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Title: A Disquisition on the Evils of Using Tobacco - and the Necessity of Immediate and Entire Reformation
Author: Fowler, Orin, 1791-1852
Language: English
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by The Kentuckiana Digital Library)



A

DISQUISITION

ON THE

EVILS OF USING TOBACCO,

AND THE NECESSITY OF

IMMEDIATE AND ENTIRE REFORMATION.

By REV. ORIN FOWLER A. M.

THIRD EDITION.

BOSTON:

PUBLISHED BY GEO. GREGORY.

For sale by D. S. KING, No. 1 Cornhill; JORDAN & CO. 121
Washington Street. NEW YORK: JOHN S. TAYLOR,
145 Nassau Street. PROVIDENCE: WM.
APLIN, 65 South Main St.
1842.



A

DISQUISITION

ON THE

EVILS OF USING TOBACCO,

AND THE NECESSITY OF

IMMEDIATE AND ENTIRE REFORMATION.

Delivered before the Fall River Lyceum, and before the Congregation to whom
the Author statedly ministers

BY ORIN FOWLER, A. M.,

PASTOR OF THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH IN FALL RIVER, MASS.

Third Edition.

BOSTON:
PUBLISHED BY GEO. GREGORY.

For sale by D. S. KING, No. 1. Cornhill; JORDAN &. CO. 121
Washington Street. NEW YORK: JOHN S. TAYLOR,
145 Nassau Street. PROVIDENCE: WM.
APLIN, 65 South Main St.

1842.



Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1842, by ORIN
FOWLER, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS,

BY THE PUBLISHER.


Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind,
those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and
call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and
mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery
to his favorite plant, the Betel; but _we_ present the humiliating
spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more
than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the
lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of
the Chinese or Hindoo.

Whether, then, we consider the folly and indecency of the habit, or the
waste of property, health and life which it occasions, it is time for
the Patriot, the Philanthropist and the Christian, to put forth united,
vigorous and systematic efforts to banish this injurious and disgusting
habit from the community.

It is a fact, that one reform not only prepares the way for another, but
often so depends upon it, that the complete triumph of the one cannot be
effected without that of the other. Such appears to be the relationship
existing between the use of intoxicating drinks and that of the
stimulating narcotic, tobacco. The use of tobacco almost always
accompanies the use of alcoholic drinks, and it may be feared that total
abstinence from the latter will not be _permanent_, unless there is also
a total abstinence from the former. Our temperance brethren,
particularly our worthy Washingtonians, will do well to bear this in
mind.

The tobacco reform, being similar to that of temperance, must be brought
about by similar means. Information must be diffused, the evils of the
practice exposed, and the attention of the public aroused to the
subject. To aid in this, is the object of the following pamphlet, two
editions of which have already been put in circulation, and it is said
to have been re-published in England. The favorable reception of the
former editions, as shown by the repeated editorial remarks, and the
numerous letters of thanks addressed to the author, affords much
encouragement for a vigorous prosecution of the enterprise. Three
members of the church of which the author is pastor, placed at his
disposal a sum sufficient to supply, gratuitously, each of the 1000
Beneficiaries of the American Education Society, with a copy of the
essay. Orders were furnished for bundles for distribution. An individual
in Maine ordered 500 copies, and 1000 were ordered by E. C. Delevan, of
New York, the distinguished advocate of Temperance.

Let the friends of true reform remember the early days of the temperance
cause, and take courage. All interested should exert themselves.
Clergymen can do much by lecturing and other means. Churches should form
Anti-Tobacco Societies, circulate information and induce as many as
possible to take a stand against the evil, by enrolling their names on a
_Pledge_.

Teachers should speak on the subject, and endeavor to prevent the
formation of so vile and tyranical a habit, by those under their
influence; for it is a fact that lads in many of our public schools try
to hasten their claims to _manliness_, by learning to chew, smoke or
snuff. This being the case, we may expect, of course, to find these
practices prevalent in our academies and colleges, our medical and our
law schools and theological seminaries.

In the early records of Harvard University, says Dr. Mussey, is a
regulation ordering that "no scholar shall take tobacco unless permitted
by the President, with the consent of his parents, on good reason first
given by a physician, and then only in a sober and private manner." How
different now! Probably one half, at least, of the students of our
colleges are, not in a "sober and private manner," but publicly addicted
to this slovenly and disgusting practice.

As the use of tobacco is injurious to health, it is the duty of
physicians to exert their influence against it. Their authority upon
such subjects is generally respected, and is therefore very important.

To the ladies, it would hardly seem necessary to say a word, in order to
secure their aid in a reform that so intimately concerns themselves. In
this matter, as in the vice of intemperance, woman, though comparatively
innocent, is by far the greatest sufferer. With what a melancholy
prospect does a young lady marry a man who uses the filthy plant in any
form. He may _at first_ do it in a neat, or even a genteel manner, and
neutralize the sickening odor by the most grateful perfumes; but this
trouble will soon be dispensed with, and in all probability he will, at
no distant day, become a sloven, with his garments saturated with smoke,
and himself steeped in tobacco juice. Alas, to think of being annoyed a
life-time by the nauseous odor of the vile tobacco worm, and of wasting
patience and strength in vain endeavors to preserve neatness in his
slimy trail! Little can be accomplished in this, or any other reform,
without the aid of females. Let them take hold of the subject, and exert
their legimate influence, and public opinion will soon be corrected;
young men and old too, will soon learn that by no rule in the code of
politeness and good breeding, can the use of tobacco be tolerated.

A word to dealers. How can a man who regards the morals, the happiness
and the prosperity of his neighborhood and his country, deal out so
useless, so filthy, and so injurious an article as tobacco? Many will of
course, excuse themselves by saying as the rum-sellers once did, "If I
don't sell it, others will," This plea did not justify the rum-seller,
neither will it, the dealer in tobacco. Others will say, "I _must_ sell
it, or I shall offend my patrons and lose their custom." But this is not
valid even as a selfish argument. A large and increasing portion of the
community would be glad to patronize traders who sell only the useful
and necessary articles of life. Let respectable traders cease to sell
the article, and respectable customers would soon cease to buy it.

The abominable filthiness of the practice of using tobacco, is a
sufficient argument to induce all decent people to wage war against it.
Stage coaches, rail cars, steamboats, public houses, courts of justice,
halls of legislation, and the temples of God, are all defiled by the
loathsome consumers of this dirty, Indian herb. For the sake of decency,
for the honor of humanity, let the land be purified from this worse than
beastly pollution!

Let none be discouraged from engaging in this reform, because it relates
to a wide-spread and fashionable vice. With a moderate degree of effort
in each town and village, hundreds of thousands might in one year's
time, be induced to pledge themselves against all use of tobacco.

During the last winter I drew up the following pledge, and obtained many
signatures here and in other parts of the state.

  ANTI-TOBACCO PLEDGE.

  _We, the subscribers, believing that the use of_ TOBACCO,
  _in all its forms, is injurious to health, and knowing it to
  be a slovenly, sluttish, and disgusting habit, do pledge
  ourselves that we will not_ SMOKE _it_, CHEW _it, nor_ SNUFF
  _it; and that we will use efforts to persuade those addicted
  to the practice, to discontinue its use; and above all, that
  we will not traffic in it, nor countenance those who do; and
  that we will use our influence to banish the "vile stuff"
  from New England, our country, and the world._

A gentleman in North Bridgewater, to whom I lent a pamphlet on this
subject, said he had not read it half through, before he emptied his
pockets of tobacco, and resolved to use no more. He also took a pledge
to circulate among his neighbors.

Another man who had chewed tobacco thirty-three years, abandoned the
habit and remarked that he would not return to it for fifty dollars.

Two benevolent individuals, in Providence, had two or three hundred
copies of the above pledge printed to circulate in the State of Rhode
Island. One of the principal clergymen in P. said, a member of his
church, a trader, told him that the money paid for tobacco in the city
was sufficient to support the public preaching. A gentleman there, who
has recently given up tobacco, said he would not go back to its use for
a thousand dollars, although it cost him a great effort to refrain from
it. A young man, after receiving a private lecture from an anti-tobacco
friend, committed to the flames half a dozen cigars he had by him, and
signed the pledge.

I have conversed with very many addicted to the use of tobacco, and
nearly all express regret at having formed the habit.

A few days since in a town not far from Providence, as I was sitting in
the stage about starting for the city, up came a reverend gentleman, a
very fine man by the way, with a big cigar about half burned. He had too
much good breeding to get into the stage with it, and to all appearance,
disliked to part with so good a friend; he accordingly stood outside
and puffed away like a steamer, at the same time keeping an eye on the
driver; when all was ready, he scrambled in, and we drove off. What an
example, for a clergyman to stand in a public street and puff a cigar
like a loafer or a blackguard!

