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Title: Woodwork Joints - How they are Set Out, How Made and Where Used.
Author: Fairham, William
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Woodwork Joints - How they are Set Out, How Made and Where Used." ***

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Transcriber's Notes:

The Table of Contents has been changed to match the actual
chapter headings. A few hyphenations have been changed to make
them consistent. Minor typographic errors have been corrected.

               WOODWORK JOINTS


               _REVISED EDITION_



               _REVISED EDITION_



               WOODWORK JOINTS.
               WOODWORK TOOLS.
               WOOD TURNING.
               TIMBERS FOR WOODWORK.

                LONDON, W.C.1.


To be successful in woodwork construction the possession of two secrets
is essential--to know the right joint to use, and to know how to make
that joint in the right way. The woodwork structure or the piece of
cabinet-work that endures is the one on which skilful hands have combined
to carry out what the constructive mind planned. And it is just here that
the present Volume will help, not alone the beginner who wishes
preliminary instruction, but also the expert who desires guidance over
ground hitherto unexplored by him.

In the preparation of this new edition the Publishers have secured the
services of Mr. William Fairham, by whom the chapters have been carefully
revised and re-illustrated. Although intended for the practical man, and
not professing to be a graded course of "educational woodwork," the
Volume is one which Handicraft Instructors will find of the greatest
value in conducting woodwork classes. No book hitherto published contains
such a variety of illustrations of joints, almost all of which will form
suitable exercises of practical educational importance in a woodworking

               J. C. S. B.

[Illustration: Old Oak Chests, showing the Method of Structure which
forms the origin of most of our English Furniture. (From _The
Woodworker_, January, 1927.)]



THE GLUED JOINT                             1

THE HALVED JOINT                           13

THE BRIDLE JOINT                           35



THE DOWELLING JOINT                        93

THE SCARF JOINT                           103

THE HINGED JOINT                          109

SHUTTING JOINTS                           127

THE DOVETAIL JOINT                        132

DOVETAIL GROOVING                         160

THE MITRED JOINT                          163

JOINTS FOR CURVED WORK                    172

MISCELLANEOUS JOINTS                      176

PUZZLE JOINTS                             189

INDEX                                     209

[Illustration: Staircase of the Second Half of Seventeenth Century. (From
_The Woodworker_, September, 1929.)]


The glued joint in its various forms is in use in every country in the
world, and is frequently met with in mummy cases and other examples of
ancient woodwork. Alternative names under which it is known are the butt
joint, the rubbed joint, the slipped joint, whilst in certain localities
it is known as the slaped (pronounced _slayped_) joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Simplest Form of Glued or Rubbed Joint.]

The glued joint is made by planing two pieces of timber so that when
placed together they are in contact with each other at every point; they
are then usually united with glue. Fig. 1 shows a sketch of a butt joint
in its simplest form. In Fig. 2 is indicated the method of holding the
joint whilst being glued; the upright portion is held rigid in the bench
vice, thus leaving the left hand to hold the piece which is to be
jointed, whilst the right hand operates the glue brush. The pieces of
wood which form a butt joint may be glued together with or without the
aid of cramps or artificial pressure. If the joint is to be made without
cramping, the two surfaces of the timber are warmed so as not to chill
the glue. The surfaces are then glued and put together and rubbed
backwards and forwards so as to get rid of the superfluous glue. They are
then put aside to dry.

GLUEING.--The better the glue penetrates into the pores of the wood, the
stronger the joint will be; for this reason timber of the loose-fibred
variety, such as pine, etc., will hold up at the joint better than
hardwoods like teak and rosewood. The glue used for jointing should be
neither too thick nor too thin; the consistency of cream will be found
suitable for most purposes. It should be nice and hot, and be rapidly
spread over the surface of the wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--How the Wood is held whilst Glueing.]

If light-coloured woods, such as pine, satinwood, sycamore, etc., have to
be jointed, a little flake white should be procured and mixed into the
liquid glue. This will prevent the glue showing a thin black line on the

Broad surfaces of close-grained hardwood having a shiny surface are
usually carefully roughened with a fine toothing plane blade previous to

SUPPORTING THE JOINT.--The jointed boards should not be reared up against
a "bench leg" or wall without having any support in the centre, as dotted
line at Fig. 5, because in all probability they will fracture before the
glue has time to set; and, when we go to take them up to renew working
operations, we shall be annoyed to find that they have assumed a
position similar to that at Fig. 5 (shown exaggerated), and this will, of
course, necessitate re-jointing.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--Correct Jointing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Faulty Jointing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--Boards unsupported.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--Boards supported.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--(A) Glued Slip, (B) Glued Moulding.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Grain alternating.]

A correct method to adopt is seen at Fig. 6. Here we have supported the
joint by rearing up against the wall a couple of pieces of batten, one
at each end of the board, thus supporting it throughout its entire width
until the glue is thoroughly set. The two or more pieces of timber in a
butt joint adhere by crystallisation of the glue and atmospheric
pressure. A well-fitted joint made with good quality glue is so strong
that, when boards of 3 feet and upwards are jointed together by this
method, the timber in most cases will break with the grain sooner than
part at the joint.

Butt joints may be cramped up, if desired, and it is customary to warm
them as previously stated. In the absence of the usual iron cramp, the
amateur may make an excellent wooden arrangement out of any odd pieces of
timber that happen to be handy. Two blocks of hardwood are screwed on the
base board at a suitable distance for the work in hand; the boards to be
jointed are glued and placed in position between the blocks; and the two
hardwood wedges are inserted and hammered in opposite directions to each
other, thus exerting the desired pressure. An example of this method of
cramping is shown in Fig. 25, which also indicates the use of iron

When jointing, care should be taken to first plane up the boards true on
one side--_i.e._, take them out of winding. The method of testing for
this is shown at Fig. 9, and it may with advantage be used when jointing
the edges of the boards. Two laths or strips of wood are planed up to
exactly the same width, having their edges straight and parallel. One
edge of each lath may, if desired, be bevelled a little. The method of
using these "twist sticks" or "winding laths" is to put them on the board
as indicated, and sight along their top edges. The winding laths, being
much longer than the width of the board, show up the irregularity greatly

THE TOOLS generally used for making the butt joints are:--

The jack plane, for roughing the edges, etc.

The wooden trying plane (or iron jointing plane) for trueing up the work.

The try square for testing purposes.

The winding laths and straight edge.

THE METHOD OF WORK is as follows: Each board is in turn put in the vice
and planed straight lengthwise; it is then tested with winding laths and
a try square (the latter method is shown at Fig. 22).

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--Testing Surface with Winding Laths.]

The boards are then put on the top of one another as at Fig. 1 and tested
with a straight edge; they should appear true as shown at Fig. 3; if they
show faulty as at Fig. 4 the joints must be again fitted until the
required degree of accuracy is obtained. Difficulties may be avoided by
care in selecting timber suitable for jointing, and it must be remembered
that timber shrinks circumferentially (the heart side becoming curved) as
dotted lines in Fig. 10. If the timber be jointed with all the heart side
one way as at Fig. 10, the tendency will be for it to cast as shown by
the dotted line. If the timber be alternated as at Fig. 11, the tendency
will be to cast wavy, whereas if quartered timber can be obtained it will
stand practically straight as the tendency to shrink is in thickness
only. The grain of quartered timber is shown in Fig. 12.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--Showing Heart side of Timber one way.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--Heart side of Timber shown alternated.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--Grain of Quartered Timber.]

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Boards showing uniformity of Grain.]

Judgment should also be exercised to avoid jointing in which one piece of
timber is wild and large in the grain, and the adjoining piece of a
mild-grained nature. Jointed boards should always be glued up with the
grain running in the same direction if possible; this we show at Fig. 13,
and nothing looks worse than a dressing chest end or similar piece of
work in which the grain runs haphazard. When jointing thin timber (say,
1/4-in., 3/8-in., 1/2-in. and 5/8-in. boards) the best method is to use a
shooting board (Fig. 26). It must be noted, however, that a shooting
board and plane practically never give a true right angle, owing to wear
and the grinding of the blade. Therefore, the boards _should not_ all be
laid with the "face mark" on the shooting board whilst the edges are
shot, because any inequality would be multiplied by the number of pieces
jointed. A better method is to alternate the boards, face side up, then
face side down, whilst shooting the edges; this will prevent convexity or
concavity on the face of the jointed board, because any slight error in
the angle is neutralised (see Fig. 8).

APPLICATIONS OF THE JOINT.--The following show various applications of
the butt or glued joint:--

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--Carcase Wing-pieces Glued on.]

Fig. 7A shows a mahogany or other hardwood slip glued on the edge of a
cheaper wood, such as pine or whitewood, as is the case on bookcase
shelves when only the front edge is seen and polished.

Fig. 7B shows a moulding glued on a shelf, both mould and shelf in this
instance being of polished hardwood. A shelf of this type might be used
in a recess, the object of the overhanging moulding being to hide a small
3/8-in. iron rod which would carry the curtain rings and heading of the
curtain which covers the recess. The shelf would be fixed about 3 ft. 9
ins. to 4 ft. 3 ins. from the floor.

Fig. 14 shows the wing pieces glued on the top bearer of carcase work.
The application of this bearer in its position will be shown in the
chapter on Dovetailing.

Fig. 15 shows a butt joint planed at an angle of 45 degrees (commonly
called a mitre), used for box feet, etc.

Fig. 16 shows jointing up of an ogee-shaped panel. The dotted lines
indicate the thickness of the timber previous to its being worked up to
the finished shape. Bow-fronted and semicircular panels are jointed in a
similar manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--Butting Mitred Angle Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--Jointing Ogee-shaped Panel.]

Fig. 17 shows timber jointed at right angles to the upright piece, and at
an angle of 30 degrees.

Fig. 18 indicates quarter-circle jointing, as used in round-cornered
chests of drawers, wardrobes, cupboards, etc.

Fig. 19 is similar to Fig. 18, but with hollow (or concave) corners.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--Jointed Timber at 30° and 90° angles.]

[Illustration: Fig. 18 (above).--Convex Corner.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19 (below).--Concave Corner.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--Jointing a shaped Spandrel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--Building up Case of Piano Front.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22.--Use of the Try-square for Testing Edge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 23.--Example of Circular Laminated work.]

[Illustration: Fig. 24.--Glueing Ploughslips to Drawer.]

[Illustration: Fig. 25.--Method of holding Glued Joints with Iron Dogs.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26.--Method of using Shooting Board.]

Fig. 20 gives us the jointing up of a shaped spandrel to the required
width. In a case of this description suitably grained and coloured wood
should be selected, otherwise the bad match will at once draw attention
to the joint.

Fig. 21 shows the application of butt or glued jointing to the building
up of the core of a piano fall previous to shaping up and veneering.

Fig. 23.--Laminated work--the building up of circular rims for cabinet
and joinery work. Plan and elevation show rim pattern of a pulley as used
in the pattern-making trade.

[Illustration: Fig. 27.--Cramping Glued Joints: Handscrews and Batten
shown at left; temporary Batten at right to keep the wood flat.]

Fig. 24.--The glueing of a ploughslip to a drawer side is seen here, the
ploughslip being used to carry the drawer bottom.

Fig. 26 shows the method of jointing with shooting board and trying
plane; the right hand operates the plane whilst the left hand holds the
wood firm upon the shooting board.

Owing to the importation of narrow and faulty timber the necessity of
jointing is greater to-day than ever it was, wide timber of course
meaning higher cost for raw material.

The method of using iron dogs is illustrated in Fig. 25, and it will be
observed that owing to the wedge-like formation of each fang (see
enlarged sketch) the dog exerts the necessary pressure to close the
joint. At the centre of this illustration is suggested the home-made
hardwood blocks, baseboard and wedges referred to on page 4.

Fig. 27 shows how the iron sash cramps are used to apply pressure to the
joint. As this method is in some cases apt to bend and distort thin
boards it is wise practice to fix (as a temporary measure) a stout piece
of straight wood on to the board to be joined by using two handscrews as
shown at the left hand of the illustration. At the right hand of the
sketch a wooden cramping arrangement of the box type is given, and by
wedging up the boards are closed together. It is obvious that if this
type of box cramp be used it will prevent the boards buckling and the
handscrew method at the left may be dispensed with.


The halved joint is frequently known as half-lapping, and sometimes as
checking and half-checking. In the majority of cases it is made by
halving the two pieces, _i.e._, by cutting half the depth of the wood
away. There are, however, exceptions to this rule, as in the case of
"three-piece halving" (or, as it is sometimes called, "third lapping")
and in the halving of timber with rebated or moulded edges. Halving is
one of the simplest methods of connecting two pieces of timber,
especially where it is desired to make frames and bracket supports for
either inside or outside use.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.--Frame, with various halved joints. These joints,
numbered 1, 2, 3, etc., are shown in detail in Figs. 29 to 38.]

Fig. 28 shows the elevation of an imaginary frame which is indicated as
made up of a number of halving joints; it shows also the application of
the various joints to this class of work. Each joint used in the
construction of this frame may be dealt with separately. The numbers
marked on Fig. 28 refer to the individual joints, shown separately in
Figs. 29 to 38.

[Illustration: Fig. 29.--Halved Corner Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 30.--Halved T Joint.]

Fig. 29 shows the "Halved Joint" at the corner of the frame where the two
pieces form a right angle (see Fig. 28, 1). Each piece is halved and
shouldered at opposite sides, thus forming a perfect fit one with the
other and giving a strong joint with a minimum amount of labour. For
inside work the joint would be glued and screwed together, the screw
heads being countersunk so as not to come in contact with the cutting
iron of the plane when levelling off the work. For outside work, in
exposed positions where the work will have to withstand the weather, the
alternative method of smearing the joint with paint or with a mixture of
varnish and white lead would be advisable, the joint being nailed or
screwed. Fig. 29 shows the two pieces separated.

Fig. 30 shows a similar joint to the above, but in this case the top rail
runs through and it is generally spoken of as a "Halved T Joint" (Fig.
28, 2). It may be used in nearly all cases where a top or bottom rail
runs through an upright. The method of securing the joint is as before.
Fig. 30 shows a sketch of the joint separated.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.--Oblique Halving with Shoulder.]

[Illustration: Fig. 32.--Oblique Halving.]

At Fig. 31 is shown an "Oblique Halving Joint," where the oblique piece,
or strut, does not run through (Fig. 28, 3). This type of joint is used
for strengthening framings and shelf brackets; an example of the latter
is shown at Fig. 48. A strut or rail of this type prevents movement or
distortion to a frame diagonally (generally spoken of in the trade as
"racking"). Fig. 31 shows the joint apart.

Fig. 32 is an example of Oblique Halving with the upper piece running
through (Fig. 28, 4). This joint is used in similar positions to Fig.
31, and has in some cases the disadvantage of showing end grain at the
top of the frame. The sketch shows the two pieces separated.

Fig. 33 is "Dovetail Halving," the dovetail running through the top piece
(Fig. 28, 5). This is a strong joint, used where outside strain is likely
to occur in the top piece, the dovetail preventing the rail from being
drawn away from the shoulder. The two pieces are shown separate.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.--Dovetail Halving.]

[Illustration: Fig. 34.--Mitre Halving.]

At Fig. 34 is seen "Mitred Halving," a somewhat weak joint, but necessary
in mirror frames, etc., where good appearance is required on the face
side (Fig. 28, 6). Its use is obvious if the face of the frame be moulded
with beads or other sections which require to intersect one with the
other. This also applies if the frame be moulded on its face edges.

Fig. 35 is a halved joint with one side of the piece dovetailed (Fig. 28,
8). This joint is used in similar positions to Fig. 33, and rather less
labour is required in the making. The two pieces are shown separate for

Fig. 36 indicates the "Halved Joint," the pieces at one end showing a
double dovetail (Fig. 28, 7). This particular joint is seldom used except
for Manual Training purposes. The illustration shows a sketch of the
joint apart.

Fig. 37 is "Oblique Dovetail Halving," one side of the piece being
dovetailed. The joint is used to prevent "racking," and as a cross brace
to framing. It is occasionally made with both its sides dovetailed as
shown at Fig. 33. (For reference, see Fig. 28, 9.)

[Illustration: Fig. 35.--Halved Joint with one side Dovetailed.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36.--Halved Joint with Double Dovetail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 37.--Oblique Dovetail Halving.]

[Illustration: Fig. 38.--Stopped Dovetail Halving.]

Fig. 38 shows "Stopped Dovetail Halving." In this case the dovetail is
similar to Fig. 33, with the exception that it does not run through the
bottom rail. This is an advantage if the bottom edge of the rail is in
evidence, or if it is required to glue a moulding or hardwood facing slip
on the lower edge. The glue adheres better _with_ the grain than it would
_end way_ of the grain, and if slight shrinkage occurs across the width
of the bottom rail the moulding would not be forced away by the upright
(see example at Fig. 28, 10).

[Illustration: Fig. 39.--Cross Halving Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40.--Cross Halving Joint Edgeways.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41.--Tee Halving Joint.]

The joint lettered B in Fig. 28 is a "Cross Halving Joint" where each
piece runs through the other. Fig. 39 shows this joint separated, and
Fig. 40 shows a similar joint separated where the joint is made edgeways.

Fig. 41 shows a "Tee Halving Joint" with a dovetail cut on the edge. This
is seldom used except as a woodwork exercise.

Fig. 42 is a "Dovetailed Halving Joint" used for lengthening timber, and
is also a favourite Manual Training model. It might also come under the
heading of scarf joint, although rarely used in actual practice as such.
As a practical woodwork exercise it calls for accurate marking out and
careful fitting.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.--Dovetailed Halving Joint used for Lengthening

[Illustration: Fig. 43.--Dovetailed and Halved Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 44.--Dovetailed Halved Joint with Shoulders.]

Fig. 43 shows a combination of a halved joint dovetailed edgeways, whilst
Fig. 44 shows a dovetailed halved joint with the shoulders housed. This
latter is seldom used in actual work.

At Fig. 45 we have the application of halving joints when constructing a
barrow wheel. The centre portion is an example of three pieces
half-lapped or, as it is sometimes called, one-third lapped. A sketch of
the three pieces separated is shown at L, B, C, Fig. 46.

This joint is extensively used in the pattern making trade for
lap-jointing the arms of pulley patterns, etc. It is probably the most
difficult of the halving joints to mark out and construct with the
desired degree of accuracy.

[Illustration: Fig. 45.--Halved Joints on Barrow Wheels.]

[Illustration: Fig. 46.--Detail of Halved Joints in Fig. 45.]

Fig. 47 shows a combination of a bevelled dovetail half-lapped joint.
This is only used as a puzzle joint. When neatly constructed and glued
together it is apparently impossible to make it, showing as it does a
half lap on one side and a dovetailed half lap on the reverse side.

Fig. 48 is the end view of a kitchen table with drop leaf,
showing the skirting board scribed to the solid side. A table of
this type is fastened to the wall with two iron holdfasts which
engage the ends of the table. The hinged bracket frame shows the
application of the halving joint to bracket supports for this and
similar purposes, such as brackets to support shelving, etc. In
this example the hinged brackets turn underneath the table top,
and allow the leaf to drop out of the way when not required. The
dotted lines show the position of a shelf for boots and shoes.

[Illustration: Fig. 47.--Bevelled Dovetailed Half Lap.]

[Illustration: Fig. 48.--Bracket of Drop Table.]

[Illustration: Figs. 49 and 50.--Separate pieces of Halved Moulded

[Illustration: Fig. 51.--Oblique Cross Halving Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52.--Manual Training Halved Exercise Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53.--Exercise Dovetail Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54.--Carpentry Tie Joint.]

Figs. 49 and 50 indicate the halving of cross pieces which have their
edges moulded; the pieces are shown separately, the moulding being
omitted to give a clearer representation of the method of construction.

[Illustration: Fig. 55.--Cross Halving Joint with Housed Corners.]

[Illustration: Fig. 56.--The parts of Fig. 55 shown separate.]

Fig. 51 is an "Oblique Cross Halving Joint" where the two pieces are not
at right angles. A plan and elevation of the joint are shown at the left,
whilst a sketch of one piece of the joint is given in the right-hand

Figs. 52 and 53 are principally used as Manual Training models, and call
for patience and manual dexterity.

Fig. 54 is used in carpentry and joinery where a tie or cross piece ties
joists or beams at an angle.

Fig. 55 shows the elevation and end view of a "Cross Halving Joint" with
housed or notched shoulders. This joint is seldom used in actual
practice. The separate parts are given in Fig. 56.

At Fig. 57 are shown two cross rails and an upright halved together. This
type of joint is used where three pieces meet, as is the case in
building the framing of a poultry house. The joint is nailed together.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.--Cross Rail and Upright Halved Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 58.--Workshop Trestle Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 59.--Cellarette Partition Joints.]

Fig. 58 is the end view of an ordinary workshop trestle, showing the
application of dovetailed halving where the legs have a tendency to
strain outwards. The inset sketch of joint shows the housing of the top
rail to receive the legs.

Fig. 59 shows a deep drawer, generally known as a cellarette, and used in
a sideboard to accommodate wine bottles. Here we have a good example of
halving the cross pieces so as to form compartments. The part shown
separately illustrates the method of construction. The ends of these
pieces engage the housings or grooves of the drawer sides. Pigeon holes
or compartments in stationery cases, bookcases and writing bureaux are
constructed in a similar manner, although the method of housing, or
combined halving and housing, is to be preferred in some cases.

[Illustration: Fig. 60.--Joint used for Table with Circular Top or Rim.]

At Fig. 60 is the plan of a circular table having a small circular shelf
with the top removed. The rims or framing are built by the method known
as laminating (see Fig. 23 in chapter on the The Glued Joint), after
which they are veneered on the face sides. The application of the
halving joint to the shaped bottom rails, which in this case carry and
support the small shelf, is shown in the part elevation.

[Illustration: Fig. 61 (A).--Oxford Frame with Halved Joints. (Four
alternative corner treatments are given.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 61 (B).--Halved Joint of Oxford Frame with front
edges champered.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61 (C).--Back view of Oxford Frame.]

Fig. 61 (A) shows the well-known "Oxford frame," illustrating halved
joints when the edge is rebated. Figs. 61 (B) and 61 (C) make clear the
construction of this type of joint. Alternative suggestions are shown for
the treatment of the corners, the simple inlay being black and white
(ebony and holly or boxwood). Frames of this type are made in various
widths and sizes and are used for pictures, mirrors, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. 62.--The Two Pieces of a Halved Joint.]

The tools used for making joints of the above class are: planes, the
gauge, tenon or other saw, chisels, try square, and in some cases a
joiner's bevel to obtain and mark the necessary angles, pencil and
marking knife.

Plane up the face side and face edge of the timber, gauge and plane to
both thickness and width; mark shoulders with pencil or marking knife;
gauge to the thickness of the required halving; saw waste portions away;
pare up with chisel to a good fit; glue or glue and screw, or use paint
as previously mentioned, and then level off the surfaces.

SETTING OUT THE HALVED JOINT.--Although at first sight the halved joint
may appear to be a very easy item of construction, it requires much care
and attention in marking out and sawing. Fig. 62 shows the two pieces
which form the joint separated, and it will be noticed that each piece of
wood has half its thickness cut away, so as to accommodate the other
piece. This type of joint is used where two pieces of wood cross each
other at right angles, or at an angle as shown in Fig. 51. The halving
joint is used also for joining two pieces of wood at their ends, as, for
instance, the corner of a frame, one half of this joint being shown at
Fig. 65 (B).

[Illustration: Fig. 63.--How the Timber is Marked.]

[Illustration: Fig. 64.--Marking the Joint with Try Square.]

To make the joint, the timber should be carefully planed to its exact
width and thickness. The two pieces may then be placed upon the bench (as
shown at Fig. 63) or fixed in the vice.

