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Title: History of the Incas
Author: Gamboa, Pedro Sarmiento de
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of the Incas" ***

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Works Issued by the Hakluyt Society

[Illustration: _Facsimile (reduced) of the_ COAT OF ARMS OF KING PHILIP
II., _From the Sarmiento MS., 1572, Göttingen University Library.
Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth._]




Translated and Edited with Notes and an Introduction
by Sir Clements Markham, K.C.B. President of the Hakluyt Society.

Cambridge: Printed for the Hakluyt Society. MDCCCCVII. Cambridge:
Printed by John Clay, M.A. at the University Press.


SIR CLEMENTS MARKHAM, K.C.B., F.R.S., _President_.










  _Pres. R.G.S._










BASIL HARRINGTON SOULSBY, B.A., F.S.A., _Honorary Secretary_.



Dedicatory letter to King Philip II

     I. Division of the history

    II. The ancient division of the land

   III. Description of the ancient Atlantic Island

    IV. First inhabitants of the world and principally of
          the Atlantic Island

     V. Inhabitants of the Atlantic Island

    VI. The fable of the origin of these barbarous Indians
          of Peru, according to their blind opinions

   VII. Fable of the second age, and creation of the
          barbarous Indians according to their account

  VIII. The ancient _Behetrias_ of these kingdoms of
          Peru and their provinces

    IX. The first settlers in the valley of Cuzco

     X. How the Incas began to tyrannize over the lands
          and inheritances

    XI. The fable of the origin of the Incas of Cuzco

   XII. The road which these companies of the Incas took
          to the valley of Cuzco, and of the fables which
          are mixed with their history

   XIV. Entry of the Incas into the valley of Cuzco, and
          the fables they relate concerning it

   XIV. The difference between Manco Ccapac and the
          Alcabisas, respecting the arable land

    XV. Commences the life of Sinchi Rocca, the second Inca

   XVI. The life of Lloqui Yupanqui, the third Inca

  XVII. The life of Mayta Ccapac, the fourth Inca

 XVIII. The life of Ccapac Yupanqui, the fifth Inca

   XIX. The life of Inca Rocca, the sixth Inca

    XX. The life of Titu Cusi Hualpa, vulgarly called

   XXI. What happened after the Ayarmarcas had stolen
          Titu Cusi Hualpa

   XXII. How it became known that Yahuar-huaccac was alive

  XXIII. Yahuar-huaccac Inca Yupanqui commences his reign alone,
           after the death of his father

   XXIV. Life of Viracocha, the eighth Inca

    XXV. The provinces and towns conquered by the eighth Inca

   XXVI. Life of Inca Yupanqui or Pachacuti, the ninth Inca

  XXVII. Coming of the Chancas against Cuzco

 XXVIII. The second victory of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
           over the Chancas

   XXIX. The Inca Yupanqui assumes the sovereignty and takes
           the fringe, without the consent of his father

    XXX. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui rebuilds the city of Cuzco

   XXXI. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui rebuilds the House of the Sun
           and establishes new idols in it

  XXXII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui depopulates two leagues of
           country near Cuzco

 XXXIII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui kills his elder brother
           named Inca Urco

  XXXIV. The nations which Pachacuti Inca subjugated and the
           towns he took; and first of Tocay Ccapac, Sinchi of
           the Ayamarcas, and the destruction of the Cuyos

   XXXV. The other nations conquered by Inca Yupanqui, either
           in person or through his brother Inca Rocca

  XXXVI. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui endows the House of the Sun
           with great wealth

 XXXVII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui conquers the province
           of Colla-suyu

XXXVIII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui sends an army to conquer
           the province of Chinchay-suyu

  XXXIX. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui plants _mitimaes_ in all
           the lands he had conquered

     XL. The Collas, sons of Chuchi Ccapac, rebel against
           Inca Yupanqui to obtain their freedom

    XLI. Amaru Tupac Inca and Apu Paucar Usnu continue the
           conquest of the Collao and again subdue the Collas

   XLII. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui nominates his son Tupac Inca
           Yupanqui as his successor

  XLIII. How Pachacuti armed his son Tupac Inca

   XLIV. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui sends his son Tupac Inca
           Yupanqui to conquer Chinchay-suyu

    XLV. How Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui visited the provinces
           conquered for him by his captains

   XLVI. Tupac Inca Yupanqui sets out, a second time, by
           order of his father, to conquer what remained
           unsubdued in Chinchay-suyu

  XLVII. Death of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui

 XLVIII. The life of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, the tenth Inca

   XLIX. Tupac Inca Yupanqui conquers the province of the Antis

      L. Tupac Inca Yupanqui goes to subdue and pacify the Collas

     LI. Tupac Inca makes the _Yanaconas_

    LII. Tupac Inca Yupanqui orders a second visitation of the
           land, and does other things

   LIII. Tupac Inca makes the fortress of Cuzco

    LIV. Death of Tupac Inca Yupanqui

     LV. The life of Huayna Ccapac, eleventh Inca

    LVI. They give the fringe of Inca to Huayna Ccapac, the
           eleventh Inca

   LVII. The first acts of Huayna Ccapac after he became Inca

  LVIII. Huayna Ccapac conquers Chachapoyas

    LIX. Huayna Ccapac makes a visitation of the whole empire
           from Quito to Chile

     LX. Huayna Ccapac makes war on the Quitos, Pastos,
           Carangues, Cayambis, Huancavilcas

    LXI. The Chirihuanas come to make war in Peru against
           those conquered by the Incas

   LXII. What Huayna Ccapac did after the-said wars

  LXIII. The life of Huascar, the last Inca, and of Atahualpa

   LXIV. Huascar Inca marches in person to fight Chalco
           Chima and Quiz-quiz, the captains of Atahualpa

    LXV. The battle between the armies of Huascar and
           Atahualpa. Huascar made prisoner

   LXVI. What Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz did concerning
           Huascar and those of his side in words

   LXVII. The cruelties that Atahualpa ordered to be
            perpetrated on the prisoners and conquered
            of Huascar's party

  LXVIII. News of the Spaniards comes to Atahualpa

    LXIX. The Spaniards come to Caxamarca and seize
            Atahualpa, who orders Huascar to be killed.
            Atahualpa also dies

     LXX. It is noteworthy how these Incas were tyrants
            against themselves, besides being so against
            the natives of the land

    LXXI. Summary computation of the period that the
            Incas of Peru lasted

Certificate of the proofs and verification of this history

          *          *          *          *          *

Account of the Province of Vilcapampa and a narrative of
    the execution of the Inca Tupac Amaru, by Captain
    Baltasar de Ocampo


1. Map of Central Peru. 1907. By Graham Mackay, R.G.S

Six Facsimiles (reduced) from the Sarmiento MS., 1572
    (Göttingen University Library):

2. _a_. Arms of Philip II of Spain. Coloured

3. _b_. Last page of Sarmiento's introductory Letter
    to Philip II, with his autograph

4. _c_. Arms of Philip II. fol. 1

5. _d_. Title of the Sarmiento MS. fol. 2

6. _e_. Arms of Don Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of
    Peru, 1569--1581. fol. 132

7. _f_. Signatures of the attesting witnesses, 1572. fol. 138

8. Portrait of the Viceroy, Don Francisco de Toledo, at Lima.
     From a sketch by Sir Clements Markham in 1853

9. Group of Incas, in ceremonial dresses, from figures in the
     pictures in the Church of Santa Ana, Cuzco, A.D. 1570.
     From a sketch by Sir Clements Markham in 1853

10. Portraits of the Incas. Facsimile of the Title-page of the
    Fifth Decade of Antonio de Herrera's _Historia General de
    los Hechos de los Castellanos en las Islas y Tierra Firme
    del Mar Oceano_, Madrid, 1615. fol. From the Rev. C.M.
    Cracherode's copy in the British Museum

11. Capture of Atahualpa, and Siege of Cuzco. From the
      Title-page of the Sixth Decade of Antonio de Herrera

12. Map of Vilca-Pampa. 1907. By Graham Mackay, R.G.S

Plates 2--7 have been reproduced from the negatives, kindly lent
for the purpose by Professor Dr Richard Pietschmann, Director of
the Göttingen University Library.

[Illustration: 1907. Series II. Vol. XXII.
Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth.
PORTRAITS OF THE INCAS. From the Rev. C.M. Cracherode's copy in the
British Museum.]


The publication of the text of the Sarmiento manuscript in the Library
of Göttingen University, has enabled the Council to present the members
of the Hakluyt Society with the most authentic narrative of events
connected with the history of the Incas of Peru.

The history of this manuscript, and of the documents which accompanied
it, is very interesting. The Viceroy, Don Francisco de Toledo, who
governed Peru from 1569 to 1581, caused them to be prepared for the
information of Philip II. Four cloths were sent to the King from Cuzco,
and a history of the Incas written by Captain Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa.
On three cloths were figures of the Incas with their wives, on
medallions, with their _Ayllus_ and a genealogical tree. Historical
events in each reign were depicted on the borders. The fable of
Tampu-tocco was shown on the first cloth, and also the fables touching
the creations of Viracocha, which formed the foundation for the whole
history. On the fourth cloth there was a map of Peru, the compass lines
for the positions of towns being drawn by Sarmiento.

The Viceroy also caused reports to be made to him, to prove that the
Incas were usurpers. There were thirteen reports from Cuzco, Guamanga,
Xauxa, Yucay, and other places, forming a folio of 213 leaves, preserved
in the _Archivo de Indias_[1]. At Cuzco all the Inca descendants were
called upon to give evidence respecting the history of Peru under their
ancestors. They all swore that they would give truthful testimony. The
compilation of the history was then entrusted to Captain Pedro Sarmiento
de Gamboa, the cosmographer of Peru. When it was completed the book was
read to the Inca witnesses, chapter by chapter, in their own language.
They discussed each chapter, and suggested some corrections and
alterations which were adopted. It was then submitted to the Viceroy,
who caused the documents to be attested by the principal Spaniards
settled at Cuzco, who had been present at the conquest, or had taken a
leading part in the subsequent administration. These were Dr Loarte, the
licentiate Polo de Ondegardo[2], Alonso de Mena[3], Mancio Serra de
Leguisano[4], Pero Alonso Carrasco, and Juan de Pancorvo[5], in whose
house the Viceroy resided while he was at Cuzco. Mancio Serra de
Leguisano married Beatriz Ñusta, an Inca princess, daughter of Huayna
Ccapac. The Viceroy then made some final interpolations to vilify the
Incas, which would not have been approved by some of those who had
attested, certainly not by Polo de Ondegardo or Leguisano.

[Note 1: Printed in the same volume with Montesinos, and edited by
Jimenes de la Espada, _Informaciones acerca del señorio y gobierno de
los Ingas hechas por mandado de Don Francisco de Toledo,_ 1570--72.]

[Note 2: The accomplished lawyer, author, and statesman.]

[Note 3: One of the first conquerors. His house at Cuzco was in the
square of our Lady, near that of Garcilasso de la Vega.]

[Note 4: A generous defender of the cause of the Indians.]

[Note 5: One of the first conquerors. He occupied a house near the
square, with his friend and comrade Alonso de Marchena.]

Sarmiento mentions in his history of the Incas that it was intended to
be the Second Part of his work. There were to be three Parts. The First,
on the geography of Peru, was not sent because it was not finished. The
Third Part was to have been a narrative of the conquest.

The four cloths, and the other documents, were taken to Spain, for
presentation to the King, by a servant of the Viceroy named Geronimo
Pacheco, with a covering letter dated at Yucay on March 1st, 1572.

Of all these precious documents the most important was the history of
the Incas by Sarmiento, and it has fortunately been preserved. The
King's copy found its way into the famous library of Abraham Gronovius,
which was sold in 1785, and thence into the library of the University of
Göttingen, where it remained, unprinted and unedited, for 120 years. But
in August, 1906, the learned librarian, Dr Richard Pietschmann published
the text at Berlin, very carefully edited and annotated with a valuable
introduction. The Council of the Hakluyt Society is thus enabled to
present an English translation to its members very soon after the first
publication of the text. It is a complement of the other writings of the
great navigator, which were translated and edited for the Hakluyt
Society in 1895.

The manuscript consists of eight leaves of introduction and 138 of text.
The dedicatory letter to the King is signed by Sarmiento on March 4th,
1572. The binding was of red silk, under which there is another binding
of green leather. The first page is occupied by a coloured shield of the
royal arms, with a signature _el Capitã Sarmi de Gãboa_. On the second
page is the title, surrounded by an ornamental border. The manuscript is
in a very clear hand, and at the end are the arms of Toledo (_chequy
azure and argent_) with the date Cuzco, 29 Feb., 1572. There is also the
signature of the Secretary, Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel[6].

[Note 6: Alvaro Ruiz and his brother Captain Francisco Ruiz were the
sons of Francisco Santiago Rodriguez de los Rios by Inez de Navamuel.
Both used their mother's name of Navamuel as their surname; and both
were born at Aquilar del Campo. Alonso Ruiz de Navamuel was Secretary to
the governments of five successive Viceroys. He wrote a _Relacion de las
cosas mas notables que hiza en el Peru, siendo Virev Don Francisco de
Toledo, 20 Dec. 1578_. He died in the year 1613. The descendants of his
son Juan de los Rios formed the _mayorazgos_ of Rios and Cavallero.

By his wife Angela Ortiz de Arbildo y Berriz, a Biscayan, he had a
daughter Inez married to her cousin Geronimo Aliaga, a son of the
Secretary's brother Captain Francisco Ruiz de Navamuel, the
_encomendero_ of Caracoto in the Collao, by Juana, daughter of Captain
Geronimo de Aliaga. His marriage, at which the Viceroy Toledo was
present, took place on November 23rd, 1578. From the marriage of the
younger Geronimo de Aliaga with Inez Navamuel, descend the Aliagas,
Counts of Luringancho in Peru.]

The history of the Incas by Sarmiento is, without any doubt, the most
authentic and reliable that has yet appeared. For it was compiled from
the carefully attested evidence of the Incas themselves, taken under
official sanction. Each sovereign Inca formed an _ayllu_ or "gens" of
his descendants, who preserved the memory of his deeds in _quipus_,
songs, and traditions handed down and learnt by heart. There were many
descendants of each of these _ayllus_ living near Cuzco in 1572, and the
leading members were examined on oath; so that Sarmiento had
opportunities of obtaining accurate information which no other writer
possessed. For the correct versions of the early traditions, and for
historical facts and the chronological order of events, Sarmiento is the
best authority.

But no one can supersede the honest and impartial old soldier, Pedro de
Cieza de Leon, as regards the charm of his style and the confidence to
be placed in his opinions; nor the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega as regards
his reminiscences and his fascinating love for his people. Molina and
Yamqui Pachacuti give much fuller details respecting the ceremonial
festivals and religious beliefs. Polo de Ondegardo and Santillana supply
much fuller and more reliable information respecting the laws and
administration of the Incas. It is in the historical narrative and the
correct order of events that Sarmiento, owing to his exceptional means
of collecting accurate information, excels all other writers.

There is one serious blemish. Sarmiento's book was written, not only or
mainly to supply interesting information, but with an object. Bishop Las
Casas had made Europe ring with the cruelties of the Spaniards in the
Indies, and with the injustice and iniquity of their conquests. Don
Francisco de Toledo used this narrative for the purpose of making a
feeble reply to the good bishop. Under his instructions Sarmiento stated
the Viceroy's argument, which was that the King of Spain was the
rightful sovereign of Peru because the Incas had usurped their power by
conquest and had been guilty of acts of cruelty. Hence the constant
repetition of such phrases as "cruel tyranny" and "usurping tyrant"; and
the numerous interpolations of the Viceroy himself are so obvious that I
have put them in italics within brackets. He goes back as far as the
first Inca to make out the usurpation, and he is always harping on
illegitimacy. If we go back as far as Sancho IV the title of Philip II
to Spain was voided by the grossest usurpation, while we need only go
back to Henry II to see how Philip's title was vitiated by illegitimacy.
As for cruelty, it would be a strange plea from the sovereign by whose
orders the Netherlands were devastated, the Moors of Granada almost
annihilated, and under whose rule the Inquisition was in full swing. It
is the old story of preaching without practice, as Dr Newman once
observed in quoting what James I said to George Heriot:

     "O Geordie, jingling Geordie, it was grand to hear Baby Charles
     laying down the guilt of dissimulation, and Steenie lecturing on
     the turpitude of incontinence."

It is right to say that Philip never seems to have endorsed the argument
of his Viceroy, while his father prohibited the circulation of a book by
Dr Sepulveda which contained a similar argument; nor was the work of
Sarmiento published.

Barring this blemish, the history of the Incas, written by order of the
Viceroy Toledo, is a most valuable addition to the authorities who have
given us authentic accounts of Andean civilization; for we may have
every confidence in the care and accuracy of Sarmiento as regards his
collection and statement of historical facts, provided that we always
keep in mind the bias, and the orders he was under, to seek support for
the Viceroy's untenable argument.

I have given all I have been able to find respecting the life of
Sarmiento in the introduction to my edition of the voyages of that
celebrated navigator.

But the administration of the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo, from 1569
to 1581, forms a landmark in the history of Peru, and seems to call for
some notice in this place. He found the country in an unsettled state,
with the administrative system entirely out of gear. Though no longer
young he entered upon the gigantic task of establishing an orderly
government, and resolved to visit personally every part of the vast
territory under his rule. This stupendous undertaking occupied him for
five years. He was accompanied by ecclesiastics, by men well versed in
the language of the Incas and in their administrative policy, and by his
secretary and aide-de-camp. These were the Bishop of Popayan, Augustin
de la Coruña, the Augustine friars Juan Vivero and Francisco del Corral,
the Jesuit and well-known author, Joseph de Acosta, the Inquisitor Pedro
Ordoñez Flores, his brother, the Viceroy's chaplain and confessor, the
learned lawyer Juan Matienzo, whose work is frequently quoted by
Solorzano[7], the licentiate Polo de Ondegardo, who had been some years
in the country and had acquired an intimate knowledge of the laws of the
Incas, the secretary Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel, and as aide-de-camp his
young nephew, Geronimo de Figueroa, son of his brother Juan, the
Ambassador at Rome[8].

[Note 7: In his _Politica Indiana_. There are two manuscripts of
Juan Matienzo de Peralta at the British Museum, _Govierno del Peru_ and
_Relacion del libro intitulado Govierno del Peru_, apparently one work
in two parts. _Add. MSS_. 5469, in Gayangos Catalogue, vol. II. p. 470.]

[Note 8: Some sons took the father's surname, others that of the
mother. The Viceroy had the name of his father, Francisco Alvarez de
Toledo, the third Count of Oropesa, while his brother Juan had the
surname of Figueroa, being that of his mother.]

Toledo was endowed with indefatigable zeal for the public service, great
energy, and extraordinary powers of application. He took the opinions of
others, weighed them carefully, and considered long before he adopted
any course. But he was narrow-minded and obstinate, and when he had once
determined on a measure nothing could alter him. His ability is
undoubted, and his appointment, at this particular juncture, is a proof
of Philip's sagacity.

The Viceroy's intercourse with Polo de Ondegardo informed him respecting
the administrative system of the Incas, so admirably adapted to the
genius of the people, and he had the wisdom to see that there was much
to learn from it. His policy was to collect the people, who, to a great
extent, were scattered over the country and hiding from the Spaniards,
in villages placed near the centres of their cultivated or pasture
lands. He fixed the numbers in each village at 400 to 500, with a priest
and Alcalde. He also ordered the boundaries of all the parishes to be
settled. Spanish Corregidors were to take the places of the _Tucuyricoc_
or governors of Inca times, and each village had an elected Alcalde
approved by the Corregidor. Under him there were to be two overseers, a
_Pichca pachaca_ over 500, and a _Pachaca_ as assistant. Another
important measure was the settlement of the tribute. The name "tribute"
was unfortunate. The system was that of the Incas, and the same which
prevailed throughout the east. The government was the landlord, and the
so-called "tribute" was rent. The Incas took two-thirds for the state
and for religion, and set apart one-third for the cultivators. Toledo
did much the same, assessing, according to the nature of the soil, the
crops, and other local circumstances. For the formation of villages and
the assessment of the tribute he promulgated a whole code of ordinances,
many of them intended to prevent local oppression in various forms.

The Viceroy next took up the questions of the position of _yana-cunas_
or domestic servants, and of forced service. Both these institutions
existed in Incarial times. All that was needed were moderate laws for
the protection of servants and conscripts, and the enforcement of such
laws. Toledo allowed a seventh of the adult male population in each
village to be made liable for service in mines or factories, fixed the
distance they could be taken from their homes, and made rules for their
proper treatment. It is true that the _mita_, as it was called, was
afterwards an instrument of cruel oppression, that rules were
disregarded, and that it depopulated the country. But this was not the
fault of Toledo.

The Viceroy gave much attention to the mining industry, promoted the
introduction of the use of mercury in the extraction of silver, and
founded the town of Huancavelica near the quick-silver mine. His
personality pervaded every department of the state, and his _tasas_ or
ordinances fill a large volume. He was a prolific legislator and a great

His worst mistake was the policy he adopted with regard to the family of
the Incas. He desired to establish the position of the King of Spain
without a rival. He, therefore, sought to malign the preceding dynasty,
persecuted the descendants of the Incas, and committed one act of cruel

When Atahualpa put his half-brother Huascar, the last reigning Inca, to
death, there remained three surviving sons of their father the great
Inca Huayna Ccapac, named Manco, Paullu, and Titu Atauchi, and several
daughters. After his occupation of Cuzco, Pizarro acknowledged Manco
Inca as the legitimate successor of his brother Huascar, and he was
publicly crowned, receiving all the insignia on March 24th, 1534. He
escaped from the Spaniards and besieged them in Cuzco at the head of a
large army. Forced to raise the siege he established his head-quarters
at Ollantay-tampu, where he repulsed an attack led by Hernando Pizarro.
He was, however, defeated by Orgoñiez, the lieutenant of Almagro, and
took refuge in the mountainous province of Vilcapampa on the left bank
of the Vilcamayu. From thence he made constant attacks on the Spaniards,
maintaining his independence in this small remnant of his dominions.
Some of the partisans of Almagro took refuge with him, and he was
accidentally killed by one of them in 1544, after a not inglorious reign
of ten years.

He left two legitimate sons, named Sayri Tupac and Tupac Amaru, by his
wife and niece the Princess Ataria Cusi Huarcay, daughter of his
ill-fated brother Huascar. This marriage was legalized by a bull of Pope
Paul III in the time of the Viceroy Marquis of Cañete, 1555--1561. He
had also an illegitimate son named Cusi Titu Yupanqui, and a daughter
named Maria Tupac Usca, married to Don Pedro Ortiz de Orue, one of the
first conquerors[9].

[Note 9: Diego Ortiz de Orue was born in the village of Getafe, near
Madrid. He went out to Peru in 1559, and at once began to study the
Quichua language. He was _encomendero_ of Maras, a village overlooking
the valley of Yucay. By the Inca princess he had a daughter named
Catalina married to Don Luis Justiniani of Seville, descended from the
Genoese family. Their son Luis was the grandfather of Dr Justo Pastor
Justiniani who married Manuela Cataño, descended from Tupac Inca
Yupanqui. Their son Don Pablo Justiniani was Cura of Laris until his
death in 1858, and was a great depository of Inca lore. He had a very
early copy of the Inca drama of Ollanta.]

Sayri Tupac succeeded as fourteenth Inca of Peru. On the arrival of the
Marquis of Cañete as Viceroy in 1555, he caused overtures to be made to
Sayri Tupac through his aunts, who were living at Cuzco with their
Spanish husbands, Juan Sierra de Leguisano and Diego Hernandez. It was
finally arranged that the Inca should receive 17000 _castellanos_ of
rent and the valley of Yucay. On October 7th, 1557, Sayri Tupac left
Vilcapampa with 300 followers, reaching Andahuaylas on November 5th. He
entered Lima on January 6th, 1558, was cordially greeted by the Viceroy
and received investiture, assuming the names of Manco Ccapac Pachacuti
Yupanqui. He went to live in the lovely vale of Yucay. He had been
baptized with the name of Diego, but he did not long survive, dying at
Yucay in 1560. His daughter Clara Beatriz married Don Martin Garcia
Loyola. Their daughter Lorenza was created Marchioness of Oropesa and
Yucay, with remainder to descendants of her great uncle Tupac Amaru. She
was the wife of Juan Henriquez de Borja, grandson of the Duke of Gandia.

On the death of Sayri Tupac, his illegitimate brother, Cusi Titu
Yupanqui assumed sovereignty, owing to the youth of the legitimate
brother Tupac Amaru, both remaining in Vilcapampa.

Paullu Tupac Yupanqui, the next brother of Manco Inca, was baptized with
the name of Cristóval. He accompanied Almagro in his expedition to
Chile, and was with young Almagro at the battle of Chupas. Eventually he
was allowed to fix his residence on the Colcampata of Cuzco, at the foot
of the fortress, and by the side of the church of San Cristóval. From
the terrace of the Colcampata there is a glorious view with the snowy
peak of Vilcañota in the far distance. Paullu died in May, 1549, and was
succeeded on the Colcampata by his son Carlos Inca. He had two other
sons named Felipe and Bartolomé. From the latter was descended the late
Archdeacon of Cuzco, Dr Justo Salmaraura Inca.

Titu Atauchi, the youngest son of Huayna Ccapac, had a son Alonso.

The princesses, daughters of Huayna Ccapac and sisters of Manco and
Paullu, were Beatriz Ñusta, married first to Martin de Mustincia, and
secondly to Diego Hernandez of Talavera; Leonor Ñusta, the wife of Juan
de Balsa, who was killed at the battle of Chupas on the side of young
Almagro, secondly of Francisco de Villacastin: Francisca Ñusta, niece of
Huayna Ccapac, married to Juan de Collantes, and was great-grandmother
of Bishop Piedrahita, the historian of Nueva Granada: another Beatriz
Ñusta married Mancio Sierra de Leguisano, the generous defender of the
natives; and Inez Ñusta married first Francisco Pizarro and had a
daughter Francisca, who has descendants, and secondly to Francisco
Ampuero. Angelina, daughter of Atahualpa, was married to Juan de
Betanzos, the author and Quichua scholar. The brother of Huayna Ccapac,
named Hualpa Tupac Yupanqui, had a daughter, Isabel Ñusta Yupanqui, the
wife of Garcilasso de la Vega, and mother of the Inca Garcilasso de la
Vega[10], the historian, author of the _Comentarios Reales_.

[Note 10: The Inca Garcilasso was a third cousin of the regicide
Viceroy Toledo. Their great grandfathers were brothers.]

This then was the position of the Inca family when the Viceroy,
Francisco de Toledo, came to Cuzco in 1571. Cusi Titu Yupanqui and Tupac
Amaru, sons of the Inca Manco were in the mountains of Vilcapampa, the
former maintaining his independence. Carlos Inca, son of Paullu, was
baptized, and living on the Colcampata at Cuzco with his wife Maria de
Esquivel. Seven Inca princesses had married Spaniards, most of them
living at Cuzco with their husbands and children.

The events, connected with the Inca family, which followed on the
arrival of the Viceroy Toledo at Cuzco, will be found fully described in
this volume. It need only be stated here that the inexorable tyrant,
having got the innocent young prince Tupac Amaru into his power,
resolved to put him to death. The native population was overwhelmed with
grief. The Spaniards were horrified. They entreated that the lad might
be sent to Spain to be judged by the King. The heads of religious orders
and other ecclesiastics went down on their knees. Nothing could move the
obstinate narrow-minded Viceroy. The deed was done.

When too late Toledo seems to have had some misgivings. The judicial
murder took place in December, 1571. The history of the Incas was
finished in March, 1572. Yet there is no mention of the death of Tupac
Amaru. For all that appears he might have been still in Vilcapampa.
Nevertheless the tidings reached Philip II, and the Viceroy's conduct
was not approved.

There was astonishing audacity on the part of Toledo, in basing
arguments on the alleged cruelty and tyranny of the Incas, when the man
was actually red-handed with the blood of an innocent youth, and engaged
in the tyrannical persecution of his relations and the hideous torture
of his followers. His arguments made no impression on the mind of Philip
II. The King even showed some favour to the children of Tupac Amaru by
putting them in the succession to the Marquisate of Oropesa. In the Inca
pedigrees Toledo is called "el execrable regicidio." When he presented
himself on his return from Peru the King angrily exclaimed: "Go away to
your house; for I sent you to serve kings; and you went to kill

[Note 11: "Idos a vuestra casa, que yo os envie a servir reyes; y
vos fuiste a matar reyes."]

All his faithful services as a legislator and a statesman could not
atone for this cruel judicial murder in the eyes of his sovereign. He
went back to his house a disgraced and broken-hearted man, and died soon

The history of the Incas by Sarmiento is followed, in this volume, by a
narrative of the execution of Tupac Amaru and of the events leading to
it, by an eye-witness, the Captain Baltasar de Ocampo. It has been
translated from a manuscript in the British Museum.

The narrative of Ocampo, written many years after the event, is
addressed to the Viceroy Marquis of Montes Claros. Its main object was
to give an account of the province of Vilcapampa, and to obtain some
favours for the Spanish settlers there.

Vilcapampa is a region of very special historical and geographical
interest, and it is one of which very little is known. It is a
mountainous tract of country, containing the lofty range of Vilcacunca
and several fertile valleys, between the rivers Apurimac and Vilcamayu,
to the north of Cuzco. The mountains rise abruptly from the valley of
the Vilcamayu below Ollantay-tampu, where the bridge of Chuqui-chaca
opened upon paths leading up into a land of enchantment. No more lovely
mountain scenery can be found on this earth. When Manco Inca escaped
from the Spaniards he took refuge in Vilcapampa, and established his
court and government there. The Sun temple, the convent of virgins, and
the other institutions of the Incas at Cuzco, were transferred to this
mountain fastness. Even handsome edifices were erected. Here the Incas
continued to maintain their independence for 35 years.

Ocampo opens his story with a very interesting account of the baptism of
Melchior Carlos, son of Carlos Inca, who had become a Christian, and
lived in the palace on the Colcampata at Cuzco. He then describes the
events which culminated in the capture, of the Inca Tupac Amaru, and
gives a pathetic and touching account of the judicial murder of that
ill-fated young prince. Ocampo was an actor in these events and an
eye-witness. The rest of his narrative consists of reminiscences of
occurrences in Vilcapampa after it was occupied by the Spaniards. He
owned property there, and was a settler holding official posts. He tells
of the wealth and munificence of a neighbour. He gives the history of an
expedition into the forests to the northward, which will form material
for the history of these expeditions when it is written. He tells the
story of an insurrection among the negro labourers, and complains of the
spiritual destitution of his adopted land. He finally returns to Cuzco
and gives an account of a very magnificent pageant and tilting match.
But this story should have preceded the mournful narrative of the fate
of Tupac Amaru; for the event took place at the time of the baptism of
Melchior Carlos, and before the Viceroy Toledo became a regicide.
Ocampo's story is that of an honest old soldier, inclined to be
garrulous, but an eye-witness of some most interesting events in the
history of Peru.

I think it is an appropriate sequel to the history by Sarmiento, because
it supplies material for judging whether the usurpation and tyranny were
on the side of the Incas or of their accuser.

[Illustration: _Facsimile (reduced) of_ PAGE II OF THE SARMIENTO MS. 1572.
_From the original, Göttingen University Library.
Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth._]













[Illustration: _Facsimile (reduced) of_ PAGE I OF THE SARMIENTO MS. 1572.
_From the original, Göttingen University Library_.
_Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth_.]


Among the excellencies, O sovereign and catholic Philip, that are the
glorious decorations of princes, placing them on the highest pinnacle of
estimation, are, according to the father of Latin eloquence, generosity,
kindness, and liberality. And as the Roman Consuls held this to be the
principal praise of their glory, they had this title curiously
sculptured in marble on the Quirinal and in the forum of Trajan---"Most
powerful gift in a Prince is liberality[12]." For this kings who desired
much to be held dear by their own people and to be feared by strangers,
were incited to acquire the name of liberal. Hence that royal sentence
became immortal "It is right for kings to give." As this was a quality
much valued among the Greeks, the wise Ulysses, conversing with
Antinous[13], King of the Phæacians, said---"You are something like a
king, for you know how to give, better than others." Hence it is certain
that liberality is a good and necessary quality of kings.

[Note 12: "Primum signum nobilitatis est liberalitas."]

[Note 13: Alcinous.]

I do not pretend on this ground, most liberal monarch, to insinuate to
your Majesty the most open frankness, for it would be very culpable on
my part to venture to suggest a thing which, to your Majesty, is so
natural that you would be unable to live without it. Nor will it happen
to so high minded and liberal a lord and king, what befell the Emperor
Titus who, remembering once, during supper time, that he had allowed one
day to pass without doing some good, gave utterance to this laudable
animadversion of himself. "O friends! I have lost a day[14]." For not
only does your Majesty not miss a day, but not even an hour, without
obliging all kinds of people with benefits and most gracious liberality.
The whole people, with one voice, says to your Majesty what Virgil sang
to Octavianus Augustus:

    "Nocte pluit tota, redeunt spectacula mane,
     Divisum imperium cum Jove Cæsar habet."

[Note 14: "Amici! diem perdidi." Suetonius.]

But what I desire to say is that for a king who complies so well with
the obligation of liberality, and who gives so much, it is necessary
that he should possess much; for nothing is so suitable for a prince as
possessions and riches for his gifts and liberalities, as Tully says, as
well as to acquire glory. For it is certain, as we read in Sallust that
"in a vast empire there is great glory[15]"; and in how much it is
greater, in so much it treats of great things. Hence the glory of a king
consists in his possessing many vassals, and the abatement of his glory
is caused by the diminution of the number of his subjects.

[Note 15: Proem of Catiline.]

Of this glory, most Christian king, God Almighty gives you so large a
share in this life that all the enemies of the holy catholic church of
Christ our Lord tremble at your exalted name; whence you most justly
deserve to be named the strength of the church. As the treasure which
God granted that your ancestors should spend, with such holy
magnanimity, on worthy and holy deeds, in the extirpation of heretics,
in driving the accursed Saracens out of Spain, in building churches,
hospitals and monasteries, and in an infinite number of other works of
charity and justice, with the zeal of zealous fathers of their country,
not only entitled them to the most holy title of catholics, but the most
merciful and almighty God, whom they served with all their hearts, saw
fit to commence repayment with temporal goods, in the present age. It is
certain that "He who grants celestial rewards does not take away
temporal blessings[16]," so that they earned more than the mercies they
received. This was the grant to them of the evangelical office, choosing
them from among all the kings of this world as the evangelizers of his
divine word in the most remote and unknown lands of those blind and
barbarous gentiles. We now call those lands the Indies of Castille,
because through the ministry of that kingdom they will be put in the way
of salvation, God himself being the true pilot. He made clear and easy
the dark and fearful Atlantic sea which had been an awful portent to the
most ancient Argives, Athenians, Egyptians, and Phoenicians, and what is
more to the proud Hercules, who, having come to Cadiz from the east, and
seen the wide Atlantic sea, he thought this was the end of the world and
that there was no more land. So he set up his columns with this
inscription "Ultra Gades nil" or "Beyond Cadiz there is nothing." But as
human knowledge is ignorance in the sight of God, and the force of the
world but weakness in his presence, it was very easy, with the power of
the Almighty and of your grandparents, to break and scatter the mists
and difficulties of the enchanted ocean. Laughing with good reason at
Alcides and his inscription, they discovered the Indies which were very
populous in souls to whom the road to heaven could be shown. The Indies
are also most abundant in all kinds of inestimable treasures, with which
the heavy expenses were repaid to them, and yet remained the richest
princes in the world, and thus continued to exercise their holy and
Christian liberality until death. By reason of this most famous
navigation, and new and marvellous discovery, they amended the
inscription on the columns of Hercules, substituting "Plus ultra" for
"Ultra Gades nil"; the meaning was, and with much truth, that further on
there are many lands. So this inscription, "Plus ultra," remained on the
blazon of the arms and insignia of the Indies of Castille.

[Note 16: From the poem of Coelius Sedulius, a Christian poet who
flourished about A.D. 450. The passage is--"Hostis Herodes impie
Christum venire quod timeo? Non eripit mortalia qui regna dat
coelestia." (Note by Dr Peitschmann.)]

As there are few who are not afflicted by the accursed hunger for gold,
and as good successes are food for an enemy, the devil moved the bosoms
of some powerful princes with the desire to take part in this great
business. Alexander VI, the Vicar of Jesus Christ, considering that this
might give rise to impediments in preaching the holy evangel to the
barbarous idolaters, besides other evils which might be caused, desired
of his own proper motion, without any petition from the catholic kings,
by authority of Almighty God, to give, and he gave and conceded for
ever, the islands and main lands which were then discovered and which
might hereafter be discovered within the limits and demarcation of 180°
of longitude, which is half the world, with all the dominions, rights,
jurisdictions and belongings, prohibiting the navigation and trading in
those lands from whatever cause, to the other princes, kings, and
emperors from the year 1493, to prevent many inconveniences.

But as the devil saw that this door was shut, which he had begun to open
to introduce by it dissensions and disturbances, he tried to make war by
means of the very soldiers who resisted him, who were the same
preachers. They began to make a difficulty about the right and title
which the kings of Castille had over these lands. As your invincible
father was very jealous in matters touching his conscience, he ordered
this point to be examined, as closely as possible, by very learned
doctors who, according to the report which was given out, were indirect
and doubtful in their conclusions. They gave it as their opinion that
these Incas, who ruled in these kingdoms of Peru, were and are the true
and natural lords of that land. This gave a handle to foreigners, as
well catholics as heretics and other infidels, for throwing doubt on the
right which the kings of Spain claim and have claimed to the Indies.
Owing to this the Emperor Don Carlos of glorious memory was on the point
of abandoning them, which was what the enemy of the faith of Christ
wanted, that he might regain the possession of the souls which he had
kept in blindness for so many ages.

All this arose owing to want of curiosity on the part of the governors
in those lands, at that time, who did not use the diligence necessary
for ascertaining the truth, and also owing to certain reports of the
Bishop of Chiapa who was moved to passion against certain conquerors in
his bishoprick with whom he had persistent disputes, as I knew when I
passed through Chiapa and Guatemala[17]. Though his zeal appears holy
and estimable, he said things on the right to this country gained by the
conquerors of it, which differ from the evidence and judicial proofs
which have been seen and taken down by us, and from what we who have
travelled over the Indies enquiring about these things, leisurely and
without war, know to be the facts[18].

[Note 17: See the introduction to my _Voyages of Sarmiento_ p. x.]

[Note 18: Sarmiento here refers to the efforts of Las Casas to
protect the natives from the tyranny and cruelties of the Spanish
settlers. He appears to have been in Guatemala when Las Casas arrived to
take up his appointment as Bishop of Chiapas, and encountered hostility
and obstruction from certain "conquistadores de su obispado," as
Sarmiento calls them. On his return to Spain, the good Las Casas found
that a certain Dr Sepulveda had written a treatise maintaining the right
of Spain to subdue the natives by war. Las Casas put forward his
_Historia Apologetica_ in reply. A Junta of theologians was convoked at
Valladolid in 1550, before which Sepulveda attacked and Las Casas
defended the cause of the natives. Mr. Helps (_Spanish conquest in
America_, vol. iv. Book xx. ch. 2) has given a lucid account of the
controversy. Sarmiento is quite wrong in saying that Las Casas was
ignorant of the history of Peru. The portion of his _Historia
Apologetica_ relating to Peru, entitled _De las antiguas gentes del
Peru_, has been edited and published by Don Marcos Jimenez de la Espada
in the "Coleccion de libros Españoles raros ó curiosos" (1892). It shows
that Las Casas knew the works of Xeres, Astete, Cieza de Leon, Molina,
and probably others; and that he had a remarkably accurate knowledge of
Peruvian history.]

This chaos and confusion of ignorance on the subject being so spread
over the world and rooted in the opinions of the best informed literary
men in Christendom, God put it into the heart of your Majesty to send
Don Francisco de Toledo, Mayor-domo of your royal household, as Viceroy
of these kingdoms[19]. When he arrived, he found many things to do, and
many things to amend. Without resting after the dangers and long voyages
in two seas which he had suffered, he put the needful order into all the
things undertook new and greater labours, such as no former viceroys or
governors had undertaken or even thought of. His determination was to
travel over this most rugged country himself, to make a general
visitation of it, during which, though it is not finished, it is certain
that he has remedied many and very great faults and abuses in the
teaching and ministry of the Christian doctrine, giving holy and wise
advice to its ministers that they should perform their offices as
becomes the service of God, and the discharge of your royal conscience,
reducing the people to congregations of villages formed on suitable and
healthy sites which had formerly been on crags and rocks where they were
neither taught nor received spiritual instruction. In such places they
lived and died like wild savages, worshipping idols as in the time of
their Inca tyrants and of their blind heathenism. Orders were given to
stop their public drinking bouts, their concubinage and worship of their
idols and devils, emancipating and freeing them from the tyrannies, of
their _curacas_, and finally giving them a rational life, which was
before that of brutes in their manner of loading them as such.

[Note 19: Don Francisco de Toledo was Viceroy of Peru, from Nov.
16th, 1569, to Sept. 28th, 1581, and in some respects a remarkable man.
He was a younger son of the third Count of Oropesa who had a common
ancestor with the Dukes of Alva. His mother was Maria de Figueroa
daughter of the Count of Feria. Through her he was directly descended
from the first Duke of Alva. He was a first cousin of that Duke of Feria
who made a love match with Jane Dormer, the friend and playmate of our
Edward VI. Moreover Don Francisco was a third cousin of Charles V. Their
great grandmothers were sisters, daughters of Fadrique Henriquez, the
Admiral of Castille.

This Viceroy was advanced in years. He held the appointment of a
Mayor-domo at the court of Philip II, and another brother Juan was
Ambassador at Rome. The Viceroy Toledo came to Peru with the
Inquisition, which proved as great a nuisance to him as it was a
paralyzing source of terror to his people. He was a man of extraordinary
energy and resolution, and was devoted heart and soul to the public
service. Sarmiento does not speak too highly of his devotion to duty in
undertaking a personal visit to every part of his government. He was a
most prolific legislator, founding his rules, to some extent, on the
laws of the Incas. He was shrewd but narrow minded and heartless; and
his judicial murder of the young Inca, Tupac Amaru, has cast an
indelible stain on his memory.

