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Title: Music Notation and Terminology
Author: Gehrkens, Karl Wilson, 1882-1975
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Music Notation and Terminology" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Alex Guzman for the realization of the figured bass in Figure 67, and to
Bunji Hisamori and the Classical Midi Connection
(http://www.classicalmidiconnection.com) for the MIDI sequence of the
Beethoven Sonata Op. 31, No. 3.

      which includes the original illustrations and also audio
      files to which the reader can listen.
Transcriber's note:

      In this e-text, a superscript is indicated by a carat (^)
      and a subscript by a single underscore (_).
      Italics are indicated by two underscores, e.g. _larghetto_.
      The Czech r (with its diacritical) is represented by [vr],
      e.g. Dvo[vr]ák.]




Associate Professor of School Music
Oberlin Conservatory of Music

[Illustration: [publisher logo]]

The A. S. Barnes Company
New York 1914
Copyright, 1914, by
The A. S. Barnes Company


The study of _music notation and terminology_ by classes in
conservatories and in music departments of colleges and normal schools
is a comparative innovation, one reason for the non-existence of such
courses in the past being the lack of a suitable text-book, in which
might be found in related groups clear and accurate definitions of the
really essential terms. But with the constantly increasing interest in
music study (both private and in the public schools), and with the
present persistent demand that music teaching shall become more
systematic and therefore more efficient in turning out a more
_intelligent_ class of pupils, it has become increasingly necessary to
establish courses in which the prospective teacher of music (after
having had considerable experience with music itself) might acquire a
concise and accurate knowledge of a fairly large number of terms, most
of which he has probably already encountered as a student, and many of
which he knows the general meaning of, but none of which he perhaps
knows accurately enough to enable him to impart his knowledge clearly
and economically to others.

To meet the need of a text-book for this purpose in his own classes the
author has been for several years gathering material from all available
sources, and it is hoped that the arrangement of this material in
related groups as here presented will serve to give the student not only
some insight into the present meaning of a goodly number of terms, but
will also enable him to see more clearly _why_ certain terms have the
meaning which at present attaches to them. To this latter end the
derivations of many of the terms are given in connection with their

The aim has not been to present an exhaustive list, and the selection of
terms has of course been influenced largely by the author's own
individual experience, hence many teachers will probably feel that
important terms have been omitted that should have been included. For
this state of affairs no apology is offered except that it would
probably be impossible to write a book on this subject which would
satisfy everyone in either the selection or actual definition of terms.

In formulating the definitions themselves an attempt has been made to
use such words as _note_, _tone_, et cetera with at least a fair degree
of accuracy, and while the attitude of the author on this point may be
criticized as being puristic and pedantic, it is nevertheless his
opinion that the next generation of music students and teachers will be
profited by a more accurate use of certain terms that have been
inaccurately used for so long that the present generation has to a large
extent lost sight of the fact that the use is inaccurate. The author is
well aware of the fact that reform is a matter of growth rather than of
edict, but he is also of the belief that before reform can actually
begin to come, the _need_ of reform must be felt by a fairly large
number of actively interested persons. It is precisely because so few
musicians realize the need of any change in music terminology that the
changes recommended by committees who have given the matter careful
thought are so slow in being adopted. It is hoped that some few points
at which reform in the terminology of music is necessary may be brought
to the attention of a few additional musicians thru this volume, and
that the cause may thus be helped in some slight degree.

It is suggested that in using the book for class-room purposes the
teacher emphasize not only the definition and derivation of all terms
studied, but the spelling and pronunciation as well. For this latter
purpose a pronouncing index has been appended.

It is impossible to give credit to all sources from which ideas have
been drawn, but especial mention should be made of the eminently clear
and beautifully worded definitions compiled by Professor Waldo S. Pratt
or the Century Dictionary, and the exceedingly valuable articles on an
almost all-inclusive range of topics found in the new edition of Grove's
Dictionary. Especial thanks for valuable suggestions as to the
arrangement of the material, etc., are also due to Dr. Raymond H.
Stetson, Professor of Psychology, Oberlin College; Arthur E. Heacox,
Professor of Theory, Oberlin Conservatory of Music; and Charles I. Rice,
Supervisor of Music, Worcester, Mass., as well as to various members of
the Music Teachers' National Association who have offered valuable
advice along certain specific lines.




CHAPTER I.--Some Principles of Correct Notation                      1
   1. Note.
   2, 3. Rules for turning stems.
   4. Use of cross-stroke.
   5. Rest.
   6. G Clef.
   7. F Clef and C Clef.
   8. Sharp and double-sharp.
   9. Flat, double-flat and natural.
  10. Tie.
  11. Dot after a note.

CHAPTER II.--Symbols of Music Defined                                5
  12. Staff and Great Staff.
  13. Leger Lines.
  14. Staff degrees.
  15. Clef.
  16. Treble and bass Clefs.
  17. Movable C Clef.
  18. Sharp.
  19. Flat.
  20. Double-sharp and double-flat.

CHAPTER III.--Symbols of Music Defined (_continued_)                 8
  21. Natural
  22, 23. Key-signature; how determine whether a major or minor key.
  24, 25. Accidentals; with tie across bar.
  26. Rules concerning altered staff degrees.
  27. Enharmonic.
  28. Notes; pitch and length of tones.
  29. Rests.
  30. Lists of notes and rests.
  31. English names for.
  32. Less common forms.
  33. Whole rest, peculiar use of.
  34. Bar.
  35. Double-bar.

CHAPTER IV.--Abbreviations, Signs, etc.                             13
  36-40. Signs for repetition.
  41. Continuation.
  42. Rest.
  43. Pause.
  44. Hold.
  45-47. Alteration of Pitch.
  48. Octave names.

CHAPTER V.--Abbreviations, Signs, etc. (_continued_)                17
  49-51. Dots after notes.
  52. Dots over or under notes.
  53. Dash over note.
  54. Tie.
  55. Slur.
  56. Slur or tie with dots.
  57. Dash over note.
  58. Dash and dot over note.
  59. Accent marks.
  60. m.d., m.g., etc.
  61. Arpeggio.
  62. Messa di voce.
  63. Violin bow signs.

CHAPTER VI.--Embellishments                                         22
  64. Definition and kinds.
  65. Trill.
  66-68. Mordent.
  69-72. Turn.
  73, 74. Appoggiatura.
  75. Acciaccatura.

CHAPTER VII.--Scales                                                27
  76. Definition, and old forms.
  77. Origin.
  78. Key.
  79. Three general classes.
  80. Diatonic, defined.
  81. Major diatonic.
  82. Tetrachords.
  83. The fifteen positions.

CHAPTER VIII.--Scales (_continued_)                                 33
  84. Minor diatonic.
  85. Original form.
  86. Harmonic minor.
  87. Melodic minor.
  88. Eleven positions.
  89. Relative minor.
  90. Tonic minor.
  91. Diatonic scale names.
  92. Syllable-names.
  93. Chromatic scale.
  94. Nine positions.
  95. Whole-step scale.

CHAPTER IX.--Auxiliary Words and Endings                            42

CHAPTER X.--Measure                                                 44
  97. Definition.--Two essential characteristics.
   Rhythm vers measure.
  98. Syncopation.
  99. Simple and compound measures.
 100. Commonest varieties.
 101. Other varieties.
 102. Rare varieties.
 103. The signs, C and [cut-time symbol].

CHAPTER XI.--Tempo                                                  48
 104. Misuses of the word "time."
 105-107. How to correct these: by substituting "rhythm," "measure,"
   and "tempo."
 108. Three ways of finding the correct tempo.
 109. A convenient grouping of tempo-terms.

CHAPTER XII.--Tempo (_continued_)                                   52
 110-119. Tempo-terms.

CHAPTER XIII.--Dynamics                                             56
 120-131. Terms relating to dynamics.

CHAPTER XIV.--Terms Relating to Forms and Styles                    62
 132. Definition of form.
 133. Basis of form.
 134. Difference between form and style.
 135. Introductory.
 136. Two styles.
 137. Monophonic music.
 138. Polyphonic music.
 139. Counterpoint.
 140. Imitation.
 141. Canon.
 142. School round.
 143. Fugue.

CHAPTER XV.--Terms Relating to Forms and Styles (_continued_)       67
 144. Phrase-section.
 145. Period. Antecedent. Consequent.
 146. Primary forms.
 147. Theme.
 148. Thematic development.
 149. Rondo.
 150. Suite.
 151. Dances in suite.
 152. Scherzo.
 153. Sonata.
 154. Trio. Quartet. Chamber Music.
 155. Concerto.
 156. Symphony.
 157. Sonata-form.
 158. Sonatina. Grand Sonata.
 159. Program music.
 160. Symphonic or tone poem.

CHAPTER XVI.--Terms Relating to Vocal Music                         76
 161. Anthem.
 162. A capella.
 163. Motet.
 164. Choral.
 165. Mass.
 166. Cantata.
 167. Oratorio.
 168. Opera.
 169. Libretto.
 170. Recitative.
 171. Aria.
 172. Lied.
 173. Ballad.
 174. Folk-song.
 175. Madrigal.
 176. Glee.
 177. Part-song.

CHAPTER XVII.--Rhythm, Melody, Harmony and Intervals                82
 178. The four elements of music.
 179. Rhythm.
 180. Melody.
 181. Harmony.
 182. Timbre.
 183. Interval--harmonic and melodic.
 184. Number name and specific name.
 185. Prime.
 186. Second.
 187. Third.
 188. Fourth.
 189. Fifth.
 190. Sixth.
 191. Seventh.
 192. Octave.
 193. Ninth.
 194. Major, minor, perfect, diminished and augmented intervals.
 195. Inverted intervals.

CHAPTER XVIII.--Chords, Cadences, etc.                              87
 196. Chord. Triad. Root.
 197. Major, minor, diminished, augmented triads.
 198. The Common chords.
 199. Fundamental position. First inversion. Second inversion.
 200. Figured bass.
 201. Seventh-chord. Ninth chord.
 202. Cadence.
 203. Authentic cadence.
 204. Perfect authentic. Imperfect authentic.
 205. Plagal cadence.
 206. Half-cadence.
 207. Deceptive cadence.
 208. Sequence.
 209. Modulation, harmonic and melodic: Dominant Seventh.
 210. Suspension.
 211. Retardation.
 212. Anticipation.
 213. Pedal point.
 214. Close and open position.
 215. Transposition.

CHAPTER XIX.--Miscellaneous Terms                                   95

CHAPTER XX.--Miscellaneous Terms (_continued_)                      98

APPENDIX A.--The History of Music Notation                         101

APPENDIX B.--Musical Instruments                                   112
   1. Two classes.
   2. Piano.
   3, 4. Organ, reed and pipe.
   5. Instruments used for ensemble playing.
   6. Band.
   7. Orchestra.
   8. The stringed instruments.
   9. Wood-wind.
  10. Brass.
  11. Percussion.
  12. Proportion of instruments, in an orchestra.
  13. Books recommended.
  14. Violin.
  15. Viola.
  16. Violoncello.
  17. Double-bass.
  18. Flute.
  19. Piccolo.
  20. Oboe family.
  21. Clarinet and bass clarinet; saxophone.
  22. French horn.
  23. Trumpet.
  24. Cornet.
  25. Trombone.
  26. Tuba.
  27. Kettle-drum.
  28. Harp.

APPENDIX C.--Acoustics                                             131
   1. Definition.
   2. Sound, production of.
   3. Sound, transmission of.
   4. Rate of travel.
   5. Intensification of.
   6. Classification of.
   7. Tones, properties of.
   8. Pitch.
   9. Intensity.
  10. Quality.
  11. Overtones.
  12. Equal temperament.
  13. Standards of pitch.

APPENDIX D.--Terminology Reform                                    139

APPENDIX E.--Analysis of Beethoven Sonata, Op. 31, No. 3           149

PRONOUNCING INDEX                                                  159



1. The _note_ (from _nota_--Latin--a mark or sign) consists of either
one, two, or three parts, ([Illustration]) these being referred to
respectively as head, stem, and hook. The hook is often called _tail_ or
cross-stroke. The stem appears on the right side of the head when turned
up, but on the left side when turned down.[1] [Illustration] The hook is
always on the right side.[2] [Illustration]

[Footnote 1: It should be noted at the outset that this statement
regarding the down-turned stem on the left side of the note-head, and
also a number of similar principles here cited, refer more specifically
to music as it appears on the printed page. In the case of hand-copied
music the down-turned stem appears on the right side of the note, thus
[note symbol]. This is done because of greater facility in writing, and
for the same reason other slight modifications of the notation here
recommended may sometimes be encountered. In dealing with children it is
best usually to follow as closely as possible the principles according
to which _printed_ music is notated, in order to avoid those
non-satisfying and often embarrassing explanations of differences which
will otherwise be unavoidable.]

[Footnote 2: An exception to this rule occurs in the case of notes of
unequal value stroked together, when the hook appears on the left side,
thus [Illustration].]

     In writing music with pen the head and hook are best made with
     a heavy pressure on the pen point, but in writing at the board
     they are most easily made by using a piece of chalk about an
     inch long, turned on its side.

2. When only one part (or voice) is written on the staff, the following
_rules for turning stems_ apply: (1) If the note-head is _below_ the
third line, the stem must turn up. (2) If the note-head is _above_ the
third line the stem must turn down. (3) If the note-head is _on_ the
third line the stem is turned either up or down with due regard to the
symmetrical appearance of the measure in which the note occurs. The
following examples will illustrate these points.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

3. When two parts are written on the same staff, the stems of the upper
part all turn up, and those of the lower part turn down, in order that
the parts may be clearly distinguished. (Fig. 2.) But in music for piano
and other instruments on which complete chords can be sounded by _one_
performer and also in simple, four-part vocal music in which all voices
have approximately the same rhythm, several notes often have one stem in
common as in Fig. 3.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

4. Notes of small denomination (eighths and smaller) are often written
in groups of two or more, all stems in the group being then connected by
_one cross-stroke_. In such a case all the stems must of course be
turned the same way, the direction being determined by the position of
the majority of note-heads in the group. Notes thus _stroked_ may be of
the same or of different denomination. See Fig. 4.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

In vocal music notes are never thus stroked when a syllable is given to
each note. (See p. 19, Sec. 55, C.)

5. _Rests_, like notes, are best made with a heavy pen stroke or by
using a piece of chalk on its side. (See note under Sec. 1.) The
double-whole rest, whole rest, and half rest occupy the third space
unless for the sake of clearness in writing two parts on the same staff
they are written higher or lower. The rests of smaller denomination may
be placed at any point on the staff, the hooks being always placed on
the spaces. The hook of the eighth rest is usually placed on the
_third_ space. Rests are sometimes dotted, but are never tied.

6. The _G clef_ should be begun at the second line rather than below the
staff. Experiments have shown clearly that beginners learn to make it
most easily in this way, and the process may be further simplified by
dividing it into two parts, thus, [Illustration]. The descending stroke
crosses the ascending curve at or near the fourth line. The circular
part of the curve occupies approximately the first and second spaces.

7. The _F clef_ is made either thus, [bass clef symbol], or thus, [old
bass clef symbol], the dots being placed one on either side of the
fourth line of the staff, which is the particular point that the clef
marks. The C _clef_ has also two forms, [C clef symbol] and [tenor clef

8. The _sharp_ is made with two light vertical strokes, and two heavy
slanting ones, the slant of the latter being upward from left to right,
[sharp]. The sharp should never be made thus, [Illustration].

The _double sharp_ is made either thus [double-sharp symbol] or [old
double-sharp symbol], the first form being at present the more common.

9. The _flat_ is best made by a down stroke retraced part way up, the
curve being made without lifting pen from paper. The _double flat_
consists of two flats,[3] [flat][flat]. The _natural_ or _cancel_ is
made in two strokes, down-right and right-down, thus [Illustration].

[Footnote 3: It is to be hoped that the figure for the double-flat
suggested by Mattheson (who also suggested the St. Andrew's cross
([symbol]) for the double-sharp) may some time be readopted. This figure
was the Greek letter B, made thus, [Greek: b], and its use would make
our notation one degree more uniform than it is at present.]

10. The _tie_ usually connects the _heads_ of notes, thus [tie symbol].

11. The _dot after a note_ always appears on a space, whether the
note-head is on a line or space. (See Fig. 5.) In the case of a dot
after a note on a line, the dot usually appears on the space _above_
that line if the next note is higher in position and on the space below
it if the following note is lower.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

     _Note._--Correct notation must be made a habit rather than a
     theory, and in order to form the habit of writing correctly,
     _drill_ is necessary. This may perhaps be best secured by
     asking students to write (at the board or on ruled paper) from
     verbal dictation, thus: Teacher says,

     "Key of B[flat], three-quarter measure: First measure, DO a
     quarter note, RE a quarter, and MI a quarter. Second measure,
     SOL a quarter, LA a quarter, and SOL a quarter. Third measure,
     LA, TI, DO, RE, MI, eighths, stroked in pairs. Fourth measure,
     high DO a dotted half." Pupils respond by writing the exercise
     dictated, after which mistakes in the turning of stems, etc.,
     are corrected. The _pitch names_ may be dictated instead of
     the syllables if desired, and still further practice may be
     provided by asking that the exercise be transposed to other



12. A _staff_ is a collection of parallel lines, together with the
spaces belonging to them. The modern staff has five lines and six
spaces, these being ordinarily referred to as first line, second line,
third line, fourth line, and fifth line (beginning with the lowest); and
space below (_i.e._, space below the first line), first space, second
space, third space, fourth space, and space above.

The definition and discussion above refer more specifically to one of
the portions of the "great staff," the latter term being often applied
to the combination of treble and bass staffs (with one leger line
between) so commonly used in piano music, etc.

13. The _extent of the staff_ may be increased either above or below by
the addition of short lines called _leger lines_,[4] and notes may be
written on either these lines or on the spaces above and below them.

[Footnote 4: The word _leger_ is derived from the French word _LÉGER_,
meaning light, and this use of the word refers to the fact that the
leger lines, being added by hand, are lighter--_i.e._, less solid in
color--than the printed lines of the staff itself.]

14. The lines and spaces constituting the staff (including leger lines
if any) are often referred to as _staff degrees_, _i.e._, each separate
line and space is considered to be "a degree of the staff." The tones of
a scale are also sometimes referred to as "degrees of the scale."

15. A _clef_[5] is a sign placed on the staff to designate what pitches
are to be represented by its lines and spaces. Thus, _e.g._, the G clef
shows us not only that the second line of the staff represents G, but
that the first line represents E, the first space F, etc. The F clef
similarly shows us that the fifth line of the bass staff represents the
first A below middle C, the fourth line the first F below middle C, etc.

[Footnote 5: The word _clef_ is derived from _CLAVIS_--a key--the
reference being to the fact that the clef unlocks or makes clear the
meaning of the staff, as a key to a puzzle enables us to solve the

The student should note that these clefs are merely modified forms of
the letters G and F, which (among others) were used to designate the
pitches represented by certain lines when staff notation was first
inaugurated. For a fuller discussion of this matter see Appendix A, p.
101. [Transcriber's Note: Corrected error "Appendix I" in original.]

16. When the G clef is used the staff is usually referred to as the
_treble staff_, and when the F clef is used, as the _bass staff_. Such
expressions as "singing from the treble clef," or "singing in the treble
clef," and "singing in the bass clef" are still frequently heard, but
are preferably replaced by "singing from the treble staff," and "singing
from the bass staff." Fig. 6 shows the permanent names of lines and
spaces when the G and F clefs are used.[6]

[Footnote 6: The Germans use the same pitch designations as we do with
two exceptions, viz., our B is called by them H, and our B[flat] is
called B. The scale of C therefore reads: C, D, E, F, G, A, H, C; the
scale of F reads F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F. The signatures are in all cases
written exactly as we write them.

In France and Italy where the "fixed DO" system is in vogue, pitches are
usually referred to by the syllable names; _e.g._, C is referred to as
DO (or UT), D as RE, etc.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

17. _The movable C clef_ [C clef symbol] or [tenor clef symbol],
formerly in very common use, is now utilized for only two purposes,
viz., (1) in music written for certain orchestral instruments (cello,
viola, etc.) of extended range, in order to avoid having to use too many
leger lines; and (2) for indicating the tenor part in vocal music. This
latter usage seems also to be disappearing however, and the tenor part
is commonly written on the treble staff, it being understood that the
tones are to be sung an octave lower than the notes would indicate.

The C clef as used in its various positions is shown in Figs. 7, 8, and
9. It will be noted that in each case the line on which the clef is
placed represents "middle C."

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Soprano clef.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Alto clef.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Tenor clef.]

18. A _sharp_ is a character which causes the degree of the staff with
which it is associated to represent a pitch one half-step higher than it
otherwise would.

     Thus in Fig. 10 (_a_) the fifth line and first space represent
     the pitch F, but in Fig. 10 (_b_) these same staff degrees
     represent an entirely different tone--F[sharp]. The student
     should note that the sharp does not then _raise_ anything; it
     merely causes a staff degree to represent a higher tone than
     it otherwise would. There is just as much difference between F
     and F[sharp] as between B and C, and yet one would never think
     of referring to C as "B raised"!

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

19. A _flat_ is a character that causes the degree of the staff with
which it is associated to represent a tone one half-step lower than it
otherwise would. (See note under Sec. 18 and apply the same discussion

20. A _double-sharp_ causes the staff degree on which it is placed to
represent a pitch one whole-step higher than it would without any sharp.
Similarly, a double-flat causes the staff degree on which it is placed
to represent a pitch one whole-step lower than it would without any

     Double-sharps and double-flats are generally used on staff
     degrees that have already been sharped or flatted, therefore
     their practical effect is to cause staff degrees to represent
     pitches respectively a half-step higher and a half-step lower
     than would be represented by those same degrees in their
     diatonic condition. Thus in Fig. 10 (_b_) the first space in
     its diatonic condition[7] represents F-sharp, and the
     double-sharp on this degree would cause it to represent a
     pitch one-half step higher than F-sharp, _i.e._,

[Footnote 7: The expression "diatonic condition" as here used refers to
the staff after the signature has been placed upon it, in other words
after the staff has been prepared to represent the pitches of the
diatonic scale.]



21. The _natural_[8] (sometimes called _cancel_) annuls the effect of
previous sharps, flats, double-sharps, and double-flats, within the
measure in which it occurs. After a double-sharp or double-flat the
combination of a natural with a sharp, or a natural with a flat is often
found: in this case only one sharp or flat is annulled. (Sometimes also
the single sharp or flat will be found by itself, cancelling the
double-sharp or double-flat). The natural is often used when a
composition changes key, as in Fig. 11, where a change from E to G is

[Footnote 8: It has already been noted (p. 6, Note) that in the German
scale our b-flat is called b, and our b is called H. From this
difference in terminology has grown up the custom of using the H (now
made [natural]) to show that _any_ staff-degree is in _natural_
condition, _i.e._, not sharped or flatted.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

22. The group of sharps or flats (or absence of them) at the beginning
of a staff partially indicates the key in which the composition is
written. They are called collectively the _key-signature_.

23. The same key-signature may stand for either one of two keys, the
major key, or its relative minor, hence in order to determine in what
key a melody is one must note whether the tones are grouped about the
major tonic DO or the minor tonic LA. In a harmonized composition it is
almost always possible to determine the key by referring to the last
bass note; if the final chord is clearly the DO chord the composition is
in the major key, but if this final chord is clearly the LA chord then
it is almost certain that the entire composition is in the minor key.
Thus if a final chord appears as that in Fig. 12 the composition is
clearly in G major, while if it appears as in Fig. 13, it is just as
surely in E minor.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

24. Sharps, flats, naturals, double-sharps and double-flats, occurring
in the course of the composition (_i.e._, after the key signature) are
called _accidentals_, whether they actually cause a staff degree to
represent a different pitch as in Fig. 14 or simply make clear a
notation about which there might otherwise be some doubt as in Fig. 15,
measure two. The effect of such accidentals terminates at the bar.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

25. In the case of a _tie across a bar_ an accidental remains in force
until the combined value of the tied notes expires. In Fig. 16 first
measure, third beat, an accidental sharp makes the third space represent
the pitch C sharp. By virtue of the tie across the bar the third space
continues to represent C sharp thru the first beat of the second
measure, but for the remainder of the measure the third space will
represent C unless the sharp is repeated as in Fig. 17.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

26. The following rules for making staff degrees represent pitches
different from those of the diatonic scale will be found useful by the
beginner in the study of music notation. These rules are quoted from
"The Worcester Musical Manual," by Charles I. Rice.

     1. To sharp a natural degree, use a sharp. Fig. 18.
     2. To sharp a sharped degree, use a double sharp. Fig. 19.
     3. To sharp a flatted degree, use a natural. Fig. 20.
     4. To flat a natural degree, use a flat. Fig. 21.
     5. To flat a flatted degree, use a double flat. Fig. 22.
     6. To flat a sharped degree, use a natural. Fig. 23.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22.]

[Illustration: Fig. 23.]

27. When two different notations represent the same pitch, the word
_enharmonic_ is applied. Thus we may say that F sharp and G flat (on
keyboard instruments at least) are enharmonically the same.

This word _enharmonic_ is used in such expressions as enharmonic change,
enharmonic keys, enharmonic interval, enharmonic modulation, enharmonic
relation, etc., and in all such combinations it has the same meaning,
viz.--a change in notation but no change in the pitch represented.

28. A _note_ is a character expressing relative duration, which when
placed on a staff indicates that a certain tone is to be sounded for a
certain relative length of time. The pitch of the tone to be sounded is
shown by the position of the note on the staff, while the length of time
it is to be prolonged is shown by the shape of the note. Thus _e.g._, a
half-note on the second line of the treble staff indicates that a
specific pitch (g') is to be played or sung for a period of time twice
as long as would be indicated by a quarter-note in the same composition.

29. A _rest_ is a character which indicates a rhythmic silence of a
certain relative length.

30. The _notes and rests in common use_ are as follows:

[symbol] Whole-note. An open note-head without stem.
[symbol] Half-note. An open note-head with stem.
[symbol] Quarter-note. A closed note-head with stem.
[symbol] Eighth-note. A closed note-head with stem and one hook.
[symbol] Sixteenth-note. A closed note-head with stem and two hooks.
[symbol] Thirty-second-note. A closed note-head with stem and three hooks.
[symbol] Whole-rest.
[symbol] Half-rest.
[symbol] Quarter-rest.
[symbol] Eighth-rest.
[symbol] Sixteenth-rest.
[symbol] Thirty-second-rest.

31. The _English names_ for these notes are:


The corresponding rests are referred to by the same system of
nomenclature: _e.g._, _semi-breve rest_, etc.

32. _Sixty-fourth_ and _one-hundred-and-twenty-eighth-notes_ are
occasionally found, but are not in common use. The _double-whole-note_
(_breve_), made [breve symbol] or [old breve symbol], is still used,
especially in English music, which frequently employs the half-note as
the beat-unit. Thus in four-half measure the breve would be necessary to
indicate a tone having four beats.

33. The _whole-rest_ has a peculiarity of usage not common to any of the
other duration symbols, viz., that it is often employed as a
_measure-rest_, filling an entire measure of beats, no matter what the
measure-signature may be. Thus, not only in four-quarter-measure, but in
two-quarter, three-quarter, six-eighth, and other varieties, the
whole-rest fills the entire measure, having a value sometimes greater,
sometimes less than the corresponding whole-note. Because of this
peculiarity of usage the whole-rest is termed _Takt-pausa_
(measure-rest) by the Germans.

34. A _bar_ is a vertical line across the staff, dividing it into
measures. The word _bar_ is often used synonymously with _measure_ by
orchestral conductors and others; thus, "begin at the fourteenth bar
after J." This use of the word, although popular, is incorrect.

35. A _double-bar_ consists of two vertical lines across the staff, at
least one of the two being a heavy line. The double bar marks the end of
a division, movement, or entire composition.



36. A _double bar_ (or single heavy bar) with either two or four dots
indicates that a section is to be repeated. If the repeat marks occur at
only one point the entire preceding part is to be repeated, but if the
marks occur twice (the first time at the right of the bar but the second
time at the left), only the section thus enclosed by the marks is to be


37. Sometimes a different cadence (or ending) is to be used for the
repetition, and this is indicated as in Fig. 24.

[Illustration: Fig. 24.]

38. The Italian word _bis_ is occasionally used to indicate that a
certain passage or section is to be repeated. This use is becoming

39. The words _da capo_ (_D.C._) mean literally "from the head," _i.e._,
repeat from the beginning. The words _dal segno_ (_D.S._) indicate a
repetition from the sign ([segno symbol] or [segno symbol]) instead of
from the beginning.

In the case of both _D.C._ and _D.S._ the word _fine_ (meaning literally
_the end_) is ordinarily used to designate the point at which the
repeated section is to terminate. The fermata ([fermata symbol]) was
formerly in common use for this same purpose, but is seldom so employed
at present.

     _D.C._ (_sin_[9]) _al fine_ means--repeat from the beginning
     to the word "fine."

     [Footnote 9: The word _sin_ is a contraction of the Italian
     word _sino_, meaning "as far as" or "until"; in the term given
     above (Sec. 39) it is really superfluous as the word _al_
     includes in itself both preposition and article, meaning "to

     _D.C. al_ [fermata symbol] means--repeat to the fermata (or

     _D.C. senza repetizione_, or _D.C. ma senza repetizione_,
     [Transcriber's Note: Corrected misspelling "repetitione"] both
     mean--repeat from the beginning, but without observing other
     repeat marks during the repetition.

     _D.C. e poi la coda_ means--repeat the first section only to
     the mark [coda symbol], then skip to the coda. (See p. 74,
     Sec. 157, for discussion of _coda_).

40. In certain cases where the repetition of characteristic figures can
be indicated without causing confusion, it is the practice of composers
(especially in orchestral music) to make use of certain _signs of
repetition_. Some of the commonest of these abbreviations are shown in
the following examples.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26.]

[Illustration: Fig. 27.]

In Fig. 28 the repetition of an entire measure is called for.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

41. The word _simile_ [Transcriber's Note: Corrected error "similie"]
(sometimes _segue_) indicates that a certain effect previously begun is
to be continued, as _e.g._, staccato playing, pedalling, style of bowing
in violin music, etc. The word _segue_ is also occasionally used to show
that an accompaniment figure (especially in orchestral music) is to be

42. _When some part is to rest for two or more measures_ several methods
of notation are possible. A rest of two measures is usually indicated
thus [Illustration]. Three measures thus [Illustration]. Four measures
thus [Illustration]. Rests of more than four measures are usually
indicated in one of the following ways: [Illustration]. Sometimes the
number of measures is written directly on the staff, thus;

43. The letters G.P. (general pause, or grosse pause), the words _lunga
pausa_, or simply the word _lunga_, are sometimes written over a rest to
show that there is to be a prolonged pause or rest in all parts. Such
expressions are found only in ensemble music, _i.e._, music in which
several performers are engaged at the same time.

44. The _fermata_ or _hold_ [fermata symbol] over a note or chord
indicates that the tone is to be prolonged, the duration of the
prolongation depending upon the character of the music and the taste of
the performer or conductor. It has already been noted that the hold over
a bar was formerly used to designate the end of the composition, as the
word _fine_ is employed at present, but this usage has practically
disappeared and the hold over the bar now usually indicates a short rest
between two sections of a composition.

45. The sign _8va......_ (an abbreviation of _all'ottava_,
[Transcriber's Note: Corrected error "al ottava" in original.] literally
at the octave) above the staff, indicates that all tones are to be
sounded an octave higher than the notes would indicate. When found below
the staff the same sign serves to indicate that the tones are to be
sounded an octave lower. The term _8va bassa_ has also this latter

46. Sometimes the word _loco_ (in place) is used to show that the part
is no longer to be sounded an octave higher (or lower), but this is more
often indicated by the termination of the dotted (or wavy) line.

47. The sign _Col 8_ (_coll'ottava_--with the octave) shows that the
tones an octave higher or lower are to be sounded _with_ the tones
indicated by the printed notes. [Transcriber's Note: Corrected error
"col ottava" in original.]