Find the centre of the timber, C, Fig. 63, and set out half the width of
the wood on each side of the dotted centre line. Thus, suppose the wood
(W) to be 2 ins. wide, then set 1 in. on each side of the centre line.
Take a square as at Fig. 64, and with a sharp penknife blade score or cut
a line all round each piece of timber.

[Illustration: Fig. 65.--Using the Marking Gauge.]

Next take up a marking gauge, and set the marking point to half the
thickness of the wood. The distance may be measured, and its exactness
tested, by pricking a small hole from each side of the wood with the
marking gauge and carefully noting that the pricked holes coincide. The
gauge mark is clearly shown in the various illustrations. Now, take a
pencil and scribble or mark "waste" on the parts you intend to cut away.
This will save trouble later on, especially if you are making several
joints at once. Take your sharp penknife or marking knife blade, and cut
fairly deeply into the marked line on the portion you are going to pare

[Illustration: Fig. 66.--Chiselling away Wood up to Gauge Line.]

[Illustration: Fig. 67.--How work is held when Sawing Shoulder.]

Fix the wood firmly in your vice, or against your cutting board or bench
stop, as may be more convenient to you, and with a sharp chisel cut away
the wood up to the marked line, as at Fig. 66. The channel in the sketch
is exaggerated, so as to show the method clearly. The object of using a
penknife or marking knife to mark your work, instead of using a pencil,
will be obvious. Owing to the knife having scored about 1/16 in. deep
across the fibres of the wood, the timber will come away cleanly when the
chisel is used, as at Fig. 66. The small channel thus made will form a
guide in which to start your tenon or dovetail saw; it prevents the saw
cutting on the wrong side of the marked line and thus making the halving
too wide.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.--Paring away Waste with Chisel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 69.--Showing an Oblique Halved Joint.]

SAWING.--Lay the work on the cutting board as at Fig. 67; or, if you
prefer, put the work in the vice. Carefully saw down the work until you
_just touch_ the gauge line. Do not press heavily with the saw; use it
lightly; the weight of the back iron which is fixed on the saw will
ensure the saw feeding into the work quite fast enough. If the saw is
newly sharpened it will, in fact, be an advantage to slightly ease the
weight of the saw from off the wood, owing to the keenness of its edge.
If the halving is a very wide one, additional cuts may be sawn between
the outside marks, and these will greatly facilitate the removal of the
waste wood when paring it away. For sawing the joint reference may be
made to the chapter on Dovetailing.

[Illustration: Fig. 70.--Sawing the Cheek of a Halving Joint.]

PARING away the waste material with a chisel is the next step, and this
is shown at Fig. 68. The work may be chiselled either in a vertical or a
horizontal position. The horizontal position is the easiest for the
amateur who has a vice or handscrew, because he may hold the work
securely with a mechanical device and so avoid the unnecessary risk to
his fingers.

Take the chisel and cut away A, Fig. 68; now turn the chisel and cut
away B; after which keep the chisel horizontal and cut off "the top of
the hill," as it were, C. Repeat the three operations until you gradually
pare the wood away exactly to the gauge line. When chiselling, if you
find a tendency for the work to chip or crumble at the back edge owing to
the forward pressure of the chisel, turn your wood round and begin to cut
from the other edge, allowing the chisel to finish paring at the centre.

JOINTS OTHER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE.--If the halving joint is at an angle
similar to the sketch shown at Fig. 69, great care will have to be
exercised in the use of the chisel, owing to the change in the direction
of the grain of the wood. The arrow marks in this sketch distinctly
indicate the direction in which the chiselling must be done so as to give
a smooth result. This change of direction for cutting also applies to the
bottom of the halving joint.

CUTTING JOINT AT END OF TIMBER (Fig. 70).--Should the halving joint be
used at the end of a piece of wood, as at Fig. 30, the waste material may
be roughly sawn away and the flat surface trimmed up with a chisel.

To saw out this type of halving joint, proceed to work the shoulder line
as already described; then place the piece of wood obliquely in the vice
as shown (Fig. 70) and proceed to saw down the vertical line, carefully
watching the gauge line to see that you saw on the _waste_ side of the
lines. Then turn the piece of timber with its opposite edge towards you,
and again use the saw as illustrated. You will this time only have to
watch the gauge mark on the edge of the wood, because the saw will
readily follow in the saw kerf already made. Now place the wood
vertically in the vice, and keeping the saw in a horizontal position, saw
down to the shoulder line.

Halving joints properly made and fitted should knock together with the
weight of the clenched fist; the use of a heavy mallet or hammer will
deface the work.

[Illustration: Fig. 71.--Joints used in the erection of a Queen Post Roof


A bridle joint is often defined as the reverse of a mortise and tenon,
and is chiefly used in the carpentry and joinery trades. The name
probably originated from the fact that it bears some resemblance to the
manner in which a bit slips into the horse's mouth and is fastened to the
bridle. There are fewer varieties of the bridle joint than of the halved
or the mortise and tenon; and this being the case we may take the
opportunity of giving a few detailed directions, with explanatory
illustrations, on the setting out and the making.

[Illustration: Fig. 72.--Simple Bridle Joint.]

Fig. 72 shows a bridle joint in what is perhaps its simplest form, the
separate pieces being given at the left and the completed joint at the
right. A joint of this type may be applied in nearly all cases where a
halved or a mortise and tenon joint could be used. Bridle joints have an
advantage as regards appearance over the mortise and tenoned variety in
cases such as Fig. 73, which shows an occasional table leg fitted to the
circular top framing. The bridle joint here allows the grain of the leg
to run through to the top, and gives a better and more workmanlike
appearance to the completed article.

[Illustration: Fig. 73.--Table Leg Bridle-jointed to Rail.]

Fig. 74 is a "Mitred bridle joint," the part _a_ showing the upright
portion separated. This is a most useful joint for positions similar to
that shown in the small glass frame, Fig. 75. The wood framing in this
case is only 1-3/8 in. in width, and if a mortise were used it would have
to be exceptionally small. The shaped rail at the bottom of this frame
again shows the application of the bridle joint.

Fig. 76 shows an "Oblique bridle joint," used in many instances as a
brace, or strut, to prevent framing from racking. (See also Figs. 31 and

Fig. 77 is a "Stopped bridle joint," used in positions where the top or
bottom edge of the work meets the eye, and where, if the rail were
allowed to run through, the end grain would appear unsightly.

[Illustration: Fig. 74.--Mitre Bridle Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 75.--Mirror Frame with Bridle Joints.]

Fig. 78 is a so-called bridle-joint at the corner of a frame. This is
also called an "Open slot mortise and tenon joint," a good strong,
serviceable joint which can be used instead of the closed mortise and
tenon type, its advantage being that less labour is required in the
making. (See also Fig. 169.)

Fig. 79 is an "Oblique angle bridle joint," used in similar positions to
the above, but when the two pieces meet at an acute angle at the end of a

Fig. 80 shows the application of the bridle joint to a roof truss. Two
sketches are shown at the joining of the tie beam and the principal
rafter. The joint _a_ is the type generally used. (See also Fig. 71 for
the joints in a queen post roof.)

[Illustration: Fig. 76.--Oblique Bridle Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 77.--Stopped Bridle Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 78.--Bridle Joint at Corner of Frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 79.--Oblique Angle Bridle Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 80.--Application of Bridle Joint to Roof Truss.]

SETTING OUT AND MARKING.--It is a safe rule, when setting out a bridle
joint, to divide the thickness of the timber into three equal parts. This
will leave the timber on each side of the tongue equal to the thickness
of the tongue, thus giving uniform strength to the joint. The bridle
joint is chiefly used for connecting the internal parts of wooden frames.
It is stronger than the halving joint, and, owing to its peculiar
construction, requires little in the way of pegs, screws or nails to
secure it in position. Fig. 81 illustrates the joint, both open and

To understand the method of setting out and marking, glance at the
sketch, Fig. 81. It is not necessary that the bridle piece A be the same
width as the cross piece B; but it must be remembered when setting out
the joint with the marking knife or pencil that the width marked W on
piece B must be equal to the width W on the piece A. The timber should be
fairly accurately sawn or planed to the same thickness, and all edges
should be square and true.

The wood is placed upon the bench, and the joint marked out by using a
marking knife or penknife blade and the try square. A knife blade is much
better than a pencil, as the sharp edge severs the fibres of the wood and
gives a finer line than the pencil. It is not always necessary to exactly
square and trim the end of piece A; it may with advantage in many cases
be left at least 1/4 in. longer than necessary and levelled off with the
saw, plane and chisel after the joint is put together. (See Method of
Cutting in Fig. 92, page 47.)

When the piece A has to have a bridle joint fitted at each end, it is
customary to cut the timber about 3/8 in. longer than necessary, and mark
the shoulder lines C to the exact length, after which the joints are cut.
This leaves the ends standing over the horizontal rails, and, after
fixing the complete frame together, the small projecting ends are
levelled off flush with the cross rails.

GAUGING.--After squaring all the shoulder lines round the timber with the
knife and try square, the mortise gauge should be set so as to strike the
two gauge lines marked G, Figs. 83 and 84, at one operation. If the
worker does not possess a mortise gauge the lines may be marked at two
distinct operations with the aid of the marking gauge (Fig. 82). The
gauge should be adjusted so as to mark the wood into thirds, and the
stock of the gauge (the portion of the gauge containing the thumb screw
in Fig. 82) must be used from the face side of the timber when gauging up
the whole of the pieces forming a frame. The face mark on the work is
indicated by a glorified comma, and the edge mark is shown by X, as in
the various illustrations. Fig. 82 shows the method of holding the gauge
in the right hand whilst gauging the lines on the work.

[Illustration: Fig. 81.--Bridle Joint, open and closed.]

[Illustration: Fig. 82.--Gauging the Timber.]

The joint, when marked out, will appear as at Figs. 83 and 84, and the
portions which are to be cut away may be shaded with a pencil as
indicated; this will prevent mistakes arising whilst cutting the work,
especially by one who is not thoroughly familiar with the joint.

The distance A B, in Fig. 84, must not be less than the distance A B in
Fig. 83.

[Illustration: Fig. 83., Fig. 84. The Two Parts of the Joint

BORING AWAY WASTE.--Examine Fig. 84; the shaded portion in the centre has
to be cut away, and it will greatly facilitate the removal of this waste
piece by boring a hole with a twist bit at the position shown. The twist
bit should be about 1/8 in. less in diameter than the width between the
gauge lines G. The easiest method of boring out this hole is shown at
Fig. 85, which gives the correct position of the worker.

[Illustration: Fig. 85.--Vertical Boring previous to Chiselling.]

SAWING.--The wood should be put in the vice as Fig. 86. Taking up a saw,
with the index finger on the side of the handle, commence sawing, and
proceed until you come to the position indicated by the dotted hand and
saw A; this will leave a saw kerf or cut running diagonally from the
shoulder line to corner of the wood. Release the vice and refix the wood
so that it leans in exactly the opposite direction to Fig. 86; then
reverse your own position and repeat the sawing, so as to cut another
diagonal saw cut from the shoulder line to the corner. Fix the wood
upright, as shown at Fig. 87, and saw as shown, when you will find that
the saw has no tendency to run out of the guide cuts already formed by
the method used at Fig. 86. Remember, when commencing to saw at Fig. 86,
that it is necessary to saw inside the gauge line; otherwise the joint
will be too slack, owing to the amount of sawdust removed by the
thickness of the saw blade. The index finger on the side of the saw,
pointing in the direction of the saw cut, will greatly help the worker
to saw in a straight line, as it is natural to point with this finger to
any object that is to be aimed at.

[Illustration: Fig. 86.--How the Saw is held for the first Cut.]

Cut down the other line in a similar manner, and then with a chisel of
suitable width carefully chop away the waste material. The wood may be
placed edge way upon the bench, or in the vice, and the chisel should be
held vertically. The hole which has been bored with the twist bit will
allow the chips which are cut away to offer little or no resistance to
the chisel blade. The chiselling should not all be done from one side, or
a chipped under-edge will be the result; it is better to chisel the work
until half-way through and then turn the other edge of the wood uppermost
and again begin to chisel from the top. This method will finish the
cutting in the centre of the work and prevent burred and ragged or
chipped edges at the shoulder.

[Illustration: Fig. 87.--Third, or Horizontal Cut.]

[Illustration: Fig. 88.--Chiselling Operation.]

CUTTING THE SHOULDERS.--With regard to working the piece B, Fig. 81,
place the wood against the bench stop or in the vice, and taking up a
3/4-in. chisel carefully cut away a small channel, as shown at Fig. 88;
treat the other shoulder lines in a similar manner. If the marking knife
or penknife blade has been used with a fair amount of pressure so as to
score the fibres of the wood, this small channel, which is to form a
guide for the saw, will quickly and easily be cut. Next place the wood in
the vice or on the cutting board as shown at Fig. 89, and begin by sawing
lightly at the back edge as shown. When the saw has entered the wood 1/4
in. gradually bring the handle down from position A to position B (dotted
lines) whilst the saw is in motion. Continue sawing until just on the
gauge line; then treat the other shoulder lines in a similar manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 89.--Sawing the Shoulders.]

CHISELLING AWAY WASTE.--Fix your wood firmly in any suitable manner, vice
or otherwise, and, holding your chisel tilted as at Fig. 90, pare away
the blacked portion 1; then pare away the blacked portion 2; after which
hold the chisel flat and by gradual operations pare away the dotted lines
3, until you come down to the gauge line; then repeat the method of
cutting on the opposite side of the wood. If any difficulty be
experienced by chipped or ragged edges whilst chiselling, it can easily
be overcome by chiselling alternately from the outside of the wood, so
that the finish of the chisel cut takes place in the centre of the work.
Some prefer to chisel away the waste by placing the wood on its edge and
using the chisel vertically instead of horizontally. The same methods (1,
2 and 3) hold good in this case.

[Illustration: Fig. 90.--Chiselling away Waste.]

JOINTS OTHER THAN AT 90°.--The two pieces forming a bridle joint are not
always at right angles, as at Fig. 81; in many instances it is necessary
that the joint be at other than 90 degrees. The work, however, is treated
in a similar manner, with the exception that an adjustable joiner's bevel
is used instead of a try square to mark out the shoulder lines, and that
a change of direction in the grain of the wood will occur when chiselling
out the work. Fig. 91 indicates the change in the grain of the wood, and
the adjustable joiner's bevel is also shown.

[Illustration: Fig. 91.--Bridle Joint at Angle other than Right Angle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 92.--Sawing off Waste from Bridle Joint. (See
reference on page 39.)]


The tongued and grooved joint is used in one form or another throughout
the whole of the woodworking trades, covering, as it does, a great
variety of work from the laying of flooring boards to the construction of
dressers, bookcases and other cabinet work.

FLOORING and match boarding generally have the tongues worked on the
solid board, and examples of a few of the various types are shown as

[Illustration: Fig. 93.--Tongued and Grooved Flooring Board.]

[Illustration: Fig. 94., Fig. 95. Method of Nailing Hardwood

Fig. 93 shows the end view of the ordinary 7/8-in. "Tongued and Grooved
Flooring board," as used in the construction of floors for mills,
workshops and cottage property. This type of flooring is nailed to the
joists in the ordinary manner, no attempt being made to conceal the nails

Fig. 94 is a section of flooring which is generally made of hardwood,
such as maple, oak, or jarrah. It is used in positions such as ballroom
and skating rink floors, etc., the tongue and groove being worked in such
a manner that the joint covers the nails as shown. Each nail is driven
into its position at one edge of the board, the groove holding the next
board and hiding the nail (Fig. 95).

[Illustration: Fig. 96.--Tongued and Grooved Matchboarding, with Bead on
One Side.]

[Illustration: Fig. 97.--Tongued and Grooved Matchboarding, with Bead at
Each Side.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98.--Matchboarding, Tongued, Grooved and Vee'd.]

Fig. 96 shows an example of matchboarding known as "Tongued, Grooved and
Beaded" on one side only, and Fig. 97 shows a similar type tongued,
grooved and beaded on both sides. This variety of matchboarding is known
in the trade as "T. G. and B." It is used for nailing on framing to form
partitions for rooms, offices, etc., for panelling corridors, etc., and
for making framed and ledged doors, building tool houses, cycle sheds and
other outhouses.

Fig. 98 is an example of matchboarding that is tongued, grooved and vee'd
on one side, and Fig. 99 shows tongued, grooved and vee'd both sides.
These are used for similar purposes to Figs. 96 and 97, and many prefer
the V matchboarding variety because it is more easily painted than the
beaded variety.

The object of working a bead or beads on matchboarding is to break the
jointing of the various pieces and to aim at ornamental effect; also to
prevent unsightliness should the timber shrink slightly. When a moderate
amount of shrinkage takes place, as is nearly always the case, the joint
at the side of the bead appears to the casual observer to be the fillet
or channel worked at the side of the bead. If the tongues are not painted
before the work is put together, the shrinkage will cause the raw wood to
show and thus make the joint too much in evidence.

[Illustration: Fig. 99.--Matchboarding Vee'd Both Sides.]

[Illustration: Fig. 100.--Double-tongued Matchboarding.]

[Illustration: Fig. 101.--Double-dovetailed, Tongued and Grooved.]

Fig. 100 shows a "Double tongued and grooved" joint used in the wholesale
cabinet factories. It is preferred for the jointing of cabinet stock, and
the amateur can make a similar joint by working two grooves and inserting
loose tongues.

Fig. 101 is the end view of a "Double-dovetailed, tongued and grooved"
joint, and Fig. 102 is a sketch of a similar joint having only one
dovetailed tongue.

From a constructional point of view Fig. 101 is far and away the best
joint that has yet been produced. Unfortunately, however, there is not at
the present time any hand tool that will economically produce it, owing
probably to the fact that the joint is the subject of a patent. The
dovetail tongue tapers slightly throughout its entire length, gripping
the joint on the principle of the wedge and squeezing the glue into the
pores of the wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 102.--Joint with Single Dovetail Tongue and Groove.]

[Illustration: Fig. 103.--(A) Cross Tongue. (B) Feather Tongue.]

[Illustration: Fig. 104.--Method of Secret-nailing Hardwood Flooring

CABINET-WORK JOINTS.--With regard to tongued and grooved joints which
apply more particularly to the jointing of cabinet work, Fig. 93 is
produced by planes which are specially made for the purpose. One plane
makes the tongue and another the groove. The handiest sizes to buy are
those which joint 3/8 in., 5/8 in., and 3/4 in. timber, it being usual to
dowel or loose-tongue thicker boards. The 3/8 in. partitions (or, as they
are sometimes called, dustboards) between the drawers of a sideboard or
dressing chest are in good work jointed in this manner. The 5/8 in. and
3/4 in. ends and tops of pine or American whitewood dressing tables,
wardrobes, etc., call for the larger sized plane.

LOOSE TONGUES.--There are two methods of jointing with loose tongues,
viz., the use of the cross tongue, Fig. 103 A, and the use of the feather
tongue, Fig. 103 B. Cross tongues are the stronger when glued in their
position and can be used very much thinner than feather tongues. Feather
tongues are cut diagonally across the grain as illustrated.

[Illustration: Fig. 105.--Cradle for Planing.]

Fig. 105 is a cradle for planing up loose tongues to the required width
(generally 7/8 in.). Two grooves are made in a piece of 1-1/4 in.
hardwood; one groove is used for planing the width way of the tongue and
the other for planing the edge way. These tongues can be cut to accurate
size on a circular saw bench if power and machinery are at hand.

APPLICATIONS OF THE JOINT.--Fig. 106 is a sketch of a portion of a
sideboard top, showing the plough groove ready worked out to receive the
tongue; the other half of the top is treated in a similar manner. It will
be noticed that the groove is not worked through the full length of the
board, but stopped about 1-1/4 in. from each end; this leaves a square
joint at each end of the top on which the moulding is worked. If the
groove be run through the board it looks very unsightly when the mould is

Fig. 107 is a shaped spandrel, such as is fixed in the recess of a
sideboard or cupboard or shop window fitment. It is of such a width that,
were it cut from a wide board, the shaped portion would be apt to break
off owing to the short grain at C. The shaping is therefore built up out
of three separate pieces, the grain running as indicated. The loose
tongue is represented by the dotted line and a section is shown of the
joint at the line A B. At the opposite corner the tongue is left blind,
_i.e._, not run through the edge. This is the method that should be used
when the shaping is above the level of the eye.

[Illustration: Fig. 106.--Part of Sideboard Top; grooved with ends left
blind. (The boards are shown upright.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 107.--Shaped Spandrel for Recess.]

Fig. 108 shows part of a carcase of a dressing table. The drawer runner A
is shown grooved across the end to receive a cross tongue; this cross
tongue engages a similar groove in the front bearer. This method of
fastening the runner to the bearer is in everyday use.

[Illustration: Fig. 108.--Part Carcase of Dressing Table.]

[Illustration: Fig. 109.--Framed Writing Table Top.]

Fig. 109 is a writing table top. The centre boards are first jointed and
glued up, after which the ends and sides are grooved ready to receive the
cross tongues. The hardwood margins are shown at one end and at the
front, and the grooves are arranged so that, on completion, the marginal
frame stands above the top just the amount of the thickness of the
leather which will cover the table. In some cases the margin at the end
runs the same way of the grain as the top, thus allowing for slight
shrinkage. Cross tongues would of course be used in this case.

Fig. 110 is a sketch showing one-quarter of a barred or tracery cabinet
door. An enlarged section of the astragal mould which is grooved to fit
on the bar which forms the rebate is also shown.

Fig. 111 is a "Combing or corner locking" joint, a method of making boxes
by means of a continuous use of tongues and grooves instead of dovetails.
This type of joint is generally machine made. The amateur, however, who
is not proficient to undertake a dovetailed box frequently uses this

[Illustration: Fig. 110.--Corner of Barred Door.]

[Illustration: Fig. 111.--Combing or Locking Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 112.--Single Loose Tongue and Double-tongue Joint.]

CORNER JOINTS.--Fig. 112 shows both a single loose tongue and a double
solid tongue. Both are methods used to connect circular cornered work,
such as a counter end, to the front framing.

Fig. 113 indicates a tongued and grooved joint suitable for edge or end
jointing, such as fitting matchboarding round a chimney breast, making
small jewel drawers, etc.

Fig. 114 is a tongued and grooved joint with a bead worked on same to
hide the joint, sometimes called a staff-bead. It would be used in
positions such as boarding around an upright iron pillar, etc., the bead
giving a neat finish at each corner.

Fig. 115 is a similar joint, but at an obtuse angle. An example of its
use is in fixing boarding around an octagonal column of brickwork.

[Illustration: Fig. 113., Fig. 114., Fig. 115. Examples of
Tongued and Grooved Corner Joints.]

Fig. 116 shows a tongued and grooved mitre as used for strengthening the
corners of cabinet work, such as tea caddies, small boxes, plinths, etc.
Two pieces of wood are glued in position and allowed to set prior to
glueing and cramping the joint proper. These pieces are afterwards planed
away, thus leaving a clear surface to the box sides.

Fig. 117 shows the method of working the groove in the above joints. The
pieces are turned back to back, the mitres thus making a right angle. The
guide on the grooving plane thus works against each face of the joint,
and this ensures correct jointing.

Fig. 118 is somewhat similar to Fig. 113, but with a quarter circle mould
to hide the joint.

Fig. 119 indicates the building up of a double skirting mould. C
represents the brickwork, A the oak-framed panelling, and B the packing
and fixing block. A wide skirting of this type is made in two portions
for convenience in working the moulding and to prevent undue shrinkage.

[Illustration: Fig. 116.--Cramping a Tongued and Grooved Mitre.]

