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Title: Stories from Aulus Gellius - Being Selections And Adaptations From The Noctes Atticae
Author: Gellius, Aulus
Language: Latin
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+Elementary Classics.+

                  STORIES FROM

                 AULUS GELLIUS,

   Being Selections And Adaptations From The

                NOCTES ATTICAE,

 _Edited With Notes Exercises And Vocabularies_
          _For The Use Of Lower Forms_

                     By The

            REV. G. H. NALL, M.A.,
    Assistant Master At Westminster School.

               MACMILLAN AND CO.,
                 AND NEW YORK.


It is hoped that this series of short stories from A. Gellius may serve
as a pleasant change to young boys after a course of Cornelius Nepos,
Eutropius, etc. The language of the original has been simplified in
parts, and some rare or late words and constructions cut out. The Notes
have been made, with few exceptions, as short as possible; a few more
lengthy digressions, such as those upon the ablative absolute and the
gerundial constructions, will need no apology, if they succeed in
leading boys to think out for themselves the difficulties which these
constructions present. Some simple Exercises have been added at the
request of the Publishers, and for these an English-Latin Vocabulary has
been compiled. In this Vocabulary the words are arranged in alphabetical
order, since the Exercises are intended principally for _viva voce_
drill in form, and the Editor’s experience does not confirm the theory
of some Editors, that a boy’s knowledge of a language is increased in
proportion to the time that he spends in hunting for words that he does
not know; he considers that the “paragraph” vocabulary makes the lazy
boy take refuge in guessing, whilst it wastes the time of the
industrious boy.

The Editor acknowledges his obligations to the Latin Grammars of Dr.
Kennedy and Mr. Roby, and to Dr. Smith’s Dictionaries of Biography and
Antiquities, and to similar works which lie at every schoolmaster’s


  Preface,                                               v
  Life of Aulus Gellius,                                ix
  Text of the “Stories from Aulus Gellius,”              1
  Notes on the Text,                                    33
  Exercises,                                            75
  Latin-English Vocabulary,                             98
  English-Latin Vocabulary,                            137
  Table showing the order of the “Stories” compared
    with the Books of the “Noctes Atticae,”            147
  Index to Notes,                                      148
  Index to Proper Names.                               152



Nothing is known about the life of A. Gellius beyond what can be
gathered from occasional hints in his own writings; it has even been
disputed whether his name was Agellius or A. Gellius. Probably he was a
Roman by birth, of good family and connections. He seems to have spent
his early years at Rome, studying under the celebrated teachers,
Sulpicius Apollinaris, T. Castricius, and Antonius Julianus (cf.
xxxiv. 1): to have continued his studies at Athens, where he lived on
terms of familiarity with Herodes Atticus, Calvisius Taurus, Peregrinus
Proteus, and other famous philosophers of that day: and after the lapse
of many years to have returned to Rome, and devoted the remaining years
of his life to literary pursuits and the society of a large circle of
friends. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but from the
names of his teachers and friends it is certain that he lived during the
reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, 117-180 A.D.

The only work of A. Gellius that has reached us, possibly the only one
that he wrote, is the “Noctes Atticae,” so called because it was begun
during the long nights of winter in a country house in Attica
(_longinquis per hiemen noctibus in agro terrae Atticae_). It consists
of numerous extracts from Greek and Roman writers on subjects connected
with history, philosophy, philology, and antiquities, illustrated by
abundant criticisms and discussions. These extracts are thrown together
without any attempt at order or arrangement, and divided into twenty
books. He had been accustomed whilst reading, he says, to make notes
upon anything which struck him as worth remembering. These notes he
embodied with little change in his work, in the same haphazard order in
which they had been made (_usi autem sumus ordine rerum fortuito quem
antea in excerpendo feceramus_).

Naturally the various parts of such a ‘Miscellany’ vary greatly in
quality. Some portions of it are highly valuable and interesting. For
instance, many quotations are preserved from ancient authors whose works
have perished, some of which throw light upon questions of
constitutional and antiquarian interest, which would otherwise have
remained obscure; many literary and historical anecdotes are given which
are valuable in themselves; and some important grammatical usages and
theories are noted. But the author’s appetite was omnivorous. He is as
eager to tell the story of a marvellous African serpent, 120 feet in
length, whose destruction required the utmost efforts of a whole Roman
army, with their _ballistae_ and _catapultae_ (_magna totius exercitus
conflictione, ballistis atque catapultis diu oppugnatum._ --_N. A._
vii. 3), or to discuss some absurd etymology, such as that of _avarus_
from _avidus aeris_, as to preserve some really valuable detail of
senatorial procedure, or record the use and origin of obscure
constitutional phrases. His own criticisms, moreover, are as a rule
worthless, and his translations are feeble; but in spite of all these
defects his work is exceedingly interesting, and we could ill afford to
lose it.

His Latin style shows the defects of his age, an age in which the Romans
had ceased to feel the full meaning of the words which they used, and
endeavoured to gain emphasis by employing obscure phrases and unnatural
turns of expression. But these peculiarities are even more noticeable in
the writings of his contemporaries.



  _Vergil, who spent much labour in polishing his verses, used to
  compare himself to a bear, which licks its cubs into shape._

Dicebat P. Vergilius, ut amici eius familiaresque ferunt, se parere
versus more ursino. “Namque ut illa bestia” inquit, “fetum edit informem
lambendoque postea conformat et fingit, sic ingenii quoque mei partus
primum rudes et inperfecti sunt, sed tractando corrigendoque reddo iis
oris et vultus liniamenta.” {6}


  _The poet Menander, meeting his successful rival Philemon, asked
  him if he did not feel ashamed to defeat him._

Menander a Philemone, nequaquam pari scriptore, in certaminibus
comoediarum ambitu gratiâque saepenumero vincebatur. Ei forte obviam
factus est Menander, et “Quaeso” inquit, “Philemo, bonâ veniâ dic mihi,
cum me vincis, nonne erubescis?” {5}


  _The palm has been made the emblem of victory, because its wood
  does not yield, when heavy weights are placed upon it._

Rem hercle mirandam Aristoteles et Plutarchus dicunt. “Si super palmae
arboris lignum” inquiunt “magna pondera imponis, non deorsum palma cedit
nec intra flectitur, sed adversus pondus resurgit et sursum recurvatur;
propterea in certaminibus palma signum victoriae facta est, quoniam
urgentibus opprimentibusque non cedit.” {7}


  _Socrates, when asked why he endured his quarrelsome wife, replied
  that to bear her temper was good discipline._

Xanthippe, Socratis philosophi uxor, admodum morosa et litigiosa fuisse
fertur, irisque muliebribus per diem perque noctem scatebat. Quam rem in
maritum Socraten Alcibiades demiratus, “Cur mulierem” inquit “tam
acerbam domo non exigis?” “Quoniam,” respondit Socrates, “cum illam domi
talem perpetior, insuesco et exerceor, ut ceterorum quoque foris
petulantiam et iniuriam facilius feram.” {8}


  _Socrates used to train himself to bear fatigue by standing
  motionless for twenty-four hours at a time. His health was always

Inter labores voluntarios corporis firmandi causâ id quoque accepimus
Socraten facere insuevisse: stabat per diem perque noctem a lucis ortu
ad solem alterum orientem immobilis, iisdem in vestigiis, et ore atque
oculis eundem in locum directis, cogitans, tamquam quodam secessu mentis
atque animi facto a corpore. {7}

Temperantiâ quoque tantâ fuisse traditus est, ut omnem fere vitam
valitudine integrâ vixerit. In eâ etiam pestilentiâ, quae in belli
Peloponnensiaci principiis Atheniensium civitatem depopulata est,
dicitur vigorem corporis retinuisse. {12}


  _How Alexander obtained his famous charger Bucephalas, how it
  saved his life in battle, and how the King showed his gratitude._

Equus Alexandri regis nomine Bucephalas fuit. Emptum Chares scripsit
talentis tredecim et regi Philippo donatum; hoc autem aeris nostri summa
est sestertia trecenta duodecim. De hoc equo haec memoriâ digna
accepimus. {5} Ubi ornatus erat armatusque ad proelium, haud umquam
inscendi sese ab alio, nisi ab rege passus est. Bello Indico cum
insidens in eo Alexander facinora faceret fortia, in hostium cuneum, non
satis sibi providens, inmisit. Coniectis undique in Alexandrum telis,
vulneribus altis in cervice atque in latere equus perfossus est. {11}
Moribundus tamen ac prope iam exanguis e mediis hostibus regem citato
cursu retulit atque, ubi eum extra tela extulerat, ilico concidit et,
domini iam superstitis securus, animam expiravit. Tum rex Alexander,
partâ eius belli victoriâ, oppidum in iisdem locis condidit idque ob
equi honores Bucephalon appellavit. {17}


  _Alcibiades, when a boy, refused to learn to play the pipes,
  because they distorted the player’s mouth._