48. For the sake of definiteness in referring to pitches, a particular
name is applied to each octave, and all pitches in the octave are
referred to by means of a uniform nomenclature. The following figure
will make this system clear:

[Illustration: Fig. 29.]

Thus _e.g._, "great G" (written simply G), is the G represented by the
first line of the bass staff. Small A (written a), is represented by the
fifth line of the bass staff. Two-lined G, (written [2-lined g symbol]),
is represented by the space above the fifth line, treble staff.
Three-lined C, (written [3-lined c symbol]), is represented by the
second added line above the treble staff, etc. The _one-lined octave_
may be described as the octave from _middle C_ to the B represented by
the third line of the treble staff, and any tone within that octave is
referred to as "one-lined." Thus--_one-lined_ D, _one-lined_ G, etc.

     In scientific works on acoustics, etc., the pitches in the sub
     octave (or sub-contra octave as it is often called) are
     referred to as C_2, D_2, E_2, etc.; those in the contra octave
     as C_1, D_1, etc.; in the great octave, as c^1, d^1, etc.; in
     the small octave as c^2, d^2, etc.



49. _A dot after a note_ shows that the value of the note is to be half
again as great as it would be without the dot, _i.e._, the value is to
be three-halves that of the original note.


50. _When two dots follow the note_ the second dot adds half as much as
the first dot has added, _i.e._, the entire value is seven-fourths that
of the original note.


51. _When three dots follow the note_ the third dot adds one-half the
value added by the second, _i.e._, the entire value of the triple-dotted
note is fifteen-eighths that of the original note. [Transcriber’s note:
error in original; correct value is fifteen-sixteenths]


52. _A dot over or under a note_ is called the _staccato mark_ and
indicates that the tone is to be sounded and then instantly released.
[Illustration] In music for organ and for some other instruments the
staccato note is sometimes interpreted differently, this depending on
the character of the instrument.

     On stringed instruments of the violin family the staccato
     effect is usually secured by a long, rapid stroke of the bow
     for each tone; in the case of harp and drum the hand is
     quickly brought in contact with the vibrating body, thus
     stopping the tone instantly. On the organ the tone is often
     prolonged to one-half the value of the printed note before the
     keys are released.

53. _The wedge-shaped dash over the note_ (staccatissimo) was formerly
employed to indicate a tone still more detached than that indicated by
the dot, but this sign is really superfluous, and is seldom used at
present. [Illustration]

54. _A tie_ is a curved line connecting the heads of two notes that call
for the same tone. It indicates that they are to be sounded as one tone
having a duration equal to the combined value of both notes. _E.g._, a
half-note tied to a quarter-note would indicate a tone equal in
duration-length to that shown by a dotted half-note; two half-notes tied
would indicate a tone equal in duration to that shown by a whole-note.
(See examples under Sections 49, 50, and 51).

Fig. 30 illustrates the more common variety of tie, while Fig. 31 shows
an example of the _enharmonic[10] tie_.

[Footnote 10: For definition of enharmonic see p. 10, Sec. 27.]

[Illustration: Fig. 30.]

[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

55. The _slur_ is used in so many different ways that it is impossible
to give a general definition. It consists of a curved line, sometimes
very short (in which case it looks like the tie), but sometimes very
long, connecting ten, fifteen, or more notes. Some of the more common
uses of the slur are:

A. _To indicate legato_ (sustained or connected) _tones_, as contrasted
with staccato (detached) ones.

     In violin music this implies playing all tones thus slurred in
     one bow; in music for the voice and for wind instruments it
     implies singing or playing them in one breath.

B. _As a phrase-mark_, in the interpretation of which the first tone of
the phrase is often accented slightly, and the last one shortened in

     This interpretation of the phrase is especially common when
     the phrase is short (as in the two-note phrase), and when the
     tones constituting the phrase are of short duration, _e.g._,
     the phrase given in Fig. 32 would be played approximately as
     written in Fig. 33.

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

     But if the notes are of greater value, especially in slow
     tempi, the slur merely indicates legato, _i.e._, sustained or
     connected rendition. Fig. 34 illustrates such a case.

     [Illustration: Fig. 34.]

     This is a matter of such diverse usage that it is difficult to
     generalize regarding it. The tendency seems at present to be
     in the direction of using the slur (_in instrumental music_)
     as a phrase-mark exclusively, it being understood that unless
     there is some direction to the contrary, the tones are to be
     performed in a connected manner.

C. In vocal music, to show that two or more tones are to be sung to one
syllable of text. See Fig. 35.

[Illustration: Fig. 35. MENDELSSOHN (_S. Paul_) re-mem-bers His

     In notes of small denomination (eighths and smaller) this same
     thing is often indicated by _stroking_ the stems together as
     in Fig. 36. This can only be done in cases where the natural
     grouping of notes in the measure will not be destroyed.

[Illustration: Fig. 36. ev-er and ev-er, for ev-er and]

D. To mark special note-groups (triplets, etc.), in which case the slur
is accompanied by a figure indicating the number of notes in the group.
See Fig. 37 (_a_)

     The most common of these irregular note-groups is the
     _triplet_, which consists of three notes to be performed in
     the time ordinarily given to two of the same value. Sometimes
     the triplet consists of only two notes as in Fig. 37 (_b_). In
     such a case the first two of the three notes composing the
     triplet are considered to be tied.

     [Illustration: Fig. 37.]

     When the triplet form is perfectly obvious, the Fig. 3 (as
     well as the slur) may be omitted.

     Other examples of irregular note-groups, together with the
     names commonly applied, follow.

     [Illustration: Doublet. Quintuplet or Quintolet. Sextuplet or
     Sextolet. Septolet or Septimole.]

56. The _combination of slur or tie and dots_ over the notes indicates
that the tones are to be somewhat detached, but not sharply so.

     This effect is sometimes erroneously termed _portamento_ (lit.
     _carrying_), but this term is more properly reserved for an
     entirely different effect, _viz._, when a singer, or player on
     a stringed instrument, passes from a high tone to a low one
     (or vice versa) touching lightly on some or all of the
     diatonic tones between the two melody tones.

57. The horizontal _dash over a note_ [Illustration] indicates that the
tone is to be slightly accented, and sustained. This mark is also
sometimes used after a staccato passage to show that the tones are no
longer to be performed in detached fashion, but are to be sustained.
This latter use is especially common in music for stringed instruments.

58. The combination of _dash and dot over a note_ [Illustration]
indicates that the tone is to be slightly accented and separated from
its neighboring tones.

59. _Accent marks_ are made in a variety of fashions. The most common
forms follow. [horizontal accent symbol] [vertical accent symbol] _sf_
_fz_. All indicate that a certain tone or chord is to be differentiated
from its neighboring tones or chords by receiving a certain relative
amount of stress.

60. In music for keyboard instruments it is sometimes necessary to
indicate that a certain part is to be played by a certain hand. The
abbreviations r.h. (right hand), m.d. (mano destra, It.), and m.d. (main
droite, Fr.), designate that a passage or tone is to be played with the
right hand, while l.h. (left hand), m.s. (mano sinistra, It.), and m.g.
(main gauche, Fr.), show that the left hand is to be employed.

61. _The wavy line placed vertically beside a chord_ [Illustration]
indicates that the tones are to be sounded consecutively instead of
simultaneously, beginning with the lowest tone, all tones being
sustained until the duration-value of the chord has expired. This is
called _arpeggio playing_. When the wavy line extends through the entire
chord (covering both staffs) as in Fig. 38, all the tones of the chord
are to be played one after another, beginning with the lowest: but if
there is a separate wavy line for each staff as at Fig. 39 then the
lowest tone represented on the upper staff is to be played
simultaneously with the lowest tone represented on the bass staff.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

     The word arpeggio (plural arpeggi) is a derivation of the
     Italian word _arpa_ (meaning harp), and from this word _arpa_
     and its corresponding verb _arpeggiare_ (to play on the harp)
     are derived also a number of other terms commonly used in
     instrumental music. Among these are--arpeggiamento,
     arpeggiando, arpeggiato, etc., all of these terms referring to
     a _harp style_ of performance, the tones being sounded one
     after another in rapid succession instead of simultaneously as
     on the piano.

62. The sign [crescendo-decrescendo symbol] over a note indicates that
the tone is to be begun softly, gradually increased in power, and as
gradually decreased again, ending as softly as it began. In vocal music
this effect is called _messa di voce_.

63. In music for stringed instruments of the violin family, the sign
[down-bow symbol] indicates down-bow and the sign [up-bow symbol]
up-bow. In cello music the down-bow sign is sometimes written [cello
down-bow symbol].



64. _Embellishments (or graces) (Fr. agréments_) are ornamental tones,
either represented in full in the score or indicated by certain signs.
The following are the embellishments most commonly found: Trill (or
shake), mordent, inverted mordent (or prall trill), turn (gruppetto),
inverted turn, appoggiatura and acciaccatura.

Usage varies greatly in the interpretation of the signs representing
these embellishments and it is impossible to give examples of all the
different forms. The following definitions represent therefore only the
most commonly found examples and the most generally accepted

65. The _trill (or shake_) consists of the rapid alternation of two
tones to the full value of the printed note. The lower of these two
tones is represented by the printed note, while the upper one is the
next higher tone in the diatonic scale of the key in which the
composition is written. The interval between the two tones may therefore
be either a half-step or a whole-step.

     Whether the trill is to begin with the principal tone
     (represented by the printed note) or with the one above is a
     matter of some dispute among theorists and performers, but it
     may safely be said that the majority of modern writers on the
     subject would have it begin on the principal tone rather than
     on the tone above. Fig. 40.

     When the principal note is preceded by a small note on the
     degree above, it is of course understood that the trill begins
     on the tone above. Fig. 41.

The trill is indicated by the sign [trill symbol].

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

The above examples would be termed _perfect trills_ because they close
with a turn. By inference, an _imperfect trill_ is one closing without a

66. The _mordent_ [mordent symbol] consists of three tones; first the
one represented by the printed note; second the one next below it in the
diatonic scale; third the one represented by the printed note again.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

67. The _double (or long) mordent_ has five tones (sometimes seven)
instead of three, the first two of the three tones of the regular
mordent being repeated once or more. (See Fig. 43.)

In the case of both mordent and double-mordent the tones are sounded as
quickly as possible, the time taken by the embellishment being
subtracted from the value of the principal note as printed.

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

68. The _inverted mordent_ [inverted mordent symbol] (note the absence
of the vertical line) is like the mordent except that the tone below is
replaced by the tone above in each case. This ornament is sometimes
called a "transient shake" because it is really only a part of the more
elaborate grace called "trill." (See Fig. 44.)

[Illustration: Fig. 44.]

     The confusion at present attending the interpretation of the
     last two embellishments described, might be largely obviated
     if the suggestion of a recent writer[11] to call the one the
     _upward mordent_, and the other the _downward mordent_ were to
     be universally adopted.

[Footnote 11: Elson--Dictionary of Music, article _mordent_.]

69. The _turn_ consists of four tones; first, the diatonic scale-tone
above the principal tone; second, the principal tone itself; third, the
tone below the principal tone; and fourth, the principal tone again.

When the sign ([turn symbol] or [fancy turn symbol]) occurs over a note
of small value in rapid tempo (Fig. 45) the turn consists of four tones
of equal value; but if it occurs over a note of greater value, or in a
slow tempo, the tones are usually played quickly (like the mordent), and
the fourth tone is then held until the time-value of the note has
expired. (Fig. 46.)

[Illustration: Fig. 45.]

[Illustration: Fig. 46.]

70. _When the turn-sign is placed a little to the right of the note_ the
principal tone is sounded first and held to almost its full time-value,
then the turn is played just before the next tone of the melody. In this
case the four tones are of equal length as in the first example. (See
Fig. 47.)

[Illustration: Fig. 47.]

     The student should note the difference between these two
     effects; in the case of a turn _over_ the note the turn comes
     at the beginning, but in the case of the sign _after_ the note
     the turn comes at the very end. But in both cases the time
     taken by the embellishment is taken from the time-value of
     the principal note. For further details see Grove's Dictionary
     of Music and Musicians, Vol. V, p. 184. Also Elson, op. cit.
     p. 274.

71. Sometimes an accidental occurs with the turn, and in this case when
written above the sign it refers to the highest tone of the turn, but
when written below, to the lowest (Fig. 48).

[Illustration: Fig. 48.]

72. In the _inverted turn_ the order of tones is reversed, the lowest
one coming first, the principal tone next, the highest tone third, and
the principal tone again, last.

[Illustration: Fig. 49.]

73. The _appoggiatura_ (lit. _leaning note_) consists of an ornamental
tone introduced before a tone of a melody, thus delaying the melody tone
until the ornamental tone has been heard. The time taken for this
ornamental tone is taken from that of the melody tone.

     The appoggiatura was formerly classified into _long
     appoggiatura_ and _short appoggiatura_, but modern writers
     seem to consider the term "short appoggiatura" to be
     synonymous with acciaccatura[12], and to avoid confusion the
     word _acciaccatura_ will be used in this sense, and defined
     under its own heading.

[Footnote 12: In organ music the acciaccatura is still taken to mean
that the embellishing tone and the melody tone are to be sounded
together, the former being then instantly released, while the latter is
held to its full time-value.]

74. Three rules for the interpretation of the appoggiatura are commonly
cited, viz.:

     (1) When it is possible to divide the principal tone into
     halves, then the appoggiatura receives one-half the value of
     the printed note. (Fig. 50.)

     (2) When the principal note is dotted (division into halves
     being therefore not possible), the appoggiatura receives
     two-thirds of the value. (Fig. 51.)

     (3) When the principal note is tied to a note of smaller
     denomination the appoggiatura receives the value of the first
     of the two notes. (Fig. 52.)

[Illustration: Fig. 50.]

[Illustration: Fig. 51.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52.]

75. The _acciaccatura_ (or short appoggiatura) is written like the
appoggiatura except that it has a light stroke across its stem.
[Illustration] It has no definite duration-value, but is sounded as
quickly as possible, taking its time from that of the principal tone.
The appoggiatura is always accented, but the acciaccatura never is, the
stress always falling on the melody tone. (See Grove, op. cit. Vol. I,
p. 96.)

     The use of embellishments is on the wane, and the student of
     to-day needs the above information only to aid him in the
     interpretation of music written in previous centuries. In the
     early days of instrumental music it was necessary to introduce
     graces of all sorts because the instruments in use were not
     capable of sustaining tone for any length of time; but with
     the advent of the modern piano with its comparatively great
     sustaining power, and also with the advent in vocal music of a
     new style of singing (German Lieder singing as contrasted with
     Italian coloratura singing), ornamental tones were used less
     and less, and when found now are usually written out in full
     in the score instead of being indicated by signs.



76. A _scale_ (from _scala_, a Latin word meaning _ladder_; Ger.
_Ton-leiter_) is an ascending or descending series of tones, progressing
according to some definite system, and all bearing (in the case of
tonality scales at least) a very intimate relation to the first
tone--the _key-tone_ or _tonic_. (See p. 28, Sec. 78; also note 1 at
bottom of p. 38.)

     Many different kinds of scales have existed in various musical
     eras, the point of resemblance among them all being the fact
     that they have all more or less recognized the _octave_ as the
     natural limit of the series. The difference among the various
     scales has been in the selection of intervals between the
     scale-tones, and, consequently, in the number of tones within
     the octave. Thus _e.g._, in our major scale the intervals
     between the tones are all whole-steps except two (which are
     half-steps), and the result is a scale of _eight_ tones
     (including in this number both the key-tone and its octave):
     but in the so-called _pentatonic_ scale of the Chinese and
     other older civilizations we find larger intervals (_e.g._,
     the step-and-a-half), and consequently a smaller number of
     tones within the octave. Thus in the scale upon which many of
     the older Scotch folk songs are based the intervals are
     arranged as follows:

     1  whole  2  whole  3  step-and-  4  whole  5  step-and-  6
        step      step      a-half        step      a-half

     The result is a scale of six tones, corresponding
     approximately with C--D--E--G--A--C in our modern system.

     The term _pentatonic_ is thus seen to be a misnomer since the
     sixth tone is necessary for the completion of the series, just
     as the eighth tone is essential in our diatonic scales.

     The following Chinese tune (called "Jasmine") is based on the
     pentatonic scale.


77. In studying the theory of the scale the student should bear in mind
the fact that a scale is not an arbitrary series of tones which some one
has invented, and which others are required to make use of. It is rather
the result of accustoming the ear to certain melodic combinations (which
were originally hit upon by accident), and finally analyzing and
systematizing these combinations into a certain definite order or
arrangement. The application of this idea may be verified when it is
recalled that most primitive peoples have invented melodies of some
sort, but that only in modern times, and particularly since the
development of instrumental music, have these melodies been analyzed,
and the scale upon which they have been based, discovered, the inventors
of the melodies being themselves wholly ignorant of the existence of
such scales.

78. A _key_ is a number of tones grouping themselves naturally (both
melodically and harmonically) about a central tone--the key tone. The
word _tonality_ is often used synonymously with _key_ in this sense.

     The difference between _key_ and _scale_ is therefore this,
     that while both _key_ and _scale_ employ the same tone
     material, by _key_ we mean the material in general, without
     any particular order or arrangement in mind, while by _scale_
     we mean the same tones, but now arranged into a regular
     ascending or descending series. It should be noted in this
     connection also that not all scales present an equally good
     opportunity of having their tones used as a basis for tonality
     or key-feeling: neither the chromatic nor the whole-step scale
     possess the necessary characteristics for being used as
     tonality scales in the same sense that our major and minor
     scales are so used.

79. There are _three general classes of scales_ extant at the present
time, viz.: (1) Diatonic; (2) Chromatic; (3) Whole-tone.[13]

[Footnote 13: If strictly logical terminology is to be insisted upon the
whole-tone scale should be called the "whole-step" scale.]

80. The word _diatonic_ means "through the tones" (_i.e._, through the
tones of the key), and is applied to both major and minor scales of our
modern tonality system. In general a diatonic scale may be defined as
one which proceeds by half-steps and whole-steps. There is, however, one
exception to this principle, viz., in the progression six to seven in
the harmonic minor scale, which is of course a step-and-a-half. (See p.
33, Sec. 86.)

81. A _major diatonic scale_ is one in which the intervals between the
tones are arranged as follows:

1  whole  2  whole  3  half  4  whole  5  whole  6  whole  7  half  8
   step      step      step     step      step      step      step

In other words, a major diatonic scale is one in which the intervals
between three and four, and between seven and eight are half-steps, all
the others being whole-steps. A composition based on this scale is said
to be written in the major mode, or in a major key. The major diatonic
scale may begin on any one of the twelve pitches C, C[sharp] or D[flat],
D, D[sharp] or E[flat], E, F, F[sharp] or G[flat], G, G[sharp] or
A[flat], A, A[sharp] or B[flat], B, but in each case it is the same
scale because the intervals between its tones are the same. We have then
one major scale only, but this scale may be written in many different
positions, and may be sung or played beginning on any one of a number of
different pitches.

82. It is interesting to note that the major scale consists of two
identical series of four tones each; _i.e._, the first four tones of the
scale are separated from one another by exactly the same intervals and
these intervals appear in exactly the same order as in the case of the
last four tones of the scale. Fig. 53 will make this clear. The first
four tones of any diatonic scale (major or minor) are often referred to
as the _lower tetrachord_[14] and the upper four tones as the _upper

[Footnote 14: The word _tetrachord_ means literally "four strings" and
refers to the primitive instrument, the four strings of which were so
tuned that the lowest and the highest tones produced were a perfect
fourth apart. With the Greeks the tetrachord was the unit of analysis as
the octave is with us to-day, and all Greek scales are capable of
division into two tetrachords, the arrangement of the intervals between
the tones in each tetrachord differentiating one scale from another, but
the tetrachords themselves always consisting of groups of four tones,
the highest being a perfect fourth above the lowest.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53.]

It is interesting further to note that the upper tetrachord of any
_sharp_ scale is always used without change as the lower tetrachord of
the next major scale involving sharps, while the lower tetrachord of any
_flat_ scale is used as the upper tetrachord of the next flat scale. See
Figs. 54 and 55.

[Illustration: Fig. 54.]

[Illustration: Fig. 55.]

83. From the standpoint of staff notation the major scale may be written
in fifteen different positions, as follows:


It will be observed that in the above series of scales those beginning
on F[sharp] and G[flat] call for the same keys on the piano, _i.e._,
while the notation is different, the actual tones of the scale are the
same. The scales of C[sharp] and D[flat] likewise employ the same tones.
When two scales thus employ the same tones but differ in notation they
are said to be _enharmonic_, (cf. p. 38, Sec. 93.)

     _Note_.--The student is advised to adopt some uniform method
     of writing scales, preferably the one followed in those given
     above, the necessary sharps and flats appearing before the
     notes in the scale and then repeated collectively at the end
     as a signature. He is also advised to repeat these scales and
     signatures over and over until absolute familiarity is
     attained. _E.g._, E--F[sharp]--G[sharp]--A--B--C[sharp]--D[sharp]--E;
     signature, four sharps, F, C, G, and D.


SCALES (_Continued_)

84. The _minor diatonic scale_ is used in several slightly different
forms, but the characteristic interval between the first and third tones
(which differentiates it from the major scale) remains the same in every
case. This interval between the first and third tones consists of four
half-steps in the major scale and of three half-steps in the minor scale
and this difference in size has given rise to the designation _major_
for the scale having the larger third, and _minor_ for the scale having
the smaller one.

85. _The original (or primitive) form_ of the minor scale has its tones
arranged as follows.

1  whole  2  half  3  whole  4  half  5  half  6  whole  7  whole  8
   step      step     step      step     step     step      step

As its name implies, this is the oldest of the three forms (being
derived from the old Greek Aeolian scale), but because of the absence of
a "leading tone" it is suitable for the simplest one-part music only,
and is therefore little used at present.

86. _The harmonic minor scale_ is like the primitive form except that it
substitutes a tone one half-step higher for the seventh tone of the
older (_i.e._, the primitive) form. This change was made because the
development of writing music in several parts (particularly _harmonic_
part-writing) made necessary a "leading tone," _i.e._, a tone with a
strong tendency to move on up to the key-tone as a closing point. In
order to secure a tone with such a strongly upward tendency the
interval between _seven_ and _eight_ had to be reduced in size to a
half-step. It should be noted that this change in the seventh tone of
the scale caused an interval of a step-and-a-half between the sixth and
seventh tones of the scale.

1  whole  2  half  3  whole  4  whole  5  half  6  step and  7  half 8
   step      step     step      step      step      a half      step

87. _The melodic minor scale_ substitutes a tone one half-step higher
than six as well as one a half-step higher than seven, but this change
is made in the ascending scale only, the descending scale being like the
primitive form. The higher sixth (commonly referred to as the "raised
sixth") was used to get rid of the unmelodic interval of a
step-and-a-half[15] (augmented second), while the return to the
primitive form in descending is made because the ascending form is too
much like the tonic major scale.

[Footnote 15: The step-and-a-half (augmented second) is "unmelodic"
because it is the same size as a _minor third_ and the mind finds it
difficult to take in as a _second_ (notes representing it being on
adjacent staff-degrees) an interval of the same size as a third.]

1  whole  2  half  3  whole  4  whole  5  whole  6  whole  7  half  8
   step      step     step      step      step      step      step

          7  whole  6  half  5  whole  4  whole  3  half  2  whole  1
             step      step     step      step      step     step

This form is used only to a very limited extent, and then principally in
vocal music, the harmonic form being in almost universal use in spite of
the augmented second.

88. The minor scale in its various positions (up to five sharps and five
flats) and in all three forms follows: a composition based on any one of
these forms (or upon a mixture of them, which often occurs) is said to
be _in the minor mode_. It will be noted that the first four tones are
alike in all three forms; _i.e._, the lower tetrachord in the minor
scale is invariable no matter, what may happen to the upper tetrachord.
The sign + marks the step-and-a-half.


     _Note._--The student is advised to recite the _harmonic form_
     of the minor scale as was suggested in the case of the major
     scale, noting that the "raised seventh" does not affect the
     key-signature. _E.g._,--E--F[sharp]--G--A--B--C--D[sharp]--E;
     signature, one sharp, F.

89. A minor scale having the same signature as a major scale is said to
be its _relative minor_. _E.g._,--e is the relative minor of G, c of
E[flat], d of F, etc., the small letter being used to refer to the minor
key or scale, while the capital letter indicates the major key or scale
unless accompanied by the word _minor_. Relative keys are therefore
defined as those having the same signature. G and e are relative keys,
as are also A and f[sharp], etc.

90. A minor scale beginning with the same tone as a major scale is
referred to as its _tonic minor_. Thus, _e.g._, c with three flats in
its signature is the tonic minor of C with all degrees in natural
condition; e with one sharp is the tonic minor of E with four sharps,
etc. Tonic keys are therefore those having the same key-tone.

91. The eight tones of the diatonic scale (both major and minor) are
often referred to by specific names, as follows:

     1. _Tonic_--the tone. (This refers to the fact that the tonic
     is the principal tone, or generating tone of the key, _i.e._,
     it is _the_ tone.)

     2. _Super-tonic_--above the tone.

     3. _Mediant_--midway between tonic and dominant.

     4. _Sub-dominant_--the under dominant. (This name does not
     refer to the position of the tone under the dominant but to
     the fact that the fifth below the tonic is also a dominant
     tone--the under dominant--just as the fifth above is the upper

     5. _Dominant_--the governing tone. (From the Latin word
     _dominus_ meaning _master_.)

     6. _Super-dominant_--above the dominant. Or
     _Sub-mediant_--midway between tonic and sub-dominant.

     7. _Leading tone_--the tone which demands resolution to the
     tonic (one-half step above it).

     8. _Octave_--the eighth tone.

92. The syllables commonly applied to the various major and minor scales
in teaching sight-singing are as follows:[16]

[Footnote 16: These syllables are said to have been derived originally
from the initial syllables of the "Hymn to Saint John," the music of
which was a typical Gregorian chant. The application of these syllables
to the scale tones will be made clear by reference to this hymn as given
below. It will be observed that this hymn provided syllables only for
the six tones of the _hexachord_ then recognized; when the octave scale
was adopted (early in the sixteenth century) the initial letters of the
last line (s and i) were combined into a syllable for the seventh tone.

[Illustration: _Ut_ que-ant lax-is _Re_-so-na-re fi-bris _Mi_-ra
ges-to-rum _Fa_-mu-li tu-o-rum _Sol_-ve pol-lu-ti _La_-bi-i re-a-tum
Sanc-te Jo-han-nes.]]

Major--DO, RE, MI, FA, SOL, LA, TI, DO.

Minor[17]--original--LA, TI, DO, RE, MI, FA, SOL, LA.
           harmonic--LA, TI, DO, RE, MI, FA, SI, LA.
           melodic--LA, TI, DO, RE, MI, FI, SI, LA,
             SOL, FA, MI, RE, DO, TI, LA.

[Footnote 17: A considerable number of teachers (particularly those who
did not learn to sing by syllable in childhood) object to calling the
tonic of the minor scale _la_, insisting that both major and minor tonic
should be called _do_. According to this plan the syllables used in
singing the harmonic minor scale would be: DO, RE, ME, FA, SOL, LE, TI,

There is no particular basis for this theory, for although all scales
must of course begin with the key-tone or tonic, this tonic may be
referred to by any syllable which will serve as a basis for an
association process enabling one to feel the force of the tone as a
closing point--a _home tone_. Thus in the Dorian mode the tonic would be
RE, in the Phrygian, MI, etc.]

     It is interesting to study the changes in both spelling and
     pronunciation that have occurred (and are still occurring) in
     these syllables. The first one (ut) was changed to _DO_ as
     early as the sixteenth century because of the difficulty of
     producing a good singing tone on _ut_. For the same reason and
     also in order to avoid having two diatonic syllables with the
     same initial letter, the tonic-sol-fa system (invented in
     England about 1812 and systematized about 1850) changed SI to
     TI and this change has been almost universally adopted by
     teachers of sight-singing in this country. The more elaborate
     tonic-sol-fa spelling of the diatonic syllables (DOH, LAH,
     etc.), has not, however, been favorably received in this
     country and the tendency seems to be toward still further
     simplification rather than toward elaboration. It is probable
     that further changes in both spelling and pronunciation will
     be made in the near future, one such change that seems
     especially desirable being some other syllable than RE for the
     second tone of the major scale, so that the present syllable
     may be reserved for "flat-two," thus providing a uniform
     vowel-sound for all intermediate tones of the descending
     chromatic scale, as is already the case in the ascending form.

93. The _chromatic scale_[18] is one which proceeds always by
half-steps. Its intervals are therefore always equal no matter with what
tone it begins. Since, however, we have (from the standpoint of the
piano keyboard) five pairs of tones[19] which are enharmonically the
same, it may readily be seen that the chromatic scale might be notated
in all sorts of fashions, and this is in fact the real status of the
matter, there being no one method uniformly agreed upon by composers.

[Footnote 18: The student should differentiate between the so-called
"tonality" scales like the major and minor, the tones of which are
actually used as a basis for "key-feeling" with the familiar experience
of coming home to the tonic after a melodic or harmonic excursion, and
on the other hand the purely artificial and mechanical construction of
the chromatic scale.]

[Footnote 19: Many other enharmonic notations are possible, altho the
"five pairs of tones" above referred to are the most common. Thus
E[sharp] and F are enharmonically the same, as are also C[flat] and B,
C[sharp] and B[double-sharp], etc.]

     Parry (Grove's Dictionary, article _chromatic_) recommends
     writing the scale with such accidentals as can occur in
     chromatic chords without changing the key in which the passage
     occurs. Thus, taking C as a type, "the first accidental will
     be D[flat], as the upper note of the minor ninth on the tonic;
     the next will be E[flat], the minor third of the key; the next
     F[sharp], the major third of the super-tonic--all of which can
     occur without causing modulation--and the remaining two will
     be A[flat] and B[flat], the minor sixth and seventh of the
     key." According to this plan the chromatic scale beginning
     with C would be spelled--C, D[flat], D, E[flat], E, F,
     F[sharp], G, A[flat], A, B[flat], B, C--the form being the
     same both ascending and descending. This is of course written
     exclusively from a harmonic standpoint and the advantage of
     such a form is its definiteness.

94. For _sight-singing purposes_ the chromatic scale[20] is usually
written by representing the intermediate tones in ascending by sharps,
(in some cases naturals and double-sharps), and the intermediate tones
in descending by flats (sometimes naturals and double-flats). The
chromatic scale in nine different positions, written from this
standpoint, follows, and the syllables most commonly applied in
sight-singing have also been added. In the first two scales the student
of harmony is asked to note that because of the very common practice of
modulating to the dominant and sub-dominant keys, the intermediate tones
[sharp]4 and [flat]7 are quite universally used in both ascending and
descending melody passages. In other words the scales that follow would
more nearly represent actual usage if in each case [sharp]4 (FI) were
substituted for [flat]5 (SE) in the descending scale; and if [flat]7
(TE) were substituted for [sharp]6 (LI) in the ascending form.

[Footnote 20: The word _chromatic_ means literally _colored_ and was
first applied to the intermediate tones because by using them the singer
could get smoother and more diversely-shaded progressions, _i.e._, could
get more _color_ than by using only the diatonic tones. Composers were
not long discovering the peculiar value of these additional tones and
soon found that these same tones were exceedingly valuable also in
modulating, hence the two uses of intermediate tones at the present
time--first, to embellish a melody; second, to modulate to another key.]


     _Note._--In writing chromatic scales from this sight-singing
     standpoint the student is urged to adopt a three-step process;
     first, writing the major diatonic scale both ascending and
     descending; second, marking the half-steps; third, inserting
     accidental notes calling for the intermediate tones. In the
     above chromatic scales these intermediate tones have been
     represented by black note-heads so as to differentiate them
     from the notes representing diatonic scale tones.