[Illustration: Fig. 117.--Working a Groove.]

[Illustration: Fig. 118.--Corner Joint with Corner Mould.]

Fig. 120 illustrates the use of a tongued and grooved joint for fixing
together the sides of a corner bracket, and the same method holds good
when jointing a corner cupboard. A capping mould or top shelf will
conceal the joint; it then has the appearance of a glued butt joint, but
is of course considerably stronger. No screws or nails are required if
this joint be used.

PLOUGHING.--When grooves have to be worked in the edge or face of a board
to receive tongues, the process is generally called ploughing, and it is
usually accomplished by a special tool called a plough (or, as it is
occasionally spelt, "plow"). When a plough plane is bought it is usual to
procure eight plough bits or blades of various sizes to fit the plane. In
Fig. 121 is given the sketch of a plough plane with the names of the
various parts lettered thereon.

[Illustration: Fig. 119.--Double Skirting Mould.]

[Illustration: Fig. 120.--Joint for Corner Bracket or Cupboard.]

The board or boards which it is desired to groove are first planed
straight and true, exactly as though it were desired to make a glued or
butt joint. One of the boards is now placed edge way up in the vice and
with the face side to the worker.

Take the plough plane and select a suitably-sized blade; fix it in the
plane in the usual way, allowing the cutting edge to project beyond the
steel skate about 1/32 in., and securely drive up the wedge. Next loosen
the small boxwood wedges at the side of each stem, and adjust the plane
by tapping the stems with a hammer until the cutting iron is in the
desired position; then knock up the small wedges nice and tight. When
setting the fence to or from the blade it is a wise precaution to measure
the distance from the fence to the skate at each end of the plane; this
will ensure the skate being parallel to the fence. The neglect of this is
a source of annoyance to many amateurs. Now adjust the depth stop by
turning the screw at the top of the plane, measuring the depth of the
required groove from the edge of the blade to the stop, and carefully
lock the screw which adjusts this stop.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.--The Plough Plane and its Parts.]

The plane is now ready for use. Hold the fence close up to the side of
the timber, the hands in position as shown at Fig. 122, the position of
the body being that generally assumed in planing. Move the plane
backwards and forwards in the usual manner, beginning the cut at the end
of the board nearest to the vice jaws (the front), and proceed with the
planing until the depth stop is in contact with the wood. Then take a
step backwards and repeat the process until the whole length of the
groove is ploughed. Care must be taken to force the fence up to the board
with the left hand, whilst the right hand thrusts the plane backwards and
forwards, and the plane must be kept vertical.

[Illustration: Fig. 122.--Method of using the Plough Plane.]

TONGUEING.--The grooves having been completed, the tongues have to be
made. Fig. 123 shows a sketch of a board and the method of marking out
cross tongues (A) and feather tongues (B). The usual procedure for making
cross tongues is to plane the end of the board and use a cutting gauge to
give a line the required distance from the end (see sketch). The board is
sawn with a tenon or panel saw, and the piece of timber for the tongue is
thus procured. If a feather tongue is to be used it is cut diagonally
from the board (B) and the ends cut square as shown by the dotted line.

[Illustration: Fig. 123.--Method of Marking Out for Cross Tongues and
Feather Tongues.]

Feather tongues can be obtained in fairly long lengths out of narrow
boards, whilst on the other hand cross tongues are limited by the width
of the board. After cutting off the tongues, they require planing with
nicety to fit the grooves, and the advantage of a grooved board (Fig.
105) will be appreciated. A glue spoon similar to a plumber's ladle is
generally used to pour the glue into the grooves, and it is customary to
glue the tongue into one board first; after allowing this to set, the
joint is completed in the usual manner.

TONGUEING PLANES.--Fig. 124 shows the end view of a tongueing plane for
working matched joints out of the solid. The method of holding and using
the plane is similar to the directions given for using the plough. The
part lettered F (in front) represents the fence, which in this case is
not adjustable.

[Illustration: Fig. 124., Fig. 125. End Views of Tongueing and
Grooving Planes.]

In description Fig. 125 is similar to Fig. 124. The steel skate runs in
the groove and supports the cutting blade similar to that in the plough
plane, and provided a grooving plane of this type is of suitable width it
may be used for making grooves for loose tongues. There is on the market
a metal plane which is specially designed with handles at both ends.
This plane carries a grooving iron on one side and a tongueing iron on
the other side; thus with one plane both the tongue and the groove can be

[Illustration: Fig. 126.--Tongueing Shoulders of Tenons.]

Fig. 126 shows the method of tongueing the shoulders of tenons as used in
thick timber which is to be veneered on the face. A temporary piece of
wood (A) is put between the tenon cheek and the saw, thus forming a guide
for the latter. After cutting one saw kerf a thicker piece is made and a
second saw kerf cut; the waste between the saw kerfs is now removed with
an 1/8 in. chisel and this completes the groove. A tongue of this type
acts as an extra tenon and prevents the joint from "lipping" (becoming
uneven) on the face side.


A mortise and tenon joint is the method of joining timber by working a
solid rectangular projection in the one piece and cutting a corresponding
cavity to receive it in the adjoining piece. The projection is called the
tenon, and the cavity the mortise. Joints of this type are secured in
various ways. Small wedges, wooden dowels, metal dowel pins, glue and
paint are frequently used, and prior to the introduction of glue we have
examples of Egyptian furniture in which the mortise and tenon joints were
united by a composition of cheese.

[Illustration: Fig. 127.--Barefaced Tenon Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 128.--Stub Tenon.]

BAREFACED TENONS.--Fig. 127 illustrates the joint in its simplest form
and shows a tenon having only one shoulder. This is called a barefaced
tenon, and it will be noticed that the portion which carries the mortise
is thicker than the rail on which the tenon is cut. The joint is
therefore level (or flush as it is called) on one side only, and it
should never be used at the corner of a frame. It is a useful interior
joint for framing that has to be covered on the back side with
matchboarding, and allows the work to finish level at the back when the
boarding has been applied (see plan, Fig. 127).

STUB OR STUMP TENON (Fig. 128; also occasionally called a joggle
tenon).--The illustration shows a tenon as used in the interior of a
frame. The tenon is not allowed to run through the stile, and
unsightliness on the edge is thus avoided. This type of tenon is often
used at the corner of a frame, and it then requires to be haunched. A
good workshop method of gauging the depth of the mortise for a stub tenon
is shown in Fig. 129; a piece of gummed stamp paper is stuck on the side
of the mortise chisel, indicating the desired depth of the mortise. This
greatly facilitates the work, as it is not necessary to be constantly

A HAUNCHED TENON as used at the end of a door frame is shown at Fig.
130.--In this case it will be seen that the width of the tenon is
reduced, so that sufficient timber will be left at the end of the stile
to resist the pressure of the tenon when the joint is driven together.
The short portion (A) which is left on the tenon is called the haunch,
and the cavity it engages is termed the haunching. The haunch and
haunching prevent the two pieces of timber lipping, or becoming uneven on
the face side, as would be the result if it were cut away entirely up to
the shoulder.

Fig. 131 shows the type of tenon and haunch used when the stile or
upright rail is grooved to receive a panel. In this and similar cases the
haunch is made the same width and the same depth as the groove; the
groove therefore acts as the haunching. An application of this joint is
shown in the top rail of the door frame, Fig. 132.

[Illustration: Fig. 129.--Method of Gauging for depth of Tenon.]

[Illustration: Fig. 130.--Haunched Tenon used at end of Door Frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 131.--Haunched Tenon used when Stile is Grooved for

[Illustration: Fig. 132.--Application of Haunched Tenon Joint to Door

[Illustration: Fig. 133.--Occasional Stump Tenon.]

This type of joint is also used to connect the rail to the leg of an
ordinary kitchen table (see Fig. 167).

Fig. 133 is a variation of the stump tenon, occasionally used where the
work in hand demands a thin tenon and a stout stump to take heavy

[Illustration: Fig. 134.--Joint for Inside Framing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 135.--Haunched Barefaced Tenon.]

A joint used for inside framing is seen at Fig. 134. The rails may be
used as shown, but in the case of a door frame (as Fig. 132) they would
have the inside edges grooved to receive the panels; the tenons would
therefore be slightly narrower than shown, owing to the groove at each

A HAUNCHED BAREFACED TENON, used in similar positions to Fig. 131, is
shown at Fig. 135. The door or frame in this case would be made of
matchboarding nailed on the back as shown in the plan at Fig. 127.

WEDGES.--Fig. 136 shows the method of cutting wedges which are to be used
to wedge the tenons; this avoids waste of material. Some workers cut the
wedges from the pieces left out of the haunching of the lock rail, or
the bottom rail.

[Illustration: Fig. 136.--Cutting Wedges from Waste of Haunching.]

[Illustration: Fig. 137.--Stile and Cross Rail with Horn.]

A STILE AND CROSS RAIL, framed together, are shown at Fig. 137. The
portion above the rail is called the horn, and it is usual to leave
sufficient length of stile to project above and below the cross rails, so
that there will be no tendency for the stile to burst out at the end
whilst the cramping and wedging of the frame is in progress. On
completing the framing the horn is cut away.

In Fig. 138 we have a type of joint frequently used for garden gates. The
illustration shows the method of tenoning the three pieces to the top
rail, barefaced tenons being employed.

[Illustration: Fig. 138.--Joint used for Garden Gates.]

[Illustration: Fig. 139.--Sprocket Wheel.]

[Illustration: Fig. 140.--Boring Tool.]

SPROCKET WHEEL.--At Fig. 139 are shown the guide bar and chain of a
chain-mortising machine, two enlarged links of the chain being indicated
at A. The chain is similar in construction to the driving chain of a
bicycle, with the exception that it is provided with teeth which cut away
the timber as the chain revolves. When using a chain mortiser the
portion of the machine carrying the chain is fed downwards into the
timber, thus cutting a clean and true mortise. If, however, a stump
mortise is required it is necessary to pare away a certain amount of
timber by hand, because the machine obviously leaves a semicircular
bottom to the mortise. To overcome this difficulty the latest types of
mortising machines have a square hole-boring attachment fixed alongside
the chain. This tool, the working portion of which is illustrated in Fig.
140, consists of a square hollow chisel (E), which is sharpened from the
inside, and a revolving twist bit (D) fitted with spurs or nickers, but
without a point (one spur can be seen at the bottom of the illustration).
This bit revolves inside the shell like a chisel, and bores away the
superfluous timber, whilst the pressure exerted on the chisel causes the
corners to be cut away dead square. A mortise 3/8 in. square by 6 ins. in
depth may thus be cut. The portion marked A is the shank of the chisel
(Fig. 140), where it is fixed into the body of the machine, and the hole
at E allows the boring bit to free itself.

[Illustration: Fig. 141.--Method of Fitting an Interior Table Leg.]

[Illustration: Fig. 142.--Haunched Tenon for Skylight or Garden Frame.]

[Illustration: Fig 143.--Long and Short Shouldered Tenon.]

Fig. 141 indicates the method of fixing an interior leg to a table having
a circular or straight top rail. The inlaid leg in this case is
stump-tenoned into the top rail, and the inlaid portion of the leg is
allowed to run through the rail, thus giving continuity of design.

Fig. 142 shows the application of the haunched tenon (Fig. 135) to the
making of a skylight or garden frame. In this and similar cases the side
rails are rebated as shown in the section, and the bottom rail is thinner
than the side rails to allow the glass to finish level upon it.

LONG AND SHORT SHOULDERED JOINT.--Fig. 143 shows a haunched mortise and
tenon joint having a long and short shoulder. This is a fairly common
joint in framed partitions for offices, framing for greenhouses, tool
sheds, etc., and is a frequent source of annoyance to the amateur. It is
necessary to use this joint when both the stiles and uprights are
rebated, and it calls for accurate marking out and great care in the

[Illustration: Fig. 144.--Joint for Fencing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 145.--Example of Faulty Tenon.]

Fig. 144 shows the upright and rails of common garden or field fencing.
The tenons are bevelled to fit and wedge each other in the mortise. The
illustration gives both cross rails as shouldered, but in many cases
shoulders are omitted when the rails are not thick enough to carry them.

Fig. 145 indicates faulty methods of working a tenon. At A the saw has
been allowed to run too far when cutting the shoulder, thus greatly
weakening the tenon. At B faulty sawing has again occurred, and to remedy
this defect the worker has resorted to paring the shoulder with a chisel.
Had the chisel been used vertically an undercut shoulder (as at B) would
not have occurred. The trouble now is that the slightest amount of
shrinkage in the width of the stile will show an open joint. The result
will be the same if it is necessary to remove a shaving or two when
planing or levelling up the face of the frame.

[Illustration: Fig. 146.--Self-wedging Japanese Tenon Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 147.--Tenoned and Scribed Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 148.--Mitred and Moulded Tenon Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 149.--Twin Tenons.]

A JAPANESE TENONED JOINT, little known and rarely used in this country,
is shown at Fig. 146. For clearness the two parts are here shown
separate. The joint is self-wedging and will be of interest to Handicraft

A TENONED AND SCRIBED JOINT is seen at Fig. 147. The cross rail is cut at
the shoulder, so as to fit the moulding which is worked on the stile.
This is a good joint in everyday use.

MITRED AND MOULDED JOINT.--Fig. 148 shows a type of joint largely used in
light cabinet work. The method of mitreing the moulding and tenoning the
stile to rail is indicated.

TWIN TENONS (Fig. 149).--The method of tenoning the bearers which carry
the drawers, or the midfeather between two drawers, in a dressing table
or similar carcase is here shown. On completion, the tenons on the
midfeather are wedged diagonally.

[Illustration: Fig 150.--Method of Pinning.]

[Illustration: Fig. 151.--Joining Top Rails to Upright Post.]

PINNING.--Fig. 150 shows the tenoning of the inside end of a wardrobe to
the top of the carcase. This is also called pinning. The tenons should be
wedged diagonally. The tenons and the distance between the tenons are
more satisfactory if made equidistant, because if slight shrinkage occurs
this is partially equalised. The width between the tenons should in no
case exceed 3 ins.

TOP RAILS.--At Fig. 151 is shown the method of joining the top rails to
the post of a tool shed or similar outhouse. The two rails, which are at
right angles to each other, are half-lapped and mortised; the tenon on
the post runs entirely through them.

A TUSK TENON JOINT, with wedge, as used to secure the binder to the
girder when making floors, is indicated at Fig. 153. The tenon here is
narrow and engages the mortise, which is situated in the compressional
fibres immediately adjoining the neutral layer. Fig. 152 shows a tusk
tenon furnished with a drawbore pin.

[Illustration: Fig. 152.--Tusk Tenon.]

[Illustration: Fig. 153.--Wedged Tusk Tenon.]

Fig. 154 is a variation of Fig. 152.

Fig. 155 shows tusk and wedged tenons as used when making a portable book
or medicine cabinet. The shelf is housed into the end, and the tenons run
through the end and are secured by wedges. This allows the article to be
quickly and easily taken to pieces for removal or re-polishing. The
dotted line in Fig. 155 indicates that the shelf may be shaped if

[Illustration: Fig. 154.--Another Type of Tusk Tenon.]

[Illustration: Fig. 155.--Tusk Tenon and Wedge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 156.--Wheelwright's Self-wedging Tenon Joint.]

In Fig. 156 a self-wedging mortise and tenon joint used by wheelwrights
is shown. The dotted line (left-hand diagram) will indicate the amount of
taper given to the mortise.

DOVETAILED AND WEDGED TENON (Fig. 157).--When two pieces such as the
cross rail and leg of a carpenter's bench are required to be held
together by a mortise and tenon, and to be readily taken apart, the tenon
is dovetailed on one side and the mortise is made of sufficient width to
permit the widest part of the dovetailed tenon to pass into it. When the
tenon is in its position a hardwood wedge is driven in above the tenon,
as shown.

[Illustration: Fig. 157.--Dovetailed and Wedged Tenon.]

[Illustration: Fig. 158.--Method of Fox-wedging.]

FOX WEDGED TENON (Fig. 158).--This is the method of securing a stub tenon
by small wedges. The mortise is slightly dovetailed and two saw cuts are
made in the tenon about 3/16 in. from each side. Into each saw kerf a
wedge is inserted and the joint glued up. The cramping operation forces
the wedges into the saw cuts, thus causing the end of the tenon to spread
and tightly grip the mortise.

MORTISE AND TENON WITH MITRED FACE (Fig. 159).--This is a useful method
of jointing framing which has square edges as shown; and it is equally
useful even if the face edges have moulds worked upon them. If the joint
has square edges a rebate may be formed to accommodate a panel by fixing
a bolection moulding around the frame. A section of the bolection mould
planted on the frame is shown in the lower figure.

[Illustration: Fig. 159.--Tenon Joint with Mitred Face.]

[Illustration: Fig. 160.--Rafter Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 161.--Roof Joints.]

ROOF JOINTS.--Fig. 160 shows the method of tenoning the principal rafter
to the king post, whilst Fig. 161 illustrates the tenoning of the struts
to the king post, and the king post to the tie beam. Both these examples
are used in roof work. (See also Fig. 71.)

[Illustration: Fig. 162.--Drawbore Pinning.]

[Illustration: Fig. 163., Fig. 164. Operation of Pegs in
Drawbore Pinning.]

DRAWBORE PINNING.--At Fig. 162 is seen the method of securing a tenon by
drawbore pinning, employed when it is not convenient to obtain the
necessary pressure by using a cramp. The joint is made in the usual
manner, and a 3/8-in. twist bit is used to bore a hole through piece A.
The tenon is driven home and the hole is marked on the side of the tenon
(B); the tenon is then withdrawn and the hole bored about 1/8 in. nearer
to the shoulder than as marked on the separate diagram at C. When the
tenon is finally inserted the holes will not register correctly, and if a
hardwood pin be driven into the joint it will draw the shoulders of the
tenon to a close joint and effectually secure the parts.

SASH BARS.--Fig. 165 shows how to tenon a moulded sash bar to the rebated
cross rail. In this illustration both shoulders of the moulded bar are
shown square, but in the best class work these shoulders may be slightly
housed into the cross rail to prevent side play. This type of joint is
used for horticultural buildings, etc. If the lower rail be moulded with
the same members as the sash bar, the end of the sash bar will have to be
scribed on to it to make a fit.

[Illustration: Fig. 165.--Tenoning Moulded Sash Bar.]

[Illustration: Fig. 166.--Tenon with Tongued and Grooved Shoulder.]

[Illustration: Fig. 167.--Detail of Table Framing.]

tongues and grooves here is to prevent the face of the work casting, or
becoming warped, and thus spoiling the appearance of the surface of the
work. If framing is to be veneered on the face side this is an
exceptionally good method.

TABLE FRAMING.--Fig. 167 indicates the framing of a rail to a
dining-table leg. In cases similar to this the tenons run into the leg
and almost touch each other. They are therefore mitred on the end as
shown in the inset. Chair frames often call for similar treatment.

TWIN TENONS with haunch, as used when the timber is of great thickness,
are shown in Fig. 168.

AN OPEN SLOT MORTISE at the end of a right-angled frame is seen in Fig.
169. Fig. 170 shows an open slot mortise and tenon joint at the end of a
frame of 60°. Both these joints are occasionally called end bridle

[Illustration: Fig. 168.--Twin Tenons for Thick Timber.]

[Illustration: Fig. 169.--The Open-slot Mortise Joint.]

HAMMER HEAD TENONS.--At Fig. 171 is shown the method of jointing framing
having semicircular or segmental heads. The left-hand diagram indicates
the method of wedging the joint so as to draw up the shoulders; the
right-hand view shows the tongueing of the shoulders, which is necessary
if thick timber has to be wrought. The sketch depicts the stile when
taken apart from the shaped head of the frame.

CLAMPING.--Fig. 172 shows the method of tenoning drawing boards, desk
tops and secretaire falls. This is commonly called clamping. The method
is used to prevent wide surfaces from winding. A variation of the joint
is shown at the left-hand side, the corners in this example not being
mitred. Fig. 173 shows the tenoning of a wide to a narrow rail when the
joint is at an angle.

INSERTED TENONS (Fig. 174).--Where two pieces of timber run together at
an acute angle it becomes necessary to use inserted tenons. Both pieces
of the timber are mortised and the inserted tenons are secured into the
widest piece. On the left is shown the inserted tenon, secured by the
method known as fox-wedging; on the right the inserted tenon has been let
into the wide rail from the edge. The narrow rail is secured by wedging
the tenons from the outside edge in the ordinary manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 170.--Open-Slot Mortise at 60 degrees.]

[Illustration: Fig. 171.--Hammer-Head Tenon Joint.]

DREADNOUGHT FILE.--At Fig. 175 is a sketch of a portion of a dreadnought
file. This has superseded the old-fashioned home-made float used to clean
out the sides of a mortise.

[Illustration: Fig. 172.--Clamping.]

[Illustration: Fig. 173.--Tenoning Narrow Rail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 174.--Inserted Tenons.]

[Illustration: Fig. 175.--Dreadnought File.]

[Illustration: Fig. 176.--External and Internal Joints.]

[Illustration: Fig. 177.--Setting out Stiles and Rails for Tenoning.]

GENERAL RULE.--In practically all cases where a single tenon is used the
thickness of the tenon should be one-third the thickness of the timber.
This leaves the timber at each side of the mortise the same strength as
the tenon.

Mortise and tenon joints for inside work may be united with glue. If,
however, the work has to stand the weather a better method is to unite
the joint with white lead, which is run down to the required consistency
with good outside varnish.

SETTING OUT THE JOINT.--The principal use of the mortise and tenon joint
is in the construction of various types of framing, such as door and
window frames. In one or other of its many and varied forms it may be
classed as the most important joint in the general woodworking trade. The
joint may be used as an internal one, as shown at the lower rail, Fig.
176, or as an external joint, as the upper rail of the same illustration.

Whatever type of framing has to be made, it is necessary that the face
side of the wood be planed up straight and out of winding, and the face
mark (as shown in Fig. 176) pencilled upon it. The best edge of the
timber should next be planed up true in length, and square to the face
side, and the edge mark (X) clearly placed upon it.

The marking gauge is now set to the desired width, and gauge lines are
marked on the wood, after which the waste wood is planed off until the
timber is the required width. The thickness is gauged and treated in a
similar manner, except in such cases where the finished work is to be of
a rough and ready character.

THE TWO STILES (or uprights) have their faces turned to touch each other,
as shown at Fig. 177, and their length may be anything from 1 in. to 3
ins. longer than the required finished size. This waste wood at each end
of the stiles (see arrow HO) is of importance to the work, as it prevents
to a great extent the bursting of the mortise whilst cutting the hole or
when knocking together the work. The small projection is called the
"horn," and it is cut off after the frame has been put together.

[Illustration: Fig. 178.--Setting Out the Stiles with Marking Knife.]

[Illustration: Fig. 179.--How to Saw the Tenons--First Operation.]

THE TWO CROSS RAILS (Fig. 177), have their faces placed together as shown
in the sketch. These rails may with advantage be left 1/2 in. longer than
the finished size, and the portion of the tenon (which will protrude
through the stile 1/4 in. at each end) may be cut off after the work is
put together. (See Fig. 92.)

Set out the stiles with a marking knife or penknife and a try square, as
shown at Fig. 178. In this sketch only one stile is shown for clearness
of representation, but two or more stiles (as at Fig. 177) may be marked
out at the same time, provided a 12-in. try square be used; in fact,
marking out the stiles in pairs is to be recommended, as all cross lines
will be exact owing to their being marked at the same operation. The cut
made by the marking knife should be lightly carried all round the work as
the mortising is cut from each edge of the stile, the cutting of the
mortising being finished in the centre. The lettering on Fig. 177 is as
follows:--HO, horn; M, position of mortise; H, position of haunching; A,
inside line, or sight size, as it is occasionally called.