Such a man could have no chance in an attack on the sound arguments of
Las Casas.

There is a picture which depicts the outward appearance of the Viceroy
Toledo. A tall man with round stooping shoulders, in a suit of black
velvet with the green cross of Alcantara embroidered on his cloak. A
gloomy sallow face, with aquiline nose, high forehead and piercing black
eyes too close together. The face is shaded by a high beaver hat, while
one hand holds a sword, and the other rests on a table.]

[Illustration: _Facsimile (reduced) of the_
_From the Sarmiento MS. 1572, Göttingen University Library.
Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth._]

The work done by your Viceroy is such that the Indians are regenerated,
and they call him loudly their protector and guardian, and your Majesty
who sent him, they call their father. So widely has the news spread of
the benefits he has conferred and is still conferring, that the wild
warlike Indians in many contiguous provinces, holding themselves to be
secure under his word and safe conduct, have come to see and communicate
with him, and have promised obedience spontaneously to your Majesty.
This has happened in the Andes of Xauxa, near Pilcocanti, and among the
Mañaries and Chunchos to the east of Cuzco. These were sent back to
their homes, grateful and attached to your royal service, with the
presents he gave them and the memory of their reception.

[Illustration: DON FRANCISCO DE TOLEDO, Viceroy of Peru, A.D. 1569-1581.
After the portrait at Lima, from a sketch by Sir Clements Markham, 1853.]

Among Christians, it is not right to take anything without a good title,
yet that which your Majesty has to these parts, though more holy and
more honourable than that which any other kings in the world have for
any of their possessions, has suffered detriment, as I said before, in
the consciences of many learned men and others, for want of correct
information. The Viceroy proposes to do your Majesty a most signal
service in this matter, besides the performance of all the other duties
of which he has charge. This is to give a secure and quiet harbour to
your royal conscience against the tempests raised even by your own
natural subjects, theologians and other literary men, who have expressed
serious opinions on the subject, based on incorrect information.
Accordingly, in his general visitation, which he is making personally
throughout the kingdom, he has verified from the root and established by
a host of witnesses examined with the greatest diligence and care, taken
from among the principal old men of the greatest ability and authority
in the kingdom, and even those who pretend to have an interest in it
from being relations and descendants of the Incas, the terrible,
inveterate and horrible tyranny of the Incas, being the tyrants who
ruled in these kingdoms of Peru, and the _curacas_ who governed the
districts. This will undeceive all those in the world who think that the
Incas were legitimate sovereigns, and that the _curacas_ were natural
lords of the land. In order that your Majesty may, with the least
trouble and the most pleasure, be informed, and the rest, who are of a
contrary opinion, be undeceived, I was ordered by the Viceroy Don
Francisco de Toledo, whom I follow and serve in this general visitation,
to take this business in hand, and write a history of the deeds of the
twelve Incas of this land, and of the origin of the people, continuing
the narrative to the end. This I have done with all the research and
diligence that was required, as your Majesty will see in the course of
the perusal and by the ratification of witnesses. It will certify to the
truth of the worst and most inhuman tyranny of these Incas and of their
_curacas_ who are not and never were original lords of the soil, but
were placed there by Tupac Inca Yupanqui, [_the greatest, the most
atrocious and harmful tyrant of them all_]. The _curacas_ were and still
are great tyrants appointed by other great and violent tyrants, as will
clearly and certainly appear in the history; so that the tyranny is
proved, as well as that the Incas were strangers in Cuzco, and that they
had seized the valley of Cuzco, and all the rest of their territory from
Quito to Chile by force of arms, making themselves Incas without the
consent or election of the natives.

Besides this, there are their tyrannical laws and customs. [_It will be
understood that your Majesty has a specially true and holy title to
these kingdoms of Peru, because your Majesty and your most sacred
ancestors stopped the sacrifices of innocent men, the eating of human
flesh, the accursed sin, the promiscuous concubinage with sisters and
mothers, the abominable use of beasts, and their wicked and accursed
customs[20].]_ For from each one God demands an account of his
neighbour, and this duty specially appertains to princes, and above all
to your Majesty. Only for this may war be made and prosecuted by the
right to put a stop to the deeds of tyrants. Even if they had been true
and natural lords of the soil, it would be lawful to remove them and
introduce a new government, because man may rightly be punished for
these sins against nature, though the native community has not been
opposed to such practices nor desires to be avenged, as innocent, by the
Spaniards. For in this case they have no right to deliver themselves and
their children over to death, and they should be forced to observe
natural laws, as we are taught by the Archbishop of Florence, Innocent,
supported by Fray, Francisco de Victoria in his work on the title to the
Indies. So that by this title alone, without counting many others, your
Majesty has the most sufficient and legitimate right to the Indies,
better than any other prince in the world has to any lordship whatever.
For, whether more or less concealed or made known, in all the lands that
have been discovered in the two seas of your Majesty, north and south,
this general breaking of the law of nature has been found.

[Note 20: For a contradiction of these slanders by an impartial
witness see Cieza de Leon, ii. p. 78.]

By this same title your Majesty may also, without scruple, order the
conquest of those islands of the archipelago of "Nombre de Jesus,"
vulgarly but incorrectly called the Solomon Isles, of which I gave
notice and personally discovered in the year 1567; although it was for
the General Alvaro de Mendaña; and many others which are in the same
South Sea[21]. I offer myself to your Majesty to discover and settle
these islands, which will make known and facilitate all the commercial
navigation, with the favour of God, by shorter routes. I offer much,
well do I see it, but I trust in almighty God with whose favour, I
believe I can do what I say in your royal service. The talent which God
has given me leads me to aspire to the accomplishment of these
achievements, and does not demand of me a strict account, and I believe
that I shall comply with what will be required, for never did I so wish
to achieve anything. Your Majesty sees and does not lose what other
kings desire and hold by good fortune. This makes me speak so freely of
my desire to die in your service in which I have laboured since my
childhood, and under what circumstances others may say.

[Note 21: See my introduction to the _Voyages of Sarmiento_, pp.

Believing that, in writing this present history, I have not done a less
but a greater service than all the rest, I obeyed your Viceroy who made
me undertake it. Your Majesty will read it many times because, besides
that the reading of it is pleasant, your Majesty will take a great
interest in the matters of conscience and of administration of which it
treats. I call this the Second Part, because it is to be preceded by the
geographical description of all these lands, which will form the First
Part. This will result in great clearness for the comprehension of the
establishment of governments, bishopricks, new settlements, and of
discoveries, and will obviate the inconveniences formerly caused by the
want of such knowledge. Although the First Part ought to precede this
one in time, it is not sent to your Majesty because it is not finished,
a great part of it being derived from information collected during the
general visitation. Suffice that it will be best in quality, though not
in time. After this Second Part will be sent a Third Part on the times
of the evangel. All this I have to finish by order of the Viceroy Don
Francisco de Toledo. May your Majesty receive my work with the greatest
and most favourable attention, as treating of things that will be of
service to God and to your Majesty and of great profit to my nation; and
may our Lord preserve the sacred catholic and royal person of your
Majesty, for the repair and increase of the catholic Church of Jesus

From Cuzco. _The 4th of March_, 1572.

    Your catholic royal Majesty
from the least vassal of your Majesty
            The Captain
    Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa.

[Illustration: _Facsimile_ (_reduced_) _of the last page of_ SARMIENTO'S
Göttingen University Library. Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt
Society by Donald Macbeth._]



This general history of which I took charge by order of Don Francisco de
Toledo, Viceroy of these kingdoms of Peru, will be divided into three
Parts. The First will be the natural history of these lands, being a
particular description of them. It will contain accounts of the
marvellous works of nature, and other things of great profit and
interest. I am now finishing it, that it may be sent to your Majesty
after this, though it ought to have come before it. The Second and Third
Parts treat of the people of these kingdoms and of their deeds in the
following order. In the Second Part, which is the present one, the most
ancient and first peoplers of this land will be discussed in general,
and then, descending to particulars, I shall describe [_the terrible and
inveterate tyranny of_] the Ccapac Incas of these kingdoms, down to the
end and death of Huascar, the last of the Incas. The Third and Last Part
will treat of the times of the Spaniards, and of their notable deeds in
the discovery and settlement of this kingdom and others adjoining it,
with the captains, governors, and viceroys who have ruled here, down to
the present year 1572.



When historians wish to write, in an orderly way, of the world or some
part of it, they generally first describe the situation containing it,
which is the land, before they deal with what it contains, which is the
population, to avoid the former in the historical part. If this is so in
ancient and well known works, it is still more desirable that in
treating of new and strange lands, like these, of such vast extent, a
task which I have undertaken, the same order should be preserved. This
will not only supply interesting information but also, which is more to
be desired, it will be useful for navigation and new discoveries, by
which God our Lord may be served, the territories of the crown of Spain
extended, and Spaniards enriched and respected. As I have not yet
finished the particular description of this land, which will contain
everything relating to geography and the works of nature minutely dealt
with, in this volume I shall only offer a general summary, following the
most ancient authors, to recall the remains of those lands which are now
held to be new and previously unknown, and of their inhabitants.

The land, which we read of as having existed in the first and second age
of the world, was divided into five parts. The three continents, of
which geographers usually write, Asia, Africa, and Europe, are divided
by the river Tanais, the river Nile, and the Mediterranean Sea, which
Pomponius calls "our" sea. Asia is divided from Europe by the river
Tanais[22], now called Silin, and from Africa by the Nile, though
Ptolemy divides it by the Red Sea and isthmus of the desert of Arabia
Deserta. Africa is divided from Europe by "our" sea, commencing at the
strait of Gibraltar and ending with the Lake of Meotis. The other two
parts are thus divided. One was called, and still ought to be called,
Catigara[23] in the Indian Sea, a very extensive land now distinct from
Asia. Ptolemy describes it as being, in his time and in the time of
Alexander the Great, joined on to Asia in the direction of Malacca. I
shall treat of this in its place, for it contains many and very precious
secrets, and an infinity of souls, to whom the King our Lord may
announce the holy catholic faith that they may be saved, for this is the
object of his Majesty in these new lands of barbarous idolatry. The
fifth part is or was called the Atlantic Island, as famous as extensive,
and which exceeded all the others, each one by itself, and even some
joined together. The inhabitants of it and their description will be
treated of, because this is the land, or at least part of it, of these
western Indies of Castille.

[Note 22: The Don.]

[Note 23: Marinus of Tyre, quoted by Ptolemy, gave an enormous
extension to eastern Asia, and placed the region he called Catigara far
to the S.E. of it. Catigara was described by Marinus of Tyre as an
emporium and important place of trade. It is not mentioned in the
Periplus of the Erythræan Sea.]



The cosmographers do not write of this ancient Atlantic Island because
there was no memory, when they wrote, of its very rich commercial
prosperity in the second, and perhaps in the first age. But from what
the divine Plato tells us and from the vestiges we see which agree with
what we read, we can not only say where it was and where parts of it
were, as seen in our time, but we can describe it almost exactly, its
grandeur and position. This is the truth, and the same Plato affirms it
as true, in the Timæus, where he gives its truthful and marvellous

We will speak first of its situation, and then of its inhabitants. It is
desirable that the reader should give his attention because, although it
is very ancient history, it is so new to the ordinary teaching of
cosmography that it may cause such surprise as to raise doubts of the
story, whence may arise a want of appreciation.

From the words which Plato refers to Solon, the wisest of the seven of
Greece, and which Solon had heard with attention from the most learned
Egyptian priest in the city called Delta, we learn that this Atlantic
Island was larger than Asia and Africa together, and that the eastern
end of this immense island was near the strait which we now call of
Gibraltar. In front of the mouth of the said strait, the island had a
port with a narrow entrance; and Plato says that the island was truly
continental. From it there was a passage by the sea, which surrounded
it, to many other neighbouring islands, and to the main land of Europe
and Africa. In this island there were kings of great and admirable power
who ruled over that and many adjacent islands as well as the greater
part of Europe and Africa, up to the confines of Egypt, of which I shall
treat presently. The extent of the island was from the south, where were
the highest mountains, to the north. The mountains exceeded in extent
any that now exist, as well in their forests, as in height, and in
beauty. These are the words of Plato in describing the situation of this
most richly endowed and delightful Atlantic Island. It now remains for
me to do my duty, which is to explain what has been said more clearly
and from it to deduce the situation of the island.

From what Plato says that this island had a port near the mouth of the
strait of the pillars of Hercules, that it was larger than Asia and
Africa together, and that it extended to the south, I gather three
things clearly towards the understanding of all that invites attention.
The first is that the Atlantic Island began less than two leagues from
the mouth of the strait, if more it was only a little more. The coast of
the island then turned north close to that of Spain, and was joined to
the island of Cadiz or Gadiz, or Caliz, as it is now called. I affirm
this for two reasons, one by authority and the other by conjectural
demonstration. The authority is that Plato in his Critias, telling how
Neptune distributed the sovereignty of the island among his ten sons,
said that the second son was called in the mother tongue "Gadirum,"
which in Greek we call "Eumelo." To this son he gave the extreme parts
of the island near the columns of Hercules, and from his name the place
was called Gadiricum which is Caliz. By demonstration we see, and I have
seen with my own eyes, more than a league out at sea and in the
neighbourhood of the island of Caliz, under the water, the remains of
very large edifices of a cement which is almost imperishable[24], an
evident sign that this island was once much larger, which corroborates
the narrative of Critias in Plato. The second point is that the Atlantic
Island was larger than Asia and Africa. From this I deduce its size,
which is incredible or at least immense. It would give the island 2300
leagues of longitude, that is from east to west. For Asia has 1500
leagues in a straight line from Malacca which is on its eastern front,
to the boundary of Egypt; and Africa has 800 leagues from Egypt to the
end of the Atlantic mountains or "Montes Claros" facing the Canary
Islands; which together make 2300 leagues of longitude. If the island
was larger it would be more in circuit. Round the coast it would have
7100 leagues, for Asia is 5300 and Africa 2700 leagues in circuit, a
little more or less, which together makes 7100 leagues, and it is even
said that it was more.

[Note 24: Dr Peitschmann quotes from Juan Bautista Suarez de
Salazar, _Grandezas y antigüedades de la isla y ciudad de Cadiz_ (Cadiz,
1610)---"That which all those who traverse the sea affirm was that to
the south, the water being clear, there is seen beneath it at a distance
of a league, ruins of edifices which are good evidence that the ocean
has gained upon the land in this part." He refers also to a more recent
history of Cadiz and its province by Adolfo de Castro (1858), and to the
five first books of the _General Chronicle of Spain_ of Florian de
Ocampo, 1552 (lib. ii. cap. II).]

Having considered the measurement of its great size we come to the third
point, which is the true position over which this great island extended.
Plato says that the position of the island extended to the south;
opposite to the north. From this we should understand that, the front
conterminous with Spain from the strait of Gibraltar to Cadiz thence
extended westward, making a curve along the coast of Barbary or Africa,
but very close to it, between west and south, which is what sailors call
south-west. For if it was opposite to north, which is between east and
north, called north-east, it must necessarily have its direction in the
said south-west, west-south-west, or south-south-west. It would include
and incorporate the Canary Islands which, according to this calculation,
would be part of it, and from thence the land trended south-west. As
regards the south, it would extend rather more to the south and
south-south-west, finally following the route by which we go when we
sail from Spain to the Indies, forming a continent or main land with
these western Indies of Castille, joining on to them by the parts
stretching south-west, and west-south-west, a little more or less from
the Canaries. Thus there was sea on one side and on the other of this
land, that is on the north and south, and the Indies united with it, and
they were all one. The proof of this is that if the Atlantic Island had
2300 leagues of longitude, and the distance of Cadiz to the mouth of the
river Marañon or Orellana and Trinidad, on the coast of Brazil, is, not
more than 1000, 900, or 1100 leagues, being the part where this land
joined to America, it clearly appears that, to complete the complement
of 2300 leagues, we have to include in the computation all the rest of
the land from the mouth of the Marañon and Brazil to the South Sea,
which is what they now call America. Following this course it would come
to Coquimbo. Counting what is still wanting, this would be much less
than 2300 leagues. Measuring the circumference, the island was more than
7100 leagues round, because that is about the circumference of Asia and
Africa by their coasts. If this land is joined to the other, which in
fact it was in conformity with the description, it would have a much
greater circuit, for even now these parts of the western Indies,
measured by compass, and latitude, have more than 7100 leagues.

From all this it may be inferred that the Indies of Castille formed a
continent with the Atlantic Island, and consequently that the same
Atlantic Island, which extended from Cadiz over the sea we traverse to
the Indies, and which all cosmographers call the Atlantic Ocean because
the Atlantic Island was in it, over which we now navigate, was land in
ancient times. Finally we shall relate the sequel, first giving an
account of the sphere at that time and of the inhabitants.



Having described the four parts of the world, for of Catigara, which is
the fifth, we shall not speak except in its place which the ancients
assigned to it, it will be right to come to the races which peopled
them. All of which I have to treat has to be personal and heathen
history. The chief value and perfection of history consists in its
accuracy, thoroughly sifting each event, verifying the times and periods
of what happened so that no doubt may remain of what passed. It is in
this way that I desire to write the truth in so far as my ability
enables me to do so respecting a thing so ancient as the first peopling
of these new lands. I wish, for the better illustration of the present
history, to precede it with the foundations that cannot be denied,
counting the time in conformity with the chronology of the Hebrews in
the days before our Saviour Jesus Christ, and the times after his most
holy nativity according to the counting used by our mother the holy
church, not making account of the calculations of Chaldean or Egyptian

Thus, passing over the first age from Adam to the Deluge, which covers
1656 years, we will begin from the second age, which is that of the
patriarch Noah, second universal father of mortals. The divine
scriptures show us that eight persons were saved from the flood, in the
ark. Noah and his wife Terra or Vesta, named from the first fire lighted
by crystal for the first sacrifice as Berosus would have; and his three
sons to wit, Cam and his wife Cataflua, Sem and his wife Prusia or
Persia, Japhet and his wife Fun a, as we read in the register of the
chronicles. The names of some of these people remain, and to this day we
can see clearly whence they were derived, as the Hebrews from Heber, the
Assyrians from Amur, but most of them have been so changed that human
intelligence is insufficient to investigate by this way. Besides the
three sons, Noah had others after the flood.

The descendants of these men having multiplied and become very numerous,
Noah divided the world among his first sons that they might people it,
and then embarked on the Euxine Sea as we gather from Xenophon. The
giant Noah then navigated along the Mediterranean Sea, as Filon says and
Annius repeats, dividing the whole land among his sons. He gave it in
charge to Sem to people Asia from the Nile to the eastern Indies, with
some of the sons he got after the flood. To Cam he gave Africa from the
Rinocoruras to the straits of Gibraltar with some more of the sons.
Europe was chosen for Japhet to people with the rest of the sons
begotten after the flood, who were all the sons of Tuscan, whence
descend the Tadescos, Alemanes, and the nations adjacent to them.

In this voyage Noah founded some towns and colonies on the shores of the
Mediterranean Sea, and remained in them for ten years, until 112 years
after the universal deluge. He ordered his daughter Araxa to remain in
Armenia where the ark rested, with her husband and children, to people
that country. Then he, with the rest of his companions, went to
Mesopotamia and settled. There Nembrot was raised up for king, of the
descendants of Cam. This Nembrot, says Berosus, built Babylon 130 years
after the flood. The sons of Sem elected for their king, Jektan, son of
Heber. Those of Japhet chose Fenec for their king, called Assenes by
Moses. There were 300,000 men under him only 310 years after the deluge.
Each king, with his companions, set out to people the part of the world
chosen for them by the patriarch Noah. It is to be noted that, although
Noah divided the parts of the world among his three sons and their
descendants, many of them did not keep to the boundaries. For some of
one lineage settled on the lands of another brother. Nembrot, being of
the line of Cam, remained in the parts of Sem, and many others were
mixed together in the same way.

Thus the three parts of the world were peopled by these and their
descendants, of whom I do not propose to treat in detail, for our plan
is to proceed in our narrative until we come to the inhabitants of the
Atlantic Island, the subject of this history. This was so near Spain
that, according to the common fame, Caliz used to be so close to the
main land in the direction of the port of Santa Maria, that a plank
would serve as a bridge to pass from the island to Spain. So that no one
can doubt that the inhabitants of Spain, Jubal and his descendants,
peopled that land, as well as the inhabitants of Africa which was also
near. Hence it was called the Atlantic Island from having been peopled
by Atlas, the giant and very wise astrologer who first settled
Mauritania now called Barbary, as Godefridus and all the chronicles
teach us. This Atlas was the son of Japhet by the nymph Asia, and
grandson of Noah. For this there is no authority except the above,
corroborated by the divine Plato as I began by explaining, and it will
be necessary to seek his help to give the reader such evidence as merits
belief respecting the inhabitants of this Atlantic Island.



We have indicated the situation of the Atlantic Island and those who, in
conformity with the general peopling of the world, were probably its
first inhabitants, namely the early Spaniards and the first Mauritanian
vassals of the King Atlas. This wonderful history was almost forgotten
in ancient times, Plato alone having preserved it, as has already been
related in its place, and which should again be consulted for what
remains. Plato, in Critias, says that to Neptune's share came the
Atlantic Island, and that he had ten sons. He divided the whole island
amongst them, which before and in his time was called the empire of the
floating islands, as Volaterranius tells us. It was divided by Neptune
into ten regions or kingdoms. The chief one, called Venus, he gave to
his eldest son named Atlantis, and appointed him sovereign of the whole
island; which consequently took the name of Atlantica, and the sea
Atlantic, a name which it retains to this day. The second son, named
Gadirun, received the part which lies nearest to Spain and which is now
Caliz. To the third son Neptune gave a share. His name was Amferes, the
fourth's Eutoctenes, the seventh's Alusipo, the eighth's Mestores, the
ninth's Azaen, the tenth's Diaprepem. These and their descendants
reigned for many ages, holding the lordships, by the sea, of many other
islands, which could not have been other than Hayti, which we call Santo
Domingo, Cuba and others, also peopled by emigrants from the Atlantic
Island. They also held sway over Africa as far as Egypt, and over Europe
to Tirrenia and Italy.

The lineage of Atlas extended in a grand succession of generations, and
his kingdom was ruled in succession by the firstborns. They possessed
such a copious supply of riches that none of the natives had seen it
all, and that no new comers could realise it. This land abounded in all
that is necessary for sustaining human life, pasture, timber, drugs,
metals, wild beasts and birds, domestic animals including a great number
of elephants, most fragrant perfumes, liquors, flowers, fruits, wine,
and all the vegetables used for food, many dates, and other things for
presents. That island produced all things in great profusion. In ancient
times it was sacred, beautiful, admirable and fertile, as well as of
vast extent. In it were extensive kingdoms, sumptuous temples, palaces
calling forth great admiration, as is seen from the relation of Plato
respecting the metropolis of the island which exceeded Babylon, Troy, or
Rome, with all their rich buildings, curious and well-constructed forts,
and even the seven wonders of the world concerning which the ancients
sing so much. In the chief city of this empire there was a port to which
so many ships and merchants resorted from all parts, that owing to the
vast concourse a great and continual noise caused the residents to be
thunderstruck. The number of these Atlantics ready for war was so great
that in the capital city alone they had an ordinary garrison of 60,000
soldiers, always distributed among farms, each farm measuring 100
furlongs. The rest inhabited the woods and other places, and were
innumerable. They took to war 10,000 two-horse chariots each containing
eight armed men, with six slingers and stone throwers on either side.
For the sea they had 200,000 boats with four men in each, making 800,000
men for the sea-service alone. This was quite necessary owing to the
great number of subject nations which had to be governed and kept in

The rest which Plato relates on this subject will be discussed in the
sequel, for I now proceed to our principal point, which is to establish
the conclusion that as these people carried their banners and trophies
into Europe and Africa which are not contiguous, they must have overrun
the Indies of Castille and peopled them, being part of the same main
land. They used much policy in their rule. But at the end of many ages,
by divine permission, and perhaps owing to their sins, it happened that
a great and continuous earthquake, with an unceasing deluge, perpetual
by day and night, opened the earth and swallowed up those warlike and
ambitious Atlantic men. The Atlantic Island remained absorbed beneath
that great sea, which from that cause continued to be unnavigable owing
to the mud of the absorbed island in solution, a wonderful thing.

This special flood may be added to the five floods recorded by the
ancients. These are the general one of Moses, the second in Egypt of
which Xenophon makes mention, the third flood in Achaia of Greece in the
time of Ogyges Atticus, described by Isidore as happening in the days of
Jacob, the fourth in Thessaly in the time of Deucalion and Pyrrha, in
the days of Moses according to Isidore, in 782 as given by Juan Annius.
The fifth flood is mentioned by Xenophon as happening in Egypt in the
time of Proteus. The sixth was this which destroyed so great a part of
the Atlantic Island and sufficed so to separate the part that was left
unsubmerged, that all mortals in Asia, Africa and Europe believed that
all were drowned. Thus was lost the intercourse and commerce of the
people of these parts with those of Europe and Africa, in such sort that
all memory of them would have been lost, if it had not been for the
Egyptians, preservers of the most ancient deeds of men and of nature.
The destruction of the Atlantic Island, over at least 1000 leagues of
longitude, was in the time when Aod[25] governed the people of Israel,
1320 years before Christ and 2162 years after the Creation, according to
the Hebrews. I deduce this calculation from what Plato relates of the
conversation between Solon and the Egyptian priest. For, according to
all the chronicles, Solon lived in the time of Tarquinius Priscus the
King of Rome, Josiah being King of Israel at Jerusalem, before Christ
610 years. From this period until the time when the Atlantics had put a
blockade over the Athenians 9000 lunar years had passed which, referred
to solar years, make 869. All added together make the total given above.
Very soon afterwards the deluge must have come, as it is said to have
been in the time of Aod[25] or 748 years after the general deluge of
Noah. This being so it is to be noted that the isle of Caliz, the
Canaries, the Salvages, and Trinidad must have been parts of the
absorbed land.

[Note 25: Ehud.]

It may be assumed that these very numerous nations of Atlantis were
sufficient to people those other lands of the Western Indies of
Castille. Other nations also came to them, and peopled some provinces
after the above destruction. Strabo and Solinus say that Ulysses, after
the fall of Troy, navigated westward to Lusitania, founded Lisbon, and,
after it had been built, desired to try his fortune on the Atlantic
Ocean by the way we now go to the Indies. He disappeared, and it was
never afterwards known what had become of him. This is stated by Pero
Anton Beuter, a noble Valencian historian and, as he mentions, this was
the opinion of Dante Aligheri, the illustrious Florentine poet. Assuming
this to be correct we may follow Ulysses from island to island until he
came to Yucatan and Campeachy, part of the territory of New Spain. For
those of that land have the Grecian bearing and dress of the nation of
Ulysses, they have many Grecian words, and use Grecian letters. Of this
I have myself seen many signs and proofs. Their name for God is "Teos"
which is Greek, and even throughout New Spain they use the word "Teos"
for God. I have also to say that in passing that way, I found that they
anciently preserved an anchor of a ship, venerating it as an idol, and
had a certain genesis in Greek, which should not be dismissed as absurd
at first sight. Indeed there are a sufficient number of indications to
support my conjecture concerning Ulysses. From thence all those
provinces of Mexico, Tabasco, Xalisco, and to the north the Capotecas,
Chiapas, Guatemalas, Honduras, Lasandones, Nicaraguas, Tlaguzgalpas, as
far as Nicoya, Costa Rica, and Veragua.

Moreover Esdras recounts that those nations which went from Persia by
the river Euphrates came to a land never before inhabited by the human
race. Going down this river there was no way but by the Indian Sea to
reach a land where there was no habitation. This could only have been
Catigara, placed in 90° S. by Ptolemy, and according to the navigators
sent by Alexander the Great, 40 days of navigation from Asia. This is
the land which the describers of maps call the unknown land of the
south, whence it is possible to go on settling people as far as the
Strait of Magellan to the west of Catigara, and the Javas, New Guinea,
and the islands of the archipelago of Nombre de Jesus which I, our Lord
permitting, discovered in the South Sea in the year 1568, the
unconquered Felipe II reigning as King of Spain and its dependencies by
the demarcation of 180° of longitude.

It may thus be deduced that New Spain and its provinces were peopled by
the Greeks, those of Catigara by the Jews, and those of the rich and
most powerful kingdoms of Peru and adjacent provinces by the Atlantics
who were descended from the primeval Mesopotamians and Chaldæans,
peoplers of the world.

These, and other points with them, which cannot be discussed with
brevity, are true historical reasons, of a quality worthy of belief,
such as men of reason and letters may adopt respecting the peopling of
these lands. When we come to consider attentively what these barbarians
of Peru relate of their origin and of the tyrannical rule of the Incas
Ccapacs, and the fables and extravagances they recount, the truth may be
distinguished from what is false, and how in some of their fables they
allude to true facts which are admitted and held by us as such.
Therefore the reader should peruse with attention and read the most
strange and racy history of barbarians that has, until now, been read of
any political nation in the world.



As these barbarous nations of Indians were always without letters, they
had not the means of preserving the monuments and memorials of their
times, and those of their predecessors with accuracy and method. As the
devil, who is always striving to injure the human race, found these
unfortunates to be easy of belief and timid in obedience, he introduced
many illusions, lies and frauds, giving them to understand that he had
created them from the first, and afterwards, owing to their sins and
evil deeds, he had destroyed them with a flood, again creating them and
giving them food and the way to preserve it. By chance they formerly had
some notice, passed down to them from mouth to mouth, which had reached
them from their ancestors, respecting the truth of what happened in
former times. Mixing this with the stories told them by the devil, and
with other things which they changed, invented, or added, which may
happen in all nations, they made up a pleasing salad, and in some things
worthy of the attention of the curious who are accustomed to consider
and discuss human ideas.

One thing must be noted among many others. It is that the stories which
are here treated as fables, which they are, are held by the natives to
be as true as we hold the articles of our faith, and as such they affirm
and confirm them with unanimity, and swear by them. There are a few,
however, who by the mercy of God are opening their eyes and beginning to
see what is true and what is false respecting those things. But we have
to write down what they say and not what we think about it in this part.
We shall hear what they hold respecting their first age, [_and
afterwards we shall come to the inveterate and cruel tyranny of the Inca
tyrants who oppressed these kingdoms of Peru for so long. All this is
done by order of the most excellent Don Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of
these kingdoms_]. I have collected the information with much diligence
so that this history can rest on attested proofs from the general
testimony of the whole kingdom, old and young, Incas and tributary

The natives of this land affirm that in the beginning, and before this
world was created, there was a being called Viracocha. He created a dark
world without sun, moon or stars. Owing to this creation he was named
Viracocha Pachayachachi, which means "Creator of all things[26]."

[Note 26: Uiracocha (Viracocha) was the Creator. Garcilasso de la
Vega pointed out the mistake of supposing that the word signified "foam
of the sea" (ii. p. 16). He believed it to be a name, the derivation of
which he did not attempt to explain. Blas Valera (i. p. 243) said the
meaning was the "will and power of God"; not that this is the
signification of the word, but by reason of the godlike qualities
attributed to Him who was known by it. Cieza de Leon says that
Tici-Uiracocha was God, Creator of heaven and earth: Acosta that to
Tici-Uiracocha they assigned the chief power and command over all
things; Montesinos that Illa-tici-Uiracocha was the name of the creator
of the world; Molina that Tecsi-Uiracocha was the Creator and
incomprehensible God; the anonymous Jesuit that Uiracocha meant the
great God of "Pirua"; Betanzos that the Creator was Con-Tici-Uiracocha.

According to Montesinos and the anonymous Jesuit _Uira_ or _Vira_ is a
corruption of _Pirua_ meaning a depository. The first meaning of _Cocha_
is a lake, but here it is held to signify profundity, abyss, space. The
"Dweller in Space." _Ticci_ or _Tici_ is base or foundation, hence the
founder. _Illa_ means light. The anonymous Jesuit gives the meaning
"Eternal Light" to _Illa-Ticci_. The word _Con_, given by Betanzos and
Garcia, has no known meaning.

Pachacamac and Pachayachachi are attributes of the deity. _Pacha_ means
time or place, also the universe. _Camac_ is the Ruler, _Yachachi_ the
Teacher. "The Ruler and Teacher of the Universe."

The meaning and significance of the word _Uiracocha_ has been very fully
discussed by Señor Don Leonardo Villar of Cuzco in a paper entitled
_Lexicologia Keshua Uiracocha_ (Lima, 1887).]

And when he had created the world he formed a race of giants of
disproportioned greatness painted and sculptured, to see whether it
would be well to make real men of that size. He then created men in his
likeness as they are now; and they lived in darkness.

Viracocha ordered these people that they should live without
quarrelling, and that they should know and serve him. He gave them a
certain precept which they were to observe on pain of being confounded
if they should break it. They kept this precept for some time, but it is
not mentioned what it was. But as there arose among them the vices of
pride and covetousness, they transgressed the precept of Viracocha
Pachayachachi and falling, through this sin, under his indignation, he
confounded and cursed them. Then some were turned into stones, others
into other things, some were swallowed up by the earth, others by the
sea, and over all there came a general flood which they call _uñu
pachacuti_, which means "water that overturns the land." They say that
it rained 60 days and nights, that it drowned all created things, and
that there alone remained some vestiges of those who were turned into
stones, as a memorial of the event, and as an example to posterity, in
the edifices of Pucara, which are 60 leagues from Cuzco.

Some of the nations, besides the Cuzcos, also say that a few were saved
from this flood to leave descendants for a future age. Each nation has
its special fable which is told by its people, of how their first
ancestors were saved from the waters of the deluge. That the ideas they
had in their blindness may be understood, I will insert only one, told
by the nation of the Cañaris, a land of Quito and Tumibamba, 400 leagues
from Cuzco and more.

They say that in the time of the deluge called _uñu pachacuti_ there was
a mountain named Guasano in the province of Quito and near a town called
Tumipampa. The natives still point it out. Up this mountain went two of
the Cañaris named Ataorupagui and Cusicayo. As the waters increased the
mountain kept rising and keeping above them in such a way that it was
never covered by the waters of the flood. In this way the two Cañaris
escaped. These two, who were brothers, when the waters abated after the
flood, began to sow. One day when they had been at work, on returning to
their hut, they found in it some small loaves of bread, and a jar of
chicha, which is the beverage used in this country in place of wine,
made of boiled maize. They did not know who had brought it, but they
gave thanks to the Creator, eating and drinking of that provision. Next
day the same thing happened. As they marvelled at this mystery, they
were anxious to find out who brought the meals. So one day they hid
themselves, to spy out the bringers of their food. While they were
watching they saw two Cañari women preparing the victuals and putting
them in the accustomed place. When about to depart the men tried to
seize them, but they evaded their would-be captors and escaped. The
Cañaris, seeing the mistake they had made in molesting those who had
done them so much good, became sad and prayed to Viracocha for pardon
for their sins, entreating him to let the women come back and give them
the accustomed meals. The Creator granted their petition. The women came
back and said to the Cañaris--"The Creator has thought it well that we
should return to you, lest you should die of hunger." They brought them
food. Then there was friendship between the women and the Cañari
brothers, and one of the Cañari brothers had connexion with one of the
women. Then, as the elder brother was drowned in a lake which was near,
the survivor married one of the women, and had the other as a concubine.
By them he had ten sons who formed two lineages of five each, and
increasing in numbers they called one Hanansaya which is the same as to
say the upper party, and the other Hurinsaya, or the lower party. From
these all the Cañaris that now exist are descended[27].

[Note 27: The same story of the origin of the Cañaris is told by
Molina, p. 8. But the mountain is called Huaca-yuan; and instead of
women the beings who brought the food were macaws. Molina tells another
story received from the people of Ancas-mayu. Both seem to have been
obtained by asking leading questions about a deluge.]

In the same way the other nations have fables of how some of their
people were saved from whom they trace their origin and descent. But the
Incas and most of those of Cuzco, those among them who are believed to
know most, do not say that anyone escaped from the flood, but that
Viracocha began to create men afresh, as will be related further on. One
thing is believed among all the nations of these parts, for they all
speak generally and as well known of the general flood which they call
_uñu pachacuti_. From this we may clearly understand that if, in these
parts they have a tradition of the great flood, this great mass of the
floating islands which they afterwards called the Atlanticas, and now
the Indies of Castille or America must have begun to receive a
population immediately after the flood, although, by their account, the
details are different from those which the true Scriptures teach us.
This must have been done by divine Providence, through the first people
coming over the land of the Atlantic Island, which was joined to this,
as has been already said. For as the natives, though barbarous, give
reasons for their very ancient settlement, by recording the flood, there
is no necessity for setting aside the Scriptures by quoting authorities
to establish this origin. We now come to those who relate the events of
the second age after the flood, which is the subject of the next



It is related that everything was destroyed in the flood called _uñu
pachacuti_[28]. It must now be known that Viracocha Pachayachachi, when
he destroyed that land as has been already recounted, preserved three
men, one of them named Taguapaca, that they might serve and help him in
the creation of new people who had to be made in the second age after
the deluge, which was done in this manner. The flood being passed and
the land dry, Viracocha determined to people it a second time, and, to
make it more perfect, he decided upon creating luminaries to give it
light. With this object he went, with his servants, to a great lake in
the Collao, in which there is an island called Titicaca, the meaning
being "the rock of lead," of which we shall treat in the first part.
Viracocha went to this island, and presently ordered that the sun, moon,
and stars should come forth, and be set in the heavens to give light to
the world, and it was so. They say that the moon was created brighter
than the sun, which made the sun jealous at the time when they rose into
the sky. So the sun threw over the moon's face a handful of ashes, which
gave it the shaded colour it now presents. This frontier lake of
Chucuito, in the territory of the Collao, is 57 leagues to the south of
Cuzco. Viracocha gave various orders to his servants, but Taguapaca
disobeyed the commands of Viracocha. So Viracocha was enraged against
Taguapaca, and ordered the other two servants to take him, tie him hands
and feet, and launch him in a _balsa_ on the lake. This was done.
Taguapaca was blaspheming against Viracocha for the way he was treated,
and threatening that he would return and take vengeance, when he was
carried by the water down the drain of the same lake, and was not seen
again for a long time. This done, Viracocha made a sacred idol in that
place, as a place for worship and as a sign of what he had there

[Note 28: _Uñu pachacuti_ would mean the world (_pacha_) overturned
(_cuti_) by water (_uñu_). Probably a word coined by the priests, after
putting leading questions about a universal deluge.]

[Note 29: This servant of Uiracocha is also mentioned by Cieza de
Leon and Yamqui Pachacuti. Cieza appears to consider that Tuapaca was
merely the name of Uiracocha in the Collao. Yamqui Pachacuti gives the
names Tarapaca and Tonapa and connects them with Uiracocha. But he also
uses the word Pachacca, a servant. These names are clearly the same as
the Tahuapaca of Sarmiento. _Tahua_ means four, but Sarmiento gives
three as the number of these servants of Uiracocha. The meaning of
_paca_ is anything secret or mysterious, from _pacani_ to hide. The
names represent an ancient myth of some kind, but it is not possible, at
this distance of time, to ascertain more than the names. Tonapa looks
like a slip of the pen, and is probably Tarapa for Tarapaca. Don Samuel
A. Lapone Quevedo published a mythological essay entitled _El Culto de
Tonapa_ with reference to the notice in the work of Yamqui Pachacuti;
but he is given to speculations about phallic and solar worship, and to
the arbitrary alteration of letters to fit into his theories.]

Leaving the island, he passed by the lake to the main land, taking with
him the two servants who survived. He went to a place now called
Tiahuanacu in the province of Colla-suyu, and in this place he
sculptured and designed on a great piece of stone, all the nations that
he intended to create. This done, he ordered his two servants to charge
their memories with the names of all tribes that he had depicted, and of
the valleys and provinces where they were to come forth, which were
those of the whole land. He ordered that each one should go by a
different road, naming the tribes, and ordering them all to go forth and
people the country. His servants, obeying the command of Viracocha, set
out on their journey and work. One went by the mountain range or chain
which they call the heights over the plains on the South Sea. The other
went by the heights which overlook the wonderful mountain ranges which
we call the Andes, situated to the east of the said sea. By these roads
they went, saying with a loud voice "Oh you tribes and nations, hear and
obey the order of Ticci Viracocha Pachayachachi, which commands you to
go forth, and multiply and settle the land." Viracocha himself did the
same along the road between those taken by his two servants, naming all
the tribes and places by which he passed. At the sound of his voice
every place obeyed, and people came forth, some from lakes, others from
fountains, valleys, caves, trees, rocks and hills, spreading over the
land and multiplying to form the nations which are to-day in Peru.

Others affirm that this creation of Viracocha was made from the Titicaca
site where, having originally formed some shapes of large strong men[30]
which seemed to him out of proportion, he made them again of his stature
which was, as they say, the average height of men, and being made he
gave them life. Thence they set out to people the land. As they spoke
one language previous to starting, they built those edifices, the ruins
of which may still be seen, before they set out. This was for the
residence of Viracocha, their maker. After departing they varied their
languages, noting the cries of wild beasts, insomuch that, coming across
each other afterwards, those could not understand who had before been
relations and neighbours.

[Note 30: Jayaneo. This was the name given to giants in the books of
chivalry. See _Don Quijote_, i. cap. 5, p. 43.]

Whether it was in one way or the other, all agree that Viracocha was the
creator of these people. They have the tradition that he was a man of
medium height, white and dressed in a white robe like an alb secured
round the waist, and that he carried a staff and a book in his hands.

Besides this they tell of a strange event; how that Viracocha, after he
had created all people, went on his road and came to a place where many
men of his creation had congregated. This place is now called Cacha.
When Viracocha arrived there, the inhabitants were estranged owing to
his dress and bearing. They murmured at it and proposed to kill him from
a hill that was near. They took their weapons there, and gathered
together with evil intentions against Viracocha. He, falling on his
knees on some plain ground, with his hands clasped, fire from above came
down upon those on the hill, and covered all the place, burning up the
earth and stones like straw. Those bad men were terrified at the fearful
fire. They came down from the hill, and sought pardon from Viracocha for
their sin. Viracocha was moved by compassion. He went to the flames and
put them out with his staff. But the hill remained quite parched up, the
stones being rendered so light by the burning that a very large stone
which could not have been carried on a cart, could be raised easily by
one man. This may be seen at this day, and it is a wonderful sight to
behold this hill, which is a quarter of a league in extent, all burnt
up. It is in the Collao[31].