95. The _whole-step scale_ (the third type mentioned in Sec. 79) is, as
its name implies, a scale in which the intervals between the tones
consist in every instance of whole-steps. This reduces the number of
tones in the scale to seven. Beginning with C the scale reads: C, D, E,
F[sharp] or G[flat], A[flat], B[flat], C. This scale has been used
somewhat extensively by the ultramodern French school of composition
represented by Debussy, Ravel, and others, but is not making any
progress toward universal adoption. The remarks of a recent English
writer[21] on this subject may be interesting to the student who is
puzzled by the apparent present-day tendencies of French music. He says:

     "The student of some interesting modern developments will also
     speedily discover that the adoption of the so-called
     whole-tone scale as a basis of music is, except upon a keyed
     instrument tuned to the compromise of equal temperament,
     unnatural and impossible. No player upon a stringed instrument
     can play the scale of whole-tones and arrive at an octave
     which is in tune with the starting note, unless he
     deliberately changes one of the notes on the road and alters
     it while playing it. The obvious result of the application of
     the whole-tone scale to an orchestra or a string quartet would
     be to force them to adopt the equal temperament of the
     pianoforte, and play every interval except the octave out of
     tune. When this modification had taken hold all music in the
     pure scale would be distorted and destroyed, unless string
     players were to face the practically impossible drudgery of
     studying both the equal temperament and the pure scale from
     the start, and were able to tackle either form at a moment's
     notice. A thorough knowledge of the natural genesis of the
     scale of western nations will be the best antidote to fads
     founded upon ignorance of it. It is a curious commentary upon
     this question that Wagner, in the opening of the third act of
     _Tristan_ (bars 6 to 10), experimented with the whole-tone
     scale and drew his pen through it, as was to be expected from
     a composer whose every work proves the writer to have had the
     pure scale inbred in him."

[Footnote 21: Stanford--Musical Composition (1911) p. 17.]

There may be some difference of opinion among acousticians as to whether
Mr. Stanford is correct in his scientific assumptions regarding the
difference between "tempered" and "pure" scales,[22] but even so, there
is a far more potent reason why the whole-step scale will probably never
become popular as the major and minor scales now are, viz., the fact
that it offers no possibility of _inculcating tonality feeling_, which
has always been the basis of even the simplest primitive music. Tonality
scales give rise to a feeling of alternate periods of contraction and
relaxation--an active tone (or chord) followed by a passive one, but no
such effect is possible in the whole-step scale, and it seems suitable
therefore only for that class of music whose outlines are _purposely
intended to be_ vague and indefinite--the impressionistic style of music

[Footnote 22: Recent tests in Germany seem to prove conclusively that
the _tempered_ scale is the scale ordinarily employed by both vocalists
and players on stringed instruments, and that the ideal of and agitation
for a _pure_ (_i.e._, _untempered_) scale in vocal and in string music
is somewhat of a myth.]



96. Being a list of articles, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and
endings, often utilized in compounding terms relating to musical

_A_--preposition--variously translated to, at, for, by, in, with, towards.
  _A cappella_--in church style.
  _A capriccio_--at the fancy of the performer.
  _À deux mains_--for two hands.
  _A mezza voce_--with half voice.

_À la_, or _alla_--in the manner of. _Alla marcia_--in the style of a

_Assai_--very, or very much. _Allegro assai_--very fast.

_Ben_--well. _Ben marcato_--well marked.

_Coi, con, col, colla, colle, collo_--with, or with the.
  _Con amore_--with tenderness.
  _Colla voce_--with the voice.

_Come_--as, like. _Come primo_--as at first.

_Contra_--against. In compound words means "an octave below."

_Da_--from. _Da Capo_--from the head.

_Di_--by, with, of, for. _Di bravura_--with daring.

_Di molto_--exceedingly--very much. _Allegro di molto_--exceedingly

_Doppio_--double. _Doppio movimento_--double movement.

_E, ed, et_--and. _Cresc. et accel._--louder and faster.

_Ensemble_--together, the opposite of solo.

_Il, La, l', le_--the. _Il basso_--the bass. _L'istesso tempo_--the same

_Il più_--the most. _Il più forte possible_--as loudly as possible.

_Issimo_--Italian superlative ending. _Forte_--_fortissimo_.

_Ino, etto_--Italian diminutive endings. _Andante_--_andantino_.

_Meno_--less. _Meno forte_--less loud.

_Mente_--the ending which changes a noun or adjective to an adverb.
_Largo largamente_.

_Mezzo_ or _mezza_--half, or medium. _Mezzo forte_--medium loud.

_Molto_--much, or very much. _Molto cresc._--very much louder.

_Nel, nella, etc._--in the, or at the. _Nel battere_--at the down beat.

_Non_--not. _Non tanto_--not too much.

_Ossia_--or else. _Ossia più facile_--or else more easily.

_Per_--for. _Per il violino_--for the violin.

_Peu_--little. _Un peu cresc._--a little increase in tone.

_Più_--more. _Più forte_--more loudly.

_Poco_--little. _Poco a poco_--little by little.

_Poi_--then. _E poi la coda_--and then the coda.

_Possibile_--possible. _Forte possibile_--as loudly as possible.
[Transcriber's Note: Corrected error "possible" for Italian

_Quasi_--in the manner of. _Allegro quasi andante_--a fairly rapid
movement, yet in the style of an andante; almost as slow as an andante.

_Sans_--without. _Sans pedales_--without pedals.

_Sempre_--always, or continually. _Sempre forte_--a long passage to be
played forte throughout its entirety.

_Senza_--without. _Senza accompagnamento_--without accompaniment.

_Sino, sin_--as far as. See p. 14, note.

_Solo_--alone. Opposite of ensemble.

_Sub_--under or lower. _Sub-dominant_--the under dominant.

_Tanto_--same as _troppo_, q.v.

_Tre_--three. _Tre corde_--three strings.

_Très_--very. _Très vivement_--very lively.

_Troppo_--too much. _Non tanto allegro_, or _non troppo allegro_--not
too fast.

_Una, un, uno_--one, or a. _Una corda_--one string. _Un peu_--a little.

A working knowledge of these auxiliary terms will aid the student
greatly in arriving at the meaning of hundreds of terms without stopping
to look up each individual one.



97. From the standpoint of the eye, a _measure_ is that portion of the
staff found between two bars, (in certain cases this space may be less
than a measure, as _e.g._, at the beginning and end of a movement); but
from the standpoint of the ear a single, isolated measure is not
possible, and the term must therefore be defined in the plural form.

_Measures_ are similarly accented groups of evenly-spaced beats, each
group having at least one accented and one non-accented beat. The
strongest accent falls normally on the first beat in the measure.

Two essential characteristics are involved in the ordinary musical

(1) A group of even beats (or pulses), always felt, though not always
actually sounded, one or more of these beats being stronger than the

(2) Certain rhythmic figures ([Illustration], etc.) which form the
actual musical content of these groups.

     The student will note the essential difference between rhythm
     and measure. Rhythm is the regular recurrence of accent in a
     series of beats (or pulses), while measure is the grouping of
     these beats according to some specified system. In listening
     to a piece of music, two hearers A and B may feel the _rhythm_
     equally strongly, but A may subjectively group the beats
     into--_one_, two | _one_, two |--etc., while B feels the
     groups as--_one_, two, _three_, four | _one_, two, _three_,
     four |--etc. Rhythm is thus seen to be a fundamental thing,
     inherent in the music itself, while measure is to a certain
     extent at least an arbitrary grouping which musicians have
     adopted for practical purposes.

98. In _syncopation_ the normal system of accenting is temporarily
suspended and the accented tone falls on the regularly unaccented part
of the measure. Syncopation may therefore be defined as the temporary
interruption of a normal series of accents, _i.e._, accenting a beat
that is usually not accented. Thus _e.g._, in Fig. 56, measure _one_ has
the regular system of accents normally found in four-quarter-measure,
(strong accent on one, secondary accent on three); but measure _three_
has only one accent, and it falls on the second beat.

[Illustration: Fig. 56.]

99. Measures are usually classified as _simple_ and _compound_. A
_simple measure_ is one which has but a single accent, _i.e._, the
measure cannot be divided into smaller constituent groups. There are two
main classes of simple measures, two-beat measure, and three-beat
measure. A _compound measure_ is (as its name implies) one made up by
combining two or more simple measures, or by the elaboration of a single
measure (in slow tempo) into several constituent groups. The principal
compound measures are four-beat and six-beat, both being referred to as
compound-duple measures. Five-beat, seven-beat, nine-beat, and
twelve-beat measures are also classified as compound measures.

     An English writer[23] classifies measures as duple, triple, or
     quadruple, specifying that a simple measure is one in which
     each beat is represented by a note whose value can be divided
     into halves ([Illustration] etc.) and that a compound measure
     is one in which each beat is represented by a dotted-note,
     whose value can be divided into three parts, ([Illustration]).
     There is thus seen to be considerable difference of opinion as
     to the meaning of the words _simple_ and _compound_ when
     applied in this connection, the principal question at issue
     being whether four-beat measure is an individual variety, or
     whether it is a variety compounded out of two-beat measures,
     either by placing two of these in a group or by the
     elaboration of a single measure into a larger number of beats,
     as is often necessary in slow tempi. Perhaps the easiest way
     out of the difficulty is to admit that both may be true--but
     in different compositions. That is, it is frequently
     impossible to tell whether a composition that is being
     listened to is in two-beat, or in four-beat measure; and yet
     it _is_ sometimes possible so to discriminate. Since, however,
     one cannot in the majority of cases distinguish between
     two-beat and four-beat measures, it will probably be best to
     leave the original classification intact and regard four-beat
     measure as a compound variety.

[Footnote 23: Pearse--Rudiments of Musical Knowledge, p. 37.]

100. The _commonest varieties of measure_ are:

     1. _Duple_ (sometimes called even measure, or even time), in
     which there are two beats, the first one being accented.
     Examples of duple measure are 2/4, 2/8, 2/2, two-quarter,[24]
     two-eighth, and two-half measure, respectively.

     [Footnote 24: For explanation of terminology, see p. 48, Sec.

     2. _Triple_, (the old perfect measure), in which there are
     three beats, the first one being accented, the second and
     third unaccented. Examples are 3/8, 3/4, 3/2, three-eighth,
     three-quarter, and three-half measure, respectively.

     3. _Quadruple_, in which there are four beats, the first and
     third being accented (primary accent on _one_, secondary
     accent on _three_), the second and fourth unaccented. (See
     note above, under Sec. 99.)

     4. _Sextuple_, in which there are six beats, the first and
     fourth being accented, the others not. In rapid tempi this is
     always taken as compound duple measure, a dotted quarter note
     having a beat. It will be noted that the two measures
     [Illustration] are identical in effect with [Illustration].

101. Other varieties of measure sometimes found are 9/8 and 12/8, but
these are practically always taken as three-beat and four-beat measures
respectively, being equivalent to these if each group of three tones is
thought of as a triplet. [Illustration] is identical in effect with

102. _Quintuple_ (five-beat) and _septuple_ (seven-beat) measures are
occasionally met with, but these are rare and will always be sporadic.
The five-beat measure is taken as a combination of three and two, or of
two and three (sometimes a mixture of both in the same composition),
while the seven-beat measure is taken in groups of four and three, or
of three and four.

103. The sign [common-time symbol] is usually understood to mean
four-quarter measure, and the sign [cut-time symbol], two-half measure,
but usage varies somewhat, and the second sign is sometimes used to
indicate four-half measure. It may safely be said however that the sign
[cut-time symbol] always indicates that a half-note has a beat. [Double
cut-time symbol] may occasionally be found indicating four-half measure
but this is rare.

     The student will note that the sign [common-time symbol] is
     not a _letter_ C, but an incomplete circle, differentiating
     two-beat (imperfect) measure from three-beat (perfect)
     measure. See Appendix A, p. 106. [Transcriber's Note: page
     number missing in original.]



104. The word _time_ in musical nomenclature has been greatly abused,
having been used to indicate:

     (1) Rhythm; as "the time was wrong."

     (2) Variety of measure-signature; as "two-four time."

     (3) Rate of speed; as "the time was too slow."

To obviate the confusion naturally resulting from this three-fold and
inexact use of the word, many teachers of music are adopting certain
_changes in terminology_ as noted in Sections 105, 106, and 107. Such
changes may cause some confusion at first, but seem to be necessary if
our musical terminology is to be at all exact.

105. The _first of the changes_ mentioned in the above paragraph is to
substitute the word _rhythm_ for the word _time_ when correcting
mistakes involving misplaced accent, etc. _E.g._, "Your _rhythm_ in the
third measure of the lower score was wrong," instead of "Your
_time_--was wrong."

106. The _second change_ mentioned would eliminate such blind and
misleading expressions as "two-four time," "three-four time," "four-four
time," "six-eight time," etc., and substitute therefor such
self-explanatory designations as "two-quarter measure," "three-quarter
measure," "four-quarter measure," "six-eighth measure," etc. _E.g._,
"The first movement of the Beethoven Sonata Op. 2, No. 3, is in
_four-quarter measure_."

107. The _third change_ referred to above would substitute the word
_tempo_ (plural--_tempi_) for the word _time_ in all allusions to rate
of speed. _E.g._, "The scherzo was played in very rapid _tempo_."

     The word _tempo_ has been used in this connection so long by
     professional musicians that there can be no possible objection
     to it on the ground of its being a foreign word. In fact there
     is a decided advantage in having a word that is understood in
     all countries where modern music (_i.e._, civilized music) is
     performed, and just here is found the principal reason for the
     popularity of the Italian language in musical terminology.
     Schumann, MacDowell and other well known composers have tried
     to break down this popularity by using their own respective
     vernaculars in both tempo and dynamic indications, but in
     spite of these attempts the Italian language is still quite
     universally used for this purpose, and deservedly so, for if
     we are to have a _music notation_ that is universal, so that
     an American is able to play music written by a Frenchman or a
     German, or a Russian, then we ought also to have a certain
     number of expressions referring to tempo, etc., which will be
     understood by all, _i.e._, a music terminology that is
     universal. The Italian language was the first in the field, is
     the most universally known in this particular at the present
     time, and is entirely adequate. It should therefore be
     retained in use as a sort of musical Esperanto.

108. There are several _ways of finding the correct tempo_ of a

     1. From the metronomic indication found at the beginning of
     many compositions. Thus _e.g._, the mark M.M. 92 (Maelzel's
     Metronome 92) means that if the metronome (either Maelzel's or
     some other reliable make) is set with the sliding weight at
     the figure 92 there will be 92 clicks per minute, and they
     will serve to indicate to the player or singer the rate at
     which the beats (or pulses) should follow one another. This is
     undoubtedly the most accurate means of determining tempi in
     spite of slight inaccuracies in metronomes[25] and of the
     mistakes which composers themselves often make in giving
     metronomic indications.

     [Footnote 25: To test the accuracy of a metronome, set the
     weight at 60 and see if it beats seconds. If it gives more
     than 62 or 63 or less than 57 or 58 clicks per minute it will
     not be of much service in giving correct tempi and should be
     taken to a jeweller to be regulated.]

     2. Another means of determining the tempo of a composition is
     to play it at different tempi and then to choose the one that
     "feels right" for that particular piece of music. This is
     perhaps the best means of getting at the correct tempo but is
     open only to the musician of long experience, sure judgment,
     and sound scholarship.

     3. A third method of finding tempi is through the
     interpretation of certain words used quite universally by
     composers to indicate the approximate rate of speed and the
     general mood of compositions. The difficulty with this method
     is that one can hardly find two composers who employ the same
     word to indicate the same tempo, so that no absolute rate of
     speed can be indicated, and in the last analysis the conductor
     or performer must fall back on the second method cited
     above--_i.e._, individual judgment.

109. In spite of the inexactness of use in the case of expressions
relating to tempo, these expressions are nevertheless extremely useful
in giving at least a hint of what was in the composer's mind as he
conceived the music that we are trying to interpret. Since a number of
the terms overlap in meaning, and since the meaning of no single term is
absolute, these expressions relating to tempo are best studied in
groups. Perhaps the most convenient grouping is as follows:

     1. _Grave_ (lit. weighty, serious), _larghissimo_,
     _adagissimo_, and _lentissimo_--indicating the very slowest
     tempo used in rendering music.

     2. _Largo_,[26] _adagio_,[27] and _lento_--indicating quite a
     slow tempo.

     [Footnote 26: Largo, larghetto, etc., are derivatives of the
     Latin word _largus_, meaning large, broad.]

     [Footnote 27: Adagio means literally at ease.]

     3. _Larghetto_ (_i.e._, _a little largo_) and _adagietto_ (_a
     little adagio_)--a slow tempo, but not quite so slow as
     _largo_, etc.

     4. _Andante_ (going, or walking, as contrasted with running)
     and _andantino_--indicating a moderately slow tempo.

     _Andantino_ is now quite universally taken slightly faster
     than _andante_, in spite of the fact that if _andante_ means
     "going," and if "_ino_" is the diminutive ending, then
     _andantino_ means "going less," _i.e._, more slowly!

     5. _Moderato_--a moderate tempo.

     6. _Allegro_ and _allegretto_[28]--a moderately quick tempo,
     _allegretto_ being usually interpreted as meaning a tempo
     somewhat slower than _allegro_.

     [Footnote 28: There has been some difference of opinion as to
     which of these two terms indicates the more rapid tempo: an
     analysis tells us that if _allegro_ means quick, and if _etto_
     is the diminutive ending, then _allegretto_ means a little
     quick--_i.e._, slower than _allegro_. These two terms are,
     however, so closely allied in meaning that a dispute over the
     matter is a mere waste of breath.]

     The word _allegro_ means literally happy, joyous, and this
     literal meaning is still _sometimes_ applicable, but in the
     majority of instances the term refers only to rate of speed.

     7. _Vivo_, _vivace_, (lit. lively)--a tempo between _allegro_
     and _presto_.

     8. _Presto_, _prestissimo_, _vivacissimo_, and _prestissimo
     possibile_--the most rapid tempo possible.


TEMPO (_Continued_)

110. Innumerable combinations of the words defined in Sec. 109 with one
another and with other words occur. Some of these combinations with
their approximate meanings follow. The meaning of any such expression
not found in the list may usually be arrived at by consulting the terms
defined in paragraph 109 and recalling the use of certain auxiliary
terms quoted in Chapter IX.

     _Largo assai_--very slow.

     _Largo di molto_--very slow.

     _Largo ma non troppo_--slow, but not too slow.

     _Largo un poco_--slow, but not so slow as _largo_. (_Cf.


     _Lentando_--with increasing slowness.

     _Très lentement_--very slowly.

     _Lentissamente_--very slowly.

     _Lentissamamente_--very slowly.

     _Lento assai_--very slowly.

     _Lento a capriccio_--slowly but capriciously.

     _Lento di molto_--very slowly.

     _Andante affettuoso_--moderately slow, and with tenderness and
     pathos. [Transcriber's Note: Corrected error "affetuoso" in

     _Andante amabile_--moderately slow, and lovingly.

     _Andante cantabile_--moderately slow, and in singing style.

     _Andante grazioso_--moderately slow, and gracefully.

     _Andante maestoso_--moderately slow, and majestically.

     _Andante con moto_--slightly faster than _andante_.

     _Andante (ma) non troppo_--not too slowly.

     _Andante pastorale_--moderately slow, and in simple and
     unaffected style; (lit. rural, pastoral).

     _Andante quasi allegro_--almost as rapid in tempo as
     _allegro_; (lit. an _andante_ in the style of _allegro_).

     _Andante sostenuto_--moderately slow and sustained.

     _Allegrissimo_--much faster than _allegro_. (The superlative
     degree of _allegro_.)

     _Allegro agitato_--a moderately rapid tempo, and in agitated

     _Allegro appassionata_--a moderately rapid tempo, and in
     passionate style.

     _Allegro assai_ (very _allegro_)--faster than _allegro_.

     _Allegro commodo_--a conveniently rapid tempo.

     _Allegro con brio_--an _allegro_ played in brilliant style.
     Faster than _allegro_.

     _Allegro con fuoco_--an _allegro_ played with fire, _i.e._,
     with extreme animation. Faster than _allegro_.

     _Allegro con spirito_--an _allegro_ performed with spirit.

     _Allegro con moto_--faster than _allegro_.

     _Allegro di bravura_--an _allegro_ performed in brilliant
     style, _i.e._, demanding great skill in execution.

     _Allegro furioso_ (furiously)--quicker than _allegro_; very

     _Allegro giusto_--an _allegro_ movement, but in exact rhythm.

     _Allegro ma grazioso_--an _allegro_ played in graceful style.

     _Allegro (ma) non tanto_--an _allegro_ movement, but not too

     _Allegro (ma) non troppo_--an _allegro_ movement, but not too

     _Allegro (ma) non presto_--an _allegro_ movement, but not too

     _Allegro moderato_--slower than _allegro_.

     _Allegro vivace_--faster than _allegro_.

     _Presto assai_--as rapidly as possible.

     _Presto (ma) non troppo_--a _presto_ movement, but not too

111. There are certain _terms which indicate a modification of the
normal tempo_ of a movement, these being divided into two classes, (a)
those terms which indicate in general a slower tempo, and (b) those
which indicate in general a more rapid tempo. The further subdivisions
of these two classes are shown below.

(_a_) Terms indicating a slower tempo.

     1. Terms indicating a _gradual_ retard.

     _Ritenente_, (_rit._), _ritenuto_ (_rit._), _ritardando_
     (_rit._), _rallentando_ (_rall._), _slentando_.

     2. Terms indicating a tempo which is to become definitely
     slower _at once_.

     _Più lento_ (lit. more slowly), _meno mosso_ (lit. less

     3. Terms indicating a slower tempo combined with an increase
     in power.

     _Largando_, _allargando._ These words are both derived from
     _largo_, meaning large, broad.

(For terms indicating both slower tempo and softer tone, see page 59,
Sec. 127.)

     The student should note the difference between groups 1 and 2
     as given above: the terms in group 1 indicate that each
     measure, and even each pulse in the measure, is a little
     slower than the preceding one, while such terms as _più lento_
     and _meno mosso_ indicate a rate of speed becoming instantly
     slower and extending over an entire phrase or passage. Some
     composers (_e.g._, Beethoven and Couperin) have evidently had
     this same distinction in mind between _rallentando_ and
     _ritardando_ on the one hand, and _ritenuto_ and _ritenente_
     on the other, considering the former (_rall._ and _rit._) to
     indicate a gradually slackening speed, and the latter
     (_ritenuto_ and _ritenente_) to indicate a definitely slower
     rate. The majority of composers do not however differentiate
     between them in this way, and it will therefore hardly be
     worth while for the student to try to remember the

(_b_) Terms indicating a more rapid tempo.

     1. Terms indicating a gradual acceleration.

     _Accelerando_, _affrettando_ [Transcriber's Note: Corrected
     misspelling "affretando" in original] (this term implies some
     degree of excitement also), _stringendo_, _poco a poco

     2. Terms indicating a tempo which is to become definitely
     faster at once.

     _Più allegro_, _più tosto_, _più mosso_, _stretto_, _un poco

112. After any modification in tempo (either faster or slower) has been
suggested it is usual to indicate a return to the normal rate by some
such expression as _a tempo_ (lit. in time), _a tempo primo_ (lit. in
the first time), _tempo primo_, or _tempo_.

113. _Tempo rubato_ (or _a tempo rubato_) means literally _in robbed
time_, _i.e._, duration taken from one measure or beat and given to
another, but in modern practice the term is quite generally applied to
any irregularity of rhythm or tempo not definitely indicated in the

The terms _ad libitum_, (_ad lib._), _a piacere_, and _a capriccio_,
also indicate a modification of the tempo at the will of the performer.
_Ad libitum_ means at liberty; _a piacere_, at pleasure; and _a
capriccio_, at the caprice (of the performer).

114. The term _tempo giusto_ is the opposite of _tempo rubato_ (and of
the other terms defined in paragraph 113). It means literally _in exact
time_. (_Tempo giusto_ is sometimes translated _quite rapidly_,[29] but
this is very unusual.)

[Footnote 29: Bussler--Elements of Notation and Harmony, p. 76.]

115. _L'istesso tempo_ means--at the same rate of speed. _E.g._, when a
measure signature changes from 2/4 to 6/8 with a change in beat-note
from a quarter to a dotted-quarter, but with the same tempo carried
through the entire movement.

116. _Tenuto_ (_ten._) indicates that a tone or chord is to be held to
its full value. This word is sometimes used after a staccato passage to
show that the staccato effect is to be discontinued, but is often used
merely as a warning not to slight a melody-tone--_i.e._, to give it its
full value.

117. _Veloce_ means--swiftly, and is applied to brilliant passages
(_e.g._, cadenzas) which are to be played as rapidly as possible without
much regard for measure rhythm. The words _rapidamente_, _brillante_ and
_volante_ (flying) have the same meaning as _veloce_.

118. The following _expressions referring to tempo_ are also in common
use but cannot easily be classified with any of the groups already

     _Con moto_--with motion; _i.e._, not too slow.

     _Pesante_--slowly, heavily.

     _Doppio movimento_--twice as rapid as before.

     _Tempo ordinario_--in ordinary tempo.

     _Tempo commodo_--in convenient tempo.

     _Sempre lento malinconico assai_--always slowly and in a very
     melancholy style.

     _Animando_, _animato_, _con anima_--with animation.


119. _Tempo di marcia_ is given by Riemann (Dictionary of Music, p. 783)
as equivalent to _andante_, M.M. 72-84. The same writer gives _tempo di
menuetto_ as equivalent to _allegretto_, and _tempo di valso_ as
equivalent to _allegro moderato_ (which he regards as indicating a more
rapid tempo than _allegretto_).



120. The word _dynamics_ (cf. dynamic--the opposite of static) as used
in the nomenclature of music has to do with the various degrees of power
(_i.e._, the comparative loudness and softness) of tones.

As in the case of words referring to tempo, the expressions referring to
_dynamics_ are always relative, never absolute; it is possible to
indicate that one measure is to be louder than another, but it is not
possible (nor desirable) to indicate exactly how loud either is to be.
Thus _dynamics_, perhaps even more than tempo, will be seen to depend on
the taste of the performer or conductor.

The following _words referring to dynamics_ are in common use:

     _Pianisissimo_ (_ppp_)--as softly as possible. (It will be
     noted that this is a sort of hyper-superlative of _piano_.)

     _Pianissimo_ (_pp_)--very softly. (The superlative of

     _Piano_ (_p_)--softly.

     _Mezzo piano_ (_mp_)--medium softly.

     _Mezzo forte_ (_mf_)--medium loudly.

     _Forte_ (_f_)--loudly (lit. strong).

     _Fortissimo_ (_ff_)--very loudly. (The superlative of

     _Fortisissimo_ (_fff_)--as loudly as possible.

     The lack of a one-word comparative degree in the case of both
     _piano_ and _forte_ seems to necessitate the hyper-superlative
     degree as given above, but the practice of using four, or even
     five _p_'s or _f_'s is not desirable.

121. The terms defined in Sec. 120 are often combined with others, as

     _Pianissimo possibile_--as softly as possible.

     _Piano assai_--very softly.

     _Fortissimo possibile_--as loudly as possible.

     _Forte piano_ (_fp_)--loud, followed at once by soft.

As in the case of terms relating to tempo, the meaning of many other
expressions relating to _dynamics_ may easily be arrived at by recalling
the list of auxiliary terms quoted under Sec. 96.

122. The terms _sforzando_, _forzando_, _sforzato_ and _forzato_ all
indicate a strong accent on a single tone or chord. These words are
abbreviated as follows:--_sf_,_fz_, and _sfz_, the abbreviation being
placed directly above (sometimes below) the note or chord affected. The
signs [vertical accent symbol] and [horizontal accent symbol] are also
commonly used to indicate such an accent.

     In interpreting these accent marks the student must bear in
     mind again the fact that they have a relative rather than an
     absolute meaning: the mark _sf_ occurring in the midst of a
     _piano_ passage will indicate a much milder form of accent
     than would the same mark occurring in the midst of a _forte_

123. The words _rinforzando_ and _rinforzato_ (abb.--_rinf._ and _rfz._)
mean literally _reinforced_, and are used to indicate a sudden increase
in power usually extending over an entire phrase or passage instead of
applying only to a single tone or chord as in the case of _sforzando_,

124. _Crescendo_ (abb.--_cresc._ or [crescendo symbol]) means a gradual
increase in power. It will be noted that this word does not mean _loud_,
nor does it mean a sudden increase in power unless accompanied by some
auxiliary term such as _subito_, or _molto_.

Broadly speaking there are _two varieties of crescendo_: (1) that in
which the same tone increases in power while being prolonged; (2) that
in which succeeding tones are each sounded more strongly than the
preceding one. The first variety is possible only on instruments giving
forth a tone which can be varied _after it begins_. Thus _e.g._, the
human voice, the violin, the organ enclosed in a swell box, and certain
wind instruments, are all capable of sounding a tone softly at first and
gradually increasing the volume until the maximal point of power has
been reached. But on the piano, organ not enclosed in a swell-box,
kettle drum, etc., the power of the tone cannot be varied after the
tone has once been sounded, and a _crescendo_ effect is therefore
possible only in a _passage_, in rendering which each succeeding tone is
struck more forcibly than its immediate predecessor. This second variety
of _crescendo_ offers a means of dramatic effect which may be employed
most strikingly, as _e.g._, when a long passage begins very softly and
increases in power little by little until the utmost resources of the
instrument or orchestra have been reached. A notable example of such an
effect is found in the transition from the third to the fourth movements
of the Beethoven Fifth Symphony.

     The difference between _sforzando_, _rinforzando_, and
     _crescendo_ should now be noted: _sforzando_ indicates that a
     single tone or chord is to be louder; _rinforzando_, that an
     entire passage is to be louder, beginning with its first tone;
     but _crescendo_ indicates that there is to be a gradual
     increase in power, this increase sometimes occurring during
     the sounding of a single tone, but more often in a passage.

125. Certain _combinations of the word crescendo_ with other words are
so common that they should be especially noted. Among these are:

     _Crescendo al fortissimo_--keep on gradually increasing in
     power until the fortissimo (or very loud) point has been

     _Crescendo subito_--increase in power suddenly (or rapidly).

     _Crescendo poco a poco_--increase in power very, very

     _Crescendo poi diminuendo_--first increase, then diminish the

     _Crescendo e diminuendo_--same as _cresc. poi dim._

     _Crescendo molto_--increase in power very greatly.

     _Crescendo ed animando poco a poco_--growing gradually louder
     in tone and quicker in _tempo_.

     _Crescendo ed affrettando_--gradually louder and faster.
     [Transcriber's Note: Corrected misspelling "affretando" in

     _Crescendo poco a poco sin al fine_--crescendo gradually even
     up to the very end.

126. _Decrescendo_ (_decresc._ or [decrescendo symbol]) means a gradual
diminishing of the tone. It is the opposite of _crescendo_. The word
_diminuendo_ is synonymous with _decrescendo_.

_Decrescendo_ (or _diminuendo_) _al pianissimo_ means--decrease
gradually in power until the _pianissimo_ (or very soft) point is

127. A number of _terms referring to both softer tone and slower tempo_
are in use. The most common of these are:--_mancando_, _moriente_,[30]
_morendo_, _perdendo_ (from _perdere_--to lose), _perdendosi_,
_calando_, and _smorzando_.[31] Such expressions are usually
translated--"gradually dying away."

[Footnote 30: Both _moriente_ and _morendo_ mean literally--_dying_.]

[Footnote 31: From _smorzare_ (It.)--to extinguish.]

128. In piano music the abbreviation _Ped._ indicates that the damper
pedal (the one at the right) is to be depressed, while the sign [damper
release symbol] shows that it is to be released. In many modern editions
this depression and release of the damper pedal are more accurately
indicated by the sign [damper symbol].