Set out the cross rails as at Fig. 177, lower sketch. The lettering in
this figure is as follows:--T, tenons; the small piece of the tenon
lettered J is called the haunch, and the shaded portion H is cut away to
allow the haunch J to fit the haunching of the stile.

THE TENONS (as already stated) are generally one-third the thickness of
the timber, thus leaving the same amount of substance at each side of the
tenon as the tenon itself is composed of. The mortise gauge is set to the
required distance and used as in the case of the marking gauge (Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 180.--Second Operation in Sawing Tenons.]

[Illustration: Fig. 181.--Cutting Channel at Shoulder of Tenon before

To saw the tenons, place the rail in the vice as at Fig. 179 and, with a
panel, tenon, or hand saw, according to the size of the work, cut down
the outside of the tenon line as shown. Reverse your position and cut as
shown at Fig. 180, then place the rail in a vertical position, and you
will find little or no difficulty in sawing down square with the shoulder
line. Repeat the above methods of sawing until all the tenons are sawn.

Next saw out the pieces at the side of the tenon by the following
procedure. Place the rail against the bench stop, or in the vice, and cut
a small channel in which to run your tenon saw as shown at Fig. 181. If
you have scored the line deeply with your knife when you were marking out
the work, you will have little difficulty in removing a small portion
with the chisel. The amount removed in the illustration is, of course,
exaggerated. In the small channel thus made place the tenon saw and,
guiding the saw blade with the finger so as to keep it upright or square
(Fig. 182), saw away the waste material. Remove the waste material at the
sides of the tenons in a similar way, and then saw out the portion marked
H, Fig. 177, lower sketch.

THE MORTISING of the stiles may next be taken in hand by putting the
stiles edgeways in the vice and boring away the bulk of the waste wood
from the mortise with a suitable-sized twist bit and brace. This method
will save a great amount of noise, as to a great extent it does away with
the use of the mallet. Take the mallet and chisel and chop down about 3/8
in. as shown at Fig. 183; then turn the chisel to the position shown at
Fig. 184 and remove the small piece as shown. Continue these two
operations until you are about half-way through the wood and then start
in a similar manner at the line _a_, Fig. 183, after which turn the other
edge of the timber uppermost and repeat the methods shown.

[Illustration: Fig. 182.--Sawing away Waste Material.]

[Illustration: Fig. 183.--Using the Chisel and Mallet for Mortising.]

Fig. 185 shows the sketch of a mortise which has its side removed so as
to show the method of successive cuts with a chisel when removing the
core from a mortise; this, in conjunction with the other sketches,
clearly shows the methods of working. In many woodwork examinations the
examiners insist that the mortise shall be removed by successive cuts
with the chisel, but we certainly advise the removal of much of the waste
wood with a boring bit, provided the worker can keep straight and well
within the limitations of his gauge lines.

[Illustration: Fig. 184.--Removing Waste of Mortise with Chisel.]

REMOVING HAUNCHING.--After removing the mortise hole, the small portion
which is called the haunching will require to be removed with a chisel.
This calls for no special remark, as it is clearly shown in Figs. 187 and
188. Fig. 186 shows an everyday type of mortise and tenon joint
separated; it is used in cases where a straight joint is required on the
upper or lower edge of the work, whereas the upper rail of Fig. 176 shows
the full haunch on the top edge. In cases such as Figs 187 and 188, where
the edges of the frames are grooved to receive panels, etc., the width of
the tenon is reduced by the width of the groove.

[Illustration: Fig. 185.--Mortise with Side Removed.]

[Illustration: Fig. 186.--The Joint Separated.]

[Illustration: Fig. 187.--Removal of Haunching.]

[Illustration: Fig. 188.--Haunching with Groove above.]

This must be remembered by the worker when marking out his stiles with
the marking knife. Fig. 187 (right-hand sketch) shows the haunch, tenon,
and groove G at the bottom. Fig. 188 (left-hand illustration) shows G
(groove) at top, and HH (the haunch) at the bottom. Tenons may be glued
together and wedged as shown at Fig. 176 if for inside work; but if for
outside work they are generally smeared with thick paint and wedged up.
For light-class cabinet work it is usual to cut the mortise about
seven-eighths of the distance through the stile and make the tenon to
match it; the edge of the finished work does not then show any indication
of the joint, and it leaves a nice clean surface at the edge of the work
for polishing or varnishing.

[Illustration: Fig. 189.--Interlocking Joint for Seat Rails of Chair to

INTERLOCKING CHAIR JOINT.--A joint designed with a view to strengthening
the construction of chairs at the point where they are weakest is shown
in Fig. 189. The joint is an interlocking one so arranged that, once the
chair is glued up, no motion of the side rail can be possible. The groove
in the side rail tenon is cut in such a manner that, on the insertion of
the back rail tenon, the joint actually draws up and, having done so, is
locked in position. The exact location of this groove is obtained in a
similar manner to that used in marking out tenons for drawbore pinning,
_i.e._, the tenon is inserted in its mortise and the position of the back
rail mortise transferred to it, after which the lines are set back by
1/64 in. (approximately) to cause the joint to draw.

From the illustration the construction of the joint should be clear. The
method is particularly adapted to a section of rectangular form where one
side is longer than the other, such as the back leg of a chair, as this
shape allows for the accommodation of the extra length of tenon


Dowelling is the term generally given to the method of jointing timber
and other materials by wooden or metal pegs, which are called dowels. For
cabinet-making and similar work straight-grained beechwood dowels are
mostly used; these may be bought by the gross, in lengths of about 36
ins., and of any desired diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 190.--Steel Dowel Plate.]

MAKING DOWELS.--Many, however, prefer to make what they require for the
work in hand, and the following is the method that is generally employed.
Pieces of straight-grained wood are wrought to a square section, after
which the corners are planed away to form an octagonal section. The sharp
corners are now planed away, and the roughly formed dowel is driven
through a steel dowel plate, Fig. 190, by the aid of a heavy hammer, thus
giving the necessary roundness and finish to the dowels. When hammering
dowels through a plate the hammer should on no account be allowed to come
in contact with the face of the dowel plate, or the cutting edge of the
hole will be spoilt. Simply drive the dowel to within 1/8 in. of the
plate and knock it out with the next dowel.

[Illustration: Fig. 191.--Cradle for Planing Dowels.]

[Illustration: Fig. 192.--Dowel with Groove.]

[Illustration: Fig. 193.--Sawing Groove in Dowel.]

To plane off the corners a "cradle" (Fig. 191) is made and kept for the
purpose. The advantage of this cradle is obvious, preventing as it does
any tendency of the partly-formed dowel to slip or wobble. A jig, or
cradle, is easily made by bevelling the edges of two separate pieces of
wood and then glueing and screwing them together as at Fig. 191. A small
block of wood is inserted to act as a stop whilst the planing operation
is in progress. It is usual to bevel both edges of the timber from which
the cradle is formed, thus accommodating all sizes of dowels from 1/4 in.
to 5/8 in. in diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 194.--Pricking the Centres ready for Boring. Also
showing how Brace is used in conjunction with Try Square.]

Fig. 192 shows a completed dowel with a small groove running along its
entire length. The object of this groove is to allow the air and
superfluous glue to escape and thus avoid splitting the work on hand; the
groove also secretes a certain amount of glue, which increases its hold
on the timber.

Fig. 198 illustrates the method of marking out and gauging two boards for
dowelling. The edges of the boards are first shot to a true joint; then
the face sides are placed together and the lines for the dowels are
marked across the edges with a fine pencil and the aid of a try square.
The boards are then gauged from the face side, thus giving the points
indicated in the sketch.

[Illustration: Fig. 195.--Countersink.]

[Illustration: Fig. 196.--Dowel Rounder.]

[Illustration: Fig. 197.--Twist Bit.]

To start the twist bit (Fig. 197) it is a good plan to prick the board at
the point of intersection of the marked lines with a sharp,
circular-pointed marking awl. This obviates any tendency of the boring
bit to run out of truth and thus cause unevenness on the face side of the
jointed board. (See Fig. 194.)

A safe rule for the spacing of dowels when jointing sideboard tops,
dressing table and wardrobe ends, etc., is to place the dowels 9 ins. to
10 ins. apart, and place two dowels at each end as shown at Fig. 198. The
length of the dowels should be about 7/8 in. to 1-1/4 in. long.

Fig. 199 shows the two boards prepared ready for glueing. The back one
is bored to receive the dowels, and the front one shows the dowels glued
in position. It is customary to warm the edges of the boards before
spreading the glue, and cramps are required to squeeze the joint tight.
These should be left on the jointed board from one to four hours
according to the state of the weather. In cases where thick timber (say
2-in. or 2-1/2-in. boards) is to be jointed, two rows of dowels may be
used, the position of the dowels being as Fig. 200.

[Illustration: Fig. 198.--Marking and Gauging Boards for Dowelling.]

[Illustration: Fig. 199.--Dowelled Joint ready for Glueing.]

Fig. 201 shows the plan of a 3-in. cornice pole made to fit a bay window;
the straight portions of the pole are generally turned in the lathe, the
corner portions being afterwards jointed and worked up to the required
shape. To avoid any difficulty in the setting out of the dowels, a disc
of cardboard or sheet metal is made to the same diameter as that of the
cornice pole; this disc is called a template. The positions of the dowels
are set out geometrically, and the centres are pricked through with a
fine-pointed marking awl (see sketch of template, _a_, Fig. 201). The
template is put on the ends of the straight pole, and the dowel centres
are pricked into the wood. The process is repeated on the ends of the
corner block (_b_, Fig. 201), and if the holes be now bored at the
centres indicated a true fit will be obtained.

[Illustration: Fig. 200.--Method of Dowelling Thick Timber.]

[Illustration: Fig. 201.--Method of Dowelling Cornice Pole by Means of

Fig. 201 _c_ shows two portions of the circular pole jointed up to a
corner block, and the dotted lines P indicate the direct line of pressure
and shows the position for the cramp. When the glue is thoroughly set the
corner block is sawn and spokeshaved to the desired shape as shown by the
dotted line. This method is illustrated to show that, by the use of a
suitable template, dowels may be exactly set out even when there is no
straight or square face from which to use a marking gauge, and the method
may, of course, be applied to many other examples of dowelling at the
discretion of the workman.

[Illustration: Fig. 202.--Dowelling a Mitred Frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 203.--Method of Frame Dowelling. (Long and Short

[Illustration: Fig. 204.--Table Leaf with Dowels.]

[Illustration: Fig. 205.--Block for Twist Bit.]

[Illustration: Fig. 206.--Dowelling for Moulded Frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 207.--Cap.]

Fig. 202 shows one corner of a mitred and dowelled frame. It needs
little or no explanation beyond the fact that the dowels should be at
right angles to the line of joint, and consequently the dowel at the
outside edge of the frame will have to be much shorter than the others.
This gives a strong and serviceable joint, suitable for many purposes.

FRAME DOWELLING.--Fig. 203 shows one corner of a frame with long and
short shoulders, such as occurs when the upright is rebated through its
entire length. The holes in both pieces are bored for the dowels before
they are rebated. This avoids any difficulty in endeavouring to bore with
only one side of the twist bit in the wood. A similar type of joint is
used on nearly all kinds of glass and door frames in cabinet work.

Fig. 204 is a leaf for the screw type of table. Circular dowels are shown
at one end, and rectangular wooden pegs at the other; both methods are
equally good, and, of course, the dowels are only glued into one leaf.
The object of these dowels is to guide the table leaf into its proper
position when the leaf engages the table proper, and to make the flat
surface of the table top and leaf register correctly and thus ensure a
level surface.

Fig. 205 is a wooden block made in two portions and held together by
screws; it is used to fasten around a twist bit, the object being to
ensure that all the dowel holes are of uniform depth. It may be adjusted
as desired and firmly screwed round the twist bit; if the hole is made
1/4 in. in diameter it will clip round a 1/4-in. or 3/8-in. bit and will
answer a dual purpose. It is a preventative for bad dowelling.

Fig. 206 is an example of dowelling framing when the moulding on the edge
has to be mitred. It is necessary to cut the shoulders away so as to
allow the members of the moulding to intersect. The section of the mould
is not shown in the sketch for clearness of representation. The portion
marked H is called the "horn," and it is not cut off until after the
frame is glued up; its object is to prevent the rail splitting or
bursting when knocking up the frame or during the cramping process.

Fig. 207 shows the method of dowelling a moulded cap to the top of a
wooden bedstead post or similar pillar where it is desired to avoid any

Fig. 208 is a dining-table leg and portion of the framing, showing the
method of dowelling the frame to the leg. Chairs, couch frames, etc., are
made in a similar manner.

Fig. 209 shows the top portion of a table leg and a home-made dowel
gauge. The gauge is made of any hardwood, and steel wire pins are driven
through at the required positions and sharpened similar to the spur of a
marking gauge. The legs are sawn and planed up true and square, and the
advantage of the gauge is that all legs are marked exactly alike and are
therefore interchangeable until glued up. A gauge of this type is easily
and quickly made and may be kept for its specific purpose or altered for
other work.

Fig. 210 indicates the Queen Anne type of leg, a sketch of same broken
below the knee also being given. Here we have another type of irregular
setting out, which is accomplished in the following manner. Saw and plane
the broken portion of the leg true as shown; take the timber which is to
be jointed and treat it in a similar manner; now place four ordinary pins
on the lower portion. Carefully place the top portion to the required
position and smartly give it one tap with the hammer; this will cause the
pin-heads to leave indentations, and if these be taken as centres for
boring, accurate work will result. The new portion of the leg is
afterwards sawn and wrought to the desired shape.

This is an example of work where it is next to impossible to use a
gauge, and as only one joint is required it is not worth the time taken
to make a template.

[Illustration: Fig. 208.--Dowelling a Dining-Table Leg.]

[Illustration: Fig. 209.--Dowel Gauge for Legs.]

[Illustration: Fig. 210.--Dowelling a Cabriole Leg.]

The tools used in dowelling are: Brace, countersink, dowel-rounder, twist
bit, try-square, marking-awl, and the usual bench tools. The first four
are illustrated at Figs. 194, 195, 196 and 197 respectively.

The method of working is: Plane up, mark out, bore holes, countersink,
glue dowels and complete joints.


The method known as "scarfing" is used for the joining of timber in the
direction of its length, enabling the workman to produce a joint with a
smooth or flush appearance on all its faces. One of the simplest forms of
scarfed joint is known as the half lap, in which a portion is cut out at
the end of each beam or joist, equal in depth to half the full depth of
the beam, and of equal length to the required scarf.

The two pieces before they are placed together form a joint as shown at
Fig. 211, the projecting part (A) fitting into the recessed portion
marked B and the two pieces being secured in their respective positions
by screws.

Fig. 212 shows a dovetailed scarf joint. This is a variation of Fig. 211,
the length of the dovetail lap being from 6 ins. to 8 ins. in length.

Fig. 213 is an illustration of a joint designed to resist a cross strain.
The face side is left flush, whilst the underside is assisted by an iron
plate. The joint is secured with nuts, bolts, and washers. This type of
joint is frequently used for joining purlins in roof work; the iron plate
on the underside is in this case omitted.

Fig. 214 is designed to resist both tension and compression and is an
excellent joint for all purposes. The joint is brought together by using
folding wedges as shown in the centre.

[Illustration: Fig. 211.--Half-Lap Scarf Joint for Light Timber.]

[Illustration: Fig. 212.--Dovetailed Scarf Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 213.--Plated Scarf Joint Used in Roof Work.]

Fig. 215 is a variation of Fig. 214, and it will be noticed that tenons
are provided on the face and underside to resist cross strain. Probably
this is one of the best varieties of the scarfed joint. Unfortunately,
however, its production is somewhat costly, and this may be the reason
that it is not more universally used. Folding wedges are used to secure
the two pieces in position.

[Illustration: Fig. 214.--Tenoned Scarf Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 215.--Double Tenoned Scarf Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 216.--Scarf Joint with Vee'd ends.]

Fig. 216 is a scarfed joint with undercut vee'd ends which prevent the
joint from lipping up or down or sideways. It is a useful joint, calling
for careful setting out and accurate craftsmanship. Folding wedges are
used in this case to draw up and secure the joint.

Fig. 217 is a "fished joint," and the following difference between a
scarfed and fished joint should be noted. A fished joint need not
necessarily reduce the total length of the beams to be joined, and fish
plates of wood or iron (or a combination of both) are fastened at each
side of the joint. In a scarf joint all surfaces are flush. In Fig. 217
the beams are butt-jointed and secured by wooden plates and iron bolts.
The upper plate is let into each beam, and the lower plate is provided
with two wooden keys to prevent the beams sliding (or "creeping") upon
the lower plate. Iron nuts, bolts, and washers are used to complete the

[Illustration: Fig. 217.--Fished Joint.]

In the case of the scarfed joint at Fig. 218 (used for purlins) the
length of the scarf is usually made about four times that of the depth of
tie beam. It has two hardwood keys which force the pieces together and
thus tighten the joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 218.--Detail of Scarfed Joint in Purlins.]

The methods of scarfing and fish-jointing are many and varied, and, in
selecting a joint, the nature of the pieces to be joined and the
direction and the amount of the load should be carefully taken into

The above joints come under the heading of carpentry, and the ordinary
tools such as the saw, plane, boring-bit and chisels are all that are
requisite and necessary to produce a sound and serviceable joint. Scarfed
joints are generally of large size, and they are usually made by placing
the work upon sawing trestles owing to the bench being too small to
accommodate the large timbers.

[Illustration: Fig. 219.--Example of Tabled Joint with Straps.]

[Illustration: Fig. 220.--Lapped Scarf Joint with Bolts for Heavy

Fig. 219 is a tabled scarf joint which admirably resists tension and
compression. It is very easy to make and fit, and is not materially
affected by shrinkage. The rectangular wrought iron straps are knocked up
over the joint after the two pieces engage. The length of the joint
should be approximately five times its thickness.

Fig. 220 is an example of a lapped scarf joint which is secured with nuts
and bolts. It effectively resists compressional stress in vertical posts
and it may, if required, be strengthened by the addition of wrought iron
fish plates. It is quite a serviceable joint for all general purposes,
such as shed or garage building where fairly heavy timbers are used.


One of the most common forms of hinged joint in use to-day is that formed
by using the "butt" hinge, and many troubles experienced by the amateur,
such as "hinge-bound," "stop-bound," and "screw-bound" doors, etc., are
due to a lack of knowledge of the principles of hingeing. Hinges call for
careful gauging and accurate fitting, otherwise trouble is certain to

A "BOUND" door or box lid is said to be hinge-bound when the recess which
contains the hinge is cut too deep. The frame and the body portion engage
too tightly when closed, the result being that the door has always a
tendency to open a little. This fault may be in many cases remedied by
packing behind the hinge with one or two thicknesses of good stiff brown
paper. For packing purposes such as this paper will be found to be of
much more value than thin strips of wood or knife-cut veneer, the latter
always having a great tendency to split when a screw or bradawl is

A stop-bound door is the name applied when the door is not finished to
exactly the same thickness as originally intended. This causes the door
to bind on the stops at the back, as shown at Fig. 221. The difficulty
may be remedied by thinning the door a little at the back, or slightly
rounding away the portion which binds.

Screw-bound is a common fault often overlooked by the amateur. It is
caused by using screws of which the heads are too large for the
countersunk holes in the hinge, and may be avoided by slightly sinking
the holes in the brasswork with a countersink or rose-bit.

[Illustration: Fig. 221.--Stop-bound Door.]

[Illustration: Fig. 222.--Butt Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 223.--Gauging.]

[Illustration: Fig. 224.--Marking for Recess.]

[Illustration: Fig. 225.--Sawing for the Recess.]

ALIGNMENT.--Another fault that is fairly common is having the axes of the
hinges out of alignment. Especially is this the case when three hinges
are used to hang a wardrobe or other large door. It is absolutely
necessary in all cases that the exact centres of the pivot-pins of the
hinges should be in a straight line.

Particular attention to alignment is necessary when the body and the door
frame are shaped on the face side. A familiar example that every reader
may inspect for himself is the curved side of a railway carriage body and
railway carriage door, where he will notice that a specially wide hinge
has to be used at the bottom of the door to give the necessary alignment.
Hinges fixed on work with their centres out of truth are often overlooked
by the inexperienced worker, and this is a frequent cause of creaking.

GAUGING.--Fig. 222 is a sketch of a brass butt hinge, open. Fig. 223
illustrates a similar hinge closed, and shows the gauge set so that the
point of the marker is exactly to the centre of the pivot-pin. This
distance we will call C. Now turn to Fig. 224. The distance C has been
gauged from the face side of the frame. The gauge is then set to the
thickness of the hinge at its thickest portion, and to prevent
"hinge-bind" see that the gauge is set on the _fine_ side. Remember that
the tapered point of the steel spur or marking awl will part the fibres
of the timber a little more than the fine point, and give you a wider
gauge line than was anticipated when you set the gauge. The inexperienced
worker nearly always overlooks this. The result is a hinge-bound door,
the cause of which is not discovered by the worker because he is so sure
that he has set the gauge correctly. The distance B, Fig. 226, shows the
line gauged for the thickness of the hinge.

POSITION OF HINGES.--Another difficulty to the beginner is the position
for his hinges, and it may here be stated that the general rule is to
carry a line across the face of the work from the inside of the cross
rail and place the hinge at E, as Fig. 224.

[Illustration: Fig. 226.--Tool Operation when Paring Out the Hinge Recess
in the Door.]

SAWING FOR THE RECESS.--After marking out for the hinge, as shown at Fig.
224, take a fine-toothed saw (a dovetail saw is considered the best) and
saw down as shown at Fig. 225, care being taken not to cut beyond the
gauge lines. In this sketch three intermediate saw kerfs are shown, but
if the hinge is of great length, say 5 or 6 ins., the removal of the
waste wood will be greatly facilitated by the addition of more
intermediate saw kerfs. These cuts sever the cross fibres and allow the
timber to be easily pared away in short lengths.

In Fig. 226 we see the tool operation when paring out the hinge recess.
At the left of the drawing the recess is shown marked. Take a 3/4 in.
chisel and, using it as a knife (see A), deepen the gauge lines. Then
stab the chisel downwards, as at B, to deepen the end lines. Next, take
the chisel and pare away the back of the recess as at C. The work may
then be completed by paring neatly till the bottom of the recess is flat.

[Illustration: Fig. 227., Fig. 228. The Hingeing of a Box Lid.]

STOPPED HINGED JOINTS FOR BOX WORK.--Fig. 227 is a section through a
small box similar to a lady's work-box (the back of the box in the
illustration is enlarged in thickness to clearly show the position of the
hinge). In this case the knuckle of the hinge is let into the woodwork
until it is flush with the back of the box, and the gauge would have to
be set to the total width of the hinge. The back edges of the lid and the
back edge of the lower portion of the box are planed away at an angle of
45 degrees as indicated by the dotted lines.

Fig. 228 shows the same box with the lid open, and it will be observed
that the chamfered edges come together and form a stop which prevents the
lid falling backwards and breaking the box. This method of letting-in the
knuckle flush is a useful one for box work because the ordinary stock
brass butt hinge can be used. Attention may, however, be called to the
"stopped butt-hinge," which is specially made to answer the above
purpose; in its action a similar mechanical principle as the one applied
to the box is used.

[Illustration: Fig. 229.--Strap Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 230.--Reversible or Double-folding Screen Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 231.--Pivot Hinge for Screens.]

[Illustration: Fig. 232.--Non-reversible Screen Hinge.]

