Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Home Taxidermy for Pleasure and Profit - A Guide for Those Who Wish to Prepare and Mount Animals, Birds, Fish, Reptiles, etc., for Home, Den, or Office Decoration
Author: Farnham, Albert B.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Home Taxidermy for Pleasure and Profit - A Guide for Those Who Wish to Prepare and Mount Animals, Birds, Fish, Reptiles, etc., for Home, Den, or Office Decoration" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

PROFIT***


Transcriber's Note:

      Text in italics is indicated with underscores,
      e.g., _italic_.

      Text in bold is indicated with pound signs, e.g., #bold#.



HOME TAXIDERMY FOR PLEASURE AND PROFIT

A Guide for those who wish to prepare
and mount animals, birds, fish,
reptiles, etc., for home, den,
or office decoration

by

ALBERT B. FARNHAM, Taxidermist



[Illustration: "WHOO" SAID WISE OLD OWL.]



Published by
A. R. Harding, Publisher
Columbus, Ohio

Copyright, 1944
By A. R. Harding Pub. Co.



[Illustration: ALBERT B. FARNHAM, Author]



CONTENTS


CHAPTER.                                                         PAGE.

        INTRODUCTORY                                                13
     I. HISTORY OF THE ART                                          17
    II. OUTFIT--TOOLS AND MATERIALS                                 21
   III. PRESERVATIVE PREPARATIONS, FORMULA, ETC.                    38
    IV. PANELS, SHIELDS AND NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL MOUNTS           48
     V. FIELD WORK, COLLECTING                                      59
    VI. SKINNING AND PRESERVING SKINS                               64
   VII. MAKING SCIENTIFIC SKINS                                     77
  VIII. PREPARING DRY AND WET SKINS FOR MOUNTING                    84
    IX. MOUNTING SMALL AND MEDIUM BIRDS                             87
     X. MOUNTING LARGE BIRDS                                        98
    XI. TANNING, CLEANING, AND POISONING SKINS                     102
   XII. MAKING ANIMAL FUR RUGS                                     110
  XIII. FUR ROBES AND HOW TO MAKE THEM                             123
   XIV. MOUNTING ENTIRE SMALL ANIMALS                              131
    XV. MOUNTING LARGE ANIMALS                                     141
   XVI. MOUNTING HEADS OF SMALL ANIMALS, BIRDS AND FISH            151
  XVII. MOUNTING HEADS OF LARGE GAME                               155
 XVIII. MOUNTING HORNS AND ANTLERS                                 165
   XIX. MOUNTING FEET AND HOOFS                                    173
    XX. MOUNTING FISH                                              178
   XXI. MOUNTING FISH--BAUMGARTEL METHOD                           185
  XXII. MOUNTING REPTILES, FROGS AND TOADS                         203
 XXIII. SKULLS AND SKELETONS                                       206
  XXIV. SPORTSMEN'S TROPHIES                                       211
   XXV. ODDS AND ENDS, TAXIDERMY NOVELTIES                         216
  XXVI. GROUPS AND GROUPING                                        221
 XXVII. ANIMAL ANATOMY                                             224
XXVIII. CASTING AND MODELLING                                      227
  XXIX. MARKET TROPHY HUNTING                                      233
   XXX. COLLECTING AND MOUNTING FOR SALE                           238
  XXXI. PRICES FOR WORK                                            241



List of Illustrations


                                                                 Page.

"Whoo? Said Wise Old Owl"                                 Frontispiece
A Specimen of the Early Day                                         18
Work Table, Supplies, Tools, Etc.                                   22
Home Made Tools                                                     24
Taxidermists Tools                                                  27
Taxidermists Tools--Scalpels, Scissors, Stuffers                    28
Egg Drill and Other Tools                                           29
Glass Eyes for Animals, Birds, Fish                                 31
Sizes of Glass Eyes                                                 33
Sizes of Glass Eyes (Style 1)                                       34
Shields--Various Kinds and Sizes                                    49
Shields, Foot and Hall Rack                                         50
Gun Rack, Fish and Game Panels, Hall Rack                           51
Some Shields and Panels                                             52
Home Made Shield                                                    54
Small Bird                                                          55
Marbles Shot Gun and Rifle Combined                                 60
The "Stop Thief" or Choke Trap                                      61
Outline of Muskrat                                                  65
Skinning Small Animal for Mounting                                  66
Skinning Large Animal for Mounting                                  69
Skinning Bird--Breast Cut                                           70
Hooded Merganser                                                    71
Opening Cut on Bird                                                 73
Scientific Skins, Small Animals and Birds                           80
Foot Skinned Out                                                    86
Clinching Leg Wires in Artificial Bird Body                         88
Wire Loop for Bird Body                                             89
Wiring Leg of Bird                                                  90
Bird Wired                                                          92
Bird Wound With Thread                                              95
Pose or Position of Certain Birds                                   96
Natural Standing Position of Small Bird                             97
Fluttering Position of Small Birds                                  97
A Bird of Prey--Limb Position                                       98
Spreading Tail of Large Birds                                       99
Eagle--Wings Braced up to Dry                                      100
Fleshing Knife                                                     102
Bench Beam                                                         103
Adjustable Beam                                                    103
Paper Head Forms--Fox                                              111
Paper Head Form--Dog Closed Mouth                                  112
Foundation for Tow and Excelsior                                   113
Sewing up Bullet Hole                                              114
Pinked Lining, Briar Stitched                                      118
Sewing Trimming on Rug                                             118
Coyote Rug, Open Mouth                                             121
Coon Skin Marked to Cut for Robe                                   125
Strong Hide (Cattle) Laprobe                                       126
Eight Skin Coyote Laprobe                                          127
Patagonian Robe of Guanaco Skins                                   129
Muskrat Legs Wrapped Ready to Clay                                 132
Wiring for Small Animals                                           133
Opossum Mounted in Walking Position                                137
Cat Sitting and Watching                                           139
Frame for Bear Manikin                                             143
Bolting Leg Rods to Stand                                          145
Fastening Rods to Back Board                                       149
Wild Cat Head Mounted on Shield                                    151
Fox Head on Neck Standard                                          152
Leopard Head, Artificial                                           153
Hawk Head                                                          153
Sheep Head                                                         155
Skinning Horned Heads                                              156
Horned Heads--Antelope, Deer                                       157
Deer Skull on Standard                                             158
Neck Board                                                         159
Paper Head and Ear Forms                                           161
Finished Head--Author's Work                                       162
Elk and Deer Head Paper Forms                                      163
Bolting Shed Antlers to Block                                      168
Shed Elk Antlers to be Mounted                                     169
A Good Shield Pattern                                              171
Deer Antlers, Elk Feet, Bison Horns                                172
Wooden Crook for Deer Foot                                         173
Skinned Deer Foot                                                  174
Deer Foot Ink Well                                                 174
Deer Foot Thermometer                                              175
Deer Foot Hat Rack                                                 176
Moose Foot Jewel Case                                              177
Plaster Mould of Fish--Upper Half                                  179
Medallion Fish                                                     182
Grayling--Results of First Fish Mounting                           188
Eye of Lake Trout                                                  191
Fish in Mould                                                      191
Fish in Mould--End View                                            192
Fish in Mould--Side View                                           192
Fish--Incisions to be Made                                         193
Fish--Inside Board                                                 196
Fish--Sewing up the Skin                                           198
Home Made Panel for Fish                                           201
Fish Head Mounted--Side View                                       201
Fish Head Mounted--Front View                                      202
Wiring System for Frog                                             204
Skulls--Wolf, Lynx, Otter, Mink                                    207
Flying Duck                                                        212
Timber Wolf Rug, Full Head                                         213
Deer Head Hall Rack                                                214
Foot Muff Trimmed                                                  218
Monkey Card Receiver                                               219
Squirrels--Grey, Red, Flying, Ground                               222
Water Fowl Head                                                    226
Three Piece Mould of Head                                          229
Making Mould for Half Head                                         231
Deer Foot Ink Well and Pen Rack                                    233
Mountain Lion or Puma Hide                                         234
Spring Lamb? Coon Head                                             236
Book Case Ornaments--Crow, Alligator, Owl                          239



INTRODUCTION


This volume of the Pleasure and Profit Library is offered to the hunter,
trapper, fisher, vacationist and out of doors people in general. In the
study and practice of taxidermy for several years I have failed to find
any work written primarily for these every day nature lovers, though
they probably handle a greater number of interesting specimens of animal
life than all other classes of people.

In view of this fact the following directions and suggestions for
preserving various animal forms as objects of use and ornament have been
prepared. As a treatise for the scientist or museum preparator it is not
intended, there are many books on the art expressly for them, but we
hope it may fill a place of its own, acting as a not too dry and
technical introduction to the art preservative for those who find life
all too short for the many things which are to be done.

Thoroughness, patience, and some love for nature, are qualities highly
desirable in this art. Work prepared by one possessing these qualities
need not be ashamed and practice will bring skill and perfection of
technic.

As a handicraft in which the workman has not been displaced or made
secondary by a machine taxidermy is noticeable also, and for many
reasons is worthy of its corner in the home work-shop.

In this work also the ladies can take a very effective hand, and numbers
have done so; for there is no doubt that a woman's taste and lightness
of touch enables her in some branches of taxidermy to far exceed the
average man. Especially in the manipulation of frail skins and delicate
feathers, in bird taxidermy, is this so.

I have endeavored to give preference to short cuts and time-saving
methods where possible in the following matter, and especially hints on
saving interesting and valuable specimens temporarily until sufficient
leisure is had to do justice to their further preservation. In this
connection I have given prominence to the liquid preservative for entire
specimens and the methods for preserving skins of birds and animals in a
damp and relaxed state ready for mounting at the operator's pleasure.

I would urge the beginner especially, to mount all his specimens as far
as possible. Dry scientific skins have their value, perhaps, to the
museum or closet naturalist whose chief delight is in multiplying
species, but a well mounted skin is a pleasure to all who may see it.
Making it a rule to utilize thus all specimens which come to hand would
also deter much thoughtless killing in the ranks of the country's
already depleted wild life.

Make this a rule and you will avoid friction and show yourself truly a
conservationist with the best. In a number of states there are legal
restrictions in the way of a license tax imposed on the professional
taxidermist. Detailed information of these are found in Game, Fur and
Fish Laws of the various states and Canadian provinces. Fur and game
animals and birds killed legally during open season may be preserved by
the taker for private possession without hindrance anywhere, I think.
More explicit details may be had on application to your state fish and
game commissioner or warden.

[Signature: Albert B. Farnham.]



Home Taxidermy for Pleasure and Profit

CHAPTER I.

HISTORY.


It is very evident that this art--Taxidermy, preservation or care of
skins--had its origin far back before the dawn of written history. There
existed then as now the desire to preserve the trophy of the hunter's
prowess and skill and the unusual in natural objects.

As far back as five centuries B. C. in the record of the African
explorations of Hanno the Carthaginian, an account is given of the
discovery of what was evidently the gorilla and the subsequent
preservation of their skins, which were, on the return of the voyagers,
hung in the temple of Astarte, where they remained until the taking of
Carthage in the year 146 B. C.

This, of course, was not the art as we know it now, but shows the
beginnings of what might be called the museum idea. The art of embalming
as practiced by the ancient Egyptians was, however, effective, not for
the purpose of having the specimens look natural, or for exhibition, but
to satisfy the superstition of the times, and though a preservative art,
hardly to be classed with taxidermy.

In the tombs of that period are found besides the mummies of human
beings, countless others of dogs, cats, monkeys, birds, sheep and oxen.
There have been a number of efforts made to substitute some form of
embalming for present day taxidermy but without much success, for though
the body of the specimen may be preserved from decay without removing it
from the skin, the subsequent shrinkage and distortion spoil any effect
which may have been achieved.

[Illustration: AN EARLY DAY SPECIMEN.]

The first attempt at stuffing and mounting birds was said to have been
made in Amsterdam in the beginning of the 16th century. The oldest
museum specimen in existence, as far as I know, is a rhinoceros in the
Royal Museum of Vertebrates in Florence, Italy, said to have been
originally mounted in the 16th century.

Probably on account of the necessary knowledge of preservative
chemicals, the art seems to have been in the hands of chemists and
astrologers, chiefly, during the middle ages, and stuffed animals such
as bats, crocodiles, frogs, snakes, lizards, owls, etc., figure in
literary descriptions of their abodes. Then as now also, the dining
halls of the nobles and wealthy were decorated with heads and horns
procured in the hunt.

The first publications on the art seem to have been made in France, in
which country and Germany, many still used methods and formulas
originated. Though the first volume of instruction in taxidermy was
published in the United States as late as 1865, it has been left for the
study and ingenuity of American taxidermists to accomplish what is
probably work of as high a standard as any in the world.

The Ward establishment at Rochester has turned out many well trained
taxidermists, the large museums of the United States are filled with
some of the best work of the kind in existence, besides many persons who
have engaged in it for commercial purposes or to gratify private tastes.
Many of these have made public their methods and modes in various
publications. Among these are the works of Batty, Hornaday, Shofeldt,
Davie, Rowley, Maynard, Reed and others, all of which are invaluable
books of reference for the home taxidermist.

It is to be regretted that the once flourishing Society of American
Taxidermists has not been perpetuated, numbering, as it did, among its
membership the best artists in their line in this country.

There is no royal road to success in this, more than any other of the
arts and sciences, though I believe the ambitious beginner will find the
way smoother; better materials are to be had, more helpful publications
to be consulted and the lessening supply of wild life tends to make a
more appreciative public than ever before.



CHAPTER II.

OUTFIT--TOOLS AND MATERIALS.


The extent and variety of work undertaken will determine the necessary
working space and the assortment of tools needful. Other things being
equal, the most complete assortment of tools and supplies makes possible
the production of the best work in the minimum time. The equipment of
the beginner need be but small and inexpensive, however, increasing the
same as he discovers what is most necessary and desirable, in an
increasing field of work. Wonderful pieces of taxidermy have been done
with a pocket knife, pliers, needle and thread, some wire, tow and
arsenic.

If no other room offers, much may be achieved (with the permission of
the lady of the house) in a corner of a dining room or kitchen. A room
or part of one well lighted, by north window or sky-light preferably,
makes the best location for the work table. This table may be of the
common unpainted kitchen variety for all small work. It is well to make
the top double by hinging on two leaves, which when extended will make
it twice its usual width. When so extended and supported by swinging
brackets it is specially adapted to sewing on rugs and robes. Such
tables usually have one or two shallow drawers which are most useful to
hold small tools. A shelf should be fitted between the legs, six or
eight inches from the floor, forming a handy place for boxes of
materials, books, etc.

[Illustration: WORK TABLE-SUPPLIES ON LOWER SHELF, TOOLS, ETC. ON WALL.]

If large work is in prospect a table should be built of the usual
heighth, two or three feet wide, and six long. The legs of stout
scantlings should be fitted with casters, making it easy to remove it to
the center of the room where it can be approached on all sides, as will
often be necessary. The double top, drawers, and shelf should be a part
of the larger table also. Usually the table is kept in front of the
window with tool racks and shelves for small articles each side of the
same where they can easily be reached.

For preparing and mounting all small and medium size specimens I would
advise the following list of tools. They will enable the worker to care
for any of our native birds, quadrupeds up to the coyote, and any of our
game heads, fur rugs, etc.

    1 small skinning knife
    1 medium skinning knife
    1 larger skinning knife
    1 pair scissors, fine points
    1 pair shears, heavy, short
    2 pairs flat nose pliers, large and small.
    1 pair side or end cutters

[Illustration: HOME MADE TOOLS.

(1) Skin Scraper (made from screw driver) (2) (3) (4) Modeling Tools
(wood and brass) (5) Setting Needle. (6) (7) Stuffers (heavy wire.)]

    1 pair fine forceps, 5 or 6 inch
    2 flat files, large and small
    1 adjustable tool handle, assorted tools, awls.
    2 pinking irons, 3/4 and 1-1/2 inch
    Needles, assortment of cloth and glovers
    Oilstone

If it is capable of taking and holding a good edge the small blade of a
pocket knife is equal to a surgeon's scalpel and a sharp shoe or paring
knife, ground to the proper shape, is a nice medium size for skinning or
trimming skins. A hunting or butcher knife is sufficient for the largest
size. A few carpenter's tools are necessary and a complete set does not
come amiss if much large work is attempted.

We must have:

    Handsaw
    Hatchet
    Hammer
    Bit brace
    Assortment, drills and bits, 1/2 in. and less.
    Drawshave
    Screwdriver
    Small grindstone or corundum wheel
    Chisels, two or three sizes
    1 wood rasp
    1 cabinet rasp
    1 chopping block, made of a section of
      hardwood log

If large animals are to be mounted we will need in addition some iron
working tools, such as

    Set of taps and dies 1/4 to 1 in.
    Monkey wrench
    Hack saw
    Tanner's knives, 1 or more

A combination vise and anvil will be needed in any case as well as some
miscellaneous tools:

    Fur comb, coarse and fine combined
    Paint, wax, and varnish brushes
    Foot rule
    Tape measure
    Putty knife
    Pointing trowel
    Skin scraper

and some stuffing and modelling tools which you can make yourself. The
list of materials seems like a long one, but many are inexpensive and
others are used only in some small amounts, so the aggregate cost is
small.

    Excelsior
    Fine tow
    Cotton bat or wadding
    Plaster paris
    Corn meal
    Gasoline
    Potter's or modelling clay
    Set tube oil colors
    Glass eyes, assorted
    Soft wire, assorted
    Pins
    Cord
    Spool cotton, coarse and fine, black and white
    Wax, varnish, glue, paste
    Papier mache, or paper for same
    An assortment of nails, tacks, brads, screws,
      screw eyes and staples

[Illustration: TAXIDERMISTS TOOLS.

(1) Gimlet (2) Expansive bits (3) Brush (4) Bone cutter (5) (6) (7) (8)
Pliers (9) Pinking irons (10) Hand vise (11) (12) Scalpels and knives.]

[Illustration: TAXIDERMISTS TOOLS.

(13) Scalpels (15) Sewing palm (16) Straight Surgeons Scissors (17)
Curved Surgeon Scissors (18) Angular Surgeons Scissors (19) Fine Point
Scissors (20) Scissor Handled Stuffers (21) Stuffer.]

[Illustration: TAXIDERMISTS TOOLS.

(22) Stuffer and forcep, curved fine point (23) Regular taxidermists
stuffer and forcep (24) Gauge (25) Hack Saw (26) Egg drill]

A packing box or two will furnish some lumber for temporary stands and
interior frame work. The permanent mounts are treated of elsewhere.

In ordering glass eyes it is often best to get them in the clear glass
iris with black pupil so they may be given any color desired by painting
the backs with tube colors, afterward protecting the paint with varnish.
In this way a small stock will answer for many varieties. The plain
black eye which is the least expensive can be used for many of the
smaller birds and mammals, but should never be when the iris of the eye
has any distinct tint. Do not make the mistake of ordering an assortment
of "off" sizes and colors, that is those which are seldom called for.
Aim to have those on hand for which you will have the most frequent use,
the exceptions can be quickly had by parcel post. There is more demand
for eyes of some shade of yellow or brown than any other colors,
probably.

All birds have the round pupil. Elongated pupils are suitable for horned
game and the cat tribe, irregular pupils fish, and the veined iris for
dogs, wolves and foxes. Suitable sizes for some species of birds are as
follows:

  Number  3 to  5   Sparrows generally.
  Number  5 to  7   Robin, blue jay, flicker.
  Number  7 to  9   The smaller hawks and herons,
                    nearly all the ducks.
  Number 10 to 12   The smaller owls, the wild goose.
  Number 12 to 14   The larger hawks and herons.
  Number 15         Screech owl, eagles.
  Number 17         Barred owl.
  Number 19 or 20   Snowy owl and great horned owl.

[Illustration: GLASS EYES FOR ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH.]

Size of eyes for quadrupeds:

  Number  7 or  8   Mink, skunk, red squirrel.
  Number 10 to 12   Gray and fox squirrel, wood
                    chuck, raccoon and opossum.
  Number 12 to 14   Rabbit, small dogs, house cat.
  Number 15 to 17   Jack rabbit, fox, medium size
                    dogs, wild cat, black bear.
  Number 18         Large dog, wolf, lynx, and grizzly bear.
  Number 20 to 22   Puma, jaguar, small deer.
  Number 23 to 24   Large deer, tiger.
  Number 25 to 27   Moose, elk, caribou, horse, cow, lion.

[Illustration: SIZES OF GLASS EYES.]

[Illustration: SIZES OF GLASS EYES (Style 1)]

Of wire the following sizes are suitable for
birds:

  Number  6         Pelican.
  Number  7         Wild turkey, swan.
  Number  8         Eagles.
  Number  9         Loon, goose, large herons.
  Number 10         Seagull, large ducks, hawks,
                    owls, and fish hawk.
  Number 11 or 12   Medium size ducks, herons, and similar.
  Number 13 or 14   Small ducks and grouse.
  Number 15         Small herons, and medium owls.
  Number 16         Doves, small owls.
  Number 17 or 18   Bob white, jay, robin, snipe.
  Number 19         Blackbird, waxwing, oriole.
  Number 20         Bluebird, cardinal.
  Number 21 to 24   Warblers, wrens, titmouse, finches.
  Number 26         North American humming bird.

For quadrupeds:

  Number  7         Wild cat.
  Number  8         Foxes.
  Number 10         Raccoon, wood chuck.
  Number 11         Skunk, opossum.
  Number 12 or 13   Muskrat, rabbit.
  Number 14 or 15   Mink, large squirrels.
  Number 17 or 18   Weasel, bull frog, and small squirrels.

These sizes are approximate, varying with size of the individual
specimen and the required attitude wanted. For instance, a bird mounted
with wings spread would be better for a large size wire than if in a
resting position. An animal crouched does not require as heavy supports
as one upright or in action. It is best to give the specimen the benefit
of the doubt, as nothing is more disastrous than to have an otherwise
well mounted subject sag down and spoil the entire effect from lack of
sufficient mechanical support. The best wire for this purpose is
annealed, galvanized iron. Larger animals require Norway iron rod in the
following sizes:

    1/4 in.   Coyote, setter dog.
   5/16 in.   Wolf, puma.
    3/8 in.   Medium deer.
    1/2 in.   Caribou and large deer.
    3/4 in.   Moose, elk.

A large earthen jar or two will hold sufficient skin pickle for small
animals. For large animals or great numbers of small ones a tank or
barrel. Keep such jars or barrels covered to prevent evaporation. With
dry arsenic and alum, arsenical solution, formaldehyde for an emergency
and plenty of salt, even a beginner should be able to save almost
anything that falls into his clutches.

There are numbers of reliable dealers in tools and supplies for the
taxidermist and a perusal of their catalogs will be helpful, among the
number being James P. Babbitt, 192 Hodges Ave., Taunton, Mass. Ready to
use head forms, pinked rug and robe trimming, artificial tongues and ear
forms, and even paper head and neck forms for the mounting of large game
heads are some of the time and labor saving supplies they list. If you
cannot attain to these, emergency supplies can be had of the dealer in
hardware and dry goods, and one who cares for the art will rise superior
to the material at his hand. What you "stuff 'em with" is of small
consequence provided you use brains in the job. I have seen an elk head
stuffed with old clothes with the bottoms of pop bottles for eyes, but
would advise some other filling if possible.



CHAPTER III.

PRESERVATIVE PREPARATIONS, FORMULAS, ETC.


Probably arsenic in some form has been, and will continue to be the
leading taxidermic preservative, or rather, insect deterrent. Many
people are shy of handling this, but with reasonable care the use of
arsenic is perfectly safe. Always keep poisons well labeled and out of
the way of children. Nine children out of ten would never think of
sampling them, but the tenth might prove the fatal exception.

There is far less danger to the operator in handling the needful amount
of poisons than in endeavoring to save some rare but over-ripe subject.
In many years' use of arsenic, dry, in wet solution, and in soap, I have
received nothing more serious than an occasional sore finger.

The shape in which I have found it most satisfactory for poisoning hair
and feathers of mounted specimens and the interior of furred skins I
will give as

ARSENICAL SOLUTION.

    Commercial arsenic       1 lb.
    Bicarbonate of soda    1/2 lb.
    Water                    5 pts.

