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Title: Noteworthy Families (Modern Science) - An Index to Kinships in Near Degrees between Persons Whose Achievements Are Honourable, and Have Been Publicly Recorded
Author: Galton, Francis, 1822-1911, Schuster, Edgar
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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An Index to Kinships in Near Degrees
between Persons Whose Achievements
Are Honourable, and Have Been
Publicly Recorded




Galton Research Fellow in National Eugenics

of the Publications of the Eugenics Record Office
of the University of London

John Murray, Albemarle Street



   I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE                                            vii

      PREFACE                                                       ix


      GENERAL REMARKS                                               ix

  II. NOTEWORTHINESS                                                xi

 III. HIGHEST ORDER OF ABILITY                                     xiv



  VI. NOMENCLATURE OF KINSHIPS                                    xxvi

 VII. NUMBER OF KINSFOLK IN EACH DEGREE                         xxviii


  IX. MARKED AND UNMARKED NOTEWORTHINESS                          xxxv

   X. CONCLUSIONS                                                xxxix

      OF SIXTY-SIX F.R.S.'S WHO WERE LIVING IN 1904                  1

      BY THEIR OCCUPATIONS                                          80

      INDEX                                                         85


The brief biographical notices of sixty-six noteworthy families
printed in this book are compiled from replies to a circular issued
by me in the spring of 1904 to all living Fellows of the Royal
Society. Those that first arrived were discussed in "Nature," August
11, 1904.

On Mr. Schuster's appointment by the University of London, in
October, 1904, to the Research Fellowship in National Eugenics, all
my materials were placed in his hand. He was to select from them
those families that contained at least three noteworthy kinsmen, to
compile lists of their achievements on the model of the
above-mentioned memoir, to verify statements as far as possible, and
to send what he wrote for final approval by the authors of the
several replies.

This was done by Mr. Schuster. The results were then submitted by him
as an appendix to his Report to the Senate last summer.

After preliminary arrangements, it was determined by the Senate that
the list of Noteworthy Families should be published according to the
title-page of this book, I having agreed to contribute the preface,
Mr. Schuster's time being fully occupied with work in another branch
of Eugenics.

So the list of "Noteworthy Families" in this volume is entirely the
work of Mr. Schuster, except in respect to some slight alterations
and additions for which I am responsible, as well as for all the




This volume is the first instalment of a work that admits of wide
extension. Its object is to serve as an index to the achievements of
those families which, having been exceptionally productive of
noteworthy persons, seem especially suitable for biographical

The facts that are given here are avowedly bald and imperfect;
nevertheless, they lead to certain important conclusions. They show,
for example, that a considerable proportion of the noteworthy members
in a population spring from comparatively few families.

The material upon which this book is based is mainly derived from the
answers made to a circular sent to all the Fellows of the Royal
Society whose names appear in its Year Book for 1904.

The questions were not unreasonably numerous, nor were they
inquisitorial; nevertheless, it proved that not one-half of those who
were addressed cared to answer them. It was, of course, desirable to
know a great deal more than could have been asked for or published
with propriety, such as the proneness of particular families to
grave constitutional disease. Indeed, the secret history of a family
is quite as important in its eugenic aspect as its public history;
but one cannot expect persons to freely unlock their dark closets and
drag forth family skeletons into the light of day. It was necessary
in such a work as this to submit to considerable limitations, while
turning to the fullest account whatever could be stated openly
without giving the smallest offence to any of the persons concerned.

One limitation against which I still chafe in vain is the
impracticability of ascertaining so apparently simple a matter as the
number of kinsfolk of each person in each specific degree of near
kinship, without troublesome solicitations. It was specially asked
for in the circular, but by no means generally answered, even by
those who replied freely to other questions. The reason must in some
cases have been mere oversight or pure inertia, but to a large extent
it was due to ignorance, for I was astonished to find many to whom
the number of even their near kinsfolk was avowedly unknown.
Emigration, foreign service, feuds between near connections,
differences of social position, faintness of family interest, each
produced their several effects, with the result, as I have reason to
believe, that hardly one-half of the persons addressed were able,
without first making inquiry of others, to reckon the number of their
uncles, adult nephews, and first cousins. The isolation of some few
from even their nearest relatives was occasionally so complete that
the number of their brothers was unknown. It will be seen that this
deficiency of information admits of being supplied indirectly, to a
considerable degree.

The collection of even the comparatively small amount of material now
in hand proved much more troublesome than was anticipated, but as the
object and limitations of inquiries like this become generally
understood, and as experience accumulates, the difficulty of similar
work in the future will presumably lessen.


The Fellowship of the Royal Society is a distinction highly
appreciated by all members of the scientific world. Fifteen men are
annually selected by its council out of some sixty candidates, each
candidate being proposed by six, and usually by more, Fellows in a
certificate containing his qualifications. The candidates themselves
are representatives of a multitude of persons to whom the title would
be not only an honour but a material advantage. The addition of the
letters "F.R.S." to the names of applicants to any post, however
remotely connected with science, is a valuable testimonial and a
recognised aid towards success, so the number of those who desire it
is very large. Experience shows that no special education, other than
self-instruction, is really required to attain this honour. Access to
laboratories, good tuition, and so forth, are doubtless helpful, so
far that many have obtained the distinction through such aid who
could not otherwise have done so, but they are far from being
all-important factors of success. The facts that lie patent before
the eyes of every medical man, engineer, and the members of most
professions, afford ample material for researches that would command
the attention of the scientific world if viewed with intelligence and
combined by a capable mind.

It is so difficult to compare the number of those who might have
succeeded with the number of those who do, that the following
illustration may perhaps be useful: By adding to the 53 registration
counties in England, the 12 in Wales, the 33 in Scotland and the 32
in Ireland, an aggregate of 130 is obtained. The English counties,
and the others in a lesser degree, have to be ransacked in order to
supply the fifteen annually-elected Fellows; so it requires more than
eight of these counties to yield an annual supply of a single Fellow
to the Royal Society.

It is therefore contended that the Fellows of the Royal Society have
sufficient status to be reckoned "noteworthy," and, such being the
case, they are a very convenient body for inquiries like these. They
are trained to, and have sympathy with, scientific investigations;
biographical notices are published of them during their lifetime,
notably in the convenient compendium "Who's Who," to which there will
be frequent occasion to refer; and they are more or less known to one
another, either directly or through friends, making it comparatively
easy to satisfy the occasional doubts which may arise from their
communications. It was easier and statistically safer to limit the
inquiry to those Fellows who were living when the circulars were
issued--that is, to those whose names and addresses appear in the
"Royal Society's Year Book" of 1904. Some of them have since died,
full of honours, having done their duty to their generation; others
have since been elected; so the restriction given here to the term
"Modern Science" must be kept in mind.

Another and a strong motive for selecting the F.R.S. as subjects of
inquiry was that so long ago as 1863-1864 I had investigated the
antecedents of 180 of those who were then living, who were further
distinguished by one or other of certain specified and recognised
honours. My conclusions were briefly described in a Friday evening
lecture, February 27, 1864, before the Royal Institution. These,
together with the data on which they were founded, were published in
the same year in my book "English Men of Science." Readers who desire
fuller information as to the antecedents conducive to success that
are too briefly described further on should refer to the above book.

The epithet "noteworthy" is applied to achievements in all branches
of effort that rank among the members of any profession or calling as
equal, at least, to that which an F.R.S. holds among scientific men.
This affords a convenient and sufficiently definite standard of
merit. I could think of none more appropriate when addressing
scientific men, and it seems to have been generally understood in
the desired sense. It includes more than a half of those whose names
appear in the modern editions of "Who's Who," which are become less
discriminate than the earlier ones. "Noteworthiness" is ascribed,
without exception, to all whose names appear in the "Dictionary of
National Biography," but all of these were dead before the date of
the publication of that work and its supplement. Noteworthiness is
also ascribed to those whose biographies appear in the "Encyclopædia
Britannica" (which includes many who are now alive), and, in other
works, of equivalent authority. As those persons were considered by
editors of the last named publications to be worthy of note, I have
accepted them, on their authority, as noteworthy.


No attempt is made in this book to deal with the transmission of
ability of the very highest order, as the data in hand do not furnish
the required material, nor will the conclusions be re-examined at
length that I published many years ago in "Hereditary Genius." Still,
some explanation is desirable to show the complexity of the
conditions that are concerned with the hereditary transmission of the
highest ability, which, for the moment, will be considered as the
same thing as the highest fame.

It has often been remarked that the men who have attained pinnacles
of celebrity failed to leave worthy successors, if any. Many
concurrent causes aid in producing this result. An obvious one is
that such persons are apt to be so immersed in their pursuit, and so
wedded to it, that they do not care to be distracted by a wife.
Another is the probable connection between severe mental strain and
fertility. Women who study hard have, as a class--at least, according
to observant caricaturists--fewer of the more obvious feminine
characteristics; but whether this should be considered a cause or a
consequence, or both, it is difficult to say. A third, and I think
the most important, reason why the children of very distinguished
persons fall sometimes lamentably short of their parents in ability
is that the highest order of mind results from a fortunate mixture of
incongruous constituents, and not of such as naturally harmonize.
Those constituents are _negatively_ correlated, and therefore the
compound is unstable in heredity. This is eminently the case in the
typical artistic temperament, which certainly harmonizes with
Bohemianism and passion, and is opposed to the useful qualities of
regularity, foresight, and level common sense. Where these and
certain other incongruous faculties go together in well-adjusted
proportions, they are capable of achieving the highest success; but
their heritage is most unlikely to be transmitted in its entirety,
and ill-balanced compounds of the same constituents are usually of
little avail, and sometimes extraordinarily bad. A fourth reason is
that the highest imaginative power is dangerously near lunacy. If
one of the sanest of poets, Wordsworth, had, as he said, not
unfrequently to exert strength, as by shaking a gate-post, to gain
assurance that the world around him was a reality, his mind could not
at those times have been wholly sane. Sanity is difficult to define,
except negatively; but, even though we may be convinced of the truths
of the mystic, that nothing is what it seems to be, the
above-mentioned conduct suggests temporary insanity. It is sufficient
to conclude, as any Philistine would, that whoever has to shake a
gate-post to convince himself that it is not a vision is dangerously
near madness. Mad people do such things; those who carry on the work
of the world as useful and law-abiding citizens do not. I may add
that I myself had the privilege of hearing at first hand the
narrator's own account of this incident, which was much emphasized by
his gestures and tones. Wordsworth's unexpected sally was in reply to
a timid question by the late Professor Bonamy Price, then a young
man, concerning the exact meaning of the lines in his famous "Ode to
Immortality," "not for these I raise the song of praise; but for
those obstinate _questionings of sense and outward things_," etc.

I cannot speak from the present returns, but only from my own private
knowledge of the somewhat abnormal frequency with which eccentricity,
or other mental unsoundness, occurs in the families of very able
scientific men. Lombroso, as is well known, strongly asserted the
truth of this fact, but more strongly, as it seems to myself, than
the evidence warrants.

It is, therefore, not in the highest examples of human genius that
heredity can be most profitably studied, men of high, but not of the
highest, ability being more suitable. The only objection to their use
is that their names are, for the most part, unfamiliar to the public.

The vastness of the social world is very imperfectly grasped by its
several members, the large majority of the numerous persons who have
been eminent above their far more numerous fellows, each in his own
special department, being unknown to the generality. The merits of
such men can be justly appreciated only by reference to records of
their achievements. Let no reader be so conceited as to believe his
present ignorance of a particular person to be a proof that the
person in question does not merit the title of noteworthy.

I said what I have to say about the modern use of the word "genius"
in the preface to the second edition of my "Hereditary Genius." It
has only latterly lost its old and usual meaning, which is preserved
in the term of an "ingenious" artisan, and has come to be applied to
something akin to inspiration. This simply means, as I suppose,
though some may think differently, that the powers of unconscious
work possessed by the brain are abnormally developed in them. The
heredity of these powers has not, I believe, been as yet especially
studied. It is strange that more attention has not been given until
recently to unconscious brain-work, because it is by far the most
potent factor in mental operations. Few people, when in rapid
conversation, have the slightest idea of the particular form which a
sentence will assume into which they have hurriedly plunged, yet
through the guidance of unconscious cerebration it develops itself
grammatically and harmoniously. I write on good authority in
asserting that the best speaking and writing is that which seems to
flow automatically shaped out of a full mind.


The materials on which the subject of this chapter depends are too
various to lead to a single definite and trustworthy answer. Men who
have won their way to the front out of uncongenial environments owe
their success principally, I believe, to their untiring energy, and
to an exceptionally strong inclination in youth towards the pursuits
in which they afterwards distinguished themselves. They do not seem
often to be characterized by an ability that continues pre-eminent on
a wider stage, because after they have fully won a position for
themselves, and become engaged in work along with others who had no
early difficulties to contend with, they do not, as a rule, show
greatly higher natural ability than their colleagues. This is
noticeable in committees and in other assemblies or societies where
intellects are pitted against one another. The bulk of existing
noteworthies seem to have had but little more than a fair education
as small boys, during which their eagerness and aptitude for study
led to their receiving favour and facilities. If, in such cases, the
aptitudes are scholastic, a moderate sum suffices to give the boy a
better education, enabling him to win scholarships and to enter a
University. If they lie in other directions, the boy attracts notice
from some more congenial source, and is helped onwards in life by
other means. The demand for exceptional ability, when combined with
energy and good character, is so great that a lad who is gifted with
them is hardly more likely to remain overlooked than a bird's nest in
the playground of a school. But, by whatever means noteworthiness
is achieved, it is usually after a course of repeated and
half-unconscious testings of intelligence, energy, and character,
which build up repute brick by brick.

If we compare the number of those who achieved noteworthiness through
their own exertions with the numbers of the greatly more numerous
persons whose names are registered in legal, clerical, medical,
official, military, and naval directories, or in those of the titled
classes[A] and landed gentry, or lastly, of those of the immense
commercial world, the proportion of one noteworthy person to one
hundred of the generality who were equally well circumstanced as
himself does not seem to be an over-estimate.

[A] By a rough count of the entries in Burke's "Peerage, Baronetage
    and Knightage," I find that upwards of 24,000 ladies are of
    sufficient rank to be included by name in his Table of


Success is the joint result of the natural powers of mind and body,
and of favourable circumstances. Those of the latter which fall into
definite groups will be distinguished as "environment," while the
others, which evade classification, will be called "accidental."

The superstitions of old times cling so tenaciously to modern thought
that the words "accident" and "chance" commonly connote some
mysterious agency. Nothing of the kind is implied here. The word
"accident" and the like is used in these pages simply to express the
effect of unknown or unnoted causes, without the slightest
implication that they are unknowable. In most cases their neglect has
been partly due to their individual insignificance, though their
combined effect may be very powerful when a multitude work in the
same direction. Moreover, a trifling pressure at the right spot
suffices to release a hair-trigger and thereby to cause an explosion;
similarly, with personal and social events, a trifling accident will
sometimes determine a career.

Noteworthiness and success may be regarded statistically as the
outcome of ability and environment and of nothing else, because the
effects of chance tend to be eliminated by statistical treatment. The
question then becomes, How far may noteworthiness be accepted as a
statistical measure of ability?

Ability and environment are each composed of many elements that
differ greatly in character. Ability may be especially strong in
particular directions as in administration, art, scholarship, or
science; it is, nevertheless, so adaptive that an able man has often
found his way to the front under more than one great change of
circumstance. The force that impels towards noteworthy deeds is an
innate disposition in some men, depending less on circumstances than
in others. They are like ships that carry an auxiliary steam-power,
capable of moving in a dead calm and against adverse winds. Others
are like the ordinary sailing ships of the present day--they are
stationary in a calm, but can make some way towards their destination
under almost any wind. Without a stimulus of some kind these men are
idle, but almost any kind of stimulus suffices to set them in action.
Others, again, are like Arab dhows, that do little more than drift
before the monsoon or other wind; but then they go fast.

Environment is a more difficult topic to deal with, because
conditions that are helpful to success in one pursuit may be
detrimental in another. High social rank and wealth conduce to
success in political life, but their distractions and claims clash
with quiet investigation. Successes are of the most varied
descriptions, but those registered in this book are confined to such
as are reputed honourable, and are not obviously due to favour.

In attacking the problem it therefore becomes necessary to fix the
attention, in the first instance, upon the members of some one large,
special profession, as upon artists, leaders in commerce,
investigators, scholars, warriors, and so forth, then to divide these
into subclasses, until more appears to be lost through paucity of
material than is gained through its increasing homogeneity.

Whatever group be selected, both ability and environment must be
rated according to the requirements of that group. It then becomes
possible, and it is not difficult, to roughly array individuals under
each of these two heads successively, and to label every person with
letters signifying his place in either class. For purposes of the
following explanation, each quality will be distributed into three
grades, determined not by value, but by class place--namely, the
highest third, the medium third, and the lowest third. In respect to
ability, these classes will be called A, B, and C. In respect to
environment, the grades will refer to its helpfulness towards the
particular success achieved, and the classes will be called E, F, G.
It must be clearly understood that the differences between the grades
do not profess to be equal, merely that A is higher than B, and B
than C; similarly as to E, F, and G. The A, B, C may be quite
independent of E, F, G, or they may be correlated. Both cases will
be considered.

Ability and Environment being mutually helpful towards success, the
successes statistically associated with AE will be reckoned higher
than those associated with AF. Again, for simplicity of explanation
only, it will here be assumed that Ability and Environment are
equally potent in securing success. Any other reasonable relation
between their influences may be substituted for the purpose of
experiment, but the ultimate conclusion will be much the same.


             |  AE.   I.   |  AF.   I.   |  AG.  II.   |
             |  BE.   I.   |  BF.  II.   |  BG. III.   |
             |  CE.  II.   |  CF. III.   |  CG. III.   |

First, suppose Ability and Environment to be entirely independent, A
being as frequently associated with E as it is with F or with G;
similarly as regards B and C, then the nine combinations shown in
Table I. will be equally frequent. These tabular entries fall into
three equal groups. The three that lie in and about the upper
left-hand corner contain the highest constituents--namely, either
_high_ combined with _high_, or one _high_ with one _medium_. They
produce Successes of Grade I. The three in the middle diagonal band
running between the lower left and the upper right corners are either
one _high_ and one _low_, or both are _medium_; they will produce
Successes of Grade II. The three in and about the right-hand corner
are either one _medium_ with one _low_, or both are _low_; they will
produce Successes of Grade III. This is still more clearly seen by
sorting the results into Table II., from which it is clear that a
high grade of Success is statistically associated with a high, but
less, grade of Ability, a medium with a medium, and a low grade of
Success with a low, but less low, grade of Ability.

|           |                             |                           |
| Grades of |                             |                           |
| Success.  | Contributory Combinations.  |  Corresponding Abilities. |
|           |         |         |         |         |        |        |
|     I.    |   AE    |   AF    |   BE    | 2 of A  | 1 of B |   --   |
|    II.    |   AG    |   BF    |   CE    | 1 of A  | 1 of B | 1 of C |
|   III.    |   CG    |   BG    |   CF    |   --    | 1 of B | 2 of C |

Secondly, suppose A, B, C to be correlated with E, F, G, so that A is
more likely to be associated with E than it is with F, and much more
likely than with G. Similarly, C is most likely to be associated with
G, less likely with F, and least likely with E. The general effect of
these preferences will be well represented by divorcing the couples
which differ by two grades--namely, AG and CE, by re-mating their
constituents as AE and CG, and by re-sorting them, as in Table III.
The couples that differ by no more than one grade are left
undisturbed. The results now fall into five grades of Success, in
four of which each grade contains two-ninths of the whole number, and
one, the medium Grade 3, contains only one-ninth.

As remarked previously, the grades are not supposed to be separated
by equal steps. They are numbered in ordinary numerals to distinguish
them from those in Table II.

|                    |               |                                |
| Grades of Success. | Contributory  |    Corresponding Abilities.    |
|                    | Combinations. |                                |
|                    |       |       |          |          |          |
| 1                  |  AE   |  AE   |  2 of A  |    --    |    --    |
| 2                  |  AF   |  BE   |  1 of A  |  1 of B  |    --    |
| 3                  |  BF   |  --   |    --    |  1 of B  |    --    |
| 4                  |  BG   |  CF   |    --    |  1 of B  |  1 of C  |
| 5                  |  CG   |  CG   |    --    |    --    |  2 of C  |

It clearly appears from this table that the effect of correlation
between Ability and Environment is to increase, and not to diminish,
the closeness of association between Success and Ability. Indeed, if
the correlation were perfect, Success would become an equal measure
_both_ of Ability and of Favourableness of Environment.

These arguments are true for each and every branch of Success, and
are therefore true for all: Ability being construed as Appropriate
Ability, and Environment as Appropriate Environment.

The general conclusion is that Success is, statistically speaking, a
magnified, but otherwise trustworthy, sign of Ability, high Success
being associated with high, but not an equally high, grade of
Ability, and low with low, but not an equally low. A few instances to
the contrary no more contradict this important general conclusion
than a few cases of death at very early or at very late ages
contradict the tables of expectation of life of a newly-born infant.


Specific kinships are such as "paternal uncle" or "maternal uncle,"
as distinguished from the general term "uncle." The phrase "first
cousin" covers no less than eight specific kinships (four male and
four female), not taking the issue of mixed marriages into account.
Specific kinships are briefly expressed by a nomenclature in which
_fa_, _me_, _bro_, _si_, _son_, _da_, _Hu_, _Wi_, stand respectively
for _father_, _mother_, _brother_, _sister_, _son_, _daughter_,
_Husband_, _Wife_. Each of these syllables is supposed to have the
possessive _'s_ added to it whenever it is followed by another
syllable of the set, or by the word _is_ when it is not. _Example_:
Let the person from whom the kinships are reckoned be called _P_, and
let _Q_ and _R_ be two of _P_'s kinsfolk, described respectively as
_fa bro_ and _me si son_. That means that _P's father's brother_ is
_Q_, and that _P's mother's sister's son_ is _R_. It is a simple and
easily intelligible nomenclature, and replaces intolerable verbiage
in the description of distant kinships. My correspondents used it
freely, and none of them spoke of any difficulty in understanding it.
Its somewhat babyish sound is soon disregarded.