Alcibiades Atheniensis apud avunculum Periclen educatus est, qui artibus
ac disciplinis liberalibus puerum docendum curavit. Inter alios
magistros tibicinem arcessi iussit, ut eum canere tibiis doceret, quod
honestissimum tum videbatur. Traditas sibi tibias Alcibiades ad os
adhibuit inflavitque; sed ubi oris deformitatem vidit, abiecit
infregitque. Cum ea res percrebuisset, omnium tum Atheniensium consensu
disciplina tibiis canendi desita est. {9}


  _Fabricius refused rich presents, which the Samnites offered him,
  saying that, while he retained command over his senses, he had all
  that he needed._

Legati a Samnitibus ad C. Fabricium, imperatorem populi Romani, venerunt
et, memoratis multis magnisque rebus, quae bene post redditam pacem
Samnitibus fecisset, dono grandem pecuniam obtulerunt. “Quae facimus”
Samnites inquiunt, “quod multa ad splendorem domus atque victus defieri
videmus.” {6} Tum Fabricius manus ab auribus ad oculos et infra deinceps
ad nares et ad os et ad gulam deduxit, et legatis ita respondit: “Dum
his omnibus membris, quae attigi, imperare possum, numquam quicquam mihi
deerit; quamobrem hanc pecuniam, quâ nihil mihi est usus, a vobis, qui
eâ uti scitis, non accipio.” {12}


  _Antiochus, proud of his army, asked Hannibal if they were ‘enough
  for the Romans.’ ‘Quite enough,’ replied Hannibal, ‘however greedy
  the Romans are.’_

Antiochus ostendebat Hannibali in campo copias ingentis, quas bellum
populo Romano facturus comparaverat, convertebatque exercitum insignibus
argenteis et aureis micantem; inducebat etiam currus cum falcibus et
elephantos cum turribus equitatumque frenis, ephippiis, monilibus,
phaleris fulgentem. {6} Atque ibi rex Hannibalem aspicit et “Putasne”
inquit “satis esse Romanis haec omnia?” Tum Poenus, eludens ignaviam
militum eius tam pretiose armatorum, “Satis, plane satis esse credo
Romanis haec omnia, etiamsi avarissimi sunt.” {11}


  _Milo, when enfeebled by age, tried to tear a tree open, but the
  wood closed on his hands and he perished miserably._

Milo Crotoniensis, athleta inlustris, exitum habuit e vita miserandum et
mirandum. Cum iam natu grandis artem athleticam desisset iterque faceret
forte solus in locis Italiae silvestribus, quercum vidit proxime viam
rimis in parte mediâ hiantem. {5} Tum experiri etiam tunc volens,
an ullae sibi vires adessent, inmissis in cavernas arboris digitis,
diducere et rescindere quercum conatus est. Ac mediam quidem partem
discidit divellitque; quercus autem in duas diducta partis, cum ille
manus laxasset, rediit in naturam, manibusque eius retentis inclusisque
dilacerandum hominem feris praebuit. {12}


  _The young Papirius, pressed by his mother to reveal the secret
  proceedings of the Senate, told her that they had debated whether
  it was better for one husband to have two wives, or one wife two

Mos antea senatoribus Romae fuit, in curiam cum praetextatis filiis
introire. Forte res maior quaepiam consultata et in diem posterum
prolata est, placuitque ut eam rem ne quis enuntiaret, priusquam decreta
esset. Sed mater Papirii pueri, qui cum patre suo in curiâ fuerat,
percontata est filium, quidnam in senatu patres egissent. {7} Puer
respondit tacendum esse neque id dici licere. Mulier autem fit audiendi
cupidior, ac tandem puer matre urgente lepidi mendacii consilium capit.
Actum in senatu dixit, utrum videretur utilius exque republicâ esse,
unusne ut duas uxores haberet, an ut una duobus nupta esset. {12}


  _The consternation of the Roman Matrons, the bewilderment of the
  Senators, the confession of Papirius, and the reward for his

Ubi illa hoc audivit, domo trepidans egreditur, ad ceteras matronas se
adfert. Pervenit ad senatum postridie matrum familias caterva.
Lacrimantes atque obsecrantes orant, ut una potius duobus nupta fieret
quam ut duae uni. Senatores in curiam ingredientes mirabantur, quae illa
mulierum insania et quid sibi postulatio istaec vellet. {7} Puer
Papirius in medium curiae progressus, quid mater audire institisset,
quid ipse matri dixisset, denarrat. Senatus fidem atque ingenium pueri
laudat et consultum facit, uti posthac pueri cum patribus in curiam ne
introeant, praeter illum unum Papirium, cui postea cognomen honoris
gratiâ datum “Praetextatus.” {13}


  _The extraordinary influence that Sertorius exercised over the
  minds of his soldiers, and the means by which he maintained this

Sertorius, vir acer egregiusque dux, et utendi et regendi exercitus
peritus fuit. Is in temporibus difficillimis et mentiebatur ad milites,
si mendacium prodesset, et litteras compositas pro veris legebat, et
somnium simulabat, et falsas religiones conferebat, si quid istae res
eum apud militum animos adiuvabant. {6} Haec hominum barbarorum
credulitas Sertorio in magnis rebus magno usui fuit. Memoria prodita
est, neminem umquam ex his nationibus, quae cum Sertorio faciebant, cum
multis proeliis superatus esset, ab eo descivisse, quamquam id genus
hominum esset mobilissimum. {12}


  _Sertorius pretended that divine revelations were made to him
  through a white doe. This doe once ran away, but was soon found
  again. The use which Sertorius made of this incident._

Huic Sertorio cerva alba eximiae pulchritudinis et celeritatis a
Lusitano quodam dono data est. Hanc persuasit omnibus, oblatam sibi
divinitus et instinctam Dianae numine, conloqui secum et monere et
docere, quae utilia factu essent, ac, si quid durius videbatur, quod
imperandum militibus foret, a cervâ sese monitum praedicabat. {7} Id cum
dixerat, universi, tamquam si deo, libentes ei parebant. Ea cerva quodam
die, cum incursio hostium esset nuntiata, tumultu consternata in fugam
se proripuit atque in palude proximâ delituit, et postea requisita
periisse credita est. Neque multis diebus post inventam esse cervam
Sertorio nuntiatur. {12} Tum eum qui nuntiaverat iussit tacere ac, ne
cui palam diceret, interminatus est praecepitque, ut eam postero die
repente in eum locum, in quo ipse cum amicis esset, inmitteret. {16}
Admissis deinde amicis postridie, cervam ait, quae periisset, visam esse
in quiete ad se reverti et, ut prius consuerat, quod opus esset facto
praedicere; tum servo quod imperaverat significat, cerva emissa in
cubiculum Sertorii introrupit, clamor factus et orta admiratio est. {21}


  _A Sibyl offered to sell King Tarquin nine books for a large sum.
  On his scornful refusal she burnt three, and offered the remaining
  six for the same sum, but he again refused. She burnt three more
  and offered the remaining three for the same sum: these the King
  bought and deposited in the ‘Sacristy.’_

In antiquis annalibus haec memoria de libris Sibyllinis prodita est:
Anus hospita atque incognita ad Tarquinium Superbum regem adiit, novem
libros ferens, quos divina oracula esse dicebat; eos velle vendere.
Tarquinius pretium percontatus est. Mulier nimium atque inmensum
poposcit: rex, quasi anus aetate desiperet, derisit. {7} Tum illa
foculum coram cum igni apponit, tris libros ex novem deurit et, ecquid
reliquos sex eodem pretio emere vellet, regem interrogavit. Sed enim
Tarquinius id multo magis risit, dixitque anum iam procul dubio
delirare. Mulier ibidem statim tris alios libros exussit atque id ipsum
denuo placide rogat, ut tris reliquos eodem illo pretio emat. {14}
Tarquinius ore iam serio atque attentiore animo fit, eam constantiam
confidentiamque non contemnendam intellegit, libros tris reliquos
mercatur nihilo minore pretio, quam quod erat petitum pro omnibus. Sed
ea mulier tunc a Tarquinio digressa postea nusquam loci visa est. Libri
tres, in sacrarium conditi, “Sibyllini” appellati; ad eos quasi ad
oraculum quindecimviri adeunt, cum di immortales publice consulendi
sunt. {22}


  _Scipio was accused of having received bribes from Antiochus.
  Scorning to answer such a charge, he reminded the people that this
  was the anniversary of his great victory at Zama, and called upon
  them to follow him to the Capitol and there return thanks to the