[Note 31: Not in the Collaos but in the valley of the Vilcamayu.
Afterwards a very remarkable temple was built there, described by

After this Viracocha continued his journey and arrived at a place called
Urcos, 6 leagues to the south of Cuzco. Remaining there some days he was
well served by the natives of that neighbourhood. At the time of his
departure, he made them a celebrated _huaca_ or statue, for them to
offer gifts to and worship; to which statue the Incas, in after times,
offered many rich gifts of gold and other metals, and above all a golden
bench. When the Spaniards entered Cuzco they found it, and appropriated
it to themselves. It was worth $17,000. The Marquis Don Francisco
Pizarro took it himself, as the share of the General.

Returning to the subject of the fable, Viracocha continued his journey,
working his miracles and instructing his created beings. In this way he
reached the territory on the equinoctial line, where are now Puerto
Viejo and Manta. Here he was joined by his servants. Intending to leave
the land of Peru, he made a speech to those he had created, apprising
them of the things that would happen. He told them that people would
come, who would say that they were Viracocha their creator, and that
they were not to believe them; but that in the time to come he would
send his messengers who would protect and teach them. Having said this
he went to sea with his two servants, and went travelling over the water
as if it was land, without sinking. For they appeared like foam over the
water and the people, therefore, gave them the name of Viracocha which
is the same as to say the grease or foam of the sea[32]. At the end of
some years after Viracocha departed, they say that Taguapaca, who
Viracocha ordered to be thrown into the lake of Titicaca in the Collao,
as has already been related, came back and began, with others, to preach
that he was Viracocha. Although at first the people were doubtful, they
finally saw that it was false, and ridiculed them[33].

[Note 32: A mistake. See Garcilasso de la Vega, ii. p. 66.]

[Note 33: This story is told in a somewhat different form by Yamqui
Pachacuti, p. 72.]

This absurd fable of their creation is held by these barbarians and they
affirm and believe it as if they had really seen it to happen and come
to pass[34].

[Note 34: The tradition of the exercise of his creative powers by
Viracocha at lake Titicaca, is derived from the more ancient people who
were the builders of Tiahuanacu. Besides Sarmiento, the authors who give
this Titicaca Myth are Garcilasso de la Vega, Cieza de Leon, Molina,
Betanzos, Yamqui Pachacuti, Polo de Ondegardo, and the anonymous Jesuit.
Acosta, Montesinos, Balboa and Santillana are silent respecting it.]



It is important to note that these barbarians could tell nothing more
respecting what happened from the second creation by Viracocha down to
the time of the Incas. But it may be assumed that, although the land was
peopled and full of inhabitants before the Incas, it had no regular
government, nor did it have natural lords elected by common consent to
govern and rule, and who were respected by the people, so that they were
obeyed and received tribute. On the contrary all the people were
scattered and disorganized, living in complete liberty, and each man
being sole lord of his house and estate. In each tribe there were two
divisions. One was called Hanansaya, which means the upper division, and
the other Hurinsaya, which is the lower division, a custom which
continues to this day. These divisions do not mean anything more than a
way to count each other, for their satisfaction, though afterwards it
served a more useful purpose, as will be seen in its place.

[Note 35: _Behetria_. A condition of perfect equality without any
distinction of rank. Freedom from the subjection of any lord.]

As there were dissensions among them, a certain kind of militia was
organized for defence, in the following way. When it became known to the
people of one district that some from other parts were coming to make
war, they chose one who was a native, or he might be a stranger, who was
known to be a valiant warrior. Often such a man offered himself to aid
and to fight for them against their enemies. Such a man was followed and
his orders were obeyed during the war. When the war was over he became a
private man as he had been before, like the rest of the people, nor did
they pay him tribute either before or afterwards, nor any manner of tax
whatever. To such a man they gave and still give the name of _Sinchi_
which means valiant. They call such men "Sinchi-cuna" which means
"valiant now" as who should say--"now during the time the war lasts you
shall be our valiant man, and afterwards no ": or another meaning would
be simply "valiant men," for "cuna" is an adverb of time, and also
denotes the plural[36]. In whichever meaning, it is very applicable to
these temporary captains in the days of _behetrias_ and general liberty.
So that from the general flood of which they have a tradition to the
time when the Incas began to reign, which was 3519 years, all the
natives of these kingdoms lived on their properties without
acknowledging either a natural or an elected lord. They succeeded in
preserving, as it is said, a simple state of liberty, living in huts or
caves or humble little houses. This name of "Sinchi" for those who held
sway only during war, lasted throughout the land until the time of Tupac
Inca Yupanqui, the tenth Inca, who instituted "Curacas" and other
officials in the order which will be fully described in the life of that
Inca. Even at the present time they continue this use and custom in the
provinces of Chile and in other parts of the forests of Peru to the east
of Quito and Chachapoyas, where they only obey a chief during war time,
not any special one, but he who is known to be most valiant,
enterprising and daring in the wars. The reader should note that all the
land was private property with reference to any dominion of chiefs, yet
they had natural chiefs with special rights in each province, as for
instance among the natives of the valley of Cuzco and in other parts, as
we shall relate of each part in its place.

[Note 36: Cinchicona. _Sinchi_ means strong. _Cuna_ is the plural
particle. _Sinchi_ was the name for a chief or leader. I have not met
with _cuna_ as an adverb of time and meaning "now." No such meaning is
given in the _Grammar_ of Domingo de Santo Tomas, which was published in
1560, twelve years before Sarmiento wrote.]



I have explained how the people of these lands preserved their
inheritances and lived on them in ancient times, and that their proper
and natural countries were known. There were many of these which I shall
notice in their places, treating specially at present of the original
settlers of the valley where stands the present city of Cuzco. For from
there we have to trace the origin of the tyranny of the Incas, who
always had their chief seat in the valley of Cuzco.

Before all things it must be understood that the valley of Cuzco is in
130° 15' from the equator on the side of the south pole[37]. In this
valley, owing to its being fertile for cultivation, there were three
tribes settled from most ancient times, the first called Sauaseras, the
second Antasayas, the third Huallas. They settled near each other,
although their lands for sowing were distinct, which is the property
they valued most in those days and even now. These natives of the valley
lived there in peace for many years, cultivating their farms.

[Note 37: 13° 31'. He is 16 miles out in his latitude.]

Some time before the arrival of the Incas, three Sinchis, strangers to
this valley, the first named Alcabisa[38], the second Copalimayta, and
the third Culunchima, collected certain companies and came to the valley
of Cuzco, where, by consent of the natives, they settled and became
brothers and companions of the original inhabitants. So they lived for a
long time. There was concord between these six tribes, three native and
three immigrant. They relate that the immigrants came out to where the
Incas then resided, as we shall relate presently, and called them
relations. This is an important point with reference to what happened

[Note 38: The Alcabisas, as original inhabitants of the Cuzco
valley, are mentioned by Cieza de Leon (ii. p. 105) who calls them
Alcaviquiza. Betanzos has Alcaviya, and Balboa Allcay-villcas. Cieza
describes the victory over them by Mayta Ccapac. Yamqui Pachacuti gives
Allcayviesas, Cullinchinas, and Cayancachis as the names of the tribes
who originally inhabited the Cuzco valley. Cayancachi is a southern
suburb of Cuzco outside the Huatanay river.]

Before entering upon the history of the Incas I wish to make known or,
speaking more accurately, to answer a difficulty which may occur to
those who have not been in these parts. Some may say that this history
cannot be accepted as authentic being taken from the narratives of these
barbarians, because, having no letters, they could not preserve such
details as they give from so remote an antiquity. The answer is that, to
supply the want of letters, these barbarians had a curious invention
which was very good and accurate. This was that from one to the other,
from fathers to sons, they handed down past events, repeating the story
of them many times, just as lessons are repeated from a professor's
chair, making the hearers say these historical lessons over and over
again until they were fixed in the memory. Thus each one of the
descendants continued to communicate the annals in the order described
with a view to preserve their histories and deeds, their ancient
traditions, the numbers of their tribes, towns, provinces, their days,
months and years, their battles, deaths, destructions, fortresses and
"Sinchis." Finally they recorded, and they still record, the most
notable things which consist in their numbers (or statistics), on
certain cords called _quipu_, which is the same as to say reasoner or
accountant. On these cords they make certain knots by which, and by
differences of colour, they distinguish and record each thing as by
letters. It is a thing to be admired to see what details may be recorded
on these cords, for which there are masters like our writing

[Note 39: The system of recording by _quipus_ is described by
Garcilasso de la Vega, i. pp. 150 and 191, also ii. p. 117 and more
fully at ii. pp. 121--125. Cieza de Leon mentions the _quipu_ system in
his first part (see i. p. 291 and note) and in the second part (ii. pp.
33--35, 53, 57, 61,165). At p. 32 the method of preserving the memory of
former events is described very much as in the text. See also Molina,
pp. 10, 169. Molina also describes the boards on which historical events
were painted, p. 4. They were, he says, kept in a temple near Cuzco,
called Poquen-cancha. See also Cieza de Leon (second part), p. 28.]

Besides this they had, and still have, special historians in these
nations, an hereditary office descending from father to son. The
collection of these annals is due to the great diligence of Pachacuti
Inca Yupanqui, the ninth Inca, who sent out a general summons to all the
old historians in all the provinces he had subjugated, and even to many
others throughout those kingdoms. He had them in Cuzco for a long time,
examining them concerning their antiquities, origin, and the most
notable events in their history. These were painted on great boards, and
deposited in the temple of the Sun, in a great hall. There such boards,
adorned with gold, were kept as in our libraries, and learned persons
were appointed, who were well versed in the art of understanding and
declaring their contents. No one was allowed to enter where these boards
were kept, except the Inca and the historians, without a special order
of the Inca.

In this way they took care to have all their past history investigated,
and to have records respecting all kinds of people, so that at this day
the Indians generally know and agree respecting details and important
events, though, in some things, they hold different opinions on special
points. By examining the oldest and most prudent among them, in all
ranks of life, who had most credit, I collected and compiled the present
history, referring the sayings and declarations of one party to their
antagonists of another party, for they are divided into parties, and
seeking from each one a memorial of its lineage and of that of the
opposing party. These memorials, which are all in my possession, were
compared and corrected, and ultimately verified in public, in presence
of representatives of all the parties and lineages, under oaths in
presence of a judge, and with expert and very faithful interpreters also
on oath, and I thus finished what is now written. Such great diligence
has been observed, because a thing which is the foundation of the true
completion of such a great work as the establishment of the tyranny of
the cruel Incas of this land will make all the nations of the world
understand the judicial and more than legitimate right that the King of
Castille has to these Indies and to other lands adjacent, especially to
these kingdoms of Peru. As all the histories of past events have been
verified by proof, which in this case has been done so carefully and
faithfully by order and owing to the industry of the most excellent
Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo, no one can doubt that everything in
this volume is most sufficiently established and verified without any
room being left for reply or contradiction. I have been desirous of
making this digression because, in writing the history, I have heard
that many entertain the doubts I have above referred to, and it seemed
well to satisfy them once for all.



Having explained that, in ancient times, all this land was owned by the
people, it is necessary to state how the Incas began their tyranny.
Although the tribes all lived in simple liberty without recognising any
lord, there were always some ambitious men among them, aspiring for
mastery. They committed violence among their countrymen and among
strangers to subject them and bring them to obedience under their
command, so that they might serve them and pay tribute. Thus bands of
men belonging to one region went to others to make war and to rob and
kill, usurping the lands of others.

As these movements took place in many parts by many tribes, each one
trying to subjugate his neighbour, it happened that 6 leagues from the
valley of Cuzco, at a place called Paccari-tampu, there were four men
with their four sisters, of fierce courage and evil intentions, although
with lofty aims. These, being more able than the others, understood the
pusillanimity of the natives of those districts and the ease with which
they could be made to believe anything that was propounded with
authority or with any force. So they conceived among themselves the idea
of being able to subjugate many lands by force and deception. Thus all
the eight brethren, four men and four women, consulted together how they
could tyrannize over other tribes beyond the place where they lived, and
they proposed to do this by violence. Considering that most of the
natives were ignorant and could easily be made to believe what was said
to them, particularly if they were addressed with some roughness, rigour
and authority, against which they could make neither reply nor
resistance, because they are timid by nature, they sent abroad certain
fables respecting their origin, that they might be respected and feared.
They said that they were the sons of Viracocha Pachayachachi, the
Creator, and that they had come forth out of certain windows to rule the
rest of the people. As they were fierce, they made the people believe
and fear them, and hold them to be more than men, even worshipping them
as gods. Thus they introduced the religion that suited them. The order
of the fable they told of their origin was as follows.



All the native Indians of this land relate and affirm that the Incas
Ccapac originated in this way. Six leagues S.S.W. of Cuzco by the road
which the Incas made, there is a place called Paccari-tampu, which means
"the house of production[40]" at which there is a hill called
Tampu-tocco, meaning "the house of windows." It is certain that in this
hill there are three windows, one called "Maras-tocco," the other
"Sutic-tocco," while that which is in the middle, between these two, was
known as "Ccapac-tocco," which means "the rich window," because they say
that it was ornamented with gold and other treasures. From the window
called "Maras-tocco" came forth, without parentage, a tribe of Indians
called Maras. There are still some of them in Cuzco. From the
"Sutic-tocco" came Indians called Tampus, who settled round the same
hill, and there are also men of this lineage still in Cuzco. From the
chief window of "Ccapac-tocco," came four men and four women, called
brethren. These knew no father nor mother, beyond the story they told
that they were created and came out of the said window by order of Ticci
Viracocha, and they declared that Viracocha created them to be lords.
For this reason they took the name of Inca, which is the same as lord.
They took "Ccapac" as an additional name because they came out of the
window "Ccapac-tocco," which means "rich," although afterwards they used
this term to denote the chief lord over many.

[Note 40: Correctly "the tavern of the dawn."]

The names of the eight brethren were as follows: The eldest of the men,
and the one with the most authority was named MANCO CCAPAC, the second
AYAR AUCA, the third AYAR CACHI, the fourth AYAR UCHU. Of the women the
eldest was called MAMA OCCLO, the second MAMA HUACO, the third MAMA
IPACURA, or, as others say, MAMA CURA, the fourth MAMA RAUA.

The eight brethren, called Incas, said--"We are born strong and wise,
and with the people who will here join us, we shall be powerful. We will
go forth from this place to seek fertile lands and when we find them we
will subjugate the people and take the lands, making war on all those
who do not receive us as their lords," This, as they relate, was said by
Mama Huaco, one of the women, who was fierce and cruel. Manco Ccapac,
her brother, was also cruel and atrocious. This being agreed upon
between the eight, they began to move the people who lived near the
hill, putting it to them that their reward would be to become rich and
to receive the lands and estates of those who were conquered and
subjugated. For these objects they moved ten tribes or _ayllus_, which
means among these barbarians "lineages" or "parties"; the names of which
are as follows:

I. CHAUIN CUZCO AYLLU of the lineage of AYAR CACHI, of which there are
still some in Cuzco, the chiefs being MARTIN CHUCUMBI, and DON DIEGO

II. ARAYRACA AYLLU CUZCO-CALLAN. At present there are of this ayllu JUAN
lineage of AYAR UCHU.

III. TARPUNTAY AYLLU. Of this there are now some in Cuzco.

IV. HUACAYTAQUI AYLLU. Some still living in Cuzco.

V. SAÑOC AYLLU. Some still in Cuzco.

The above five lineages are HANAN-CUZCO, which means the party of Upper

VI. SUTIC-TOCCO AYLLU is the lineage which came out of one of the
windows called "SUTIC-TOCCO," as has been before explained. Of these
there are still some in Cuzco, the chiefs being DON FRANCISCO AVCA MICHO

VII. MARAS AYLLU. These are of the men who came forth from the window
"MARAS-TOCCO." There are some of these now in Cuzco, the chiefs being

VIII. CUYCUSA AYLLU. Of these there are still some in Cuzco, the chief

IX. MASCA AYLLU. Of this there is in Cuzco--JUAN QUISPI.

X. ORO AYLLU. Of this lineage is DON PEDRO YUCAY.

I say that all these _ayllus_ have preserved their records in such a way
that the memory of them has not been lost. There are more of them than
are given above, for I only insert the chiefs who are the protectors and
heads of the lineages, under whose guidance they are preserved. Each
chief has the duty and obligation to protect the rest, and to know the
history of his ancestors. Although I say that these live in Cuzco, the
truth is that they are in a suburb of the city which the Indians call
Cayocache and which is known to us as Belem, from the church of that
parish which is that of our Lady of Belem.

Returning to our subject, all these followers above mentioned marched
with Manco Ccapac and the other brethren to seek for land [_and to
tyrannize over those who did no harm to them, nor gave them any excuse
for war, and without any right or title beyond what has been stated_].
To be prepared for war they chose for their leaders Manco Ccapac and
Mama Huaco, and with this arrangement the companies of the hill of
Tampu-tocco set out, to put their design into execution.



The Incas and the rest of the companies or _ayllus_ set out from their
homes at Tampu-tocco, taking with them their property and arms, in
sufficient numbers to form a good squadron, having for their chiefs the
said Manco Ccapac and Mama Huaco. Manco Ccapac took with him a bird like
a falcon, called _indi_[41], which they all worshipped and feared as a
sacred, or, as some say, an enchanted thing, for they thought that this
bird made Manco Ccapac their lord and obliged the people to follow him.
It was thus that Manco Ccapac gave them to understand, and it was
carried in _vahidos_[42], always kept in a covered hamper of straw, like
a box, with much care. He left it as an heirloom to his son, and the
Incas had it down to the time of Inca Yupanqui. In his hand he carried
with him a staff of gold, to test the lands which they would come to.

[Note 41: This bird called _indi_, the familiar spirit of Manco
Ccapac, is not mentioned by any other author. There is more about it in
the life of Mayta Ccapac, the great-grandson of Manco Ccapac. The word
seems to be the same as _Ynti_ the Sun-God.]

[Note 42: _Vahido_ means giddiness, vertigo.]

Marching together they came to a place called Huana-cancha, four leagues
from the valley of Cuzco, where they remained for some time, sowing and
seeking for fertile land. Here Manco Ccapac had connexion with his
sister Mama Occlo, and she became pregnant by him. As this place did not
appear able to sustain them, being barren, they advanced to another
place called Tampu-quiro, where Mama Occlo begot a son named Sinchi
Rocca. Having celebrated the natal feasts of the infant, they set out in
search of fertile land, and came to another place called Pallata, which
is almost contiguous to Tampu-quiro, and there they remained for some

Not content with this land, they came to another called Hays-quisro, a
quarter of a league further on. Here they consulted together over what
ought to be done respecting their journey, and over the best way of
getting rid of Ayar Cachi, one of the four brothers. Ayar Cachi was
fierce and strong, and very dexterous with the sling. He committed great
cruelties and was oppressive both among the natives of the places they
passed, and among his own people. The other brothers were afraid that
the conduct of Ayar Cachi would cause their companies to disband and
desert, and that they would be left alone. As Manco Ccapac was prudent,
he concurred with the opinion of the others that they should secure
their object by deceit. They called Ayar Cachi and said to him,
"Brother! Know that in Ccapac-tocco we have forgotten the golden vases
called _tupac-cusi_[43], and certain seeds, and the _napa_[44], which is
our principal ensign of sovereignty." The _napa_ is a sheep of the
country, the colour white, with a red body cloth, on the top ear-rings
of gold, and on the breast a plate with red badges such as was worn by
rich Incas when they went abroad; carried in front of all on a pole with
a cross of plumes of feathers. This was called _suntur-paucar_[45]. They
said that it would be for the good of all, if he would go back and fetch
them. When Ayar Cachi refused to return, his sister Mama Huaco, raising
her foot, rebuked him with furious words, saying, "How is it that there
should be such cowardice in so strong a youth as you are? Get ready for
the journey, and do not fail to go to Tampu-tocco, and do what you are
ordered." Ayar Cachi was shamed by these words. He obeyed and started to
carry out his orders. They gave him, as a companion, one of those who
had come with them, named Tampu-chacay, to whom they gave secret orders
to kill Ayar Cachi at Tampu-tocco, and not to return with him. With
these orders they both arrived at Tampu-tocco. They had scarcely arrived
when Ayar Cachi entered through the window Ccapac-tocco, to get the
things for which he had been sent. He was no sooner inside than
Tampu-chacay, with great celerity, put a rock against the opening of the
window and sat upon it, that Ayar Cachi might remain inside and die
there. When Ayar Cachi turned to the opening and found it closed he
understood the treason of which the traitor Tampu-chacay had been
guilty, and determined to get out if it was possible, to take vengeance.
To force an opening he used such force and shouted so loud that he made
the mountain tremble. With a loud voice he spoke these words to
Tampu-chacay, "Thou traitor! thou who hast done me so much harm,
thinkest thou to convey the news of my mortal imprisonment? That shall
never happen. For thy treason thou shalt remain outside, turned into a
stone." So it was done, and to this day they show the stone on one side
of the window Ccapac-tocco. Turn we now to the seven brethren who had
remained at Hays-quisro. The death of Ayar Cachi being known, they were
very sorry for what they had done, for, as he was valiant, they
regretted much to be without him when the time came to make war on any
one. So they mourned for him. This Ayar Cachi was so dexterous with a
sling and so strong that with each shot he pulled down a mountain and
filled up a ravine. They say that the ravines, which we now see on their
line of march, were made by Ayar Cachi in hurling stones.

[Note 43: _Tupac-cusi_, meaning golden vases, does not occur
elsewhere. It may be a mis-print for _tupac-ccuri, tupac_ meaning
anything royal and ccuri gold.]

[Note 44: _Napa_ was the name of a sacred figure of a llama, one of
the insignia of royalty. See Molina, pp. 19, 39, 47. The verb _napani_
is to salute, _napay_, salutation. _Raymi-napa_ was the flock dedicated
for sacrifice.]

[Note 45: _Suntur-paucar_ was the head-dress of the Inca. See
Balboa, p. 20. Literally the "brilliant circle." See also Molina, pp. 6,
17, 39, 42, 44, and Yamqui Pachacuti, pp. 14, 106, 120.]

The seven Incas and their companions left this place, and came to
another called Quirirmanta at the foot of a hill which was afterwards
called Huanacauri. In this place they consulted together how they should
divide the duties of the enterprise amongst themselves, so that there
should be distinctions between them. They agreed that as Manco Ccapac
had had a child by his sister, they should be married and have children
to continue the lineage, and that he should be the leader. Ayar Uchu was
to remain as a _huaca_ for the sake of religion. Ayar Auca, from the
position they should select, was to take possession of the land set
apart for him to people.

Leaving this place they came to a hill at a distance of two leagues, a
little more or less, from Cuzco. Ascending the hill they saw a rainbow,
which the natives call _huanacauri_. Holding it to be a fortunate sign,
Manco Ccapac said: "Take this for a sign that the world will not be
destroyed by water. We shall arrive and from hence we shall select where
we shall found our city." Then, first casting lots, they saw that the
signs were good for doing so, and for exploring the land from that point
and becoming lords of it. Before they got to the height where the
rainbow was, they saw a _huaca_ which was a place of worship in human
shape, near the rainbow. They determined among themselves to seize it
and take it away from there. Ayar Uchu offered himself to go to it, for
they said that he was very like it. When Ayar Uchu came to the statue or
_huaca_, with great courage he sat upon it, asking it what it did there.
At these words the _huaca_ turned its head to see who spoke, but, owing
to the weight upon it, it could not see. Presently, when Ayar Uchu
wanted to get off he was not able, for he found that the soles of his
feet were fastened to the shoulders of the _huaca_. The six brethren,
seeing that he was a prisoner, came to succour him. But Ayar Uchu,
finding himself thus transformed, and that his brethren could not
release him, said to them--"O Brothers, an evil work you have wrought
for me. It was for your sakes that I came where I must remain for ever,
apart from your company. Go! go! happy brethren, I announce to you that
you will be great lords. I, therefore, pray that in recognition of the
desire I have always had to please you, you will honour and venerate me
in all your festivals and ceremonies, and that I shall be the first to
whom you make offerings. For I remain here for your sakes. When you
celebrate the _huarachico_ (which is the arming of the sons as knights)
you shall adore me as their father, for I shall remain here for ever."
Manco Ccapac answered that he would do so, for that it was his will and
that it should be so ordered. Ayar Uchu promised for the youths that he
would bestow on them the gifts of valour, nobility, and knighthood, and
with these last words he remained, turned into stone. They constituted
him the _huaca_ of the Incas, giving it the name of Ayar Uchu
Huanacauri.[46] And so it always was, until the arrival of the
Spaniards, the most venerated _huaca_, and the one that received the
most offerings of any in the kingdom. Here the Incas went to arm the
young knights until about twenty years ago, when the Christians
abolished this ceremony. It was religiously done, because there were
many abuses and idolatrous practices, offensive and contrary to the
ordinances of God our Lord.

[Note 46: Huanacauri was a very sacred _huaca_ of the Peruvians.
Cieza de Leon tells much the same story as Sarmiento, ii. pp. 17, 18,
19, 22, 89, 101, 107, 111. Garcilasso de la Vega mentions Huanacauri
four times, i. pp. 65, 66, and ii. pp. 169, 230, as a place held in
great veneration. It is frequently mentioned by Molina. The word is
given by Yamqui Pachacuti as Huayna-captiy. _Huayna_ means a youth,
_captiy_ is the subjunctive of the verb _cani_, I am. The word appears
to have reference to the arming of youths, and the ordeals they went
through, which took place annually at this place.]



The six brethren were sad at the loss of Ayar Uchu, and at the loss of
Ayar Cachi; and, owing to the death of Ayar Cachi, those of the lineage
of the Incas, from that time to this day, always fear to go to
Tampu-tocco, lest they should have to remain there like Ayar Cachi.

They went down to the foot of the hill, whence they began their entry
into the valley of Cuzco, arriving at a place called Matahua, where they
stopped and built huts, intending to remain there some time. Here they
armed as knight the son of Manco Ccapac and of Mama Occlo, named Sinchi
Rocca, and they bored his ears, a ceremony which is called _huarachico_,
being the insignia of his knighthood and nobility, like the custom known
among ourselves. On this occasion they indulged in great rejoicings,
drinking for many days, and at intervals mourning for the loss of their
brother Ayar Uchu. It was here that they invented the mourning sound for
the dead, like the cooing of a dove. Then they performed the dance
called _Ccapac Raymi_, a ceremony of the royal or great lords. It is
danced, in long purple robes, at the ceremonies they call
_quicochico_[47], which is when girls come to maturity, and the
_huarachico_[48], when they bore the ears of the Incas, and the
_rutuchico_[49] when the Inca's hair is cut the first time, and the
_ayuscay_[50], which is when a child is born, and they drink
continuously for four or five days.

[Note 47: Quicu-chicuy was the ceremony when girls attained puberty.
The customs, on this occasion, are described by Molina, p. 53. See also
Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 80, and the anonymous Jesuit, p. 181.]

[Note 48: Huarachicu was the great festival when the youths went
through their ordeals, and were admitted to manhood and to bear arms.
Garcilasso de la Vega gives the word as "Huaracu"; and fully describes
the ordeals and the ceremonies, ii. pp. 161--178. See also Molina, pp.
34 and 41--46, and Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 80.]

[Note 49: Rutuchicu is the ceremony when a child reaches the age of
one year, from _rutuni_, to cut or shear. It receives the name which it
retains until the Huarachicu if a boy, and until the Quicu-chicuy if a
girl. They then receive the names they retain until death. At the
Rutuchicu the child was shorn. Molina, p. 53.]

[Note 50: Molina says that Ayuscay was the ceremony when the woman
conceives. Molina, p. 53.]

After this they were in Matahua for two years, waiting to pass on to the
upper valley to seek good and fertile land. Mama Huaco, who was very
strong and dexterous, took two wands of gold and hurled them towards the
north. One fell, at two shots of an arquebus, into a ploughed field
called Colcapampa and did not drive in well, the soil being loose and
not terraced. By this they knew that the soil was not fertile. The other
went further, to near Cuzco, and fixed well in the territory called
Huanay-pata, where they knew the land to be fertile. Others say that
this proof was made by Manco Ccapac with the staff of gold which he
carried himself, and that thus they knew of the fertility of the land,
when the staff sunk in the land called Huanay-pata, two shots of an
arquebus from Cuzco. They knew the crust of the soil to be rich and
close, so that it could only be broken by using much force.

Let it be by one way or the other, for all agree that they went trying
the land with a pole or staff until they arrived at this Huanay-pata,
when they were satisfied. They were sure of its fertility, because after
sowing perpetually, it always yielded abundantly, giving more the more
it was sown. They determined to usurp that land by force, in spite of
the natural owners, and to do with it as they chose. So they returned to

From that place Manco Ccapac saw a heap of stones near the site of the
present monastery of Santo Domingo at Cuzco. Pointing it out to his
brother Ayar Auca, he said, "Brother! you remember how it was arranged
between us, that you should go to take possession of the land where we
are to settle. Well! look at that stone." Pointing out the stone he
continued, "Go thither flying," for they say that Ayar Auca had
developed some wings, "and seating yourself there, take possession of
land seen from that heap of stones. We will presently come to settle and
reside." When Ayar Auca heard the words of his brother, he opened his
wings and flew to that place which Manco Ccapac had pointed out. Seating
himself there, he was presently turned into stone, and was made the
stone of possession. In the ancient language of this valley the heap was
called _cozco_, whence that site has had the name of Cuzco to this
day[51]. From this circumstance the Incas had a proverb which said,
"Ayar Auca cuzco huanca," or, "Ayar Auca a heap of marble." Others say
that Manco Ccapac gave the name of Cuzco because he wept in that place
where he buried his brother Ayar Cachi. Owing to his sorrow and to the
fertility he gave that name which in the ancient language of that time
signified sad as well as fertile. The first version must be the correct
one because Ayar Cachi was not buried at Cuzco, having died at
Ccapac-tocco as has been narrated before. And this is generally affirmed
by Incas and natives.

[Note 51: _Cuzco_ means a clod, or hard unirrigated land. _Cuzquini_
is to break clods of earth, or to level. Montesinos derives the name of
the city from the verb "to level," or from the heaps of clods, of earth
called _cuzco_. Cusquic-Raymi is the month of June.]

Five brethren only remaining, namely Manco Ccapac, and the four sisters,
and Manco Ccapac being the only surviving brother out of four, they
presently resolved to advance to where Ayar Auca had taken possession.
Manco Ccapac first gave to his son Sinchi Rocca a wife named Mama Cuca,
of the lineage of Sañu, daughter of a Sinchi named Sitic-huaman, by whom
he afterwards had a son named Sapaca. He also instituted the sacrifice
called _capa cocha_[52], which is the immolation of two male and two
female infants before the idol Huanacauri, at the time when the Incas
were armed as knights. These things being arranged, he ordered the
companies to follow him to the place where Ayar Auca was.

[Note 52: Ccapac-cocha. The weight of evidence is, on the whole, in
favour of this sacrifice of two infants having taken place at the
Huarachicu, Cieza de Leon, in remarking that the Spaniards falsely
imputed crimes to the Indians to justify their ill-treatment, says that
the practice of human sacrifice was exaggerated, ii. pp. 79, 80. See
also Molina, pp-54, 57. Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 86.]

Arriving on the land of Huanay-pata, which is near where now stands the
_Arco de la plata_ leading to the Charcas road, he found settled there a
nation of Indians named Huallas, already mentioned. Manco Ccapac and
Mama Occlo began to settle and to take possession of the land and water,
against the will of the Huallas. On this business they did many violent
and unjust things. As the Huallas attempted to defend their lives and
properties, many cruelties were committed by Manco Ccapac and Mama
Occlo. They relate that Mama Occlo was so fierce that, having killed one
of the Hualla Indians, she cut him up, took out the inside, carried the
heart and lungs in her mouth, and with an _ayuinto_, which is a stone
fastened to a rope, in her hand, she attacked the Huallas with
diabolical resolution. When the Huallas beheld this horrible and inhuman
spectacle, they feared that the same thing would be done to them, being
simple and timid, and they fled and abandoned their rights. Mama Occlo
reflecting on her cruelty, and fearing that for it they would be branded
as tyrants, resolved not to spare any Huallas, believing that the affair
would thus be forgotten. So they killed all they could lay their hands
upon, dragging infants from their mothers' wombs, that no memory might
be left of these miserable Huallas.

Having done this Manco Ccapac advanced, and came within a mile of Cuzco
to the S.E., where a Sinchi named Copalimayta came out to oppose him. We
have mentioned this chief before and that, although he was a late comer,
he settled with the consent of the natives of the valley, and had been
incorporated in the nation of Sauaseray Panaca, natives of the site of
Santo Domingo at Cuzco. Having seen the strangers invading their lands
and tyrannizing over them, and knowing the cruelties inflicted on the
Huallas, they had chosen Copalimayta as their Sinchi. He came forth to
resist the invasion, saying that the strangers should not enter his
lands or those of the natives. His resistance was such that Manco Ccapac
and his companions were obliged to turn their backs. They returned to
Huanay-pata, the land they had usurped from the Huallas. From the sowing
they had made they derived a fine crop of maize, and for this reason
they gave the place a name which means something precious[53].

[Note 53: The origin of the Inca dynasty derived from Manco Ccapac
and his brethren issuing from the window at Paccari-tampu may be called
the Paccari-tampu myth. It was universally received and believed.
Garcilasso de la Vega gives the meanings of the names of the brothers.
Ayar Cachi means salt or instruction in rational life, Ayar Uchu is
pepper, meaning the delight experienced from such teaching, and Ayar
Sauca means pleasure, or the joy they afterwards experienced from it.
Balboa gives an account of the death of Ayar Cachi, but calls him Ayar
Auca. He also describes the turning into stone at Huanacauri. Betanzos
tells much the same story as Sarmiento; as do Cieza de Leon and
Montesinos, with some slight differences. Yamqui Pachacuti gives the
names of the brothers, but only relates the Huanacauri part of the
story. Montesinos and Garcilasso de la Vega call one of the brothers
Ayar Sauca. Sarmiento, Betanzos and Balboa call him Ayar Auca. All agree
in the names of the other brothers.]

After some months they returned to the attack on the natives of the
valley, to tyrannize over them. They assaulted the settlement of the
Sauaseras, and were so rapid in their attack that they captured
Copalimayta, slaughtering many of the Sauaseras with great cruelty.
Copalimayta, finding himself a prisoner and fearing death, fled out of
desperation, leaving his estates, and was never seen again after he
escaped. Mama Huaco and Manco Ccapac usurped his houses, lands and
SAPACA settled on the site between the two rivers, and erected the House
of the Sun, which they called YNTI-CANCHA. They divided all that
position, from Santo Domingo to the junction of the rivers into four
neighbourhoods or quarters which they call _cancha_. They called one
QUINTI-CANCHA, the second CHUMPI-CANCHA, the third SAYRI-CANCHA, and the
fourth YARAMPUY-CANCHA. They divided the sites among themselves, and
thus the city was peopled, and, from the heap of stones of Ayar Auca it
was called CUZCO[54].

[Note 54: Garcilasso de la Vega gives the most detailed description
of the city of Cuzco and its suburbs, ii. p. 235, but he does not
mention these four divisions. The space from Santo Domingo to the
junction of the rivers only covers a few acres; and was devoted to the
gardens of the Sun.]



It has been said that one of the natural tribes of this valley of Cuzco
was the Alcabisas. At the time when Manco Ccapac settled at Ynti-cancha
and seized the goods of the Sauaseras and Huallas, the Alcabisas were
settled half an arquebus shot from Ynti-canchi, towards the part where
Santa Clara now stands. Manco Ccapac had a plan to spread out his forces
that his tyrannical intentions might not be impeded, so he sent his
people, as if loosely and idly, making free with the land. He took the
lands without distinction, to support his companies. As he had taken
those of the Huallas and Sauaseras, he wished also to take those of the
Alcabisas. As these Alcabisas had given up some, Manco Ccapac wished and
intended to take all or nearly all. When the Alcabisas saw that the new
comers even entered their houses, they said: "These are men who are
bellicose and unreasonable! they take our lands! Let us set up landmarks
on the fields they have left to us." This they did, but Mama Huaco said
to Manco Ccapac, "let us take all the water from the Alcabisas, and then
they will be obliged to give us the rest of their land." This was done
and they took away the water. Over this there were disputes; but as the
followers of Manco Ccapac were more and more masterful, they forced the
Alcabisas to give up their lands which they wanted, and to serve them as
their lords, although the Alcabisas never voluntarily served Manco
Ccapac nor looked upon him as their lord. On the contrary they always
went about saying with loud voices-to those of Manco Ccapac--"Away!
away! out of our territory." For this Manco Ccapac was more hard upon
them, and oppressed them tyrannically.

Besides the Alcabisas there were other tribes, as we have mentioned
before. These Manco Ccapac and Mama Huaco totally destroyed, and more
especially one which lived near Ynti-cancha, in the nearest land, called
Humanamean, between Ynti-cancha and Cayocachi[55], where there also
lived another native Sinchi named Culunchima. Manco Ccapac entered the
houses and lands of all the natives, especially of the Alcabisas,
condemned their Sinchi to perpetual imprisonment, sending the others to
banishment in Cayocachi, and forcing them to pay tribute. But they were
always trying to free themselves from the tyranny, as the Alcabisas did

[Note 55: Garcilasso de la Vega describes Cayau-cachi as a small
village of about 300 inhabitants in his time. It was about 1000 paces
west of the nearest house of the city in 1560; but he had been told
that, at the time of his writing in 1602, the houses had been extended
so as to include it.]

[Note 56: Cieza de Leon and Balboa corroborate the story of
Sarmiento that the Alcabisas (Cieza calls them Alcaviquizas, Balboa has
Allcay-villcas) were hostile to the Incas, Cieza, ii. p. 105, Balboa, p.
25. Yamqui Pachacuti mentions them as Allcayviesas, p. 76.]

Having completed the yoke over the natives, their goods and persons,
Manco Ccapac was now very old. Feeling the approach of death, and
fearing that in leaving the sovereignty to his son, Sinchi Rocca, he and
his successors might not be able to retain it owing to the bad things he
had done and to the tyranny he had established, he ordered that the ten
lineages or companies that had come with him from Tampu-tocco should
form themselves into a garrison or guard, to be always on the watch over
the persons of his son and of his other descendants to keep them safe.
They were to elect the successor when he had been nominated by his
father, or succeeded on the death of his father. For he would not trust
the natives to nominate or elect, knowing the evil he had done, and the
force he had used towards them. Manco Ccapac being now on the point of
death, he left the bird _indi_ enclosed in its cage, the
_tupac-yauri_[57] or sceptre, the _napa_ and the _suntur-paucar_ the
insignia of a prince, [_though tyrant_,] to his son Sinchi Rocca that he
might take his place, [_and this without the consent or election of any
of the natives_].

[Note 57: _Tupac-yauri_ The sceptre of the sovereign. Molina, pp.
25, 40, 41. Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 92.]

Thus died Manco Ccapac, according to the accounts of those of his
_ayllu_ or lineage, at the age of 144 years, which were divided in the
following manner. When he set out from Paccari-tampu or Tampu-tocco he
was 36 years of age. From that time until he arrived at the valley of
Cuzco, during which interval he was seeking for fertile lands, there
were eight years. For in one place he stayed one, in another two years,
in others more or less until he reached Cuzco, where he lived all the
rest of the time, which was 100 years, as _Ccapac_ or supreme and rich

They say that he was a man of good stature, thin, rustic, cruel though
frank, and that in dying he was converted into a stone of a height of a
vara and a half. The stone was preserved with much veneration in the
Ynti-cancha until the year 1559 when, the licentiate Polo Ondegardo
being Corregidor of Cuzco, found it and took it away from where it was
adored and venerated by all the Incas, in the village of Bimbilla near

From this Manco Ccapac were originated the ten ayllus mentioned above.
From his time began the idols _huauquis_, which was an idol or demon
chosen by each Inca for his companion and oracle which gave him
answers[58]. That of Manco Ccapac was the bird _indi_ already mentioned.
This Manco Ccapac ordered, for the preservation of his memory, the
following: His eldest son by his legitimate wife, who was his sister,
was to succeed to the sovereignty. If there was a second son his duty
was to be to help all the other children and relations. They were to
recognize him as the head in all their necessities, and he was to take
charge of their interests, and for this duty estates were set aside.
This party or lineage was called _ayllu_ If there was no second son, or
if there was one who was incapable, the duty was to be passed on to the
nearest and ablest relation. And that those to come might have a
precedent or example, Manco Ccapac made the first _ayllu_ and called it
_Chima Panaca Ayllu_, which means the lineage descending from Chima,
because the first to whom he left his _ayllu_ or lineage in charge was
named _Chima_, and _Panaca_ means "to descend." It is to be noted that
the members of this _ayllu_ always adored the statue of Manco Ccapac,
and not those of the other Incas, but the _ayllus_ of the other Incas
always worshipped that statue and the others also. It is not known what
was done with the body, for there was only the statue. They carried it
in their wars, thinking that it secured the victories they won. They
also took it to Huanacauri, when they celebrated the _huarachicos_ of
the Incas. Huayna Ccapac took it with him to Quito and Cayambis, and
afterwards it was brought back to Cuzco with the dead body of that Inca.
There are still those of this _ayllu_ in Cuzco who preserve the memory
of the deeds of Manco Ccapac. The principal heads of the _ayllu_ are now
Don Diego Chaco, and Don Juan Huarhua Chima. They are Hurin-cuzcos.
Manco Ccapac died in the year 665 of the nativity of Christ our Lord,
Loyba the Goth reigning in Spain, Constantine IV being Emperor. He lived
in the Ynti-cancha, House of the Sun.

[Note 58: Sarmiento says that every sovereign Inca had a familiar
demon or idol which he called _guauqui_, and that the _guauqui_ of Manco
Ccapac was the _indi_ or bird already mentioned. This is corroborated by
Polo de Ondegardo. The word seems to be the same as _Huauqui_, a



It has been said that Manco Ccapac, the first Inca, who tyrannized over
the natives of the valley of Cuzco, only subjugated the Huallas,
Alcabisas, Sauaseras, Culunchima, Copalimayta and the others mentioned
above, who were all within the circuit of what is now the city of Cuzco.