                       TABLE IV.--ABBREVIATIONS.
|                                 |                                    |
|              Males.             |              Females.              |
|                                 |                                    |
| Grandfather, paternal   _fa fa_ | Grandmother, paternal      _fa me_ |
|     "        maternal   _me fa_ |     "        maternal      _me me_ |
| Father                     _fa_ | Mother                        _me_ |
| Uncle, paternal        _fa bro_ | Aunt, paternal             _fa si_ |
|   "    maternal        _me bro_ |   "   maternal             _me si_ |
|                                 |                                    |
| Brother                   _bro_ | Sister                        _si_ |
|                                 |                                    |
| Son                       _son_ | Daughter                      _da_ |
| Nephew, brother's son _bro son_ | Niece, brother's daughter _bro da_ |
| Nephew, sister's son   _si son_ | Niece, sister's daughter   _si da_ |
|                                 |                                    |
| Male first cousins:             | Female first cousins:              |
|  1. Son of paternal             |  1. Dau. of paternal               |
|        uncle       _fa bro son_ |        uncle           _fa bro da_ |
|  2. Son of maternal             |  2. Dau. of maternal               |
|        uncle       _me bro son_ |        uncle           _me bro da_ |
|  3. Son of paternal             |  3. Dau. of paternal               |
|        aunt         _fa si son_ |        aunt             _fa si da_ |
|  4. Son of maternal             |  4. Dau. of maternal               |
|        aunt         _me si son_ |        aunt             _me si da_ |

Those relationships that are expressed by different combinations of
these letters differ _specifically_; therefore, in saying, in the
next chapter, that each person has "roughly, on the average, one
fertile relative in each and every form of specific kinship," it
means in each and every combination of the above syllables that is
practically possible.

Relationship may also be expressed conveniently for some purposes in
Degrees of remoteness, the number of the Degree being that of the
number of syllables used to express the specific kinship.


The population may be likened to counters spread upon a table, each
corresponding to a different individual. The counters are linked
together by bands of various widths, down to mere threads, the widths
being proportional to the closeness of the several kinships. Those in
the first degree (_father_, _mother_, _brother_, _sister_, _son_,
_daughter_) are comparatively broad; those in the second degree
(_grandparent_, _uncle_, _aunt_, _nephew_, _niece_, _grandchild_) are
considerably narrower; those in the third degree are very narrow
indeed. Proceeding outwards, the connections soon become thinner than
gossamer. The person represented by any one of these counters may be
taken as the subject of a pedigree, and all the counters connected
with it may be noted up to any specified width of band. In this book
one of the counters is supposed to represent a Fellow of the Royal
Society, whose name appears in the "Year-Book" of that Society for
1904, and the linkage proceeds outwards from him to the third degree
inclusive. Usually it stops there, but a few distant kinships have
been occasionally inserted chiefly to testify to a prolonged
heritage of family traits.

The intensity with which any specified quality occurs in each or any
degree of kinship is measured by the proportion between the numbers
of those who possess the quality in question and the total number of
persons in that same degree. Particular inquiries were made on the
latter point, but, as already stated, the answers were incomplete.
There is, however, enough information to justify three conclusions of
primary importance to the present inquiry--namely, the _average_
number (1) of brothers of the subject, (2) of brothers of his father,
and (3) of brothers of his mother.

The number of Fellows to whom circulars were addressed was 467. The
number of those who gave useful replies was 207, a little more than
one-half of whom sent complete returns of the numbers of their
brothers and uncles; some few of these had, however, placed a query
here or there, or other sign of hesitation. As the number of
completely available returns scarcely exceeded 100, I have confined
the following tables to that number exactly, taking the best of the
slightly doubtful cases. It would have been possible, by utilizing
partial returns and making due allowances, to have obtained nearly
half as many again, but the gain in numbers did not seem likely to be
compensated by the somewhat inferior quality of the additional data.

The first three lines of Table V. show that there is no significant
difference between the average numbers of brothers and sisters, nor
between those of fathers' brothers and fathers' sisters, nor again
between those of mothers' brothers and mothers' sisters; nor is there
any large difference between those of male and female cousins, but it
is apparently a fact that the group of "brothers" is a trifle smaller
than that of uncles on either side. It seems, therefore, that the
generation of the Subjects contains a somewhat smaller number of
individuals than that of either of their Parents, being to that
extent significant of a lessening population so far as their class is

                           SURVIVED CHILDHOOD.
|               |               |           |              |           |
| Generic       | Specific      | Number of | Specific     | Number of |
| Kinships.     | Kinships.     | Persons.  | Kinships.    | Persons.  |
|               |               |           |              |           |
|Brothers and   | _bro_         |    206    | _si_         |    207    |
| sisters       |               |           |              |           |
|               |               |           |              |           |
|Uncles and     | _fa bro_      |    228    | _fa si_      |    207    |
| aunts         | _me bro_      |    219    | _me si_      |    238    |
|               |               |           |              |           |
|               | Mean          |    224    | Mean         |    223    |
|               |               |           |              |           |
|First cousins, | _fa bro son_  |    265    | _fa bro da_  |    302    |
| male and      | _fa si son_   |    184    | _fa si da_   |    208    |
| female        | _me bro son_  |    236    | _me bro da_  |    266    |
|               | _me si son_   |    237    | _me si da_   |    246    |

It may seem at first sight surprising that a brother and a sister
should each have the same average number of brothers. It puzzled me
until I had thought the matter out, and when the results were
published in "Nature," it also seems to have puzzled an able
mathematician, and gave rise to some newspaper controversy, which
need not be recapitulated. The essence of the problem is that the sex
of one child is supposed to give no clue of any practical importance
to that of any other child in the same family. Therefore, if one
child be selected out of a family of brothers and sisters, the
proportion of males to females in those that remain will be, _on the
average_, identical with that of males to females in the population
at large. It makes no difference whether the selected child be a boy
or a girl. Of course, if the conditions were "given a family of three
boys and three girls," each boy would have only two brothers and
three sisters, and each girl would have three brothers and two
sisters, but that is not the problem.

Subject to this explanation, the general accuracy of the observed
figures which attest the truth of the above conclusion cannot be
gainsaid on theoretical grounds, nor can the conclusions be ignored
to which they lead. They enable us to make calculations concerning
the average number of kinsfolk in each and every specified degree in
a stationary population, or, if desired, in one that increases or
decreases at a specified rate. It will here be supposed for
convenience that the average number of males and females are equal,
but any other proportion may be substituted. The calculations only
regard its fertile members; they show that every person has, on the
average, about one male fertile relative in each and every form of
specific kinship.

Kinsfolk may be divided into direct ancestry, collaterals of all
kinds, and direct descendants. As regards the direct ancestry, each
person has one and only one ancestor in each specific degree, one
_fa_, one _fa fa_, one _me fa_, and so on, although in each _generic_
degree it is otherwise; he has two grandfathers, four
great-grandfathers, etc. With collaterals and descendants the average
number of _fertile_ relatives in each specified degree must be
stationary in a stationary population, and calculation shows that
number is approximately _one_. The calculation takes no cognizance of
infertile relatives, and so its results are unaffected by the detail
whether the population is kept stationary by an increased birth-rate
of children or other infertiles, accompanied by an increased
death-rate among them, or contrariwise.

The exact conclusions were ("Nature," September 29, 1904, p. 529),
that if 2_d_ be the number of children in a family, half of them _on
the average_ being male, and if the population be stationary, the
number of fertile males in each specific ancestral kinship would be
_one_, in each collateral it would be _d_-½, in each descending
kinship _d_. If 2_d_ = 5 (which is a common size of family), one of
these on the average would be a fertile son, one a fertile daughter,
and the three that remained would leave no issue. They would either
die as boys or girls or they would remain unmarried, or, if married,
would have no children.

The reasonable and approximate assumption I now propose to make is
that the number of fertile individuals is not grossly different to
that of those who live long enough to have an opportunity of
distinguishing themselves. Consequently, the calculations that apply
to fertile persons will be held to apply very roughly to those who
were in a position, so far as age is concerned, to achieve
noteworthiness, whether they did so or not. Thus, if a group of 100
men had between them 20 noteworthy paternal uncles, it will be
assumed that the total number of their paternal uncles who reached
mature age was about 100, making the intensity of success as 20 to
100, or as 1 to 5. This method of roughly evading the serious
difficulty arising from ignorance of the true values in the
individual cases is quite legitimate, and close enough for present


The materials with which I am dealing do not admit of adequately
discussing noteworthiness in women, whose opportunities of achieving
distinction are far fewer than those of men, and whose energies are
more severely taxed by domestic and social duties. Women have
sometimes been accredited in these returns by a member of their own
family circle, as being gifted with powers at least equal to those of
their distinguished brothers, but definite facts in corroboration of
such estimates were rarely supplied.

The same absence of solid evidence is more or less true of gifted
youths whose scholastic successes, unless of the highest order, are a
doubtful indication of future power and performance, these depending
much on the length of time during which their minds will continue to
develop. Only a few of the Subjects of the pedigrees in the following
pages have sons in the full maturity of their powers, so it seemed
safer to exclude all relatives who were of a lower generation than
themselves from the statistical inquiry. This will therefore be
confined to the successes of fathers, brothers, grandfathers, uncles,
great-uncles, great-grandfathers, and male first cousins.

Only 207 persons out of the 467 who were addressed sent serviceable
replies, and these cannot be considered a fair sample of the whole.
Abstention might have been due to dislike of publicity, to inertia,
or to pure ignorance, none of which would have much affected the
values as a sample; but an unquestionably common motive does so
seriously--namely, when the person addressed had no noteworthy
kinsfolk to write about. On the latter ground the 260 who did not
reply would, as a whole, be poorer in noteworthy kinsmen than the 207
who did. The true percentages for the 467 lie between two limits:
the upper limit supposes the richness of the 207 to be shared by the
260; the lower limit supposes it to be concentrated in the 207, the
remaining 260 being utterly barren of it. Consequently, the upper
limit is found by multiplying the number of observations by 100 and
dividing by 207, the lower by multiplying by 100 and dividing by 467.
These limits are unreasonably wide; I cannot guess which is the more
remote from the truth, but it cannot be far removed from their mean
values, and this may be accepted as roughly approximate. The
observations and conclusions from them are given in Table VII., p. xl.


Persons who are technically "noteworthy" are by no means of equal
eminence, some being of the highest distinction, while others barely
deserve the title. It is therefore important to ascertain the amount
of error to which a statistical discussion is liable that treats
everyone who ranks as noteworthy at all on equal terms. The problem
resembles a familiar one that relates to methods for electing
Parliamentary representatives, such as have been proposed at various
times, whether it should be by the coarse method of one man one vote,
or through some elaborate arrangement which seems highly preferable
at first sight, but may be found on further consideration to lead to
much the same results.

In order to test the question, I marked each noteworthy person whose
name occurs in the list of sixty-six families at the end of this book
with 3, 2, or 1, according to what I considered his deserts, and soon
found that it was easy to mark them with fair consistency. It is not
necessary to give the rules which guided me, as they were very often
modified by considerations, each obvious enough in itself, but
difficult to summarize as a whole. Various provisional trials were
made; I then began afresh by rejecting a few names as undeserving any
mark at all, and, having marked the remainder individually, found
that a total of 657 marks had been awarded to 332 persons; 117 of
them had received 3 marks; 101, 2 marks; 104, 1 mark; so the three
subdivisions were approximately equal in number. The marks being too
few to justify detailed treatment, I have grouped the kinsmen into
first, second, and third degrees, and into first cousins, the latter
requiring a group to themselves. The first degree contains father and
brothers; the second, grandfathers and uncles; the third,
great-grandparents and great-uncles. The results are shown in Table
VI. The marks assigned to each of the groups are given in the first
line (total 657), and the number of the noteworthy persons in each
group who received any mark at all is shown in the third line (total
329). In order to compare the first and third lines of entries on
equal terms, those in the first were multiplied by 329 and divided by
657, and then entered in the second line. The closeness of
resemblance between the second and third lines emphatically answers
the question to be solved. There is no significant difference between
the results of the marked and the unmarked observations. The reason
probably is that the distribution of triple, double, and single marks
separately is much the same in each of the groups, and therefore
remains alike when the three sets of marks are in use at the same
time. It is thus made clear that trouble taken in carefully marking
names for different degrees of noteworthiness would be wasted in such
a rough inquiry as this.

|                      |        |        |        |         |       |
|                      | First  | Second | Third  | First   | Total |
|                      | Degree.| Degree.| Degree.| Cousins.|       |
|                      |        |        |        |         |       |
|Number of marks       |   225  |  208   |   102  |   122   |  657  |
|   assigned           |        |        |        |         |       |
|                      |        |        |        |         |       |
|Number of marks       |        |        |        |         |       |
|  reduced             |        |        |        |         |       |
|  proportionately     |   113  |  104   |    51  |    61   |  329  |
|Number of individuals |        |        |        |         |       |
|  unmarked            |   110  |  112   |    46  |    61   |  329  |
|                      |        |        |        |         |       |
|     Mean             |   111  |  108   |    49  |    61   |  329  |

Table VII., in the next chapter, affords an interesting illustration
of the character of the ignorance concerning the noteworthiness of
kinsmen in distant degrees, showing that it is much lessened when
they bear the same surname as their father, or even as the maiden
surname of their mother. The argument is this: Table V. has already
shown that _me bros_ are, speaking roughly, as frequently noteworthy
as _fa bros_--fifty-two of the one to forty-five of the other--so
noteworthiness is so far an equal characteristic of the maternal and
paternal lines, resembling in that respect nearly all the qualities
that are transmitted purely through heredity. There ought, therefore,
to be as many persons recorded as noteworthy in each of the four
different kinds of great-grandparents. The same should be the case in
each of the four kinds of great-uncles. But this is not so in either
case. The noteworthy great-grandfathers, _fa fa fa_, who bear the
same name as the subject are twice as numerous as the _me fa fa_ who
bear the maiden surname of the mother, and more than five times as
numerous as either of the other two, the _fa me fa_ and _me me fa_,
whose surnames differ from both, unless it be through some accident,
whether of a cross marriage or a chance similarity of names. It is
just the same with the great-uncles. Now, the figures for
great-grandfathers and great-uncles run so closely alike that they
may fairly be grouped together, in order to obtain a more impressive
whole--namely, two sorts of these kinsmen, bearing the same name as
the Subject, contain between them 23 noteworthies, or 11.50 each; two
sorts having the mother's maiden surname contain together 11
noteworthies, or 5.50 each; four sorts containing between them 7
names, or an average of 1.75 each. These figures are self-consistent,
being each the sum of two practically equal constituents, and they
are sufficiently numerous to be significant. The remarkable
differences in their numbers, 11.50, 5.50, 1.75, when they ought to
have been equal, has therefore to be accounted for, and the
explanation given above seems both reasonable and sufficient.


The most casual glance at Table VII. leaves no doubt as to the rapid
diminution in the frequency of noteworthiness as the distance of
kinship to the F.R.S. increases, and it would presumably do the same
to any other class of noteworthy persons.

In drawing more exact conclusions, the returns must be deemed to
refer not to a group of 207 F.R.S., because they are not a fair
sample of the whole body of 467, and, for reasons already given, they
are too rich in noteworthiness for the one and too poor for the
other. They will, therefore, be referred to the number that is the
mean of these two limits--namely, to 337. I am aware of no obvious
guidance to any better hypothesis.

The value of the expectation that noteworthiness would be found in
any specified kinsman of an F.R.S., of whom nothing else is known,
may be easily calculated from Table VII. on the two hypotheses
already mentioned and justified: (1) That the figures should be taken
to refer to 337, and not to 207; (2) that 1 per cent. of the
generality are noteworthy--that is to say, there are 3.37
noteworthies to every 337 persons of the generality.

                            IN 207 RETURNS.
     |                 |          ||                |           |
     |    Kinship.     | Numbers  ||   Kinship.     | Numbers   |
     |                 | Recorded.||                | Recorded. |
     |_________________|__________||________________| __________|
     |                 |          ||                |           |
     | _fa_            |    81    ||      ---       |    ---    |
     | _bro_           |   104    ||      ---       |    ---    |
     |                 |          ||                |           |
     | _fa fa_         |    40    ||  _fa fa fa_    |     11    |
     | _me fa_         |    42    ||  _fa me fa_    |      2    |
     | _fa bro_        |    45    ||  _me fa fa_    |      5    |
     | _me bro_        |    52    ||  _me me fa_    |      1    |
     |                 |          ||                |           |
     | _fa bro son_    |    30    ||  _fa fa bro_   |     12    |
     | _me bro son_    |    19    ||  _fa me bro_   |      2    |
     | _fa si son_     |    28    ||  _me fa bro_   |      6    |
     | _me si son_     |    22    ||  _me me bro_   |      2    |

Thus, for the fathers of F.R.S., 81 are recorded as noteworthy,
against 3.37 of fathers of the generality--that is, they are 24.1
times as numerous. For the first cousins of F.R.S. there are 99
noteworthies, divided amongst four kinds of male first-cousins, or
24.75 on an average to each kind, against the 3.37 of the
generality--that is, they are 7.3 times as numerous.

On this principle the expectation of noteworthiness in a kinsman of
an F.R.S. (or of other noteworthy person) is greater in the following
proportion than in one who has no such kinsman: If he be a father, 24
times as great; if a brother, 31 times; if a grandfather, 12 times;
if an uncle, 14 times; if a male first cousin, 7 times; if a
great-great-grandfather on the paternal line, 3½ times.

The reader may work out results for himself on other hypotheses as to
the percentage of noteworthiness among the generality. A considerably
larger proportion would be noteworthy in the higher classes of
society, but a far smaller one in the lower; it is to the bulk, say,
to three-quarters of them, that the 1 per cent. estimate applies, the
extreme variations from it tending to balance one another.

The figures on which the above calculations depend may each or all of
them be changed to any reasonable amount, without shaking the truth
of the great fact upon which Eugenics is based, that able fathers
produce able children in a much larger proportion than the

                 *       *       *       *       *

The parents of the 207 Fellows of the Royal Society occupy a wide
variety of social positions. A list is given in the Appendix of the
more or less noteworthy parents of those Fellows whose names occur in
the list of sixty-six families. The parents are classified according
to their pursuits. Many parents of the other Fellows in the 207
families were not noteworthy in the technical sense of the word, but
were reported to be able. It was also often said in the replies that
the general level of ability among the members of the family of the
F.R.S. was high. Other parents were in no way remarkable, so the
future Fellow was simply a "sport," to use the language of
horticulturists and breeders, in respect to his taste and ability. It
is to be remembered that "sports" are transmissible by heredity, and
have been, through careful selection, the origin of most of the
valuable varieties of domesticated plants and animals. Sports have
been conspicuous in the human race, especially in some individuals of
the highest eminence in music, painting, and in art generally, but
this is not the place to enter further into so large a subject. It
has been treated at length by many writers, especially by Bateson and
De Vries, also by myself in the third chapter of "Natural
Inheritance" and in the preface to the second edition of "Hereditary





#BALFOUR#, Right Hon. Arthur James (b. 1848), P.C., etc., F.R.S.,
    Leader of the House of Commons, 1895; Prime Minister, 1902;
    President of the British Association, 1904; author of "The
    Foundations of Belief." [For fuller references, see "Who's Who"
    and numerous other biographies.]

_bro_, Francis Maitland BALFOUR (1851-1882), F.R.S., Professor of
Animal Morphology at Cambridge; brilliant investigator in embryology;
gold medal, Royal Society, 1881; killed by a fall in the Alps.

_bro_, Right Hon. Gerald W. BALFOUR (b. 1853), P.C., Fellow of
Trinity College, Cambridge; President of the Board of Trade, 1902.

_si_, Eleanor Mildred (Mrs. Henry SIDGWICK), Principal of Newnham
College, Cambridge.

_si_, Evelyn, wife of LORD RAYLEIGH, F.R.S., and mother of Hon.
Robert John STRUTT, F.R.S. (q.v.).

_me bro_, 3rd Marquis of SALISBURY, Robert A.T. GASCOIGNE-CECIL
(1830-1903), K.G., P.C., etc., F.R.S.; eminent statesman; Prime
Minister, 1885-1886, 1886, 1895-1903; Chancellor of the University of
Oxford; President of the British Association, 1894; in earlier life
essayist and critic; also an experimenter in electricity.

It is difficult to distinguish those in the able family of the Cecils
whose achievements were due to sheer ability from those who were
largely helped by social influence. A second _me bro_ and five _me
bro sons_ are recorded in "Who's Who."

Sir Robert Stawell #BALL#, LL.D., F.R.S. (b. 1840), Lowndean Prof.
    of Astronomy and Geometry, Cambridge; Fellow of King's College,
    Cambridge; Member of the Council of the Senate; Director of the
    Cambridge Observatory since 1892; Royal Astronomer of Ireland,
    1874-1892; Ex-President of Royal Astronomical Soc., Mathematical
    Assoc., and of Royal Zoological Soc. of Ireland; author of many
    works on astronomical, mathematical, and physical
    subjects.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, Robert BALL (1802-1857), Hon. LL.D., Trinity Coll.,
distinguished naturalist; Secretary of Royal Zoological Soc. of
Ireland; President of Geological Soc. of Ireland; Director of
Trinity Coll. Museum, 1844.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Valentine BALL, LL.D., C.B., F.R.S. (1843-1895); on staff of
Geological Survey of India, 1864-1880; Prof. of Geology and
Mineralogy in the University of Dublin, 1880-1882; Director and
Organizer of National Museum, Dublin, 1882-1895; author of "Jungle
Life in India," of an elaborate treatise on the economic geology of
India, and of "Diamonds and Gold of India."--["Obit. Notice, P.R.S.,"

_bro_, Sir Charles Bent BALL, M.D., M.Ch., F.R.C.S.I., Hon. F.R.C.S.,
England; Regius Professor of Surgery, Univ. of Dublin; Surgeon to Sir
Patrick Dun's Hospital, and Honorary Surgeon to the King in Ireland;
author of various surgical works.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro son_, Ames HELLICAR, the successful manager of the leading
bank in Sydney, N.S.W.

Thomas George #BARING#, first Earl of NORTHBROOK (1826-1904), P.C.,
    D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.; Under-Secretary of State for India, Home
    Department, and for War; Viceroy of India, 1872-1876; First Lord
    of the Admiralty, 1880-1885.--["Who's Who," and "Ency. Brit."]

_fa fa fa_, Sir Francis BARING (1710-1810), Chairman of East India
Company, 1792-1793; created baronet 1793.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa bro_, Alexander BARING, first Baron ASHBURTON (1774-1848),
financier and statesman; head for many years of Baring Brothers and
Co.; member of Sir Robert Peel's Cabinet of 1835; raised to peerage
1835; Commissioner to U.S.A., 1842, for Settlement "Ashburton Treaty"
of Boundary Dispute.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me me_, Hon. Lady GREY, née WHITBREAD (1770-1858), prominent in
every work of Christian philanthropy during twenty-four years in the
Commissioner's house in Plymouth, afterwards in Ireland.--["Record"
newspaper, May 26, 1858.]

