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´╗┐Title: Ohio Biological Survey, Bull. 10, Vol. 11, No. 6 - The Ascomycetes of Ohio IV and V
Author: Fink, Bruce, Corrington, Leafy J.
Language: English
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Volume II, No. 6    Bulletin No. 10

OHIO BIOLOGICAL SURVEY


THE ASCOMYCETES OF OHIO IV

THE LECIDEACEAE

By BRUCE FINK


THE ASCOMYCETES OF OHIO V

THE PELTIGERACEAE

By LEAFY J. CORRINGTON


Published by
THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
COLUMBUS,
1921



THE ASCOMYCETES OF OHIO IV[A]


The Lecideaceae.

BRUCE FINK.



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


It was stated in the second paper of this series that the disposition of
the _Lecideaceae_ in an early paper of the series would show what slight
changes are needed in treating lichens as we treat other ascomycetes. It
is hoped that this paper has accomplished this in phraseology
intelligible to those acquainted with the present-day language of
systematic mycology.

The _Lecideaceae_ form a well-defined family of lichens, the affinities
of which seem plainly marked. In apothecial structure, and so far as
known, in structure of the sexual reproductive areas, the family seems
to be closely related to the mainly non-lichen _Patellariaceae_ and to
such lichens as the _Gyalectaceae_, the _Lecanactidaceae_, the
_Collemaceae_, the _Baeomycetaceae_, and the _Cladoniaceae_.

Following the commonly-accepted theory that the lichens have been
evolved from non-algicolous fungi, the origin of the _Lecideaceae_ and
related lichens from _Patellaria_-like ancestors is a reasonable
supposition, though the relative rank of the various related families
named in the last paragraph is not easy to decide. Within the
_Lecideaceae_, the line of evolution seems to have been in the direction
of a well-developed exciple and from simpler to more complex spores.
With the advance in these two directions has gone a slightly increased
development of the thallus.

In structure, the thallus is crustose, and the thalli vary from
inconspicuous, evanescent conditions to those which are conspicuous and
sometimes even subsquamulous. Rarely the thallus extends upward as a
veil which surrounds the apothecia laterally and suggests how the
thalloid exciple of higher families probably arose. As usual in crustose
forms, the thalli are composed of hyphae which are densely disposed
toward the upper, exposed surface and more loosely disposed toward the
lower surface (Fig. 2).

The apothecial evolution passes from forms with weak, light-colored
exciples and soft texture (Fig. 10) to those with strong, dark exciples,
which are firm in texture (Fig. 11). The superficial apothecial
characters are so much alike in many of the species that one cannot
always feel certain even of the genus of unfamiliar forms until he has
studied them microscopically.

The paraphyses are commonly distinct in young apothecia, but in mature
apothecia they are usually more or less gelatinized and coherent. In
some of the species, they become so gelatinized that they form a
homogeneous mass about the asci, in which the individual paraphyses are
no longer discernible. When distinct, the paraphyses are sometimes
branched, most commonly toward their apices (Fig. 1 and 12).

There is great diversity with respect to spore development, the whole
range of spore structure, from minute, simple, hyaline spores to those
which are large, brown, and muriform being found within the family
(Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13). This condition makes it appear
quite possible that the family may be polygenetic.

The genus, _Biatorella_, contains non-lichen forms and is probably as a
whole more closely related to the _Patellariaceae_ than to the
_Lecidiaceae_. However, our two species, both of which are lichens, are
herein admitted to the latter family. Through one or more species with
larger spores than are usually found in this genus, _Biatorella_
approaches _Lecidea_. Starting with _Lecidea_, we have a natural series
in spore development with intermediate conditions difficult to place.
The series runs thus: _Lecidea_ with simple hyaline spores (Fig. 3);
_Biatorina_ with two-celled, hyaline spores (Fig. 4); _Bilimbia_ with
several-celled, hyaline spores, not much narrowed (Fig. 5); and
_Bacidia_ with several-celled, hyaline, acicular spores (Fig. 6).
_Buellia_ and _Rhizocarpon_ are aberrant genera, brown-spored, and
closely related among themselves (Figs. 8, 9, and 13). Through
_Buellia_, the two genera are related to _Rinodina_ of the
_Physciaceae_. The two aberrant genera are like other members of the
_Lecideaceae_ with respect to thallus development and general apothecial
characters, the aberrancy being with respect to the spores, on which
account the two genera are placed in another family, the _Buelliaceae_,
by some workers, perhaps with sufficient reason.

The algal host is _Pleurococcus_-like (Fig. 2, c) in nearly all species
of the _Lecideaceae_; but the host cells are so hypertrophied and
distorted that their generic rank is often difficult to ascertain,
except by cultivation outside of the lichen thallus. The algal-host
cells are few in number in some of the species and are sometimes absent
during a portion of the life history of the lichen. The host is usually
found throughout the superficial portions of the thallus, except near
the upper surface, from which portion the algae are usually absent,
except in a dead or dying condition, difficult to detect.

The writer has collected the _Lecideaceae_, with other fungi, in Butler
County for fifteen years, and has worked for the Ohio Biological Survey
in Preble, Warren, Highland, Fairfield, Adams, Hocking, and Lake
counties. Besides these collections made by the writer, a few specimens
were examined from Champaign, Hamilton, Wayne, Morgan, Madison,
Muskingum, Franklin, Vinton, and Summit counties. Of the 37 species
treated in this paper, 24 had not been reported from Ohio previously.

[Footnote A: Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory of Miami
University.--XVIII]



_Systematic Account._

LECIDEACEAE


Thallus crustose, without plectenchymatous cortex (Fig. 2, a), varying
from granulose and often evanescent to conspicuous, areolate, or even
subsquamulose conditions, attached to the substratum by hyphal rhizoids
(Fig. 2, d), and in a few instances extending up as a veil and
surrounding the apothecia laterally, the hyphae densely interwoven
toward the upper surface, but more loosely disposed below (Fig. 2, a and
b); apothecia usually minute or small, commonly rounded, the exciple
weak and obscure (Fig. 10, d), or more strongly developed when
conspicuous and much darker in color (Fig. 11, b); hypothecium varying
from hyaline to dark brown (Fig. 10, b and Fig. 11, c); hymenium almost
always lighter and commonly hyaline (Figs. 10 and 11, a); paraphyses
usually simple, but branched forms to be found frequently (Figs. 1 and
12), pale throughout or darkened toward the sometimes enlarged apex,
commonly more or less coherent and indistinct at maturity; spores simple
and hyaline to muriform and brown (Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and
13).


KEY TO THE GENERA

Spores minute, numerous in each ascus             _Biatorella_, p.
Spores larger, usually 8 in each ascus,
  Spores hyaline.
    Spores one-celled (simple)                       _Lecidea_, p.
    Spores more than one-celled (compound).
      Spores 2-celled                              _Biatorina_, p.
      Spores 4- to several-celled.
        Spores ellipsoid, fusiform, or dactyloid    _Bilimbia_, p.
        Spores acicular                              _Bacidia_, p.
  Spores brown, or becoming brown.
    Spores 2-celled                                  _Buellia_, p.
    Spores 4-celled and becoming muriform        _Rhizocarpon_, p.



Biatorella De Not. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21. 192. 1846.

Thallus granulose to verrucose and subareolate, sometimes inconspicuous
and evanescent; apothecia minute to middle-sized, adnate or more or less
immersed, exciple usually prominent and persistent, but sometimes
becoming covered, disk flat to convex; hypothecium and hymenium pale to
brown; spores simple, hyaline, minute, numerous in each ascus.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF BIATORELLA

The whole apothecium dark colored             1. B. _simplex_
The disk of the apothecium white-pruinose    2. B. _pruinosa_


1. Biatorella simplex (Dav.) Br. & Rostr. Bot. Tidssk. 3: 241 1869.

_Lichen simplex_ Dav. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 2: 283 pl. 28. f. 2. 1794.

Thallus thin and smooth or thicker and roughened, sometimes subareolate,
ash-white to green-gray and darkening, rarely disappearing; apothecia
minute to middle-sized, 0.2 to 0.8 mm. in diameter, adnate, scattered
or crowded, rounded or variously irregular, black but usually dark red
when damp, flat or slightly convex, the thin exciple raised and
persistent; hypothecium light or darker brown; hymenium pale or tinged
brown; paraphyses semi-distinct to coherent-indistinct; asci
cylindrico-clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 3 to 5 mic. long and 1 to
1.5 mic. wide.

Collected in Butler, Adams, Montgomery, Hocking, and Ross counties. On
limestone. Not previously reported from Ohio, but probably frequent
where there is limestone, though inconspicuous and easily overlooked.


2. Biatorella pruinosa (J.E. Smith) Mudd Man. Brit. Lich. 191. 1861.

_Lichen pruinosus_ J.E. Smith in Sowerby, Eng. Bot. 32: pl. 2244 1811.