To this Manco Ccapac succeeded his son Sinchi Rocca, son also of Mama
Occlo, his mother and aunt[59]. He succeeded by nomination of his
father, under the care of the _ayllus_ who then all lived together, but
not by election of the people, they were all either in flight,
prisoners, wounded or banished, and were all his mortal enemies owing to
the cruelties and robberies exercised upon them by his father Manco
Ccapac. Sinchi Rocca was not a warlike person, and no feats of arms are
recorded of him, nor did he sally forth from Cuzco, either himself or by
his captains[60]. He added nothing to what his father had subjugated,
only holding by his _ayllus_ those whom his father had crushed. He had
for a wife Mama Cuca of the town of Saño by whom he had a son named
Lloqui Yupanqui. Lloqui means left-handed, because he was so. He left
his _ayllu_ called _Raura Panaca Ayllu_ of the Hurin-cuzco side. There
are some of this _ayllu_ living, the chiefs being Don Alonso Puscon and
Don Diego Quispi. These have the duty of knowing and maintaining the
things and memories of Sinchi Rocca. He lived in Ynti-cancha, the House
of the Sun, and all his years were 127. He succeeded when 108, and
reigned 19 years. He died in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus
Christ 675, Wamba being King of Spain, Leo IV Emperor, and Donus Pope.
He left an idol of stone shaped like a fish called _Huanachiri Amaru_,
which during life was his idol or _guauqui_. Polo, being Corregidor of
Cuzco, found this idol, with the body of Sinchi Rocca, in the village of
Bimbilla, among some bars of copper. The idol had attendants and
cultivated lands for its service.

[Note 59: All the authorities concur that Sinchi Rocca was the
second sovereign of the Inca dynasty, except Montesinos, who makes him
the first and calls him Inca Rocca. Acosta has Inguarroca, and Betanzos

[Note 60: Cieza de Leon and Garcilasso de la Vega also say that
Sinchi Rocca waged no wars. The latter tells us that, by peaceful means,
he extended his dominions over the Canchis, as far as Chuncara.]



On the death of Sinchi Rocca the Incaship was occupied by Lloqui
Yupanqui, son of Sinchi Rocca by Mama Cuca his wife. It is to be noted
that, although Manco Ccapac had ordered that the eldest son should
succeed, this Inca broke the rule of his grandfather, for he had an
elder brother named Manco Sapaca[61], as it is said, who did not
consent, and the Indians do not declare whether he was nominated by his
father. From this I think that Lloqui Yupanqui was not nominated, but
Manco Sapaca as the eldest, for so little regard for the natives or
their approval was shown. This being so, it was tyranny against the
natives and infidelity to relations with connivance of the _ayllus_
legionaries; and with the Inca's favour they could do what they liked,
by supporting him. So Lloqui Yupanqui lived in Ynti-cancha like his
father[62]. He never left Cuzco on a warlike expedition nor performed
any memorable deed, but merely lived like his father, having
communication with some provinces and chiefs. These were Huaman Samo,
chief of Huaro, Pachaculla Viracocha, the Ayamarcas of Tampu-cunca, and
the Quilliscachis[63].

[Note 61: Manco Sapaca, the eldest son of Sinchi Rocca, is also
mentioned by Balboa, pp. 14, 20, 22.]

[Note 62: All the authorities concur in making Lloqui Yupanqui the
third Inca, except Acosta, who has Iaguarhuaque. Herrera spells it Lloki
Yupanqui, Fernandez has Lloccuco Panque, merely corrupt spellings. Cieza
de Leon also represents this reign to have been peaceful, but Garcilasso
de la Vega makes Lloqui Yupanqui conquer the Collao.]

[Note 63: Huaro or Guaro is a village south of Cuzco in the valley
of the Vilcamayu (Balboa, p. 110). Huaman Samo was the chief of Huaro.
Balboa mentions Pachachalla Viracocha as a chief of great prudence and
ability who submitted to Lloqui Yupanqui, pp. 21, 22. The Ayamarcas
formed a powerful tribe about 12 miles south of Cuzco. The Quilliscachis
formed one of the original tribes in the valley of Cuzco (Yamqui
Pachacuti, p. 110). Tampu-cunca only occurs here.]

One day Lloqui Yupanqui being very sad and afflicted, the Sun appeared
to him in the form of a person and consoled him by saying---"Do not be
sorrowful, Lloqui Yupanqui, for from you shall descend great Lords,"
also, that he might hold it for certain that he would have male issue.
For Lloqui Yupanqui was then very old, and neither had a son nor
expected to have one. This having been made known, and what the Sun had
announced to Lloqui Yupanqui having been published to the people, his
relations determined to seek a wife for him. His brother Manco Sapaca,
understanding the fraternal disposition, sought for a woman who was
suitable for it. He found her in a town called Oma, two leagues from
Cuzco, asked for her from her guardians, and, with their consent,
brought her to Cuzco. She was then married to Lloqui Yupanqui. Her name
was Mama Cava, and by her the Inca had a son named Mayta Ccapac.

This Lloqui did nothing worthy of remembrance. He carried with him an
idol, which was his _guauqui_ called _Apu Mayta_. His _ayllu_ is _Avayni
Panaca Ayllu_, because the first who had the charge of this _ayllu_ was
named Avayni. This Inca lived and died in Ynti-cancha. He was 132 years
of age, having succeeded at the age of 21, so that he was sovereign or
"ccapac" for 111 years. He died in 786, Alfonso el Casto being King of
Spain and Leo IV Supreme Pontiff. Some of this _ayllu_ still live at
Cuzco. The chiefs are Putisuc Titu Avcaylli, Titu Rimachi, Don Felipe
Titu Cunti Mayta, Don Agustin Cunti Mayta, Juan Bautista Quispi Cunti
Mayta. They are Hurin-cuzcos. The Licentiate Polo found the body of this
Inca with the rest.



[Note 64: All authorities agree that Mayta Ccapac was the fourth
Inca, except Acosta and Betanzos. Acosta has Viracocha. Betanzos places
Mayta Ccapac after Ccapac Yupanqui, whom other authorities make his son.
His reign was peaceful except that he encountered and finally vanquished
the Alcabisas. But Garcilasso de la Vega makes him the conqueror of the
region south of lake Titicaca, as well as provinces to the westward,
including the settlement of Arequipa. All this is doubtless a mistake on
the part of Garcilasso.]

Mayta Ccapac, the fourth Inca, son of Lloqui Yupanqui and his wife Mama
Cava, is to those Indians what Hercules is to us, as regards his birth
and acts, for they relate strange things of him. At the very first the
Indians of his lineage, and all the others in general, say that his
father, when he was begotten, was so old and weak that every one
believed he was useless, so that they thought the conception was a
miracle. The second wonder was that his mother bore him three months
after conception, and that he was born strong and with teeth. All affirm
this, and that he grew at such a rate that in one year he had as much
strength and was as big as a boy of eight years or more. At two years he
fought with very big boys, knocked them about and hurt them seriously.
This all looks as if it might be counted with the other fables, but I
write what the natives believe respecting their ancestors, and they hold
this to be so true that they would kill anyone who asserted the

They say of this Mayta that when he was of very tender years, he was
playing with some boys of the Alcabisas and Culunchimas, natives of
Cuzco, when he hurt many of them and killed some. And one day, drinking
or taking water from a fountain, he broke the leg of the son of a Sinchi
of the Alcabisas, and hunted the rest until they shut themselves up in
their houses, where the Alcabisas lived without injuring the Incas.

But now the Alcabisas, unable to endure longer the naughtiness of Mayta
Ccapac, which he practised under the protection of Lloqui Yupanqui, and
the _ayllus_ who watched over him, determined to regain their liberty
and to venture their lives for it. So they selected ten resolute Indians
to go to the House of the Sun where Lloqui Yupanqui and his son Mayta
Ccapac lived, and enter it with the intention of killing them. At the
time Mayta Ccapac was in the court yard of the house, playing at ball
with some other boys. When he saw enemies entering the house with arms,
he threw one of the balls he was playing with, and killed one. He did
the same to another, and, attacking the rest, they all fled. Though the
rest escaped, they had received many wounds, and in this state they went
back to their Sinchis of Calunchima and Alcabasa.

The Chiefs, considering the harm Mayta Ccapac had done to the natives
when a child, feared that when he was grown up he would destroy them
all, and for this reason they resolved to die for their liberty. All the
inhabitants of the valley of Cuzco, that had been spared by Manco
Ccapac, united to make war on the Incas. This very seriously alarmed
Lloqui Yupanqui. He thought he was lost, and reprehended his son Mayta
Ccapac, saying, "Son! why hast thou been so harmful to the natives of
this valley, so that in my old age I shall die at the hands of our
enemies?" As the _ayllus_, who were in garrison with the Incas, rejoiced
more in rapine and disturbances than in quiet, they took the part of
Mayta Ccapac and told the old Inca to hold his peace, leaving the matter
to his son, so Lloqui Yupanqui took no further steps in reprehending
Mayta Ccapac. The Alcabisas and Culunchimas assembled their forces and
Mayta Ccapac marshalled his _ayllus_. There was a battle between the two
armies and although it was doubtful for some time, both sides fighting
desperately for victory, the Alcabisas and Calunchimas were finally
defeated by the troops of Mayta Ccapac.

But not for this did the Alcabisas give up the attempt to free
themselves and avenge their wrongs. Again they challenged Mayta Ccapac
to battle, which he accepted. As they advanced they say that such a hail
storm fell over the Alcabisas that they were defeated a third time, and
entirely broken up. Mayta Ccapac imprisoned their Sinchi for the
remainder of his life.

Mayta Ccapac married Mama Tacucaray, native of the town of Tacucaray,
and by her he had a legitimate son named Ccapac Yupanqui, besides four
others named Tarco Huaman, Apu Cunti Mayta, Queco Avcaylli, and Rocca

This Mayta Ccapac was warlike, and the Inca who first distinguished
himself in arms after the time of Mama Huaco and Manco Ccapac. They
relate of him that he dared to open the hamper containing the bird
_indi_. This bird, brought by Manco Ccapac from Tampu-tocco, had been
inherited by his successors, the predecessors of Mayta Ccapac, who had
always kept it shut up in a hamper or box of straw, such was the fear
they had of it. But Mayta Ccapac was bolder than any of them. Desirous
of seeing what his predecessors had guarded so carefully, he opened the
hamper, saw the bird _indi_ and had some conversation with it. They say
that it gave him oracles, and that after the interview with the bird he
was wiser, and knew better what he should do, and what would happen.

With all this he did not go forth from the valley of Cuzco, although
chiefs from some distant nations came to visit him. He lived in
Ynti-cancha, the House of the Sun. He left a lineage called _Usca Mayta
Panaca Ayllu_, and some members of it are still living in Cuzco. The
heads are named Don Juan Tambo Usca Mayta, and Don Baltasar Quiso Mayta.
They are Hurin-cuzcos. Mayta Ccapac died at the age of 112 years, in the
year 890 of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ. The Licentiate Polo
found his body and idol _guauqui_ with the rest.



[Note 65: All authorities are agreed that Ccapac Yupanqui was the
fifth Inca, except Betanzos, who puts him in his father's place.
Garcilasso attributes extensive conquests to him, both to south and

At the time of his death, Mayta Ccapac named Ccapac Yupanqui as his
successor, his son by his wife Mama Tacucaray. This Ccapac Yupanqui, as
soon as he succeeded to the Incaship, made his brothers swear allegiance
to him, and that they desired that he should be Ccapac. They complied
from fear, for he was proud and cruel. At first he lived very quietly in
the Ynti-cancha. It is to be noted that although Ccapac Yupanqui
succeeded his father, he was not the eldest son. Cunti Mayta, who was
older, had an ugly face. His father had, therefore, disinherited him and
named Ccapac Yupanqui as successor to the sovereignty, and Cunti Mayta
as high priest. For this reason Ccapac Yupanqui was not the legitimate
heir, although he tyrannically forced his brothers to swear allegiance
to him.

This Inca, it is said, was the first to make conquests beyond the valley
of Cuzco. He forcibly subjugated the people of Cuyumarca and Ancasmarca,
four leagues from Cuzco. A wealthy Sinchi of Ayamarca, from fear,
presented his daughter, named Ccuri-hilpay to the Inca. Others say that
she was a native of Cuzco. The Inca received her as his wife, and had a
son by her named Inca Rocca, besides five other sons by various women.
These sons were named Apu Calla, Humpi, Apu Saca, Apu Chima-chaui, and
Uchun-cuna-ascalla-rando[66]. Apu Saca had a son named Apu Mayta, a very
valiant and famous captain, who greatly distinguished himself in the
time of Inca Rocca and Viracocha Inca, in company with Vicaquirau,
another esteemed captain. Besides these Ccapac Yupanqui had another son
named Apu Urco Huaranca[67]. This Ccapac Yupanqui lived 104 years, and
was Ccapac for 89 years. He succeeded at the age of 15, and died in the
year 980 of the nativity of our redeemer Jesus Christ. His _ayllu_ or
lineage was and is called _Apu Mayta Panaca Ayllu_. Several of this
lineage are now living, the principal heads being four in number,
namely, Don Cristobal Cusi-hualpa, Don Antonio Piçuy, Don Francisco
Cocasaca, and Don Alonso Rupaca. They are Hurin-cuzcos. The Licentiate
Polo found the idol or _guaoqui_ of this Inca with the body. They were
hidden with the rest, to conceal the idolatrous ceremonies of heathen

[Note 66: _Calla_ means a distaff. _Humpi_ means perspiration.
_Saca_ is a game bird, also a comet. Chima-chaui is a proper name with
no meaning. The name of the fifth son is rather unmanageable.
Uchun-cuna-ascalla-rando. _Uchun-cuna_ would mean the Peruvian pepper
with the plural particle. _Ascalla_ would be a small potato. _Rando_ is
a corrupt form of _runtu_, an egg. This little Inca seems to have done
the marketing.]

[Note 67: _Urco_, the male gender. _Huaranca_, a thousand.]



When Ccapac Yupanqui died, Inca Rocca, his son by his wife Ccuri-hilpay,
succeeded by nomination of his father and the guardian _ayllus_. This
Inca Rocca showed force and valour at the beginning of his Incaship, for
he conquered the territories of Muyna[69] and Pinahua with great
violence and cruelty. They are rather more than four leagues to the
south-south-east of Cuzco. He killed their Sinchis Muyna Pancu, and
Huaman-tupac, though some say that Huaman-tupac fled and was never more
seen. He did this by the help of Apu Mayta his nephew, and grandson of
Ccapac Yupanqui. He also conquered Caytomarca, four leagues from Cuzco.
He discovered the waters of Hurin-chacan and those of Hanan-chacan,
which is as much as to say the upper and lower waters of Cuzco, and led
them in conduits; so that to this day they irrigate fields; and his sons
and descendants have benefited by them to this day.

[Note 68: All authorities are agreed respecting Inca Rocca as the
sixth Inca. Garcilasso makes him extend the Inca dominion beyond the
Apurimac, and into the country of the Chancos.]

[Note 69: Muyna is a district with a lake, 14 miles S.S.W. of Cuzco.
Pinahua is mentioned by Garcilasso as a chief to the westward, i. p.

Inca Rocca gave himself up to pleasures and banquets, preferring to live
in idleness. He loved his children to that extent, that for them he
forgot duties to his people and even to his own person. He married a
great lady of the town of Pata-huayllacan, daughter of the Sinchi of
that territory, named Soma Inca. Her name was Mama Micay. From this
marriage came the wars between Tocay Ccapac and the Cuzcos as we shall
presently relate. By this wife Inca Rocca had a son named Titu Cusi
Hualpa[70], and by another name Yahuar-huaccac, and besides this eldest
legitimate son he had four other famous sons named Inca Paucar, Huaman
Taysi Inca, and Vicaquirau Inca[70]. The latter was a great warrior,
companion in arms with Apu Mayta. These two captains won great victories
and subdued many provinces for Viracocha Inca and Inca Yupanqui. They
were the founders of the great power to which the Incas afterwards

[Note 70: _Titu_ means august or magnanimous. _Cusi_ joyful.
_Hualpa_ a game bird. _Paucar_ means beautiful or bright coloured.
_Huaman_ a falcon. _Vica_ may be _nilca_ sacred. _Quirau_ a cradle.]

As the events which happened in the reign of Inca Rocca touching the
Ayamarcas will be narrated in the life of his son, we will not say more
of this Inca, except that, while his ancestors had always lived in the
lower part of Cuzco, and were therefore called Hurin-cuzcos, he ordered
that those who sprang from him should form another party, and be called
Hanan-cuzcos, which means the Cuzcos of the upper part. So that from
this Inca began the party of upper or Hanan-cuzcos, for presently he and
his successors left their residence at the House of the Sun, and
established themselves away from it, building palaces where they lived,
in the upper part of the town. It is to be noted that each Inca had a
special palace in which he lived, the son not wishing to reside in the
palace where his father had lived. It was left in the same state as it
was in when the father died, with servants, relations, _ayllus_ or heirs
that they might maintain it, and keep the edifices in repair. The Incas
and their _ayllus_ were, and still are Hanan-cuzco; although afterwards,
in the time of Pachacuti, these _ayllus_ were reformed by him. Some say
that then were established the two parties which have been so celebrated
in these parts.

Inca Rocca named his son Vicaquirao as the head of his lineage, and it
is still called after him the _Vicaquirao Panaca Ayllu_. There are now
some of this lineage living in Cuzco, the principal heads who protect
and maintain it being the following: Don Francisco Huaman Rimachi
Hachacoma, and Don Antonio Huaman Mayta. They are Hanan-cuzcos. Inca
Rocca lived 103 years, and died in the year 1088 of the nativity of our
Lord. The Licentiate Polo found his body in the town called Rarapa, kept
there with much care and veneration according to their rites.



Titu Cusi Hualpa Inca, eldest son of Inca Rocca and his wife Mama Micay,
had a strange adventure in his childhood[71]. These natives therefore
relate his life from his childhood, and in the course of it they tell
some things of his father, and of some who were strangers in Cuzco, as
follows. It has been related how the Inca Rocca married Mama Micay by
the rites of their religion. But it must be understood that those of
Huayllacan had already promised to give Mama Micay, who was their
countrywoman and very beautiful, in marriage to Tocay Ccapac, Sinchi of
the Ayamarcas their neighbours. When the Ayamarcas[72] saw that the
Huayllacans had broken their word, they were furious and declared war,
considering them as enemies. War was carried on, the Huayllacans
defending themselves and also attacking the Ayamarcas, both sides
committing cruelties, inflicting deaths and losses, and causing great
injury to each other. While this war was being waged, Mama Micay gave
birth to her son Titu Cusi Hualpa. The war continued for some years
after his birth, when both sides saw that they were destroying each
other, and agreed to come to terms, to avoid further injury. The
Ayamarcas, who were the most powerful, requested those of Huayllacan to
deliver the child Titu Cusi Hualpa into their hands, to do what they
liked with him. On this condition they would desist from further
hostilities, but if it was not complied with, they announced that they
would continue a mortal war to the end. The Huayllacans, fearing this,
and knowing their inability for further resistance, accepted the
condition, although they were uncles and relations of the child. In
order to comply it was necessary for them to deceive the Inca. There
was, in the town of Paulo, a brother of Inca Rocca and uncle of Titu
Cusi Hualpa named Inca Paucar. He went or sent messengers to ask Inca
Rocca to think well of sending his nephew Titu Cusi Hualpa to his town
of Paulo in order that, while still a child, he might learn to know and
care for his relations on his mother's side, while they wanted to make
him the heir of their estates. Believing in these words the Inca Rocca
consented that his son should be taken to Paulo, or the town of
Micocancha. As soon as they had the child in their town the Huayllacans
made great feasts in honour of Titu Cusi Hualpa, who was then eight
years old, a little more or less. His father had sent some Incas to
guard him. When the festivities were over, the Huayllacans sent to give
notice to the Ayamarcas that, while they were occupied in ploughing
certain lands which they call _chacaras_, they might come down on the
town and carry off the child, doing with him what they chose, in
accordance with the agreement. The Ayamarcas, being informed, came at
the time and to the place notified and, finding the child Titu Cusi
Hualpa alone, they carried it off.

[Note 71: The very interesting story of the kidnapping of the heir
of Inca Rocca, is well told by Sarmiento.]

[Note 72: The Ayarmarcas seem to have occupied the country about 15
miles S.S.W. of Cuzco, near Muyna. The word Ayar is the same as that in
the names of the brethren of Manco Ccapac. But others omit the r, and
make it Ayamarca, Cieza de Leon, pp. 114, 115, Garcilasso, i. p. 80,
Yamqui Pachacuti, p. 90. The month of October was called Ayamarca-Raymi.
Molina says that it was because the Ayamarca tribe celebrated the feast
of Huarachicu in that month.]

Others say that this treason was carried out in another way. While the
uncle was giving the child many presents, his cousins, the sons of Inca
Paucar, became jealous and treated with Tocay Ccapac to deliver the
child into his hands. Owing to this notice Tocay Ccapac came. Inca
Paucar had gone out to deliver to his nephew a certain estate and a
flock of llamas. Tocay Ccapac, the enemy of Inca Rocca was told by those
who had charge of the boy. He who carried him fled, and the boy was
seized and carried off by Tocay Ccapac.

Be it the one way or the other, the result was that the Ayamarcas took
Titu Cusi Hualpa from the custody of Inca Paucar in the town of Paulo,
while Inca Paucar and the Huayllacans sent the news to Inca Rocca by one
party, and with another took up arms against the Ayamarcas.



When the Ayamarcas and their Sinchi Tocay Ccapac stole the son of Inca
Rocca, they marched off with him. The Huayllacans of Paulopampa, under
their Sinchi Paucar Inca, marched in pursuit, coming up to them at a
place called Amaro, on the territory of the Ayamarcas. There was an
encounter between them, one side to recover the child, and the other to
keep their capture. But Paucar was only making a demonstration so as to
have an excuse ready. Consequently the Ayamarcas were victorious, while
the Huayllacans broke and fled. It is said that in this encounter, and
when the child was stolen, all the _orejones_ who had come as a guard
from Cuzco, were slain. The Ayamarcas then took the child to the chief
place of their province called Ahuayro-cancha.

Many say that Tocay Ccapac was not personally in this raid but that he
sent his Ayamarcas, who, when they arrived at Ahuayro-cancha, presented
the child Titu Cusi Hualpa to him, saying, "Look here, Tocay Ccapac, at
the prisoner we have brought you." The Sinchi received his prize with
great satisfaction, asking in a loud voice if this was the child of Mama
Micay, who ought to have been his wife. Titu Cusi Hualpa, though but a
child, replied boldly that he was the son of Mama Micay and of the Inca
Rocca. Tocay was indignant when he had heard those words, and ordered
those who brought the child as a prisoner to take him out and kill him.
The boy, when he heard such a sentence passed upon him, was so filled
with sadness and fright, that he began to weep from fear of death. He
began to shed tears of blood and with indignation beyond his years, in
the form of a malediction he said to Tocay and the Ayamarcas, "I tell
you that as sure as you murder me there will come such a curse on you
and your descendants that you will all come to an end, without any
memory being left of your nation."

The Ayamarcas and Tocay attentively considered this curse of the child
together with the tears of blood. They thought there was some great
mystery that so young a child should utter such weighty words, and that
the fear of death should make such an impression on him that he should
shed tears of blood. They were in suspense divining what it portended,
whether that the child would become a great man. They revoked the
sentence of death, calling the child _Yahuar-huaccac_, which means
"weeper of blood," in allusion to what had taken place.

But although they did not wish to kill him then and with their own
hands, they ordered that he should lead such a life as that he would die
of hunger. Before this they all said to the child that he should turn
his face to Cuzco and weep over it, because those curses he had
pronounced, would fall on the inhabitants of Cuzco, and so it happened.

This done they delivered him to the most valiant Indians, and ordered
them to take him to certain farms where flocks were kept, giving him to
eat by rule, and so sparingly that he would be consumed with hunger
before he died. He was there for a year without leaving the place, so
that they did not know at Cuzco, or anywhere else, whether he was dead
or alive. During this time Inca Rocca, being without certain knowledge
of his son, did not wish to make war on the Ayamarcas because, if he was
alive, they might kill him. So he did no more than prepare his men of
war and keep ready, while he enquired for his son in all the ways that
were possible.



As the child Yahuar-huaccac was a year among the shepherds without
leaving their huts, which served as a prison, no one knew where he was,
because he could not come forth, being well watched by the shepherds and
other guards. But it so happened that there was a woman in the place
called Chimpu Orma, native of the town of Anta, three leagues from
Cuzco. She was a concubine of the Sinchi Tocay Ccapac, and for this
reason she had leave to walk about and go into all parts as she pleased.
She was the daughter of the Sinchi of Anta, and having given an account
of the treatment of the child to her father, brothers, and relations,
she persuaded them to help in his liberation. They came on a certain day
and, with the pass given them by Chimpu Orma, the father and relations
arranged the escape of Yahuar-huaccac. They stationed themselves behind
a hill. Yahuar-huaccac was to run in a race with some other boys, to see
which could get to the top of the hill first. When the prince reached
the top, the men of Anta, who were hidden there, took him in their arms
and ran swiftly with him to Anta. When the other boys saw this they
quickly gave notice to the valiant guards, who ran after the men of
Anta. They overtook them at the lake of Huaypon, where there was a
fierce battle. Finally the Ayamarcas got the worst of it, for they were
nearly all killed or wounded. The men of Anta continued their journey to
their town, where they gave many presents to Yahuar-huaccac and much
service, having freed him from the mortal imprisonment in which Tocay
Ccapac held him. In this town of Anta the boy remained a year, being
served with much love, but so secretly that his father Inca Rocca did
not know that he had escaped, during all that time. At the end of a year
those of Anta agreed to send messengers to Inca Rocca to let him know of
the safety of his son and heir, because they desired to know and serve
him. The messengers went to Inca Rocca and, having delivered their
message, received the reply that the Inca only knew that the Ayamarcas
had stolen his son. They were asked about it again and again, and at
last Inca Rocca came down from his throne and closely examined the
messengers, that they might tell him more, for not without cause had he
asked them so often. The messengers, being so persistently questioned by
Inca Rocca, related what had passed, and that his son was free in Anta,
served and regaled by the chief who had liberated him. Inca Rocca
rejoiced, promised favours, and dismissed the messengers with thanks.
Inca Rocca then celebrated the event with feasts and rejoicings.

But not feeling quite certain of the truth of what he had been told, he
sent a poor man seeking charity to make enquiries at Anta, whether it
was all true. The poor man went, ascertained that the child was
certainly liberated, and returned with the news to Inca Rocca; which
gave rise to further rejoicings in Cuzco. Presently the Inca sent many
principal people of Cuzco with presents of gold, silver, and cloth to
the Antas, asking them to receive them and to send back his son. The
Antas replied that they did not want his presents which they returned,
that they cared more that Yahuar-huaccac should remain with them, that
they might serve him and his father also, for they felt much love for
the boy. Yet if Inca Rocca wanted his son, he should be returned on
condition that, from that time forwards, the Antas should be called
relations of the _orejones_. When Inca Rocca was made acquainted with
the condition, he went to Anta and conceded what they asked for, to the
Sinchi and his people. For this reason the Antas were called relations
of the Cuzcos from that time.

Inca Rocca brought his son Yahuar-huaccac to Cuzco and nominated him
successor to the Incaship, the _ayllus_ and _orejones_ receiving him as
such. At the end of two years Inca Rocca died, and Yahuar-huaccac, whose
former name was Titu Cusi Hualpa, remained sole Inca. Before Inca Rocca
died he made friends with Tocay Ccapac, through the mediation of Mama
Chicya, daughter of Tocay Ccapac, who married Yahuar-huaccac, and Inca
Rocca gave his daughter Ccuri-Occllo in marriage to Tocay Ccapac.



When Yahuar-huaccac found himself in possession of the sole sovereignty,
he remembered the treason with which he had been betrayed by the
Huayllacans who sold him and delivered him up to his enemies the
Ayamarcas; and he proposed to inflict an exemplary punishment on them.
When the Huayllacans knew this, they humbled themselves before
Yahuar-huaccac, entreating him to forgive the evil deeds they had
committed against him. Yahuar-huaccac, taking into consideration that
they were relations, forgave them. Then he sent a force, under the
command of his brother Vicaquirau, against Mohina and Pinahua, four
leagues from Cuzco, who subdued these places. He committed great
cruelties, for no other reason than that they did not come to obey his
will. This would be about 23 years after the time when he rested in
Cuzco. Some years afterwards the town of Mollaca, near Cuzco, was
conquered and subjugated by force of arms.

[Note 73: _Yahuar_ means blood. _Huaccani_ to weep. Yahuar-huaccac
succeeded to Inca Rocca according to Garcilasso de la Vega, Montesinos,
Betanzos, Balboa, Yamqui Pachacuti and Sarmiento. Cieza de Leon and
Herrera have Inca Yupanqui. Garcilasso makes this Inca banish his son
Viracocha, who returns in consequence of a dream, and defeats the
Chancas. This all seems to be a mistake. It was Viracocha who fled, and
his son Inca Yupanqui, surnamed Pachacuti, who defeated the Chancas and
dethroned his father.]

Yahuar-huaccac had, by his wife Mama Chicya, three legitimate sons. The
eldest was Paucar Ayllu. The second, Pahuac Hualpa Mayta[74], was chosen
to succeed his father, though he was not the eldest. The third was named
Viracocha, who was afterwards Inca through the death of his brother.
Besides these he had three other illegitimate sons named Vicchu Tupac
because he subdued the town of Vicchu, Marca-yutu, and Rocca Inca. As
the Huayllacans wanted Marca-yutu to succeed Yahuar-huaccac, because he
was their relation, they determined to kill Pahuac Hualpa Mayta, who was
nominated to succeed. With this object they asked his father to let him
go to Paulo. Forgetting their former treason, he sent the child to its
grandfather Soma Inca with forty _orejones_ of the _ayllus_ of Cuzco as
his guard. When he came to their town they killed him, for which the
Inca, his father, inflicted a great punishment on the Huayllacans,
killing some and banishing others until very few were left.

[Note 74: Or Pahuac Mayta Inca (Garcilasso de la Vega, i. p. 23) so
named from his swiftness. _Pahuani_, to run.]

The Inca then went to the conquest of Pillauya, three leagues from Cuzco
in the valley of Pisac, and to Choyca, an adjacent place, and to Yuco.
After that he oppressed by force and with cruelties, the towns of
Chillincay, Taocamarca, and the Caviñas, making them pay tribute. The
Inca conquered ten places himself or through his son and captains. Some
attribute all the conquests to his son Viracocha.

This Inca was a man of gentle disposition and very handsome face. He
lived 115 years. He succeeded his father at the age of 19, and was
sovereign for 96 years. He left an _ayllu_ named _Aucaylli Panaca_, and
some are still living at Cuzco. The principal chiefs who maintain it are
Don Juan Concha Yupanqui, Don Martin Titu Yupanqui, and Don Gonzalo
Paucar Aucaylli. They are Hanan-cuzcos. The body of this Inca has not
been discovered[75]. It is believed that those of the town of Paulo have
it, with the Inca's _guauqui_.

[Note 75: In the margin of the MS., "The witnesses said that they
believed that the licentiate Polo found it." Navamuel.]



[Note 76: All authorities agree respecting Viracocha as the eighth

As the Huayllacans murdered Pahuac Hualpa Mayta who should have
succeeded his father Yahuar-huaccac, the second son Viracocha Inca was
nominated for the succession, whose name when a child was Hatun Tupac
Inca, younger legitimate son of Yahuar-huaccac and Mama Chicya. He was
married to Mama Runtucaya, a native of Anta. Once when this Hatun Tupac
Inca was in Urcos, a town which is a little more than five leagues
S.S.E. of Cuzco, where there was a sumptuous _huaca_ in honour of Ticci
Viracocha, the deity appeared to him in the night. Next morning he
assembled his _orejones_, among them his tutor Hualpa Rimachi, and told
them how Viracocha had appeared to him that night, and had announced
great good fortune to him and his descendants. In congratulating him
Hualpa Rimachi saluted him, "O Viracocha Inca." The rest followed his
example and celebrated this name, and the Inca retained it all the rest
of his life. Others say that he took this name, because, when he was
armed as a knight and had his ears bored, he took Ticci Viracocha as the
godfather of his knighthood. Be it as it may, all that is certain is
that when a child, before he succeeded his father, he was named Hatun
Tupac Inca, and afterwards, for the rest of his life, Viracocha Inca.

After he saw the apparition in Urcos, the Inca came to Cuzco, and
conceived the plan of conquering and tyrannizing over all the country
that surrounds Cuzco. For it is to be understood that, although his
father and grandfather had conquered and robbed in these directions, as
their only object was rapine and bloodshed, they did not place garrisons
in the places they subdued, so that when the Inca, who had conquered
these people, died, they rose in arms and regained their liberty. This
is the reason that we repeat several times that a place was conquered,
for it was by different Incas. For instance Mohina and Pinahua, although
first overrun by Inca Rocca, were also invaded by Yahuar-huaccac, and
then by Viracocha and his son Inca Yupanqui. Each town fought so hard
for its liberty, both under their Sinchis and without them, that one
succeeded in subjugating one and another defeated another. This was
especially the case in the time of the Incas. Even in Cuzco itself those
of one suburb, called Carmenca, made war on another suburb called
Cayocachi. So it is to be understood that, in the time of the seven
Incas preceding Viracocha, although owing to the power they possessed in
the _ayllus_, they terrorized those of Cuzco and the immediate
neighbourhood, the subjection only lasted while the lance was over the
vanquished, and that the moment they had a chance they took up arms for
their liberty. They did this at great risk to themselves, and sustained
much loss of life, even those in Cuzco itself, until the time of
Viracocha Inca.

This Inca had resolved to subjugate all the tribes he possibly could by
force and cruelty. He selected as his captains two valiant _orejones_
the one named Apu Mayta and the other Vicaquirau, of the lineage of Inca
Rocca. With these captains, who were cruel and impious, he began to
subjugate, before all things, the inhabitants of Cuzco who were not
Incas _orejones_, practising on them great cruelties and putting many to
death. At this time many towns and provinces were up in arms. Those in
the neighbourhood of Cuzco had risen to defend themselves from the
_orejones_ Incas of Cuzco who had made war to tyrannize over them.
Others were in arms with the same motives as the Incas, which was to
subdue them if their forces would suffice. Thus it was that though many
Sinchis were elected, their proceedings were confused and without
concert, so that each force was small, and they were all weak and
without help from each other. This being known to Viracocha, it
encouraged him to commence his policy of conquest beyond Cuzco.

Before coming to treat of the nations which Viracocha Inca conquered, we
will tell of the sons he had. By Mama Runtucaya, his legitimate wife, he
had four sons, the first and eldest Inca Rocca, the second Tupac
Yupanqui, the third Inca Yupanqui, and the fourth Ccapac Yupanqui. By
another beautiful Indian named Ccuri-chulpa, of the Ayavilla nation in
the valley of Cuzco he also had two sons, the one named Inca Urco, the
other Inca Socso. The descendants of Inca Urco, however, say that he was
legitimate, but all the rest say that he was a bastard[77].

[Note 77: Urco is made by Cieza de Leon to succeed, and to have been
dethroned by Inca Yupanqui owing to his flight from the Chancas. Yamqui
Pachacuti records the death of Urco. Herrera, Fernandez, Yamqui
Pachacuti also make Urco succeed Viracocha.]



Viracocha, having named Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau as his captains, and
mustered his forces, gave orders that they should advance to make
conquests beyond the valley of Cuzco. They went to Pacaycacha, in the
valley of Pisac, three leagues and a half from Cuzco. And because the
besieged did not submit at once they assaulted the town, killing the
inhabitants and their Sinchi named Acamaqui. Next the Inca marched
against the towns of Mohina, Pinahua, Casacancha, and Runtucancha, five
short leagues from Cuzco. They had made themselves free, although
Yahuar-huaccac had sacked their towns. The captains of Viracocha
attacked and killed most of the natives, and their Sinchis named Muyna
Pancu and Huaman Tupac. The people of Mohina and Pinahua suffered from
this war and subsequent cruelties because they said that they were free,
and would not serve nor be vassals to the Incas.

At this time the eldest son, Inca Rocca, was grown up and showed signs
of being a courageous man. Viracocha, therefore, made him
captain-general with Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau as his colleagues. They
also took with them Inca Yupanqui, who also gave hopes owing to the
valour he had shown in the flower of his youth. With these captains the
conquests were continued. Huaypar-marca was taken, the Ayamarcas were
subdued, and Tocay Ccapac and Chihuay Ccapac, who had their seats near
Cuzco, were slain. The Incas next subjugated Mollaca and ruined the town
of Cayto, four leagues from Cuzco, killing its Sinchi named Ccapac Chani
They assaulted the towns of Socma and Chiraques, killing their Sinchis
named Puma Lloqui and Illacumbi, who were very warlike chiefs in that
time, who had most valorously resisted the attacks of former Incas, that
they might not come from Cuzco to subdue them. The Inca captains also
conquered Calca and Caquia Xaquixahuana, three leagues from Cuzco, and
the towns of Collocte and Camal. They subdued the people between Cuzco
and Quiquisana with the surrounding country, the Papris and other
neighbouring places; all within seven or eight leagues round Cuzco. [_In
these conquests they committed very great cruelties, robberies, put many
to death and destroyed towns, burning and desolating along the road
without leaving memory of anything_.]

As Viracocha was now very old, he nominated as his successor his bastard
son Inca Urco, without regard to the order of succession, because he was
very fond of his mother. This Inca was bold, proud, and despised others,
so that he aroused the indignation of the warriors, more especially of
the legitimate sons, Inca Rocca, who was the eldest, and of the valiant
captains Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau. These took order to prevent this
succession to the Incaship, preferring one of the other brothers, the
best conditioned, who would treat them well and honourably as they
deserved. They secretly set their eyes on the third of the legitimate
sons named Cusi, afterwards called Inca Yupanqui, because they believed
that he was mild and affable, and, besides these qualities, he showed
signs of high spirit and lofty ideas. Apu Mayta was more in favour of
this plan than the others, as he desired to have some one to shield him
from the fury of Viracocha Inca. Mayta thought that the Inca would kill
him because he had seduced a woman named Cacchon Chicya, who was a wife
of Viracocha. Apu Mayta had spoken of his plan and of his devotion to
Cusi, to his colleague Vicaquirau. While they were consulting how it
should be managed, the Chancas of Andahuaylas, thirty leagues from
Cuzco, marched upon that city, as will be narrated in the life of Inca
Yupanqui. Inca Viracocha, from fear of them, fled from Cuzco, and went
to a place called Caquia Xaquixahuana, where he shut himself up, being
afraid of the Chancas. Here he died after some years, deprived of Cuzco
of which his son Cusi had possession for several years before his
father's death. Viracocha Inca was he who had made the most extensive
conquests beyond Cuzco and, as we may say, he tyrannized anew even as
regards Cuzco, as has been said above.

Viracocha lived 119 years, succeeding at the age of 18. He was Ccapac
101 years. He named the _ayllu_, which he left for the continuance of
his lineage, _Socso Panaca Ayllu_, and some are still living at Cuzco,
the heads being Amaru Titu, Don Francisco Chalco Yupanqui, Don Francisco
Anti Hualpa. They are Hanan-cuzcos.

This Inca was industrious, and inventor of cloths and embroidered work
called in their language _Viracocha-tocapu_, and amongst us _brocade_.
He was rich [_for he robbed much_] and had vases of gold and silver. He
was buried in Caquia Xaquixahuana and Gonzalo Pizarro, having heard that
there was treasure with the body, discovered it and a large sum of gold.
He burnt the body, and the natives collected the ashes and hid them in a
vase. This, with the Inca's _guauqui_, called _Inca Amaru_, was found by
the Licentiate Polo, when he was Corregidor of Cuzco.



[Note 78: Inca Yupanqui surnamed Pachacuti was the ninth Inca. All
the authorities agree that he dethroned either his father Viracocha, or
his half brother Urco, after his victory over the Chancas, and that he
had a long and glorious reign.]

It is related, in the life of Inca Viracocha, that he had four
legitimate sons. Of these the third named Cusi, and as surname Inca
Yupanqui, was raised to the Incaship by the famous captains Apu Mayta
and Vicaquirau, and by the rest of the legitimate sons, and against the
will of his father. In the course of their intrigues to carry this into
effect, the times gave them the opportunity which they could not
otherwise have found, in the march of the Chancas upon Cuzco. It
happened in this way.

Thirty leagues to the west of Cuzco there is a province called
Andahuaylas, the names of the natives of it being Chancas. In this
province there were two Sinchis, [_robbers and cruel tyrants_] named
Uscovilca and Ancovilca who, coming on an expedition from near Huamanca
with some companies of robbers, had settled in the valley of
Andahuaylas, and had there formed a state. They were brothers. Uscovilca
being the elder and principal one, instituted a tribe which he called
Hanan-chancas or upper Chancas. Ancovilca formed another tribe called
Hurin-chancas or lower Chancas. These chiefs, after death, were
embalmed, and because they were feared for their cruelties in life, were
kept by their people. The Hanan-chancas carried the statue of Uscovilca
with them, in their raids and wars. Although they had other Sinchis,
they always attributed their success to the statue of Uscovilca, which
they called Ancoallo.

The tribes and companies of Uscovilca had multiplied prodigiously in the
time of Viracocha. It seemed to them that they were so powerful that no
one could equal them, so they resolved to march from Andahuaylas and
conquer Cuzco. With this object they elected two Sinchis, one named
Asto-huaraca, and the other Tomay-huaraca, one of the tribe of
Hanan-chanca, the other of Hurin-chanca. These were to lead them in
their enterprise. The Chancas and their Sinchis were proud and insolent.
Setting out from Andahuaylas they marched on the way to Cuzco until they
reached a place called Ichu-pampa, five leagues west of that city, where
they halted for some days, terrifying the neighbourhood and preparing
for an advance.