_fa_, Francis Thornhill BARING (1786-1866), first Baron NORTHBROOK,
double first at Oxford, 1817; First Lord of the Admiralty.--["Dict.
N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Thomas BARING (1799-1873), financier; refused
Chancellorship of Exchequer, also a peerage; head for many years of
Baring Brothers and Co.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Charles BARING (1807-1879), double first at Oxford, 1829;
Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, 1856, of Durham, 1861.--["Dict. N.

_fa fa bro son_, Evelyn BARING (b. 1841), first Earl CROMER, P.C.,
son of H. Baring, M.P.; passed first into staff college from Royal
Artillery; made successively Baron, Viscount, and Earl, for services
in Egypt.--["Who's Who," and "Ency. Brit."]

_fa fa si son_, Henry LABOUCHERE (1798-1869), first Baron TAUNTON,
first-class "Greats" at Oxford; Cabinet Minister under Lord Melbourne
and Lord John Russell; raised to peerage 1859.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, Sir George GREY (1799-1882), Home Secretary 1846-1852,
1855-1858, 1861-1866; carried the Bill that abolished transportation.

_me fa bro_, Charles GREY (1764-1845), second Earl GREY, Prime
Minister; carried the Reform Bill.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me si son_, Sir Edward JENKINSON (b. 1835), K.C.B., Private
Secretary to Lord Spencer when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.--["Who's

Descended from _fa fa fa bro_, Rev. S. BARING-GOULD (b. 1834),
author of numerous novels and works on theology and history.--["Who's

William Thomas #BLANFORD#, LL.D., F.R.S.; (1832-1905), on staff of
    Geological Survey of India, 1855-1882; accompanied Abyssinian
    Expedition and Persian Boundary Commission; sometime President of
    Geological Society and of Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, also of
    Geological Section British Assoc.; author of works dealing with
    the geology and zoology of Abyssinia, Persia, and India.--["Who's

_fa_, William BLANFORD, established a manufacturing business in
London, and was a founder, and for many years Chairman, of the Thames
Plate Glass Company.

_me bro_, Alfred SIMPSON, established a large and successful
manufacturing business in Adelaide, S. Australia.

_bro_, Henry Francis BLANFORD, F.R.S., for many years at the head of
the Indian Meteorological Department, which he originally organized.

Right Hon. Charles #BOOTH# (b. 1840), P.C., F.R.S., economist and
    statistician; President of the Royal Statistical Soc., 1892-1894;
    originated and carried through a co-operative inquiry in minute
    detail into the houses and occupations of the inhabitants of
    London, which resulted in the volumes "Life and Labour of the
    People of London"; author of memoirs on allied subjects. ["Ency.
    Brit.," xxvi. 306; "Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Thomas BOOTH, successful merchant and shipowner at

_fa bro_, Henry BOOTH (1788-1869), railway projector; co-operated
with Stephenson in applying steam to locomotion, published much
relating to railways, and invented mechanical contrivances still in
use on railways; secretary and then railway director.--["Dict. N.
Biog.," v. 382.]

_fa bro_, James BOOTH (1796-1880), C.B., Parliamentary draughtsman;
became Permanent Secretary to the Board of Trade.

_me si son_, Charles CROMPTON, Fourth Wrangler, Q.C., and for some
years M.P. for the Leek Division of Staffordshire.

_me si son_, Henry CROMPTON, a leader in the Positivist Community;
authority on Trades Union Law, and author of "Industrial

_me si son_, Sir Henry Enfield ROSCOE, F.R.S. (q.v.)

Robert Holford Macdowall #BOSANQUET#, F.R.S. (b. 1841). Fellow of
    St. John's Coll., Oxford; author of many mathematical and
    physical memoirs, chiefly in the "Philosophical Magazine."

_fa fa bro_, Sir John Bernard BOSANQUET (1773-1847), Judge of Common
Pleas, 1830; Lord Commissioner of Great Seal, 1835-1836.--["Dict. N.

_bro_, Bernard BOSANQUET (b. 1848), Prof. of Moral Philosophy, St.
Andrews, since 1903; formerly Fellow of University Coll., Oxford;
worked in connection with Charity Organization Society; author of
many books on philosophy.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Vice-Admiral Day Hort BOSANQUET (b. 1843),
Commander-in-Chief West Indian Station since 1904; previously
Commander-in-Chief East Indian.--["Who's Who."]

_fa son_, Charles Bertie Pulleine BOSANQUET (b. 1834), a founder
and the first secretary of the Charity Organization Society.

_me fa bro_, Hay MACDOWALL (d. 1806), Commander-in-Chief of Madras

_fa son son_, Robert Carr BOSANQUET (b. 1871), archæologist,
director of British School of Archæology at Athens.

_me si son_, Ralph DUNDAS, head of large and influential firm of
Dundas and Wilson, Writers to the Signet, Edinburgh. His relatives on
his father's side include his--

    _fa_, John DUNDAS, worked up the business of Dundas and Wilson
    into its present position.

    _fa fa son_, Sir David DUNDAS (1799-1877), Judge-Advocate-General
    and Privy Councillor, 1849.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

    _fa fa son_, George DUNDAS, Judge in Scotch Courts under the
    title of Lord MANOR.

    _fa fa son son_, David DUNDAS, K.C. (b. 1854), Judge in Scotch
    Courts under the title of Lord DUNDAS; Solicitor-General for
    Scotland, 1903.--["Who's Who."]

James Thomson #BOTTOMLEY# (Hon. LL.D., Glasgow), D.Sc., F.R.S.,
    electrical engineer (1870-1899); Arnott and Thomson, Demonstrator
    in the University of Glasgow.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, James THOMSON.

_me bro_, William THOMSON, Lord Kelvin, F.R.S.

_me bro_, James THOMSON, F.R.S.

See THOMSON for the above.

Sir Dietrich #BRANDIS# (b. 1824), K.C.I.E., F.R.S., Superintendent
    of Forests, British Burmah, 1856-1864; Inspector-General of
    Forests to the Government of India, 1864-1883.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Joachim Dietrich BRANDIS, born at Hildesheim, where his
ancestors had governed the town as Burgemeister for centuries;
practised medicine at Brunswick, Driburg, and Pyrmont; Professor of
Pathology at Kiel; ultimately physician to the Queen of Denmark.

_fa_, Christian August BRANDIS, secretary of the Prussian Legation in
Rome, 1818; afterwards Professor of Philosophy at Bonn; went to
Athens, 1837-1839, as confidential adviser to King Otho, partly with
regard to the organization of schools and colleges in Greece; author
of a "History of Greek Philosophy."

_me bro_, Friedrich HAUSMANN, Professor of Mineralogy and Geology at
Göttingen; author of a "Handbook of Mineralogy."

_bro_, Johannes BRANDIS, for many years Kabinetsrath of H.M. Empress
Augusta, Queen of Prussia.

_me si son_, Julius VON HARTMANN, commanded a cavalry division in the
Franco-German War; after the war was Governor of Strasburg.

Alexander Crum #BROWN# (b. 1838), M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.,
    Professor of Chemistry at Edinburgh University since 1869;
    president of the Chemical Soc., London, 1892-1893.--["Who's

_fa fa fa_, John BROWN (1722-1787), of Haddington, Biblical
commentator; as a herd boy taught himself Latin, Greek, and learned
Hebrew with the aid of a teacher, at one time a pedlar; served as a
soldier in the Edinburgh garrison, 1745; minister to the Burgher
congregation at Haddington, 1750-1787; acted as Professor of Divinity
to Burgher students after 1767.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa_, John BROWN (1754-1832), Scottish divine; minister of Burgher
church at Whitburn, 1776-1832; wrote memoirs of James Hervey, 1806,
and many religious treatises.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, John BROWN (1784-1858), minister of Burgher church at Biggor,
1806; of Secession Church at Edinburgh, 1822; D.D., 1830; Professor
of Exegetics Secession Coll., 1834, and in United Presbyterian Coll.
1847; author of many exegetical commentaries.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, Walter CRUM, F.R.S., manufacturer at Thornliebank, near
Glasgow; a successful man of business and a very able chemist.

_fa son_, John BROWN (1810-1882), M.D., practised in Edinburgh with
success; author of "Horæ Subsecivæ," "Rab and his Friends."--["Dict.
N. Biog."]

_fa si son_, Robert JOHNSTONE (b.1832), D.D., LL.B., Professor of
New Testament Literature and Exegesis in the United Free Church
Coll., Aberdeen; has published works on the New Testament.--["Who's

_si son_, Charles STEWART-WILSON, Postmaster-General, Punjab, since
1899.--["India List."]

_me bro son_, Alexander CRUM, managing director of the "Thornliebank
Co.," for some time M.P. for Renfrewshire.

Sir James Crichton #BROWNE# (b. 1840), M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Lord
    Chancellor's Visitor in Lunacy since 1875; Vice-President and
    Treasurer Royal Institution since 1889; author of various works
    on mental and nervous diseases.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Andrew BALFOUR, successful printer in Edinburgh;
collaborated with Sir David Brewster in production of the "Edinburgh
Encyclopædia," the forerunner of the "Ency. Brit."; one of the
leaders of the Free Church disruption.

_fa_, William Alexander Francis BROWNE, F.R.S.E., physician; largely
instrumental in introducing humane methods for the treatment of the
insane into Scotland; was appointed First Scotch Commissioner in
Lunacy; author of works on mental diseases.

_me bro_, John Hutton BALFOUR (1808-1884), M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. and
F.R.S.E., Professor of Botany at Glasgow, 1841; and at Edinburgh,
1845; wrote botanical text-books.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, John Hutton BALFOUR-BROWNE, K.C. (b. 1845), Leader of the
Parliamentary Bar; Registrar and Secretary to Railway Comm., 1874;
author of numerous legal works.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro son_, Isaac Bayley BALFOUR, M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. (b.
1853), King's Botanist in Scotland; Regius Keeper of Royal Botanic
Garden, Edinburgh; Professor of Botany at Glasgow and at Oxford, and
since 1888 at Edinburgh.--["Who's Who."]

Sir John Scott #BURDON-SANDERSON#, Bart., cr. 1899, M.D., D.C.L.,
    LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.; held a succession of important offices,
    beginning with Inspector Med. Dep. Privy Council, 1860-1865;
    Superintendent Brown Institution, 1871-1878; Professor of
    Physiology University Coll., London, 1874-1882; in Oxford,
    1882-1895; President Brit. Assoc., 1893; Regius Professor of
    Medicine at Oxford, 1895-1904; served on three Royal Commissions;
    author of many physiological memoirs.--["Ency. Brit.," xxvi. 464;
    "Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Sir Thomas BURDON, Kt., several times Mayor of Newcastle,
knighted for his services in quelling a riot.

_me fa_, Sir James SANDERSON, Bart., M.P., Lord Mayor of London; a
successful merchant.

_fa_, Richard BURDON-SANDERSON, graduated first class and gained
Newdigate prize; Fellow of Oriel Coll., Oxford; was Secretary to Lord
Chancellor Eldon.

_bro_, Richard BURDON-SANDERSON, the first promoter of the
"Conciliation Board" of coal-owners and colliers at
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and of the first reformatory in Northumberland.

_si son_, Rt. Hon. Richard Burdon HALDANE (b. 1856), P.C., M.P.,
high honours at Edinburgh and three other Scotch universities; author
of "Life of Adam Smith" and of "Memoirs on Education."--["Who's

_si son_, John Scott HALDANE (b. 1860), q.v., M.D., F.R.S.,
University Lecturer on Physiology at Oxford; joint editor and founder
of "Journal of Hygiene."--["Who's Who."]

_si da_, Elizabeth Sanderson HALDANE (q.v.).

_More distant kinsmen and connections:_

_fa me bro_, John SCOTT, first Earl of ELDON (1751-1838), famous Lord
Chancellor of England.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa me bro_, William SCOTT (1745-1836), first Baron STOWELL, eminent
maritime and international lawyer; judge of High Court of Admiralty,
(1798-1828).--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_wife's bro_, FARRER, first Lord HERSCHELL, Lord Chancellor of

Charles #CHREE#, Sc.D. (Camb.), LL.D. (Aberdeen), F.R.S. (1860),
    Superintendent Observatory Department, National Physical Lab.;
    graduated Aberdeen, 1879, obtaining gold medal awarded to the
    most distinguished graduate in Arts of the year; Sixth Wrangler,
    Cambridge, 1883; first division Math. Tripos, Part III.; first
    class Natural Sciences Tripos, Part II.; and Fellow of King's
    College, 1885; re-elected as Research Fellow, 1890.--["Who's

_fa_, Charles CHREE, Hon. D.D. Aberdeen University; for many years
clerk to Presbytery of Meigle, and convener of committee for
examining divinity students in St. Andrew's University. Had
considerable reputation in Church of Scotland for general
scholarship, and especially for knowledge of Hebrew.

_bro_, William CHREE, after graduating with first class mathematical
honours at Aberdeen University, obtained a "Fullerton" mathematical
scholarship. In addition to prizes in mathematics and physics at
Aberdeen, obtained also prizes in Latin, natural history, and moral
philosophy. At Edinburgh University was awarded either first or
second prizes in Scots Law, conveyancing, civil law, public law, and
constitutional history. Practises as advocate at Scotch Bar.

_bro_, Alexander Bain CHREE, died young, having graduated at Aberdeen
University with first class honours in mathematics, obtaining prizes
in mathematics, physics, Latin, Greek, moral philosophy, and natural

_si_, Jessie Search CHREE, obtained two prizes and honours in at
least four subjects (French, logic, Latin, physics) in the Edinburgh
University local examinations.

Arthur Herbert #CHURCH# (b. 1834), F.R.S., D.Sc., Professor of
    Chemistry at Royal Academy of Arts since 1879; discoverer of
    turacin, also of churchite and other new minerals; President of
    the Mineralogical Society, 1898-1901; author of various works on
    English pottery and porcelain, on precious stones, on food, and
    on the chemistry of paints and painting.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Henry Francis CHURCH (1824-1899), solicitor, Chief Clerk in
Chancery, and Master of the High Court of Judicature.

_bro_, Alfred John CHURCH (Rev.), (b. 1829), Headmaster of Henley
and of Retford Grammar Schools; Professor of Latin at Univ. Coll.,
London, 1880-1888; prize poem, Oxford, 1883; author of various works
dealing with classical subjects.--["Who's Who."]

_fa si da son_, Sir John R. SEELEY, K.C.M.G. (1834-1895), Professor
first of Latin at Univ. Coll., London, and afterwards of Modern
History at Cambridge; published in 1865 "Ecce Homo," a work which
attracted immediate attention and provoked a storm of controversy;
also works on history and political science.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

Sydney Monckton #COPEMAN#, F.R.S., M.D. (Camb.), Medical Inspector
    Local Government Board; Member of Council of Epidemiological
    Society; Research Scholar and Special Commissioner British
    Medical Association; recipient of many gold medals and prizes of
    importance.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa fa_, Peter COPEMAN, founder, with his brother Robert, of
Copeman's Bank, Aylsham, Norfolk (now incorporated with Barclay's);
successful merchant.

_fa_, Arthur Charles COPEMAN, M.B., London; gold medallist in anatomy
and physiology, University of London; entered Army Medical Service on
the nomination of the Chancellor of the University; subsequently
entered the Church, and became Hon. Canon of Norwich Cathedral; for
many years Chairman of Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, and of Norwich
School Board and Board of Guardians.

_fa bro_, Edward COPEMAN, M.D., Aberdeen; President British Medical
Association; consulting physician to Norfolk and Norwich Hospital;
author and inventor of gynæcological instruments and of special
methods of operation.

James Henry #COTTERILL#, F.R.S. (b. 1836), Lecturer and
    subsequently Vice-Principal of the Royal School of Naval
    Architecture, South Kensington; Professor of Applied Mechanics at
    the Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich, 1873-1897.--["Who's Who."]

_fa bro_, Thomas COTTERILL, eminent clergyman at Sheffield; A.B.,
Cambridge, 1801.--["Grad. Cant."]

_bro_, Joseph Morthland COTTERILL, D.D. (hon. causa), St. Andrew's

_fa son_, Henry COTTERILL, Senior Wrangler, 1835; second classic,
Fellow of St. John's Coll., Cambridge; Bishop of Edinburgh.--["Grad.

_bro son_, Joseph M. COTTERILL (b. 1851), Surgeon to Edinburgh
Royal Infirmary, Lecturer at Edinburgh School of Medicine.--["Who's

_bro son_, Arthur COTTERILL, Head of Permanent Way Department
Egyptian Railway Administration.

_fa bro son_, Thomas COTTERILL, third wrangler, 1832; fellow of St.
John's Coll., Cambridge; one of the earliest members of the London
Mathematical Soc., to which he contributed many papers of
importance.--["Grad. Cant."]

George Howard #DARWIN# (b. 1845), F.R.S., second wrangler, 1868;
    Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy,
    Cambridge; author of many papers in the "Philosophical
    Transactions" relating to tides, physical astronomy, and cognate
    subjects; President of British Association in 1905 at Cape
    Town.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa fa_, Erasmus DARWIN, M.D., F.R.S. (1731-1802), physician,
poet, and philosopher; author of "Botanic Garden," "Zoonomia," and
other works, in which he maintained a view of evolution subsequently
expounded by Lamarck.--["Life," by Ch. R. Darwin, and "Dict. N.

_fa fa_, Robert Waring DARWIN (1766-1848), M.D., F.R.S., sagacious
and distinguished physician; described by his son, Charles R. Darwin,
as "the wisest man I ever knew."--["Life and Letters of Charles R.
Darwin," i. 10-20.]

_fa fa bro_, Charles DARWIN (1758-1778), of extraordinary promise,
gained first gold medal of Æsculapian Society for experimental
research; died from a dissection wound, aged twenty; many obituary
notices.--["Life and Letters of Charles R. Darwin," i. 7.]

_fa bro_, Erasmus DARWIN. (See Carlyle's inexact description, and the
appreciations of him by his brother and others, in "Life and Letters
of Charles R. Darwin," i. 21-25.)

_fa_, Charles Robert DARWIN (1809-1882), F.R.S., the celebrated
naturalist. The dates of his works are "Voyage of the _Beagle_,"
1840; "Origin of Species," 1859; followed by a succession of eight
important volumes ranging from 1862 to 1881, each of which confirmed
and extended his theory of descent. Among the very numerous
biographical memoirs it must suffice here to mention "Life and
Letters," by Francis Darwin, and "Dict. N. Biog."

_me me fa_, Josiah WEDGWOOD, F.R.S. (1730-1795), the famous founder
of the pottery works.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me me bro_, Thomas WEDGWOOD (1771-1805), an experimenter in early
life, and in one sense the first to create photography; a martyr to
ill-health later. Sydney Smith knew "no man who appeared to have
made such an impression on his friends," his friends including many
of the leading intellects of the day.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me fa fa_ (she was her husband's _fa bro dau_), Josiah WEDGWOOD,
F.R.S.; see above.

_me bro_, Hensleigh WEDGWOOD (1803-1891), author of "Etymological
Dictionary" and of other works, partly mathematical.--["Dict. N.

_me bro dau_, Julia WEDGWOOD, essayist.

_bro_, Francis DARWIN (b. 1848), F.R.S., botanist; biographer of
his father; reader in botany at Cambridge, 1876-1903; foreign sec.
Royal Society. Author of botanical works and memoirs.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Major Leonard DARWIN (b. 1850), late R.E., second in the
examination of his year for Woolwich; served on several scientific
expeditions, including transit of Venus of 1874 and 1882; Staff
Intelligence Dep. War Office, 1885-1890; M.P. for Lichfield,
1892-1895. Author of "Bimetallism," "Municipal Trade."--["Who's

_bro_, Horace DARWIN (b. 1851), F.R.S., engineer and mechanician;
joint founder of the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company and its
proprietor. It is now a limited company, of which he is
chairman.--["Who's Who."]

_More distant relation:_

_fa fa si son_, Francis GALTON, F.R.S. (q.v.).

Sir John #EVANS# (b. 1823), K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S.,
    President of the Royal Numismatic Society since 1874; trustee of
    the British Museum; treasurer and vice-president of the Royal
    Society during twenty years; has been president of numerous
    learned societies; author of works on the coins of the Ancient
    Britons, and on their stone and bronze implements.--["Who's Who,"
    and "Ency. Brit."]

_fa fa_, Lewis EVANS (1755-1827), F.R.S., F.A.S., mathematician;
first Mathematical Master of R.M.A., Woolwich.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Arthur Benoni EVANS (1781-1854), D.D., miscellaneous writer;
Professor of Classics and History, R.M.C., 1805-1822; headmaster of
Market Bosworth Grammar School, 1825-1854.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_ and _wi fa_, John DICKINSON (1782-1869), F.R.S., inventor of
paper-making machine.

_bro_, Sebastian EVANS, LL.D., poet, artist, and author.

_si_, Anne EVANS (1820-1870), poet and musician, composer.--["Dict.
N. Biog."]

_son_, Arthur John EVANS (b. 1851), D.Litt. (Oxon), Hon. D.Litt.
(Dublin), Hon. LL.D. (Edinburgh), F.R.S., Keeper of Ashmolean Museum,
Oxford, since 1884; in 1893 started investigations in Crete, which
resulted in the discovery of the pre-Phoenician script; in
1900-1905 excavated the prehistoric palace of Knossos.--["Who's

_me bro son_ and _wi bro_, John DICKINSON (1815-1876), writer on
India, and founder of Indian Reform Society, 1853.--["Dict. N.

Right Hon. Sir Edward #FRY# (b. 1827), D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Judge
    of High Court, Chancery Division, 1877-1883; Lord Justice of
    Appeal, 1883-1892; President of the Royal Com. on the Irish Land
    Acts, 1897-1898; Chairman of the Court of Arbitration under the
    Metropolitan Water Act, 1902; member of the Permanent Court of
    International Arbitration at the Hague; author of a "Treatise on
    the Specific Performance of Contracts," of "British Mosses," and
    "The Mycetozoa."--["Who's Who."]

_fa bro_, Francis FRY (1803-1886), member of the firm of J.S. Fry and
Co., Bristol; a great authority on bibliography.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Right Hon. Lewis FRY (b. 1832), M.P. for Bristol, 1878-1885;
N. Bristol, 1885-1892, and 1895-1900.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Joseph Storrs FRY, has maintained and extended a large
manufacturing business, and taken an active part in philanthropic

_fa fa fa_, Joseph FRY (1728-1787), practised medicine in Bristol,
afterwards manufactured cocoa and chocolate; started type-founding
business with William Pine, 1764.--["Dic. N. Biog."]

_fa fa bro_, Edmund FRY (1754-1835), M.D. of Edinburgh; devoted his
life to the business of type-founding, and to the philological
studies connected with it.--["Dic. N. Biog."]