Rev. Mr. C., in a village adjoining Providence relates, that a brother
clergyman called to preach for him. He was in the habit of chewing
tobacco, and Mr. C. took the opportunity to speak to him on the subject.
At first the brother remarked that there was nothing wrong or injurious
in it; but on Mr. C's pressing the matter and asking how he could preach
"righteousness, temperance" and good habits in all things, when he was
himself addicted to such a practice, the brother frankly acknowledged
that he knew he was setting a bad example, and that tobacco was
poisonous, injurious to health and shortened life, but he excused
himself by saying he _could not_ give it up, for he found it
_impossible_ to write a sermon or preach it with any success, without
taking tobacco. Sermons and preaching inspired by tobacco! What better
is this, than the inspiration of brandy?

Rev. Mr.----, now of Boston, formerly of a neighboring city, is a most
excessive smoker and chewer, so much so that it was a matter of
notoriety and remark among his congregation and acquaintances of his
former residence. He was a very agreeable man in other respects, but his
study, his library, and every thing about him were so completely
saturated with tobacco smoke, that the ladies of his church rarely made
him a call, and more rarely borrowed a book from his extensive and
excellent library.--Is it not time for clergymen to reform themselves in
this particular, and then consistently to set about reforming others.

I have recently learned that many _ladies_ are in the habit of _chewing
snuff!_ Some of them become so addicted to it as to use enormous
quantities in this way. "One of these snuff eaters," I was told, "was
accustomed to take herself by the under lip with one hand, and with the
thumb and four fingers of the other to fill in an embankment between her
lips and teeth." Shocking! Yet, what young lady who carries a concealed
snuff-box, can be sure of not coming to this?

I saw a woman who commenced with chewing snuff, and is now a regular
tobacco chewer. She said however, that she intended to give up the habit
and refrain from tobacco in all its forms.

Unless something is done to check the evil, who can say that we shall
not become as bad as the inhabitants of Cuba, where, according to Rev.
Mr. Ingersoll, "not only men, but _women_ and _children_ smoke, and some
at a large expense." And according to Rev. Dr. Abbot, "it was the common
estimate that in Havana, there was an average consumption of _ten
thousand dollars worth of cigars in a day_."

BOSTON, July, 1842.



RECOMMENDATIONS.


_From the Rochester Observer._

"Fowler on the Evils of using Tobacco.--'A disquisition on the evils of
using tobacco, and the necessity of an immediate and entire reform,' by
Rev. Orin Fowler, of Fall River, Mass. This is a very valuable and
instructive discourse. We have for two years or more been fully
convinced that the use of tobacco, in its three common forms, ought
immediately to be abandoned; but never were we so fully sensible of the
alarming extent and tremendous ravages of this evil, as when we had read
this production. We think no _christian_, who is willing to know and do
his duty, can read this pamphlet, without saying on the spot, if he uses
tobacco, (except it be judiciously prescribed by a physician.) the use
of this poisonous, deleterious weed is a _grievous sin_, and I will
abandon it _immediately and forever_.

Mr. F. lays down the position that it is the duty of every man and woman
to abstain immediately, entirely and forever, from all use of tobacco,
whether by chewing, smoking or snuffing, except it be as a medicine.

In favor of this point he offers the following arguments, which we think
he has fully sustained, by well attested facts, quotations from approved
authors, and the deductions of sound reasoning.

1. The history of this loathsome weed. It has ever since its discovery
been considered exceedingly injurious, and its general use opposed by
judicious men.

2. Its ruinous effect upon the health and constitution of men.

3. Its ruinous effects upon the intellect.

4. Its ruinous effects upon public and private morals.

5. The amazing waste of property which its use involves.

6. The mortality which its use occasions.

7. The apologies made by the lovers of tobacco.

8. The eternal ruin which tobacco occasions.

We intend in our next to give extracts from this discourse. We hope it
will have a wide circulation, and would commend it to the careful
perusal of all christians, especially to ministers, who use this vile
and ruinous plant."

       *       *       *       *       *

Edward C. Delevan, Secretary of the New York State Temperance Society,
says, in a letter just received--"The subject of your Essay is one of
immense importance to the world and to the temperance cause. The use of
this vile weed has been the medium of forming the appetite for strong
drink, and ultimately destroying thousands of the most promising youth
of our country. You will hardly ever meet with an intemperate person
without finding him addicted to the use of tobacco. The public only want
light on this important subject, to act. Your able and convincing
Disquisition will be the means of doing much good. I hope funds will be
provided to furnish a copy to each clergyman in the United States. Send
me one thousand copies of the second edition, as soon as it is from the
press."

       *       *       *       *       *

"Fowler on the Evils of using Tobacco.--We are anxious to see this work
extensively circulated, for we are confident that it will do good. The
pamphlet contains much valuable information, and will be found well
worth an attentive and frequent perusal."

                                        _The Unionist_, Brooklyn, Conn.

       *       *       *       *       *

"Fowler on the Evils of using Tobacco.--The subject of which this
pamphlet treats is one which, we are persuaded, has received too small a
share of attention from those who are laboring to free our land, utterly
and forever, from the thraldom of intemperance. From our own
observation, limited as it has been, we are persuaded that the victims
of intemperance in the use of this poisonous weed are by no means
inconsiderable in number. Probably Mr. Fowler is correct when he
estimates the mortality occasioned by the use of tobacco in its various
forms, at five thousand annually. For ourself we are convinced that the
suppression of intemperance in spirituous liquors will never be effected
while the agents and advocates of our Temperance Societies, lecture with
a pinch of snuff in their fingers and a huge tobacco quid in their
mouths. Tobacco slays its thousands, and doubtless one tenth of the
drunkards in our land have become so by first indulging in the use of
the dirty plant, and thus creating an unnatural thirst that called for
liquid fire to quench it.

Did our limits permit, we should be glad to give copious extracts from
Mr. Fowler's discourse."                          _Batharia Palladium._

       *       *       *       *       *

                                               _Lisbon, Feb. 3d, 1841._
Mr Fowler--

_Dear Sir_--We have in this county a monthly ministers' meeting.

At the last the use of tobacco was discussed. I was appointed to write
on the subject, and derived important aid from your Disquisition on
tobacco. I feel that it is a very happy effort, and calculated to do
much good, and that it is desirable that it should have a much wider
circulation.

The thought occurred to me whether it might not be published by the
Tract Society.

This would give it the widest circulation it could have.

I doubt not but you are desirous of having the greatest amount of good
accomplished by this effort, and will be ready to extend its circulation
if possible.

Should it become a Tract, be so good as to inform me--for I should be
glad to place it in every family in my parish.

                              Fraternally yours,       JOSEPH AYER, Jr.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notice by Dr. Alcott, Editor of the Library of Health.

"A disquisition on the evils of using Tobacco. By Orin Fowler, A. M.
Second Edition. This pamphlet finds favor, * * * *. While we have the
kindliest feelings towards those who chew this disgusting substance, we
hold its use, in every form, in the most unqualified contempt. We care
not to whom the remark may apply, whether he be farmer, mechanic,
lawyer, doctor, minister, judge or president; but if in the light which
Mr. Fowler has shed on the subject, any man should continue to smoke or
chew tobacco, or take snuff, public opinion ought to frown him out of
the pale of all civilized society. He that will contribute in any way to
a tax upon this nation of $25,000,000 a year for such stuff, may well be
set down as a bad citizen, unless he does it in ignorance."



DISQUISITION.


In this age of benevolent action, when much is being done to drive away
the darkness and delusions of many generations, and to diffuse light and
truth through the earth; it excites the liveliest joy in every
philanthropic bosom to witness the triumphant results already achieved.
Recent efforts to banish the use of intoxicating drinks, have brought
well nigh half the civilized world to a solemn pause: and the work of
reformation in this matter of spirit-drinking has gone so far, and is
yet making such sure progress, that many are rejoicing in the lively
hope that the day is nigh, even at the doors, when drunkenness, with her
burning legion of evils, will cease from the earth; and the gospel of
the grace of God will have free course and be glorified, and the whole
family of man become temperate, holy and happy. The God of our salvation
hasten that day apace; that our eyes may see it, and rejoice and be glad
in it, before we go to the grave.

But ere that day shall fully come, there is much land to be possessed.
Many a battle must yet be fought,--many a victory must yet be won. Much
light must yet be poured forth,--much darkness must yet be driven away.
The world is not yet half reformed. The majority in the best portions of
the earth--in this country even--are on the side of free indulgence in
every thing that pleases the appetite.

Intemperance in the use of intoxicating drinks,--and intemperance in the
use of _tobacco_, in the several forms of _smoking_, _snuffing_ and
_chewing_; together with several other evils, which I need not here
specify, are even now predominant.