     The term _senza sordini_ is also occasionally found in old
     editions, indicating that the damper pedal is to be depressed,
     while _con sordini_ shows that it is to be released. These
     expressions are taken from a usage in music for stringed
     instruments, in which the term _con sordini_ means that the
     mute (a small clamp of metal, ivory or hardwood) is to be
     affixed to the bridge, this causing a modification in both
     power and quality of the tone. The damper on the piano does
     not in any way correspond to the mute thus used on stringed
     instruments, and the terms above explained as sometimes
     occurring in piano music are not to be recommended, even
     though Beethoven used them in this sense in all his earlier

129. The words _una corda_ (lit.--one string) indicate that the "soft
pedal" (the one at the left) is to be depressed, while the words _tre
corde_ (lit. three strings) or _tutte le corde_ (all the strings) show
that the same pedal is to be released. These expressions refer to the
fact that on grand pianos the "soft pedal" when depressed moves the
hammers to one side so that instead of striking three strings they
strike only two (in the older pianos only one, hence _una corda_), all
three strings (_tre corde_) being struck again after the release of the

130. Other terms relating either directly or indirectly to the subject
of dynamics are:

     _Con alcuna licenza_--with some degree of license.

     _Con amore_--with tenderness.

     _Con bravura_--with boldness.

     _Con celerita_--with rapidity.

     _Con delicato_--with delicacy.

     _Con energico_--with energy.

     _Con espressione_--with expression.

     _Con forza_--with force.

     _Con fuoco_--with fire and passion.

     _Con grand' espressione_--with great expression.

     _Con grazia_--with grace.

     _Con melinconia_--with melancholy. [Transcriber's Note:
     archaic form of "malinconia".]

     _Con passione_--with passion.

     _Con spirito_--with spirit.

     _Con tenerezza_--with tenderness.


     _Dolce_--sweetly, gently.

     _Dolcissimo_--most sweetly.

     _Dolce e cantabile_--gently and with singing tone.

     _Dolente_  }
     _Doloroso_ } plaintively or sorrowfully.


     _Grandioso_--grandly, pompously.


     _Giocoso_--humorously, (cf. jocose).

     _Giojoso_--joyfully, (cf. joyous).

     _Lacrimando_, _lacrimoso_--sorrowfully.



     _Leggierissimo_--most lightly; almost a staccato.

     _Lusingando_--caressingly, coaxingly, tenderly.

     _Maesta_, _maestoso_--majestically.

     _Martellando_, _martellato_--strongly accented,



     _Mezzo voce_--with half voice.


     _Parlando_--well accented or enunciated; applied to melody
     playing. (The word parlando means literally-speaking.)

     _Pastorale_--in simple and unaffected style, (lit.--pastoral,



     _Recitativo_--well enunciated. (This meaning applies only in
     instrumental music in which a melody is to stand out above the
     accompaniment. For def. of recitative in vocal music, see p.

     _Risoluto_--firmly, resolutely.

     _Scherzando_, _scherzoso_, etc.--jokingly. These terms are
     derived from the word _scherzo_ meaning _a musical joke_.


     _Sempre marcatissimo_--always well marked, _i.e._, strongly

     _Sentimento_--with sentiment.


     _Sotto voce_--in subdued voice.

     _Spiritoso_--with spirit.




131. Many other terms are encountered which on their face sometimes seem
to be quite formidable, but which yield readily to analysis. Thus
_e.g._, _crescendo poco a poco al forte ed un pochettino accelerando_,
is seen to mean merely--"increase gradually to _forte_ and accelerate a
very little bit." A liberal application of common sense will aid greatly
in the interpretation of such expressions.



132. A _form_ in music is a specific arrangement of the various parts of
a composition resulting in a structure so characteristic that it is
easily recognized by the ear. Thus _e.g._, although every fugue is
different from all other fugues in actual material, yet the arrangement
of the various parts is so characteristic that no one who knows the
_fugue form_ has any doubt as to what kind of a composition he is
hearing whenever a fugue is played. The word _form_ is therefore seen to
be somewhat synonymous with the word _plan_ as used in architecture; it
is the structure or design underlying music. Examples of form are the
canon, the fugue, the sonata, etc.

     Speaking broadly we may say that _form_ in any art consists in
     the placing together of certain parts in such relations of
     proportion and symmetry as to make a unified whole. In music
     this implies unity of tonality and of general rhythmic effect,
     as well as unity in the grouping of the various parts of the
     work (phrases, periods, movements) so as to weld them into one
     whole, giving the impression of completeness to the hearer.

133. The primal _basis of form_ is the repetition of some characteristic
effect, and the problem of the composer is to bring about these
repetitions in such a way that the ear will recognize them as being the
same material and will nevertheless not grow weary of them. This is
accomplished by varying the material (cf. thematic development), by
introducing contrasting material, and by choice of key.

134. The student should note at the outset of this topic the _difference
in meaning between_ the terms _form_ and _style_: A _form_ is a plan
for building a certain definite kind of composition, but a _style_ is
merely a manner of writing. Thus _e.g._, the _fugue_ is a
_form_--_i.e._, it is a plan, which although capable of variation in
details, is yet carried out fairly definitely in every case; but
_counterpoint_ is merely a _style_ or manner of writing (just as Gothic
architecture is a style of building), which may be cast into any one of
several _forms_.

135. The material found in the following sections is an attempt to
explain in simple language certain terms relating to _forms_ and
_styles_ which are in common use; in many cases the definition is too
meagre to give anything but a very general idea, but it is hoped that
the student will at least be set to thinking and that he will eventually
be led to a more detailed and scholarly study of the subject. (The
article "Form" and the separate articles under each term here defined,
as found in Grove's Dictionary, are especially recommended. For examples
of the various forms described, see also Mason and Surette--"The
Appreciation of Music," Supplementary Volume.)

136. In a very general way there may be said to be _two styles of
musical composition_, the monophonic (or homophonic)--the
one-voiced--and the polyphonic--the many voiced. The polyphonic[32]
style antedates the monophonic historically.

[Footnote 32: Polyphonic music flourished from 1000 A.D. to about 1750
A.D., the culmination of the polyphonic period being reached in the
music of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven,
and the later writers have used the monophonic style more than the
polyphonic, although a combination of the two is often found, as _e.g._,
in the later works of Beethoven.]

137. In _monophonic music_ there is one voice which has a pronounced
melody, the other voices (if present) supporting this melody as a
harmonic (and often rhythmic) background. An example of this is the
ordinary hymn-tune with its melody in the highest part, and with three
other voices forming a "four-part harmony." The sonata, symphony, opera,
modern piano piece, etc., are also largely _monophonic_, though
polyphonic passages by way of contrast are often to be found.

138. In _polyphonic music_ each voice is to a certain extent melodically
interesting, and the "harmony" is the result of combining several
melodies in such a way as to give a pleasing effect, instead of treating
a melody by adding chords as an accompaniment or support. Counterpoint,
canon, round, fugue, etc., are all _polyphonic_ in style. The word
_contrapuntal_ is often used synonymously with _polyphonic_.

     (Sections 139 to 143 relate especially to terms describing
     polyphonic music.)

139. _Counterpoint_ is the art of adding one or more parts or melodies
to a given melody, the latter being known as the "cantus firmus," or
subject. It may therefore be broadly defined as "the art of combining

     The word _counterpoint_ comes from the three words "_punctus
     contra punctum_," meaning "point against point." The word
     point as here used refers to the _punctus_--one of the neumae
     of the mediaeval system, these neumae being the immediate
     predecessors of modern notes.

     Both vocal and instrumental music have been written in
     contrapuntal style. The familiar two- and three-part
     "inventions" by Bach are excellent examples of instrumental
     counterpoint, while such choruses as those in "The Messiah" by
     Handel illustrate the highest type of vocal counterpoint.

140. _Imitation_ is the repetition by one part, of a subject or theme
previously introduced by another part. If the imitation is exact, the
term _strict imitation_ is applied, but if only approximate, then the
term _free imitation_ is used in referring to it. The repetition need
not have the exact pitches of the subject in order to be _strict_; on
the contrary the imitation is usually at the interval of an octave, or a
fifth, or a second, etc. Fig. 57 shows an example of strict imitation in
which the _third_ part comes in an octave _lower_ than the first part.

141. A _canon_ is a contrapuntal composition in the style of strict
imitation, one part repeating exactly (but at any interval) what another
part has played or sung. The term "canonic style" is sometimes applied
to music in which the imitation is not exact. An example of three-part
canon is given in Fig. 57.


Fig. 57. MOZART]

     The word _canon_ means _law_, and was applied to this
     particular form of composition because the rules relating to
     its composition were invariable. It is because of this
     non-flexibility that the _canon_ is so little used as a form
     at the present time: the modern composer demands a plan of
     writing that is capable of being varied to such an extent as
     to give him room for the exercise of his own particular
     individuality of conception, and this the _canon_ does not do.
     For this same reason too the fugue and the sonata have
     successively gone out of fashion and from Schumann down to the
     present time composers have as it were created their own
     forms, the difficulty in listening arising from the fact that
     no one but the composer himself could recognize the form _as_
     a form because it had not been adopted to a great enough
     extent by other composers to make it in any sense universal.
     The result is that in much present-day music it is very
     difficult for the hearer to discover any trace of familiar
     design, and the impression made by such music is in
     consequence much less definite than that made by music of the
     classic school. It is probable that a reaction from this state
     of affairs will come in the near future, for in any art it is
     necessary that there should be at least enough semblance of
     structure to make the art work capable of standing as a
     universal thing rather than as the mere temporary expression
     of some particular composer or of some period of composition.

142. The common _school round_ is an example of canon, each voice
repeating exactly what the first voice has sung, while this first voice
is going on with its melody. The _round_ is therefore defined as a
variety of canon in which the imitation is always in unison with the

143. The _fugue_ (Latin, _fuga_ = flight) is a form of contrapuntal
composition in which the imitation is always in the dominant key,
_i.e._, a fifth above or a fourth below. The imitation (called "the
answer") may be an exact repetition of the subject (sometimes called
"the question"), but is usually not so.

     The _fugue_ differs from the canon also in that the subject is
     given in complete form before the answer begins, while in the
     canon the imitation begins while the subject is still going
     on. The _fugue_ is not nearly so strict in form as the canon
     and gives the composer much greater opportunity for expressing
     musical ideas. A canon may be perfect in _form_ and yet be
     very poor music; this same statement might of course be made
     about any form, but is especially true in the stricter ones.



     (Sections 144 to 160 relate particularly to terms used in
     descriptions of _monophonic_ music[33].)

[Footnote 33: There is a very pronounced disagreement among theorists as
to what terms are to be used in referring to certain forms and parts of
forms and it seems impossible to make a compromise that will satisfy
even a reasonable number. In order to make the material in this chapter
consistent with itself therefore it has been thought best by the author
to follow the terminology of some single recognized work on form, and
the general plan of monophonic form here given is therefore that of the
volume called _Musical Form_, by Bussler-Cornell.]

144. A _phrase_ is a short musical thought (at least two measures in
length) closing with either a complete or an incomplete cadence. The
typical _phrase_ is four measures long. The two-measure _phrase_ is
often called _section_. The word _phrase_ as used in music terminology
corresponds with the same word as used in language study.

145. A _period_ is a little piece of music typically eight measures
long, either complete in itself or forming one of the clearly defined
divisions of a larger form. The _period_ (when complete in itself) is
the smallest monophonic form.

The essential characteristic of the _regular period_ is the fact that it
usually consists of two balanced phrases (often called _antecedent_ and
_consequent_ or _thesis_ and _antithesis_), the first phrase giving rise
to the feeling of incompleteness (by means of a cadence in another key,
deceptive cadence, etc.,) the second phrase giving the effect of
completeness by means of a definite cadence at the close.

     The second half of the period is sometimes a literal
     repetition of the first half, in all respects except the
     cadence, but in many cases too it is a repetition of only one
     of the elements--rhythm, intervals, or general outline. Figs.
     58 and 59 show examples of both types. The principle almost
     invariably holds that the simpler the music (cf. folk-tunes)
     the more obvious the form of the period, while the more
     complex the music, the less regular the period.

[Illustration: Fig. 58. MOZART]

[Illustration: Fig. 59. SCHUBERT]

146. The _primary forms_ are built up by combining two or more periods.

The _small two-part primary form_ (often called _song-form_ or
_Lied-form_) consists of two periods so placed that the second
constitutes a consequent or antithesis to the first. The second half of
this second period is often exactly the same as the second half of the
first period, thus binding the two periods together into absolute unity.
The theme of the choral movement of the Ninth Symphony (Beethoven)
quoted below is a perfect example of this form. Other examples are
"Drink to Me Only With Thine Eyes," and "The Last Rose of Summer."

[Illustration: BEETHOVEN]

The _small three-part primary form_ is like the two-part primary form
except that it has a section of contrasting material interpolated
between the two periods. This middle part is usually an eight-measure

The _large two- and three-part primary forms_ usually have
sixteen-measure periods instead of eight-measure ones, but are otherwise
similar in construction.

     These various _primary forms_ are used in constructing many
     varieties of compositions, among them the _theme and
     variations_, the _polka_, the _waltz_, the _march_, etc., as
     well as most of the shorter movements in sonatas, quartets,
     etc. They are used in vocal music also, but are less apt to be
     regular here because the form of vocal music is largely
     dependent upon the structure of the text.

147. A _theme_ is a fragment of melody used as the subject of a fugue,
as the basis of the development section in "sonata form," etc. Sometimes
it is a complete tune (often in period form), on which variations are
made, as _e.g._, in the familiar _theme and variations_.

148. _Thematic development_ consists in taking a short theme (or several
short themes) and by means of transposition, interval expansion and
contraction, rhythmic augmentation and diminution, inversion, tonality
changes, etc., building out of it a lengthy composition or section of a
composition. Fig. 60 _b_, _c_, _d_, _e_, and _f_ show how the theme
given in Fig. 60 (_a_) may be varied in a few of these ways. There are
hundreds of other fashions in which this same theme might be varied
without destroying its identity. For other examples of thematic
development see the development section of Sonata Op. 31, No. 3, as
analyzed in Appendix E. [Transcriber's Note: Corrected error "Sec. 3" in

[Illustration: Fig. 60.]

     For further illustrations of development in the case of this
     same theme, see--Christiani--The Principles of Expression in
     Pianoforte playing, p. 144, ff. from which the foregoing
     themes have been adapted.

149. A _rondo_ is an instrumental composition (in homophonic style) in
which a certain theme appears several times almost always in the same
form (_i.e._, not thematically varied), the repetitions of this theme
being separated by contrasting material.

The _rondo_ is the oldest of the larger monophonic forms and has been
used in many different ways, but perhaps its most characteristic
construction is as follows: (1) Principal subject; (2) second subject in
dominant key; (3) principal subject; (4) third subject; (5) first
subject again; (6) second subject, in _tonic key_; (7) coda (or ending).

The student should note particularly the problem of repetition and
contrast (mentioned in Sec. 134) as here worked out, as the rondo was
the first monophonic form in which this matter was at all satisfactorily
solved, and its construction is especially interesting because it is
readily seen to be one of the direct predecessors of the highest form of
all--the sonata. Examples of rondos may be found in any volume of
sonatas or sonatinas.

150. A _suite_ is a set of instrumental dances all in the same or in
nearly related keys. The first dance is usually preceded by an
introduction or prelude, and the various dances are so grouped as to
secure contrast of movement--a quick dance being usually followed by a
slower one.

     The suite is interesting to students of the development of
     music as being the first form _in several movements_ to be
     generally adopted by composers. It retained its popularity
     from the beginning of the seventeenth to the end of the
     eighteenth centuries, being finally displaced by the sonata,
     whose immediate predecessor it is thus seen to be.

The _suite_ was formerly written for solo instrument only (harpsichord,
clavichord, piano) but modern composers like Dvo[vr]ák, Lachner,
Moszkowski, and others have written suites for full orchestra also.

151. Among the dances commonly found in suites are the following:

     _Allemande_--duple or quadruple measure.

     _Bolero_--triple measure.

     _Bourée_--duple or quadruple measure.

     _Chaconne_--triple measure.

     _Courante_--a very old dance in triple measure.

     _Csardas_--Hungarian dance in duple or quadruple measure.

     _Gavotte_--quadruple measure.

     _Gigue_ (or _jig_)--duple measure.

     _Habanera_--Spanish dance in triple measure.

     _Minuet_--slow dance in triple measure.

     _Mazurka_--Polish dance in triple measure.

     _Polonaise_--Polish dance in triple measure.

     _Rigaudon_--lively dance in duple or triple measure.

     _Sarabande_--triple measure.

     _Tarantella_--swift Italian dance in sextuple measure.

The _allemande_ is especially interesting to students of music form
because of its relation to the sonata, it being the prototype of the
sonata-allegro (_i.e._, the first movement of the sonata). The
_sarabande_ and _courante_ are likewise interesting as the prototypes of
the second movement, and the _bourée_, _minuet_, etc., for their
connection with the third movement.

152. The _scherzo_ (lit. musical joke) is a fanciful instrumental
composition. It was used by Beethoven as the third movement of the
sonata instead of the more limited minuet, but is also often found as an
independent piece.

153. A _sonata_ is an instrumental composition of three or more
movements (usually four), the first and last of which are almost always
in rapid tempo. Each of these movements is a piece of music with a unity
of its own, but they are all merged together in a larger whole with a
broad underlying unity of larger scope. The composition receives its
name from the fact that its first movement is cast in _sonata-form_.
(See Sec. 157 for description of sonata-form.)

When the _sonata_ has four movements, these are usually arranged as

     1. A quick movement (_allegro_, _presto_, etc.), often
     preceded by a slower introduction.

     2. A slow movement (_largo_, _andante_, _adagio_, etc.).

     3. A minuet or scherzo, often with a trio added, in which case
     the part preceding the trio is repeated after the trio is

     4. A quick movement--the finale, sometimes a rondo, sometimes
     another sonata-form, sometimes a theme with variations.

These movements are all in closely related keys, but in a variety of
contrasting rhythms.

154. A _trio_ is a sonata for three instruments (such as piano, violin,
and cello), while a _quartet_ is a sonata for four instruments, the most
common quartet combination being as follows: First and second violins,
viola, and violoncello.

The term _chamber music_ is often applied to instrumental music for
trio, quartet, quintet, and other similar combinations which are
suitable for a small room rather than for a large concert hall.

     The words _trio_ and _quartet_ are also applied to vocal works
     for three and four voices respectively, these having no
     relation whatsoever to the sonata as described above. The word
     _trio_ is also applied to the middle section of minuets,
     scherzas, marches, etc., the term originating in the old usage
     of writing this part for three instruments only.

155. A _concerto_ is a sonata for a solo instrument with orchestral
accompaniment, the form being usually somewhat modified so as to adapt
it to a composition in which there must necessarily be opportunity for
a good deal of technical display. There are usually but three movements
in the _concerto_.

     The great majority of _concertos_ are for piano and orchestra,
     but examples of concertos for violin, cello, flute, oboe, and
     other solo instruments (all with orchestral accompaniment)
     have also been written. A few modern composers have applied
     the term _concerto_ to certain large organ works (with no
     orchestral accompaniment, the composition being written for
     just the one instrument), but this use of the word is so
     contrary to the accepted definition that it is hardly

     When a concerto is played on two pianos (without orchestra),
     this does not mean that there is no orchestral part, but that
     there is no orchestra to play it, and so the parts that should
     be played by the orchestral instruments have simply been
     arranged for a second piano (sometimes organ).

156. A _symphony_ is a sonata for full orchestra. In general its
construction is the same as that of the sonata, but it is usually of
much larger proportions and has in it much greater variety of both tonal
and rhythmic material. The symphony is generally conceded to be the
highest type of instrumental music ever evolved.

     The _symphony_ was accepted as a standard form in the time of
     Haydn (1732-1809) and was developed enormously by Haydn
     himself, Mozart (1756-1791), and Beethoven (1770-1827),
     reaching perhaps its highest point in the famous "Nine
     Symphonies" of the last-named composer. Later symphony writers
     whose works are at present being performed include Schumann,
     Tschaikowsky, and Dvo[vr]ák.

The word _symphony_ was formerly used synonymously with _ritornelle_,
both words being applied to instrumental interludes between parts of
vocal works, but this usage has now entirely disappeared.

157. _Sonata-form_ (sometimes called _sonata-allegro_) is a plan for the
construction of instrumental music (sonatas, quartets, symphonies,
etc.), in which three rather definite divisions always occur, the third
division being a more or less literal repetition of the first.

     These _three parts of sonata-form_ with their usual
     subdivisions are:


        (1) Principal theme (or first subject).

        (2) Link-episode (or modulation group).

        (3) Secondary theme (or song group), always in a nearly
            related key.

        (4) Closing group.

        (5) Coda.


     Treating the themes introduced in the exposition in an almost
     infinite variety of fashions, according to the principles of
     thematic development. (See Sec. 148).


     Consisting essentially of the same subdivisions found in the
     _exposition_, but differing from this first section in one
     essential point, viz., that instead of stating the secondary
     theme in a _related_ key, the entire recapitulation is in the
     _principal_ key. This third section is always followed by a
     coda (which may either be very short or quite extended),
     bringing the whole movement to a more definite close.

     The second part of _sonata-form_ (the development section) is
     sometimes the longest and most intricate of the three
     divisions, and it is at this point that the composer has an
     opportunity of displaying to the full his originality and
     inventive skill. It is principally because of this development
     section that the sonata is so far superior as a _form_ to its
     predecessors. For an analyzed example of _sonata-form_, see
     Appendix E. The student is advised to take other sonatas and
     go through the first movements with a view to finding at least
     the three main divisions mentioned above. In some cases the
     form will of course be so irregular that all the parts
     indicated cannot be discovered, but the general outlines of
     the scheme will always be present.

158. A _sonatina_, as its name implies, is a little sonata. It differs
from the sonata proper principally in having little or no development,
the second section being of slight importance as compared with the
corresponding section of a sonata.

A _grand sonata_ is like an ordinary sonata in form, but is of unusually
large dimensions.

159. _Program music_ is instrumental music which is supposed to convey
to the listener an image or a succession of images that will arouse in
him certain emotions which have been previously aroused in the
composer's mind by some scene, event, or idea. The clue to the general
idea is usually given at the beginning of the music in the form of a
poem or a short description of the thing in the mind of the composer,
but there are many examples in which there is no clue whatsoever except
the title of the composition.

     _Program music_ represents a mean between _pure music_ (cf.
     the piano sonata or the string quartet) on the one hand, and
     _descriptive music_ (in which actual imitations of bird-calls,
     whistles, the blowing of the wind, the galloping of horses,
     the rolling of thunder, etc., occur), on the other. Most
     program music is written for the orchestra, examples being
     Liszt's "The Preludes," Strauss' "Till Eulenspiegel," etc.

160. A _symphonic poem_ (or _tone poem_) is an orchestral composition of
large dimensions (resembling the symphony in size), usually embodying
the program idea. It has no prescribed form and seems indeed to be often
characterized by an almost total lack of design, but there are also
examples of symphonic poems in which the same theme runs throughout the
entire composition, being adapted at the various points at which it
occurs to the particular moods expressed by the _program_ at those

     The _symphonic poem_ was invented by Liszt (1811-1886) and has
     since been used extensively by Strauss, Saint-Saëns and
     others. It came into existence as a part of the general
     movement which has caused the fugue and the sonata
     successively to go out of fashion, viz., the tendency to
     invent forms which would not hamper the composer in any way,
     but would leave him absolutely free to express his ideas in
     his own individual way.



161. An _anthem_ is a sacred choral composition, usually based on
Biblical or liturgical[34] words. It may or may not have an instrumental
accompaniment, and is usually written in four parts, but may have five,
six, eight, or more.

[Footnote 34: A _liturgy_ is a prescribed form or method of conducting a
religious service, and the parts sung in such a service (as _e.g._, the
holy communion, baptism, etc.), are referred to as the _musical_

     The word _anthem_ is derived from _antifona_ (or _antiphona_),
     meaning a psalm or hymn sung responsively, _i.e._,
     _antiphonally_, by two choirs, or by choir and congregation.

A _full anthem_ is one containing no solo parts; a _solo anthem_ is one
in which the solo part is predominant over the chorus, while a _verse
anthem_ is one in which the chorus parts alternate with passages for
concerted solo voices (_i.e._, trios, quartets, etc.).

162. _A capella_ (sometimes spelled _cappella_) or _alla capella music_
is part-singing (either sacred or secular) without accompaniment.

     This term means literally "in chapel style," and refers to the
     fact that in the early days of the church all singing was

163. _A motet_ is a sacred choral composition in contrapuntal style. It
has no solo parts, thus corresponding to the madrigal (q.v.) in secular
music. The motet is intended for _a capella_ performance, but is often
given with organ accompaniment.

164. A _choral_ is a hymn-tune of the German Protestant Church. It is
usually harmonized in four voices. The _choral_ (sometimes spelled
_chorale_) is described as having "a plain melody, a strong harmony, and
a stately rhythm." It differs from the ordinary English and American
hymn-tune in being usually sung at a much slower tempo, and in having a
pause at the end of each line of text.

165. The _mass_ is the liturgy for the celebration of the Lord's Supper
in the service of the Roman Catholic Church. As used in the terminology
of music the word refers to the six hymns which are always included when
a composer writes a musical _mass_, and which form the basis of the
celebration of the Communion.[35] These six hymns are as follows:

[Footnote 35: It should be understood that this statement refers to the
service called "the high mass" only, there being no music at all in
connection with the so-called "low mass."]


     _Gloria_ (including the _Gratias agimus_, _Qui tollis_,
     _Quoniam_, _Cum Sancto Spirito_).

     _Credo_ (including the _Et Incarnatus_, _Crucifixus_, and _Et

     _Sanctus_ (including the _Hosanna_).


     _Agnus Dei_ (including the _Dona nobis_).

     The _requiem mass_ is the "mass for the dead" and differs
     considerably from the ordinary mass. Both regular and requiem
     _masses_ have been written by many of the great composers
     (Bach, Beethoven, Verdi, Gounod), and in many cases these
     _masses_ are so complex that they are not practicable for the
     actual service of the Church, and are therefore performed only
     by large choral societies, as concert works.

166. A _cantata_ is a vocal composition for chorus and soloists, the
text being either sacred or secular. The accompaniment may be written
for piano, organ, or orchestra.

     When sacred in character the _cantata_ differs from the
     oratorio in being shorter and less dramatic, in not usually
     having definite characters, and in being written for church
     use, while the oratorio is intended for concert performance.

     When secular in subject the _cantata_ differs from the opera
     in not usually having definite characters, and in being always
     rendered without scenery or action.

     Examples of the _sacred cantata_ are: Stainer's "The
     Crucifixion," Clough-Leighter's "The Righteous Branch," and
     Gaul's "The Holy City." Examples of the _secular cantata_ are:
     Bruch's "Armenius," Coleridge-Taylor's "Hiawatha."

167. An _oratorio_ is a composition on a large scale for chorus,
soloists, and orchestra, the text usually dealing with some religious
subject. The _oratorio_, as noted above, is not intended for the church
service, but is written for concert performance.

168. An _opera_ is a composition for vocal soloists, chorus, and
orchestra, with characters, action, scenery, and dramatic movement. It
is a drama set to music.

     _Grand opera_ is opera with a serious plot, in which
     everything is sung, there being no spoken dialog at all.

     _Opera comique_ is a species of opera in which part of the
     dialog is spoken and part sung. _Opera comique_ is not
     synonymous with _comic opera_, for the plot of opera comique
     is as often serious as not. In fact the entire distinction
     between the terms _grand opera_ and _opera comique_ is being
     broken down, the latter term referring merely to operas first
     given at the Opera Comique in Paris, and the former term to
     those given at the Grand Opera House in the same city.

     A _comic opera_ is a humorous opera, the plot providing many
     amusing situations and the whole ending happily. It
     corresponds with the _comedy_ in literature.

     A _light opera_ is one with an exceedingly trivial plot, in
     which songs, dances, and pretty scenery contribute to the
     amusement of the audience. The music is lively, but usually as
     trivial as the plot.

     The term _music drama_ was used by Wagner in referring to his
     own _operas_, and is also sometimes applied to other modern
     _operas_ in which the dramatic element is supposed to
     predominate over the musical.

169. A _libretto_ (lit.--little book) is the word-text of an opera,
oratorio, cantata, or some other similar work.

170. _Recitative_ is a style of vocal solo common to operas, oratorios,
and cantatas, especially those written some time ago. Its main
characteristic is that the word-text is of paramount importance, both
rhythm and tone-progression being governed by rhetorical rather than by
musical considerations.

     _Recitative_ undoubtedly originated in the intoning of the
     priest in the ritualistic service of the Church, but when
     applied to the opera it became an important means of securing
     dramatic effects, especially in situations in which the action
     of the play moved along rapidly. _Recitative_ is thus seen to
     be a species of musical declamation.

     In the early examples of _recitative_ there was scarcely any
     accompaniment, often only one instrument (like the cello)
     being employed to play a sort of obbligato melody: when full
     chords were played they were not written out in the score, but
     were merely indicated in a more or less general way by certain
     signs and figures. (See "thorough-bass," p. 85, Sec. 200.)

     But about the middle of the seventeenth century a slightly
     different style of _recitative_ was invented, and in this type
     the orchestra was employed much more freely in the
     accompaniment, especially in the parts between the phrases of
     the text, but to some extent also to support the voice while
     singing. This new style was called _recitativo stromento_
     (_i.e._, accompanied recitative), while the original type was
     called _recitativo secco_ (_i.e._, dry recitative).

     During the last century the style of _recitative_ has been
     still further developed by Gluck and Wagner, both of whom used
     the orchestra as an independent entity, with interesting
     melodies, harmonies and rhythms all its own, while the vocal
     part is a sort of obbligato to this accompaniment. But even in
     this latest phase of _recitative_, it is the word-text that
     decides the style of both melody and rhythm in the voice part.
     Fig. 61 shows an example of _dry recitative_, taken from "The

     [Illustration: ALTO VOICE. Be-hold! a vir-gin shall con-ceive,
     and bear a son, and shall call his name Em-man-u-el; God with

171. _Aria_ is likewise a style of vocal solo found in operas, etc., but
its predominating characteristic is diametrically opposed to that of the
recitative. In the _aria_ the word-text is usually entirely subordinate
to the melody, and the latter is often very ornate, containing trills,
runs, etc.

The rendition of this ornate style of music is often referred to as
"coloratura singing," but it should be noted that not all _arias_ are
coloratura in style.

     The familiar solos from The Messiah--"Rejoice Greatly," and
     "The trumpet shall sound" are good examples of the aria style.

172. A _lied_ (Ger. = song) is a vocal solo in which the text, the
melody, and the accompaniment contribute more or less equally to the
effect of the whole.

     Strictly speaking the word _lied_ means "a poem to be sung,"
     and this meaning will explain at once the difference between
     the _lied_ on the one hand, and the Italian recitative and
     aria on the other, for in the _lied_ the text is of great
     importance, but the music is also interesting, while in the
     recitative the text was important but the music very slight,
     and in the aria the text was usually inconsequential while the
     music held the center of interest.

The most pronounced characteristic of the _lied_ is the fact that it
usually portrays a single mood, sentiment, or picture, thus differing
from the ballad, which is narrative in style. It will be noted that this
"single mood, or sentiment, or picture" was originally conceived by the
poet who wrote the word-text, and that the composer in writing music to
this text has first tried to get at the thought of the poet, and has
then attempted to compose music which would intensify and make more
vivid that thought. This intensification of the poet's thought comes as
often through the rhythm, harmony, and dynamics of the accompaniment as
through the expressiveness of the voice part.

     The style of song-writing in which each verse is sung to the
     same tune is called the "strophe form," while that in which
     each verse has a different melody is often referred to as the
     "continuous" or "through-composed" form (Ger.