_wife_, Mariabella, née HODGKIN, _dau_ of the historian.

Francis #GALTON# (b. 1822), D.C.L., Hon. Sc.D. (Camb.), F.R.S.,
    traveller, anthropologist and biometrician; author of many works
    and memoirs on these and analogous subjects, including
    meteorology, heredity, identification by fingerprints; latterly a
    promoter of the study of Eugenics. Gold medal R. Geog. Soc.,
    1853, for travels in Damaraland, S. Africa; Royal medal, 1886,
    and Darwin medal, 1903, of the Royal Soc., for applications of
    measurement to human faculty; Huxley medal of the Anthropol.
    Institute, 1901.--["Ency. Brit.," and "Who's Who."]

_fa si_, SCHIMMELPENNINCK (1778-1856), Mrs. Mary Anne, author of
various works, mostly theological, and on the Port Royalists and
Moravians.--["Dic. N. Biog."]

_fa fa fa_, Samuel GALTON (1720-1799), cultured Quaker
philanthropist, contractor and banker.--[See life of above M.A.S.,
and the "Annual Register."]

_fa me ½ bro_, Robert Barclay ALLARDICE (1779-1854), commonly known
as Capt. BARCLAY of Ury, pedestrian, noted for his walking feats,
agriculturist.--["Dic. N. Biog."]

_me fa_, Erasmus DARWIN, M.D., F.R.S.--See DARWIN.

_me ½ bro son_, Charles Robert DARWIN, F.R.S., the naturalist.--See

_si son_, Edward G. WHELER (b. 1850), a founder and president of
the Land Agents' Society; commissioner and estate agent during
sixteen years for 155,000 acres of various descriptions of property.

_fa bro son_, Sir Douglas GALTON (1822-1901), K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D.,
F.R.S., passed from Woolwich to Royal Engineers with the best
examination then on record, obtaining first prize in every subject,
1840; Inspector of Railways, and Secretary of Railway Dept., Board of
Trade, 1856; Assistant Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1860;
designed and constructed the Herbert Hospital at Woolwich; Director
of Public Works and Building in H.M. Works, 1870-1875; General
Secretary of British Assoc., 1870-1895; President of it, 1895;
authority on hospital construction, and on the sanitation,
ventilation, etc., of public buildings.--["Dict. N. Biog.," Suppl.

_His kindred by his mother's side are:_

    _me fa fa_, Jedediah STRUTT (1726-1797), hosiery manufacturer and
    cotton spinner; inventor of machine for making ribbed stockings;
    partner of Sir Richard Arkwright.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

    _me fa_, Joseph STRUTT (1765-1844), first Mayor of Derby, 1835,
    and donor of the arboretum; great friend of the poet Thomas
    Moore.--["Dict. N. Biog.," and "Life and Letters" of T. Moore.]

    _me fa bro_, William STRUTT (1756-1830), ingenious mechanician
    and inventor; friend of Erasmus Darwin, R.L. Edgeworth, Robert
    Owen, Joseph Lancaster, Samuel Bentham Dalton, etc.; originator
    and designer of the first Derby Infirmary.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

    _me fa bro son_, Edward STRUTT (1801-1880), created Baron BELPER,
    1856; M.P., F.R.S.; a philosophical Radical, intimate with
    Bentham, the Mills, and Macaulay; Chancellor of the Duchy of
    Lancaster, 1852-1854; President of University Coll., London,
    1871.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

    _me fa bro son_, Anthony STRUTT (1791-1875), ingenious

    _me me si son_, Sir Charles FOX (1810-1874), constructing
    engineer of London and Birmingham Railway; knighted after
    designing Exhibition buildings in Hyde Park, 1851; made first
    narrow-gauge line in India; built Berlin Waterworks.--["Dict. N.

Sir Archibald #GEIKIE# (b. 1835), F.R.S., and many foreign
    distinctions; Director-General Geological Survey of United
    Kingdom, and Director Museum Practical Geology in Jermyn Street,
    1882-1901; medallist of the Royal and other societies; Secretary
    of the Royal Society; author of numerous works on geology, also
    of biographies of David Forbes, Sir R. Murchison, and Sir A.
    Ramsay.--["Who's Who," "Ency. Brit."]

_fa_, James Stewart GEIKIE (1811-1883), musician and musical critic;
author of much psalmody, and of several well-known Scottish melodies,
such as "My Heather Hills."

_fa bro_, Walter GEIKIE (1795-1837). R.S.A., painter and draughtsman;
author of "Etchings Illustrative of Scottish Character and
Scenery."--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, William THOMS, master mariner; subsequently teacher of
navigation in New York; author of an elaborate treatise on

_bro_, James GEIKIE (b. 1839), LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.; Professor of
Geology and Mineralogy since 1882, and Dean of the Faculty of Science
Edinburgh; author of many works on geology, and of "Songs and Lyrics
by Heinrich Heine."--["Who's Who," and "Ency. Brit."]

_fa bro son_, Cunningham GEIKIE (b. 1824), LL.D., D.D., a
clergyman; author of many religious works.--["Who's Who."]

_fa bro son_, Walter Bayne GEIKIE, Professor of Anatomy, and Dean of
Medical Faculty, Trinity Coll., Toronto.

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Haversham #GODWIN-AUSTEN# (b. 1834),
    F.R.S., geologist; Topographical Assistant to the Trigonometric
    Survey of India; surveyed the high country and glaciers of
    Kashmir and by Ladak, also between Darjeeling and Punakha;
    numerous scientific memoirs.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa fa_, Robert AUSTEN, archæologist and coin collector; he was
one of the few in his time who understood the value of local maps; a
good surveyor of his own property and neighbourhood.

_fa fa_, Sir Henry E. AUSTEN, interested in forestry, and planted
largely on his estate; he also knew the value of maps, and had
excellent ones of his property.

_fa_, Robert Alfred C. GODWIN-AUSTEN (1808-1884), F.R.S., geologist,
took additional surname of Godwin; wrote important papers on the
geology of Devonshire, Southern England, and parts of France.
--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me fa_, Major-General Sir Thomas H. GODWIN (1784-1853), K.C.B.,
served in Hanover and the Peninsula, Commander-in-Chief in second
Burmese War.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Harold GODWIN-AUSTEN, Assistant-Commissioner to the Andaman
Islands for thirteen years; was selected by Ney Elias to accompany
him on a mission to Yarkand and Kashmir; is now a Deputy Commissioner
in S. India.

_me_, Maria Elizabeth GODWIN-AUSTEN, was certainly above the average
of women of her time; interested in natural history; drew well in pen
and pencil; was an accomplished musician.

_si son_, Bertram H.M. HEWETT, civil engineer; surveyed the great
glaciers of the Mustakh Range, Kashmir, and elsewhere; is now in sole
charge of main shaft of tunnel under the river in New York.

Francis #GOTCH# (b. 1853), D.Sc, F.R.S., Waynflete Professor of
    Physiology at Oxford; formerly Holt Professor of Physiology at
    University Coll., Liverpool; author of many scientific
    papers.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Ebenezer FOSTER, founder of well-known banking firm of
Messrs. Foster, Cambridge.

_fa_, Fredrick William GOTCH, LL.D., late President of Baptist
College, Bristol; Hebrew scholar; member of committee for the
authorized version of the Old Testament.

_fa bro son_, Thomas Cooper GOTCH (b. 1854), well-known
painter.--["Who's Who."]

_wi bro_, Sir Victor HORSLEY (q.v.)

Right Hon. Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone #GRANT DUFF# (b. 1829),
    G.C.S.I., P.C., F.R.S., sometime Under-Secretary of State for
    India and the Colonies, and Governor of Madras; has been Lord
    Rector of Aberdeen University, and president of many learned
    societies; King's Trustee of British Museum since 1903; author
    of political, literary, and biographical works.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, James GRANT DUFF (1789-1858), while still a lieutenant, aged
twenty-eight, reduced the Sattara State to order after the overthrow
of the Peishwa, and restored it to the descendant of its ancient
princes, whom he guided as resident till his health broke down at the
age of thirty-three. Returning to this country, he wrote the "History
of the Mahrattas."--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me fa_, Sir Whitelaw AINSLIE (1767-1837), surgeon in the East India
Company's service, 1788-1815; published "Materia Medica of
Hindoostan," and other works.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_son_, Arthur Cuninghame GRANT DUFF (b. 1861), lately First
Secretary to H.M.'s Legation, Mexico.

_son_, Evelyn Mountstuart GRANT DUFF (b. 1863), First Secretary to
H.M.'s Legation, Persia.

_son_, Adrian GRANT DUFF (b. 1869), Staff-Captain (Intelligence
Dept.) Army Headquarters.

John Scott #HALDANE# (b. 1860), F.R.S., University Lecturer in
    Physiology, Oxford; joint editor and founder of "Journal of
    Hygiene"; has served on several departmental committees, and
    carried out special inquiries for Government departments; author
    of "Blue Books on the Cause of Death in Colliery Explosions,"
    1895; "Ankylostomiasis in Mines," 1902-1903, etc.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, James Alexander HALDANE (1768-1851), in the East India
Company's naval service till 1797; then devoted himself to itinerary
evangelization in Scotland; author of several theological
treatises.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa bro_, Robert HALDANE (1764-1842), in the Royal Navy till 1797;
sold his estate in Stirlingshire to devote the proceeds to missions
in India, but was prevented by the Government from carrying out this
scheme. Carried on evangelistic work in Geneva and the South of
France, and co-operated in Scotland with his brother, endowing places
of worship and training young ministers. Wrote several theological
treatises.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Daniel Rutherford HALDANE (1824-1887), M.D., LL.D.,
President of Edinburgh College of Physicians.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, Sir John BURDON-SANDERSON, Bart, M.D., F.R.S.,

_bro_, Rt. Hon. Richard Burdon HALDANE, P.C., M.P., LL.D., a
distinguished politician; author of books on philosophy.--["Who's

_si_, Elizabeth Sanderson HALDANE, authoress of "Life of Ferrier,"
translator of Hegel's "History of Philosophy"; promoter of education
and of reforms in Scotland.

_fa bro son_, Alexander Chinnery HALDANE, LL.D., Bishop of Argyll and
the Isles.

_fa bro son_, Lieutenant-Colonel James Aylmer Lowthorpe HALDANE (b.
1862), D.S.O., served with distinction in Chitral, Tirah, and South
Africa, and has won rapid promotion; author of "How we Escaped from
Pretoria."--["Who's Who."]

_me fa me bro_, John SCOTT, first Earl of ELDON (1751-1838), famous
Lord Chancellor of England.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me fa me bro_, William SCOTT, first Baron STOWELL (1745-1836), Judge
of High Court of Admiralty.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa me bro_, Adam DUNCAN (1731-1804), cr. Viscount DUNCAN of
CAMPERDOWN 1797, after the Battle of Camperdown, in which he defeated
the Dutch Admiral, De Winter.--["Dict. N. Biog.," and "Life," by his
great-grandson, the present Earl of Camperdown.]

_fa me me bro_, Sir Ralph ABERCROMBY (1734-1801), General; served
with distinction in Flanders, 1795; commanded expedition against
French in West Indies, 1795; commanded troops in Mediterranean, 1800;
defeated French at Alexandria, where he died of his wounds.--["Dict.
N. Biog."]

_fa me me bro_, Sir Robert ABERCROMBY (1740-1827), General; Governor
and Commander-in-Chief, Bombay, 1790; reduced Tippoo Sultan, 1792;
conducted second Rohilla War.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

William Abbott #HERDMAN# (b. 1858), D.Sc., F.R.S., P.L.S., General
    Secretary of British Association, Professor of Natural History,
    University of Liverpool, since 1881; has worked particularly at
    marine biology; was one of the founders of the Port Erin
    Biological Station, and of the seafish hatchery at Piel; was sent
    to Ceylon 1901-1902 to investigate the pearl oyster fishery for
    the Government (results published by the Royal Society,
    1903-1905); author of numerous zoological works.--["Who's Who."]

_fa me_, Sophia HERDMAN, great ability and strength of character
shown by the way she brought up her four sons, after having been left
a widow early in life.

_fa_, Robert HERDMAN (1829-1888), R.S.A., well known in Scotland as a
portrait and historical painter; also a good Greek scholar, an
antiquary, and student of Shakespearian literature.--["Dict. N.

_fa bro_, William HERDMAN, Presbyterian minister at Rattray; an
antiquary, good botanist, and geologist.

_fa bro_, James Chalmers HERDMAN, D.D. (hon.), Presbyterian minister
of Melrose; a popular preacher and convener of foreign missions.

_fa bro son_, James Chalmers HERDMAN, D.D. (hon.), occupies a leading
position in the Scottish Church in Canada.

Sydney John #HICKSON# (b. 1859), F.R.S., D.Sc., Professor of
    Zoology, Owens Coll., Manchester, since 1894; author of "A
    Naturalist in North Celebes," "The Fauna of the Deep Sea," "The
    Story of Life in the Seas," and many scientific memoirs.--["Who's

_fa bro_, William Edward HICKSON (1803-1870), educational writer;
author of "Time and Faith," etc.; editor of "Westminster Review,"
1840-1852.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, Sir Sydney Hedley WATERLOW (b. 1822), K.C.V.O., first
Bart., Lord Mayor of London, 1872-1873; M.P. for co. Dumfries,
1868-1869; Maidstone, 1874-1880; Gravesend, 1880-1885; very active
philanthropist.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro son_, Sir Ernest WATERLOW (b. 1850), R.A., President Royal
Society Painters in Water-colours.--["Who's Who."]

_fa si da_ and _me bro da_, Mrs. Ruth HOMAN, educationalist; member
of London School Board; co-opt. member Education Committee L.C.C.

Leonard #HILL#, F.R.S. (b. 1866), Hunterian Professor Royal College
    Surgeons, previously Demonstrator of Physiology, Oxford, and
    Assistant-Professor of Physiology, University Coll., London;
    author of books and memoirs on physiology.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Arthur HILL, headmaster of Bruce Castle School; reformer of

_fa_, G. Birkbeck HILL, author of many books on eighteenth-century

_fa bro_, Edward Bernard Lewin HILL (b. 1834), C.B., retired as
senior Assistant-Secretary-General Post Office.--["Who's Who."]

_fa bro_, Sir John Edward Gray HILL (b. 1839), President of the
Incorporated Law Society, and of the International Law Association,
1903-1904; author of "With the Beduins" and papers on various
subjects connected with maritime law, etc.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro_, Sir John SCOTT (b. 1841), K.C.B., judge in the High
Court, Bombay; appointed to reform administration of criminal law in
Egypt.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Norman HILL, Secretary to the Shipping Association; a
distinguished Liverpool lawyer, and writer and authority on the
Economics of Shipping.

_fa fa fa_, Thomas Wright HILL (1736-1851), school-master and
stenographer.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa bro_, Sir Rowland HILL (1795-1879), inventor of penny postage;
as Chairman of the Brighton Railway introduced express and excursion
trains, 1843-1846.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa bro_, Edwin HILL (1793-1876), inventor and author; supervisor
of stamps at Somerset House; with Mr. De la Rue invented machine for
folding envelopes; exhibited 1851.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa bro_, Matthew Davenport HILL (1792-1872), first recorder of
Birmingham; reformer of criminal law and of the treatment of
criminals.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

Sir Joseph Dalton #HOOKER# (b. 1817), G.C.S.I., F.R.S., President
    Royal Society, 1872-1877, eminent botanist and traveller;
    director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, 1855-1865; naturalist to
    H.M.S. "Erebus" in Antarctic expedition, 1839-1843; botanical
    travels in the Himalaya, 1847-1851; Morocco and Atlas in 1871;
    California and Rocky Mountains, 1877; many botanical
    publications, including "Genera Plantarum."--["Ency. Brit.,"
    xxix., 324; "Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Dawson TURNER, F.R.S. (1775-1858).--See PALGRAVE.

_fa_, Sir William Jackson HOOKER (1758-1865), F.R.S., eminent
botanist; director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, which he greatly
extended and threw open to the public, and where he founded the
museum of economic botany; Regius Professor of Botany, Glasgow, 1820;
knighted 1847; many botanical publications.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me si sons_, the four brothers PALGRAVE.--See PALGRAVE.

Sir Victor A. Haden #HORSLEY#, F.R.S., M.D. (b. 1857), eminent
    surgeon and operator; Professor-Superintendent of Brown
    Institution, 1884-1890; Professor of Pathology University
    College, 1893-1896.

_fa fa_, William HORSLEY (1774-1858), Mus. Bac. Oxford, musical
composer, especially of glees, and writer on musical topics.
--["Dict. N. Biog.," and Grove's "Dict. of Music."]

_me fa_, Charles Thomas HADEN, a rising London physician, who
initiated a treatment for gout, much noted at the time (d. young in
1823).--[Unpublished information.]

_fa_, John Callcott HORSLEY, R.A., distinguished painter.--["Who's

_fa bro_, Charles Edward HORSLEY (1822-1876), composer of oratorios;
best known in America; author of "Text-book of Harmony."--["Dict. N.
Biog.," and Grove's "Dict. of Music."]

_me bro_, Sir F. Seymour HADEN (b. 1818), surgeon. Founder and
President of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers. A well-known
sanitarian, especially in respect to the disposal of the dead. Grand
Prix, Paris, 1889 and 1900; many publications.--["Who's Who."]

_fa si son_, Isambard BRUNEL, Chancellor to the Diocese of Ely;
ecclesiastical barrister.

_Ancestors in more remote degrees:_

_fa me fa_, John Wall CALLCOTT (1766-1821), composer, mainly of glees
and catches; published "Musical Grammar," 1806.--["Dict. N. Biog.,"
and Grove's "Dict. of Music."]

_fa me fa bro_, Sir Augustus Wall CALLCOTT, R.A. (1779-1844),
distinguished painter, mainly of landscapes; knighted, 1837.--["Dict.
N. Biog."]

_me fa fa_, Thomas HADEN, the principal doctor and three times Mayor
of Derby.--[Unpublished information.]

_wife_, née BRAMWELL.

_wife's fa_, Sir Frederick BRAMWELL, Bart. (1818-1903), F.R.S.,
eminent engineer; President British Association, 1888; Pres.
Institution of Civil Engineers, 1884-1885; Hon. Sec. Royal
Institution.--["Who's Who."]

_wife's fa bro_, Lord BRAMWELL (1808-1902), Judge, 1856; Lord
Justice, 1876-1881; raised to peerage, 1882.--["Dict. N. Biog.,"
Suppl. i.]

John #JOLY# (b. 1858), D.Sc., F.R.S., Professor of Geology and
    Mineralogy in the University of Dublin since 1897; has published
    many contributions to the Royal Soc., Royal Dublin Soc.,
    etc.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Henry Edward JOLY, divine and physician; is credited with
scientific medical views in advance of his time.

_me fa_, Frederick, Comte de LUSI, statesman, author and linguist;
resident Minister of the King of Prussia in London, St. Petersburg,
Greece, etc.; made one of the earliest ascents of Mont Blanc, in

_fa_, John Plunket JOLY (Rev.), accomplished as a painter of bird,
insect, and plant life; left a remarkable collection of pictures
behind him; died early.

_me bro_, Frederick, Comte de LUSI, soldier; distinguished himself
in the German-Danish War of 1848; decorated for valour in saving the
life of General Halkett.

_fa bro_, Jasper Robert JOLY, remarkable precosity as a boy; obtained
distinguished college successes in classics in his thirteenth year at
Trinity Coll., Dublin. Devoted his life to the collection of Hogarth
and Bewick, upon whom he was an authority.

_fa si_, Mary JOLY, died young; left a remarkable collection of
minutely accurate paintings of birds and flowers.

_me fa fa_, Spiridion, Comte de LUSI, the founder of the de Lusi
family, ennobled by Frederick the Great for statesmanship.--["Percy


Alfred Bray #KEMPE# (b. 1849), F.R.S., Chancellor of the Dioceses
    of Newcastle, Southwell, and St. Albans; Treasurer and
    Vice-President of the Royal Society from 1899; has published
    works on mathematics.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Alfred John KEMPE (1784-1846), distinguished antiquary;
published works on Holwood Hill, Kent, and St. Martin-le-Grand
Church, London.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, John Edward KEMPE (b. 1810), late Rector of St. James's,
Piccadilly; Hon. Chaplain to the King since 1901.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, John Arrow KEMPE, C.B. (b. 1846), Comptroller and
Auditor-General.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Harry Robert KEMPE (b. 1852), Principal Technical Officer of
the Postal Telegraph Department; author of "Handbook of Electrical
Testing," and other works which have gone through many editions; for
many years editor of "Electrical Review."--["Who's Who."]

_bro son_, Edward KEMPE, Captain and Gold Medallist, Radley School;
scholar of Lincoln Coll., Oxford; editor of "The Huia," New Zealand.

_fa fa si_, Anna Eliza BRAY, née KEMPE (1790-1883), historical
novelist; completed "Monumental Effigies of Great Britain," commenced
by her first husband, Charles Alfred Stothard.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

[For further particulars see "A History of the Kempe and Kemp

Edwin Ray #LANKESTER# (b. 1847), LL.D., F.R.S., celebrated
    zoologist; Director of Natural History Departments, British
    Museum, since 1898; Fullerian Professor of Physiology and
    Comparative Anatomy, Royal Inst., 1898-1900; Linacre Professor of
    Comparative Anatomy, Oxford, 1891-1898; numerous other
    distinctions.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, Edwin LANKESTER (1814-1874), M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural
History, New Coll., London, 1850; Medical Officer of Health for
parish of St. James's, Westminster, and Coroner for Central
Middlesex; joint editor of "Q.J.M.S.," etc.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me_, Phebe LANKESTER (1825-1900), authoress of "Wild Flowers Worth
Notice"; the popular portion of Sowerby's "British Botany," and many
other publications; also wrote weekly in a newspaper for many years
under the signature of "Penelope."

_me bro_, Samuel POPE, Q.C., successful leader of the Parliamentary

_bro_, E. Forbes LANKESTER, first class in "Greats," Oxford, 1877;
successful barrister.--["Oxf. Reg."]

_bro_, S. Rushton LANKESTER, H.M. Consul, Batavia.

_si_, Fay LANKESTER, Secretary of National Health Society.

_si_, Marion VATCHER, wife of Rev. Sydney Vatcher, Vicar of St.
Philip's, Stepney. Both well known in connection with East London
organization of help to the poor.

_si_, Nina LANKESTER, Superintendent of Female Clerks in Money Order
Department of Post Office.