By intemperance in the use of tobacco, I mean all use of this drug
except that which is under the direction of enlightened, judicious
medical advice. With this exception, _entire abstinence_ from this
narcotic substance constitutes the only safe and genuine
temperance.--This principle has been adopted extensively, in its
application to intoxicating drinks; but before it shall be universally
adopted in that application, it must be applied, and applied
universally, to the _quid_, and the _pipe_, and the _snuff-box_.
Rum-drinking will not cease, till tobacco-chewing, and tobacco-smoking,
and snuff-taking, shall cease. Though all who are attached to the quid,
the pipe, or the snuff-box, are not attached to the bottle; yet a vast
multitude become attached to the bottle, and this attachment is
continued and increased, through the poisonous, bewitching, and debasing
influence of tobacco.

Moreover, the use of tobacco involves a train of evils, superadded to
its influence in perpetuating drunkenness, which cries aloud for
immediate and universal reformation. It is my present purpose to
consider these evils. And I wish to premise that, in this consideration,
I shall urge; that it is the duty of every friend of humanity--of every
lover of his country--of every Christian--and of every minister of
Christ, to _abstain_, himself, _immediately_, and _forever_, from _all_
use of tobacco, whether by _chewing_, _smoking_, or _snuffing_, except
it be _medicinally_; and to use the whole weight of his influence and
example to persuade others--and especially the young men and maidens of
this nation--to practice entire abstinence.

I am fully aware that the topic which I have selected, the position
which I lay down, and the purpose at which I aim, are not popular. But
what then? Did Clarkson and Wilberforce abandon the cause of the
enslaved African, when they found that abolition was unpopular in the
British Senate? Did Columbus abandon his purpose of attempting to
discover a new world, when he perceived that the noble project of his
noble soul was unpopular, with princes and people, learned and ignorant?
Did Jesus Christ abandon his purpose to redeem a world lying in
wickedness, when it became manifest that his doctrines, and the pure
benevolence of his holy soul, were unpopular. And has it ever been
_seemly_ for one of his true and faithful disciples to abandon the cause
of human happiness, and the soul's everlasting salvation, because the
work of saving mercy is unpopular?

The theme of our present consideration, is doubtless unpopular.--But we
_should_ not, we _will_ not, therefore abandon the purpose of exposing
the evils of smoking, and chewing, and snuffing, that dirty weed, which
is so hostile to animal life, and so offensive to every creature on
earth, that no living being but man--and a loathsome worm, called the
tobacco-worm--will taste, or touch, or handle it.[A]

[A] It has recently been affirmed that there is a dirty goat in South
America which will eat this dirty plant.

Though it be unpopular to expose the evils of using tobacco; these evils
are so appalling, it will not do to slumber over them longer.--We must
look at them; we must lay them open--we must raise our voice against
them; (we would gladly raise it so high that it should reach every
family in the nation.) Yes, we must cry aloud and spare not; or give up
our claim to patriotism, and benevolence.

In approaching this subject, I am not unmindful of the pertinacity with
which men adhere to old habits. Dr. Rush speaks of a venerable clergyman
who closed a long sermon, in which he had controverted what he supposed
an heretical opinion, with these words: "I tell you--I tell you, my
brethren, I tell you again, that an _old error_ is better than a _new
truth_." There are few who will assent to this proposition in plain
terms; but there are thousands upon thousands, who act up to the very
letter of it, constantly.--The history of man is extensively a history
of folly, delusion, and sin.

No error has been so absurd as not to find advocates--no habit has been
so foolish, or so deadly, as not to find martyrs. But of all the
delusions, which have prevailed among civilized men, there have been
few--perhaps none, but that of intoxication--so disgusting, so
inexcusable, so destructive to health, and wealth, and life, as the
habit which we now ask you to consider.

It will be borne in mind that my position is this; it is the bounden
duty of every man and every woman to _abstain_, _immediately_, and
_forever_, from _all use_ of tobacco, whether by _chewing_, _smoking_,
or _snuffing_ except it be as a medicine. This position I maintain,

I. From a consideration of the _history_ of this loathsome weed.--The
tobacco plant is a native of America. It was unknown in Europe until
some time after the discovery of America, by Columbus. It was first
carried to Europe by Sir Francis Drake, about the year 1560, less than
three hundred years ago. The natives of this continent called it
_petun_; the natives of the islands called it _yoli_. The Spaniards gave
it the name of _tobacco_, from _Tobaco_, a province of Yucatan in
Mexico, where they first found it, and first learned its use. Its
botanic name is _Nicotiana_, which it received from John Nicot, then
Ambassador from Francis II. to Portugal, who brought it from Lisbon, and
presented some of it to the Queen Catharine de Medicis, and to the Grand
Prior of the house of Lorraine; whence it was sometimes called the
Queen's herb, and the Grand Prior's herb.

The practice of smoking it in England, was introduced by Sir Walter
Raleigh, about the year 1584.

The cultivation of it is not uncommon in various parts of the globe; but
the seat of its most extensive culture is Virginia and Maryland, in this
country. In England its cultivation was forbidden--and we believe is
still forbidden--on penalty of forfeiting forty shillings for every rod
of ground planted with it.

James I. wrote a treatise against the use of it, which he called his
"Counterblast to Tobacco." Pope Urban VIII. issued a Bull, to
excommunicate all who used tobacco in the churches. The civil power in
Russia, Turkey, and Persia, was early arrayed against it. The King of
Denmark, who wrote a treatise against tobacco, observes that "merchants
often lay it in bog-houses, that, becoming impregnated with the volatile
salts of the excrements, it may be rendered brisker, stronger, and more
f[oe]tid." It is said to be a fact, that in manufacturing tobacco, it is
frequently sprinkled with stale urine.

The use of tobacco never was general in Europe; and within the last
fifty or one hundred years, it has been banished from all the polite
circles of that part of the world. John Adams, the former President of
the United States, speaking of his own use of tobacco, and referring to
his residence in Europe, says: "Twice I gave up the use of it; once when
Minister at the Court of Hague; and afterwards when Minister at the
Court of London; for _no such offensive practice is seen there_."

But although the cultivation of tobacco has been forbidden in many
countries of Europe; and though the manufacture of it is frequently
attended with circumstances so disgusting and offensive, that the
modesty of this paper will not permit me to detail them,--and though the
use of it is abandoned by all the respectable and polished circles of
Europe; yet in this nation, and among the lower orders abroad, tobacco
has triumphed: and the only hope of expelling it from our land, lies in
enlisting against it the power of enlightened public opinion--a mightier
power than any eastern despot wields.

Now from this brief sketch of the history of tobacco, it appears that it
was unknown to all the civilized world, till within three hundred years;
and that even now, all the polished and enlightened portion of community
abroad--and we add, a very respectable portion at home--have no
fellowship with the filthy weed. And can any man justify himself in the
daily use of a disgusting plant, against the practice, opinion, and
remonstrances of so large a portion of the civilized world? Can he be
discharging the obligations of his duty, and enjoying the full amount of
his privilege, while he suffers himself to be a bond-slave to his quid,
his pipe, or his snuff-box? Either an important article of the vegetable
kingdom, lay hid from the civilized world nearly six thousand years; or
since its discovery, the lovers of tobacco have formed an entirely
erroneous opinion of its properties. In the sequel, I trust it will
appear, that so far from possessing _valuable_ properties, it is one of
the most _noxious_ weeds that grows; that, as an article of medicine, it
possesses scarcely a redeeming quality; and that, though it was not made
in vain, if the world had remained ignorant of it six thousand years
longer, no cause of regret would have been occasioned.

I maintain the position I have laid down,

II. From a consideration of the ruinous effects of tobacco upon the
_health_ and _constitution_ of men.

In considering this point, let us examine the _properties_ of this
weed,--the prominent diseases which the use of it induces,--and the
_experiences_ of unprejudiced observers. The properties of tobacco are
decidedly _poisonous_. In proof of this assertion, I appeal to ample and
unquestionable authority.

Professor Hitchcock says, "I group _alcohol_, _opium_ and _tobacco_
together, as alike to be rejected; because they agree in being
_poisonous_ in their natures." "In popular language," says he, "alcohol
is classed among the stimulants, and opium and tobacco among the
narcotics, whose ultimate effect upon the animal system is to produce
stupor and insensibility." He says, "Most of the powerful vegetable
poisons, such as hen-bane, hemlock, thorn-apple, prussic acid, deadly
night-shade, fox-glove and poison sumach, have an effect on the animal
system scarcely to be distinguished from that of opium and _tobacco_.
They impair the organs of digestion, and may bring on fatuity, palsy,
delirium, or apoplexy," He says, "In those not accustomed to it,
_tobacco_ excites nausea, vomiting, dizziness, indigestion, mental
dejection, and in short, the whole train of _nervous_ complaints."

Dr. Rees, in his Cyclopedia, says; "A drop or two of the chemical oil of
tobacco, being put upon the tongue of a cat, produces violent
convulsions, and death itself in the space of a minute."

