_ had them, and some that have weigh'd
eight Pounds. Choose therefore the large, round, white, and thin Skin'd.
Being eaten crude and alone with _Oyl_, _Vinegar_, and _Pepper_, we own
them in _Sallet_, not so hot as _Garlick_, nor at all so rank: Boil'd,
they give a kindly relish; raise Appetite, corroborate the Stomach, cut
Phlegm, and profit the _Asthmatical_: But eaten in excess, are said to
offend the Head and Eyes, unless _Edulcorated_ with a gentle maceration.
In the mean time, as to their being noxious to the Sight, is imputable
only to the Vapour rising from the raw Onion, when peeled, which some
commend for its purging and quickning that Sense. How they are us'd in
Pottage, boil'd in Milk, stew'd, &c. concerns the Kitchin. In our cold
_Sallet_ we supply them with the _Porrum Sectile_, Tops of _Leeks_, and
_Eschalots_ (_Ascalonia_) of gust more exalted, yet not to the degree of
_Garlick_. Or (by what of later use is much preferr'd) with a _Seed_ or
two of _Raccombo_, of a yet milder and delicate nature, which by rubbing
the Dish only, imparts its Vertue agreeably enough. In _Italy_ they
frequently make a _Sallet_ of _Scalions_, _Cives_, and _Chibbols_ only
season'd with _Oyl_ and _Pepper_; and an honest laborious Country-man,
with good _Bread_, _Salt_, and a little _Parsley_, will make a contented
Meal with a roasted _Onion_. How this noble _Bulb_ was deified in
[37]_Egypt_ we are told, and that whilst they were building the
_Pyramids_, there was spent in this Root [38]_Ninety Tun_ of _Gold_
among the Workmen. So lushious and tempting it seems they were, that as
whole Nations have subsisted on them alone; so the _Israelites_ were
ready to return to _Slavery_ and _Brick-making_ for the love of them.
Indeed _Hecamedes_ we find presents them to _Patroclus_, in _Homer_, as
a _Regalo_; But certainly we are either mistaken in the _Species_ (which
some will have to be _Melons_) or use _Poetick_ Licence, when we so
highly magnify them.

43. Orach, _Atriplex_: Is cooling, allays the _Pituit_ Humor: Being set
over the Fire, neither _this_, nor _Lettuce_, needs any other Water than
their own moisture to boil them in, without Expression: The tender
Leaves are mingl'd with other cold _Salleting_; but 'tis better in
Pottage. See _Blitum_.

44. Orange, _Arantiæ_ (_Malum aureum_) Moderately dry, cooling,
and incisive; sharpens Appetite, exceedingly refreshes and resists
Putrefaction: We speak of the _Sub acid_; the sweet and bitter _Orange_
being of no use in our _Sallet_. The _Limon_ is somewhat more acute,
cooling and extinguishing Thirst; of all the [Greek: Oxubapha] the best
_succedaneum_ to _Vinegar_. The very Spoils and Rinds of _Orange_ and
_Limon_ being shred and sprinkl'd among the other Herbs, correct the
Acrimony. But they are the tender _Seedlings_ from the _Hot-Bed_, which
impart an _Aromatic_ exceedingly grateful to the Stomach. _Vide_ Limon.

45. Parsnep, _Pastinaca_, Carrot: first boil'd, being cold, is of it
self a Winter-_Sallet_, eaten with _Oyl_, _Vinegar_, &c. and having
something of Spicy, is by some, thought more nourishing than the

46. Pease, _Pisum_: the Pod of the _Sugar-Pease_, when first beginning
to appear, with the _Husk_ and _Tendrels_, affording a pretty _Acid_,
enter into the Composition, as do those of _Hops_ and the _Vine_.

47. Peper, _Piper_, hot and dry in a high degree; of approv'd
Vertue against all flatulency proceeding from cold and phlegmatic
Constitutions, and generally all Crudities whatsoever; and therefore for
being of universal use to correct and temper the cooler Herbs, and such
as abound in moisture; It is a never to be omitted Ingredient of our
_Sallets_; provided it be not too minutely beaten (as oft we find it)
to an almost impalpable Dust, which is very pernicious and frequently
adheres and sticks in the folds of the Stomach, where, instead of
promoting Concoction, it often causes a _Cardialgium_, and fires the
Blood: It should therefore be grosly contus'd only.

_Indian Capsicum_, superlatively hot and burning, is yet by the
_Africans_ eaten with _Salt_ and _Vinegar_ by it self, as an usual
Condiment; but wou'd be of dangerous consequence with us; being so much
more of an acrimonious and terribly biting quality, which by Art and
Mixture is notwithstanding render'd not only safe, but very agreeable
in our _Sallet_.

Take the _Pods_, and dry them well in a Pan; and when they are become
sufficiently hard, cut them into small pieces, and stamp 'em in a Mortar
to dust: To each Ounce of which add a Pound of _Wheat-flour_, fermented
with a little _Levain_: Kneed and make them into Cakes or Loaves cut
long-wise, in shape of _Naples-Biscuit_. These Re-bake a second time,
till they are Stone-hard: Pound them again as before, and ferce it
through a fine Sieve, for a very proper Seasoning, instead of vulgar
_Peper_. The Mordicancy thus allay'd, be sure to make the Mortar very
clean, after having beaten _Indian Capsicum_, before you stamp any thing
in it else. The green Husks, or first peeping Buds of the _Walnut-Tree_,
dry'd to Powder, serve for _Peper_ in some places, and so do

48. Persley, _Petroselinum_, or _Apium hortense_; being hot and dry,
opens Obstructions, is very _Diuretic_, yet nourishing, _edulcorated_
in shifted warm Water (the Roots especially) but of less Vertue than
_Alexanders_; nor so convenient in our crude _Sallet_, as when decocted
on a Medicinal Account. Some few tops of the tender Leaves may yet be
admitted; tho' it was of old, we read, never brought to the Table at
all, as sacred to _Oblivium_ and the _Defunct_. In the mean time, there
being nothing more proper for Stuffing, (_Farces_) and other _Sauces_,
we consign it to the _Olitories_. _Note_, that Persley is not so hurtful
to the Eyes as is reported. See _Sellery_.

49. Pimpernel, _Pimpinella_; eaten by the _French_ and _Italians_, is
our common _Burnet_; of so chearing and exhilarating a quality, and so
generally commended, as (giving it admittance into all _Sallets_) 'tis
pass'd into a Proverb:

  _L'Insalata non è buon, ne bella_
  _Ove non è la Pimpinella_.

But a fresh sprig in _Wine_, recommends it to us as its most genuine

50. Purslain, _Portulaca_; especially the _Golden_ whilst tender, next
the Seed-leaves, with the young Stalks, being eminently moist and
cooling, quickens Appetite, asswages Thirst, and is very profitable
for hot and _Bilious_ Tempers, as well as _Sanguine_, and generally
entertain'd in all our _Sallets_, mingled with the hotter Herbs: Tis
likewise familiarly eaten alone with _Oyl_ and _Vinegar_; but with
moderation, as having been sometimes found to corrupt in the Stomach,
which being _Pickl'd_ 'tis not so apt to do. Some eat it cold, after
it has been boil'd, which Dr. _Muffet_ would have in _Wine_, for

The Shrub _Halimus_, is a sort of _Sea-Purslain_: The newly peeping
Leaves (tho' rarely us'd) afford a no unpleasant _Acidule_, even during
winter, if it prove not too severe.

_Purslain_ is accus'd for being hurtful to the _Teeth_, if too much

51. Radish, _Raphanus_. Albeit rather Medicinal, than so commendably
accompanying our _Sallets_ (wherein they often slice the larger Roots)
are much inferior to the young Seedling Leaves and Roots; raised on the
[39]Monthly _Hot-Bed_, almost the whole Year round, affording a very
grateful mordacity, and sufficiently attempers the cooler Ingredients:
The bigger Roots (so much desir'd) should be such as being transparent,
eat short and quick, without stringiness, and not too biting. These are
eaten alone with _Salt_ only, as carrying their _Peper_ in them; and
were indeed by _Dioscorides_ and _Pliny_ celebrated above all Roots
whatsoever; insomuch as in the _Delphic_ Temple, there was _Raphanus ex
auro dicatus_, a Radish of solid Gold; and 'tis said of _Moschius_, that
he wrote a whole Volume in their praise. Notwithstanding all which, I am
sure, the great [40]_Hippocrates_ utterly condemns them, as _Vitiosoe,
innatantes ac aegre concoctiles_. And the _Naturalist_ calls it _Cibus
Illiberalis_, fitter for _Rustics_ than _Gentlemens_ Tables. And indeed
(besides that they decay the Teeth) experience tells us, that as the
Prince of _Physicians_ writes, It is hard of Digestion, _Inimicous_ to
the Stomach, causing nauseous Eructations, and sometimes Vomiting, tho'
otherwise _Diuretic_, and thought to repel the Vapours of _Wine_, when
the _Wits_ were at their genial _Club_. _Dioscorides_ and [41]_Galen_
differ about their Eating; One prescribes it before Meals, the latter
for after. Some macerate the young Roots in warm milk, to render them
more _Nourishing_.

There is a _Raphanus rusticanus_, the _Spanish_ black _Horse Radish_,
of a hotter quality, and not so friendly to the Head; but a notable
_Antiscorbutic_, which may be eaten all the Winter, and on that account
an excellent Ingredient in the Composition of _Mustard_; as are also
the thin Shavings, mingled with our cold Herbs. And now before I have
done with this Root, for an excellent and universal _Condiment_. Take
_Horse-Radish_, whilst newly drawn out of the Earth, otherwise laid to
steep in Water a competent time; then _grate_ it on a _Grater_ which has
no bottom, that so it may pass thro', like a Mucilage, into a Dish of
Earthen Ware: This temper'd with _Vinegar_, in which a little _Sugar_
has been dissolv'd, you have a _Sauce_ supplying _Mustard_ to the
_Sallet_, and serving likewise for any Dish besides.

52. Rampion, _Rapunculus_, or the _Esculent Campanula_: The tender Roots
eaten in the Spring, like those of _Radishes_, but much more Nourishing.

53. Rocket, _Eruca Spanish_; hot and dry, to be qualified with
_Lettuce_, _Purcelain_, and the rest, &c. See _Tarragon_.

Roccombo. See _Onions_.

54. Rosemary, _Rosmarinus_; Soverainly _Cephalic_, and for the _Memory_,
_Sight_, and _Nerves_, incomparable: And tho' not us'd in the Leaf with
our _Sallet_ furniture, yet the _Flowers_, a little bitter, are always
welcome in _Vinegar_; but above all, a fresh Sprig or two in a Glass of
_Wine_. See _Flowers_.

55. Sage, _Salvia_; hot and dry. The tops of the _Red_, well pick'd
and wash'd (being often defil'd with Venomous Slime, and almost
imperceptible _Insects_) with the _Flowers_, retain all the noble
Properties of the other hot Plants; more especially for the _Head_,
_Memory_, _Eyes_, and all _Paralytical_ Affections. In short, 'tis
a Plant endu'd with so many and wonderful Properties, as that the
assiduous use of it is said to render Men _Immortal_: We cannot
therefore but allow the tender _Summities_ of the young Leaves; but
principally the _Flowers_ in our cold _Sallet_; yet so as not to

Salsifax, _Scorzonera_. See _Vipergrass_.

56. Sampier, _Crithmum_: That growing on the Sea-Cliffs (as about
_Dover_, &c.) not only _Pickl'd_, but crude and cold, when young and
tender (and such as we may Cultivate, and have in our _Kitchin-Gardens_,
almost the Year round) is in my Opinion, for its _Aromatic_, and other
excellent Vertues and Effects against the _Spleen_, Cleansing the
Passages, sharpning Appetite, &c. so far preferrable to most of our
hotter Herbs, and _Sallet_-Ingredients, that I have long wonder'd,
it has not been long since propagated in the _Potagere_, as it is in
_France_; from whence I have often receiv'd the Seeds, which have
prosper'd better, and more kindly with me, than what comes from our own
Coasts: It does not indeed _Pickle_ so well, as being of a more tender
Stalk and Leaf: But in all other respects for composing _Sallets_,
it has nothing like it.

57. Scalions, _Ascalonia_, _Cepæ_; The _French_ call them _Appetites_,
which it notably quickens and stirs up: Corrects Crudities, and promotes
Concoction. The _Italians_ steep them in Water, mince, and eat them cold
with _Oyl_, _Vinegar_, _Salt_, &c.

58. Scurvy-grass, _Cochlearia_, of the Garden, but especially that
of the Sea, is sharp, biting, and hot; of Nature like _Nasturtium_,
prevalent in the _Scorbute_. A few of the tender Leaves may be admitted
in our Composition. See _Nasturtium Indicum_.

59. Sellery, _Apium Italicum_, (and of the _Petroseline_ Family)
was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in _Italy_) is
an hot and more generous sort of _Macedonian Persley_, or _Smallage_.
The tender Leaves of the _Blancht_ Stalk do well in our _Sallet_, as
likewise the slices of the whiten'd Stems, which being crimp and short,
first peel'd and slit long wise, are eaten with _Oyl_, _Vinegar_,
_Salt_, and _Peper_; and for its high and grateful Taste, is ever plac'd
in the middle of the _Grand Sallet_, at our Great Mens Tables, and
_Prætors_ Feasts, as the Grace of the whole Board. _Caution_ is to be
given of a small red _Worm_, often lurking in these Stalks, as does the
green in _Fennil_.

Shallots. See _Onion_.

60. Skirrets, _Sisarum_; hot and moist, corroborating, and good for the
Stomach, exceedingly nourishing, wholsome and delicate; of all the
_Root-kind_, not subject to be Windy, and so valued by the Emperor
_Tiberius_, that he accepted them for Tribute.

This excellent Root is seldom eaten raw; but being boil'd, stew'd,
roasted under the Embers, bak'd in Pies, whole, sliced, or in pulp, is
very acceptable to all Palates. 'Tis reported they were heretofore
something bitter; See what Culture and Education effects!

61. Sorrel, _Acetosa_: of which there are divers kinds. The _French
Acetocella_, with the round Leaf, growing plentifully in the _North_
of _England_; _Roman Oxalis_; the broad _German_, &c. but the best
is of _Green-Land:_ by nature cold, Abstersive, Acid, sharpning
Appetite, asswages Heat, cools the Liver, strengthens the Heart; is
an _Antiscorbutic_, resisting Putrefaction, and imparting so grateful
a quickness to the rest, as supplies the want of _Orange_, _Limon_,
and other _Omphacia_, and therefore never to be excluded. Vide

62. Sow-thistle, _Sonchus_; of the _Intybus_-kind. _Galen_ was us'd
to eat it as _Lettuce_; exceedingly welcome to the late _Morocco._
Ambassador and his Retinue.

63. Sparagus, _Asparagus_ (_ab Asperitate_) temperately hot, and moist;
_Cordial_, _Diuretic_, easie of Digestion, and next to _Flesh_, nothing
more nourishing, as _Sim. Sethius_, an excellent Physician holds. They
are sometimes, but very seldom, eaten raw with _Oyl_, and _Vinegar_; but
with more delicacy (the bitterness first exhausted) being so speedily
boil'd, as not to lose the _verdure_ and agreeable tenderness; which is
done by letting the Water boil, before you put them in. I do not esteem
the _Dutch_ great and larger sort (especially rais'd by the rankness of
the Beds) so sweet and agreeable, as those of a moderate size.

64. Spinach, _Spinachia_: of old not us'd in _Sallets_, and the oftner
kept out the better; I speak of the _crude_: But being boil'd to a
_Pult_, and without other Water than its own moisture, is a most
excellent Condiment with _Butter_, _Vinegar_, or _Limon_, for almost
all sorts of boil'd Flesh, and may accompany a Sick Man's Diet. 'Tis
_Laxative_ and _Emollient_, and therefore profitable for the Aged, and
(tho' by original a _Spaniard_) may be had at almost any Season, and
in all places.

Stone-Crop, _Sedum Minus_. See _Trick-Madame_.

65. Succory, _Cichorium_, an _Intube_; erratic and wild, with a narrow
dark Leaf, different from the _Sative_, tho' probably by culture only;
and for being very bitter, a little _edulcorated_ with _Sugar_ and
_Vinegar_, is by some eaten in the Summer, and more grateful to the
Stomach than the Palate. See _Endive_.

66. Tansy, _Tanacetum_; hot and cleansing; but in regard of its
domineering relish, sparingly mixt with our cold _Sallet_, and much
fitter (tho' in very small quantity) for the Pan, being qualified with
the Juices of other fresh Herbs, _Spinach_, _Green Corn_, _Violet_,
_Primrose-Leaves_, &c. at entrance of the Spring, and then fried
brownish, is eaten hot with the Juice of _Orange_ and _Sugar_, as one
of the most agreeable of all the boil'd _Herbaceous_ Dishes.

67. Tarragon, _Draco Herba_, of _Spanish_ Extraction; hot and spicy: The
Tops and young Shoots, like those of _Rochet_, never to be secluded our
Composition, especially where there is much _Lettuce_. 'Tis highly
cordial and friendly to the Head, Heart, Liver, correcting the weakness
of the Ventricle, _&c._

68. Thistle, _Carduus Mariæ_; our Lady's milky or dappl'd Thistle,
disarm'd of its Prickles, is worth esteem: The young Stalk about _May_,
being peel'd and soak'd in Water, to extract the bitterness, boil'd or
raw, is a very wholsome _Sallet_, eaten with _Oyl_, _Salt_, and _Peper_;
some eat them sodden in proper Broath, or bak'd in Pies, like the
_Artichoak_; but the tender Stalk boil'd or fry'd, some preferr; both
Nourishing and Restorative.

69. Trick-Madame, _Sedum minus_, Stone-Crop; is cooling and moist,
grateful to the Stomach. The _Cimata_ and Tops, when young and tender,
dress'd as _Purselane_, is a frequent Ingredient in our cold _Sallet_.

70. Turnep, _Rapum_; moderately hot and moist: _Napus_; the long _Navet_
is certainly the most delicate of them, and best Nourishing. _Pliny_
speaks of no fewer than six sorts, and of several Colours; some of which
were suspected to be artificially tinged. But with us, the yellow is
preferr'd; by others the red _Bohemian_. But of whatever kind, being
sown upon the _Hot-bed_, and no bigger than seedling _Radish_, they do
excellently in Composition; as do also the Stalks of the common
_Turnep_, when first beginning to Bud.

And here should not be forgotten, that wholsome, as well as agreeable
sort of _Bread_, we are [42]taught to make; and of which we have eaten
at the greatest Persons Tables, hardly to be distinguish'd from the best
of _Wheat_.

Let the _Turneps_ first be peel'd, and boil'd in Water till soft and
tender; then strongly pressing out the Juice, mix them together, and
when dry (beaten or pounded very fine) with their weight of Wheat-Meal,
season it as you do other _Bread_, and knead it up; then letting the
Dough remain a little to _ferment_, fashion the Paste into Loaves, and
bake it like common Bread.

Some roast _Turneps_ in a Paper under the Embers, and eat them with
_Sugar_ and _Butter_.

71. Vine, _Vitis_, the _Capreols_, _Tendrels_, and _Claspers_ (like
those of the _Hop_, &c.) whilst very young, have an agreeable _Acid_,
which may be eaten alone, or with other _Sallet_.

72. Viper-grass, _Tragopogon_, _Scorzonera_, _Salsifex_, &c. tho'
Medicinal, and excellent against the _Palpitation of the Heart_,
_Faintings_, _Obstruction of the Bowels_, &c. are besides a very sweet
and pleasant _Sallet_; being laid to soak out the bitterness, then
peel'd, may be eaten raw, or _Condited_; but best of all stew'd with
_Marrow_, _Spice_, _Wine_, &c. as _Artichoak_, _Skirrets_, &c. sliced or
whole. They likewise may bake, fry, or boil them; a more excellent Root
there is hardly growing.

73. Wood-Sorrel, _Trifolium acetosum_, or _Alleluja_, of the nature of
other _Sorrels_.

To all which might we add sundry more, formerly had in _deliciis_,
since grown _obsolete_ or quite neglected with us: As among the noblest
_Bulbs_, that of the _Tulip_; a Root of which has been valued not to
eat, but for the _Flower_ (and yet eaten by mistake) at more than an
hundred Pounds. The young fresh _Bulbs_ are sweet and high of taste.

The _Asphodil_ or _Daffodil_; a _Sallet_ so rare in _Hesiod's_ Days,
that _Lobel_ thinks it the _Parsnep_, tho' not at all like it; however
it was (with the _Mallow_) taken anciently for any _Edule_-Root.

The _Ornithogalons_ roasted, as they do _Chestnuts_, are eaten by the
_Italians_, the wild yellow especially, with _Oyl_, _Vinegar_, and
_Peper_. And so the small _tuberous_ Roots of _Gramen Amygdalosum_;
which they also roast, and make an _Emulsion_ of, to use in Broaths
as a great Restorative. The _Oxylapathum_, us'd of old; in the time of
_Galen_ was eaten frequently. As also _Dracontium_, with the Mordicant
_Arum Theophrasti_, which _Dodonæus_ teaches how to Dress. Nay, divers
of the _Satyrions_, which some condited with _Sugar_, others boil'd in
Milk for a great Nourisher, now discarded. But what think we of the
_Cicuta_, which there are who reckon among _Sallet_ Herbs? But whatever
it is in any other Country, 'tis certainly Mortiferous in ours. To these
add the _Viola Matronalis_, _Radix Lunaria_, &c. nay, the _Green Poppy_,
by most accounted among the deadly Poysons: How cautious then ought our
_Sallet_-Gatherers to be, in reading ancient Authors; lest they happen
to be impos'd on, where they treat of Plants, that are familiarly eaten
in other Countries, and among other Nations and People of more robust
and strong constitutions? bessides the hazard of being mistaken in the
Names of divers _Simples_, not as yet fully agreed upon among the
Learned in _Botany_.