Joseph #LISTER# (b. 1827), created Baronet, 1883; Baron #LISTER#,
    1897; F.R.S., P.C., O.M., and numerous other distinctions;
    President Royal Soc., 1896-1900; Professor of Surgery, Glasgow,
    1860-1869, Edinburgh University, 1869-1877, King's Coll., London,
    1877-1893; famous for discovery of antiseptic treatment in
    surgery.--["Ency. Brit.," and "Who's Who."]

_fa_, Joseph Jackson LISTER (1786-1869), F.R.S., optical
investigator, especially in connection with the principles of the
achromatic microscope, also author of contributions to Zoology, Phil.
Trans.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Arthur LISTER (b. 1830), F.R.S.; botanist; author of
monograph on the Mycetozoa.--["Who's Who."]

_bro son_, Joseph Jackson LISTER, F.R.S., biologist; Fellow of St.
John's Coll., Cambridge.--["Who's Who."]

_bro son_, Arthur Hugh LISTER, Ass. Phys., Aberdeen Infirmary;
obtained "three stars" at University examination, Aberdeen.

_bro da_, Gulielma LISTER, contributed papers to "Linnæan Journal,"
and, in connection with her brother, to "Journal of Botany."

Sir Oliver #LODGE# (b. 1851), F.R.S., D.Sc., London, Oxon, and
    Vict., LL.D., St. Andrews and Glasgow; Principal of the
    University of Birmingham since 1900; Professor of Physics,
    University Coll., Liverpool, 1881-1900; author of various works
    on physics, and of articles in the "Hibbert Journal."--["Who's

_fa bro_, Robert J. LODGE, for many years Secretary of the Marine
Insurance Company, and reckoned a man of considerable ability in the

_bro_, Richard LODGE (b. 1855), Professor of History, Edinburgh,
since 1899; First Professor of History, Glasgow University; author
of "Student's Modern Europe," "Richelieu" (in Foreign Statesmen
Series), and "The Close of the Middle Ages."--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Alfred LODGE, Professor of Pure Mathematics at Cooper's Hill.

_si_, Eleanor Constance LODGE, Sub-head and Lecturer on History in
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford.

_fa bro son_, George E. LODGE, well-known animal painter and

Right Hon. Sir John #LUBBOCK# (b. 1834), created Baron #AVEBURY#,
    1900, P.C., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., banker, head of Robarts,
    Lubbock and Co., well known for the part he has taken in public
    affairs; has been a member of many Royal Commissions; For. Sec.
    R.A., German Order of Merit, Commander Legion of Honour.
    Biologist, President at various times of many learned societies;
    author of over 100 memoirs in the Transactions of the Royal Soc.,
    and of numerous literary, scientific, and popular scientific
    works.--["Who's Who," and "Ency. Brit."]

_fa fa_, Sir John LUBBOCK, a leading banker and governor of the Royal
Exchange Assurance Corporation.

_fa_, Sir John William LUBBOCK (1803-1865), F.R.S., astronomer and
mathematician; Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal Soc.; First
Vice-Chancellor of the London University; Deputy Governor of Royal
Exchange Ass. Corp.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Sir Neville LUBBOCK, K.C.M.G., Chairman West India Committee;
Governor of the Royal Exchange Ass. Corp.; Chairman of New Colonial
Company, etc.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Edgar LUBBOCK, LL.B., director of the Bank of England; law
scholar of University of London; passed first, and obtained
Clifford's Inn prize in Law Soc. Exam.--["Who's Who."]

Sir Francis Leopold #MCCLINTOCK# (b. 1819), K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D.,
    F.R.S.; Admiral retired; Elder Brother of Trinity House; served
    in four Arctic voyages; discovered fate of Franklin's expedition,
    1859; author of "The Fate of Sir John Franklin" and "The Voyage
    of the _Fox_."--["Who's Who."]

_fa me_, Patience MCCLINTOCK, née FOSTER, came of a family which
showed in most of its branches a high level of ability, and had
several distinguished members. Thus, reckoning relationships from
her, we find her:

    _fa_, John William FOSTER, M.P.

    _fa bro_, Anthony FOSTER (d. 1778), M.P., Chief Baron of
    Exchequer, Ireland.

    _fa bro son_, John FOSTER, Baron ORIEL (1740-1828); Speaker of
    Irish House of Commons up to the time of the Union.--["Dict. N.

    _fa bro son_, William FOSTER (d. 1797), D.D., Bishop
    successively of Cork, Kilmore, and Clogher.

    _fa bro son son_, John Leslie FOSTER (d. 1842), F.R.S., Irish
    Judge; M.P. for Dublin University, etc.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

    _fa bro son son_, Sir Augustus John FOSTER (1780-1848), Bart.,
    P.C., M.P.; Minister to United States, Denmark, and
    Turin.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

    _fa bro son son son_, Vere Henry Lewis FOSTER (1819-1900),
    philanthropist and educationalist.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Alfred Henry MCCLINTOCK (d. 1881), M.D., LL.D., President
Royal College of Physicians, Ireland.

_fa bro son_, John MCCLINTOCK, M.P. for Co. Louth for many years;
created Baron RATHONDELL for long political services.

_me fa_, Ven. George L. FLEURY, Archdeacon of Waterford.

_me bro_, Rev. Charles Marley FLEURY, a celebrated preacher in

_son_, Henry Foster MCCLINTOCK, Assistant Private Secretary to Lord
Stanley, Postmaster-General; served with Army Post-Office Corps in
South Africa, and was mentioned in despatches.

_son_, John William Leopold MCCLINTOCK, Commander Royal Navy; passed
second into the "Britannia."

_son_, Robert Singleton MCCLINTOCK, Brevet-Major R.E.; scholar at
Charterhouse; served on Sir G. Willcocks' staff in the relief of
Coomassie, 1900, and was mentioned in despatches.

Sir Clements R. #MARKHAM# (b. 1830), K.C.B., F.R.S., President for
    many years of the Royal Geograph. Soc.; served in Arctic
    Expedition, 1850-1851; travelled in Peru, 1852-1854, bringing
    thence cinchona-bearing trees for cultivation in India;
    geographer to the Abyssinian Expedition; author and editor of
    numerous geographical works.--["Ency. Brit.," xxx. 544; "Who's

_fa fa_, William MARKHAM (1760-1815), scholar; secretary to Warren
Hastings in India.

_fa bro son_, Lieutenant-General Sir Edwin MARKHAM (b. 1833),
K.C.B., R.E., constant active service.--["Who's Who."]

_fa bro son_, Admiral Sir Albert MARKHAM (b. 1841), K.C.B.,
Commander of the "Alert" in Arctic Expedition, 1875-1876; various
high naval appointments, besides unprofessional work when unemployed
on naval duties.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro son_, Right Hon. Sir Frederick MILNER, Bart. (b. 1849),
P.C., politician.--["Who's Who."]

_me si son_, Right Hon. Francis FOLJAMBE (b. 1830), P.C.,
politician.--["Who's Who."]

_me si son_, Right Hon. Sir Edwin EGERTON (b. 1841), P.C.,
G.C.M.G., Ambassador at Madrid, then at Rome.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa fa_, William MARKHAM (1719-1807), P.C., Archbishop of York;
one of the best scholars of the day; Headmaster of Westminster
School, 1753-1765; Dean of Christ Church; Preceptor to the Royal
Princes, 1771; Archbishop and Lord High Almoner, 1777.--["Dict. N.
Biog.," xxxvi. 172.]

_fa fa bro_, Admiral John MARKHAM (1761-1827); many services at sea;
twice on Admiralty Board; M.P. for Portsmouth during seventeen years;
proposed and carried appointment of Commission on dockyard abuses,
1806.--["Dict. N. Biog.," xxxvi. 171.]

_fa fa bro_, George MARKHAM (1763-1823), Dean of York; scholar and

Mervyn Herbert Nevil Story #MASKELYNE# (b. 1823), F.R.S., Hon.
    D.Sc., Oxon. Distinguished mineralogist; formerly Keeper of
    Minerals in British Museum; Professor of Mineralogy at Oxford,
    1856-1895; M.P. for Cricklade, 1880-1885; for North Wilts,
    1885-1892.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Nevil MASKELYNE (1732-1811), D.D., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal
for forty-seven years; was the first man to weigh the earth; the
originator of the Nautical Almanac.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Anthony Mervyn Reeve STORY, F.R.S., gained a double
first-class in Lit. Hum. and Mathematics, when nineteen years of age,
at Oxford, in 1810.--["Oxf. Reg."]

_si son_, John Story MASTERMAN, gained a first-class in Lit. Hum.,
1872; Fellow of Brasenose, Oxford.--["Oxf. Reg."]

_si son_, Herbert Warington SMYTH, Secretary, Mining Dept.,
Transvaal; Secretary, Siamese Legation, 1898-1901; Order White
Elephant of Siam, 1897; author of "Five Years in Siam," etc.--["Who's

_si son_, Major Nevill Maskelyne SMYTH, obtained V.C. at Battle of
Khartoum.--["Who's Who."]

_wife_, née Dillwyn LLEWELYN.

    _wi fa fa_, Lewis Weston DILLWYN (1778-1855), F.R.S., well known
    as a botanist; established Cambrian Pottery Works at Swansea;
    M.P. for Glamorganshire, 1832-1841.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

    _wi fa_, John Dillwyn LLEWELYN, F.R.S., early experimenter in

    _wi fa si son_, Traherne MOGGRIDGE, author of "Flora of Mentone,"
    "Harvesting Ants," and "Trapdoor Spiders."

    _wi me bro_, Christopher Rice Mansel TALBOT, first-class
    mathematics, Oxford, 1823; Lord-Lieutenant of Glamorganshire,
    M.P., "Father of the House of Commons."--["Oxf. Reg."]

    _wi me me si son_, William Henry Fox TALBOT (1800-1877), F.R.S.,
    independent inventor of photography, his (wet) processes,
    talbotype, etc., being those which have survived in various
    forms. He also discovered the direct method of printing by the
    autotype process. A distinguished mathematician, he furthermore
    was one of the earliest interpreters of cuneiform writing; M.P.
    for Chippenham, 1833-1834.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

Raphael #MELDOLA# (b. 1849), F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in
    Finsbury Technical Coll.; discoverer of many new products and
    processes in the manufacture of coal-tar dyes; also well known as
    a naturalist; has been President of the Entomological Soc. and of
    the Essex Field Club.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Raphael MELDOLA (1754-1828), invited to London, in 1805, on
account of his fame as a theologian, to preside as High Rabbi over
the London congregation of British Jews belonging to the Spanish and
Portuguese community; author of many theological works.--["Dict. N.

_fa bro_, David MELDOLA, succeeded his father as chief of the
community, though not given the same high rank; author of theological

_me bro_, Joseph ABRAHAM, founded a large and successful firm in
Bristol; took a prominent part in municipal affairs, and became the
first Jewish mayor of Bristol.

_fa si son_, Abram DE SOLA, Professor of Oriental literature in
McGill Coll., Montreal; the only Jewish divine ever invited to open
Congress by the U.S. Government; erudite scholar, and author of
theological works.

_me bro son_, Harry ABRAHAM, a man of business, and councillor and
Mayor of Southampton.

Louis C. #MIALL# (b. 1842), F.R.S., Professor of Biology,
    University, Leeds; Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Royal
    Inst.; President Zool. Sec. British Assoc., 1897; author of
    memoirs and books on natural history.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, James Goodeve MIALL (Rev.), Chairman of Congregational Union.

_fa bro_, Edward MIALL (1809-1881), Independent minister at
Leicester, 1834; established and edited the "Nonconformist," 1841;
M.P., Rochdale, 1852-1857, Bradford, 1869-1874; strove for
Disestablishment of Church.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, Charles MACKENZIE, a well-known Haymarket actor
(stage-name, Henry COMPTON).

_me bro son_, Sir Morell MACKENZIE (1837-1892), celebrated physician;
specialist on diseases of the throat.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro son_, Sir Stephen MACKENZIE (b. 1844), senior physician,
London Hospital; consulting Physician, Poplar Hospital, etc.--["Who's

_son_, Stephen MIALL, first in solicitors' examination, Clement's
Inn, and "Daniel Reardon" prizeman, 1896; first-class honours, LL.B.
and LL.D., London.

Henry Alexander #MIERS# (b. 1858), D.Sc., F.R.S., Waynflete
    Professor of Mineralogy, Oxford, since 1895; author of many
    scientific papers, "Mineralogy," etc.--["Who's Who."]

_fa me fa_, Francis PLACE (1771-1854), Radical reformer and writer;
started life as leather-breeches maker; succeeded in getting the laws
against combinations of workmen repealed.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa_, John MIERS (1789-1879), F.R.S., engineer and botanist;
accompanied Lord Cochrane to Chile, 1818; made collections of birds,
insects, and plants; author of many scientific papers.--["Dict. N.

_fa_, Francis Charles MIERS, engineer and successful man of business.

_bro_, Edward John MIERS, zoologist; author of a volume on Brachyura
in "Challenger Reports," etc.

Alfred #NEWTON# (b. 1829), F.R.S., Professor of Zoology and
    Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge; has been very active in promoting
    the protection of wild birds; has been Vice-President of the
    Royal and Zoological Societies; gold medal of the Royal and of
    the Linnæan Societies; author of many works dealing principally
    with birds.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Richard Slater MILNES, M.P. for York; took a prominent part
in county business.

_fa_, William NEWTON, M.P. for Ipswich.

_me bro_, Robert Pemberton MILNES, M.P. for Pontefract; prominent in
county business.

_bro_, General William Samuel NEWTON.

_bro_, Robert Milnes NEWTON, Recorder of Cambridge; metropolitan
police magistrate.

_bro_, Lieutenant-General Horace Parker NEWTON, first of his year in
R.M.A., Woolwich.

_bro_, Sir Edward NEWTON, K.C.M.G., Colonial Secretary of Mauritius;
Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica; author of several zoological papers
in scientific journals.

_bro son_, Arthur William NEWTON, H.M. Inspector of Schools.

_bro son_, Francis James NEWTON (b. 1857), C.M.G.; Treasurer of
Southern Rhodesia, 1902; some time Administrator of British
Bechuanaland, and Colonial Secretary British Honduras and
Barbadoes.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro son_, Richard Monckton MILNES (1809-1885), first Baron
HOUGHTON; M.P. for Pontefract, 1837; distinguished in literary
society; author of poems and critical essays. Did much to secure
Copyright Act; assisted in the preparation of the "Tribune," 1836;
established the "Philobiblon Soc.," 1853.--["Dict. N. Biog.," and
"Life" by Wemyss Reid.]

_me bro son son_, Robert Offley Ashburton CREWE-MILNES, first Earl of
CREWE, son of Lord Houghton; Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland,
1892-1895.--["Who's Who."]


Robert Harris Inglis #PALGRAVE# (b. 1827), F.R.S., economist and
    statistician; editor of the "Economist"; also of "Dictionary of
    Political Economy."--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Dawson TURNER (1775-1858), F.R.S., botanist and
antiquary.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me fa bro_, Joseph TURNER, Senior Wrangler, 1768.

_fa_, Sir Francis PALGRAVE (1788-1861) (son of Meyer COHEN, adopted
the name Palgrave in 1823), historian; deputy-keeper, and assisted in
the publication, of H.M. Records. Author of the "Rise and Progress of
the English Commonwealth," 1832; "History of England and Normandy,"
1851; and other works; greatly promoted study of mediæval history;
knighted, 1832.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me_, Elizabeth, née Dawson TURNER, assisted her husband in his
literary work.--[Unpublished information.]

_me bro_, Dawson William TURNER (1815-1885), D.C.L., philanthropist
and educational writer; Demy of Magdalen Coll., Oxford.

_bro_, Francis Turner PALGRAVE (1824-1897), poet and art critic;
first-class Lit. Hum.; Professor of Poetry at Oxford; editor of
"Golden Treasury"; author of many critical essays and other
publications.--["Dict. N. Biog.," Suppl. iii.]

_bro_, W. Gifford PALGRAVE (1826-1888), traveller and diplomatist;
at twenty years of age gained first-class Lit. Hum. and second-class
Math.; became Roman Catholic, and travelled as Jesuit missionary in
Syria and Arabia, disguised for the purpose. Author of "A Year's
Journey through Eastern and Central Arabia." Severed his connection
with the Jesuits in 1865, and thenceforward served as English
diplomatist in various distant countries.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Sir Reginald F.D. PALGRAVE (1829-1904), K.C.B., Clerk of the
House of Commons. Author of "Oliver Cromwell the Protector,"
etc.--["Who's Who."]

_me si son_, Sir Joseph Dalton HOOKER, F.R.S. (q.v.).

Lawrence #PARSONS# (b. 1840), fourth Earl of ROSSE, D.C.L., LL.D.,
    Camb. and Dublin, F.R.S.; Chancellor of University of Dublin;
    author of "Memoirs of Heat of Moon and Stars" (based on
    experiments with the famous reflecting telescope made by his
    father), and on other subjects.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, William PARSONS (1800-1867), third Earl of ROSSE, Pres. R.S.;
constructor of the great reflecting telescope at Parsonstown, and
first discoverer by its means of nebulæ and other celestial
phenomena.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, Charles Algernon PARSONS (b. 1854), D.Sc., F.R.S.; notable
in the development of turbine navigation; proprietor and director of
electrical and engineering works.

William Matthew Flinders #PETRIE# (b. 1853), D.C.L., Lit.D., LL.D.,
    Ph.D., F.R.S.; Edwards Professor of Egyptology, University Coll.,
    London, since 1892. Principal discoveries: Greek settlements at
    Naucratis and Daphnæ; prehistoric Egyptian at Koptos and Naqada;
    inscription of Israelite War at Thebes; Kings of the earliest
    dynasties at Abydos; has published much on these
    subjects.--["Who's Who," and "Ency. Brit."]

_fa fa fa_, Martin PETRIE, Commissary-General; good administrator.

_fa fa_, William PETRIE, Commissary-General.

_me fa_, Matthew FLINDERS (1774-1813), naval captain; assisted George
Bass to survey the coast of New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land,
1795-1800; in command of the "Investigator," and afterwards of the
"Porpoise" and "Cumberland"; made the first survey of a large part of
the Australian coast, 1801-1803.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, William PETRIE, civil engineer; first exhibitor of electric
light on a large scale, 1848; inventor of various apparatus for that
and chemical industries.

_me_, Ann FLINDERS PETRIE, writer of some books and articles
popularizing mineralogy, about 1840; learned both Hebrew and Greek
without a teacher.

Percival Spencer Umfreville #PICKERING# (b. 1858), F.R.S., director
    of the Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm; investigator in chemical
    physics; editor of "Memoirs of Anna Maria Pickering," and author
    of 150 papers on chemical and physical subjects.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, John Spencer STANHOPE, F.R.S., and Membre de l'Institut at
twenty-eight years of age; a man of considerable classical
attainments, and author of "Platæa and Olympia" and other
topographical studies in Greece.

_me me_, Elizabeth, née COKE, a woman of considerable artistic

_me me fa_, Thomas William COKE (1752-1842), of Holkham, was created
Earl of LEICESTER; M.P. for Norfolk, 1776-1806, and 1807-1832;
favoured Protection and Parliamentary Reform; introduced modern
methods into agriculture; a famous improver of stock.--["Dict. N.

_fa_, Percival Andrée PICKERING, Q.C., Fellow of St. John's Coll.,
Cambridge; Judge of Passage Court; Attorney-General for County
Palatine; author of classical essays and works on Parliamentary law.

_me_, Anna Maria Wilhelmina, née SPENCER STANHOPE, of decided
literary and classical ability; author of "Memoirs" recently

_fa bro_, Edward Hayes PICKERING, Captain of Montem, Eton; Fellow of
St. John's Coll., Cambridge; died young.

_me bro_, Sir Walter Thomas William SPENCER STANHOPE (b. 1827),
K.C.B., first-class in Mathematics, Oxford, 1848; M.P. West Riding of
Yorkshire, S. division, 1872-1880, and 1882-1890.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro_, John Roddam SPENCER STANHOPE, artist.

_si_, Mary Evelyn DE MORGAN artist.

_si_, Anna Maria Diana Wilhelmina STIRLING, author of novels and
tales under the name of Percival PICKERING.

Sir William #RAMSAY# (b. 1852), K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc., Ph.D.,
    F.R.S., F.C.S.; Professor of Chemistry, University Coll., London,
    since 1887; sometime Professor of Chemistry and Principal of
    University Coll., Bristol; has published numerous important
    scientific papers.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, William RAMSAY, manufacturing chemist; first made acetic
acid from wood; discovered bi-chrome; President of the first Chemical
Society, Glasgow, 1796, which was merged in the Glasgow Philosophical
Society, 1802.

_fa bro_, Sir Andrew Crombie RAMSAY (1814-1891), F.R.S., Professor of
Geology, University Coll., London, 1847; Director-General of the
Geological Survey, 1871.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_mo bro_, Robert ROBERTSON, editor of a daily London paper (about


Clement #REID#, F.R.S., District Geologist on Survey of England and
    Wales; author of many works on Geology.--["Who's Who."]

_si_, Margery Anna REID, B.Sc., London; science mistress at Ladies'
Coll., Cheltenham; very successful as a teacher.

_me bro son_, Harold Leslie BARNARD, surgeon, and inventor of
apparatus for testing blood-pressure.

_me me bro_, Michael FARADAY (1791-1867), F.R.S., Fullerian Professor
Royal Institution; famous chemist and electrician; started his
scientific career as assistant to Sir Humphry Davy.--["Dict. N.

_me fa bro_, George BARNARD, landscape artist and author of many
books on drawing and painting.

_me fa bro son_, Frederick BARNARD (1846-1896), artist and
caricaturist; illustrator of Dickens, contributor to "Punch,"
etc.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

Sir Henry Enfield #ROSCOE#, Ph.D., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Professor
    of Chemistry Owens College, Manchester, 1857-1887; President
    Society of Chemical Industry, 1881; of Chemical Society, 1882;
    knighted, 1884; M.P. for S. division of Manchester, 1885-1895;
    President of Brit. Assoc., 1887; Vice-Chancellor of the
    University of London, 1896-1902; author of many memoirs and works
    on chemistry.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, William ROSCOE (1753-1831), historian, poet, and
philanthropist; author of "Lives of Lorenzo de' Medici," of "Leo X.,"
and of several volumes of verse; M.P. for Liverpool, 1806-1807;
promoter and first President of its Royal Institution.--["Dict. N.

_fa_, Henry ROSCOE (1800-1836), biographer, including Life of his
father.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Thomas ROSCOE (1791-1871), miscellaneous writer and
translator.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, William Stanley ROSCOE, poet.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Robert ROSCOE, poet, wrote "King Alfred."