Dr. Hossack classes _tobacco_ with opium, ether, mercury, and other
articles of the materia medica. He calls tobacco a "_fashionable
poison_," in the various forms in which that narcotic is employed.--He
says, "The great increase of dyspepsia; the late alarming frequency of
apoplexy, palsy, epilepsy, and other diseases of the nervous system; is
attributable, in part, to the use of tobacco."

Dr. Waterhouse says that Linnæus, in his natural arrangement, has placed
tobacco in the class _Luridæ_--which signifies, pale, ghastly, livid,
dismal and fatal. "To the same ominous class," he adds, "belong
fox-glove, hen-bane, deadly night-shade, lobelia, and another poisonous
plant, bearing the tremendous name Atropa, one of the furies." He says,
"When tobacco is taken into the stomach for the first time, it creates
nausea and extreme disgust. If swallowed, it excites violent convulsions
of the stomach and of the bowels to eject the poison either upward or
downward. If it be not very speedily and entirety ejected, it produces
great anxiety, vertigo, faintness, and prostration of all the senses;
and, in some instances, death has followed." The oil of this plant, he
adds, is one of the strongest vegetable poisons, insomuch that we know
of no animal that can resist its mortal effects. Moreover, says Dr.
Waterhouse, after a long and honorable course of practice, "I never
observed so many pallid faces, and so many marks of declining health;
nor ever knew so many hectical habits, and consumptive affections, as of
late years; and I trace this alarming inroad on young constitutions,
_principally_ to the pernicious custom of smoking cigars."

Professor Graham says "Tobacco is one of the most _powerful_ and _deadly
poisons_ in the vegetable kingdom." "Its effects on the living tissues
of the animal system," he adds, "are always to destroy life; as the
experiments made on pigeons, cats, and other animals abundantly prove."

The Editors of the Journal of Health say, "Tobacco is in fact an
absolute poison. A very moderate quantity introduced into the system,
even applying the moistened leaves to the stomach, has been known very
suddenly to extinguish life. In whatever form it may be employed, a
portion of the active principles of tobacco, mixed with the saliva,
invariably finds its way to the stomach, and disturbs or impairs the
functions of that organ. Hence most, if not all, who are accustomed to
the use of tobacco, labor under dyspeptic symptoms. Our advice is to
desist immediately and entirely from the use of tobacco in every form,
and in any quantity, however small. A reform, to be efficacious, must be
entire and complete."

Dr. Warren says, "The common belief that tobacco is beneficial to the
teeth, is entirely erroneous; on the contrary, by its poisonous and
relaxing qualities, it is positively injurious." Says another physician,
"Though snuff has been prescribed for the head-ache, catarrh, and some
species of opthalmia, and sometimes with good effect; yet in all cases
where its use is _continued_, it not only fails of its medical effect,
but commits great ravages on the whole nervous system, superinducing
hypochondria, tremors, a thickening of the voice, and premature decay of
all the intellectual powers."

As a diuretic, Dr. Fowler, and others, have found it in some cases to be
valuable. Its narcotic properties have sometimes assuaged the
tooth-ache; but it always hastens the destruction of the teeth. But of
all substances in pharmacy, there seems to be a general agreement among
medical writers, that tobacco, though occasionally beneficial, is the
most unmanageable, and used with the least confidence.

A multitude of cases, confirming these views, have actually occurred;
two or three of which I will cite. A clergyman, who commenced the use of
tobacco in youth, says, "that no very injurious consequences were
experienced till he entered the ministry, when his system began to feel
its dreadful effects. His voice, his appetite, and his strength failed;
and he was sorely afflicted with sickness at the stomach, indigestion,
emaciation, melancholy, and a prostration of the whole nervous system.
All this," says he, "I attribute to the pernicious habit of smoking and
chewing tobacco." At length he abandoned the quid and the pipe. His
voice, appetite, and strength were soon restored; all aches subsided,
and in a little time general health was enjoyed.

Another clergyman writes, "I thank God, and I thank you, for your advice
to abandon smoking; my strength has doubled since I relinquished this
abominable practice."

A respectable gentleman in middle life, who commenced chewing tobacco at
the age of eighteen, was long afflicted with depression of spirits,
great emaciation, and the usual dyspeptic symptoms.--All attempts to
relieve him were fruitless, till he was persuaded to dispense with his
quid. Immediately his spirits revived, and he soon regained his
health.[A]

[A] Extracts in point might here be given from numerous letters received
by the Author, since the publication of the first edition; but it is
unnecessary.

Cases of reform and cure are occurring by thousands, every year, all
over the land. Let every lover of tobacco, who is afflicted with
_dyspepsia_, and nervous maladies, _reform_, immediately and entirely;
and let him adopt a simple and rational system of diet, regimen, and
employment; and in nine cases out of ten, he may hope to enjoy good
health, and live long to bless the world.

The conclusion from all this evidence is established, that tobacco _is_
an _active poison_; that its constant use induces the most distressing
and fatal diseases; and that, as a medicine, it is rarely needful, and
never used, even _medicinally_, with entire confidence. This loathsome
weed, then, should not be used, even _medicinally_, except in extreme
cases, and then in the hands of a skillful physician. For every man--and
especially for every boy, who has hardly entered his teens--to take this
poison into his own hands, and determine for himself how much he will
use, is as preposterous, as if he were to take upon himself to deal out
arsenic, corrosive sublimate, or calomel.

No man can devote himself to the pipe, the quid, or the snuff-box,
without certain injury to his health and constitution. He may not
perceive the injury at once, on account of immediate exhilaration; but
complicated chronic complaints will creep upon him apace, making life a
burden, and issuing in premature dissolution. And just so certain as it
is our duty to do no murder,--to use all lawful means to preserve our
lives, and the lives of others; as certain is it our duty and our
privilege to practice _entire abstinence_ from the use of tobacco.

I maintain the position I have laid down,

III. From the consideration of the ruinous effects of tobacco upon the
_intellect_.

Here, again, let Professor Hitchcock speak. Says he, "Intoxicating
drinks, opium and tobacco, exert a pernicious influence upon the
intellect. They tend directly to debilitate the organs; and we cannot
take a more effectual course to cloud the understanding, weaken the
memory, unfix the attention, and confuse all the mental operations, than
by thus entailing upon ourselves the whole hateful train of nervous
maladies. These can bow down to the earth an intellect of giant
strength, and make it grind in bondage, like Sampson shorn of his locks
and deprived of his vision. The use of tobacco may seem to soothe the
feelings, and quicken the operations of the mind; but to what purpose is
it that the machine is furiously running and buzzing after the balance
wheel is taken off?"

The late Gov. Sullivan, speaking of the use of tobacco, says, "It has
never failed to render me dull and heavy, to interrupt my usual
alertness of thought, and to weaken the powers of my mind in analyzing
subjects and defining ideas."

The actual loss of _intellectual_ power, which tobacco has hitherto
occasioned, and is still causing, in this Christian nation, is immense.
How immense, it is impossible accurately to calculate. Many a man who
might have been a giant, has not risen above mediocrity; and many a man
who might have been respectable and useful, has sunk into obscurity, and
buried his talents in the earth. This is a consideration of deepest
interest to every philanthropist, patriot, and Christian in the land,
and especially to all our youth. We live at a time, and under
circumstances, which call for the exertion of all our intellectual
strength, cultivated, improved and sanctified, to the highest measure of
possibility. Error, ignorance, and sin, must be met and vanquished; they
must be met and vanquished by light and love. The eye of angels is upon
us,--the eye of God is upon us,--and shall we fetter, and palsy, and
ruin our intellectual capabilities, for the paltry pleasure of using one
of the most poisonous, loathsome, and destructive weeds found in the
whole vegetable kingdom? Let us rather shake off this abominable
practice, and rise, as individuals and as a nation, in all our
intellectual potency,--and let us go forth from day to day, to the noble
purposes of our destiny, untrammelled by the quid, or the pipe, or the
snuff-box; and before another generation shall lie down in the grave,
our efforts and our example may cause the light of human science, and
the light of civil and religious liberty, and the light of Bible truth,
to blaze through all our valleys, and over all our hills, from
Greenland to Cape Horn,--and with a lustre that shall illumine the
world.

I maintain my position,

IV. From a consideration of the ruinous effects of tobacco upon public
and private _morals_.

The ruinous effects of tobacco upon public and private morals, are seen
in the idle, sauntering habits, which the use of it engenders,--in the
benumbing, grovelling, stupid sensations which it induces,--but
especially in perpetuating and extending the practice of using
intoxicating drinks.

Governor Sullivan has truly said, "that the tobacco pipe excites a
demand for an extraordinary quantity of some beverage to supply the
waste of glandular secretion, in proportion to the expense of saliva;
and ardent spirits are the common substitutes; and the smoker is often
reduced to a state of dram drinking, and finishes his life as a sot."

Dr. Agnew has truly said, that "the use of the pipe leads to the
immoderate use of ardent spirits."