TYPES OF HINGES.--Fig. 229 is an elongated variety of the butt hinge,
known in the trade as "strap hinge," "desk hinge," or "bagatelle hinge."
As its name indicates, it is used on folding bagatelle tables, small
writing desks, and other types of work that have but a narrow margin on
which to fix the hinges. The long, narrow plates are sunk flush into the
wood, the knuckle or rounded portion projecting.

[Illustration: Fig. 233.--Back Flap Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 234.--Card Table Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 235.--Pivot Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 236.--Rising Butt Hinge.]

Fig. 230 is an illustration of the reversible or double-folding screen
hinge. Half the thickness of this hinge is let into each wing of the
draught screen, allowing the screen to be folded either way. The hinge is
costly, but effective in use.

Fig. 231 is a type of pivot hinge which is used to fix at the top and
bottom of a screen.

Fig. 232 is the non-reversible screen hinge and, as its name implies,
will only fold in one direction.

Fig. 233 is a back flap hinge with a specially wide wing, used for the
fall-down leaf of small tables and similar articles.

Fig. 234 is a card table hinge. This is let into the edges of the table,
so that all is flush or level both above and below the surface.

CENTRE OR PIVOT HINGES.--Fig. 235 is a centre or pivot hinge, used on the
top and bottom of wardrobe doors, more particularly the interior door of
a three-winged wardrobe where the method of fixing is confined to the
cornice and plinth. The flange carrying the pins or pivot is let into the
top and bottom of the door, the remaining flange being let into the
cornice and plinth respectively.

RISING BUTT HINGES.--Fig. 236 is the rising butt hinge, used on dining
and drawing-room doors, so that when the door is opened the door rises
sufficiently to clear the thickness of the carpet. This hinge has also an
advantage over the ordinary butt hinge in that it is self-closing,
_i.e._, the weight of the door _plus_ the bevel on the hinge joint causes
the door to close. Band and hook hinges and other ordinary varieties are
too well known to require illustrating.

ACUTE ANGLE HINGEING.--Fig. 237 is a sectional plan of a corner cupboard
showing a good method of hingeing the door. The inset _a_ shows an
enlarged view of the corner carrying the hinge, also the adaptor piece
_c_, which is fitted to the inside edge of the cupboard so that the
hinged edges are at 90 degrees to the face. This is a far better and
stronger method than that shown at _b_, which is often attempted with
disastrous results. The incorrect method _b_ allows insufficient wood for
fixing purposes, and in nearly all cases the thin edge of the door breaks
away during the making and fitting, or soon after completion. The adaptor
piece may have a face mould worked upon it to give a pilaster-like
appearance if fancy so dictates.

[Illustration: Fig. 237.--Hingeing Door of Corner Cupboard.]

[Illustration: Fig. 238.--Inside Hingeing: Method of Letting Butt Hinge
into Door Frame and Carcase.]

INSIDE HINGEING.--When a door is being hung _inside_ the carcase (that
is, not hinged _over_ the ends) it is permissible, in the case of light
work, to let the whole thickness of the hinge into the door; and when
screwing the door to the carcase it is usual to fix the knuckle of the
hinge flush with the face of the carcase, thus allowing the door frame to
stand back, making a break of about 1/8 in. with the face. The marking
gauge should be set to the full width of the hinge; the mark, gauged on
the inside of the carcase end, thus forms a line to guide the worker
whilst fixing the door. To successfully fix a door it generally requires
two persons, one to hold the door in position, whilst the other bores the
holes and fixes the screws.

[Illustration: Fig. 239.--Showing Top and Bottom of Carcase Cut Back to
allow Door to Close.]

[Illustration: Fig. 240.--Outside Hingeing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 241.--Section.]

Fig. 238 shows the correct method of fitting butt hinges on high-class
work. One wing of the hinge is let into the door, and the other wing is
let into the carcase or door jamb, thus distributing a proportion of the
weight to the carcase end instead of allowing the whole of the weight to
be carried by the screws as would be the case in _a_, Fig. 237. The
method of sinking each portion of the hinge into the door and carcase
respectively is costly; hence it is not the general practice in cheap
work. In Fig. 239 the top and bottom of carcase (T and B) are shown set
back to allow the door to close.

OUTSIDE HINGEING.--Fig. 240 illustrates the portion of a door frame and
carcase end when the door is hung on the face of the carcase. The correct
method of letting in the hinge is shown in the enlarged section (Fig.
241), but, as previously mentioned, the hinge may have its entire
thickness let into the door frame where it is of a light character. The
door frame projects slightly over the carcase end, and occasionally a
bead mould is worked on the edge of the door so as to give a finish and
partly hide the joint. The bead would, of course, be the same size as the
diameter of the knuckle of the hinge; and the knuckle, therefore, will
form a continuation of the bead and give a workmanshiplike finish.

FALL FRONTS.--Fig. 242 is a sectional view of a fall front writing bureau
fitted with centre or pivot hinges and arranged so that the edges form a
stop when the desk front is turned to a horizontal position. The position
for the fitting of the brass plates carrying the pivot-pin is somewhat
awkward; but, by first sinking the plates into the carcase ends, and then
slotting the edges of the fall, it will be found that the fall front may
be put in from its horizontal position, and that sufficient room is left
to enable the screwdriver to be manipulated without inconvenience.

[Illustration: Fig. 242.--Fall Front of Writing Bureau.]

[Illustration: Fig. 243.--Revolving Fly Rail for Table. See Pivoted Fly
or Front Rail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 244.--Draught Screen Tape Hinge.]

FLY RAIL.--Fig. 243 is a sketch of a small table with the top removed. A
revolving fly rail is shown pivoted upon a piece of 1/4-in. wire. The
object of this fly rail is to form a support to the small hinged
drop-leaf of the table. This method is suitable for small occasional
tables and similar articles.

DRAUGHT SCREENS.--Fig. 244 illustrates the end elevation and plan of a
draught screen which is constructed of a light framework and covered with
baize or American cloth. The reversible double-folding hinge (Fig. 230)
would answer admirably for such a screen. Cases occur, however, where it
is desired to hinge a screen to be used for an invalid's bedside, and it
is then important that all draught should be excluded through the jointed
edges. The double reversible hinge will not fulfil these conditions, and
the following method is therefore adopted.

In the plan, Fig. 244, A and B, two laths of hardwood (beech, birch or
mahogany answer splendidly) are shown. They are made the same length and
the same width as the edges of the screen, the corners being slightly
rounded away.

A double-folding, draught-proof hinge is then made as follows: Procure
good fine webbing, about 1-1/4 in. wide, and the necessary large-headed
tacks. Lay the laths side by side as shown in Fig. 244, and proceed to
web them as shown. Commence with the web under the lath A; bring it
between the laths and over B; now take it round the left-hand edge of B,
and round the back and between the laths and over A, continuing this
method of wrapping the laths until the lower end is reached, and then
fastening the webbing as indicated by the dotted lines which represent
the tacks. This self-contained hinge is then fixed to the edges of the
screen by boring suitable holes through the laths and using countersunk
screws. This is a cheap and efficient method of overcoming the
difficulty. A similar method is used for the household clothes horse.

[Illustration: Fig. 245.--Finger Joint Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 246.--The Knuckle Joint Hinge.]

FINGER JOINT HINGE.--Fig. 245 is a finger joint--a movable interlocking
joint used to support the leaf of a Pembroke table. The small portion is
screwed to the table rail and the shaped bracket swings out to support
the drop leaf. The shaded portion of the bracket shows the timber
chamfered away so that the fingers may be easily put behind the bracket
to manipulate it. Note that the corners are slightly rounded off, as
indicated by the black portion of the sketch, and that the mortises are
cut about 1/4 in. deeper than the thickness of the timber used. This
joint has now been almost superseded by a cheap stamped galvanised iron
bracket of exactly the same pattern. The joint, however, is still used
for repair work and in cases where a stamped metal bracket has not
sufficient overhang.

[Illustration: Fig. 247.--Open Joint Hingeing.]

KNUCKLE JOINT HINGE.--Fig. 246 is a similar type of joint to the above,
and is called the knuckle joint. This arrangement of hingeing allows the
table leg to swing in an angle of 180 degrees and is much neater in its
appearance. It is often used to connect a movable table leg to the
framing, where it is necessary for the table leg and rail to swing
outwards and support a drop leaf. The pivot is formed by a piece of
1/8-in. or 1/4-in. round iron rod running through the centre of the

[Illustration: Fig. 248.--Clearing the Architrave Mould.]

OPEN JOINT HINGEING.--The next three illustrations apply more
particularly to the hanging of the ordinary household door.

Fig. 247 is termed "open joint hanging," from the fact that when the door
is open a certain amount of open space exists between the edge of the
door and the doorpost. This open space varies according to the position
in which the butt hinge is fixed. A section is shown at which the pin of
the hinge is let in level with the face of the door. This will allow the
door to open as shown by the dotted line, and it will not clear the
architrave moulding.

[Illustration: Fig. 249.--Close Joint Hingeing.]

Fig. 248 indicates the position of the hinge fixed so as to allow the
door to open and lay flat back to the architrave moulding. In this
instance the butts are made with wider wings, and they are generally
provided to take three screws (see Fig. 233, right-hand wing of hinge).

To determine the position of the centre pin of the hinge the following
rule is observed. The centre of the pivot pin of the hinge must be _half
the distance_ between the face of the door, when closed, and the outside
of the architrave moulding.

CLOSE JOINT HANGING.--The method known as "close joint hanging" ensures
the joint at the hanging stile being in close proximity to the hanging
rail; this is shown at Fig. 249. The first member of the architrave
moulding is generally a bead of the same diameter as the knuckle of the
hinge. The butt hinge is let in as shown in the illustration, and the
door when opened forms a close-fitting joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 250.--Rule Joint Hinge, with Leaf Open.]

THE RULE JOINT HINGE is used to connect the top and the drop leaf of a
table in cases where continuity of design is desired, so that the edge of
the top and the leaf will show an ovolo moulding when the table is either
open or closed. To the inexperienced worker it presents several
difficulties and, if it is a first effort, it is advisable to try out a
sample joint on a couple of odd pieces of timber.

Fig. 250 illustrates the joint when the leaf is opened or in a horizontal
position. At Fig. 252 we have the joint when the leaf is let down to a
vertical position. It should be observed in the latter figure that the
edge A of the drop leaf is in alignment with the axis of the hinge. Steel
or brass back-flap hinges (Fig. 233) are generally used and they are sunk
into the table as suggested.

Set out the work full size as at Fig. 251, and mark point 1, which is to
be the position of the joint. Draw 1, 2, at right angles to the table
top. Mark point 3 on the vertical line for the centre of the hinge, and
mark point 4 approximately as shown.

[Illustration: Fig. 251.--Setting Out for Rule Joint Hinge.]

[Illustration: Fig. 252.--The Rule Joint with Leaf Down.]

With compass point on 3 and radius 3 to 4, describe an arc 4 to 5. This
gives us the true joint line (1, 4, 5). The distance 0 to 3 is usually
determined by the hinge. The knuckle of the back flap hinge is always let
into the under side of the wood and the further it is inserted into the
wood the more the joint will overlap at A (Fig. 252) which shows the
joint when the flap or leaf is down.


This chapter deals with the joint made by the upright rail of a door
frame which carries the lock, or handle, generally called the "slamming
stile." Many and varied are the methods used to make a draught and
air-tight joint at the meeting of the slamming stile and the carcase end,
and our sketches illustrate some of the simplest and also some of the
best and most expensive methods.

[Illustration: Fig. 253.--Shutting Stile of Cupboard Door.]

[Illustration: Fig. 254.--Showing Cupboard End Thicknessed (see B).]

[Illustration: Fig. 255.--Dust-proof Cupboard Door.]

Fig. 253 is a part plan of the end of a simple cupboard of which the
carcase end is all of one thickness (_i.e._, not lined up in thickness).
A small strip of wood (A) is glued and screwed on the end to form a stop
to the door and to prevent the access of dust to the interior of the

Fig. 254 illustrates a similar method; the stop (C) is seen, as in the
previous illustration, but it will be noticed also that the carcase end
in this case is lined up (see B) to give a pilaster-like appearance to
the end, and the moulding is selected on account of its suitability to
hide the joint of the lining piece.

Fig. 255 is of a more intricate type, and is often used on jewellers'
showcases. The end at the right hand is slightly rebated to receive the
frame, and both the rail and the end are grooved with a plough plane. A
separate bead is made and glued into the groove of the door frame (D),
engaging the groove in the carcase end when the door is closed. The
shutting stile and the end are worked with a hook joint (E), and if
carefully made they are practically dust-tight.

[Illustration: Fig. 256.--Meeting Stiles with rebated Astragal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 257.--Door Rebated for Astragal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 258.--Door with Brass Astragal.]

Fig. 256 shows the meeting of two doors which open outwards, a separate
piece of timber being made to form a rebated astragal mould (F) and glued
to the right-hand door. This method gives a neat and effective finish.

Fig. 257 is similar to the above, with the exception that the rail of the
door is rebated (G) to receive the astragal moulding. This method is
preferred on the best class of work, because it shows no unsightly joint
at the inside of the door frame.

Fig. 258 illustrates the type of joint made by using a brass astragal
mould (H) as employed on high-class work, frequently seen on French
furniture of the Louis periods. In Fig. 259 is shown a piece of brass
astragal moulding, which may be procured from any cabinetmaker's
ironmonger in suitable lengths. It is fixed in position by slightly
rebating the edge of the door and fastening with ordinary countersunk
brass screws.

[Illustration: Fig. 259.--Brass Astragal.]

[Illustration: Fig. 260.--Curved Cupboard Doors with Rebated Meeting

[Illustration: Fig. 261.--Rebated Meeting Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 262.--Meeting Joint with applied Astragal.]

Fig. 260 is a rebated joint, broken at the front by a bead moulding. The
illustration shows its application to a circular-fronted cupboard, and it
will be noticed that the hinged rails are received in a rebate which is
worked on the carcase ends. The rebated joint at the centre of the two
doors is worked slightly on the bevel, so as to allow for clearance when
opening the door.

Two of the commonest meeting joints of doors are seen in Figs. 261 and
262. In the former case the stiles are rebated (as already shown in Fig.
260), whilst at Fig. 262 an astragal bead is glued to the right-hand
stile. In Fig. 261 a bead is worked on the right-hand stile to mask the

Fig. 263 is the hook joint used on good-class joinery and cabinet work. A
pair of special wood planes are required to make the joint in a cheap and
efficient manner. The cost of a pair of 5/8-in. hook joint planes is from
6_s._ to 8_s._ They are of similar size and general appearance to the
ordinary ovolo moulding plane.

[Illustration: Fig. 263.--The Hook Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 264.--Hook Joint with loose Tongues.]

[Illustration: Fig. 265.--Rebated Joint with Tongue Slip.]

Fig. 264 is a special type of hook joint as used on larger work. The
joint may be made by using the plough plane, the rebate plane and a
suitably-sized bead plane, the loose tongues being inserted as shown and
fastened by screws and glue.

Fig. 265 is a rebated joint with loose tongue-slip and astragal mould,
suitable for frames over 1-1/4 in. in thickness. The loose tongue-slip
is glued into the right-hand door frame.

Fig. 266 shows a shutting joint used to prevent permeation of dust to the
interior of a drawer. The drawer front is grooved and engages a
suitably-formed slip which is screwed to the bearer as indicated in the
illustration. Occasionally some difficulty is experienced when fitting
the slip to a narrow drawer, but this can always be overcome by putting
in the screws from the top of the bearer instead of from underneath.

[Illustration: Fig. 266.--Dust-proof Drawer, showing the Front grooved to
engage a Slip which is screwed to the Bearer Rail.]

Shutting joints which are required to be "light-tight," such as those
used in photographic work, are generally formed by slightly grooving the
frame and inserting a strip of black velvet. The friction of the high
pile of the velvet prevents the filtration of light through the joint.

When making air-tight showcases, one of the best and simplest tests is to
place a lighted candle in the case and close all the doors; if the candle
goes out within three minutes you have accomplished your object.


Nothing definite is known as to the origin of dovetailing, but a quaint
and pleasing little story which is well worth repeating runs as follows:
A farmer had called in the local "joyner" to do sundry repairs at the
homestead. One day, whilst enjoying a humble meal, he sat watching some
doves as they hopped about the yard. Struck by the movement of their
wedge-shaped tails, it occurred to him to joint his timber by the
interlocking method; hence we have _dovetails_.

[Illustration: Fig. 267.--A Single Through Dovetail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 268.--Through Dovetails on Carcase Work (P, Pins; T,

THROUGH DOVETAILING.--One of the simplest forms of the dovetail joint is
shown in Fig. 267, where two pieces of timber are joined by the method
known as "through" dovetailing. This method is used in everyday practice
for joining the corners of frames, bracket trusses, and a hundred and one
other articles.

Figs. 268 and 269 show the method of through dovetailing as applied to
the making of boxes, plinths, and general carcase work; it is used in
positions where no objection can be taken to the end grain showing on
each side of the finished work. In the case of plinths and furniture
cornices the foundation frame is made of yellow pine or other cheap wood,
and the more expensive and rare timbers are glued and mitred around in
various thicknesses and shapes, thus saving the more costly material and
strengthening the construction by the method known as laminating. In many
cases all that is necessary is to veneer the face sides, thus covering
and hiding any unsightliness.

[Illustration: Fig. 269.--Dovetails for Boxes, etc.]

[Illustration: Fig. 270.--Lap-dovetailing for Drawers.]

LAP-DOVETAILING.--Fig. 270 is an example of lap-dovetailing, such as is
used where a drawer side joins with the drawer front. It is not
permissible to allow the end grain of the timber to show at the front of
a drawer, and this is why resort is had to the lap-dovetail. As the most
general use of the dovetail is for this and similar purposes, we shall
therefore deal fully with the methods of marking out and the making of
this class of joint.

ANGLES.--A most important point in the construction of a dovetail is to
avoid having the angles of the pins and tails too acute. An inclination
of one in eight is considered correct; no hard and fast rule need be
obeyed, but the variation should on no account be less than one in six.

[Illustration: Fig. 271.--How to obtain Correct Angles for Dovetail

[Illustration: Fig. 272.--Squaring and use of Template.]

Fig. 271 shows a simple method to obtain the correct angle. Take a piece
of timber and plane up the face edge (A, B) true and straight; mark out a
line (C, D) at right angles to the face edge and space off 8 ins. as
shown; now measure a distance of 1 in. (D, E), and join E to point eight.
This will give the correct angle for the dovetails, and it may then be
transferred to the joiners' bevel. Many workers who are constantly on
dovetail work make a zinc template to the exact angle and keep it
specially for the purpose (Fig. 272).

SQUARING.--Another important point to remember is that the drawer sides
must be true and squared to an exact length and planed up to thickness;
otherwise the finished drawer will be in winding and out of truth.

To true and square the ends of drawer sides, drawer backs and drawer
front, a most useful little machine is the mitre trimmer; failing this,
excellent results can be obtained by using the shooting board.

[Illustration: Fig. 273.--Method of Marking with Cutting Gauge.]

GAUGING.--After squaring up the timber accurate gauging of the ends is
another important point. The gauge used should be a cutting gauge, so
that the line is incised about 1/32 in. in depth, thus effectually
cutting the cross fibres of the timber.

Fig. 273 shows the method of using the cutting gauge. The stock of the
gauge must be held well up to the end of the timber. The gauge is a most
difficult tool for the novice to use, and his trouble is generally caused
by holding it too flat. Tilt the gauge a little so that the thumbscrew
shown in the illustration goes nearer to the floor; the blade will then
not bite so keenly, and better results will be obtained. The dotted lines
indicate the positions which the dovetails will occupy when marked out.

The gauge is set a trifle less than the thickness of the drawer sides to
allow for the thickness of the steel cutter, and a gauge line is marked
on the inside of the front and all round the drawer back. The gauge is
now readjusted so as to leave a 1/4-in. lap on the front, and a line
marked on the ends of the front and all round the ends of the sides which
will engage the drawer front. A glance at Figs. 270 and 273 will make
this clear.

[Illustration: Fig. 274.--Removing the Waste Wood.]

The dovetail pins on drawer part and back are spaced out and marked on
the end with the aid of the joiners' bevel, the lines being then squared
down to the gauge line by the method shown at Fig. 272--that is, by
using the try-square and marking awl.

The drawer front is now put into the bench vice, and the pins are cut as
indicated in Fig. 274. The drawer back is treated in a similar manner,
but of course in this case it is not "lap" but "through" dovetailing, and
the saw kerf goes through the timber and down to the gauge line.

[Illustration: Fig. 275.--Cutting away the Half Dovetails.]

We now come to the point where it is necessary to remove the superfluous
material. Fig. 274 shows a method commonly adopted and known as sawing
out the waste; the saw is held at an angle and part of the inside portion
of the dovetail is cut away as shown. This is a good plan for the
amateur, because it shows him at the commencement of his chopping out
which will be the pin and which the tail.

[Illustration: Fig. 276.--Showing the Vertical and Horizontal Chisel
Operations in Lap-dovetailing. A: The Preliminary Roughing-out. B:
Vertical Chiselling; note that the first stab should be just outside the
Gauge Line. C: Marking the Horizontal Cut.]

Fig. 276 (A) shows another method that answers well for soft woods such
as pine, American whitewood and satin walnut. The drawer front is laid
flat on the bench after it has been sawn, and with a mallet and sharp
chisel the corner of the dovetail is knocked off as shown. This takes the
bulk of the material away and the dovetail is then pared out square in
the usual way. The illustration (Fig. 276) also shows how the chisel is
held for vertical paring (B) and for horizontal paring (C).

[Illustration: Fig. 277.--Roughing-out by Boring.]

[Illustration: Fig. 278.--Marking Pins on Drawer Side.]

A third method is shown at Fig. 277. With hard, curly timbers, such as
tobacco mahogany and satinwood, it is a laborious process to carefully
chop away the timber in small pieces, and to overcome this difficulty we
occasionally see the workman take a twist-bit and bore a series of holes
as shown. A great portion of the timber may then be split away by
inserting the chisel end-way into the grain, after which it is pared to a

As dovetailing is chiefly used for drawer making, it will be of interest
to give several illustrations of variations of the joint and its uses.

Fig. 278 indicates the method of marking the position of the holes in
the drawer side. When the paring out of the dovetails is completed the
drawer front is turned over on to the side as shown, and the position of
the recesses which will engage the pin portions are marked with the
marking awl as illustrated.

[Illustration: Fig. 279.--Marking by means of Saw Blade.]

[Illustration: Fig. 280.--Gauge Lines, Scores and Saw Cuts.]

[Illustration: Fig. 281.--Sawing the Drawer Side.]

[Illustration: Fig. 282.--Position of Chisel for Cutting Channel.]

The completed drawer back is marked on the sides in an exactly similar

Another method of marking through dovetails is shown at Fig 279. The side
is held in position on the end, and the dovetail saw is inserted and
drawn out of the saw kerf, thus leaving the exact mark on the

Other workers prefer a pounce-bag instead of a saw. A pounce-bag consists
of a piece of fairly open woven muslin filled with a mixture of French
chalk and finely-powdered whiting; the muslin is tied up with a piece of
thin twine like the mouth of a flour sack. All that is necessary is to
place the timber in position and bang the bag on the top of the saw-cuts,
when sufficient powder will pass through the bag and down the saw kerf to
mark the exact positions of the lines.

SAWING THE DOVETAILS.--After marking out the pins on the drawer sides, we
proceed with the next operation, that is, sawing the dovetails ready for
chopping out the waste material. The drawer side is taken and firmly
secured in the bench screw and sawn as at Fig. 281; it is most important
that the saw kerf is kept _inside_ the line which has been scratched by
the marking awl. See Fig. 280, where the dotted line represents the gauge
line and the outside lines indicate the scores of the marking awl.
Failure to observe this condition will result in faulty dovetailing, and
it will also prove the necessity for using a finely-toothed and
thin-bladed dovetail saw.