The news spread terror among the _orejones_ of Cuzco, for they doubted
the powers of Inca Viracocha, who was now very old and weak. Thinking
that the position of Cuzco was insecure, Viracocha called a Council of
his sons and captains Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau. These captains said to
him--"Inca Viracocha! we have understood what you have proposed to us
touching this matter, and how you ought to meet the difficulty. After
careful consideration it appears to us that as you are old and infirm
owing to what you have undergone in former wars, it will not be well
that you should attempt so great a business, dangerous and with victory
doubtful, such as that which now presents itself before your eyes. The
wisest counsel respecting the course you should adopt is that you should
leave Cuzco, and proceed to the place of Chita, and thence to Caquia
Xaquixahuana, which is a strong fort, whence you may treat for an
agreement with the Chancas." They gave this advice to Viracocha to get
him out of Cuzco and give them a good opportunity to put their designs
into execution, which were to raise Cusi Inca Yupanqui to the throne. In
whatever manner it was done, it is certain that this advice was taken by
the Inca Viracocha. He determined to leave Cuzco and proceed to Chita,
in accordance with their proposal. But when Cusi Inca Yupanqui found
that his father was determined to leave Cuzco, they say that he thus
addressed him, "How father can it fit into your heart to accept such
infamous advice as to leave Cuzco, city of the Sun and of Viracocha,
whose name you have taken, whose promise you hold that you shall be a
great lord, you and your descendants." Though a boy, he said this with
the animated daring of a man high in honour. The father answered that he
was a boy and that he spoke like one, in talking without consideration,
and that such words were of no value. Inca Yupanqui replied that he
would remain where they would be remembered, that he would not leave
Cuzco nor abandon the House of the Sun. They say that all this was
planned by the said captains of Viracocha, Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau, to
throw those off their guard who might conceive suspicion respecting the
remaining of Inca Yupanqui in Cuzco. So Viracocha left Cuzco and went to
Chita, taking with him his two illegitimate sons Inca Urco and Inca
Socso. His son Inca Yupanqui remained at Cuzco, resolved to defend the
city or die in its defence. Seven chiefs remained with him; Inca Rocca
his elder and legitimate brother, Apu Mayta, Vicaquirau, Quillis-cacha,
Urco Huaranca, Chima Chaui Pata Yupanqui, Viracocha Inca Paucar, and
Mircoy-mana the tutor of Inca Yupanqui.



At the time when Inca Viracocha left Cuzco, Asto-huaraca and
Tomay-huaraca set out for Ichu-pampa, first making sacrifices and
blowing out the lungs of an animal, which they call _calpa_. This they
did not well understand, from what happened afterwards. Marching on
towards Cuzco, they arrived at a place called Conchacalla, where they
took a prisoner. From him they learnt what was happening at Cuzco, and
he offered to guide them there secretly. Thus he conducted them half
way. But then his conscience cried out to him touching the evil he was
doing. So he fled to Cuzco, and gave the news that the Chancas were
resolutely advancing. The news of this Indian, who was a Quillis-cachi
of Cuzco, made Viracocha hasten his flight to Chita, whither the Chancas
sent their messengers summoning him to surrender, and threatening war if
he refused. Others say that these were not messengers but scouts and
that Inca Viracocha, knowing this, told them that he knew they were
spies of the Chancas, that he did not want to kill them, but that they
might return and tell their people that if they wanted anything he was
there. So they departed and at the mouth of a channel of water some of
them fell and were killed. At this the Chancas were much annoyed. They
said that the messengers had been ordered to go to Inca Viracocha, and
that they were killed by his captain Quequo Mayta.

While this was proceeding with the messengers of the Chancas, the Chanca
army was coming nearer to Cuzco. Inca Yupanqui made great praying to
Viracocha and to the Sun to protect the city. One day he was at
Susurpuquio in great affliction, thinking over the best plan for
opposing his enemies, when there appeared a person in the air like the
Sun, consoling him and animating him for the battle. This being held up
to him a mirror in which the provinces he would subdue were shown, and
told him that he would be greater than any of his ancestors: he was to
have no doubt, but to return to the city, because he would conquer the
Chancas who were marching on Cuzco. With these words the vision animated
Inca Yupanqui. He took the mirror, which he carried with him ever
afterwards, in peace or war, and returned to the city, where he began to
encourage those he had left there, and some who came from afar[79]. The
latter came to look on, not daring to declare for either party, fearing
the rage of the conqueror if they should join the conquered side. Inca
Yupanqui, though only a lad of 20 or 22 years, provided for everything
as one who was about to fight for his life.

[Note 79: Susurpuquio seems to have been a fountain or spring on the
road to Xaquixahuana. Molina relates the story of the vision somewhat
differently, p. 12. Mrs. Zelia Nuttall thinks that the description of
the vision bears such a very strong resemblance to a bas relief found in
Guatemala that they must have a common origin.]

While the Inca Yupanqui was thus engaged the Chancas had been marching,
and reached a place very near Cuzco called Cusi-pampa, there being
nothing between it and Cuzco but a low hill. Here the Quillis-cachi was
encountered again. He said that he had been to spy, and that he rejoiced
to meet them. This deceiver went from one side to the other, always
keeping friends with both, to secure the favour of the side which
eventually conquered. The Chancas resumed the march, expecting that
there would be no defence. But the Quillis-cachi, mourning over the
destruction of his country, disappeared from among the Chancas and went
to Cuzco to give the alarm. "To arms! to arms!" he shouted, "Inca
Yupanqui. The Chancas are upon you."

At these words the Inca, who was not off his guard, mustered and got his
troops in order, but he found very few willing to go forth with him to
oppose the enemy, almost all took to the hills to watch the event. With
those who were willing to follow, though few in number, chiefly the men
of the seven Sinchis, brothers and captains, named above, he formed a
small force and came forth to receive the enemy who advanced in fury and
without order. The opposing forces advanced towards each other, the
Chancas attacking the city in four directions. The Inca Yupanqui sent
all the succour he could to the assailed points, while he and his
friends advanced towards the statue and standard of Uscovilca, with
Asto-huaraca and Tomay-huaraca defending them. Here there was a bloody
and desperate battle, one side striving to enter the city, and the other
opposing its advance. Those who entered by a suburb called
Chocos-chacona were valiantly repulsed by the inhabitants. They say that
a woman named Chañan-ccuri-coca here fought like a man, and so valiantly
opposed the Chancas that they were obliged to retire. This was the cause
that all the Chancas who saw it were dismayed. The Inca Yupanqui
meanwhile was so quick and dexterous with his weapon, that those who
carried the statue of Uscovilca became alarmed, and their fear was
increased when they saw great numbers of men coming down from the hills.
They say that these were sent by Viracocha, the creator, as succour for
the Inca. The Chancas began to give way, leaving the statue of
Uscovilca, and they say even that of Ancovilca. Attacking on two sides,
Inca Rocca, Apu Mayta, and Vicaquirau made great havock among the
Chancas. Seeing that their only safety was in flight, they turned their
backs, and their quickness in running exceeded their fierceness in
advancing. The men of Cuzco continued the pursuit, killing and wounding,
for more than two leagues, when they desisted. The Chancas returned to
Ichu-pampa, and the _orejones_ to Cuzco, having won a great victory and
taken a vast amount of plunder which remained in their hands. The Cuzcos
rejoiced at this victory won with so little expectation or hope. They
honoured Inca Yupanqui with many epithets, especially calling him
PACHACUTI, which means "over-turner of the earth," alluding to the land
and farms which they looked upon as lost by the coming of the Chancas.
For he had made them free and safe again. From that time he was called
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui.

As soon as the victory was secure, Inca Yupanqui did not wish to enjoy
the triumph although many tried to persuade him. He wished to give his
father the glory of such a great victory. So he collected the most
precious spoils, and took them to his father who was in Chita, with a
principal _orejon_ named Quillis-cachi Urco Huaranca. By him he sent to
ask his father to enjoy that triumph and tread on those spoils of the
enemy, a custom they have as a sign of victory. When Quillis-cachi Urco
Huaranca arrived before Viracocha Inca, he placed those spoils of the
Chancas at his feet with great reverence, saying, "Inca Viracocha! thy
son Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, to whom the Sun has given such a great
victory, vanquishing the powerful Chancas, sends me to salute you, and
says that, as a good and humble son he wishes you to triumph over your
victory and to tread upon these spoils of your enemies, conquered by
your hands." Inca Viracocha did not wish to tread on them, but said that
his son Inca Urco should do so, as he was to succeed to the Incaship.
Hearing this the messenger rose and gave utterance to furious words,
saying that he did not come for cowards to triumph by the deeds of
Pachacuti. He added that if Viracocha did not wish to receive this
recognition from so valiant a son, it would be better that Pachachuti
should enjoy the glory for which he had worked. With this he returned to
Cuzco, and told Pachacuti what had happened with his father.



While Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was sending the spoil to his father, the
Chancas were recruiting and assembling more men at Ichu-pampa, whence
they marched on Cuzco the first time. The Sinchis Tomay-huaraca and
Asto-huaraca began to boast, declaring that they would return to Cuzco
and leave nothing undestroyed. This news came to Pachacuti Inca
Yupanqui. He received it with courage and, assembling his men, he
marched in search of the Chancas. When they heard that the Incas were
coming, they resolved to march out and encounter them, but the advance
of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was so rapid that he found the Chancas still
at Ichu-pampa.

As soon as the two forces came in sight of each other, Asto-huaraca,
full of arrogance, sent to Inca Yupanqui to tell him that he could see
the power of the Chancas and the position they now held. They were not
like him coming from the poverty stricken Cuzco, and if he did not
repent the past and become a tributary and vassal to the Chancas;
Asto-huaraca would dye his lance in an Inca's blood. But Inca Yupanqui
was not terrified by the embassy. He answered in this way to the
messenger. "Go back brother and say to Asto-huaraca, your Sinchi, that
Inca Yupanqui is a child of the Sun and guardian of Cuzco, the city of
Ticci Viracocha Pachayachachi, by whose order I am here guarding it. For
this city is not mine but his; and if your Sinchi should wish to own
obedience to Ticci Viracocha, or to me in His name, he will be
honourably received. If your Sinchi should see things in another light,
show him that I am here with our friends, and if he should conquer us he
can call himself Lord and Inca. But let him understand that no more time
can be wasted in demands and replies. God (Ticci Viracocha) will give
the victory to whom he pleases."

With this reply the Chancas felt that they had profited little by their
boasting. They ran to their arms because they saw Pachacuti closely
following the bearer of his reply. The two armies approached each other
in Ichu-pampa, encountered, and mixed together, the Chancas thrusting
with long lances, the Incas using slings, clubs, axes and arrows, each
one defending himself and attacking his adversary. The battle raged for
a long time, without advantage on either side. At last Pachacuti made a
way to where Asto-huaraca was fighting, attacked him and delivered a
blow with his hatchet which cut off the Chanca's head. Tomay-huaraca was
already killed. The Inca caused the heads of these two captains to be
set on the points of lances, and raised on high to be seen by their
followers. The Chancas, on seeing the heads, despaired of victory
without leaders. They gave up the contest and sought safety in flight.
Inca Yupanqui and his army followed in pursuit, wounding and killing
until there was nothing more to do.

This great victory yielded such rich and plentiful spoils, that
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui proposed to go to where his father was, report
to him the story of the battle and the victory, and to offer him
obedience that he might triumph as if the victory was his own. Loaded
with spoil and Chanca prisoners he went to visit his father. Some say
that it was at a place called Caquia Xaquixahuana, four leagues from
Cuzco, others that it was at Marco, three leagues from Cuzco. Wherever
it was, there was a great ceremony, presents being given, called
_muchanaco_[80]. When Pachacuti had given his father a full report, he
ordered the spoils of the enemy to be placed at his feet, and asked his
father to tread on them and triumph over the victory. But Viracocha
Inca, still intent upon having Inca Urco for his successor, desired that
the honour offered to him should be enjoyed by his favourite son. He,
therefore, did not wish to accept the honours for himself. Yet not
wishing to offend the Inca Yupanqui Pachacuti on such a crucial point,
he said that he would tread on the spoils and prisoners, and did so. He
excused himself from going to triumph at Cuzco owing to his great age,
which made him prefer to rest at Caquia Xaquixahuana.

[Note 80: _Muchani_, I worship. _Nacu_ is a particle giving a
reciprocal or mutual meaning, "joint worship."]

With this reply Pachacuti departed for Cuzco with a great following of
people and riches. The Inca Urco also came to accompany him, and on the
road there was a quarrel in the rear guard between the men of Urco and
those of Pachacuti. Others say that it was an ambush laid for his
brother by Urco and that they fought. The Inca Pachacuti took no notice
of it, and continued his journey to Cuzco, where he was received with
much applause and in triumph. Soon afterwards, as one who thought of
assuming authority over the whole land and taking away esteem from his
father, as he presently did, he began to distribute the spoils, and
confer many favours with gifts and speeches. With the fame of these
grand doings, people came to Cuzco from all directions and many of those
who were at Caquia Xaquixahuana left it and came to the new Inca at



When the Inca Yupanqui found himself so strong and that he had been
joined by so many people, he determined not to wait for the nomination
of his father, much less for his death, before he rose with the people
of Cuzco with the further intention of obtaining the assent of those
without. With this object he caused a grand sacrifice to be offered to
the Sun in the Inti-cancha or House of the Sun, and then went to ask the
image of the Sun who should be Inca. The oracle of the devil, or perhaps
some Indian who was behind to give the answer, replied that Inca
Yupanqui Pachacuti was chosen and should be Inca. On this answer being
given, all who were present at the sacrifice, prostrated themselves
before Pachacuti, crying out "Ccapac Inca Intip Churin," which means
"Sovereign Lord Child of the Sun."

Presently they prepared a very rich fringe of gold and emeralds
wherewith to crown him. Next day they took Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui to
the House of the Sun, and when they came to the image of the Sun, which
was of gold and the size of a man, they found it with the fringe, as if
offering it of its own will. First making his sacrifices, according to
their custom, he came to the image, and the High Priest called out in
his language "Intip Apu," which means "Governor of things pertaining to
the Sun." With much ceremony and great reverence the fringe was taken
from the image and placed, with much pomp, on the forehead of Pachacuti
Inca Yupanqui. Then all called his name and hailed him "Intip Churin
Inca Pachacuti," or "Child of the Sun Lord, over-turner of the earth."
From that time he was called Pachacuti besides his first name which was
Inca Yupanqui. Then the Inca presented many gifts and celebrated the
event with feasts. [_He was sovereign Inca without the consent of his
father or of the people, but by those he had gained over to his side by



As soon as the festivities were over, the Inca laid out the city of
Cuzco on a better plan; and formed the principal streets as they were
when the Spaniards came. He divided the land for communal, public, and
private edifices, causing them to be built with very excellent masonry.
It is such that we who have seen it, and know that they did not possess
instruments of iron or steel to work with, are struck with admiration on
beholding the equality and precision with which the stones are laid, as
well as the closeness of the points of junction. With the rough stones
it is even more interesting to examine the work and its composition. As
the sight alone satisfies the curious, I will not waste time in a more
detailed description.

Besides this, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, considering the small extent of
land round Cuzco suited for cultivation, supplied by art what was
wanting in nature. Along the skirts of the hills near villages, and also
in other parts, he constructed very long terraces of 200 paces more or
less, and 20 to 30 wide, faced with masonry, and filled with earth, much
of it brought from a distance. We call these terraces _andenes_, the
native name being _sucres_. He ordered that they should be sown, and in
this way he made a vast increase in the cultivated land, and in
provision for sustaining the companies and garrisons.

In order that the precise time of sowing and harvesting might be known,
and that nothing might be lost, the Inca caused four poles to be set up
on a high mountain to the east of Cuzco, about two _varas_ apart, on the
heads of which there were holes, by which the sun entered, in the manner
of a watch or astrolabe. Observing where the sun struck the ground
through these holes, at the time of sowing and harvest, marks were made
on the ground. Other poles were set up in the part corresponding to the
west of Cuzco, for the time of harvesting the maize. Having fixed the
positions exactly by these poles, they built columns of stone for
perpetuity in their places, of the height of the poles and with holes in
like places. All round it was ordered that the ground should be paved;
and on the stones certain lines were drawn, conforming to the movements
of the sun entering through the holes in the columns. Thus the whole
became an instrument serving for an annual time-piece, by which the
times of sowing and harvesting were regulated. Persons were appointed to
observe these watches, and to notify to the people the times they

[Note 81: The pillars at Cuzco to determine the time of the
solstices were called _Sucanca_. The two pillars denoting the beginning
of winter, whence the year was measured, were called _Pucuy Sucanca_.
Those notifying the beginning of spring were _Chirao Sucanca_. _Suca_
means a ridge or furrow and _sucani_ to make ridges: hence _sucanca_,
the alternate light and shadow, appearing like furrows. Acosta says
there was a pillar for each month. Garcilasso de la Vega tells us that
there were eight on the east, and eight on the west side of Cuzco (i. p.
177) in double rows, four and four, two small between two high ones, 20
feet apart. Cieza de Leon says that they were in the Carmenca suburb (i.
p. 325).

To ascertain the time of the equinoxes there was a stone column in the
open space before the temple of the Sun in the centre of a large circle.
This was the _Inti-huatana_. A line was drawn across from east to west
and they watched when the shadow of the pillar was on the line from
sunrise to sunset and there was no shadow at noon. There is another
_Inti-huatana_ at Pisac, and another at Hatun-colla. _Inti_, the Sun
God, _huatani_, to seize, to tie round, _Inti-huatana_, a sun circle.]

Besides this, as he was curious about the things of antiquity, and
wished to perpetuate his name, the Inca went personally to the hill of
Tampu-tocco or Paccari-tampu, names for the same thing, and entered the
cave whence it is held for certain that Manco Ccapac and his brethren
came when they marched to Cuzco for the first time, as has already been
narrated. After he had made a thorough inspection, he venerated the
locality and showed his feeling by festivals and sacrifices. He placed
doors of gold on the window Ccapac-tocco, and ordered that from that
time forward the locality should be venerated by all, making it a prayer
place and _huaca_, whither to go to pray for oracles and to sacrifice.

Having done this the Inca returned to Cuzco. He ordered the year to be
divided into twelve months, almost like our year. I say almost, because
there is some difference, though slight, as will be explained in its

He called a general assembly of the oldest and wisest men of Cuzco and
other parts, who with much diligence scrutinized and examined the
histories and antiquities of the land, principally of the Incas and
their forefathers. He ordered the events to be painted and preserved in
order, as I explained when I spoke of the method adopted in preparing
this history.



Having adorned the city of Cuzco with edifices, streets, and the other
things that have been mentioned, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui reflected that
since the time of Manco Ccapac, none of his predecessors had done
anything for the House of the Sun. He, therefore, resolved to enrich it
with more oracles and edifices to appal ignorant people and produce
astonishment, that they might help in the conquest of the whole land
which he intended to subdue, and in fact he commenced and achieved the
subjugation of a large portion of it He disinterred the bodies of the
seven deceased Incas, from Manco Ccapac to Yahuar-huaccac, which were
all in the House of the Sun, enriching them with masks, head-dresses
called _chuco_, medals, bracelets, sceptres called _yauri_ or
_champi_[82], and other ornaments of gold. He then placed them, in the
order of their seniority, on a bench with a back, richly adorned with
gold, and ordered great festivals to be celebrated with representations
of the lives of each Inca. These festivals, which are called
_purucaya_[83], were continued for more than four months. Great and
sumptuous sacrifices were made to each Inca, at the conclusion of the
representation of his acts and life. This gave them such authority that
it made all strangers adore them, and worship them as gods. These
strangers, when they beheld such majesty, humbled themselves, and put up
their hands to worship or _mucha_ as they say. The corpses were held in
great respect and veneration until the Spaniards came to this land of

[Note 82: _Champi_ means a one-handed battle axe (Garcilasso de la
Vega, I. lib. ix. cap. 31). Novices received it at the festival of
Huarachicu, with the word _Auccacunapac_, for traitors.]

[Note 83: According to Mossi _puruccayan_ was the general mourning
on the death of the Inca.]

Besides these corpses, Pachacuti made two images of gold. He called one
of them Viracocha Pachayachachi. It represented the creator, and was
placed on the right of the image of the Sun. The other was called
_Chuqui ylla_, representing lightning, placed on the left of the Sun.
This image was most highly venerated by all. Inca Yupanqui adopted this
idol for his _guauqui_[84], because he said that it had appeared and
spoken in a desert place and had given him a serpent with two heads, to
carry about with him always, saying that while he had it with him,
nothing sinister could happen in his affairs. To these idols the Inca
gave the use of lands, flocks, and servants, especially of certain women
who lived in the same House of the Sun, in the manner of nuns. These all
came as virgins but few remained without having had connexion with the
Inca. At least he was so vicious in this respect, that he had access to
all whose looks gave him pleasure, and had many sons.

[Note 84: _Huauqui_, brother.]

Besides this House, there were some _huacas_ in the surrounding country.
These were that of Huanacauri, and others called Anahuarqui, Yauira,
Cinga, Picol, Pachatopan[85] [_to many they made the accursed
sacrifices, which they called_ Ccapac Cocha, _burying children, aged 5
or 6, alive as offerings to the devil, with many offerings of vases of
gold and silver_].

[Note 85: Anahuarqui was the name of the wife of Tupac Inca
Yupanqui. Yauira may be for Yauirca, a fabulous creature described by
Yamqui Pachacuti. Cinga and Picol do not occur elsewhere. Pachatopan is
no doubt _Pacha tupac_, beautiful land.]

The Inca, they relate, also caused to be made a great woollen chain of
many colours, garnished with gold plates, and two red fringes at the
end. It was 150 fathoms in length, more or less. This was used in their
public festivals, of which there were four principal ones in the year.
The first was called RAYMI or CCAPAC RAYMI, which was when they opened
the ears of knights at a ceremony called _huarachico_. The second was
called SITUA resembling our lights of St John[86]. They all ran at
midnight with torches to bathe, saying that they were thus left clean of
all diseases. The third was called YNTI RAYMI, being the feast of the
Sun, known as _aymuray_. In these feasts they took the chain out of the
House of the Sun and all the principal Indians, very richly dressed,
came with it, in order, singing, from the House of the Sun to the Great
Square which they encircled with the chain. This was called _moroy

[Note 86: The months and the festivals which took place in each
month are given by several authorities. The most correct are those of
Polo de Ondegardo and Calancha who agree throughout. Calancha gives the
months as received by the first Council of Lima.

22 June--22 July.   INTIP RAYMI (_Sun Festival_).
22 July--22 Aug.    CHAHUAR HUARQUIZ--Ploughing month.
22 Aug.--22 Sept.   YAPAQUIZ (SITUA _or Moon Festival_)--Sowing month.
22 Sept.--22 Oct.   CCOYA RAYMI---Expiatory feast. Molina a month behind.
22 Oct.--22 Nov.    UMA RAYMI--Month of brewing chicha.
22 Nov.--22 Dec.    AYAMARCA--Commemoration of the dead.
22 Dec.--22 Jan.    CCAPAC RAYMI (HUARACHICU _festival_).
22 Jan.--22 Feb.    CAMAY--Month of exercises.
22 Feb.--22 March.  HATUN POCCOY (great ripening).
22 March--22 April. PACHA POCCOY (MOSOC NINA _festival_).
22 April--22 May.   AYRIHUA (Harvest).
22 May--22 June.    AYMURAY (Harvest home).]

[Note 87: The great chain, used at festivals, is called by Sarmiento
Muru-urco. See also Molina. _Muru_ means a coloured spot, or a thing of
variegated colours. Molina says that it was the house where the chain
was kept that was called Muru-urco, as well as the cable. _Huasca_ is
another name for a cable (See G. de la Vega, ii. p, 422).]



After Pachacuti had done what has been described in the city, he turned
his attention to the people. Seeing that there were not sufficient lands
for sowing, so as to sustain them, he went round the city at a distance
of four leagues from it, considering the valleys, situation, and
villages. He depopulated all that were within two leagues of the city.
The lands of depopulated villages were given to the city and its
inhabitants, and the deprived people were settled in other parts. The
citizens of Cuzco were well satisfied with the arrangement, for they
were given what cost little, and thus he made friends by presents taken
from others, and took as his own the valley of Tambo [_which was not

The news of the enlargement of this city went far and wide, and reached
the ears of Viracocha Inca, retired in Caquia Xaquixahuana[88]. He was
moved to go and see Cuzco. The Inca Yupanqui went for him, and brought
him to Cuzco with much rejoicing. He went to the House of the Sun,
worshipped at Huanacauri and saw all the improvements that had been
made. Having seen everything he returned to his place at Caquia
Xaquixahuana, where he resided until his death, never again visiting
Cuzco, nor seeing his son Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui.

[Note 88: This great plain to the north-west of Cuzco, called
Xaquixahuana, and Sacsahuana, is now known as Surita. Most of the early
writers call it Sacsahuana. Sarmiento always places the word Caquia
before the name. _Capuchini_ is to provide, _capuchic_ a purveyor. Hence
_Capuquey_ means "my goods," abbreviated to _Caguey_, "my property." The
meaning is "my estate of Xaquixahuana."]



Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui found himself so powerful with the companies he
had got together by liberal presents to all, that he proposed to
subjugate by their means all the territories he could reach. For this he
mustered all the troops that were in Cuzco, and provided them with arms,
and all that was necessary for war. Affairs being in this state
Pachacuti heard that his brother Urco was in a valley called Yucay, four
leagues from Cuzco, and that he had assembled some people. Fearing that
the movement was intended against him the Inca marched there with his
army. His brother Inca Rocca went with him, who had the reputation of
being a great necromancer. Arriving at a place called Paca in the said
valley, the Inca went out against his brother Urco, and there was a
battle between them. Inca Rocca hurled a stone which hit Urco on the
throat. The blow was so great that Urco fell into the river flowing down
the ravine where they were fighting. Urco exerted himself and fled,
swimming down the river, with his axe in his hand. In this way he
reached a rock called Chupellusca, a league below Tampu, where his
brothers overtook him and killed him.

From thence the Inca Pachacuti Yupanqui, with his brother Inca Rocca
marched with their troops to Caquia Xaquixahuana to see his father who
refused ever to speak with or see him, owing to the rage he felt at the
death of Inca Urco. But Inca Rocca went in, where Viracocha was and
said, "Father! it is not reasonable that you should grieve so much at
the death of Urco, for I killed him in self defence, he having come to
kill me. You are not to be so heavy at the death of one, when you have
so many sons. Think no more of it, for my brother Pachacuti Yupanqui is
to be Inca, and I hold that you should favour him and be as a father to
him." Seeing the resolution of his son Inca Rocca, Viracocha did not
dare to reply or to contradict him. He dismissed him by saying that that
was what he wished, and that he would be guided by him in everything.
With this the Inca Yupanqui and his brother Inca Rocca returned to
Cuzco, and entered the city triumphing over the past victories and over
this one.

The triumph was after this manner. The warriors marched in order, in
their companies, dressed in the best manner possible, with songs and
dances, and the captives, their eyes on the ground, dressed in long
robes with many tassels. They entered by the streets of the city, which
were very well adorned to receive them. They went on, enacting their
battles and victories, on account of which they triumphed. On reaching
the House of the Sun, the spoils and prisoners were thrown on the
ground, and the Inca walked over them, trampling on them and saying--"I
tread on my enemies." The prisoners were silent without raising their
eyes. This order was used in all their triumphs. At the end of a short
time Inca Viracocha died of grief at the death of Inca Urco, deprived
and despoiled of all honour and property. They buried his body in Caquia



Near Cuzco there is a nation of Indians called Ayamarcas who had a proud
and wealthy Sinchi named Tocay Ccapac. Neither he nor his people wished
to come and do reverence to the Inca. On the contrary, he mustered his
forces to attack the Inca if his country was invaded. This being known
to Inca Yupanqui, he assembled his _ayllus_ and other troops. He formed
them into two parties, afterwards called Hanan-cuzcos and Hurin-cuzcos,
forming them into a corps, that united no one might be able to prevail
against them. This done he consulted over what should be undertaken. It
was resolved that all should unite for the conquest of all neighbouring
nations. Those who would not submit were to be utterly destroyed; and
first Tocay Ccapac, chief of the Ayamarcas, was to be dealt with, being
powerful and not having come to do homage at Cuzco. Having united his
forces, the Inca marched against the Ayamarcas and their Sinchi, and
there was a battle at Huanancancha. Inca Yupanqui was victorious,
assaulting the villages and killing nearly all the Ayamarcas. He took
Tocay Ccapac as a prisoner to Cuzco, where he remained in prison until
his death.

After this Inca Yupanqui took to wife a native of Choco named Mama
Anahuarqui. For greater pleasure and enjoyment, away from business, he
went to the town of the Cuyos, chief place of the province of Cuyo-suyu.
Being one day at a great entertainment, a potter, servant of the Sinchi,
without apparent reason, threw a stone or, as some say, one of the jars
which they call _ulti_, at the Inca's head and wounded him. The
delinquent, who was a stranger to the district, was seized and tortured
to confess who had ordered him to do it. He stated that all the Sinchis
of Cuyo-suyu, who were Cuyo Ccapac, Ayan-quilalama, and Apu Cunaraqui,
had conspired to kill the Inca and rebel. This was false, for it had
been extorted from fear of the torture or, as some say, he said it
because he belonged to a hostile tribe and wished to do them harm. But
the Inca, having heard what the potter said, ordered all the Sinchis to
be killed with great cruelty. After their deaths he slaughtered the
people, leaving none alive except some children and old women. Thus was
that nation destroyed, and its towns are desolate to this day.



Inca Yupanqui and his brother Inca Rocca, who was very cruel, had
determined to oppress and subdue all the nations who wished to be
independent and would not submit to them. They knew that there were two
Sinchis in a town called Ollantay-tampu, six leagues from Cuzco, the one
named Paucar-Ancho and the other Tocori Tupac, who ruled over the
Ollantay-tampus, but would not come to do homage, nor did their people
wish to do so. The Inca marched against them with a large army and gave
them battle. Inca Rocca was severely wounded, but at last the
Ollantay-tampus were conquered. [_All were killed, the place was
destroyed so that no memory was left of it_][89] and the Inca returned
to Cuzco.

[Note 89: This is untrue. The splendid ruins remain to this day. The
place was long held against the Spaniards by Inca Manco.]

There was another Sinchi named Illacumpi, chief of two towns four
leagues from Cuzco, called Cugma and Huata. Inca Yupanqui and Inca Rocca
sent to him to do homage, but he replied that he was as good as they
were and free, and that if they wanted anything, they must get it with
their lances. For this answer the Inca made war upon the said Sinchi. He
united his forces with those of two other Sinchis, his companions, named
Paucar Tupac and Puma Lloqui, and went forth to fight the Inca. But they
were defeated and killed, with nearly all their people. The Inca
desolated that town with fire and sword, and with very great cruelty. He
then returned to Cuzco and triumphed for that victory.

The Inca received information, after this, that there was a town called
Huancara, 11 leagues from Cuzco, ruled by Sinchis named Ascascahuana and
Urcu-cuna. So a message was sent to them, calling upon them to give
reverence and obedience to the Inca and to pay tribute. They replied
that they were not women to come and serve, that they were in their
native place, and that if any one came to seek them they would defend
themselves. Moved to anger by this reply, Inca Yupanqui and Inca Rocca
made war, killed the Sinchis and most of their people and brought the
rest prisoners to Cuzco, to force them into obedience.

Next they marched to another town called Toguaro, six leagues from
Huancara, killing the Sinchi, named Alca-parihuana, and all the people,
not sparing any but the children, that they might grow and repeople that
land. With similar cruelties in all the towns, the Inca reduced to pay
tribute the Cotabambas, Cotaneras, Umasayus, and Aymaracs, being the
principal provinces of Cunti-suyu.

The Inca then attacked the province of the Soras, 40 leagues from Cuzco.
The natives came forth to resist, asking why the invaders sought their
lands, telling them to depart or they would be driven out by force. Over
this question there was a battle, and two towns of the Soras were
subdued at that time, the one called Chalco, the other Soras. The Sinchi
of Chalco was named Chalco-pusaycu, that of Soras Huacralla. They were
taken prisoners to Cuzco, and there was a triumph over them.

There was another place called Acos, 10 or 11 leagues from Cuzco. The
two Sinchis of it were named Ocacique and Utu-huasi. These were strongly
opposed to the demands of the Inca and made a very strenuous resistance.
The Inca marched against them with a great army. But he met with serious
difficulty in this conquest, for the Acos defended themselves most
bravely and wounded Pachacuti on the head with a stone. He would not
desist, but it was not until after a long time that they were conquered.
He killed nearly all the natives of Acos, and those who were pardoned
and survived after that cruel slaughter, were banished to the
neighbourhood of Huamanca, to a place now called Acos[90].

[Note 90: Acobamba, the present capital of the province of

In all these campaigns which have been described, Inca Rocca was the
companion in arms, and participator in the triumphs of Inca Yupanqui. It
is to be noted that in all the subdued provinces chiefs were placed,
superseding or killing the native Sinchis. Those who were appointed,
acted as guards or captains of the conquered places, holding office in
the Inca's name and during his pleasure. In this way the conquered
provinces were oppressed and tyrannized over by the yoke of servitude. A
superior was appointed over all the others who were nominated to each
town, as general or governor. In their language this officer was called
Tucuyrico[91], which means "he who knows and oversees all."

[Note 91: _Tucuyricuc_, he who sees all. _Tucuy_ means all. _Ricini_
to see. Garcilasso de la Vega, I. lib. ii. cap. 14. Balboa, p. 115.
Montesinos, p. 55. Santillana, p. 17.]

Thus in the first campaign undertaken by Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, after
the defeat of the Chancas, he subdued the country as far as the Soras,
40 leagues to the west of Cuzco. The other nations, and some in
Cunti-suyu, from fear at seeing the cruelties committed on the
conquered, came in to submit, to avoid destruction. [_But they ever
submitted against their wills_.]



After Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui had conquered the lands and nations
mentioned above, and had triumphed over them, he came to visit the House
of the Sun and the Mama-cunas or nuns who were there. He assisted one
day, to see how the Mama-cunas served the dinner of the Sun. This was to
offer much richly cooked food to the image or idol of the Sun, and then
to put it into a great fire on an altar. The same order was taken with
the liquor. The chief of the Mama-cunas saluted the Sun with a small
vase, and the rest was thrown on the fire. Besides this many jars full
of that liquor were poured into a trough which had a drain, all being
offerings to the Sun. This service was performed with vessels of clay.
As Pachacuti considered that the material of the vases was too poor, he
presented very complete sets of vases of gold and silver for all the
service that was necessary. To adorn the house more richly he caused a
plate of fine gold to be made, two _palmas_ broad and the length of the
court-yard. He ordered this to be nailed high up on the wall in the
manner of a cornice, passing all round the court-yard. This border or
cornice of gold remained there down to the time of the Spaniards.



To the south of Cuzco there was a province called Colla-suyu or Collao,
consisting of plain country, which was very populous. At the time that
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was at Cuzco after having conquered the
provinces already mentioned, the Sinchi of Collao was named Chuchi
Ccapac or Colla Ccapac, which is all one. This Chuchi Ccapac increased
so much in power and wealth among those nations of Colla-suyu, that he
was respected by all the Collas, who called him Inca Ccapac.

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui determined to conquer him from a motive of
jealousy, together with all the provinces of the Collao. With this
object he assembled his army and marched on the route to the Collao in
order to attack Chuchi Ccapac who waited for him at Hatun-Colla, a town
of the Collao where he resided, 40 leagues from Cuzco, without having
taken further notice of the coming nor of the forces of Inca Yupanqui.
When he came near to Hatun Colla, the Inca sent a message to Chuchi
Colla, requesting him to serve and obey him or else to prepare for
battle, when they would try their fortunes. This message caused much
heaviness to Chuchi Colla, but he replied proudly that he waited for the
Inca to come and do homage to him like the other nations that had been
conquered by him, and that if the Inca did not choose to do so, he would
prepare his head, with which he intended to drink in his triumph after
the victory which he would win if they should come to a battle.

After this reply Inca Yupanqui ordered his army to approach that of
Chuchi Ccapac the next day, which was drawn up ready to fight. Soon
after they came in sight, the two forces attacked each other, and the
battle continued for a long time without either side gaining any
advantage. Inca Yupanqui, who was very dexterous in fighting, was
assisting in every part, giving orders, combating, and animating his
troops. Seeing that the Collas resisted so resolutely, and stood so
firmly in the battle, he turned his face to his men saying in a loud
voice: "O Incas of Cuzco! conquerors of all the land! Are you not
ashamed that people so inferior to you, and unequal in weapons, should
be equal to you and resist for so long a time?" With this he returned to
the fight, and the troops, touched by this rebuke, pressed upon their
enemies in such sort that they were broken and defeated. Inca Yupanqui,
being an experienced warrior, knew that the completion of the victory
consisted in the capture of Chuchi Ccapac. Although he was fighting, he
looked out for his enemy in all directions and, seeing him in the midst
of his people, the Inca attacked them at the head of his guards, took
him prisoner, and delivered him to a soldier with orders to take him to
the camp and keep him safe. The Inca and his army then completed the
victory and engaged in the pursuit, until all the Sinchis and captains
that could be found were captured. Pachacuti went to Hatun-colla, the
residence and seat of government of Chuchi Ccapac, where he remained
until all the provinces which obeyed Chuchi Ccapac, were reduced to
obedience, and brought many rich presents of gold, silver, cloths, and
other precious things.

Leaving a garrison and a governor in the Collao to rule in his name, the
Inca returned to Cuzco, taking Chuchi Ccapac as a prisoner with the
others. He entered Cuzco, where a solemn triumph was prepared. Chuchi
Colla and the other Colla prisoners were placed before the Inca's litter
dressed in long robes covered with tassels in derision and that they
might be known. Having arrived at the House of the Sun, the captives and
spoils were offered to the image of the Sun, and the Inca, or the priest
for him, trod on all the spoils and captives that Pachacuti had taken in
the Collao, which was great honour to the Inca. When the triumph was
over, to give it a good finish, the Inca caused the head of Chuchi
Ccapac to be cut off, and put in the house called _Llasa-huasi_[92],
with those of the other Sinchis he had killed. He caused the other
Sinchis and captains of Chuchi Ccapac to be given to the wild beasts,
kept shut up for the purpose, in a house called _Samca-huasi_[93].

[Note 92: Llasa-huasi. _Llasa_ means weight, from _llasani_ to
weigh. _Huasi_ a house.]

[Note 93: Samgaguacy. This should be _Samca-huasi_, a prison for
grave offences. Serpents and toads were put into the prison with the
delinquents. Mossi, p. 233.]

In these conquests Pachacuti was very cruel to the vanquished, and
people were so terrified at the cruelties that they submitted and obeyed
from fear of being made food for wild beasts, or burnt, or otherwise
cruelly tormented rather than resist in arms. It was thus with the
people of Cunti-suyu who, seeing the cruelty and power of Inca Yupanqui,
humiliated themselves and promised obedience. It was for the cause and
reason stated, and because they were threatened with destruction if they
did not come to serve and obey.

Chuchi Ccapac had subjugated a region more than 160 leagues from north
to south, over which he was Sinchi or, as he called himself, Ccapac or
Colla-Ccapac, from within 20 leagues of Cuzco as far as the Chichas,
with all the bounds of Arequipa and the sea-coast to Atacama, and the
forests of the Musus. For at this time, seeing the violence and power
with which the Inca of Cuzco came down upon those who opposed him,
without pardoning anyone, many Sinchis followed his example, and wanted
to do the same in other parts, where each one lived, so that all was
confusion and tyranny in this kingdom, no one being secure of his own
property. We shall relate in their places, as the occasion offers, the
stories of the Sinchis, tyrants, besides those of the Incas who, from
the time of Inca Yupanqui, began to get provinces into their power, and
tyrannize over the inhabitants.

Inca Yupanqui, as has already been narrated, had given the House of the
Sun all things necessary for its services, besides which, after he came
from Colla-suyu, he presented many things brought from there for the
image of the Sun, and for the mummies of his ancestors which were kept
in the House of the Sun. He also gave them servants and lands. He
ordered that the _huacas_ of Cuzco should be adopted and venerated in
all the conquered provinces, ordaining new ceremonies for their worship
and abolishing the ancient rites. He charged his eldest legitimate son,
named Amaru Tupac Inca, with the duty of abolishing the _huacas_ which
were not held to be legitimate, and to see that the others were
maintained and received the sacrifices ordered by the Inca. Huayna
Yamqui Yupanqui, another son of Inca Yupanqui, was associated with the
heir in this duty.



When Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui returned from the conquest of Colla-suyu
and the neighbouring provinces, as has been narrated in the preceding
chapter, he was well stricken in years, though not tired of wars, nor
was his thirst for dominion satisfied. Owing to his age he chose to
remain at Cuzco, as the seat of his government, to establish the lands
he had subdued, in the way which he well knew how to establish. In order
to lose no time in extending his conquests, he assembled his people,
from among whom he chose 70,000 provided with arms and all things
necessary for a military campaign. He nominated his brother, Ccapac
Yupanqui, to be Captain-General, giving him for colleagues another of
his brothers named Huayna Yupanqui, and one of his sons named Apu Yamqui
Yupanqui. Among the other special captains in this army was one named
Anco Ayllo of the Chanca nation, who had remained a prisoner in Cuzco
from the time that the Inca conquered the Chanca's at Cuzco and at
Ichu-pampa. He had ever since been sad and brooding, thinking of a way
of escape. But he dissimulated so well that the Inca treated him as a
brother and trusted him. Hence the Inca nominated him as commander of
all the Chancas in the army. For to each nation the Inca gave a captain
from among their own people, because he would understand how to rule
them and they would obey him better. This Anco Ayllo, seeing there was
an opportunity for fulfilling his desire, showed satisfaction at
receiving this commission from the Inca, and promised to do valuable
service, as he knew those nations whose conquest was about to be
undertaken. When the army was ready to march, the Inca gave the
Captain-General his own arms of gold, and to the other captains he gave
arms with which to enter the battles. He made a speech to them,
exhorting them to achieve success, showing them the honourable reward
they would obtain, and the favours he, as a friend, would show them, if
they served in that war. He gave special orders to Ccapac Yupanqui that
he should advance with his conquering army as far as a province called
Yana-mayu, the boundary of the nation of the Hatun-huayllas, and that
there he should set up the Inca's boundary pillars, and he was on no
account to advance further. He was to conquer up to that point and then
return to Cuzco, leaving sufficient garrisons in the subjugated lands.
He was also to establish posts at every half league, which they call
_chasquis_, by means of which the Inca would be daily informed of what
had happened and was being done[94].