Boil until arsenic and soda have dissolved, stirring frequently. Use a
vessel at least twice as large as necessary to contain the quantity used
as it foams up while boiling. When cold put in a large bottle or jar
marked _Poison_, of course. For poisoning finished specimens,
mounted heads, etc., take one part of this solution to two parts water
and spray the entire surface with this in an atomizer or larger sprayer.
It should be tested before using by dipping a black feather in it and if
a gray or white deposit is left on drying, it should be diluted still
further until this is prevented.

To poison the inside of skins we make Arsenical Paste: Arsenical
Solution (full strength), whiting sufficient to produce the consistency
of cream. This should be mixed in a wide mouthed bottle or small pan and
applied with a common paint brush. Do not apply to a perfectly dry skin,
like tanned hide for a robe or rug, but dampen the inside first with
clear water, then paint over with the paste and it will strike through
to the fur side and be taken up around the fur roots by capillary
action. This tends to put a damper on the activities of the moth, whose
favorite grazing ground is at the hair roots just outside the skin.

The paste is equally good on skins of birds, except, perhaps the smaller
ones, when freshly skinned, and some of the smaller mammals. The mixture
of whiting makes it easy to see when the surface has already been
treated, unless the skin is dressed white, in which case dry ochre may
be used in place of whiting.

For poisoning the skins of the smaller furred animals and all but the
larger birds:

DRY PRESERVATIVE.

    Powdered white arsenic
    Powdered alum

Mix equal parts by measure and apply to inside of the fresh skin with a
soft brush or pad of cotton. If during the skinning and cleaning the
skin has dried so the powder will not stick, moisten the inside of the
skin with water before applying. Some taxidermists prefer to use in
place of the paste some form of Arsenical Soap. This may be purchased
from the supply dealer or made at home at quite a reduction. Personally
I dislike the greasy, sticky feel of it; it is apt to cling around the
finger nails and scratches, making them sore.

However, the following is the best formula for a time honored
preservative:

HORNADAY'S ARSENICAL SOAP.

    White bar soap            1 lb.
    Powdered arsenic          1 lb.
    Camphor gum               2-1/2 oz.
    Subcarbonate of potash    3 oz.
    Alcohol (wood or grain)   4 oz.

Slice the soap and melt slowly with a little water. When melted stir in
the potash and arsenic. Boil to the consistency of molasses and pour
into a jar to harden. Add the camphor already dissolved in the alcohol
and stir occasionally while cooling. Mix with water and apply with a
paint brush to flesh side of skins.

In case one is timid about using any of the arsenical preparations I
would advise them to try

BROWNE'S NON-POISONOUS PRESERVATIVE SOAP.

    Whiting          24 oz.
    White soap        8 oz.
    Chloride lime   1/2 oz.
    Tincture camphor  1 oz.
    Water             1 pt.

Shave the soap thin and boil it with the whiting and water till
dissolved. Then remove from the fire and stir in the chloride, adding
the tincture camphor later when cold, as much of the strength of the
latter would be lost were the mixture hot.

Keep in closed jars or bottles, and if too thick, thin down with water
or alcohol. Apply like arsenical soap or paste. This is highly
recommended by English writers. For a non-poisonous powder I would
advise equal parts of powdered alum and insect powder in place of the
arsenic and alum.

SOLUTION FOR THE PRESERVATION OF SMALL SPECIMENS ENTIRE.

    Formaldehyde (40% strength)  1 part
    Water                        9 parts

Mix thoroughly and put in glass or earthen jars or large mouthed
bottles.

While most of the heads and skins of big game are preserved until they
can reach the taxidermist, many of the smaller specimens become a total
loss. Lack of time and knowledge are the chief causes of this loss of
valuable souvenirs of days out of doors and interesting natural objects.
Probably the easiest and least expensive method of temporarily
preserving entire the smaller animals, birds, fish and reptiles is by
immersion in the above preparation.

I would not advise its use on animals larger than a small fox or cat,
and to insure an immediate penetration of the flesh the abdominal
viscera should be removed from the larger specimens. The amount of
solution used should be about ten times the volume of the subject, and
it had best be replaced with fresh liquid after two or three days. I
think this will work equally well on birds, reptiles and mammals.

On removal from the solution they may be skinned and mounted as fresh
specimens. On removing from the solution, rinse in water containing a
little ammonia to neutralize the irritating odor of the formaldehyde. Do
not stand over the solution while mixing as the fumes of the formic acid
affect the eyes. The condensed form in which this chemical can be
carried and its cheapness (30c. per lb.), make it desirable as a
temporary preservative. The saying, "It never rains but it pours,"
applies to the taxidermist and a sudden rush of subjects may often be
saved by using the foregoing preparation. Other work may be under way,
or for other reasons it may be desirable to keep a specimen in the flesh
a short time before mounting.

ALCOHOLIC SOLUTION.

    Alcohol (94% strength)  Equal parts
    Water

If alcohol is less than 94% use less water. Use same as formaldehyde
solution. This is said to be superior to the formaldehyde solution,
though more expensive and harder to carry about on account of its
greater bulk before mixing.

Specimens kept long in any liquid are apt to lose their colors. This
fading will be reduced to a minimum if kept in the dark.

In order to do any satisfactory work on quadrupeds the taxidermist makes
use of a bath or pickle of some sort for keeping skins in a wet state.
This pickle sets the hair and in a measure tans the skin, reducing its
liability to shrinkage and rendering it less desirable pasturage for
insects.

All furred skins of any size should be immersed in this for a time
before mounting, and may be kept in it for months or years without
injury. If you have time to skin an animal properly the skin may be
dropped in the pickle jar and in a day, week, or month be better fit for
final mounting than at first.

For the first few days it is necessary to move it about every day so all
parts may be exposed to the action of the pickle. The form of pickle
which I have found most helpful is:

TANNING LIQUOR.

    Water                    1 gal.
    Salt                     1 qt.
    Sulphuric acid (measure) 1 oz.

Bring to boiling point to dissolve the salt. Allow to cool before
stirring in the acid. When cold is ready for use.

When keeping skins in a wet state a long time I would prefer to use:

SALT AND ALUM PICKLE.

    Water  1 gal.
    Salt   1 qt.
    Alum   1 pt.

Boil to dissolve salt and alum; use like preceding.

If skins are to be kept some time they should, after a preliminary
pickling, be put in new, fresh pickle and it should be occasionally
tested with a salinometer and kept up to the original strength. Dirty
and greasy pickle should be thrown away, but if clean and of low
strength it can be brought up by adding new pickle of extra strength. It
will do no hurt if more salt, even a saturated solution, is made of
either of the foregoing.

While the salt and alum or acid pickle will keep our animal skins safely
and in a relaxed condition ready for further preparation at any time, it
will not answer for bird skins. For this we have a solution for keeping
bird skins soft:

    Glycerine               2 parts
    Carbolic acid           1 part

After skinning the bird and applying some arsenical solution to the
inside, brush this solution liberally over the entire inside of the
skin. Pay special attention to the bones, wing and leg, skull and root
of the tail. If necessary the skin may be packed flat for shipment. One
treatment will keep all but the larger skins soft for several months.
The feet, of course, will become hard and dry and must be relaxed as
usual before mounting.

Every taxidermist needs to be more or less of a modeler, and one of the
most useful materials is:

PAPIER MACHE.

    Wet wood pulp                        10 oz.
    Glue (hot) or LePage's (measure)      3 oz.
    Plaster paris, dry                   20 oz.

This formula may be varied at the convenience of the operator. Work the
glue into the pulp and knead the plaster into the mass. The more glue
the slower it sets and a few drops of glycerine will keep it soft
several days. Made with little or no glue it hardens quickly.

If the paper pulp is not at hand it may be made by tearing old
newspapers or sheathing paper small and boiling and pounding till a pulp
results. This composition is much in use in Europe in the making of many
familiar toys and similar objects.

For modeling open mouths, finishing mounted specimens, making artificial
rocks, stumps and boughs, it is very desirable.

WAX FOR OPEN MOUTHS.

    Beeswax               1 part
    Paraffin wax          1 part

Melt and color with tube oil colors. To color dip up a spoonful of
melted wax, squeeze some tube color in and stir until stiff. Place the
spoon in the hot wax and stir till evenly mixed. Do not try to put the
color directly in the hot wax as it will not mix evenly so.

Wax should be melted in a water bath, like a glue pot, as excessive heat
will darken it. Cakes of wax of suitable colors may be had of the supply
dealers and are most economical when no great amount of work is done.
The same parties supply the paper pulp previously mentioned.



CHAPTER IV.

PANELS, SHIELDS AND NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL MOUNTS.


The preparation of a suitable setting for almost any mounted specimen
will add greatly to its attractiveness. If you know where it is to be
placed it is not difficult to make it suit its surrounding. For
instance, a head of big game for hanging in a dining or ball room is
suitably mounted on a polished and carved hardwood shield. While this
would hardly match its surroundings on the wall of a log camp, a rustic
panel of natural wood with the bark on would perfectly suit the latter
place.

Heads, horns, and antlers are usually mounted on what are called
shields. Fish and trophies of dead game birds and small game on panels.
Single specimens are placed on severely plain wooden bases (museum
style) or on those simulating branches, rocks, stumps or earth. These
are artificial, but those built up in part at least with natural objects
are most pleasing.

As we can not produce the best patterns of shields without special
machines we must patronize either the supply dealers or the wood working
mill for such. If convenient to a mill equipped with jigsaw and moulder
they can be made up after your own patterns.

[Illustration: SHIELDS--VARIOUS KINDS AND SIZES.

(A) Suitable for moose, caribou, deer, fox by making or ordering
according to size wanted; (B) Moose, caribou, deer; (K) Round shield;
(E) Bear shield; (Q) Combination--head and feet.]

[Illustration: SHIELDS, FOOT AND HALL RACK.

(C) and (D) Deer Shields (J) Four Feet Rack (V) Hall Rack]

[Illustration: GUN RACK, FISH AND GAME PANELS, HALL RACK.

(I) Gun rack (F) Fish panel (H) Shield, combination head and feet (S)
Hall Rack, small.]

[Illustration: SOME SHIELDS AND PANELS.

(M) Shield with carving (G) Panel for game, x, y, z, aa, bb Deer foot
thermometers (L) Deer foot thermometer and small animal panel.]

Some of the sizes most used are approximately as follows for mounted
heads:

    For moose, elk, caribou.
      20×30 inches.

    For deer, goat or sheep.
      12×18 or 16×21.

    For fox or lynx.
      8×10 inches.

    For bear or wolf.
      12×15

    For birds, small fur-bearers and fish.
      6×8 in.

    Oval panels for mounting fish.
      9×22         15×40

    For dead game.
      10×15    14×24    17×25

For mounting horns of elk and moose the size for deer heads will answer
nicely, while deer antlers are suitable with a shield of the fox head
size.

In order to draw a symmetrical pattern for the woodworker, take a piece
of stiff paper of the right length and width, fold it down the middle,
draw one half to suit and cut out with shears. The style of moulding
called Ogee is to be preferred. A simple diamond, heart, or oval shape
can be made at home with beveled or rounded edges, or if your tools
include a turning saw (which is most useful for a variety of purposes)
you may try a more pretentious shield. To achieve this, make your
pattern as just described and after marking it on a piece of wood from
3/8 to 7/8 inch thick, cut out with the turning saw. It should be held
in the vise for this operation. Place this cut out shield (1) on a piece
of board of similar thickness but somewhat larger and with a pair of
compasses mark out another 1/2 in. or so larger all around. (2) Also
mark the same distance inside the edge.

[Illustration: HOME MADE SHIELD.]

With a wood worker's gauge or something similar make a mark around them
both near the lower sides. Now with draw shave and rasp work the edges
off both Nos. 1 and 2. No. 1 on a bevel, No. 2 rounded. There should be
a number of holes drilled and countersunk in No. 2, from the back, and
when the two parts of the shield are properly adjusted they should be
drawn closely together with screws too short to penetrate the face of
the shield.

If the adjustment is perfect the screws are to be drawn and the surfaces
which come in contact coated well with glue, then drawn closely together
and laid aside until thoroughly dry, when it should be well sandpapered
before varnishing.

All shields and panels should be carefully sandpapered, filled and
varnished, and polished if you wish. Don't make the shield or panel so
ornate that the specimen will seem but an incidental, thrown in for good
measure, so to speak.

Rustic panels can be made by sawing the end from a log on a slant, and
planing smooth the oval. If this is heavily varnished on the front and
back and the bark left on it is a very suitable mount for small heads,
fish and birds. Artificial branches and trees for mounting birds should
be avoided if possible; they are made by wrapping tow around wires,
coating with glue and covering with moss or papier mache and painting.
The result I consider unnatural and inartistic.

[Illustration: SMALL BIRD.]

I would advise to use natural branches as far as possible; sufficient
labor will be required to make necessary joining and changes look as
near like nature as you can. Rock work is usually made of a wooden
framework covered with cloth, wire or paper and finished with a coating
of glue and crushed stone or sand. One of the most useful materials in
this work is the rough cork bark so much used by florists. It is light,
comes in desirable shapes, can be nailed, sawed or coated with glue or
paint. For constructing stumps for mounted birds of prey and rustic
stands for small and medium fur animals it has no equal. Some
taxidermists produce rock work of an obscure geological period by
covering screen wire forms with a mixture of flour, baking powder and
plaster of paris and water. This is put in an oven and baked hard, the
weird result being painted to the artist's taste.

Water worn roots such as are found along the shore, twisted laurel
branches, limbs of gum, oak and sassafras, all work up well in this and
should be stored up to dry against a day of need. Out door people have a
good eye for such things, but they are hard to find when you look for
them, so gather them on your rambles. Papier mache is also a good
modeling material for stumps, limbs and rock, being light, and readily
taking coats of glue or paint. The expert can copy nature closely with
it.

Some leaves and grasses can be pressed, dried and colored their natural
shades with oil paints. The dealers supply a great variety of artificial
foliage, some of which may be used to advantage, in case work
especially. Dried mosses and lichens of various sorts may be used in
this. Some of these powdered and glued on papier mache or cork bark
stumps and limbs produce a very pleasing effect.

Snow scenes are frequently attempted but are not always a success. The
peculiar fluffy and glittering appearance is rather difficult to
reproduce. Torn or ground up white blotting paper mixed with a little
ground mica has been used for this purpose. Glass icicles are listed by
dealers and are quite natural in appearance, but the simulation of water
is difficult and often disappointing.

It is often desirable to mount small specimens, of birds especially, in
cases of some kind which will protect them from dust, dirt and rough
handling and at the same time display them to advantage. The oldest and
at the same time the least suitable contrivance for this is the well
known bell glass or globe. It is difficult to find a safe place for this
in the average house and it is not at all adapted to many specimens.

A plain wall case with glass front and a painted or decorated background
will give the necessary protection with the least expense. For small
bird groups, and singles and pairs of game birds, the oval convex
glasses probably present the finest appearance. The backgrounds for
these may be either plush or wood panels or hand painted, and any style
of picture framing may be used. These are made in several sizes, listing
at $2.00 to $8.00 each without backgrounds or frames. This cost has
probably prevented their more common use.

There is on the market a papier mache background also adapted to any
picture frame, called the "concave dust proof case." This has the flat
face glass of the old style wall case, but with the square corners and
much of the weight eliminated. Any of these styles of wall cases may be
placed on shelves as well as hung on the wall like pictures, at once
preventing breakage and becoming valuable decorations.

Special cases are often built (as in museums) for large and valuable
mounted specimens. Of these the top and at least three sides should be
of glass. The preparing and placing of the accessories in some large
museum cases have required an unbelievable amount of time and expense to
attain the desired natural appearance of the mounting.



CHAPTER V.

FIELD WORK, COLLECTING.


While it is unlikely that many readers of this book will undertake the
collection of natural history specimens in any great numbers or as a
special business, a few words on the subject may not be amiss.

It is well to bear in mind that the better the condition of the specimen
when it first comes to hand, the greater will be our chances of success
in properly preserving it. A small bird shot with a rifle is not worth
bothering with unless excessively rare, and a fur bearer which the dogs
have been allowed to maul and chew is very difficult to put in
satisfactory condition.

One rule of the collector in the field is to shoot each specimen with
the smallest possible charge of shot and powder which will kill it. I
speak of shooting, as probably three-fourths of the objects mounted by
the average taxidermist have been killed with fire arms.

Of late years a number of collector's guns have been put out by the arms
makers, though any good small bore shotgun will answer for collecting
all of our small and medium sized American birds and mammals. Some of
these guns of about .44 cal. are exceedingly accurate and reliable
performers.

In one case this small bore shotgun has been combined with a rifle, and
the light weight and portability of this little arm makes it about the
last word in guns for collecting all small specimens.

[Illustration: MARBLE'S SHOT GUN AND RIFLE COMBINED.]

It as well as other single guns of the same bore, is built to use a
round ball in the shot barrel, making them capable of stopping deer or
bear at short ranges. However, choosing a gun is like choosing a wife,
every one has their own tastes.

I would advise the would-be collector to load his own shotgun shells, at
least those for small birds and animals, as it is almost impossible to
get factory loaded shells but what are charged too heavily.

For the collection of animals for taxidermic purposes the use of traps
will probably yield some of the best as well as the more rare and
unusual varieties. Such styles of traps as least injure the appearance
of the finished specimen are preferred.

The old-fashioned snare, dead-fall and box trap are as good as any in
this respect. The wire spring or choke traps of Stop Thief style are
ahead of the common steel trap in this respect, but like the homemade
traps cannot be used in so many various situations.

[Illustration: THE "STOP THIEF" OR CHOKE TRAP.]

Water animals taken in steel traps may usually be quickly drowned. If
set on land they should be tended often to prevent suffering and usually
mutilation of the trapped game. Full information on this subject will be
found in Science of Trapping and other books on special animals by same
publisher.

The naturalist uses more small traps than large ones in most cases;
many, many more specimens being taken in No. 1's than in bear traps.
Several styles of mouse and rat traps are useful in collecting the
smaller mammals, such as mice, rats and ground squirrels of various
species.

Fish are to be collected any way you can get 'em, (legally at least).
Many varieties of these are to be bought at the large markets and many
rare and hideous specimens are discarded by market fishermen when
culling their catches. A few years ago before much restriction was
imposed on the sale of game it was possible to purchase many desirable
things at the markets of Washington, D. C. Not only bear and deer, but
elk, ptarmigan, arctic hares, sage and prairie grouse, fox squirrels,
pileated woodpeckers and many other odds and ends were offered for sale
as well as all the usual land and water game.

However you take your specimens or how badly damaged they may be when
they reach your hands it behooves you to see that no further damage
befalls them.

Specimens when shot should have all possible blood and dirt brushed or
washed from feathers or fur and all shot holes, as well as mouth and
nostrils plugged with a wisp of cotton to prevent further soiling. An
awl, or piece of wire will be useful for this. Blood should be removed
from white fur or feathers as soon as possible or it will be stained
more or less. Small birds should be dropped head first into a paper
cone, and laid in a basket or box if possible, the common hunting coat
pocket is apt to break delicate feathers, though if the bird is well
wrapped it may do.

Fur bearers will stand more rough usage and may be tied together by
heads or feet or packed in game bag or pocket. Fish should be wrapped in
paper to protect the scales.

It goes without saying that specimens which it is planned to preserve
should be kept cool if possible until work can be started on them. Some
varieties spoil more quickly than others; fish eating birds need quick
attention; most birds of the hawk and owl family keep well, as do the
pheasants, grouse, etc. Frozen animals keep perfectly in that state but
spoil quickly after thawing.

Keep away from blow flies. Specimens are often sent to the taxidermists
in apparent good order and when received are entirely ruined by fly
maggots; the eggs being deposited before packing and shipping.



CHAPTER VI.

SKINNING AND PRESERVING SKINS.


With a suitable specimen at hand it is for us to decide if we shall
mount it or preserve it as a skin temporarily or indefinitely. To
illustrate we will presume that we have a muskrat just from the trap
which is to be mounted at once.

Before skinning it is best to get some measurements to guide us in the
later work. In this case where the skin is to be mounted immediately a
simple outline is sufficient, as we will have the body in the flesh and
all the leg bones, etc., to guide us in rebuilding the creature.

To get such outline, lay the animal on its side on a piece of blank
paper, put the feet and legs in some natural position, fasten them in
place with a few pins and mark around the entire animal with a pencil.
The eye, hip and shoulder joints, and base of skull may be indicated on
this outline sheet. Our muskrat is a trapped and drowned one so we will
not have to replace the shot hole plugs with fresh ones, as would be
best if it had been killed with the gun. Also it has been dead long
enough for the rigor mortis to prevent the free flow of blood and body
juices which bother the operator if it has been killed but an hour or
less.

[Illustration: OUTLINE OF MUSKRAT. HIP AND SHOULDER JOINTS MARKED]

Laying the animal on its back, make the opening cut by pushing the knife
point through the skin at the juncture of neck and chest. Run the blade
down between skin and flesh, separating the skin in a long clean cut to
the root of the tail. Open the tail also along the under side from the
tip to within an inch or so of its base. Slit open the sole of each foot
from the middle toe to the heel and further if necessary so the leg skin
may be turned down over the foot.

Beginning at this central cut, skin back each side until the shoulder
and hip joints are encountered. Bending the limb will show the exact
joint where the muscles are cut apart and the legs severed from the
body. Cut off the tail near its base, leaving it in the skin for the
present. Loosen the skin from back and shoulders and turn it wrong side
out over the head. Skin down until the ears are reached, cutting them
off close down to the head and continue on to the eyes. Work carefully
around these and cut close to the skull to avoid hacking the eyelids.
Cut through the nose cartilage, and when the lips are reached cut them
away close to the gums, leaving both their inner and outer skin on the
pelt. Cutting them off at the edge of the hair is a frequent cause of
trouble as they are full and fleshy and should be split, pared down on
the inside and when mounted, filled out to their natural shape to
perfect the anatomy.

[Illustration: SKINNING SMALL ANIMAL FOR MOUNTING. CUT ON DOTTED LINES.]

Now the skin of each leg may be turned wrong side out down to the toes
and all flesh and muscle cut away from the leg bones with knife and
scissors. The tail also is to be removed from its skin and the ears
turned wrong side out to their tips. In skinning no flesh of any
consequence should be left adhering to the skin and it should never be
pulled off by main strength, but rather separated by the knife or
fingers, pushing the flesh away from the skin rather than the reverse.
The skull should now be cleaned as the leg bones were and if a number of
specimens are being prepared at the same time the heads may be put in a
kettle and boiled a short time, when on trying with a fork or awl the
flesh becomes tender and may be rapidly removed with a knife.

The brain may be removed with a hooked wire, the skull well rinsed
inside and out and given a good coat of arsenical paste or other
preservative. The next step is determined by what you intend doing with
the skin. If it is to be kept for purposes of study without mounting it
should be made up as a scientific skin. If to be mounted at once or in
the near future it should be put in the jar of salt and acid or alum. It
can of course be mounted at once without this bath but I believe it is
well worth any extra work it entails.

Some young furred animals and others with very delicate skins do not
work up well from the bath and had best be mounted without it, being
handled more as bird skins are.

In skinning the larger quadrupeds we make two additional cuts, from the
right to the central line and out to the left fore foot and a similar
cut connecting the hind feet. These opening cuts are on the back and
inside of the legs, you will understand.

With most large subjects another cut from the shoulders up the back of
the neck is necessary. On animals having horns or antlers this is
terminated in a Y or T shape, reaching the base of the antlers. After
loosening the skin around the antlers the head is removed through this
incision. As it is hardly possible to make an outline sketch of a large
animal, as full a set of measurements as possible is useful in all
cases.

[Illustration: SKINNING LARGE ANIMAL FOR MOUNTING. CUT ON DOTTED LINES.]

The bones of the legs will be in the way attached to the skin and the
two upper bones of each leg may be detached and if lack of space or
transportation make it necessary, thrown away, though if the bones of
one hind leg and one front leg are preserved artificial duplicates may
be carved.

[Illustration: SKINNING BIRD-BREAST CUT.]

In skinning birds, after fresh cotton plugs have been put in place the
feathers are parted and the opening incision made through the skin only
from the middle of the breast to the root of the tail. Separate the skin
and flesh on each side until the knee is reached, push this up until the
knife or scissors can be passed under it and the leg severed at the
joint. A little corn meal sprinkled on the exposed flesh and the
operator's fingers will prevent the feathers adhering and becoming
soiled as the work proceeds.