173. A _ballad_ was originally a short, simple song, the words being in
narrative style, _i.e._, the word-text telling a story. In the earlier
_ballads_ each verse of the poem was usually sung to the same tune
(strophe form), but in the _art-ballad_ as developed by Loewe and others
the continuous style of composition is employed, this giving the
composer greater opportunities of making vivid through his music the
events described by the poem. These later _ballads_ are in consequence
neither "short" nor "simple" but compare in structure with the lied

174. A _folk-song_ is a short song sung by and usually originating among
the common people. Its dominant characteristic is usually _simplicity_,
this applying to word-text, melody, and accompaniment (if there is one).
The text of the _folk-song_ is usually based on some event connected
with ordinary life, but there are also many examples in which historical
and legendary happenings are dealt with. Auld Lang Syne, and Comin' thru
the Rye, are examples of _folk-songs_.

     There has been some difference of opinion as to whether a
     song, the composer of which is known, can ever constitute a
     real _folk-song_: recent writers seem to be taking the
     sensible view of the matter, viz.: that if a song has the
     characteristics of a folk- rather than an art-song, and if it
     remains popular for some time among the common people, then it
     is just as much a _folk-song_ whether the composer happens to
     be known or not.

175. A _madrigal_ is a secular vocal composition having from three to
eight parts. It is in contrapuntal style, like the motet, and is usually
sung a capella.

176. A _glee_ is a vocal composition in three or more parts, being
usually more simple in style than the madrigal, and sometimes having
more than one movement. The _glee_ may be either gay or sad in mood, and
seems to be a composition peculiar to the English people.

177. A _part-song_ is a composition for two or more voices, (usually
four) to be sung a capella. It is written in monophonic rather than in
polyphonic style, thus differing from the madrigal and glee. Morley's
"Now is the Month of Maying" is an example of the _part-song_, as is
also Sullivan's "O Hush Thee, My Baby." The term _part-song_ is often
loosely applied to glees, madrigals, etc.



178. The _four elements_ commonly attributed to music (in the order of
their development) are: Rhythm, Melody, Harmony, and Timbre (or

179. _Rhythm_ is the regular recurrence of accent. In music it is more
specifically the regular recurrence of groups of accented and
non-accented beats (or pulses)--according to some specified
measure-system. Since rhythm implies continuity, there must usually be
at least two such measure groups in order to make musical rhythm
possible. (See p. 44, Sec. 97.)

180. A _melody_ is a succession of single tones of various pitches so
arranged that the effect of the whole will be unified, coherent, and
pleasing to the ear.

     The soprano part of hymn-tunes and other simple harmonized
     compositions is often referred to as "the melody."

181. _Harmony_ is the science of chord construction and combination.

     The term _harmony_ refers to tones sounding simultaneously,
     _i.e._, to _chords_, as differentiated from tones sounding
     consecutively, as in melody. The word _harmony_ may therefore
     be applied to any group of tones of different pitches sounded
     as a chord, although specifically we usually refer to a
     _succession_ of such chords when we speak of "harmony." It is
     possible to use the same combination of tones in either melody
     or harmony; in fact these two elements as applied to modern
     music have developed together and the style of present-day
     melody is directly based upon the development that has
     recently taken place in harmonic construction.

     _Harmony_ (as contrasted with _counterpoint_) first began to
     be an important factor in music about 1600 A.D., _i.e._, at
     the time when opera and oratorio came into existence, when
     form was established, and when our modern major and minor
     scales were adopted. Before this practically all music was
     composed on a contrapuntal basis.

182. _Timbre_ is that peculiar quality of sound which enables one to
distinguish a tone produced by one instrument (or voice) from a tone
produced by an equal number of vibrations on another instrument.

     The word _timbre_ is synonymous with the terms _quality of
     tone_, and _tone quality_ (Ger.--Klang-farbe), the excuse for
     using it being that it expresses adequately in one word an
     idea that in our language takes at least two: this excuse
     would disappear (and incidentally a much-mispronounced word
     would be eliminated) if the single word _quality_ were to be
     adopted as the equivalent of _timbre_. Thus, _e.g._, the
     soprano voice singing c' has a _quality_ different from the
     contralto voice singing the same tone.

     (The remainder of this chapter and all of Chapter XVIII deal
     with terms commonly encountered in the study of _harmony_.
     Courses in this subject usually begin with a study of scales,
     but since this subject has already been somewhat extensively
     treated, this chapter will omit it, and will begin with the
     next topic in harmony study, viz.--the interval.)

183. An _interval_ is the relation of two tones with regard to pitch. If
the two tones are sounded simultaneously the result is an _harmonic
interval_, but if sounded consecutively the result is a _melodic
interval_. Fig. 62 represents the pitches f' and a' as a harmonic
interval, while Fig. 63 represents the same pitches arranged as a
melodic interval.

[Illustration: Fig. 62.]

[Illustration: Fig. 63.]

184. In classifying intervals two facts should be constantly kept in

     (1) The _number name_ of the interval (third, fifth, sixth,
     etc.), is derived from the order of letters as found in the
     diatonic scale. Thus the interval C--E is a _third_ because E
     is the third tone from C (counting C as one) in the diatonic
     scale. C--G is a _fifth_ because G is the fifth tone above C
     in the diatonic scale.

     It should be noted however that the same _number-names_ apply
     even though one or both letters of the interval are qualified
     by sharps, flats, etc. Thus _e.g._, C--G[sharp] is still a
     _fifth_, as are also C[sharp]--G[flat] and C[flat]--G[sharp].

     (2) In determining the _specific_ name of any interval
     (_perfect_ fifth, _major_ third, etc.), the half-step and
     whole-step (often referred to respectively as _minor second_,
     and _major second_) are used as units of measurement.

     The _half-step_ is usually defined as "the smallest usable
     interval between two tones." Thus, C--C[sharp] is a
     _half-step_, as are also B--C, F--G[flat], etc.

     A _whole-step_ consists of two half-steps. C--D is a
     _whole-step_, as are also B[flat]--C, E--F[sharp],
     F[sharp]--G[sharp], G[flat]--A[flat], etc.

     The expressions _half-step_ and _whole-step_ are much to be
     preferred to _half-tone_ and _whole-tone_, as being more clear
     and definite. Thus _e.g._, the sentence "The two tones are a
     _half-step_ apart" is much better than "The two tones are a
     _half-tone_ apart."

185. A _prime_ is the relation between two tones whose pitches are
properly represented by the same degree of the staff.

     A _perfect prime_ is one whose tones have the same pitch.
     Middle C sounded by piano and violin at the same time would
     offer an example.

     An _augmented prime_ is one whose second tone is one half-step
     higher than the first. Ex. C--C[sharp].

186. A _second_ is the relation between two tones whose pitches are
properly represented by adjacent degrees of the staff. (The first line
and first space are adjacent degrees, as are also the third line and
fourth space.)

     A _minor second_ is one comprising one half-step. Ex. B--C.

     A _major second_ is one comprising two half-steps. Ex.

     An _augmented second_ is one comprising three half-steps. Ex.

187. A _third_ is an interval comprising two seconds.

     A _diminished third_ has two minor seconds (_i.e._, two
     half-steps). C--E[double-flat].

     A _minor third_ has one minor and one major second (_i.e._,
     three half-steps). C--E[flat].

     A _major third_ has two major seconds (_i.e._, four
     half-steps). C--E.

188. _A fourth_ is an interval comprising three seconds.

     A _diminished fourth_ has two minor and one major second.

     A _perfect fourth_ has one minor and two major seconds. C--F.

     An _augmented fourth_ (tritone) has three major seconds.

189. A _fifth_ is an interval comprising four seconds.

     A _diminished fifth_ has two minor and two major seconds.

     A _perfect fifth_ has one minor and three major seconds. C--G.

     An _augmented fifth_ has four major seconds. C--G[sharp].

190. A _sixth_ is an interval comprising five seconds.

     A _minor sixth_ has two minor and three major seconds.

     A _major sixth_ has one minor and four major seconds. C--A.

     An _augmented sixth_ has five major seconds. C--A[sharp].

191. A _seventh_ is an interval comprising six seconds.

     A _diminished seventh_ has three minor and three major
     seconds. C--B[double-flat].

     A _minor seventh_ has two minor and four major seconds.

     A _major seventh_ has one minor and five major seconds. C--B.

192. An _octave_ is an interval comprising seven seconds.

     A _diminished octave_ has three minor and four major seconds.

     _A perfect octave_ has two minor and five major seconds. C--C.

     An _augmented octave_ has one minor and six major seconds.

193. A _ninth_ is usually treated as a second, a _tenth_ as a third,
etc. The interval of two octaves is often referred to as a _fifteenth_.

194. If the major diatonic scale be written and the interval between
each tone and the key-tone noted, it will be observed that the intervals
are all either major or perfect. See Fig. 64.

[Illustration: Fig. 64.]

In this connection also it will be noted that the interval next smaller
than _major_ is always _minor_, while that next smaller than _perfect_
or _minor_ is always _diminished_: but that the interval next larger
than both _major_ and _perfect_ is _augmented_.

195. An interval is said to be _inverted_ when the tone originally the
upper becomes the lower. Thus C--E, a major third, inverted becomes
E--C, a minor sixth.



196. A _chord_ is a combination of several tones sounding together and
bearing an harmonic relation to each other. The simplest chord is the
_triad_, which consists of a fundamental tone called the _root_, with
the third and fifth above it. C--E--G is a triad, as are also D--F--A,
F--A--C, and G--B--D.

197. Triads are classified as _major_, _minor_, _diminished_, or

     A _major triad_ has a major third and a perfect fifth, _i.e._,
     it is a major third with a minor third on top of it. Ex.

     A _minor triad_ has a minor third and a perfect fifth, _i.e._,
     it is a minor third with a major third on top of it. Ex.

     A _diminished triad_ has a minor third and a diminished fifth,
     _i.e._, it is a minor third with another minor third on top of
     it. Ex. C--E[flat]--G[flat].

     An _augmented triad_ has a major third and an augmented fifth,
     _i.e._, it is a major third with another major third on top of
     it. Ex. C--E--G[sharp].

198. A triad may be built on any scale-tone, but those on I, IV, and V,
are used so much oftener than the others that they are often called the
_common chords_. In referring to triads the Roman numerals are used to
show on what scale-tone the triad is based, the size of the numeral
(with other signs) indicating the kind of triad found on each tone of
the scale. Thus _e.g._, the large I shows that the triad on the first
tone (in major) is a _major triad_, the small II shows that the triad
on the second tone is minor, etc. The following figure will make this

[Illustration: Fig. 65.]

The triads in the minor scale are as follows:


199. A triad is said to be _in fundamental position_ when its root is
the lowest tone. It is said to be in the _first inversion_ when the
_third_ is the lowest tone, and in the _second inversion_ when the fifth
is the lowest tone. Thus _e.g._, in Fig. 66 the same chord (C--E--G) is
arranged in three different positions, at (a) in fundamental position,
at (b) in the first inversion, and at (c) in the second inversion.

[Illustration: Fig. 66.]

200. When the root is not the bass note, figures are sometimes used to
show what chord is to be played or written. Thus, _e.g._, the figure 6
over a bass note means that the note given is the _third_ of a chord,
the root being found by going up a sixth from the bass note: _i.e._, the
chord is to be sounded in its first inversion. In the same way the
figures 6/4 indicate that the note given is the _fifth_ of the chord,
the root and fifth being found by going up a sixth and a fourth from the
note given; _i.e._, the chord is to be sounded in its second inversion.

The use of these and other similar figures and signs is called _figured
bass_ (or _thorough bass_) _notation_. An example of a _figured bass_ is
given in Fig. 67.

[Illustration: Fig. 67.]

     _Thorough bass notation_ was formerly used extensively in
     writing accompaniments to vocal works, the accompanist having
     to interpret the notes and signs given, and then to make up an
     interesting accompaniment as he went along. Much of Handel's
     music was written in this way, but in modern editions of these
     works the chords have been printed in full and the signs

201. A _seventh chord_ consists of a fundamental tone with its third,
fifth, and seventh. The fifth is sometimes omitted. A _ninth chord_
consists of a fundamental with its third, fifth, seventh, and ninth.

202. A _cadence_ is the close of a musical phrase: in melody it refers
to the last two tones; in harmony to the last two chords.

     The word _cadence_ is derived from _cadere_, a Latin word
     meaning to _fall_, the reference being to the falling of the
     voice (_i.e._, the dropping to the normal pitch) at the close
     of a sentence.

203. The most frequent cadence in harmony is that involving the chord on
I preceded by the chord on V. Because of its directness the cadence V--I
is called the _authentic cadence_.

204. The most satisfactory form (to the ear) of the authentic cadence is
that in which the highest voice (the soprano) of the final chord is the
_root_ of that chord. When the final chord appears in this position the
cadence is called _perfect_[36] _authentic_, and when the third or
fifth of the chord appear in the soprano, the cadence is called
_imperfect authentic_. Fig. 68 shows the chord G--B--D cadencing to
C--E--G in three different ways. The first one (a) is called a _perfect
authentic cadence_, but the last two (c) and (d) are _imperfect

[Footnote 36: Many theorists (including Durand in his monumental
"Treatise on Harmony") consider the V--I cadence to be the only one
which may legitimately be called _perfect_, but the majority of writers
seem to take the view that either authentic or plagal cadence may be
either perfect or imperfect, depending upon the soprano tone, as noted

[Illustration: Fig. 68.]

205. A _plagal cadence_ is one in which the tonic chord is preceded by
the sub-dominant chord (IV--I). The _plagal cadence_ (sometimes called
the _church cadence_, or _amen cadence_), like the authentic, is
described as being _perfect_ when the soprano of the tonic chord is the
root of that chord, and _imperfect_ when the soprano of the final chord
is the third or fifth of that chord. Fig. 69 shows the chord F--A--C
cadencing to C--E--G in three ways. The first one (a) is called a
_perfect plagal cadence_, the last two are _imperfect plagal_.

[Illustration: Fig. 69.]

206. A _half-cadence_ occurs when the dominant chord is used as the
final chord of a phrase, and is immediately preceded by the tonic chord.
This form is used to give variety in the course of a composition, but is
not available at the end because it does not give a definite close in
the tonic key. Fig. 70 shows the use of the _half-cadence_ at the close
of such a phrase.

[Illustration: Fig. 70. BACH]

207. A _deceptive cadence_ is the progression of the dominant chord to
some other chord than the tonic, the word _deceptive_ implying that the
ear expects to hear V resolve to I and is deceived when it does not do
so. The most common form of _deceptive cadence_ is that in which V (or
V^7) resolves to VI. It is used to give variety, but as in the case of
the half-cadence, is not available at the end of a composition. Fig. 71
gives an example.

[Illustration: Fig. 71. WM. MATHER]

208. A _sequence_ is a succession of similar harmonic progressions,
these resulting from a typical or symmetrical movement of the bass part.
See Fig. 72.

[Illustration: Fig. 72.]

The word _sequence_ is also applied to a succession of similar melodic
progressions, as in Fig. 73.

[Illustration: Fig. 73.]

209. _Modulation_ is a change of key without any break in the continuity
of chords or melody tones. _Harmonic modulations_ are usually effected
through the medium of a chord, some or all of whose tones are common to
both keys. Examples of both _harmonic_ and _melodic modulations_ are
shown in Figs. 74 and 75.

[Illustration: Fig. 74.]

The chord most frequently used in modulating is the _dominant seventh_,
_i.e._, a seventh chord (see Sec. 201) on the dominant tone of the key.
In the key of C this chord is G--B--D--F; in the key of D it is
A--C[sharp]--E--G; in the key of A[flat] it is E[flat]--G--B[flat]--D[flat],

[Illustration: Fig. 75.]

210. A _suspension_ is the temporary substitution of a tone a degree
higher than the regular chord-tone, this temporary tone being later
replaced by the regular chord-tone. See Fig. 76 (_a_).

[Illustration: Fig. 76.]

211. A _retardation_ is the temporary substitution of a tone a degree
lower than the regular tone, this tone (as in the case of the
suspension) being later replaced by the regular chord tone. See Fig. 77

[Illustration: Fig. 77.]

The "regular chord tone" to which both suspension and retardation
resolve is called the _tone of resolution_.

212. The _anticipation_ is a chord-tone introduced just before the rest
of the chord to which it belongs is sounded. See Fig. 78 (_a_).

[Illustration: Fig. 78.]

213. A _pedal point_ (or _organ point_) is a tone sustained through a
succession of harmonic progressions, to the chords of some of which it
usually belongs. The term _pedal point_ originated in organ playing,
(where the foot on a pedal can sustain a tone while the hands are
playing a succession of harmonies), but as now used it may be applied to
any kind of music. The dominant and tonic are the tones most often used
in this way. See Fig. 79.

[Illustration: Fig. 79. SCHUMANN]

214. When the upper three voices of a four-voice composition are written
close together (the soprano and tenor never appearing more than an
octave apart), the term _close position_ is applied. But when the upper
voices are not written close together, the term _open position_ is

215. By _transposition_ is meant playing, singing, or writing a piece of
music in some other key than the original. Thus _e.g._, if a song
written in the key of G is too high in range for a soloist, the
accompanist sometimes _transposes_ it to a lower key (as F or E), thus
causing all tones to sound a second or a third lower than they did when
the same song was played in the original key.



_A battuta_--with the beat; in strict rhythm. [Transcriber's Note:
Corrected error "battua" in original.]

_À quatre mains_--for four hands.

_Accompagnamento_--the accompaniment.

_All'unisono_--in unison.

_Alla breve_--2/2 measure.

     The term _alla breve_ is also sometimes used as a tempo
     indication, to show a rate of speed so great that a half-note
     has a beat, _i.e._, only two beats in a measure--hence twice as
     fast as before.

_Alla capella_--usually the same as a capella (see p. 76, Sec. 162) but
sometimes _used_ in the same sense as _alla breve_.

_Alla marcia_--in march style.

_Alla zingara_--in gypsy style.

_Alt_--see _in alt_.

_Alto_--the lowest female voice. Range approximately g-e''.

     The word _alto_ is derived from the Latin word _altus_, meaning
     _high_, the term being formerly applied to the highest male
     voice, which originally sang (and still does so in many male
     choirs) the alto part.

_Animato come sopra_--in animated style as above.

_Antiphony_ (_antiphonal_)--the responsive singing of two choirs,
usually one at either end of the church, or at either side of the

_Arabesque_--an instrumental composition in light, somewhat fantastic

     The term _arabesque_ is derived from the word _Arabian_, and
     was originally applied to a style of decoration.

_Arioso_--in the style of an air or song, _i.e._, a flowing, vocal

_Attacca_--attack the next division without any pause.

_Attacca subito_--same as _attacca_.

_Attacca subito il seguente_--attack at once that which follows.
[Transcriber's Note: In last 3 entries, corrected misspelling "attaca"
in original.]

_Attack_--the promptness or firmness with which a phrase is begun.

_Bagpipe_--A Scotch instrument on which the tone is produced by a
combination of bellows and reeds. Its characteristic effect is the
continuous sounding of a low tone (sometimes several tones) while the
melody is being played on the higher reeds.

_Barcarole_ (or _barcarolle_)--a boat song. Also applied to a vocal or
instrumental composition in the style of the gondolier's boat song.

_Baritone_ (or _barytone_)--the male voice having a range between that
of the tenor and that of the bass. Approximate range G-g'.

_Bass_--the lowest male voice. Approximate range E-e'.

_Basso_--same as _bass_.

_Berceuse_--a cradle song.

_Binary form_--a form in two parts.

_Binary measure_--a measure having two beats.

_Bis_--twice. Used to indicate a repetition. (Rare.)

_Brace_--the sign used to join several staffs, showing that all tones
represented on these staffs are to be performed together. The term is
often used also in referring to the music written on staffs so joined;
as--"Begin with the upper _brace_."

_Broken chord_--a chord whose tones are not all sounded simultaneously,
as _e.g._, in an accompaniment group.

_Broken octave_--an octave whose tones are sounded one at a time instead
of simultaneously.

_Cacophony_--harsh, discordant, unpleasant, especially _incorrect_
combinations of tones. The opposite of _euphony_.

_Cadenza_--A brilliant passage, usually in an instrumental composition,
introduced just before the close of a movement. The _cadenza_ was
formerly improvised by the performer, (thus giving an opportunity of
displaying his technical skill), but since Beethoven, composers have
usually written their own _cadenzas_.

_Cantabile_--in a singing style.

_Cantando_--same as _cantabile_.

_Canto_--the highest voice part; _i.e._, the soprano part.

     Note the derivation of _canto_, _cantabile_, etc., from the
     Latin word _cantus_, meaning a _song_.

_Carol_--a hymn of joyful praise, usually sung in connection with Easter
or Christmas festivities. The word _carol_ meant originally _a dance_,
hence the _happy_ character of songs of this type.

_Catch_--a round set to humorous words.

_Chromatic_ (noun)--a term somewhat loosely applied to any tone not
belonging to the key as indicated by the signature. Many teachers are
replacing the word _chromatic_ in this sense with the term _intermediate
tone_, this term being applicable whether the foreign tone is actually
used for ornamental purposes as a _chromatic_, or to effect a
modulation. Thus _e.g._, "F[sharp] is the _intermediate tone_ between F
and G in the key of C."

_Clavichord_--an instrument with keys, resembling the square piano in
appearance. The tone was produced by forcing wedge-shaped pieces of
metal against the strings, thus setting them in vibration. The
_clavichord_ was one of the immediate predecessors of the piano, much of
the music written by Bach being composed for it, although this music is
now played on the modern piano.

_Colla voce_--with the voice: _i.e._, play the accompaniment according
to the soloist's performance rather than strictly according to the
rhythm indicated in the score.

_Colla parte_--same as _colla voce_.

_Coloratura_--florid passages in singing. Also applied to the style of
singing employed in rendering such passages. (See p. 76, Sec. 171.)

_Consonance_--A combination of tones agreeable to the ear and requiring
no resolution to other tone-combinations in order to give the effect of
finality. The major triad C--E--G is an example of a consonant chord.

_Contralto_--same as _alto_.

_Con variazioni_--with variations.

_Direct_--a sign ([direct symbol]) placed at the end of the last staff
on a page, to indicate what the first note on the next page is going to
be. This sign is now practically obsolete.

_Dirge_--a funeral chant. The dirge is named from the first word of a
chant used in the "office for the dead," which begins--_Dirige Domine,
Deus meus, in conspectu tuo viam meam_ (Direct, O Lord, My God, my way
in Thy sight).

_Discord_--an ugly, unharmonious combination of tones.

_Dissonance_--a harmonic combination of tones giving rise to the feeling
of incompleteness or unrest, and therefore requiring resolution to some
other combination which has an agreeable or final feeling. (cf.
consonance.) The diminished triad C--E[flat]--G[flat] is an example of a
dissonant chord.

_Divisi_--divided. An indication showing that the first violins, or the
sopranos, or any other body of performers ordinarily sounding in unison
are now to divide into two or more parts.

_Duet_--a composition for two performers. (From the It. word

_École_--a school or style of composition or performance.

_Etude_--a study. Also an instrumental composition in the style of a
study, but intended for artistic performance.

_Euphony_--agreeable tone combinations; the opposite of cacophony. (From
the Greek word meaning _well-sounding_.)


_Fanfare_--a trumpet call.

_Fantasia_--An instrumental composition not based on any regular form.

_Fiasco_--a complete failure or breakdown.

     This use of the word _fiasco_ (which means in Italian a flask,
     or bottle) is said to have reference to the bursting of a
     bottle, the complete ruin of the bottle being compared with
     the complete failure of a performance.

_Gamut_--all the tones of a scale.

_Glissando_--playing a scale on the keyboard by drawing the finger along
over the keys, thus depressing them in very rapid succession. The word
is derived from the French word _glisser_--to glide.

_Harpsichord_--one of the immediate predecessors of the piano.

_Humoresque_--a capricious, fantastic composition. (Cf. _fantasia_.)

_Idyl_--a short, romantic piece of music in simple and unaffected style.

_In alt_--pitches in the first octave above the treble staff. Thus
_e.g._, "C in alt" is the C represented by the second added line above
the treble staff.

_In altissimo_--pitches in the octave above the _alt_ octave.

_Instrumentation_--see _orchestration_.

_Interlude_--a short movement between two larger movements.

_Loco_--place; _i.e._, play as written. (See p. 15, Sec. 46.)

_Lunga trillo_--a long trill.



_Lyric_--a short, song-like poem of simple character. Also applied to
instrumental pieces of like character.


_Marcato il canto_--the melody well marked; _i.e._, subdue the
accompaniment so that the melody may stand out strongly.

_Melos_--melody. This word _melos_ is also applied to the peculiar style
of vocal solo found in Wagner's music dramas. See _recitative_ (p. 75,
Sec. 170).

_Mellifluous_--pleasing; pleasant sounding.

_Menuetto, menuet_--same as _minuet_. (See p. 68, Sec. 151.)

_Mezzo soprano_--a woman's voice of soprano quality, but of somewhat
lower compass than the soprano voice. Range approximately b to g''.


_Nocturne_ (sometimes spelled _nocturn_, _notturna_, _nokturne_,
etc.)--a night piece; a quiet, melodious, somewhat sentimental
composition, usually for piano solo.

_Nuance_--delicate shading; subtle variations in tempo and dynamics
which make the rendition of music more expressive.

_Obbligato_ (sometimes incorrectly spelled _obligato_)--an accessory
melody accompanying harmonized music, (usually vocal music).

     The word _obbligato_ (It. _bound_, or _obliged_) refers to the
     fact that this is usually a melody of independent value, so
     important that it cannot be omitted in a complete performance.

_Offertory_ (sometimes spelled _offertoire_, or _offertorium_)--a piece
of music played or sung during the taking up of the offering in the
church service. The word is often applied by composers to any short,
simple piece of music (usually for organ) that is suitable for the above

_Opus_--work; used by composers to designate the order in which their
compositions were written, as _e.g._, Beethoven, Op. 2, No. 1.

_Orchestration_--the art of writing for the orchestra, this implying an
intimate knowledge of the range, quality, and possibilities of all the
orchestral instruments.

_Ossia_--or else; used most often to call the attention of the performer
to a simpler passage that may be substituted for the original one by a
player whose skill is not equal to the task he is attempting to perform.

_Overture_--(from _overt_--open)--an instrumental prelude to an opera or
oratorio. The older _overtures_ were independent compositions and bore
no particular relation to the work which was to follow, but in modern
music (cf. Wagner, Strauss, etc.), the _overture_ introduces the
principal themes that are to occur in the work itself, and the
introduction thus becomes an integral part of the work as a whole. The
word _overture_ is sometimes applied to independent orchestral
compositions that have no connection with vocal works, as the _Hebrides
Overture_ by Mendelssohn.

_Pizzicato_--plucked. A term found in music for stringed instruments,
and indicating that for the moment the bow is not to be used, the tone
being secured by _plucking_ the string.

_Polacca_--a Polish dance in three-quarter measure.

_Polonaise_--same as _polacca_.

_Postlude_--(lit. after-play)--an organ composition to be played at the
close of a church service.

_Prelude_--(lit. before-play)--an instrumental composition to be played
at the beginning of a church service, or before some larger work (opera,
etc.). The term is also applied to independent piano compositions of
somewhat indefinite form. (Cf. _preludes_ by Chopin, Rachmaninoff, etc.)

_Prière_--a prayer; a term often applied (especially by French
composers) to a quiet, devotional composition for organ.

_Quintole, quintuplet_--a group of five notes to be performed in the
time ordinarily given to four notes of the same value. There is only one
accent in the group, this occurring of course on the first of the five

_Religioso, religiosamente_--in a devotional style.

_Requiem_--the mass for the dead in the Roman Catholic service. It is so
called from its first word _requiem_ which means _rest_. (See p. 77,
Sec. 165.)

_Rhapsody_--an irregular instrumental composition of the nature of an
improvisation. A term first applied by Liszt to a series of piano pieces
based on gypsy themes.

_Ribattuta_--a device in instrumental music whereby a two-note phrase is
gradually accelerated, even to the extent of becoming a trill. (See
Appendix E, p. 150, for an example.) [Transcriber's Note: Corrected
misspelling "Ribbatua" in original.]

_Ritornello, ritornelle_--a short instrumental prelude, interlude, or
postlude, in a vocal composition, as _e.g._, in an operatic aria or

_Schottische_--a dance in two-quarter measure, something like the

_Sec, secco_--dry, unornamented: applied to a style of opera recitative
(see p. 75, Sec. 170), and also to some particular chord in an
instrumental composition which is to be sounded and almost instantly

_Score_--a term used in two senses:

     1. To designate some particular point to which teacher or
     conductor wishes to call attention; as _e.g._, "Begin with the
     _lower score_, third measure." The word _brace_ is also
     frequently used in this sense.

     2. To refer to all the parts of a composition that are to be
     performed simultaneously, when they have been assembled on a
     single page for use by a chorus or orchestral conductor. The
     term _vocal score_ usually means all chorus parts together
     with an accompaniment arranged for piano or organ, while the
     terms _full score_ and _orchestral score_ refer to a complete
     assemblage of _all parts_, each being printed on a separate
     staff, but all staffs being braced and barred together.

_Senza replica, senza repetizione_--without repetition; a term used in
connection with such indications as _D.C._, _D.S._, etc., which often
call for the repetition of some large division of a composition, the
term _senza replica_ indicating that the smaller repeats included within
the larger division are not to be observed the second time.
[Transcriber's Note: Corrected misspelling "senza repetitione" in

_Serenade, serenata_--an evening song.

_Sextet_--a composition for six voices or instruments.

_Sextuplet_--a group of six notes to be performed in the time ordinarily
given to four of the same value. The sextuplet differs from a pair of
_triplets_ in having but one accent.

_Simile, similiter_--the same; indicating that the same general effect
is to be continued.

_Solfeggio, solfège_--a vocal exercise sung either on simple vowels or
on arbitrary syllables containing these simple vowel sounds. Its purpose
is to develop tone quality and flexibility. These terms are also often
applied to classes in sight-singing which use the sol-fa syllables.


_Soprano_--the highest female voice. Range approximately b--c'''.

_Sostenuto_--sustained or connected; the opposite of _staccato_.

_Sotto_--under. _E.g._, _sotto voce_--under the voice, _i.e._, with
subdued tone.

_Solmization_--sight-singing by syllable.

_Staccato_--detached; the opposite of _legato_.


_Tenor_--the highest male voice. Range approximately d--c''.

_Tenuto_--(from _teneo_, to hold)--a direction signifying that the tones
are to be prolonged to the full value indicated by the notes.

_Toccata_--a brilliant composition for piano or organ, usually
characterized by much rapid staccato playing.

_Triplet_--a group of three tones, to be performed in the time
ordinarily given to two of the same value. The first tone of the triplet
is always slightly accented.

_Tutti_--(derived from _totus_, _toti_, Latin--all)--a direction
signifying that all performers are to take part. Also used occasionally
to refer to a passage where all performers do take part.



Many conflicting statements have been made regarding the history and
development of music writing, and the student who is seeking light on
this subject is often at a loss to determine what actually did happen in
the rise of our modern system of writing music. We have one writer for
example asserting that staff notation was begun by drawing a single red
line across the page, this line representing the pitch _f_ (fourth line,
bass staff), the _neumae_ (the predecessors of our modern _notes_)
standing either for this pitch _f_, or for a higher or lower pitch,
according to their position _on_ the line, or _above_ or _below_ it.
"Another line," continues this writer, "this time of yellow color, was
soon added above the red one, and this line was to represent c' (middle
C). Soon the colors of these lines were omitted and the _letters_ F and
C were placed at the beginning of each of them. From this arose our F
and C clefs, which preceded the G clef by some centuries."[37]

[Footnote 37: Elson--Music Dictionary, article, "Notation."]

Another writer[38] gives a somewhat different explanation, stating that
the staff system with the use of clefs came about through writing a
letter (C or F) in the margin of the manuscript and drawing a line from
this letter to the neume which was to represent the tone for which this
particular letter stood.

[Footnote 38: Goddard--The Rise of Music, p. 177.]