_me_, Maria, née FLETCHER, artist and authoress, wrote "Life of
Vittoria Colonna."

_me si_, Harriet FLETCHER, authoress of "Tales for Children."

_fa bro son_, William Caldwell ROSCOE (1822-1859), poet and
essayist.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa si son_, William Stanley JEVONS (1835-1882), F.R.S., economist
and logician; Professor of Logic and Political Economy at Owens
Coll., 1866-1879; at University Coll., London, 1876-1880; influential
writer.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me si son_, Rt. Hon. Charles BOOTH, P.C., F.R.S. (q.v.).

_me si son_, Charles CROMPTON.--See BOOTH.

_me si son_, Henry CROMPTON.--See BOOTH.

#ROSSE#, fourth Earl of.--See PARSONS.

Edward John #ROUTH# (b. 1831), Sc.D., Camb., Sc.D. (hon.), Dublin,
    LL.D. (hon.) Glasgow, F.R.S., Senior Wrangler and Smith's prize,
    1854; Adams prize, 1877; has had twenty-seven Senior Wranglers
    and more than forty Smith's Prizemen for pupils. Author of
    several books on theoretical dynamics and of many mathematical
    papers.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, Sir Randolph Isham ROUTH (1782-1858), K.C.B., 1848;
Commissary-General; saw much foreign service, and was senior
commissariat officer at Waterloo.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, Hon. Jean Thos. TASCHEREAU, Judge of King's Bench in

_me bro_, His Eminence Elzear Alexandre TASCHEREAU (b. 1820), son
of the above; Cardinal-Priest of the Roman Catholic Church, and
Archbishop of Quebec.

_me bro son_, Hon. Sir Henri Thomas TASCHEREAU (b. 1841), Judge of
the Supreme Court of Canada.

_me bro son_, Hon. Henri Elzear TASCHEREAU (b. 1836), Judge of the
Supreme Court of Canada; author of many works on law. (For the
Taschereau family see "Canadian Men and Women of the Time.")

_fa son ½ bro_, C.H.F. ROUTH, eminent London physician.

_fa son son_, Amand J. McC. ROUTH, M.D., F.R.C.P., obstetric
physician to Charing Cross Hospital, consulting obstetric physician
to three other hospitals; author of numerous papers and articles on
Midwifery and Gynæcology.--["Who's Who."]

_wife's fa_, Sir George B. AIRY (1801-1892), K.C.B., F.R.S., eminent
mathematician and astronomer; Senior Wrangler, 1823; Astronomer
Royal, 1835-1881.

Dukinfield Henry #SCOTT# (b. 1854), F.R.S., Hon. Keeper Jodrell
    Lab., Royal Gardens, Kew; Botanical Sec. of the Linnæan Soc.;
    President of the Royal Microscopical Soc.; author of "An
    Introduction to Structural Botany," "Studies in Fossil Botany,"
    and various papers in "Phil. Trans.," etc.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa fa_, Thomas SCOTT (1747-1821), Chaplain of Lock Hosp., London,
afterwards Rector of Aston Sandford; produced a commentary on the
Bible in weekly parts from 1788-1792; author of many religious
writings.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa_, Thomas SCOTT (1780-1835), Queen's Coll., Cambridge; author
of many religious works.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Sir George Gilbert SCOTT (1811-1878), R.A., restoring architect
to Ely, Hereford, Lichfield, Salisbury, and Ripon Cathedrals;
architect of Indian, Home and Colonial Offices, the Nicolaikirche at
Hamburg, St. Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh, etc.; President Royal
Inst. Brit. Architects, 1873-1876; Professor of
Architecture.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Ven. Melville H. SCOTT, Archdeacon of Stafford.

_bro_, George Gilbert SCOTT, architect of Roman Catholic Cathedral,
Norwich; first in Moral Science Tripos, Cambridge; Burney Prize
Essay; author of "History of English Church Architecture."--["Who's

_bro son_, Giles Gilbert SCOTT, architect of New Liverpool Cathedral,
by competition at the age of twenty-two.

_bro son_, Henry George SCOTT, Director of Mines and Geology to the
Siamese Government at the age of twenty-four.

_fa bro son_, Canon Thomas SCOTT (b. 1831), Whewell University
prizeman; first in first-class Moral Science Trip., 1854.--["Who's

_fa bro son_, Ven. Edwin A. SCOTT, Archdeacon of Christchurch, New

Robert Henry #SCOTT# (b. 1833), D.Sc., F.R.S., classical scholar
    Trin. Coll., Dublin, 1853; first Senior Mod. Exp. Physics, 1855;
    Superintendent Meteorological Office 1867-1900.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, John Pendred SCOTT, resident at the Court of Oude.

_me fa_, Charles BRODRICK, Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland.

_fa_, James Smyth SCOTT, gold medallist Trin. Coll., Dublin.

_me bro_, William John BRODRICK, seventh Viscount MIDLETON, Dean of

_bro_, Charles BRODRICK SCOTT, Senior Classic, Cambridge, 1848;
Headmaster of Westminster School.

_bro_, James George SCOTT, Archdeacon of Dublin, Chancellor of St.
Patrick's, Dublin.

_bro_, Edward Ashley SCOTT, Fellow of Trinity Coll., Cambridge.

_bro son_, George Digby SCOTT, first-class Classical tripos,

_bro son_, Charles William SCOTT, engineer to Irish Lights Board.

_fa bro son_, Edward William SCOTT, General Bengal Artillery; for
many years secretary to the Military Board, Bengal.

_me bro son_, George C. BRODRICK (d. 1903), D.C.L., Warden of
Merton Coll., Oxford; brilliant college career; connected with the
"Times," 1860-1873; author of "Political Studies" (1879), "Memorials
of Merton College" (1885), "Memoirs and Impressions" (1900).--["Who's

_me si son_, Charles Brodrick BERNARD, Bishop of Tuam, Ireland.

_me bro son son_, William St. John BRODRICK, P.C., Secretary of State
for War, 1900-1903; subsequently for India.--["Who's Who."]

Thomas Roscoe Rede #STEBBING# (b. 1835) (Rev.), F.R.S., naturalist;
    authority on Crustacea; prepared the report on the Amphipoda of
    the "Challenger" expedition; author of many works on natural
    history.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, Henry STEBBING (1799-1883), D.D., F.R.S., poet, preacher, and
historian; editor of the "Athenæum" almost from its commencement,
1828; published a continuation to Hume and Smollet's history, "Lives
of the Italian Poets," etc.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro_, William GRIFFIN, Vice-Admiral.

_bro_, William STEBBING, Scholar of Lincoln Coll., scholar and Fellow
of Worcester Coll., Oxford, first-class Mods., 1852; first-class Lit.
Hum., 1853, first-class Law and History, 1854; for nearly thirty
years on the staff of the "Times" as leader writer, and second to the
late Mr. Delane in the editorship.--["Who's Who."]

G. Johnstone #STONEY# (b. 1826), D.Sc. F.R.S.; Professor of Natural
    Philosophy in late Queen's University, Ireland; memoirs on the
    "Physical Constitution of the Sun and Stars," on the "Internal
    Motion of Gases," etc.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro_, William Bindon BLOOD, Professor of Engineering; author of
professional papers.

_me bro son_, Sir Bindon BLOOD (b. 1842), K.C.B., Commander of the
Forces in Punjab; distinguished in Chitral Expedition and in Boer
War.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Bindon Blood STONEY, LL.D., F.R.S., Engineer, especially
marine; numerous engineering works and publications of great
originality.--["Who's Who."]

_si son_, Maurice FITZGERALD, Professor of Engineering, Queen's
Coll., Belfast.

_si son_, George Francis FITZGERALD (1891-1903), F.R.S., Professor of
Nat. and Exper. Philosophy; Principal of School of Engineering,
Dublin University. His scientific writings have been edited since his
death by Dr. Larmor.

_son_, Gerald STONEY, one of the principal engineers in the work of
the Parson's Steam Turbine Company.

Lieutenant-General Sir Richard #STRACHEY# (retired 1875), G.C.S.I.,
    R.E., LL.D., F.R.S., Cambridge. Secretary of Government Central
    Provinces of India during Mutiny, 1857-1858; Public-Works
    Secretary to Government of India, 1862; Legislative Member of
    Governor-General's Council, 1869-1870; Member of Council of
    India, 1875-1889; Acting Financial Member of Governor-General's
    Council, 1878; Chairman of East Indian Railway from 1889;
    Chairman of Meteorological Council from 1883; President of Royal
    Geographical Soc., 1888-1890; Royal Medal of Royal Soc., 1897.
    Publications: "Lectures on Geography"; "Finances and Public
    Works of India" (jointly with his brother, Sir John S.); various
    scientific memoirs.--["Ency. Brit.," and "Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Sir Henry STRACHEY (1736-1810), Bart., private secretary to
Lord Clive in India; Joint Under-Secretary of State for the Home
Department, 1782; cr. Baronet, 1801.--["Dict. N. Biog.," Suppl. iii.]

_me fa_, Lieutenant-General KIRKPATRICK, W. (1754-1812), Orientalist;
military secretary to Marquess Wellesley; Resident at Poona;
translated Persian works; expert in Oriental tongues and in Indian
manners, customs, and laws.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Edward STRACHEY (1774-1832), Chief Examiner of correspondence
to the India House, the other two being Peacock and James Mill
(secretaries' work, writing despatches, etc.).

_fa bro_, Sir Henry STRACHEY, Bart. (1772-1858), distinguished Indian
Civilian, described by James Mill ("Hist. Brit. India," vol. vi.,
chap, vii.) as "the most intelligent of the Company's servants."

_fa bro_, Richard STRACHEY, Resident at Lucknow and Gwalior.

_me si_, Isabella Barbara BULLER, a well-known centre of literary and
political society.

_bro_, Sir John STRACHEY, G.C.S.I., eminent Indian statesman;
Lieutenant-Governor of the N.W. Provinces; Financial Member of
Governor-General's Council; Member of Council of India. Publications:
"Finance and Public Works of India," 1882 (jointly with his brother,
Sir Richard S.); "Hastings and the Rohilla War," 1892; "India," 1888,
third edition, 1903.--["Ency. Brit.," and "Who's Who," 1904.]

_bro_, Colonel Henry STRACHEY, Tibetan explorer, gold medal of Royal
Geographical Soc., 1852.

_bro_, Sir Edward STRACHEY (d. 1904), Bart., author of "Hebrew
Politics in the Time of Sargon and Sennacherib."

_bro_, George STRACHEY (1873-1890), Chargé d'Affaires and Minister
Resident at Dresden.

_bro son_, Sir Arthur STRACHEY (1858-1901) [son of Sir John S. and of
Katherine, daughter of George BATTEN], Chief Justice Allahabad, æt.
thirty-nine; d. æt. forty-three.

_bro son_, John St. Loe STRACHEY (b. 1860) [son of Sir Edward S.
and Mary, sister of John Addington SYMONDS, writer and critic],
editor of the "Spectator."--["Who's Who."]

_me si son_, Charles BULLER (1806-1848), distinguished politician,
sent as secretary with Lord Durham to Canada, 1838; Chief Poor-Law
Commissioner.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me si son_, Sir Arthur BULLER, Judge of the Supreme Court, Calcutta.

_fa fa bro_, John STRACHEY, LL.D. Cambridge, Archdeacon of Suffolk,
Prebendary of Llandaff, preacher at the Rolls.

_fa fa fa fa_, John STRACHEY (1671-1743), F.R.S., geologist, said to
have first suggested theory of stratification in his "Observations on
Different Strata of Earths and Minerals," 1727.--["Dict. N. Biog.,"
Suppl. iii.]

_Wife and her kinsfolk:_

    _wi_, Jane Maria, née GRANT, second wife, authoress of "Lay
    Texts," "Poets on Poets," "Memoirs of a Highland Lady,"
    etc.--["Who's Who," 1904.]

    _wi fa fa_, Sir J.P. GRANT (1774-1848), Chief Justice of Supreme
    Court, Calcutta.--["Dict. N. Biog.," xxii. 398.]

    _wi fa_, Sir J.P. GRANT, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. (1807-1893), Indian and
    Colonial Governor; Member of Council; Lieutenant-Governor of
    Central Provinces of India; Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal;
    Governor of Jamaica (1866-1873).--["Dict. N. Biog.," Suppl. iii.

    _wife's me bro son_, Sir Trevor Chichele PLOWDEN, K.C.S.I.,
    Resident at Kashmir, Hyderabad, and Baghdad.

    _wife's me bro son_, Sir Henry Meredith PLOWDEN, Senior Judge of
    Chief Court, Punjab (1880-1894).--["Who's Who," 1904.]

_son_, Giles Lytton STRACHEY, Scholarship at Trinity Coll.,
Cambridge; Chancellor's medal for English verse.

_son_, Oliver STRACHEY, Eton scholarship.

_son_, James Beaumont STRACHEY, scholarship at St. Paul's School.

_da_, Joan Pernel STRACHEY, lecturer on Old French at Royal Holloway

_da_, Marjorie Colvile STRACHEY, prize offered in 1904 by the
British Ambassador in Paris to male and female undergraduates of all
colleges in Great Britain, for examination in French; scholarship at
Royal Holloway College, 1904.

Aubrey #STRAHAN# (b. 1852), F.R.S., district geologist on the
    Geological Survey of England and Wales; author of geological
    memoirs on Chester, Rhyl, Flint, Isle of Purbeck, Weymouth, South
    Wales Coalfield, etc., and contributions to scientific
    journals.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Sir George FISHER, General of Royal Artillery; Commandant of
Woolwich Arsenal.

_bro_, George STRAHAN, second for Pollock Medal at Addiscombe; Dep.
Surveyor-General of the Trigonometrical Survey of India, 1889;
Colonel of Bengal Engineers.

_bro_, Charles STRAHAN, Lieutenant-General of Bengal Engineers;
Surveyor-General of India, 1895.

_fa bro son_, Herbert KYNASTON (b. 1835), D.D., Camden Medallist
and Browne Medallist, 1855; bracketed Senior Classic, 1857; Fellow of
St. John's Coll., Cambridge, 1858; Principal of Cheltenham Coll.,
1874-1888; Professor of Greek and Classical Literature, University of
Durham, 1889.--["Who's Who."]

John William #STRUTT# (b. 1842), third Baron #RAYLEIGH#, D.C.L.
    (Hon. Oxon.), LL.D., O.M., F.R.S., Hon. Sc.D. (Cambridge and
    Dublin), Professor of Natural Philosophy, Royal Inst., since
    1887; Senior Wrangler and Smith's Prizeman, 1865; Professor of
    Experimental Physics, Cambridge, 1879-1884; Secretary Roy. Soc.,
    1887; author of "Theory of Sound," and many scientific
    papers.--["Who's Who," and "Ency. Brit."]

_bro_, Hon. Edward Gerald STRUTT, successful land-agent and surveyor.

_me si son_, Ronald Montague BURROWS (b. 1867), Professor of Greek
in the University Coll. of S. Wales and Monmouthshire.--["Who's

_son_, Hon. Robert John STRUTT (b. 1875), F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity
Coll., Cambridge; author of papers on radium, etc.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa bro_, Major-General Edward VICARS, R.E., distinguished himself
under Lord John Hay on North Coast of Spain; brevet majority and
Spanish orders for gallantry before San Sebastian in 1836; selected
for special duty with the fleet in 1854, but taken ill on the way
out, and retired on full pay.

_wife_, see BALFOUR.

William #THOMSON# (b. 1824), Baron #KELVIN# (1892), P.C., O.M.,
    F.R.S., and numerous other distinctions; eminent mathematical
    physicist; inventor of mirror galvanometer, of siphon recorder
    in connection with submarine telegraphy, of a new form of
    mariner's compass, etc.; acted as electrical engineer for many
    submarine cables; President of British Assoc., 1871, of Royal
    Soc., 1890-1895, and four times of Royal Soc., Edinburgh; author
    of numerous mathematical and physical memoirs.--["Who's Who," and
    "Ency. Brit."]

_fa_, James THOMSON (1786-1849), son of a small farmer in co. Down;
commenced the study of mathematics on his own initiative; became
Professor of Mathematics at Belfast, 1815, then at University of
Glasgow, 1832; also a good classical scholar and astronomer; wrote
the authorized mathematical text-books of the Commissioners of
National Education in Ireland.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, James THOMSON (1822-1892), F.R.S., Hon. LL.D., Glasgow and
Dublin, Professor of Civil Engineering, first at Queen's Coll.,
Belfast, 1857-1873, then at Glasgow, 1873-1889. Invented the "vortex
water-wheel," 1850; numerous memoirs on physical
investigations.--["Dict. N. Biog.," and "Ency. Brit."]

_bro_, John THOMSON, died young, having contracted hospital fever
during medical study at Glasgow. Considered as able as his brothers.

_si son_, James Thomson BOTTOMLEY, F.R.S. (q.v.).

_si son_, George KING, actuary and mathematician; author of many
original papers, and of an authoritative work on actuarial subjects.

Sir John Isaac #THORNYCROFT# (b. 1843), LL.D., F.R.S.,
    Vice-President of Inst. of Naval Architecture, etc.; founded
    shipbuilding works at Chiswick, 1866; introduced improvements in
    naval architecture and marine engineering, which have promoted
    high speeds at sea.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, John FRANCIS (1780-1861), sculptor, pupil of Chantrey;
exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1820-1856; his works include busts of
Miss Horatio Nelson, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the Duke of
Wellington.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Thomas THORNYCROFT (1815-1885), sculptor; executed the group of
Commerce on the Albert Memorial, and other statues.--["Dict. N.

_me_, Mary THORNYCROFT (1814-1895), sculptor.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_bro_, William Hamo THORNYCROFT (b. 1850), R.A., sculptor. His
works include national monument to General Gordon in Trafalgar Square
and in Melbourne; John Bright in Rochdale; Lord Granville in Houses
of Parliament; and very many others.--["Who's Who."]

Charles Sissmore #TOMES# (b. 1846), F.R.S., late lecturer on dental
    anatomy at Dental Hosp. of London; Crown nominee on General
    Medical Council, 1898, etc.; author of a "Manual of Dental
    Anatomy, Human and Comparative," and of many memoirs on
    odontology in "Phil. Trans.," etc.--["Who's Who."]

_fa_, Sir John TOMES (1815-1895), F.R.S., dental surgeon; invented
dental forceps; memoirs on histology of bone and teeth; delivered
lectures at Middlesex Hosp., which marked new era in dentistry;
induced Royal Coll. of Surgeons to grant license in dental surgery;
one of the chief founders of the Odontological Soc., 1856, and of the
Dental Hosp., 1858; secured passing of Dentists Act, 1878; wrote
well-known treatise on "Dental Surgery," and other works.--["Dict. N.

_fa bro_, Robert Fisher TOMES (1824-1904), authority on insectivora
and chiroptera; edited Bell's "British Quadrupeds"; wrote natural
history sections for his own and neighbouring county histories.

_me bro_, George SIBLEY, C.E.I., went out to India as a civil
engineer, and without influence rose to be chief engineer of the East
Indian Railways, and did much important work in bridge-building.

James William Helenus #TRAIL# (b. 1851), F.R.S., Regius Professor
    of Botany, University of Aberdeen, since 1877; naturalist of an
    exploring expedition in N. Brazil, 1873-1875; has been largely
    occupied in the administrative work of the University and of
    other educational bodies in N. Scotland; has published numerous
    botanical and zoological papers in scientific journals.--["Who's

_fa_, Samuel TRAIL, LL.D., D.D. (both hon.), obtained Hutton
Scholarship in Aberdeen as the most distinguished graduate of his
year, 1825; Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Aberdeen,
1867; Moderator of Church of Scotland, 1874.

_me bro_, Hercules SCOTT, LL.D., Professor of Moral Philosophy in the
King's Coll. and University, Old Aberdeen, 1820-1860; said to have
taken a large part in the administration of the University.

_bro_, John Arbuthnot TRAIL, LL.D., Writer to the Signet in
Edinburgh; prominent in administration connected with the University
of Edinburgh, the Church of Scotland, and other public bodies.

_me si son_, David BROWN, General; formerly Commissioner of Lower

John #VENN# (b. 1834), D.Sc., F.R.S., Fellow of Caius Coll.,
    Cambridge; President, 1903; for many years lecturer on Moral
    Philosophy at Cambridge; author of many works on logic, and of "A
    Biographical History of Gonville and Caius Coll."--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, John VENN (1759-1813), scientific and mechanical interests;
one of the first to adopt vaccination, applying it to his own
children, and recommending it in the parish of Clapham, where he was
rector in 1800; the principal founder of the Church Missionary Soc.,
1798, the rules of which he sketched out much as they are still
retained.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Henry VENN (1796-1873), Wrangler and Fellow of Queens' Coll.,
Cambridge; for many years secretary and practically manager of the
Church Missionary Soc., the income of which increased under his
guidance to over £100,000 per annum; vicar of Drypool, 1827, and of
St. John's, Holloway, London, 1834-1846.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, John VENN (1802-1890), Wrangler and Fellow of Queens'
Coll., Cambridge; much practical skill and success in philanthropic
schemes in his parish of St. Peter's at Hereford; he started a steam
corn-mill, which was so successful that it led to many other
developments in the way of aiding the industrious--e.g., a loan
department, which, by 1848, had advanced some £18,000 to various poor
and struggling persons, and an extensive experimental garden for
teaching garden allotment and small farm work, etc.

_fa si son_, Sir James Fitzjames STEPHEN (1829-1894), distinguished
judge; in earlier life journalist, essayist, and reviewer; then Legal
Member of the Council of the Governor-General of India; author of
legal works.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa si son_, Sir Leslie STEPHEN (1832-1904), K.C.B., Litt.D., at one
time famous as a mountaineer; eminent literary editor and critic;
President of the Ethical Soc.; editor of the earlier volumes of the
"Dictionary of National Biography"; author of many works, including a
biography of his brother.

_fa fa fa_, Henry VENN (1725-1797), an evangelical divine, a man of
remarkable energy and force of character; Fellow of Queens' Coll.,
Cambridge, 1749-1757; curate of Clapham, 1754; vicar of Huddersfield,
1759; rector of Yelling, 1771-1797; author of the "Complete Duty of
Man."--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa fa fa_, Richard VENN (1691-1740), a learned divine; rector of
St. Antholin's, London, 1725-1739. He acquired some prominence
by publicly objecting to the appointment of Dr. Rundle, a
latitudinarian, to the bishopric of Gloucester, on the ground of
unorthodox views.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa si da_, Emelia BATTEN, afterwards Mrs. Russell Gurney;
distinguished by her artistic taste and accomplishments; author of
"Dante's Pilgrims' Progress."--["Letters," with a brief biography, by
Ellen Gurney, 1902.]