Thallus light colored, usually thin and smooth, rarely disappearing;
apothecia minute to middle-sized, 0.2 to 1 mm. in diameter, adnate
scattered or crowded, flat or slightly convex, the disk pruinose, and
the exciple persistent; hypothecium lighter or darker brown; hymenium
usually pale; paraphyses coherent and becoming indistinct; asci
cylindrico-clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 3 to 5 mic. long and 1 to
1.5 mic. wide.

Collected in Butler and Adams counties. On limestone. Not previously
reported from Ohio, but often occurring with the last in limestone
areas.



Lecidea Ach. Meth. Lich. XXX. 32. pl. 2. f. 1, 2. 1803.

Thallus smooth, roughened, or verrucose, in some species chinky to
areolate, or even subsquamulose, rarely rudimentary and evanescent;
apothecia minute to middle-sized, usually adnate, but rarely sessile or
immersed, with pale to black, and flat to strongly convex disk; exciple
and hypothecium from pale to dark brown in section; hymenium lighter,
most commonly pale; spores simple, hyaline, 8 in each ascus.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LECIDEA

Exciple soft, usually light colored.
  Apothecia usually surrounded by a thalloid veil       1. L. _coarctata_
  Apothecia not surrounded by a thalloid veil.
    Exciple becoming covered.
      Hypothecium pale or pale yellow.
        Apothecia always minute.
          Spores 5 to 7 mic. long                    2. L. _intropallida_
          Spores 7 to 15 mic. long                        3. L. _varians_
        Apothecia reaching middle size                  4. L. _rupestris_
      Hypothecium light-brown to dark brown.
        Thallus gray-green or lighter                 5. L. _viridescens_
        Thallus darker from the first or becoming so.
          Thallus minute and evanescent                  6. L. _humicola_
          Thallus well developed and persistent.
            Thallus of raised granules                  7. L. _uliginosa_
            Thallus of flat granules                    8. L. _sylvicola_
    Exciple persistent                                   9. L. _flexuosa_
Exciple horny, dark colored.
  Disk usually convex, commonly on wood              10. L. _enteroleuca_
  Disk flat or less commonly convex, on rocks.
    Disk usually white- to rusty-green-pruinose 11. L. _albocaerulescens_
    Disk black, scarcely pruinose                     12. L. _platycarpa_


1. Lecidea coarctata (J.E. Smith) Nyl. Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. 21: 358.
1856.

_Lichen coarctatus_ J.E. Smith in Sowerby, Eng. Bot. 8: pl. 534. 1789.

Thallus of minute, scattered or clustered, rounded, angular, or minutely
and irregularly crenate, green-gray, pale brown, or more commonly
ash-white granules, sometimes passing into a subcontinuous, chinky or
areolate crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.2 to 0.4 mm. in diameter,
adnate, from flesh-colored to black, commonly concave or flat, sometimes
difform, frequently surrounded laterally by a thalloid veil; hypothecium
and hymenium pale to pale brown; paraphyses distinct; asci clavate or
cylindrico-clavate; spores ovoid to ellipsoid, 13 to 23 mic. long and 7
to 10 mic. wide.

Collected in Lake, Ross, Hocking, and Preble counties. Also examined
from Lawrence County. On rocks and old bricks. Not previously reported
from Ohio. Widely distributed in the State, but rare, except in Lake
County, where this fungus was unusually common.


2. Lecidea intropallida sp. nov.

Thallus a continuous, smooth or slightly roughened, ash-gray and
darkening crust; apothecia minute, 0.15 to 0.25 mm. in diameter, adnate
or partly immersed, flesh-colored to yellow-brown, flat to slightly
convex, the concolorous and inconspicuous exciple soon covered;
hypothecium and hymenium pale; paraphyses sometimes distinct, but more
commonly coherent-indistinct; asci clavate; spores simple, hyaline,
ellipsoid, 5 to 7 mic. long and 2.5 to 3 mic. wide.

Collected near Painesville in Lake County. On pebbles in a moist wood.
The type specimen is deposited in the writer's herbarium, and a cotype
may be seen in the State Herbarium.


3. Lecidea varians Ach. Syn. Meth. Lich. 38. 1914.

Thallus of very minute, raised or flattened, green-gray to yellow-green
granules, these forming a thin but continuous, smooth or
granulate-rugose, often chinky crust, usually bordered and often
decussated by black lines; apothecia minute, 0.12 to 0.25 mm. in
diameter, often clustered or even conglomerate, adnate, from pale yellow
to brown and finally black, flat with a thin exciple to convex with
covered exciple; hypothecium pale to pale yellow; hymenium pale below,
but often yellow or blue-violet above; paraphyses usually coherent,
distinct or indistinct; asci clavate; spores oviod-ellipsoid, 7 to 15
mic. long and 5 to 7.5 mic. wide.

Collected in Adams County. On maple bark. Also reported from Franklin
County. The plant is so minute and inconspicuous as to be very difficult
to detect and is probably distributed widely in the State.


4. Lecidea rupestris (Scop.) Ach. Meth. Lich. 70. 1803. (See Fig. 10).

_Lichen rupestris_ Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2. 2: 363, 364. 1772.

Thallus a continuous, moderately thick, smooth or more or less
roughened, often chinky to subareolate, ash-gray, yellow-green, or
darkening crust; apothecia small to large, 0.4 to 1.3 mm. in diameter,
at first immersed but becoming adnate, yellow to yellow or red-brown,
flat to strongly convex and the exciple covered; hypothecium pale or
pale yellow; hymenium pale; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct to
indistinct; asci clavate; spores ellipsoid, 10 to 15 mic. long and 5 to
7 mic. wide.

Collected in Adams Country. On calcareous rocks. Not previously reported
from North America.


5. Lecidea viridescens (Schrad.) Ach. Meth. Lich. 62. 1903.

_Lichen viridescens_ Schrad. Spic. Fl. Germ. 88. 1794.

Thallus of very minute, smooth or deliquescent and powdery, ash-grey to
grey-green granules, spread over the substratum as a thin or rarely
thicker crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.2 to 0.5 mm. in diameter,
adnate, frequently clustered or even conglomerate, becoming black, from
flat with the thin livid or darker exciple visible to convex with the
exciple covered; hypothecium pale or darker brown; hymenium pale to pale
brown; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct to indistinct; asci clavate;
spores oblong-ellipsoid, 9 to 12 mic. long and 4 to 5.5 mic. wide.

Collected on Little Mountain in Lake County, and in Hocking County. On
logs in woods. Not previously reported from Ohio, and probably rare in
the State.


6. Lecidea humicola (Ach.) comb. nov.

_Lecidea uliginosa humicola_ Ach. Meth. Lich. 43. 1903.

Thallus of very minute inconspicuous and evanescent, brown-black
granules; apothecia minute, 0.2 to 0.4 mm. in diameter, adnate, dark
brown to black, scattered or clustered, plain with a thin concolorous
exciple visible, to convex with the exciple finally covered; hypothecium
dark brown; hymenium pale brown; asci clavate; paraphyses
coherent-indistinct; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 9 to 15 mic. long and 5 to
7 mic. wide.

Collected in Hocking County. On soil in a moist wood. Not previously
reported from North America.


7. Lecidea uliginosa (Schrad.) Ach. Meth. Lich. 43. 1803.

_Lichen uliginosus_ Schrad. Spic. Fl. Germ. 88. 1794.

Thallus of scattered, clustered, or even heaped, irregular and minute,
green-olive to rust-brown, or even brown-black, somewhat raised and
rarely coralloid granules, these forming a scattered or continuous
crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.2 to 0.4 mm. in diameter, closely
adnate or more or less immersed, often clustered, brown to black-brown,
flat with the thin lighter-colored or black exciple visible, or becoming
strongly convex, with the exciple finally covered; hypothecium light or
darker brown; hymenium tinged yellow or brown; paraphyses closely
coherent, but usually remaining distinct; asci long-clavate; spores
oblong-ellipsoid, 8 to 14 mic. long and 4 to 7 mic. wide.

Collected in Preble, Butler, Warren, Adams, Fairfield, and Lake
counties. On dead wood. Widely distributed in Ohio.


8. Lecidea sylvicola Koerb. Syst. Lich. 254. 1855.

Thallus of minute, irregular, somewhat flattened or more rarely
hemispherical, green-gray, olive-brown, or darker granules, these
forming a thin, continuous, or rarely scattered, subleprose, verrucose,
or even subareolate, wide-spread crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.2
to 0.5 mm. in diameter, adnate or rarely more or less immersed, dark
brown to black, flat to convex, the black exciple soon becoming covered;
hypothecium brown to black-brown; hymenium pale or tinged brown;
paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct to indistinct; asci clavate; spores
ellipsoid, 5 to 9 mic. long and 2.5 to 4 mic. wide.