A third writer[39] asserts that because the alphabetical notation was
not suitable for recording melodies because of its inconvenience in
sight-singing "points were placed at definite distances above the words
and above and below one another." "In this system ... everything
depended on the accuracy with which the points were interspersed, and
the scribes, as a guide to the eye, began to scratch a straight line
across the page to indicate the position of one particular scale degree
from which all the others could be shown by the relative distances of
their points. But this was not found sufficiently definite and the
scratched line was therefore colored red and a second line was added,
colored yellow, indicating the interval of a fifth above the first."

[Footnote 39: Williams in Grove's Dictionary, article, "Notation."]

It will be noted that all three writers agree that a certain thing
happened, but as in the case of the four Gospels in the New Testament,
not all the writers agree on details and it is difficult to determine
which account is most nearly accurate in detail as well as in general
statement. Communication was much slower a thousand years ago than now
and ideas about new methods of doing things did not spread rapidly,
consequently it is entirely possible that various men or groups of men
in various places worked out a system of notation differing somewhat in
details of origin and development but alike in final result. The point
is that the development of musical knowledge (rise of part-writing,
increased interest in instrumental music, etc.), demanded a more exact
system of notation than had previously existed, just as the development
of science in the nineteenth century necessitated a more accurate
scientific nomenclature, and in both cases the need gave rise to the
result as we have it to-day.

Out of the chaos of conflicting statements regarding the development of
music notation, the student may glean an outline-knowledge of three
fairly distinct periods or stages, each of these stages being intimately
bound up with the development of _music_ itself in that period. These
three stages are:

     (1) The Greek system, which used the letters of the alphabet
     for representing fixed pitches.

     (2) The period of the neumae.

     (3) The period of staff notation.

Of the Greek system little is known beyond the fact that the letters of
the alphabet were used to represent pitches. This method was probably
accurate enough, but it was cumbersome, and did not afford any means of
writing "measured music" nor did it give the eye any opportunity of
grasping the general outline of the melody in its progression upward and
downward, as staff notation does. The Greek system seems to have been
abandoned at some time preceding the fifth century. At any rate it was
about this time that certain _accent marks_ began to be written above
the text of the Latin hymns of the church, these marks serving to
indicate in a general way the progress of the melody. E.g., an upward
stroke of the pen indicated a rise of the melody, a downward stroke a
fall, etc. In the course of two or three centuries these marks were
added to and modified quite considerably, and the system of notation
which thus grew up was called "neume notation," the word _neume_
(sometimes spelled _neuma_, or _pneuma_) being of Greek origin and
meaning a _nod_ or _sign_.

This system of neumes was in some ways a retrogression from the Greek
letter system, for the neumes indicated neither definite pitches nor
definite tone-lengths. But it had this advantage over the Greek system,
that the position of the signs on the page indicated graphically to the
eye the general direction of the melody, as well as giving at least a
hint concerning the relative highness or lowness of each individual tone
(the so-called _diastematic system_), and this was a great aid to the
eye in singing, just as the relative highness and lowness of notes on
the modern staff is of great value in reading music at the present time.
Thus although the neumae did not enable one to sing a new melody at
sight as our modern staff notation does, yet they served very well to
recall to the eye the general outline of a melody previously learned by
ear and therefore enabled the singer (the system was used for vocal
music only) to differentiate between that particular melody and the
dozens of others which he probably knew. Neume notation was used mostly
in connection with the "plain-song melodies" of the Church, and since
the words of these chants were sung as they would be pronounced in
reading, the deficiency of the neume system in not expressing definite
duration values was not felt. But later on with the rise of so-called
"measured music" (cf. invention of opera, development of independent
instrumental music, etc.), this lack was seen to be one of the chief
disadvantages of the system.

The elements of neume-writing as given by Riemann in his Dictionary of
Music are:

"(1) The signs for a single note: Virga (Virgula) and Punctus (Punctum).
(2) The sign for a rising interval: Pes (Podatus). (3) The sign for a
falling interval: Clinis (Flexa). (4) Some signs for special manners of
performance: Tremula (Bebung), Quilisma (shake), Plica (turn), etc. The
others were either synonyms of the above-named or combinations of

Since music in the middle ages was always copied by hand, it will
readily be understood that these neumae were not uniform either in shape
or size, and that each writer made use of certain peculiarities of
writing, which, although perfectly intelligible to himself, could not
readily be interpreted by others (cf. writing shorthand). Here then we
observe the greatest weakness of the neume system--its lack of
uniformity and its consequent inability accurately to express musical
ideas for universal interpretation.

     Examples of several neumes are given merely in order to give
     the beginner a general idea of their appearance.

     Virga [virga symbol] or [virga symbol]. Punctus [punctus
     symbol] or [punctus symbol]. Pes [pes symbol] or [pes symbol].
     Clinis [clinis symbol] or [clinis symbol].

As music grew more and more complex, and especially as writing in
several parts came into use (cf. rise of organum, descant, and
counterpoint), it became increasingly difficult to express musical ideas
on the basis of the old notation, and numerous attempts were made to
invent a more accurate and usable system. Among these one of the most
interesting was that in which the words of the text were written in the
spaces between long, parallel lines, placing the initial letters of the
words _tone_ and _semi-tone_ at the beginning of the line to indicate
the scale interval. An example will make this clear.


This indicated the precise melodic interval but did not give any idea of
the rhythm, and the natural accents of the text were the only guide the
singer had in this direction, as was the case in neume-notation and in
early staff-notation also. Various other attempts to invent a more
definite notation were made, but all were sporadic, and it was not until
the idea of using the lines (later lines and spaces) to represent
definite pitches, and writing notes of various shapes (derived from the
neumae) to indicate relative duration-values--it was only when this
combination of two elements was devised that any one system began to be
universally used.

Just how the transition from _neume_ to _staff_ notation was made no one
knows: it was not done in a day nor in a year but was the result of a
gradual process of evolution and improvement. Nor is it probable that
any one man deserves the entire credit for the invention of staff
notation, although this feat is commonly attributed to an Italian monk
named Guido d'Arezzo (approximate dates 995-1050). To this same monk we
are indebted, however, for the invention of the syllables (UT, RE, MI,
etc.) which (in a somewhat modified form) are so widely used for
sight-singing purposes. (For a more detailed account of the transition
to staff notation, see Grove, op. cit. article _notation_.) It will now
be readily seen that our modern notation is the result of a combination
of two preceding methods (the Greek letters, and the neumes) together
with a new element--the staff, emphasizing the idea that _higher tones_
are written _higher_ on the staff than lower ones. The development of
the neumes into notes of various shapes indicating relative time values
and the division of the staff into measures with a definite measure
signature at the beginning are natural developments of the earlier
primitive idea. In the system of "musica mensurabilis" or _measured
music_ which was inaugurated a little later, the _virga_ (which had
meanwhile developed into a square-headed neume) was adopted as the
_longa_ or long note, and the punctus in two of its forms as _breve_ and
_semi-breve_ (short and half-short). The longa is now extinct, but the
modern form of the breve is still used as the double-whole-note, and the
semi-breve is our modern whole-note.

Red-colored notes were sometimes used to indicate changes in value and
before long outline notes (called _empty notes_) came into use, these
being easier to make than the solid ones. The transition from square-
and diamond-shaped notes to round and oval ones also came about because
of the greater facility with which the latter could be written, and for
the same reason notes of small denomination were later "tied together"
or _stroked_. This latter usage began about 1700 A.D.

It is interesting to find that when "measured music" was finally
inaugurated there were at first but two measure-signatures, viz.--the
circle, standing for three-beat measure (the so-called _perfect
measure_) and the semi-circle (or broken circle) which indicated
two-beat measure. Occasionally three-beat measure was indicated by three
vertical strokes at the beginning of the melody, while two-beat measure
was shown by two such strokes. Upon the basis of these two varieties of
measure, primitive in conception though they may have been, has been
built nevertheless the whole system now employed, and in the last
analysis all forms of measure now in use will be found to be of either
the two-beat or the three-beat variety. The circle has disappeared
entirely as a measure-sign, but the broken circle still survives, and
from it are derived the familiar signs [common-time symbol] and
[cut-time symbol], which are sometimes erroneously referred to as being
the initial letter of our word _common_ (as used in the expression
"common time"). The transition from the older style of measure-signature
to the present one seems to have occurred during the century following
the invention of opera, _i.e._, from about 1600 to about 1700 A.D.

The rest came into use very soon after "measured music" began to be
composed and we soon find rests corresponding with the various
denominations of notes in use, viz.:


The terms applied to these rests vary in different authorities, but it
will be noted that the _pausa_, _semi-pausa_, and _suspirum_ correspond
respectively to the double-whole-rest, whole-rest, and half-rest in use
at present.

The bar and double bar may be developments of the _maxima rest_ (as some
writers suggest) but are probably also derived from the practice of
drawing a line vertically through the various parts of a score to show
which notes belonged together, thus facilitating score reading. The bar
may occasionally be found as early as 1500, but was not employed
universally until 1650 or later.

The number of lines used in the staff has varied greatly since the time
of Guido, there having been all the way from four to fifteen at various
times and in various places, (_four_ being the standard number for a
long time). These lines (when there were quite a number in the staff)
were often divided into _groups of four_ by _red_ lines, which were not
themselves used for notes. These red lines were gradually omitted and
the staff divided into sections by a space, as in modern usage. The
number of lines in each section was changed to five (in some cases six)
for the sake of having a larger available range in each section.

The clefs at the beginning of the staffs are of course simply altered
forms of the letters F, C, and G, which were written at first by Guido
and others to make the old neume notation more definite.

The staccato sign seems not to have appeared until about the time of
Bach, the legato sign being also invented at about the same time. The
fermata was first used in imitative part-writing to show where each part
was to stop, but with the development of harmonic writing the present
practice was inaugurated. Leger lines came into use in the seventeenth

Sharps and flats were invented because composers found it necessary to
use other tones than those that could be represented by the staff
degrees in their natural condition. The history of their origin and
development is somewhat complicated and cannot be given here, but it
should be noted once more that it was the need of expressing more than
could be expressed by the older symbols that called forth the newer and
more comprehensive method. The use of sharps and flats in key signatures
grew up early in the seventeenth century. In the earlier signatures it
was customary to duplicate sharps or flats on staff degrees having the
same pitch-name, thus: [Illustration] [Illustration]. (The use of the G
clef as here shown did not of course exist at that time.)

The double-sharp and double-flat became necessary when "equal
temperament" (making possible the use of the complete cycle of keys) was
adopted. This was in the time of Bach (1685-1750).

Signs of expression (relating to tempo and dynamics) date back at least
as far as the year 1000 A.D., but the modern terms used for this purpose
did not appear until some years after the invention of opera, the date
given by C.F.A. Williams in Grove's Dictionary being 1638. These words
and signs of expression were at first used only in connection with
instrumental music, but were gradually applied to vocal music also.

Other systems of notation have been invented from time to time in the
course of the last two or three centuries, but in most cases they have
died with their inventors, and in no case has any such system been
accepted with anything even approaching unanimity. The tonic-sol-fa
system[40] is used quite extensively in England for vocal music, but
has gained little ground anywhere else and the chances are that the
present system of notation, with possibly slight additions and
modifications, will remain the standard notation for some time to come
in spite of the attacks that are periodically made upon it on the ground
of cumbersomeness, difficulty in teaching children, etc. The main
characteristics of staff notation may be summed up as follows:

[Footnote 40: The _tonic-sol-fa system_ represents an attempt to invent
a simpler notation to be used by beginners, (especially in the lower
grades of the public schools) and by singers in choral societies who
have never learned to interpret staff notation and who therefore find
some simpler scheme of notation necessary if they are to read music at

In this system the syllables _do_, _re_, _mi_, etc., (in phonetic
spelling) are used, the tone being arrived at in each case, first by
means of a firmly established sense of tonality, and second by
associating each diatonic tone with some universally felt emotional
feeling: thus _do_ is referred to as the _strong_ tone, _mi_ as the
_calm_ one, and _la_ as the _sad_ tone, great emphasis being placed upon
_do_ as the center of the major tonality, and upon _la_ as the center of
the minor. The system is thus seen to have one advantage over staff
notation, viz.: that in presenting it _the teacher is compelled to begin
with a presentation of actual tones_, while in many cases the teacher of
staff notation begins by presenting facts regarding the staff and other
symbols before the pupil knows anything about tone and rhythm as such.

The symbol for each diatonic tone is the initial letter of the syllable
(_i.e._, d for _do_, r for _re_, etc.), the key being indicated by a
letter at the beginning of the composition. The duration-value of tones
is indicated by a system of bars, dots, and spaces, the bar being used
to indicate the strongest pulse of each measure (as in staff notation)
the beats being shown by the mark: a dash indicating the continuation of
the same tone through another beat. If a beat has two tones this is
indicated by writing the two initial letters representing them with a .
between them. A modulation is indicated by giving the new key letter and
by printing the syllable-initials from the standpoint of both the old
and the new _do_-position. The figure ' above and to the right of the
letter indicates the tone in the octave above, while the same figure
below and to the right indicates the octave below. A blank space
indicates a rest. The tune of My Country, 'Tis of Thee, as printed in
tonic sol-fa notation below will make these points clear.

Key F

|d  :d :r |t_1 :-.d :r  |m :m :f |m :-.r :d |r :d   :t_1 |d :--  :-- |
|s  :s :s |s   :-.f :m  |f :f :f |f :-.m :r |m :f.m :r.d |m :-.f :s  |
|l.f:m :r |d   :--  :-- |

The advantages of the system are (1) the strong sense of key-feeling
aroused and the ease with which modulations are felt; and (2) the fact
that it is necessary to learn to sing in but one key, thus making
sight-singing a much simpler matter, and transposition the easiest
process imaginable. But these are advantages from the standpoint of the
vocalist (producing but one tone at a time) only, and do not apply to
instrumental music. The scheme will therefore probably be always
restricted to vocal music and will hardly come into very extensive use
even in this field, for the teacher of music is finding it perfectly
possible to improve methods of presentation to such an extent that
learning to sing from the staff becomes a very simple matter even to the
young child. And even though this were not true, the tonic-sol-fa will
always be hampered by the fact that since all letters are printed in a
straight horizontal line the ear does not have the assistance of the eye
in appreciating the rise and fall of melody, as is the case in staff

     1. Pitches represented by lines and spaces of a staff, the
     higher the line, the higher the pitch represented, signs
     called clefs at the beginning of each staff making clear the
     pitch names of the lines and spaces.

     2. Duration values shown by _shapes_ of notes.

     3. Accents shown by position of notes on the staff with regard
     to bars, _i.e._, the strongest accent always falls just after
     the bar, and the beat relatively least accented is found just
     before the bar.

     4. Extent and description of beat-groups shown by

     5. Key shown by key signature placed at the beginning of each

     6. Rate of speed, dynamic changes, etc., shown by certain
     Italian words (_allegro_, _andante_, etc.), whose meaning is
     as universally understood as staff notation itself.



1. Broadly speaking, musical instruments may be divided into two
classes, viz.: (1) those that have a keyboard and are therefore capable
of sounding several tones simultaneously; (2) those that (as a rule)
sound only one tone at a time, as the violin and trumpet. The piano is
of course the most familiar example of the first class, and a brief
description is therefore given.

     The _piano_ was invented about two hundred years ago by
     Cristofori (1651-1731), an Italian. It was an enormous
     improvement over the types of keyboard instrument that were in
     use at that time (clavichord, harpsichord, spinet, virginal)
     and has resulted in an entirely different style of
     composition. See note on embellishments, p. 26.

2. The most characteristic things about the _piano_ as contrasted with
its immediate predecessors are: (1) that on it the loudness and softness
of the tone can be regulated by the force with which the keys are struck
(hence the name _pianoforte_ meaning literally the _soft-loud_); (2) the
fact that the piano is capable of sustaining tone to a much greater
extent than its predecessors. In other words the tone continues sounding
for some little time after the key is struck, while on the earlier
instruments it stopped almost instantly after being sounded.

The essentials of the piano mechanism are:

     1. Felt hammers controlled by keys, each hammer striking two
     or three strings (which are tuned in unison) and immediately
     rebounding from these strings, allowing them to vibrate as
     long as the key is held down. The mechanism that allows the
     hammers to rebound from the strings and fall into position for
     another blow is called the _escapement_.

     2. A damper (made of softer felt) pressing against each string
     and preventing it from vibrating until it is wanted.

     3. A keyboard action that controls both hammers and dampers,
     causing the damper to leave the string at the same instant
     that the hammer strikes it.

     4. A pedal (damper pedal) controlling all of the dampers, so
     that at any moment all the strings may be released so as to be
     free to vibrate.

Other interesting details are:

     1. The strings are stretched over a thin sheet of wood called
     the sound-board. This aids greatly in intensifying the tone.

     2. The soft pedal (the one at the left) in an _upright piano_
     causes the hammers to move up nearer the strings, and the
     shorter swing thus afforded causes a less violent blow and
     consequently a softer tone. In the _grand piano_ this same
     pedal shifts the mechanism to one side so that the hammers
     strike only one or two of the strings, this resulting in a
     softer tone of somewhat modified quality.

These details regarding the mechanism of the piano can easily be
verified by removing the front of any ordinary upright piano and
observing what takes place when the keys are struck or the pedals

3. There are two familiar types of _organ_ in use at the present time,
(1) the reed organ, (2) the pipe-organ.

The _reed organ_ is very simple in construction, the tone being produced
by the vibration of metal reeds (fixed in little cells), through which
air is forced (or sucked) from the bellows, the latter being usually
worked by the feet of the player. More power may be secured either by
drawing additional stops, thus throwing on more sets of reeds, or by
opening the knee swells which either throw on more reeds (sometimes
octave couplers) or else open a _swell box_ in which some of the reeds
are enclosed, the tone being louder when the box is open than when
closed. More tone may also be secured by pumping harder.

4. The essential characteristic of the _pipe-organ_ is a number of sets
or registers of pipes called _stops_, each set being capable (usually)
of sounding the entire chromatic scale through a range of five or six
octaves. Thus for example when the stop _melodia_ is drawn (by pulling
out a stop-knob or tilting a tablet), one set of pipes only, sounds when
the keyboard is played on: but if the stop _flute_ is drawn with
_melodia_, two pipes speak every time a key is depressed. Thus if an
organ has forty _speaking stops_, all running through the entire
keyboard, then each time one key is depressed forty pipes will speak,
and if a chord of five tones is played, two hundred pipes will speak.
The object of having so many pipes is not merely to make possible a very
powerful tone, but, rather, to give greater variety of tone-color.

The pipe-organ usually has a pedal keyboard on which the feet of the
performer play a bass part, this part often sounding an octave (or more)
lower than the notes indicate.

An _eight-foot stop_ on the organ produces tones of the same pitches as
the piano when corresponding keys are struck: A _four-foot stop_ sounds
tones an octave higher and a _two-foot stop_ tones two octaves higher. A
_sixteen-foot stop_ sounds tones an octave lower than the piano, and a
_thirty-two foot_ stop, tones two octaves lower, while some organs have
also a _sixty-four foot_ stop which sounds three octaves lower. This
gives the organ an exceedingly wide range, its compass being greater
than that of any other single instrument, and comparable in both range
of pitches and variety of color only with the modern orchestra.

Modern pipe-organs always have a number of _combination pedals_ or
_pistons_ (usually both), by means of which the organist is enabled to
throw on a number of stops with one movement. The selection and use of
suitable stops, couplers, combinations, etc., is called _registration_.

5. The instruments mentioned at the beginning of this appendix as
belonging to the second class are more familiar in connection with
ensemble playing, being commonly associated with either band or

6. A _band_ is a company of musicians all of whom play upon either wind
or percussion instruments, the main body of tone being produced by the
brass and wood-wind divisions.

     Sousa's band is usually made up in somewhat the following
     manner: 4 flutes and piccolos, 12 B[flat] clarinets, 1 E[flat]
     clarinet, 1 alto clarinet, 1 bass clarinet, 2 oboes, 2
     bassoons, 2 sarrusophones, 4 saxophones, 4 cornets, 2
     trumpets, 1 soprano saxhorn (fluegelhorn), 4 French horns, 4
     trombones, 2 contra-bass tubas, 4 tubas, 1 snare drum, 1 bass
     drum, 2 kettle drums, cymbals, triangle, bells, castanets,
     xylophone, etc.

7. An _orchestra_ is a company of musicians performing upon stringed
instruments as well as upon wind and percussion. It is differentiated
from the band by the fact that the main body of tone is produced by the

There are _four classes of instruments_ in the orchestra, viz.,
_strings_, _wood-wind_, _brass_ (_wind_) and _percussion_. In addition
to these four classes, there is the _harp_, which although a stringed
instrument, does not belong in the same group as the other strings
because the manner of producing the tone is altogether different.

8. In the first group (the _strings_) are found the first and second
violins, viola, violoncello (usually spelled _cello_), and double-bass.
The first and second violins are identical in every way (but play
different parts), while the other members of the family merely represent
larger examples of the same type of instrument.

9. In the second group (the _wood-wind_) are found the flute, piccolo,
oboe, bassoon, English horn, double-bassoon, clarinet, and bass
clarinet. The English horn, double-bassoon, bass clarinet, and piccolo
are not called for in the older compositions, hence are not always
present in the orchestra.

10. In the third group (the _brass choir_) are found the French horn,
(usually referred to as _the horn_), trumpet (sometimes replaced by the
cornet) trombone, and tuba.

11. The fourth group (_percussion_) consists of kettle drums, bass drum,
cymbals, snare drum, triangle, bells, etc.

12. In an orchestra of about 100 players the proportion of instruments
is as about as follows, although it varies somewhat according to the
taste of the conductor, the style of composition to be performed, etc.:

18 first violins, 16 second violins, 14 violas, 12 cellos, 10 basses, 1
harp, 3 flutes, 1 piccolo, 3 oboes, 1 English horn, 3 clarinets, 1 bass
clarinet, 3 bassoons, 1 contra (or double) bassoon, 4 horns, 2 trumpets,
3 trombones, 1 tuba, 3 kettle drums, 1 bass drum, 1 snare drum, 1 each
of triangle, cymbals, bells, and other instruments of percussion,
several of which are often manipulated by one performer.

13. The cuts and brief descriptions here added will give at least a
rudimentary idea of the appearance and possibilities of the instruments
most commonly used in bands and orchestras. For fuller descriptions and
particulars regarding range, quality, etc., the student is referred to
Mason's "The Orchestral Instruments and What They Do," Lavignac's "Music
and Musicians," and to the various articles which describe each
instrument under its own name in Grove's Dictionary or in any good
encyclopaedia. For still fuller details some work on orchestration will
have to be consulted.

14. The _violin_ has four strings, tuned thus [Illustration: g d' a'
e''], these making available a range of about three and one-half octaves
(g--c''''). This range[41] may be extended upward somewhat further by
means of _harmonics_, these being produced by lightly touching the
string at certain points (while the bow is moving across it) instead of
holding it down against the finger-board. The highest string of the
_violin_ (viola and cello also) is often called the _chanterelle_
because it is most often used for playing the melody. The _violin_
ordinarily produces but one tone at a time, but by _stopping_ two
strings simultaneously and so drawing the bow as to set both in
vibration, two tones may be produced at the same time, while three and
four tones can be sounded _almost_ simultaneously.

[Footnote 41: The ranges noted in connection with these descriptions of
instruments are ordinarily the _practical orchestral or band_ ranges
rather than those which are possible in solo performance.]

[Illustration: VIOLIN. Length, 23-1/2 inches. Length of bow, 29-1/2

The _mute_ (or _sordino_) is a small clamp made of metal, wood, or
ivory, which when clipped to the top of the bridge causes the vibrations
to be transmitted less freely to the body of the violin, giving rise to
a tone modified in quality, and decreased in power.

For certain special effects the player is directed to pluck the string
(_pizzicato_), this method of playing giving rise to a dry, detached
tone instead of the smooth, flowing one that is so characteristic of the
_violin_ as commonly played.

_Violins_ in the orchestra are divided into firsts and seconds, the
_first violins_ being always seated at the left of the audience and the
_seconds_ at the right.

[Illustration: VIOLA. Length, 26 in. Length of bow, 28.]

15. The _viola_ has four strings, also tuned in fifths, thus
[Illustration: c g d' a']. The _viola_ looks exactly like the violin at
a little distance, and is really only a larger sized violin, having a
range a fifth lower. Its tone is not so incisive as that of the violin,
being rather heavier--"more gloomy," as it is often described. The
_viola_ is not so useful as the violin as a solo instrument because it
is not capable of producing so many varieties of color, nevertheless it
is invaluable for certain effects. In orchestral music it is of course
one of the most valuable instruments for filling in the harmony. The
_viola_ players are usually seated behind the second violin players in
the orchestra.

[Illustration: VIOLONCELLO. Length, 3 ft. 10 in. Length of bow, 28 in.]

16. The _violoncello_ or _cello_ (sometimes called _bass viol_) has four
strings, tuned thus: [Illustration: C G d a]. Its range is about three
and one-half octaves (from C to e'' or f''), but in solo work this range
is sometimes extended much higher. The _cello_ is much more universally
used as a solo instrument than the viola and its tone is capable of a
much greater degree of variation. In the orchestra it plays the bass of
the string quartet (reinforced by the double-bass), but is also often
used for solo passages. _Con sordino_ and _pizzicato_ passages occur as
often for the _cello_ as for the violin.

17. The _double bass_ differs from the other members of the string
family in that it is tuned in _fourths_ instead of in _fifths_. Its four
strings are tuned as follows [Illustration: EE AA D G] the entire range
of the instrument being from EE to a. In music written for double-bass
the notes are always printed an octave higher than the tones are to
sound: that is, when the bass-player sees the note [Illustration: c] he
plays [Illustration: C] this being done to avoid leger lines. The tone
of the _bass_ is much heavier and the instrument itself is much more
clumsy to handle than the other members of the group, hence it is almost
never used as a solo instrument but it is invaluable for reinforcing the
bass part in orchestral music. The mute is rarely used on the
_double-bass_, but the _pizzicato_ effect is very common and the bass
pizzicato tone is much fuller and richer than that of any other stringed

[Illustration: DOUBLE-BASS. Length, 6 ft. 6 in. Length of bow, 23-1/2

18. The _flute_ has a range of three octaves. [Illustration: c' c'''']
It is used in both solo and orchestral playing as well as in bands. The
flute was formerly always made of wood, but is at present often made of

19. The _piccolo_ is a flute playing an octave higher than the one
described above. The notes are printed as for the flute, but the player
understands that the tone is to sound an octave higher. The _piccolo_ is
used widely in band music and quite often in orchestral music also, but
since the tone is so brilliant and penetrating and is incapable of any
great variation, it is not suitable for solo performance.

[Illustration: OBOE. (hautboy.) Length, 24-1/2 in. Range b e'''.

CONTRA BASSOON. (Double bassoon.) Length 6 ft. Range about an octave
lower than bassoon, but not all tones in this range are practicable.

ENGLISH HORN. (Cor. Anglais.) Length, 2 ft. 11-1/2 in. Range e a''.

PICCOLO. Length, 13 in. (Note that this is approximately half the length
of the flute.)

FLUTE. Length, 26-1/2 in.

BASSOON. (fagotto.) Length, 4 ft. 3-1/2 in. Range BB-flat b-flat'.]

20. The next four instruments to be described (_oboe_, _bassoon_,
_English horn_, and _contra bassoon_) are often referred to as the _oboe
family_ since the principle of tone production and general manipulation
is the same in all four. The tone in these instruments is produced by
the vibration of two very thin pieces of cane, which are called together
a _double-reed_.

The _oboe_ is especially valuable in the orchestra as a solo instrument,
and its thin, nasal tones are suggestive of rustic, pastoral simplicity,
both _oboe_ and _English horn_ being often used by orchestral composers
in passages intended to express the idea of rural out-of-door life. The
_English horn_ is also often used in passages where the idea of
melancholy and suffering is to be conveyed to the audience. In a
military band the oboe corresponds to the first violin of the orchestra.

The _bassoon_ and _contra-bassoon_ are used mostly to provide a bass
part for the harmony of the wood-wind group, but they are also sometimes
employed (especially the _bassoon_) to depict comic or grotesque

[Illustration: BASS CLARINET. Length, 3 ft. 3 in. Range D to b-flat']

[Illustration: CLARINET. Length 28 in.]

21. The next two types of instruments to be described (_clarinet_ and
_saxophone_) are alike in that the tone is produced by the vibration of
a _single_ strip of cane (called _single reed_) which is held against
the lower lip of the player. The _clarinet_ and _bass clarinet_ are made
of wood and are used in both bands and orchestras, but the _saxophone_
is usually made of metal, and, the tone being more strident and
penetrating, the instrument is ordinarily used only in combination with
other wind instruments, _i.e._, in bands.

Since the fingering of the _clarinet_ is excessively difficult the
performer can play in only certain keys on the same instrument, hence to
play in different keys _clarinets_ in several keys must be provided,
there being usually three in all. The music is written as though it were
to be played in the key of C, but the tones produced are actually in
other keys. For this reason the _clarinet_ is called a _transposing
instrument_. The range of the _clarinet_ is the greatest possessed by
any of the wind instruments, that of the clarinet in C being from
[Illustration: e] to [Illustration: g'''].

[Illustration: SAXOPHONES.

SOPRANO. ALTO. Length, 15-3/4 in.

TENOR. Length, 2 ft. 7-1/2 in.

BASS. Length, 3 ft. 9 in.

Combined range AA to g-flat''']

[Illustration: SARRUSOPHONE.]

The _sarrusophone_ is an instrument with a double-reed. It is made of
brass and exists in several sizes, the only one ever used in the
orchestra being the double-bass _sarrusophone_, which has approximately
the same range as the double-bassoon and is sometimes (but rarely) made
use of in the orchestra instead of the latter instrument. The tone of
the _sarrusophone_ is something like that of the bassoon.

[Illustration: FRENCH HORN. Length, 22-3/4 in.]

22. The _French horn_ (often called _valve horn_ or simply _horn_)
really consists of a long tube (about 16 feet) which is bent into
circular form for convenience in handling. Its range is from
[Illustration: BB] to [Illustration: f'']. In the orchestra _French
horns_ are used in pairs, two of the players taking the higher tones,
and two the lower. The tone is intensely mellow but incapable of any
extensive variation, but in spite of this lack of variety the tone
itself is so wonderfully beautiful that the instrument is one of the
most useful in the orchestra both in solo passages and to fill in the
harmony. The _horn_ (as well as the trumpet and trombone) differs from
most of the wood-wind instruments in that its mouthpiece contains no
reed, the lips of the player constituting the vibrating body as they are
stretched across the mouthpiece and air is forced against them. The
_horn_ is used in bands as well as in orchestras.

[Illustration: TRUMPET. Length, 22-1/2 in.]

23. The range of the _trumpet_ is [Illustration: g b''], the typical
tone being brilliant and ringing. It is used in both band and orchestra,
playing the highest parts assigned to the brass choir. The _trumpet_ is
often replaced in both band and orchestra by its less refined cousin the
_cornet_ because of the ease with which the latter can be played as
compared with the trumpet, and the larger number of players that are
available in consequence of this ease of execution.

24. The _cornet_ looks something like the trumpet, but is not so slim
and graceful in appearance. Its tube is only four and one-half feet
long, as compared with a length of about eight feet in the trumpet, and
sixteen feet in the French horn.

The range of the _cornet_ in B[flat] is from [Illustration: e] to
[Illustration: b-flat'']. The tone is somewhat commonplace as compared
with the trumpet, but because of its great agility in the rendition of
trills, repeated tones, etc., it is universally used in all sorts of
combinations, even (as noted above) taking the place of the trumpet in
many small orchestras.

[Illustration: CORNET. Length, 13-3/4 in.]