There are bessides several remaining, which tho' _Abdicated_ here
with us, find Entertainment still in Foreign Countries: As the large
_Heliotrope_ and Sun-flower (e're it comes to expand, and shew its
golden Face) which being dress'd as the _Artichoak_, is eaten for a
dainty. This I add as a new Discovery. I once made _Macaroons_ with the
ripe blanch'd Seeds, but the _Turpentine_ did so domineer over all, that
it did not answer expectation. The _Radix Personata_ mounting with their
young Heads, _Lysimachia siliquosa glabra minor_, when fresh and tender,
begins to come into the _Sallet_-Tribe. The pale whiter _Popy_, is eaten
by the _Genouese_. By the _Spaniards_, the tops of _Wormwood_ with _Oyl_
alone, and without so much as _Bread_; profitable indeed to the Stomach,
but offensive to the Head; As is also _Coriander_ and _Rue_, which
_Galen_ was accustom'd to eat raw, and by it self, with _Oyl_ and
_Salt_, as exceedingly grateful, as well as wholsome, and of great
vertue against Infection. _Pliny_, I remember, reports it to be of such
effect for the Preservation of _Sight_; that the _Painters_ of his Time,
us'd to devour a great quantity of it. And it is still by the _Italians_
frequently mingled among their _Sallets_. The _Lapatha Personata_
(common _Burdock_) comes now and then to the best Tables, about _April_,
and when young, before the _Burrs_ and _Clots_ appear, being strip'd,
and the bitterness soaked out, treated as the _Chardoon_, is eaten in
_Poiverade_; Some also boil them. More might here be reckon'd up, but
these may suffice; since as we find some are left off, and gone out, so
others be introduc'd and come in their room, and that in much greater
Plenty and Variety, than was ever known by our Ancestors. The _Cucumber_
it self, now so universally eaten, being accounted little better than
_Poyson_, even within our Memory, as already noted.

To conclude, and after all that has been said of Plants and _Salleting_,
formerly in great esteem, (but since obsolete and quite rejected); What
if the exalted Juice of the ancient _Silphium_ should come in, and
challenge the Precedency? It is a [43]Plant formerly so highly priz'd,
and rare for the richness of its Taste and other Vertues; that as it was
dedicated to _Apollo_, and hung up in his Temple at _Delphi_; So we read
of one single Root brought to the Emperor _Nero_ for an extraordinary
Present; and the Drug so esteem'd, that the _Romans_ had long before
amass'd a quantity of it, and kept it in the Treasury, till _Julius
Cæsar_ rob'd it, and took this away, as a thing of mighty value: In
a word, it was of that Account; that as a sacred Plant, those of the
_Cyrenaic Africa_, honour'd the very Figure of it, by stamping it on
the Reverse of their [44]Coin; and when they would commend a thing for
its worth to the Skies, [Greek: Bat-ou silphion], grew into a Proverb:
_Battus_ having been the Founder of the City _Cyrene_, near which it
only grew. 'Tis indeed contested among the Learned _Botanosophists_,
whether this Plant was not the same with _Laserpitium_, and the Laser it
yields, the odoriferous [45]_Benzoin_? But doubtless had we the true and
genuine _Silphium_ (for it appears to have been often sophisticated, and
a spurious sort brought into _Italy_) it would soon recover its pristine
Reputation, and that it was not celebrated so for nothing extraordinary;
since bessides its Medicinal Vertue; it was a wonderful Corroborater of
the Stomach, a Restorer of lost Appetite, and Masculine Vigour, _&c._
and that they made use of it almost in every thing they eat.

But should we now really tell the World, that this precious Juice is,
by many, thought to be no other than the [46]_Faetid Assa_ our nicer
_Sallet-Eaters_ (who yet bestow as odious an Epithet on the vulgar
_Garlick_) would cry out upon it as intolerable, and perhaps hardly
believe it: But as _Aristophanes_ has brought it in, and sufficiently
describ'd it; so the _Scholiast_ upon the place, puts it out of
Controversy: And that they made use both of the _Leaves_, _Stalk_, (and
_Extract_ especially) as we now do _Garlick_, and other _Hautgouts_ as
nauseous altogether. In the mean time, _Garcius_, _Bontius_, and others,
assure us, that the _Indians_ at this day universally sauce their
Viands with it; and the _Bramins_ (who eat no Flesh at all) inrich their
_Sallets_, by constantly rubbing the Dishes with it. Nor are some of
our own skilful _Cooks_ Ingnorant, how to condite and use it, with
the Applause of those, who, ignorant of the Secret, have admir'd the
richness of the Gust it has imparted, when it has been substituted
instead of all our _Cipollati_, and other seasonings of that Nature.

And thus have we done with the various _Species_ of all such _Esculents_
as may properly enter the Composition of our _Acetaria_, and cold
_Sallet_. And if I have briefly touch'd upon their Natures, Degrees,
and _primary Qualities_, which _Intend_ or _Remit_, as to the Scale of
_Heat_, _Cold_, _Driness_, _Moisture_, &c. (which is to be understood
according to the different Texture of their _component Particles_) it
has not been without what I thought necessary for the Instruction of
the _Gatherer_, and _Sallet-Dresser_; how he ought to choose, sort,
and mingle his Materials and Ingredients together.

What Care and Circumspection should attend the choice and collection of
_Sallet_ Herbs, has been partly shew'd. I can therefore, by no means,
approve of that extravagant Fancy of some, who tell us, that a _Fool_
is as fit to be the _Gatherer_ of a _Sallet_ as a _Wiser_ Man. Because,
say they, one can hardly choose amiss, provided the Plants be green,
young, and tender, where-ever they meet with them: But sad experience
shews, how many fatal Mistakes have been committed by those who took the
deadly _Cicutæ_, _Hemlocks_, _Aconits_, &c. for Garden _Persley_, and
_Parsneps_; the _Myrrhis Sylvestris_, or _Cow-Weed_, for _Chaerophilum_,
(_Chervil_) _Thapsia_ for _Fennel_; the wild _Chondrilla_ for _Succory_;
_Dogs-Mercury_ instead of _Spinach_: _Papaver Corniculatum Luteum_, and
horn'd _Poppy_ for _Eringo_; _Oenanthe aquatica_ for the _Palustral
Apium_, and a world more, whose dire effects have been many times sudden
Death, and the cause of Mortal Accidents to those who have eaten of them
unwittingly: But supposing some of those wild and unknown Plants should
not prove so _deleterious_ and [47]unwholsome; yet may others of them
annoy the _Head_, _Brain_, and _Genus Nervosum_, weaken the _Eyes_,
offend the _Stomach_, affect the _Liver_, torment the _Bowels_, and
discover their malignity in dangerous and dreadful _Symptoms_. And
therefore such _Plants_ as are rather _Medicinal_ than _Nourishing_ and
_Refreshing_, are studiously to be rejected. So highly necessary it is,
that what we sometimes find in _old Books_ concerning _Edules_ of other
Countries and Climates (frequently call'd by the Names of such as are
wholsome in ours, and among us) mislead not the unskilful Gatherer;
to prevent which we read of divers _Popes_ and _Emperors_, that had
sometimes Learned _Physicians_ for their _Master-Cooks_. I cannot
therefore but exceedingly approve of that charitable Advice of Mr. _Ray_
[48](_Transact. Num._ 238.) who thinks it the Interest of Mankind, that
all Persons should be caution'd of advent'ring upon unknown Herbs and
Plants to their Prejudice: Of such, I say, with our excellent [49]_Poet_
(a little chang'd)

  _Happy from such conceal'd, if still do lie_,
  _Of Roots and Herbs the_ unwholsome _Luxury_.

The Illustrious and Learned _Columna_ has, by observing what
[50]_Insects_ did usually feed on, make Conjectures of the Nature of the
Plants. But I should not so readily adventure upon it on that account,
as to its wholsomness: For tho' indeed one may safely eat of a _Peach_
or _Abricot_, after a _Snail_ has been Taster, I question whether it
might be so of all other Fruits and Herbs attack'd by other _Insects_:
Nor would one conclude, the _Hyoscyamus_ harmless, because the _Cimex_
feeds upon it, as the Learned Dr. _Lyster_ has discover'd. Notice should
therefore be taken what _Eggs_ of _Insects_ are found adhering to the
Leaves of _Sallet-Herbs_, and frequently cleave so firmly to them, as
not easily to be wash'd off, and so not being taken notice of, passing
for accidental and harmless Spots only, may yet produce very ill

_Grillus_, who according to the Doctrine of _Transmigration_ (as
_Plutarch_ tells us) had, in his turn, been a _Beast_; discourses how
much better he fed, and liv'd, than when he was turn'd to _Man_ again,
as knowing then, what Plants were best and most proper for him: Whilst
Men, _Sarcophagists_ (Flesh-Eaters) in all this time were yet to seek.
And 'tis indeed very evident, that Cattel, and other [Greek: panphaga],
and _herbaceous_ Animals which feed on Plants, are directed by their
Smell, and accordingly make election of their Food: But Men (bessides
the _Smell_ and _Taste_) have, or should have, _Reason_, _Experience_,
and the Aids of _Natural Philosophy_ to be their Guides in this Matter.
We have heard _of Plants_, that (like the _Basilisk_) kill and infect by
[51]looking on them only; and some by the touch. The truth is, there's
need of all the Senses to determine _Analogically_ concerning the
Vertues and Properties, even of the _Leaves_ alone of many _Edule
Plants_: The most eminent Principles of near the whole Tribe of _Sallet_
Vegetables, inclining rather to _Acid_ and _Sowre_ than to any other
quality, especially, Salt, Sweet, or Luscious. There is therefore Skill
and Judgment requir'd, how to suit and mingle our _Sallet_-Ingredients,
so as may best agree with the Constitution of the (vulgarly reputed)
_Humors_ of those who either stand in need of, or affect these
Refreshments, and by so adjusting them, that as nothing should be
suffer'd to domineer, so should none of them lose their genuine Gust,
Savour, or Vertue. To this end,

The Cooler, and moderately refreshing, should be chosen to extinguish
Thirst, attemper the Blood, repress Vapours, _&c._

The Hot, Dry, Aromatic, Cordial and friendly to the Brain, may be
qualify'd by the Cold and Moist: The Bitter and Stomachical, with the
_Sub-acid_ and gentler Herbs: The _Mordicant_ and pungent, and such as
repress or discuss Flatulency (revive the Spirits, and aid Concoction;)
with such as abate, and take off the keenness, mollify and reconcile the
more harsh and churlish: The mild and insipid, animated with _piquant_
and brisk: The Astringent and Binders, with such as are Laxative and
Deobstruct: The over-sluggish, raw, and unactive, with those that are
Eupeptic, and promote Concoction: There are _Pectorals_ for the Breast
and Bowels. Those of middle Nature, according as they appear to be more
or less _Specific_; and as their Characters (tho' briefly) are describ'd
in our foregoing _Catalogue_: For notwithstanding it seem in general,
that raw _Sallets_ and _Herbs_ have experimentally been found to be the
most soveraign Diet in that _Endemial_ (and indeed with us, _Epidemical_
and almost universal) Contagion the _Scorbute_, to which we of this
Nation, and most other _Ilanders_ are obnoxious; yet, since the
_Nasturtia_ are singly, and alone as it were, the most effectual, and
powerful Agents in conquering and expugning that cruel Enemy; it were
enough to give the _Sallet-Dresser_ direction how to choose, mingle, and
proportion his Ingredients; as well as to shew what Remedies there are
contain'd in our Magazine of _Sallet-Plants_ upon all Occasions, rightly
marshal'd and skilfully apply'd. So as (with our [52]sweet _Cowley_)

  _If thro' the strong and beauteous Fence_
  _Of Temperance and Innocence,_
  _And wholsome Labours, and a quiet Mind,_
    _Diseases passage find;_
    _They must not think here to assail_
  _A Land unarm'd, or without Guard,_
  _They must fight for it, and dispute it hard,_
    _Before they can prevail;_
  _Scarce any Plant is used here,_
  _Which 'gainst some Aile a Weapon does not bear_.

We have said how necessary it is, that in the Composure of a _Sallet_,
every Plant should come in to bear its part, without being over-power'd
by some Herb of a stronger Taste, so as to endanger the native _Sapor_
and vertue of the rest; but fall into their places, like the _Notes_
in _Music_, in which there should be nothing harsh or grating: And
tho' admitting some _Discords_ (to distinguish and illustrate the rest)
striking in the more sprightly, and sometimes gentler Notes, reconcile
all Dissonancies, and melt them into an agreeable Composition. Thus the
Comical _Master-Cook_, introduc'd by _Damoxenus_, when asked [Greek: pôs
esin autois onmphonia]; _What Harmony there was in Meats_? The very
same (says he) that a _Diatessaron_, _Diapente_, and _Diapason_ have
one to another in a Consort of Music: And that there was as great care
requir'd, not to mingle [53]_Sapores minime consentientes_, jarring and
repugnant Tastes; looking upon him as a lamentable Ignorant, who should
be no better vers'd in _Democritus_. The whole Scene is very diverting,
as _Athenæus_ presents it; and to the same sense _Macrobius_, _Saturn.
lib._ I. _cap._ I. In short, the main Skill of the Artist lies in this:

  _What choice to choose, for delicacy best;_
  _What Order so contriv'd, as not to mix_
  _Tastes not well join'd, inelegant, but bring_
  _Taste after Taste, upheld by kindliest change_.

As our [54]_Paradisian Bard_ introduces Eve, dressing of a _Sallet_ for
her _Angelical_ Guest.

Thus, by the discreet choice and mixture of the _Oxoleon_ (_Oyl_,
_Vinegar_, _Salt_, &c.) the Composition is perfect; so as neither the
_Prodigal_, _Niggard_, nor _Insipid_, should (according to the _Italian_
Rule) prescribe in my Opinion; since _One_ may be too profuse, the
_Other_ [55]over-saving, and the _Third_ (like himself) give it no
Relish at all: It may be too _sharp_, if it exceed a grateful _Acid_;
too _Insulse_ and flat, if the Profusion be extream. From all which
it appears, that a Wise-Man is the proper Composer of an excellent
_Sallet_, and how many _Transcendences_ belong to an accomplish'd
_Sallet-Dresser_, so as to emerge an exact _Critic_ indeed, He should
be skill'd in the Degrees, Terms, and various _Species_ of Tastes,
according to the _Scheme_ set us down in the _Tables_ of the Learned
[56]Dr. _Grew_, to which I refer the Curious.

'Tis moreover to be consider'd, that _Edule_ Plants are not in all their
Tastes and Vertues alike: For as Providence has made us to consist of
different Parts and Members, both Internal and External; so require they
different Juices to nourish and supply them: Wherefore the force and
activity of some Plants lie in the _Root_; and even the _Leaves_ of
some _Bitter-Roots_ are sweet, and _è contra_. Of others, in the _Stem_,
_Leaves_, _Buds_, _Flowers_, &c. Some exert their Vigour without
_Decoction_; others being a little press'd or contus'd; others again
_Raw_, and best in Consort; some alone, and _per se_ without any [Greek:
skenasia], Preparation, or Mixture at all. Care therefore must be taken
by the _Collector_, that what he gathers answer to these Qualities; and
that as near as he can, they consist (I speak of the _cruder Salleting_)
of the _Oluscula_, and _ex foliis pubescentibus_, or (as _Martial_ calls
them) _Prototomi rudes_, and very tenderest Parts _Gems_, young _Buds_,
and even first Rudiments of their several Plants; such as we sometimes
find in the _Craws_ of the _Wood-Culver_, _Stock-Dove_, _Partridge_,
_Pheasants_, and other Upland Fowl, where we have a natural _Sallet_,
pick'd, and almost dress'd to our hands.

I. Preparatory to the Dressing therefore, let your Herby Ingredients
be exquisitely cull'd, and cleans'd of all worm-eaten, slimy, canker'd,
dry, spotted, or any ways vitiated Leaves. And then that they be rather
discreetly sprinkl'd, than over-much sob'd with Spring-Water, especially
_Lettuce_, which Dr. [57]_Muffet_ thinks impairs their Vertue; but this,
I suppose he means of the _Cabbage_-kind, whose heads are sufficiently
protected by the outer Leaves which cover it. After washing, let them
remain a while in the _Cullender_, to drain the superfluous moisture:
And lastly, swing them altogether gently in a clean course Napkin; and
so they will be in perfect condition to receive the _Intinctus_

II. That the _Oyl_, an Ingredient so indispensibly and highly necessary,
as to have obtain'd the name of _Cibarium_ (and with us of _Sallet-Oyl_)
be very clean, not high-colour'd, nor yellow; but with an Eye rather of
a pallid _Olive_ green, without Smell, or the least touch of _rancid_,
or indeed of any other sensible Taste or Scent at all; but smooth,
light, and pleasant upon the Tongue; such as the genuine _Omphacine_,
and native _Luca Olives_ afford, fit to allay the tartness of _Vinegar_,
and other _Acids_, yet gently to warm and humectate where it passes.
Some who have an aversion to _Oyl_, substitute fresh _Butter_ in its
stead; but 'tis so exceedingly clogging to the Stomach, as by no means
to be allow'd.

III. _Thirdly_, That the _Vinegar_ and other liquid _Acids_, perfectly
clear, neither sowre, _Vapid_ or spent; be of the best Wine Vinegar,
whether Distill'd, or otherwise _Aromatiz'd_, and impregnated with
the Infusion of _Clove-gillyflowers_, _Elder_, _Roses_, _Rosemary_,
_Nasturtium_, &c. inrich'd with the Vertues of the Plant.

A _Verjuice_ not unfit for _Sallet_, is made by a _Grape_ of that Name,
or the green immature Clusters of most other Grapes, press'd and put
into a small Vessel to ferment.

IV. _Fourthly_, That the _Salt_ (_aliorum Condimentorum Condimentum_,
as _Plutarch_ calls it) detersive, penetrating, quickning (and so great
a resister of Putrefaction, and universal use, as to have sometimes
merited Divine Epithets) be of the brightest _Bay grey-Salt_; moderately
dried, and _contus'd_, as being the least Corrosive: But of this, as
of _Sugar_ also, which some mingle with the _Salt_ (as warming without
heating) if perfectly refin'd, there would be no great difficulty;
provided none, save Ladies, were of the Mess; whilst the perfection of
_Sallets_, and that which gives them the name, consists in the grateful
_Saline Acid_-point, temper'd as is directed, and which we find to be
most esteem'd by judicious Palates: Some, in the mean time, have been
so nice, and luxuriously curious as for the heightning, and (as they
affect to speak) giving the utmost _poinant_ and _Relevèe_ in lieu of
our vulgar _Salt_, to recommend and cry-up the _Essential-Salts_ and
_Spirits_ of the most Sanative Vegetables; or such of the _Alcalizate_
and _Fixt_; extracted from the _Calcination_ of _Baulm_, _Rosemary_,
_Wormwood_, _Scurvy-grass_, &c. Affirming that without the gross Plant,
we might have healing, cooling, generous, and refreshing _Cordials_, and
all the _Materia Medica_ out of the _Salt-Cellar_ only: But to say no
more of this Impertinence, as to _Salts_ of _Vegetables_; many indeed
there be, who reckon them not much unlike in Operation, however
different in _Taste_, _Crystals_, and _Figure_: It being a question,
whether they at all retain the Vertues and Faculties of their _Simples_,
unless they could be made without _Colcination_. _Franciscus Redi_,
gives us his Opinion of this, in a _Process_ how they are to be
prepar'd; and so does our Learned [58]Doctor (whom we lately nam'd)
whether _Lixivial_, _Essential_, _Marine_, or other factitious _Salts_
of Plants, with their Qualities, and how they differ: But since 'tis
thought all _Fixed Salts_ made the _common way_, are little better than
our _common Salt_, let it suffice, that our _Sallet-Salt_ be of the best
ordinary _Bay-Salt_, clean, bright, dry, and without claminess.

Of _Sugar_ (by some call'd _Indian-Salt_) as it is rarely us'd in
_Sallet_, it should be of the best refined, white, hard, close, yet
light and sweet as the _Madera's_: Nourishing, preserving, cleansing,
delighting the Taste, and preferrable to _Honey_ for most uses. _Note_,
That both _this_, _Salt_, and _Vinegar_, are to be proportion'd to the
Constitution, as well as what is said of the Plants themselves. The one
for cold, the other for hot stomachs.

V. That the _Mustard_ (another noble Ingredient) be of the best
_Tewksberry_; or else compos'd of the soundest and weightiest _Yorkshire
Seed_, exquisitely sifted, winnow'd, and freed from the Husks, a little
(not over-much) dry'd by the Fire, temper'd to the consistence of
a Pap with _Vinegar_, in which shavings of the _Horse-Radish_ have been
steep'd: Then cutting an _Onion_, and putting it into a small Earthen
_Gally-Pot_, or some thick _Glass_ of that shape; pour the _Mustard_
over it, and close it very well with a _Cork_. There be, who preserve
the Flower and Dust of the bruised Seed in a well-stopp'd Glass, to
temper, and have it fresh when they please. But what is yet by some
esteem'd beyond all these, is compos'd of the dried Seeds of the _Indian
Nasturtium_, reduc'd to Powder, finely bolted, and mixt with a little
_Levain_, and so from time to time made fresh, as indeed all other
_Mustard_ should be.

_Note_, That the Seeds are pounded in a Mortar; or bruis'd with a
polish'd _Cannon-Bullet_, in a large wooden Bowl-Dish, or which is most
preferr'd, ground in a _Quern_ contriv'd for this purpose only.

VI. _Sixthly_, That the _Pepper_ (white or black) be not bruis'd to
too small a Dust; which, as we caution'd, is very prejudicial. And here
let me mention the _Root_ of the _Minor Pimpinella_, or small _Burnet
Saxifrage_; which being dried, is by some extoll'd beyond all other
_Peppers_, and more wholsom.

Of other _Strewings_ and _Aromatizers_, which may likewise be admitted
to inrich our _Sallet_, we have already spoken, where we mention
_Orange_ and _Limon-peel_; to which may also be added, _Jamaica-Pepper_,
_Juniper-berries_, &c. as of singular Vertue.