Collected in Lake, Ross, Preble, Hocking, and Butler counties. On
various rocks. Not previously reported from Ohio, and apparently new to
America under this name. Widely distributed in Ohio.

For possible relationship to _Lecidea myriocarpoides_ Nyl. See "The
Lichens of Minnesota" (Cont. Nat. Herb. 14: 74. 1910).


9. Lecidea flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl. Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. 21. 356. 1856.

_Biatora flexuosa_ Fr. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1822: 267. 1822.

Thallus of small or minute, flattened or rugose, scattered or clustered,
ash-grey to green-gray granules, these bursting into sorediate heaps, or
forming a moderately thick, areolate crust; apothecia minute to small,
0.2 to 0.4 mm. in diameter, adnate, black, and flat, the thin, livid or
darker, persistent exciple becoming flexuous; hypothecium pale or darker
brown; hymenium tinged brown; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct to
indistinct; asci cylindrico-clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 5 to 10
mic. long and 3 to 5 mic. wide.

Collected in Preble, Adams, Ross, and Butler counties. On dead wood. Not
previously reported from Ohio, and rare, though probably distributed
widely in the State.

The spores are slightly below normal size in our specimens.


10. Lecidea enteroleuca Ach. Lich. Univ. 177. 1810.

Thallus thin or becoming moderately thick, smooth or more often
granulate, chinky or areolate, the granules or verrucae rarely becoming
heaped in the thicker forms, ash- to green-gray, occurring in rounded
areas, or irregularly and often widely spread over the substratum;
apothecia minute to middle-sized, 0.35 to 1.2 mm. in diameter, adnate,
black, flat to more commonly convex, the frequently flexuous exciple
often becoming covered; hypothecium pale to dark brown; hymenium pale
below, but usually more or less colored above; paraphyses distinct, but
often more or less coherent; asci clavate; spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 8 to
17 mic. long and 5 to 9 mic. wide (Fig. 3).

Collected in Lake, Adams, and Hocking counties. On bark and rocks. Not
previously reported from Ohio. Rare, but doubtless distributed widely in
the State.


11. Lecidea albocaerulescens (Wulf.) Schaer. Lich. Helv. Spic. 3: 142.
1828.

_Lichen albocaerulescens_ Wulf. in Jacq. Coll. Bot. 2: 184. pl. 5. f. 1.
1788.

Thallus smooth or somewhat rough, more or less chinky or becoming
obscurely small-areolate, ash- to green-gray, or becoming olivaceous,
spreading over the substratum as a continuous, moderately thick crust;
apothecia small to large, 0.5 to 1.5 mm. in diameter, adnate or more or
less immersed, usually flat, almost always white or rusty-green
pruinose, the black exciple rarely becoming covered; hypothecium brown
to black-brown; hymenium commonly pale; paraphyses distinct, but usually
coherent; asci clavate to inflated-clavate; spores ovoid-ellipsoid, 15
to 24 mic. long and 7 to 10 mic. wide.

Collected in Preble, Hocking, and Lake counties. Also examined from
Lawrence County. On rocks other than calcareous. Not previously reported
from Ohio. Rare, but apparently distributed widely in the State.


12. Lecidea platycarpa Ach. Lich. Univ. 173. pl. 2. f. 5. 1810.

Thallus a thin, obscurely or more or less plainly roughened, usually
chinky to subareolate, ash- to green-gray, continuous or more or less
scattered, sometimes disappearing crust; apothecia small to middle-sized
or even larger, 0.4 to 1.5 mm. in diameter, commonly scattered,
brown-black to black, rarely and obscurely white-pruinose, adnate to
sessile, rounded to flexuous, flat or finally convex, the raised exciple
sometimes becoming covered; hypothecium dark brown; hymenium pale below
and colored above; paraphyses distinct or coherent-semidistinct; asci
clavate; spores ovoid- to oblong-ellipsoid, 14 to 20 mic. long and 6 to
10 mic. wide.

Collected in Ross and Hocking Counties. On rocks. Not previously
reported from Ohio.



Biatorina Mass. Ric. Lich. 134. f. 262-271. 1852.

Thallus commonly granulose, and often passing into verrucose and chinky
conditions, but scarcely ever areolate, sometimes scant and evanescent;
apothecia usually minute or small, and commonly adnate, exciple weak and
often becoming covered; hypothecium and hymenium passing from pale
through shades of brown, the former becoming darker than the latter,
this rarely tinged blue or violet above; spores hyaline, 2-celled.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF BIATORINA

Growing on another lichen                                1. B. _heerii_
Growing on wood or on rocks.
  On old wood                                           2. B. _prasina_
  On rocks.
    Exciple strong and seldom becoming covered        4. B. _chalybeia_
    Exciple weak and usually becoming covered      3. B. _lentibularis_


1. Biatorina heerii (Hepp) Fink Cont. Nat. Herb. 14: 83. 1910.

_Biatora heerii_ Hepp, Spore Flecht. Eur. pl. 16. f. 135. 1853.

Thallus of very minute, rounded and frequently heaped granules,
sometimes visible under a hand lens, but often seen only in sections of
the substratum, rarely disappearing; apothecia minute, 0.1 to 0.3 mm. in
diameter, adnate to sessile, flesh-colored and blackening, flat to
slightly convex, the concolorous or darker exciple commonly persistent;
hypothecium and hymenium pale to light brown; paraphyses distinct to
coherent-indistinct; asci clavate; spores ellipsoid, 7 to 12 mic. long
and 3 to 3.5 mic. wide.

Collected in Butler County. On the thallus of _Peltigera canina_. Not
previously reported from Ohio. So minute as to be difficult to detect.
Consequently nothing further is known of its distribution in the State.


2. Biatorina prasina (Fr.) Fink Cont. Nat. Herb. 14: 84. 1910.

_Micarea prasina_ Fr. Syst. Orb. Veg. 257. 1825.

Thallus of minute, closely clustered or even heaped granules, these
forming a wide-spread, frequently subleprose, green-gray to dark-olive
crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.2 to 0.5 mm. in diameter, adnate,
commonly carneous or darkening, more or less convex and usually becoming
convex with the exciple finally covered; hypothecium pale or pale brown;
hymenium pale below and commonly darker above; paraphyses coherent,
semi-distinct to indistinct; asci clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 8 to
12 mic. long and 3.5 to 5 mic. wide.

Collected on Little Mountain in Lake County. On a rotten log. Not
previously reported from Ohio, and evidently rare in the State.

Simple spores were seen in the specimens collected, but they were
supposed to be immature.


3. Biatorina lentibularis (Ach.) Koerb. Syst. Lich. 191. 1855.

_Lecidea lentibularis_ Ach. Syn. Meth. Lich. 28. 1814.

Thallus a thin, smooth or subtartareous, rarely rimose-areolate,
ash-white to brown-gray, wide-spread and continuous or finally
disappearing crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.2 to 0.5 mm. in
diameter, adnate, black, from flat becoming convex and often irregular,
the inconspicuous exciple then becoming covered; hypothecium pale to
darker brown; hymenium pale or tinged brown; paraphyses distinct to
coherent-indistinct; asci clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 8 to 11 mic.
long and 2.7 to 4 mic. wide.

A single collection was made in Highland County. On exposed calcareous
rocks. Not previously reported from Ohio, and doubtless rare in the
State.

An occasional 4-celled spore was seen, a transitional character
previously noted by Th. M. Fries. The plant is closely related to the
next below, from which it may not be distinct.


4. Biatorina chalybeia (Borr.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich. 180. 1861.

_Lecidea chalybeia_ Borr. in Sowerby, Eng. Bot. Suppl. 1: pl. 2687. f.
2. 1831.

Thallus a thin, smooth or roughened, ash-gray and darkening crust,
forming a continuous layer, becoming inconspicuous and rarely
disappearing; apothecia minute to small, 0.3 to 0.5 mm. in diameter,
adnate to sessile, concave to slightly convex, black, the exciple
concolorous, prominent, and rarely becoming covered; hypothecium dark
brown; hymenium pale below and pale brown above; paraphyses wide and
strong, distinct to coherent-indistinct; asci clavate; spores
oblong-ellipsoid, 8 to 12 mic. long and 3.5 to 4.75 mic. wide (Fig. 4).

Collected in Butler County. On calcareous rocks. Not previously reported
from Ohio, and probably rare in the State.

The spores are somewhat larger than in European specimens.



Bilimbia De Not. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 190. 1846.