M. Naevius tribunus plebis accusavit Scipionem ad populum, dixitque eum
accepisse a rege Antiocho pecuniam, ut condicionibus mollibus pax cum eo
populi Romani nomine fieret, et quaedam item alia indigna tali viro
addidit. Tum Scipio pauca praefatus, quae dignitas vitae suae atque
gloria postulabat, {6} “Memoriâ” inquit, “Quirites, repeto, diem esse
hodiernum, quo Hannibalem Poenum, imperio vestro inimicissimum, magno
proelio in terrâ Africâ vici, pacemque et victoriam vobis peperi
praeclaram. Non igitur simus adversum deos ingrati et, censeo,
relinquamus nebulonem hunc, eamus hinc protinus Iovi optimo maximo
gratulatum.” {13} Id cum dixisset, avertit et ire ad Capitolium coepit.
Tum contio universa, quae ad sententiam de Scipione ferendam convenerat,
relicto tribuno Scipionem in Capitolium comitata, atque inde ad aedes
eius cum laetitiâ et gratulatione sollemni prosecuta est. {18}


  _Scipio on another occasion was accused of embezzling the money
  paid by Antiochus as a war indemnity: he answered the charge by
  tearing his accounts in pieces before the eyes of the Senators._

Item aliud est factum eius praeclarum. Petilii quidam tribuni plebis a
M., ut aiunt, Catone, inimico Scipionis, comparati in eum atque inmissi,
desiderabant in senatu, ut pecuniae Antiochinae praedaeque in eo bello
captae rationem redderet: fuerat enim L. Scipioni Asiatico, fratri suo,
imperatori in eâ provinciâ legatus. {7} Ibi Scipio exurgit et, prolato e
sinu togae libro, rationes in eo scriptas esse dixit omnis pecuniae
omnisque praedae; allatum, ut palam recitaretur et ad aerarium
deferretur. “Sed enim id iam non faciam” inquit, “nec me ipse afficiam
contumeliâ,” eumque librum statim coram discidit suis manibus, aegre
passus, quod, cui salus imperii ac reipublicae accepta referri deberet,
ab eo ratio praedae posceretur. {14}


  _Scipio believed that he was a special favourite of the gods:
  before entering on any important work he used to spend hours of
  quiet meditation in the temple on the Capitol. A story is given
  showing his power of foreseeing the future._

Id etiam dicere haut piget, quod ii, qui de vitâ et rebus Africani
scripserunt, litteris mandaverunt. Solitus est noctis extremo ante
primam lucem in Capitolium ventitare ac iubere aperiri cellam Iovis,
atque ibi solus diu demorari, quasi consultans de republicâ cum Iove.
{6} Aeditumi eius templi saepe admirati, quod in eum solum id temporis
in Capitolium ingredientem canes, semper in alios saevientes, neque
latrarent neque incurrerent. Has volgi de Scipione opiniones confirmare
atque approbare videbantur dicta factaque eius pleraque admiranda. Ex
quibus est unum huiuscemodi. {12} Assidebat oppugnabatque oppidum in
Hispaniâ situm, moenibus defensoribusque validum et munitum, re etiam
cibariâ copiosum, nullaque eius potiundi spes erat. Quodam die ius in
castris sedens dicebat, atque ex eo loco id oppidum procul visebatur.
{17} Tum quispiam e militibus, qui in iure apud eum stabant,
interrogavit ex more, in quem diem locumque vadimonium promitti iuberet:
et Scipio manum ad ipsam oppidi, quod obsidebatur, arcem protendens,
perendie sese sistere illo in loco iussit. Atque ita factum: die tertio,
in quem vadari iusserat, oppidum captum est eodemque eo die in arce eius
oppidi ius dixit. {24}


  _How a man, when trying a friend who was guilty, succeeded in
  reconciling the claims of duty and of friendship, by himself
  voting for condemnation, but persuading his fellow iudices to vote
  for acquittal._

Super amici capite iudex cum duobus aliis fui. Ita lex fuit, uti eum
hominem condemnari necesse esset. Aut amico igitur caput perdendum aut
adhibenda fraus legi fuit. Multa cum animo meo ad casum tam ancipitem
medendum consultavi; tandem hoc, quod feci, visum est optimum. Ipse
tacitus ad condemnandum sententiam tuli, iis qui simul iudicabant, ut
absolverent, persuasi. Sic mihi et iudicis et amici officium in re tantâ
salvum fuit. {9}


  _Favorinus rebuked a young man, who affected the use of archaic
  language, by telling him to hold his tongue altogether if he did
  not wish to be understood: if he admired the purity of the good
  old times he should imitate their ways, not their words._

Favorinus philosophus adulescenti, veterum verborum cupidissimo et
plerasque voces nimis priscas et ignotas in cotidianis sermonibus
expromenti, “Curius” inquit “et Fabricius et Coruncanius, antiquissimi
viri, et his antiquiores Horatii illi trigemini plane ac dilucide cum
suis locuti sunt, neque Auruncorum aut Sicanorum aut Pelasgorum, qui
primi coluisse Italiam dicuntur, sed aetatis suae verbis usi sunt; {8}
tu autem, proinde quasi cum matre Euandri nunc loquare, sermone abhinc
multis annis iam desito uteris, quod neminem vis scire atque intellegere
quae dicas. Nonne, homo inepte, ut quod vis abunde consequaris, taces?
{12} Sed antiquitatem tibi placere ais, quod honesta et bona et sobria
et modesta sit. Vive ergo moribus praeteritis, loquere verbis
praesentibus: atque id, quod a C. Caesare scriptum est, habe semper in
memoriâ atque in pectore, ut tamquam scopulum sic fugias insolens
verbum.” {18}


  _In one of the struggles between the Romans and the Gauls in 361
  B.C. a gigantic Gaul challenged the Romans to send out a champion
  to meet him: all held back except the young T. Manlius._

Titus Manlius summo loco natus fuit. Ei cognomen factum est Torquatus.
Causa cognomenti fuisse dicitur torquis, quam ex hoste, quem occiderat,
detractam induit. Quis hostis fuerit et qualis pugna ita accepimus. {5}

Galli contra Romanos pugnabant, cum interim Gallus quidam nudus praeter
scutum et gladios duos, torque atque armillis decoratus, qui et viribus
et magnitudine et adulescentiâ et virtute ceteros praestabat, processit
et manu significare coepit utrisque, ut quiescerent. Extemplo silentio
facto voce maximâ conclamat, si quis secum depugnare vellet, uti
prodiret. {12} Nemo audebat propter magnitudinem atque inmanem faciem.
Deinde Gallus inridere coepit atque linguam exertare. Doluit Titus
Manlius, tantum flagitium civitati adcidere, e tanto exercitu neminem
prodire. Processit ipse scuto pedestri et gladio Hispanico cinctus et
contra Gallum constitit. {18}


  _In the struggle which followed Manlius disconcerted the Gaul by
  suddenly with his shield dashing him back from his posture of
  defence; he then came to close quarters with the Gaul, and slew
  him. He put on his own neck the necklace which the Gaul had worn;
  hence he was named Torquatus. This same Manlius executed his son
  for disobeying orders and slaying an enemy who had challenged

Metu magno ea congressio in ipso ponte, utroque exercitu inspectante,
facta est. Constitit Gallus suâ disciplinâ scuto proiecto cunctabundus;
Manlius, animo magis quam arte confisus, scuto scutum percussit atque
statum Galli conturbavit. {5} Dum se Gallus iterum eodem pacto
constituere studet, Manlius iterum scuto scutum percutit atque de loco
hominem iterum deiecit; eo pacto ei sub Gallicum gladium successit atque
Hispanico pectus hausit; deinde continuo umerum dextrum incidit neque
recessit usquam, donec subvertit. Ubi eum evertit, caput praecidit,
torquem detraxit eamque sanguinulentam sibi in collum inponit. Quo ex
facto ipse posterique eius Torquati sunt cognominati. {13}

Ab hoc Tito Manlio imperia et aspera et immitia Manlia dicta sunt,
quoniam postea, cum bello adversum Latinos esset consul, filium suum
securi percussit, qui speculatum ab eo missus, pugnâ interdictâ, hostem,
a quo provocatus fuerat, occiderat. {18}


  _On another occasion the young Valerius accepted the challenge of
  a gigantic Gaul. During the fight a raven aided the Roman by
  attacking his enemy with its talons; thus helped Valerius slew the
  Gaul, and received the name of Corvinus._

Copiae Gallorum ingentes agrum Pomptinum insederant instruebanturque
acies a consulibus. Dux interea Gallorum, vastâ proceritate armisque
auro praefulgentibus, manu telum vibrans incedebat perque contemptum et
superbiam circumspicit despicitque omnia, et venire iubet et congredi,
si quis pugnare secum ex omni Romano exercitu auderet. {7} Tum Valerius
adulescens, tribunus iam militaris, ceteris inter metum pudoremque
ambiguis, impetrat a consulibus, ut in Gallum pugnare sese permitterent,
et progreditur intrepidus obviam. Et congrediuntur et consistunt et
conserebantur iam manus. {12} Atque ibi vis quaedam divina fit: corvus
repente advolat et super galeam tribuni insistit atque inde in
adversarii os atque oculos pugnare incipit, eius manum unguibus laniabat
atque, ubi satis saevierat, revolabat in galeam tribuni. Sic tribunus,
spectante utroque exercitu, et suâ virtute nixus et operâ, alitis
adiutus, ducem hostium ferocissimum vicit interfecitque, atque ob hanc
causam cognomen habuit Corvinum. {20}