Nor here should I omit (the mentioning at least of) _Saffron_, which the
_German_ Housewives have a _way_ of forming into Balls, by mingling it
with a little _Honey_; which throughly dried, they reduce to Powder, and
sprinkle it over their _Sallets_ for a noble _Cordial_. Those of _Spain_
and _Italy_, we know, generally make use of this Flower, mingling its
golden Tincture with almost every thing they eat; But its being so apt
to prevail above every thing with which 'tis blended, we little
incourage its admittance into our _Sallet_.

VII. Seventhly, That there be the Yolks of fresh and new-laid _Eggs_,
boil'd moderately hard, to be mingl'd and mash'd with the _Mustard_,
_Oyl_, and _Vinegar_; and part to cut into quarters, and eat with the

VIII. _Eighthly_, (according to the _super_-curious) that the _Knife_,
with which the _Sallet Herbs_ are cut (especially _Oranges_, _Limons_,
&c.) be of _Silver_, and by no means of _Steel_, which all _Acids_ are
apt to corrode, and retain a Metalic relish of.

IX. _Ninthly_ and _Lastly_, That the _Saladiere_, (Sallet-Dishes)
be of _Porcelane_, or of the _Holland-Delft-Ware_; neither too deep
nor shallow, according to the quantity of the _Sallet_ Ingredients;
_Pewter_, or even _Silver_, not at all so well agreeing with _Oyl_ and
_Vinegar_, which leave their several Tinctures. And note, That there
ought to be one of the Dishes, in which to beat and mingle the Liquid
_Vehicles_; and a second to receive the crude Herbs in, upon which they
are to be pour'd; and then with a Fork and a Spoon kept continually
stirr'd, 'till all the Furniture be equally moisten'd: Some, who are
husbands of their _Oyl_, pour at first the _Oyl_ alone, as more apt
to communicate and diffuse its Slipperiness, than when it is mingled
and beaten with the _Acids_; which they pour on last of all; and 'tis
incredible how small a quantity of _Oyl_ (in this quality, like the
gilding of _Wyer_) is sufficient, to imbue a very plentiful assembly
of _Sallet-Herbs_.

The _Sallet-Gatherer_ likewise should be provided with a light, and
neatly made _Withy-Dutch-Basket_, divided into several Partitions.

Thus instructed and knowing in the _Apparatus_; the _Species_,
_Proportions_, and manner of _Dressing_, according to the several
Seasons you have in the following Table.

It being one of the Inquiries of the Noble [59]Mr. _Boyle_, what _Herbs_
were proper and fit to make _Sallets_ with, and how best to order them?
we have here (by the Assistance of Mr. _London_, His Majesty's Principal
Gard'ner) reduc'd them to a competent Number, not exceeding _Thirty
Five_; but which may be vary'd and inlarg'd, by taking in, or leaving
out, any other _Sallet_-Plant, mention'd in the foregoing List, under
these three or four Heads.

But all these sorts are not to be had at the very same time, and
therefore we have divided them into the _Quarterly Seasons_, each
containing and lasting Three Months.

_Note_, That by _Parts_ is to be understood a _Pugil_; which is no
more than one does usually take up between the Thumb and the two next
Fingers. By _Fascicule_ a reasonable full Grip, or Handful.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Transcriber's Note: The following tables have been modified from their
original layout. The left-most columns are converted to "section
headers", the column headers have been reproduced above each of these
new sections, and a horizontal rule added above them to better visually
indicate the restructuring. The original structure is _very_ wide.]

                    Species.                 Ordering and Culture.
             /  1. _Endive_,                 Tied-up to Blanch.
             |  2. _Cichory_,              \
             |  3. _Sellery_,              | Earth'd-up
  IX.        |  4. _Sweet-Fennel_,         |
  Blanch'd   |  5. _Rampions_,             /
             |  6. _Roman_    \            \ Tied-up to Blanch.
             |  7. _Cosse_    | _Lettuce,_ |
             |  8. _Silesian_ |            | Tied close up.
             \  9. _Cabbage_  /            / Pome and Blanch of themselves.

             / 10. _Lob-Lettuce_,          \
             | 11. _Corn-Sallet_,          | Leaves, all of a midling size.
             | 12. _Purslane_,             /
  XXVI.      | 13. _Cresses_ broad,        \ Seed-Leaves,
             | 14. _Spinach_, curled,      / and the next to them.
  Green      | 15. _Sorrel_, French,       \ The fine young Leaves only,
  Unblanch'd | 16. _Sorrel_, Greenland,    /   with the first Shoots.
             | 17. _Radish_,                 Only the tender young Leaves.
             | 18. _Cresses_,                The Seed-Leaves, and those
             |                                 only next them.
             | 19. _Turnip_,               \
             | 20. _Mustard_,              | The Seed-Leaves only.
             | 21. _Scurvy-grass_,         /
             | 22. _Chervil_,              \ The young Leaves
             | 23. _Burnet_,               | immediately after
             | 24. _Rocket_, Spanish,      | the Seedlings.
             | 25. _Persly_,               /
             | 26. _Tarragon_,             \ The tender Shoots
             | 27. _Mints_,                /   and Tops.
             | 28. _Sampier_,              \
             | 29. _Balm_,                 | The young tender
             | 30. _Sage_, Red,            /   Leaves and Shoots.
             | 31. _Shalots_,              \
             | 32. _Cives_ and _Onion_,    / The tender young leaves.
             | 33. _Nasturtium_, Indian      The Flowers and Bud-Flowers.
             | 34. _Rampion_, Belgrade     \ The Seed-Leaves
             \ 35. _Trip-Madame_,          /   and young Tops.

  Month. _January_, _February_, and _March_.
  and             Species.                       Proportion.

               / _Rampions_,                   / 10  \
  Blanch'd     | _Endive_,                     |  2  |
  as before    | _Succory_,                    |  5  | Roots in Number.
               | _Fennel_, Sweet.              | 10  |
               \ _Sellery_,                    \  4  /

               / _Lamb-Lettuce_,               \
               | _Lob-Lettuce_,                / A pugil of each.
               | _Radish_,                     \
               | _Cresses_,                    / Three parts each.
               | _Turneps_,                    \
               | _Mustard_, Seedlings,         / Of each One part.
               | _Scurvy-grass_,
               | _Spinach_,                      Two parts.
               | _Sorrel_, Greenland,          \
  Green and    | _Sorrel_, French              |
  Unblanch'd   | _Chervil_, sweet,             | One part of each.
               | _Burnet_,                     |
               | _Rocket_,                     /
               |                                 Twenty large Leaves.
               | _Tarragon_,
               | _Balm_,                       \
               | _Mint_,                       / One small part of each.
               | _Sampier_,
               | _Shalots_,                    \
               | _Cives_,                      / Very few
               | _Cabbage_, Winter.              Two pugils or
               \                                   small handfuls.

  Month. _April_, _May_, and _June_.
  and             Species.                       Proportion.

               / _Lop_,             \          \
  Blanch'd     | _Silesan_, Winter, | Lettuce. | Of each a pugil.
               \ _Roman_, Winter,   /          /

               / _Radishes_,                     Three parts.
  Green Herbs  | _Cresses_,                      Two parts.
  Unblanch'd.  | _Purselan_,                     1 Fasciat,
               |                                   or pretty full gripe
               | _Sorrel_, French,               Two parts.
  Note, _That  | _Sampier_,                      One part.
  the young    | _Onions_, young.                Six parts.
  Seedling     | _Sage_-tops,_ the Red,          Two parts.
  Leaves of    |
  Orange and   | _Persley_,                    \
  Lemon may    | _Cresses_, the Indian,        |
  all these    | _Lettuce_, Belgrade,          | Of each One part.
  months be    | _Trip-Madame_,                |
  mingled with | _Chervil_, sweet              /
  the Sallet._ |
               \ _Burnet_,                       Two parts.

  Month. _July_, _August_, and _September_.
  and             Species.                       Proportion.

  Blanch'd,    / Silesian _Lettuce_,             One whole _Lettuce_.
  _and may be  |
  eaten by     | Roman _Lettuce_,              \ Two parts.
  themselves   | _Cress_,                      /
  with some_   |
  Nasturtium-  \ _Cabbage_,                      Four parts.

               / _Cresses_,                    \
               | _Nasturtium_,                 / Two parts.
               | _Purslane_,                   \
               | _Lop-Lettuce_,                / One part.
  Green Herbs  | Belgrade, _or_                \
  _by          | Crumpen-_Lettuce_.            / Two parts.
  themselves   |
  or mingl'd   | _Tarragon_,                     One part.
  with the_    |
  Blanch'd.    | _Sorrel_, French              \
               | _Burnet_,                     / Two parts of each.
               \ _Trip-Madame_,                  One part.

  Month. _October_, _November_, and _December_.
  and             Species.                       Proportion.

               / _Endive.                      \ Two if large, four
               | _Sellery_,                    | if small, Stalk and
               |                               | part of the Root and
               |                               / tenderest Leaves.
  Blanch'd     | _Lop-Lettuce_,                \
               | _Lambs-Lettuce_,              / An handful of each.
               | _Radish_,                       Three parts.
               \ _Cresses_,                      Two parts.

               / _Turneps_,                    \
               | _Mustard_ Seedlings,          / One part of each.
  Green        |
               | _Cresses_, broad,             \
               \ _Spinach_,                    / Two parts of each.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Farther Directions concerning the proper_ Seasons _for the_ Gathering,
Composing, _and_ Dressing _of a_ Sallet.

And _First_, as to the _Season_ both _Plants_ and _Roots_ are then
properly to be _Gather'd_, and in prime, when most they abound with
Juice and in Vigour: Some in the _Spring_, or a little anticipating
it before they Blossom, or are in full Flower: Some in the _Autumnal_
Months; which later Season many prefer, the Sap of the Herb, tho' not in
such exuberance, yet as being then better concocted, and so render'd fit
for _Salleting_, 'till the Spring begins a fresh to put forth new, and
tender Shoots and Leaves.

This, indeed, as to the _Root_, newly taken out of the Ground is true;
and therefore should such have their _Germination_ stopt the sooner: The
approaching and prevailing Cold, both Maturing and Impregnating them; as
does Heat the contrary, which now would but exhaust them: But for those
other _Esculents_ and Herbs imploy'd in our _Composition_ of _Sallets_,
the early _Spring_, and ensuing Months (till they begin to mount, and
prepare to _Seed_) is certainly the most natural, and kindly Season
to collect and accommodate them for the Table. Let none then consult
_Culpeper_, or the _Figure-flingers_, to inform them when the governing
_Planet_ is in its _Exaltation_; but look upon the _Plants_ themselves,
and judge of their Vertues by their own Complexions.

Moreover, in _Gathering_, Respect is to be had to their Proportions,
as provided for in the _Table_ under that Head, be the Quality
whatsoever: For tho' there is indeed nothing more wholsome than
_Lettuce_ and _Mustard_ for the _Head_ and _Eyes_; yet either of them
eaten in excess, were highly prejudicial to them both: Too much of
the _first_ extreamly debilitating and weakning the _Ventricle_, and
hastning the further decay of sickly _Teeth_; and of the _second_ the
_Optic Nerves_, and _Sight_ it self; the like may be said of all the
rest. I conceive therefore, a Prudent Person, well acquainted with the
Nature and Properties of _Sallet-Herbs_, &c. to be both the fittest
_Gatherer_ and _Composer_ too; which yet will require no great Cunning,
after once he is acquainted with our _Table_ and _Catalogue_.

We purposely, and _in transitu_ only, take notice here of the Pickl'd,
_Muriated_, or otherwise prepared Herbs; excepting some such Plants,
and Proportions of them, as are of hard digestion, and not fit to be
eaten altogether _Crude_, (of which in the _Appendix_) and among which
I reckon _Ash-keys_, _Broom-buds_ and _Pods_, _Haricos_, _Gurkems_,
_Olives_, _Capers_, the Buds and Seeds of _Nasturtia_, _Young
Wall-nuts_, _Pine-apples_, _Eringo_, _Cherries_, _Cornelians_,
_Berberries_, _&c._ together with several Stalks, Roots, and Fruits;
Ordinary Pot-herbs, _Anis_, _Cistus Hortorum_, _Horminum_, _Pulegium_,
_Satureia_, _Thyme_; the intire Family of Pulse and _Legumena_; or other
_Sauces_, _Pies_, _Tarts_, _Omlets_, _Tansie_, _Farces_, &c. _Condites_
and Preserves with _Sugar_ by the Hand of Ladies; tho' they are all
of them the genuine Production of the _Garden_, and mention'd in our
_Kalendar_, together with their Culture; whilst we confine our selves
to such Plants and _Esculenta_ as we find at hand; delight our selves
to gather, and are easily prepar'd for an _Extemporary Collation_,
or to Usher in, and Accompany other (more Solid, tho' haply not more
Agreeable) Dishes, as the Custom is.

But there now starts up a Question, Whether it were better, or more
proper, to _Begin_ with _Sallets_, or End and Conclude with them? Some
think the harder Meats should first be eaten for better Concoction;
others, those of easiest Digestion, to make way, and prevent
Obstruction; and this makes for our _Sallets_, _Horarii_, and _Fugaces
Fructus_ (as they call 'em) to be eaten first of all, as agreeable to
the general Opinion of the great _Hippocrates_, and _Galen_, and of
_Celsus_ before him. And therefore the _French_ do well, to begin with
their _Herbaceous Pottage_, and for the _Cruder_, a Reason is given:

  [60]_Prima tibi dabitur Ventri_ Lactuca _movendo_
  _Utilis, & Poris fila refecta suis_.

And tho' this Custom came in about Domitian's time[61], [Greek: ho m
arkaioi], they anciently did quite the contrary,

  [62]_Gratáque nobilium Lactuca ciborum_.

But of later Times, they were constant at the _Ante-coenia_, eating
plentifully of _Sallet_, especially of _Lettuce_, and more refrigerating
Herbs. Nor without Cause: For drinking liberally they were found to
expell, and allay the Fumes and Vapors of the _genial Compotation_, the
spirituous Liquor gently conciliating Sleep: Besides, that being of a
crude nature, more dispos'd, and apt to fluctuate, corrupt, and disturb
a surcharg'd Stomach; they thought convenient to begin with _Sallets_,
and innovate the ancient Usage.

  [63]----_Nam Lactuca innatat acri_
  _Post Vinum Stomacho_----

  For if on drinking Wine you Lettuce eat,
  It floats upon the Stomach----

The _Spaniards_, notwithstanding, eat but sparingly of Herbs at Dinner,
especially _Lettuce_, beginning with _Fruit_, even before the _Olio_ and
Hot-Meats come to the Table; drinking their Wine pure, and eating the
best Bread in the World; so as it seems the Question still remains
undecided with them,

  [64]_Claudere quae coenas_ Lactuca _solebat avorum_
  _Dic mihi cur nostras inchoat illa dapes?_

  The _Sallet_, which of old came in at last,
  Why now with it begin we our Repast?

And now since we mention'd _Fruit_, there rises another Scruple:
Whether _Apples_, _Pears_, _Abricots_, _Cherries_, _Plums_, and other
Tree, and _Ort-yard-Fruit_, are to be reckon'd among _Salleting_; and
when likewise most seasonably to be eaten? But as none of these do
properly belong to our _Catalogue_ of _Herbs_ and _Plants_, to which
this Discourse is confin'd (bessides what we may occasionally speak of
hereafter) there is a very useful [65]Treatise on that Subject already
publish'd. We hasten then in the next place to the _Dressing_, and
_Composing_ of our Sallet: For by this time, our Scholar may long to
see the _Rules_ reduc'd to _Practice_, and Refresh himself with what
he finds growing among his own _Lactuceta_ and other Beds of the

       *       *       *       *       *


I am not ambitious of being thought an excellent _Cook_, or of those who
set up, and value themselves, for their skill in _Sauces_; such as was
_Mithacus_ a _Culinary Philosopher_, and other _Eruditæ Gulæ_; who read
Lectures of _Hautgouts_, like the _Archestratus_ in _Athenæus_: Tho'
after what we find the _Heroes_ did of old, and see them chining out the
slaughter'd _Ox_, dressing the Meat, and do the Offices of both _Cook_
and _Butcher_, (for so [66]_Homer_ represents _Achilles_ himself, and
the rest of those Illustrious _Greeks_) I say, after this, let none
reproach our _Sallet-Dresser_, or disdain so clean, innocent, sweet, and
Natural a Quality; compar'd with the Shambles Filth and _Nidor_, Blood
and Cruelty; whilst all the World were _Eaters_, and _Composers_ of
_Sallets_ in its best and brightest Age.

The Ingredients therefore gather'd and proportion'd, as above; Let the
_Endive_ have all its out-side Leaves stripped off, slicing _in_ the
White: In like manner the _Sellery_ is also to have the hollow green
Stem or Stalk trimm'd and divided; slicing-in the blanched Part, and
cutting the Root into four equal Parts.

_Lettuce_, _Gresses_, _Radish_, &c. (as was directed) must be
exquisitely pick'd, cleans'd, wash'd, and put into the Strainer;
swing'd, and shaken gently, and, if you please, separately, or all
together; Because some like not so well the _Blanch'd_ and Bitter
Herbs, if eaten with the rest: Others mingle _Endive_, _Succory_, and
_Rampions_, without distinction, and generally eat _Sellery_ by it
self, as also Sweet _Fennel_.

From _April_ till _September_ (and during all the Hot _Months_) may
_Guinny-Pepper_, and _Horse-Radish_ be left out; and therefore we only
mention them in the Dressing, which should be in this manner.

Your _Herbs_ being handsomely parcell'd, and spread on a clean Napkin
before you, are to be mingl'd together in one of the Earthen glaz'd
Dishes: Then, for the _Oxoleon_; Take of clear, and perfectly good
_Oyl-Olive_, three Parts; of sharpest _Vinegar_ ([67]sweetest of all
_Condiments_) _Limon_, or Juice of _Orange_, one Part; and therein let
steep some Slices of _Horse-Radish_, with a little _Salt_; Some in a
separate _Vinegar_, gently bruise a _Pod_ of _Guinny-Pepper_, straining
both the _Vinegars_ apart, to make Use of Either, or One alone, or of
both, as they best like; then add as much _Tewkesbury_, or other dry
_Mustard_ grated, as will lie upon an Half-Crown Piece: Beat, and mingle
all these very well together; but pour not on the _Oyl_ and _Vinegar_,
'till immediately before the _Sallet_ is ready to be eaten: And then
with the _Yolk_ of two new-laid _Eggs_ (boyl'd and prepar'd, as before
is taught) squash, and bruise them all into mash with a Spoon; and
lastly, pour it all upon the _Herbs_, stirring, and mingling them 'till
they are well and throughly imbib'd; not forgetting the Sprinklings of
_Aromaticks_, and such Flowers, as we have already mentioned, if you
think fit, and garnishing the Dish with the thin Slices of
_Horse-Radish_, _Red Beet_, _Berberries_, &c.

_Note_, That the _Liquids_ may be made more, or less _Acid_, as is most
agreeable to your Taste.

These _Rules_, and _Prescriptions_ duly _Observ'd_; you have a _Sallet_
(for a Table of Six or Eight Persons) _Dress'd_, and Accommodated
_secundum Artem_: For, as the [68]Proverb has it,

  [Greek: 'Ou ôantos andros esin artusai kalôs.]
  _Non est cujusvis rectè condire_.

And now after all we have advanc'd in favour of the _Herbaceous_ Diet,
there still emerges a third Inquiry; namely, Whether the Use of _Crude
Herbs_ and _Plants_ are so wholesom as is pretended?

What Opinion the Prince of Physicians had of them, we shall see
hereafter; as also what the Sacred Records of elder Times seem to infer,
before there were any Flesh-Shambles in the World; together with the
Reports of such as are often conversant among many Nations and People,
who to this Day, living on _Herbs_ and _Roots_, arrive to incredible
Age, in constant Health and Vigour: Which, whether attributable to the
_Air_ and _Climate_, _Custom_, _Constitution_, &c. should be inquir'd
into; especially, when we compare the _Antediluvians_ mention'd _Gen._
1. 29--the whole _Fifth_ and _Ninth_ Chapters, _ver._ 3. confining them
to _Fruit_ and wholesom Sallets: I deny not that both the _Air_ and
_Earth_ might then be less humid and clammy, and consequently Plants,
and Herbs better fermented, concocted, and less Rheumatick, than since,
and presently after; to say nothing of the infinite Numbers of putrid
Carcasses of Dead Animals, perishing in the Flood, (of which I find
few, if any, have taken notice) which needs must have corrupted the
Air: Those who live in Marshes, and Uliginous Places (like the Hundreds
of _Essex_) being more obnoxious to _Fevers_, _Agues_, _Pleurisies_,
and generally unhealthful: The Earth also then a very Bog, compar'd
with what it likely was before that destructive _Cataclysm_, when
Men breath'd the pure _Paradisian_ Air, sucking in a more _æthereal_,
nourishing, and baulmy _Pabulum_, so foully vitiated now, thro' the
Intemperance, Luxury, and softer Education and Effeminacy of the
Ages since.