Thallus usually composed of minute granules, these often run together to
form a leprose or verrucose and rarely areolate or even subsquamulose
crust, rarely disappearing; apothecia minute or small, usually adnate,
with a weak and often covered exciple; hypothecium pale to dark brown;
hymenium pale or tinged brown; spores hyaline, usually fusiform or
dactyloid, varying from 4- to 9-celled.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF BILIMBIA

On rocks.
  Apothecia and spores smaller                5. B. _microcarpa_
  Apothecia and spores larger                   6. B. _trachona_
On other substrata.
  On mosses                                   2. B. _hypnophila_
  On wood or bark.
    Spores becoming more than 4-celled          3. B. _naegelii_
    Spores not more than 4-celled.
      Apothecia flesh-colored to dark brown  1. B. _sphaeroides_
      Apothecia black                            4. B. _melaena_


1. Bilimbia sphaeroides (Dicks.) Koerb. Syst. Lich. 213. 1855.

Lichen sphaeroides Dicks. Pl. Crypt. Brit. 1: 9. pl. 2. f. 3. 1785.

Thallus of minute, gray-green, often heaped granules, these forming a
continuous, thin or thicker crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.2 to 0.4
mm. in diameter, adnate, flesh-colored to red-brown, flat to convex and
subglobose, the inconspicuous, concolorous exciple soon covered;
hypothecium and hymenium pale; paraphyses usually coherent-indistinct;
asci clavate; spores fusiform-ellipsoid, 4-celled, 12 to 20 mic. long
and 4 to 6 mic. wide.

Collected on Little Mountain, in Lake County. On a rotten log in a wood.
Rare in Ohio, and its distribution unknown.

The plant is typical internally, but is young with small, flat or
slightly convex, light-colored apothecia.


2. Bilimbia hypnophila (Ach.) Th. Fr. Nov. Act. Reg. Soc. Sci. Ups. III.
3: 283. 1861.

_Lecidea hypnophila_ Ach. Lich. Univ. 199. 1810.

Thallus of minute, usually crowded, sometimes confluent granules, these
forming an ash- or green-gray, thin, leprose or subgranulose, sometimes
scattered and disappearing crust; apothecia minute to middle-sized, 0.2
to 0.75 mm. in diameter, light brown to black, adnate to sessile,
scattered or clustered, becoming strongly convex and the exciple
becoming covered; hypothecium pale or darker brown; hymenium pale, or
tinged brown below and more plainly brown above; paraphyses coherent,
semi-distinct to indistinct; asci clavate or long-clavate; spores
ellipsoid to fusiform, 4- to 8-celled, 16 to 35 mic. long and 4 to 8
mic. wide.

Collected in Preble, Hocking, and Adams counties. Over mosses on rocks
or bases of trees; or rarely on rocks, soil, bark, or wood. Not
previously reported from Ohio, and not a common fungus in the State.


3. Bilimbia naegelii (Hepp) Zwackh. Flora. 45: 505. 1862.

_Biatora naegelii_ Hepp, Spor. Flecht. Eur. pl. 4. f. 1. 19. 1853.

Thallus of usually flattened granules, these commonly running together
to form a moderately thin, more or less roughened, often chinky, ash- or
green-gray, or darkening, limited or rarely wide-spread crust; apothecia
minute to middle-sized, 0.2 to 0.9 mm. in diameter, adnate or rarely
sessile, flesh-colored to dark brown, scattered or clustered, flat with
the thin exciple visible to strongly convex with the exciple covered;
hypothecium pale or tinged brown; hymenium pale throughout or tinged
brown above; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct to indistinct; asci
clavate; spores fusiform-ellipsoid, 4- to 8-celled, 18 to 25 mic. long
and 3 to 4 mic. wide.

Collected in Highland County. On bark. Not previously reported from
Ohio, and doubtless rare in the State.

The usual width given for the spores is 4 to 6 mic., and our plant is
placed here provisionally.


4. Bilimbia melaena (Nyl.) Th. Fr. Lich. Scand. 383-385. 1871.

_Lecidea melaena_ Nyl. Bot. Not. 1853: 182. 1853.

Thallus of minute, olive-green to black-brown granules, these forming a
thin, granulose or scurfy, sometimes disappearing crust; apothecia
minute to small, 0.25 to 0.55 mm. in diameter, black-brown to black,
sessile, occurring singly or in clusters, strongly convex to subglobose,
the exciple soon covered; hypothecium pale brown to red-brown; hymenium
pale or tinged brown; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct to indistinct;
asci clavate to inflated-clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid or dactyloid,
2- to 4-celled, 12 to 22 mic. long and 4 to 6 mic. wide.

Collected in Lake County. On an old log in a wood. Not previously
reported in Ohio, and rare in the State.

Nylander called the apothecium pale within, but forms with red-brown
hypothecia are admitted by later writers.


5. Bilimbia microcarpa Th. Fr. Bot. Not. 1863: 8. 1863.

_Bilimbia obscurata microcarpa_ Th. Fr. Nov. Act. Soc. Sci. Ups. III. 3:
183. 1861.

Thallus of minute ash-gray or green-gray granules, these rarely forming
a thin or moderately thick, subcontinuous, verrucose crust, but more
often scattered or disappearing entirely; apothecia minute to small,
0.25 to 0.7 mm. in diameter, scattered or conglomerate, dirty brown to
black, soon becoming convex and subglobose, with the pale exciple then
covered; hypothecium pale to pale red-brown; hymenium pale; asci clavate
to inflated-clavate; paraphyses coherent-indistinct; spores fusiform,
4-celled, 16 to 25 mic. long and 4 to 6 mic. wide.

Collected in Hocking County. On shaded sandstone. Not previously
reported from North America.


6. Bilimbia trachona (Ach.) Oliver Lich. France 38,39. 1903.

_Verrucaria trachona_ Ach. Meth. Lich. Suppl. 16. 1803.

Thallus thin and granular, passing into smooth or leprose conditions,
thence to thickened and subareolate states, ash-colored to dark
brown-green, usually continuous over considerable areas; apothecia
minute to middle-sized, 0.4 to 0.1 mm. in diameter, from brown-black
with lighter exciple to wholly black, adnate or somewhat immersed, flat
or finally convex with the exciple at length covered; hypothecium pale
brown to black-brown; hymenium pale or rarely pale brown; paraphyses
distinct to coherent semi-distinct; asci clavate; spores
fusiform-dactyloid, 4-celled, 12 to 20 mic. long and 2.5 to 4.5 mic.
wide (Fig. 5).

Collected in several localities in Preble, Highland, and Adams counties.
On rocks, usually limestone. Also reported from Cuyahoga and Ottawa
counties. Not common, but doubtless distributed widely in the State.



Bacidia De Not. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 2: 189. 1846.

Thallus granulose, passing into chinky, verrucose, subareolate and
subsquamulose conditions, seldom or never disappearing; apothecia minute
to large, adnate or rarely immersed more or less, exciple usually weak
and becoming covered; hypothecium commonly some shade of yellow or
brown; hymenium pale to light brown; spores hyaline, acicular, varying
from 4- to 16-celled, often curved or variously twisted, usually 8 in
each ascus.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF BACIDIA

On rocks.
  Spores hamate or spirally twisted                      7. B. _umbrina_
  Spores straight or only slightly curved.
    Thallus ash- or green-gray                          5. B. _inundata_
    Thallus olive or darker                          1. B. _egenuloidea_
On bark.
  Spores less than 40 mic. in length                    6. B. _incompta_
  Spores 40 to 70 mic. long.
    Apothecia flesh-yellow to red-brown                  2. B. _rubella_
    Apothecia brown to black.
      Apothecia usually brown with a striate, usually
        pruinose margin                             3. B. _fuscorubella_
      Apothecia usually black Of dark brown, without striate
        and pruinose margin                         4. B. _schweinitzii_


1. Bacidia egenuloidea sp. nov.

Thallus of minute, crowded granules, forming a rather thick,
conspicuous, rugose and obscurely chinky, dirt-olive and darkening,
wide-spread crust; apothecia minute to small, 0.25 to 0.4 mm. in
diameter, yellow-brown and darkening, adnate-sessile, flat with an
elevated, darker exciple; hypothecium and hymenium pale or tinged brown;
paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct; asci clavate; spores hyaline
obscurely several-celled, variously curved, 25 to 40 mic. long and 0.75
to 1.25 mic. wide.

Collected in Preble County. On granite in a damp field near West
Alexandria. The type specimen is deposited in the writer's herbarium,
and a cotype may be found in the State Herbarium.


2. Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) Mass. Ric. Lich. 118. f. 231. 1852.

_Verrucaria rubella_ Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2: 174. 1795.

Thallus of minute, scattered or crowed granules, these frequently
becoming compacted into a subleprose or more or less verrucose or
chinky, ash- to green-gray, moderately thick or thinner, continuous or
sometimes scattered and disappearing crust (Fig. 2); apothecia small to
large, 0.5 to 1.35 mm. in diameter, sessile to adnate, flesh-yellow to
red-brown, flat with a rather thick and lighter-colored exciple, or
becoming convex with the exciple finally covered; hypothecium pale
yellow to brown; hymenium pale yellow; paraphyses coherent,
semi-distinct to indistinct; asci long clavate; spores about 8- to
16-celled, 45 to 65 mic. long and 3 to 4 mic. wide.