To cut out the waste wood (or core), the usual procedure is to saw away
the half-dovetails as at Fig. 275. With care, this can be accomplished
with the dovetail saw, thus avoiding unnecessary labour and the use of
the paring chisel.

After sawing, the drawer side is placed flat upon the bench, one end in
contact with the bench to prevent the drawer side from slipping away; a
chisel (preferably bevelled edged) of suitable width is now taken and a
small channel is cut as at A, Fig. 282. The method of cutting this
channel is shown in the same illustration. The chisel-cut is started
about 1/8 in. from the gauge line; the cut is made right up to the gauge
line, which (when gauging) was made 1/32 in. deep so as to cut the cross
fibres of the timber. A small piece of waste wood will therefore come
away as at A.

The object of cutting this small channel is so that, when the chisel is
held vertically on the gauge line and struck with the mallet, the chisel
will have no tendency to force its way backward and overshoot the gauge
line. The waste or core is now removed by holding the chisel
approximately vertical and applying sufficient power to drive it half-way
through the timber. The drawer side is now turned over, the operation
repeated, and the core pushed out. Care must be exercised whilst cutting
away the core to ensure the chisel being held nearly perpendicular; if
too much lead (or bevel) be given, a faulty and undercut dovetail will be
the result. Undercut dovetails prevent a proper grip of the glue; they
give a weak joint, and often cause the face of the drawer side to be
splintered whilst driving up the joint. If it be necessary to ease one or
two shavings from off the drawer side whilst fitting the completed drawer
in the carcase, the joint will show a greater gap as each succeeding
shaving is removed.

In common work, especially in soft timbers, many workers allow the pins
of a drawer back to run through the sides about 1/16 in. and hammer down
the pins of the dovetail. This is called "bishoping the dovetails," and
is unnecessary if the work be properly made and fitted.

An alternative method of dovetailing is that of cutting the dovetails
first, as shown at Fig. 283. Four or six drawer sides are placed in the
vice and the dovetails are sawn at one operation. A little lead (or
bevel) from front to back is given whilst sawing, and if this method be
used care must be taken to see that the parts of the drawer sides which
will be on the inside of the completed drawer are towards the worker, or
the lead will be given to the dovetails in the wrong direction.

[Illustration: Fig. 283.--Cutting several Dovetails at once.]

After sawing the dovetails in this manner the sides are placed in their
respective positions on the drawer fronts or backs, and marked with a
pounce-bag or by using the saw-blade method. The pins are then cut in the
usual way, care being taken that the saw kerf be on the outside of the
marks, otherwise the pins will finish too slack to engage with the tails.

FRAME DOVETAILS.--Fig. 284 is a sketch of a constructional frame such as
is used for building up a cornice or plinth. At the joint marked A an
edge barefaced dovetail is shown. From the separated sketches of the
joint (B) it will be seen that the dovetail can be put together either
from the top or the bottom of the framing as all its edges are parallel;
glue is relied upon to hold it in position. The centre stretcher rail at
Fig. 284 is similar, except that in this case it is a complete dovetail
in place of a barefaced one.

[Illustration: Fig. 284.--Constructional Frame (as for Plinth or Cornice)
showing application of the Dovetail Joint.]

Some workers, when making either of the above joints, prefer to give a
slight bevel to the dovetail, so that it drives tightly into the housing
when put together.

A variation of this type of dovetail is frequently used to joint internal
uprights to the horizontal shelves of writing desks, cabinets, and
bookcases, etc. The dovetailed portion is parallel for about
three-fourths of its width; the remaining part is tapered towards the
front edge and notched away at the face so as to conceal the method of
construction. An illustration of the top portion of a division 14 ins.
wide is shown at Fig. 284, C. The other portion is of course dovetailed
to fit it.

BLIND LAP-DOVETAILING.--At Fig. 285 is shown a type of blind
lap-dovetailing. This makes a good, sound joint, but it has the
disadvantage of showing a small portion of the timber of the front rail
end-way of the grain. Joints of this kind are used for cornices, boxes,
etc., and also for painted furniture.

[Illustration: Fig. 285.--Blind Lap-Dovetailing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 286.--Housed and Mitred Dovetail.]

HOUSED AND MITRED DOVETAIL.--Fig. 286 is another form of
dovetail--commonly called a housed and mitred or rebated and mitred
dovetail. In this instance we see that a small portion is mitred at top
and bottom edges, and when used in plinth or cornice work, or for making
tea-caddies, etc., the edges are (when completing the work) covered
either with the moulding, which is planted on the cornice or plinth, or
with the top and bottom of the box or tea-caddy.

The method of making a housed and mitred dovetail joint is seen in Fig.
286. The ends to be joined are planed up true and square and then
rebated as shown. The dotted lines indicate the portion which has been
worked away. The dovetails are now sawn and pared out in the usual way
and the part denoted by the arrow is afterwards cut away with a chisel
and finally finished to a smooth surface with a rebate plane; the method
of working is shown at Fig. 287, where the dovetail pins are seen with
the waste portions cut away.

[Illustration: Fig. 287.--Working a Housed and Mitred Dovetail Joint.]

Fig. 287 also shows the method of cutting away the mitred part. A
temporary piece of wood is planed to a true mitre and placed underneath
the dovetailed piece to form a template. Both pieces of the timber are
now secured to the bench with a handscrew or cramp; the template A will
form a guide for the chisel and rebate plane and allow a sharp edge or
arris to be worked on the mitre.

A SECRET MITRED DOVETAIL joint is illustrated at Fig. 288; it is used in
all the better class of cabinet and box work. Fig. 288 shows the pieces
separated; note the mitre at the top and bottom edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 288.--Secret Mitre Dovetailing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 289.--Dovetailed Keys for Wide Surfaces.]

DOVETAIL KEYING.--Fig. 289 is a method used to prevent wide boards such
as signboards, wide and shaped pediments, etc., from casting or warping.
It is called dovetail keying. Beyond calling attention to the fact that
the angles at the edges of the keys, where they are bevelled, should be
at or about 75 degrees, nothing further need be said, as the drawing is
self-explanatory. Angle dovetail keying is shown at Figs. 290 and 291.

[Illustration: Fig. 290.--Dovetail Key.]

[Illustration: Fig. 291.--Dovetail Keying on the Angle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 292.--Bow-fronted Door Dovetailed Edgeways.]

OTHER VARIETIES.--At Fig. 292 we have an everyday method of jointing
circular-fronted cabinet door frames. Great care must be taken in setting
out and making, or a twisted frame will result.

Then at Fig. 293 are shown two familiar examples of dovetailing the
bearer to the carcase end of a dressing table or washstand.

Fig. 294.--Lap-dovetailing the top of a wardrobe to the carcase end.
Other examples, such as the top of a bookcase to the sides, will suggest

Fig. 295.--Side view of a jewel drawer with a moulded drawer front as
used on dressing tables, etc. This shows the necessity of bevelled
dovetailing in order that the drawer front may be kept as thin and light
as possible.

[Illustration: Fig. 293.--Carcase Work, showing Bearer Rails Dovetailed.]

Fig. 296.--Bevelled dovetailing when pins are at right angles to the end

Fig. 297.--Bevelled dovetailing when the centre line of the pins is
parallel to the edges of the work, used for making "hoppers," food
troughs, knife boxes, etc. One corner of the box shows the joint

[Illustration: Fig. 294.--Lap-Dovetailing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 295.--Jewel Drawer Side.]

[Illustration: Fig. 296.--Bevelled Dovetailing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 297.--Bevelled and Dovetailed Box, showing the
Jointing of One Corner Separated.]

Fig. 298.--An example of oblique dovetailing, as used on "hoppers" when
one piece is vertical and the other piece is inclined.

Fig. 299.--Method of dovetailing small boxes. The box is dovetailed in
one width and the top and bottom glued on; the sides and ends are then
cut along the dotted line, thus forming the lid. It will be noticed that
a specially wide dovetail pin must be left so as to form part of the lid
and part of the lower portion.

[Illustration: Fig. 298.--Oblique Dovetailing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 299.--Dovetailing for Small Box.]

SETTING OUT THE JOINT.--For constructing a dovetail joint at the corner
of a frame, as Fig. 300, it is necessary at the outset to trim up the
ends of the timber square and true. This may be accomplished by neatly
sawing to the line and paring the end of the wood with a sharp chisel,
or by bringing the wood to a finish with a finely-set plane, such as an
iron-faced smoothing plane. The ends of the wood must be perfectly square
when tested from either the face side or from the marked edge.

[Illustration: Fig. 300.--Corner Dovetail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 301.--Squaring.]

Take a cutting gauge and set it to equal the thickness of the timber,
and, holding it as already shown at Fig. 273, strike the gauge lines on
the wood as illustrated at Fig. 302, G. Proceed to mark out the dovetail
pins, as at Fig. 303; in this illustration G again shows the gauge line.
The inclination of the lines across the end of the wood should not be too
great, or the joint will be a weak one, and the edges of the dovetails
will be liable to crumble away when the work is knocked together.

DOVETAILING TEMPLATE.--Many workers who are constantly engaged upon
dovetail joints make a small wooden template, as shown at Fig. 304. This
template is generally of hardwood, such as beech or walnut. The method of
obtaining the correct angles of such a template has already been given on
p. 134. Notice that the lines _bb_ (Fig. 303) of the dovetail pins do
_not_ bevel; they are parallel to the sides of the wood and at right
angles to the end of the wood as shown.

[Illustration: Fig. 302.--Gauging.]

[Illustration: Fig. 303.--Marking the Pins.]

CHISEL WORK.--After marking out, as shown at Fig. 303, place the wood on
the bench and proceed to chop away the centre portion in the following
manner. Hold the chisel on the bevel and cut out a small piece to form a
channel at the gauge line. Now hold the chisel in a vertical position,
and with a mallet strike it so as to make a cut about 1/8 in. deep. Then
hold the chisel on the bevel again and cut away more waste wood; proceed
alternately, first forcing the chisel down vertically, and then paring
the wood away with the chisel held obliquely, until you have cut
half-way through the thickness of the wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 304.--Hand-made Template for Marking Dovetails.]

[Illustration: Fig. 305.--Testing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 306.--The Marked Piece.]

Turn the wood over and repeat the various operations until the core, or
waste piece, is removed. Pare away any little irregularities which may be
left in the corners with an 1/8-in. chisel, thus leaving all smooth and
neat. Lay the piece of wood which is to have the dovetail marked on it
flat upon the bench, and take the piece with the dovetail pins cut upon
it and place in the position shown at Fig. 305.

SAW WORK.--Take a marking awl, or a knitting needle which has had its end
sharpened, and mark the lines of the dovetail in a similar manner to that
shown at Fig. 307. Remove the piece A, Fig. 305, and the lower piece
shown at Fig. 305 will clearly show the marks _aa_ as they appear in Fig.
306. Place the piece (Fig. 306) in the vice, and saw _outside_ the lines
AA, as shown in Fig. 308.

[Illustration: Fig. 307.--Marking Dovetails with Marking Awl.]

After sawing down the lines AA, Fig. 308, place the wood in the vice and,
guiding the saw blade with the index finger of the left hand, cut away
the small piece at the side (see Fig. 275). Repeat the operation as may
be necessary, and the completed joint will be similar to that shown at
Fig. 300. If the sawing is not neatly done it may be found necessary to
pare the shoulder with a sharp chisel.

DRAWERS.--When dovetailing drawers or boxes it is necessary to square up
the ends of all the stock and gauge them, as shown at Fig. 273. This
illustration shows how to gauge the lines on a drawer side; the
dovetailed joint in this case, however, does not run through the drawer
front and leave the work unsightly, as the joint at Fig. 300 would do.
The method used is shown at Fig. 309, and it is commonly known as
lap-dovetailing. Most workers cut the dovetail pins on the drawer fronts
and the drawer backs first, after which they mark the drawer sides with
the marking awl. The dovetailing of the drawer back is shown at Fig. 310.
This is the type known as "through dovetailing," the method being similar
in regard to tool operations as the single joint shown at Fig. 300.

[Illustration: Fig. 308.--Sawing the Dovetails.]

[Illustration: Fig. 309.--Lap-dovetailing Drawer Front to Drawer Side.]

[Illustration: Fig. 310.--Through Dovetailing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 311.--Chipping Waste of Lap Dovetail.]

When the pins on the drawer front have been sawn, the waste material is
cut away, as at Fig. 311. First stab down with the vertical chisel,
which must make the cut about 1/32 in. in front of the gauge line (see
illustration). This commencing of the cut slightly in front of the gauge
line is a very important feature. The chisel may be likened to a wedge,
and if the chisel edge be placed exactly upon the gauge line and force
be applied to the handle, it will force the timber away equally on each
side of the gauge line, and the finished depth of the hole will therefore
be too deep for the thickness of the drawer side; in other words, it will
press itself over the gauge line on both sides.

By taking the first vertical cut on the waste side of the gauge line, and
then removing a small piece with the chisel held obliquely, as at Fig.
311, the wood is removed and less resistance is offered to the chisel
when the next vertical cut is made. This overshooting the gauge line is a
common fault with the beginner, who is puzzled at the result because he
is certain he had his chisel exactly on the gauge line when he commenced
his vertical cut. It is especially noticeable in soft-grained woods.

To cut away the waste of a lap-dovetail (Fig. 311), the vertical and
oblique cuts are repeated until the final trimming up is required, and
now is the time to finish both the vertical and the horizontal cuts
exactly on the gauge lines.

Some workers prefer to cut the drawer sides first, and if this method is
preferred (and it has its advantages for cheap work) several drawer sides
are cut at once by placing four or six behind one another in the vice and
sawing them all at one operation.

The drawer front is placed in the vice, and the drawer side held upon it,
whilst the saw blade is placed in the saw kerf and drawn smartly forward.
This will give the required marks at the exact position desired. It must
be remembered, however, to saw just inside these dovetail-pin lines,
otherwise the finished joint will be too slack, owing to the removal of
the sawdust, which is practically equal to the thickness of the saw

MACHINE-MADE DOVETAILS.--As a general rule machine-made drawer and box
dovetails show both the pins and the tails of exactly the same size. The
reason is obvious after an inspection of Fig. 314, which shows the
position in which the pieces are held during the machining operations. In
spite of a certain amount of prejudice they are satisfactory and
thoroughly reliable and have their place in modern shop and office

[Illustration: Fig. 312.--Machine-made Drawer Front and Side, Apart.]

[Illustration: Fig. 313.--The Parts Together.]

[Illustration: Fig. 314.--Position when Machined.]


The dovetail housing joint should first be carefully marked out with a
marking knife, so as to cut across the fibres of the wood. For obtaining
the bevel on the edge of the wood a joiner's bevel may be used, and the
angle should not be too acute. (See previous chapter.) Take a chisel and
pare away a small channel as at A, Fig. 315, to form a small shoulder to
guide the saw.

[Illustration: Fig. 315.--Paring away Channel for Dovetail Grooving.]

With a fine tenon or dovetail saw, cut the saw kerf as at Fig. 316. If
any difficulty is experienced in cutting the kerf true and square, you
may resort to the method shown at C, Fig. 315; a small temporary piece of
timber has been screwed on the top of the work to form a guide for the

[Illustration: Fig. 316.--Cutting the Saw Kerf.]

[Illustration: Fig. 317.--Old Woman's Tooth Plane.]

[Illustration: Fig. 318.--Guide Block for Bevelling.]

Fig. 315, B, shows the small channel formed by the chisel prior to the
sawing operation. The sawing of the bevelled side is worked in a similar
manner; but occasionally we find amateurs who adopt the method shown at
Fig. 318. A block of wood (H) is first made by boring a 1-1/4-in. hole
through its entire length, and afterwards making a saw cut at the desired
bevel. The object of this block, which is kept specially for the purpose,
is to form a guide for those who have not full control of the dovetail
saw; the back of the saw clears the hole, and the required bevel is
obtained. When a saw cut has been made at each side of the groove, the
surplus timber is pared away in the following manner: Cut away portion E,
Fig. 319; then cut away portion F, and lastly cut away the apex portion
marked G. Continue by this method of paring until the approximate depth
is reached. To ensure a correct depth throughout the entire groove, the
router plane (or, as it is often called, "the old woman's tooth plane,"
Fig. 317) is used.

[Illustration: Fig. 319.--Showing Method of Paring.]

[Illustration: Fig. 320.--Channelling the Alternate Piece.]

With regard to cutting the alternate piece, it is necessary to first
plane the end of the shelf true and square. With a cutting gauge strike
the line K, Fig. 320; the required bevel on the edge (J) is then set out,
and with the chisel a small channel is again formed. With the tenon or
dovetail saw cut down the line K to the required depth, and carefully
pare away the wood with a sharp chisel to the correct shape.


Although mitreing is used in everyday woodwork, it comes last in our list
of regular joints simply because it has been partly dealt with in almost
every previous chapter. For example, we have mitre halving in Fig. 34, a
mitre bridle joint in Fig. 74, a tongued and grooved mitre in Fig. 116,
mitred mortise and tenon joints in Figs. 148 and 159, a dowelled mitre
frame in Fig. 202, and a mitred dovetail in Fig. 286.

[Illustration: Fig. 321.--Mitred Skirting.]

[Illustration: Fig. 322.--Curved Mitre.]

[Illustration: Fig. 323.--Halving the Angle.]

MITREING.--The term mitreing is generally used to denote the type of
joint used at the corner of a picture frame; or where two pieces of wood
are bevelled away so as to fit each other, as the skirting or plinth
mould at Fig. 321. In these cases the timber is cut so that the joint is
at 45 degrees to the face, and the two pieces, when placed together,
form an angle of 90 degrees (a right angle).

The term mitreing, however, is not confined to the fitting of timber
around a right angle; it may be justly applied to the fitting of a
moulding around an angle irrespective of the number of its degrees.

One often hears such terms as "a half mitre," used to denote the fitting
of a moulding around an octagonal column or pedestal, and probably it
would be more correct to describe the joint as a mitre cut at 22-1/2
degrees. Mitreing consists of halving the angle and making each piece to
fit the line of bisection. Should the angle be bounded by straight lines,
as at Fig. 321, then the mitred joint will be a straight line, but should
the angle be bounded by a curved and a straight line, as at Fig. 322, A,
or by two curved lines, then the mitred joint will have to be a curved
line if the mouldings are to be of the same section.

[Illustration: Fig. 324.--Sawing Block for Mitreing.]

FINDING THE ANGLE.--For straight mitres, the mitre joint line is found by
bisecting the angle, as shown in the various examples, and the following
instructions are given to enable the reader to follow the diagram (Fig.
323). Take a pair of compasses, or dividers, and with any convenient
opening strike out the arc A, B. Put the point of the compasses on A, and
mark another arc C; then, without altering the distance between the
points of the compass, put the point on B, and mark the arc D. Draw the
line E from the corner, so that it cuts through the intersection made by
the arcs C and D. The angle A B is now halved by the line E, and this
method may be applied to any angle.

SAWING BLOCK.--For sawing mouldings, etc., to their approximate shape, a
home-made sawing block is generally used, as shown at Fig. 324. Two
pieces of wood are glued one on the top of the other, the required angle
is transferred thereto, and the saw kerf made. In the sketch the saw
kerfs are shown at 45 degrees, right and left, and other angles and kerfs
may be made where desired.

PLANING.--After sawing the piece to approximately the correct angle, it
is necessary on high-class work to plane the cut end so as to give a
perfect finish and enable a glued joint to be made. This may be
accomplished by using the plane on the shooting board, as shown at Fig.
325, and, if the worker is constantly using mitres of various angles, it
is an easy matter to make new angle blocks and fix them on to the board.
Other workers prefer the screw mitre trap shown at Fig. 326. This
apparatus takes wide plinth or cornice moulds, and the angle may be
altered by fitting temporary packing pieces under the work so as to tilt
the moulding to the desired angle. The method of using the plane is
indicated in the illustration.

Another method in everyday use by those workers who are constantly
mitreing wide pieces of stock at 45 degrees is the "donkey's ear"
shooting board illustrated at Fig. 327. The plane is laid on its side on
the surface of the board marked A, and used in a similar manner to that
shown at Fig. 325.

[Illustration: Fig. 325.--Use of Plane and Shooting Board for Mitreing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 326.--The Screw Mitre Trap.]

A simple method and one that should always be remembered because it is
handy when working without a shooting board is shown at Fig. 328. Set the
marking or cutting gauge to the thickness of the wood to be mitred at 45
degrees; then gauge this distance on the wood, as shown at B; draw from
the line to the edge, as shown, and saw and plane to a finish. The
diagonals of a square give 45 degrees, and this is the method used to
mark out the work. The end of the wood must, of course, be square with
its edges before marking out in this manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 327.--"Donkey's Ear" Shooting Board.]

[Illustration: Fig. 328.--Gauging for Mitres.]

[Illustration: Fig. 329.--Narrow Inner Moulding.]

[Illustration: Fig. 330.--Wide Mitred Moulding.]

Fig. 329 shows a bevelled framing into which has been mitred a narrow
moulding M so as to show a correct margin around the panel.

[Illustration: Fig. 331.--Door with Curved Mitres.]

[Illustration: Fig. 332.--Method of Setting out for a Curved Mitre.]

Fig. 330 shows a similar framing, but with a wide moulding M mitred
around it. To obtain a correct intersection of this moulding, the angles
A and B are bisected. The bisection of the angles meets before the width
of the moulding is cleared, therefore the angle C will again have to be
bisected, and the finished joint will appear as shown. One of the
simplest of mouldings with a large flat face has been chosen to
illustrate this. The moulding could be all in one width, as shown, or it
could be built into the framing in separate pieces, the wide flat and the
piece carrying the mould.

CURVED MITRES.--We now come to what are probably the most difficult of
all mitres, viz., curved mitres, and the writer well remembers in his
apprenticeship days his first experience of attempting to fit the
mouldings around the door shown at Fig. 331 by using straight mitres at
A. This, of course, is impossible if the mouldings are of the same
section and it is desired to make all the members correctly intersect. If
straight mitres are used the section of the curved moulding will have to
be of a different shape from the section of the straight moulding, and in
these days of machine-made mouldings this method is seldom resorted to.
It is better, cheaper, and easier to make curved mitres when the
necessary machinery is at hand.

TO SET OUT A CURVED MITRE (see Fig. 332).--Draw a section of the moulding
full size, A, as shown at the left hand of the illustration, and project
lines round the framing, as shown V, W, X, Y and Z. Where the lines V, W,
X, Y and Z intersect at the corner D, it clearly shows that a straight
mitre will not cut all the points of intersection. A curved line will cut
all the intersections, and a template made of cardboard, sheet zinc, or
veneer, should be made to this shape. At the left-hand side the
geometrical setting out is shown for obtaining the curve without having
to resort to drawing it freehand.

Take half the width of the moulding, as shown by dotted line A, and where
it cuts the approximation of the curved mitre place the point of the
compasses and strike out a circle as shown; with the same radius place
the compass point on B--that is, the inside point of the mitre, and cut
the circle on the right and left with the small arcs shown at _aa_. With
the same radius put the compass point at the junction of the circle and
mitre line, C V, and cut the circle at right and left, viz., _ee_.

[Illustration: Fig. 333.--Template for Mitreing.]

Now rule a line through _aa_, and another line through _ee_, and where
these lines cut each other it will give the correct radius of the curved
mitre. The advantage of knowing the correct radius of a curved mitre is
of great benefit to the skilled machinist, as it enables him to set up
his machine so as to give a definite result.