[Note 94: For accounts of the _chasquis_ or Inca couriers see
Garcilasso de la Vega, ii. pp. 49, 60, 119, 120, 121. Balboa, p. 248.
Polo de Ondegardo, p. 169.]

Ccapac Yupanqui set out from Cuzco with these orders, and desolated all
the provinces which did not submit. On arriving at a fortress called
Urco-collac, near Parcos, in the country of Huamanca, he met with
valorous resistance from the inhabitants. Finally he conquered them. In
the battle the Chancas distinguished themselves so that they gained more
honour than the Cuzcos _orejones_ and the other nations.

This news came to the Inca, who was much annoyed that the Chancas should
have distinguished themselves more, and had gained more honour than the
Incas. He imagined that it would make them proud, so he proposed to have
them killed. He sent a messenger ordering Ccapac Yupanqui to lay a plan
for killing all the Chancas in the best way he could devise, and if he
did not kill them, the Inca would kill him. The runner of the Inca
reached Ccapac Yupanqui with this order, but it could not be kept a
secret. It became known to a wife of Ccapac Yupanqui, who was a sister
of Anco Ayllo, the captain of the Chancas. This woman told her brother,
who always longed for his liberty, and now was urgently minded to save
his life. He secretly addressed his Chanca soldiers, putting before them
the cruel order of the Inca, and the acquisition of their liberty if
they would follow him. They all agreed to his proposal. When they came
to Huarac-tambo, in the neighbourhood of the city of Huanuco, all the
Chancas fled with their captain Anco Ayllo, and besides the Chancas
other tribes followed this chief. Passing by the province of Huayllas
they pillaged it, and, continuing their route in flight from the Incas,
they agreed to seek a rugged and mountainous land where the Incas, even
if they sought them, would not be able to find them. So they entered the
forests between Chachapoyas and Huanuco, and went on to the province of
Ruparupa. These are the people who are settled on the river Pacay and,
according to the received report, thence to the eastward by the river
called Cocama which falls into the great river Marañon. They were met
with by the captain Gomez d'Arias, who entered by Huanuco, in the time
of the Marquis of Cañete, in the year 1556. Though Ccapac Yupanqui went
in chase of the Chancas, they were so rapid in their flight that he was
unable to overtake them[95].

[Note 95: Garcilasso de la Vega also gives an account of the flight
of the Chancas under Anco-ayllu or Hanco-hualla, ii. pp. 82, 329.]

In going after them Ccapac Yupanqui went as far as Caxamarca, beyond the
line he was ordered not to pass by the Inca. Although he had the order
in his mind, yet when he saw that province of Caxamarca, how populous it
was and rich in gold and silver, by reason of the great Sinchi, named
Gusmanco Ccapac, who ruled there and was a great tyrant, having robbed
many provinces round Caxamarca, Ccapac Yupanqui resolved to conquer it,
although he had no commission from his brother for undertaking such an
enterprise. On commencing to enter the land of Caxamarca, it became
known to Gusmanco Ccapac. That chief summoned his people, and called
upon another Sinchi, his tributary, named Chimu Ccapac, chief of the
territory where now stands the city of Truxillo on the coast of Peru.
Their combined forces marched against Ccapac Yupanqui, who by a certain
ambush, and other stratagems, defeated, routed and captured the two
Sinchis Gusmanco Ccapac and Chimu Ccapac, taking vast treasure of gold,
silver and other precious things, such as gems, and coloured shells,
which these natives value more than silver or gold.

Ccapac Yupanqui collected all the treasure in the square of Caxamarca,
where he then was; and when he saw such immense wealth he became proud
and vainglorious, saying that he had gained and acquired more than his
brother the Inca. His arrogance and boasting came to the ears of his
sovereign, who, although he felt it deeply and desired an opportunity to
kill him, dissimulated for a time and waited until the return to Cuzco.
Inca Yupanqui feared that his brother would rebel, and for this reason
he appeared to be pleased before the envoys sent by Ccapac Yupanqui. He
sent them back with orders that Ccapac Yupanqui should return to Cuzco
with the treasure that had been taken in the war, as well as the
principal men of the subdued provinces, and the sons of Gusmanco Ccapac
and Chimu Ccapac. The great chiefs themselves were to remain, in their
territories with a sufficient garrison to keep those lands obedient to
the Inca. On receiving this order Ccapac Yupanqui set out for Cuzco with
all the treasure, and marched to the capital full of pride and
arrogance. Inca Yupanqui, who himself subdued so many lands and gained
so much honour, became jealous, as some say afraid, and sought excuses
for killing his brother. When he knew that Ccapac Yupanqui had reached
Limatambo, eight leagues from Cuzco, he ordered his lieutenant-governor
named Inca Capon, to go there and cut off the head of Ccapac Yupanqui.
The reasons given were that he had allowed Anco Ayllo to escape, and had
gone beyond the line prescribed. The governor went and, in obedience to
his orders, he killed the Inca's two brothers Ccapac Yupanqui and Huayna
Yupanqui. The Inca ordered the rest to enter Cuzco, triumphing over
their victories. This was done, the Inca treading on the spoils, and
granting rewards. They say that he regretted that his brother had gained
so much honour, and that he wished that he had sent his son who was to
be his successor, named Tupac Inca Yupanqui, that he might have enjoyed
such honour, and that this jealousy led him to kill his brother.



As all the conquests made by this Inca were attended with such violence
and cruelties, with such spoliation and force, and the people who became
his subjects by acquisition, or to speak more correctly by rapine, were
numerous, they obeyed so long as they felt the force compelling them,
and, as soon as they were a little free from that fear, they presently
rebelled and resumed their liberty. Then the Inca was obliged to conquer
them again. Turning many things in his mind, and seeking for remedies,
how he could settle once for all the numerous provinces he had
conquered, at last he hit upon a plan which, although adapted to the
object he sought to attain, and coloured with some appearance of
generosity, was really the worst tyranny he perpetrated. He ordered
visitors to go through all the subdued provinces, with orders to measure
and survey them, and to bring him models of the natural features in
clay. This was done. The models and reports were brought before the
Inca. He examined them and considered the mountainous fastnesses and the
plains. He ordered the visitors to look well to what he would do. He
then began to demolish the fastnesses and to have their inhabitants
moved to plain country, and those of the plains were moved to
mountainous regions, so far from each other, and each so far from their
native country, that they could not return to it. Next the Inca ordered
the visitors to go and do with the people what they had seen him do with
the models. They went and did so.

He gave orders to others to go to the same districts, and, jointly with
the _tucuricos_, to take some young men, with their wives, from each
district. This was done and they were brought to Cuzco from all the
provinces, from one 30, from another 100, more or less according to the
population of each district. These selected people were presented before
the Inca, who ordered that they should be taken to people various parts.
Those of Chinchay-suyu were sent to Anti-suyu, those of Cunti-suyu to
Colla-suyu, so far from their native country that they could not
communicate with their relations or countrymen. He ordered that they
should be settled in valleys similar to those in their native land, and
that they should have seeds from those lands that they might be
preserved and not perish, giving them land to sow without stint, and
removing the natives.

The Incas called these colonists _mitimaes_[96], which means
"transported" or "moved," He ordered them to learn the language of the
country to which they were removed, but not to forget the general
language, which was the Quichua, and which he had ordered that all his
subjects in all the conquered provinces must learn and know. With it
conversation and business could be carried on, for it was the clearest
and richest of the dialects. The Inca gave the colonists authority and
power to enter the houses of the natives at all hours, night or day, to
see what they said, did or arranged, with orders to report all to the
nearest governor, so that it might be known if anything was plotted
against the government of the Inca, who, knowing the evil he had done,
feared all in general, and knew that no one served him voluntarily, but
only by force. Besides this the Inca put garrisons into all the
fortresses of importance, composed of natives of Cuzco or the
neighbourhood, which garrisons were called _michecrima_[97].

[Note 96: The system of _mitimaes_ was a very important part of the
Inca polity. It is frequently referred to by Cieza de Leon, and
described by Garcilasso de la Vega, ii. p. 215. See also Balboa, pp. 28,
114,143,249. Molina, pp. 4, 22, 23. Yamqui Pachacuti, pp. 95, 97, Polo
de Ondegardo, p. 161.]

[Note 97: _Michec_ a shepherd, hence a governor. _Rimay_ to speak.]



After Inca Yupanqui had celebrated the triumphs and festivities
consequent on the conquest of Chinchay-suyu, and arranged the system of
_mitimaes_, he dismissed the troops. He himself went to Yucay, where he
built the edifices, the ruins of which may still be seen. These being
finished, he went down the valley of Yucay to a place which is now
called Tambo, eight leagues from Cuzco, where he erected some
magnificent buildings. The sons of Chuchi Ccapac, the great Sinchi of
the Collao, had to labour as captives at the masonry and other work.
Their father, as has already been narrated, was conquered in the Collao
and killed by the Inca. These sons of Chuchi Ccapac, feeling that they
were being vilely treated, and remembering that they were the sons of so
great a man as their father, also seeing that the Inca had disbanded his
army, agreed to risk their lives in obtaining their freedom. One night
they fled, with all the people who were there, and made such speed that,
although the Inca sent after them, they could not be overtaken. Along
the route they took, they kept raising the inhabitants against the Inca.
Much persuasion was not needed, because, as they were obeying by force,
they only sought the first opportunity to rise. On this favourable
chance, many nations readily rebelled, even those who were very near
Cuzco, but principally the Collao and all its provinces.

The Inca, seeing this, ordered a great army to be assembled, and sought
the favour of auxiliaries from Gusmanco Ccapac and Chimu Ccapac. He
collected a great number of men, made sacrifices _calpa_[98], and buried
some children alive, which is called _capa cocha_, to induce their idols
to favour them in that war. All being ready, the Inca nominated two of
his sons as captains of the army, valorous men, named the one Tupac Ayar
Manco, the other Apu Paucar Usnu. The Inca left Cuzco with more than
200,000 warriors, and marched against the sons of Chuchi Ccapac, who
also had a great power of men and arms, and were anxious to meet the
Incas and fight for their lives against the men of Cuzco.

[Note 98: _Calpa_ means force, vigour; also an army.]

As both were seeking each other, they soon met, and joined in a stubborn
and bloody battle, in which there was great slaughter, because one side
fought for life and liberty and the other for honour. As those of Cuzco
were better disciplined and drilled, and more numerous than their
adversaries, they had the advantage. But the Collas preferred to die
fighting rather than to become captives to one so cruel and inhuman as
the Inca. So they opposed themselves to the arms of the _orejones_, who,
with great cruelties, killed as many of the Collas as opposed their
advance. The sons of the Inca did great things in the battle, with their
own hands, on that day.

The Collas were defeated, most of them being killed or taken prisoners.
Those who fled were followed to a place called Lampa. There the wounded
were cared for, and the squadrons refreshed. The Inca ordered his two
sons, Tupac Ayar Manco and Apu Paucar Usnu, to press onward, conquering
the country as far as the Chichas, where they were to set up their
cairns and return. The Inca then returned to Cuzco, for a triumph over
the victory he had gained.

The Inca arrived at Cuzco, triumphed and celebrated the victory with
festivities. And because he found that a son had been born to him, he
raised him before the Sun, offered him, and gave him the name of Tupac
Inca Yupanqui. In his name he offered treasures of gold and silver to
the Sun, and to the other oracles and _huacas_, and also made the
sacrifice of _capa cocha_. Besides this he made the most solemn and
costly festivals that had ever been known, throughout the land. This was
done because Inca Yupanqui wished that this Tupac Inca should succeed
him, although he had other older and legitimate sons by his wife and
sister Mama Anahuarqui. For, although the custom of these tyrants was
that the eldest legitimate son should succeed, it was seldom observed,
the Inca preferring the one he liked best, or whose mother he loved
most, or he who was the ablest among the brothers.



As soon as the Inca returned to Cuzco, leaving his two sons Tupac Amaru
and Apu Paucar Usnu[99] in the Callao, those captains set out from
Lampa, advancing to Hatun-Colla, where they knew that the Collas had
rallied their troops to fight the Cuzcos once more, and that they had
raised one of the sons of Chuchi Ccapac to be Inca. The Incas came to
the place where the Collas were awaiting them in arms. They met and
fought valorously, many being killed on both sides. At the end of the
battle the Collas were defeated and their new Inca was taken prisoner.
Thus for a third time were the Collas conquered by the Cuzcos. By order
of the Inca, his sons, generals of the war, left the new Inca of the
Collas at Hatun-Colla, as a prisoner well guarded and re-captured. The
other captains went on, continuing their conquests, as the Inca had
ordered, to the confines of Charcas and the Chichas.

[Note 99: Tupac Amaru. _Tupac_ means royal, and _amaru_ a serpent.
_Apu_ a chief, _paucar_ beautiful and _usnu_ a judgment seat.]

While his sons prosecuted the war, Pachacuti their father, finished the
edifices at Tambo, and constructed the ponds and pleasure houses of
Yucay. He erected, on a hill near Cuzco, called Patallata, some
sumptuous houses, and many others in the neighbourhood of the capital.
He also made many channels of water both for use and for pleasure; and
ordered all the governors of provinces who were under his sway, to build
pleasure houses on the most convenient sites, ready for him when he
should visit their commands.

While Inca Yupanqui proceeded with these measures, his sons had
completed the conquest of the Collao. When they arrived in the vicinity
of Charcas, the natives of Paria, Tapacari, Cochabambas, Poconas and
Charcas retreated to the country of the Chichas and Chuyes, in order to
make a combined resistance to the Incas, who arrived where their
adversaries were assembled, awaiting the attack. The Inca army was in
three divisions. A squadron of 5000 men went by the mountains, another
of 20,000 by the side of the sea, and the rest by the direct road. They
arrived at the strong position held by the Charcas and their allies, and
fought with them. The Incas were victorious, and took great spoils of
silver extracted by those natives from the mines of Porco. It is to be
noted that nothing was ever known of the 5000 _orejones_ who entered by
the mountains or what became of them. Leaving all these provinces
conquered, and subdued, Amaru Tupac Inca and Apu Paucar Usnu returned to
Cuzco where they triumphed over their victories, Pachacuti granting them
many favours, and rejoicing with many festivals and sacrifices to idols.



Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui was now very old; and he determined to nominate
a successor to take his place after his death. He called together the
Incas his relations, of the _ayllus_ of Hanan-cuzco and Hurin-cuzco and
said, "My friends and relations! I am now, as you see, very old, and I
desire to leave you, when my days are over, one who will govern and
defend you from your enemies. Some propose that I should name Amaru
Tupac Inca, but it does not appear to me that he has the qualifications
to govern so great a lordship as that which I have acquired. I,
therefore, desire to nominate another with whom you will be more
content." The relations, in their reply, gave thanks to the Inca, and
declared that they would derive great benefit from his nomination. He
then said that he named his son Tupac Inca, and ordered him to come
forth from the house. He had been there for 15 or 16 years to be brought
up, without any one seeing him except very rarely and as a great favour.
He was now shown to the people, and the Inca presently ordered a fringe
of gold to be placed in the hand of the image of the Sun, with the
head-dress called _pillaca-llaytu_[100]. After Tupac Inca had made his
obeisance to his father, the Inca and the rest rose and went before the
image of the Sun where they made their sacrifices and offered _capa
cocha_ to that deity. Then they offered the new Inca Tupac Yupanqui,
beseeching the Sun to protect and foster him, and to make him so that
all should hold and judge him to be a child of the Sun and father of his
people. This done the oldest and principal _orejones_ took Tupac Inca to
the Sun, and the priests took the fringe from the hands of the image,
which they call _mascapaycha_, and placed it over the head of Tupac Inca
Yupanqui until it rested on his forehead. He was declared Inca Ccapac
and seated in front of the Sun on a seat of gold, called _duho_[101],
garnished with emeralds and other precious stones. Seated there, they
clothed him in the _ccapac hongo_[102], placed the _suntur paucar_ in
his hand, gave him the other insignia of Inca, and the priests raised
him on their shoulders. When these ceremonies were completed, Pachacuti
Inca Yupanqui ordered that his son Tupac Inca should remain shut up in
the House of the Sun, performing the fasts which it is the custom to go
through before receiving the order of chivalry; which ceremony consisted
in opening the ears. The Inca ordered that what had been done should not
be made public until he gave the command to publish it.

[Note 100: _Pillaca-llatu_ is a cloth or cloak woven of two colours,
black and brown.]

[Note 101: This word is corrupt. _Tiana_ is the word for a seat.]

[Note 102: Ccapac uncu. The word _uncu_ means a tunic.]



Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui found happiness in leaving memory of himself.
With this object he did extraordinary things as compared with those of
his ancestors, in building edifices, celebrating triumphs, not allowing
himself to be seen except as a great favour shown to the people, for as
such it was considered, on the day that he appeared. Then he ordered
that no one should come to behold him without worshipping and bringing
something in his hand to offer him. This custom was continued by all his
descendants, and was observed inviolably. [_Thus, from the time of this
Pachacuti began an unheard of and inhuman tyranny in addition to the
tyrannies of his ancestors._] As he was now old and desirous of
perpetuating his name, it appeared to him that he would obtain his
desire by giving authority to his son and successor named Tupac Inca. So
the boy was brought up, confined in the House of the Sun for more than
16 years, seeing no one but his tutors and masters until he was brought
and presented to the Sun, to be nominated as has already been explained.
To invest him at the _huarachico_ the Inca ordered a new way of giving
the order of chivalry. For this he built round the city four other
houses for prayer to the Sun, with much apparatus of gold idols,
_huacas_ and service, for his son to perambulate these stations after he
had been armed as a knight.

Affairs being in this state, there came to the Inca Pachacuti, his son
Amaru Tupac Inca, who had been named by his father as his successor some
years before, because he was the eldest legitimate son. He said, "Father
Inca! I understand that you have a son in the House of the Sun whom you
have ordered to be successor after your own days. Order that he may be
show to me." The Inca, looking upon this as boldness on the part of
Amaru Tupac, replied, "It is true, and I desire you and your wife shall
be his vassals, and that you shall serve and obey him as your Lord and
Inca." Amaru replied that he wished to do so, and that for this reason,
he desired to see him and offer sacrifice to him, and that orders should
be given to take him where his brother was. The Inca gave permission for
this, Amaru Tupac Inca taking what was necessary for the ceremony, and
being brought to where Tupac Inca was fasting. When Amaru saw him in
such majesty of wealth and surroundings, he fell on his face to the
earth, adoring, offering sacrifices and obedience. On learning that it
was his brother, Tupac Inca raised him and saluted him in the face.

Presently Inca Yupanqui caused the necessary preparations to be made for
investing his son with the order of chivalry. When all was ready, the
Inca, accompanied by all his principal relations and courtiers, went to
the House of the Sun, where they brought out Tupac Inca with great
solemnity and pomp. For they carried with him all the idols of the Sun,
Vircocha, the other _huacas, moro-urco_. All being placed in order with
such pomp as had never been seen before, they all went to the great
square of the city, in the centre of which a bonfire was made. All
relations and friends then killed many animals, offering them as
sacrifices by throwing them into the flames. They worshipped the heir,
offering him rich gifts, the first that brought a gift being his father.
Following the example all the rest adored, seeing that his father had
shown him reverence. Thus did the _orejones_ Incas and all the rest who
were present, seeing that for this they had been called and invited, to
bring their gifts and offer them to their new Inca.

[Illustration: GROUP OF INCAS, in ceremonial dresses, from the pictures
in the Church of Santa Ana, Cuzco A.D. 1570. From a sketch by Sir
Clements Markham, 1853.]

This being done, the festival called _Ccapac Raymi_ was commenced, being
the feast of kings, and consequently the most solemn festival kept by
these people. When the ceremonies had been performed, they bored the
ears of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, which is their mode of investiture into the
order of chivalry and nobility. He was then taken to the stations of the
Houses of the Sun, giving him the weapons and other insignia of war.
This being finished his father the Inca Yupanqui gave him, for his wife,
one of his sisters named Mama Ocllo, who was a very beautiful woman with
much ability and wisdom.



The Inca Yupanqui desired that his son should be employed on some
service that would bring him fame, as soon as he had been proclaimed his
successor, and armed as a knight. He had information that Chinchay-suyu
was a region where name and treasure might be acquired, especially from
a Sinchi named Chuqui-Sota in Chachapoyas. He, therefore, ordered all
preparations to be made for the conquest of Chinchay-suyu. He gave the
prince for his tutors, captains, and captains-general of his army, two
of his brothers, the one named Auqui Yupanqui and the other Tilca
Yupanqui. The army being assembled and the preparations made, they set
out from Cuzco.

Tupac went in such pomp and majesty that, where he passed, no one dared
to look him in the face, in such veneration was he held. The people left
the roads along which he had to pass and, ascending the hills on either
side, worshipped and adored. They pulled out their eyebrows and
eyelashes, and blowing on them, they made offering to the Inca. Others
offered handfuls of a very precious herb called _coca_. When he arrived
at the villages, he put on the dress and head-gear of that district, for
all were different in their dress and head-gear as they are now. For
Inca Yupanqui, so as to know each nation he had conquered, ordered that
each one should have a special dress and head-gear, which they call
_pillu_, _llaytu_ and _chuco_, different one from the other, so as to be
easily distinguished and recognized. Seating himself, Tupac Inca made a
solemn sacrifice of animals and birds, burning them in a fire which was
kindled in his presence; and in this way they worshipped the sun, which
they believed to be God.

In this manner Tupac Inca began to repeat the conquests and tyranny of
all his ancestors and his father. For, although many nations were
conquered by his father, almost all were again with arms in their hands
to regain their liberty, and the rest to defend themselves. As Tupac
Inca advanced with such power, force and pride, he not only claimed the
subjection of the people, but also usurped the veneration they gave to
their gods or devils, for truly he and his father made them worship all
with more veneration than the Sun.

Tupac Inca finally marched out of Cuzco and began to proceed with
measures for subduing the people in the near vicinity. In the province
of the Quichuas[103] he conquered and occupied the fortresses of Tohara,
Cayara, and Curamba, and in the province of Angaraes the fortresses of
Urco-colla and Huaylla-pucara, taking its Sinchi named Chuquis Huaman
prisoner. In the province of Xauxa he took Sisiquilla Pucara, and in the
province of Huayllas the fortresses of Chuncu-marca and Pillahua-marca.
In Chachapoyas the fortress of Piajajalca fell before him, and he took
prisoner a very rich chief named Chuqui Sota. He conquered the province
of the Paltas, and the valleys of Pacasmayu and Chimu, which is now
Truxillo. He destroyed it as Chimu Ccapac had been subdued before. He
also conquered the province of the Cañaris, and those who resisted were
totally destroyed. The Cañaris submitted from fear, and he took their
Sinchis, named Pisar Ccapac, Cañar Ccapac and Chica Ccapac, and built an
impregnable fortress there called Quinchi-caxa.

[Note 103: The province of the Quichuas was in the valley of the
Pachachaca, above Abancay.]

Tupac Inca Yupanqui then returned to Cuzco with much treasure and many
prisoners. He was well received by his father with a most sumptuous
triumph, and with the applause of all the _orejones_ of Cuzco. They had
many feasts and sacrifices, and to please the people they celebrated the
festival called Inti Raymi with feasts and dances, a time of great
rejoicing. The Inca granted many favours for the sake of his son Tupac
Inca, that he might have the support of his subjects, which was what he
desired. For as he was very old and unable to move about, feeling the
approach of death, his aim was to leave his son in the possession of the
confidence of his army.



It has been related how the Inca Yupanqui placed garrisons of Cuzco
soldiers, and a governor called _tucuyrico_ in all the provinces he
conquered and oppressed. It must be known that owing to his absorbing
occupations in conquering other provinces, training warriors, and
placing his son in command for the conquest of Chinchay-suyu, he had not
been able to put his final intentions and will into execution, which was
to make those he oppressed submissive subjects and tributaries. Seeing
that the people were in greater fear at beholding the valour of Tupac
Inca, he determined to have a visitation of the land, and nominated 16
visitors, four for each of the four _suyus_ or divisions of the empire,
which are _Cunti-suyu_ from Cuzco south and west as far as the South
Sea, _Chinchay-suyu_ from Cuzco to the north and west, _Anti-suyu_ from
Cuzco to the east, and _Colla-suyu_ from Cuzco to the south, south-west,
and south-east.

These visitors each went to the part to which he was appointed, and
inspected, before all things, the work of the _tucuyricos_ and the
methods of their government. They caused irrigating channels to be
constructed for the crops, broke up land where this had been neglected,
built _andenes_ or cultivated terraces, and took up pastures for the
Sun, the Inca, and Cuzco. Above all they imposed very heavy tribute on
all the produce, [_so that they all went about to rob and desolate
property and persons_]. The visitations occupied two years. When they
were completed the visitors returned to Cuzco, bringing with them
certain cloths descriptive of the provinces they had visited. They
reported fully to the Inca all that they had found and done.

Besides these, the Inca also despatched other _orejones_ as overseers to
make roads and hospices on the routes of the Inca, ready for the use of
his soldiers. These overseers set out, and made roads, now called "of
the Inca," over the mountains and along the sea coast. Those on the sea
coast are all provided, at the sides, with high walls of _adobe_,
wherever it was possible to build them, except in the deserts where
there are no building materials. These roads go from Quito to Chile, and
into the forests of the Andes. Although the Inca did not complete all,
suffice it that he made a great part of the roads, which were finished
by his sons and grandsons.



Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui knew from the report made by his son when he
returned from the conquest of Chinchay-suyu, that there were other great
and rich nations and provinces beyond the furthest point reached by
Tupac Inca. That no place might be left to conquer, the Inca ordered his
son to return with a view to the subjugation of the parts of Quito. He
assembled the troops and gave his son the same two brothers as his
colleagues, Tilca Yupanqui and Anqui Yupanqui, who had gone with him on
the former expedition. [_Tupac inflicted unheard of cruelties and deaths
on those who defended themselves and did not wish to give him

In this way he arrived at Tumipampa, within the territory of Quito,
whose Sinchi, named Pisar Ccapac, was confederated with Pilla-huaso,
Sinchi of the provinces and site of Quito. These two chiefs had a great
army and were determined to fight Tupac Inca for their country and
lives. Tupac sent messengers to them, demanding that they should lay
down their arms and give him obedience. They replied that they were in
their own native country, that they were free, and did not wish to serve
any one nor be tributaries.

Tupac and his colleagues rejoiced at this answer, because their wish was
to find a pretext to encounter them with blows and to rob them, which
was the principal object of the war. They say that the Inca army
numbered more than 250,000 experienced soldiers. Tupac ordered them to
march against the men of Quito and the Cañaris. They encountered each
other, both sides fighting with resolution and skill. The victory was
for a long time doubtful because the Quitos and Cañaris pressed
stubbornly against their enemies. When the Inca saw this he got out of
the litter in which he travelled, animated his people, and made signs
for the 50,000 men who were kept in reserve for the last necessity. When
these fresh troops appeared the Quitos and Cañaris were defeated and
fled, the pursuit being continued with much bloodshed and cruelty, the
victors shouting, "Ccapac Inca Yupanqui! Cuzco! Cuzco!" All the chiefs
were killed. They captured Pilla-huaso in the vanguard. No quarter was
given, in order to strike terror into those who heard of it.

Thence Inca Tupac marched to the place where now stands the city of San
Francisco de Quito, where they halted to cure the wounded and give much
needed rest to the others. So this great province remained subject, and
Tupac sent a report of his proceedings to his father. Pachacuti rejoiced
at the success of his son, and celebrated many festivals and sacrifices
on receiving the tidings.

After Tupac Inca had rested at Cuzco, re-organized his army, and cured
the wounded he went to Tumipampa, where his wife and sister bore him a
son, to whom he gave the name of Titu Cusi Hualpa, afterwards known as
Huayna Ccapac. After the Inca Tupac had rejoiced and celebrated the
birthday festivals, although the four years were passed that his father
had given him to complete the conquests, he heard that there was a great
nation towards the South Sea, composed of Indians called Huancavelicas.
So he determined to go down to conquer. At the head of the mountains
above them he built the fortress of Huachalla, and then went down
against the Huancavelicas. Tupac divided his army into three parts, and
took one by the most rugged mountains, making war on the Huancavelica
mountaineers. He penetrated so far into the mountains that for a long
time nothing was known of him, whether he was dead or alive. He
conquered the Huancavelicas although they were very warlike, fighting on
land and at sea in _balsas_, from Tumbez to Huañapi, Huamo, Manta,
Turuca and Quisin.

Marching and conquering on the coast of Manta, and the island of Puna,
and Tumbez, there arrived at Tumbez some merchants who had come by sea
from the west, navigating in _balsas_ with sails. They gave information
of the land whence they came, which consisted of some islands called
Avachumbi and Ninachumbi, where there were many people and much gold.
Tupac Inca was a man of lofty and ambitious ideas, and was not satisfied
with the regions he had already conquered. So he determined to challenge
a happy fortune, and see if it would favour him by sea. Yet he did not
lightly believe the navigating merchants, for such men, being great
talkers, ought not to be credited too readily. In order to obtain fuller
information, and as it was not a business of which news could easily be
got, he called a man, who accompanied him in his conquests, named
Antarqui who, they all declare, was a great necromancer and could even
fly through the air. Tupac Inca asked him whether what the merchant
mariners said was true. Antarqui answered, after having thought the
matter well out, that what they said was true, and that he would go
there first. They say that he accomplished this by his arts, traversed
the route, saw the islands, their people and riches, and, returning,
gave certain information of all to Tupac Inca.

The Inca, having this certainty, determined to go there. He caused an
immense number of _balsas_ to be constructed, in which he embarked more
than 20,000 chosen men; taking with him as captains Huaman Achachi,
Cunti Yupanqui, Quihual Tupac (all Hanan-cuzcos), Yancan Mayta, Quisu
Mayta, Cachimapaca Macus Yupanqui, Llimpita Usca Mayta (Hurin-cuzcos);
his brother Tilca Yupanqui being general of the whole fleet. Apu
Yupanqui was left in command of the army which remained on land.

Tupac Inca navigated and sailed on until he discovered the islands of
Avachumbi and Ninachumbi, and returned, bringing back with him black
people, gold, a chair of brass, and a skin and jaw bone of a horse.
These trophies were preserved in the fortress of Cuzco until the
Spaniards came. An Inca now living had charge of this skin and jaw bone
of a horse. He gave this account, and the rest who were present
corroborated it. His name is Urco Huaranca. I am particular about this
because to those who know anything of the Indies it will appear a
strange thing and difficult to believe. The duration of this expedition
undertaken by Tupac Inca was nine months, others say a year, and, as he
was so long absent, every one believed he was dead. But to deceive them
and make them think that news of Tupac Inca had come, Apu Yupanqui, his
general of the land army, made rejoicings. This was afterwards commented
upon to his disadvantage, and it was said that he rejoiced because he
was pleased that Tupac Inca Yupanqui did not appear. It cost him his

These are the islands which I discovered in the South Sea on the 30th of
November, 1567, 200 and more leagues to the westward, being the great
discovery of which I gave notice to the Licentiate Governor Castro. But
Alvaro de Mendaña, General of the Fleet, did not wish to occupy

[Note 104: This story of the navigation of Tupac Inca to the islands
of Ninachumbi and Avachumbi or Hahua chumpi is told by Balboa as well as
by Sarmiento. They were no doubt two of the Galapagos Islands. _Nina
chumpi_ means fire island, and _Hahua chumpi_ outer island. See my
introduction to the _Voyages of Sarmiento_, p. xiii; and _Las Islas de
Galapagos_ by Marco Jimenes de la Espada.]

After Tupac Inca disembarked from the discovery of the islands, he
proceeded to Tumipampa, to visit his wife and son and to hurry
preparations for the return to Cuzco to see his father, who was reported
to be ill. On the way back he sent troops along the coast to Truxillo,
then called Chimu, where they found immense wealth of gold and silver
worked into wands, and into beams of the house of Chimu Ccapac, with all
which they joined the main army at Caxamarca. Thence Tupac Inca took the
route to Cuzco, where he arrived after an absence of six years since he
set out on this campaign.

Tupac Inca Yupanqui entered Cuzco with the greatest, the richest, and
the most solemny triumph with which any Inca had ever reached the House
of the Sun, bringing with him people of many different races, strange
animals, innumerable quantities of riches. But behold the evil condition
of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui and his avarice, for though Tupac Inca was
his son whose promotion he had procured, he felt such jealousy that his
son should have gained such honour and fame in those conquests, that he
publicly showed annoyance that it was not himself who triumphed, and
that all was not due to him. So he determined to kill his sons Tilca
Yupanqui and Auqui Yupanqui who had gone with Tupac Inca, their crime
being that they had disobeyed his orders by delaying longer than the
time he had fixed, and that they had taken his son to such a distance
that he thought he would never return to Cuzco. They say that he killed
them, though some say that he only killed Tilca Yupanqui. At this Tupac
Inca Yupanqui felt much aggrieved, that his father should have slain one
who had worked so well for him. The death was concealed by many feasts
in honour of the victories of Tupac Inca, which were continued for a



Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui derived much comfort from his grandson, the son
of Tupac Inca. He always had the child with him, and caused him to be
brought up and cherished in his residence and dormitory. He would not
let him out of his sight.

Being in the highest prosperity and sovereignty of his life, he fell ill
of a grave infirmity, and, feeling that he was at the point of death, he
sent for all his sons who were then in the city. In their presence he
first divided all his jewels and contents of his wardrobe. Next he made
them plough furrows in token that they were vassals of their brother,
and that they had to eat by the sweat of their hands. He also gave them
arms in token that they were to fight for their brother. He then
dismissed them.

He next sent for the Incas _orejones_ of Cuzco, his relations, and for
Tupac Inca his son to whom he spoke, with a few words, in this
manner:--"Son! you now see how many great nations I leave to you, and
you know what labour they have cost me. Mind that you are the man to
keep and augment them. No one must raise his two eyes against you and
live, even if he be your own brother. I leave you these our relations
that they may be your councillors. Care for them and they shall serve
you. When I am dead, take care of my body, and put it in my houses at
Patallacta. Have my golden image in the House of the Sun, and make my
subjects, in all the provinces, offer up solemn sacrifice, after which
keep the feast of _purucaya_, that I may go to rest with my father the
Sun." Having finished his speech they say that he began to sing in a low
and sad voice with words of his own language. They are in Castilian as

    "I was born as a flower of the field,
    As a flower I was cherished in my youth,
    I came to my full age, I grew old,
    Now I am withered and die."

Having uttered these words, he laid his head upon a pillow and expired,
giving his soul to the devil, having lived 125 years. For he succeeded,
or rather he took the Incaship into his hands when he was 22, and he was
sovereign 103 years.

He had four legitimate sons by his wife Mama Anahuarqui, and he had 100
sons and 50 daughters who were bastards. Being numerous they were called
_Hatun-ayllu_, which means a "great lineage." By another name this
lineage is called _Inaca Panaca Ayllu_. Those who sustain this lineage
at the present time are Don Diego Cayo, Don Felipa Inguil, Don Juan
Quispi Cusi, Don Francisco Chaco Rimachi, and Don Juan Illac. They live
in Cuzco and are Hanan-cuzcos.

Pachacuti was a man of good stature, robust, fierce, haughty, insatiably
bent on tyrannizing over all the world, [_and cruel above measure. All
the ordinances he made for the people were directed to tyranny and his
own interests_]. His conduct was infamous for he often took some widow
as a wife and if she had a daughter that he liked, he also took the
daughter for wife or concubine. If there was some gallant and handsome
youth in the town who was esteemed for something, he presently made some
of his servants make friends with him, get him into the country, and
kill him the best way they could. He took all his sisters as concubines,
saying they could not have a better husband than their brother.

This Inca died in the year 1191. He conquered more than 300 leagues, 40
more or less in person accompanied by his legitimate brothers, the
captains Apu Mayta and Vicaquirao, the rest by Amaru Tupac Inca his
eldest son, Ccapac Yupanqui his brother, and Tupac Inca his son and
successor, with other captains, his brothers and sons.

This Inca arranged the parties and lineages of Cuzco in the order that
they now are. The Licentiate Polo found the body of Pachacuti in
Tococachi, where now is the parish of San Blas of the city of Cuzco,
well preserved and guarded. He sent it to Lima by order of the Viceroy
of this kingdom, the Marquis of Cañete. The _guauqui_ or idol of this
Inca was called _Inti Illapa_. It was of gold and very large, and was
brought to Caxamarca in pieces. The Licentiate Polo found that this
_guauqui_ or idol had a house, estate, servants and women.



[Note 105: All authorities agree that Tupac Inca Yupanqui was the
successor of Pachacuti except Betanzos, Santillana and Garcilasso de la
Vega. Betanzos has a Yamqui Yupanqui. Garcilasso gives the reign of
another Inca named Inca Yupanqui between Pachacuti and Tupac Inca. He
was ignorant of the fact that Pachacuti and Inca Yupanqui were the same
person. Santillana follows Garcilasso but calls Pachacuti's other self
Ccapac Yupanqui.]

When Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui died, two _orejones_ were deputed to watch
the body, and to allow no one to enter or go out to spread the news of
his death, until orders had been given. The other Incas and _orejones_
went with Tupac Inca to the House of the Sun and then ordered the twelve
captains of the _ayllus_ of the Inca's guard to come. They came with
2200 men of the guard, under their command, fully armed, and surrounded
the Yupanqui with the fringe, and gave him the other insignia of
sovereignty, as he had now inherited and succeeded his father. Taking
him in the midst of themselves, and of the guards, they escorted him to
the great square, where he was seated, in majesty, on a superb throne.
All the people of the city were then ordered to come and make obeisance
to the Inca on pain of death.

Those who had come with the Inca, went to their houses to fetch presents
to show reverence and do homage to the new Inca. He remained with his
guards only, until they returned with presents, doing homage and
adoring. The rest of the people did the same, and sacrifices were
offered. [_It is to be noted that only those of Cuzco did this, and if
any others were present who did so, they must have been forced or
frightened by the armed men and the proclamation_.]

This having been done, they approached the Inca and said, "O Sovereign
Inca! O Father! now take rest." At these words Tupac Inca showed much
sadness and covered his head with his mantle, which they call
_llacolla_, a square cloak. He next went, with all his company, to the
place where the body of his father was laid, and there he put on
mourning. All things were then arranged for the obsequies, and Tupac
Inca Yupanqui did everything that his father had ordered at the point of
death, touching the treatment of his body and other things.



Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui being dead, and Tupac Inca ruling alone, he
caused all the Sinchis and principal men of the conquered provinces to
be summoned. Those came who feared the fury of the Inca, and with them
the Indians of the province of Anti-suyu, who are the dwellers in the
forests to the eastward of Cuzco, who had been conquered in the time of
Pachacuti his father.

Tupac Inca ordered them all to do homage, adore, and offer sacrifices.
The Antis were ordered to bring from their country several loads of
lances of palm wood for the service of the House of the Sun. The Antis,
who did not serve voluntarily, looked upon this demand as a mark of
servitude. They fled from Cuzco, returned to their country, and raised
the land of the Antis in the name of freedom.

Tupac Inca was indignant, and raised a powerful army which he divided
into three parts. He led the first in person, entering the Anti-suyu by
Ahua-tona. The second was entrusted to a captain named Uturuncu Achachi,
who entered Anti-suyu by a town they call Amaru. The third, under a
captain named Chalco Yupanqui, advanced by way of Pilcopata. All these
routes were near each other, and the three divisions formed a junction
three leagues within the forest, at a place called Opatari, whence they
commenced operations against the settlements of the Antis. The
inhabitants of this region were Antis, called Opataris, and were the
first to be conquered. Chalco Yupanqui carried an image of the Sun.

The forests were very dense and full of evil places; so that they could
not force their way through, nor did they know what direction to take in
order to reach the settlements of the natives, which were well concealed
in the thick vegetation. To find them the explorers climbed up the
highest trees, and pointed out the places where they could see smoke
rising. So they worked away at road making through the undergrowth until
they lost that sign of inhabitants and found another. In this way the
Inca made a road where it seemed impossible to make one.

The Sinchi of the greater part of these provinces of the Antis was
Condin Savana, of whom they say that he was a great wizard and
enchanter, and they had the belief, and even now they affirm that he
could turn himself into different shapes.

Tupac Inca and his captains penetrated into this region of the Antis,
which consists of the most terrible and fearful forests, with many
rivers, where they endured immense toil, and the people who came from
Peru suffered from the change of climate, for Peru is cold and dry,
while the forests of Anti-suyu are warm and humid. The soldiers of Tupac
Inca became sick, and many died. Tupac Inca himself, with a third of his
men who came with him to conquer, were lost in the forests, and wandered
for a long time, without knowing whether to go in one direction or
another until he fell in with Uturuncu Achachi who put him on the route.

On this occasion Tupac Inca and his captains conquered four great
tribes. The first was that of the Indians called Opataris. The next was
the Mano-suyu. The third tribe was called Mañaris or Yanasimis, which
means those of the black mouth: and the province of Rio, and the
province of the Chunchos. They went over much ground in descending the
river Tono, and penetrated as far as the Chiponauas. The Inca sent
another great captain, named Apu Ccuri-machi, by the route which they
now call of Camata. This route was in the direction of the rising of the
sun, and he advanced until he came to the river of which reports have
but now been received, called Paytiti, where he set up the frontier
pillars of Inca Tupac. During the campaign against these nations, Tupac
Inca took prisoners the following Sinchis: Vinchincayua, Cantahuancuru,

[Note 106: This expedition of Tupac Inca Yupanqui into the montaña
of Paucartambo, and down the River Tono is important. Garcilasso de la
Vega describes it in chapters xiii., xiv., xv. and xvi. of Book vii. He
says that five rivers unite to form the great Amaru-mayu or Serpent
River, which he was inclined to think was a tributary of the Rio de la
Plata. He describes fierce battles with the Chunchos, who were reduced
to obedience. After descending the River Tono, Garcilasso says that the
Incas eventually reached the country of the Musus (Moxos) and opened
friendly relations with them. Many Incas settled in the country of the
Musus. Garcilasso then gives some account of Spanish expeditions into
the montaña, led by Diego Aleman, Gomez de Tordoya, and Juan Alvarez

The account in the text agrees, in the main, with that of Garcilasso de
la Vega. Sarmiento gives the names of four Indian tribes who were
encountered, besides the Chunchos.]