Collected in Butler, Highland, Adams, and Preble counties. Also examined
from Franklin County. On bark. Widely distributed in Ohio, but not
common.


3. Bacidia fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Arn. Flora 54: 55. 1871.

_Verrucaria fuscorubella_ Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2: 175. 1795.

Thallus of minute, crowded or scattered granules, these forming a
usually conspicuous and often rugose and chinky, green-gray or darker,
frequently wide-spread, rarely disappearing crust; apothecia small to
large, 0.6 to 1.5 mm. in diameter, pale to darker brown and finally
black, adnate or sessile, flat with an elevated, and sometimes
transversely striate, and usually pruinose exciple, less frequently
becoming convex with the exciple rarely becoming covered; hypothecium
yellow to yellow-brown; hymenium pale yellow; paraphyses coherent,
semi-distinct to indistinct; asci long-clavate; spores about 7- to
14-celled, 40 to 70 mic. long and 3 to 5 mic. wide.

Collected in Butler and Adams counties. Also reported from Champaign and
Hamilton counties. On bark. This fungus appears to be rare in Ohio.

In one specimen, some of the disks are partly or wholly pruinose, but
the plant seemed nearer to this than to _Bacidia suffusa_ (Fr.) Fink.


4. Bacidia schweinitzii (Tuck.) Fink Cont. Nat. Herb. 14: 89. 1910.

_Biatora schweinitzii_ Tuck. in Darl Fl. Cestr. ed. 3. 447. 1853.

Thallus thin and inconspicuous, or becoming thick and more prominent,
composed of rounded and often crowded or even heaped granules, these
frequently compacted into a continuous or scattered, verrucose and often
chinky, green-gray to olivaceous crust; apothecia small to large, 0.6 to
1.75 mm. in diameter, dark brown to black, adnate or sessile, flat or
slightly convex, the concolorous or lighter exciple frequently becoming
flexuous; hypothecium pale yellow to dark brown; hymenium pale yellow;
paraphyses coherent, distinct to semi-distinct: asci long-clavate;
spores about 7- to 15-celled, 40 to 70 mic. long and 2.5 to 3.5 mic.
wide.

Collected in Fairfield, Hocking, and Adams counties. On bark. Evidently
a rare fungus in Ohio.


5. Bacidia inundata (Fr.) Koerb. Syst. Lich. 187. 1855.

_Biatora inundata_ Fr. Vet. Akad. Handl. 1822: 270. 1822.

Thallus of minute granules, these usually compacted into a thin or
rarely thicker, granulate, chinky, or subareolate, ash- or green-gray or
darkening, commonly wide-spread, continuous or scattered crust;
apothecia minute to middle-sized, 0.2 to 0.75 mm. in diameter, pale
brown to finally black, adnate or rarely more or less immersed, usually
flat and bordered by the commonly lighter colored exciple, rarely
becoming convex, the exciple then finally covered; hypothecium pale to
brown; hymenium pale to pale brown; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct
to indistinct; asci clavate to long-clavate, spores 4- to 8-celled, 15
to 40 mic. long and 1.5 to 2.6 mic. wide.

Collected in Butler, Preble, Highland, Adams, Warren, and Lake counties.
On various rocks in shaded or open moist places, and also about the
moist shaded bases of rocks in dry fields. Also reported from Cuyahoga
county and doubtless common in all parts of the State.


6. Bacidia incompta (Borr.) Anzi. Cat. Lich. Sondr. 70. 1860.

_Lecidea incompta_ Borr. in Sowerby, Engl. Bot. Suppl. 2: pl. 2699.
1834.

Thallus of very minute granules, these forming a continuous or more or
less broken, wide-spread, sometimes thick and rugose or rarely even
subareolate, or again thin, smooth, more or less mealy, light or darker
green-gray, rarely disappearing crust; apothecia minute to middle-sized,
0.3 to 0.75 mm. in diameter, dark brown to black, adnate to
sub-sessile, flat or becoming convex, with a thin and frequently
flexuous exciple; hypothecium pale brown to brown; hymenium pale below
and pale brown above; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct to indistinct;
asci long-clavate; spores 4- to 12-celled, 18 to 35 mic. long and 1.5 to
3 mic. wide.

Collected in Adams County. On bark. Not previously reported from Ohio,
and doubtless rare in the State.


7. Bacidia umbrina (Ach.) Br. & Rostr. Bot. Tidssk. 3: 235. 1869.

_Lecidea umbrina_ Ach. Lich. Univ. 183. 1810.

Thallus a rather thick and continuous, or rarely thinner and scattered,
subleprose, chinky, rugose-granulate or subareolate, green-gray to dark
olive-brown, sometimes largely disappearing crust; apothecia minute to
small, 0.25 to 0.6 mm. in diameter, light brown to black, adnate to
somewhat immersed, at first flat with a commonly paler exciple, becoming
convex with the exciple sometimes covered; hypothecium pale or darker
brown; hymenium pale throughout, or tinged brown above; paraphyses
coherent, semi-distinct to indistinct; asci long-clavate, or
inflated-clavate; spores hamate, or more or less spirally twisted, about
4- to 8-celled, 18 to 30 mic. long and 2 to 3 mic. wide (Fig. 7).

Collected in Preble, Lake, Hocking, and Adams counties. Also examined
from Wayne County. On various rocks. Not previously reported from Ohio,
but evidently distributed widely in the State.



Buellia De Not. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 195. 1846.

Thallus granulose, verrucose, or areolate, rather better developed than
those of the preceding genera as shown in the more frequent verrucose
and areolate conditions; apothecia minute to large, sessile to immersed,
the disk and the exciple usually black; hypothecium usually brown;
hymenium pale to light brown; paraphyses usually distinct; spores brown,
2-celled.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF BUELLIA

On rocks               3. B. _turgescentoides_
On wood, or on bark.
  On dead wood              1. B. _myriocarpa_
  On bark                     2. B. _parasema_


1. Buellia myriocarpa (Lam. & DC.) Mudd. Man. Brit. Lich. 217. 1861.

_Patellaria myriocarpa_ Lam. & DC. Fl. ed. 3. 2: 346. 1805.

Thallus a thin and scurfy, smooth or chinky, or thicker and
roughened-verrucose, ash- to green-gray, or darkening crust, irregularly
spread over small areas, and rarely disappearing; apothecia minute to
small, 0.2 to 0.6 mm. in diameter, often numerous, black, adnate, flat
and bordered by an exciple, or becoming convex with the exciple
sometimes covered; hypothecium dark brown; hymenium pale, or pale below
and pale brown above; paraphyses distinct, but sometimes loosely
coherent; asci clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 7 to 16 mic. long and 4
to 7.5 mic. wide.

Collected in Butler and Lake counties. On dead wood, especially posts
and boards. Also reported from Cuyahoga County. An inconspicuous fungus,
doubtless distributed widely in the State.


2. Buellia parasema (Ach.) Koerb. Syst. Lich. 228. 1855.

_Lichen parasemus_ Ach. Lich. Suec. 64. 1798.

Thallus usually continuous and smooth, but sometimes becoming thicker
and roughened, granulate, chinky, or finally areolate, ash- to
green-gray, and darkening, or even yellow-green, usually bordered wholly
or in part by a black margin; apothecia small to large, 0.4 to 1.3 mm.
in diameter, black, adnate to sessile, or rarely more or less immersed,
flat with a prominent, concolorous, sometimes flexuous exciple, or
sometimes becoming convex, with the exciple often covered (Fig. 11);
hypothecium dark brown; hymenium pale below and pale brown above;
paraphyses distinct (Fig. 12), but sometimes loosely coherent; asci
clavate (Fig. 13), or rarely inflated clavate; spores oblong to
ellipsoid, 10 to 18 mic. long and 5 to 9 mic. wide, rarely 3-celled
(Fig. 13).

Collected in Fairfield, Lake, Adams, Highland, Hocking, and Butler
counties. Also examined from Morgan, Madison, and Muskingum counties. On
bark. Generally distributed in Ohio.


3. Buellia turgescentoides sp. nov.

Thallus a thick, continuous or scattered, flat or verrucose, areolate or
subareolate, dull olive-brown, and darkening crust, covering small areas
or spreading widely over the substratum, the marginal areoles sometimes
lobulate; apothecia minute to small, 0.2 to 0.5 mm. in diameter,
immersed to adnate, scattered or clustered, black, flat with the thin
concolorous exciple visible, or convex with the exciple covered;
hypothecium pale or darker brown; hymenium pale; paraphyses stout,
distinct, but often loosely coherent; asci clavate or inflated-clavate;
spores brown, 2-celled, oblong to oblong-ellipsoid, 8 to 13 mic. long,
and 4 to 6 mic. wide, 8 in each ascus.