_Custom_, and _Constitution_ come next to be examin'd, together with
the Qualities, and _Vertue_ of the Food; and I confess, the two first,
especially that of _Constitution_, seems to me the more likely Cause of
Health, and consequently of Long-life; which induc'd me to consider of
what Quality the usual _Sallet_ Furniture did more eminently consist,
that so it might become more safely applicable to the Temper, Humour,
and Disposition of our Bodies; according to which, the various Mixtures
might be regulated and proportion'd: There's no doubt, but those whose
Constitutions are Cold and Moist, are naturally affected with Things
which are Hot and Dry; as on the contrary, Hot, and Dry Complexions,
with such as cool and refrigerate; which perhaps made the _Junior
Gordian_ (and others like him) prefer the _frigidæ Mensæ_ (as of old
they call'd _Sallets_) which, according to _Cornelius Celsus_, is the
fittest Diet for _Obese_ and Corpulent Persons, as not so Nutritive, and
apt to Pamper: And consequently, that for the Cold, Lean, and Emaciated;
such Herby Ingredients should be made choice of, as warm, and cherish
the Natural Heat, depure the Blood, breed a laudable Juice, and revive
the Spirits: And therefore my _Lord_ [69]_Bacon_ shews what are best
Raw, what Boil'd, and what Parts of Plants fittest to nourish. _Galen_
indeed seems to exclude them all, unless well accompanied with their due
Correctives, of which we have taken care: Notwithstanding yet, that even
the most _Crude_ and _Herby_, actually Cold and Weak, may potentially be
Hot, and Strengthning, as we find in the most vigorous Animals, whose
Food is only Grass. 'Tis true indeed, Nature has providentially mingl'd,
and dress'd a _Sallet_ for them in every field, besides what they
distinguish by Smell; nor question I, but Man at first knew what Plants
and Fruits were good, before the Fall, by his Natural Sagacity, and not
Experience; which since by Art, and Trial, and long Observation of their
Properties and Effects, they hardly recover: But in all Events,
supposing with [70]_Cardan_, that Plants nourish little, they hurt as
little. Nay, Experience tells us, that they not only hurt not at all,
but exceedingly benefit those who use them; indu'd as they are with such
admirable Properties as they every day discover: For some Plants not
only nourish laudably, but induce a manifest and wholesom Change; as
_Onions_, _Garlick_, _Rochet_, &c. which are both nutritive and warm;
_Lettuce_, _Purselan_, the _Intybs_, &c. and indeed most of the _Olera_,
refresh and cool: And as their respective Juices being converted into
the Substances of our Bodies, they become _Aliment_; so in regard of
their Change and Alteration, we may allow them _Medicinal_; especially
the greater Numbers, among which we all this while have skill but of
very few (not only in the Vegetable Kingdom, but in the whole _Materia
Medica_) which may be justly call'd _Infallible Specifics_, and upon
whose Performance we may as safely depend, as we may on such as
familiarly we use for a Crude _Herb-Sallet;_ discreetly chosen, mingl'd,
and dress'd accordingly: Not but that many of them may be improv'd, and
render'd better in Broths, and Decoctions, than in _Oyl_, _Vinegar_,
and other Liquids and Ingredients: But as this holds not in all, nay,
perhaps in few comparatively, (provided, as I said, the Choice, Mixture,
Constitution, and _Season_ rightly be understood) we stand up in Defence
and Vindication of our _Sallet_, against all Attacks and Opposers

We have mentioned _Season_ and with the great _Hippocrates_, pronounce
them more proper for the Summer, than the Winter; and when those Parts
of Plants us'd in _Sallet_ are yet tender, delicate, and impregnated
with the Vertue of the Spring, to cool, refresh, and allay the Heat and
Drought of the Hot and _Bilious_, Young and over-_Sanguine_, Cold,
_Pituit_, and Melancholy; in a word, for Persons of all Ages, Humours,
and Constitutions whatsoever.

To this of the _Annual Seasons_, we add that of _Culture_ also, as of
very great Importance: And this is often discover'd in the taste and
consequently in the Goodness of such Plants and _Salleting_, as are
Rais'd and brought us fresh out of the Country, compar'd with those
which the Avarice of the _Gardiner_, or Luxury rather of the Age, tempts
them to force and _Resuscitate_ of the most desirable and delicious

It is certain, says a [71]Learned Person, that about populous Cities,
where Grounds are over-forc'd for Fruit and early _Salleting_, nothing
is more unwholsom: Men in the Country look so much more healthy and
fresh; and commonly are longer liv'd than those who dwell in the Middle
and Skirts of vast and crowded Cities, inviron'd with rotten Dung,
loathsome and common Lay Stalls; whose noisome Steams, wafted by the
Wind, poison and infect the ambient Air and vital Spirits, with those
pernicious Exhalations, and Materials of which they make the _Hot Beds_
for the raising those _Præcoces_ indeed, and forward Plants and Roots
for the wanton Palate; but which being corrupt in the Original, cannot
but produce malignant and ill Effects to those who feed upon them. And
the same was well observ'd by the _Editor_ of our famous _Roger Bacon's_
Treatise concerning the _Cure of Old Age_, and _Preservation of Youth_:
There being nothing so proper for _Sallet Herbs_ and other _Edule
Plants_, as the Genial and Natural Mould, impregnate, and enrich'd
with well-digested Compost (when requisite) without any Mixture of
Garbage, odious Carrion, and other filthy Ordure, not half consum'd and
ventilated and indeed reduc'd to the next Disposition of Earth it self,
as it should be; and that in Sweet, [72]Rising, Aery and moderately
Perflatile Grounds; where not only _Plants_ but _Men_ do last, and live
much longer. Nor doubt I, but that every body would prefer Corn, and
other Grain rais'd from _Marle_, _Chalk_, _Lime_, and other sweet Soil
and Amendments, before that which is produc'd from the _Dunghil_ only.
Beside, Experience shews, that the Rankness of _Dung_ is frequently the
Cause of Blasts and Smuttiness; as if the _Lord_ of the _Universe_,
by an Act of visible Providence would check us, to take heed of all
unnatural Sordidness and Mixtures. We sensibly find this Difference
in Cattle and their Pasture; but most powerfully in _Fowl_, from such
as are nourish'd with Corn, sweet and dry Food: And as of Vegetable
_Meats_, so of _Drinks_, 'tis observ'd, that the same Vine, according
to the Soil, produces a _Wine_ twice as heady as in the same, and a
less forc'd Ground; and the like I believe of all other Fruit, not to
determine any thing of the _Peach_ said to be Poison in _Persia_;
because 'tis a _Vulgar Error_.

Now, because among other things, nothing more betrays its unclean and
spurious Birth than what is so impatiently longed after as _Early
Asparagus_, &c. [73]Dr. _Lister_, (according to his communicative and
obliging Nature) has taught us how to raise such as our _Gardiners_
cover with nasty Litter, during the Winter; by rather laying of
Clean and Sweet _Wheat-Straw_ upon the Beds, _super-seminating_ and
over-strowing them thick with the Powder of bruised _Oyster-Shells_,
&c. to produce that most tender and delicious _Sallet_. In the mean
while, if nothing will satisfie save what is rais'd _Ex tempore_, and
by Miracles of Art so long before the time; let them study (like the
_Adepti_) as did a very ingenious Gentleman whom I knew; That having
some Friends of his accidentally come to Dine with him, and wanting an
early Sallet, Before they sate down to Table, sowed _Lettuce_ and some
other Seeds in a certain Composition of Mould he had prepared; which
within the space of two Hours, being risen near two Inches high,
presented them with a delicate and tender _Sallet_; and this, without
making use of any nauseous or fulsome Mixture; but of Ingredients not
altogether so cheap perhaps. _Honoratus Faber_ (no mean _Philosopher_)
shews us another Method by sowing the Seeds steep'd in _Vinegar_,
casting on it a good quantity of _Bean-Shell_ Ashes, irrigating them
with _Spirit of Wine_, and keeping the Beds well cover'd under dry
Matts. Such another Process for the raising early _Peas_ and _Beans_,
&c. we have the like [74]Accounts of: But were they practicable and
certain, I confess I should not be fonder of them, than of such as
the honest industrious Country-man's Field, and Good Wife's Garden
seasonably produce; where they are legitimately born in just time,
and without forcing Nature.

But to return again to _Health_ and _Long Life_, and the Wholesomness
of the Herby-Diet, [75]_John Beverovicius_, a Learn'd Physician (out of
_Peter Moxa_, a _Spaniard_) treating of the extream Age, which those of
_America_ usually arrive to, asserts in behalf of Crude and Natural
Herbs: _Diphilus_ of old, as [76]_Athenæus_ tells us, was on the other
side, against all the Tribe of _Olera_ in general; and _Cardan_ of late
(as already noted) no great Friend to them; Affirming Flesh-Eaters to
be much wiser and more sagacious. But this his [77]Learned Antagonist
utterly denies; Whole Nations, Flesh-Devourers (such as the farthest
_Northern_) becoming Heavy, Dull, Unactive, and much more Stupid than
the _Southern_; and such as feed much on Plants, are more Acute, Subtil,
and of deeper Penetration: Witness the _Chaldæans_, _Assyrians_,
_Ægyptians_, &c. And further argues from the short Lives of most
_Carnivorous_ Animals, compared with Grass Feeders, and the Ruminating
kind; as the _Hart_, _Camel_, and the longævous _Elephant_, and other
Feeders on Roots and Vegetables.

I know what is pretended of our Bodies being composed of _Dissimilar_
Parts, and so requiring Variety of Food: Nor do I reject the Opinion,
keeping to the same _Species_; of which there is infinitely more Variety
in the _Herby_ Family, than in all Nature bessides: But the Danger is in
the _Generical_ Difference of _Flesh_, _Fish_, _Fruit_, &c. with other
made Dishes and exotic Sauces; which a wanton and expensive Luxury has
introduc'd; debauching the Stomach, and sharpening it to devour things
of such difficult Concoction, with those of more easie Digestion, and of
contrary Substances, more than it can well dispose of: Otherwise Food of
the same kind would do us little hurt: So true is that of [78]_Celsus_,
_Eduntur facilius; ad concoctionem autem materiæ, genus, & modus
pertineat_. They are (says he) easily eaten and taken in: But regard
should be had to their Digestion, Nature, Quantity and Quality of the
Matter. As to that of _Dissimilar_ Parts, requiring this contended for
Variety: If we may judge by other Animals (as I know not why we may not)
there is (after all the late Contests about _Comparative Anatomy_) so
little Difference in the Structure, as to the Use of those Parts and
Vessels destin'd to serve the Offices of Concoction, Nutrition, and
other Separations for Supply of Life, _&c._ That it does not appear
why there should need any Difference at all of Food; of which the most
simple has ever been esteem'd the best, and most wholsome; according
to that of the [79]Naturalist, _Hominis cibus utilissimus simplex_.
And that so it is in other Animals, we find by their being so seldom
afflicted with Mens Distempers, deriv'd from the Causes above-mentioned:
And if the many Diseases of _Horses_ seem to [80]contradict it, I am apt
to think it much imputable to the Rack and Manger, the dry and wither'd
Stable Commons, which they must eat or starve, however qualified; being
restrained from their Natural and Spontaneous Choice, which Nature
and Instinct directs them to: To these add the Closeness of the Air,
standing in an almost continu'd Posture; besides the fulsome Drenches,
unseasonable Watrings, and other Practices of ignorant _Horse-Quacks_
and surly Grooms: The Tyranny and cruel Usage of their Masters in tiring
Journeys, hard, labouring and unmerciful Treatment, Heats, Colds,
_&c._ which wear out and destroy so many of those useful and generous
Creatures before the time: Such as have been better us'd, and some, whom
their more gentle and good-natur'd Patrons have in recompence of their
long and faithful service, dismiss'd, and sent to Pasture for the rest
of their Lives (as the _Grand Seignior_ does his _Meccha-Camel_) have
been known to live _forty_, _fifty_, nay (says [81]_Aristotle_,) no fewer
than _sixty five_ Years. When once Old _Par_ came to change his simple,
homely Diet, to that of the _Court_ and _Arundel-House_, he quickly sunk
and dropt away: For, as we have shew'd, the Stomack easily concocts
plain, and familiar Food; but finds it an hard and difficult Task, to
vanquish and overcome Meats of [82]different Substances: Whence we so
often see temperate and abstemious Persons, of a Collegiate Diet, very
healthy; Husbandsmen and laborious People, more robust, and longer liv'd
than others of an uncertain extravagant Diet.

  [83]----_Nam variae res_
  _Ut noceant Homini, credas, memor illius escae,_
  _Quae simplex olim tibi sederit_----

  For different Meats do hurt;
    Remember how
  When to one Dish confin'd, thou
    healthier wast than now:

was _Osellus's Memorandum_ in the Poet.

Not that variety (which God has certainly ordain'd to delight and assist
our Appetite) is unnecessary, nor any thing more grateful, refreshing
and proper for those especially who lead sedentary and studious Lives;
Men of deep Thought, and such as are otherwise disturb'd with Secular
Cares and Businesses, which hinders the Function of the Stomach and
other Organs: whilst those who have their Minds free, use much Exercise,
and are more active, create themselves a natural Appetite, which needs
little or no Variety to quicken and content it.

And here might we attest the _Patriarchal_ World, nay, and many
Persons since; who living very temperately came not much short of the
_Post-Diluvians_ themselves, counting from _Abraham_ to this Day; and
some exceeding them, who liv'd in pure Air, a constant, tho' course and
simple Diet; wholsome and uncompounded Drink; that never tasted _Brandy_
or _Exotic Spirits_; but us'd moderate Exercise, and observ'd good
Hours: For such a one a curious Missionary tells us of in Persia; who
had attain'd the Age of _four hundred_ Years, (a full _Century_ beyond
the famous _Johannes de Temporibus_) and was living _Anno_ 1636, and so
may be still for ought we know. But, to our Sallet.

Certain it is, Almighty God ordaining [84]_Herbs_ and _Fruit_ for the
Food of Men, speaks not a Word concerning _Flesh_ for two thousand
Years. And when after, by the _Mosaic_ Constitution, there were
Distinctions and Prohibitions about the legal Uncleanness of _Animals_;
_Plants_, of what kind soever, were left free and indifferent for every
one to choose what best he lik'd. And what if it was held undecent and
unbecoming the Excellency of Man's Nature, before Sin entred, and grew
enormously wicked, that any Creature should be put to Death and Pain for
him who had such infinite store of the most delicious and nourishing
Fruit to delight, and the Tree of Life to sustain him? Doubtless there
was no need of it. Infants sought the Mother's Nipple as soon as born;
and when grown, and able to feed themselves, run naturally to Fruit, and
still will choose to eat it rather than Flesh and certainly might so
persist to do, did not Custom prevail, even against the very Dictates of
Nature: Nor, question I, but that what the Heathen [85]_Poets_ recount
of the Happiness of the _Golden Age_, sprung from some Tradition they
had received of the _Paradisian_ Fare, their innocent and healthful
Lives in that delightful Garden. Let it suffice, that _Adam_, and his
yet innocent Spouse, fed on Vegetables and other Hortulan Productions
before the fatal Lapse; which, by the way, many Learned Men will hardly
allow to have fallen out so soon as those imagine who scarcely grant
them a single Day; nay, nor half a one, for their Continuance in the
State of Original Perfection; whilst the sending him into the Garden;
Instructions how he should keep and cultivate it; Edict, and Prohibition
concerning the _Sacramental_ Trees; the Imposition of [86]Names, so
apposite to the Nature of such an Infinity of Living Creatures
(requiring deep Inspection) the Formation of _Eve_, a meet Companion to
relieve his Solitude; the Solemnity of their Marriage; the Dialogues and
Success of the crafty Tempter, whom we cannot reasonably think made but
one Assault: And that they should so quickly forget the Injunction of
their Maker and Benefactor; break their Faith and Fast, and all other
their Obligations in so few Moments. I say, all these Particulars
consider'd; Can it be supposed they were so soon transacted as those do
fancy, who take their Measure from the Summary _Moses_ gives us, who did
not write to gratifie Mens Curiosity, but to transmit what was necessary
and sufficient for us to know.

This then premis'd (as I see no Reason why it should not) and that
during all this Space they liv'd on _Fruits_ and _Sallets_; 'tis little
probable, that after their Transgression, and that they had forfeited
their Dominion over the Creature (and were sentenc'd and exil'd to a
Life of Sweat and Labour on a cursed and ungrateful Soil) the offended
God should regale them with Pampering _Flesh_, or so much as suffer
them to slay the more innocent Animal: Or, that if at any time they had
Permission, it was for any thing save Skins to cloath them, or in way of
Adoration, or _Holocaust_ for Expiation, of which nothing of the _Flesh_
was to be eaten. Nor did the Brutes themselves subsist by Prey (tho'
pleas'd perhaps with Hunting, without destroying their Fellow Creatures)
as may be presum'd from their long Seclusion of the most Carnivorous
among them in the Ark.

Thus then for two thousand Years, the Universal Food was _Herbs_ and
_Plants_; which abundantly recompens'd the Want of _Flesh_ and other
luxurious Meats, which shortened their Lives so many hundred Years; the
[87][Greek: makro-biotê-a] of the Patriarchs, which was an Emblem of
Eternity as it were (after the new Concession) beginning to dwindle to
a little Span, a Nothing in Comparison.

On the other side, examine we the present Usages of several other
Heathen Nations; particularly (bessides the _ægyptian_ Priests of old)
the _Indian Bramins_, Relicts of the ancient _Gymnosophists_ to this
Day, observing the Institutions of their Founder. _Flesh_, we know was
banish'd the _Platonic_ Tables, as well as from those of _Pythagoras_;
(See [88]_Porphyry_ and their Disciples) tho' on different Accounts.
Among others of the Philosophers, from _Xenocrates_, _Polemon_, &c. we
hear of many. The like we find in [89]_Clement Alexand._ [90]_Eusebius_
names more. _Zeno_, _Archinomus_, _Phraartes_, _Chiron_, and others,
whom _Lærtius_ reckons up. In short, so very many, especially of the
Christian Profession, that some, even of the ancient [91]Fathers
themselves, have almost thought that the Permission of eating Flesh to
_Noah_ and his Sons, was granted them no otherwise than _Repudiation_ of
Wives was to the _Jews_, namely, for _the Hardness of their Hearts_, and
to satisfie a murmuring Generation that a little after loathed _Manna_
it self, and _Bread from Heaven_. So difficult a thing it is to subdue
an unruly Appetite; which notwithstanding [92]_Seneca_ thinks not so
hard a Task; where speaking of the Philosopher _Sextius_, and _Socion's_
(abhorring Cruelty and Intemperance) he celebrates the Advantages of the
_Herby_ and _Sallet_ Diet, as _Physical_, and _Natural_ Advancers of
Health and other Blessings; whilst Abstinence from Flesh deprives Men of
nothing but what _Lions_, _Vultures_, Beasts and birds of Prey, blood
and gorge themselves withal, The whole _Epistle_ deserves the Reading,
for the excellent Advice he gives on this and other Subjects; and how
from many troublesome and slavish Impertinencies, grown into Habit and
Custom (old as he was) he had Emancipated and freed himself: Be this
apply'd to our present excessive Drinkers of Foreign and _Exotic_
Liquors. And now

I am sufficiently sensible how far, and to how little purpose I am gone
on this _Topic_: The Ply is long since taken, and our raw _Sallet_ deckt
in its best Trim, is never like to invite Men who once have tasted
_Flesh_ to quit and abdicate a Custom which has now so long obtain'd.
Nor truly do I think Conscience at all concern'd in the Matter, upon any
Account of Distinction of _Pure_ and _Impure_; tho' seriously consider'd
(as _Sextius_ held) _rationi magis congrua_, as it regards the cruel
Butcheries of so many harmless Creatures; some of which we put to
merciless and needless Torment, to accommodat them for exquisite and
uncommon _Epicurism_. There lies else no positive Prohibition;
Discrimination of Meats being [93]Condemn'd as the _Doctrine of Devils_:
Nor do Meats _commend us to God_. One eats _quid vult_ (of every thing:)
another _Olera_, and of _Sallets_ only: But this is not my Business,
further than to shew how possible it is by so many Instances and
Examples, to live on wholsome Vegetables, both long and happily: For so

  [94]_The_ Golden Age, _with this Provision blest,_
  _Such a_ Grand Sallet _made, and was a Feast._
  _The_ Demi-Gods _with Bodies large and sound,_
  _Commended then the Product of the Ground._
  _Fraud then, nor Force were known, nor filthy Lust_,
  _Which Over-heating and Intemp'rance nurst:_
  _Be their vile Names in Execration held,_
  _Who with foul Glutt'ny first the World defil'd:_
  _Parent of Vice, and all Diseases since,_
  _With ghastly Death sprung up alone from thence._
  _Ah, from such reeking, bloody Tables fly,_
  _Which Death for our Destruction does supply._
  _In_ Health, _if_ Sallet-Herbs _you can't endure;_
  _Sick, you'll desire them; or for_ Food, _or_ Cure.

As to the other part of the Controversie, which concerns us, [Greek:
aimatophagoi], and _Occidental Blood_-Eaters; some Grave and Learn'd
Men of late seem to scruple the present Usage, whilst they see the
Prohibition appearing, and to carry such a Face of _Antiquity_,
[95]_Scripture_, [96]_Councils_, [97]_Canons_, [98]_Fathers_; _Imperial
Constitutions_, and _Universal Practice_, unless it be among us of these
Tracts of _Europe_, whither, with other Barbarities, that of eating
the _Blood_ and _Animal_ Life of Creatures first was brought; and by
our Mixtures with the _Goths_, _Vandals_, and other Spawn of Pagan
_Scythians_; grown a Custom, and since which I am persuaded more Blood
has been shed between _Christians_ than there ever was before the Water
of the Flood covered this Corner of the World: Not that I impute it
only to our eating _Blood_; but sometimes wonder how it hap'ned that
so strict, so solemn and famous a _Sanction_ not upon a _Ceremonial
Account_; but (as some affirm) a _Moral_ and _Perpetual_ from _Noah_,
to whom the Concession of eating _Flesh_ was granted, and that of Blood
forbidden (nor to this Day once revok'd) and whilst there also seems
to lie fairer Proofs than for most other Controversies agitated among
_Christians_, should be so generally forgotten, and give place to so
many other impertinent Disputes and Cavels about other superstitious
Fopperies, which frequently end in Blood and cutting of Throats.