During the campaign an Indian of the Collas, named Coaquiri, fled from
his company, reached the Collao, and spread the report that Tupac Inca
was dead. He said that there was no longer an Inca, that they should all
rise and that he would be their leader. Presently he took the name of
Pachacuti, the Collas rose, and chose him as their captain. This news
reached Tupac Inca in Anti-suyu where he was in the career of conquest.
He resolved to march against the Collas and punish them. He left the
forests, leaving Uturuncu Achachi to complete the conquest, with orders
to return into Peru when that service was completed, but not to enter
Cuzco triumphing until the Inca should come.



As the Collas were one of those nations which most desired their
freedom, they entered upon attempts to obtain it whenever a chance
offered, as has already been explained. Tupac Inca Yupanqui resolved to
crush them once for all. Having returned from the Antis, he increased
his army and nominated as captains Larico, the son of his cousin Ccapac
Yupanqui, his brother Chachi, Cunti Yupanqui, and Quihual Tupac. With
this army he advanced to the Collao. The Collas had constructed four
strong places at Llallaua, Asillo, Arapa, and Pucara. The Inca captured
the chiefs and the leader of all, who was Chuca-chucay Pachacuti
Coaquiri, he who, as we have said, fled from Anti-suyu. Afterwards these
were the drummers[107] of Inca Tupac. Finally, owing to the great
diligence of Inca Tupac, although the war occupied some years, the Incas
conquered and subdued all [_perpetrating great cruelties on them_].

Following up his victories, in pursuit of the vanquished, he got so far
from Cuzco that he found himself in Charcas. So he determined to advance
further, subduing every nation of which he received notice. He
eventually prosecuted his conquests so far that he entered Chile, where
he defeated the great Sinchi Michimalongo, and Tangalongo, Sinchi of the
Chilians as far as the river Maule. He came to Coquimbo in Chile and to
the banks of the Maule, where he set up his frontier columns, or as
others say a wall, to show the end of his conquests. From this campaign
he returned with great riches in gold, having discovered many mines of
gold and silver. He then returned to Cuzco.

These spoils were joined with those of Uturuncu Achachi, who had
returned from the forests of the Antis after a campaign of three years.
He was at Paucar-tampu, awaiting the return of his brother, who entered
Cuzco with a very great triumph. They made great feasts to commemorate
the conquests, presenting gifts and granting many favours to the
soldiers who had served with the Inca in these campaigns. As the
provinces of the Chumpi-vilicas saw the power and greatness of Tupac
Inca Yupanqui they came to submit with the rest of Cunti-suyu.

[Note 107: _i.e._ their skins were made into drums.]

Besides this the Inca went to Chachapoyas, and crushed those who had
been suspected, visiting many provinces on the road.

On his return to Cuzco he made certain ordinances, as well for peace as
for war time. He increased the _mitimaes_ which his father had
instituted, as has been explained in the account of his life, giving
more privileges and liberty. Besides, he caused a general visitation to
be made of all the land from Quito to Chile, registering the whole
population for more than a thousand leagues; and imposed a tribute [_so
heavy that no one could be owner of a_ mazorca _of maize, which is their
bread for food, nor of a pair of_ usutas, _which are their shoes, nor
marry, nor do a single thing without special licence from Tupac Inca.
Such was the tyranny and oppression to which he subjected them_]. He
placed over the _tucuricos_ a class of officers called _Michu_[108] to
collect the taxes and tributes.

[Note 108: _Michu_ should be _Michec_ a shepherd, also a governor.
_Michisca_ the governed.]

Tupac Inca saw that in the districts and provinces the Sinchis claimed
to inherit by descent. He resolved to abolish this rule, and to put them
all under his feet, both great and small. He, therefore, deposed the
existing Sinchis, and introduced a class of ruler at his own will, who
were selected in the following way. He appointed a ruler who should have
charge of 10,000 men, and called him _huanu_, which means that number.
He appointed another ruler over 1000, and called him _huaranca_, which
is 1000. The next had charge of 500, called _pichca-pachaca_, or 500. To
another called _pachac_ he gave charge of 100, and to another he gave
charge of 10 men, called _chunca curaca_. All these had also the title
of _Curaca_, which means "principal" or "superior," over the number of
men of whom they had charge. These appointments depended solely on the
will of the Inca, who appointed and dismissed them as he pleased,
without considering inheritance, or succession. From that time forward
they were called _Curacas_, which is the proper name of the chiefs of
this land, and not _Caciques_, which is the term used by the vulgar
among the Spaniards. That name of _Cacique_ belongs to the islands of
Santo Domingo and Cuba. From this place we will drop the name of
_Sinchi_ and only use that of _Curaca_.



Among the brothers of the Inca there was one named Tupac Ccapac, a
principal man, to whom Tupac Inca had given many servants to work on his
farms, and serve on his estates. It is to be understood that Tupac Inca
made his brother visitor-general of the whole empire that had been
conquered up to that time. Tupac Ccapac, in making the visitation, came
to the place where his brother had given him those servants. Under
colour of this grant, he took those and also many more, saying that all
were his _yana-cunas_[109], which is the name they give to their
servants. He persuaded them to rebel against his brother, saying that if
they would help him he would show them great favours. He then marched to
Cuzco, very rich and powerful, where he gave indications of his

[Note 109: Garcilasso de la Vega says that the meaning of _Yanacona_
is "a man who is under the obligation to perform the duties of a
servant." Balboa, p. 129, tells the same story of the origin of the
_Yanaconas_ as in the text. The amnesty was granted on the banks of the
river Yana-yacu, and here they were called Yana-yacu-cuna, corrupted
into Yana-cona. The Spaniards adopted the word for all Indians in
domestic service, as distinguished from _mitayos_ or forced labourers.]

He intended his schemes to be kept secret, but Tupac Inca was informed
of them and came to Cuzco. He had been away at the ceremony of arming
one of his sons named Ayar Manco. Having convinced himself that his
information was correct, he killed Tupac Ccapac with all his councillors
and supporters. Finding that many tribes had been left out of the
visitation by him, for this attempt, Tupac Inca went in person from
Cuzco, to investigate the matter and finish the visitation.

While doing this the Inca came to a place called Yana-yacu, which means
"black water" because a stream of a very dark colour flows down that
valley, and for that reason they call the river and valley Yana-yacu. Up
to this point he had been inflicting very cruel punishment without
pardoning any one who was found guilty either in word or deed. In this
valley of Yana-yacu his sister and wife, Mama Ocllo, asked him not to
continue such cruelties, which were more butchery and inhumanity than
punishment, and not to kill any more but to pardon them, asking for them
as her servants. In consequence of this intercession, the Inca ceased
the slaughter, and said that he would grant a general pardon. As the
pardon was proclaimed in Yana-yacu, he ordered that all the pardoned
should be called Yana-yacus. They were known as not being allowed to
enter in the number of servants of the House of the Sun, nor those of
the visitation. So they remained under the Curacas. This affair being
finished, the visitation made by Tupac Ccapac was considered to be of no
effect. So the Inca returned to Cuzco with the intention of ordering
another visitation to be made afresh.



As the visitation entrusted to Tupac Ccapac was not to his liking, the
Inca revoked it, and nominated another brother named Apu Achachi to be
visitor-general. The Inca ordered him not to include the Yana-yacus in
the visitation, because they were unworthy to enter into the number of
the rest, owing to what they had done, Apu Achachi set out and made his
general visitation, reducing many of the Indians to live in villages and
houses who had previously lived in caves and hills and on the banks of
rivers, each one by himself. He sent those in strong fastnesses into
plains, that they might have no site for a fortress, on the strength of
which they might rebel. He reduced them into provinces, giving them
their Curacas in the order already described. He did not make the son of
the deceased a Curaca, but the man who had most ability and aptitude for
the service. If the appointment did not please the Inca he, without more
ado, dismissed him and appointed another, so that no Curaca, high or
low, felt secure in his appointment. To these Curacas were given
servants, women and estates, submitting an account of them, for, though
they were Curacas, they could not take a thing of their own authority,
without express leave from the Inca.

In each province all those of the province made a great sowing of every
kind of edible vegetable for the Inca, his overseers coming to the
harvest. Above all there was a _Tucurico Apu_, who was the
governor-lieutenant of the Inca in that province. It is true that the
first Inca who obliged the Indians of this land to pay tribute of
everything, and in quantity, was Inca Yupanqui. But Tupac Inca imposed
rules and fixed the tribute they must pay, and divided it according to
what each province was to contribute as well for the general tax as
those for _Huacas_, and Houses of the Sun. [_In this way the people were
so loaded with tributes and taxes, that they had to work perpetually
night and day to pay them, and even then they could not comply, and had
no time for sufficient labour to suffice for their own maintenance_.]

Tupac Inca divided the estates throughout the whole empire, according to
the measure which they call _tupu_.

He divided the months of the year, with reference to labour in the
fields, as follows. Three months in the year were allotted to the
Indians for the work of their own fields, and the rest must be given up
to the work of the Sun, of _huacas_, and of the Inca. In the three
months that were given to themselves, one was for ploughing and sowing,
one for reaping, and another in the summer for festivals, and for make
and mend clothes days. The rest of their time was demanded for the
service of the Sun and the Incas.

This Inca ordered that there should be merchants who might profit by
their industry in this manner. When any merchant brought gold, silver,
precious stones, or other valuable things for sale, they were to be
asked where they got them, and in this way they gave information
respecting the mines and places whence the valuables had been taken.
Thus a very great many mines of gold and silver, and of very fine
colours, were discovered.

This Inca had two Governors-General in the whole empire, called Suyuyoc
Apu[110]; one resided at Xauxa and the other at Tiahuanacu in

[Note 110: _Suyu_ a great division of the empire, or a province.
_Yoc_ a terminal particle denoting possession or office.]

Tupac Inca ordered the seclusion of certain women in the manner of our
professed nuns, maidens of 12 years and upwards, who were called
_acllas_[111]. From thence they were taken to be given in marriage to
the _Tucurico Apu_, or by order of the Inca who, when any captain
returned with victory, distributed the _acllas_ to captains, soldiers
and other servants who had pleased him, as gracious gifts which were
highly valued. As they took out some, they were replaced by others, for
there must always be the number first ordained by the Inca. If any man
takes one out, or is caught inside with one they are both hanged, tied

[Note 111: _Aclla_ means chosen, selected.]

This Inca made many ordinances, in his tyrannical mode of government,
which will be given in a special volume.



After Tupac Inca Yupanqui had visited all the empire and had come to
Cuzco where he was served and adored, being for the time idle, he
remembered that his father Pachacuti had called the city of Cuzco the
lion city. He said that the tail was where the two rivers unite which
flow through it[112], that the body was the great square and the houses
round it, and that the head was wanting. It would be for some son of his
to put it on. The Inca discussed this question with the _orejones_, who
said that the best head would be to make a fortress on a high plateau to
the north of the city.

[Note 112: This district of Cuzco has always been called _Pumap
chupan_ or tail of the puma.]

This being settled, the Inca sent to all the provinces, to order the
tucuricos to supply a large number of people for the work of the
fortress. Having come, the workmen were divided into parties, each one
having its duties and officers. Thus some brought stones, others worked
them, others placed them. The diligence was such that in a few years,
the great fortress of Cuzco was built, sumptuous, exceedingly strong, of
rough stone, a thing most admirable to look upon. The buildings within
it were of small worked stone, so beautiful that, if it had not been
seen, it would not be believed how strong and beautiful it was. What
makes it still more worthy of admiration is that they did not possess
tools to work the stone, but could only work with other stones. This
fortress was intact until the time of the differences between Pizarro
and Almagro, after which they began to dismantle it, to build with its
stones the houses of Spaniards in Cuzco, which are at the foot of the
fortress. Great regret is felt by those who see the ruins. When it was
finished, the Inca made many store houses round Cuzco for provisions and
clothing, against times of necessity and of war; which was a measure of
great importance[113].

[Note 113: This fortress of Cuzco, on the Sacsahuaman Hill, was well
described by Cieza de Leon and in greater detail by Garcilasso de la
Vega, ii. pp. 305--318. Both ascribe it to Inca Yupanqui or his son
Tupac Inca, as does Sarmiento. The extensive edifices, built of masonry
of his period, were no doubt the work of Tupac Inca who thus got credit
for the whole. These later edifices were pulled down by the Spaniards,
for material for building their houses in the city. But the wonderful
cyclopean work that remains is certainly of much more ancient date, and
must be assigned, like Tiahuanacu, to the far distant age of the
monolithic empire.]



Having visited and divided the lands, and built the fortress of Cuzco,
besides edifices and houses without number, Tupac Inca Yupanqui went to
Chinchero[114], a town near Cuzco, where he had very rich things for his
recreation; and there he ordered extensive gardens to be constructed to
supply his household. When the work was completed he fell ill of a grave
infirmity, and did not wish to be visited by anyone. But as he became
worse and felt the approach of death, he sent for the _orejones_ of
Cuzco, his relations, and when they had assembled in his presence he
said: "My relations and friends! I would have you to know that the Sun
my Father desires to take me to himself, and I wish to go and rest with
him. I have called you to let you know who it is that I desire to
succeed me as lord and sovereign, and who is to rule and govern you."
They answered that they grieved much at his illness, that as the Sun his
father had so willed it so must it be, that his will must be done, and
they besought the Inca to nominate him who was to be sovereign in his
place. Tupac Inca then replied: "I nominate for my successor my son Titu
Cusi Hualpa, son of my sister and wife, Mama Ocllo." For this they
offered many thanks, and afterwards the Inca sank down on his pillow and
died, having lived 85 years.

[Note 114: Chinchero is a village near Cuzco, on the heights
overlooking the lovely valley of Yucay, with magnificent mountains in
the background. The remains of the Inca palace are still standing, not
unlike those on the Colcampata at Cuzco.]

Tupac Inca succeeded his father at the age of 18 years. He had two
legitimate sons, 60 bastards, and 30 daughters. Some say that at the
time of his death, or a short time before, he had nominated one of his
illegitimate sons to succeed him named Ccapac Huari, son of a concubine
whose name was Chuqui Ocllo.

He left a lineage or _ayllu_ called _Ccapac Ayllu_, whose heads, who
sustain it and are now living, are Don Andres Tupac Yupanqui, Don
Cristobal Pisac Tupac, Don Garcia Vilcas, Don Felipe Tupac Yupanqui, Don
Garcia Azache, and Don Garcia Pilco. They are Hanan-cuzcos.

The deceased Inca was frank, merciful in peace, cruel in war and
punishments, a friend to the poor, a great man of indefatigable industry
and a notable builder. [_He was the greatest tyrant of all the Incas_.]
He died in the year 1528. Chalco Chima burnt his body in 1533, when he
captured Huascar, as will be related in its place. The ashes, with his
idol or _guauqui_ called _Cusi-churi_, were found in Calis-puquiu where
the Indians had concealed it, and offered to it many sacrifices.



[Note 115: All authorities agree that Huayna Ccapac was the son and
successor of Tupac Inca.]

As soon as Tupac Inca was dead, the _orejones_, who were with him at the
time of his death, proceeded to Cuzco for the customary ceremonies.
These were to raise the Inca his successor before the death of his
father had become known to him, and to follow the same order as in the
case of the death of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui. As the wives and sons of
Tupac Inca also went to Cuzco, the matter could not be kept secret. A
woman who had been a concubine of the late Inca, named Ccuri Ocllo, a
kins-woman of Ccapac Huari, as soon as she arrived at Cuzco, spoke to
her relations and to Ccapac Huari in these words. "Sirs and relations!
Know that Tupac Inca is dead and that, when in health, he had named
Ccapac Huari for his successor, but at the end, being on the point of
death, he said that Titu Cusi Hualpa, son of Mama Ocllo, should succeed
him. You ought not to consent to this. Rather call together all your
relations and friends, and raise Ccapac Huari, your elder brother, son
of Chuqui Ocllo, to be Inca." This seemed well to all the relations of
Ccapac Huari, and they sent to assemble all the other relations on his

While this was proceeding, the _orejones_ of Cuzco, knowing nothing of
it, were arranging how to give the fringe to Titu Cusi Hualpa. The plot
of the party of Ccapac Huari became known to the late Inca's brother,
Huaman Achachi. He assembled some friends, made them arm themselves, and
they went to where Titu Cusi Hualpa was retired and concealed. They then
proceeded to where the friends of Ccapac Huari had assembled, and killed
many of them, including Ccapac Huari himself. Others say that they did
not kill Ccapac Huari at that time, but only took him. His mother Chuqui
Ocllo was taken and, being a rebel as well as a witch who had killed her
lord Tupac Inca, she was put to death. Ccapac Huari was banished to
Chinchero, where he was given a maintenance, but he was never allowed to
enter Cuzco again until his death. They also killed the woman Ccuri
Ocllo, who had advised the raising of Ccapac Huari to the Incaship.



The city of Cuzco being pacified, Huaman Achachi went to Quispicancha,
three leagues from Cuzco, where Titu Cusi Hualpa was concealed, and
brought his nephew to Cuzco, to the House of the Sun. After the
sacrifices and accustomed ceremonies, the image of the Sun delivered the
fringe to Titu Cusi Hualpa.

This being done, and the new Inca having been invested with all the
insignia of Ccapac, and placed in a rich litter, they bore him to the
_huaca_ Huanacauri, where he offered a sacrifice. The _orejones_
returned to Cuzco by the route taken by Manco Ccapac.

Arrived at the first square, called Rimac-pampa, the accession was
announced to the people, and they were ordered to come and do homage to
the new Inca. When they all assembled, and saw how young he was, never
having seen him before, they all raised their voices and called him
_Huayna Ccapac_ which means "the boy chief" or "the boy sovereign." For
this reason he was called Huayna Ccapac from that time, and the name
Titu Cusi Hualpa was no longer used. They celebrated festivals, armed
him as a knight, adored, and presented many gifts---as was customary.



As Huayna Ccapac was very young when he succeeded, they appointed a
tutor and coadjutor for him named Hualpaya, a son of Ccapac Yupanqui,
brother of Inca Yupanqui. This prince made a plot to raise himself to
the Incaship, but it became known to Huaman Achachi, then Governor of
Chinchay-suyu. At the time he was in Cuzco, and he and his people killed
Hualpaya and others who were culpable.

Huaman Achachi assumed the government, but always had as a councillor
his own brother Auqui Tupac Inca. In course of time Huayna Ccapac went
to the House of the Sun, held a visitation, took account of the
officials, and provided what was necessary for the service, and for that
of the _Mama-cunas_. He took the chief custodianship of the Sun from him
who then held it, and assumed the office himself with the title of
"Shepherd of the Sun." He next visited the other _huacas_ and oracles,
and their estates. He also inspected the buildings of the city of Cuzco
and the houses of the _orejones_.

Huayna Ccapac ordered the body of his father Tupac Inca to be embalmed.
After the sacrifices, the mourning, and other ceremonies, he placed the
body in the late Inca's residence which was prepared for it, and gave
his servants all that was necessary for their maintenance and services.
The same Huayna Ccapac mourned for his father and for his mother who
died nearly at the same time.



After Huayna Ccapac had given orders respecting the things mentioned in
the last chapter, it was reported to him that there were certain tribes
near the territory of the Chachapoyas which might be conquered, and that
on the way he might subdue the Chachapoyas who had rebelled. He gave
orders to his _orejones_ and assembled a large army. He set out from
Cuzco, having first offered sacrifices and observed the _calpa_[116]. On
the route he took, he reformed many things. Arriving at the land of the
Chachapoyas, they, with other neighbouring tribes, put themselves in a
posture of defence. They were eventually vanquished and treated with
great severity. The Inca then returned to Cuzco and triumphed at the
victory gained over the Chachapoyas and other nations.

[Note 116: _Calpa_ means force, power. _Calpay_ work. _Calparicu_
"one who gives strength," used for a wizard. The Calpa was a ceremony
connected with divination.]

While he was absent on this campaign, he left as Governor of Cuzco one
of his illegitimate brothers named Sinchi Rocca, an eminent architect.
He built all the edifices at Yucay, and the houses of the Inca at Casana
in the city of Cuzco. He afterwards built other edifices round Cuzco for
Huayna Ccapac, on sites which appeared most convenient.



Huayna Ccapac having rested in Cuzco for a long time and, wishing to
undertake something, considered that it was a long time since he had
visited the empire. He determined that there should be a visitation, and
named his uncle Huaman Achachi to conduct it in Chinchay-suyu as far as
Quito, he himself undertaking the region of Colla-suyu.

Each one set out, Huayna Ccapac, in person, taking the route to the
Collao, where he examined into the government of his _tucuricos_,
placing and dismissing governors and Curacas, opening lands and making
bridges and irrigating channels. Constructing these works he arrived at
Charcas and went thence to Chile, which his father had conquered, where
he dismissed the governor, and appointed two native Curacas named
Michimalongo and Antalongo, who had been vanquished by his father.
Having renewed the garrison, he came to Coquimbo and Copiapo, also
visiting Atacama and Arequipa. He next went to Anti-suyu and Alayda, by
way of Collao and Charcas. He entered the valley of Cochabamba, and
there made provinces of _mitimaes_ in all parts, because the natives
were few, and there was space for all, the land being fertile. Thence he
went to Pocona to give orders on that frontier against the Chirihuanas,
and to repair a fortress which had been built by his father.

While engaged on these measures, he received news that the provinces of
Quito, Cayambis, Carangues, Pastos, and Huancavilcas had rebelled. He,
therefore, hurried his return and came to Tiahuanacu, where he prepared
for war against the Quitos and Cayambis, and gave orders how the
Urus[117] were to live, granting them localities in which each tribe of
them was to fish in the lake. He visited the Temple of the Sun and the
_huaca_ of Ticci Viracocha on the island of Titicaca, and sent orders
that all those provinces should send troops to go to that war which he
had proclaimed.

[Note 117: The Urus are a tribe of fishermen, with a peculiar
language, living among the reed beds in the S.W. part of Lake Titicaca.]



Knowing that the Pastos, Quitos, Carangues, Cayambis and Huancavilcas
had rebelled, killed the _tucuricos_, and strengthened their positions
with strong forces, Huayna Ccapac, with great rapidity, collected a
great army from all the districts of the four _suyus_. He nominated
Michi of the Hurin-cuzcos, and Auqui Tupac of the Hanan-cuzcos as
captains, and left his uncle Huaman Achachi as governor of Cuzco. Others
say that he left Apu Hilaquito and Auqui Tupac Inca in Cuzco, with his
son who was to succeed named Tupac Cusi Hualpa Inti Illapa, and with him
another of his sons named Titu Atanchi, who remained to perform the
fasts before knighthood. It is to be noted that Huayna Ccapac was
married, in conformity with custom and with the prescribed ceremonies to
Cusi Rimay Coya, by whom he had no male child. He, therefore, took his
sister Araua Ocllo to wife, by whom he had a son Tupac Cusi Hualpa,
vulgarly called Huascar. Preparing for the campaign he ordered that
Atahualpa and Ninan Cuyoche, his illegitimate sons, now grown men,
should go with him. His other sons, also illegitimate, named Manco Inca
and Paulu Tupac, were to remain with Huascar.

These arrangements having been made, the Inca set out for Quito. On the
way he came to Tumipampa where he had himself been born. Here he erected
great edifices where he placed, with great solemnity, the caul in which
he was born. Marching onwards and reaching the boundary of the region
where the Quitos were in arms, he marshalled his squadrons, and
presently resolved to conquer the Pastos. For this service he selected
two captains of the Collao, one named Mollo Cavana, the other Mollo
Pucara, and two others of Cunti-suyu named Apu Cautar Canana and Cunti
Mollo, under whose command he placed many men of their nations, and 2000
_orejones_ as guards, under Auqui Tupac Inca, brother of Huayna Ccapac
and Acollo Tupac of the lineage of Viracocha. They marched to the
country of the Pastos who fell back on their chief place, leaving their
old people, women and children, with a few men, that the enemy might
think there was no one else. The Incas easily conquered these and,
thinking that was all, they gave themselves up to idleness and pleasure.
One night, when they were engaged in a great rejoicing, eating and
drinking freely, without sentries, the Pastos attacked them, and there
was a great slaughter, especially among the Collas. Those who escaped,
fled until they came to the main army of the Incas which was following
them. They say that Atahualpa and Ninan Cuyoche brought up assistance,
and that, with the confidence thus gained, Huayna Ccapac ordered the war
to be waged most cruelly. So they entered the country of the Pastos a
second time, burning and destroying the inhabited places and killing all
the people great and small, men and women, young and old. That province
having been subdued, a governor was appointed to it.

Huayna Ccapac then returned to Tumipampa, where he rested some days,
before moving his camp for the conquest of the Carangues, a very warlike
nation. In this campaign he subdued the Macas to the confines of the
Cañaris, those of Quisna, of Ancamarca, the province of Puruvay, the
Indians of Nolitria, and other neighbouring nations.

Thence he went down to Tumbez, a seaport, and then came to the
fortresses of Carangui and Cochisque. In commencing to subdue those of
Cochisque he met with a stubborn resistance by valiant men, and many
were killed on both sides. At length the place was taken, and the men
who escaped were received in the fortress of Carangui. The Incas decided
that the country surrounding this fortress should first be subdued. They
desolated the country as far as Ancas-mayu and Otabalo, those who
escaped from the fury of the Incas taking refuge in the fortress. Huayna
Ccapac attacked it with his whole force, but was repulsed by the
garrison with much slaughter, and the _orejones_ were forced to fly,
defeated by the Cayambis, the Inca himself being thrown down. He would
have been killed if a thousand of his guard had not come up with their
captains Cusi Tupac Yupanqui and Huayna Achachi, to rescue and raise
him. The sight of this animated the _orejones_. All turned to defend
their Inca, and pressed on with such vigour that the Cayambis were
driven back into their fortress. The Inca army, in one encounter and the
other, suffered heavy loss.

Huayna Ccapac, on this account, returned to Tumipampa, where he
recruited his army, preparing to resume the attack on the Cayambis. At
this time some _orejones_ deserted the Inca, leaving him to go back to
Cuzco. Huayna Ccapac satisfied the rest by gifts of clothes, provisions,
and other things, and he formed an efficient army.

It was reported that the Cayambis had sallied from their fortress and
had defeated a detachment of the Inca army, killing many, and the rest
escaping by flight. This caused great sorrow to the Inca, who sent his
brother Auqui Toma, with an army composed of all nations, against the
Cayambis of the fortress. Auqui Toma went, attacked the fortress,
captured four lines of defence and the outer wall, which was composed of
five. But at the entrance the Cayambis killed Auqui Toma, captain of the
Cuzcos, who had fought most valorously. This attack and defence was so
obstinate and long continued that an immense number of men fell, and the
survivors had nowhere to fight except upon heaps of dead men. The desire
of both sides to conquer or die was so strong that they gave up their
lances and arrows and took to their fists. At last, when they saw that
their captain was killed, the Incas began to retreat towards a river,
into which they went without any care for saving their lives. The river
was in flood and a great number of men were drowned. This was a heavy
loss for the cause of Huayna Ccapac. Those who escaped from drowning and
from the hands of the enemy, sent the news to the Inca from the other
side of the river. Huayna Ccapac received the news of this reverse with
heavier grief than ever, for he dearly loved his brother Auqui Toma, who
had been killed with so many men who were the pick of the army.

Huayna Ccapac was a brave man, and was not dismayed. On the contrary it
raised his spirit and he resolved to be avenged. He again got ready his
forces and marched in person against the fortress of the Cayambis. He
formed the army in three divisions. He sent Michi with a third of the
army to pass on one side of the fortress without being seen. This
detachment consisted of Cuzco _orejones_, and men of Chinchay-suyu. They
were to advance five marches beyond the fortress and, at a fixed time,
return towards it, desolating and destroying. The Inca, with the rest of
his army marched direct to the attack of the fortress, and began to
fight with great fury. This continued some days, during which the Inca
lost some men. While the battle was proceeding, Michi and those of
Chinchay-suyu turned, desolating and destroying everything in the land
of the Cayambis. They were so furious that they did not leave anything
standing, making the very earth to tremble. When Huayna Ccapac knew that
his detachment was near the fortress, he feigned a flight. The Cayambis,
not aware of what was happening in their rear, came out of the fortress
in pursuit of the Inca. When the Cayambis were at some distance from
their stronghold, the Chinchay-suyus, commanded by Michi, came in sight.
These met with no resistance in the fortress as the Cayambis were
outside, following Huayna Ccapac. They easily entered it and set it on
fire in several parts, killing or capturing all who were inside.

The Cayambis were, by this time, fighting with the army of Huayna
Ccapac. When they saw their fortress on fire they lost hope and fled
from the battle field towards a lake which was near, thinking that they
could save themselves by hiding among the beds of reeds. But Huayna
Ccapac followed them with great rapidity. In order that none might
escape he gave instructions that the lake should be surrounded. In that
lake, and the swamps on its borders, the troops of Huayna Ccapac, he
fighting most furiously in person, made such havock and slaughter, that
the lake was coloured with the blood of the dead Cayambis. From that
time forward the lake has been called _Yahuar-cocha_, which means the
"lake of blood," from the quantity that was there shed.

It is to be noted that in the middle of this lake there was an islet
with two willow trees, up which some Cayambis climbed, and among them
their two chiefs named Pinto and Canto, most valiant Indians. The troops
of Huayna Ccapac pelted them with stones and captured Canto, but Pinto
escaped with a thousand brave Cañaris.

The Cayambis being conquered, the Cuzcos began to select those who would
look best in the triumphal entry into Cuzco. But they, thinking that
they were being selected to be killed, preferred rather to die like men
than to be tied up like women. So they turned and began to fight. Huayna
Ccapac saw this and ordered them all to be killed.

The Inca placed a garrison in the fortress, and sent a captain with a
detachment in pursuit of Pinto who, in his flight, was doing much
mischief. They followed until Pinto went into forests, with other
fugitives, escaping for a time. After Huayna Ccapac had rested for some
days at Tumipampa, he got information where Pinto was in the forests,
and surrounded them, closing up all entrances and exits. Hunger then
obliged him, and those who were with him, to surrender. This Pinto was
very brave and he had such hatred against Huayna Ccapac that even, after
his capture, when the Inca had presented him with gifts and treated him
kindly, he never could see his face. So he died out of his mind, and
Huayna Ccapac ordered a drum to be made of his skin. The drum was sent
to Cuzco, and so this war came to an end. It was at Cuzco in the _taqui_
or dance in honour of the Sun.



While Huayna Ccapac was occupied with this war of the Cayambis, the
Chirihuanas, who form a nation of the forests, naked and eaters of human
flesh, for which they have a public slaughter house, uniting, and,
coming forth from their dense forests, entered the territory of Charcas,
which had been conquered by the Incas of Peru. They attacked the
fortress of Cuzco-tuyo, where the Inca had a large frontier garrison to
defend the country against them. Their assault being sudden they entered
the fortress, massacred the garrison, and committed great havock,
robberies and murders among the surrounding inhabitants.

The news reached Huayna Ccapac at Quito, and he received it with much
heaviness. He sent a captain, named Yasca, to Cuzco to collect troops,
and with them to march against the Chirihuanas. This captain set out for
Cuzco, taking with him the _huaca_ "Cataquilla[118]" of Caxamarca and
Huamachuco, and "Curichaculla" of the Chachapoyas; and the _huacas_
"Tomayrica and Chinchay-cocha," with many people, the attendants of the
_huacas_. He arrived at Cuzco where he was very well received by the
Governors, Apu Hilaquito and Auqui Tupac Inca. Having collected his
troops he left Cuzco for Charcas. On the road he enlisted many men of
the Collao. With these he came up with the Chirihuanas and made cruel
war upon them. He captured some to send to Huayna Ccapac at Quito, that
the Inca might see what these strange men were like. The captain Yasca
rebuilt the fortress and, placing in it the necessary garrison, he
returned to Cuzco, dismissed his men, and each one returned to his own

[Note 118: It was the policy of the Incas that the idols and
_huacas_ of conquered nations should be sent to Cuzco and deposited
there. Catiquilla was an idol of the Caxamarca and Huamachuco people.
Arriaga calls it Apu-cati-quilla. _Apu_ the great or chief, _catic_
follower, _quilla_ the moon. Apu-cati-quilla appears to have been a moon
god. The other _huacas_ are local deities, all sent to Cuzco. Catiquilla
had been kept as an oracle in the village of Tauca in Conchucos
(Calancha, p. 471). _Cati-quilla_ would mean "following moon." (See also
_Extirpation de la idolatria del Peru_, Joseph de Arriaga. Lima, 1627.)]



As soon as Huayna Ccapac had despatched the captain against the
Chirihuanas, he set out from Tumipampa to organize the nations he had
conquered, including Quito, Pasto, and Huancavilcas. He came to the
river called Ancas-mayu, between Pasto and Quito, where he set up his
boundary pillars at the limit of the country he had conquered. As a
token of grandeur and as a memorial he placed certain golden staves in
the pillars. He then followed the course of the river in search of the
sea, seeking for people to conquer, for he had information that in that
direction the country was well peopled.

On this road the army of the Inca was in great peril, suffering from
scarcity of water, for the troops had to cross extensive tracts of sand.
One day, at dawn, the Inca army found itself surrounded by an immense
crowd of people, not knowing who they were. In fear of the unknown
enemy, the troops began to retreat towards the Inca. Just as they were
preparing for flight a boy came to Huayna Ccapac, and said: "My Lord!
fear not, those are the people for whom we are in search. Let us attack
them." This appeared to the Inca to be good advice and he ordered an
impetuous attack to be made, promising that whatever any man took should
be his. The _orejones_ delivered such an assault on those who surrounded
them that, in a short time, the circle was broken. The enemy was routed,
and the fugitives made for their habitations, which were on the sea
coast towards Coaques, where the Incas captured an immense quantity of
rich spoils, emeralds, turquoises, and great store of very fine _mollo_,
a substance formed in sea shells, more valued amongst them than gold or

Here the Inca received a message from the Sinchi or Curaca of the island
of Puna with a rich present, inviting him to come to his island to
receive his service. Huayna Ccapac did so. Thence he went to
Huancavilca, where he joined the reserves who had been left there. News
came to him that a great pestilence was raging at Cuzco of which the
governors Apu Hilaquito his uncle, and Auqui Tupac Inca his brother had
died, also his sister Mama Cuca, and many other relations. To establish
order among the conquered nations, the Inca went to Quito, intending to
proceed from thence to Cuzco to rest.

On reaching Quito the Inca was taken ill with a fever, though others say
it was small-pox or measles. He felt the disease to be mortal and sent
for the _orejones_ his relations, who asked him to name his successor.
His reply was that his son Ninan Cuyoche was to succeed, if the augury
of the _calpa_ gave signs that such succession would be auspicious, if
not his son Huascar was to succeed.

Orders were given to proceed with the ceremony of the _calpa_, and Cusi
Tupac Yupanqui, named by the Inca to be chief steward of the Sun, came
to perform it. By the first _calpa_ it was found that the succession of
Ninan Cuyoche would not be auspicious. Then they opened another lamb and
took out the lungs, examining certain veins. The result was that the
signs respecting Huascar were also inauspicious. Returning to the Inca,
that he might name some one else, they found that he was dead. While the
_orejones_ stood in suspense about the succession, Cusi Tupac Yupanqui
said: "Take care of the body, for I go to Tumipampa to give the fringe
to Ninan Cuyoche." But when he arrived at Tumipampa he found that Ninan
Cuyoche was also dead of the small-pox pestilence[119].

[Note 119: Ninan Cuyoche is said by Cobos to have been legitimate, a
son of the first wife Cusi Rimay Huaco, who is said by Sarmiento and
others not to have borne a male heir.]

Seeing this Cusi Tupac Yupanqui said to Araua Ocllo--"Be not sad, O
Coya! go quickly to Cuzco, and say to your son Huascar that his father
named him to be Inca when his own days were over." He appointed two
_orejones_ to accompany her, with orders to say to the Incas of Cuzco
that they were to give the fringe to Huascar. Cusi Tupac added that he
would make necessary arrangements and would presently follow them with
the body of Huayna Ccapac, to enter Cuzco with it in triumph, the order
of which had been ordained by the Inca on the point of death, on a

Huayna Ccapac died at Quito at the age of 80 years. He left more than 50
sons. He succeeded at the age of 20, and reigned 60 years. He was
valiant though cruel.

He left a lineage or _ayllu_ called _Tumipampa Ayllu_. At present the
heads of it, now living, are Don Diego Viracocha Inca, Don Garcia Inguil
Tupac, and Gonzalo Sayri. To this _ayllu_ are joined the sons of Paulu
Tupac, son of Huayna Ccapac. They are Hanan-cuzcos.

Huayna Ccapac died in the year 1524 of the nativity of our Lord Jesus
Christ, the invincible Emperor Charles V of glorious memory being King
of Spain, father of your Majesty, and the Pope was Paul III.

The body of Huayna Ccapac was found by the Licentiate Polo in a house
where it was kept concealed, in the city of Cuzco. It was guarded by two
of his servants named Hualpa Titu and Sumac Yupanqui. His idol or
_guauqui_ was called _Huaraqui Inca_. It was a great image of gold,
which has not been found up to the present time.



Huayna Ccapac being dead, and the news having reached Cuzco, they raised
Titu Cusi Hualpa Inti Illapa, called Huascar, to be Inca. He was called
Huascar because he was born in a town called Huascar-quihuar, four and a
half leagues from Cuzco. Those who remained at Tumipampa embalmed the
body of Huayna Ccapac, and collected the spoils and captives taken in
his wars, for a triumphal entry into the capital.

It is to be noted that Atahualpa, bastard son of Huayna Ccapac by Tocto
Coca, his cousin, of the lineage of Inca Yupanqui, had been taken to
that war by his father to prove him. He first went against the Pastos,
and came back a fugitive, for which his father rated him severely. Owing
to this Atahualpa did not appear among the troops, and he spoke to the
Inca _orejones_ of Cuzco in this manner. "My Lords! you know that I am a
son of Huayna Ccapac and that my father took me with him, to prove me in
the war. Owing to the disaster with the Pastos, my father insulted me in
such a way that I could not appear among the troops, still less at Cuzco
among my relations who thought that my father would leave me well, but I
am left poor and dishonoured. For this reason I have determined to
remain here where my father died, and not to live among those who will
be pleased to see me poor and out of favour. This being so you need not
wait for me." He then embraced them all and took leave of them. They
departed with tears and grief, leaving Atahualpa at Tumipampa[120].

[Note 120: Atahualpa is said by Sarmiento and Yamqui Pachacuti to
have been an illegitimate son of Huayna Ccapac by Tocto Coca his cousin,
of the ayllu of Pachacuti. Cieza de Leon says that he was a son by a
woman of Quilaco named Tupac Palla. Gomara, who is followed by Velasco,
says that Atahualpa was the son of a princess of Quito. As Huayna Ccapac
only set out for the Quito campaign twelve years before his death, and
Atahualpa was then grown up, his mother cannot have been a woman of
Quito. I, therefore, have no doubt that Sarmiento is right.]

The _orejones_ brought the body of Huayna Ccapac to Cuzco, entering with
great triumph, and his obsequies were performed like those of his
ancestors. This being done, Huascar presented gold and other presents,
as well as wives who had been kept closely confined in the house of the
_acllas_ during the time of his father. Huascar built edifices where he
was born, and in Cuzco he erected the houses of Amaru-cancha, where is
now the monastery of the "Name of Jesus," and others on the Colcampata,
where Don Carlos lives, the son of Paulo.

After that he summoned Cusi Tupac Yupanqui, and the other principal
_orejones_ who had come with the body of his father, and who were of the
lineage of Inca Yupanqui and therefore relations of the mother of
Atahualpa. He asked them why they had not brought Atahualpa with them,
saying that doubtless they had left him there, that he might rebel at
Quito, and that when he did so, they would kill their Inca at Cuzco. The
_orejones_, who had been warned of this suspicion, answered that they
knew nothing except that Atahualpa remained at Quito, as he had stated
publicly, that he might not be poor and despised among his relations in
Cuzco. Huascar, not believing what they said, put them to the torture,
but he extracted nothing further from them. Huascar considered the harm
that these _orejones_ had done, and that he never could be good friends
with them or be able to trust them, so he caused them to be put to
death. This gave rise to great lamentation in Cuzco and hatred of
Huascar among the Hanan-cuzcos, to which party the deceased belonged.
Seeing this Huascar publicly said that he divorced and separated himself
from relationship with the lineages of the Hanan-cuzcos because they
were for Atahualpa who was a traitor, not having come to Cuzco to do
homage. Then he declared war with Atahualpa and assembled troops to send
against him. Meanwhile Atahualpa sent his messengers to Huascar with
presents, saying that he was his vassal, and as such he desired to know
how he could serve the Inca. Huascar rejected the messages and presents
of Atahualpa and they even say that he killed the messengers. Others say
that he cut their noses and their clothing down to their waists, and
sent them back insulted.

While this was taking place at Cuzco the Huancavilcas rebelled.
Atahualpa assembled a great army, nominating as captains--Chalco Chima,
Quiz-quiz, Incura Hualpa, Rumi-ñaui, Yupanqui, Urco-huaranca and Uña
Chullo. They marched against the Huancavilcas, conquered them, and
inflicted severe punishment. Returning to Quito, Atahualpa sent a report
to Huascar of what had taken place. At this time Atahualpa received news
of what Huascar had done to his messengers, and of the death of the
_orejones_; also that Huascar was preparing to make war on him, that he
had separated himself from the Hanan-cuzcos, and that he had proclaimed
him, Atahualpa, a traitor, which they call _aucca_. Atahualpa, seeing
the evil designs entertained by his brother against him, and that he
must prepare to defend himself, took counsel with his captains. They
were of one accord that he should not take the field until he had
assembled more men, and collected as large an army as possible, because
negotiations should be commenced when he was ready for battle.

At this time an Orejon named Hancu and another named Atoc came to
Tumipampa to offer sacrifices before the image of Huayna Ccapac, by
order of Huascar. They took the wives of Huayna Ccapac and the insignia
of Inca without communication with Atahualpa. For this Atahualpa seized
them and, being put to the torture, they confessed what orders Huascar
had given them, and that an army was being sent against Atahualpa. They
were ordered to be killed, and drums to be made of their skins. Then
Atahualpa sent scouts along the road to Cuzco, to see what forces were
being sent against him by his brother. The scouts came in sight of the
army of Huascar and brought back the news.