Collected in Lake County. On exposed igneous rocks. The type specimen is
deposited in the writer's herbarium, and a cotype may be found in the
State Herbarium.

This species is a coarser plant than _Buellia turgescens_ (Nyl.) Tuck.,
with much stronger, darker thallus and apothecia on the whole larger.



Rhizocarpon Ram. in Lam. & DC. Fl. Fr. ed. 3. 2: 365. 1805.

Thallus usually verrucose, areolate or subareolate, tending toward
squamulose conditions, better developed than in other members of the
family, scarcely ever showing granulate conditions, and never
disappearing entirely; apothecia also larger than in the other genera,
adnate to immersed, usually black, but rarely white-pruinose;
hypothecium usually dark brown; hymenium pale to light brown; spores
4-celled to muriform, and pale to brown, various conditions of septation
and coloration sometimes appearing in the same hymenium.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF RHIZOCARPON

On bark                                      2. R. _alboatrum_
On rocks.
  Spores smaller and 4-celled           1. R. _vernicomoideum_
  Spores larger and becoming muriform         3. R. _petraeum_


1. Rhizocarpon vernicomoideum sp. nov.

Thallus of minute, rounded, scattered or sometimes clustered,
straw-colored granules, covering small areas, and usually resting on and
limited wholly or in part by a black hypothallus; apothecia minute to
small, 0.2 to 0.6 mm. in diameter, black, semi-immersed to adnate, at
first flat with a thin somewhat raised exciple, becoming convex with the
exciple finally covered; hypothecium brown; hymenium pale or tinged
brown below and light brown above; paraphyses coherent, distinct or
semi-distinct; asci clavate; spores brown, 4-celled, becoming slightly
constricted at the septa, 15 to 18 mic. long and 5 to 7 mic. wide, 8 in
each ascus.

Collected at Cantwell Cave in Hocking County. On shaded sandstone,
intermingled with an ash-gray, crustose thallus, which appeared like a
sterile _Pertusaria_. The type specimen is deposited in the writer's
herbarium, and a cotype may be seen in the State Herbarium.

The plant resembles _Buellia vernicoma_ Tuck.


2. Rhizocarpon alboatrum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. Nov. Act. Reg. Soc. Sci. Ups.
III. 3: 337. 1861.

_Lichen alboater_ Hoffm. Lich. Icon. 30. 1784.

Thallus ash-gray varying toward white, commonly spread widely over the
substratum as a continuous or rarely scattered or disappearing, smooth,
chinky, verrucose-areolate, or sometimes mealy crust: apothecia small to
middle-sized, 0.35 to 1 mm. in diameter, adnate or immersed, dull black
and often more or less white-pruinose, flat with the black exciple
visible, or convex when the exciple often becomes covered; hypothecium
brown to black-brown; hymenium pale or tinged brown; paraphyses
distinct, but sometimes coherent; asci clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid,
brown, 4-celled to muriform, 12 to 22 mic. long and 4 to 9 mic. wide
(Fig. 8), 8 in each ascus.

Collected in Butler, Preble, Ross, and Highland counties. On bark,
especially elm bark. Also reported from Ottawa County. Rare but
doubtless distributed widely in the State.


3. Rhizocarpon petraeum (Wulf.) Koerb. Syst. Lich. 260. 1855.

_Lichen petraeus_ Wulf. in Jacq. Coll. Bot. 3: 4. pl. 6. f. 2a. 1789.

Thallus an ash or green-gray crust, or varying toward brown or
brown-black, smooth to more commonly roughened, chinky to areolate,
continuous or scattered, of moderate thickness, often widely and
irregularly disposed on the substratum; apothecia small to large, 0.5 to
1.3 mm. in diameter, immersed to adnate, black-brown to black, flat with
the concolorous exciple visible, or becoming somewhat convex, with the
exciple often covered; hypothecium dark brown; hymenium pale, or tinged
brown, especially above; paraphyses coherent, semi-distinct; asci
clavate or inflated-clavate; spores oblong-ellipsoid, 4-celled to
muriform, hyaline to finally brown, 15 to 40 mic. long and 7 to 18 mic.
wide. 8 in each ascus (Fig. 9).

Collected in Lake, Hocking, and Ross counties. Also examined from
Summit, Vinton, and Ashtabula counties. On rocks. Rare but widely
distributed in the State.



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII


Fig. 1. Five paraphyses of _Rhizocarpon alboatrum_ to illustrate types
of simple and branched forms found in the same hymenium. X 450.

Fig. 2. A section of the thallus of _Bacidia rubella_ and two cells of
the woody substratum: a, the upper densely interwoven portion of the
thallus; b, part of the less densely interwoven portion below; c, the
algal-host cells; d, one of the cells of the woody substratum and three
hypal rhizoids within it. X 450.

Fig. 3. Spores of _Lecidea enteroleuca_ to illustrate the simple,
hyaline type. X 760.

Fig. 4. Spores of _Biatorina chalybeia_ to illustrate the 2-celled,
hyaline type. X 760.

Fig. 5. Spores of _Bilimbia trachona_ to illustrate the several-celled,
hyaline, fusiform or dactyloid type. X 760.

Fig. 6. Spores of _Bacidia fuscorubella_ to illustrate the
several-celled, hyaline, acicular type. X 760.

Fig. 7. Spores of _Bacidia umbrina_ to illustrate the several-celled,
hyaline, hamate or spirally twisted type. X 760.

Fig. 8. Spores of _Rhizocarpon alboatrum_ to illustrate the
several-celled to many-celled and muriform, hyaline to brown type. X
760.

Fig. 9. Spores of _Rhizocarpon petraeum_ of the same type as those shown
in the last figure, but larger, and usually composed of more cells. X
760.

Fig. 10. A vertical section through an apothecium of _Lecidea
rupestris_: a, the hymenium, composed of asci and paraphyses; b, the
hypothecium; c, the mycelium, the cells of the algal host, and particles
of the limestone on which the plant was growing; d, the weak,
light-colored, covered exciple. X 79.

Fig. 11. A vertical section through an apothecium of _Buellia parasema_,
the thallus below, and a portion of the woody substratum: a, the
hymenium, composed of asci and paraphyses; b, the strongly developed,
dark colored exciple; c, the dark colored hypothecium; d, the thallus,
composed of interwoven hyphae, and enclosing cells of the algal host, a
portion of the woody substratum. X 79.

Fig. 12. One branched and one unbranched paraphysis of _Buellia
parasema_. X 450.

Fig. 13. An ascus of _Buella parasema_, containing 8 spores. X 450.

     The figures were outlined with camera lucida and drawn on the
     table, close to the base of the microscope, 100 mm. below the
     stage. They were reduced one-half in making the plate. Figures 2,
     10, and 11 are partly diagrammatical.

[Illustration: PLATE XIII.]



THE ASCOMYCETES OF OHIO V[B]


The Peltigeraceae.

LEAFY J. CORRINGTON.


Two genera, _Peltigera_ and _Nephroma_, constitute the _Peltigeraceae_
as represented in the flora of Ohio. The thallus is plainly foliose with
the margins of the lobes usually ascending and is gray-green to brown in
color. The lower surface is often conspicuously veined. There are two
pronounced distinctions between the two genera. _Peltigera_ has a
well-developed cortex on the upper side of the thallus only (Fig. 1),
while in _Nephroma_ there is a well-developed cortex on both upper and
lower sides (Fig. 2).

The position of the apothecia constitutes another distinction. In both
genera the apothecia are marginal or submarginal on the lobes, which are
usually narrow and somewhat extended; but in _Peltigera_ they are
immersed in the upper surface, while in _Nephroma_ they are imbedded in
the lower surface.

_Peltigera_ furnishes seven species for Ohio, while only one species of
_Nephroma_ has thus far been found in the State.

The algal hosts are usually _Dactylococcus_ or _Polycoccus_, and both
hosts are sometimes found in the same thallus. The chains of cells are
usually badly broken up, and the nature of the algal host is, therefore,
difficult to distinguish. Other algae doubtless sometimes occur in the
thalli of _Peltigerae_.

_Nephroma_ with cortex on both sides, is to be regarded higher than
_Peltigera_, which has the cortex on the upper side only. The family is
most closely related to the _Stictaceae_, from which family it is kept
distinct on account of the absence of cyphellae and the difference in
disposition of the apothecia.

The collecting on which this paper is based was partly by Bruce Fink in
connection with general collecting of fungi in Butler County and in
collecting in Adams, Warren, Fairfield, Preble, Ross, Highland, and Lake
counties for the Ohio Biological Survey. However, a considerable amount
of material found by other collectors and previously reported from Ohio
was examined. Hence, the collecting for the Ohio Biological Survey added
little to knowledge of the _Peltigeraceae_ of Ohio, except in way of
addition to distribution in the State.