_me fa bro_, Daniel SYKES (1766-1832), F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity
Coll., Cambridge; Recorder and M.P. for Hull; prominent as an early
supporter of the Reform Movement.

_me fa fa_, Joseph SYKES (1723-1805), large and successful merchant
in Hull, where he was the principal founder of the trade in Swedish
iron; Mayor and Sheriff of Hull, and D.L. of the E. Riding.

For further particulars of the Venn family, see "Venn Family Annals,"
by Dr. John Venn (Macmillan and Co., 1904).

Robert #WARINGTON# (b. 1838), F.R.S., Examiner in Agricultural
    Science to the Board of Education since 1894; Professor of Rural
    Economy, Oxford, 1894-1897; author of twenty-six papers in the
    "Transactions" of the Chemical Soc., "The Chemistry of the Farm"
    (seventeenth edition), "Lectures on the Rothamsted Experiments,"
    and "Lectures on the Physical Properties of the Soil."--["Who's

_fa_, Robert WARINGTON (1807-1867), F.R.S., chemist, pharmacist, and
naturalist; founded in 1841, and was for ten years secretary of the
Chemical Soc.; originator of the Aquarium; the author of many papers
on chemical and natural history subjects.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me fa_, George JACKSON (1792-1861), medical practitioner and
inventor; Society of Arts medal for improvements in an apparatus for
obtaining light; invented a dividing machine for ruling micrometers,
which is still in use; introduced several improvements into the
microscope; and was President of the Royal Microscopical Soc.

_bro_, George WARINGTON, B.A., first-class Natural Science Tripos,
Cambridge; died at the age of thirty-three, but had already made a
considerable reputation as an author, critic, teacher, and speaker.

_fa si son_, John BROWN, C.M.G.; engineer-in-chief to Cape Government

General Sir Charles #WARREN# (b. 1840), K.C.B., G.C.M.G., R.E.,
    F.R.S. Conducted excavations at Jerusalem, and reconnaissance of
    Palestine for the Pal. Expl. Fund, 1867-1870; Administrator and
    Commander-in-Chief, Griqualand West; commanded troops Northern
    Border Expedition, 1879; Bechuanaland Expedition, 1884-1885;
    Suakim, 1886; Commissioner Metropolitan Police, 1886-1888;
    commanded troops Straits Settlements, 1889-1894;
    Lieutenant-General in command of 5th Div. South African Field
    Force, 1899-1900. Author of works concerning the archæology of
    Jerusalem; also of "On Veldt in the Seventies," and of "The
    Ancient Cubit and Our Weights and Measures."--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, John WARREN (1767-1838), Dean of Bangor, N.W.

_fa fa bro_, Frederick WARREN (1775-1848), Vice-Admiral; defeated
Danish gunboat flotilla in the Belt, 1809; Commander-in-Chief
at the Cape, 1831-1834; Admiral-Superintendent at Plymouth,
1837-1841.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa fa bro_, Pelham WARREN (1778-1835), M.D., F.R.S., Physician at
St. George's Hosp.; Harveian orator, 1826; Physician to the
King.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Sir Charles WARREN (1798-1866), K.C.B., Major-General; served
in India, 1840-1848; in China, 1841-1844; in the Crimea,
1854-1856.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, John WARREN (1796-1852), F.R.S., mathematician; Fellow and
Tutor of Jesus Coll., Cambridge; Chancellor of Bangor.--["Dict. N.

_son_, Richard WARREN (b. 1876), first-class honours, Natural
Science, Oxford; scholarship in Anatomy and Physiology, London Hosp.;
Radcliffe Travelling Fellow, Oxford; house physician, house surgeon,
and senior resident accoucheur, London Hosp.

_fa fa fa_, Richard WARREN (1731-1797), M.D., F.R.S., Fellow of Jesus
Coll., Cambridge; Physician to George III., and to George, Prince of
Wales.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

Bertram Coghill Alan #WINDLE# (b. 1858), F.R.S., President of
    Queen's Coll., Cork; M.D., D.Sc., Dublin; late Dean of the
    Medical Faculty and Professor of Anatomy and Anthropology,
    University of Birmingham; author of scientific papers, books on
    anatomy, anthropology, and literature, "Tyson's Pygmies of the
    Ancients," "Life in Early Britain," etc.--["Who's Who."]

_me bro_, Colonel Kendal COGHILL (b. 1832), C.B., served in Burmah,
1853-1855; Adjutant of 2nd European Bengal Fusiliers during Indian
Mutiny, 1857-1858; commanded 19th Hussars in Egyptian Campaign,
1882.--["Who's Who."]

_me fa_, Admiral Sir J. COGHILL.

_me me fa_, Charles Kendal BUSHE (1767-1843), Solicitor-General
for Ireland, 1805-1822; Chief Justice of King's Bench, 1822-1841.
--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_me bro son_, Seymour Coghill Hort BUSHE (b. 1853), K.C., Senior
Moderator and Berkeley gold medallist; gold medallist in oratory,
Dublin; Senior Crown Prosecutor for County and City of Dublin,
1901.--["Who's Who."]

_me si son_, Herbert Wilson GREENE, well-known fellow and lecturer,
Magdalen Coll., Oxford; author of version of "Rubayat" of Omar
Khayum, etc.

_me si son_, Boyle SOMERVILLE, Commander, R.N., author of papers on
the ethnology of the Polynesian race in the "Anthropological

_me si da_, Edith Oenone SOMERVILLE, M.F.H., author of
"Reminiscences of an Irish R.M.," "All on the Irish Shore," and other

Horace Bolingbroke #WOODWARD# (b. 1848), F.R.S., Assistant Director
    Geological Survey of England and Wales; author of "Geology of
    England and Wales," and other works.--["Who's Who."]

_fa fa_, Samuel WOODWARD (1790-1838), geologist and antiquary; clerk
in Gurney's Bank, Norwich, 1820-1838; studied history and archæology;
formed collection of fossils and antiquities, and published works
relating to Norfolk.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa_, Samuel Pickworth WOODWARD (1821-1865), Professor of Geology
and Natural History at Royal Agricultural Coll., Cirencester, 1845;
first-class assistant in department of geology and mineralogy,
British Museum, 1848-1865; author of "Manual of the Mollusca"
(1851-1856).--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Bernard Bolingbroke WOODWARD (1816-1869), librarian in
ordinary to Queen Victoria at Windsor.--["Dict. N. Biog."]

_fa bro_, Henry WOODWARD (b. 1832), LL.D., F.R.S., President of
Palæontographical Soc. since 1896; Vice-President of Royal
Microscopical Soc.; late Keeper Geological Department, British Museum
(Natural History); author of many works on palæontology, zoology,
etc.--["Who's Who."]

_bro_, Bernard Henry WOODWARD, Director of Museum at Perth, W.

_bro_, Herbert Willoughby WOODWARD, Archdeacon of Magila, Zanzibar.

_fa bro son_, Harry Page WOODWARD (b. 1858), Government Geologist
for W. Australia, 1887-1895.

_fa bro son_, Martin Fountain WOODWARD, Demonstrator of Biology,
Royal Coll. of Science (obituary in "Nature").





Sir J.W. #LUBBOCK#, F.R.S., Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal

    _son_, Lord AVEBURY, F.R.S. (Lubbock).

Third Earl of #ROSSE#, President Royal Soc. (1800-1867), constructor
of the great reflecting telescope.

    _son_, fourth Earl of ROSSE, F.R.S.

    _son_, C.A. PARSONS, F.R.S.


Professor #BALL#, Dublin (1802-1857).

    _son_, Sir Robert BALL, F.R.S.

    _son_, Valentine BALL, F.R.S.

Sir J. #EVANS#, F.R.S., President of Geological and many other
societies; Treasurer of the Royal Soc. for many years.

    _son_, Arthur EVANS, F.R.S.

#GODWIN-AUSTEN#, F.R.S. (1808-1884).

    _son_, H.H. GODWIN-AUSTEN, F.R.S.

Professor #WOODWARD#, Cirencester (1821-1865).

    _son_, H.B. WOODWARD, F.R.S.


J.J. #LISTER#, F.R.S. (----), optical investigator.

    _son_, Lord LISTER, O.M., President Royal Soc.

    _son_, Arthur LISTER, F.R.S.

Lord #RAYLEIGH#, F.R.S., O.M.

    _son_, Hon. R. STRUTT, F.R.S.

Professor James #THOMSON#, Belfast (1786-1849).

    _son_, Lord KELVIN, O.M., President Royal Soc.

    _son_, James THOMSON, F.R.S.


R. #WARINGTON#, F.R.S. (1807-1867), ten years Secretary of the
Chemical Soc.

    _son_, Robert WARINGTON, F.R.S.


W. #PETRIE#, inventor of various apparatus for electric and chemical

    _son_, W.M. FLINDERS-PETRIE, F.R.S.


Charles #DARWIN#, F.R.S. (1809-1865), the great naturalist.

    _son_, Professor G. DARWIN, F.R.S.

    _son_, Francis DARWIN, F.R.S.

    _son_, Horace DARWIN, F.R.S.

Edwin #LANKESTER#, F.R.S. (1814-1874), Professor of Natural History,
New Coll., London.

    _son_, E. Ray LANKESTER, F.R.S.


Sir William #HOOKER#, F.R.S. (1758-1865), Director of Kew Gardens.

    _son_, Sir Joseph HOOKER, F.R.S.


W.A.F. #BROWNE#, F.R.S.E. (----), First Commissioner in Lunacy for

    _son_, Sir J. Crichton BROWNE, F.R.S.

Sir J. #TOMES#, F.R.S., eminent in dental surgery.

    _son_, C.S. TOMES, F.R.S.


J. #BROWN# (1784-1858), Professor of Exegetics, Secession Coll., and
after in the United Presbyterian Coll.

    _son_, A. Crum BROWN, F.R.S.

J.E. #KEMPE#, late Rector of St. James, Piccadilly; Hon. Chaplain to
the King.

    _son_, A.B. KEMPE, F.R.S.

J.G. #MIALL#, Chairman of the Congregational Union.

    _son_, L.C. MIALL, F.R.S.

S. #TRAIL# (----), Professor Systematic Theology, University,

    _son_, J.W.H. TRAIL, F.R.S.

H. #VENN# (1796-1873), for many years Secretary and practically
manager of the Church Missionary Soc.

    _son_, J. VENN, F.R.S.


C.A. #BRANDIS#, Professor of Philosophy at Bonn.

    _son_, Sir D. BRANDIS, F.R.S.


P.A. #PICKERING#, Q.C., Judge Passage Court, Attorney-General, County

    _son_, P.S.U. PICKERING, F.R.S.


E. #STRACHEY# (1774-1832), Chief Examiner of Correspondence at India
House (Secretary's work, writing despatches).

    _son_, Sir Richard STRACHEY, F.R.S.


J. #GRANT DUFF# (1789-1858), "History of the Mahrattas," written
after a brief but brilliant career in India.

    _son_, Sir Mountstuart GRANT DUFF, F.R.S.

Sir Francis #PALGRAVE# (1788-1861), "Rise and Progress of the English

    _son_, R.H.I. PALGRAVE, F.R.S.

Henry #ROSCOE#, biographer.

    _son_, Sir H.E. ROSCOE, F.R.S.

Henry #STEBBING#, D.D., F.R.S. (1799-1883), "Continuation to Hume and
Smollet's History," "Lives of the Italian Poets," etc.

    _son_, T.R.R. STEBBING, F.R.S.


Robert #HERDMAN# (1829-1888), portrait and historical painter.

    _son_, W.A. HERDMAN, F.R.S.

J. Calcott #HORSLEY#, R.A.

    _son_, Sir Victor A.H. HORSLEY, F.R.S.


T. #THORNYCROFT# (1815-1885).

    _son_, Sir J.I. THORNYCROFT, F.R.S.


Sir G. Gilbert #SCOTT#, R.A. (1811-1878), President Royal Institute
British Architects, Professor of Architecture.

    _son_, Dukinfield H. SCOTT, F.R.S.

                 *       *       *       *       *


11 | PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Astronomy, 2; geology, 4;
   | physics and mathematics, 3; chemistry, 1;
   | engineer, 1.
5  | BIOLOGY: Biology, 2; botany, 1; medicine, 2.
6  | DIVINITY AND PHILOSOPHY: Divinity, 5; philosophy, 1.
2  | LAW AND PUBLIC SERVICE: Law, 1; public service, 1.
4  | HISTORIANS: Historians, 4.
4  | ARTISTS: Painters, 2; sculptor, 1; architect, 1.
32 |

I gather from this that about 21 of the 38 sons have followed the
same pursuits as their parents, and that the remaining 17 have
followed different ones; but the distinction is not always clear, so
other persons may form slightly different estimates. Anyhow, it
appears that the two characteristics of (1) general ability and (2) a
passion for a particular pursuit are transmitted more or less


ABILITY, HIGHEST ORDER OF, xiv How far can noteworthiness be
  accepted as a statistical measure of, xxi; nature of, xxi;
  relation between this and environment in producing noteworthiness,

Abercromby, Sir Ralph, 30
  Sir Robert, 30

Abraham, Harry, 48
  Joseph, 47

Abstention in replying to circular, suggested reasons for, xxxiv

Abydos, kings of earliest dynasties at, 53

Abyssinian Expedition, 5, 44

Accident, definition of, xx

Achromatic microscope, 40

"Adam Smith, Life of," 13

Adelaide, South Australia, 6

Ainslie, Sir Whitelaw, 28

Airy, Sir George B., 59

Albert, bust of Prince, 70
  Memorial, 70

"Alert," 44

Alexandria, defeat of French at, 30

Allardice, Robert Barclay, 22

"All on the Irish Shore," 78

Ancestry, direct, xxxii

"Ancient Cubit and our Weights and Measures," 76

"Ankylostomiasis in Mines," 28

"Antiseptic Treatment in Surgery," 39

Ashburton, first Baron, 4

"Ashburton Treaty," 4

"Arabia, A Year's Journey through Eastern and Central," 52

Archæology, British School of, at Athens, 7

Arctic Voyages, 42-44

Arkwright, Sir Richard, 3

Artistic Temperament and Bohemianism, xv

"Athenæum," 62

Augusta, H.M. Empress, 9

Austen, Sir Henry E, 26
  Robert, 26

Autotype process, 47

Avebury, Lord, 41, 80

Balfour, Andrew, 11
  Isaac Bayley, 11
  John Hutton, 11
  Right Hon. A.J., 1
  Professor F.M., 1
  Right Hon. Gerald, 1

Balfour-Browne, John Hutton, 11

Ball, Sir Charles B., 3
  Sir Robert S., 2, 80
  Robert, 2, 80
  Valentine, 3, 80

Bangor, Dean of, 76

Barclay, Capt., of Ury, 22

Barnard, Frederick, 56
  George, 56
  Harold L., 56

Baring Brothers and Co., 4
  Alexander, 4
  Charles, 4
  Evelyn, 4
  Sir Francis, 3
  Francis Thornhill, 4
  Thomas, 4
  Thomas George, 3

Baring-Gould, Rev. S., 5

Bass, George, 53

Batten, Emelia, 74
  George, 65

Bateson, xlii

"_Beagle_, Voyage of," 18

"Beduins, With the," 33

Belper, Lord, 24

Bell's "British Quadrupeds," 71

Bentham, Samuel, 24

Berlin waterworks, 24

Bernard, Charles B., Bishop of Tuam, 61

Bewick, 37

"Biography, Dictionary of National," xiv

Blanford, H.F., 6
  William, 5
  W.T., 5

Blood, Professor W. Bindon, 62
  General Sir Bindon, 62

Bohemianism and artistic temperament, xv

Bonamy Price, Professor, xvi

Booth, Right Hon. Charles, 6, 57
  Henry, 6
  James, 6
  Thomas, 6

Bosanquet, Bernard, 7
  C.B.P., 7
  Vice-Admiral Day Hort, 7
  Sir John Bernard, 7
  Robert C., 7
  R.H.M., 7

"Botanic Garden," 17

Bottomley, James Thomson, 8, 69

Bramwell, Lord, 36
  Sir Frederick, 36

Brandis, C.A., 9, 83
  Sir Dietrich, 8, 83
  Joachim D., 9
  Johannes, 9

Bray, Anna Eliza, 38

Brewster, Sir David, 11

Bright, statue of John, 70

Britons, Ancient, 20

Brodrick, Charles, Archbishop of Cashel, 60
  George C. (Warden of Merton), 61
  Right Hon. William St. J., 61
  W.J., seventh Viscount Midleton, 61

Brodrick Scott, Charles, 61

Brothers, average number of, for any person, xxxi

Brown, Professor A. Crum, 9, 82
  General David, 72
  John, of Haddington (1722-1787), 9
  John, of Whitburn (1754-1832), 10
  John, of Biggor (1784-1858), 10, 82
  John, M.D., 10
  John (engineer), 75

Browne, Sir J. Crichton, 11, 82
  W.A.F., 11, 82

Brunel, Isambard, 35

Buller, Sir Arthur, 65
  Charles, 65
  Isabella B., 64

Burdon, Sir Thomas, 12

Burdon-Sanderson, Sir John S., 12, 29
  Richard, 12

Burke's "Peerage," xix

Burrows, Professor R.M., 68

Bushe, Charles Kendal, 78
  Seymour Coghill Hort, 78

Calcott, Sir Augustus Wall, 35
  John Wall, 35

Cambrian Pottery Works, 46

Camperdown, Earl of, 30
  Viscount Duncan of, 30

"Canadian Men and Women of the Time," 58

Candidates for Fellowship of Royal Society, number of, xi

Caricaturists on women who study hard, xv

Cashel, Archbishop of, 60

Cecil, family of, 2

"Celebes, Naturalist in North," 32

Celebrity, reasons why men who have attained to the highest, fail to
  leave worthy successors, if any, xv

Cerebration, unconscious, xviii

Ceylon pearl fisheries, 31

Chance, xx

Chantrey, 70

"Challenger Reports," 49, 62

Charity Organization Society, 7

"Charles R. Darwin, Life and Letters of," 18, 19
Chree, Alex. B., 14
  Charles, D.D., 14
  Charles, F.R.S., 13
  Jessie S., 14
  William, 14

Christchurch, New Zealand, Archdeacon of, 60

Church, Professor A.H., 15
  Rev. A.J., 15
  H.F., 15

"Church Architecture, History of English," 60

Church Missionary Society, 72, 73

Cinchona-bearing trees, 44

Circular sent to Fellows of Royal Society, ix, xxviii

Clive, Lord, 64

Clogher, Bishop of, 43

Cochrane, Lord, 49

Coghill, Admiral Sir J., 78
  Colonel Kendal, 77

Cohen, Meyer (Sir F. Palgrave), 51

Coke, Elizabeth, 54
  Thomas W., 54

Collaterals, xxxii

"Colliery Explosions, Cause of Death in," 28

Colonial Office, 59

  FAMILIES, xxxvii

Compton, Henry, 48


Constituents, incongruous, in highest order of mind, xv

Constitutional disease, proneness of particular families to, x

"Contracts, Specific Performance of," 21

Conversation, rapid, xviii

Coomassie, relief of, 44

Copeman, A.C., 16
  Edward, 16
  Peter, 16
  S.M., 15
Copyright Act, 50

Cork, Bishop of, 43

Correlation, negative, between constituents of highest order of
  mind, xv

Cotterill, Arthur, 17
  Henry (Senior Wrangler), 17
  Professor J.H., 16
  Joseph M. (surgeon), 17
  Joseph M., D.D., 17
  Rev. Thomas, 16
  Thomas (mathematician), 17

Counties in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, number required
  to provide one F.R.S. annually, xii

Cousins, first, of F.R.S., xl

Crewe, first Earl of, 50

Crewe-Milnes, R.O.A., first Earl of, 50

Crete, 20

Cromer, first Earl, 4

Crompton, Charles, 6, 57
  Henry, 6, 57

"Cromwell, Oliver, the Protector," 52

Crum, Alexander, 10
  Walter, 10

Cuneiform writing, 47

Dalton, 24

Danish gunboat flotilla, defeat of, in the Belt, 76

Daphnæ, Greek settlements at, 53

Darjeeling, 26

Darwin, Charles (medical student), 18
  Charles R. (author of "Origin of Species," etc.), 18, 23, 81
  Erasmus (author of "Zoonomia," etc.), 17, 23
  Erasmus (grandson of the author of "Zoonomia") 18
  Professor Francis, 19, 81
  Professor G.H. (now Sir George), 17, 81
  Horace, 19, 81
  Major Leonard, 19
  Robert W., 18

Davy, Sir Humphry, 56

Degrees of eminence in "noteworthy" persons, xxxv
  of remoteness of kinship, xxviii
De la Rue, 33

Delane, 62

Denmark, Queen of, 9

"Dental Anatomy, Manual of," 70

"Dental Surgery," 71

Dentists Act, 71

Descendants, direct, xxxii

De Vries, xlii

Devonshire, geology of, 26

De Winter, Admiral, 30

Dickens, illustrations to, 56

Dickinson, John, F.R.S., 20
  John, 21

"Dictionary of National Biography," xiv

Dillwyn, Lewis Weston, 46

Diminution of frequency of noteworthiness with increase of distance
  of kinship, xxxix

Dundas and Wilson, 8
  Sir David, 8
  David, 8
  George, 8
  John, 8
  Lord, 8
  Ralph, 7

Duff, _vide_ Grant Duff

Duncan, Adam, Viscount Duncan of Camperdown, 30

Durham, Bishop of, 4
  Lord, 65

"Ecce Homo," 15

Eccentricity in families of able scientific men, xvi

"Economist," 51

Edgeworth, R.L., 24

"Edinburgh Encyclopædia," 11

"Education, Memoirs on," 13

Egerton, Right Hon. Sir Edwin, 45
Egypt, 4

Elias, Ney, 26

Eldon, first Earl of, 13, 30

"Electrical Testing, Handbook of," 38

"Electrical Review," 38

Eminence, degrees of, in "noteworthy" persons, xxxv

"Encyclopædia Britannica," xiv

Energy as a factor in success, xviii

"England and Normandy, History of," 51
  Number of counties of, xii

"English Men of Science," xiii

"Environment," xx
  Nature of, xxi; relation between this and ability in producing
  noteworthiness, xxi-xxv

"Etymological Dictionary," 19

Eugenics, vii, xli, 22

Evans, Anne, 20
  Arthur Benoni, 20
  Arthur J., 20, 80
  Sir John, 20, 80
  Lewis, 20
  Sebastian, 20