Cut off the flesh in which the tail quills are rooted leaving it on the
skin with one or two of the last vertebrae. Use care in this or you will
cut the skin above the tail too. The body may now be hung up by a cord
tied to the stump of one of the legs and both hands used in separating
and turning the skin back until the wings are reached. The skin is
loosened around these and they may be severed at the elbow joint unless
the bird is to be mounted with wings spread, when it will be best to
unjoint at the shoulder and preserve the entire wing bones.

[Illustration: HOODED MERGANSER.]

With the wings detached we skin on to the base of the skull. In some of
the ducks, and other water birds, woodpeckers and owls the neck is so
slender and the skull so large that it is necessary to cut the neck off
here and making a cut down the back of the head and neck continue the
skinning of the head through it. Do not cut or tear the membrane of the
ears but pull it out with the forceps and work down over the eyes,
cutting the membrane connecting the skin but not the lids or eyeball
itself. The liquid contents of the eye are particularly sticky and
difficult to remove from feathers.

Continue skinning to the base of the bill, scoop the eyes from their
sockets and cut loose the forward part of the skull from the neck. This
is usually accomplished with four snips of the scissors much easier to
practice than to describe.

Make one cut on each side of the head, through the small bone connecting
the base of the lower jaw with the skull, another through the roof of
the mouth at the base of the upper mandible and between the jaws of the
lower, and the last through the skull behind the eyes and parallel with
the roof of the mouth. This will free the skull of the neck and most of
its flesh and muscle.

In most cases the head should be returned to the skin as soon as
possible to avoid its drying out of shape and giving the feathers a
wrong set. After cleaning and poisoning the skull and filling the eye
sockets with cotton this reversing is undertaken. If working on a small
bird the learner is apt to come to grief here, as only by careful and
patient work without the application of some force is the returning
process accomplished successfully.

The wings and legs may now be skinned down to the first joint and all
flesh and muscle removed from the bones. This is done expeditiously by
snipping off the end of the leg bone and stripping it down with adhering
flesh to the ankle joint where it (the flesh) is cut off.

The wings are skinned to the first joint, stripping the wing primary
feathers from their fastening on the bone with the thumb nail, clipping
off the large bone near the end and detaching the small bone with all
flesh and muscle adhering. If this is clipped off at the wrist joint the
entire wing is cleaned. This method applies to all small and medium
birds not wanted with spread wings.

[Illustration: OPENING CUT ON BIRD.

Opening and Cleaning Wing from Underneath For Spread Wing Mounting.]

In case wing spread is wanted the primary feathers are not disturbed but
that part of the wing is cleaned from a slit in the under side of the
wing. All but the smallest birds should have the tip joint of the wing
slit open on the under side and some form of preservative worked in the
opening. Specimens the size of a crow and larger should have a cut made
in the bottom of the foot and the tendons of the lower leg drawn out
with an awl, and in the case of very large birds it may be necessary to
soak the unfeathered part of the legs and feet in a pan of strong pickle
for 24 hours, to prevent decay and damage from insects. Our bird is now
entirely ready for the application of such preservatives as we may be
using.

The main principle in the preserving of skins may be stated thus: All
skins must be removed and cleaned of flesh so the preservative may be
applied to every part of the inner surface, where it will act directly
on the roots of the hair or feathers.

The preservative applied, we must decide on the next step, whether it is
to be mounted at once, in a short time, or laid away indefinitely as a
scientific skin.

If we have to lay it away until tomorrow, put a little cotton inside to
prevent the inner surface sticking together, wrap in a damp cloth and
unless the weather is very hot it will be all right.

If very hot or it is necessary to lay it aside for some days, the inner
side should be well coated with the carbolic and glycerine mixture. As a
scientific skin it should be made up at once, tagged with a full set of
measurements taken before skinning and laid aside to dry. These
measurements are not needed if we mount it at once, as the skinned body
is at hand for comparison, but the sex, date, locality and collector's
name should be attached to the completed specimen.

Alligators and the lizard family are skinned like the other four-footed
species, as are snakes and fish, with the exception they have no limb
bones to be cleaned and preserved. Fish are better opened along one side
than the central line of the body.

Reptile skins if not put in the pickle jar had better be packed in salt
after poisoning as when entirely dry they are practically ruined. Skins
of fish are best kept in either a saturated solution of salt (water with
salt added until no more will dissolve), alcohol or formaldehyde
solution. Whatever method is used the delicate colors will vanish and
unless you can have a fresh specimen at hand when mounting it you should
make the best color record you are able. This is true to some extent at
least of all coverings of fur, feathers, or scales, and the stronger the
light the more damage. I have seen a mounted mink placed in direct
sunshine, bleached to a drab and the yellow feathers on a 'flicker faded
almost white.

In order to preserve turtles, after killing with chloroform preferably,
it is necessary in the case of the box or land turtles to cut a square
opening in the under shell through which the body may be removed and the
legs and neck skinned.

The water species can have the lower shell detached from the upper at
the side and after cutting the skin around the rear two-thirds this
shell is turned over to the front and the skinning and cleaning
proceeded with.

If not mounted at once make into a dry skin after poisoning or small
turtles may be put in alcohol.



CHAPTER VII.

MAKING SCIENTIFIC SKINS.


Probably most bird skins which are not mounted at once are kept in the
form of "scientific skins." In other words they are skinned, poisoned
and without wiring, given the shape of the dead bird. Their plumage,
size, etc., may be examined, they are easily packed or shipped and, if
properly made, may be mounted at any time but at the expenditure of
considerably more work than a freshly taken skin requires.

The instructions on skinning leaves us with the skin wrong side out with
the exception of possibly the head. The leg and wing bone, cleaned of
flesh, should be well poisoned as well as the skin and after wrapping
with pieces of cotton bat to their approximate size, returned to their
places. It is well when doing this to under rather than over fill.

Connect the bones of the wings with a bit of thread or cord. After
filling out around the eyes and upper throat, wind a small stick or
piece of wire with cotton to a size a little smaller than the natural
neck and push it into the opening at the back of skull.

The body can be filled out now with raw cotton, tow, or any similar
substance not of animal origin. Fine excelsior is about right for large
birds. The edges of the opening cut may be drawn together by a few
coarse stitches. After the feet have been tied together it is time to
adjust all the feathers become well rumpled in handling.

Our fingers, forceps and a setting needle made of a large needle or part
of a hat pin in a wooden handle will accomplish this. Stained or dirty
plumage should be cleaned before the skin is filled out, by first
sponging with tepid water, then with gasoline or benzine and drying with
plaster of paris or corn meal. Never apply this without the gasoline
first or you will have trouble indeed.

Now the skin is ready for its label, which should supply the following
information:

1. Length in inches from tip of tail to end of tail.

2. Distance between the tips of outstretched wings.

3. Length of wing from the first joint.

4. Color of eyes, feet, bill, etc.

5. Date, locality, collector.

6. The sex.

The first three items are often combined, in the case of a bluebird for
instance, 7-12-4, the order being understood.

Unless the plumage plainly indicates the sex this should be assured by
examination of the skinned body. By making an opening in the side of
this near the back bone the inside surface of the small of the back is
exposed. In the case of the male there will be visible two rounded
bodies, varying in size with the season and species, and in the female a
flattened mass of spheres.

After labeling and fastening the bill together with a pin or thread the
skin should be slipped inside a paper tube to dry. Water birds with long
slender necks should have the head bent around beside the body and the
long legs of waders are bent at the ankle and left resting on the body;
this to prevent breakage.

Duck, geese and any fat birds need the inside of the skins well scraped,
sponged with gasoline, partly filled with plaster paris and left for
several hours so all grease may be absorbed. This grease should be
removed prior to applying the preservative as it will prevent any
effectual penetration by the latter.

After cleaning either the inside or out of a skin with plaster it will
be necessary to gently beat it with a whisk broom or something similar
to dislodge the particles of plaster. A current of air (from a bicycle
pump, for instance) will remove the dust from the feathers when dry.

[Illustration: SCIENTIFIC SKINS, SMALL ANIMALS AND BIRDS.]

Fewest dry scientific skins are made up from the quadrupeds, but in case
the matter of transportation prevents wet preservation or they are
wanted dry the all around taxidermist must practice at making them up
also. Like the bird skin they should be thoroughly rid of flesh and fat
after skinning but do not require such finical handling. Rinsing in
water with a little washing powder or soda added will remove blood
stains and some grease but the benzine bath with the drying after, as
recommended in the chapter on tanning, etc., will be needed in case of
very fat specimens.

All small animals are made up about the same as birds, wrapping the leg
bones in tow, oakum or cotton and filling out the body with the same
material. The skull cleaned and poisoned had best be put in the centre
of the body with the filling, when it can be found at any time by
ripping a few of the stitches.

The skin of the head is filled out with the same material and the tail
may either be bent up under the body or drawn together by a few stitches
around a wrapped wire extending into the body half its length. Of course
the operator will see that the entire inner surface of the skin is
treated liberally with some preservative, arsenical paste preferably,
before the filling process.

After stitching up the opening cut the skin is laid on a board, back up
and the legs neatly disposed, the front feet beside the head and the
hind ones drawn back beside the tail. The feet are fastened with a pin
each and after smoothing down the fur with a small metal fur comb the
skin is laid aside in an airy, shady place until fully dry.

With each scientific skin a record should be made of the following
details:

1. Length, end of nose to root of tail.

2. Length of tail from root to end of bone.

3. Height at shoulders.

4. Color of eyes, lips, feet, etc.

5. Name of species, sex, locality, date, and collector's name.

These may be noted down on a corner of the outline sheet, which is
numbered and filed away; the skin tagged with a duplicate number is put
in the pickle jar or made up as a dried skin, whichever is desired, or
the full information may be put on a tag attached to the skin. Many
collectors simply number all specimens and preserve all information in
their note books. The foregoing details are sufficient for animals less
than bear and deer in size.

The larger animals should have as many as possible of the following
additional measurements:

    Distance hip joint to shoulder joint.
    Circumference of forearm.
          "       "  neck.
          "       "  body.
    Back of leg.
    Weight if possible.

Skins of large animals, a bear for instance, may have a slight wrapping
of tow or excelsior on the leg bones to prevent their coming in contact
with the skin and the whole skin laid to dry on a scaffold of poles or
something similar. When nearly dry fold up with the legs inside in a
square shaped package. This can be tied up with heavy cord or even sewed
up in burlap to prevent damaging the skin in transit. Fish and reptiles
are not a success as dry skins.



CHAPTER VIII.

PREPARING DRY AND WET SKINS FOR MOUNTING.


Let us assume that we have a dry skin each of a small bird and a furred
animal which has been properly made up sometime in the past and which it
is necessary to mount. Taking the bird skin first, the usual way is to
first wrap the unfeathered parts of legs in some strips of cotton cloth
saturated with water containing a few drops of carbolic acid until they
begin to relax or lose their stiffness somewhat.

Then the filling may be removed from the whole interior of the skin and
be replaced with pieces of cotton, dampened as before, and the whole
skin wrapped in a cloth or shut in a close box until with some scraping
and manipulation it becomes as pliable as when first removed. Any little
lumps of dried muscle should be broken up and the edges of the opening
cut, scraped and stretched out as they are very apt to wrinkle and curl
up, thus reducing the size of the skin considerably.

The eye sockets are to be filled with balls of wet cotton to render the
lids and surrounding skin soft. The roots of quills and tufts of large
feathers will need loosening as some flesh is necessarily left around
them.

The small animal skin may be treated the same way but the most thorough
and expeditious method of relaxing skins of both animals and birds
(except the smallest of the latter) is to plunge them into water, clear
in cool weather, slightly carbolized in warm, until they are pretty well
relaxed. Then go after the inner side with scraper until any lumps of
fat, muscle and the inner skin are well scratched up. Soak in benzine or
gasoline and clean with hot meal, sand, sawdust or plaster as directed
for tanning. Remember that bird skins must be handled carefully, so do
not be too strenuous in beating and shaking them.

Of course if any skin has been laid away with quantities of fat adhering
it will need very gingerly handling to save it, in fact unless
_very_ rare such skins are not worth trying to save as they have
little durability however treated. The largest polar bear skin I ever
saw was ruined by lying "in the grease" too long before dressing. Bird
skins preserved with the glycerine carbolic preparation require relaxing
the legs and a cleaning and dampening up of the inside of the skins.

Furred skins from the pickle need a good scraping on their inner
surface, thorough rinsing in soda solution to neutralize the acid and
remove all salt, then the benzine bath and cleaning. Don't forget to
rinse salted or pickled skins else beads of moisture will form on the
specimen in damp weather and crystals of salt in dry.

[Illustration: FOOT SKINNED OUT.]

Occasionally an extra rare skin will drop to pieces through age or other
infirmities when being prepared for mounting. The only hope for it then
is to glue and pin it piecemeal on a manikin covered with some
preparation which gives it a firm surface. While an expert will achieve
fair results in such work the amateur could hardly expect success.



CHAPTER IX.

MOUNTING SMALL AND MEDIUM BIRDS.


A word of advice to the beginner as to the variety of specimen to use in
first trials. Don't begin on too small a bird until somewhat adept;
unpracticed fingers bungle sadly over tiny feathered bodies. A first
subject should be at least as large as a bob white to give room to work,
and of some variety in which the feathers are firmly embedded.

Snow birds, cardinals, and some others have very thin delicate skins,
the pigeons shed their feathers on little or no provocation. Blackbirds
and jays are very good to practice on but the very best would be a coot,
sometimes called crow duck or mudhen. It is of fair size, closely
covered with feathers which will fall in place readily after skinning
and wiring even at the hands of a beginner.

Many, in fact most, birds have numerous bare patches which the adjacent
feathered tracts cover perfectly while in the flesh, but which a too
generous filling will exhibit in all their nakedness. I had not
discovered this until some of my first attempts at mounting birds
nonplussed me by showing numerous patches of bare skin in spite of the
fact that but a few feathers had become loosened in the handling.

We will assume that a suitable specimen is at hand, freshly killed and
properly skinned as per the directions already given. All bones
remaining with the skin, lower leg, wing, skull, etc., have been
stripped of flesh and any shreds remaining poisoned, as has the entire
inner surface of skin. With the skinned body at hand cut three wires of
suitable size, one a little more than twice the length of the body and
neck, for the body wire, the other two about twice the length of the
legs may be a size larger as it is important that the leg wires furnish
adequate support.

[Illustration: CLINCHING LEG WIRES IN ARTIFICIAL BODY OF BIRD]

Form the body wire into a loop which is the outline of the body laid on
one side with the surplus end projecting along the line of the neck.
This loop should not be quite as large as the body, however, to allow
for a thin layer of filling material over it. Wad up a handful of coarse
tow, push it inside the body loop and wind with coarse thread, drawing
in by pressure and winding and building out with flakes of tow to a
rough shape of the skinned body. The neck also is built up the same way,
making it fully as thick as the original but no longer ever.

[Illustration: WIRE LOOP FOR BIRD BODY.]

If the wire projects more than a couple of inches from this artificial
neck, cut it off at that length and with a flat file or emery wheel give
it a sharp triangular point. The leg wires, too, should be pointed
similarly. All wire should be smooth, straight, and free from kinks to
work well. Coming in coils it will require straightening, the larger
sizes with mallet or hammer and No. 18 and smaller by fastening one end
in the vise and giving the other a sharp tug with a pair of pliers. It
will be felt to stretch slightly and become quite straight.

Next insert the pointed end of a leg wire in the bottom of the foot and
pass it up along the back of the bone between it and the skin. A
considerable knack is necessary to do this successfully and some force
must be used. Passing the heel joint is difficult but having done this
and emerged inside the skin continue to pass it until it is a little
longer than the leg bone beside it.

[Illustration: WIRING LEG OF BIRD]

Turn the skin of leg inside out and wrapping tow around both bone and
wire build up a duplicate of the leg from thigh to heel, wrapping snugly
with thread. Treat the other leg the same.

With forceps fill the skull back of mouth with tow cut in short pieces.
A quantity of this may be chopped on the block with the hatchet and kept
on hand in a box. Never fill any part of a mounted bird with cotton
unless it may be the sockets as it is impossible to force a sharpened
wire or pin through it.

The parts of the wing bones remaining should be wrapped with tow as the
legs are, only they hardly need any wiring inside unless the bird is to
be with wings spread. Fasten the ends of the wing bones together by a
stout cord or thread so they are separated the distance between the
shoulders, measuring across the back of body. Now insert the neck wire
in the back of skull forcing it out through the crown until the
artificial neck is brought snugly against the opening at the base of the
skull.

Bend the pointed end over to get it out of the way and adjust the skin
of the neck. Draw the skin of breast over the body keeping the bird on
its back. If the body has been properly made it will fill the skin
rather loosely. If too large it can be removed and made smaller before
proceeding.

The operator will note that in all small and medium birds the thigh and
the upper wing, next the shoulder are not built up and wired with the
rest of the limbs but are filled out later from inside the skin, as in
all ordinary positions they show but little externally, the elbow and
knee joints nestling close to the body among the feathers.

So when fastening the legs to the body let the wires enter where the
knee would lie and push the wire through obliquely, upward and forward,
pushing and drawing them through the artificial and natural leg until
the lower ends approach the feet. Grasping the sharpened ends of the leg
wires at the middle of the length projecting from the body, with round
nose pliers bend them over in a hair pin shape.

[Illustration: BIRD WIRED.]

Work this loop back through the body pulling back through the leg and
clinch the points over into the body again. If the body was firmly made
as it should be, this fixes the legs permanently to it, yet they may be
bent readily at the joints to suit various attitudes.

Adjust the skin now and fill out at shoulders, thighs, and base of tail
with some chopped tow. The breast also may need some filling. Sew up the
skin beginning at the breast and finishing at the base of tail, lacing
it together with the ball cover stitch.

The pose of the finished specimen you have probably decided on before
now so it only remains to put it in the desired attitude. This sounds
easy, like sculpture, "just knock off what stone you don't need and
there is the statue," but it may try your soul at length to obtain the
desired effect. Good pictures are a great help here, as of course a
living duplicate would be if you had it.

Before setting it on its feet, coax the wings into place as you hold the
bird in your hand and pin them to the body through the elbow and outer
joint of the wing, using several pins 2 to 4 in. long or pieces of
sharpened wire the same size. This will hold the wings out of the way
and they may be changed and fitted perfectly later.

Mounted birds are usually put on temporary stands of rough boards or
limbs and when fully dried out transferred to a permanent mount which
can be prepared in the meantime of the exact size and variety wished
for. On these temporary stands the leg wires are only twisted together
so they can be easily removed. Place the feet in natural positions of
standing, walking or running and arrange the toes correctly. They had
best have some pins driven in beside the toes to secure them till dry,
as badly shaped feet will spoil the effect of an otherwise fine piece of
work, indicating a careless workman.

If on a bough or stump the feet should grasp it as if the bird really
means to stay on it. Two or three wires like those used on the wings
hold the tail in place by being driven through the base of it into the
body for half their length.

Fix the head looking down rather than up and to one side rather than
straight ahead. If you have the proper glass eyes at hand they can be
set now, if not, later will do but the lids are relaxed just now to
receive them. Fill the back of the sockets with tow or cotton and with a
little spoon-shaped modeling tool give this and the inner surface of the
lids a good coating of soft clay. The eyes, cut from the wire stem on
which most of them come, are pressed into this and the skin worked into
place with the point of a big needle or a small awl.

Now give the plumage a general going over, re-pin the wings if
necessary, and wind down any obstreperous feathers with thread. A number
of pins or wires thrust in the middle of back and breast will help this
operation.

Starting at the head wind back to the tail, lacing the thread from pin
to pin, not binding tightly with any one thread but producing a smooth
surface by holding it down at a multiplicity of points. There are a
number of so-called systems for winding birds but the same taxidermist
seldom winds two alike as the needs of the case are sure to differ. To
spread the tails of small birds, spread the feathers as desired and pin
them between two strips of light cardboard. When dry they will retain
their position. If all arranged properly set the bird away to dry; two
weeks will be sufficient for this.

[Illustration: BIRD WOUND WITH THREAD.]

Any colors on bill or feet and legs should be renewed with oil colors as
they fade almost entirely; if of a dark or neutral color originally, a
coating of transparent varnish will do. There is a variety of beetle
which delights in dining on such hard parts of mounted birds if not
protected by paint or varnish.

Place the bird on its final mount and fasten the leg wires in grooves
cut in the under side of same so they are flush with surface. The ends
may be turned over and driven in again or held fast by small staples. If
on the under side of a limb or branch a pinch of moss or lichen glued on
will cover this fastening.

Cut away the binding threads and with cutting pliers cut off all
projecting pins and wires, leaving what part of them is covered by the
feathers. Brush any clay from the eyes and if the lids have shrunken
away from them as they do usually, coat a bit of black thread with glue
and with a setting needle place between the lids and glass eyes.

[Illustration: THE POSE OR POSITION OF CERTAIN BIRDS]

If the eyes were not on hand when first mounted the lids should have
been relaxed and the eyes set as soon as procured.

Small birds may be mounted in fluttering attitudes by pinning the wings
with a bunch of cotton beneath them, but if an attitude with wings fully
spread is called for they must be treated in a manner similar to the
legs, inserting the wire under the skin near the tip of the wing and
running it along the under side of the wing bones to the body through
which it is thrust and clinched as the leg wires were.

[Illustration: FLUTTERING POSITION OF SMALL BIRDS.]

Birds mounted with spread wings cannot be so readily wound to smooth the
plumage and require to be braced with strips of stiff paper and
sometimes extra wires, which are removed when dry.

[Illustration: NATURAL STANDING POSITION OF SMALL BIRD ON LIMB.]



CHAPTER X.

MOUNTING LARGE BIRDS.


The same principles employed in the manipulation of smaller species
apply to this class with but a few variations. On account of their size
and weight the artificial bodies need to be especially firm in order to
afford a secure anchorage for the wing and leg wires. Also these
supports should be fastened to the bones in several places with stout
cord or small wire, as wrapping with the tow and thread used on small
birds is hardly sufficient.

What I would class as being large birds are the larger hawks, owls,
herons, eagles, geese, etc. The several varieties of the ostrich are
known as colossal birds and are skinned and preserved much as the large
quadrupeds by mounting the prepared skin on a manikin, built in the pose
of the finished specimen and supported by heavy iron rods.

[Illustration: BIRD OF PREY--LIMB POSITION.]

In mounting eagles or similar birds with wings spread, which seems to be
a popular attitude, use the largest wires possible as anything less than
that will, on account of their size and wide extent, tend to a drooping,
back-boneless appearance entirely out of keeping.

It goes without saying that large birds do not require the delicate
handling of small ones, but by way of compensation considerable force is
needed.

[Illustration: SPREADING TAIL OF LARGE BIRDS.

Run a small sharp wire through the quills on under side of tail to
spread it.]

The combs and wattles of domestic and wild fowls cannot by any common
process be prevented from shriveling and discoloring while drying, but
when dry they may be restored by careful modeling in colored wax. This
is applied warm with a brush and given its final finish with hot metal
modeling tools. For museum work and other high grade work such heads are
cast entire in wax in such a way that all feathers and hair are attached
in their precise places.

Large water fowl are often mounted as flying, and suspended by a very
fine wire. A sharpened wire with a ring turned in one end, thrust into
the middle of the back and clinched in the body, forms a secure point of
suspension.

As it is not usually practicable to case many specimens of large birds,
give them an extra thorough poisoning and when entirely finished spray
with either corrosive sublimate or arsenical solution.

In making bodies for large birds it is well to use excelsior for the
main bulk of the body, merely covering the outside with a thin layer of
tow. This is not only more economical but makes a lighter specimen than
one filled with tow entirely. Excelsior or wood wool is to be had in
varying degrees of fineness of upholstery dealers.

[Illustration: SPREAD EAGLE. WINGS BRACED UP TO DRY.]

In the case of a bird which has been wired and sewn up seeming to
require further filling out, it can be accomplished in most cases by
making an incision under each wing and introducing some flakes of tow
with a wire stuffing tool. If the bird is mounted with closed wings this
slit need not even be sewed up as the folded wing covers it completely.



CHAPTER XI.

TANNING, CLEANING AND POISONING SKINS.


I have used the following method for some years successfully on skins up
to and including the deer in size. Most larger skins need thinning with
a special tool, though an experienced hand can manage to thin a heavy
hide with a common draw knife.

An empty lard tub, a half barrel or a large earthenware jar to hold the
tan liquor, a fleshing knife and a fleshing beam are necessary to begin
with at least. Any smith can make a knife of an old, large file or rasp
by working both sides to a blunt edge and drawing the upper end out in a
tang for another handle. A piece of old scythe blade with cloth wrapped
around the ends will do, or a dull draw knife, either. One blade filed
into fine teeth will be useful in removing the inner or muscular skin.