MITREING A MOULDED DOOR FRAME.--Fig. 333 illustrates the method of
mitreing the moulded portion of a door frame where the joint is dowelled,
not tenoned. A small wooden template is made out of beech or other
hardwood, having its ends cut at 45 degrees. This template is placed on
the rail, as shown, and held in position by placing both the rail and the
template in the vice. The face of the template forms a guide for a wide
chisel, and enables the worker to gradually pare away the moulding to the
correct angle.

[Illustration: Fig. 334.--Using Panel Saw in Mitre Box.]

For sawing the mitres on large mouldings such as are used on the lid of a
gramophone or wireless cabinet, a mitre sawing box and a panel saw may be
used as indicated at Fig. 334.


Fig. 335 shows a circular frame made up in two thicknesses, the segments
being screwed to each other and the joints crossed in two layers. This is
a very strong method, and it is used for making circular frames and curbs
up to 15 ft. in diameter. The segments can be either long or short, the
only important condition being that they must be marked out and sawn to
the correct radius. Fig. 337 shows a board marked out in segments for
this class of work. The longer the boards the better will they cut up, as
it gives more opportunities of cutting one piece out of the other as at A

[Illustration: Fig. 335.--Circular Frame in Two Thicknesses.]

[Illustration: Fig. 336.--Circular Rim in Halved Segments.]

Fig. 338 shows how to begin to put the work together. To continue this,
fit other segments in position and screw them to D and E respectively.
The completed work is illustrated at Fig. 335.

[Illustration: Fig. 337.--Board Marked for Circular Jointing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 338.--Putting Circular Work Together.]

[Illustration: Fig. 339., Fig. 340. Method of Building up
Semicircular Head of Door Frame.]

Fig. 336 shows a circular rim, or curb, made of segments which are halved
together. This method is suitable for heavy work, where the timbers are
of considerable size. The halvings are cut on the ends of the segments
to any convenient shape or bevel, each one being marked so as to fit its

[Illustration: Fig. 341.--Part of Laminated Table Frame.]

[Illustration: Fig. 342.--Half of Laminated Core Box.]

When extra length is required, semicircular or circular work is built up
out of four or five thicknesses of wood, and the method is called
laminating. The method of building up the semicircular head of a door
frame by this method is shown at Figs. 339 and 340.

The shaped framing for kidney-shaped writing tables and similar classes
of work is built up by laminating pieces of 3/4-in. or 1-in. wood, after
which the face side is veneered so as to hide the glued joints. Fig. 341
shows a sketch of one quarter of an elliptical table frame levelled up
and ready for applying the veneer.

LAMINATION.--If we apply to the dictionary for the word "lamination," we
find that lamellar structure is the arrangements in thin plates or layers
one over the other, usually having the end joints alternating, and it is
a condition which allows of cleavage in one direction only. This method
is used for nearly all descriptions of free or irregular curves, such as
sweeps, bends, ogee shapes, and segments of circles. The timber is marked
out in suitable lengths, rough-sawn and then planed true on the face,
glued together, and when set the sides are cleaned up to the required
shape. It is one of the strongest methods of construction, and
necessarily costly. Pulleys, pulley rims, and a hundred and one other
jobs are built by this method.

Fig. 342 shows one half of a core box built by this method, ready to be
worked to the required shape.


Weather boards.--For outdoor buildings, such as garages, garden sheds,
toolhouses, etc., "weatherboarding" is often preferred to ordinary
matchboarding, chiefly because of the facility with which it throws off
the rain. The boarding can be bought ready prepared. Three methods of
jointing are shown in the sections at Fig. 343. The method indicated at A
shows one of the most satisfactory types, its boards being planed and
moulded as shown. The other two examples are more common. The boarding at
B is rebated, whilst at C each board overhangs its lower neighbour. The
boards for C and D are always cut tapered as indicated.

[Illustration: Fig. 343.--Weather Boards.]

[Illustration: Fig. 344.--Ladder Rungs.]

The end grain is usually protected by nailing on a strip of timber,
chamfered on both edges.

LADDERS.--Fig. 344 illustrates the method of fastening the rung (or
stave) of a ladder to the side. At A the common method is shown, the
stave being simply driven into the hole and wedged. At B a much better
but more expensive method of construction is given. The stave here is
socketed and the pin turned to a smaller diameter. In both cases the
rung, or stave, is painted before being driven into the side and wedged.

[Illustration: Fig. 345.--Cornice Pole Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 346.--Veneer Keying.]

Ladder sides are made in two distinct ways. One method is known as "a
plank side," the side being cut from a plank as shown at the section D;
the other method is called "a pole side," and is constructed by cutting a
straight larch pole in half and using half of the pole for each side of
the ladder, as at section C.

HINGED CORNICE POLES.--Fig. 345 shows a hinged joint for cornice poles
and should be of interest to those who are frequently removing from house
to house. The joint will adapt itself to fit any bay window (even a
square bay) and it is formed by turning and cutting the two pieces shown.
To fix a cornice pole to a bay window one of these joints is required for
each angle of the bay, the pole being cut into suitable lengths and fixed
to the hinged joints by the use of the dowel screw and a little hot
glue. It is perhaps needless to remark that the diameter of the joint
should be of the same diameter as the cornice pole, to enable the rings
to easily slide over the surface.

For fastening a turned ornament (or "finial") to the end of a cornice
pole a double pointed screw (known in the trade as a "dowel screw") is
used, one half of which is screwed into each part of the pieces to be

VENEER KEYING.--Fig. 346 illustrates the method of strengthening the
corners of boxes which are made of 1/4-in. or 3/8-in. timber, by securing
the corners with veneer keys. The box is mitred and glued in the usual
manner, and after allowing sufficient time for the glue to set, saw kerfs
are made as shown at _a a_. A piece of thin saw-cut veneer is afterwards
glued into the saw kerfs, and when dry the face is levelled off flush.
This method is often used previous to veneering the face side of the box
with rare veneers, and it is also useful for repair work. Note that the
saw cuts are made at an angle. Small picture frames are sometimes keyed
instead of nailed.

MUNTIN AND SKIRTING JOINT.--In the case of panelled rooms it is usually
necessary to scribe the muntins (or uprights) to the skirting. The method
is shown in Fig. 347. The bead moulding of the skirting is only partly
removed, as indicated, leaving a solid portion to which the muntin is

COT JOINT.--At Fig. 348 is shown an interesting joint used largely in the
making of Indian cots. The illustrations indicate how the cross bar and
end bar are mortised into the leg. A turned hardwood peg fits into a
suitably provided hole and locks the tenons, which are dry jointed (not
glued) in position. The head of this peg forms an ornament (A) at the
top of the leg and should fit tightly in position. At B are seen the end
and cross bars in their relative positions when apart from the leg. C
shows the end bar and cross bar when the cot is fixed, but in this
illustration the leg is purposely left out of the drawing for a clear
representation. D shows the joints of the leg portion when the part of
the leg above the line at A is sawn off. The hardwood peg is shown at E.

[Illustration: Fig. 347.--Fixing Muntin to Skirting.]

[Illustration: Fig. 348.--Joint for Home-made Cot.]

SIDEBOARD PILLARS, ETC. (Fig. 349).--For economy, sideboard pillars are
sometimes built up as indicated, the "shaft," the "base," and the "swell"
being made up of three distinct pieces. Turned pins are left on the shaft
and the base, and these are secured at the joint by the use of a
double-pointed screw called a dowel screw. This does away with the
necessity of reducing the squares at the top of the wood and thus getting
the turning out of a large piece of wood.

NOTCHED JOINTS.--Fig. 350 is a "notched joint," where two joists, or
scantlings, cross each other, the object of the joint being to prevent
the joists moving from their position without materially weakening them.
For an end notch, see Fig. 352.

[Illustration: Fig. 349.--Method of Building up Turnings.]

[Illustration: Fig. 350.--Notched Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 351.--The Saddle Joint.]

The "saddle joint" (Fig. 351) is used for connecting upright posts to
heads or sills of framing, and undoubtedly takes its name from its
similarity to the way in which the saddle fits the horse. It does not
weaken the framing as does a mortise and tenon joint, and shrinkage has
little effect upon the joint. The "cogged joint," used for connecting
purlins to rafter and joists to girders, is illustrated in Fig. 353.

[Illustration: Fig. 352.--End Notch.]

[Illustration: Fig. 353.--Cogged Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 354.--Birdsmouth Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 355.--Another type of Birdsmouth Joint.]

BIRDSMOUTH JOINTS.--Fig. 354 is a "birdsmouth joint," a simple joint
which can be readily made by the handsaw, used when a spar fits on the
wall plate. A nail is shown securing it in position.

Fig. 355 shows the birdsmouth joint where the spar runs over the
_outside_ of the wall plate, thus allowing a fixing for an ornamental

[Illustration: Fig. 356.--Rafter and Tie Beam Joint.]

RAFTER JOINT.--Fig. 356 shows an everyday joint, as used at the juncture
of the principal rafter and the tie-beam in roof truss work. A sketch of
piece A is shown separated, and it should be noted that the depth of the
cut portion B should not be more than one-fourth of the total width of
the tie-beam.

[Illustration: Fig. 357.--Method of Pelleting the Corner of a Mitred
Picture Frame.]

PELLETING.--Fig. 357 indicates the method of pelleting and screwing the
corner of a picture frame. The mitre joint is first screwed and a pellet
of the same timber is made to fill the hole which has been bored to
receive the screw head. The pellet is glued in position and levelled off.

[Illustration: Fig. 358.--Patera Covers to Hide Screws.]

PATERA COVERS.--In cases where the style of ornament permits of it,
patera covers are used instead of pelleting. Fig. 358 shows the jointing
of shaped spandrails, etc., to carcase ends of light portable cabinet
work, etc. A hole is bored about 3/8 in. deep into the end, and a screw
is used to hold the shaping in position. After fixing the rail a small
turned button, called a turned patera, is inserted in the hole, thus
giving an ornamental finish, as shown in the front view. The turned
patera is driven fairly tightly into the hole, but not glued. When it is
required to take the article apart a chisel is carefully inserted under
the edge of the patera to remove it, and the screw can then be taken out.
This method is often used for the construction of light hanging bookcases
and similar objects. For a bookcase having an end 8 ins. wide three of
these turned buttons and three screws would be used to secure the shelf
to the end. Pateras in different styles may be purchased from any dealer
in woodworking sundries.

BUTTONING.--The tops of tables, sideboards, etc., should not be fixed
with screws in the ordinary way. At the front, screws can be driven
upwards through the top rail, but at the sides and back, buttons should
be employed, as in Fig. 359, so that the top is free to shrink. It is
otherwise liable to split if immovably fixed. The tops of kitchen tables
are usually fixed in this way, to allow for shrinkage.

[Illustration: Fig. 359.--Method of Buttoning a Table Top.]

FRAMES FOR OIL PAINTINGS.--The method of making joints for frames on
which the canvas is stretched for oil paintings is shown at Fig. 360.
They are generally mitred at the corners and fitted with loose wedges.
The four parts of the frame can be held temporarily by a piece of thin
board while the canvas is being tacked to the edges of the frame. In the
accompanying illustrations Fig. 360 shows the action of the wedges when
tightening up the frame, the result being to open the mitre joint. Fig.
361 shows the position of the saw cuts for receiving the hardwood wedges.
Note that the parallel groove is carried the full length of the material
for greater convenience in cutting. The other groove is taken from the
outer angle of the mitre joint inwards. The cut finishes with due regard
to the necessary taper; see the dotted lines showing taper in Fig. 360.
The grooves will be wide enough after being cut with an ordinary hand-rip
saw, but for large work they are usually grooved on the circular saw

[Illustration: Fig. 360., Fig. 361. Joint and Method of Wedging
the Frames of Oil Paintings.]

CORRUGATED STEEL FASTENERS.--It is now many years ago since the steel
saw-edge fastener first appeared on the market, but probably 80 per cent.
of amateur woodworkers have never yet sampled its advantages.

In appearance it resembles a miniature corrugated galvanised sheet such
as is used for roofing purposes, with the exception, however, that the
corrugations are divergent instead of being parallel and that one end is
ground down to a cutting edge (see Fig. 363, A). They are made in various
sizes from 1/4 in. to 1 in. in length, whilst in regard to width they are
classed by the number of corrugations and not by their measurement.

[Illustration: Fig. 362.--Jointing Boards.]

[Illustration: Fig. 363.--Jointing a Frame.]

[Illustration: The Use of Saw-edge Corrugated Steel Fasteners.]

To use the fastener no special tools are required; it is simply driven in
with a hammer exactly as though it were a nail; once in position,
however, to get it out is worse than drawing teeth. The corrugations add
to the strength of the device, the wood fibres closing around them, age
and rust but emphasising their grip.

WALL PLUGS.--At Fig. 364 four types of wall plugs are shown: _a_, the
ordinary rectangular tapered wall plug to drive between the joints of the
brickwork; _b_, the circular tapered wall plug as used to plug a wall
after a star-shaped brick drill has been used; _d_, a twisted wall plug
used for similar purposes to the wedge _a_, but considered to be
superior in holding power owing to its twisted formation; _c_ is another
type of wall plug considered to have great tenacity by reason of its
corrugations. Wall plugs are required in nearly all cases where it is
necessary to joint woodwork to brickwork, as, for instance,
heavily-framed silvered mirrors to the walls of shops.

[Illustration: Fig. 364.--Wall Plugs, Four Varieties.]

[Illustration: Fig. 365.--Slot Screwing.]

[Illustration: Fig. 366.--Slot Screwing a Bracket.]

SLOT SCREWING, OR KEYHOLE SCREWING, is a most useful way of joining light
woodwork in such a manner that the fixing method is not exposed to the
eye. A stout screw is inserted to within 3/8 in. of the head, as at Fig.
365. In the adjoining piece a hole is bored with a centre bit and a slot
is cut with an 1/8-in. chisel. The two pieces of timber are placed
together, and by sliding the upper piece forward the screw runs up into
the slot or keyhole and secures the joint. Fig. 366 shows the application
of the joint fixing a shaped bracket to the shaped shelf; the bracket and
shelf are inverted in the illustration to clearly show the method of
jointing. For heavy work special brass plates are obtainable for this
purpose; one plate is let flush into the upper piece and the other plate
into the lower piece.

Battening (Fig. 367).--A good method of joining cross battens to drawing
boards and other wide surfaces is shown here. After boring for the
screws, slots are cut so as to allow the screws to move along the slots
when shrinkage takes place. In Fig. 368 a similar method is applied to
secure the drawer bottom to the drawer back. If shrinkage takes place in
the drawer bottom and it leaves the groove in the drawer front, the
screws are slackened, the drawer bottom is knocked up into the groove,
and the screws again inserted. For drawing boards, etc., specially made
elliptical-shaped slotted brass socket cups are made to receive the screw

[Illustration: Fig. 367.--Battening.]

[Illustration: Fig. 368.--Drawer Bottom Joint.]


Puzzle Joints are not only interesting in themselves, but are often
excellent studies in craftsmanship. The majority of them, if to be
satisfactory as puzzles, call for very careful setting out and cutting,
entailing the same degree of skill that is demanded for high-class
cabinet work. For this reason several examples may well find a place in a
volume dealing with woodwork joints. As a rule, these puzzles should be
made in hardwood, such as dark walnut or beech, as in whitewood the
joints are soon liable to wear.

[Illustration: Fig. 369.--Sketch of the Completed Chinese Puzzle.]

CHINESE PUZZLE.--The ingenious puzzle of the Chinese type shown in Fig.
369 is probably older than many of us could guess, but as it is one that
can be made by any woodworker we give full directions as to how it may be
constructed. The complete article may be called, in form, a six-pointed
pyramid. It is made up of twenty-one different pieces, each cut from wood
1/2 in. wide and 1/2 in. thick; 3/8 in. wood may be used if preferred.
For the purpose either sycamore or white maple is the most useful.

[Illustration: Fig. 370., Fig. 371., Fig. 372. The Three Cross

[Illustration: Fig. 373.--Key Piece.]

The pieces required are as follows:--

Fig. 370.--Six pieces, 3-1/2 ins. long, with a half slot cut in the
centre as shown. This slot must be exactly the width of the wood's
thickness, and cut exactly half way through, so that, if two pieces are
placed across by means of the halved joint, their surfaces will be flush.
The slot must also be exactly in the centre.

Fig. 371.--Six pieces, size 2-1/2 ins. long, with a half-cut centre slot
similar to that of Fig. 370.

Fig. 372.--Six required, these being 1-1/2 ins. in length, and with slots
in the middle as before.

Fig. 373.--One of these last six requires special treatment, as it forms
the key block of the puzzle. After its slot has been cut, one half of the
narrow part must be sawn away, as shown in Fig. 373. The inner edge must
also be gently rounded. The special use of this vital piece, which we
will call the "key," will be fully explained presently.

Fig. 374.--Then, in addition to these, there are three central bars to
make. Like the other parts they are 1/2 in. by 1/2 in., but are each
4-1/2 ins. long, and are cut as shown in Fig. 374. The end projections
_a_ are 1/2 in. long, and the cut-away part is exactly half the depth of
the wood. Two of the three pieces (X and Y in Fig. 374) are similar, but
the slot _b_ of the third one (Z) is only 1/4 in. wide instead of 1/2 in.
As will be noticed, this 1/4-in. slot is _not_ in the centre, but
corresponds with the right-hand half of the larger slots of X and Y.

[Illustration: Fig. 374.--The Central Bars.]

In making these twenty-one pieces, what should be borne in mind is that
the different parts fit closely into each other. Consequently the slots,
in width, must be cut so as to grip the thickness of the wood; in depth
they must be exactly half this thickness.

FITTING THE PUZZLE.--The three central bars must first be joined, as
those form the skeleton framework of the structure. Fig. 375 shows them
in position, but as it is a puzzle in itself as to how they can be got
thus some explanation is necessary.

[Illustration: Fig. 375.--The Three Central Bars in Position.]

[Illustration: Fig. 376.--How to Adjust the Bars. (Note position of
projecting ends, _a_.)]

FIRST STAGE.--First take the bars X and Y (see Fig. 374) and arrange them
as shown in Fig. 376. It is most important that the projections _a_ of X
face upwards, and that the projections _a_ of Y face towards the centre.
Then take the bar Z and bring it flat into the slot of X. The little slot
of Z, however, must remain _above_ the slot of X. Then slide the bar Y
along to the centre, so that the part lettered _c_ slips into the little
slot of bar Z.

This may seem confusing to read, but it is easy to follow when the pieces
are in one's hand. The result of this rather clever arrangement is that
the six arms of Fig. 375 are all exactly the same length, width, and
thickness. They are also arranged so that in each arm may be clasped one
piece each of Figs. 370, 371, and 372. The three central arms may, of
course, be set up in a different order, and here we have merely chosen
the way that is the most simple to describe and illustrate.

[Illustration: Fig. 377.--Beginning to place on the Cross Pieces.]

[Illustration: Fig. 378.--Placing the Key Piece to overlap end projection
of Central Bar.]

SECOND STAGE.--In the remaining part of the work the chief difficulty is
to keep the puzzle from falling to pieces before the key finally locks
it. Take the longer cross parts, Fig. 370, and clasp one to each arm. The
six need not all be put on meanwhile, but only those which are most
easily handled. The next size (Fig. 371) may then be put on.

In the ordinary course each arm could be completed with its three cross
pieces till the sixth was attempted, and here the reader would find that,
at the last moment, his attempt was frustrated. He could not get the
last small piece in, as other bars lock the puzzle. Here it is that the
"key" comes in.

THE KEY PIECE.--When the writer fits up the puzzle he finds that three of
the arms may straight away be fitted complete with their three cross
parts. These are the ones where the longer cross piece (Fig. 370) _lies
flush with the back of the central bar_ (see Fig. 377). This is easily
found out when at work on the puzzle. In the case of the other three arms
there is, of course, a gap caused by the long slots of the central bars.
Adjust the parts on the first-named three arms, and then deal with the
fourth arm, putting in all three cross parts. For the little one here,
use the "key."

By placing the "key" so that it _overlaps the end projection_ of the arm
(see Fig. 378) a space is left at the centre, and means is thus afforded
for getting in the three cross parts on the remaining two arms.

This practically ends the puzzle. While the "key" is in its overlapping
position the parts may be separated, but if it is _turned round on its
narrow neck_, so that it is in exactly the same position as the other
five small cross parts, it locks the whole thing so tightly that nothing
but sheer force could loosen the twenty-one pieces.

So far as the order of putting together is concerned, there are many
equally satisfactory ways, these being determined by the ease or
difficulty that one experiences in holding the half-finished puzzle. It
all comes to the same in the end, and the "key" must be placed on one bar
before the last three arms can be completed. The "key," moreover, must be
on one of the bars where a gap is left at the centre, and not on one
where Fig. 370 lies flush against the central arm as in Fig. 377.

UNDOING THE PUZZLE.--To take the puzzle to pieces all that is required is
to turn the "key" half round and push the other two cross bars on that
arm towards the outer point. The cross bars below may then be removed,
and the whole structure falls to pieces.

THE DOUBLE DOVETAIL PUZZLE (Fig. 379) consists of two pieces of wood
(usually one dark and the other light) which, upon examination, appear to
be dovetailed together from each face. This interlocking arrangement is
obviously impossible, and the solution of the puzzle is only apparent on
examining Fig. 380, where it will be seen that the joint fits together

At Fig. 381 are given the diagrams for setting out. Draw the outline of
the elevation, plan and end view. The end view in the first instance is
indicated by 3, 4, 5 and 6, and it measures 1-7/8 ins. square. A
1-7/8-ins. square is simply used because 2-ins. wood generally finishes
this size after it is planed up. Set out a square (A, B, C, D) which
stands corner-ways in the larger square (3, 4, 5, 6). Project the lines D
A and C B upwards as at 1, and on to this drawing (1), set out the
dovetail according to your own idea of length, width and bevel. Project
the four points of your dovetail downwards into the end view, and where
these lines cut A, B, and D, C draw them downwards and rebate them into
your original plan. This will give the true shape of the two dovetails
and it is to this shape that you will cut your joint.

The joint is in due course glued up, and next day you will plane and
waste off the four corners of your model. The end view shows one corner
shaded D, 3, A; this and the other three corners are wasted away. The
result is that the dovetails are thrown into a plane different from that
in which they were made, showing as Fig. 379.

[Illustration: Fig. 379.--Double Dovetail Puzzle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 380.--The Two Parts Separated.]

[Illustration: Fig. 381.--Elevation, Plan and End View, showing how the
Puzzle Joint may be correctly Set Out.]

[Illustration: Fig. 382.--Dovetail Puzzle. The Finished Joint.]

[Illustration: Fig. 383.--Sketch of Dovetail Piece.]

(Note that dovetail is cut on slant, the thickness at front being less
than at back. See dotted line on plan below.)

[Illustration: Fig. 384.--Plan, looking upwards.]

[Illustration: Fig. 385A.--Front Elevation.]

[Illustration: Fig. 385B.--Back Elevation.]

The model calls for very accurate workmanship and the joints must not be
_undercut_ during the sawing and chiselling operations. The completed
model measures 6 to 7 ins.

THE DOVETAIL PUZZLE joint illustrated at Fig. 382 has perhaps caused more
argument and controversy amongst woodworkers than any wooden joint. It
may be neatly made in maple, walnut, or mahogany, and afterwards glued
up. The question everyone asks is: How was it put together?

[Illustration: Fig. 386.--Variation of the Dovetail Puzzle.]