[Illustration: SLIDE TROMBONE. Length, 3 ft. 9 in. Range of tenor
trombone (the size ordinarily used) E to b-flat']

25. The pitch sounded by the _trombone_ is altered by lengthening or
shortening the tube of which the instrument is constructed, this being
possible because the lower part slides into the upper and can be pulled
out to increase the total length of the tube through which the air
passes. There are usually three _trombones_ in the orchestra, each
playing a separate part, and the combination of this trio (with the
_tuba_ reinforcing the bass part) is majestic and thrilling, being
powerful enough to dominate the entire orchestra in _Fortissimo_
passages. But the _trombones_ are useful in soft passages also, and
their tone when playing pianissimo is rich, serene, and sonorous.

26. The _bass tuba_ is a member of the saxhorn family[42] and supplies
the lowest part of the brass choir, as the double-bass does in the
string choir. It is used in both orchestra and band, being often
supported in the larger bands by a still lower-toned member of the same
family--the _contra-bass tuba_. The range of the _tuba_ is from
[Illustration: GG] to [Illustration: g'].

[Footnote 42: The _saxhorn_ was invented about 1840 by Adolphe Sax, a
Frenchman. The _saxophone_ is the invention of the same man.]

[Illustration: BASS TUBA. Length, 3 ft. 3 in.]

[Illustration: BASS DRUM. Diameter about 2-1/2 ft.]

[Illustration: CYMBALS. Diameter, 13-1/4 in.]

27. The _kettle-drum_ is the most important member of the percussion
family and is always used either in pairs or in threes. The size of
these instruments varies somewhat with the make, but when two drums are
used the diameter is approximately that given under the illustration.
The range of a pair of _drums_ is _one octave_ [Illustration: F f] and
when but two drums are used the larger one takes the tones from F to
about C of this range, and the smaller takes those from about B[flat]
to F. The most common usage is to tune one drum to the _tonic_, and the
other to _the dominant_ of the key in which the composition is written.
The pitch of the _kettle-drum_ can be varied by increasing or lessening
the tension of the head by means of thumb-screws which act on a metal

[Illustration: KETTLE-DRUMS. Diameter of Head, 24-1/2 in. and 27-1/2

The other important members of the percussion family are shown on this
and the following page, their use being so obvious as to require no
detailed explanation.

[Illustration: TAMBOURINE. Diameter, 10 to 12 in.]

[Illustration: BELLS. (Fr. carillon; Ger. Glockenspiel.)]

[Illustration: SIDE DRUM. Diameter, about 15-1/2 in.]

[Illustration: TRIANGLE. Height, about 8 in.]

28. The _harp_ is one of the oldest of instruments (dating back over
6000 years), but it is only in comparatively recent years that it has
been used in the symphony orchestra. Its range is from [Illustration:
CC-flat] to [Illustration: f-flat'''].

[Illustration: HARP. Height, 5 ft. 8 in.]

The modern _double-action harp_ has forty-six strings, which are tuned
in half-steps and whole-steps so as to sound the scale of C[flat] major.
It has a series of seven pedals around its base, each pedal having two
_notches_ below it, into either of which the pedal may be lowered and
held fast. The first pedal shortens the F[flat] string so that it now
sounds F, (giving the key of G[flat]); the second one shortens the
C[flat] string so that it sounds C (giving the key of D[flat]); the
third pedal shortens the G[flat] string so that it sounds G (giving the
key of A[flat]); the fourth changes D[flat] to D (giving the key of
E[flat]), and so on until, when all the pedals are fixed in their first
notches, the scale of C is sounded instead of C[flat] as was the case
before any of the pedals were depressed. But if the first pedal is now
pushed down into the second notch the original F[flat] string is still
further shortened and now sounds the pitch F[sharp] (giving us the key
of G), and if all the other pedals are likewise successively lowered to
the second notch we get in turn all the _sharp keys_--D, A, E, B,
F[sharp] and C[sharp], the last-named key being obtained as the result
of having all the pedals fixed in their second notches, thus making all
the tones of the original C[flat] scale a whole-step higher so that they
now sound the C[sharp] scale.

Chords of not more than four tones for each hand may be played
simultaneously on the harp, but arpeggio and scale passages are the
rule, and are more successful than simultaneous chords. The notation of
harp music is essentially like that of piano music.



     NOTE:--It is usually taken for granted that the student of
     music is familiar with the significance of such terms as
     _over-tone_, _equal temperament_, etc., and with principles
     such as that relating to the relation between vibration rates
     and pitches: the writer has in his own experience found,
     however, that most students are not at all familiar with such
     data, and this appendix is therefore added in the hope that a
     few facts at least regarding the laws of sound may be brought
     to the attention of some who would otherwise remain in entire
     ignorance of the subject.

1. _Acoustics_ is the science which deals with sound and the laws of its
production and transmission. Since all sound is caused by vibration,
_acoustics_ may be defined as the science which treats of the phenomena
of sound-producing vibration.

2. All sound (as stated above) is produced by vibration of some sort:
strike a tuning-fork against the top of a table and _see_ the vibrations
which cause the tone, or, if the fork is a small one and the vibrations
cannot be seen, hold it against the edge of a sheet of paper and hear
the blows it strikes; or, watch one of the lowest strings of the piano
after striking the key a sharp blow; or, look closely at the heavier
strings of the violin (or better still, the cello) and watch them
oscillate rapidly to and fro as the bow moves across them.

The vibrating body may be a string, a thin piece of wood, a piece of
metal, a membrane (cf. drum), the lips (cf. playing the cornet), the
vocal cords, etc. Often it is a column of air whose vibrations give rise
to the tone, the reed or other medium merely serving to set the air in

3. Sound is _transmitted_ through the air in somewhat this fashion: the
vibrating body (a string for example) strikes the air-particles in its
immediate vicinity, and they, being in contact with other such
air-particles, strike these others, the latter in turn striking yet
others, and so on, both a forward and backward movement being set up
(oscillation). These particles lie so close together that no movement at
all can be detected, and it is only when the disturbance finally reaches
the air-particles that are in contact with the ear-drum that any effect
is evident.

This phenomenon of sound-transmission may perhaps be made more clear by
the old illustration of a series of eight billiard balls in a row on a
table: if the first ball is tapped lightly, striking gently against ball
number 2, the latter (as well as numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) will not
apparently move at all, but ball number 8 at the other end will roll
away. The air-particles act upon each other in much this same fashion,
the difference being that when they are set in motion by a vibrating
body a complete vibration backward and forward causes a similar
_backward and forward_ movement of the particles (oscillation) instead
of simply a _forward jerk_ as in the case of the billiard balls.

Another way of describing the same process is this: the vibration of
some body produces waves in the air (cf. waves in the ocean, which carry
water forward but do not themselves move on continuously), these waves
spread out spherically (i.e. in all directions) and finally reach the
ear, where they set the ear-drum in vibration, thus sending certain
sound-stimuli to the nerves of hearing in the inner ear, and thus to the

An important thing to be noted in connection with sound-transmission is
that sound will not travel in a vacuum: some kind of a medium is
essential for its transmission. This medium may be air, water, a bar of
iron or steel, the earth, etc.

4. The _rate_ at which sound travels through the air is about 1100 feet
per second, the rapidity varying somewhat with fluctuations in
temperature and humidity. In water the rate is much higher than in air
(about four times as great) while the velocity of sound through other
mediums (as _e.g._, steel) is sometimes as much as sixteen times as
great as through air.

5. Sound, like light, may be _intensified_ by a suitable reflecting
surface directly back of the vibrating body (cf. sounding board); it may
also be reflected by some surface at a distance from its source in such
a way that at a certain point (the focus) the sound may be very clearly
heard, but at other places, even those _nearer_ the source of sound, it
can scarcely be heard at all. If there is such a surface in an
auditorium (as often occurs) there will be a certain point where
everything can be heard very easily, but in the rest of the room it may
be very difficult to understand what is being said or sung.

_Echoes_ are caused by sound-reflection, the distance of the reflecting
surface from the vibrating body determining the number of syllables that
will be echoed.

The _acoustics_ of an auditorium (_i.e._, its hearing properties) depend
upon the position and nature of the reflecting surfaces and also upon
the length of time a sound persists after the vibrating body has
stopped. If it persists longer than 2-1/4 or 2-1/3 seconds the room will
not be suitable for musical performances because of the mixture of
persisting tones with following ones, this causing a blurred effect
somewhat like that obtained by playing a series of unrelated chords on
the piano while the damper-pedal is held down. The duration of the
reverberation depends upon the size and height of the room, material of
floor and walls, furniture, size of audience, etc.

6. Sound may be classified roughly into _tones_ and _noises_ although
the line of cleavage is not always sharply drawn. If I throw stones at
the side of a barn, sounds are produced, but they are caused by
irregular vibrations of an irregularly constructed surface and are
referred to as _noise_. But if I tap the head of a kettle-drum, a
regular series of vibrations is set up and the resulting sound is
referred to as _tone_. In general the material of music consists of
tones, but for special effects certain noises are also utilized (cf.
castanets, etc.).

7. Musical tones have three properties, viz.:

     1. Pitch.

     2. Intensity.

     3. Quality (timbre).

By _pitch_ is meant the highness or lowness of tone. It depends upon
rate of vibration. If a body vibrates only 8 or 10 times per second no
tone is heard at all: but if it vibrates regularly at the rate of 16 or
18 per second a tone of very low pitch is heard. If it vibrates at the
rate of 24 the pitch is higher, at 30 higher still, at 200 yet higher,
and when a rate of about 38,000 per second has been reached the pitch is
so high that most ears cannot perceive it at all. The highest tone that
can ordinarily be heard is the E[flat] four octaves higher than the
highest E[flat] of the piano. The entire range of sound humanly audible
is therefore about eleven octaves (rates 16-38,000), but only about
_eight_ of these octaves are utilized for musical purposes. The tones of
the piano (with a range of 7-1/3 octaves) are produced by vibration
rates approximately between 27 and 4224. In the orchestra the range is
slightly more extended, the rates being from 33 to 4752.

Certain interesting facts regarding the relation between vibration-rates
and pitches have been worked out: it has been discovered for instance
that if the number of vibrations is doubled, the pitch of the resulting
tone is an octave higher; _i.e._, if a string vibrating at the rate of
261 per second gives rise to the pitch c', then a string one-half as
long and vibrating twice as rapidly (522) will give rise to the pitch
c'', _i.e._, an octave higher than c'. In the same way it has been found
that if the rate is multiplied by 5/4 the pitch of the tone will be a
_major third_ higher; if multiplied by 3/2, a _perfect fifth_ higher,
etc. These laws are often stated thus: the ratio of the octave to the
fundamental is as two is to one; that of the major third as five is to
four; that of the perfect fifth as three is to two, and so on through
the entire series of pitches embraced within the octave, the _ratio_
being of course the same for all octaves.

9. The _intensity_ (loudness or softness) of tones depends upon the
amplitude (width) of the vibrations, a louder tone being the result of
vibrations of greater amplitude, and vice versa. This may be verified by
plucking a long string (on cello or double-bass) and noting that when
plucked gently vibrations of small amplitude are set up, while a
vigorous pluck results in much wider vibrations, and, consequently, in a
louder tone. It should be noted that the _pitch_ of the tone is not
affected by the change in amplitude of vibration.

The intensity of tones varies with the medium conveying them, being
usually louder at night because the air is then more elastic. Tone
intensity is also affected by _sympathetic vibrations_ set up in other
bodies. If two strings of the same length are stretched side by side and
one set in vibration so as to produce tone the other will soon begin to
vibrate also and the combined tone will be louder than if only one
string produced it. This phenomenon is the basis of what is known as
resonance (cf. body of violin, resonance cavities of nose and mouth,
sounding board of piano, etc.).

10. _Quality_ depends upon the shape (or form) of the vibrations which
give rise to the tone. A series of simple vibrations will cause a simple
(or colorless) tone, while complex vibrations (giving rise to overtones
of various kinds and in a variety of proportions) cause more
individualistic peculiarities of quality. Quality is affected also by
the shape and size of the resonance body. (Cf. last part of sec. 9

11. Practically every musical tone really consists of a combination of
several tones sounding simultaneously, the combined effect upon the ear
giving the impression of a single tone. The most important tone of the
series is the _fundamental_, which dominates the combination and gives
the pitch, but this fundamental is practically always combined with a
greater or less number of faint and elusive attending tones called
_overtones_ or _harmonics_. The first of these overtones is the octave
above the fundamental; the second is the fifth above this octave; the
third, two octaves above the fundamental, and so on through the series
as shown in the figure below. The presence of these _overtones_ is
accounted for by the fact that the string (or other vibrating body) does
not merely vibrate in its entirety but has in addition to the principal
oscillation a number of sectional movements also. Thus it is easily
proved that a string vibrates in halves, thirds, etc., in addition to
the principal vibration of the entire string, and it is the vibration of
these halves, thirds, etc., which gives rise to the _harmonics_, or
_upper partials_ as they are often called. The figure shows _Great C_
and its first eight overtones. A similar series might be worked out from
any other fundamental.

[Illustration: (NOTE:--The B[flat] in this series is approximate only.)]

It will be recalled that in the section (10) dealing with _quality_ the
statement was made that _quality_ depends upon the shape of the
vibrations; it should now be noted that it is the form of these
vibrations that determines the nature and proportion of the overtones
and hence the quality. Thus _e.g._, a tone that has too large a
proportion of the fourth upper partial (_i.e._, the _third_ of the
chord) will be _reedy_ and somewhat unpleasant. This is the case with
many voices that are referred to as _nasal_. Too great a proportion of
overtones is what causes certain pianos to sound "tin-panny." The tone
produced by a good tuning-fork is almost entirely free from overtones:
it has therefore no distinctive quality and is said to be a _simple_
tone. The characteristic tone of the oboe on the other hand has many
overtones and is therefore highly individualistic: this enables us to
recognize the tone of the instrument even though we cannot see the
player. Such a tone is said to be _complex_.

12. The mathematical ratio referred to on page 134, if strictly carried
out in tuning a keyboard instrument would cause the half-steps to vary
slightly in size, and playing in certain keys (especially those having a
number of sharps or flats in the signature) would therefore sound out of
tune. There would be many other disadvantages in such a system, notably
the inability to modulate freely to other keys, and since modulation is
one of the predominant and most striking characteristics of modern
music, this would constitute a serious barrier to advances in
composition. To obviate these disadvantages a system of _equal
temperament_ was invented and has been in universal use since the time
of Bach (1685-1750) who was the first prominent composer to use it
extensively. _Equal temperament_ means simply dividing the octave into
twelve equal parts, thus causing all scales (as played on keyboard
instruments at least) to sound exactly alike.

     To show the practicability of equal temperament Bach wrote a
     series of 48 _preludes and fugues_, two in each major and two
     in each minor key. He called the collection "The Well-tempered

13. Various _standards of pitch_ have existed at different times in the
last two centuries, and even now there is no absolute uniformity
although conditions are much better than they were even twenty-five
years ago. Scientists use what is known as the "scientific standard"
(sometimes called the "philosophic standard"), viz., 256 double
vibrations for "middle C." This pitch is not in actual use for musical
purposes, but is retained for theoretical purposes because of its
convenience of computation (being a power of 2). In 1885 a conference of
musicians at Vienna ratified the pitch giving Middle C 261 vibrations,
this having been adopted by the French as their official pitch some 26
years before. In 1891 a convention of piano manufacturers at
Philadelphia adopted this same pitch for the United States, and it has
been in practically universal use ever since. This pitch (giving Middle
C 261 vibrations) is known as "International Pitch."

_Concert pitch_ is slightly higher than _International_, the difference
between the two varying somewhat, but being almost always less than
one-half step. This higher pitch is still often used by bands and
sometimes by orchestras to give greater brilliancy to the wind


     Lavignac--Music and Musicians, pp. 1-66.

     Broadhouse--The Student's Helmholz.

     Helmholtz--Sensations of Tone.

     Hamilton--Sound and its Relation to Music.

     NOTE:--For a simple and illuminating treatment of the subject
     from the standpoint of the music student, the books by
     Lavignac and Hamilton are especially recommended.



A recent writer[43] on _vocal terminology_ makes the following statement
as an introduction to certain remarks advocating a more definite use of
terms relating to tone production by the human voice:--"The correct use
of words is the most potent factor in the development of the thinker."
If this statement has any basis of fact whatsoever to support it then it
must be evident to the merest novice in musical work that the popular
use of many common terms by musicians is keeping a good many people from
clear and logical thought in a field that needs accurate thinkers very
badly! However this may be, it must be patent to all that our present
terminology is in many respects neither correct nor logical, and the
movement inaugurated by the Music Section of the National Education
Association some years ago to secure greater uniformity in the use and
definition of certain expressions should therefore not only command the
respect and commendation, but the active support of all progressive
teachers of music.

[Footnote 43: Floyd S. Muckey--"Vocal Terminology," _The Musician_, May,
1912, p. 337.]

Let it be noted at the outset that such reforms as are advocated by the
committee will never come into general use while the rank and file of
teachers throughout the country merely _approve_ the reports so
carefully compiled and submitted each year: these reforms will become
effective only as individual teachers make up their minds that the end
to be attained is worth the trouble of being careful to use only
correct terminology every day for a month, or three months, or a
year--whatever length of time may be necessary in order to get the new
habits fixed in mind and muscle.

The Terminology Committee was appointed by the Department of Music of
the N.E.A. in 1906 and made its first report at Los Angeles in 1907.
Since then the indefatigable chairman of the committee (Mr. Chas. I.
Rice, of Worcester, Mass.) has contributed generously of both time and
strength, and has by his annual reports to the Department set many of us
to thinking along certain new lines, and has caused some of us at any
rate to adopt in our own teaching certain changes of terminology which
have enabled us to make our work more effective.

In his first report Mr. Rice says:

"Any one who has observed the teaching of school music in any
considerable number of places in this country cannot fail to have
remarked the great diversity of statement employed by different teachers
regarding the facts which we are engaged in teaching, and the equal
diversity of terminology used in teaching the symbols by which musicians
seek to record these facts. To the teacher of exact sciences our
picturesque use of the same term to describe two or more entirely
different things never ceases to be a marvel.... Thoughtful men and
women will become impressed with the untruthfulness of certain
statements and little by little change their practice. Others will
follow, influenced by example. The revolutionists will deride us for not
moving faster while the conservatives will be suspicious of any change."

At this meeting in Los Angeles a list of thirteen points was recommended
by the committee and adopted by the Music Department. These points are
given in the N.E.A. Volume of Proceedings for 1907, p. 875.

Since 1907 the committee (consisting of Chas. I. Rice, P.C. Hayden, W.B.
Kinnear, Leo R. Lewis, and Constance Barlow-Smith) have each year
selected a number of topics for discussion, and have submitted valuable
reports recommending the adoption of certain reforms. Some of the points
recommended have usually been rejected by the Department, but many of
them have been adopted and the reports of the committee have set many
teachers thinking and have made us all more careful in the use and
definition of common terms. A complete list of all points adopted by the
Department since 1907 has been made by Mr. Rice for _School Music_, and
this list is here reprinted from the January, 1913, number of that


     1. _Tone:_ Specific name for a musical sound of definite
     pitch. Use neither _sound_, a general term, nor _note_, a term
     of notation.

     2. _Interval:_ The pitch relation between _two_ tones. Not
     properly applicable to a single tone or scale degree. Example:
     "Sing the fifth tone of the scale." Not "sing the fifth
     interval of the scale."

     3. _Key:_ Tones in relation to a tonic. Example: In the key of
     G. _Not_ in the scale of G. Scales, major and minor are
     composed of a definite selection from the many tones of the
     key, and all scales extend through at least one octave of
     pitch. The chromatic scale utilizes all the tones of a key
     within the octave.

     4. _Natural:_ Not a suitable compound to use in naming
     pitches. Pitch names are either _simple_: B, or _compound_: B
     sharp, B double-sharp, B flat or B double-flat, and there is
     no pitch named "B natural." Example: Pitch B, _not_ "B

     NOTE:--L.R.L. thinks that B natural should be the name when
     the notation suggests it.

     5. _Step, Half-step:_ Terms of interval _measurement_. Avoid
     _tone_, _semi-tone_ or _half-tone_. Major second and minor
     second are interval _names_. Example: How large are the
     following intervals? (1) Major second, (2) minor second, (3)
     augmented prime. Answer: (1) a step, (2) a half-step, (3) a

     6. _Chromatic:_ A tone of the key which is not a member of its
     diatonic scale. (N.B.) An accidental (a notation sign) is not
     a chromatic sign _unless_ it makes a staff-degree represent a
     chromatic tone.

     7. _Major; Minor:_ Major and Minor keys having the same
     signature should be called relative major and minor. Major and
     minor keys having the same tonic, but different signatures,
     should be called tonic major and minor. Not "parallel" major
     or minor in either case.

     8. _Staff:_ Five horizontal lines and their spaces. Staff
     _lines_ are named (numbered) upward in order, first to fifth.
     _Spaces:_ Space below, first-second-third-fourth-space, and
     space above[44]. (Six in all.) Additional short lines and
     their short spaces numbered outward both ways from the main
     staff, viz: line below, second space below. The boundary of
     the staff is always a space.

     [Footnote 44: NOTE:--Not "space below the staff" or "space
     above the staff."]

     9. _G Clef, F Clef, C Clef:_ These clefs when placed upon the
     staff, give its degrees their first, or primary pitch meaning.
     Each makes the degree it occupies represent a pitch of its
     respective name. Example: The G clef makes the second line
     represent the pitch G. Avoid "_fixes G on_." The staff with
     clef in position represents only pitches having _simple_ or
     _one-word_ names, A, B, C, etc.

     10. _Sharps, Flats:_ Given a staff with clef in position as in
     example above, sharps and flats make staff degrees upon which
     they are placed represent pitches a half-step higher or lower.
     These pitches have compound or two-word names. Example: The
     second line stands for the pitch G (simple name). Sharp the
     second line and it will stand for the pitch G sharp. (Compound
     name.) The third line stands for the pitch B. (Simple name.)
     Flat it, and the line will stand for the pitch B flat.
     (Compound name.) N.B. These signs do not "_raise_" or
     "_lower_" notes, tones, pitches, letters or staff degrees.

     11. _Double-sharp, Double-flat:_ Given a staff with three or
     more degrees sharped in the signature, double-sharps are used
     (subject to the rules governing composition) to make certain
     of these degrees, already sharped, represent pitches one
     half-step higher yet. Similarly, when three or more degrees
     are flatted in the signature, double-flats are used to make
     certain degrees already flatted, represent pitches one
     half-step lower yet. Examples: To represent sharp 2 in the key
     of B major, double-sharp the C degree, or (equally good)
     double-sharp the third space (G clef). To represent flat 6 in
     the key of D flat major, double-flat the B degree, or (equally
     good) double flat the third line (G clef). _Do not say_: "Put
     a double-sharp on 6" or "put a double-sharp on C," or
     "_indicate"_ a higher or lower pitch "_on_" a sharped or
     flatted degree.

     12. _Signature:_ Sharps or flats used as signatures affect the
     staff degrees they occupy and all octaves of the same.
     Example: With signature of four sharps, the first one affects
     the fifth line and the first space; the second, the third
     space; the third, the space above and the second line; the
     fourth, the fourth line and the space below. _Do not say_: "F
     and C are sharped," "ti is sharped," "B is flatted," "fa is
     flatted." "Sharpened" or "flattened" are undesirable.

     13. _Brace:_ The two or more staffs containing parts to be
     sounded together; also the vertical line or bracket connecting
     such staffs. _Not_ "line" or "score." "Staff" is better than
     "line" for a single staff, and "score" is used meaning the
     book containing an entire work, as "vocal score," "orchestral
     score," "full score."

     14. _Notes:_ Notes are characters designed to represent
     relative duration. When placed on staff-degrees they
     _indicate_ pitch. (Note the difference between "represent" and
     "indicate.") "Sing what the note calls for" means, sing a tone
     of the pitch represented by the staff degree occupied by the
     note-head. The answer to the question: "What is that note?"
     would be "half-note," "eighth-note" according to the
     denomination of the note in question, whether it was on or off
     the staff.

     15. _Measure-sign:_ 4-4, 2-4, 6-8, are _measure-signs_. Avoid
     "time signatures," "meter-signatures," "the fraction,"
     "time-marks." Example: What is the measure-sign? (C) Ans. A
     broken circle. What is its meaning? Ans. Four-quarter measure.
     (Not four-four time, four-four rhythm, four-four meter.)

     16. _Note Placing:_ Place a quarter note on the fourth line.
     Not "put a quarter note on D."

     17. _Beat-Pulse:_ A tone or rest occurs on a certain beat or
     pulse of a measure. Not on a certain _count_.

     18. _Signature Terminology:_ The right hand sharp in the
     signature is on the staff degree that represents seven of the
     major scale. Not "always on 7 or ti."

     19. _Signature Terminology:_ The right hand flat in the
     signature is on the staff degree that represents four of the
     major scale. Not "always on fa."

     20. _Rote, Note, Syllable:_ Singing by rote means that the
     singer sings something learned by ear without regard to notes.
     Singing by note means that the singer is guided to the correct
     pitch by visible notes. Singing by syllable means that the
     singer sings the tones of a song or part to the sol-fa
     syllables instead of to words, neutral vowels or the hum.
     "Sing by note" is not correct if the direction means simply to
     sing the sol-fa syllables, whether in sight reading, rote
     singing, or memory work. "Sing by syllable" would be correct
     in each case.


     Arabic numerals, either 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, or 12, placed on the
     staff directly after the signature and above the third line,
     show the number of beats in a measure.

     A note, either a quarter or a dotted quarter, placed in
     parenthesis under the numeral, represents the length of one
     beat and is called the beat-note.

     The numeral and the beat-note thus grouped constitute the

     Illustrative statements covering proper terminology: the tune
     "America" is written in three-quarter measure. The chorus:
     "How lovely are the Messengers" is written in two-dotted
     quarter measure.

     The above forms of statement were adopted at Denver in 1909,
     and are recommended for general use when speaking of music
     written with the conventional measure-signs, etc.

     In place of: "two-two time, three-eight time, four-four time,"
     say as above: "This piece is written in two-half measure,
     three-eighth measure, four-quarter measure."


     _Primitive Minor (ascending)_

     The minor scale form having minor sixth and minor seventh
     above tonic to be called Primitive Minor.

     Illustrative examples. A minor: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, a; C
     minor: c, d, e flat, f, g, a flat, b flat, c. [Transcriber's
     Note: Supplied b flat missing from original.]

     _Primitive Minor (descending)_

     Same pitches in reverse order.

     _Harmonic Minor (ascending)_

     The minor scale form having minor sixth and major seventh
     above tonic to be called Harmonic Minor.

     Illustrative examples. A minor: a, b, c, d, e, f, g sharp, a;
     C minor: c, d, e flat, f, g, a flat, b, c.

     _Harmonic Minor (descending_)

     Same pitches in reverse order.

     _Melodic Minor (ascending)_

     The minor scale form having major sixth and major seventh
     above tonic to be called Melodic Minor.

     Illustrative examples. A minor: a, b, c, d, e, f sharp, g
     sharp, a; C minor: c, d, e flat, f, g, a, b, c.

     _Melodic Minor (descending)_

     Same as the Primitive.


     _Pulse and Beat_

     The Committee finds that the words: Pulse and Beat are in
     general use as synonymous terms, meaning one of the succession
     of throbs or impulses of which we are conscious when listening
     to music. Each of these pulses or beats has an exact point of
     beginning, a duration, and an exact point of ending, the
     latter coincident with the beginning of the next pulse or
     beat. When thus used, both words are terms of ear.


     One of these words, Beat, is also in universal use, meaning
     one of a series of physical motions by means of which a
     conductor holds his group of performers to a uniform movement.

     When thus used it becomes a term of eye.

     The conductor's baton, if it is to be authoritative, cannot
     wander about through the whole duration of the pulse but must
     move quickly to a point of comparative repose, remaining until
     just before the arrival of the next pulse when it again makes
     a rapid swing, finishing coincidently with the initial tone
     (or silence) of the new pulse.

     Thus it is practically the end of the conductor's beat that
     marks the beginning of the pulse.

     The Committee is of opinion that Beat might preferably be used
     as indicating the outward sign.


     This term "beat-note" is already in use in another important
     connection (see Terminology Report, 1911) and the Committee
     recommends that those using the above terms shall say: "This
     note is an on-the-beat note; this one is an after-the-beat
     note; this one a before-the-beat note."


     _Matters of Ear_

     Pulse: The unit of movement in music, one of a series of
     regularly recurring throbs or impulses.

     Measure: A group of pulses.

     Pulse-Group: Two or more tones grouped within the pulse.

     _Matters of Eye_

     Beat: One of a series of conventional movements made by the
     conductor. This might include any unconventional motion which
     served to mark the movement of the music, whether made by
     conductor, performer or auditor.

     Beat-Note: A note of the denomination indicated by the
     measure-sign as the unit of note-value in a given measure.


     Given the following measure-signs: 2-4, 2-2, 2-8, quarter,
     half, or eighth notes, respectively, are beat-notes.

     Beat-Group: A group of notes or notes and rests, of smaller
     denomination than the beat-note which represents a full beat
     from beginning to end and is equal in value to the beat-note.
     (A beat-group may begin with a rest.)

     On-the-Beat Note (or rest): Any note (or rest) ranging in
     value from a full beat down, which calls for musical action
     (or inaction) synchronously with the conductor's beat.

     After-the-Beat Note: Any note in a beat-group which indicates
     that a tone is to be sounded after the beginning, and before
     or at the middle of the pulse.

     Before-the-Beat Note: Any note in a beat-group which indicates
     that a tone is to be sounded after the middle of the pulse.

     To illustrate terminology and to differentiate between Pulse
     and Beat as terms, respectively of ear and eye, the following
     is submitted:

     Whenever a brief tone involves the musical idea of
     syncopation, it may be regarded as an after-the-pulse tone and
     the note that calls for it as an after-the-beat note; when it
     involves the idea of anticipation or preparation it may be
     regarded as a before-the-pulse tone, and the note that calls
     for it, as a before-the-beat note.

     _Measure and Meter_

     "What is the measure-sign?"

     "What is the meter-signature?"

     These two words are used synonymously, and one of them is
     unnecessary. The Committee recommends that Measure be retained
     and used. Meter has its use in connection with hymns.

       *       *       *       *       *

The author does not find it possible at present to agree with all the
recommendations made in the above report, but the summary is printed in
full for the sake of completeness.

The Music Teacher's National Association has also interested itself
mildly in the subject of terminology reform, and at its meeting in
Washington, D.C., in 1908, Professor Waldo S. Pratt gave his address as
president of the Association on the subject "System and Precision in
Musical Speech." This address interested the members of the Association
to such an extent that Professor Pratt was asked to act as a committee
whose purpose it should be to look into the matter of reforms necessary
in music terminology and report at a later session. In 1910 Professor
Pratt read a report in which he advocated the idea of making some
changes in music nomenclature, but took the ground that the subject is
too comprehensive to be mastered in the short time that can be given to
it by a committee, and that it is therefore impossible to recommend
specific changes. He also took occasion to remark that one difficulty in
the whole matter of terminology is that many terms and expressions are
used _colloquially_ and that such use although usually not scientific,
is often not distinctly harmful and is not of sufficient importance to
cause undue excitement on the part of reformers. Quoting from the report
at this point:--"A great deal of confusion is more apparent than real
between _note_ and _tone_, between _step_ and _degree_, between _key_
and _tonality_. No practical harm is done by speaking of the _first
note_ of a piece when really _first tone_ would be more accurate. To
say that a piece is written _in the key of B[flat]_ is more convenient
than to say that it is written in the _tonality of which B[flat] is the
tonic_. The truth is that some of the niceties of expression upon which
insistence is occasionally laid are merely fussy, not because they have
not some sort of reason, but because they fail to take into account the
practical difference between colloquial or off-hand speech and the
diction of a scientific treatise. This is said without forgetting that
colloquialism always needs watching and that some people form the habit
of being careless or positively uncouth as if it were a mark of high
artistic genius."