[Illustration: FLESHING KNIFE. (Made from old rasp)]

A slab or plank 6 or 7 feet long, with one end tapered and half rounded,
on 2 or 4 legs of such length as to bring the end against the workman's
chest, makes a beam.

[Illustration: BENCH BEAM.]

A short piece of plank rounded off and bolted to the top of the table or
work bench will do for small skins.

[Illustration: ADJUSTABLE BEAM.]

Make up the quantity of tanning liquor you wish by the following
formula, also given in Chapter III:

    Water                    1 gallon
    Salt                     1 quart

Bring to the boiling point to readily dissolve the salt, and add

    Sulphuric acid           1 fluid ounce

Allow it to cool before putting in the skins. _Handle the undiluted
acid with care._ Use common coarse salt and the commercial acid.
Skins not wanted at once may be left in this pickle for months without
injury.

About a gallon of pickle to a fox size skin is the correct amount, but
it may be used several times before losing its strength.

After the skin is removed from the carcass any blood and dirt is washed
from the fur, the flesh side well salted, rolled up and left 12 to 48
hours. Then thoroughly beam or scrape down the inside of the skin,
removing all flesh, fat and muscles. Skins already dry may be placed
either in clear water or tan liquor until they soften up. It takes
longer to soften in the tan, but if put in water it must be watched or
the hair will start, especially in warm weather.

A very hard, dry skin must be soaked and scraped alternately until
thoroughly relaxed. When well softened, treat same as a fresh skin. If
very fat or greasy, soak the skin in benzine an hour, wring out well,
hang up till the benzine is about evaporated, then place in the tan. If
not very fat the skin need not be put in the benzine first, but go in
the tan at once after being scraped. I use common stove gasoline for
benzine; it is as good for the purpose of cleaning and deodorizing, and
cheaper. It must never be used in the vicinity of fire or a lighted
lamp, as its evaporation produces a very explosive gas. For this reason
I do the cleaning and beating of furs out of doors if practicable.
Gasoline wrung out of skins may be saved and, after allowing to settle,
used again and again. It will not do for the final cleaning of white
furs, but for removing grease before tanning, it is as good as any. Stir
the skins about in the tan frequently that all parts may come in contact
with the solution.

Light skins like the fox will tan in 24 to 48 hours; heavier ones in
proportional time. When on pulling or stretching the flesh side, it
whitens, it is tanned. On taking from the tan, rinse the skin well in
lukewarm water containing a handful of washing soda to the bucketful.
Wring out with the hands and soak again in benzine for half an hour.
Wring out of this and clean the fur at once as follows:

Fill a shallow box part full of clean sand or corn meal which has been
heated in a pot or pan over the fire or in an oven. Work the skin about
in this until the fur is filled with the meal; then shake or beat it
out. Repeat the working in meal and beating until the fur is clean and
bright. Never put a damp skin into the meal without the gasoline bath
first, or you will have the time of your life getting the meal out.
Regular fur dressers use very fine saw dust, but meal is to be had
anywhere. Plaster of paris will do, but it is most too fine. This
treatment with gasoline or benzine removes the grease and animal odors
so apt to cling to Indian or home-dressed skins. After cleaning, allow
the skin to partly dry in the air and shade; then soften it by
stretching, pulling and rubbing in every part. There is no way to
accomplish this without work. A pad made of old bags, pieces of blanket,
etc., put on the beam, the skin placed on that and stretched in all
directions with the blunt edge of the fleshing knife is as good as any
way. Keep up the stretching until the skin is quite dry. If any part
should dry out too fast for the operator (that is, before it gets
stretched) it can be dampened with water on the flesh side and then
treated like the rest. If it is wanted extra soft the skin may be
thinned down with sandpaper. If the dressed skin is wanted to lie flat
as for a rug, it can be moistened on the flesh side; then stretched out
and tacked fur side up on a board, the table top or the floor until dry.
If this should cause it to harden or stiffen too much break it again
without stretching too much.

Another very good tanning solution is the following:

    Salt                               1 quart
    Oxalic acid (pulverized)           4 ounces
    Water                              2 gallons

Dissolve well and immerse the skins, treating them as already directed,
rinsing in clear water only. It is also best to allow a little more time
for tanning in this solution.

While on the subject of dressing skins a few words in regard to cleaning
furs will be in order. White furs especially that have become soiled and
matted from use need cleaning frequently and are brought to the furrier
or taxidermist for that purpose.

A good washing in gasoline will usually remove the dirt, then dry out as
in dressing furs. Furriers often use powdered magnesia for this purpose
but almost any finely divided white powder will do about as well. A long
siege of beating, shaking and brushing will be necessary to get the
drying powder all out of the fur so it will not sift out on the garments
when wearing.

If the piece to be cleaned is large (like a coat or cloak) the lining
should be removed before cleaning. Neck pieces and small furs are
cleaned with linings, wadding, etc., intact. If the fur is so matted
that beating does not fluff it out, it must be combed, using a metal fur
comb to break up the tangles.

Charges for this work are based on the time used, though at least 75c.
or $1.00 each is charged for the small pieces.

As chemicals exposed to the changes of atmosphere are likely to lose
strength in time, the owners of mounted heads generally take the
precaution of having them poisoned against moth at varying intervals.

Personally I think once in three years is sufficient but some prefer to
be on the safe side where valuable heads are concerned and have them
treated yearly.

Large heads like buffalo, moose, and elk may be poisoned as they hang,
thus obviating any subsequent handling which would be to the detriment
of both specimen and operator.

Heads the size of deer and smaller are readily removed and replaced.

First dust the head well and comb the hair or pelt to detect the
presence of moth. If loose hairs reveal this the head should be removed
to the open air, unscrewed from the shield and saturated with gasoline,
which will kill both the moth and its eggs, after which poison against a
repetition of the offense.

Pin an old cloth or newspapers about the neck to protect the shield and
wall and spray the entire skin of the head with the diluted arsenical
solution as recommended in Chapter III. Seedsmen sell a sprayer for use
on plants which is about the most convenient size, though the larger
size used in the vegetable garden or even a toilet atomizer will
distribute the solution.

After it has dried wipe off the eyes and nose with a damp cloth and
handle as little as possible.

The common tariff on such work is for treating a single head not less
than $1.00. Two to four at one place, 75c. each, and over four, 50c.
This for poisoning only. Extra charges for killing moth. Such work
should be done in spring or early summer in the Central States in order
to be effective.



CHAPTER XII.

MAKING ANIMAL FUR RUGS.


Probably the first use (after clothing) made of skins was as rugs or
coverings for the ground or couches, and in this shape they are still to
be found in our most elegantly furnished homes. One of the few survivals
of primitive tastes.

The skins of some few animals such as Polar and Grizzly Bears, Tiger,
Jaguar, Lion, Puma, Leopards and Ocelots are used for little else,
though some of the spotted cats are used for eccentric looking coats and
fur sets. Other smaller skins such as wolf, fox, 'coon, wild cat, etc.
are much in favor as rugs as well as for garment furs.

In skinning an animal for use as a rug it is as well to skin and stretch
it open, cut under side of body from chin to the end of tail and from
each foot down to the central line. A large animal like bear or leopard
looks well with the paws preserved and they should be skinned down to
the last joint, leaving the claws attached to the skin. Smaller skins
may have the paws preserved, though the effect is hardly worth the
trouble and the smaller paws are easily crushed on the floor by a chance
step.

After skinning, using care to detach it from the head without mutilating
the ears, eyes and lips, stretch flat on an inside wall, door, or table
top. Stretch evenly with tacks or small nails close together to avoid
drawing out in points and of the approximate shape of the finished rug.
That is, with the front feet well forward and hind feet pointing back,
not spread as wide as possible.

If you are intending to dress the skin it may be begun at once after
skinning, as per the chapter on tanning, etc., or after fleshing it may
be put in the pickle jar against a leisure day. Otherwise stretch and
dry for transportation or to send to the tanner.

[Illustration: HALF HEAD.

HEAD WITH TEETH.

PAPER HEAD FORMS--FOX]

As regards the mounting of heads for rugs, they may be done in three
styles, called half or mask head, full head closed mouth, and full head
open mouth. The first, as the name indicates, consists of the skin of
the upper part of the head without that of the lower jaw mounted over an
artificial form or "skull." The closed mouth (See dog) has the lower jaw
mounted in addition, but without any teeth used, and the open mouth
mounting requires a set of suitable teeth with the interior of the
mouth, tongue and lips fully modeled and finished either with colored
wax or by painting.

These artificial head forms or skulls both with and without teeth and
masks, are to be had in all varieties and several sizes each of dealers
in taxidermists' supplies so cheaply that I would advise the novice to
procure them if possible. In many cases it is necessary for the
professional to make use of skulls with artificial teeth as the natural
skulls are often thrown away by the collector. In the case of any large
skin intended for a rug the roughly cleaned skull should accompany same.
In ordering from dealers it is only necessary to give name of animal and
the measure of skin from center of nose to inner corner of eye, and
outer corner of eye to ear.

[Illustration: DOG--CLOSED MOUTH.]

The beginner would do well to try mounting a rug with half head first
and the more difficult open mouth later. A very fair mask form can be
made by laying the skinned head down on a piece of thin board and
marking around it with pencil, then cutting out to the outline. With a
bunch of fine excelsior or coarse tow and a spool of thread a half-head
form can be roughly blocked out by winding, using the board as a base.
Then with modelling clay and chopped tow the anatomy is perfected,
pressing down here with the fingers, and building up elsewhere. With the
skinned head to refer to as the form is modeled a good job can be done.
However, if a number of skins of the same species are to be prepared it
is best to make a mould in which unlimited paper forms may be cast.
Particulars in this work are given in Chapter on Casting and Modelling.

[Illustration: FOUNDATION FOR TOW AND EXCELSIOR]

The next step in rug making after drying the pelt is to prepare the head
for mounting. It is as well to do little or no thinning down of the head
skin during the tanning and even if it has been shaved down the vicinity
of the eyes, ears, nose and lips will need thinning with a small sharp
knife, and stretching out with a skin scraper. Before beginning this
process the head skin should be dampened on the pelt side with clear
water (use pickle in warm weather). If the ears are not skinned before
dressing they should be now, and turned inside out to the tips. A small
screw driver with the edge blunted and rounded is a good tool for this
work as it will not readily cut the thin skin of the ears.

Trim and scrape away any lumps of muscle, etc., and shave down the skin
enough to be molded to the surface of the form when dampened. Do not,
however, cut away the bunch of muscles on each side of the cheeks in
which the whisker roots are embedded, or these distinguished ornaments
will drop out. By criss-crossing these with cuts they are made as
flexible as the rest of the skin. After the shaving process get a
suitable needle and stout thread and sew up any cuts or tears that have
been made. If proper care has been used there will be little of this to
do, always remembering that a cut is not irreparable but always makes
extra work. Bullet holes of large caliber destroy considerable skin and
in order to close them it is best to cut them to a triangular shape and
draw together by sewing up from the corners of the triangle, as per
illustration.

[Illustration: SEWING UP BULLET HOLE.]

Cut out from tough cardboard two ear forms a little longer at the base
than the ear skin and small enough to slip inside them readily. Before
going further give the inside of the head and neck skin a coat of
preservative. Let this lay a few minutes to soak in and then after
turning the ears right side out slip the cardboard ear forms into place.
They should be coated first with liquid glue; work the skin over them
with the fingers and fill around their bases with some cut tow and clay
of about the consistency of soft putty. Now place the head skin on the
form, get the eyes and nose in place and drive in a few pins down the
center of the face; they will hold it from slipping while working
further on it. If the form is a little too short for this particular
skin build it out with clay and tow, if too long it can have a trifle
cut off.

Fill the sockets of the eyes with clay, build out the cheeks and the
sides of nose with clay and tow and draw the skin of the lips down where
they belong. The glass eyes are to be cut from their wires and set,
drawing the lids around them with an awl. When they seem properly placed
drive pins at both inner and outer corners. The ears are attacked next
and when arranged to suit, three or four pins driven in at their bases
to hold them.

On a rug the ears should usually be laid back close to the head as by so
doing the chance of their being broken off when finished and dry is
lessened. Also a mounted rug head is usually intended to register rage
or anger.

The upper surface of the face being attended to, turn it upside down on
a folded bag or something in the nature of a cushion while we lace it
across the form with a stout thread and needle. If a hollow paper form
is used it should be filled with crumpled paper, excelsior, coarse tow
or similar material. Do not use fur scraps for this as I have seen done
or it will be a moth nest.

The whole inside of the skin may now be poisoned after slightly
dampening, and then tacked out fur side up in the proper shape to dry.
In order to make an animal skin lay flat to the floor it is necessary in
most cases to cut out several V-shaped pieces. Behind the fore legs
almost always and often in front of them, also and frequently in front
of the hind legs are the places where these gores are removed.
Consisting as they do of the thinly haired skin inside the legs their
absence is not noticeable when neatly sewed up.

Take care in this final stretching of the rug skin to get it alike on
both sides, or, as the artists say, bilaterally symmetrical. When tacked
out, go back to the face and perfect it so it may dry just right. With a
fine awl point draw the upper eyelids down a little, straighten the eye
brows, lashes and whiskers, and mould the nostrils into shape, bracing
them with damp clay; when dry it is easily removed. Now set it aside
until fully dry before proceeding with the trimming and lining. One and
a half or two inch wire brads are good to use in stretching skins, but
3d wire lath nails will do; the longer brads are more easily handled.

After removing the nails turn the skin on its back and draw a line from
neck to tail with pencil or chalk. By measuring from points on this line
we can trim off the legs and flanks of the rug evenly. If it is a small
or medium size skin it will look best with an all felt lining. So by
laying it flat on a piece of felt somewhat larger all round and marking
around it at a distance of 3 inches we can cut out the lining. The edge
of this is to be pinked. One end of our chopping block, usually of
sycamore or oak, is kept for this function, and a few minutes work with
pinking iron and hammer will border the lining with neat scallops.

A sufficient length of felt strips about 2 inches wide, should be cut to
reach around the outside of the skin, also pinked on one edge. Allow
generously for this as it will have to be gathered in rounding the feet
and head. In the case of animals having a bushy tail or brush as the
fox, wolf, etc., the tail is merely sewed up on the under side after
poisoning and not lined or trimmed. Pumas, tigers and others with short
furred tails are trimmed and lined like the rest of the rug. In lining
large rugs a double trimming of felt is often used and a lining of
strong canvas is used throughout, as when on the floor it is not
visible, protects the skin as well, and costs somewhat less.

[Illustration: PINKED LINING, BRIAR STITCHED.]

The trimming felt is sewed around the edge of the skin, passing the
needle through from the back obliquely, resulting in a long stitch on
the felt and a short one on the fur side. What few hairs are drawn down
by this can be picked out later with a needle or awl.

[Illustration: SEWING TRIMMING ON RUG.]

Before sewing the lining on an interlining of cotton wadding should be
cut out and basted in place with a few long stitches. Now place the skin
fur side up, on the lining and adjust it so an equal margin shows on all
sides and pin it in several places to prevent its slipping while sewing
it fast. To do this turn it felt uppermost and sew around just at the
edge of the skin, in the trimming felt, reversing the stitch previously
used. This hides the short stitch outside and if drawn up evenly will
hardly be noticed if a color of thread has been selected corresponding
somewhat to that of the felt.

If an extra nice finish is desired the lining may be put on with a
decorative briar or cat stitch with some bright colored silkatine.

Brushing away any clay from around the eyes and nose, giving the latter
a touch of the proper color (black for the majority of animals). A coat
of thin shellac to simulate the natural moist appearance and connecting
the dried eyelids with the glass eyes with hot colored wax will about
complete the rug. Waxing around the eyes is done with a small round
artist's brush and adds to the finished appearance of a job.

In mounting a rug head with either full head, closed or open mouth, the
beginner had best use a head form from the dealer for a few times at
least. A little study of one of these will enable him to model an open
mouth head, when a good set of teeth are supplied, and the ready made
article not at hand. It requires considerable time and some natural
ability to set the teeth and model the gums and tongue effectively.

A tongue modeled with clay and tow, covered with several layers of
papier mache and when dry, coated with flesh colored wax is good enough
for any rug, though museum mounting might require that the tongue be
skinned and the skin used to cover the model.

Plaster, putty, papier mache and various plastic cement materials are
used for modeling mouths, of which papier mache is probably the best;
plaster paris is often used in an emergency but is brittle and heavy.
For modeling use finely ground paper pulp mixed with glue and plaster or
whiting. Only practice and experiment will determine just the precise
mixture wanted.

A paper half head form may be the basis and to this wire the jaw bones
with their sets of teeth. Clever work will reproduce the interior of the
mouth, gums and tongue, and when perfectly dry they should be finished
either with paint or colored wax.

The tongue should have its base and lower side coated with glue and have
a brad driven through it into the material between the lower jaw bones.
If the head of this brad is well set in, a drop or two of wax will cover
it.

[Illustration: COYOTE RUG, OPEN MOUTH

(Author's Work.)]

In preparing a skin for mounting an open mouth head the lips should be
pared down and preserved as far as possible as they are to be filled
out and attached to the form by pinning at their edges. Common toilet
pins are used for this, driving them in part way and when the work is
dry cutting them off close down to the surface. After this is done the
lips may be waxed thus joining them to the form completely. Never fear
to use plenty of pins in head mounting. In some places they may be
driven to the head and left covered by the fur, in other places where
there is little or no fur, cut them close and drive down flush.

Of course greater liberties may be taken with a rug skin than one
mounted entire for exhibition, still a competent artist can put a great
amount of expression in even a rug head. The close student of animal
anatomy can produce an appalling snarl of anger on the heads of the
larger carnivora or change the same to a sleepy yawn or grin in a few
minutes' manipulation.

The professional is often called in to repair damaged rugs and
especially those with open mouths. Here the operator must use his own
judgment as no two seem to demand the same treatment. Missing teeth may
have to be supplied and carved from bone, celluloid or antlers. The tips
of broken deer antlers make very good canine teeth and blocks of
celluloid which are much easier to shape than bone, are sold by supply
dealers.

I have dwelt at some length on rug making as it is a branch of taxidermy
which seems to be always in more or less demand with the public. Also it
forms an easy entrance to the more complicated mounting of complete
animals and much of the work is identical with the process of preserving
heads for wall decoration.



CHAPTER XIII.

FUR ROBES AND HOW TO MAKE THEM.


While not usually classed as taxidermy the making and repairing of robes
will bring in many a dollar to the worker in the middle and northern
states. A stitch in time (on a robe) often saves more than the
proverbial nine, and the better the quality the more anxious the owner
to have it put in good order.

The late lamented bison furnished the robe par excellence, few of which
pass through the hands of the taxidermist nowadays. Their place has, in
some degree, been taken by the Galloway and other cattle hides, which
also make a practically one piece robe of good weight leather. These are
too heavy for economical dressing by hand, but the regular tanning
concerns will dress them soft, pliable, and clean for a very reasonable
price.

The regular robe makers do much of their work with the heavy overstitch
sewing machines, but it can be done as well or better by hand at the
expense of more time. Many of the smaller skins, as coyote, raccoon,
fox, opossum, and wild cat make up as handsome carriage robes and sell
at remunerative prices.

Skins of an inferior lustre or that are mutilated are often used. For
instance, the skin of the head may be mounted separately and not
interfere with using the balance in a robe. For use in a robe skins
should be taken off open and stretched in a rectangular shape as near as
possible.

After tanning, sew up all cuts and holes in the skins, dampen the flesh
side with clear water and tack out fur side down on the floor, table
top, or better still on light boards cleated together which may be set
on edge against the wall out of the way. In all sewing on rugs and robes
be sure and use a substantial thread well drawn up, fine stitches are
not essential but good material is, as such things come in for a deal of
rough use unlike mounted specimens which are, or should be seldom
handled. Glovers triangular needles and gilling or carpet thread of
suitable sizes are the necessary tools.

Skins of approximately the same size should be used in making up a robe
or the effect will be bad. After stretching and drying, cut them to
rectangular shape, taking care to get the darker line down the back in
the center of each. A good way is to cut a piece of cardboard to the
required size and mark around it. Gaps in front of and behind the legs
may be filled by sewing in small pieces rather than cut down the skins
too much. The drawing shows coon skin marked to cut for robe. The skin
is poorly stretched yet there are many even worse, altho trappers are
learning to handle the skins in better shape.

[Illustration: COON MARKED TO CUT FOR ROBE]

After the necessary number of skins are cut out they are sewed together
in rows and the rows in turn sewed to each other like a patchwork quilt,
taking care to have the fur all run the same way. The robe should now be
dampened again and stretched and tacked to its full extent to remove any
wrinkles and flatten the seams. This sewing is all done from the back of
the robe using an even over-hand stitch. Just before the final
stretching it is well to apply arsenical solution to the damp skins.

On drying it is ready for the trimming and lining. Sometimes it is
necessary to turn over the upper edge of the skins and baste it down or
it may show the raw edge of the hides on account of the fur laying all
one way.

Strips of felt 3 in. wide, pinked on one edge are used for trimming, and
may be had from the dealers, ready to use, or we can buy the felt by the
yard and easily pink it in the work room. Any one doing much robe work
would find a pinking machine (price about $5.00) a good investment, but
the small hand iron does just as good work.

[Illustration: STRONG HIDE (CATTLE) LAP ROBE.]

A double border of contrasting colors may be used, the upper strip of
which should be 3/4 inch narrower. The border is sewed on from the back
with heavy thread, using the same stitch as that for the lining rugs. An
interlining of cotton wadding is basted in place before the lining is
sewed on. Plush or beaver cloth is to be had in 54 and 60 inch widths
and a variety of colors, of which the darker greens, browns, and blacks
are to be preferred.

Fur robes are usually 48×60; 54×66; 60×70; or 60×84 inches in size, so
linings of the above widths cut without waste.

Single cattle or horse hides may be left with the edges merely
straightened or they may be cut and pieced to regular robe shape. The
bushy tails of such animals as wolf or fox are sometimes used along one
side or both ends as a fringe.

The number of skins required to make a robe are as follows:

    Raccoon                    12 to 20
    Coyote, wolf or dog         6 to 10
    Wild cat                   12 to 16
    Woodchuck or opossum       20 to 30
    Goat                        4 to  8

Baby carriage robes of angora or lamb skins are lined with quilted satin
and trimmed with felt of some light shade. They usually have either an
opening for the head and shoulders or a pocket for the feet.

[Illustration: COYOTE LAP ROBE, 8 SKINS.

Note tails in center.]

The natives of Patagonia make up many robes of the guanaco and vicuna,
dressing the skins and sewing them together with sinew. Their dressing
is faulty as the skins are apt to stiffen and crack and the sinew
hardens with time until it becomes like wire, though the stitching is
wonderfully even. They have, however, worked out a scheme of joining the
skins in a way to eliminate waste, that is far ahead of civilized fur
workers. A row of skins are joined head to tail and the next row headed
the opposite way will fit in perfectly, the legs being left on the
skins. The sketch with this will explain better than any description.
The guanaco pelt being of a woolly nature makes it unnecessary to run it
all the same way and the entire skins are utilized in spite of their
ungainly shape, the flaps and tabs trimmed off filling the indentations
around the outer edge of the robe. They make an excellent camp blanket
as light and warm as the malodorous, hairy rabbit skin robe of Hudsons
Bay, and no Patagonian ranch house bed is complete without its guanaco
coverlet.

You will likely be called on to repair robes much oftener than to make
them and such work is nearly all profit, as it generally consists in
sewing up rips and tears in the skins. Never attempt to do this from the
front or fur side as it can only be done right from the back. To do this
at least one side of the lining will have to be ripped and the robe
turned, turning it back and resewing it on completion. Linings are
turned under at the edges all around.

[Illustration: PATAGONIAN ROBE OF GUANACO SKINS.]

Worn and soiled linings and trimming often need replacing with new
material and it is sometimes necessary to purchase an unlined goat
"plate" to repair robes of that common variety. Worn robes can be cut
down in size if no similar material is to be had for repairs.



CHAPTER XIV.

MOUNTING ENTIRE SMALL FUR ANIMALS.


In Chapters VI and VIII directions are given for skinning and preparing
this class of animals for mounting, so with the skin properly cleaned
and poisoned before us the next thing is to cut the wires for a
supporting frame. These are six in number usually, body wire, tail wire
and one for each leg. The body wire is about one-half longer than from
nose to base of tail; tail wire the length of the tail bone and half the
body, and each leg wire twice the length of the leg.