Dr. Rush has truly said, "that smoking and chewing tobacco, by rendering
water and other simple liquors insipid to the taste, dispose very much
to the stronger stimulus of ardent spirits; hence [says he] the practice
of smoking cigars, has been followed by the use of brandy and water as
common drink."

A writer in the Genius of Temperance, says that his practice of smoking
and chewing the filthy weed, "produced a continual thirst for
stimulating drinks; and this tormenting thirst [says he] led me into the
habit of drinking ale, porter, brandy, and other kinds of spirit, even
to the extent, at times, of partial intoxication." He adds, "I reformed;
and after I had subdued this appetite for tobacco, I lost all desire for
stimulating drinks."

Now the fact that some chew, and smoke, and snuff without becoming sots,
proves nothing against the general principle, that it is the natural
tendency of using tobacco to promote intoxication. Probably _one tenth_,
at least, of all the drunkards annually made in the nation, and
throughout the world, are made drunkards through the use of tobacco. If
thirty thousand drunkards are made annually in the United States, three
thousand must be charged to the use of tobacco. If thirty thousand
drunkards die annually, in the United States, three thousand of these
deaths must be charged to the use of tobacco. If twenty thousand
criminals are sentenced to our penitentiaries in twenty years, through
the influence of strong drink, two thousand must be charged to the use
of tobacco. If fifty-six millions of gallons of ardent spirits have been
annually consumed in this country, five and a half millions must be
charged to the use of tobacco. And of all the Sabbath-breaking,
profanity, quarrelling, and crime of every description, caused by the
use of intoxicating drink; a tithe must be charged to the use of
tobacco. And what friend of good morals,--what friend of man,--what
friend of his country,--what friend of Christ and true religion,--and
especially, what friend of the temperance cause,--can look at these
results with the eye of candor and compassion for his fellow-men, and
then not deliberately resolve that he will never chew another quid, nor
smoke another whiff, nor snuff another pinch of the dirty weed?

I maintain my position,

V. From a consideration of the amazing _waste of property_, which the
use of tobacco involves. On this point I have been unable to obtain the
means for making out a perfectly accurate statistical result. I can only
approximate a definite calculation. This approximation, however, will
serve all the purposes of this argument.

We will examine _three items_: the _cost_ of the article,--the _time_
wasted by the use of it,--and the _pauperism_ it occasions. From a
statement lately furnished me from the Treasury department of our
National Government, exhibiting the quantity and value of cigars and
snuff, exported from and imported into the United States, annually, from
1st October, 1820 to 30th September, 1832, it appears that the value of
cigars imported into the United States in 1821, was $113,601. In 1827 it
was $174,931. In 1832 it was $473,134; while from the same document it
appears that the value of cigars exported, in each of those years, was
about one quarter the value of imports.

Hence it appears that, in 1832, about half a million of dollars were
paid for imported cigars; while in 1821, only $113,601 were paid; being
more than a four-fold increase in eleven years. Whether there has been a
corresponding increase in the value of domestic cigars consumed, I have
no means of determining. From the fact of so prodigious an increase of
imported cigars, I am led to fear that the evil of cigar smoking has
increased in this country within ten years, far more rapidly than the
increase of population. From this treasury document, it appears also,
that in 1824, the value of unmanufactured tobacco exported from the
United States, was

                                                          $4,855,566
 Of manufactured tobacco, the value was                    2,477,990
 Of snuff,                                                   203,789
                                                          ----------
 Making a total of                                        $7,537,345

In 1832, the value of unmanufactured tobacco exported,
 was                                                      $5,999,769
 Of manufactured tobacco,                                  3,456,071
 Of snuff,                                                   295,771
                                                          ----------
 Making a total of                                        $9,751,611
 for 1832, and an increase from the year 1824, of         $2,214,266

Whether the quantity consumed in this country equals the quantity
exported, or exceeds that quantity, I have no data enabling me to give a
definite answer. But from the fact that large quantities of tobacco are
raised in various other parts of the world, for foreign consumption; and
from the fact that the people of this country are, above all other
people under the sun, a chewing, smoking, snuffing people; I have very
little doubt that the amount used in this country is double that
exported. If so, the sum total paid annually, for this vile weed, in
this christian country, is $19,503,222. But as I wish in this
examination, to put the estimate _below_ rather than _above_ the truth,
I will set down the value of tobacco, cigars, and snuff, consumed
annually in this nation, as equal to the amount exported; that is, in
round numbers, $10,000,000.

That this is a very _low_ estimate, will appear by another conclusive
calculation.

According to the census of 1830, the population of the U. States, over
twenty years of age, is about six millions. Suppose one in four of our
adult population, use tobacco in some form; (and this is a very moderate
supposition,) it gives one million, five hundred thousand: and suppose
one in twelve of those who have not reached the age of twenty, use it;
it gives five hundred thousand more: making a total of two millions--or
one sixth of our population--who use tobacco in some form.

Now suppose the expense to the consumers of this noxious drug, varies
according to the quantity, and mode of using it. The expense to some is
two dollars a year, to some it is five, and to others ten, twenty, and
even fifty dollars a year. A laboring man, of my acquaintance, who did
not use tobacco extravagantly, and only by chewing, told me that it cost
him five dollars a year. A young lady of my acquaintance, says her snuff
costs eight dollars a year. If a man pay three cents a day for cigars,
it amounts to ten dollars, ninety-five cents a year. If he pay six
cents, it amounts to twenty-one dollars, ninety cents a year. If he pay
twelve and a half cents, it amounts to forty-four dollars, sixty-two
cents a year.

It is the opinion of good judges, that very many, who smoke freely and
use Spanish cigars, pay more than fifty dollars a year for this foolish
gratification.

King James, in his "Counterblast," says, "Some of the gentry of this
land, bestow three, some four hundred pounds a year, upon this precious
stink."

It will certainly be a moderate calculation to put down one quarter of
the consumers at two dollars a year,--one quarter at five,--one quarter
at eight,--and one quarter at ten dollars a year. Then the several items
will stand thus:--

 Half a million at two dollars, is      $1,000,000
 Half a million at five dollars, is      2,500,000
 Half a million at eight dollars, is     4,000,000
 Half a million at ten dollars, is       5,000,000
                                         _________
                              Total,   $12,500,000.

Again: the amount of tobacco annually consumed in France, as appears
from authentic documents, is about seven millions of pounds; which is
about one pound to every four persons. The amount annually consumed in
England, as appears from authentic documents, is about seventeen
millions; which is about one pound to every man, woman and child, in
that nation.[A] In the United States, probably there are eight times as
much used as in France, and three times as much as in England, in
proportion to our population. If so, the quantity used in this country
cannot fall short of thirty-five millions of pounds;[B] which, at thirty
cents a pound, amounts to ten and a half millions of dollars; not
including cigars and snuff, which cost half as much more; making the
total sum fifteen and three fourths millions of dollars. And this
enormous sum is doubtless _below_ what the article actually cost the
consumers.

[A] The tobacco imported and used for home consumption in Great Britain
and Ireland in 1832, amounted to 20,313,651 pounds--the duty on which
was 15,300,000 dollars.

[B] 1,765,000 pounds of tobacco passed up the Erie Canal in seven and a
half months in 1834.

From these _three_ results, we believe there cannot be a doubt that the
actual expense of tobacco, in its various forms, to the consumers in
this country, may safely be set down at _ten millions of dollars a
year_.

The amount of _time_ lost by the consumers of tobacco, is another item
of no inconsiderable moment. Some spend two, three, and four hours a day
in this vile indulgence. To all who use the article, in any way, it
occasions the loss of more or less time. If we put down the average
amount at half an hour a day; and reckon the time thus lost at four
cents an hour, it will amount--not reckoning Sabbaths--to six dollars,
twenty-six cents a year, for each individual; which, for the whole
company of consumers, is an amount of $12,520,000.

The _pauperism_ which tobacco occasions, is another fearful item.
Multitudes who are scarcely able to procure the necessaries of life,
will shift, by sacrificing health and comfort, to procure the daily
_quantum sufficit_ of tobacco. Many very poor families use tobacco, in
all ways. Now suppose a poor family use twenty-five cents' worth of
tobacco a week; it will amount to twelve dollars fifty cents a
year,--and in fifty years, reckoning principal and interest, it will
amount to three thousand five hundred and fifty-two dollars.

Just look at this tax for snuff and tobacco, in a single aspect more.
Many think it will make _no_ man the poorer, to pay six cents a day for
this indulgence. It will make _every_ man the poorer. Let any young
mechanic, or farmer, or merchant, consume six and a quarter cents' worth
of this drug a day--beginning at twenty years of age, and continuing
until he is sixty years old--and the sum total, reckoning principal and
interest, will amount, in these forty years, to three thousand five
hundred and twenty-nine dollars, thirty-six cents.