Professor Pratt's report is thus seen to be philosophic rather than
constructive, and terminology reform will undoubtedly make more
immediate progress through the efforts of the N.E.A. Committee with its
specific recommendations (even though these are sometimes admittedly
_fussy_) than through the policy of the M.T.N.A. of waiting for some one
to get time to take up the subject in a scholarly way. Nevertheless the
philosophic view is sometimes badly needed, especially when the spirit
of reform becomes too rabid and attaches too great importance to
trifles. A judicious intermingling of the two committees in a series of
joint meetings would undoubtedly result in mutual helpfulness, and
possibly also in a more tangible and convincing statement of principles
than has yet been formulated by either.


Sonata Op. 31, No. 3 by Beethoven

Analysis by ARTHUR E. HEACOX,
Oberlin Conservatory of Music

     First Subject 17 measures, E[flat] major, as follows: 8 meas.
     presentation, one meas. link, 8 meas. repetition oct. higher.
     Rhythmic elements are A, B, C, all presented in first 8 meas.

[Transcriber's Note: The analysis is presented as notations on the
musical score of the sonata. Please see the HTML version of this e-text
to view the score with the notations and to listen to a MIDI version.]

[Illustration: Sonata Op. 31, No. 3]


eh = a as in face; ah = a as in far; ch = ch as in chair; final eh = e
as in met.

A (_ah_), 95

A battuta (_ah-baht-too'-tah_), 95

A capella (_cah-pel'-lah_), 76

A capriccio (_cah-pritch'-eo_), 54

Accelerando (_aht-cheh-leh-rahn'-do_), 54

Accented tones, 20

Accent marks, 20

Accent in measures, 44

Acciaccatura (_aht-cheea-cah-too'-ra_), 25, 26

Accidentals, 9

Accompagnamento (_ahc-com-pahn-yah-men'-to_), 95

Acoustics (_ah-kow'-stics_), def., 131
  of auditoriums, 133

Adagietto (_ah-dah-jee-et'-to_), 50

Adagio (_ah-dah'-jee-o_), 50

À deux mains (_doo-mahng_), 42

Ad libitum, 54

Affrettando (_ahf-fret-tahn'-do_), 54

Agitato (_ah-jee-tah'-to_), 55

Agréments (_ah-greh-mahng_), 22

À la or alla (_ahl'-lah_), 42

Alla breve (_breh'-veh_), 95

Alla marcia (_mar'-chee-ah_), 95

Allargando (_ahl-lahr-gahn'-do_), 53

Alla zingara (_tseen-gah'-rah_), 95

Allegretto (_ahl-leh-gret'-to_), 51

Allegrissimo, 52

Allegro (_ahl-leh'-gro_), 50

Allegro agitato (_ah-jee-tah'-to_), 52

Allegro appassionata (_-ah'-tah_), 52

Allegro assai (_ahs-sah'-ee_), 52

Allegro commodo (_kom-mo'-do_), 52

Allegro con brio (_bree'-o_), 52

Allegro con fuoco (_foo-o'-ko_), 53

Allegro con moto (_mo'-to_), 53

Allegro con spirito (_spee'-ree-to_), 53

Allegro di bravura (_dee brah-voo'-rah_), 53

Allegro di molto (_mohl'-to_), 53

Allegro furioso (_foo-ree-o'-so_), 53

Allegro giusto (_jew-sto_), 53

Allegro ma grazioso (_mah grah-tsi-o'-so_), 53

Allegro (ma) non tanto (_tahn'-to_), 53

Allegro (ma) non troppo (_trop'-po_), 53

Allegro moderato (_mod-e-rah'-to_), 53

Allegro quasi andante (_quah-see ahn-dahn'-teh_), 53

Allegro vivace (_vee-vah'-cheh_), 53

Allemande (_al-mahnd_), 71

All'unisono (_oo-nee-so'-no_), 95

All'ottava (_ot-tah'-vah_), 15

Alt (_ahlt_), 95

Alto (_ahl-to_), 95

A mezza voce (_met'-zah-vo'-cheh_), 42

Amore (_ah-mo'-reh_), 42, 59

Andante (_ahn-dahn'-teh_), 50

Andante affettuoso (_ahf-fet-too-o'-so_), 52

Andante amabile (_ah-mah'-bee-leh_), 52

Andante cantabile (_cahn-tah'-bee-leh_), 52

Andante con moto (_mo'-to_), 52

Andante grazioso (_grah-tsi-o'-so_), 52

Andante maestoso (_mah-es-to'-so_), 52

Andante (ma) non troppo (_mah non trop'-po_), 52

Andante pastorale (_pahs-to-rah'-leh_), 52

Andante quasi allegro (_quah-see ahl-leh'-gro_), 52

Andante sostenuto (_sos-teh-noo'-to_), 52

Animando (_ah-nee-mahn'-do_), 55

Animato (_ah-nee-mah'-to_), 55

Animato come sopra (_co-meh so'-prah_), 55

Andantino (_ahn-dahn-tee'-no_), 50

Antecedent, 67

Anthem, 76

Anticipation, 93

Antiphony (_an-tif'-o-ny_), 95

Antithesis (_an-tith'-_), 67

A piacere (_pee-ah-cheh'-reh_), 54

Appoggiatura (_ap-pod-jea-too'-rah_), def., 25

À quatre mains (_kahtr-mahng_), 95

Arabesque, 95

Aria (_ah'-ree-ah_), 79

Arioso (_ah-ree-o'-so_), 95

Arpeggiando (_ar-ped-jee-ahn'-do_), 21

Arpeggiato (_-ah'-to_), 21

Arpeggiento (_-en'-to_), 21

Arpeggio (_ar-ped'-jee-o_), 21

Art-ballad, 80

Assai (_ahs-sah'-ee_), 42

A tempo, 54

A tempo primo (_pree'-mo_), 54

A tempo rubato (_roo-bah'-to_), 54

Attacca (_aht-tah'-kah_), 95

Attacca subito (_soo'-bee-to_), 95

Attacca subito il seguente (_eel seg-wen'-teh_), 95

Attack, 95

Bagpipe, 95

Ballad, 80

Band, 115

Bar, def. and use, 12
   double, 12

Barcarole (_bar'-cah-rohl_), 95

Baritone, 95

Bass, 95

Bass clarinet, 121

Basso (_bahs'-so_), 95

Bassoon, 121

Bass staff, 6

Bass tuba, 125

Bass viol, 118

Ben (_behn_), 42

Ben marcato (_mahr-kah'-to_), 42

Berceuse (_behr-soos'_), 95

Binary form, 95

Binary measure, 95

Bis (_bees_), 96

Bolero (_bo-leh'-ro_), 71

Bourrée (_boo-reh'_), 71

Brace, 96

Brass instruments, 116

Brillante (_breel-ahn'-teh_), 55

Broken chord, 96

Broken octave, 96

Cacophony (_kak-of'-o-ny_), 96

Cadence, 89

Cadenza, 96

Calando (_kah-lahn'-do_), 59

Cancel, 3, 8

Cantabile (_kahn-tah'-bee-leh_), 96

Cantando (_kakn-tahn'-do_), 96

Canto (_kahn'-to_), 96

Cantus firmus, 64

Canon, 64

Cantata (_kahn-tah'-tah_), 77

Carol, 96

Catch, 96

C clef 3, 6

Cello (_chel'-lo_), 118

Chaconne (_shah-con'_), 71

Chamber music, 72

Chanterelle (_shong-tah-rel'_), 117

Chinese scale, 27

Choral, 76

Chords def. and lands, 87
  inversions of, 88
  common, 87
  seventh, 89
  dominant seventh, 92

Chromatic, 96

Chromatic scale, 38

Clarinet, 121

Classes of instruments in orchestra, 115

Clavichord, 96

Clefs, 3, 5

Close position, 94

Coda, 70

Coi (_co'-ee_), 42

Col, 42

Colla, 42

Colla parte (_par'-teh_), 96

Colla voce (_vo'-cheh_), 96

Colle, 42

Collo, 42

Coloratura singing, 79, 96

Coll'ottava (_ot-tah'-vah_), 15

Combination pedals, 115

Come (_koh'-meh_), 42

Come primo (_pree'-mo_), 42

Common chords, 87

Compound measure, 45

Compound duple measure, 45

Con, 42

Con alcuna licenza (_ahl-koo'-nah lee-chen'-tsah_), 59

Con amore (_ah-mo'-reh_), 42, 59

Con anima (_ah'-nee-mah_), 55

Con bravura (_brah-voo'-rah_), 59

Con celerita (_che-leh'-ree-tah_), 59

Concerto (_con-cher'-to_), 72

Concert pitch, 138

Con delicato (_deh-lee-cah'-to_), 59

Con energico (_en-er-jee'-ko_), 59

Con espressione (_es-pres-see-o'-neh_), 59

Con forza (_fort'-za_), 60

Con fuoco (_foo-o'-ko_), 60

Con grand' espressione (_grahnd' es-pres-see-o'-neh_), 60

Con grazia (_grahts-yah_), 60

Con melinconia (or malinconia) (_-leen-ko'-ne-eh_), 60

Con moto, 55

Con passione (_pas-se-o'-neh_), 60

Consequent, 67

Consonance, 96

Con spirito (_spe'-ree-to_), 60

Con tenerezza (_teh-neh-ret'-za_), 60

Continuous form, 80

Contra, 42

Contra bass tuba, 126

Contra octave, 16

Contralto, 96

Con variazione (_vah-ri-ah-tsi-o'-neh_), 96

Cornet, 124

Counterpoint, def., 64, 62, 82

Courante (_koo-rahnt'_), 71

Crescendo (_kre-shen'-do_), 57

Crescendo al fortissimo, 58

Crescendo ed affrettando (_ahf-fret-tahn'-do_), 58

Crescendo ed animando poco a poco (_ah-ni-mahn'-do_), 58

Crescendo e diminuendo (_eh de-me-noo-en'-do_), 58

Crescendo molto (_mohl'-to_), 58

Crescendo poco a poco, 58

Crescendo poco a poco sin al fine (_seen ahl fee'-neh_), 58

Crescendo poi diminuendo (_po'-ee dee-mee-noo-en'-do_), 58

Crescendo subito (_soo'-bee-to_), 58

Cross-stroke, 1, 2

Csardas (_tsar'-dahs_), 71

Da (_dah_), 42

Da capo (_kah'-po_), 13

Dal segno (_sehn'-yo_), 13

Dances, 71

Dash over note, 17, 20

Decrescendo (_deh-kreh-shen'-do_), 58

Decrescendo al pianissimo (_ahl pee-ahn-is'-si-mo_), 58

Degrees of staff, 5

Delicato (_deh-lee-kah'-to_), 60

Descriptive music, 74

Di (_dee_), 42

Diatonic condition, 7

Diatonic scale, 28

Di bravura (_brah-voo'-rah_), 42

Diminuendo (_dee-mee-noo-en'-do_), 58

Di molto (_mohl'-to_), 42

Direct, 96

Dirge, 97

Discord, 97

Dissonance (_dis'_), 97

Divisi (_di-ve'-ze_), 97

Dolce (_dohl'-cheh_), 60

Dolce e cantabile (_eh kahn-tah'-bee-leh_), 60

Dolcissimo (_dohl-chis'-see-mo_), 60

Dolente (_do-len'-teh_), 60

Dominant, 36

Dominant Seventh, 92

Doloroso (_do-lo-ro'-so_), 60

Doppio (_dop'-pee-o_), 42

Doppio movimento (_mo-vi-men'-to_), 55

Dot--where placed, 3
  uses of, 17
  with slur or tie, 20
  with dash, 20

Double bar, 12

Double bass, 118

Double bassoon, 121

Double flat, 3, 7

Double mordent, 23

Double sharp, 3, 7

Doublet, 20

Duet, 97

Duple measure, 46

Dynamics, 56

E (_eh_), 42

École (_eh'-kole_), 97

Ed, 42

Eight-foot stop, 114

Elements of music, 82

Embellishments, 22

English names for notes, 11

English horn, 121

Enharmonic, def., 10

Enharmonic scale, 32

Enharmonic tie, 18

Ensemble (_ong-sombl_), 42

Equal temperament, 137

E poi la coda (_eh-po'-ee_), 14

Espressivo (_ehs-pres-see'-vo_), 60

Et, 42

Etto, 42

Etude, 97

Euphony (_yu'-fo-ny_), 97

Even measure, 46

Facile (_fah-chee'-leh_), 97

Fanfare (_fahn'-fehr_), 97

Fantasia (_fahn-tah-ze'-ah_), 97

F Clef, 3, 5, 6

Fermata (_fehr-mah'-ta_), 14, 15

Fiasco (_fe-ahs'-ko_), 97

Figured bass, 89

Fine (_fee'-neh_), 13

Five-lined octave, 16

Flat, 3, 7

Flute, 119

Folk-song, 81

Form, def., 62
  binary, 95

Forte (_for'-teh_), 56

Forte piano (_pee-ah'-no_), 56

Forte possibile (_pos-see'-bee-leh_), 43

Fortissimo, 56

Fortissimo possibile (_pos-see-bee-leh_), 56

Fortisissimo, 56

Forzando (_for-tsahn'-do_), 57

Forzato (_for-tsah'-to_), 57

Four-foot stop, 114

Four-lined octave, 16

Free imitation, 64

French horn, 123

French pitch designations, 6

Fugue, 66

Fundamental, 135

Gamut (_gam'-ut_), 97

Gavotte (_gah-vot'_), 71

G Clef, 3, 5, 6

General pause, 15

German pitch designation, 6

Gigue (_zheeg_), 71

Giocoso (_jee-o-ko'-so_), 60

Giojoso (_jee-o-yo'-so_), 60

Glee, 81

Glissando (_glis-sahn'-do_), 97

Graces, 22

Grandioso (_grahn-dee-o'-so_), 60

Grand sonata, 74

Grave (_grah'-veh_), 50

Grazioso (_grah-tsi-o'-so_), 60

Great octave, 16

Great staff, 5

Grosse pause (_gros-seh pah-oo'-za_) or (_gros-seh pow-zeh_), 15

Gruppetto (_groo-pet'-to_), 22

Habanera (_hah-bah-neh'-rah_), 71

Half-step, 83

Harmonic minor scale, 33

Harmonics, 136

Harmonics on violin, 117

Harmony, 82

Harp, 129

Harpsichord, 97

Head of note, 1

Hold, 15

Homophonic style, 63

Hook, 1

Humoresque (_hoo-mo-resk'_), 97

Hymn to St. John, 37

Idyl, 97

Il (_eel_), 42

Il basso (_bahs'-so_), 42

Il più (_pee'-oo_), 42

Il più forte possibile (_pos-see'-bee-leh_), 42

Imitation, 64

Imperfect trill, 23

In alt (_in ahlt_), 97

In altissimo (_ahl-tis'-si-mo_), 97

Ino (_ee'-no_), 42

Instrumentation, 97

Instruments, classification of, 112

Intensity of tones, 135

Interlude, 97

Intermediate tones, 38
  see "Chromatic," p. 96

International pitch, 138

Interval, def., 83
  enharmonic, 10
  harmonic, 83
  melodic, 83
  names of, 83

Inversion, in thematic development, 69

Inversions of chords, 88

Inverted mordent, 23

Inverted turn, 25

Issimo, 42

Kettle-drum, 126

Key, def., 28
  signature, 8
  enharmonic keys, 10
  key-tone, 27, 28
  how different from scale, 28

L, 42

La (_lah_), 42

Lacrimando (_lah-kri-mahn'-do_), 60

Lacrimoso (_lah-kri-mo'-so_), 60

Largamente (_lar-gah-men'-teh_), 42

Largando (_lar-gahn'-do_), 53

Larghetto (_lar-get'-to_), 50

Largo, 50

Largo assai (_ahs-sah'-ee_), 52

Largo di molto (_de mohl'-to_), 52

Largo ma non troppo (_mah non trop'-po_), 52

Largo un poco (_oon po'-co_), 52

Le (_leh_), 42

Leading tone, 33, 36

Legato (_leh-gah'-to_), 18, 60

Leger lines, 5

Leggierissimo (_led-jah-ris'-si-mo_), 60

Leggiero (_led-jee'-ro_), 60

Lentando (_len-tahn'-do_), 52

Lentemente (_len-tah-men'-teh_), 52

Lentissimamente (_-men'-teh_), 52

Lentissamente (_-men'-teh_), 52

Lento, 50

Lento a capriccio (_ah-cah-preet'-chee-o_), 52

Lento assai (_ahs-sah'-ee_), 52

Lento di molto (_de mohl'-to_), 52

Libretto (_lee-bret'-to_), 78

Lied (_leed_), 80

L'istesso tempo (_lis-tes'-so_), 42, 55

Loco, 15, 97

Long appoggiatura (_ap-pod-jea-too'-rah_), 25

Lower tetrachord, 29

Lunga pausa (_loong-ah pow'-zeh_) or (_loon-gah pah-oo'-za_), 15

Lunga trillo, 97

Lusingando (_loos-in-gahn'-do_), 60

Lyric, 98

Madrigal (_mad'-ri-gal_), 81

Maesta (_mah'-es-tah_), 60

Maestoso (_mah-es-to'-so_), 60

Maggiore (_mahd-jo'-reh_), 98

Main droite (_mahng droa_), 20

Main gauche (_mahng gowsh_), 20

Major key, 8

Major scale, def., 29
  positions, 30
  origin of name, 33

Mancando (_mahn-kahn'-do_), 59

Mano destra (_mah'-no dehs'-trah_), 20

Mano sinistra (_si-nees'-trah_), 20

Marcato il canto (_mar-kah'-to eel kahn'-to_), 98

Martellando (_mar-tel-lahn'-do_), 59

Martellato (_mar-tel-lah'-to_), 59

Marziale (_mart-se-ah'-leh_), 59

Mass, 77

Mazurka (_mah-zoor'-ka_), 71

Measure, def., 44
  how differs from "bar," 12
  how differs from "rhythm," 44
  syncopation in, 44
  simple and compound, 45
  duple or even, 46
  triple or perfect, 46
  quadruple, 46
  sextuple, 46
  compound duple, 46
  signature, 48
  binary, 95

Mediant, 36

Mellifluous (_mel-lif'-loo-us_), 98

Melodic minor scales, 34

Melody, 82

Melos (_meh'-los_), 98

Meno (_meh'-no_), 42

Meno mosso (_mos'-so_), 53

Mente (_men'-teh_), 42

Menuet (_meh-noo-eh'_), 98

Menuetto (_meh-noo-et'-to_), 98

Messa di voce (_mes'-sa dee vo'-cheh_), 21

Mesto (_mehs'-to_), 60

Metronome, 49

Mezza (_med'-zah_), 42

Mezzo (_med'-zo_), 42

Mezzo forte (_for'-teh_), 42, 56

Mezzo piano (_pe-ah'-no_), 56

Mezzo soprano (_so-prah'-no_), 98

Mezzo voce (_vo'-cheh_), 60

Minor key, 8

Minore (_me-no'-reh_), 98

Minor scale, def., 33
  positions, 34

Minuet, 71

Misterioso (_mis-teh-ri-o'-so_), 60

Moderato (_mod-e-rah'-to_), 51

Modulation, def., 92
  enharmonic, 10

Molto (_mohl'-to_), 42

Molto crescendo (_kre-shen'-do_), 42

Monophonic style, 63, 67

Mordent, 22, 23

Morendo (_mo-ren'-do_), 59

Moriente (_mo-ri-en'-teh_), 59

Motet (_mo-tet'_), 76

Movable C Clef, 6

Mute, 117

Natural, 3, 8

Natural condition of staff-degrees, 8

Nel, 42

Nel battere (_baht-teh'-reh_), 42

Nella, 42

Neumae (_neoo'-mee_), 104

Nocturne, 98

Non (_non_), 42

Non tanto (_tahn'-to_), 42

Non tanto allegro (_ahl-leh'-gro_), 53

Non troppo allegro (_trop'-po_), 53

Notation, history of music, 101

Notes, def., 10
  kinds of, 11
  English names for, 11
  dotted, 17
  staccato, 17
  irregular note-groups, 19
  parts of, 1
  how made, 1

Nuance (_noo-angs_), 98

Obbligato (_ob-blee-gah'-to_), 98

Oboe (_o'-bo_), 121

Octave, def., 36

Octaves, names of, 16

Offertory, 98

One-lined octave, 16

Open position, 94

Opera, 78

Opus, 98

Oratorio, 77

Orchestra, 115

Orchestration, 98

Organ, reed, 113
  pipe, 114
  point, 98

Original minor scale, 33

Origin of scale, 28

Ossia (_os'-see-ah_), 42, 98

Ossia più facile (_pe-oo' fah-chee'-leh_), 42

Overtones, 136

Overture, 98

Parlando (_par-lahn'-do_), 60

Part song, 81

Pastorale (_pas-to-rah'-leh_), 60

Pedal point, 93

Pentatonic scale, 27

Per (_pehr_), 42

Percussion instruments, 116

Perdendo (_pehr-den'-do_), 59

Perdendosi (_pehr-den-do'-see_), 59

Perfect measure, 46

Perfect trill, 23

Per il violino (_eel ve-o-le'-no_), 42

Period, 67

Pesante (_peh-sahn'-teh_), 55

Peu (_peuh_), 42

Phrase, 67

Phrase mark, 18

Pianissimo (_pee-ahn-is'-si-mo_), 56

Pianissimo possibile (_pos-see'-bee'-leh_), 56

Pianisissimo (_pee-ahn-is-is'-si-mo_), 56

Piano (_pee-ah'-no_), 56

Piano assai (_ahs-sah'-ee_), 56

Piano, description of, 112

Piccolo (_pik'-ko-lo_), 119

Pipe organ, 114

Pitch, def., 134
  pitch names, 6
  standards of, 137
  concert pitch, 138
  international pitch, 138

Più (_pe-oo'_), 42

Più allegro (_ahl-leh'-gro_), 54

Più forte (for'-teh), 42

Più lento, 53

Più mosso (_mos'-so_), 54

Più tosto (_tos'-to_), 54

Pizzicato (_pits-e-kah'-to_), 99, 117

Pochetto (_po-ket'-to_), see ino, 42

Poco, 43

Poco a poco animando (_ah-nee-mahn'-do_), 54

Poi (_po' ee_), 42

Polacca (_po-lahk'-kah_), 99

Polka, 69

Polonaise (_pol-o-nez'_), 71, 99

Polyphonic style, 64

Pomposo (_pom-po'-so_), 60

Portamento (_por'-tah-men'-to_), 20

Position, open and close, 94

Possibile (_pos-see'-bee-leh_), 43

Postlude, 99

Prall trill, 22

Precipitoso (_preh-che-pi-to'-so_), 60

Prelude, 99

Prestissimo (_pres-tis'-see-mo_), 51

Prestissimo possibile (_pos-see'-bee-leh_), 51

Presto, 51

Presto assai (_ahs-sah'-ee_), 53

Presto (ma) non troppo (_mah non trop'-po_), 53

Prière (_pre-ehr'_), 99

Primary forms, 68

Primitive minor scale, 33

Program music, 74

Pure music, 74

Pure scale, 40

Quadruple measure, 46

Quality, 136

Quartet, 72

Quasi (_quah'-see_), 43

Quintole (_kwin'-to-leh_), 99

Quintolet, 20

Quintuplet, 20, 99

Raised sixth, 34

Rallentando (_rahl-len-tahn'-do_), 53

Rapidamente (_rah-pid-a-men'-teh_), 55

Rate of speed, of sound, 132

Recitative (_res-i-tah-teev'_), 78

Recitativo (_reh-chee-ta-tee'-vo_), 60

Reed organ, 113

Relative minor, 8, 35

Religioso (_reh-lee-jo'-so_), 99

Repetition and contrast, 62, 70

Requiem (_re'-kwi-em_), 99

Rests, def., 10
  rules for making, 2
  kinds of, 11
  peculiar use of, 11
  several measures of, 14

Retardation, 93

Rhapsody, 99

Rhythm, def., 82
  element of music, 82
  how differs from "measure," 44
  correct use of word, 48

Rhythmic augmentation, 69

Rhythmic diminution, 69

Rhythmic figures, 44

Ribattuta (_re-baht-too'-tah_), 99

Rigaudon (_rig'-o-don_), 71

Rinforzando (_rin-for-tsahn'-do_), 57

Rinforzato (_rin-for-tsah'-to_), 57

Risoluto (_ree-so-loo'-to_), 60

Ritardando (_ree-tar-dahn'-do_), 53

Ritenente (_ree-ten-en'-teh_), 53

Ritenuto (_ree-ten-oo'-to_), 53

Ritornelle (_ree-tor-nell'_), 99

Ritornello (_ree-tor-nel'-lo_), 99

Rondo, 70, 71

  For writing music, 1, 2
  For turning stems, 1, 2
  For altered staff degrees, 10
  For embellishments, 22-26
  For repeats, 13, 14
  For writing chromatic scale, 38

Sans (_sahng_), 43

Sans pedales (_peh-da-leh_), 43

Sarabande (_sar-ah-bahn'-deh_), 71

Sarrusophone (_sar-reoos-o-fohn'_), 123

Saxhorn, p. 125 (footnote)

Saxophone, 121

Scales, def., 27
  origin, 28
  how different from keys, 28
  positions of:
    major, 30
    minor, 34
    chromatic, 38
  tones of, called, 5, 36, 37
  Chinese, 27
  Scotch, 27

Scherzando (_skehr-tsahn'-do_), 60

Scherzo (_skehr'-tso_), 71, 72

Scherzoso (_skehr-tzo'-so_), 60

School-round, 66

Schottische (_shot'-tish_), 99

Score, 99

Scotch scale, 27

Sec (_sek_), 99

Secco (_sek'-ko_), 99

Section, 67

Segue (_sehg'-weh_), 14

Semplice (_sem-plee'-cheh_), 60

Sempre (_sem'-preh_), 43

Sempre forte (_for'-teh_), 43

Sempre lento malinconico assai (_mah-leen-ko'-ni-ko ahs-sah'-ee_), 55

Sempre marcatissimo (_mar-kah-tis'-si-mo_), 60

Sentimento (_sen-tee-men'-to_), 60

Senza (_sen-tza_), 42

Senza accompagnamento (_ahc-com-pahn-yah-men'-toh_), 42

Senza repetizione (_reh-peh-titz-e-o'-neh_), 14, 99

Senza replica (_reh'-ple-kah_), 99

Septimole, 20

Septolet, 20

Sequence, 91

Serenade, 99

Serenata (_seh-re-nah'-tah_), 99

Seventh chord, 89

Sextet, 99

Sextolet, 20

Sextuple measure, 46

Sextuplet, 20, 100

Sforzando (_sfortz-ahn'-do_), 57

Sforzato (_sfortz-ah'-to_), 57

Shake, 22

Sharp, 3, 7

Short appoggiatura (_ap-pod-jea-too-rah_), 25

Simile (_see'-mee-leh_), 14, 100

Similiter (_see-mil'-i-ter_), 100

Simple measure, 45

Simple tone, 137

Sin (_seen_), 43

Sin al fine (_ahl-fee'-neh_), 14

Sino (_see'-no_), 43

Sixteen-foot stop, 114

Sixty-four-foot stop, 114

Slentando (_slen-tahn'-do_), 53

Slur, 18

Small octave, 16

Smorzando (_smor-tzahn'-do_), 59

Solenne (_so-len'-neh_), 59

Solfège (_sul-fezh'_), 100

Solfeggio (_sol-fed'-jo_), 100

Solmization, 100

Solo, 43

Sonata (_so-nah'-tah_), 71

Sonata allegro (_ahl-leh'-gro_), 73

Sonata form, 73

Sonatina (_so-na-tee'-nah_), 74

Song form, 68

Sopra (_so'-prah_), 100

Soprano (_so-prah'-no_), 100

Sordino (_sor-dee'-no_), 117

Sostenuto (_sos-teh-noo'-to_), 100

Sotto (_sot'-to_), 100

Sotto voce (_vo'-cheh_), 59

Sound, App. C, 131
  Production of, 131
  Transmission of, 131
  Rate of travel of, 131
  Intensification of, 133
  Reflection of, 133
  Classification of, 133

Spiritoso (_spee-ree-to'-so_), 60

Staccatissimo (_stahk-kah-tis'-si-mo_), 17

Staccato (_stahk-kah'-to_), 17, 20, 100

Staff, 5

Staff degrees, 5

Standards of pitch, 137

Stems, 1

Step, half and whole, 83

Strepitoso (_streh-pee-to'-so_), 61

Stretto (_stret'-to_), 54

Strict imitation, 64

Stringed instruments, 115

Stringendo (_strin-jen'-do_), 54

Stroking notes, 2

Strophe form (_stro'-feh_), 80

Styles, kinds of, 63
  how differ from forms, 62

Sub, 43

Sub-dominant, 36

Subject, 64

Subito (_soo-bee'-to_), 100

Sub-mediant, 36

Sub-octave, 16

Suite (_sweet_), 70

Super-dominant, 36

Super-tonic, 36

Suspension, 92

Swell-box, 114

Syllables for sight-singing, 37

Symphonic poem, 75

Symphony, def., 73

Syncopation, 44

Tail of note, 1

Takt pausa (_tahkt pow'-zeh_ or _pah-oo'-za_), 11

Tanto (_tahn'-to_), 43

Tarantella (_tah-rahn-tel'-lah_), 71

Tempered scales, 137

Tempo, 48-50

Tempo commodo (_ko-mo'-do_), 55

Tempo di marcia (_de mar'-chee-ah_), 55

Tempo di menuetto (_meh-noo-et'-to_), 55

Tempo di valso (_vahl'-so_), 55

Tempo giusto (_jew-sto_), 54

Tempo ordinario (_or-dee-nah'-ree-o_), 55

Tempo primo (_pree'-mo_), 54

Tempo rubato (_roo-bah'-to_), 54

Tenor, 100

Tenuto (_teh-noo'-to_), 55, 100

Terminology Reforms, App. D., p. 139

Tetrachords in scales, 29

Thematic development, 69

Theme, 69

Theme and variations, 69

Thesis, 67

Thirty-two-foot stop, 114

Thorough-bass, 89

Three-lined octave, 16

Through-composed form, 80

Tie, 18

Timbre (_tambr_), 82

Time, wrong uses of word, 48

Toccata (_tok-kah'-tah_), 100

Tonality scale, 27, 28, 38

Tone, how represented, 10
  ornamental tone, 22
  key-tone, 27
  of resolution, 93

Tone-poem, 75

Tonic, 36

Tonic minor, 36

Tranquillo (_trahn-quil'-lo_), 61

Transposition, 94

Tre (_treh_), 43

Treble staff, 6

Tre corde (_kor'-deh_), 43, 59

Très (_treh_), 43

Très lentement (_lahng-te-mahng_), 52

Très vivement (_ve'-veh-mahng_), 42

Triad, def., 87, 88

Trill, 22

Trio, 72

Triple measure, 46

Triplet, 19, 100

Tristamente (_tris-tah-men'-teh_), 61

Trombone, 125

Troppo (_trop'-po_), 43

Trumpet, 124

Tuba, 125

Turn, 24, 25

Tutte le corde (_toot'-teh leh kor'-deh_), 59

Tutti (_toot'-tee_), 100

Two-foot stop, 114

Two-lined octave, 16

Un (_oon_), 43

Una (_oo'-nah_), 43

Una corda, 43, 59

Uno (_oo'-no_), 43

Un peu (_oon peuh_), 43

Un peu crescendo (_kre-shen'-do_), 43

Un poco animate (_ah-ni-mah-'to_), 54

Untempered scale, 40

Upper partials, 136

Upper tetrachord, 29

Veloce (_veh-lo'-cheh_), 55

Viola (_vee-o'-lah_), 117

Violin, 117

Violoncello (_vee-o-lohn-chel'-lo_), 118

Vivo (_vee'-vo_), 51

Vivace (_vee-vah'-cheh_), 51

Vivacissimo (_vee-vah-chis'-see-mo_), 51

Vocal music, 76

Volante (_vo-lahn'-teh_), 55

Waltz, 68

Whole-step, 83

Whole-step scale, 28, 40

Wood-wind instruments, 115

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Music Notation and Terminology" ***

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