I have spoken of using a muskrat for an initial attempt as it is of a
convenient size to handle and the length of its fur will hide small
defects in the anatomy. Most books of instruction select a squirrel for
the beginner's victim. It is true it is not as difficult as a hairless
Mexican terrier but it is apt to discourage the learner. An opossum will
do very well or any long haired animal of about that size.

We will first reconstruct a hind leg and if it is a fresh specimen being
mounted without a bath in the pickle we can have the opposite leg in the
flesh to guide, as to proper proportions. The wire is passed through the
cut in the bottom of the foot and along the back of the leg bones where
it is secured in about three places by tying with small cord. The end is
left projecting three inches beyond the end of the upper leg bone.

[Illustration: HIND AND FRONT LEG OF MUSKRAT WRAPPED READY TO CLAY AND
RETURN TO SKIN.]

The muscles and flesh are replaced by winding on tow with stout thread
until the approximate size is reached, when the surface is given a thin
coating of clay and the leg is drawn back into its skin. The fore legs
are in the same manner built to the joint with the shoulder blade.

After sharpening the tail wire to a point it is wound with fine tow and
thread and coated with clay until it duplicates the bone and flesh
removed. This is slipped into the tail sheath with the unwound end
projecting into the body and the slit along the lower side of tail sewed
up.

After making a ring about the diameter of a .22 shell on one end of the
body wire place it on your sketch where the hip joint was marked,
letting the wire run lengthwise of the body. Another ring similar is
made at the shoulder. These form the points of attachment for the legs.

[Illustration: WIRING FOR SMALL ANIMALS, FRONT LEG WIRES TWISTED TO BACK
WIRE.]

The skull, cleaned of flesh and poisoned, should have the muscles
replaced with tow and the whole coated with clay. Force a piece of cork
into the opening at the back of the skull. Sharpen the end of body wire
and force it through the cork and out one of the nostrils. The skull is
pushed back along the wire until it reaches the proper distance from the
shoulder ring, when all but an inch or so of the projecting wire is cut
off.

Insert the skull through the body opening and work it up the neck into
its place in the head skin, letting the end of wire go through the
nostril of skin also. This will hold the nose in place. Adjust the eyes
and ears also.

Now pass the ends of leg wire through the rings from their opposite
sides. The tail wire is passed through the rear ring and twisted around
the body wire a few times. The ends of leg wires projecting through the
ring cross, so twist them together a turn or two with pliers, next bring
them down and under the body wire, twisting them together, first one
side of it and then the other. This treatment will fasten the legs and
tail also firmly to the body wire.

Thus we have the skin with head, tail and legs filled out and the
supporting wires fastened together. The remainder of filling, usually
chopped tow, is placed with fingers, forceps, and stuffers. First a good
layer next the skin all around, then part this and fill in the center a
little at a time, first at one end, then the other. Put a good cushion
at the hips and shoulders between the wires and the skin and also at the
back. Fill out the neck well but do not stretch it unduly.

Begin sewing up at both ends of the opening cut, drawing a few stitches
up and tying the thread while you fill a little more. Model the animal
into shape from time to time by pressure with your hands and when filled
out and sewed up tie the threads together.

Our animal is now lying on its back with head, tail and limbs extended;
bend them into some natural position and set it on its feet. It may be
well to force a little chopped tow and clay into the bottoms of the feet
and draw the cuts in them together with a few stitches around the leg
wire projecting from them.

A temporary stand of a piece of board supported on cleats at each end is
prepared and a number of holes bored for the leg wires. A little
experimenting will find the proper place for these when the surplus ends
of wire are bent along the bottom of the board and fastened with
staples. Complete the head and face modeling now, filling out the cheeks
and lips and pinning them in place. Work the skin around the eyes and
ears into proper place and fasten with pins.

Fill eye sockets with sufficient clay and set the eyes, drawing the lids
down where they belong.

Any deficiencies at the back of the head can be filled through the ears.
In the case of a muskrat the ears are so insignificant that they only
need a little clay and tow forced into them to hold them in place. More
prominent ears as those of fox, 'coon, or wild cat must be filled with a
pasteboard form, cut the proper size and shape, coated with liquid glue
and inserted from the inside before returning the skull to the skin. The
ears of all animals should be pocketed when skinned, that is turned
inside out to their tips to admit preservatives and later some filling
material which will retain their shape when dry.

Do not skin out and throw away the ear cartilage but leave it adhering
to the skin of the inner side of the ear. Without it this skin is very
frail and brittle and thorough pickling will prevent shrinkage and
distortion of the ear.

Before leaving the head push it slightly towards the body on the wire
and cut same close to end of nose. Pull head back to place, the wire
disappears up the nose about 1/4 inch, then you can shape the nostrils
and fill so they will not shrivel up in drying and look as though their
owner had been a mouth breather.

[Illustration: OPOSSUM MOUNTED IN WALKING POSITION.]

If the general pose and appearance seem correct finish up by placing the
feet and toes correctly. Nothing gives a mounted animal a more trampish,
disreputable appearance than slouchy, run over feet with toes that don't
seem to be on the job. Lastly comb the fur out and fluff it up before
setting away to dry.

Animals up to the coyote in size are usually mounted by similar methods
to the preceding. Sometimes a piece of board is substituted for the body
wire, especially in the larger specimens, the wires to which are too
heavy to clinch readily. The skull is on a separate neck wire and all
wires are fastened to the back board by passing through holes and then
stapling.

Of course it is possible to mount small specimens by the same methods
most large ones are, by drawing the skin over a hard filling, in fact a
statuette, which must be made to fit the skin. This method in the case
of small animals requires so much time that it is impossible in ordinary
commercial work.

Strive to put your mounted animals in easy natural poses unless you are
making a grotesque, in which case go the length.

Clean the eyes and teeth with a brush when dry, and beat the fur to make
it stand out. Fasten securely on whatever form of mounting you have
decided on, countersinking the wires on the under side. Accessories, as
a piece of food in the mouth or paws, are added now if they have been
prepared for.

[Illustration: CAT SITTING AND WATCHING]

A slip with record of the specimen written on it and pasted to the under
side of stand will usually be appreciated. If the mouth is wanted open
it should be braced in that position, the lips, etc., held in place by
clay. When it is dry this can be dug out with awls and modelling tools
and the tongue, gums, and inside the mouth modelled in mache or some
plaster composition. The tongue may be modelled in connection with the
lower part of the mouth or made separately and fastened in place with a
brad and some glue.

Colored wax, pink for the inside and black for the lips, applied hot
with a little brush in several coats finish the open mouth. A little
black wax will join the eyelids to the glass eyes if they have shrunk
away and the inside of the nostrils should be coated with a little pink.
Bare skin on the end of the nose should be varnished.



CHAPTER XV.

MOUNTING LARGE ANIMALS ENTIRE.


Though at one time nearly all animals were mounted by the soft body or
stuffing method as described in the previous chapter, very few of the
larger ones are so treated now. An adequate frame is built in a body of
the proper size and proportions, the surface of which reproduces those
muscles lying next the skin. The skin, well pared down and poisoned, is
sewed, pinned and glued to this surface.

In the small specimen clay was used next the skin in places to perfect
the modelling, but such amounts would be required for a large animal as
to affect the durability of the skin. Clay and plaster being in a dry
state very absorbent, will eventually rob of all oily matter any skin in
contact with them. Such skins will crack, split and finally disintegrate
as thoroughly as those having an excess of fat adhering to them.

To prevent this a layer of some glue composition or paper is used just
beneath the skin. As an example in this mode of mounting a black bear
would answer nicely. If the leg bones are attached to the skin they may
be unjointed at the toes and laid aside while the skin is well shaved
down on its entire inner surface. A thoroughly flexible skin is entirely
at the command of the taxidermist, one stiff or hard cannot be placed or
kept in place at will.

After beaming, splitting the lips and nose cartilage, pocketing the ears
and sewing up cuts and tears, the skin is dropped in the pickle. An
outline sketch is made with chalk on the shop floor and on this the
bones of the legs are arranged. A stiff wire bent along the back of each
set of leg bones will guide us in bending the iron rods used as
supports. These should be from 5/16 to 1/2 inch in diameter, threaded
and fitted with two nuts at the lower end and eighteen inches or so
longer than the leg bones themselves.

Of this extra length, enough is allowed below the feet to fasten to the
pedestal, the balance is bent in a right angle from the end of the upper
leg bone. At the distance of the hip joint from the central line of the
body it is bent again parallel with the back board; for a hind leg. The
front leg rods are bent in the same way at the joining of the shoulder
blade with the humerus or upper bone of the front leg. You will readily
see the desirability of preserving at least one set each of the hind and
front leg bones. In such case the missing bones can be roughly blocked
out of wood to the proper dimensions, while if none are saved you will
have to do the same depending on the skin for measurements.

[Illustration: FRAME FOR BEAR MANIKIN.]

The end of the rods lying along the back should be bent again in a V
shape to prevent their turning when fastened to it. The location of the
hip and shoulder joints are marked on one side of the back board, the
rods for that side laid in place and fastened by drilling holes each
side of them and passing loops of stout wire through and twisting them
tightly on the other side with heavy pliers. The rods for the other side
are fastened in the same manner, in fact they may be fastened with the
same wires, but it will be stronger if the fastenings are separate. The
leg bones are bound fast to the rods with wire or twine.

Holding the back board in the vise by the middle the leg rods with bone
attached are adjusted to the position of the finished specimen. The
threaded ends which project below the feet are bent straight down.

A rough pedestal of boards on 2×4 cleats at each end, is made, the frame
placed on it and marking where the rods will enter, bore suitable holes
to receive them. One nut is turned up each rod a short distance and
after inserting in the holes in the pedestal the others are screwed up
tightly from below.

Our frame now stands alone and rigid and should be viewed from all sides
to correct any errors. It should not be too high, front or rear, and
also having the back-board perfectly vertical or plumb. Insert two
pieces of rod in the opening at the back of the skull and fasten them
there by mixing enough plaster of paris and water to fill the cavity, to
the consistency of molasses and pouring it in around them.

The ends of the rods should be bent or roughened to prevent them
slipping out after the plaster has set. A surplus of plaster can be
placed around the articulation of the jaws, at the same time holding
them in place. These neck rods are to run beside and be fastened to the
back-board as the legs were.

Let one remain straight and fasten it loosely so it may be drawn in and
out the loops until the proper length of neck is formed, then tighten
them and fasten the other rod also. Before fastening these try the skin
over the frame, making sure it will cover in all directions. A tail wire
stapled to the top of the back-board completes the frame.

[Illustration: BOLTING LEG RODS TO STAND.]

If two good sized rectangular holes are cut in the back-board just in
front of the hind legs and behind the shoulders they will be useful
later in shaping the body by sewing back and forth with a mattress
needle and cord. Drive a row of lath nails into the top and bottom edges
of the back-board about half their length at 2 inch intervals. They will
enable you to build up first one side, then the other of the body by
winding down excelsior with wrapping cord. These nails are driven fully
in when the winding is finished.

The limbs also are built up by using the same material. Do not build up
any part to a perfect fit yet, however, as we must leave room for a
shell of paper 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick. Depressions in body and limbs are
reproduced by sewing from side to side or drawing down with nails.

The neck and skull are built up in much the same way and the skin
fitting loosely, the manikin is surfaced up with a coat of soft
modelling clay well rubbed in with a small trowel. The paper coating is
to be applied while the clay is still damp so a large specimen must be
partly covered with a damp cloth to prevent it drying out prematurely.

The paper for this purpose should be of some soft easily pulped variety;
common building paper is good and may be torn in pieces of various size,
soaked in water 15 minutes, then squeezed out and coated on both sides
with paste. This is applied to the surface of the figure, the edges
overlapping slightly, until completely covered. Use paper of a different
color for each alternate coat to insure its completion. Five or six
coats will be sufficient when it may be left to dry, after which treat
it to a good coat of shellac.

The skin is withdrawn from the pickle, rinsed in soda solution, put
through the benzine and meal drying and coated on the entire inner
surface with preservative. Glue coated ear forms are slipped into place
and fastened by long stitches back and forth through the ears. The feet
and bases of ears are filled with papier mache pulp and the surface of
the manikin coated with liquid glue.

Now the skin is put on the form to stay, fastening down the central line
of the back with wire brads and drawn together at the junction of legs
and body with stout stitches. The legs are sewn up first and the opening
cut of the body last. A surplus of skin may be worked out and
distributed with the point of an awl, while it may be pulled and
stretched to cover a shortage in another point without changing the
animal's form in the least.

The ears are pinned in place and their bases distended by tow pressed in
with stuffers. Pointed wires thrust through the openings of the ears
into the skull will hold them in place until dry.

The nose, lips and around the eyes are correctly placed, filling
slightly between the skin and paper if necessary, use plenty of common
pins to hold the skin in place. They are either drawn or cut off flush
in short-haired skins when dry, but in one like the bear they may be
driven to the head and left so.

Any places not inclined to stay put may be clamped down with strips of
cardboard pinned on. The glass eyes should be placed now before setting
away to dry, which will require some time.

When dry any bare patches of skin will have a dead appearance and
require painting with oil colors thinned with turpentine to reduce the
gloss. The end of the nose and lips are touched with varnish to produce
the natural moist appearance.

If mounted with open mouth this is modelled in paper and wax coated as
already described. The fur which should have been nicely combed after
mounting will need another brushing and the animal is ready for removal
to a permanent mount or pedestal. Some little judgment can be displayed
in this selection as a poor, rough mounting will detract from the
appearance of the best work while a specimen far below the average will
pass muster with tasteful and suitable surroundings. The same principles
will apply with some exceptions in mounting about all large animals.

Some of the most ponderous have a hollow wooden frame made to reduce the
bulk of filling required; this is covered with wooden strips or lath and
this in turn with a layer of fibrous material.

Supporting rods more than 1/2 inch in diameter must have both ends
threaded and be connected with the back-board by iron squares. These
consist of a rectangular piece of iron, bent at right angles and drilled
with a number of holes in both flanges. One set of these is for screwing
to the back-board while the others are of a size to receive the upper
end of the leg rod. By changing these from one hole to another it is
possible to vary the distance somewhat between the front and hind legs
without moving the iron squares on the back-board.

[Illustration: FASTENING RODS TO BACK WITH IRON SQUARES.]

Sometimes the hair will be found missing in one or more places on a
finished animal and in such case "Old Dr. Le Page's Liquid Hair
Restorer" is the only remedy. The place to be covered is coated with
glue and a small tuft of hair from the same or another skin grasped with
a forceps, the base touched with glue and carefully placed. The hair is
arranged with a setting needle before the glue hardens, and though a
tedious operation it may be performed so well as to defy detection.

Another way where the hair or fur is of some length is to procure a
patch of the right size with hair matching that surrounding, shaving the
hide thin, coating the back with glue and pinning on the bare spot.



CHAPTER XVI.

MOUNTING HEADS OF SMALL ANIMALS, BIRDS AND FISH.


One of the most interesting collections which the average nature lover
can make is of the heads of small game. The expense is smaller than
where the entire subject is preserved, they occupy but little room, and
are easily kept in good order.

[Illustration: WILD CAT HEAD MOUNTED ON SHIELD.]

Heads of small fur bearers are all mounted in about the same way. In
skinning split down the back of neck from between the ears to base of
neck, cut around neck in front of shoulders and turn the scalp wrong
side out over the head, put it through the usual pickling, paring,
cleaning and poisoning. If ears are pocketed and lips split before
pickling it may prevent the loss of hair and epidermis, in warm weather
especially. Clean the skull if the head is to be mounted with open
mouth. If the skull is not to be had, the teeth are broken, or you are
in a great hurry, use an artificial form with the interior of the mouth
already modelled.

Enlarge the opening at the back of skull and insert a piece of board not
wider than the depth of neck from top to bottom. Drill a hole in top of
skull and drive a screw into the board into the board inside skull
cavity, prop the lower jaw open the desired distance and fill around its
articulations and the base of skull around neck board with freshly mixed
plaster of paris.

[Illustration: FOX HEAD SKINNED AND ON NECK STANDARD.]

When this hardens the skull with open jaws is firmly fixed on end of
neck board. Fasten neck board in vise and mark where to saw off,
allowing for a piece of 1/2 inch board shaped like a cross section of
the neck. If an artificial form is used, screw it to the neck board and
treat the same otherwise.

Make the neck short rather than long with the nose lower than the eyes
in most cases. Build up neck and head by winding on tow. Mount and
finish the head as directed in rug work.

[Illustration: LEOPARD HEAD, ARTIFICIAL.]

The skin may be fastened at the end of neck by pins or brads driven all
around the neck. Trim off any surplus with a knife, cutting from inside
the skin to prevent cutting off ends of fur.

If a skin has been ripped up the front to the chin careful sewing will
make it presentable, though such seams are hard to conceal.

[Illustration: HAWK HEAD.]

The heads of birds of prey and the larger game birds show up well
mounted and need no special treatment from that generally given. The
neck only is made up on a wire, one end of which is sharpened to thrust
through the skull while the other is stapled or clinched to a bit of
board round or oval shape. The skin of the base of neck is fastened to
this by sewing back and forth across the back. Heads of fish like bass
and pike are prepared by cutting off just back of the gills and cleaning
from the back all brains and flesh.

After poisoning, fill them with tow or cotton, bracing the mouth open if
wanted so and keep in the desired position until dry. Then the fibrous
filling is removed and they are filled permanently with plaster or paper
pulp and a piece of board fastened in the back of head to furnish a hold
for screws from the back of the shield or panel.

The inside of the mouth will need remodelling with wax and the whole
given a coat of white varnish. Any bright colors which may have faded
should be retouched with oil colors before varnishing.

Suitable mounts for small heads are in the regular shield and round and
oval shapes, and rustic panels of natural wood. A number of small heads
may be mounted on one long panel.



CHAPTER XVII.

MOUNTING HEADS OF LARGE GAME.


Mounting heads, of horned game especially, is a branch of taxidermy
which suffers no diminution in popularity. Such work is turned out at
the present time in far better shape than it was years ago, but many
fine heads still remain that were gathered in days of abundance of
buffalo, elk and mountain sheep.

[Illustration: SHEEP HEAD.]

In skinning horned heads never open the skin up the front of the neck;
not only are such seams difficult to hide but the skull with antlers
cannot be entirely removed from the skin as it should be.

To do this open the skin down the center of the back of the neck from
just back of the horns to the shoulders or at least half that distance.
A neck of medium length is preferable and many a fine head has been
ruined by being cut off just back of the ears.

Connect the upper end of the opening cut with the base of each horn or
antler by a short branch making the whole opening of a Y or T shape.
Turn the neck skin inside out down over the head, which in case of a
deer may rest on the antlers, until the ears are reached, cut these off
not too close to the head and the horns are next met with.

[Illustration: SKINNING HORNED HEADS. CUT ON HEAVY LINES.]

Work the skin from around the base of these with a dull knife or a small
screwdriver blade. With the same tool pry the thick skin away from the
frontal bone. When the eyes are reached have a care not to cut their
lids, working closer to the bone than the skin. Use the screwdriver
again to scoop up the skin from the so-called tear pits in front of the
eyes.

Let all the dark colored skin on the inside of the lips remain attached
to them. The skin of the neck is the thickest on the whole animal and
must be reduced by shaving. The skin of the whole head and neck should
not only be freed from all flesh and muscle but shaved to about one-half
its original thickness. For this purpose work on it with a sharp knife
or draw shave on a half rounded beam.

[Illustration: HORNED HEADS--ANTELOPE, DEER.]

Split the lips and remove their fleshy interior, split the nose
cartilage and separate it from the outer skin. With some blunt tool pry
the skin of the back of the ear from the cartilage and turn the ears
wrong side out to their tips. Give the scalp at least 24 hours' pickling
or it will be liable to excessive shrinkage on drying.

Many a fine head mounted green, without thinning or pickling, has shrunk
and continued to shrink for months, until all stitches gave way and it
cracked and shriveled to an inglorious end. If a paper head form is to
be used, the top of the skull at the base of the antlers is sawn off and
the balance of the skull discarded, the more common method will require
the cleaning of the skull with antlers remaining on it. A little boiling
will expedite this and by chopping an opening (1-1/2 inches wide in case
of a deer) into the lower part of the brain cavity the brain is removed.
This opening will also receive the end of a wooden neck standard of
plank three inches wide.

[Illustration: DEER SKULL ON STANDARD.]

A nail through the top of skull will hold it temporarily till the lower
jaw bones are placed and the whole held solid by packing the base of
skull and jaws in a mass of soft plaster which will harden in a few
minutes. This neck standard should be at right angles to the greatest
length of the head.

Measuring the neck skin where cut off gives the circumference of an
egg-shaped board, representing a cross section of the neck at that point
in a vertical line. The neck standard is sawed off at the proper place
and angle and made fast to the board by nails and screws. With a very
short neck it will be necessary to depress the nose considerably that
the antlers may not come in contact with the wall. This should all be
calculated before fixing the skull permanently on the neck standard. The
standard can be held in the vise and a little measuring will indicate
the point of attachment and angle needed to clear the wall.

[Illustration: NECK BOARD.]

Now wind excelsior on the neck standard and skull until the skinned head
and neck are roughly reproduced. Try the skin on occasionally to guide
in this.

Do not put any excelsior on the upper part of the skull and face as no
amount of flesh was removed there. Give the cheeks a natural fullness
and remember the neck was not round like a stove pipe. By sewing from
side to side the shape of the gullet and wind pipe can be molded. When
the skin is still not quite filled give the head and neck a coating of
potter's (or modelling) clay and then several coats of well pasted paper
as directed for covering manikins for large animals.

When this has completely dried out remove skin from pickle, clean and
poison it and after placing the ear forms it will be ready to cover the
head and neck. I prefer good cardboard forms for the ears though some
use only metal. Lead is too clumsy and heavy, copper and wire cloth
corrode, pure sheet tin works nicely but is expensive.

The form should receive a couple coats of liquid glue before the skin is
put on to stay. Fasten the skin in front of the eyes with a brad and
draw into place about the base of the antlers. Use a heavy needle and
waxed linen cord for this sewing. Heavy gilling twine doubled will do.

Sew up from first one and then the other antler to the central cut down
the back of the neck, tie the threads together and continue sewing down
the neck. Get the skin on face and around mouth placed, then draw the
neck skin tight and nail to the edge of the board with finishing brads
an inch or more long. Any surplus remaining can be trimmed away. A
square of rough board, screwed on the end of the neck, will enable it to
stand on the bench with nose up while the final touches are put on the
anatomy of the head and face.

[Illustration: PAPER HEAD AND EAR FORMS.]

The split lips filled with a little clay are placed and will usually
stay without pinning if the lower lips are tucked under where they
belong. Fill the end of the nose and around the nostrils nicely, no live
deer ever had a shriveled up nose. Fill under the eyebrows as the skin
there was quite thick before paring. Set the eyes, after filling sockets
with clay. A little work with a sharp awl will put the lids in place
with lashes disposed aright. If the ears have not been permanently
fixed, do so now filling out their bases with stuffers and thrusting
stout wires into the head to keep them set until dry. A few stitches are
taken to hold the skin of both sides of the ears together, when dry they
are removed. Brush the hair down and if it persists in rough spots,
paste them and then smooth down. When dry the comb and brush will remove
the scales of paste readily along with any dirt from the hair. When dry
clean the antlers and oil them lightly, brush out the hair and clean all
clay from eyes and nose. Connect the eyes and lids with black wax, model
the inside of nostrils with cream or pink wax and varnish the end of
nose and any bare lip that may show. Pins and brads that will show are
drawn out and others cut off level with the skin. The head which has
hung drying on the rough board may be removed to a finished shield as
complete.

[Illustration: FINISHED HEAD.

(Author's work.)]

The paper form method has numerous advantages but is not always
convenient to procure. It will save the beginner much tedious work and
greatly expedite matters for the professional. These forms as supplied
by dealers are of the entire head and neck. By cutting off the neck at
the proper point, nailing in the neck board and screwing the plate of
bone at the base of the antlers to a block in the top of head it is
ready to receive the skin. It will require but a short time for the skin
to dry on this foundation so the finished head is often ready to return
at the end of a week.

[Illustration: PAPER HEAD FORMS FOR ELK AND DEER HEADS.]