If the _cost_ of tobacco,--the _neglect of business_ which it
occasions,--the expense of the _pipes_ and the _boxes_, and the various
_apparatus_ which the use of it involves,--and the _intoxication_ to
which it leads,--all be reckoned up, the amount of _pauperism_ which
this weed brings upon the nation, cannot be less than one quarter of the
sum total of all our pauperism. And the sum total of the pauperism in
this nation, has been shown, again and again, to be not less than twelve
millions of dollars, annually. Hence the pauper tax, occasioned by the
use of tobacco, may be set down at three millions of dollars, annually.

 Here we have, then, the _expense_ of tobacco,  $10,000,000
 The _time_ lost by the use of it,              $12,520,000
 The _pauper tax_ which it occasions,            $3,000,000
                                                ___________
                                       Total,   $25,520,000

To this sum should be added one-tenth of the waste of property, which
strong drink occasions; inasmuch as one-tenth of the rum-drinking must
be charged to tobacco. Now, it has been estimated that the whole cost of
strong drink used annually, in this country, amounts to one hundred and
twenty-five millions of dollars; a tenth of which is twelve and a half
millions of dollars. If this tithe be added to the above estimate, it
will make the sum total thirty-eight and a half millions. But as I
intend my estimates shall be _moderate_, I will say nothing of the waste
of property which tobacco occasions in connection with strong drink. I
will put down the sum total as above twenty-five millions of dollars.

Twenty-five millions of dollars, consumed by the use of tobacco, in this
Christian nation, annually; and not a little of it by professors of
religion, and ministers of the gospel, who are required by their Lord
and Master to deny themselves,--to take up their cross,--to let their
light shine before men, that they may see their good works, and glorify
our Father in heaven. Nearly the whole of this twenty-five millions of
dollars is a _dead loss_ to the nation; yes, it is infinitely _worse_
than a dead loss; it not only does no good, but it actually goes to make
fools and beggars, idlers and sots,--to purchase dyspepsia, early graves
and everlasting shame. And what would this vast amount of property
accomplish, if saved and devoted to useful purposes.

Twenty-five millions of dollars annually, if applied to the improvement
of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and to the advancement of
the arts, sciences, and true religion, would accomplish everything for
this nation, that the enlightened patriot and true Christian can ask
for.

Twenty-five millions of dollars, annually, would soon furnish canals,
and rail-roads, and all other desirable facilities for
intercommunication throughout the nation. Twenty-five millions of
dollars, annually, would sustain all our colleges, academies and other
schools, and all the religious and benevolent institutions of this whole
country. It would rear seminaries of learning in every State where they
are needed; and it would plant a Sabbath school, with a sufficient
library in every school district.

Twenty-five millions of dollars, annually, if applied in all feasible
and suitable ways, would give freedom, with all the blessings of
Christianity to the colored race in our own country, and throughout the
continent of Africa in a very few years: and would terminate slavery and
the slave-trade in every part of the world.

Twenty-five millions of dollars annually, would send forth to the
nations now perishing in heathen darkness, ten thousand missionaries,
and five millions of tracts, every year, provided the men could be
found.

Twenty-five millions of dollars, annually, would, in five years, furnish
all the money necessary to carry into complete execution, that noble
purpose of the American Bible Society, of giving a copy of the Bible,
within a specified time, to every accessible family on the earth. And
what friend of man is there among us,--what patriot is there,--what
Christian is there,--who can look at these truths, and not make up his
mind to abandon all use of tobacco, _forever_; and to exert the whole
weight of his influence and example to persuade others to do the same?

I am aware, indeed, that it may be said, if the whole company of
tobacco-chewers, smokers, and snuffers, should at once abandon all use
of this weed, and thus withdraw their whole patronage, this twenty-five
millions of dollars, which now gives wealth to many a man engaged in
growing, manufacturing, and vending the poison, would be so much capital
unemployed; and the means of living would be cut off from many a
family,--and bankruptcy, and wretchedness would be the consequent
portion of many an individual. This may be true. And it may be true,
too, that the like consequences would follow the universal abandonment
of intoxicating liquors. But what then? Shall one sixth part of the
nation continue to use this poison, because, forsooth, the _producers_
and _venders_ of it will lose their profits if it be abandoned? Shall
the _intellect_, and _health_, and _comfort_, and _wealth_, and _lives_
of hundreds and thousands of our fellow citizens, be sacrificed yearly;
and widows and orphans be multiplied by scores and fifties, in every
section of this wide-spreading country; and one of the prominent
auxiliaries of _intemperance_,--and consequently of _crime_, and
_insanity_, and _eternal woe_--be cherished; and twenty-five millions of
dollars be _wasted_, and worse than wasted; and all this, that the
_producers_ and _venders_ may feed and fatten on the gains? This
objection lies equally against the temperance reform and every other
reform, where cupidity and avarice are involved.

As to the producers, it is affirmed on good authority, that hemp and
corn, and other useful articles may be substituted without loss, and
even with advantage. As to the venders, their capital may all be
profitably employed upon valuable merchandise, without damage. But if it
were not so; where _health_, _life_, and _happiness_ are involved, no
good man can hesitate. The path of duty is plain. We are bound to walk
in it, even though it run counter to the gains of those engaged in
unlawful commerce.

I maintain my position,

VI. From a consideration of the _mortality_ which tobacco occasions.

Some of my readers may be startled at this consideration. They may not
have dreamed, even, that tobacco _kills_ any body. So insidious are the
effects of this poison, and so insensible have the community been to its
abominations, that very few have regarded the use of tobacco as the
cause of swelling our bills of mortality. But though appalling, it is
nevertheless true, that tobacco carries vast multitudes to the grave,
all over our country, every year. Says Dr. Salmon, "I am confident more
people have died of apoplexies, since the use of snuff in one year, than
have died of that disease in an hundred years before; and most, if not
all, whom I have observed to die, of late of that disease, were extreme
and constant snuff-takers." The late Rev. Dr. Samuel Cooper, of Boston,
by constant use of snuff, brought on a disorder of the head, which was
thought to have ended his days. A very large quantity of hardened Scotch
snuff was found, by a _post mortem_ examination, between the external
nose and the brain. The late Gov. Sullivan, speaking of Gov. Hancock,
the early President of Congress, says, "Gov. Hancock was an immoderate
chewer of tobacco; but being a well-bred man, and a perfect gentleman,
he, from a sense of decorum, refrained from spitting in company, or in
well-dressed rooms. This produced the habit of swallowing the juice of
the tobacco, the consequence of which was, his stomach became inactive,
and a natural appetite seldom returned; the agreeable sensations of
hunger could not be experienced but by the use of stimulants, to satisfy
which he swallowed more food than his digestive powers could dispose of.
This derangement in chylification increased his gout, his stomach became
paralytic, and he died at the age of fifty-eight."

Again, says Governor Sullivan, "My own brother, the active General
Sullivan, began early in life to take snuff. It injured essentially a
fine voice which he possessed as a public speaker. When he was an
officer in the American army, he carried his snuff loose in his pocket.
He said he did this because the opening of a snuff-box in the field of
review, or on the field of battle, was inconvenient. At times he had
violent pains in the head; the intervals grew shorter and shorter, and
the returns more violent, when his sufferings ended in a stroke of
palsy, which rendered him insensible to pain, made him helpless and
miserable, and lodged him in the grave before he was fifty years of age;
and I have no doubt [says the Governor,] but all this sprung from the
use of snuff." He adds, "I have known some persons live to old age, in
the extravagant use of tobacco; but they bear a small proportion to
those who, by the habit of using tobacco, have been swept into the grave
in _early_ or _middle_ life."

Professor Silliman mentions two affecting cases of young men, in the
Institution with which he is connected, who were carried to an early
grave by tobacco. One of them, he says, entered college with an athletic
frame; but he acquired the habit of using tobacco, and would sit and
smoke by the hour together. His friends tried to persuade him to quit
the practice; but he loved his lust, and would have it, live or die: the
consequence was, he went down to the grave, a suicide.

One of the German periodicals says, the chief German physiologists
compute, that of twenty deaths of men between eighteen and twenty-five,
ten, that is, one half, originate in the waste of the constitution by
smoking. They declare, also, with much truth, that tobacco burns out the
_blood_, the _teeth_, the _eyes_, and the _brain_.