[Footnote B: Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory of Miami
University--XIX]



_Systematic Account._

PELTIGERACEAE


Thallus foliose, with plectenchymatous cortex above (Fig. 5), or both
above and below (Fig. 2), with medulla of loosely interwoven hyphae,
trichomatic hyphae, usually present, attached to the substratum by
compound rhizoids; apothecia of considerable size, commonly on extended
lobes, usually imbedded in the tissues on the upper side, or more rarely
on the lower side; exciple inconspicuous; hypothecium usually light or
darker brown; hymenium usually pale below and brown or tinged brown
above; paraphyses simple or branched, distinct, seldom gelatinized or
coherent; spores hyaline or brown, 4- to several-celled, elongated.


KEY TO THE GENERA

1. Cortex developed on the upper side of thallus only,
  spores hyaline                                            Peltigera.

2. Cortex developed on both upper and lower sides of
  thallus, spores brown                                      Nephroma.



_Peltigera Willd. Fl. Berol. Prodr. 347. 1787._

Thallus foliose, usually adnate toward the center, with the lobes more
or less ascending at the margins, green-gray varying toward brown, the
upper surface sometimes bare, or again clothed with trichomatic hyphae,
giving it a downy appearance, or bearing cephalodia or isidioid
branchlets, the lower surface usually conspicuously veined, with tufted
rhizoids descending from the veins, color of these light or dark; cross
section showing two distinct layers, the upper plectenchymatous cortex
composed of 2 to 4 layers of meshes, and the medulla, composed of
densely interwoven and irregularly disposed hyphae; lower cortex
lacking, but the hyphae of the lower portion in some instances more or
less horizontally arranged and produced into hyphal rhizoids, thus
serving for support and protection much like a true plectenchymatous
cortex; apothecia usually orbicular, frequently revolute, imbedded in
the upper surface of the lobes; exciple plectenchymatous (Fig. 4);
hypothecium of interwoven hyphae, usually tinged brown; hymenium
commonly pale below and brown above; paraphyses usually simple, but some
branched ones present in all of the species, hyaline in the main, but
usually enlarged and tinged brown at the apex; asci usually
cylindrico-clavate; spores hyaline, fusiform to acicular, sometimes
curved, 4 to 8-celled, 8 arranged parallel in the asci.

The algal host cells lie in the medulla, just below the upper cortex.


KEY TO THE SPECIES OF PELTIGERA

Upper surface of the thallus bearing cephalodia             1. P. aphthosa
Upper surface of the thallus devoid of cephalodia.
  Thallus bearing trichomatic hyphae above.
    Upper surface bearing isidioid branchlets or lobules 2. P. praetextata
    Upper surface devoid of isidioid branchlets or lobules.
      Orbicular sorediate areas on the upper surface of
          the thallus                                      3. P. sorediata
      Soredia lacking on the upper surface.
        Lower surface of the thallus of light color           4. P. canina
        Lower surface partly or wholly dark                5. P. rufescens
  Thallus devoid of trichomatic hyphae.
    Apothecia orbicular and revolute, spores 4- to
        8-celled                                         6. P. polydactyla
    Apothecia usually transversely oblong, spores
        4-celled                                        7. P. horizontalis


1. Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. Fl. Berol. Prodr. 347. 1787.

_Lichen aphthosus_ L. Sp. Pl. 1148. 1753.

Thallus closely attached to the substratum at the center, the lobes
ascending, 6 to 8 cm. in diameter, smooth and devoid of trichomatic
hyphae above, cephalodia more or less rounded and irregularly scattered
over the surface (Fig. 3), the lobes broad and rounded with crenate
margins, brown above, the lower surface having numerous veins, these
forming a dark brown nap at the center, the veins distinct and light
toward the margin, dark rhizoids extending from the veins; medulla
composed of thick-walled, densely interwoven hyphae, irregularly
disposed; apothecia on extended lobules, orbicular and frequently
revolute, the disk red-brown, 2 to 5 mm. in diameter, the margin entire
or crenulate; hypothecium pale brown; hymenium hyaline to pale brown
above; asci cylindrico-clavate; spores acicular, straight, 4- to
6-celled, 47 to 66 mic. long and 4 to 5 mic. wide (Fig. 8, d).

Examined from Clark County. Also reported from Champaign County. On
earth and often on humus-covered rocks. Rare in Ohio.


2. Peltigera praetextata (Sommerf.) Fink. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 1918:
267. 1918.

_Peltigera ulorrhiza praetextata_ Sommerf. Lapp. Suppl. 123. 1826.

Thallus adnate toward the center, more or less ascending toward the
margins, 7 to 15 cm. in diameter, the upper surface having isidioid
branchlets or lobules scattered more or less thickly, the lobes broad,
wavy, crenate, with frequently isidioid, lobulate margins, trichomatic
hyphae often present, usually green-gray toward the center, becoming
brown toward the margin, the lower surface light with numerous dark
veins and bearing rhizoids of the same color, the veins and rhizoids
becoming light colored toward the margin; medulla of densely interwoven
and irregularly disposed hyphae; apothecia on narrow, somewhat extended
lobes, the disk brown to brown-black, revolute, 2 to 5 mm. in diameter,
hypothecium light to darker brown; hymenium pale below and brown above;
asci cylindrico-clavate; spores sub-fusiform to acicular, usually
straight but sometimes slightly curved, 4- to 6-celled, 42 to 56 mic.
long and 3 to 5 mic. wide.

Examined from Franklin, Adams, Butler, Marion, Jefferson, and Preble
counties. On soil, old logs, and moss in woods. Not previously reported
from Ohio, but included under _Peltigera canina_ and _Peltigera
rufescens_. Evidently widely distributed and frequent in the State, but
seldom fruited.


3. Peltigera sorediata (Schaer.) Fink comb. nov.

_Peltigera canina spuria sorediata_ Schaer. Enum. Lich. Eur. 21. 1850.

Thallus small, composed of scattered lobes, these 1 to 4.5 cm. in
length, adnate with slightly ascending rounded, and crenate margins, the
upper surface usually deep gray at the center, becoming lighter toward
the margin, thickly covered with trichomatic hyphae, orbicular sorediate
areas scattered over the upper surface, the lower surface ash-white to
cream-colored, with a network of veins of the same color, with similarly
colored rhizoids extending downward; medulla of small, densely
interwoven and irregularly extending hyphae; apothecia somewhat
digitately clustered on the narrow lobes, small, 1.3 to 3 mm. in
diameter, orbicular, flat or semi-revolute, dark brown; hypothecium
light brown; hymenium hyaline below and brown above; asci long-clavate;
spores acicular, 6- to 8-celled, 53 to 66 mic. long and 3 to 3.5 mic.
wide (Fig. 8, b).

Examined from Butler and Lake counties. On damp earth and mossy rocks.
Not previously reported from Ohio, and probably not widely distributed
in the State. Surely rare.


4. Peltigera canina (L.) Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2: 108. 1795.

_Lichen caninus_ L. Sp. Pl. 1149. 1753.

Thallus closely adnate toward center, the lobes more or less ascending,
6 to 15 cm. in diameter, the upper surface for the most part thickly
covered with trichomatic hyphae, generally giving it a downy appearance
under the lens, the lobes numerous and usually broad and rounded, with
entire or crenate and much crisped margins, usually green-gray but
sometimes becoming brown, below almost white, netted with light brown or
gray veins, these bearing rhizoids of the same color; medulla (Fig. 5)
of densely interwoven and irregularly disposed hyphae; apothecia on
narrow, extended lobes, often erect, orbicular, usually revolute, 2 to 7
mm. in diameter, the disk dark brown; hypothecium (Fig. 7) pale brown;
hymenium (Fig. 6) pale below and brown above; asci long-clavate; spores
acicular, straight or sometimes curved, 4- to 8-celled, 30 to 65 mic.
long and 3 to 5 mic. wide (Fig. 8, d).

Examined from Butler, Franklin, Ashtabula, Green, Seneca, Summit,
Lorain, Preble, Brown, and Adams counties. On soil or mosses in woods.
Generally distributed and frequent in Ohio.


5. Peltigera rufescens (Neck.) Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2: 107. 1795.

_Lichen rufescens_ Neck. Meth. Musc. 79. 1771.

Thallus closely adnate at the center with ascending lobes, 5 to 15 cm.
in diameter, the upper surface smooth and devoid of trichomatic hyphae
for the most part, but the margins sometimes sparingly covered with
them, green-gray to brown, the lobes crowded, rather small with crenate,
much crisped, elevated margins, the lower surface usually becoming dark
brown except at the margins, and thickly reticulated with brown veins,
from these numerous rhizoids of similar color extending; medulla of
densely interwoven variously disposed hyphae; apothecia numerous on
narrow, extending lobes, the disk brown to black-brown, revolute, 4 to 7
mm. in diameter; hypothecium pale brown; hymenium hyaline to pale brown
below and dark brown above; asci long-clavate; spores acicular, straight
or curved, 4- to 8-celled, 45 to 68 mic. long and 3.5 to 5 mic. wide.