Statuam Corvino isti divus Augustus in foro suo statuendam curavit. In
eius statuae capite corvi simulacrum est, rei pugnaeque, quam diximus,


  _Aesop in his fables gives good advice in a pleasant way, and
  hence men attend to him. An instance of this is his fable of the
  lark, which has been put into verse by Ennius._

Aesopus ille e Phrygia fabularum scriptor haud inmerito sapiens
existimatus est; quae enim utilia monitu suasuque erant, non severe
praecepit, ut philosophis mos est, sed hilares iucundosque apologos
commentus, in mentes hominum cum audiendi quâdam inlecebrâ induit. {6}
Velut haec eius fabula de parvae avis nidulo lepide praemonet spem
fiduciamque rerum, quas efficere quis possit, haut umquam in alio, sed
in semetipso habendam. Hunc Aesopi apologum Q. Ennius in satiris
versibus quadratis composuit, quorum duo postremi hi sunt: {11}

  Hóc erit tibi árgumentum sémper in promptú situm,
  Né quid expectés amicos, quód tute agere póssies. {13}


  _A certain lark found the corn, in which it had built, ripe for
  cutting before its young were fledged. It therefore ordered them
  to report anything unusual which might happen in its absence. The
  first day they announced that the master had been to the field and
  had sent to ask his friends to help him to reap the corn. On
  hearing this the mother said that there was no immediate need for
  them to leave the field._

Avis est parva, nomen est cassita. Habitat in segetibus, id ferme
temporis ut appetat messis pullis iam iam plumantibus. Ea cassita in
sementes forte congesserat tempestiviores; propterea frumentis
flavescentibus pulli etiam tunc inplumes erant. {5} Dum igitur ipsa iret
cibum pullis quaesitum, monet eos, ut, si quid ibi rei novae fieret
dicereturve, animadverterent idque sibi, ubi rediisset, nuntiarent.
Dominus postea segetum illarum filium adulescentem vocat et “Videsne”
inquit “haec maturuisse et manus iam postulare? idcirco cras, ubi primum
dilucescit, fac amicos eas et roges, ut veniant operamque mutuam dent et
in hac messi nos adiuvent.” {13} Haec ubi ille dixit, et discessit.
Atque ubi redit cassita, pulli tremibundi orare matrem, ut iam statim
properet inque alium locum sese asportet: “Nam dominus” inquiunt “misit,
qui amicos roget, uti luce oriente veniant et metant.” Mater iubet eos
otioso animo esse: “Si enim dominus” inquit “messim ad amicos reiicit,
cras seges non metetur, neque necesse est hodie uti vos auferam.” {20}


  _Next day the young ones reported that the master, finding his
  friends had not come, had sent to ask the aid of his relations.
  The mother still tells them to be in no fear, and next day again
  goes out to seek food. This time the young ones report that the
  master, finding his relations lingered, had determined to cut the
  corn himself. On hearing this the mother announces that they must
  go at once._

Die postero mater in pabulum volat. Dominus, quos rogaverat, opperitur.
Sol fervit, et fit nihil; it dies, et amici nulli eunt. Tum ille rursum
ad filium “Amici isti” inquit “cessatores sunt. Quin potius imus et
cognatos adfinesque nostros oramus, ut adsint cras ad metendum?” {6}
Itidem hoc pulli pavefacti matri nuntiant. Mater hortatur, ut tum quoque
sine metu ac sine curâ sint; cognatos adfinesque nullos ferme tam
faciles esse ait, ut ad laborem capessendum nihil cunctentur et statim
dicto oboediant: “Vos modo” inquit “advertite, si modo quid denuo
dicetur.” Aliâ luce ortâ avis in pastum profecta est. {12} Cognati et
adfines operam, quam dare rogati sunt, neglexerunt. Ad postremum igitur
dominus filio “Valeant” inquit “amici cum propinquis. Afferes primâ luce
falces duas; unam egomet mihi et tu tibi capies alteram et frumentum
nosmetipsi manibus nostris cras metemus.” {17} Id ubi ex pullis dixisse
dominum mater audivit, “Tempus” inquit “est cedendi et abeundi; fiet
nunc dubio procul quod futurum dixit. In ipso enim iam vertitur cuia res
est, non in alio, unde petitur.” Atque ita cassita e nido migravit,
seges a domino demessa est. {23}


  _A friend of King Pyrrus came to the Roman general Fabricius and
  offered to poison the King for a bribe. Fabricius reported the
  matter to the Senate, who warned Pyrrus to be on his guard. Pyrrus
  showed his gratitude by sending back all the Roman prisoners._

Cum Pyrrus rex in terrâ Italiâ esset et unam atque alteram pugnas
prospere pugnasset et pleraque Italia ad regem descivisset, tum
Ambraciensis quispiam Timochares, regis Pyrri amicus, ad C. Fabricium
consulem furtim venit ac praemium petivit et, si de praemio conveniret,
promisit se regem venenis necaturum; idque facile esse factu dixit,
quoniam filius suus pocula in convivio regi ministraret. {8} Eam rem
Fabricius ad senatum scripsit. Senatus ad regem legatos misit
mandavitque, ut de Timochare nihil proderent, sed monerent, uti rex
cautius ageret atque a proximorum insidiis salutem tutaretur. Quamobrem
Pyrrus populo Romano laudes atque gratias scripsisse dicitur captivosque
omnes, quos tum habuit, vestivisse et reddidisse. {15}


  _At the games in the Circus a lion of gigantic size was seen to
  fawn upon one of the condemned slaves exposed in the arena._

In circo maximo venationis pugna populo dabatur. Multae ibi ferae, sed
praeter alia omnia leo corpore vasto terrificoque fremitu et sonoro
animos oculosque omnium in sese converterat. Introductus erat inter
compluris ceteros ad pugnam bestiarum datos servus viri consularis; ei
servo Androclus nomen fuit. {6} Hunc ille leo ubi vidit procul, repente
quasi admirans stetit ac deinde sensim atque placide, tamquam
familiaris, ad hominem accedit. Tum caudam more adulantium canum blande
movet cruraque et manus hominis, prope iam exanimati metu, linguâ
leniter demulcet. {11} Homo Androclus inter illa tam atrocis ferae
blandimenta amissum animum recuperat, paulatim oculos ad contuendum
leonem refert. Tum quasi mutuâ recognitione factâ laetos et gratulantes
videres hominem et leonem. {16}


  _When questioned by the Emperor the slave explained that he had
  fled from his master into the African desert, that he had by
  accident taken refuge in this lion’s cave, and, when the lion had
  returned to its home lame, he had extracted a thorn from its

Haec tam mira res maximos populi clamores excitat et Caesar Androclum
vocat quaeritque causam, cur illi uni atrocissimus leo pepercisset. Ibi
Androclus rem mirificam atque admirandam narrat. {4} “Cum provinciam”
inquit “Africam proconsulari imperio meus dominus obtineret, ego ibi
iniquis eius et cotidianis verberibus ad fugam sum coactus et, quo mihi
a domino, terrae illius praeside, tutiores latebrae forent, in locos
desertos et remotos concessi ac, si defuisset cibus, consilium fuit
mortem aliquo pacto quaerere. {10} Tum die medio sole flagrante specum
quemdam nanctus remotum latebrosumque, in eum me recondo. Neque multo
post ad eundem specum venit hic leo, debili uno et cruento pede, gemitus
edens et murmura ob dolorem cruciatumque vulneris. {15} Atque illic
primo quidem conspectu advenientis leonis territus et pavefactus sum;
sed postquam introgressus leo videt me procul delitescentem, mitis et
mansuetus accessit et sublatum pedem ostendere mihi et porrigere quasi
opis petendae gratiâ visus est. {20} Ibi ego stirpem ingentem, vestigio
pedis eius haerentem, revelli conceptamque saniem volnere intimo
expressi et sine magnâ iam formidine siccavi penitus atque detersi
cruorem. Illâ tunc meâ operâ levatus, pede in manibus meis posito,
recubuit et quievit.” {25}


  _For three years he and the lion had lived together. At last he
  had grown weary of the savage life, but as soon as he had returned
  to the haunts of men he had been captured, condemned, and sent to
  Rome to be exposed to the wild beasts in the circus. Androclus was
  pardoned and the lion was given to him._

“Ex eo die triennium totum ego et leo in eodem specu eodemque et victu
viximus. Nam, quas venabatur feras, membra opimiora ad specum mihi
ferebat, quae ego, ignis copiam non habens, meridiano sole torrens
edebam. {5} Sed ubi me vitae illius ferinae iam pertaesum est, leone in
venatum profecto, reliqui specum et, viam ferme tridui permensus,
a militibus visus adprehensusque sum et ad dominum ex Africâ Romam
deductus. Is me statim rei capitalis damnandum dandumque ad bestias
curavit. Intellego autem” inquit “hunc quoque leonem me tunc separato
captum, gratiam mihi nunc beneficii et medicinae referre.” {13}