To this unequivocal testimony, which is confirmed by the observation of
every intelligent person who has turned his attention to this matter,
much more might be added; but it is unnecessary. How large a proportion
of the twenty thousand deaths--reckoning one death to a hundred
souls--which occur annually, among the two millions of tobacco consumers
in this country, are to be charged to the use of this deadly narcotic, I
am unable definitely to determine. If we suppose one quarter of these
deaths to be caused by tobacco, it will give us the number of five
thousand. Five thousand deaths in these United States, every year from
the use of tobacco! and this is doubtless far below the actual number.
Five thousand valuable lives sacrificed in this enlightened land,
annually, in the use of a dirty plant, that no living creature, except
man and the tobacco worm, will touch, or taste, or handle. Five thousand
men and women carried to the grave, yearly, by a poisonous weed, which
does _no good_, and which, for filthiness and disgust, scarcely has its
parallel in the whole vegetable kingdom. Is there a _Christian_,--is
there a _patriot_,--is there a _friend_ of humanity,--is there an
_individual_, that values his own probationary existence,--who can look
at the sweeping mortality which tobacco brings upon the nation, and
longer indulge his attachment to his quid, his pipe or his snuff-box? Is
there one who will pause and look at this matter, and not resolve that
he will, _forthwith_, _entirely_, and _forever_, abandon a practice
which does so much to people the grave?

I maintain my position,

VII.--From a consideration of the _apologies_ of the lovers of tobacco.

I call them _apologies_. They cannot be considered _reasons_. Almost
every lover of the dirty weed, feels that he needs an apology. One will
tell us he has a cold, watery stomach, and he thinks that tobacco, by
promoting expectoration, relieves the difficulty. Another will tell us
he is very much troubled with indigestion, and he thinks tobacco
relieves the difficulty; though, in truth, tobacco is the very worst
drug he could use to relieve that disease, and is among the primordial
causes of inducing it. Another will tell us that he is afflicted with
the rising of his food after eating, and he thinks tobacco gives
immediate relief; not suspecting, perhaps, that this rising of the food
is occasioned by over eating. Another will tell us he has a distressing
difficulty in the head, and brain, and he thinks a little good Scotch
snuff affords relief; as though the filling the pores, and cavities of
the head, and clogging up the brain, with this dirty stuff, would remove
a disease which in most cases it originates.

Others use tobacco to preserve the teeth; and this, though it is a
solemn truth, that many a one loses his teeth by smoking and chewing
the poisonous plant. Others, again, use tobacco to excite the mind to
more vigorous intellectual effort. But when and where do we find great
lovers of tobacco great students, and intellectual giants? Dr. Rush
says, "I suspect tobacco is oftener used for the _want_ of ideas, than
to excite them." There are some whose apology for using tobacco is, that
it guards them against the power of contagious diseases. But Dr. Rees
affirms that tobacco does not contain an antidote against contagion, and
that, in general, it has no antiseptic power; and is therefore of no
special use. There is another class still, who use tobacco because it
soothes the irksomeness of life. They fear solitude; and to prevent
self-examination, and to while away their probation time, they fly to
the _pipe_, _quid_, and _snuff-box_; and soon, by an easy transition, to
the wine-glass and brandy-bottle.

These are the _usual apologies_ of the devotees to tobacco. And what do
they amount to? In truth, the common opinion that tobacco is good for
the head-ache,--weak eyes,--cold and watery stomachs,--the preservation
of the teeth,--and the like, is sheer delusion. Let every man and woman,
who would live long, and usefully, and happily, awake from this
delusion; and let no one, as he values health, life, and salvation,
_taste_, _touch_, or _handle_, the filthy poison.

I maintain my position,

VIII, AND LASTLY.--From a consideration of the _eternal ruin_ which
tobacco occasions. On this point, a word or two only, will suffice. That
tobacco carries many a soul down to the pit of eternal woe, is manifest
from its connection with drunkenness, and from its inducing disease and
death. Every man who dies a drunkard, and every man who, knowingly and
recklessly, brings upon himself disease and death through the influence
of tobacco, is a _suicide_. And drunkards and suicides cannot inherit
the kingdom of God. How many will at last, ascribe their eternal ruin to
alcohol and tobacco, cannot now be told.

That it will be a great multitude, (perhaps a great multitude which no
man can number,) we have no reason to doubt.

What then, I ask, _ought_ to be _done_? What _can_ be done? What _must_
be done? If this poisonous narcotic be of _recent_ origin; if it be
ruinous to the _health_ and _constitution_, and _intellect_, and
_public_ and _private morals_; if it occasions an amazing _waste of
property_,--and a multitude of _deaths_,--and _eternal ruin_ to many
precious souls; and if it do no good,--and there be no _apology_ for
using it, which will bear examination; then _something ought to be
done_, and it ought to be done _immediately_. And, _only one_ thing need
be done. And that _can_ be done, and it ought to be done. It is
this:--_tobacco can be abandoned_. And if moral influence enough can be
enlisted, it _will_ be abandoned.

TOTAL ABSTINENCE is the only sure remedy. TOTAL ABSTINENCE will deliver
us from all the evils which this weed has brought down upon individuals
and families, and the nation.--Nothing else will do it. And total
abstinence can be adopted and practiced. True; in some cases, it may
cost an _effort_; but, in every instance, three weeks' perseverance will
overcome the habit. Three weeks' _total abstinence_, will disenthrall
every victim, and give him the prospect of _freedom_, _plenty_,
_health_, and _happiness_. And shall this effort be made? A _mighty_
effort it must be, to liberate and save this whole nation--and
especially our young men and maidens--from the curses of the _quid_, the
_pipe_, and the _snuff-box_.

I appeal to my fellow citizens. I appeal to the _nation_, and the _whole
nation_. _Shall_ the effort be made?

I appeal to _patriots_. Patriotism forbids the man who loves his
country, to shrink from any personal sacrifice, if he can thereby arrest
some great national evil. That the use of tobacco is a great national
evil, appears from the considerations which have been laid before you.
It has been shown that tobacco is weakening the physical and mental
energies of this nation,--that it is depraving our morals, and
destroying the public conscience,--and that it is causing an amazing
waste of property, and health and life. I ask every patriot to look at
this portentous evil. Every true patriot, who will examine the length,
breadth, and depth of this evil, cannot but feel that it claims his
attention. And he will enquire what efforts, what sacrifices, can
deliver us from the curses of this narcotic? The answer to this inquiry
is an _easy_ answer,--the effort is an _easy_ effort,--the sacrifice is
an _easy_ sacrifice. Let every true patriot in our country abstain from
the poison, _immediately_, _entirely_, and _forever_; and let him use
the whole weight of his influence and example to persuade others--and
especially the young men and maidens of this republic--to practice
entire abstinence; and the work will soon be done. We put the question
to every true patriot: _will you do it_?

I appeal to _Christians_. Your religion requires you to abstain from the
very appearance of evil. It requires you to deny yourselves, to take up
your cross, and to follow Christ through evil, as well as through good
report. Is there no appearance of evil, in the use of tobacco? Can the
Christian deny himself and follow Christ, with the quid, or pipe in his
mouth, or the contents of the snuff-box in his nose? If Christ himself,
were here on earth, in this age of action, when six hundred millions of
men, for whom he died, are perishing for lack of vision--think you he
would waste a single cent of _property_, or a single moment of _time_,
or a single ounce of health and mental energy, in the habitual use of
this narcotic? Would he _handle_, _touch_, or _taste_, the poison? And
will _you_, whose names are written in his book,--_you_, who have been
bought with his blood, and sanctified through his grace, and made heirs
of all the riches of his kingdom,--_you_, whom he requires to be
_examples_ in all things,--will you _handle_, or _touch_ or _taste_ it?
Let every Christian in our country, abstain from this poison,
_immediately_, _entirely_, and _forever_; and let him use the whole
weight of his influence and example, to persuade others to practice
_entire abstinence_; and this work of reform will soon be done. We put
the question to every true Christian: _will you do it_?

I appeal to the _youth_ of both sexes. You are the flower and the hope
not only of this nation, but of all nations struggling for freedom. The
destinies of this republic are about being placed, under God, in your
hands; and inasmuch as all the friends of freedom, everywhere, are
looking up to our institutions for light and aid, the destinies of the
world will rest with a mightier weight of responsibility upon your
shoulders, than upon any other generation that has come forth upon the
stage of action, for twenty centuries. The importance of sound and
enlightened principles--of pure and elevated examples, and independent
and decided action in _you_, is above all estimation. You are placed in
the moral Thermopylæ of the world. The evils arising from _alcohol_ and
_tobacco_, which you have it in your power to avert from your country,
are more dreadful than the invasion of Xerxes with his millions. The
cause of moral reform, in the use of the latter of these articles, which
we urge upon you with deepest and sincerest solicitude, is far more
urgent than that in which the Bruti and the Gracchi offered up their
lives. Some of you have not yet handled or tasted the fatal drug. Let
all such stand firm henceforward, and never yield to the power of
custom, temptation and lust. Some of you, on the other hand, have
permitted yourselves to become the victims of this drug. Let all such be
urged by the voice of patriotism, religion, self-respect, reason,
conscience, and duty, to _abstain_ from this poison, _immediately_,
_entirely_, and _forever_. And then every young man, and every young
woman, in the republic, shall be free from all the calamities attending
the use of this narcotic; and love, and peace, and joy, will run through
the land, and flow over the world. We put the question to every youth:
_will you do it_?