Take two pieces of wood such as mahogany, walnut or birch, about 6 ins.
long by 1-7/8 ins. wide and 1-1/4 ins. thick. Truly plane them up and
then set out and make the tenon and dovetailed piece (Fig. 383). Next
mark out and cut the cross bar to fit its corresponding piece. The joint
will go together in a somewhat diagonal direction as it is pushed into
position from the back; when closed it will appear as at Fig. 382. For
guidance, a plan, part elevation and back elevation are added.

An improvement after you have gained experience in the making of this
joint is to make a similar joint, leaving the face (B, Fig. 386) blind;
it then does not show the bevelling of the dovetail at the end C. In
other words, keep the line C, say, 1/4 in. back from the face of B. The
joint should be glued up and it will then appear to the average worker
that it is an impossible proposition. (See Fig. 401, page 208.)

[Illustration: Fig. 387.--A Simple Variation of the Dovetail Puzzle.]

Carefully note that the edges A, A are parallel to each other in spite of
the fact that they slope in one direction.

A further variation of the puzzle is seen in Fig. 387. Here the joint is
much simpler, and can easily be followed from the illustration.

[Illustration: Fig. 388.--Six-piece Joint Puzzle.]

CROSS PUZZLE.--Fig. 388 illustrates a six-piece puzzle joint, similar in
some respects to Fig. 369, but very much simpler. Both a back and front
view of the piece D is shown for clearness of illustration. The method of
assembling the pieces is as follows: Hold piece B upright, and fit piece
D across; at the same time note that the small _x_ marks are opposite
each other. Take piece E and, holding it as shown, slide it up the piece
B (see arrow) until E engages D and the small _o_ marks are opposite each
other. Piece C is now fitted behind D, and then piece F will slide in
position and push downwards. The key-piece A is now put in position, and
the puzzle is completed.

[Illustration: Fig. 389.--Mortising Puzzle, showing how the Parts Fit.]

MORTISING PUZZLE.--The ordinary mortising exercise is, after the first
two or three attempts, generally voted as uninteresting, but, although
the simple puzzle shown in Fig. 389 is practically an exercise in
mortising, yet, forming as it does a puzzle, it becomes a fascinating
piece of work.

The puzzle is composed of three pieces of wood, each 4 ins. long, 1-1/2
ins. wide, and 1/2 in. thick. In each piece a mortise 1-1/2 ins. by 1/2
in. should be cut as shown at 1, Fig. 390. In one piece, marked 2, a
groove is cut on one side, 3/8 in. wide, and in another piece (3) a
similar slot, but 1/2 in. wide, is cut, and this is continued on the
other side of the groove to a depth of 1/8 in. The three pieces should be
set out on a 13-ins. by 1-1/2-ins. by 1/2-in. length of wood, as shown at
Fig. 391, and when ready sawn apart.

[Illustration: Fig. 390.--The Three Parts, with Sizes marked.]

[Illustration: Fig. 391.--How to Cut the Parts.]

The puzzle is put together as shown at Fig. 389. In the first place, hold
No. 1 piece upright as shown at A, then take No. 2 piece with slot
uppermost and push it through the opening in No. 1 piece until the
nearest side of the slot projects 1/8 in. as indicated at B. Next place
No. 3 piece on with the slot at the back as shown at C, and push it down
until it touches the bottom of the opening in No. 2 piece as illustrated
at D. The only thing to do now is to push No. 2 piece as far as it will
go to make the figure as shown at E.

In this puzzle the parts should fit together fairly tight, but should not
be too stiff.

[Illustration: Fig. 392.--Chinese Cross Puzzle.]

[Illustration: Fig. 393.--Method of Putting Together.]

[Illustration: Fig. 394.--The Six Pieces, each 4 ins. by 1 in. square.]

CHINESE CROSS.--Fig. 392 shows a variation of the Chinese cross, which is
perhaps the most fascinating of all woodwork puzzles. Take six pieces of
hardwood (Fig. 394) and accurately plane and saw them so that each piece
will measure 4 ins. by 1 in. by 1 in. Bearing in mind that all the cuts
are multiples of 1/2 in., set out, saw and chisel five of the pieces to
agree with the sketches 1, 1A, 2, 2A and 3. Leave the key piece intact.
The puzzle is of course to fit all the six pieces together so as to form
the Chinese cross or block given at Fig. 392. As a clue to the method of
assembly we give another sketch (Fig. 393) showing four of the pieces
fixed together. The reader can, if he so desires, make the puzzle to a
smaller scale by using six pieces of wood each measuring 2 ins. long by
1/2 in. by 1/2 in.

[Illustration: Fig. 395--Diagonal Chinese Cross Puzzle. (Two Pieces
required of A, Three of B and One of C.)]

DIAGONAL CHINESE CROSS.--At Fig. 395 is given a sketch of a completed
Chinese block or cross puzzle in which the various pieces of wood go
together diagonally. Plane up a piece of hardwood (which may be about 14
ins. or 15 ins. long) so that it measures on its end 1/2 in. square. Cut
the wood into six pieces which measure about 2-1/4 ins. long, and then
proceed to mark out, saw and pare up with the chisel two pieces like
sketch A, three pieces like B, and one key piece as C. Now fit these
together to make the completed cross. The solution is left to the reader.

Fig. 396 shows a combination of six pieces which, when fitted together,
will make the Chinese cross similar to Fig. 392. Plane up the strip of
hardwood (birch preferred) so that it measures 1/2 in. square at the end
and proceed to mark out and make two pieces like D, two like E, one like
F, and one piece like G. Put the pieces together to form the Chinese
cross. Again the reader is left to solve the problem of fitting.

[Illustration: Fig. 396.--Another Chinese Cross. (Two Pieces required of
D, Two of E, and One each of F and G.)]

SQUARE PUZZLES are of endless variety. Four of these are shown, all
simple to make, but not equally simple to solve. The only material
required for each is a 5-ins. square piece of 1/8-in. fretwood or
plywood; or, if preferred, pieces of different colour may be used. The
diagrams are given exactly half size, and the lines may be set out direct
on the wood. It will be noticed that all four puzzles are strictly
geometrical in character.

[Illustration: Fig. 397.--Six-piece Square Puzzle. (For Guidance in
Setting Out, the Centre of Top Line is marked at A.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 398.--Five-piece Square Puzzle. (In Setting Out, note
that the Angles B B are Right Angles.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 399.--Ten-piece Square Puzzle. (For Guidance in
Setting Out, the Centre of the Four Outlines are lettered at C, C, C,

[Illustration: Fig. 400.--Six-piece Square Puzzle. (The Centres of the
Four Outlines are lettered at D, D, D, D.)]

Fig. 397 is made up of six pieces and is the simplest of the group to
solve. Although containing only five pieces, Fig. 398 will be found to
give more trouble.

Fig. 399, with ten pieces, is undoubtedly the most trying puzzle, and
will be found as baffling as many jig-saw pictures. Fig. 400, again,
presents only moderate difficulties.

If the reader prefers, he may cut the squares to the size illustrated
instead of enlarging them.

[Illustration: Fig. 401.--Blind Dovetail Puzzle Joint (see page 199).]


               Angle, mitre, 163, 164

               Angles for dovetails, 134

               Astragals, 128, 129

               Back flap hinges, 115, 116

               Barefaced (_see under_ Tenon).

               Barred door joint, 55

               Barrow-wheel joints, 20

               Battening, 188

               Bevelled dovetailing, 149

               Bevelling, guide block for, 161

               Birdsmouth joints, 181

               Blind lap-dovetailing, 145

               Boards, weather, 176

               Bolts for scarf joint, 107, 108

               Boring away waste, 41, 42

               Box, laminated core, 175

               Box lid, hingeing, 113

               Boxes, dovetails for, 133

               Brace and bit, use of, 41, 42

               Brass astragal, 129

               Bridle joint, mitred, 36, 37

               Bridle joint, oblique, 37, 38

               Bridle joints, 35

               Bridle joints, setting out, 39

               Butt hinge, 110, 111

               Butt hinge, rising, 115, 116

               Butting mitred joint, 8

               Buttoning, 184

               Carcase work, dovetailing, 149

               Card table hinges, 115, 116

               Chair joint, interlocking, 91

               Chinese cross puzzle, 203

               Chinese cross puzzle, diagonal, 204

               Chinese puzzle, 189, 190

               Chisel used in dovetailing, 137, 138, 153

               Chiselling (bridle joints), 45

               Chiselling (halved joints), 30, etc.

               Chiselling (mortise and tenon joints), 89, etc.

               Circular frames, 172

               Clamping, 80, 82

               Close joint hingeing, 125

               Cogged joints, 181

               Column joints, 179

               Combing joint, 55

               Core box, laminated, 175

               Corner dovetail, 152

               Corner joints, halved, 14

               Corner tongued joints, 55, 56

               Cornice frame dovetailed, 143, 144

               Cornice pole, dowelling, 97, 98

               Cornice pole joints, 177

               Corrugated steel fasteners, 185

               Cot joints, 178

               Countersink bit, 96

               Cradle for planing, 52

               Cradle for planing dowels, 94

               Cramping glued joints, 11, 12

               Cramping tongued and grooved mitre joint, 56, 57

               Cross halving joints, 18, 23

               Cross puzzle, 200

               Cross puzzle, Chinese, 203

               Cross puzzle, diagonal, 204

               Cross tongues, 51, 52

               Curved work, joints for, 172

               Diagonal cross puzzle, 204

               Dogs, iron, 10, 11

               Donkey's ear shooting board, 327

               Door frames, semicircular head, 173, 175

               Door joints, barred, 55

               Doors, "bound," 109

               Doors, hingeing, 116-119

               Doors, shutting joints of, 127, 129

               Dovetail angle template, 134, 154

               Dovetail, corner, 152

               Dovetail grooving, 160

               Dovetail halved joints, 17, 19, 20

               Dovetail, housed and mitred, 145

               Dovetail joint, the 132

               Dovetail puzzles, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199

               Dovetail, secret mitred, 146

               Dovetail-wedged tenon joint, 75

               Dovetailed keys, 147, 148

               Dovetailed scarf joint, 103, 104

               Dovetailing, bevelled, 149

               Dovetailing, blind lap, 145

               Dovetailing, lap, 133

               Dovetailing, oblique, 151

               Dovetailing, through, 132

               Dovetails, frame, 143

               Dovetails, machine made, 159

               Dovetails, sawing, 141, 155

               Dovetails, setting out, 151

               Dowel cradle for planing, 94

               Dowel plate, steel, 93

               Dowel rounder, 96

               Dowel with groove, 94, 95

               Dowelling frames, 100

               Dowelling joints, 93

               Dowelling table legs, 101

               Dowels, making, 93

               Drawbore pinning, 78

               Drawer bottom joint, 188

               Drawer joints, dust-proof, 131

               Drawer ploughslips, 10, 11

               Drawers, dovetailing, 133, etc., 156

               Dreadnought file, 81, 82

               Drop table joint, 20

               Dust-proof drawer joints, 131

               Fall fronts, hingeing, 119

               Fasteners, corrugated steel, 185

               Feather tongues, 51, 52

               Fencing, joint for, 71

               File, dreadnought, 81, 82

               Finger joint hinge, 122, 123

               Fished joint, 105, 106

               Flap (back) hinges, 115, 116

               Floor boards, 48

               Fly rails, 120, 121

               Fox-wedging, 76

               Frame dovetails, 143

               Frame joints, Oxford, 26, 27

               Frame, mirror, with bridle joints, 37

               Frames, circular, 172

               Frames, dowelling, 100

               Frames for oil paintings, 184

               Gate joint, 68, 69

               Gauge, marking, 28, 29, 40

               Gauge, marking dovetails with cutting, 135

               Gauging boards for dowelling, 97, 98

               Gauging for hinges, 110, 111

               Glued joint, the, 1

               Glueing dowelled joints, 97

               Glueing rubbed joints, 2

               Grooved joints (_see_ Tongued and Grooved), 48

               Grooves, ploughing, 58

               Grooving, dovetail, 160

               Halved and dovetailed joints, 17, 19, 20

               Halved and mitred joints, 16

               Halved joint, the, 13

               Halved joints, setting out, 28

               Halved scarf joint, 103, 104

               Halving joints, cross, 18, 23

               Hammer head tenons, 80

               Handscrews, 11, 12

               Haunched tenons, 65

               Hinge, butt, 110, 111

               Hinge, finger joint, 122, 123

               Hinge, knuckle joint, 122, 123

               Hinge recesses, 112

               Hinge, rule joint, 125

               Hinged cornice pole, 177

               Hinged joints, 109

               Hingeing box lid, 113

               Hingeing, close joint, 125

               Hingeing doors, 116-119

               Hingeing draught screens, 121

               Hingeing fall fronts, 119

               Hingeing, open joint, 124

               Hinges, gauging for, 110, 111

               Hinges, various, 110, 114, 115, 116

               Hook joints, 130

               Housed and mitred dovetail, 145

               Interlocking chair joint, 91

               Iron dogs, 10, 11

               Japanese self-wedging tenon joint, 72

               Joint, drawer bottom, 188

               Joint, fished, 105, 106

               Joint, interlocking chair, 91

               Joint, tabled scarf, 107

               Joint, tie beam scarf, 106

                 barefaced tenon, 64
                 barred door, 55
                 barrow wheel, 20
                 battened, 188
                 birdsmouth, 181
                 bridle, 35
                 butting mitred, 8
                 cogged, 181
                 column and pillar, 179
                 combing or locking, 55
                 cornice pole, 177
                 cot, 178
                 cross halving, 18, 23
                 dovetail, 132
                 dovetailed and wedged tenon, 75
                 dowelling, 93
                 dust-proof drawer, 131
                 fencing, 71
                 for curved work, 172
                 garden gate, 68, 69
                 glued, 1
                 halved, 13
                 halved and dovetailed, 17, 19, 20
                 haunched tenon, 65
                 hinged, 109
                 hook, 130
                 ladder, 177
                 laminated, 10, 11, 172, 175
                 lap, 13
                 light-tight, 131
                 meeting, 129
                 miscellaneous, 176
                 mitre-faced tenon, 77
                 mitre bridle, 36, 37
                 mitre halved, 16
                 mitred, 163
                 mitred and tenoned, 72, 73
                 mitred and tongued, 56, 57
                 mortise and tenon, 64
                 notched, 180
                 oblique bridle, 37, 38
                 oblique halved, 15, 23
                 ogee-shaped, 8
                 open slot mortise, 80
                 partition, 24, 25
                 ploughing for tongued and grooved, 58
                 puzzle, 189
                 rafter and tie beam, 182
                 rafter (tenon), 77
                 rebated door, 129
                 roof, 34, 37, 38
                 roof (tenon), 77
                 rubbed, 1
                 saddle, 180
                 sash bar, 79
                 scarf, 103
                 screen, 114, 121
                 scribed and tenoned, 72
                 setting out bridle, 39
                 setting out halved, 28
                 setting out tenon, 83
                 shouldered tenon, 70, 71, 79
                 shutting, 127
                 skirting and muntin, 178
                 T, 14, 18
                 tie, 22, 23
                 tongued and grooved, 48
                 tongued corner, 55, 56
                 trestle, 24
                 tusk tenon, 74, 75
                 weather board, 176
                 wheelwright's self-wedging tenon, 75

               Keyhole screwing, 187

               Keying, dovetail, 147

               Keying, veneer, 178

               Keys, dovetailed, 147

               Knuckle joint hinge, 122, 123

               Ladder joints, 177

               Laminated joints, 10, 11

               Lamination, 175

               Lap dovetailing, 133

               Lap dovetailing, blind, 145

               Lap joints, 13

               Laths, winding, 3

               Lid, hingeing box, 113

               Light-tight joints, 131

               Locking (inter) chair joint, 91

               Locking joint, 55

               Marking gauge, 28, 29, 40

               Matchboarding, 49

               Meeting joints, 129

               Mirror frame with bridle joints, 37

               Mitre box, saw used in, 171

               Mitre bridle joint, 36, 37

               Mitre, curved, 163, 164, 168, 169

               Mitre faced tenon joint, 77

               Mitre halved joints, 16

               Mitre sawing block, 165

               Mitre, setting out a curved, 168, 169

               Mitre template, 170

               Mitre trap, screw, 165, 166

               Mitred and housed dovetail, 145

               Mitred and tenoned joint, 72, 73

               Mitred butting joint, 8

               Mitred dovetail, secret, 146

               Mitred frames, dowelling, 99, 100

               Mitred joint, the, 163

               Mitred tongued joints, 56, 57

               Mitres, curved, 169

               Mortise and tenon joints, 64

               Mortise, open slot, 80

               Mortising, 87

               Mortising puzzle, 201

               Mouldings, mitreing, 165, 171

               Muntin joint, 178

               Notched joints, 180

               Oblique bridle joint, 37, 38

               Oblique dovetailing, 151

               Oblique joints, halved, 15, 23

               Ogee-shaped joint, 8

               Open-joint hingeing, 124

               Open slot mortise, 80

               Oxford frame, halved joints for, 26, 27

               Partition joints, 24, 25

               Patera covers, 183

               Pelleting, 182

               Piano front joint, 9, 11

               Pinning, 73

               Pinning, drawbore, 78

               Pins, dovetail, 136

               Pivot hinges, 114, 115, 116

               Plane, old woman's tooth, 161, 162

               Plane, the plough, 58, 59, 60

               Planes, tongueing and grooving, 61

               Planing, cradle for, 52

               Planing mitred work, 165

               Plinth frame dovetailed, 143, 144

               Plough plane, the, 58, 59, 60

               Ploughing for tongued and grooved joints, 58

               Ploughslips, glueing, 10, 11

               Plugging, 186

               Pole joints, cornice, 177

               Puzzle, Chinese cross, 203

               Puzzle, cross, 200

               Puzzle, diagonal Chinese cross, 204

               Puzzle joints, 189

               Puzzle, mortising, 201

               Puzzles, dovetail, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 208

               Puzzles, square, 205

               Rafter and tie beam joints, 182

               Rafter joint (tenon), 77

               Rebated door joints, 129

               Reversible screen hinge, 114, 115

               Rising butt hinge, 115, 116

               Roof joints, 34, 37, 38

               Roof joints (tenon), 77

               Roof work, scarfed joints used in, 103, 104, 106

               Rubbed joint, 1

               Rule joint hinge, 125

               Saddle joints, 180

               Sash bar joints, 79

               Sawing block for mitreing, 165

               Sawing (bridle joints), 41, etc.

               Sawing dovetails, 141, 155

               Sawing for hinge recesses, 112

               Sawing (halved joints), 30, 31, etc.

               Sawing (tenons), 84, etc.

               Scarf joint, fished, 105, 106

               Scarf joint for heavy timber, lapped and bolted, 107, 108

               Scarf joint, tabled, with straps, 107

               Scarf joints, 103

               Scarf joints, tie beam, 106

               Screen hinges, 114, 115, 116

               Screens, hingeing draught, 121

               Screwing, slot or keyhole, 187

               Screws, hiding with pateras, 183

               Scribed tenon joint, 72

               Secret mitred dovetail, 146

               Setting out dovetails, 151

               Shooting board, 7, 10, 11

               Shooting board for mitreing, 165, 166, 167

               Shoulders, 14, etc., 19, 23

               Shoulders of tenons, tongueing, 63

               Shoulders, sawing, 45

               Shoulders (tenon), 70, 71, 79

               Shoulders, tenon with tongued and grooved, 79

               Shutting joints, 127

               Sideboard pillar joints, 179

               Skirting and muntin joint, 178

               Skirting, mitred, 163

               Skirting mould, double, 56, 58

               Slot screwing, 187

               Spandrel, jointing shaped, 9, 11

               Spandrel with tongued joint, 52, 53

               Sprocket wheel, 68

               Square puzzles, 205

               Steel fasteners, corrugated, 185

               Stiles, shutting and meeting, 128

               Stopped bridle joint, 37, 38

               Stopped dovetail halving, 17

               Strap hinge, 114, 115

               Straps for scarf joints, 107, 108

               Stump tenons, 65

               T joints, halved, 14, 18

               Table (card) hinges, 115, 116

               Table frame, laminated, 174, 175

               Table framing, 79

               Table joint, drop, 20

               Table leg with bridle joint, 36

               Table legs, dowelled, 101

               Table tops buttoned, 184

               Table with circular rim, joint for, 25

               Tabled scarf joint, 107

               Template, dovetail angle, 134, 154

               Template for mitreing, 170

               Tenon (and mortise) joints, 64

               Tenon joint, dovetailed and wedged, 75

               Tenon joint, mitred and moulded, 72, 73

               Tenon joint, scribed, 72

               Tenon joint, self-wedging, 72

               Tenon joint with mitred face, 77

               Tenon joint with tongued and grooved shoulders, 79

               Tenon joints, barefaced, 64

               Tenon joints, drawbore pinning for, 78

               Tenon joints, setting out, 83

               Tenon joints, shouldered, 70, 71, 79

               Tenon joints, tusk, 74, 75

               Tenoned scarf joint, 103, 105

               Tenons, hammer head, 80

               Tenons, haunched, 65

               Tenons, inserted, 81, 82

               Tenons, stump or stub, 65

               Tenons, tongueing shoulders of, 63

               Tenons, twin, 72, 73, 80

               Through dovetailing, 132

               Tie beam and rafter joints, 182

               Tie beam scarf joint, 106

               Tie joint, 22, 23

               Tongue slips, 130

               Tongued and grooved joints, applications of, 52

               Tongued and grooved joints, 48

               Tongued and grooved joints, ploughing for, 58

               Tongued joints, corner, 55, 56

               Tongueing and grooving planes, 61

               Tongues, cross and feather, 51, 52

               Tongues, loose, 55

               Toothing plane, 161, 162

               Trestle joint, 24

               Try square, 9, 28

               Tusk tenon joints, 74, 75

               Twin tenons, 72, 73, 80

               Twist bit, 96

               Vee'd matchboarding, 49, 50

               Vee'd scarf joint, 105

               Veneer keying, 178

               Wall plugs, 186

               Weatherboards, 176

               Wedges for tenon joints, 67

               Wedging, fox, 76

               Wedging frames, 184

               Wheel joints, barrow, 20

               Wheel, sprocket, 68

               Wheelwright's self-wedging tenon joint, 75

               Winding laths, 3

               LONDON AND TONBRIDGE.

                      THE WOODWORKER SERIES

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    Illustrations and Index. 3/6 net.

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    STAINING AND POLISHING (_Revised Edition_). Illustrated, and with
    Appendix of Recipes and Index. 3/6 net.

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    WOOD TURNING. Fully Illustrated (with enlarged details) and with
    Index. 3/6 net.

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    WOODWORK TOOLS, AND HOW TO USE THEM (_Revised Edition_). With 275
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    DINING ROOM FURNITURE DESIGNS (_New Series_). 2/6 net.

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    CABINET DESIGNS (_New Series_). Over 50 Designs. 2/6 net.

    TABLE DESIGNS. 46 pages of Designs. 2/6 net.

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    LIGHT CARPENTRY DESIGNS (_New Series_). 46 pages of Designs. 2/6

    TOY AND MODEL DESIGNS. 46 pages of Designs. 2/6 net.

    OUTDOOR WOODWORK DESIGNS. 46 pages of Designs. 2/6 net.

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    THE WOODWORKER. 6_d._ monthly. Free specimen sent on application.

                   RUSSELL SQUARE, LONDON, W.C.1



                   MONTHLY: PRICE SIXPENCE

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    In this Magazine the man who does bench work at home will find month
    by month the precise guidance he needs for efficient, economical
    work. The principal features include practical directions,
    illustrated by working drawings, for the construction of plain and
    ornamental furniture and all kinds of indoor and outdoor woodwork.
    Joint making, tool manipulation, staining and polishing, repairing,
    craft problems and everyday difficulties are also regular features
    dealt with in an eminently practical way.

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