Atahualpa then marched out of Quito to meet his enemies. The two armies
encountered each other at Riopampa where they fought a stubborn and
bloody battle, but Atahualpa was victorious. The dead were so numerous
that he ordered a heap to be made of their bones, as a memorial. Even
now, at this day, the plain may be seen, covered with the bones of those
who were slain in that battle.

At this time Huascar had sent troops to conquer the nations of
Pumacocha, to the east of the Pacamoros, led by Tampu Usca Mayta and by
Titu Atauchi, the brother of Huascar. When the news came of this defeat
at Riopampa, Huascar got together another larger army, and named as
captains Atoc, Huaychac, Hanco, and Huanca Auqui. This Huanca Auqui had
been unfortunate and lost many men in his campaign with the Pacamoros.
His brother, the Inca Huascar, to insult him, sent him gifts suited to a
woman, ridiculing him. This made Huanca Auqui determine to do something
worthy of a man. He marched to Tumipampa, where the army of Atahualpa
was encamped to rest after the battle. Finding it without watchfulness,
he attacked and surprised the enemy, committing much slaughter.

Atahualpa received the news at Quito, and was much grieved that his
brother Huanca Auqui should have made this attack, for at other times
when he could have hit him, he had let him go, because he was his
brother. He now gave orders to Quiz-quiz and Chalco Chima to advance in
pursuit of Huanca Auqui. They overtook him at Cusi-pampa, where they
fought and Huanca Auqui was defeated, with great loss on both sides.
Huanca Auqui fled, those of Atahualpa following in pursuit as far as
Caxamarca, where Huanca Auqui met a large reinforcement sent by Huascar
in support. Huanca Auqui ordered them to march against Chalco Chima and
Quiz-quiz while he remained at Caxamarca. The troops sent by Huanca
Auqui were Chachapoyas and many others, the whole numbering 10,000. They
met the enemy and fought near Caxamarca. But the Chachapoyas were
defeated and no more than 3000 escaped. Huanca Auqui then fled towards
Cuzco, followed by the army of Atahualpa.

In the province of Bombon[121], Huanca Auqui found a good army composed
of all nations, which Huascar had sent to await his enemies there, who
were coming in pursuit. Those of Atahualpa arrived and a battle was
fought for two days without either party gaining an advantage. But on
the third day Huanca Auqui was vanquished by Quiz-quiz and Chalco Chima.

[Note 121: Correctly Pumpu.]

Huanca Auqui escaped from the rout and came to Xauxa, where he found a
further reinforcement of many Indians, Soras, Chancas, Ayamarcas, and
Yanyos, sent by his brother. With these he left Xauxa and encountered
the pursuing enemy at a place called Yanamarca. Here a battle was fought
not less stubbornly than the former one. Finally, as fortune was against
Huanca Auqui, he was again defeated by Chalco Chima, the adventurous
captain of the army of Atahualpa.

The greater part of the forces of Huanca Auqui was killed. He himself
fled, never stopping until he reached Paucaray. Here he found a good
company of _orejones_ of Cuzco, under a captain named Mayta Yupanqui
who, on the part of Huascar, rebuked Huanca Auqui, asking how it was
possible for him to have lost so many battles and so many men, unless he
was secretly in concert with Chalco Chima. He answered that the
accusation was not true, that he could not have done more; and he told
Mayta Yupanqui to go against their enemy, and see what power he brought.
He said that Atahualpa was determined to advance if they could not
hinder his captains. Then Mayta Yupanqui went on to encounter Chalco
Chima, and met him at the bridge of Anco-yacu where there were many
skirmishes, but finally the _orejones_ were defeated[122].

[Note 122: This campaign is also fully described by Balboa, and in
some detail by Yamqui Pachacuti, pp. 113--116.]



As the fortune of Huascar and his captains, especially of Huanca Auqui,
was so inferior to that of Atahualpa and his adventurous and dexterous
captains Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz, one side meeting with nothing that
did not favour them, the other side with nothing that was not against
them, such terrible fear took possession of Huanca Auqui and the other
Inca captains after the battle of Anco-yacu bridge, that they fled
without stopping to Vilcas, 20 and more leagues from Anco-yacu, on the
road to Cuzco.

Over the satisfaction that the captains of Atahualpa felt at the glory
of so many victories that they had won, there came the news sent by
Atahualpa that he had come in person to Caxamarca and Huamachuco, that
he had been received as Inca by all the nations he had passed, and that
he had assumed the fringe and the _Ccapac-uncu_. He was now called Inca
of all the land, and it was declared that there was no other Inca but
him. He ordered his captains to march onwards conquering, until they
encountered Huascar. They were to give him battle, conquer him like the
rest, and if possible take him prisoner. Atahualpa was so elated by his
victories, and assumed such majesty, that he did not cease to talk of
his successes, and no one dared to raise his eyes before him. For those
who had business with him he appointed a lieutenant called "Inca Apu,"
which means "the Inca's lord," who was to take his place by the Inca
when he was seated. Those who had business transacted it with him,
entering with a load on their backs, and their eyes on the ground, and
thus they spoke of their business with the _Apu_. He then reported to
Atahualpa, who decided what was to be done. Atahualpa was very cruel, he
killed right and left, destroyed, burnt, and desolated whatever opposed
him. From Quito to Huamachuco he perpetrated the greatest cruelties,
robberies, outrages, and tyrannies that had ever been done in that land.

When Atahualpa arrived at Huamachuco, two principal lords of his house
came to offer sacrifice to the _huaca_ of Huamachuco for the success
that had attended their cause. These _orejones_ went, made the
sacrifice, and consulted the oracle. They received an answer that
Atahualpa would have an unfortunate end, because he was such a cruel
tyrant and shedder of so much human blood. They delivered this reply of
the devil to Atahualpa. It enraged him against the oracle, so he called
out his guards and went to where the _huaca_ was kept. Having surrounded
the place, he took a halberd of gold in his hand, and was accompanied by
the two officers of his household who had made the sacrifice. When he
came to where the idol was, an old man aged a hundred years came out,
clothed in a dress reaching down to the ground, very woolly and covered
with sea shells. He was the priest of the oracle who had made the reply.
When Atahualpa knew who he was, he raised the halberd and gave him a
blow which cut off his head. Atahualpa then entered the house of the
idol, and cut off its head also with many blows, though it was made of
stone. He then ordered the old man's body, the idol, and its house to be
burnt, and the cinders to be scattered in the air. He then levelled the
hill, though it was very large, where that oracle, idol or _huaca_ of
the devil stood.

All this being made known to Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz, they celebrated
festivals and rejoicings, and then resumed their march towards Cuzco.
Huascar received reports of all that had happened, and mourned over the
great number of men he had lost. He clearly saw that there only remained
the remedy of going forth in person to try his fortune, which had
hitherto been so adverse. In preparation he kept some fasts--for these
gentiles also have a certain kind of fasting, made many sacrifices to
the idols and oracles of Cuzco, and sought for replies. All answered
that the event would be adverse to him. On hearing this he consulted his
diviners and wizards, called by them _umu_, who, to please him, gave him
hope of a fortunate ending. He got together a powerful army, and sent
out scouts to discover the position of the enemy. The hostile army was
reported to be at a place, 14 leagues from Cuzco, called Curahuasi[123].
They found there Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz, and reported that they had
left the main road to Cuzco, and had taken that of Cotabamba, which is
on the right, coming from Caxamarca or Lima to Cuzco. This route was
taken to avoid the bad road and dangerous pass by the Apurimac bridge.

Huascar divided his army into three divisions. One consisted of the men
of Cunti-suyu, Charcas, Colla-suyu, Chuys, and Chile under the command
of a captain named Arampa Yupanqui. His orders were to advance over
Cotabamba towards another neighbouring province of the Omasayos, to
harass the enemy on the side of the river of Cotabamba and the Apurimac
bridge. The survivors of the former battles, under Huanca Auqui, Ahua
Panti, and Pacta Mayta, were to attack the enemy on one flank, and to
march into Cotabamba. Huascar in person commanded a third division. Thus
all the forces of both Huascar and Atahualpa were in Cotabamba.

[Note 123: Curahuasi is near the bridge over the Apurimac.]

Arampa Yupanqui got news that the forces of Atahualpa were passing
through a small valley or ravine which leads from Huanacu-pampa. He
marched to oppose them, and fought with a strong squadron of the troops
under Chalco Chima. He advanced resolutely to the encounter, and slew
many of the enemy, including one of their captains named Tomay Rima.
This gave Huascar great satisfaction and he said laughingly to the
_orejones_--"The Collas have won this victory. Behold the obligation we
have to imitate our ancestors." Presently the captains-general of his
army, who were Titu Atauchi, Tupac Atao his brother, Nano, Urco Huaranca
and others, marshalled the army to fight those of Atahualpa with their
whole force. The armies confronted each other and attacked with skill
and in good order.

The battle lasted from morning nearly until sunset, many being slain on
both sides, though the troops of Huascar did not suffer so much as those
of Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz. The latter seeing their danger, many of
them retreated to a large grassy plateau which was near, in
Huanacu-pampa. Huascar, who saw this, set fire to the grass and burnt a
great part of Atahualpa's forces.

Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz then retreated to the other side of the river
Cotabamba. Huascar, satisfied with what he had done, did not follow up
his advantages, but enjoyed the victory which fortune had placed in his
hands. For this he took a higher position. Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz,
who were experienced in such manoeuvres, seeing that they were not
followed, decided to rest their troops, and on another day to attack
those who believed themselves to be conquerors. They sent spies to the
camp of Huascar, and found from them that Huascar would send a certain
division of his troops to take Atahualpa's captains, without their being
able to escape.



When the morning of the next day arrived Huascar determined to finish
off the army of his brother at one blow. He ordered Tupac Atao to go
down the ravine with a squadron, discover the position of the enemy, and
report what he had seen. Tupac Atao received this order and entered the
ravine in great silence, looking from side to side. But the spies of
Chalco Chima saw everything without being seen themselves and gave
notice to Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz. Chalco Chima then divided his men
into two parts and stationed them at the sides of the road where the
_orejones_ would pass. When Tupac Atao came onwards, they attacked him
to such purpose that scarcely any one escaped, Tupac Atao himself was
taken, badly wounded, by whom Chalco Chima was informed that Huascar
would follow him with only a squadron of 5000 men, while the rest of his
army remained in Huanacu-pampa.

Chalco Chima sent this information to Quiz-quiz, who was at a little
distance, that they might unite forces. He told him that Tupac Atao was
taken, that Huascar was expected with a small force, and that Quiz-quiz
was wanted that both might take this enemy on the flanks. This was done.
They divided their forces, placing them on both sides as in the attack
on Tupac Atao. A short time after they entered the ravine, Huascar and
his men came upon the dead bodies of the men of Tupac Atao who, being
known to Huascar he wished to turn back, understanding that they were
all dead and that there must have been some ambush. But it was too late,
for he was surrounded by his enemies. Then he was attacked by the troops
of Chalco Chima. When he tried to fly from those who fell upon his rear,
he fell into the hands of Quiz-quiz who was waiting for him lower down.
Those of Chalco Chima and those of Quiz-quiz fought with great ferocity,
sparing none, and killing them all. Chalco Chima, searching for Huascar,
saw him in his litter and seized him by the hands, and pulled him out of
his litter. Thus was taken prisoner the unfortunate Huascar Inca,
twelfth and last tyrant of the Inca Sovereigns of Peru, falling into the
power of another greater and more cruel tyrant than himself, his people
defeated, killed, and scattered.

Placing Huascar in safe durance with a sufficient guard, Chalco Chima
went on in the Inca's litter and detached 5000 of his men to advance
towards the other troops remaining on the plain of Huanacu-pampa. He
ordered that all the rest should follow Quiz-quiz, and that when he let
fall the screen, they should attack. He executed this stratagem because
his enemies thought that he was Huascar returning victorious, so they
waited. He advanced and arrived where the troops of Huascar were waiting
for their lord, who, when they saw him, still thought that it was
Huascar bringing his enemies as prisoners. When Chalco Chima was quite
near, he let loose a prisoner who had been wounded, who went to the Inca
troops. He told them what had happened, that it was Chalco Chima, and
that he could kill them all by this stratagem. When this was known, and
that Chalco Chima would presently order them to be attacked with his
whole force, for he had let the screen fall, which was to be the sign,
the Inca troops gave way and took to flight, which was what Chalco Chima
intended. The troops of Atahualpa pursued, wounding and killing with
excessive cruelty and ferocity, continuing the slaughter, with unheard
of havock, as far as the bridge of Cotabamba. As the bridge was narrow
and all could not cross it, many jumped into the water from fear of
their ferocious pursuers, and were drowned. The troops of Atahualpa
crossed the river, continuing the pursuit and rejoicing in their
victory. During the pursuit they captured Titu Atauchi, the brother of
Huascar. Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz arrived at some houses called
Quiuipay, about half a league from Cuzco, where they placed Huascar as a
prisoner with a sufficient guard. Here they encamped and established
their head-quarters.

The soldiers of Chalco Chima went to get a view of Cuzco from the hill
of Yauina overlooking the city, where they heard the mourning and
lamentation of the inhabitants, and returned to inform Chalco Chima and
Quiz-quiz. Those captains sent a messenger to Cuzco to tell the
inhabitants not to mourn, for that there was nothing to fear, it being
well known that this was a war between two brothers for the
gratification of their own passions. If any of them had helped Huascar
they had not committed a crime, for they were bound to serve their Inca;
and if there was any fault he would remit and pardon it, in the name of
the great Lord Atahualpa. Presently he would order them all to come out
and do reverence to the statue of Atahualpa, called _Ticci Ccapac_ which
means "Lord of the World."

The people of Cuzco consulted together, and resolved to come forth and
obey the commands of Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz. They came according to
their _ayllus_ and, on arriving at Quiuipay, they seated themselves in
that order. Presently the troops of Atahualpa, fully armed, surrounded
all those who had come from Cuzco. They took Huanca Auqui, Ahua Panti,
and Paucar Usna, who had led the army against them in the battle at
Tumipampa. Then they took Apu Chalco Yupanqui and Rupaca, Priests of the
Sun, because these had given the fringe to Huascar. These being
prisoners Quiz-quiz rose and said--"Now you know of the battles you have
fought with me on the road, and the trouble you have caused me. You
always raised Huascar to be Inca, who was not the heir. You treated
evilly the Inca Atahualpa whom the Sun guards, and for these things you
deserve death. But using you with humanity, I pardon you in the name of
my Lord Atahualpa, whom may the Sun prosper."

But that they might not be without any punishment, he ordered them to be
given some blows with a great stone on the shoulders, and he killed the
most culpable. Then he ordered that all should be tied by the knees,
with their faces towards Caxamarca or Huamachuco where Atahualpa was,
and he made them pull out their eyelashes and eyebrows as an offering to
the new Inca. All the _orejones_, inhabitants of Cuzco, did this from
fear, saying in a loud voice, "Long live! Live for many years Atahualpa
our Inca, may our father the Sun increase his life!"

Araua Ocllo, the mother of Huascar, and his wife Chucuy Huypa, were
there, and were dishonoured and abused by Quiz-quiz. In a loud voice the
mother of Huascar said to her son, who was a prisoner, "O unfortunate!
thy cruelties and evil deeds have brought you to this state. Did I not
tell you not to be so cruel, and not to kill nor ill-treat the
messengers of your brother Atahualpa." Having said these words she came
to him, and gave him a blow in the face.

Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz then sent a messenger to Atahualpa, letting
him know all that had happened, and that they had made prisoners of
Huascar and many others, and asking for further orders.



After Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz had sent off the messengers to
Atahualpa, they caused the prisoners to be brought before them, and in
the presence of all, and of the mother and wife of Huascar, they
declared, addressing themselves to the mother of Huascar, that she was
the concubine and not the wife of Huayna Ccapac, and that, being his
concubine, she had borne Huascar, also that she was a vile woman and not
a Coya. The troops of Atahualpa raised a shout of derision, and some
said to the _orejones_, pointing their fingers at Huascar--"Look there
at your lord! who said that in the battle he would turn fire and water
against his enemies?" Huascar was then tied hand and foot on a bed of
ropes of straws. The _orejones_, from shame, lowered their heads.
Presently Quiz-quiz asked Huascar, "Who of these made you lord, there
being others better and more valiant than you, who might have been
chosen?" Araua Ocllo, speaking to her son, said, "You deserve all this
my son as I told you, and all comes from the cruelty with which you
treated your own relations." Huascar replied, "Mother! there is now no
remedy, leave us," and he addressed himself to the priest Chalco
Yupanqui, saying--"Speak and answer the question asked by Quiz-quiz."
The priest said to Quiz-quiz, "I raised him to be lord and Inca by
command of his father Huayna Ccapac, and because he was son of a Coya"
(which is what we should call Infanta). Then Chalco Chima was indignant,
and called the priest a deceiver and a liar. Huascar answered to
Quiz-quiz, "Leave off these arguments. This is a question between me and
my brother, and not between the parties of Hanan-cuzco and Hurin-cuzco.
We will investigate it, and you have no business to meddle between us on
this point."

Enraged at the answer Chalco Chima ordered Huascar to be taken back to
prison, and said to the Incas, to re-assure them, that they could now go
back to the city as they were pardoned. The _orejones_ returned,
invoking Viracocha in loud voices with these words--"O Creator! thou who
givest life and favour to the Incas where art thou now? Why dost thou
allow such persecution to come upon us? Wherefore didst thou exalt us,
if we are to come to such an end?" Saying these words they beat their
cloaks in token of the curse that had come upon them all.



When Atahualpa knew what had happened, from the messengers of Chalco
Chima and Quiz-quiz, he ordered one of his relations named Cusi Yupanqui
to go to Cuzco, and not to leave a relation or friend of Huascar alive.
This Cusi Yupanqui arrived at Cuzco, and Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz
delivered the prisoners to him. He made inquiries touching all that
Atahualpa had ordered. He then caused poles to be fixed on both sides of
the road, extending not more than a quarter of a league along the way to
Xaquixahuana. Next he brought out of the prison all the wives of
Huascar, including those pregnant or lately delivered. He ordered them
to be hung to these poles with their children, and he ordered the
pregnant to be cut open, and the stillborn to be hung with them. Then he
caused the sons of Huascar to be brought out and hung to the poles.

Among the sons of Huayna Ccapac who were prisoners there was one named
Paullu Tupac. When they were going to kill him, he protested saying, it
was unreasonable that he should be killed, because he had previously
been imprisoned by Huascar; and on this ground he was released and
escaped death. Yet the reason that he was imprisoned by Huascar was
because he had been found with one of the Inca's wives. He was only
given very little to eat, the intention being that he should die in
prison. The woman with whom he was taken was buried alive. The wars
coming on he escaped, and what has been related took place.

After this the lords and ladies of Cuzco who were found to have been
friends of Huascar were seized and hanged on the poles. Then there was
an examination of all the houses of deceased Incas, to see which had
been on the side of Huascar, and against Atahualpa. They found that the
house of Tupac Inca Yupanqui had sided with Huascar. Cusi Yupanqui
committed the punishment of the house to Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz.
They seized the steward of the house, and the mummy of Tupac Inca, and
those of his family and hung them all, and they burnt the body of Tupac
Inca outside the town and reduced it to ashes. And to destroy the house
completely, they killed many _mama cunas_ and servants, so that none
were left of that house except a few of no account. Besides this they
ordered all the Chachapoyas and Cañaris to be killed, and their Curaca
named Ulco Colla, who they said had rebelled against the two brothers.

All these murders and cruelties were perpetrated in the presence of
Huascar to torment him. They murdered over 80 sons and daughters of
Huascar, and what he felt most cruelly was the murder, before his eyes,
of one of his sisters named Coya Miro, who had a son of Huascar in her
arms, and another in her womb; and another very beautiful sister named
Chimbo Cisa. Breaking his heart at the sight of such cruelty and grief
which he was powerless to prevent, he cried, with a sigh, "Oh
Pachayachachi Viracocha, thou who showed favour to me for so short a
time, and honoured me and gave me life, dost thou see that I am treated
in this way, and seest thou in thy presence what I, in mine, have seen
and see."

Some of the concubines of Huascar escaped from this cruelty and
calamity, because they had neither borne a child nor were pregnant, and
because they were beautiful. They say that they were kept to be taken to
Atahualpa. Among those who escaped were Doña Elvira Chonay, daughter of
Cañar Ccapac, Doña Beatriz Carnamaruay, daughter of the Curaca of
Chinchay-cocha, Doña Juana Tocto, Doña Catalina Usica, wife, that was,
of Don Paullu Tupac, and mother of Don Carlos, who are living now. In
this way the line and lineage of the unfortunate tyrant Huascar, the
last of the Incas, was completely annihilated.



Atahualpa was at Huamachuco celebrating great festivals for his
victories, and he wished to proceed to Cuzco and assume the fringe in
the House of the Sun, where all former Incas had received it When he was
about to set out there came to him two Tallanas Indians, sent by the
Curacas of Payta and Tumbez, to report to him that there had arrived by
sea, which they call _cocha_, a people with different clothing, and with
beards, and that they brought animals like large sheep. The chief of
them was believed to be Viracocha, which means the god of these people,
and he brought with him many Viracochas, which is as much as to say
"gods." They said this of the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro, who had
arrived with 180 men and some horses which they called sheep. As the
account in detail is left for the history of the Spaniards, which will
form the Third Part to come after this, I will only here speak briefly
of what passed between the Spaniards and Atahualpa.

When this became known to Atahualpa he rejoiced greatly, believing it to
be the Viracocha coming, as he had promised when he departed, and as is
recounted in the beginning of this history. Atahualpa gave thanks that
he should have come in his time, and he sent back the messengers with
thanks to the Curacas for sending the news, and ordering them to keep
him informed of what might happen. He resolved not to go to Cuzco until
he had seen what this arrival was, and what the Viracochas intended to
do. He sent orders to Chalco Chima and Quiz-quiz to lose no time in
bringing Huascar to Caxamarca, where he would go to await their arrival,
for he had received news that certain Viracochas had arrived by sea, and
he wished to be there to see what they were like.

As no further news came, because the Spaniards were forming a station at
Tangarara, Atahualpa became careless and believed that they had gone.
For, at another time, when he was marching with his father, in the wars
of Quito, news came to Huayna Ccapac that the Viracocha had arrived on
the coast near Tumbez, and then they had gone away. This was when Don
Francisco Pizarro came on the first discovery, and returned to Spain for
a concession, as will be explained in its place.



As the subject of which this chapter treats belongs to the Third Part
(the history of the Spaniards), I shall here only give a summary of what
happened to Atahualpa. Although Atahualpa was careless about the
Spaniards they did not miss a point, and when they heard where Atahualpa
was, they left Tangarara and arrived at Caxamarca. When Atahualpa knew
that the Viracochas were near, he left Caxamarca and went to some baths
at a distance of half a league that he might, from there, take the
course which seemed best. As he found that they were not gods as he had
been made to think at first, he prepared his warriors to resist the
Spaniards. Finally he was taken prisoner by Don Francisco Pizarro, the
Friar, Vicente Valverde, having first made a certain demand, in the
square of Caxamarca.

Don Francisco Pizarro knew of the disputes there had been between
Atahualpa and Huascar, and that Huascar was a prisoner in the hands of
the captains of Atahualpa, and he urged Atahualpa to have his brother
brought as quickly as possible. Huascar was being brought to Caxamarca
by Atahualpa's order, as has already been said. Chalco Chima obeying
this order, set out with Huascar and the captains and relations who had
escaped the butchery of Cusi Yupanqui. Atahualpa asked Don Francisco
Pizarro why he wanted to see his brother. Pizarro replied that he had
been informed that Huascar was the elder and principal Lord of that land
and for that reason he wished to see him, and he desired that he should
come. Atahualpa feared that if Huascar came alive, the Governor Don
Francisco Pizarro would be informed of what had taken place, that
Huascar would be made Lord, and that he would lose his state. Being
sagacious, he agreed to comply with Pizarro's demand, but sent off a
messenger to the captain who was bringing Huascar, with an order to kill
him and all the prisoners. The messenger started and found Huascar at
Antamarca, near Yana-mayu. He gave his message to the captain of the
guard who was bringing Huascar as a prisoner.

Directly the captain heard the order of Atahualpa he complied with it.
He killed Huascar, cut the body up, and threw it into the river
Yana-mayu. He also killed the rest of the brothers, relations, and
captains who were with him as prisoners, in the year 1533. Huascar had
lived 40 years. He succeeded his father at the age of 31 and reigned for
9 years. His wife was Chucuy Huypa by whom he had no male child. He left
no lineage or _ayllu_, and of those who are now living, one only, named
Don Alonso Titu Atauchi is a nephew of Huascar, son of Titu Atauchi who
was murdered with Huascar. He alone sustains the name of the lineage of
Huascar called the _Huascar Ayllu_. In this river of Yana-mayu Atahualpa
had fixed his boundary pillars when he first rebelled, saying that from
thence to Chile should be for his brother Huascar, and from the
Yana-mayu onwards should be his. Thus with the death of Huascar there
was an end to all the Incas of Peru and all their line and descent which
they held to be legitimate, without leaving man or woman who could have
a claim on this country, supposing them to have been natural and
legitimate lords of it, in conformity with their own customs and
tyrannical laws.

For this murder of Huascar, and for other good and sufficient causes,
the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro afterwards put Atahualpa to death. He
was a tyrant against the natives of this country and against his brother
Huascar. He had lived 36 years. He was not Inca of Peru, but a tyrant.
He was prudent, sagacious, and valiant, as I shall relate in the Third
Part, being events which belong to the deeds of the Spaniards. It
suffices to close this Second Part by completing the history of the
deeds of the 12 Inca tyrants who reigned in this kingdom of Peru from
Manco Ccapac the first to Huascar the twelfth and last tyrant.



It is a thing worthy to be noted [_for the fact that besides being a
thing certain and evident the general tyranny of these cruel and
tyrannical Incas of Peru against the natives of the land, may be easily
gathered from history_], and any one who reads and considers with
attention the order and mode of their procedure will see, that their
violent Incaship was established without the will and election of the
natives who always rose with arms in their hands on each occasion that
offered for rising against their Inca tyrants who oppressed them, to get
back their liberty. Each one of the Incas not only followed the tyranny
of his father, but also began afresh the same tyranny by force, with
deaths, robberies and rapine. Hence none of them could pretend, in good
faith, to give a beginning to time of prescription, nor did any of them
hold in peaceful possession, there being always some one to dispute and
take up arms against them and their tyranny. Moreover, and this is above
all to be noted, to understand the worst aims of these tyrants and their
horrid avarice and oppression, they were not satisfied with being evil
tyrants to the natives, but also to their own proper sons, brothers and
relations, in defiance of their own laws and statutes, they were the
worst and most pertinacious tyrants with an unheard-of inhumanity. For
it was enacted among themselves and by their customs and laws that the
eldest legitimate son should succeed, yet almost always they broke the
law, as appears by the Incas who are here referred to.

[Illustration: _Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by Donald
_From the Rev. C.M. Cracherode's copy in the British Museum._]

Before all things Manco Ccapac, the first tyrant, coming from
Tampu-tocco, was inhuman in the case of his brother Ayar Cachi, sending
him to Tampu-tocco cunningly with orders for Tampu-chacay to kill him
out of envy, because he was the bravest, and might for that reason be
the most esteemed. When he arrived at the valley of Cuzco he not only
tyrannized over the natives, but also over Copalimayta and Columchima
who, though they had been received as natives of that valley were his
relations, for they were _orejones_. Then Sinchi Rocca, the second Inca,
having an older legitimate son named Manco Sapaca who, according to the
law he and his father had made, was entitled to the succession, deprived
him and nominated Lloqui Yupanqui the second son for his successor.
Likewise Mayta Ccapac, the fourth Inca, named for his successor Ccapac
Yupanqui, though he had an older legitimate son named Cunti Mayta, whom
he disinherited. Viracocha, the eighth Inca, although he had an older
legitimate son named Inca Rocca, did not name him as his successor, nor
any of his legitimate sons, but a bastard named Inca Urco. This did not
come about, Inca Urco did not enjoy the succession, nor did the eldest
legitimate son, for there was a new tyranny. For Inca Yupanqui deprived
both the one and the other, besides despoiling his father of his honours
and estate. The same Inca Yupanqui, having an elder legitimate son named
Amaru Tupac Inca, did not name him, but a young son, Tupac Inca
Yupanqui. The same Tupac Inca, being of the same condition as his
father, having Huayna Ccapac as the eldest legitimate son, named Ccapac
Huari as his successor, although the relations of Huayna Ccapac would
not allow it, and rose in his favour. If Ccapac Huari was legitimate, as
his relations affirm, the evil deed must be fixed on Huayna Ccapac, who
deprived his brother Ccapac Huari, and killed his mother and all his
relations, making them infamous as traitors, that is supposing he was
legitimate. Huayna Ccapac, though he named Ninan Cuyoche, he was not the
eldest, and owing to this the succession remained unsettled, and caused
the differences between Huascar and Atahualpa, whence proceeded the
greatest and most unnatural tyrannies. Turning their arms against their
own entrails, robbing, and with inhuman intestine wars they came to a
final end. Thus as they commenced by their own authority, so they
destroyed all by their own proper hands.

It may be that Almighty God permits that one shall be the executioner of
the other for his evil deeds, that both may give place to his most holy
gospel which, by the hands of the Spaniards, and by order of the most
happy, catholic, and unconquered Emperor and King of Spain, Charles V of
glorious memory, father of your Majesty, was sent to these blind and
barbarous gentiles. Yet against the force and power of the Incas on foot
and united, it appeared that it would be impossible for human force to
do what a few Spaniards did, numbering only 180, who at first entered
with the Governor Don Francisco Pizarro.

It is well established that it is a thing false and without reason, and
which ought not to be said, that there is now, in these kingdoms, any
person of the lineage of the Incas who can pretend to a right of
succession to the Incaship of this kingdom of Peru, nor to be natural or
legitimate lords. For no one is left who, in conformity with their laws,
is able to say that he is the heir, in whole or in part of this land.
Only two sons of Huayna Ccapac escaped the cruelty of Atahualpa. They
were Paullu Tupac, afterwards called Don Cristóval Paullu, and Manco
Inca. They were bastards, which is well known among them. And these, if
any honour or estate had belonged to them or their children, your
Majesty would have granted more than they had, their brothers retaining
their estate and power. For they would merely have been their
tributaries and servants. These were the lowest of all, for their
lineage was on the side of their mothers which is what these people look
at, in a question of birth[124].

[Note 124: These statements about the illegitimacy of Manco and
Paullu Inca are made to support the Viceroy's argument and have no
foundation in fact. The two princes were legitimate; their mother being
a princess of the blood.]

And Manco Inca had been a traitor to your Majesty and was a fugitive in
the Andes where he died or was killed. Your Majesty caused his son to be
brought out, in peace, from those savage wilds. He was named Don Diego
Sayri Tupac. He became a Christian, and provision was made for him, his
sons and descendants. Sayri Tupac died as a Christian, and he who is now
in the Andes in rebellion, named Titu Cusi Yupanqui, is not a legitimate
son of Manco Inca, but a bastard and apostate. They hold that another
son is legitimate who is with the same Titu, named Tupac Amaru, but he
is incapable and the Indians called him _uti_. Neither one nor the other
are heirs of the land, because their father was not legitimate.

Your Majesty honoured Don Cristóval Paullu with titles and granted him a
good _repartimiento_ of Indians, on which he principally lived. Now it
is possessed by his son Don Carlos. Paullu left two legitimate sons who
are now alive, named Don Carlos and Don Felipe. Besides these he left
many illegitimate sons. Thus the known grandsons of Huayna Ccapac, who
are now alive and admitted to be so, are those above mentioned. Besides
these there are Don Alonso Titu Atauchi, son of Titu Atauchi, and other
bastards, but neither one nor the other has any right to be called a
natural lord of the land.

For the above reasons it will be right to say to those whose duty it may
be to decide, that on such clear evidence is based the most just and
legitimate title that your Majesty and your successors have to these
parts of the Indies, proved by the actual facts that are here written,
more especially as regards these kingdoms of Peru without a point to
raise against the said titles by which the crown of Spain holds them.
Respecting which your Viceroy of these kingdoms, Don Francisco Toledo,
has been a careful and most curious enquirer, as zealous for the
clearing of the conscience of your Majesty, and for the salvation of
your soul, as he has shown and now shows himself in the general
visitation which he is making by order of your Majesty, in his own
person, not avoiding the very great labours and dangers which he is
suffering in these journeys, so long as they result in so great a
service to God and your Majesty.



The terrible and inveterate tyranny of the Incas Ccapac of Peru, which
had its seat in the city of Cuzco, commenced in the year 565 of our
Christian redemption, Justin II being Emperor, Loyva son of Athanagild
the Goth being King of Spain, and John III Supreme Pontiff. It ended in
1533, Charles V being the most meritorious Emperor and most Christian
King of Spain and its dependencies, patron of the church and right arm
of Christendom, assuredly worthy of such a son as your Majesty whom may
God our Lord take by the hand as is necessary for the Holy Christian
church. Paul III was then Pope. The whole period from Manco Ccapac to
the death of Huascar was 968 years.

It is not to be wondered at that these Incas lived for so long a time,
for in that age nature was stronger and more robust than in these days.
Besides men did not then marry until they were past thirty. They thus
reached such an age with force and substance whole and undiminished. For
these reasons they lived much longer than is the case now. Besides the
country where they lived has a healthy climate and uncorrupted air. The
land is cleared, dry, without lakes, morasses, or forests with dense
vegetation. These qualities all conduce to health, and therefore to the
long life of the inhabitants whom may God our Lord lead into his holy
faith, for the salvation of their souls. Amen[125].

    Maxima Tolleti Proregis gloria creuit
    Dum regni tenebras, lucida cura, fugat.
    Ite procul scioli, vobis non locus in istis!
    Rex Indos noster nam tenet innocue.

[Note 125: Cieza de Leon and other authorities adopt a more moderate


In the city of Cuzco, on the 29th day of February, 1572, before the very
excellent Lord Don Francisco de Toledo, Mayor-domo to His Majesty, and
his Viceroy, Governor, and Captain-General of these kingdoms and
provinces of Peru, President of the Royal Audience and Chancellory that
resides in the city of the Kings, and before me Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel
his Secretary and of the Government and General Visitation of these
kingdoms, the Captain Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa presented a petition of
the following tenor:

Most Excellent Lord,

I, the Captain Pedro Sarmiento, Cosmographer-General of these kingdoms
of Peru, report that by order of your Excellency I have collected and
reduced to a history the general chronicle of the origin and descent of
the Incas, of the particular deeds which each one did in his time and in
the part he ruled, how each one of them was obeyed, of the tyranny with
which, from the time of Tupac Inca Yupanqui, the tenth Inca, they
oppressed and subjugated these kingdoms of Peru until by order of the
Emperor Charles V of glorious memory, Don Francisco Pizarro came to
conquer them. I have drawn up this history from the information and
investigations which, by order of your Excellency, were collected and
made in the valley of Xauxa, in the city of Guamanga, and in other parts
where your Excellency was conducting your visitation, but principally in
this city of Cuzco where the Incas had their continual residence, where
there is more evidence of their acts, where the _mitimaes_ of all the
provinces gathered together by order of the said Incas, and where there
is true memory of their _ayllus_. In order that this history may have
more authority, I pray that you will see, correct, and give it your
authority, so that, wherever it may be seen, it may have entire faith
and credit.

Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa.

Having been seen by his Excellency he said that it may be known if the
said history was in conformity with the information and evidence, which
has been taken from the Indians and other persons of this city and in
other parts, and he ordered that Doctor Loarte, Alcalde of the court of
his Majesty should cause to appear before him the principal and most
intelligent Indians of the twelve _ayllus_ or lineages of the twelve
Incas and other persons who may be summoned, and being assembled before
me, the present Secretary, the said history shall be read and declared
to them by an interpreter in the language of the said Indians, that each
one may understand and discuss it among themselves, whether it is
conformable to the truth as they know it. If there is anything to
correct or amend, or which may appear to be contrary to what they know,
it is to be corrected or amended. So I provide and sign

Don Francisco de Toledo
Before me Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel.

Afterwards, on the abovesaid day, month, and year the illustrious Doctor
Gabriel de Loarte, in compliance with the order of his Excellency and in
presence of me the said Secretary, caused to appear before him the
Indians of the names, ages and _ayllus_ as follows:

       _Ayllu of Manco Ccapac._

Sebastian Ylluc                30
Francisco Paucar Chima         30

       _Ayllu of Sinchi Rocca._

Diego Cayo Hualpa              70
Don Alonso Puzcon              40

       _Ayllu of Lloqui Yupanqui._
Hernando Hualpa                70
Don Garcia Ancuy               45
Miguel Rimachi Mayta           30

       _Ayllu of Mayta Ccapac._
Don Juan Tampu Usca Mayta      60
Don Felipe Usca Mayta          70
Francisco Usca Mayta           30

       _Ayllu of Ccapac Yupanqui._

Don Francisco Copca Mayta      70
Don Juan Quispi Mayta          30
Don Juan Apu Mayta             30

       _Ayllu of Inca Rocca._
Don Pedro Hachacona            53
Don Diego Mayta                40

       _Ayllu of Yahuar-huaccac._
Juan Yupanqui                  60
Martin Rimachi                 26

       _Ayllu of Viracocha._
Don Francisco Anti-hualpa      89
Martin Quichua Sucsu           64
Don Francisco Chalco Yupanqui  45

       _Ayllu of Pachacuti._
Don Diego Cayo                 68
Don Juan Hualpa Yupanqui       75
Don Domingo Pascac             90
Don Juan Quispi Cusi           45
Don Francisco Chanca Rimachi   40
Don Francisco Cota Yupanqui    40
Don Gonzalo Huacanhui          60
Don Francisco Quichua          68

       _Ayllu of Tupac Inca._
Don Cristóval Pisac Tupac      50
Don Andres Tupac Yupanqui      40
Don Garcia Pilco Tupac         40
Don Juan Cozco                 40

      _Ayllu of Huayna Ccapac._
Don Francisco Sayri            28
Don Francisco Ninan Coro       24
Don Garcia Rimac Tupac         34

       _Ayllu of Huascar._
Don Alonso Titu Atauchi        40

       _Besides these Ayllus._
Don Garcia Paucar Sucsu        34
Don Carlos Ayallilla           50
Don Juan Apanca                80
Don Garcia Apu Rinti           70
Don Diego Viracocha Inca       34
Don Gonzalo Tupac              30

These being together in presence of his Excellency, the said Alcalde of
the court, by the words of Gonzalo Gomez Ximenes, interpreter to his
Excellency, in the general language of the Indians, said:--"His
Excellency, desiring to verify and put in writing and to record the
origin of the Incas, your ancestors, their descent and their deeds, what
each one did in his time, and in what parts each one was obeyed, which
of them was the first to go forth from Cuzco to subdue other lands, and
how Tupac Inca Yupanqui and afterwards Huayna Ccapac and Huascar, his
son and grandson became lords of all Peru by force of arms; and to
establish this with more authenticity, he has ordered that information
and other proofs should be supplied in this city and other parts, and
that the said information and proofs should be, by Captain Pedro
Sarmiento to whom they were delivered, digested into a true history and
chronicle. The said Pedro Sarmiento has now made it and presented it to
his Excellency, to ascertain whether it is truthfully written in
conformity with the sayings and declarations which were made by some
Indians of the said _ayllus_. His Excellency is informed that the
_ayllus_ and descendants of the twelve Incas have preserved among
themselves the memory of the deeds of their ancestors, and are those who
best know whether the said chronicle is correct or defective, he has
therefore caused you to assemble here, that it may be read in your
presence and understood. You, among yourselves, will discuss what will
be read and declared in the said language, and see if it agrees with the
truth as you know it, and that you may feel a stronger obligation to say
what you know, it is ordered that you take an oath."

The said Indians replied that they had understood why they had been sent
for, and what it was that was required. They then swore, in the said
language, by God our Lord, and by the sign of the cross, that they would
tell the truth concerning what they knew of that history. The oaths
being taken the reading was commenced in sum and substance. There was
read on that and following days from their fable of the creation to the
end of the history of the Incas. As it was read, so it was interpreted
into their language, chapter by chapter. And over each chapter the
Indians discussed and conferred among themselves in the said language.
All were agreed in confirming and declaring through the interpreter,
that the said history was good and true, and in agreement with what they
knew and had heard their fathers and ancestors say, as it had been told
to them. For, as they have no writing like the Spaniards, they conserve
ancient traditions among themselves by passing them from tongue to
tongue, and age to age. They heard their fathers and ancestors say that
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, the ninth Inca, had verified the history of the
former Incas who were before him, and painted their deeds on boards,
whence also they had been able to learn the sayings of their fathers,
and had passed them on to their children. They only amended some names
of persons and places and made other slight corrections, which the said
Alcalde ordered to be inserted as the Indians had spoken, and this was
done. After the said corrections all the Indians, with one accord, said
that the history was good and true, in conformity with what they knew
and had heard from their ancestors, for they had conferred and discussed
among themselves, verifying from beginning to end. They expressed their
belief that no other history that might be written could be so authentic
and true as this one, because none could have so diligent an
examination, from those who are able to state the truth. The said
Alcalde signed

The Doctor Loarte
Gonzalo Gomez Ximenes
Before me Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel.

After the above, in the said city of Cuzco, on the 2nd of March of the
same year, his Excellency having seen the declaration of the Indians and
the affidavits that were made on them, said that he ordered and orders
that, with the corrections the said Indians stated should be made, the
history should be sent to his Majesty, signed and authenticated by me
the said Secretary. It was approved and signed by the said Doctor
Gabriel de Loarte who was present at the verification with the Indians,
and then taken and signed

Don Francisco de Toledo
Before Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel

I the said Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel, Secretary to his Excellency, of the
Government, and to the general visitation of these kingdoms, notary to
his Majesty, certify that the said testimony and verification was taken
before me, and is taken from the original which remains in my
possession, and that the said Alcalde, the Doctor Loarte, who signed,
said that he placed and interposed upon it his authority and judicial
decree, that it may be valued and accepted within his jurisdiction and
beyond it. I here made my sign in testimony of the truth

Alvaro Ruiz de Navamuel

[Illustration: _Facsimile (reduced) of the_ SIGNATURES OF THE ATTESTING
WITNESSES TO THE SARMIENTO MS. 1572. _From the original, Göttingen
University Library. Reproduced and printed for the Hakluyt Society by
Donald Macbeth_.]

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