Excursion trains, 33

Exhibition buildings in Hyde Park, 24

Expectations of noteworthiness, xxxix

Express trains, 33

Faraday, Michael, 56

"Farm, The Chemistry of the," 75

Farrer, Lord Herschell, 13

Fathers of F.R.S., xl

"Fauna of the Deep Sea," 32

F.R.S., reasons for selecting, as subject for inquiry, xiii;
  circulars sent to, xxviii; number of replies sent to circulars,

Fellowship of Royal Society, distinction of, xi; material value of,
  xi; number of candidates for, xi
"Ferrier, Life of," 29

Fertile relatives, number of in each degree, xxxii

Fertility, connection between, and severe mental strain, xv

Finger-prints, identification by, 22

Fisher, Sir George, 67

Fitzgerald, Professor G. Francis, 63
  Professor Maurice, 63

Fletcher, Harriet, 57
  Maria, 57

Fleury, Rev. Charles M., 43
  Ven. George L., 43

Flinders, Matthew, 53

Foljambe, Right Hon. Francis, 44

Forbes, David, Biography of, 25

Foster, Anthony, 42
  Sir Augustus J., 43
  Ebenezer, 27
  John, Baron Oriel, 42
  John Leslie, 43
  John William, M.P., 42
  Vere H.L., 43
  William, D.D., 43

"Fossil Botany, Studies in," 59

"Foundations of Belief," 1

"_Fox_, The Voyage of the," 42

Fox, Sir Charles, 24

France, Geology of, 26

Francis, John, 70

Franco-German War, 9

"Franklin, The Fate of Sir John," 42

Fry, Edmund, 21
  Right Hon. Sir Edward, 21
  Francis, 21
  Joseph, 21
  Joseph Storrs, 21
  J.S. and Co., 21
  Right Hon. Lewis, 21

Galton, Sir Douglas, 23
  Francis, 19, 22
  Samuel, 22

Geikie, Sir A., 24
  Cunningham, 25
  James, 25
  James Stewart, 25
  Walter, 25
  Walter Bayne, 25

"Genius, Hereditary," xiv, xvii

Genius, definition of, xvii; heredity of, xvii

"Genera Plantarum," 34

"Geography, Lectures on," 64

"Geology of England and Wales," 78

Gloucester and Bristol, C. Baring, Bishop of, 4

Godwin, Major-General Sir Thomas H., 26

Godwin-Austen, Harold, 26
  Lieutenant-Colonel H.H., 26, 80
  Maria E., 26
  R.A.C., 26, 80

"Gonville and Caius Coll., A Biographical History of," 72

"Golden Treasury," 51

Gordon, statue of General, 70

Gotch, Professor F., 27
  Fredrick W., 27
  Thomas Cooper, 27

Grant, Jane Maria, 66
  Sir J.P. (Indian Judge), 66
  Sir J.P. (Indian and Colonial Governor), 66

Grant Duff, Adrian, 28
  Arthur C., 28
  Evelyn M., 28
  James, 28, 83
  Right Hon. Sir M.E., 27, 83

Granville, statue of Lord, 70

Greene, H.W., 78

Grey, second Earl, 5
  Hon. Lady, 4
  Charles, 5
  Sir George, 5

Griffin, Vice-Admiral William, 62

Gurney, Ellen, 74
  Mrs. Russell, 74

Haden, Dr. Charles T., 35
  Sir F. Seymour, 35
  Dr. Thomas, 35

Hague, Court of International Arbitration at the, 21

Haldane, Alex. Chinnery, 29
  Daniel R., 29
  Elizabeth Sanderson, 13, 29
  James A., 29
  Lieutenant-Colonel J.A.L., 29
  J.S., 13, 28
  Robert, 29
  Right Hon. R.B., 13, 29

Halkett, General, 37

"Harmony, Textbook of," 35

Hartmann, Julius von, 9

"Harvesting Ants," 46

"Hastings and the Rohilla War," 65

Hastings, Warren, 44

Hausmann, Friedrich, 9

"Heather Hills, My," 25

"Hebrew Politics in the Time of Sargon and Sennacherib," 65

Hegel's "History of Philosophy," 29

"Heine, Heinrich, Songs and Lyrics by," 25

Hellicar, Ames, 3

Herbert Hospital at Woolwich, 23

"Hereditary Genius," xiv, xvii, xlii

Herdman, J.C. (senior), 31
  J.C. (junior), 31
  Robert, 31, 84
  Sophia, 31
  William, 31
  Professor W.A., 30, 84

Herschell, first Lord, 13

Hewett, Bertram H.M., 27

"Hibbert Journal," 40

Hickson, Professor S.J., 31
  W.E., 32


"Highland Lady, Memoirs of a," 66

Hill, Arthur, 32
  Edward B.L., 33
  Edwin, 33
  G. Birkbeck, 32
  Sir John E.G., 33
  Professor Leonard, 32
  Matthew Davenport, 33
  Norman, 33
  Sir Rowland, 33
  Thomas W., 33

"Hindoostan, Materia Medica of," 28

Hodgkin, maiden name of Lady Fry, 22

Hogarth, 37

Homan, Mrs. Ruth, 32

Home Office, 59

Hooker, Sir Joseph D., 34, 82
  Sir William J., 34, 82

Horsley, Charles E., 35
  John Callcott, 35, 84
  Sir V., 27, 34, 84
  William, 34

Houghton, Lord, 50

"Huia, The," 38

Ignorance concerning noteworthiness of kinsmen in distant degree,

Imaginative power near to lunacy, xv

"Immortality, Ode to," xvi

Incongruous constituents in highest order of mind, xv

"India," 65

"India, Finances and Public Works of," 64

India Office, 59

Indian Meteorological Department, 6

"Industrial Conciliation," 7

Intensity of any specified quality in each or any degree of kinship,
  how measured, xxix

"Internal Motion of Gases," 62

Ireland, number of counties of, xii
"Italian Poets, Lives of," 62

Jackson, George, 75

Jenkinson, Sir Edward, 5

Jevons, W. Stanley, 57

Jerusalem, archæology of, 76

Johnstone, Professor Robert, 10

Joly, Henry Edward, 36
  Jasper Robert, 37
  John, 36
  Rev. John P., 36
  Mary, 37

"Journal of Hygiene," 13, 28

Kashmir, 26, 27

"Kempe and Kemp Families, A History of the," 38

Kempe, Alfred Bray, 37, 82
  Alfred John, 37
  Edward, 38
  Harry Robert, 38
  John Arrow, 38
  John E., 37, 82

Kelvin, Lord, 68

Khartoum, Battle of, 46

Kilmore, Bishop of, 43

"King Alfred," 57

King, George, 69

  of each person, difficulty of obtaining number of, x; reasons for
    difficulty, x



Kirkpatrick, Lieutenant-General, 64

Knossos, Palace of, 20

Koptos, prehistoric Egyptian at, 53

Kynaston, Professor Herbert, 67

Labouchere, Henry, 4

Lamarck, 17

Lancaster, Joseph, 24

Lankester, Edwin, 38, 81
  E. Forbes, 39
  Professor E. Ray, 38, 81
  Fay, 39
  Nina, 39
  Phebe, 39
  S. Rushton, 39

Larmor, Dr., 63

"Lay Texts," 66

Leicester, Earl of, 54

"Leo X.," 57

"Life in Early Britain," 77

Liverpool Cathedral, 60

Lister, Lord, 39, 81
  Arthur, 40, 81
  Arthur H., 40
  Gulielma, 40
  J.J. (biologist), 40
  J.J. (optical investigator), 40, 81

Llewelyn, John Dillwyn, 46

Lodge, Alfred, 41
  Eleanor C., 41
  George E., 41
  Sir Oliver, 40
  Richard, 40
  Robert J., 40

Lombroso, xvi

"London, Life and Labour of People of," 6

"Lorenzo de' Medici, Life of," 57

Lubbock, Edgar, 42
  Sir John, 41, 80
  Right Hon. Sir John, 41
  Sir John William, 41, 80
  Sir Neville, 42

Lunacy and imaginative power, xvi

Lusi, Frederick, Comte de (soldier), 37
  Frederick, Comte de (statesman), 36
  Spiridion, Comte de, 37

Macaulay, 24

McClintock, Alfred H., 43
  Sir Francis L., 42
  H.F., 43
  John, Lord Rathdonell, 43
  J.W.L., 43
  Patience, 42
  R.S., 44

Macdowall, Hay, 7

Mackenzie, Charles, 48
  Sir Morell, 48
  Sir Stephen, 48

"Mahrattas, History of the," 28

Manor, Lord, 8

Mariner's compass, 69

Markham, Admiral Sir Albert, 44
  Sir Clements R., 44
  Lieutenant-General Sir Edwin, 44
  George, 45
  Admiral John, 45
  William (Archbishop of York), 45
  William, 44

Marks applied to degree of noteworthiness, xxxvi

Maskelyne, M.H.N. Story, 45
  Nevil, 45

Masterman, J. Story, 46

Material on which book is based, ix

Melbourne, Lord, 4

Meldola, David, 47
  Raphael F.R.S., 47
  Raphael (High Rabbi), 47

"Mentone, Flora of," 46

Merit, standard of, xiii

"Merton Coll., Memorials of," 61

Miall, Edward, 48
  Rev. J.G., 48, 82
  Lewis C., 48, 82
  Stephen, 48

Micrometers, machine for ruling, 75

Miers, Edward J., 49
  Francis Charles, 49
  Professor H.A., 49
  John, 49

"Middle Ages, Close of," 41

Midleton, seventh Viscount, 61

Mill, 24
  James, 64

Milner, Right Hon. Sir Frederick, 44

Milnes, R. Monckton, Lord Houghton, 50
  R. Pemberton, 50
  R.S., 49

"Mineralogy," 49

"Modern Science," restriction to term as used on title-page, xiii

Moggridge, Traherne, 46

"Mollusca, Manual of," 79

"Monumental Effigies of Great Britain," 38

"Moon and Stars, Memoirs of Heat of," 52

Moore, Thomas, 24; "Life and Letters of," 24

Morgan, M.E. de, 55

"Mosses, British," 21

Murchison, Sir R., Biography of, 25

"Musical Grammar," 35

"Mycetozoa," 21
  Monograph on, 40

Naqada, prehistoric Egyptians at, 53

"National Biography, Dictionary of," xiv

"Nature," xxxi, xxxii

Naucratis, Greek settlements at, 53

Nautical Almanac, 45

Nebulæ, discovery of, 52

Nelson, bust of Miss Horatio, 70

Newton, Professor Alfred, 49
  A.W., 50
  Sir Edward, 50
  F.J., 50
  Lieutenant-General H.P., 50
  R. Milnes, 50
  William, 49
  General W.S., 50

New York, tunnel under river in, 27


"Nonconformist," 48

Northbrook, first Baron, 4
  first Earl of, 3

Norwich, Roman Catholic Cathedral at, 60


Noteworthy, use of term in present work, xiii, xiv



Noteworthiness as achieved, xix; statistically the outcome of ability
  and environment, xxi; in women, xxxiii; diminution of frequency of,
  with increase of distance of kinship, xxxix; expectation of, xxxix


"Ode to Immortality," xvi

Oriel, Lord, 42

"Origin of Species," 18

Otho, King, 9

Owen, Robert, 24

Palestine, Reconnaissance of, 76

Palgrave, Elizabeth (née Dawson Turner), 51
  Sir Francis, 51, 83
  Francis Turner, 51
  Sir Reginald F.D., 52
  R.H.I., 51, 83
  W. Giffard, 52

Parliamentary representatives, methods for electing, xxxv

Parsons, Charles A., 52, 80
  Lawrence, fourth Earl of Rosse, 52, 80
  William, third Earl of Rosse, 52, 80

Peacock, 64
Peel, Sir Robert's, Cabinet, 4

"Penelope," 39

Penny postage, 33

Percy anecdotes, 37

Persian Boundary Commission, 5

Petrie, Anne Flinders, 53
  Martin, 53
  Matthew, 53
  William, 53, 81
  Professor W.M. Flinders, 53, 81

"Philobiblon Society," 50

Pickering, Anne Maria, 54
  Edward Hayes, 54
  Percival, 55
  Percival Andrée, 54, 83
  P.S.U., 54, 83

Piel seafish hatchery, 31

Pine, William, 21

Place, Francis, 49

"Platæa and Olympia," 54

Plowden, Sir Henry Meredith, 66
  Sir Trevor Chichele, 66

Plymouth, 4

"Poets on Poets," 66

"Political Economy, Dictionary of," 51

Political life, factors conducive to noteworthiness in, xxi

"Political Studies," 61

Polynesian race, 78

Pope, Samuel, 39

Port Erin Biological Station, 31

Positivist Community, 7

Price, Professor Bonamy, xvi


Prussia, Queen of, 9

Punakha, 26

"Punch," 56

"Q.J.M.S.," 39

Radium, 68

Ramsay, Sir Andrew C., 55
  Sir William, 55
  William, 55

Rathdonell, Lord, 43

Rayleigh, third Baron, 68, 81
  Lady, 2

Reform Bill, 5
  Movement, 74

Reid, Clement, 56
  Margery A., 56

"Reminiscences of an Irish R.M." 78

Remoteness of kinship, degrees of, xxviii

Repute, built up by repeated testings of intelligence, energy, and
  character, xix

"Richelieu," 41

"Rise and Progress of English Commonwealth," 51

Robarts, Lubbock and Co., 41

Robertson, Robert, 55

Roscoe, Henry, 57, 83
  Sir Henry E., 7, 56, 83
  Robert, 57
  Thomas, 57
  William, 57
  W. Caldwell, 57
  William Stanley, 57

Rosse, third Earl of, 52, 80
  fourth Earl of, 52, 80

"Rothamsted Experiments, Lectures on the," 75

Routh, Dr. Amand J. McC., 59
  Dr. C.H.F., 58
  Edward J., 58
  Sir Randolph I., 58

Royal Exchange Assurance Corporation, 41, 42

Royal Institution, Francis Galton's lecture before, in 1864, xiii

"Royal Society's Year Book," xiii, xxviii
Russell, Lord John, 5

"Rubayat" of Omar Khayum, 78

Salisbury, third Marquis of, 2

Sanderson, Sir James, 12

Sattara State, 28

Schimmelpenninck, 22

Scholastic successes, a doubtful indication of future performance, xxxiv

Scotland, number of counties of, xii

Scott, Charles Brodrick, 61
  Charles William, 61
  Dukinfield Henry, 59, 84
  Edward Ashley, 61
  General Edward William, 61
  Ven. Edwin A., Archdeacon of Christchurch, New Zealand, 60
  Professor Hercules, 72
  George Digby, 61
  Sir George Gilbert, 59, 84
  George Gilbert, 60
  Giles Gilbert, 60
  Henry George, 60
  James George, Archdeacon of Dublin, 61
  James Smyth, 61
  John, Lord Eldon, 13, 30
  Sir John, 33
  John Pendred, 60
  Ven. Melville H., Archdeacon of Stafford, 60
  Robert Henry, 60
  Canon Thomas, 60
  Thomas (Biblical commentator), 59
  Thomas (of Queen's College, Cambridge), 59
  William, Lord Stowell, 13, 30

"Scottish Character and Scenery, Etchings Illustrative of," 25

Secret history of family, importance of, x

Seeley, Sir John R., 15

Sex of one child no clue of importance to that of any other child in
  same family, xxxi

Sibley, George, 71

Sidgwick, Mrs. Henry, 1

Simpson, Alfred, 5

Siphon recorder, 68

Sisters, average number of, for any person, xxxi

Social rank, effects of, in producing noteworthiness, xxi
  world, vastness of, xvii

"Soil, Physical Properties of the," 75

Sola, Abram de, 47

Somerville, Comm. Boyle, 78
  E.O., 78

"Sound, Theory of," 68

Smyth, H. Warington, 46
  Major N. Maskelyne, 46

Specific kinship, forms of, xxvi; abbreviation for, xxvi

"Spectator," 65

Spencer, Lord, 5

Spencer Stanhope, A.M.W., 54
  John, 54
  John R., 55
  Sir Walter, 55

Sports, xlii

Stafford, Archdeacon of, 60

Standard of merit used, xiii

Stanhope, John Spencer, 54

Stanley, Lord, 43

Stebbing, Rev. Henry, 62, 83
  Rev. T.R.R., 62, 83
  William, 62

Stephen, Sir James Fitzjames, 73
  Sir Leslie, 73

Stephenson, 6

Stewart-Wilson, Charles, 10

Stirling, Anna M.D.W., 55

Stoney, Bindon Blood, 63
  Gerald, 63
  G. Johnstone, 62

Story, A.M.R., 45

Stothard, Charles A., 38

Stowell, first Baron, 13, 30

Strachey, Sir Arthur, 65
  Edward, 64
  Sir Edward, 65, 83
  George, 65
  Giles Lytton, 66
  Colonel Henry, 65
  Sir Henry (first Bart.), 64
  Sir Henry (second Bart.), 64
  Sir John, 64
  Joan Pernel, 66
  John, F.R.S. (geologist), 65
  John, Archdeacon of Suffolk, 65
  John, St. Loe, 65
  J. Beaumont, 66
  Marjorie Colvile, 67
  Oliver, 66
  Lieut.-General Sir Richard, 63, 83
  Richard, 64

Strahan, Aubrey, 67
  Charles, 67
  George, 67

Strain, severe mental, connection between this and fertility, xv

Stratification, theory of, 65

"Structural Botany, Introduction to," 59

Strutt, Edward, Baron Belper, 24
  Hon. E.G., 68
  Jedediah, 23
  Joseph, 25
  William, 24

Strutt, John W., Lord Rayleigh, 68, 81
  Hon. Robert J., 68, 81

"Student's Modern Europe," 41

Success in obtaining Fellowships of Royal Society, xii; how achieved,
  xviii, xix; factors producing, xx

"Sun and Stars, Physical Constitution of," 62

Surnames as affecting knowledge of distant kinsmen, xxxviii

Sykes, Daniel, 74
  Joseph, 74

Symonds, John Addington, 65

    I. Combinations of Ability and Environment, xxiii
   II. Ability Independent of Environment, xxiv
  III. Ability Correlated with Environment, xxv
   IV. Abbreviations, xxvii
    V. Number of kinsfolk in One Hundred Families who survived
       Childhood, xxx
   VI. Comparison of Results with and without Marks in the Sixty-five
       Families, xxxvii
  VII. Number of Noteworthy Kinsmen recorded in 207 Returns, xl

"Tales for Children," 57

Talbot, C.R.M., 46
  W.H.F., 46

Talbotype process, 47

Taschereau, Cardinal E.A., 58
  Hon. H.E., 58
  Hon. J.T., 58
  Hon. Sir Henri T., 58

Taunton, first Baron, 4

Telescope, reflecting, at Parsonstown, 52

Thames Plate Glass Company, 5

Thebes, Israelite War at, 53

Thoms, William, 25

Thomson, Professor James (civil engineer), 8, 69, 81
  Professor James (mathematician), 8, 69, 81
  John, 69
  William, Lord Kelvin, 68, 81

"Thornliebank Co.," 11

Thornycroft, Mary, 70
  Sir John I., 70, 84
  Thomas, 70, 84
  W. Hamo, 70

"Time and Faith," 32

"Times," 61, 62

Tippoo Sultan, reduction of, 30

Tomes, Charles S., 70, 82
  Sir John, 71, 82
  Robert Fisher, 71

Trail, John Arbuthnot, 72
  Professor James W.H., 71, 82
  Samuel, 71, 82

Transportation, Bill abolishing, 5

"Trapdoor Spiders," 46

"Tribune," 50

Tuam, Bishop of, 61

"Tyson's Pygmies of the Ancients," 77

Unconscious brain-work, abnormally developed powers of genius, xvii

Vatcher, Marion, 39
  Rev. Sydney, 39

"Veldt in the Seventies, On the," 76

"Venn, Family Annals," 74

Venn, Henry (1725-1797), 73
  Henry (1796-1873), 73, 82
  John (1759-1813), 72
  John (1802-1890), 73
  John (b. 1834), 72, 82
  Richard, 74

Vicars, Major-General Edward, 68

Victoria, bust of, 70

"Vittoria Colonna, Life of," 57

"Vortex water-wheel," 69

Wales, number of counties of, xii

Warington, George, 75
  Robert, 75, 81
  Professor Robert, 75, 81

Warren, Major-General Sir Charles (1798-1866), 76
  General Sir Charles (b. 1840), 76
  Vice-Admiral Frederick, 76
  John (Dean of Bangor), 76
  John (mathematician), 77
  Dr. Pelham, 76
  Dr. Richard (1731-1797), 77
  Dr. Richard (b. 1876), 77

Waterford, Archdeacon of, 43

Waterloo, Battle of, 58

Waterlow, Sir Ernest, 32
  Sir Sydney H., 32

Wealth, effects of, in producing noteworthiness, xxi

Wedgwood, Hensleigh, 19
  Josiah, 18, 19
  Julia, 19
  Thomas, 18

Wellesley, 64

Wellington, bust of Duke of, 70

Wells, Dean of, 61

"Westminster Review," 32

Wheler, Edward G., 23
Whitbread, maiden name of the Hon. Lady Grey, 4

"Who's Who," xii, xiv

"Wild Flowers Worth Notice," 39

Willcocks, Sir G., 44

Windle, Professor B.C.A., 77

Women who study hard, characteristics of, xv; noteworthiness in, xxxiii

Woodward, Bernard Bolingbroke, 79
  Bernard Henry, 79
  Henry, 79
  H.B., 78, 81
  H.P., 79
  H.W., 79
  M.F., 79
  Samuel, 78
  Samuel Pickworth, 79, 81

Wordsworth, xvi

Work, possibility of extension of, ix; object of, ix

Yarkand, 26

York, Archbishop of, 45
  Dean of, 45

"Zoonomia," 17



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DUTTON, Major in the United States Army. Illustrated.

Introduction by LORD LISTER. New and Revised Edition.

to the U.S. Army, Retired.

THE STARS. A Study of the Universe. By Professor NEWCOMB.

By Professor JACQUES LOEB, M.D., Professor of Physiology in the
University of Chicago.

RIVER DEVELOPMENT. As Illustrated by the Rivers of North America. By
Professor I.C. RUSSELL. Illustrated.

THE STUDY OF MAN. An Introduction to Ethnology. By Professor A.C.
HADDON, D.Sc., M.A. Illustrated.

EARTH SCULPTURE. By Professor GEIKIE, LL.D, F.R.S. Second Edition.

VOLCANOES. By Professor BONNEY, D.Sc., F.R.S. Illustrated.


A BOOK OF WHALES. By the Editor of the Series, F.E. BEDDARD, M.A.,
F.R.S. With 40 Illustrations by SIDNEY BERRIDGE.

                 *       *       *       *       *

London: John Murray, Albemarle Street, W.

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