Haec dixit Androclus; quae cum scripta essent circumlataque populo et
declarata, cunctis petentibus dimissus Androclus et poenâ solutus et
leone suffragiis populi donatus. Postea Androclus et leo, loro tenui
revinctus, urbe totâ circum tabernas ibat: donatus est aere Androclus,
floribus sparsus est leo, omnesque ubique obvii exclamant, “Hic est leo
hospes hominis, hic est homo medicus leonis.” {21}


  _Polus, having to act the part of Electra soon after his only son
  had died, appeared on the stage holding the urn which contained
  the remains of his son, and over this he wept the tears of real

Histrio in terrâ Graeciâ fuit famâ celebri, cui nomen erat Polus. Is
unice amatum filium morte amisit, sed ubi cum satis visus est luxisse,
rediit ad quaestum artis. {4}

Eo tempore Athenis Electram Sophoclis acturus, gestare urnam quasi cum
Oresti ossibus debebat. Ita compositum fabulae argumentum est ut, veluti
fratris reliquias ferens, Electra comploret interitum eius existimatum.
{9} Igitur Polus, lugubri habitu Electrae indutus, ossa atque urnam e
sepulcro tulit filii et, quasi Oresti amplexus, opplevit omnia non
simulacris sed luctu atque lamentis veris. Itaque cum agi fabula
videretur, dolor actus est. {13}


  _A Greek orator--some say Demosthenes, others Demades--at first
  opposed a request of the Milesians for aid, but took a bribe to
  withdraw his opposition. When the matter was again discussed he
  announced that he was suffering from an inflamed throat, and so
  could not speak. He afterwards openly boasted that he had been
  paid to hold his tongue._

Legati Mileto auxilii petendi causâ venerunt Athenas. Tum qui pro sese
verba facerent advocaverunt; hi, uti erat mandatum, verba pro Milesiis
ad populum fecerunt, sed Demosthenes Milesiorum postulatis acriter
respondit; neque Milesios auxilio dignos neque ex republicâ id esse
contendit. Res tandem in posterum diem prolata est. {7} Tum legati ad
Demosthenen venerunt oraveruntque, uti contra ne diceret. Is pecuniam
petivit et quantam petiverat abstulit. Postridie, cum res agi denuo
coepta esset, Demosthenes, lanâ multâ collum circumvolutus, ad populum
prodit et dixit se synanchen pati; eo contra Milesios loqui non quire.
Tum e populo quidam exclamavit, non synanchen eum pati sed argyranchen.

Ipse etiam Demosthenes non id postea celavit, quin gloriae quoque hoc
sibi adsignavit. Nam cum interrogasset Aristodemum, actorem fabularum,
quantum mercedis, uti ageret, accepisset, et Aristodemus talentum
respondisset, “At ego plus” inquit “accepi, ut tacerem.” {20}

Quod hic diximus de Demosthene, id nonnulli scriptores in Demaden
contulerunt. {22}


  _Cicero once borrowed money to buy a house, but afterwards denied
  that he had ever taken the money or had intended to purchase the
  property. He did buy the house, and, when reminded of what he had
  said, replied that a prudent man always concealed his intended

Cicero cum emere vellet in Palatio domum neque pecuniam in praesens
haberet, a P. Sulla, qui tum reus erat, mutua sestertium viciens tacita
accepit. Ea res tamen, priusquam emeret, prodita est et in vulgus
exivit, obiectumque ei est, quod pecuniam domus emendae causâ a reo
accepisset. {6} Tum Cicero inopinatâ obprobratione permotus accepisse se
negavit ac domum quoque se empturum negavit. Sed cum postea emisset et
hoc mendacium in senatu ei ab amicis obiiceretur, risit satis atque
inter ridendum: “ἀκοινονόητοι” inquit “homines estis, cum ignoratis
prudentis et cauti patrisfamilias esse, quod emere velit, empturum sese
negare propter competitores emptionis.” {13}


  _“Property in Rome,” said a friend, “would be worth far more if
  the risk from fire were not so great.” “Archelaus,” replied
  Julianus, “preserved his defensive outworks from fire by covering
  them with alum.”_

Declamaverat Antonius Iulianus rhetor quam felicissime, eumque nos
familiares eius circumfusi undique prosequebamur domum, cum subeuntes
montem Cispium conspicimus insulam quandam multis, arduisque tabulatis
editam, igni occupatam et propinqua iam omnia flagrare vasto incendio.
{6} Tum quispiam ibi ex comitibus Iuliani, “Magni” inquit “reditus
urbanorum praediorum, sed pericula sunt longe maxima. Si quid autem
posset remedii fore, ut ne tam adsidue domus Romae arderent, venum
hercle dedissem res rusticas et urbicas emissem.” Atque illi Iulianus
“Si annalem” inquit “undevicensimum Q. Claudi legisses, docuisset te
profecto Archelaus, regis Mitridati praefectus, quo remedio ignem
defenderes. {14} In eo enim libro scriptum inveni, cum obpugnaret L.
Sulla in terrâ Atticâ Piraeum et contra Archelaus regis Mitridati
praefectus ex eo oppido propugnaret, turrim ligneam defendendi gratiâ
structam, cum ex omni latere circumplexa igni foret, ardere non quisse,
quod alumine ab Archelao oblita fuisset.” {20}



  _Arion, having gained much money in Italy and Sicily, took ship to
  return to Corinth, but was robbed and made to leap overboard by
  the sailors._

Vetus et nobilis cantor Arion fuit. Is oppido Methymnaeus, terrâ Lesbius
fuit. Eum Arionem rex Corinthi Periander amicum habuit artis gratiâ. Is
inde a rege proficiscitur, ut terras praeclaras Siciliam atque Italiam
viseret. Ubi eo venit aures omnium mentesque in utriusque terrae urbibus
delectavit, et postea grandem pecuniam adeptus Corinthum instituit
redire. {8} Navem igitur et navitas, ut notiores amicioresque sibi,
Corinthios delegit. Sed ei Corinthii, homine accepto navique in altum
provectâ, praedae pecuniaeque cupidi, consilium de necando Arione
ceperunt. Tum ille pecuniam ceteraque sua eis dedit vitam modo sibi ut
parcerent oravit. {13} Navitae per vim suis manibus eum non necaverunt,
sed imperaverunt, ut iam statim coram desiliret praeceps in mare. Homo
ibi territus, spe omni vitae perditâ, id unum postea oravit, ut,
priusquam mortem obpeteret, induere permitterent sua sibi omnia et fides
capere et canere carmen. {19} Quod oraverat impetrat, atque ibi mox de
more cinctus, amictus, ornatus stansque in summâ puppi, carmen, quod
“orthium” dicitur, voce sublatissimâ cantavit. Ad postrema cantus cum
fidibus ornatuque omni, sicut stabat canebatque, iecit sese procul in
profundum. {24}



  _A dolphin carried him safely to Taenarum; thence he travelled to
  Corinth, and told his adventure to the King. The sailors on their
  arrival were confronted by Arion and convicted of their crime._

Navitae, hautquaquam dubitantes, quin periisset, cursum, quem facere
coeperant, tenuerunt. Sed novum et mirum et pium facinus contigit.
Delphinus repente inter undas adnavit, fluitantique sese homini
subdidit, et dorso super fluctus edito vectavit incolumique eum corpore
et ornatu Taenarum in terram Laconicam devexit. {7} Tum Arion prorsus ex
eo loco Corinthum petivit talemque Periandro regi, qualis delphino
vectus fuerat, inopinanti sese optulit, eique rem, sicuti acciderat,
narravit. Rex istaec parum credidit, Arionem, quasi falleret, custodiri
iussit, navitas inquisitos, ablegato Arione, dissimulanter interrogavit,
ecquid audissent in his locis, unde venissent, de Arione? {14} Dixerunt
hominem, cum inde irent, in terrâ Italiâ fuisse et illic bene agere. Tum
inter haec eorum verba Arion cum fidibus et indumentis, cum quibus se in
salum deiecerat, extitit, navitaeque stupefacti convictique ire infitias
non quiverunt. Hanc fabulam dicunt Lesbii et Corinthii, atque fabulae
argumentum est quod simulacra duo aenea ad Taenarum visuntur, delphinus
vehens et homo insidens. {21}


  _A Thracian having heard that trees required cutting and pruning,
  proceeded to chop the tops off his vines and olives, and thus in
  his ignorance destroyed all his property._

Homo Thracus ex ultimâ barbariâ ruris colendi insolens, cum in terras
cultiores migrasset, fundum mercatus est oleo atque vino consitum. Qui
nihil admodum de vite aut arbore colendâ sciret, videt forte vicinum
rubos alte atque late obortas excidentem, fraxinos ad summum prope
verticem deputantem, suboles vitium e radicibus super terram fusas
revellentem, stolones in pomis aut in oleis proceros amputantem; {9}
acceditque prope et cur tantam ligni atque frondium caedem faceret,
percontatus est. Et vicinus ita respondit: “Ut ager” inquit “mundus
purusque fiat, eius arbor atque vitis fecundior.” {12} Discedit ille a
vicino gratias agens et laetus, tamquam adeptus rei rusticae
disciplinam. Tum falcem ac securim capit; atque ibi homo miser imperitus
vites suas sibi omnis et oleas detruncat, comasque arborum laetissimas
uberrimosque vitium palmites decidit, et virgulta simul omnia, pomis
gignendis felicia, cum sentibus et rubis purgandi agri gratiâ convellit.