As to the Reason of this Prohibition, its favouring of Cruelty
excepted, (and that by _Galen_, and other experienc'd Physicians,
the eating Blood is condemn'd as unwholsome, causing Indigestion and
Obstructions) if a positive Command of _Almighty God_ were not enough,
it seems sufficiently intimated; because _Blood_ was the _Vehicle_ of
the _Life_ and _Animal Soul_ of the Creature: For what other mysterious
Cause, as haply its being always dedicated to _Expiatory Sacrifices_,
&c. it is not for us to enquire. 'Tis said, that _Justin Martyr_
being asked, why the _Christians_ of his time were permitted the
eating _Flesh_ and not the _Blood_? readily answer'd, That God might
distinguish them from Beasts, which eat them both together. 'Tis
likewise urg'd, that by the _Apostolical Synod_ (when the rest of the
_Jewish_ Ceremonies and Types were abolish'd) this Prohibition was
mention'd as a thing [99]_necessary_, and rank'd with _Idolatry_, which
was not to be local or temporary; but universally injoyn'd to converted
Strangers and _Proselytes_, as well as _Jews_: Nor could the Scandal
of neglecting to observe it, concern them alone, after so many Ages as
it was and still is in continual Use; and those who transgress'd, so
severely punish'd, as by an _Imperial Law_ to be scourg'd to _Blood_ and
Bone: Indeed, so terrible was the Interdiction, that _Idolatry_ excepted
(which was also Moral and perpetual) nothing in Scripture seems to be
more express. In the mean time, to relieve all other Scruples, it does
not, they say, extend to that [Greek: akribeia] of those few diluted
Drops of _Extravasated Blood_, which might happen to tinge the Juice
and Gravy of the Flesh (which were indeed _to strain at a Gnat_) but
to those who devour the _Venal_ and _Arterial Blood_ separately, and
in Quantity, as a choice Ingredient of their luxurious Preparations
and _Apician_ Tables.

But this, and all the rest will, I fear, seem but _Oleribus verba
facere_, and (as the Proverb goes) be Labour-in-vain to think of
preaching down _Hogs-Puddings_, and usurp the Chair of _Rabby-Busy_: And
therefore what is advanc'd in Countenance of the _Antediluvian_ Diet,
we leave to be ventilated by the Learned, and such as _Curcellæus_, who
has borrow'd of all the Ancient Fathers, from _Tertullian, Hierom, S.
Chrysostom_, &c. to the later Doctors and Divines, _Lyra_, _Tostatus_,
_Dionysius Carthusianus_, _Pererius_, amongst the _Pontificians_; of
_Peter Martyr_, _Zanchy_, _Aretius_, _Jac. Capellus_, _Hiddiger_,
_Cocceius_, _Bochartus_, &c. amongst the _Protestants_; and _instar
omnium_, by _Salmasius_, _Grotius_, _Vossius_, _Blundel_: In a Word, by
the Learn'd of both Persuasions, favourable enough to these Opinions,
_Cajetan_ and _Calvin_ only excepted, who hold, that as to _Abstinence_
from _Flesh_, there was no positive Command or Imposition concerning
it; but that the Use of _Herbs_ and _Fruit_ was recommended rather for
Temperance sake, and the Prolongation of Life: Upon which score I am
inclin'd to believe that the ancient [Greek: theraôentai], and other
devout and contemplative Sects, distinguish'd themselves; whose Course
of Life we have at large describ'd in [100]_Philo_ (who liv'd and taught
much in Gardens) with others of the Abstemious _Christians_; among whom,
_Clemens_ brings in St. _Mark_ the _Evangelist_ himself, _James_ our
Lord's Brother. St. _John_, &c. and with several of the devout Sex, the
famous _Diaconesse Olympias_, mention'd by _Palladius_ (not to name
the rest) who abstaining from Flesh, betook themselves to _Herbs_ and
_Sallets_ upon the Account of Temperance, and the Vertues accompanying
it; and concerning which the incomparable _Grotius_ declares ingenuously
his Opinion to be far from censuring, not only those who forbear the
eating _Flesh_ and Blood, _Experimenti Causa_, and for Discipline sake;
but such as forbear _ex Opinione_, and (because it has been the ancient
Custom) provided they blam'd none who freely us'd their Liberty; and I
think he's in the right.

But leaving this Controversie (_ne nimium extra oleas_) it has often
been objected, that _Fruit_, and _Plants_, and all other things, may
since the Beginning, and as the World grows older, have universally
become _Effoete_, impair'd and diverted of those Nutritious and
transcendent Vertues they were at first endow'd withal: But as this is
begging the Question, and to which we have already spoken; so all are
not agreed that there is any, the least [101]_Decay in Nature_, where
equal Industry and Skill's apply'd. 'Tis true indeed, that the _Ordo
Foliatorum, Feuillantines_ (a late Order of _Ascetic Nuns_) amongst
other Mortifications, made Trial upon the _Leaves_ of _Plants_ alone,
to which they would needs confine themselves; but were not able to go
through that thin and meagre Diet: But then it would be enquir'd whether
they had not first, and from their very Childhood, been fed and brought
up with _Flesh_, and better Sustenance till they enter'd the _Cloyster_;
and what the Vegetables and the Preparation of them were allow'd by
their Institution? Wherefore this is nothing to our Modern Use of
_Sallets_, or its Disparagement. In the mean time, that we still think
it not only possible, but likely, and with no great Art or Charge
(taking _Roots_ and _Fruit_ into the Basket) substantially to maintain
Mens Lives in Health and Vigour: For to _this_, and less than this, we
have the Suffrage of the great [102]_Hippocrates_ himself; who thinks,
_ab initio etiam hominum_ (as well as other Animals) _tali victu
usum esse_, and needed no other Food. Nor is it an inconsiderable
Speculation, That since _all Flesh is Grass_ (not in a _Figurative_,
but _Natural_ and _Real_ Sense) _Man_ himself, who lives on _Flesh_,
and I think upon no Earthly Animal whatsoever, but such as feed on
Grass, is nourish'd with them still; and so becoming an _Incarnate
Herb_, and Innocent _Canibal_, may truly be said to devour himself.

We have said nothing of the _Lotophagi_, and such as (like St. _John_
the _Baptist_, and other religious _Ascetics_) were Feeders on the
_Summities_ and Tops of Plants: But as divers of those, and others we
have mention'd, were much in times of Streights, Persecutions, and other
Circumstances, which did not in the least make it a Pretence, exempting
them from Labour, and other Humane Offices, by ensnaring Obligations
and vows (never to be useful to the Publick, in whatever Exigency)
so I cannot but take Notice of what a Learned _Critic_ speaking of
Mens neglecting plain and Essential Duties, under Colour of exercising
themselves in a more sublime Course of Piety, and being Righteous above
what is commanded (as those who seclude themselves in Monasteries) that
they manifestly discover excessive Pride, Hatred of their Neighbour,
Impatience of Injuries; to which _add, Melancholy Plots and
Machinations_; and that he must be either stupid, or infected with the
same Vice himself, who admires this [Greek: etheloperiosothrêskeia], or
thinks they were for that Cause the more pleasing to God. This being
so, what may we then think of such Armies of _Hermits_, _Monks_ and
_Friers_, who pretending to justifie a mistaken Zeal and meritorious
Abstinence; not only by a peculiar Diet and Distinction of Meats
(which God without Distinction has made the moderate Use of common and
[103]indifferent amongst _Christians_) but by other sordid Usages, and
unnecessary Hardships, wilfully prejudice their Health and Constitution?
and through a singular manner of living, dark and _Saturnine_; whilst
they would seem to abdicate and forsake the World (in Imitation, as they
pretend, of the Ancient _Eremites_) take care to settle, and build their
warm and stately Nests in the most Populous Cities, and Places of
Resort; ambitious doubtless of the Peoples Veneration and Opinion of an
extraordinary Sanclity; and therefore flying the _Desarts_, where there
is indeed no use of them; and flocking to the _Towns_ and _Cities_ where
there is less, indeed none at all; and therefore no Marvel that the
Emperour _Valentinian_ banished them the Cities, and _Constantine
Copronymus_ finding them seditious, oblig'd them to marry, to leave
their Cells, and live as did others. For of these, some there are who
seldom speak, and therefore edifie none; sleep little, and lie hard, are
clad nastily, and eat meanly (and oftentimes that which is unwholsom)
and therefore benefit none; Not because they might not, both for their
own, and the Good of others, and the Publick; but because they will not;
Custom, and a prodigious [104]Sloth accompanying it; which renders it
so far from _Penance_, and the Mortification pretended, that they know
not how to live, or spend their Time otherwise. This, as I have often
consider'd, so was I glad to find it justly perstring'd, and taken
notice of by a [105]Learned Person, amongst others of his useful
Remarks abroad.

'These, says he, willingly renouncing the innocent Comforts of Life,
plainly shew it to proceed more from a chagrin and morose Humour, than
from any true and serious Principle of sound Religion; which teaches
Men to be useful in their Generations, sociable and communicative,
unaffected, and by no means singular and fantastic in Garb and Habit,
as are these (forsooth) Fathers (as they affect to be call'd) spending
their Days in idle and fruitless Forms, and tedious Repetitions; and
thereby thinking to merit the Reward of those Ancient, and truly pious
_Solitaries_, who, God knows, were driven from their Countries and
Repose, by the Incursions of barbarous Nations (whilst these have no
such Cause) and compell'd to Austerities, not of their own chusing and
making, but the publick Calamity; and to _labour_ with their _Hands_
for their own, and others necessary Support, as well as with with their
_Prayers_ and holy Lives, Examples to all the World: And some of these
indeed (bessides the _Solitaries_ of the _Thebaid_, who wrought for
abundance of poor Christians, sick, and in Captivity) I might bring
in, as such who deserv'd to have their Names preserv'd; not for their
rigorous Fare, and uncouth Disguises; but for teaching that the Grace
of Temperance and other Vertues, consisted in a cheerful, innocent,
and profitable Conversation.

And now to recapitulate what other Prerogatives the _Hortulan Provision_
has been celebrated for, bessides its Antiquity, Health and _Longævity_
of the _Antediluvians_; that Temperance, Frugality, Leisure, Ease, and
innumerable other Vertues and Advantages, which accompany it, are no
less attributable to it. Let us hear our excellent _Botanist_ [106]Mr.

'The Use of Plants (says he) is all our Life long of that universal
Importance and Concern, that we can neither live nor subsist in any
Plenty with Decency, or Conveniency or be said to live indeed at all
without them: whatsoever Food is necessary to sustain us, whatsoever
contributes to delight and refresh us, are supply'd and brought forth
out of that plentiful and abundant store: and ah, how much more
innocent, sweet and healthful, is a Table cover'd with these, than with
all the reeking Flesh of butcher'd and slaughter'd Animals: Certainly
Man by Nature was never made to be a _Carnivorous_ Creature; nor is
he arm'd at all for Prey and Rapin, with gag'd and pointed Teeth and
crooked Claws, sharp'ned to rend and tear: But with gentle Hands to
gather Fruit and Vegetables, and with Teeth to chew and eat them: Nor
do we so much as read the Use of _Flesh_ for Food, was at all permitted
him, till after the Universal Deluge, _&c._

To this might we add that transporting Consideration, becoming both our
Veneration and Admiration of the infinitely wise and glorious Author of
Nature, who has given to _Plants_ such astonishing Properties; such
fiery Heat in some to warm and cherish, such Coolness in others to
temper and refresh, such pinguid Juice to nourish and feed the Body,
such quickening _Acids_ to compel the Appetite, and grateful vehicles to
court the Obedience of the Palate, such Vigour to renew and support our
natural Strength, such ravishing Flavour and Perfumes to recreate and
delight us: In short, such spirituous and active Force to animate and
revive every Faculty and Part, to all the kinds of Human, and, I had
almost said Heavenly Capacity too. What shall we add more? Our Gardens
present us with them all; and whilst the _Shambles_ are cover'd with
Gore and Stench, our _Sallets_ scape the Insults of the Summer _Fly_,
purifies and warms the Blood against Winter Rage: Nor wants there
Variety in more abundance, than any of the former Ages could shew.

Survey we their _Bills of Fare_, and Numbers of Courses serv'd up by
_Athenæus_, drest with all the Garnish of _Nicander_ and other _Grecian_
Wits: What has the _Roman Grand Sallet_ worth the naming? _Parat
Convivium_, The Guests are nam'd indeed, and we are told,

  ----[107]_Varias, quas habet hortus opes?_
  How richly the Garden's stor'd:

  _In quibus est Luctuca sedens, & tonsile porrum,
  Nee deest ructatrix Mentha, nec herba salax, &c._

       *       *       *       *       *

A Goodly Sallet!

_Lettuce_, _Leeks_, _Mint_, _Rocket_, _Colewort-Tops_, with _Oyl_ and
_Eggs_, and such an _Hotch-Pot_ following (as the Cook in _Plautus_
would deservedly laugh at). But how infinitely out-done in this Age of
ours, by the Variety of so many rare _Edules_ unknown to the Ancients,
that there's no room for the Comparison. And, for Magnificence, let
the _Sallet_ drest by the Lady for an Entertainment made by _Jacobus
Catsius_ (describ'd by the Poet [108]_Barlæus_) shew; not at all yet
out-doing what we every Day almost find at our _Lord Mayor's Table_, and
other great Persons, Lovers of the Gardens; that sort of elegant Cookery
being capable of such wonderful Variety, tho' not altogether wanting
of old, if that be true which is related to us of [109]_Nicomedes_
a certain King of Bithynia, whose Cook made him a _Pilchard_ (a Fish
he exceedingly long'd for) of a well dissembl'd Turnip, carv'd in its
Shape, and drest with _Oyl_, _Salt_, and _Pepper_, that so deceiv'd, and
yet pleased the Prince, that he commended it for the best Fish he had
ever eaten. Nor does all this exceed what every industrious _Gardiner_
may innocently enjoy, as well as the greatest Potentate on Earth.

  Vitellius _his Table, to which every Day_
  _All Courtiers did a constant Tribute pay,_
  _Could nothing more delicious afford_
  _Than Nature's Liberality._
  _Help'd with a little Art and Industry,_
  _Allows the meanest Gard'ners Board,_
  _The Wanton Taste no Fish or Fowl can chuse,_
  _For which the Grape or Melon she would lose._
  _Tho' all th' Inhabitants of Sea and Air._
  _Be lifted in the Glutton's Bill of Fare;_
  _Yet  still the_ Sallet, _and the_ Fruit _we see_
  _Plac'd the third Story high in all her Luxury_.

So the Sweet [110]_Poet_, whom I can never part with for his Love to
this delicious Toil, and the Honour he has done me.

Verily, the infinite Plenty and Abundance, with which the benign and
bountiful Author of Nature has stor'd the whole Terrestrial World, more
with _Plants_ and _Vegetables_ than with any other Provision whatsoever;
and the Variety not only equal, but by far exceeding the Pleasure
and Delight of Taste (above all the Art of the _Kitchen_, than ever
[111]_Apicius_ knew) seems loudly to call, and kindly invite all her
living Inhabitants (none excepted) who are of gentle Nature, and most
useful, to the same _Hospitable_ and Common-Board, which first she
furnish'd with _Plants_ and _Fruit_, as to their natural and genuine
Pasture; nay, and of the most wild, and savage too _ab origine_: As in
_Paradise_, where, as the _Evangelical_ [112]Prophet adumbrating the
future Glory of the _Catholick Church_, (of which that happy _Garden_
was the _Antitype_) the _Wolf and the Lamb, the angry and furious Lion,
should eat Grass and Herbs together with the Ox_. But after all, _latet
anguis in herba_, there's a _Snake_ in the Grass; Luxury, and Excess in
our most innocent Fruitions. There was a time indeed when the Garden
furnish'd Entertainments for the most Renown'd Heroes, virtuous and
excellent Persons; till the Blood-thirsty and Ambitious, over-running
the Nations, and by Murders and Rapine rifl'd the World, to transplant
its Luxury to its new Mistriss, _Rome_. Those whom heretofore [113]two
Acres of Land would have satisfied, and plentifully maintain'd; had
afterwards their very Kitchens almost as large as their first
Territories: Nor was that enough: Entire [114]_Forests_ and _Parks_,
_Warrens_ and _Fish-Ponds_, and ample Lakes to furnish their Tables,
so as Men could not live by one another without Oppression: Nay, and
to shew how the best, and most innocent things may be perverted; they
chang'd those frugal and _inemptas Dapes_ of their Ancestors, to that
Height and Profusion; that we read of [115]_Edicts_ and _Sumptuary
Laws_, enacted to restrain even the Pride and Excess of _Sallets_. But
so it was not when the _Pease-Field_ spread a Table for the Conquerors
of the World, and their Grounds were cultivated _Vomere laureato,
& triumphali aratore_: The greatest Princes took the _Spade_ and the
_Plough-Staff_ in the same Hand they held the Sceptre; and the Noblest
[116]Families thought it no Dishonour, to derive their Names from
_Plants_ and _Sallet-Herbs_; They arriv'd, I say to that Pitch of
ingrossing all that was but green, and could be vary'd by the Cook
(_Heu quam prodiga ventris_!) that, as _Pliny_ tells us (_non sine
pudore_, not without blushing) a poor Man could hardly find a _Thistle_
to dress for his Supper; or what his hungry [117]_Ass_ would not touch,
for fear of pricking his Lips.

Verily the Luxury of the East ruin'd the greatest Monarchies; first, the
_Persian_, then the _Grecian_, and afterwards _Rome_ her self: By what
Steps, see elegantly describ'd in Old [118]_Gratius_ the _Faliscian_,
deploring his own Age compar'd with the former:

  _O quantum, & quoties decoris frustrata paterni!_
  _At qualis nostris, quam simplex mensa Camillis!_
  _Qui tibi cultus erat post tot, serrane, triumphos?_
  _Ergo illi ex habitu, virtutisq; indole priscæ,_
  _Imposuere orbi Romam caput_:----

  Neighb'ring Excesses being made thine own,
  How art thou fall'n from thine old Renown!
  But our _Camilli_ did but plainly fare,
  No Port did oft triumphant _Serran_ bear:
  Therefore such Hardship, and their Heart so great
  Gave _Rome_ to be the World's Imperial Seat.

But as these were the Sensual and Voluptuous, who abus'd their Plenty,
spent their Fortunes and shortned their Lives by their Debauches; so
never did they taste the Delicaces, and true Satisfaction of a sober
Repast, and the infinite Conveniences of what a well-stor'd _Garden_
affords; so elegantly describ'd by the [119]_Naturalist_, as costing
neither Fuel nor Fire to boil, Pains or time to gather and prepare,
_Res expedita & parata semper_: All was so near at hand, readily drest,
and of so easie Digestion; as neither to offend the Brain, or dull the
Senses; and in the greatest Dearth of Corn, a little Bread suffic'd.
In all Events,

  _Panis ematur, Olus, Vini Sextarius adde_
  _Queis humana sibi doleat natura negatis_.

  Bread, Wine and wholsome Sallets you may buy,
  What Nature adds besides is Luxury.

They could then make an honest Meal, and dine upon a _Sallet_ without
so much as a Grain, of _Exotic Spice_; And the _Potagere_ was in such
Reputation, that she who neglected her _Kitchen-Garden_ (for that was
still the Good-Woman's Province) was never reputed a tolerable Hus-wife:
_Si vespertinus subitò te oppresserit hospes_, she was never surpriz'd,
had all (as we said) at hand, and could in a Trice set forth an handsome
_Sallet_: And if this was Happiness, _Convictus facilis sine arte mensa_
(as the _Poet_ reckons) it was here in Perfection. In a Word, so
universal was the _Sallet_, that the [120]Un-bloody Shambles (as _Pliny_
calls them) yielded the [121]_Roman_ State a more considerable Custom
(when there was little more than honest _Cabbage_ and _Worts_) than
almost any thing bessides brought to Market.

They spent not then so much precious time as afterwards they did,
gorging themselves with _Flesh_ and _Fish_, so as hardly able to rise,
without reeking and reeling from Table.

  [122]----_Vides ut pallidus omnis_
  _Coena desurgat dubia? quin corpus onustum_
  _Hesternis vitiis, animum quoque prægravat unà,_
  _Atque affigit humo divinæ particulam auræ_.

  See but how pale they look, how wretchedly,
  With Yesterday's Surcharge disturb'd they be!
  Nor Body only suff'ring, but the Mind,
  That nobler Part, dull'd and depress'd we find.
  Drowsie and unapt for Business, and other nobler Parts of Life.

Time was before Men in those golden Days: Their Spirits were brisk and

  ----_Ubi dicto citius curata sopori_
  _Membra dedit, Vegetus præscripta ad munera surgit_.

  With shorter, but much sweeter Sleep content,
  Vigorous and fresh, about their Business went.

And Men had their Wits about them; their Appetites were natural, their
Sleep _molli sub arbore_, sound, sweet, and kindly: That excellent
Emperour _Tacitus_ being us'd to say of _Lettuce_, that he did _somnum
se mercari_ when he eat of them, and call'd it a sumptuous Feast, with
a _Sallet_ and a single _Pullet_, which was usually all the Flesh-Meat
that sober Prince eat of; whilst _Maximinus_ (a profess'd Enemy to
_Sallet_) is reported to have scarce been satisfied, with sixty Pounds
of Flesh, and Drink proportionable.

There was then also less expensive Grandure, but far more true State;
when _Consuls_, great Statesmen (and such as atchiev'd the most renown'd
Actions) sup'd in their _Gardens_; not under costly, gilded, and inlaid
Roofs, but the spreading _Platan_; and drank of the Chrystal Brook, and
by Temperance, and healthy Frugality, maintain'd the Glory of _Sallets_,
_Ah, quanta innocentiore victu_! with what Content and Satisfaction!
Nor, as we said, wanted there Variety; for so in the most blissful
Place, and innocent State of Nature, See how the first _Empress_ of the
World _Regal's_ her _Celestial_ Guest:

  [123]_With sav'ry Fruit of Taste to please_
  _True Appetite, ---- and brings_
  _Whatever Earth's all-bearing Mother yields_
  _----Fruit of all kinds, in Coat_
  _Rough, or smooth-Rind, or bearded Husk, or Shell_.
  _Heaps with unsparing Hand: For Drink the Grape_
  _She crushes, inoffensive Moust, and Meaches_
  _From many a Berry, and from sweet Kernel prest,_
  _She temper'd dulcid Creams_.----

Then for the Board.

  ----_Rais'd of a grassy Turf_
  _The Table was, and Mossy Seats had round;_
  _And on the ample Meaths from Side to Side,_
  _All Autumn pil'd: Ah Innocence,_
  _Deserving Paradise_!