For a number of years I have used a modification of this process. In
this the form is cast in halves which are joined on a board cut to the
outline of the head and neck. This will afford a secure attachment for
the antlers and in addition the skin of the neck may be nailed securely
each side of the opening cut, making any ripping or opening by shrinkage
at that point forever impossible.

These paper forms may be bought or made in various sizes, so by the
addition of a small amount of some modelling material any skin is
fitted. With a supply of them on hand work can be turned out rapidly
during the busy season.

These directions for mounting will apply equally in case of moose, elk
or other large game heads, always providing supports adequate for the
larger animals. A mounted head with insufficient and wabbly mechanical
construction is not a joy forever.

The head of a common sheep or ram is a good one for the beginner, as its
coat of wool covers small defects. It is a convenient size to handle and
if not entirely successful no great expense has been incurred. On the
other hand a fairly mounted ram's head is quite ornamental and suitable,
especially on the wall of a country house.



CHAPTER XVIII.

MOUNTING HORNS AND ANTLERS.


A neatly mounted set of antlers or horns are an ornament anywhere, in
the home, office or public room, and in case any one of the out-o'-door
fraternity wishes to try setting up a pair, I will give a few simple
directions and hints which may be helpful. Some bits of lumber, screws,
plaster of paris, plush or leather, tacks, etc., are about all the
materials needed; also a one-fourth inch drill bit to make the necessary
holes in the frontal bone.

By sawing off the top of the skull down to the eyes we separate the
antlers and the frontal bone on which they grow, from the rest of the
skull.

Care should be taken to leave the same amount of bone on each side, so
the antlers will be the same distance from the wall.

For antlers of small or medium size eastern deer, cut a heart-shaped
block about 4×5 inches from a piece of soft 7/8-inch board. The edges of
this should be slightly beveled toward one side. This may be cut out in
its finished shape with a keyhole saw, or roughed out with a hand saw,
and trimmed up with a draw knife or wood rasp.

After drilling two or three holes in the plate of bone attached to the
antlers, arrange them evenly on this block and screw fast, using screws
which will not protrude from the back of the block. If the bone is
uneven or the antlers do not hang right, small pieces of wood may be
inserted at one side or the other until the desired effect is had. Now
put a half pint of water in some old dish and mix in plaster of paris
until it is like very thin putty. With an old knife you can spread this
over the bone and round it up nearly to the burr of the antlers.

[Illustration]

If the first mixing is not enough, mix a little more, for if too much
plaster is put on anywhere it can be easily scraped off before it gets
dry. This needs to be put on quickly as the plaster soon "sets" or
hardens and in fifteen or twenty minutes it can be scraped and trimmed
to a smooth, rounding surface.

For covering this wood and plaster base, plush, soft leather or
pantasote is used. Plush or velvet is the easiest to apply for a
beginner. A piece about nine inches square will do for our set of small
antlers. Lay this on the plaster and turning it over the edge of the
block, tack it on the back with carpet tacks, beginning in the center,
at top and bottom. Slit in each side to the antler and cut a hole large
enough to be a snug fit for the antler below the burr. Draw on and tack,
getting the wrinkles out as you proceed, the lower, or front part,
first. Lap the upper or back over it neatly at each side, turning the
edges under and fastening them with a few stitches.

It is a good plan to drive the tacks only part way at first, then they
can be easily drawn and re-arranged. Now cut two strips of the material
to go around below the burr of the antlers. Turn the edges of these
under, draw them tightly around and fasten the ends together back of the
antlers with a few stitches.

They are now ready for fastening on a shield or panel. Cattle horns
should have the piece of bone connecting them screwed to a long oval
block, then treated similarly. Horns of sheep, cattle and goats
frequently come loose from the bony core. A little plaster mixed very
thin and poured inside the horn just before replacing them will fasten
them on again.

Do not try to polish, paint, gild or otherwise improve the natural
appearance of deer antlers. Wash and clean them well and rub in a little
linseed oil. Polishing brings out the beauty of horns of cattle and
bison, if the operator is lavish of elbow grease.

The process is this: Fasten the horns firmly somewhere and attack first
with rasp, then file, scrape with glass, fine sandpaper, finer
sandpaper, powdered pumice stone, putty powder. Finish with oiled rag.
Old bison horn, weathered on the prairies till they resemble old roots,
can be made to look like polished ebony by the above formula. Don't
forget to add the elbow grease, though.

[Illustration: BOLTING "SHED" ANTLERS TO 2 × 4 BLOCK.]

Shed antlers are a different and rather difficult proposition. It is a
tedious job to drill them and insert heavy irons in their bases so
firmly as to prevent turning. Often they are cut off at a bevel, drilled
and screwed directly to the shield with brass round headed screws.

By drilling into the base of a shed antler, above the burr, in a
diagonal direction it may be bolted to a short piece of 2×4 scantling.
Fasten both antlers on this in a natural position in relation to each
other, then drill a second hole in each and bolt them fast, using
machine bolts and countersinking the heads in the antlers by chiseling.

[Illustration: SHED ELK ANTLERS TO BE MOUNTED. From National Zoological
Park Washington, D. C.]

The piece of scantling will need to be carved a little in order to get a
good bearing for the butt of the antlers. This artificial forehead, as
we might call it, is to be fastened to a heart-shaped block by nailing
or screwing from the back and covered as directed before.

If the countersunk bolt heads are carefully modelled over with putty or
"mache" and colored like the antlers no one will know they are not
attached to a 'bony' fide forehead.

Elk antlers will need 5/16 inch bolts, while 1/4 inch is sufficient for
most deer antlers; indeed screws of that diameter will hold a small pair
quite securely.

Sometimes the upper part of the skull is scraped, bleached and fastened
entire to the shield with brass screws or bolts.

The base block for large deer antlers should be thicker and larger in
proportion. Elk and moose antlers requiring to be fastened with heavy
coach or lag-screws to a block cut from two-inch plank.

Africa has a profusion of horned game mostly of the antelope family and
of late years many of these horns find their way to the walls in this
country.

They are mounted as directed for the deer with the exception that many
of them are improved by polishing the tips or even nearly the entire
length of the horns. As most of them are corrugated or twisted in great
variety this calls for considerable preliminary work with half round and
round rasps and files before sandpaper, glass and polishing powders give
a finish. If the tips and the higher surfaces of the balance are
completely polished, the rest smoothed down somewhat and the entire
horns rubbed with a little oil the effect will be good.

[Illustration: A Good Shield Pattern]

[Illustration: Back of block]

Shields are made in various patterns, woods and sizes, the average pair
of deer antlers requiring one 7/8 inch thick and about 8×10 or 10×12
inches. Oak in a dull oil finish always looks well, though walnut,
cherry, ash and birch are much used. If near a woodworking shop provided
with a jigsaw and moulder they will turn them out in any pattern you
may wish. The Ogee moulded edge is to be preferred.

If you have to make it yourself, a simple diamond, square or oval panel
with rounded or beveled edge will be sufficiently difficult.

Arrange the antlers in place on the shield and mark lightly around the
base, remove them and drill three holes for screws. Countersink for the
heads on the back of the shield and so fasten the antlers in place. For
light horns a brass screw-eye at the top of shield is used to hang them,
but heavy moose and elk antlers require an iron plate in back of shield,
let in flush across the top of a perpendicular groove to catch a hook or
head of a heavy nail in the wall.

[Illustration: DEER ANTLERS; ELK FEET; BISON HORNS.]

If the antlers are to be used as a rack for hats, guns or rods, two
screw-eyes or plates will be necessary to prevent turning.

There are other methods of mounting horns and antlers, but I have found
the above to be the most substantial and neat, and not very difficult.



CHAPTER XIX.

MOUNTING FEET AND HOOFS.


Many sportsmen now preserve the feet of their large game to have them
made up in various articles of use and ornament which they can
distribute among their friends or use in their own homes. Some of these
articles are gun and rod racks, furniture legs and feet, ink wells,
match, cigar and ash holders, thermometers, paper weights, umbrella and
cane handles.

[Illustration: WOODEN CROOK FOR DEER FOOT.]

It goes without saying that for such things as racks, furniture legs,
handles and thermometer mounts the leg skin attached to the hoof should
be left six or more inches in length while for ink wells, etc., it may
be shorter.

[Illustration: SKINNED DEER FOOT.]

[Illustration: DEER FOOT INK WELL.]

In fairly cool weather the feet and lower legs of deer will keep for
some days without skinning as they contain but a small amount of flesh.
Still it is safest and but the work of a few minutes to split them up
the backs, skin down to the toe joints and cut them off there. Dry them
with or without salting and they are easily packed up to carry home or
send to the taxidermist. If one foot and shank is received in the flesh
it will aid in mounting them up as racks, furniture legs, etc., as for
such purposes the skin is mounted over a piece of wood of the size and
shape of the skinned leg. For preparing feet for racks and handles it is
well to supply yourself with a number of natural crooks of about the
size of a deer's leg and nearly of a right angle. Sassafras, gum or some
soft wood work up easiest. When skinned place in pickle or give foot
coating of arsenic and alum--pickle is best. Be sure and leave enough
skin attached to hoof; a little experience will teach you this. Now
remove foot from bath, rinse well and sew up same as far as the claws;
next bore a hole through the claws from inside of claws, where it will
not show. Get two wire nails and nail these claws to a board, as shown
in A. Now arrange the hoofs as shown in illustration and put a screw
into each from underneath, to hold them down (B), or you can nail a
cleat across them by nailing to the block on each side of hoof; the idea
is to get these parts firmly placed in position. Now finish sewing up
the skin and stuff it full of chopped excelsior, shaping the foot as you
proceed. Now drive a long nail against back side of foot to keep it from
sagging (C). Allow the foot to thoroughly dry.

[Illustration: DEER FOOT THERMOMETER.]

When dry remove excelsior and cut off surplus skin around top and the
foot is ready for an ink well, match safe, ash tray or paper weight, as
they all go on the same way. Mix up some plaster of paris in water and
run the foot full and place the ink well or other fitting in place and
allow the plaster to "set" and the foot is finished. If you wish a pen
rest you can now place it in position. In setting up thermometers remove
bone to hoof and whittle out a stick shape of bones removed. Coat inside
of skin with arsenic and alum and place stick in position and sew up
skin. Put on metal cap at top and tack on thermometer. For hooks on
racks, work up a stick with crook into the approximate size and shape of
the deer's leg with the foot bent at right angles. It had best be a
little small so it can have a coating of clay or other modelling
material to make the skin fit it perfectly. Sew up as for thermometer.
When dry fasten to the rack by inserting in a square or oval hole and
wedging at the back.

For furniture legs the feet are turned out in natural position on wooden
legs, and fastened by bolting or screwing to small tables, stools, or
screens. As handles for canes and umbrellas, treat the same as for hooks
and leave the wood long to form a dowel which is glued or inserted in
cane or umbrella, a metal band covering the end of the skin. I have
referred in this chapter to deer feet, but those of elk, caribou and
moose are also used and suitable fittings in nickel and silver plate are
supplied in various sizes by dealers.

[Illustration: DEER FOOT HAT RACK.]

If you wish the hoofs mottled (they look best that way) file same until
you get to the "quick," which is light in color and gives the foot a
very attractive appearance. Smooth down with sandpaper or edge of glass.
Oil a rag and dip it in powdered pumice stone and rub hoof vigorously a
few moments, and you will have a beautiful polish.

The smaller articles are complete as they are or may be mounted, ink
wells, etc., on round, and thermometers on long panels of variously
finished woods. Many nice articles may thus be made from what is usually
considered worthless offal.

[Illustration: MOOSE FOOT JEWEL CASE.]



CHAPTER XX.

MOUNTING FISH.


These with reptiles are most difficult to preserve with any success by
the ordinary methods. There are some individuals which it is impossible
for the taxidermist to prepare the skins of, so as to retain a natural
appearance for any length of time. They can only be represented by casts
painted to the best of the artist's ability.

Most of the varieties of medium and large game fishes can be mounted by
the average taxidermist and it is with these we are mostly concerned.
There are almost as many methods of mounting fish as there are
operators, each having some pet kink of real or fancied superiority.

As often as otherwise fish are mounted in the medallion style, with one
side only showing. This is especially adapted to display on walls and
panels. For filling material everything from sawdust to plaster has been
employed but as good results as any are secured by a hard core of the
approximate size of the skinned fish, coated with some plastic
substances which is moulded into shape through the skin.

In skinning some fish the scales must be protected by pasting thin paper
over them but ordinarily it is sufficient to keep the skin wet and not
allow it to dry out until it is complete. A piece of oil cloth is good
to work on in skinning fish or birds either. Some taxidermists have a
large pane of glass set flush in a table top for this purpose.

[Illustration: FISH BEDDED IN SAND WITH PLASTER MOULD OF UPPER HALF.]

With a freshly caught fish at hand which is to be made into a medallion
the process is about as follows: Before skinning lay it flat on one side
on a piece of soft wood board of the proper thickness and mark out its
outline. Though only one side of the mounted fish shows, a little more
than precisely one half is preserved in order to include the tail, the
vertical and dorsal fins and also to give an appearance of rotundity.

Leaving this margin all around, the skin is cut away from the side
which, on account of damage or other reason, is selected for the back.
The head must be cut through with chisel or a fine saw. Severing the
bones at the base of the fins with the scissors the whole body is
removed by cutting the spinal column at its junction with the skull.

In skinning fish you will note a white layer, like tin foil, which gives
the fish its silvery color. Do not disturb this if possible. Remove all
surplus flesh, cut away the gills and interior of head and if at all
greasy (what fish is not) treat to a bath in gasoline. Use absorbent,
sawdust or meal to remove oily gasoline, drop in alcohol or formaldehyde
solution while the body is prepared. To do this cut out the board by the
outline on it with a short bevel on the back and the other side the full
shape of the fish. The whole form is slightly diminished, however, to
allow for a coating of clay. This is applied after the skin has been
removed from the solution and poisoned.

When a good fit is secured the skin is fastened in place by sewing from
top to bottom, across the back board, or if large, nailing the edges to
the board. The fins which have been kept wet are to be spread; each
clamped with two pieces of pasteboard. On very large fish spring clothes
pins may be used to clamp the fins, for small ones pins forced through
both thicknesses, _outside_ the fins.

Sponge the fish off carefully to remove all clay or other dirt and give
it a coat of rather thin white varnish. This prevents the scales curling
up and to some extent fixes or restores the colors of the fish.

The eye is set after the fish is dry and if it does not fill the socket,
model around it with wax or paper pulp. Fish eyes vary so greatly that
to strictly copy nature you had better use the uncolored fish eyes,
painting the back with suitable oil colors with a coat or two of shellac
over it to prevent the clay in which it is set from affecting the paint.
The final painting of a mounted fish which is necessary to complete the
best work is a task for an artist. If a specimen in the flesh (living if
possible) is at hand this is made easier. All fish skins collected
should be accompanied by color sketches if possible.

All silvery fish should be coated with size and nickel leaf over their
entire scaly surface. On this ground paint with thin oil colors. If the
paint is not too thick the desired silvery sheen will show through. If
the whole fish is dark no leaf is needed and in some cases the upper
part of the body requires a gold ground with the nickel leaf on the
silvery under parts. Japanese gold paint or something similar will do
for a golden ground.

The finished medallion may lie flat in a case, be fastened on the face
of a panel, or hung by a loop at the mouth or center of back. Panels of
natural wood are a favorite mount and framed panels covered with plush
or the imitation pebbled upholstery leather.

Another method of mounting medallions is to take a plaster mold of the
display half of the fish and from it make a plaster cast like the back
board. This is sandpapered down to allow for the skin and gouged out at
the bases of the fins and tail. The head too is not reproduced on the
cast.

[Illustration: MEDALLION FISH, PAPER BACKING, BOARD BACK, EXCELSIOR
BETWEEN.]

When the skin is ready to apply, coat this plaster cast with some
nonporous modelling material. A mixture of thin liquid glue and whiting
is good for this. Some paper pulp is put inside the head and at the
junction of body and fins. Shape from the outside with the fingers.

A piece of wood should have been placed in the back of the plaster cast
when making same, in order to fasten to a panel by screws from the back.
Paint the wood with melted paraffin before putting in the wet plaster or
it may swell and subsequently shrink enough to crack the cast. By either
of the preceding methods the entire fish can be mounted if desired.

The opening cut should be made from head to tail along the lower edge of
the body in most scale fish and will require some neat modelling to hide
as both sides are to be on exhibition.

Entire fish are usually supported by metal standards rising from a
wooden base. Such standards are preferably of brass, threaded and fitted
with nuts and rosettes at both ends. Two nuts at the lower end clamp the
base and with the upper end inserted in the back board, the upper nut
will adjust the fish at the right heighth. The rosettes cover the nuts
and add a finished appearance.

Especially adapted to tarpon and other ponderous fish are medallions
mounted on paper. To do this a half mould is made as described, the skin
removed, cleaned, poisoned and replaced in the mould. Then it is backed
up with numerous layers of soft paper, well pasted and pressed in with
the hands. Let these layers of paper overlap the mould at least as much
as the margin of skin left on the back.

When a sufficient thickness is attained fill the hollow form loosely
with crumpled paper or excelsior and fit in place a back board of light
wood. Nail through the margin of skin and paper into the edges of this.
If a number of large holes were made in the back board it will expedite
the drying out.

When partly dry, remove from the mould, painting and finishing as before
when completely dry. By this means the contour of large fish is
absolutely reproduced and the finished work is extremely light and
durable.

Many of the smooth skinned fishes are impossible to mount
satisfactorily, a cast is the best we can do for them.

When using a living fish as a guide in painting, it may be confined in
an aquarium and by sliding a wire screen partition, be kept just before
the artist's eye.



CHAPTER XXI.

MOUNTING FISH--BAUMGARTEL METHOD.


Some years ago A Practical Method of Fish Mounting was advertised by Mr.
Baumgartel in Angling and Sporting publications. Entire satisfaction was
given to those who studied and applied the lessons, through
correspondence school methods. Both the author and publisher of HOME
TAXIDERMY FOR PLEASURE AND PROFIT, are indeed glad to publish the entire
course as used by Mr. Baumgartel, including diagrams, figures, etc., as
same together with copyright was conveyed to A. R. Harding.

The same degree of excellence in mounting fish has not been so generally
attained as in other branches of the taxidermy art, and this I believe
is because an equal amount of study has not been given the subject.
Hundreds can mount birds well to one who can prepare fish in as skillful
a manner, although the mounting of fish dates from as early a period in
the art of taxidermy. It is a question of method and the right one.

The usual methods of mounting fish have proven so unsatisfactory that
they have been almost entirely abandoned, and, until the method to be
described was devised, it was necessary to place specimens in alcohol or
other preserving liquids or to make plaster casts of them. The
objections to the former process are that it is expensive, requiring
especially constructed jars to show the specimens without distortion.
They usually lose all their natural colors, and in most cases shrink to
such an extent as to give only an approximate idea of their original
form. There are also serious objections to the latter method. Plaster
casts are easily broken and certain parts, such as the interior of the
mouth, cannot readily be produced. Further, it is not desirable in
natural history collections to exhibit casts of the objects when the
originals can be displayed. Then, too, the sportsman does not care for a
cast of his "Big Fish," but wants the real thing to verify history of
the one that didn't get away. To me a plaster cast of an object that can
itself be preserved is about as interesting as a nicely painted decoy
duck compares with a well-mounted skin.

As is the case with nearly every taxidermist, professional as well as
amateur, I have always been an enthusiastic sportsman. The desire to
preserve the specimens taken by me led me to devote myself to the study
of taxidermy. Perhaps the dilatoriness of the "artist" who mounted my
first specimens had a stimulating effect. Later, as a professional
taxidermist, I for many years mounted fish by means of the various
methods, but the results obtained were not satisfactory to me.

In 1903 Mrs. Baumgartel and I made a trip to Pine River, Michigan, for
trout. It was in June. The weather turned cold, and we took few fish. On
the twelfth I made what was to be my last cast, had taken down my rod
and was walking along the bank of the river on my way to camp, when at
the edge of a pool I noticed a fish jumping. I could not resist the
temptation to try one more cast, and making preparations I dropped a
Parmachene Belle a few inches from the spot where the fish had just
broken the water. There was a rise, a strike, and I was fast to a fish
destined to be mine. After an exciting struggle, I landed a
thirteen-inch grayling weighing one pound and two ounces. Of course,
this fish I had to preserve and wanted it to look as it did when taken
from the net. We boarded the train for home that evening, and supplying
my wife with reading matter, I was soon lost in meditation. The madam
told me many times during the journey home that I was not at all
companionable. Be that as it may, the result of the earnest study given
the matter, and the previous experience gained in experimenting with
other processes, was that a practical method of mounting fish was
devised, a method by means of which the angler can successfully mount
his own specimens. "Necessity is the mother of invention," you know.

A picture of this grayling is given below. It still occupies a position
in our dining room, together with others to remind us of pleasant days
on lake and stream. It is mounted with the very fly and leader on which
it was taken.

[Illustration: GRAYLING--RESULT OF MY FIRST EXPERIENCE AT FISH
MOUNTING.]

For the past four years I have successfully taught my method by
correspondence. A few years ago activities in other directions compelled
me to give up taxidermy work, and other interests now demanding more of
my personal attention, the publisher of this book, always on the alert
for something of practical value to interest his readers, will present
to you in these pages the identical instructions I have so successfully
used. I take the liberty of quoting verbatim from a letter just received
by me from a friend of a prominent eastern professional man, one who,
while "chained to business," still finds time to get "close to nature"
for a season each year:

"Referring to the fish mounted on our Newfoundland trip: I may say that
it was our first experience and we were agreeably surprised at results.
In all there were ten specimens of salmon, sea-trout and brook-trout
mounted and we found no great difficulties. All the work was
accomplished in an old barn after we got home evenings and early
mornings before going out. The only obstacle we encountered was getting
the fish back to the states in good shape. Five of the specimens now
occupy prominent place in the Doctor's den and I am always pleased to
point out to friends the results of our labors."

You can do as well.

INSTRUMENTS.

    Knife.
    Needle and thread.
    Saw, fine toothed.
    Scalpel.
    Scissors, straight and curved.
    Shears.
    Skin scraper, not the toothed-edge.
    Tweezers.

One can get along with simply a jack-knife, pair of shears, and needle
and thread; but to do first-class work easily, good tools are required.

MATERIALS.

    Alcohol.
    Aluminum leaf.
    Arsenic, powdered.
    Clay, potters' or modelling.
    Eyes, glass, clear except pupils.
    Papier mache, prepared.
    Pine board.
    Pins.
    Plaster, calcined.
    Tube paints.
    Varnish, clear white.
    Brushes.

PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS--Try first a perch or other fish having scales
firmly attached. See that the fins and tail are uninjured, and that no
scales are missing from the side to be displayed. As every perfectly
formed fish has both sides alike, and as ordinarily but one side can be
seen at a time, only a little more than one half of the fish is to be
mounted.

Note carefully the colors (including those of the eye and the interior
of the mouth) of the freshly caught fish, making a sketch of the
specimen, showing the extent of the different colors and markings, the
spots, if any, and the eye. The pupil is not usually round. The eye of a
lake trout appears like Fig. 1. A carefully kept note book is a valuable
aid.

[Illustration: Fig. 1 Eye of Lake Trout]

While the tail is of course a fin (the caudal), in this work it will be
called the "tail," to distinguish it from the other fins. See Fig. 2 for
key to the names of the fins.

[Illustration: FISH IN MOULD. (Fig. 2.)

Names of fins: D--Dorsal, A--Adipose, C--Caudal (tail), P--Pectoral,
V--Ventral, An--Anal.]

THE MOLD.--Wash the fish in water to remove dirt and mucus. On a board
somewhat longer and wider than the fish, place a sufficient amount of
moist sand in which to imbed the specimen to one-half its depth when
lying on its side in the desired position. Level the sand and hollow it
out for the larger part of the body. Large fish should be displayed
straight, with the mouth closed or only slightly open. Smaller and more
graceful ones may be shown in positions of activity; rising to fly,
breaking away, etc. If the mouth is to be open, fill it with cotton or
cloth in order to keep out the plaster. Place the fish in the position
you wish it to have when mounted, the side to be displayed uppermost.
See that the dorsal and anal fins, and the tail, lie flat on the sand,
and that one-half the body appears above the sand its entire length.
There must be no uneven places. Viewed from the end, it should appear
like Fig. 3; from the side, like Fig. 4.