  _Mitridates by the use of antidotes made himself proof against
  poisons: hence when he wished to kill himself he had to use his
  sword. He could speak perfectly the languages of the twenty-two
  nations over which he ruled._

Mitridates ille Ponti rex medicinae rei et remediorum sollers erat,
quorum adsiduo usu a clandestinis epularum insidiis cavebat; quin et
ultro ostentandi gratiâ venenum rapidum et velox saepenumero hausit,
atque id tamen sine noxâ fuit. Quamobrem postea, cum proelio victus in
ultima regni refugisset et mori decrevisset, venena festinandae necis
causâ frustra expertus, suo se ipse gladio transegit. {8}

Quintus Ennius tria corda sese habere dicebat, quod loqui Graece et Osce
et Latine sciret. Mitridates autem duarum et viginti gentium, quas sub
dicione habuit, linguas percalluit, earumque omnium gentium viris haut
umquam per interpretem conlocutus est, sed linguâ et oratione cuiusque,
non minus scite quam si gentis eius esset, locutus est. {15}


  _Euathlus agreed to pay Protagoras a certain sum of money on the
  day when he won his first case. He never undertook one, so at last
  Protagoras brought an action against him to recover the money.
  “You are in this dilemma,” said the philosopher: “if you lose this
  action, the court will award me the money; if you win it, you will
  have won your first case, and will owe me the fee according to our
  agreement.” “Nay,” replied the pupil, “if I win the action,
  I shall owe you nothing according to the sentence of the court;
  if I lose, I shall owe you nothing according to our agreement.”_

Euathlus, adulescens dives, eloquentiae discendae causarumque orandi
cupidus fuit. Is in disciplinam Protagorae sese dedit daturumque
promisit mercedem grandem pecuniam, quantam Protagoras petiverat,
dimidiumque eius dedit iam tunc pepigitque, ut reliquum dimidium daret,
quo primo die causam apud iudices orasset et vicisset. {7} Postea cum
diu auditor Protagorae fuisset, causas tamen non reciperet, tempusque
iam longum transcurreret et facere id videretur, ne relicum mercedis
daret, capit consilium Protagoras, ut tum existimabat, astutum: petere
institit ex pacto mercedem, litem cum Euathlo contestatur. {12}

Cum ad iudices venissent, tum Protagoras sic exorsus est: “Disce,”
inquit “stultissime adulescens, utroque id modo fore, uti reddas quod
peto, sive contra te pronuntiatum erit sive pro te. Nam, si contra te
lis data erit, merces mihi ex sententiâ debebitur, quia ego vicero; sin
vero secundum te iudicatum erit, merces mihi ex pacto debebitur, quia tu
viceris.” {20}

Ad ea respondit Euathlus: “Disce igitur tu quoque, magister
sapientissime, utroque modo fore, uti non reddam quod petis, sive contra
me pronuntiatum fuerit sive pro me. Nam, si iudices pro causâ meâ
senserint, nihil tibi ex sententiâ debebitur, quia ego vicero; sin
contra me pronuntiaverint, nihil tibi ex pacto debebo, quia non vicero.”

Tum iudices hoc inexplicabile esse rati, causam in diem longissimam
distulerunt. Sic ab adulescente discipulo magister doctissimus suo ipse
argumento confutatus est. {31}


  _Hannibal after the battle of Cannae sent ten captives to Rome to
  propose an exchange of prisoners, but bound the ten by an oath to
  return, if the Senate did not accept his offer. The Senate
  rejected it, and eight out of the ten returned, but two, yielding
  to the entreaties of their friends, and alleging that they had by
  a trick freed themselves from the obligation of the oath, remained
  behind. These two were treated with such scorn that they found
  life unbearable and committed suicide._

Post proelium Cannense Hannibal ex captivis nostris electos decem Romam
misit, mandavitque eis pactusque est, ut, si populo Romano videretur,
permutatio fieret captivorum et pro his, quos alteri plures acciperent,
darent argenti pondo libram et selibram. Hoc, priusquam
proficiscerentur, iusiurandum eos adegit, redituros esse in castra
Poenica, si Romani captivos non permutarent. {8}

Veniunt Romam decem captivi. Mandatum Poeni imperatoris in senatu
exponunt. Permutatio senatui non placet. Parentes, cognati adfinesque
captivorum amplexi eos postliminio in patriam redisse dicebant,
statumque eorum integrum incolumemque esse, ac, ne ad hostes redire
vellent, orabant. {14} Tum octo ex his postliminium iustum non esse sibi
responderunt, quoniam iure iurando vincti forent, statimque, uti iurati
erant, ad Hannibalem profecti sunt. {17} Duo reliqui Romae manserunt
solutosque se esse ac liberatos religione dicebant, quoniam, cum egressi
castra hostium fuissent, commenticio consilio, tamquam ob aliquam
fortuitam causam, eodem regressi sunt, atque ita rursum iniurati
abissent. {22} Haec eorum fraudulenta calliditas tam esse turpis
existimata est, ut contempti vulgo sint censoresque eos postea omnibus
ignominiae notis adfecerint. {25}

Multis autem in senatu placuit, ut datis custodibus ad Hannibalem
deducerentur, sed ea sententia numero plurium, quibus id non videretur,
superata. Usque adeo tamen invisi erant, ut taedio vitae necem sibi
conscivissent. {30}



1. +P. Vergilius Maro+, the greatest of Roman epic poets, was
born 70 B.C. near Mantua, in the N. of Italy, and died 19 B.C. at
Brundusium, in the S.E. of Italy. His chief works were the _Būcŏlĭcă_
(βου-κολέω, I tend cattle), or _Eclŏgae_ (‘Selections,’ from ἐκ-λέγω,
I choose out), a series of short poems, chiefly pastoral; the _Gĕorgĭcă_
(γῆ ἔργον), a poetical treatise on agriculture; and the _Aenēïs_, or
story of Aenēas, a poem in twelve books, relating the adventures of
Aeneas after the fall of Troy.

2. +se parere versus+, ‘that he produced his verses like a bear,’ lit.
‘in a bear-like manner.’

+părĕre+, from _părio_. Distinguish three words, (1) _păro, -avi, -atum,
-are_, ‘I prepare,’ (2) _pāreo, -ui, -itum, -ēre_, ‘I obey,’ gov. dat.
case, (3) _părio, pĕpĕri, partum_, or _parĭtum, -ĕre_, ‘I bring forth.’

3. +lambendo+, abl. of the gerund, ‘by licking it’; so +tractando
corrigendoque+, ‘by polishing and correcting them.’

5. +partus+, nom. pl., best translated by the English sing., ‘the
offspring of...’

6. +reddo+, compound of +re+ and +do+. _Rĕd_ is used for _re_ in
_redămo_, _redarguo_, _reddo_, _redeo_, _redhibeo_, _redigo_, _redimo_,
_redoleo_, _redundo_. In composition the _re_ is short except in ...
+rēligio+ (often spelt _relligio_), +rēliquiae+ (often spelt
_relliquiae_), and the perfects of _rĕpello_, _rĕperio_, and _rĕfero_,
viz., +rēpuli+ (or _reppuli_), +rēperi+ (or _repperi_), and +rētuli+ (or
_rettuli_). +Rēfert+, the impersonal verb, ‘it concerns,’ is a compound
of _res-fert_: _rĕfero_, makes 3rd sing, _rĕfert_. +Re+ or _red_ in
composition has two principal meanings, (1) ‘back’ or ‘backward,’ as
_redeo_, ‘I go back,’ (2) ‘again,’ as _reficio_, ‘I make again, repair.’
It also frequently denotes (3) ‘duty’ or ‘obligation,’ so _reddo_ here
means ‘I give as is due,’ ‘render.’


1. +Menander+ (342-291 B.C.), an Athenian comic poet, famous as the
model of Roman dramatists, especially Terence.

+Philemon+, also an Athenian comic poet, the contemporary and rival of

2. +in certaminibus comoediarum+. In Athens dramas were represented at
the great festivals in honour of Dionysus, at which “every citizen was
present, as a matter of course, from daybreak to sunset” (Donaldson).
Judges were appointed by lot to decide upon the merits of the rival
plays. The successful poet was crowned with ivy, and his name was
proclaimed before the audience.