Thus, the _Hortulan_ Provision of the [124]_Golden Age_ fitted all
_Places_, _Times_ and _Persons_; and when Man is restor'd to that State
again, it will be as it was in the Beginning.

But now after all (and for Close of all) Let none yet imagine, that
whilst we justifie our present Subject through all the _Topics of
Panegyric_, we would in Favour of the _Sallet_, drest with all its Pomp
and Advantage turn Mankind to _Grass_ again; which were ungratefully
to neglect the Bounty of Heaven, as well as his Health and Comfort:
But by these Noble Instances and Examples, to reproach the _Luxury_
of the present Age; and by shewing the infinite Blessing and Effects of
Temperance, and the Vertues accompanying it; with how little Nature, and
a [125]Civil Appetite may be happy, contented with moderate things, and
within a little Compass, reserving the rest, to the nobler Parts of
Life. And thus of old,

  _Hoc erat in votis, modus agri non ita magnus, _&a._

He that was possess'd of a little Spot of Ground, and well=cultivated
_Garden_, with other moderate Circumstances, had [126]_Hæredium_. All
that a modest Man could well desire. Then,

  [127]_Happy the Man, who from Ambition freed,_
  _A little Garden, little Field does feed._
  _The Field gives frugal Nature what's requird;_
  _The Garden what's luxuriously desir'd:_
  _The specious Evils of an anxious Life,_
  _He leaves to Fools to be their endless Strife_.

O Fortunatos nimium bona si sua norint Horticulos!


       *       *       *       *       *


Tho' _it was far from our first Intention to charge this small Volume
and Discourse concerning_ Crude Sallets, _with any of the following
Receipts: Yet having since received them from an_ Experienc'd Housewife;
_and that they may possibly be useful to correct, preserve and improve
our_ Acetaria, _we have allow'd them Place as an_ Appendant _Variety
upon Occasion: Nor account we it the least Dishonour to our former
Treatise, that we kindly entertain'd them; since (besides divers
Learned_ Physicians, _and such as have_ ex professo _written_ de Re
Cibaria) _we have the Examples of many other_ [128]Noble _and_
Illustrious _Persons both among the_ Ancient _and_ Modern.

1. Artichoak. _Clear it of the Leaves and cut the Bottoms in pretty thin
Slices or Quarters; then fry them in fresh Butter with some Parsley,
till it is crisp, and the Slices tender; and so dish them with other
fresh melted Butter_.

_How a_ Poiverade _is made, and the Bottoms preserv'd all the Winter,
See_ Acetaria. p. 5, 6.

Ashen-keys. _See_ Pickle.

Asparagus. _See_ Pickle.

  Beets.   \
  Broom.   |
  Buds.    |   _See_ Pickle.
  Capers.  /

Carrot. _See_ Pudding.

Champignon. _See_ Mushroom.

2. Chessnut. _Roasted under the Embers, or dry fryed, till they shell,
and quit their Husks, may be slit; the Juice of Orange squeezed on a
Lump of hard Sugar dissolv'd; to which add some Claret Wine_.

  Collyflower.     \
  Cucumber.        |
  Elder flowers.   | _See_ Pickle.
  Flowers.         |
  Gilly-flowers.   /

Herbs. _See_ Pudding _and_ Tart.

Limon. _See_ Pickle.

3. Mushroom. _Chuse the small, firm and white Buttons_, growing _upon
sweet Pasture_ _Grounds, neither under, or about any Trees: strip off
the upper Skin, and pare away all the black spungy Bottom part; then
slice them in quarters, and cast them in Water a while to cleanse: Then
Boil them in fresh Water, and a little sweet Butter; (some boil them a
quarter of an hour first) and then taking them out, dry them in a Cloth,
pressing out the Water, and whilst hot, add the Butter; and then boiling
a full Hour (to exhaust the Malignity) shift them in another clean
Water, with Butter, as before till they become sufficiently tender. Then
being taken out, pour upon them as much strong Mutton (or other) Broth
as will cover them, with six Spoonfuls of White-Wine, twelve Cloves, as
many Pepper-Corns, four small young Onions, half an Handful of Persly
bound up with two or three Spriggs of Thyme, an_ Anchovy, _Oysters raw,
or pickl'd; a little Salt, sweet Butter; and so let them stew_. _See_
Acetar. p. 26.


_Prepared, and cleans'd as above, and cast into Fountain-Water, to
preserve them from growing black; Boil them in fresh Water and Salt; and
whilst on the Fire, cast in the_ Mushrooms, _letting them boil till they
become tender: Then stew them leisurely between two Dishes (the Water
being drained from them) in a third Part of White-Wine_ _and Butter, a
small Bundle of sweet Herbs at discretion. To these add Broth as before,
with Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg_, Anchovies (_one is sufficient_) _Oysters_,
&c. _a small Onion, with the green Stem chopt small; and lastly, some
Mutton-Gravy, rubbing the Dish gently with a Clove of Garlick, or some_
Rocombo _Seeds in its stead. Some beat the Yolk of a fresh Egg with
Vinegar, and Butter, and a little Pepper_.

_In_ France _some (more compendiously being peel'd and prepared) cast
them into a Pipkin, where, with the Sweet Herbs, Spices, and an Onion
they stew them in their own Juice, without any other Water or Liquor at
all; and then taking out the Herbs and Onion, thicken it with a little
Butter, and so eat them_.

_In_ Poiverade.

_The large Mushrooms well cleansed_, &c. _being cut into quarters and
strewed with Pepper and Salt, are broil'd on the Grid-iron, and eaten
with fresh Butter_.

_In_ Powder.

_Being fresh gathered, cleans'd_, &c. _and cut in Pieces, stew them
in Water and Salt; and being taken forth, dry them with a Cloth: Then
putting them into an Earth-Glazed Pot, set them into the Oven after the
Bread is drawn: Repeat this till they are perfectly dry; and reserve
them in Papers to crumble into what Sauce you please. For the rest,
see_ Pickle.

4. Mustard. _Procure the best and weightiest Seed: cast it into Water
two or three times, till no more of the Husk arise: Then taking out the
sound_ (_which will sink to the Bottom_) _rub it very dry in warm course
Cloths, shewing it also a little to the Fire in a Dish or Pan. Then
stamp it as small as to pass through a fine Tiffany Sieve: Then slice
some Horse-Radish and lay it to soak in strong Vinegar, with a small
Lump of hard Sugar_ (_which some leave out_) _to temper the Flower with,
being drained from the Radish, and so pot it all in a Glaz'd Mug, with
an Onion, and keep it well stop'd with a Cork upon a Bladder, which is
the more cleanly: But this_ Receit _is improv'd, if instead of Vinegar,
Water only, or the Broth of powder'd Beef be made use of. And to some of
this_ Mustard _adding Verjuice, Sugar, Claret-Wine, and Juice of Limon,
you have an excellent Sauce to any sort of Flesh or Fish_.

_Note, that a Pint of good Seed is enough to make at one time, and to
keep fresh a competent while. What part of it does not pass the_ Sarse,
_may be beaten again; and you may reserve the Flower in a well closed
Glass, and make fresh Mustard when you please_. _See_ Acetaria, p. 38,

Nasturtium. _Vide_ Pickle.

Orange. _See_ Limon _in Pickle_.

5. Parsnip. _Take the large Roots, boil them, and strip the Skin: Then
slit them long-ways into pretty thin Slices; Flower and fry them in
fresh Butter till they look brown. The sauce is other sweet Butter
melted. Some strow Sugar and Cinamon upon them. Thus you may accomodate
other Roots_.

_There is made a Mash or Pomate of this Root, being boiled very tender
with a little fresh Cream; and being heated again, put to it some
Butter, a little Sugar and Juice of Limon; dish it upon Sippets;
sometimes a few_ Corinths _are added_.

Peny-royal. _See_ Pudding.


6. _Pickl'd_
   Artichoaks. _See_ Acetaria, p. 5.

7. Ashen-keys. _Gather them young, and boil them in three or four Waters
to extract the Bitterness; and when they feel tender, prepare a Syrup of
sharp White-Wine Vinegar, Sugar, and a little Water. Then boil them on
a very quick Fire, and they will become of a green Colour, fit to be
potted so soon as cold_.

8. Asparagus. _Break off the hard Ends, and put them in White-Wine
Vinegar and Salt, well covered with it; and so let them remain for six
Weeks: Then taking them out, boil the Liquor or Pickle, and scum it
carefully. If need be, renew the Vinegar and Salt; and when 'tis cold,
pot them up again. Thus may one keep them the whole Year_.

9. Beans. _Take such as are fresh, young, and approaching their full
Growth. Put them into a strong Brine of White-Wine Vinegar and Salt able
to bear an Egg. Cover them very close, and so will they be preserved
twelve Months: But a Month before you use them, take out what Quantity
you think sufficient for your spending a quarter of a Year (for so long
the second Pickle will keep them sound) and boil them in a Skillet of
fresh Water, till they begin to look green, as they soon will do. Then
placing them one by one, (to drain upon a clean course Napkin) range
them Row by Row in a_ Jarr, _and cover them with Vinegar, and what Spice
you please; some Weight being laid upon them to keep them under the
Pickle. Thus you may preserve French-Beans_, Harico's, &c. _the whole
Year about_.

10. Broom-Buds _and_ Pods. _Make a strong Pickle, as above; stir it very
well, till the Salt be quite dissolved, clearing off the Dregs and Scum.
The next Day pour it from the Bottom; and having rubbed the Buds dry pot
them up in a Pickle-Glass, which should be frequently shaken, till they
sink under it, and keep it well stopt and covered_.

_Thus may you-pickle any other_ Buds. _Or as follows:_

11. _Of_ Elder. _Take the largest_ Buds, _and boil them in a Skillet
with Salt and Water, sufficient only to scald them; and so (being taken
off the Fire) let them remain covered till Green; and then pot them with
Vinegar and Salt, which has had one Boil up to cleanse it_.

12. Collyflowers. _Boil them till they fall in Pieces: Then with some of
the Stalk, and worst of the Flower, boil it in a part of the Liquor till
pretty strong: Then being taken off, strain it; and when settled, clear
it from the Bottom. Then with_ Dill, _Gross Pepper, a pretty Quantity of
Salt, when cold, add as much Vinegar as will make it sharp, and pour all
upon the_ Collyflower; _and so as to keep them from touching one
another; which is prevented by putting Paper close to them_.

Cornelians _are pickled like_ Olives.

13. Cowslips. _Pick very clean; to each Pound of Flowers allow about one
Pound of Loaf Sugar, and one Pint of White-Wine Vinegar, which boil to a
Syrup, and cover it scalding-hot. Thus you may pickle_ Clove-gillyflowers,
Elder, _and other Flowers, which being eaten alone, make a very agreeable

14. Cucumbers. _Take the_ Gorkems, _or smaller_ Cucumbers; _put them
into_ Rape-Vinegar, _and boyl, and cover them so close, as none of the
Vapour may issue forth; and also let them stand till the next day: Then
boil them in fresh White-Wine Vinegar, with large Mace, Nutmeg, Ginger,
white Pepper, and a little Salt, (according to discretion) straining the
former Liquor from the_ Cucumbers; _and so place them in a Jarr, or wide
mouthed Glass, laying a litle Dill and Fennel between each Rank; and
covering all with the fresh scalding-hot Pickle, keep all close, and
repeat it daily, till you find them sufficiently green_.

_In the same sort_ Cucumbers _of the largest size, being peel'd and cut
into thin Slices, are very delicate_.


_Wiping them clean, put them in a very strong Brine of Water and Salt,
to soak two or three Hours or longer, if you see Cause: Then range
them in the_ Jarr _or_ Barrellet _with Herbs and Spice as usual; and
cover them with hot Liquor made of two parts Beer-Vinegar, and one of
White-Wine Vinegar: Let all be very well closed. A Fortnight after scald
the Pickle again, and repeat it, as above: Thus they will keep longer,
and from being so soon sharp, eat crimp and well tasted, tho' not
altogether so green. You may add a Walnut-Leaf, Hysop, Costmary_, &c.
_and as some do, strow on them a little Powder of_ Roch-Allom, _which
makes them firm and eatable within a Month or six Weeks after_.

Mango _of_ Cucumbers.

_Take the biggest_ Cucumbers _(and most of the_ Mango _size) that look
green: Open them on the Top or Side; and scooping out the Seeds, supply
their Place with a small Clove of Garlick, or some_ Roccombo _Seeds.
Then put them into an Earthen Glazed_ Jarr, _or wide-mouth'd Glass, with
as much White-Wine Vinegar as will cover them. Boil them in the Vinegar
with Pepper, Cloves, Mace, &c. and when off the Fire, as much Salt as
will make a gentle Brine; and so pour all boyling-hot on the_ Cucumbers,
_covering them close till the next Day. Then put them with a little
Dill, and Pickle into a large Skillet; and giving them a Boyl or two,
return them into the Vessel again: And when all is cold, add a good
Spoonful of the best_ Mustard, _keeping it from the Air, and so have you
an excellent_ Mango. _When you have occasion to take any out, make use
of a Spoon, and not your Fingers_.

Elder. _See_ Buds.

Flowers. _See_ Cowslips, _and for other_ Flowers.

15. Limon. _Take Slices of the thick Rind Limon, Boil and shift them in
several Waters, till they are pretty tender: Then drain and wipe them
dry with a clean Cloth; and make a Pickle with a little White-Wine
Vinegar, one part to two of fair Water, and a little Sugar, carefully
scum'd. When all is cold, pour it on the peel'd Rind, and cover it all
close in a convenient Glass Jarr. Some make a Syrup of Vinegar,
White-Wine and Sugar not too thick, and pour it on hot_.

16. Melon. _The abortive and after-Fruit of Melons being pickled as_
Cucumber, _make an excellent Sallet_.

17. Mushrom. _Take a Quart of the best White-Wine Vinegar; as much of
White-Wine, Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg a pretty Quantity, beaten together: Let
the Spice boil therein to the Consumption of half; then taken off, and
being cold, pour the Liquour on the_ Mushroms; _but leave out the boiled
Spice, and cast in of the same sort of Spice whole, the Nutmeg only slit
in Quarters, with some Limon-Peel, white Pepper; and if you please a
whole raw Onion, which take out again when it begins to perish_.


_The_ Mushroms _peel'd_, &c. _throw them into Water, and then into
a Sauce-Pan, with some long Pepper, Cloves, Mace, a quarter'd Nutmeg,
with an Onion, Shallot, or Roccombo-Seed, and a little Salt. Let them
all boil a quarter of an hour on a very quick Fire: Then take out
and cold, with a pretty Quantity of the former Spice, boil them in some
White-Wine; which (being cold) cast upon the_ Mushroms, _and fill up
the Pot with the best White-Wine, a Bay-Leaf or two, and an Handful of
Salt: Then cover them with the Liquor; and if for long keeping, pour
Sallet-Oil over all, tho' they will be preserved a Year without it_.

_They are sometimes boil'd in Salt and Water, with some Milk, and laying
them in the Colender to drain, till cold, and wiped dry, cast them into
the Pickle with the White-Wine, Vinegar and Salt, grated Nutmeg, Ginger
bruised, Cloves, Mace, white Pepper and Limon-Peel; pour the Liquor on
them cold without boiling_.

18. Nasturtium Indicum. _Gather the Buds before they open to flower; lay
them in the Shade three or four Hours, and putting them into an Earthen
Glazed Vessel, pour good Vinegar on them, and cover it with a Board.
Thus letting it stand for eight or ten Days: Then being taken out, and
gently press'd, cast them into fresh Vinegar, and let them so remain as
long as before. Repeat this a third time, and Barrel them up with
Vinegar and a little Salt_.

Orange. _See_ Limon.

20. Potato. _The small green Fruit (when about the size of the Wild
Cherry) being pickled, is an agreeable Sallet. But the Root being
roasted under the Embers, or otherwise, open'd with a Knife, the Pulp
is butter'd in the Skin, of which it will take up a good Quantity, and
is seasoned with a little Salt and Pepper. Some eat them with Sugar
together in the Skin, which has a pleasant Crimpness. They are also
stew'd and bak'd in Pyes_, &c.

21. Purselan. _Lay the Stalks in an Earthen Pan; then cover them with
Beer-Vinegar and Water, keeping them down with a competent Weight to
imbibe, three Days: Being taken out, put them into a Pot with as much
White-Wine Vinegar as will cover them again; and close the Lid with
Paste to keep in the Steam: Then set them on the Fire for three or four
Hours, often shaking and stirring them: Then open the Cover, and turn
and remove those Stalks which lie at the Bottom, to the Top, and boil
them as before, till they are all of a Colour. When all is cold, pot
them with fresh White-Wine Vinegar, and so you may preserve them the
whole Year round_.

22. Radish. _The Seed-Pods of this Root being pickl'd, are a pretty

23. Sampier. _Let it be gathered about_ Michaelmas _(or the Spring) and
put two or three hours into a Brine of Water and Salt; then into a clean
Tin'd Brass Pot, with three parts of strong White-Wine Vinegar, and one
part of Water and Salt, or as much as will cover the_ Sampier, _keeping
the Vapour from issuing out, by pasting down the Pot-lid, and so hang
it over the Fire for half an Hour only. Being taken off, let it remain
covered till it be cold; and then put it up into small Barrels or Jars,
with the Liquor, and some fresh Vinegar, Water and Salt; and thus it
will keep very green. If you be near the Sea, that Water will supply the
place of Brine. This is the_ Dover _Receit_.

24. Walnuts. _Gather the Nuts young, before they begin to harden, but
not before the Kernel is pretty white: Steep them in as much Water as
will more than cover them. Then set them on the Fire, and when the water
boils, and grows black, pour it off, and supply it with fresh, boiling
it as before, and continuing to shift it till it become clear, and the_
Nuts _pretty tender: Then let them be put into clean Spring Water for
two Days, changing it as before with fresh, two or three times within
this space: Then lay them to drain, and dry on a clean course Cloth,
and put them up in a Glass Jar, with a few Walnut Leaves, Dill, Cloves,
Pepper, whole Mace and Salt; strowing them under every Layer of Nuts,
till the Vessel be three quarters full; and lastly, replenishing it with
the best Vinegar, keep it well covered; and so they will be fit to spend
within three Months_.

To make a _Mango_ with them.

_The green Nuts prepared as before, cover the Bottom of the Jar with
some Dill, an Handful of Bay-Salt_, &c. _and then a Bed of Nuts;
and so_ stratum _upon_ stratum, _as above, adding to the Spice some_
Roccombo-Seeds; _and filling the rest of the Jar with the best
White-Wine Vinegar, mingled with the best Mustard; and to let them
remain close covered, during two or three Months time: And thus have you
a more agreeable_ Mango _than what is brought us from abroad; which you
may use in any Sauce, and is of it self a rich Condiment_.

_Thus far_ Pickles.

25. Potage Maigre. _Take four Quarts of Spring-Water, two or three
Onions stuck with some Cloves, two or three Slices of Limon Peel, Salt,
whole white Pepper, Mace, a Raze or two of Ginger, tied up in a fine
Cloth (Lawn or Tiffany) and make all boil for half an Hour; Then having
Spinage, Sorrel, white Beet-Chard, a little Cabbage, a few small Tops of
Cives, wash'd and pick'd clean, shred them well, and cast them into the
Liquor, with a Pint of blue Pease boil'd soft and strain'd, with a Bunch
of sweet Herbs, the Top and Bottom of a_ French Roll; _and so suffer it
to boil during three Hours; and then dish it with another small_ French
Roll, _and Slices about the Dish: Some cut Bread in slices, and frying
them brown (being dried) put them into the Pottage just as it is going
to be eaten_.

_The same Herbs, clean wash'd, broken and pulled asunder only, being put
in a close cover'd Pipkin, without any other Water or Liquor, will stew
in their own Juice and Moisture. Some add an whole Onion, which after a
while should be taken out, remembring to season it with Salt and Spice,
and serve it up with Bread and a Piece of fresh Butter_.

26. Pudding _of_ Carrot. _Pare off some of the Crust of Manchet-Bread,
and grate of half as much of the rest as there is of the Root, which
must also be grated: Then take half a Pint of fresh Cream or New Milk,
half a Pound of fresh Butter, six new laid Eggs (taking out three of the
Whites) mash and mingle them well with the Cream and Butter: Then put
in the grated Bread and Carrot, with near half a Pound of Sugar; and a
little Salt; some grated Nutmeg and beaten Spice; and pour all into a
convenient Dish or Pan, butter'd, to keep the Ingredients from sticking
and burning; set it in a quick Oven for about an Hour, and so have you
a Composition for any_ Root-Pudding.

27. Penny-royal. _The Cream, Eggs, Spice_, &c. _as above, but not so
much Sugar and Salt: Take a pretty Quantity of Peny-royal and Marigold
flower_, &c. _very well shred, and mingle with the Cream, Eggs_, &c.
_four spoonfuls of Sack; half a Pint more of Cream, and almost a Pound
of Beef-Suet chopt very small, the Gratings of a Two-penny Loaf, and
stirring all well together, put it into a Bag flower'd and tie it fast.
It will be boil'd within an Hour: Or may be baked in the Pan like the_
Carrot-Pudding. _The sauce is for both, a little Rose-water, less
Vinegar, with Butter beaten together and poured on it sweetned with the
Sugar Caster_.

_Of this Plant discreetly dried, is made a most wholsom and excellent

28. _Of_ Spinage. _Take a sufficient Quantity of_ Spinach, _stamp and
strain out the Juice; put to it grated Manchet, the Yolk of as many Eggs
as in the former Composition of the_ Carrot-Pudding; _some Marrow shred
small, Nutmeg, Sugar, some Corinths, (if you please) a few Carroways,
Rose, or Orange-flower Water (as you best like) to make it grateful.
Mingle all with a little boiled Cream; and set the Dish or Pan in the
Oven, with a Garnish of Puff-Paste. It will require but very moderate
Baking. Thus have you Receits for_ Herb Puddings.

29. Skirret-Milk _Is made by boiling the Roots tender, and the Pulp
strained out, put into Cream or new Milk boiled, with three or four
Yolks of Eggs, Sugar, large Mace and other Spice_, &c. _And thus is
composed any other Root-Milk_. _See_ Acetar. p. 42.