I appeal to the _friends of temperance_. You have enlisted your energies
to expel intoxicating drinks from common use throughout the world. Go
on, and prosper. But, as you go, remember, that complete success will
not crown your exertions unless you are consistent,--unless you abandon
all use of tobacco, the companion and sister of alcohol. As you go forth
to the noble work you have undertaken, you will be met at every corner,
with the declaration of A. B. and C., _I_ am ready to abstain from
alcohol when _you_ do from tobacco; and how effectually will this
declaration shut your mouth, and destroy your influence. Be
_consistent_. Carry your principles into _all_ your evil habits, and a
moral potency will be diffused through what you say and do, that nothing
can resist. We put the question to every friend of temperance: _will you
do it_?

I appeal to American _females_. As mothers, wives and daughters, you
have it in your power (without turning aside from your appropriate
duties) to put an end to the use of this disgusting weed. The children
and youth of this nation, to say nothing of the young men and fathers,
are almost exclusively under your control; and may be moulded at your
pleasure. You know how _filthy_, _disgusting_, _ruinous_, is the
practice against which we ask you to set your faces. Only practice
ENTIRE ABSTINENCE yourselves, and urge this practice upon all within
your reach; and in less than twenty years, this reformation will be
completed. We put the question to every mother, wife, daughter: _will
you do it_?

I appeal to the _medical_ profession. You are the guardians of the
health of the republic. You are acquainted with the deadly properties of
the drug in question. You can understand the necessity, and appreciate
the importance of reform. You know that _entire abstinence_ is urged by
paramount considerations. In the work of reform from spirit-drinking,
you have acted in a manner that reflects honor upon your profession. In
the work of reform now urged upon your notice, we calculate upon your
active, hearty co-operation. If you put your hand to this work, by
_precept_, and by _example_; if you abstain _entirely_, and _forever_,
from all use of this plant, and inculcate entire abstinence, as you have
opportunity; the work which now bespeaks your attention will soon be
done. We put the question to every medical man: _will you do it_?

Finally--I appeal to _ministers_ of the Gospel. You are stationed on the
watch-towers of Zion, as guardians of the public morals. Against every
abomination your great Master requires you to cry aloud and spare not;
to lift up your voice like a trumpet; to show the people their
transgressions, and the house of Jacob their sins. He requires you to be
_examples_ to the flock, in all things, that, while

  "You allure to brighter worlds,"

you "may lead the way." I ask you to look at the influence of tobacco
upon the _health_, _wealth_, _morals_, and _lives_ of this republic; and
then to decide, as in the fear of God, whether the blood of souls may
not be found on your garments, if you do not _abstain_ yourselves from
all common use of this drug, and warn every man around you to do
likewise.[A] Suffer us to point you to Him who went about doing good,
and pleased not himself, and set a pure and perfect example in
everything; and also to that early servant of his, who would abstain
from things good and lawful, rather than prejudice the interests of
Zion. What reception would the Apostles have met, when they went about
to enlighten and reform the world, if they had carried with them their
_snuff-boxes_, _pipes_, _cigars_, and _pig-tail_ tobacco? But a word to
the wise is sufficient. Let all who minister in holy things, abstain
from this poison, immediately, entirely, and forever; and let them use
the whole weight of their influence, and example, to persuade
others--and especially our youth--to practice entire abstinence; and
this good work will soon be done. We put the question to every minister
of Christ: _will you do it_?

[A] Says a distinguished correspondent--the most efficient officer of
one of our benevolent institutions, "Not long since a clergyman called
on me as agent for one of the most popular Societies for spreading the
knowledge of Christ crucified throughout the world: his breath was
intolerable, and the tobacco juice had formed a current from each corner
of his mouth downward. I need not describe to you my feelings at this
exhibition."



JUST PUBLISHED.


"Facts and Important Information from distinguished Physicians and other
sources." Fourth Edition. Published by Geo. Gregory. For sale by D. S.
King, 1 Cornhill, Jordan & Co., 121 Washington St., Boston--John S.
Taylor, 145 Nassau St., N. Y.--Wm. Aplin, 65 South Main Street,
Providence.

Price--12 1-2 cts. single, $1 per dozen, $8 a hundred, and $7 a hundred,
by the thousand. All communications addressed, post paid, to either of
the sellers, and all orders accompanied with the cash, will receive
prompt attention.

This little work relates to an important subject and it has met with a
remarkably favorable reception; as shown by the fact, that four
editions--_twenty thousand_ copies in all--have been published within
ten months; and the sale is rapidly increasing.


RECOMMENDATIONS.

_The following highly valuable testimonials are from President_ EDWARDS,
_Professor_ STUART, _Rev. Dr._ WOODS, _and Professor_ EMERSON, _of the
Andover Theological Seminary_.

Having read the FACTS, &c., I am satisfied that it is well adapted to do
good, and wish that it may have an extensive circulation among the youth
of our country.

                                                        J. EDWARDS.

_Andover, Aug. 16, 1841._

                                        _Andover, 29th, July, 1841._

I have read a pamphlet entitled "FACTS, etc., from DISTINGUISHED
PHYSICIANS AND OTHER SOURCES," respecting a vice which is undermining
the health and happiness of many, and degrading them, in some respects,
below the brute creation.

I think there is nothing in the manner of this pamphlet which can be
matter of just offence to any considerate mind. I am persuaded, that,
delicate as the task may be, the time has come when benevolence demands
that some effort should be made to enlighten the public mind on the
subject of which this pamphlet treats; and both the remarks of the
pamphlet, and the facts stated in it, seem to be well adapted for this
purpose. Most heartily do I wish success to that benevolence which is
willing to undertake a task so delicate and so difficult as this.

It is time for those who love the purity, the well-being and the most
interesting relations of human society, to speak out upon a vice which
is dangerous in proportion to the secrecy and silence in which it has
been involved.

          We fully concur in the above.                  M. STUART.
                                                          L. WOODS.
                                                        R. EMERSON.

Recommended by the Boston Recorder, Zion's Herald, and many other
papers; also by numerous clergymen, teachers, physicians, &c.

Dr. Woodward, of the Worcester Hospital, has done much to expose this
solitary vice. He says no cause is more influential in producing
insanity. According to the Report of the Institution, for 1838, out of
199 patients, 42 are considered victims of masturbation.


RECOMMENDATIONS.

_From President Humphrey, of Amherst College._

                                   AMHERST COLLEGE, April 17, 1842.

REV. ORIN FOWLER:--Rev. and Dear Sir--I thank you heartily for your
pamphlet, on the use of that vile narcotic, _tobacco_. It ought to be
the abhorring of all mankind, as it is of all other flesh; and the
extensive circulation of your timely and powerful antidote, cannot fail
of doing great good. The public in general have no idea of the enormous
expense of smoking and chewing in this country; much less of the waste
of health and life occasioned by it. I rejoice that your essay begins to
be loudly called for, and wish that as many copies might be circulated
as there are miserable slaves to the habit, which, next to alcoholic
drinking, is stupefying more brains, and probably shortening more lives
than any other.

             Very sincerely and affectionately yours,
                                                       H. HUMPHREY.


_From Rev. M. Tucker, D. D._

PROVIDENCE, April 30, 1842.

I have read with interest the Rev. Orin Fowler's Essay on the evils of
the use of Tobacco. A perusal cannot fail to convince every candid mind.
The use of tobacco in most cases is an evil. The subject is ably
discussed in this essay. The arguments are sound, the facts abundant,
and the conclusions fair and forcible. They who can resist such appeals
must be slaves indeed. I shall rejoice in its wide circulation.

                                                         M. TUCKER.


_From Edward C. Delevan_.

E. C. Delevan, former Secretary of the New York State Temperance
Society, says, in a letter to the author--"The subject of your Essay is
one of immense importance to the world and to the temperance cause. The
use of this vile weed has been the medium of forming the appetite for
strong drink, and ultimately destroying thousands of the most promising
youth of our country. You will hardly ever meet with an intemperate
person without finding him addicted to the use of tobacco. The public
only want light on this important subject, to act. Your able and
convincing Disquisition will be the means of doing much good. I hope
funds will be provided to furnish a copy to each clergyman in the United
States. Send me one thousand copies of the second edition, as soon as it
is from the press."

For other recommendations, see 7th and 8th pages.

PRICE.--12 1-2 single, $1 per dozen, $8 a hundred, and $7 a hundred by
the thousand.

The co-operation of Societies, and of benevolent individuals, is
earnestly requested, in this important reform. Young men are invited to
engage in circulating this work.

All communications addressed post paid, to either of the Booksellers
named on the cover; and all orders accompanied with the cash, will
receive prompt attention.


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|                      Transcriber’s Note                            |
| Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as |
| possible, including obsolete and variant spellings and other       |
| inconsistencies.                                                   |
|                                                                    |
| Minor punctuation and printing errors have been corrected.         |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+





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