[Illustration: END VIEW. (Fig. 3)]

[Illustration: SIDE VIEW. (Fig. 4)]

Heap up the sand all around, about an inch from the fish, to prevent the
plaster flowing off the board.

Mix a sufficient amount of plaster to cover the fish to a depth of about
half an inch, covering the fins and tail as well as the body. Mix the
plaster by stirring a little at a time into cold water until it has the
consistency of cream. Place the pectoral and ventral fins flat against
the body. Pour the plaster over the fish slowly and evenly (covering the
head, tail and edges first), allowing it time to dry until quite hard,
perhaps thirty to forty minutes. Then turn the mold over (it will appear
like Fig. 2) and, by inserting the fingers in the gills, carefully
remove the fish. Lay the mold aside for a time. Wash all sand and
plaster from the fish.

[Illustration: INCISIONS TO BE MADE. (Fig. 5)]

SKINNING THE FISH.--If the fish has scales easily dislodged, wrap it,
with the exception of the fins and tail, in several thicknesses of
tissue paper, which will readily adhere to the moist skin. Lay the fish
on your table, on the side which was covered by the plaster and place
wet cloths on the fins and tail to prevent drying. Commence at the gills
and make two cuts with the scissors or scalpel lengthwise of the fish to
the tail, cutting into the abdominal cavity below, joining these cuts
(see Fig. 5), removing the strip of skin, including the pectoral fin,
with adhering flesh, and the contents of the cavity.

With the fingers, or tweezers, grasp the cut edge of the skin of the
back and with the scalpel carefully separate it from the flesh as far as
the middle line of the back from the head to the tail. Remove the
exposed flesh to the backbone. With the knife, shears or fine tooth saw,
split the head lengthwise a little to one side of the middle, leaving
somewhat more than half. Do not sever the skin of the body where it
comes to a point between the gills, and use great care when removing the
flesh from this portion.

You now have a trifle more than one-half the fish to work on. With the
scissors cut through the ribs and remove the backbone with some of the
flesh. Be careful when cutting through the backbone at the tail not to
cut through the skin below. Going back to the head, remove the remaining
flesh, and with the curved scissors and scalpel cut away all the
cartilage possible from the head; the more the better so long as the
skin is not injured. If enough of the cartilage can be removed to expose
the muscles of the cheek from the inside, cut them away, taking out the
eye; otherwise it will be necessary to work from the outside of the skin
through the eye opening, and this must be done very carefully or the
skin of the cheek may be broken. With most fishes it is possible to
remove all the cartilage from the head, and this should be done to
prevent shrinkage. If the mouth is to be open, do not cut away its
lining or much of the tongue behind. The tongue is to be split
perpendicularly lengthwise and about one-third of it removed. When the
head has been thoroughly cleaned, remove the remaining flesh from the
body with the skin scraper or scalpel.

The ventral fin which is uppermost as the fish lies on its side and is
not to show, should be carefully cut off outside the skin. Do not cut
off the ventral fin on the side which is to be displayed. Do not scrape
away the silvery lining of the skin if this can be avoided. Some of it
will come off. Cut away the bases of all the fins and the tail inside
with the curved scissors and scrape away all flesh, working close to the
fingers so as not to stretch the skin. Tie the vent inside with thread.
Unless the fish is quite small, the skin of the lower jaw must be
loosened with the knife or scalpel and the muscles cut away. The
adipose, or small fleshy fin on the back near the tail of such fishes as
the trout, must be carefully opened from the inside of the skin with a
small-bladed knife and the contents removed, to be later replaced with
clay.

Place the skin in water to loosen the paper--if any has been
used--carefully washing the skin and wetting the fins and tail
thoroughly. You may allow the skin to remain in the water until you are
ready to put it back in the mold, but not longer than a few hours.

FILLING.--Brush the sand from the mold, and if the upper edge is uneven,
smooth it with a knife so that it will be perfectly straight. Should
there be any rough places on the inside of the mold, carefully scrape
them down with the skin scraper.

[Illustration: INSIDE BOARD. (Fig. 6)]

Cut out roughly a piece of soft pine one-half to one inch thick the
shape of the outline of the fish, but somewhat smaller, using the mold
as a guide. One side will, of course, be flat, and that side should be
uppermost when placed in the mold. Work up with water a sufficient
quantity of clay to about the consistency of fresh putty. Place the mold
on your bench or table, resting it on something soft (such as a piece of
old carpet or burlap) to prevent its breaking. Drain the water from the
skin and put it back into the mold, adjusting it nicely. The median line
will guide you. See that the head, fins and tail occupy the same places
they did before. Pour a little alcohol on the skin inside and let it run
along the bases of the fins and tail, over the entire inner surface of
the skin and into the head to preserve any bits of flesh that may
possibly remain. Drain off the surplus alcohol. Fill the adipose fin (if
the fish has one) with clay. Sprinkle powdered arsenic over the entire
inside of the skin and head. Do not use more than will readily adhere.

The chances are that you removed more or less of the silvery lining of
the skin. Whether you did or not, cover the entire inner surface of the
skin of the cheek and body with two or three thicknesses of aluminum
leaf. Do not cover the entire surface at once. Cover a small part at a
time, and then put on top of the leaf enough clay to cover it,
commencing at the head and continuing to the tail. Replace the muscles
and cartilage of the head with clay. Be sure to keep the skin properly
adjusted to the mold. See that the fins and the tail remain in their
proper places and that they are kept covered with wet cloths.

Flatten out the clay (a small quantity at a time) with the fingers and
cover the inside of the skin to the depth of about one-eighth of an
inch, pressing it down firmly, especially at the bases of the fins and
tail and into the cheek and head. Fit in the piece of pine, cutting it
down as may be necessary. Its shape will be something like Fig. 6.

Mix some more plaster, and before putting in the piece of board, pour in
the plaster on the clay, filling the skin perhaps two-thirds full.
Quickly, before the plaster sets, put in the piece of wood, carefully
pressing it down into the plaster until it is level with the upper edge
of the mold, removing any surplus plaster quickly and neatly. Sew up the
skin from one edge to the other as shown in Fig. 7.

[Illustration: SEWING UP THE SKIN. (Fig. 7)]

REMOVING SPECIMEN FROM MOLD AND DRYING.--Lay a piece of clean board of
the proper size on top of the mold, turning both over. Lift up the mold
a trifle, gently shaking it. The fish may or may not come out. If not,
turn the mold back, insert the point of a knife in the wood and try to
start the fish. In extreme cases it may be necessary to break the mold
carefully. However, there should be no undercuts to hold the fish.

Carefully wash the fish as it lays on the board to remove all clay and
plaster which may be on the upper surface. With the fingers smooth out
any wrinkles or uneven places. Sometimes, when drying, small wrinkles or
bubbles may appear in the skin of such fish as trout, but they will soon
disappear. If you placed the fish in a natural position when making the
mold and properly adjusted the cleaned skin to the mold, there should be
no wrinkles.

Place thin pieces of wood the shape of the fins between the board and
the dorsal and anal fins, which should stand out from the board a little
way. Cover the tail and the fins which lie flat with thin pieces of
wood, pinning them to the board until dry. The fins which do not lie
flat should be spread between thin pieces of wood held in place with
pins or clips.

When the surface of the fish is dry, which will be in from six to twelve
hours, give it a coat of the very best white varnish (the ordinary
yellow varnish will not do) and put the specimen in a well ventilated
place out of the sun to dry. In three or four days when the fins are
dry, remove the thin pieces of wood and apply another coat of varnish.

CAUTION.--Arsenic is poison and should be kept out of the way of
children and animals. Keep the box covered when not in use.

Cuts in the hand can be protected by covering them with liquid court
plaster. Clean the finger nails carefully when through work, washing the
hands in warm water containing a few drops of carbolic acid.

FINISHING.--While the fish is drying secure uncolored glass eyes with
the properly shaped black pupils and paint the iris from your sketch.
When the specimen is thoroughly dry, in two or three weeks, dig a
sufficient amount of clay out of the eye opening and put in the glass
eye, setting it in papier mache. Use the prepared mache, which only
requires boiling with water for preparation. When the mache is dry, give
the exposed portion of it one or two coats of paint of the proper color.

Now do such painting as may be necessary--for instance, the spots and
fins of the brook trout, colors of which have doubtless vanished by this
time. Use tube paint, thinned with the white varnish. Usually it is
sufficient to place a small quantity of the paint of the proper color
directly into the varnish. Do not use much of the paint--just enough to
secure the color and yet not obscure the scales. Where the markings are
prominent, put some of the paint directly on the fish and spread it with
the varnish. Brilliant spots, such as those of the trout, can be
reproduced by the use of the paints without the varnish.

While the specimen is drying prepare a panel for it. To show the fish to
the best advantage, the panel should be of polished hardwood, although
stained pine will answer. Bore two holes about half way through the
panel from the back, slanting upward, by which to hang it. (See Fig. 8.)
Bore two holes entirely through the panel in the proper places and screw
the fish to it, putting in the screws from the back of the panel and
into the fish where the wood is thickest. Countersink the screws.

[Illustration: HOME MADE PANEL. (Fig. 8)]

Finally, apply a last coat of the varnish. Do not varnish the glass eye.
By keeping a piece of writing paper between the panel and your brush you
can varnish the fish without getting any on the panel. It is best to put
on the final coat after the specimen is mounted on the panel, because if
the fish is handled before the varnish is hard finger marks will show.

[Illustration: SIDE VIEW. (Fig. 9)]

MOUNTING HEADS.--With a sharp knife or saw cut the head off squarely
just back of first (pectoral) fins, as shown in Figs. 9 and 10, which
show the head of a black bass. In this case the ventral fins are also
left on. Place the head on a board with the cut part down, spreading the
fins as in Fig. 10. If it is to be displayed with open mouth, fill the
mouth with cotton or cloth to exclude the plaster. Cover the whole head
with plaster.

[Illustration: FRONT VIEW. (Fig. 10)]

After the plaster sets, with a saw and knife cut the mold into two parts
lengthwise, being careful not to cut into the head. Use the saw first
and when the plaster is cut down close to the skin use the knife
carefully. Do not attempt to remove the head before cutting the mold in
two.

Remove flesh and cartilage from the head, line with aluminum leaf, and
proceed as previously instructed. Of course none of the tongue is to be
removed if the mouth is to be left open, in which case do not remove the
bony parts of the gills. Before placing the cleaned skin in the mold,
tie the two parts of the mold together. Cut a neck board to fit and set
it in plaster. Finish as previously advised.



CHAPTER XXII.

MOUNTING REPTILES, FROGS AND TOADS.


The largest reptile of the United States, the alligator, is mounted by
methods applied to medium sized animals. Leg, head and tail rods are
stapled to a stout back board and after building up the legs from tow
the larger part of the body is filled by stuffing with coarse tow or
fine excelsior. Let the skin rest back down while engaged in this,
sewing up the skin as it proceeds, with stout twine and a sail needle.
You may even need to use the awl to pierce the armor like skin.

For any natural position the leg irons need not be heavy as this animal
usually keeps its body and tail in contact with the ground. The leg rods
are clinched or bolted beneath the pedestal as in other quadrupeds and
in addition some long screws are turned into the back board from below
and the tail held down by wire fastened to its central support and
clinched beneath the pedestal.

All but the smallest lizards are mounted in the same way as the small
fur-bearers. There is apparently no known mode of "stuffing" a snake so
as to resemble its natural state.

The skin must be placed on a carefully modelled manikin with a plastic
layer between. For small snakes tow is wound on a wire and shaped with
thread, and excelsior is used in the same way for the large ones.

The larger manikins are to be posed and paper coated in most cases
before receiving the skin. Frogs and toads are also very difficult to
mount in natural positions, but are nicely represented in painted casts.

Frogs, however, possess the distinction of not having to be sewed up,
when skinned as they usually are through the mouth. In doing this the
entire body is dissected away through the mouth and the legs are
detached and skinned the same way.

After turning completely wrong side out and poisoning the legs are
wired, wrapped with tow or cotton in the same manner as other small
animals. One hind leg wire is cut long enough to reach through the body
and head and to this the other leg wires are twisted. Some claim that to
leave the vertebral column attached to the skin of the back is an
invaluable aid in giving that part its proper shape.

[Illustration: WIRING SYSTEM FOR FROG.]

The body filling is tow or cotton placed through the mouth in small
pieces until the proper shape is acquired. Dry sand has been used to
fill the bodies of frogs, being poured in the mouth through a funnel and
retained by a cotton plug until the skin was dry, when it was poured
out.

Painting and varnishing are required to finish mounted frogs. The frog
is a favorite with the caricaturist as it can be made to take almost any
human posture with laughable results.

Turtles may be mounted by wrapping and wiring legs, tail and head like
other small animals, after detaching the under shell on three sides,
removing the body and skinning the limbs. The tow wrapped legs should
have a covering of soft clay which can be shaped with the fingers after
they are returned to the skin.

Twisting the wires together is all right for the small turtles, large
ones need a block of wood to clinch the wires in. The under shell is
replaced and fastened with small wires and as enough skin was left
attached to it to sew to, all cuts are closed that way. Heavy wires are
seldom necessary in turtles. Those having bright colored shells will
need to be touched up with paint and all should be varnished thinly to
give a fresh appearance.



CHAPTER XXIII.

SKULLS AND SKELETONS.


While the preparation of skeletons for the cabinet is sometimes
undertaken by the general taxidermist it is more often the work of a
trained osteologist. Collectors in the field are often asked to preserve
rough skeletons of desirable varieties and the skulls at least should be
preserved with the skin of each quadruped taken for mounting.

A specimen with a damaged or imperfect skin may yield a good skeleton
and in the case of something very rare both the skin and skeleton may be
mounted separately. This process is one calling for a skilled operator
as all claws, nails or hoofs should remain on the skin while their bony
cores are part of the skeleton.

In the preservation of rough skeletons, skinning by any method is the
first step, next the removal of the viscera, etc., then the most of the
flesh and muscle should be dissected off the bones, after which poison
with dry arsenic and put where it will dry out quickly and be out of the
reach of foraging animals.

The legs of small animals should be unjointed as well as the skull and
after trimming be put inside the body cavity and securely tied to
prevent loss; birds are treated about the same and all large animals are
pretty thoroughly taken apart in order to properly clean the bones.

Always remember that a skeleton with parts cut away or bones lost is
about as good as none. Leave any cartilage attachments and any parts of
a bony nature for the osteologist, to be on the safe side. Sometimes
along salt water an uncleaned skeleton may be put in a wire netting cage
and anchored in the water where various small marine animals will soon
clear away the flesh. On land, too, a similar expedient may be practiced
by putting small carcasses in a box with holes bored in it and burying
it in some active ant hill. In both cases the openings need to be small,
that the smaller bones may not be carried off and they should be removed
before the ligaments are destroyed.

[Illustration: SKULLS--DOG WOLF, SHE WOLF, BAY LYNX, OTTER, MINK.]

When they are not wanted for scientific purposes, skulls may be cleaned
with the minimum labor by boiling. Watch them closely, however, and
remove as soon as the flesh gets tender as much cooking will cause the
teeth to fall out and the skull to separate at the sutures. Glue and
plaster paris will put such disintegrated skulls in shape for commercial
mounting but they are ruined forever for the scientist.

A friend was once cleaning a quantity of skulls (for museum purposes)
and to expedite matters put them on to boil; all went well as long as
the pot was watched, but an accident, the collapse of a large building,
called him away and prevented his return until a dozen or so skulls had
turned to a mass of loose teeth and scraps of bone. I never knew just
what transpired between him and the museum curator afterward, nothing of
interest to the general public.

Small specimens which it is proposed to skeletonize are best preserved
entire in alcoholic solution as loss and breakage are thus prevented.
The solution of formaldehyde can be used for this purpose but is not as
good as it toughens the flesh, making its future removal more difficult.
The complete cleaning of a skeleton is a matter of much soaking and
scraping, calling for much patience and a strong stomach. Ligamentary
skeletons of the smaller birds and animals are often prepared and
mounted by the non-professional with fair success.

The entire specimen is cleaned of all flesh without disconnecting any of
the bones except the skull and the leg of all but the smallest species.

The spinal cord is replaced with a brass or galvanized wire of suitable
size and length; this should project enough to penetrate a piece of cork
fitted to the cavity of the skull. If the leg bones were removed they
should be fastened back in place by drilling small holes through them at
the joints, inserting a piece of brass wire and clinching the ends over.

The skeleton is hung by cords or threads in a frame of wooden strips, so
the feet will rest on the base, and then arranged in some natural
attitude, holding the parts in place until the ligaments are fully dry
by means of pins, threads and strips of cardboard.

The finished skeleton had best be supported on its pedestal by two metal
rods with a U shaped fork at their upper ends which will clasp the
vertebrae just in front of the hind legs and back of the head. These
rods should be of brass or galvanized iron gilded and their lower ends
are either threaded and provided with two nuts, or bent at right angles
and stapled to the under side of the mount. Bird skeletons are treated
in a similar way, but the wing bones need a supporting wire fastened to
the back bone and a single standard. The smaller birds and animals up to
the size of a small squirrel may be skeletonized and mounted without
metal supports.

A ligament which gives way may be replaced by some fibres of raw cotton
saturated with glue. While cleaning the bone for a ligamentary skeleton
it should be kept damp until it is given the final attitude. Water with
a few drops of carbolic acid should be used for this. A bath with
chloride of lime solution will help to whiten the bones, though very
greasy ones call for an application of benzine.

Fish, reptiles, etc., demand about the same treatment. The large birds
and quadrupeds are usually cleaned bone by bone, and each joint
articulated in the laboratory, though their preservation in the field as
rough skeletons require similar methods.

The main rule in collecting skeletons is to never, never lose a bone or
anything of a bony nature attached to the specimen.



CHAPTER XXIV.

SPORTSMEN'S TROPHIES.


As our game becomes scarcer I believe there will be more demand for the
preservation of the sportsman's trophies than in the days of abundance
now past. Then only a phenomenally rare or large or freakish example
seemed to warrant the trouble and expense of putting in the
taxidermist's hands. Now the souvenir of a good day's sport or a
memorable outing is deemed well worth keeping.

Heads, horns, skins for floor or hangings and fish and game panels for
the dining room walls have always been in high favor with sportsmen. So
also are unique articles of use and decoration for the home. The
naturalist sportsman whose trips are, from force of circumstances, only
local can in a short time make a splendid showing by preserving such
good types of game as he may procure.

In mounting birds as hanging dead game it is well to hang the specimen
before skinning, in the position wished and if possible sketch it so, at
least impress its appearance well on the memory. The main points of the
process are the same as for ordinary mounting. There are, however, a few
exceptions which I will mention.

If one side of a bird is defective in any way it may be mounted with
such side next the panel, so often, if the specimen is to have the
breast or under side displayed, the opening cut is made down the back or
on one side. If a pair of birds of the same kind are used on one panel
pose them to display the back of one and breast of the other.

It will usually be necessary to wire the wings of birds for game panels
so as to adjust them properly, though they are sometimes fixed from the
outside by embedding sharpened wires in the body.

Ducks of all kinds are especially suitable for panels in that their
plumage being stiffer and more durable does not make casing in glass so
necessary, though most of our game birds can, by proper treatment,
dispense with such protection. One of the most effective duck trophies
which I ever saw was a string of three or four small duck rising in
flight apparently from one corner of a room, to the ceiling in the
center of the side wall.

[Illustration: FLYING DUCK. (For wall.)]

For this effect they are mounted with wings spread and raised, head and
legs outstretched. They are hung on nails in the wall in a regularly
ascending line, the point of suspension being a wire loop under the wing
on the side next the wall. Single birds look well in the same position.
Rabbits and squirrels are also mounted as hanging dead game either in
combination with some of the small game birds or separately. In
selecting panels for this class of work use those finished in a
contrasting color to the general tone of the specimens, a dark bird on a
lighter panel and the reverse. On all panels and shields smooth rounded,
beveled or Ogee edges are advisable. Small headings and intricate
moulding are dust catchers. Wild cats, 'coons, foxes, coyotes, even
bears and pumas gathered by night hunters and dog enthusiasts are
usually best made up as more or less elaborate rugs. As wall and couch
or chair hangings these have no trimming and often no lining except
under the head. If for any reason the skins are unfit for this the heads
can generally be used as wall mounts.

[Illustration: TIMBER WOLF RUG, FULL HEAD.]

[Illustration: DEER HEAD HALL RACK.]

Room may be found for a few of the smaller specimens mounted whole but
in the average home they are the bugbear of the housekeeper, early
exiled to the attic. A friend of mine has his collection of small game
birds, occupying the plate rail of his dining room, well out of the way
and admired by many. Well mounted heads and antlers are suitable almost
anywhere that they do not seem crowded. The famous East Room of the
White House has some handsome examples. To make them answer a useful
purpose they are made into hall racks, alone and in combination with
feet. The makers of mounts offer a number of very attractive designs in
the well-finished hard woods, some provided with plate glass mirrors.
Fish make beautiful trophies which lend themselves particularly to wall
decoration on panels or as framed medallions. How often the mounted
trophy would save the fisherman's reputation for veracity. Perhaps their
rapidly perishable nature accounts for the rarity of fish trophies. In
conclusion I would say if you are a sportsman try the preliminary or
entire preservation of some of your trophies, at least get them to the
taxidermist in as good order as you can. Remember no matter how fine a
specimen may have been, if allowed to be mutilated, become putrid or
damaged, it can never be entirely repaired.

The taxidermist must recall that exigencies of the field are responsible
for neglect of many details and a nature loving sportsman is a friend
worth having, who will share the contents of a seldom overfull purse
with you in return for your best efforts.



CHAPTER XXV.

ODDS AND ENDS, TAXIDERMIC NOVELTIES.


There is almost no end to the useful and interesting things an ingenious
person can turn out in this line. There is quite a demand for the
preservation of the plumage of game birds for millinery use since the
killing of other birds for this purpose was forbidden. Wings, tails,
heads and breasts, principally, of grouse, pheasants and water fowl so
used do not call up visions of starving nestlings. They need only to be
skinned and poisoned as usual and pinned out to dry in the desired shape
often loosely filling in and some cases wiring with rather small soft
wire. When dry all raw edges or surfaces should be covered with pieces
of cambric or lining canvas glued on.

Antlers and horns are sometimes worked up into armchairs and two pairs
of small deer antlers turned upside down and screwed to a square of
board make the foundation of a nice stool. Hat, gun and rod racks of
feet, antlers and heads in various combinations are mentioned elsewhere
and occasionally some one attempts an electrolier of antlers, mounted
either on the heads or separately.

To do this grooves are chiseled out of the back of the antlers to
receive insulated wire running to each point which is equipped with a
light bulb. After placing the wires and bulbs and testing, the grooves
are filled with "mache" or putty colored to match the other surface.

Peacock feather and fox tail dusters are fitted with buck horn handles
or those made of fox or wild cat paws. Riding whips will look well with
the same style handles.

Screens from mounted birds are highly ornamental, especially those of
framed plush or satin on which birds of contrasting plumage are mounted
in medallion style. It would be hard to find a more beautiful object
than a snow white heron medallion on a black velvet screen framed in
gold. These medallions are mounted by flattening the subject
considerably so it is in little more than half relief.

A number of small birds may be mounted on a satin covered screen with
embroidered branches and foliage. Some of the smaller fur bearers have
been used in this way with success.

Some artists have specialized in grotesque mounting of small specimens,
singly and in groups. Frogs, toads and squirrels are best suited to such
caricature work.

A foot muff can be made up from scraps of fur and will be appreciated in
cold climates on long rides and indoors as well sometimes. To make this
a covering of the size and shape of a foot stool is made of carpet or
similar material. The bottom and sides are of this and the top of some
short fur. A slit is made in this top and a bag of long fur or wool is
sewed into the slit so when the muff or stool is loosely filled with tow
and excelsior the feet may be thrust down into the fur lined pocket. The
head of a fox or wildcat in half relief put on top, over the feet will
give a finish to it.

[Illustration: FOOT MUFF, TRIMMED WITH HEAD AND TAILS.]

A novelty in fur rugs is to mount the skin of some small animal in the
center of a larger one of contrasting color. The so-called Plates of
black goat are often so used with a fox, coon, or lynx in the center.

To do this mount the fox as for a half head rug, when dry and shaped cut
out a paper pattern the exact size of it. Apply this pattern to the back
of the goat plate, mark around it and cut out, leaving the opening a
little smaller than pattern. Be sure pattern was right side up. Sew the
skin in from the back, wad and line it. A felt trimming is unnecessary
on this rug.