+ambitus+, ‘bribery,’ from _ambio_; properly a ‘going round’ to canvass
for votes, etc., especially by bribery. _Ambitio_, from the same verb,
is used both in this sense and also as ‘a desire for power,’ etc., our

4. +quaeso+, used parenthetically like our ‘pray!’

+bonâ veniâ+, ‘apologizing for the question’; lit. ‘with your good
leave...’ _i.e._ ‘pardon me, but...’

5. +nonne+ introduces a question expecting the answer ‘Yes,’ e.g.
_nonne erubescis_, ‘do you not blush?’ +Num+ introduces a question
expecting the answer ‘No,’ e.g. _num erubescis_, ‘you do not blush,
do you?’ +-ne+ is used when the answer is doubtful, e.g. _erubescisne_,
‘do you blush?’

+erubesco+. The termination _-sco_ shows that the verb is inceptive or
inchoative, _i.e._ denotes the beginning (_inceptum_) of an action or
state. Such verbs are always of the 3rd conjugation, and form their
perfects and supines (if they have supines, but in most inceptives the
supine is wanting) from the simple verb or stem from which they spring,
e.g. _pallesco_ (from _palleo_), _pallui_, (no supine), _pallescere_,
I begin to grow pale; _vĕtĕrasco_ (from old form _vĕter_, classical
_vĕtus_, _-ĕris_), _-ravi_, no sup., _veterascĕre_, ‘I grow old.’


1. +Aristoteles+, the Greek philosopher, was born at Stagīra, in
Macedonia, 384 B.C. He lived for twenty years at Athens, where he was a
pupil of Plato; afterwards he returned to Macedonia, and became the
tutor of Alexander. When Alexander succeeded to the throne, Aristotle
again went to Athens and taught philosophy for 13 years in the Lyceum,
a gymnasium sacred to Apollo Lyceus. He died in 322 B.C. at Chalcis in
Euboea. Many of his writings upon logic, moral and political philosophy,
natural history, etc., have reached us.

+Plutarchus+ was born at Chaeronea in Boeotia about 50 A.D. He came to
Rome at an early age, and spent many years there and in other parts of
Italy. In his old age he returned to Chaeronea, where he died at an
unknown date. His works were written in Greek: the most famous of them
is the _Parallel Lives_ of forty-six Greeks and Romans, arranged in
pairs, a Greek and a Roman together (_e.g._ Alexander and Caesar,
Demosthenes and Cicero), the life of each pair being followed by a short
discussion of their comparative merits.

+hercle+ is a nominative form; the similar exclamations _mehercules_,
_mehercule_, _mehercle_, _hercules_, _hercule_, and _hercle_ are all
abbreviations for ‘_me Hercules juvet!_’ ‘may Hercules help me!’ Cf. the
interjectional phrase, ‘_medius fidius_,’ for ‘_me deus Fidius juvet_’,
‘so help me the God of Faith!’

2. +si super ...+, the order is ‘_si imponis magna pondera super
lignum palmae arboris_.’

3. +non deorsum+, the wood does not yield and bend inwards beneath the
weight, but rises up against it and bends outwards.

6. +urgentibus opprimentibusque+, dat. after cedit, ‘it does not
yield to....’


1. +Socrates+ was born at Athens 469 B.C. His father was a statuary,
and in early life Socrates followed the same profession, but he soon
abandoned it and devoted himself entirely to philosophy. He did not
follow the usual custom of giving public lectures or opening a school,
but went about in the city talking to men wherever he met them, and
endeavouring to awake in them a love of true knowledge. By his attacks
upon the popular theories and his free discussion of religious questions
he roused a strong antagonism; at last he was impeached on the three
charges of corrupting the Athenian youth, despising the gods of the
State, and introducing new deities, and was executed by a draught of
hemlock poison, 399 B.C. He left no written works, so that our knowledge
of him is derived from the writings of his pupils and contemporaries,
chiefly Plato and Xenophon.

3. +iris ... scatebat+, lit. ‘bubbled over with,’ ‘overflowed with ...’
Cf. Hor. _Od._ iii. 27, 26, ‘_scatentem beluis pontum_,’ ‘the ocean
teeming with monsters’; and Aulus Gellius, _N. A._ l. 15, uses ‘_scatere

+quam rem ... demiratus+, ‘having expressed his astonishment at this
fact to her husband Socrates.’

4. +Alcibiades+, 450-404 B.C., was a brilliant but unprincipled
Athenian statesman, who became famous during the Peloponnesian war. He
enjoyed the friendship of Socrates, was saved by Socrates at the battle
of Potidaea, 432 B.C., and saved the life of Socrates at the battle of
Delium, 424 B.C.

5. +ăcerbum+, _ăcer-bus_ from _ācer_, as _sŭper-bus_ from _sŭper_.
Usually words retain the quantity of the word from which they are
derived, but there are many exceptions, e.g. _hŏmo_ and _hūmanus_,
_nōtus_ and _cog-nĭtus_, so _rex_, gen. _rēgis_, but _rĕgo_, _dux_, gen.
_dŭcis_, but _dūco_.

7. +insuesco+. Cf. note on _erubesco_, ii. 5.

+exerceor+, in a middle sense, ‘I exercise myself.’ Cf. _faciunt idem,
cum exercentur, athletae_ (Cic. _Tusc._ ii. 23, 56), ‘athletes do the
same when they exercise themselves.’ Many Latin passives have thus a
‘middle’ force; cf. _vertor_, I turn myself; _lavor_, I wash myself; and
the deponents _glorior_, I boast myself; _vescor_, I feed myself, etc.

8. +ut ... feram+, ‘so that I bear more easily.’ _Ut_ used in a
consecutive sense, _i.e._ denoting the consequence or result.


1. +corporis firmandi causâ+, ‘(undergone) for the sake of
strengthening his body’--the gerundive attraction. Cf. note xiii. 1.

3. +ad solem alterum orientem+, ‘till the next sunrise.’ _Sol oriens_
is used for sunrise, _i.e._ the rising of the sun, as ‘_summus mons_’
for ‘the top of the mountain,’ _Caesar mortuus_ for ‘the death of
Caesar,’ etc.

5. +tanquam ... facto+, lit. a certain withdrawal, as it were, of mind
and feeling from the body having taken place, _i.e._ ‘mind and feeling
having, as it were, left his body.’ He stood in seeming unconsciousness.
_Animus_, when contrasted with _mens_, is the mind as the seat of the
passions, etc.; _mens_ the higher reasoning faculty, the intellect.

9. +valitudine integra+, the abl. absolute, ‘in unimpaired health.’

_Ablative Absolute_, ‘absolute’ (_absolutus_, fr. _ab·solvo_,
‘I release’) here means ‘released’ from government by any word in the
principal sentence.

The construction is one of many varieties of the adverbial ablative;
_e.g._ the abl. of time, the abl. of place where, the abl. of manner,
etc.; but it differs from these ablatives--

(1) In being equivalent to a complete clause, e.g. _Caesar hoc dixit,
convocatis militibus_ is equivalent to _cum milites convocati essent_.

(2) Or, to express the same fact in another way, it consists of two
words each in the ablative, one of which stands to the other in the
relation of predicate to subject; the ‘subject’ being a substantive or
pronoun, the ‘predicate’ a participle, adjective, substantive, or, more
rarely, a pronoun.

_Exceptions:_ But (_a_) sometimes the subject is not expressed, and a
participle is used impersonally by itself in the abl. absol.--the
participle here being equivalent to a clause containing an impersonal
verb, e.g. _mihi_, _errato_, _nulla venia_, ‘there is no pardon for me,
if I blunder’ (_errato = si erratum erit a me_).

(_b_) Sometimes a whole clause is substituted for the abl. of the
‘subject’: e.g. _excepto quod non simul esses, cetera laetus_, ‘happy in
all respects, except the fact that you were not with me’ (lit. ‘the fact
that you were not with me being excepted’).

_Examples:_ (1) Subst. and participle, _Tullio regnante vixerunt_, ‘they
lived whilst Tullius was king.’ (2) Subst. and adj., _Hannibale vivo
Romani semper Poenos timuerunt_, ‘the Romans always feared the
Carthaginians whilst Hannibal lived.’ (3) Subst. and subst., _Nil
desperandum Teucro duce_, ‘there is no cause for despair whilst Teucer
is our leader.’ (4) Subst. and pron., _quid hoc populo obtineri potest_,
‘what can be maintained with such a people as this?’ (5) Pron. and
participle, _eis occisis ceteri domum redierunt_, ‘when those men had
been slain the rest returned home.’ (6) Pron. and adj., _me invito id
fecit_, ‘he did it contrary to my wishes.’ (7) Pron. and subst., _eo
rege tuti erant_, ‘they were safe whilst he was king.’

_Note._--(1) The abl. absolute sometimes expresses merely time (_e.g._
_inita aestate_, ‘at the beginning of summer’), but more often attendant
circumstances, or cause.