Examined from Butler, Preble, Clark, Adams, and Summit counties. Also
reported from Champaign County. On earth and mosses, commonly about
trees. Widely distributed in Ohio, but infrequent.


6. Peltigera polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2: 106. 1795.

_Lichen polydactylon_ Neck. Musc. 85. 1771.

Thallus adnate at the center with ascendant margins of the lobes, 6 to
11 cm. in diameter, the upper surface smooth and shining, devoid of
trichomatic hyphae, the lobes broad with crisped, crenate margins,
except those bearing the apothecia, these much narrower and more
elongated and usually digitately clustered, brown in color for the most
part, the lower surface showing through a reticulation of dark veins as
small light-colored spots, numerous dark rhizoids extending downward
from the veins; medulla of densely interwoven and irregularly disposed
hyphae; apothecia orbicular, and usually revolute, the disk dark brown,
3 to 10 mm. in diameter; hypothecium pale brown; hymenium pale below and
dark brown above; asci clavate to cylindrico-clavate; spores acicular,
straight or slightly curved, 4- to 6-celled, 42 to 70 mic. long and 3 to
4 mic. wide.

Examined from Clark, Fairfield, and Morgan counties. On earth. Rare in
Ohio.


7. Peltigera horizontalis (L.) Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2: 107. 1795.

_Lichen horizontalis_ L. Mant. Pl. 2: 132. 1771.

Thallus mostly adnate, the margins scarcely ascending, 6 to 20 cm. in
diameter, the upper surface smooth and shining, devoid of trichomatic
hyphae, green-gray to brown, the lobes broad and rounded with entire or
crenate margins, the lower surface covered with numerous veins, these
giving a dark coloration toward the center and becoming light colored
toward the margins, numerous dark rhizoids extending down from the
veins; medulla of thick-walled, densely and irregularly disposed hyphae;
apothecia on somewhat narrowed lobes, transversely oblong or
infrequently orbicular, the disk red-brown, concave, 2 to 4 mm. in
diameter; hypothecium light brown; hymenium pale below and dark brown
toward the upper surface; asci cylindrico-clavate; spores fusiform to
long-ellipsoid, straight to curved, 4-celled, 26 to 40 mic. long and 5
to 6.5 mic. wide. (Fig. 8 a).

Examined from Lake and Fairfield counties. On earth and mossy rocks.
Rare in Ohio.



Nephroma Ach. Lich. Univ. 101. 521. pl. 11. f. 1. 1810.

Thallus foliose, but smaller and thinner than that of _Peltigera_, and
devoid of trichomatic hyphae, more or less closely attached to the
substratum by rhizoids; cortex well developed on both upper and lower
sides; medulla well developed (Fig. 2); apothecia confined to the lower
side of the thallus, marginal on narrow, slightly elongated lobes,
thalloid margin persistent and crenate; hypothecium usually some shade
of brown; hymenium usually pale below and brown above; paraphyses
simple or branched; spores brown, 4-celled, 8 in each ascus.

The algal-host cells occur as in _Peltigera_.


1. Nephroma helvetica Ach. Lich. Univ. 523. 1810.

Thallus adnate, rather closely attached to the substratum by numerous
short, hyaline, thick-walled rhizoids, irregular or sometimes orbicular
in form, 6 to 10 cm. in diameter, green-gray to brown above, smooth or
bearing tooth-like branchlets, narrowly and laciniately lobed, the
margins of the lobes serrate or crenate, slightly ascending, beneath
finally tomentose, and brown or black-brown; plectenchymatous cortices
well developed above and below; medulla of narrow, thin-walled, densely,
variously disposed hyphae; apothecia numerous, the disk red-brown to
almost black, 1.3 to 3 mm. in diameter; hypothecium of interwoven
hyphae, pale brown; hymenium pale brown below and darker above; asci
clavate; paraphyses simple or branched, slightly swollen and brown at
the apex; spores brown, ellipsoid, 4-celled, 15 to 21 mic. long and 5.5
to 8 mic. wide.

Examined from Butler and Champaign Counties. On trunks and mossy rocks.
Rare and usually sterile in Ohio.



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV


Fig. 1. A section through the thallus of _Peltigera canina_, showing the
cortex above and the medulla below, the medullary hyphae of the lower
portion running in a somewhat horizontal direction. The algal cells
shaded. X 380.

Fig. 2. A section through the thallus of _Nephroma helvetica_, showing
the cortices, upper and lower, and the mycelial medulla within. The
algal cell shaded. X 760.

Fig. 3. A section through a cephalodium of _Peltigera aphthosa_; a, the
surrounding cortex; b, the internal hyphae and the cells of the algal
host; c, the supporting hyphae from the thallus below. Partly
diagramatic. X 48.

Fig. 4. A small portion of a section through the exciple of _Peltigera
canina_, showing the plectenchymatous structure. X 380.

[Illustration: PLATE XIV.]



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV


Fig. 5. A section through the cortex of _Peltigera canina_, showing its
relation to the medullary hyphae. X 760.

Fig. 6. A portion of a section of the hymenium of _Peltigera canina_,
showing two asci containing spores, two asci with protoplasmic contents,
and five paraphyses. X 760.

Fig. 7. A portion of a section through an apothecium of _Peltigera
canina_, showing part of the hymenium of interwoven hyphae below and the
bases of three paraphyses above. X 760.

Fig. 8. Types of spores found in the _Peltigeraceae_: a, 4-celled spores
of _Peltigera horizontalis_; b, 6- to 8-celled spores of _Peltigera
sorediata_; c, 4-celled spores of _Peltigera aphthosa_; d, 4- to
8-celled spores of _Peltigera canina_. X 380.

     The drawings were made with camera lucida and were reduced one-half
     in making the plates.

[Illustration: PLATE XV.]



INDEX


Bacidia, 345

Bacidia egenuloidea, 346

Bacidia fuscorubella, 346

Bacidia incompta, 347

Bacidia inundata, 347

Bacidia rubella, 346

Bacidia schweinitzii, 347

Bacidia umbrina, 348

Biatorella, 336

Biatorella pruinosa, 337

Biatorella simplex, 336

Biatorina, 341

Biatorina chalybeia, 341

Biatorina heerii, 343

Biatorina lentibularis, 342

Biatorina prasina, 342

Bilimbia, 343

Bilimbia hypnophila, 344

Bilimbia melaena, 344

Bilimbia microcarpa, 345

Bilimbia naegelii, 344

Bilimbia sphaeroides, 343

Bilimbia trachona, 345

Buellia, 348

Buellia myriocarpa, 348

Buellia parasema, 349

Buellia turgescentoides, 349


Lecideaceae, 336

Lecidea, 337

Lecidea albocaerulescens, 341

Lecidea coarctata, 338

Lecidea enteroleuca, 340

Lecidea flexuosa, 340

Lecidea humicola, 339

Lecidea intropallida, 338

Lecidea platycarpa, 341

Lecidea rupestris, 338

Lecidea sylvicola, 340

Lecidea uliginosa, 339

Lecidea varians, 338

Lecidea viridescens, 339


Nephroma, 358

Nephroma helvetica, 359


Peltigeraceae, 354

Peltigera aphthosa, 356

Peltigera canina, 357

Peltigera horizontalis, 358

Peltigera polydactyla, 358

Peltigera praetextata, 356

Peltigera rufescens, 357

Peltigera sorediata, 356


Rhizocarpon, 349

Rhizocarpon alboatrum, 350

Rhizocarpon petraeum, 350

Rhizocarpon vernicomoideum, 350



Bulletins Ohio Biological Survey


I. Outline of Biological Survey Plan Syrphidae of Ohio
      by C.L. Metcalf                                   $ .50

II. Catalog of Ohio Vascular Plants
      by John H. Schaffner                                .50

III. Botanical Survey of the Sugar Grove Region
      by R.F. Griggs                                      .50

IV. The Euglenoidina of Ohio
      by L.B. Walton                                      .50

V. The Ascomycetes of Ohio.--I
      by Bruce Fink

   The Ascomycetes of Ohio.--II
      by Bruce Fink and C. Audrey Richards                .50

VI. Qualities and Uses of the Woods of Ohio
      by Wm. R. Lazenby                                   .50

VII. The Physiographic Ecology of the Cincinnati Region
      by E. Lucy Braun                                    .50

VIII. The Tingitoidea of Ohio
      by Herbert Osborn and Carl J. Drake                 .50

IX. The Grasses of Ohio
      by John H. Schaffner                                .50

X. The Ascomycetes of Ohio.--IV and V
      by Bruce Fink and Leafy J. Corrington               .50





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