30. Tansie. _Take the Gratings or Slices of three Naples-Biscuits, put
them into half a Pint of Cream; with twelve fresh Eggs, four of the
Whites cast out, strain the rest, and break them with two Spoonfuls of
Rose-water, a little Salt and Sugar, half a grated Nutmeg: And when
ready for the Pan, put almost a Pint of the Juice of Spinach, Cleaver,
Beets, Corn-Sallet, Green Corn, Violet, or Primrose tender Leaves,
(for of any of these you may take your choice) with a very small Sprig
of Tansie, and let it be fried so as to look green in the Dish, with a
Strew of Sugar and store of the Juice of Orange: some affect to have
it fryed a little brown and crisp_.

31. Tart _of_ Herbs. _An_ Herb-Tart _is made thus: Boil fresh Cream or
Milk, with a little grated Bread or_ Naples-Biscuit _(which is better)
to thicken it; a pretty Quantity of Chervile, Spinach, Beete (or what
other Herb you please) being first par-boil'd and chop'd. Then add_
Macaron, _or Almonds beaten to a Paste, a little sweet Butter, the Yolk
of five Eggs, three of the Whites rejected. To these some add Corinths
plump'd in Milk, or boil'd therein, Sugar, Spice at Discretion, and
stirring it all together over the Fire, bake it in the Tart-Pan_.

32. Thistle. _Take the long Stalks of the middle Leaf of the_
Milky-Thistle, _about_ May, _when they are young and tender: wash and
scrape them, and boil them in Water, with a little Salt, till they are
very soft, and so let them lie to drain. They are eaten with fresh
Butter melted not too thin, and is a delicate and wholsome Dish. Other
Stalks of the same kind may so be treated, as the_ Bur, _being tender
and disarmed of its Prickles_, &c.

33. Trufles, _and other_ Tubers, _and_ Boleti, _are roasted whole in
the_ Embers; _then slic'd and stew'd in strong Broth with Spice_, &c.
_as_ Mushroms _are. Vide_ Acetar. p. 28.

34. Turnep. _Take their Stalks (when they begin to run up to seed) as
far as they will easily break downwards: Peel and tie them in Bundles.
Then boiling them as they do_ Sparagus, _are to be eaten with melted
Butter. Lastly_,

35. Minc'd, _or_ Sallet-all-sorts.

_Take Almonds blanch'd in cold Water, cut them round and thin, and
so leave them in the_ _Water; Then have pickl'd Cucumbers, Olives,
Cornelians, Capers, Berberries, Red-Beet, Buds of_ Nasturtium, _Broom_,
&c. _Purslan-stalk, Sampier, Ash-Keys, Walnuts, Mushrooms (and almost
of all the pickl'd Furniture) with Raisins of the Sun ston'd, Citron
and Orange-Peel, Corinths (well cleansed and dried)_ &c. _mince them
severally (except the Corinths) or all together; and strew them over
with any Candy'd Flowers, and so dispose of them in the same Dish both
mixt, and by themselves. To these add roasted_ Maroons, Pistachios,
Pine-Kernels, _and of Almonds four times as much as of the rest, with
some Rose-water. Here also come in the Pickled Flowers and Vinegar in
little_ China _Dishes. And thus have you an Universal_ Winter-Sallet,
_or an_ All sort _in Compendium, fitted for a City Feast, and
distinguished from the_ Grand-Sallet: _which shou'd consist of the Green
blanch'd and unpickled, under a stately_ Pennash _of_ Sellery, _adorn'd
with Buds and Flowers_.

_And thus have we presented you a Taste of our_ English Garden
Housewifry _in the matter of_ Sallets: _And though some of them may be
Vulgar, (as are most of the best things;) Yet she was willing to impart
them, to shew the Plenty, Riches and Variety of the_ Sallet-Garden:
_And to justifie what has been asserted of the Possibility of living
(not unhappily) on_ Herbs _and_ Plants, _according to_ Original _and_
Divine Institution, _improved by Time and long Experience. And if we have
admitted_ Mushroms _among the rest (contrary to our Intention, and for
Reasons given_, Acet. p. 43.) _since many will by no means abandon them,
we have endeavoured to preserve them from those pernicious Effects which
are attributed to, and really in them: We cannot tell indeed whether
they were so treated and accommodated for the most Luxurious of the_
Cæsarean Tables, _when that Monarchy was in its highest Strain of_
Epicurism, _and ingross'd this_ Haugout _for their second Course; whilst
this we know, that 'tis but what_ Nature _affords all her Vagabonds
under every Hedge_.

_And now, that our_ Sallets _may not want a Glass of generous Wine of
the same Growth with the rest of the Garden to recommend it, let us have
your Opinion of the following_.

Cowslip-Wine. _To every Gallon of Water put two Pounds of_ Sugar; _boil
it an Hour, and set it to cool: Then spread a good brown_ Toast _on both
Sides with Yeast: But before you make use of it, beat some Syrup of_
Citron _with it, an Ounce and half of Syrup to each Gallon of Liquor:
Then put in the_ Toast _whilst hot, to assist its_ Fermentation, _which
will cease in two Days; during which time cast in the_ Cowslip-Flowers
_(a little bruised, but not much stamp'd) to the Quantity of half a
Bushel to ten Gallons (or rather three Pecks) four_ Limons _slic'd, with
the Rinds and all. Lastly, one Pottle of_ White _or_ Rhenish Wine; _and
then after two Days, tun it up in a sweet Cask. Some leave out all the

_And here, before we conclude, since there is nothing of more constant
Use than good Vinegar; or that has so near an Affinity to all our_
Acetaria, _we think it not amiss to add the following (much approved)

Vinegar. _To every Gallon of Spring Water let there be allowed three
Pounds of_ Malaga-Raisins: _Put them in an Earthen Jarr, and place them
where they may have the hottest Sun, from_ May till Michaelmas: _Then
pressing them well, Tun the Liquor up in a very strong Iron-Hooped
Vessel to prevent its bursting. It will appear very thick and muddy when
newly press'd, but will refine in the Vessel, and be as clear as Wine.
Thus let it remain untouched for three Months, before it be drawn off,
and it will prove Excellent_ Vinegar.

Butter. Butter _being likewise so frequent and necessary an Ingredient
to divers of the foregoing_ Appendants: _It should be carefully melted,
that it turn not to an Oil; which is prevented by melting it leisurely,
with a little fair Water at the Bottom of the Dish or Pan; and by
continual shaking and stirring, kept from boiling or over-heating, which
makes it rank_.

_Other rare and exquisite_ Liquors _and Teas (Products of our_ Gardens
_only) we might super-add, which we leave to our_ Lady Housewives,
_whose Province indeed all this while it is_.


       *       *       *       *       *

The Table

  _Abstemious Persons who eat no Flesh, nor were under Vows_, 104

  Abstersives, 42

  ACETARIA, _Criticisms on the Word, how they differ from Olera, &c._, 1

  Achilles, 77

  Acids, 63

  Adam _and_ Eve _lived on Vegetables and Plants_, 94

  Africans _eat_ Capsicum Indicum, 34

  _Aged Persons_, 44;
    _Sallet-Eaters_, 80

  _Agues_, 81

  _Air_, 80

  Alliaria, 19

  _Ale_, 15

  Alleluja, 47

  Alexanders, 5

  Allium, 18

  _Altar dedicated to Lettuce_, 21

  Anagallis, 9

  Annæus Serenus _poisoned by Mushroms_, 27

  _Anatomy, Comparative_, 90

  Antecoenia, 74

  Antediluvians _eat no Flesh for_ 2000 _years_, 80

  Aparine, 12

  _Aperitives_, 10

  _Appetite_, 21;
    _How to subdue_, 98

  Apician _Luxury_, 103

  Apium, 35;
    Italicum, 41

  _Aromatics_, 13

  _Artichoaks_, 5

  Arum Theophrasti, 48

  Ascalonia, 41

  Ascetics, 106

  _Asparagus_, 43;
    _preferable to the_ Dutch, 43;
    _how to cover in Winter without Dung_, 87

  Asphodel, 23

  _Astringents_, 9

  _Asthmatical_, 31

  Assa foetida, 52

  Atriplex, 32

  Augustus, 21

  _Autumn_, 71


  Barlæus's _Description Poetic of a Sallet Collation_, 113

  _Basil_, 7

  _Baulm_, 7

  _Beere_, 15

  _Beet_, 7, 79

  _Benzoin_, 51

  _Bile_, 36

  _Blite_, 8

  _Blood to purifie_, 8;
    _Eating it prohibited_, 100

  Boletus, 26

  _Books of_ Botany, 54;
    _to be read with caution where they write of Edule Plants_, ib.

  _Borrage_, 8

  _Bowels_, 58

  _Brain_, 7, 38

  Bramins, 97

  Brandy _and Exotic Liquors pernicious_, 93

  _Bread and Sallet sufficient for Life_, 2;
    _Made of Turnips_, 46

  _Breast_, 19

  Broccoli, 10

  _Brook lime_, 9

  _Broth_, 19

  _Brute Animals much healthier than Men, why_, 91

  _Buds_, 9

  _Buglos_, 9

  Bulbo Castanum, 15

  Buphthalmum, 15

  _Burnet_, 35

  _Butter_, 64


  Cabbage, 10

  Capsicum Indicum, 34

  Cardialgia, 34

  Carduus Sativus, 5

  Cardon, Spanish, 6

  _Carnivorous Animals_, 89

  _Carrots_, 11

  _Cattel relish of their Pasture and Food_, 86;
    _Vide Fowl_.

  _Cauly flower_, 11

  Cepæ, 31

  _Cephalics_, 30

  Chæriphyllum, 12

  Champignons, 26;
    _Vide_ Mushroms.

  _Chastity_, 21

  _Children chuse to eat Fruit before other Meat_, 94

  _Christians abstaining from eating Flesh_, 97

  _Choler_, 20

  _Church Catholics Future Glory predicted_, 115

  Cibarium, 63

  Cicuta, 48

  Cinara, 5

  _Clary_, 12

  Claudius Cæsar, 27

  _Claver_, 12

  _Cleansing_, 44

  _Climate_, 80

  Cochlearia, 41;
    _vide Scurvy-Grass_.

  _Cooks_, 77;
    _Physicians to Emperors and Popes_, 55;
    _vide_ Heroes.

  _Collation of Sallet, Extemporary_, 73

  _Cold_, 16

  _Cooling_, 33

  _Complexion_, 84

  _Composing, and Composer of Sallets_, 71

  _Compotation_, 74

  _Concession to eat Flesh, since which Mens Lives shortned_, 97

  _Concoction_, 18

  Condiments, 64;
    _vide_ Sauce.

  _Conscience_, 98

  _Consent; vide Harmony_.

  _Constitution of Body_, 57

  Consuls _and Great Persons supt in their Garden_, 121

  _Contemplative Persons_, 104

  Convictus Facilis, 117

  _Cordials_, 7

  _Coriander_, 49

  _Corrago_, 9

  _Correctives_, 82

  _Corn, what Ground most proper for it_, 86

  _Corn Sallet_, 12

  _Corroboratives_, 52

  _Corpulency_, 82

  _Cowslips_, 13

  _Cresses_, 13

  Crithmum, 40

  _Crudities_, 26

  _Cruelty in butchering Animals for Food_, 99

  _Cucumber_, 13

  _Culture, its Effects_, 42

  _Custom_, 81;
    _Of Sallet Herbs, how great a Revenue to_ Rome, 119


  _Daffodil_, 48

  _Daisie_, 15

  _Dandelion_, 15

  Dapes Inemptæ, 116

  Dauci, 11

  _Decay in Nature, none_, 106

  _Decoction_, 19

  _Deobstructions_, 5

  Deorum filii, 26

  _Distinction of Meats abrogated_, 94

  _Detersives_, 8

  _Dishes for Sallets_, 69

  _Dissimilar Parts of Animals require Variety of Food_, 89

  _Diuretics_, 19

  _Dock_, 15

  _Dogs Mercury_, 54

  Domitian _Emp._, 74

  Draco herba, 45

  _Dressing of Sallets_, vide _Sallet_.

  _Dry Plants_, 17

  _Dung_, 85;
    _Sallets rais'd on it undigested_, 86


  Earth, _whether much altered since the Flood_, 81;
    _about great Cities, produces rank and unwholsome Sallets_, 85

  _Earth-Nuts_, 15

  _Eggs_, 68

  _Elder_, 16

  _Emollients_, 15

  _Endive_, 16

  _Epicurism_, 99

  _Eremit's_, vide _Monks_.

  _Eruca_, 39

  _Eructation_, 38

  Eruditæ gulæ, 77

  _Escalons_, 31

  _Eternity_, vide _Patriarchs_.

  Eupeptics, 58

  Euphrosyne, 9

  _Excess_, 72

  _Exhilarate_, 7

  _Exotic Drinks and Sauces dangerous_, 90

  _Experience_, 83

  _Eyes_, 7, vide _Sight_.


  Fabrorum prandia, 8

  _Fainting_, 47

  _Families enobl'd by names of Sallet Plants_, 20

  _Farcings_, 35

  Fascicule, 70

  _Fevers_, 20

  _Felicity of the Hortulan Life_, 122

  _Fennel_, 17

  _Flatulents_, 33

  Flesh, _none eaten during 2000 years. Flesh eaters not so ingenious as
    Sallet eaters: unapt for Study and Bussiness; shortens Life; how all
    Flesh is Grass_, 94

  _Flowers_, 17

  Foliatorum ordo, 105

  _Fowl relish of their Food_, 86

  _Food. No Necessity of different Food_, 90;
    _The simplest best_, 92;
    _Man's original Food_, 93

  _Fools unfit to gather Sallets contrary to the_ Italian _Proverb_, 61

  _Friers_, vide _Monks_.

  Frigidæ Mensæ, 82

  _Frugality of the ancient_ Romans, _&c._, 21

  _Fruit_, 75;
    _not reckon'd among Sallets_, 76;
    _not degenerated since the Flood, where industry is us'd_, 104

  Fugaces fructus, 74

  Fungus, 26, vide _Mushroms_.

  Fungus reticularis, 27

  _Furniture and Ingredients of Sallets_, 61


  Galen _Lover of Lettuce_, 21

  _Gardiner's happy Life_, 113;
    _Entertain Heroes and great Persons_, 115

  _Garlick_, 18

  _Garnishing_, 8

  _Gatherers of Sallets should be skilful Herbarists_, 71

  Gemmæ, 9, _vide_ Buds.

  _Gerkems_, 15, _vide Cucumber_.

  _Ginny-Pepper_, 78

  _Goats beard_, 18

  _Golden Age_, 99

  Gordian _Emp._, 82

  Gramen Amygdalosum, 48

  _Grand Sallet_, 42

  _Grass_, 82

  _Grillus_, 56

  _Gymnosophists_, 97


  _Habits difficult to overcome, applied to Flesh-Eaters_, 98

  Hæredium _of old_, 123

  Halimus, 36

  _Harmony in mixing Sallet Ingredients as Notes in Musick_, 60

  Hautgout, 77

  _Head_, 40, _vide Cephalicks_.

  _Heart_, 42, _vide Cordials_.

  Heliotrop, 49

  _Hemlock_, 54

  _Herbaceous Animals know by instinct what Herbs are proper for them
    better than Men_, 56;
    _and excel them in most of the senses_, ib.

  _Herbals_, vide _Books_.

  _Herbs, crude, whether wholsome_, 80;
    _What proper for Sallets_, 70;
    _Their Qualities and Vertues to be examined_, 82;
    _Herby Diet most Natural_, 98

  Heroes _of old skill'd in Cookery_, 77

  Hippocrates _condemns Radish_, 37;
    _That Men need only Vegetables_, 106

  Hipposelinum, 5

  Holyhoc, 24

  _Honey_, 14

  _Hops_, 19

  Horarii fructus, 74

  Horminum, 12

  _Horses not so diseased as Men_, 91;
    _Recompens'd by some Masters for long Service_, 91

  _Horse-Radish_, 38

  _Hortulan Provision most plentiful of any, advantageous, universal,
    natural, &c._, 110

  _Hot Plants_, 8

  _Hot Beds, how unwholsome for Salleting_, 85

  _House-wife had charge of the Kitchin Garden_, 119

  _Humours_, 57

  _Hypochondria_, 9

  _Hysop_, 19


  _Ilander_, 58;
    _obnoxious to the Scorbute_, ib.

  _Indigestion_, 38

  _Ingredients_, 4, vide _Furniture_.

  _Insects_, 28

  Intuba Sativa, 16

  Isrælites _Love of Onions_, 32


  _Jack-by-the-Hedge_, 19

  John _the_ Baptist, 106

  Justin Martyr _concerning the eating of Blood_, 101


  _Knife for cutting Sallets_, 68

  _Kitchen Garden_, 119, vide Potagere.


  Lapathum, 24

  Laserpitium, 51

  Latet anguis in herba, 115

  _Laws_, 116

  _Laxatives_, 7

  _Leeks_, 20

  Legumena, 73

  _Lettuce_, 20

  _Limon_, 23

  _Liver_, 13

  _Longævity_, 81

  Lotophagi, 106

  _Lungs_, 20

  Lupulus, 19

  _Luxury_, 81

  Lysimachia Seliquosa glabra, 49

  Lyster, _Dr._, 56


  Macarons, 49

  Majoran, 19

  _Mallows_, 23

  Malvæ folium sanctissimum, ib.

  _Man before the Fall knew the Vertues of Plants_, 83;
    _Unbecoming his Dignity to butcher the innocent Animal for Food_, 94;
    _Not by nature carnivorous_, 111;
    _Not lapsed so soon as generally thought_, 95

  _Marygold_, 19

  _Masculine Vigour_, 52

  Materia medica, 65

  _Materials for Sallets_, vide _Furniture_.

  Maximinus _an egregious Glutton, Sallet-hater_, 121

  _Meats commend not to God_, 99

  _Medals of_ Battus _with_ Silphium _on the reverse_, 51

  Melissa, 7

  _Melon, how cultivated by the Ancients_, 24

  _Memory to assist_, 7

  _Mints_, 25

  Mithacus, _a Culinary Philosopher_, 77

  _Mixture_, 57

  _Moist_, 9

  _Monks and Friers perstring'd for their idle unprofitable Life_, 107
    & _seqq._

  Morocco _Ambassador_, 43; _Lover of Sow-thistles_.

  Mortuorum cibi _Mushroms_, 20

  Mosaical _Customs_, 94;
    Moses _gave only a summary account of the Creation, sufficient for
      instruction, not Curiosity_, 102

  _Mushroms_, 26;
    _Pernicious Accidents of eating them_, 26;
    _How produced artificially_, 29

  _Mustard_, 30

  _Myrrh_, 12

  _Myrtil-Berries_, 35


  Napus, 46

  Nasturtium, 13;
    Indicum, 41

  _Nature invites all to Sallets_, 111

  Nepenthes, 9

  _Nerves_, 54

  _Nettle_, 30

  _Nigard_, 61

  _Nourishing_, 5


  _Obstructions_, 16

  _Ocimum_, 7

  Olera, _what properly, how distinguish'd from Acetaria_, 1, 2

  Oluscula, 4

  _Onion_, 31;
    _What vast Quantities spent in_ Egypt, 32

  _Opening_, 16

  Orach, 32

  _Orange_, 23

  Ornithogallon, 48

  Oxalis, 42

  Oxylapathum, 15

  _Oyl, how to choose_, 63;
    _Its diffusive Nature_, 69


  _Painters_, 50

  _Palpitation_, 47

  _Palsie_, 30

  _Panacea_, 10

  Paradisian _Entertainment_, 122

  Paralysis, 13

  _Parsnip_, 33

  Pastinaca Sativa, 11

  _Patriarchs_, 93;
    _Their Long Lives a Shadow of Eternity_, 96

  _Peach said to be Poison in_ Persia, _a Fable_, 87

  _Peas_, 33

  _Pectorals_, 58

  _Pepper_, 33;
    _Beaten too small, hurtful to the Stomach_, 34

  _Persly_, 35;
    _Sacred to the Defunct_, ib.

  _Philosophers_, 56

  _Phlegm_, 30

  _Pickle_, 72;
    _What Sallet Plants proper for Pickles_, ib., _vide Appendix_.

  _Pig-Nuts_, 28

  _Pimpernel_, 9

  _Plants, their Vertue_, 59;
    _Variety_, 114;
    _Nourishment_, 83;
    _No living at all without them_, 110;
    _Plants infect by looking on_, 57;
    _When in prime_, 71;
    _how altered by the Soil and Culture_, 84;
    _Not degenerated since the Flood_, 105

  Platonic _Tables_, 97

  _Pleurisie_, 81

  _Poiverade_, 7

  _Poppy_, 48

  Porrum, 20

  Postdiluvians, 93

  _Potage_, 5

  Potagere, 119

  _Pot-Herbs_, 19

  _Poyson_, 18

  _Præcoce Plants not so wholsome artificially rais'd_, 85

  _Preparation to the dressing of Sallets_, 10

  _Prodigal_, 61

  _Pugil_, 70

  _Punishment_, 18

  _Purslan_, 36

  _Putrefaction_, 33

  Pythagoras, 97


  _Quality and Vertue of Plants_, 53. _See Plants_.


  _Radish_, 37;
    _of Gold dedicated at_ Delphi, 37;
    Moschius _wrote a whole Volume in praise of them_, ib.;
    Hippocrates _condemns them_, ib.