[Illustration: MONKEY CARD RECEIVER.]

Match safes, candle holders, and similar things are made from the heads
of fish and ducks with metal containers fastened in their open mouths.
Monkeys, bear cubs and alligators mounted erect with card trays are
quite striking while foxes or raccoons peering over the edge of umbrella
jars or waste baskets are equally so. Many animals are mounted in
Germany for advertising purposes, being either sold outright or rented
by the month. Some of these are really a form of slot machine with coin
actuated mechanisms while others are motor driven, attracting attention
as moving displays always do. Bears and foxes on swings and seesaws and
various small animals on merry-go-rounds are always attractive.



CHAPTER XXVI.

GROUPS AND GROUPING.


This subject is more of interest to the museum preparator than the home
taxidermist, but a short consideration of it is not out of place here.

Many instructive and pleasing little groups of our smaller mammals and
birds can be prepared for display in the home. Such groups usually
require casing for protection but are well worth the trouble and
expense.

Always try to make a group mean something. Let the subjects be feeding,
fighting or occupied in any natural way. Family groups showing the male
and female, adults and young, in the home surroundings are always good.

The seasonal groups of Spring, Autumn, Summer and Winter have been
produced by most bird taxidermists at some time. Appropriate varieties
of small birds are the blue birds for Spring; gold finches, Autumn;
yellow birds or tanagers, Summer; snow birds, Winter. Framed with
painted backgrounds and suitable accessories their shallow wall cases
may be hung like pictures.

Never make the mistake of grouping animals that would never meet in
natural circumstances or furnish them with incongruous surroundings.

[Illustration: SQUIRRELS--GREY, RED, FLYING, GROUND (CHIP MUNK)]

The arrangement of groups for the exhibition cases of museums is very
exacting as they are made open to the view on all sides. In order to
judge of the affect such groups are modelled in miniature clay figures
which are changed and re-arranged until satisfactory before the mounting
is begun.

Such work is rather out of our province but an intelligent arrangement
of two or more figures can be made to convey many more ideas than a
single one would suggest.

Some of the most striking groups are those of the larger carnivora in
combat, but they hardly possess the real value of painstaking life
studies of some of our more familiar kindred of the wild.



CHAPTER XXVII.

ANIMAL ANATOMY.


A knowledge of this subject coupled with the necessary mechanical
ability will enable their possessor to take place in the front ranks of
taxidermists. Even if we have but little opportunity to study the
anatomy of some of the rarer varieties of animal forms we can inform
ourselves of certain typical features possessed in common by other more
common members of the same great family or species.

Press and camera supplies us with much reliable information on the
subject. Books on natural history, travels and sports were never so
complete, interesting, and withal, so easy of access as they are
nowadays.

A great help to the naturalist is a collection of pictures such as
appear from time to time in periodicals. Back numbers of magazines on
outdoor life and sports will contribute quantities of these, most of
them reproduced from photographs and in a short time a large collection
of such can be made. Packing these in the pockets of a letter file will
keep them together, and at the same time make it possible to withdraw
any one or more for inspection when wanted.

Photos of dead animals are not particularly valuable but casts always
are; make them whenever opportunity offers. Not so much casts of the
entire specimen as casts of various details.

Get a set of moulds of the noses of say deer, moose, domestic cattle and
sheep and keep the resulting casts for reference. Their value will be
apparent when mounting heads. Any sketches, however rough, will also be
of use.

The circus and zoo will furnish feast days for the student of animal
anatomy and pencil and camera may be used freely at both with the
assurance of the best of treatment from officials and keepers.

A visit to the meat market will afford opportunity for study of the
muscular system of the domestic animals.

The sculptor builds up his clay model unhampered by fur, feathers or
bones and chisels out his statuary on a scale determined by himself
while the taxidermist must not only construct his figures or manikins in
correct proportions, but make them fit a certain skin. Hence it behooves
him even more than the sculptor to be well grounded in at least the main
principles of the anatomy of animals.

Birds in particular are a fruitful source of study, muffled as they are
in feathers, when stripped presenting a very different appearance. To
illustrate the value of a knowledge of avian anatomy I will mention an
incident occurring many years ago at a large taxidermy establishment.

[Illustration: WATER FOWL HEAD.]

Two of the frugal minded workmen having skinned a large plump duck laid
the body minus head, feet, and wings aside to furnish a dinner next day.
The porter regarding same as his perquisite abstracted and hid it. The
first owners discovering it substituted the body of a large horned owl
then in the process of mounting and so made all concerned happy. The
porter bragging loudly next day of the fine duck he had done them out
of, they were able to convince him of the truth only by exhibiting the
duck remains as a part of their lunch.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

CASTING AND MODELLING.


One of the leading authorities in this country has aptly said, "The
ideal taxidermist must be a combination of modeller and anatomist,
naturalist, carpenter, blacksmith and painter. He must have the eye of
an artist and the back of a hod carrier." This should not dismay the
beginner for such casting and modelling as will be indispensable are
comparatively simple.

In order to cast we must have molds and in our work these are chiefly of
plaster. They are divided into two classes known as piece and waste
molds. As the names indicate the latter is wasted or destroyed after
making one copy while the piece variety can be used for a number of
reproductions. The piece mold is divided into sections in such a way as
will allow its removal without injury to either mold or cast. The waste
mold is made from soft or fleshy objects which can be drawn from it in
spite of projections known as undercuts.

As an illustration let us procure a cast of a deer's nose for reference
in mounting the head later. For our purpose we wish a cast of the nose
and lips, so with the head in the flesh at hand, the hair as far back as
the corner of the mouth is coated with clay water to prevent the liquid
plaster from penetrating and adhering. This done the head is propped up
on the table and a rough box arranged around it, which will reach nearly
to the mouth as the head is placed with nose uppermost. Pour sand in
this box until only as much of the nose projects as is desired to cast.

Now mix in a bowl or basin a sufficient amount of water and plaster of
paris to cover the surface of the deer's nose about 1/4 inch thick. This
should be of the consistency of cream and enough bluing or lampblack
should be added to give it a decided tint.

If the skin of the lips and nose is disposed naturally the plaster may
be ladled on with the spoon, endeavoring to get about an even coating.
Wash any remaining bits from the dish and mix say twice the amount of
plaster without coloring. Distribute this over the other and allow to
harden, which they will do in about 20 minutes. A little careful work
will withdraw this mold from the nose and it may either be laid aside or
used at once in making the cast.

To do this brush the inside with clay water and pour it full of plaster.
Shake well to prevent bubbles and when hardened chisel away the mold. In
doing this lay it on the lap or a cushion and chip off the mold. When
the first layer (the colored one) appears work with caution to avoid
marring the cast.

If a wire loop was inserted before the plaster hardened the cast may be
hung on the wall for future reference.

[Illustration: THREE PIECE MOULD OF HEAD.]

The preparation of a piece mold is somewhat different. A mold can be
made in two pieces of a round object like a ball and if each piece is
exactly one-half, it will draw, because there is no point under which
the plaster will hold. Any hollows or projections will form "under cuts"
necessitating making the mold in a number of pieces that it may relieve
or be lifted off the cast. Molds of heads from which to cast paper forms
are often wanted and are easily made. With the skinned head of a fox,
let us say, on the table, the lower part is embedded in fine sand or
clay about on a line with the mouth. Cover half of the exposed upper
part of the head also with clay. Pour to the depth of at least 1/2 inch
on the remainder.

Remove the clay from the other half of the face, and after
countersinking two or three shallow holes in the edge of that part of
mold already made and coating that edge with clay water, pour plaster
for the second piece of mold. When this hardens pick up head from its
bedding of sand or clay and turn over so the final piece of model can be
made.

Always coat the edges with shellac or clay water to prevent adhesion and
countersink a few holes for dowels to aid in holding the pieces in
place. Dry out thoroughly and shellac the whole interior and joining
edges. If it is slightly oiled before using a great number of casts may
be made from it. This will give us a complete cast of a fox head with
closed mouth.

A shorter method to obtain molds of the upper part of the head and face
for making paper half-head forms, is to imbed in sand or clay as
directed and stick a piece of stout thread or cord along the central
lines of the head and face. A little clay will hold this in place and
there should be a few inches surplus at each end. Mix the plaster and
cover the entire top and sides of the head with it. Just as the plaster
begins to harden draw the thread upward through the stiffening plaster
cutting it in two parts which are easily removed when hard. When dry
coat with shellac, tie together and they are ready for use.

[Illustration: MAKING MOULD FOR HALF HEAD.]

To cast half head forms soak some paper and after coating one side with
paste, press into the mold with the fingers. The first layer should be
quite soft so as to crowd into all depressions. About six layers of
building paper is thick enough for a fox head size. When dry cut the
cords and detach the mold.

Molds for deer head forms are made in two pieces, one for each side of
the head, and are necessarily not carried completely around the antlers.
This gap is just filled in the head form by the plate of bone bearing
the antlers, which is sawed from the skull.

The entire neck may be molded in connection with the head if desired.
Gelatine and compositions of glue and wax are used for molds where fine
definition is desirable, and wax as well as plaster and paper for making
casts. The ground up paper pulp is used for many casts, pressing it into
mold with fingers and spatulas.

Clay is the stand-by of the taxidermist modeller. That furnished by art
dealers is best, but for common use potter's clay is all that is
necessary. A little glue mixed in plaster delays its setting and makes
it harder when dry. Good papier mache is one of the best materials for
much modelling and wax for very fine work. Tools for this work may be
purchased or home made of wood, bone or metal.

Many forms of fishes and reptiles are difficult or impossible to mount
by ordinary methods. On these the caster and modeller may work his will,
and if he also possesses a good eye for color the results may be of the
best. As an indisputable record of anatomy even a poor cast is valuable.



CHAPTER XXIX.

MARKET TROPHY HUNTING.


In this country and day of conservation this would seem like a delicate
subject to attack. The hunter for the trophy market a few years back was
slaying elk, mountain sheep, moose, deer, or antelope indiscriminately.

[Illustration: DEER FOOT INK WELL AND PEN RACK.]

While modern game laws have changed or at least modified this I can see
no reason why a hunter who is entitled to a certain head of game per
season should not utilize them fully by preparation and sale to others
who have not similar opportunities.

[Illustration: MOUNTAIN LION OR PUMA HIDE.]

What would often be left in the woods as useless, as indeed it would be
for food purposes, is transformed into a beautiful and decorative
article of considerable commercial value. Often things being equal the
trophy hunter will avoid killing young and female game animals on
account of the worthlessness of their heads as trophy if not for any
ethical reason.

While the day of trophy hunting as a business in the United States is
past probably, by preserving such heads, horns, feet and skins as come
in his way the trapper, prospector and settler can often add
considerably to his income. For instance, from one to five deer may be
legally killed in different states. If two good heads are taken, worth
say $15.00 and $20.00 each when prepared, that sum would go far towards
paying the expenses of an enjoyable outing.

The fur trapper will frequently take some animal the skin of which may
for many reasons be of little value. The puma or mountain lion is such a
one, worth but $2.00 or $3.00 usually, the mounted head is a striking
wall ornament and the skin is suitable for couch or floor.

Though fur dealers will make some deduction from the regular prices on
skins from which the heads are removed, it is vastly more profitable to
retain them and preserve as trophies.

Horns and antlers and head skins or scalps of all our large game have a
certain value either separately or together. Mounted heads, damaged by
moth create a demand for extra scalps and separate antlers are often
called for. Extra large heads or antlers of freakish formation seem to
possess a special fascination for the public.

[Illustration: SPRING LAMB? COON HEAD.]

Commercial fishermen handling fish in large numbers would do well to
preserve at least a few of the more notable specimens of their catch.

In some localities there is every summer an opportunity to supply
"rusticators" with rattlesnake skins which may be prepared for wall
decorations or use as belts, hat bands, card-cases, and neck ties. They
should be packed in salt until tanned as drying out while in the raw
state is apt to spoil them. On account of the snake's habit of shedding
its skin at varying intervals, dressing snake skins is rather of the
nature of a lottery. The dressed skins should be made up with a backing
of some other leather as it is apt to possess but little strength of
itself.

In localities where the tarpon, tuna, muscallonge, and other large fish
are caught it is well to keep some good specimens on hand as such are
often in demand to substantiate a fish story.

In a word, gather and preserve some of the best objects of animated
nature your locality affords, whether fur, fin or feather.



CHAPTER XXX.

COLLECTING AND MOUNTING FOR SALE.


Commercial taxidermy is roughly divided in two branches, custom work,
and collecting and mounting for sale. For the first you need some fixed
place of business easy of access to the public and convenient to lines
of transportation. The latter may be taken up anywhere if a demand has
been noted and a market assured or in prospect.

Travelers in little known parts of the country often pay their expenses
or even gain considerable profit by collecting desirable specimens of
animal life. As a side line on pleasure trips it is sometimes
remunerative. Woodsmen and fishermen will often find it to pay better to
preserve for mounting part of their game at least.

The sales end of the proposition is the most difficult for the outdoor
man. Such work has not the fixed (?) value of furs and meat. There are a
number of dealers in naturalists' material who aim to keep on hand a
pretty complete stock of specimens for museum purposes. Correspondence
with these will procure their want lists.

Many more deal in unmounted trophies of heads, horns and rug skins.
Occasionally an order for small and common species may be secured from
some school or college. Such institutions will often place an order for
desirable material with a prospective traveler.

[Illustration: BOOKCASE ORNAMENTS--CROW; ALLIGATOR (Fisherman from the
Everglades); OWL.]

Finally it is well to mount a good specimen or two of almost any variety
on general principles. It is astonishing how difficult it is to procure
some very common species on the spur of the moment. If you accumulate a
number of nicely done and attractive specimens it is possible to secure
their sale on commission.

As such things are apt to draw attention as a window or wall display
some druggist, sporting goods dealer or other business man may be glad
to aid in their disposal. In or near a game country the local hotels
will help advertise you by giving wall space in dining room or office to
suitable pieces accompanied by a business card. Donations to libraries,
schools and other public and semi-public institutions will keep you more
or less in the public mind.

Endeavor to fill any orders you receive even if obliged to purchase at
such rates that no profit remains.

Do not diminish the animal life of your locality by collecting
everything you can lay your hands on. It would be time misspent and
mostly unrewarded.



CHAPTER XXXI.

PRICES FOR WORK.


To those who hope to coin spare hours into dollars and cents, or others
who must make a hobby pay its own expenses at least, an important
question is, what is my work worth?

And one will concede that a taxidermist should receive at least as much
as a skilled mechanic and the experts both in commercial and museum work
are sometimes (not always) highly paid.

What seems the fairest method of compensation is by "piece work" and
most custom taxidermy is handled on that basis. Most professionals have
a regular scale of prices which, while necessarily more or less elastic,
will give the public an estimate of cost.

The schedule which I give is, I think, about that in use in the Eastern
States. The outside prices are for extra large specimens or those
mishandled or injured so as to require an extra expenditure of time to
give satisfaction.


PRICES FOR MOUNTING SPECIMENS.

  BIRDS.

    Small Wrens, Canary,                  $ 1.00 to $ 1.50
    Robins, Jays, and similar,              2.00 to   2.50
    Medium Quail, Snipe, Dove, Woodcock,    2.50 to   3.00
    Large Crow, Grouse, Duck,               3.00 to   4.00
    Larger Horned Owls, Fish
    Hawk, etc.,                             4.50 to   5.00
    Eagle, Turkey, Pea Fowl,               10.00 to  15.00

    Birds with spread wings add 25 per cent.


  MAKING BIRD SKINS.

    Small up to size of Sparrow,                      .20
    Robin, Jay, etc.,                                 .25
    Pigeon, Hawk, and similar,                        .35
    Screech Owl, Green Heron,                         .50
    Crow, Teal,                                       .75
    Large Hawks, Ducks,                             $1.00
    Herring Gull, Eider Duck,                        1.25
    Great Horned Owl, Fish Hawk,                     1.50
    Eagle, Goose, Swan,                              2.50


  WHOLE ANIMALS.

    Mouse, Mole, Chipmunk,               $ 1.50 to $ 2.00
    Squirrels, Weasels,                    2.00 to   3.00
    Mink, Muskrat, Opossum, Rabbit,        3.00 to   4.00
    Skunk, Woodchuck,                      4.00 to   5.00
    Coon, Fox, Wildcat,                    6.00 to  10.00
    Dogs,                                 10.00 to  35.00
    Domestic Sheep,                       25.00 to  40.00
    Bear, Mountain Lion,                  20.00 to  75.00
    Deer, Antelope,                       30.00 to  75.00

Price on whole mounted specimens include rustic stands, stumps, or rock
work.


  HEADS.

    Elk, Moose, Steer,                    $20.00 to 40.00
    Caribou, Mountain Sheep,               15.00 to 25.00
    Deer (buck), Antelope,                  7.50 to 12.00
    Deer (small), common sheep,             5.00 to 10.00
    Bears,                                  7.50 to 15.00
    Wolf,                                   5.00 to  7.50
    Fox, Wildcat, Raccoon, etc.,            4.00 to  6.00
    Hawks, Owls, Eagles,                    2.00 to  3.00
    Fish,                                   2.00 to  5.00

Suitable shields or panels are included.


  FISH, REPTILES, ETC.

    Small fish,                           $ 2.00 to  5.00
    Medium, Bass, etc.,                     5.00 to 10.00
    Large, Tarpon, Salmon,                 10.00 to 25.00
    Snakes, as to size,                     5.00 to 25.00
    Alligators,                             1.50 to 25.00


  MOUNTING HORNS, INCLUDING SHIELDS.

    Deer,                                 $ 2.50 to  5.00
    African Horns,                          2.50 to 10.00
    Cow, Steer,                             2.50 to  5.00
    Caribou,                                3.50 to  7.00
    Moose, Elk,                             5.00 to 10.00


  SKINS.

    First column shows cost of tanning only; second of tanning,
    mounting 1/2 head and lining as rug; third of complete rug
    with open mouth.

    Black Bear,                       $4.00 $10.00 $15.00
    Mountain Lion, Jaguar,             3.00  10.00  15.00
    Tiger,                             5.00  15.00  20.00
    Wolf,                              2.00   8.00  12.00
    Coyote, Lynx,                      1.50   7.50  10.00
    Fox, Wild Cat, Coon, House Cat     1.00   5.00   6.00
    Sheep,                             1.50   ....   ....
    Goat,                              1.50   8.00   ....
    Deer,                              2.50  10.00   ....
    Opossum, Muskrat,                   .50   ....   ....
    Mink,                               .75   ....   ....
    Snake,                             1.00 and up
    Alligator,                         2.00 and up


  NOVELTIES.

    Deer Feet, each,                       $2.00 to 3.00
    Moose and Elk Feet,                     3.00 to 4.00

Including fittings.


ROBES.

According to size and variety of skins from $15.00 to $25.00 including
tanning, sewing up and linings. The smaller skins of course require the
most work.

Domesticated animals, dogs, cats, cage birds, etc., are mounted at the
rates for similar sized wild specimens. Inasmuch as they are of value
only for associations most taxidermists require a small advance payment
on pet animals before commencing work; other work is usually C. O. D.

A discount of 10 to 20 per cent is often made for large quantity or to
those in the fur trade who may be so induced to secure orders.

It would pay for at least one person in every furriers shop to have a
knowledge of taxidermy and a connection with some dealer in sportsmen's
goods is often of advantage.

Much of this matter of prices must be left to your own judgment. Often a
fair profit can be made on work taken at a low figure during the "off
season." Perishable work demanding instant attention should receive the
best pay and pieces which may be picked up in odd moments, thus using
time otherwise valueless, may be figured near the foot of the scale. The
public appreciates work thoroughly done and it is the very best
advertisement.

       *       *       *       *       *

FUR-FISH-GAME

A Practical Monthly Magazine for Outdoorsmen Devoted to

#Hunting, Trapping, Fishing, Fur Farming, Etc.#


FUR-FISH-GAME IS _just_ the magazine you have been looking for. It
is edited by none other than A. V. Harding, whose name is a byword in
the sporting field. Each monthly issue contains 64 to 100 pages
chock-full of interesting articles, illustrated with actual photos on
FUR FARMING, HUNTING, FISHING, etc. Each issue also has many
departments--The Gun Rack; Dogs; Fur Raising; Roots and Herbs; Fish and
Tackle; Fur Markets; Fur Prices; Trapline; Travel; and Question Box.
Departments are edited by well-known men such as Robert Page Lincoln,
Ben C. Robinson, E. J. Dailey and Maurice H. Decker.

[Illustration: Covers actual photos reproduced in actual colors.]

New Reduced Price $1.50 a year; 15c a copy
Buy a copy on the news stand or send TODAY for our

SPECIAL GET ACQUAINTED OFFER

3 Recent Copies and 3 Current Copies       50c
Or Single Copy                             10c

Good only if you mention book in which you saw this offer.

Send name and address with proper remittance either
cash, stamps or money order to--

FUR-FISH-GAME
(Harding's Magazine)

#174 E. Long Street       Columbus, Ohio#

       *       *       *       *       *

Home Manufacture of Furs and Skins

#A book of practical instructions telling how to tan, dress, color and
manufacture or make into articles of ornament; use or wear.#


The author, who has been in close touch with trappers, hunters and other
outdoor people for more than twenty years as a practical tanner, furrier
and taxidermist in the introduction says: "Probably one of the oldest
human industries is Home Dressing and Manufacturing of Furs and Skins,
as this method of clothing the body has persisted from the early days
(even back to the stone age) to the present time. As a happy combination
of dress and ornament furs will always continue to lead. At the present
time the manufacture of furs has been highly developed, with the aid of
machinery and specialized workmen it is conducted on a scale which
compares favorably with any business activity. However, the principals
remain the same, and good results can still be attained by hand labor.
To the average outdoor man it is a positive pleasure to see the stiff,
dirty, raw skin develop into the soft, clean, flexible material, and
later to shape it into a protection from the cold and an ornament
combined."

[Illustration: Home Manufacture of Furs and Skins]

This new, practical and only book on the subject contains 285 pages, 91
illustrations, 34 chapters, and offers at a small cost a way for you to
learn a pleasant and profitable business enabling you to tan, dye, dress
and manufacture not only your own catch but to engage in the business if
you wish. Read the chapter headings, which will show you how complete
the book is:

       I. Some Facts and General Principles for Fur and Skin Workers.
      II. Correct Modes of Skinning Fur Animals.
     III. Stretching and Curing.
      IV. Handling Other Skins and Hides.
       V. Storing and Shipping Raw Furs.
      VI. Indian Skin Dressing.
     VII. Indian Fur Robes.
    VIII. Tools and Appliances.
      IX. Tanning Materials and Terms.
       X. Tanning Formulas and Recipes.
      XI. Preliminary Work, Soaking, Fleshing, Degreasing.
     XII. Softening, Cleaning Skins.
    XIII. Small or Light Furs.
     XIV. Heavy Furs.
      XV. Deer Skins, Buckskin.
     XVI. Sheep and Goat Skins.
    XVII. Miscellaneous Skins, Gator, Snake, Birds.
   XVIII. Fur Dyeing, Uses and Principles.
     XIX. Dyeing Material and Appliances.
      XX. Colors and Formulas.
     XXI. Furriers' Tools and Supplies.
    XXII. Making Up Furs and Garments.
   XXIII. Fur Robes.
    XXIV. Fur Rugs, With and Without Mounted Heads.
     XXV. Trimmings and Natural Heads and Tails.
    XXVI. Collars, Cuffs and Odd Pieces.
   XXVII. Coats and Capes.
  XXVIII. Caps, Mittens, Gloves.
    XXIX. Muffs and Neckpieces.
     XXX. Moccasins and Pacs.
    XXXI. Utilizing Fur Waste.
   XXXII. Cleaning, Repairing and Storing.
  XXXIII. Prices for Tanning and Other Fur Work.
   XXXIV. Appendix.

If you like to handle furs, skins and hides HOME MANUFACTURE OF FURS AND
SKINS will show you how to make more money out of your catch or buy by
tanning, dyeing and manufacturing into articles for which there is
usually a ready market at prices much higher than the raw skins will
bring. This book like others on hunting, trapping, etc., that I publish
is practical and written so that it is easily understood.

Price, postpaid, cloth bound, to any address, $1.50

#A. R. HARDING. Pub.,          Columbus, O.#





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Home Taxidermy for Pleasure and Profit - A Guide for Those Who Wish to Prepare and Mount Animals, Birds, Fish, Reptiles, etc., for Home, Den, or Office Decoration" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home