  Raphanus Rusticanus _Horse Radish_, 38

  Radix Lunaria, 48;
    Personata, 49

  Ragout, 28

  _Rampion_, 39

  _Rapum_, 46

  _Ray, Mr._, 55

  _Refreshing_, 13

  _Restaurative_, 5

  _Rocket_, 39

  _Roccombo_, 18

  Roman _Sallet_, 112;
    _Lux_, 115

  _Rosemary_, 39

  _Roots_, 37

  _Rhue_, 49


  _Saffron_, 68

  _Sage_, 39

  _Sallets, what, how improved, whence so called_, 3;
    _Ingredients_, 4;
    _Variety and Store above what the Ancients had_, 112;
    _Bills of Fare_, 112;
    _Skill in choosing, gathering, composing and dressing_, 48;
    _found in the Crops of Foul_, 62;
    _what formerly in use, now abdicated_, 49;
    _extemporary Sallets_, 87;
    _Whether best to begin or conclude with Sallets_, 73

  Salade de Preter, 13

  _Salt_, 64;
    _What best for Sallets_, 64;
    _Salts Essential, and of Vegetables_, 65

  Sambucus, 16

  _Sampier_, 40

  _Sanguine_, 36

  Sarcophagists, 56

  _Sauce_, 39

  _Savoys_, 11

  _Scallions_, 41

  Scorbute, vide _Scurvy_.

  _Scurvy-Grass_, 41

  _Scurvy_, 9

  _Season_, 71

  _Seasoning_, 79, vide _Sallet_.

  Sedum minus, 45, _vide_ Stone-Crop.

  _Sellery_, 41

  Seneca, 98

  _Shambles_, 77

  _Sight_, 50, vide _Eyes_.

  Silphium, 50;
    _How precious and sacred_, 51

  _Simples_, 49

  _Sinapi_, 30

  _Sisarum_, 42

  _Skirrits_, ib.

  _Sleep, to procure_, 21

  _Smallage_, 41

  _Smut in Wheat_, 86

  Syrenium Vulgare, 5

  _Snails, safe Tasters_, 56

  _Sonchus_, 43

  _Sordidness_, 87

  _Sorrel_, 42

  _Sow-thistle_, vide Sonchus.

  _Specificks, few yet discovered_, 83

  _Spleen_, 10

  _Spinach_, 12

  _Spirits, cherishing and reviving_, 9

  _Spring_, 71

  _Stomach_, 16

  _Stone_, 9

  _Stone-Crop_, 44

  _Strowings_, 67

  _Students_, 9

  _Succory_, 44

  _Sugar_, 14

  _Summer_, 84

  _Sumptuary Laws_, 116

  _Swearing_ per Brassicam, 11

  _Swine used to find out Truffles and Earth-Nuts_, 28


  _Table of Species, Culture, Proportion and dressing of Sallets,
    according to the Season_, 70

  Tacitus, _Emp. Temperance_, 21

  _Tansie_, 44

  _Tarragon_, 45

  _Taste should be exquisite in the Composer of Sallets_, 60

  _Tea_, 17, vide Appendix.

  _Temper_, 81

  _Temperance_, 21

  _Teeth_, 37

  Theriacle, _vide Garlick_.

  _Thirst, to asswage_, 33

  _Thistle_, 45

  _Thyme_, 19, vide _Pot-herbs_.

  Tiberius Cæs., 42

  Tragopogon, 47

  _Transmigration_, 56

  _Tribute paid to Roots_, 42

  Truffles, 28

  Tubera, 28

  _Tulip eaten that cost_ 100 _l._, 47

  Turiones, 9

  _Turnip_, 46;
    _Made a Fish_, 113


  _Vapours to repress_, 21

  _Variety necessary and proper_, 92

  _Ventricle_, 20, vide _Stomach_.

  _Vine_, 47

  _Vinegar_, 63; vide Appendix.

  _Viper-Grass_, 47

  _Vertues of Sallet Plants and Furniture_, 57;
    _Consist in the several and different Parts of the same Plant_, 49

  Voluptuaria Venena, 28


  Urtica, 30


  _Welsh, prolifick_, 20

  _Wind_, 17

  _Wine_, 7; vide _Appendix_.

  _Winter Sallets_, 7; vide _Appendix_.

  _Wood-Sorrel_, 47

  _Worms in Fennel, and Sellery_, 17

  _Wormwood_, 49


  _Youth to preserve_, 85

       *       *       *       *       *


[Footnote 1: _Lord Viscount_ Brouncker, _Chancellor to the Late Qu.
Consort, now_ Dowager. _The Right Honourable_ Cha. Montague, _Esq;
Chancellor of the_ Exchequer.]

[Footnote 2: _Si quid temporis à civilibus negotiis quibis totum jam
intenderat animum, suffurari potuit, colendis agris, priscos illos
Romanos_ Numam Pompilium, Cincinnatum, Catonem, Fabios, Cicerones,
_aliosque virtute claros viros imitare; qui in magno honore constituti,
vites putare, stercorare agros, & irrigare nequaquam turpe & inhone stum
putarunt_. In Vit. _Plin._ 2.]

[Footnote 3: Ut hujusmodi historiam vix dum incohatum, non ante
absolvendam putem.

Exitio terras quam dabit una dies. _D. Raius_ Praefat. Hist. Plan.]

[Footnote 4: Olera a frigidis distinct. _See_ Spartianus in Pescennio.
Salmas. in Jul. Capitolin.]

[Footnote 5:

  Panis erat primis virides mortalibus Herbae;
    Quas tellus nullo sollicitante dabat.
  Et modo carpebant vivaci cespite gramen;
    Nunc epulæ tenera fronde cacumen erant.

Ovid, Fastor. IV.]

[Footnote 6: [Greek: kaloumen gar lachana ta ôros tên hêmeneran
chreian], Theophrast. Plant. 1. VII. cap. 7.]

[Footnote 7: Gen. I. 29.]

[Footnote 8: Plutarch Sympos.]

[Footnote 9: Salmas. in Solin. _against_ Hieron. Mercurialis.]

[Footnote 10: Galen. 2R. Aliment. cap. l. Et Simp. Medic. Averroes, lib.
V. Golloc.]

[Footnote 11: Plin. lib. XIX. c. 4.]

[Footnote 12: Convictus facilis, fine arte mensa. Mart. Ep. 74.]

[Footnote 13: [Greek: Apuron trophui], _which_ Suidas _calls_ [Greek:
lachana], Olera quæ cruda sumuntur ex Aceto. Harduin in loc.]

[Footnote 14: Plin. H. Nat. _lib. xix. cap. 8._]

[Footnote 15: _De_ R.R. _cap. clvii_.]

[Footnote 16: [Greek: 'Ephthos, dosikuos, apalos, aluôs, ourêtikos].

[Footnote 17: Cucumis elixus delicatior, innocentior. Athenæus.]

[Footnote 18: Eubulus.]

[Footnote 19: In Lactuca occultatum à Venere Adonin cecinit
_Callimachus_, quod Allegoricè interpretatus _Athenæus_ illuc referendum
putat, quod in Venerem hebetiores fiant Lactucis vescentes assiduè.]

[Footnote 20: Apud Sueton.]

[Footnote 21: Vopiseus Tacit. _For the rest both of the Kinds and
Vertues_ of Lettuce, _See_ Plin. H. Nat. _l. xix. c. 8. and xx. c. 7_.
Fernel. &c.]

[Footnote 22: De Legib.]

[Footnote 23: _Hor_. Epod. II.]

[Footnote 24: De Simp. Medic. L. vii.]

[Footnote 25: _Lib._ ii. _cap._ 3.]

[Footnote 26: Exoneraturas Ventrem mihi Villica Malvas Attulit, &
varias, quas habet hortus, Opes.

_Mart. Lib. x._

_And our sweet Poet_:

  ----Nulla est humanior herba,
  Nulla magis suavi commoditate bona est,
  Omnia tam placidè regerat, blandéquerelaxat,
  Emollítque vias, nec sinit esse rudes.

Cowl. _Plan._ L. 4.]

[Footnote 27: Cic _ad Attic_.]

[Footnote 28: Sueton _in Claudi._]

[Footnote 29: Sen. Ep. lxiii.]

[Footnote 30: Plin. N.H. _l. xxi_. c. 23.]

[Footnote 31: Transact. Philos. _Num._ 202.]

[Footnote 32: Apitius, _lib. vii. cap. 13_.]

[Footnote 33: Philos. Transact. _Num._ 69. _Journey to_ Paris.]

[Footnote 34: Pratensibus optima fungis Natura est: aliis male creditur.
_Hor. Sat. l. 7. Sat. 4._]

[Footnote 35: Bacon _Nat. Hist._ 12. Cent. vii. 547, 548, &c.]

[Footnote 36: Gaffend. _Vita Peirs._ l. iv. Raderus _Mart._ l. Epig.
xlvi. In ponticum--_says, within four Days_.]

[Footnote 37: O Sanctas gentes, quibus haec nascuntur in hortis
Numina****---- _Juv. Sat. 15._]

[Footnote 38: Herodotus.]

[Footnote 39: [Greek: hôra to rhadiôs phaines], quia tertio à fatu die

[Footnote 40: De diaeta _lib._ ii. _cap._ 25.]

[Footnote 41: De Aliment. Facult. _lib._ ii.]

[Footnote 42: _Philos. Transact._ Vol. xvii. Num. 205. p. 970.]

[Footnote 43: _Plin._ H. Nat. Lib. xix. cap. 3. & xx. c. 22. See Jo.
Tzetzes Chil. vi. 48. & xvii. 119.]

[Footnote 44: Spanheim, De usu & Praest. Numis. Dissert. 4to. _It was
sometimes also the Reverse_ of Jupiter Hammon.]

[Footnote 45:
  [Greek: oud an eidoiês ge moi]
  [Greek: Ton plouton auton k- to Bat-ou silphion].
  _Aristoph_. in Pluto. Act. iv. Sc. 3.]

[Footnote 46: _Of which some would have it a courser sort_ inamoeni
odoris, _as the same Comedian names it in his_ Equites, _p. 239. and
240_. Edit. Basil. _See likewise this discuss'd, together with its
Properties, most copiously, in_ Jo. Budaeus _a_ Stapul. _Comment. in_
Theophrast. lib. vi. cap. 1. _and_ Bauhin. _Hist. Plant._ lib. xxvii.
cap. 53.]

[Footnote 47: Vide _Cardanum_ de usu Cibi.]

[Footnote 48: _Vol._ xx.]

[Footnote 49: Cowley:

  [Greek: Oud oson in malachê te k- asphodelô meg oneiar]
  [Greek: Krupsantes gar echousi theoi Bion anthrôpoisi.]

[Footnote 50: _Concerning this of Insects, See Mr._ Ray's _Hist. Plant.
li. l. cap. 24_.]

[Footnote 51: _The poyson'd Weeds: I have seen a Man, who was so
poyson'd with it, that the Skin peel'd off his Face, and yet he never
touch'd it, only looked on it as he pass'd by_. _Mr._ Stafford, _Philos.
Transact._ Vol. III. Num. xl. p. 794.]

[Footnote 52: Cowley, _Garden_, Miscel. Stanz. 8.]

[Footnote 53: Sapores minime Consentientes [Greek: kai sumpleko-uas
ouchi symphônous haphas]: Haec despicere ingeniosi est artificis:
_Neither did the Artist mingle his Provisions without extraordinary
Study and Consideration_: [Greek: Alla mixas panta kata symphônian].
Horum singulis seorsum assumptis, tu expedito: Sic ego tanquam Oraculo
jubeo.----Itaque literarum ignarum Coquum, tu cum videris, & qui
Democriti scripta omnia non perlegerit, vel potius, impromptu non
habeat, eum deride ut futilem: Ac ilium Mercede conducito, qui Epicuri
Canonen usu plane didicerit, _&c. as it follows in the_ Gastronomia _of_
Archestratus, Athen. lib. xxiii. _Such another_ Bragadoccio Cook Horace

  Nec sibi Coenarum quivis temere arroget artem
  Non prius exacta tenui ratione saporem.
  _Sat. lib. ii. Sat. 4._]

[Footnote 54: Milton's _Paradise Lost_.]

[Footnote 55:

  ---- Qui
  Tingat olus siccum muria vaser in calice emptâ
  Ipse sacrum irrorans piper ---- Pers. _Sat._ vi.]

[Footnote 56: _Dr._ Grew, Lect. vi. c. 2. 3.]

[Footnote 57: _Muffet_, de Diaeta, _c._ 23.]

[Footnote 58: _Dr._ Grew, _Annat. Plant._ Lib. l. Sect. iv. cap. l, &c.
_See also_, Transact. _Num._ 107. _Vol._ ix.]

[Footnote 59: _Philosoph. Transact._ Vol. III. Num. xl. p. 799.]

[Footnote 60: Mart. _Epig. lib._ xi. 39.]

[Footnote 61: Athen. l. 2. _Of which Change of Diet see_ Plut. iv.
_Sympos._ 9. Plinii _Epist._ I. _ad Eretrium._]

[Footnote 62: Virg. _Moreto_.]

[Footnote 63: Hor. _Sat. I. 2. Sat. 4._]

[Footnote 64: Mart. _Ep. l._ v. _Ep. 17_.]

[Footnote 65: _Concerning the Use of Fruit (bessides many others)
whether best to be eaten before, or after Meals? Published by a
Physician of_ Rochel, _and render'd out of_ French _into_ English.
_Printed by_ T. Basset _in_ Fleetstreet.]

[Footnote 66: Achilles, Patroclus, Automedon. _Iliad. ix. & alibi_.]

[Footnote 67: _For so some pronounce it_, V. Athenaeum Deip. _Lib._ II.
_Cap._ 26 [Greek: êd-] quasi [Greek: êdusma], _perhaps for that it
incites Appetite, and causes Hunger, which is the best Sauce_.]

[Footnote 68: Cratinus in Glauco.]

[Footnote 69: Nat. Hist. IV. _Cent._ VII. 130. Se Arist. Prob. _Sect._
xx. _Quaest._ 36. _Why some Fruits and Plants are best raw, others
boil'd, roasted_, &c, _as becoming sweeter; but the Crude more sapid and

[Footnote 70: Card. _Contradicent_. Med. l. iv. _Cant._ 18. Diphilus
_not at all_. Athenaeus.]

[Footnote 71: _Sir_ Tho. Brown's _Miscel._]

[Footnote 72: Caule suburbano qui ficcis crevit in agris Dulcior,--
--Hor. _Sat._ l. 2. Section 4.]

[Footnote 73: Transact. Philos. _Num._ xxv.]

[Footnote 74: _Num._ xviii.]

[Footnote 75: _Thesaur. Sanit._ c. 2.]

[Footnote 76: _As_ Delcampius _interprets the Place_.]

[Footnote 77: Scaliger ad Card. Exercit. 213.]

[Footnote 78: _Cel._ Lib. Cap. 4.]

[Footnote 79: Plin. _Nat. Hist. l. 3. c. 12._]

[Footnote 80: Hanc brevitatem Vitae (_speaking of Horses_) fortasse
homini debet, _Verul. Hist._ Vit. & Mort. _See this throughly
controverted_, Macrob. _Saturn._ l. vii. c. v.]

[Footnote 81: Arist. _Hist. Animal. l._ v. _c._ 14.]

[Footnote 82: [Greek: anomoia sasiazei].]

[Footnote 83: Hor. _Sat. l._ II. _Sat._ 2. Macr. _Sat. l._ VII.]

[Footnote 84: Gen. ix.]

[Footnote 85: Metam. i. Fab. iii. _and_ xv.]

[Footnote 86: Gen. xi. 19.]

[Footnote 87: Gen. ix.]

[Footnote 88: _Porphyr._ de Abstin. _Proclum_, _Jambleum_, &c.]

[Footnote 89: Strom, vii.]

[Footnote 90: Praep. Lv. passim.]

[Footnote 91: Tertul. _de Tejun._ cap. iv. Hieron. _advers._ Jovin.]

[Footnote 92: Sen. _Epist._ 108.]

[Footnote 93: 1 _Cor._ viii. 8. 1. _Tim._ iv. 1. 3. 14. _Rom._ ii. 3.]

[Footnote 94:

  Has Epulas habuit teneri gens aurea mundis
    Et coenæ ingentis tune caput ipsa sui.
  Semide unque meo creverunt corpora succo,
    Materiam tanti sanguinis ille dedit.
  Tune neque fraus nota est, neque vis, neque foeda libido;
    Hæc nimis proles sæva caloris erat.
  Si sacrum illorum, sit detestabile nomen,
    Qui primi servæ regne dedere gulæ.
  Hinc vitiis patefacta via est, morbisq; secutis sas,
    Se lethi facies exeruere novæ.
  Ah, fuge crudeles Animantum sanguine men
    Quasque tibi obsonat mors inimica dapes.
  Poscas tandem æger, si sanus negligis, herbas.
    Esse cibus nequeunt? at medicamen erunt.
  _Colci_ Plaut. lib. 1. Lactuca.]

[Footnote 95: Gen. ix.]

[Footnote 96: Ancyra xiv.]

[Footnote 97: Can. Apost. 50.]

[Footnote 98: Clem. Paedag. _Lib._ ii. c. l. _Vide_ Prudent. _Hymn_.
[Greek: cha thêmerinôn]: Nos Oloris Coma, nos siliqua facta legumine
multitudo paraveris innocuis Epulis.]

[Footnote 99: xv. _Acts_, 20, 29.]

[Footnote 100: _Philo_ de Vit. Contemp. _Joseph_. Antiq. _Lib._ 13
_Cap._ 9.]

[Footnote 101: _Hackwell_. Apolog.]

[Footnote 102: Hippoc. de vetere Medicina, Cap. 6, 7.]

[Footnote 103: 2 _Tim._ iv. 3.]

[Footnote 104: _This, with their prodigious Ignorance_. _See_ Mab. des
Etudes Monast. _Part._ 2. c. 17.]

[Footnote 105: _Dr._ Lister's _Journey to_ Paris. _See L'Apocalyps_ de
Meliton, _ou Revelation des Mysteres Cenobitiques_.]

[Footnote 106: Plantarum usus latissimè patet, & in omni vitæ parte
occurrit, sine illis lautè, sine illis commodè non vivitur, ac nec
vivitur omninò. Quæcunque ad victu necessaria sunt, quæcunque ad
delicias faciunt, è locupletissimo suo penu abundè subministrant: Quantò
ex eis mensa innocentior, mundior, salubrior, quam ex animalium cæde &
Laniena! Homo certè naturâ animal carnivorum non est; nullis ad prædam &
rapinam armis instructum; non dentibus exertis & ferratis, non unguibus
aduncis: Manus ad fructos colligendos, dentes ad mandendos comparati;
nee legimus se ante diluvium carnes ad esum concessas, &c. _Raii Hist.
Plant. Lib._ 1. _cap._ 24.]

[Footnote 107: Mart. _lib._ x. _Epig._ 44.]

[Footnote 108: Barl. _Eleg. lib._ 3.]

[Footnote 109: Athen. Deip. _l._ i.]

[Footnote 110: Cowley, _Garden. Stanz._ 6.]

[Footnote 111: _Hence in_ Macrobius Sat. lib. vii. c. 5. _we find_
Eupolis _the Comedian in his_ æges, _bringing in Goats boasting the
Variety of their Food,_ [Greek: Boskometh ulês apo pantodaôês, elatês],
&c. _After which follows a Banquet of innumerable sorts_.]

[Footnote 112: Esa. lxv. 25.]

[Footnote 113: Bina tunc jugera populo Romano satis erat, nullique
majorem modum attribuit, quo servos paulo ante principis Neronis,
contemptis hujus spatii Virdariis, piscinas juvat habere majores,
gratumque, si non aliquem & culinas. _Plin. Hist. Nat. lib._ xviii.
_c._ 2.]

[Footnote 114: Interea gustus elements per omnia quaerunt. _Juv. Sat.

[Footnote 115: Cicero. _Epist._ Lib. 7. _Ep._ 26. _Complaining of a
costly Sallet, that had almost cost him his Life_.]

[Footnote 116: Valeriana, _That of_ Lectucini, Achilleia, Lysimachia,
Fabius, Cicero, Lentulus, Piso, &c. a Fabis, Cicere, Lente, Pisis bene
serendis dicti, _Plin._]

[Footnote 117: Mirum esset non licere pecori Carduis vesci, non licet
plebei, &c. _And in another Place_, Quoniam portenta quoque terrarum in
ganeam vertimus, etiam quæ refugeant quadrupeded consciæ, _Plin._ Hist.
Nat. l. xix. c. 8.]

[Footnote 118: Gra. Falisc. _Gyneget_. Was. _See concerning this Excess_
Macr. _Sat. l. 2. c. 9._ & sequ.]

[Footnote 119: Horti maximè placebant, quia non egerent igni,
parceréntque ligno, expedita res, & parata semper, unde _Acetaria_
appellantur, facilia concoqui, nee oneratura sensum cibo, & quæ minime
accenderent desiderium panis. _Plin. Hist. Nat. Lib._ xix. _c._ 4. _And
of this exceeding Frugality of the_ Romans, _till after the_ Mithridatic
_War, see_ Athenæus Deip. Lib. 6. cap. 21. Horat. _Serm. Sat._ 1.]

[Footnote 120: Nequam esse in domo matrem familias (etenim hæc cura
Foeminæ dicebatur) ubi indiligens esset hortus.]

[Footnote 121: Alterum succidium. _Cic._ in _Catone_. Tiberias _had a
Tribute of_ Skirrits _paid him_.]

[Footnote 122: Hor. _Sat. l. 2._ Vix prae vino sustinet palpebras, eunti
in consilium, &c. _See the Oration of_ C. _Titius_ de Leg. Fan. Mac
_Sat. l. 2. c. 12._]

[Footnote 123: Milton's _Paradise_, 1. v. ver. 228.]

[Footnote 124:

  At victus illa ætas cui secimus aurea nomen
  Fructibus arboreis, & quas humus educat herbis
  Fortunata fuit.----_Met. xv._]

[Footnote 125: Bene moratus venter.]

[Footnote 126: TAB. II.]

[Footnote 127:

  Foelix, quem misera procul ambitione remotum,
    Parvus ager placide, parvus & hortus, alit.
  Præbet ager quicquid frugi natura requirit,
    Hortus habet quicquid luxuriosa petit,
  Cætera follicitæ speciosa incommoda vitæ
    Permittit stultis quærere, habere malis.
  _Cowley_, Pl. lib. iv.]

[Footnote 128: Plin. Athenæus, Macrobius, Bacon, Boyle, Digby, _&c._]

       *       *       *       *       *

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New Jersey_.

       *       *       *       *       *

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