(2) The abl. absol. cannot be used when the ‘subject’ of the clause is
the same as the subject or object of the principal clause. This rule is
sometimes, but rarely, violated.

(3) In Greek the genitive is the absolute case: in most modern languages
the nom. is thus used: but the acc. is sometimes used absolutely in
German, and in Old English the accusative (representing the dative of
Anglo-Saxon) was used absolutely. Milton uses both nom. and acc.: cf.
“Us dispossessed,” _Par. L._, vii. 140; “I extinct,” id. ix. 994.

10. +pestilentia+, the famous plague of Athens, which raged during the
second and third years of the +Peloponnesian war+. This was a war
between Athens with her allies and Sparta with her allies, which lasted
for 28 years, from 431 to 404 B.C., and ended in the defeat of Athens
and the loss of her maritime supremacy.


1. +Alexander III+. (356-323 B.C.), surnamed the Great, ascended the
throne of Macedonia on the death of his father Philip, 336 B.C. In the
13 years of his reign he conquered the greater part of Eastern Europe
and Asia Minor, and marched even into Northern India and Egypt. The
incident here mentioned happened in his Indian campaign. In 327 he
crossed the Indus, entered the Punjaub, defeated and captured the Indian
king Porus in a great battle on the banks of the Hydaspes, and founded
there two towns--Bucephalon and Nicaea. He continued his progress as far
as the banks of the Hyphasis, but here his wearied troops mutinied and
refused to advance any further.

+Būcĕphălās+ (βουκεφάλας, βοῦς κεφαλή), ‘ox-head,’ so called from the
breadth of its forehead.

2. +emptum+, ‘Chares has stated that it was bought for 13 talents.’
_talentis_, abl. of price.

+Chares+ was an officer at Alexander’s court, who wrote a series of
anecdotes about the life and exploits of the king.

3. +hoc autem+, the order _is hoc est nostri aeris summa trecenta
duodecim sestertia_, ‘this is in (lit. of) our money the sum (of) 312
sestertia.’ Sestertium = 1,000 sestertii, about £8 at this time.
Therefore 312 sestertia = £312 x 8 = £2,496. For _sestertium_ cf.
xxxiii. 2.

6. +haud unquam+, etc., ‘it never allowed itself to be mounted by any
one except the king.’

8. +faceret+, subj. after _cum_.

_Cum_ (= when), like other temporal conjunctions, takes as a rule the
indic. mood; but the subj. is required when the time of the _cum_ clause
is regarded as depending on the time of the principal clause. This is
usually the case in past time, hence the rule is that _cum_ in past time
requires the imperf. or plup. subj., unless (1) it is used in a
frequentative sense, _e.g._ ‘as often as’ (but later writers, _e.g._
Livy, often use the subj. even in this sense), e.g. _cum palam ejus
anuli ad palmam converterat, a nullo videbatur_ (Cic. _Off._), ‘as often
as he turned the bezel of that ring to his palm, he was seen by no one,’
cf. xiv. 7, _id cum dixerat_, ‘as often as he had said that’; (2) it is
simply equivalent to _et tum_, e.g. _castra ibi posita, cum subito
advenere Samnitium legiones_ (Livy), ‘the camp had been pitched there,
when the Samnite legions suddenly arrived’; (3) the two clauses mark
strictly contemporaneous events, _tum_ being often added in the
principal clause to mark this fact, e.g. _vos tum paruistis cum paruit
nemo_ (Cic. _p. Lig._ 7), ‘you were obedient at a time when no one
(else) was obedient.’

9. +non satis sibi providens+, ‘without sufficient forethought.’

+inmisit+ used absolutely, _i.e._ without an object; this, if expressed,
would be ‘_equum_,’ ‘spurred it forward against.’

11. +moribundus+. The termination _bundus_, or _cundus_, denotes
fulness, e.g. _vagabundus_, ‘wandering’; _iracundus_, ‘wrathful.’ Cf.
_L. Primer_, p. 58, § 70 E.

12. +e mediis hostibus+, ‘from the midst of the enemy.’ In many
phrases the adj. is used in Latin where in English we use a subst. with
another subst. depending on it, and _vice versa_: e.g. _summus mons_,
‘the top of the mountain’; but _animi dolor_, ‘mental pain’; cf. v. 3,
_sol oriens_.

14. +domini iam superstitis securus+, ‘relieved from anxiety for its
master, now safe.’ For the genitive _domini_ after _securus_, cf.
_sēcūră fŭtūri_, Ovid; _sēcūrus pĕlăgi atque mei_, Verg.


1. +Alcibiades+. Cf. iv. 4. note.

+Pericles+ was a great Athenian statesman. He was born about 490 B.C.
(the year of the battle of Marathon), and first took part in public
affairs in 469, when Athens was beginning to develop rapidly after the
Persian wars. From this time till his death in 429 he was the recognised
leader of the democratic party. Under his guidance Athens became the
most powerful state and the most beautiful city in Greece.

+ăvuncŭlus+ (deminutive of _ăvus_, a grandfather) is an uncle on the
mother’s side--a mother’s brother; _pătruus_ (_pā̆ter_), an uncle on the
father’s side--a father’s brother.

3. +puerum docendum curavit+, ‘had the boy educated.’ This use of the
gerundive in a final sense, as ‘+an oblique predicate+’ with the direct
object of certain transitive verbs, e.g. _curo_, _do_, _suscipio_, etc.,
is common in Latin writers, especially Caesar. Cf. _pontem faciendum
curavit_, ‘he had a bridge made’; _agros eis habitandos dedit_, ‘he gave
them lands to dwell in’; _me dandum ad bestias curavit_ (xxx.), ‘he had
me given to the wild beasts.’ Cf. Note xiii. 1. iv., on the Gerundive.

4. +canere tibiis+, ‘to play on the pipes.’ Both Greeks and Romans
usually played on a double pipe, composed of two instruments not unlike
flageolets, joined at the mouth-piece, and spreading out in the form of
a V; hence the plural _tibiae_. _Tibia_ means originally the shin bone,
and then a musical instrument, pipes or flutes being at first made of


1. +C. Fabricius+ Luscīnus was one of the most popular heroes in Roman
history. He was regarded as the type of the old-fashioned honest
warrior, who was proof against the luxury and corruption of the rising
generation. In his first consulship, 282 B.C., he defeated the
Lucanians, Bruttians, and Samnites; in 280-278 B.C. he served with
distinction against Pyrrus (cf. xxvii.).

The +Samnites+ were a powerful people living to the east of Rome. The
Romans first came into contact with them in 343 B.C.; for 50 years there
was war between the two nations; at last the Samnites were conquered,
but they still maintained their love of freedom, and once more proved
formidable opponents to Rome in the Social War, 90 B.C.

2. +memoratis ... rebus+, abl. absolute, ‘after mentioning the many
great services which he had rendered (_rebus quae bene fecisset_) to the
Samnites after the restoration of peace....’

3. +post redditam pacem+. _Pax reddita_, ‘the restoration of peace.’
Cf. _sol oriens_, ‘the rising of the sun,’ v. 3. note.

4. +dono+, as a gift, the predicative dative, or dative of purpose
used as a complement. Cf. Hor. _exitio est avidum mare nautis_, ‘the
greedy sea is [as] a destruction to sailors.’

11. +quâ+, abl. after _usus_, ‘for which I have no use.’


1. +Hannibal+, the famous general of the Carthaginians in the second
Punic war, was born in 247 B.C. In 218 he began his march from Spain
into Italy, crossed the Alps, and defeated the Romans in N. Italy on the
Ticinus and the Trebia; then followed the great victories at Lake
Trasimenus, 217, and Cannae, 216. In 203 Hannibal was compelled to
return to Africa to oppose Scipio, who had defeated the Carthaginian
troops and their ally Syphax. A decisive battle was fought at Zama,
October 19th, 202, in which Scipio gained a great victory over Hannibal.
In the following year peace was made. Hannibal now set to work to
prepare Carthage for a fresh struggle, but his political enemies
denounced his designs to the Romans, and he was compelled in 193 B.C. to
take refuge at the court of +Antiochus+ the Great, King of Syria, who
was on the eve of war with Rome. On the defeat of Antiochus the
surrender of Hannibal was made one of the conditions of peace; but he
fled to Prusias, King of Bithynia, 188 B.C. The Romans still pursued
him, and sent messengers to Prusias demanding his surrender. Fearing
that Prusias would be unable to resist this demand, and not knowing
whither to flee to escape the vengeance of his enemies, he took poison,
183 B.C.

2. +ingentis+. The acc. pl. of _-i_ nouns of the 3rd decl. varies in
the mss. between _-īs_, _-eis_, and _ēs_. All three forms seem to have
been used till the Augustan age, after which period the form in _-es_
prevailed. A nom. pl. also in _-is_ and _-eis_ is found sometimes in the
mss. of Plautus and Lucretius and in old inscriptions.

+populo Romano+, dat. of the ‘Remoter Object’ after _facturus_, the
‘nearer object’ being _bellum_.

4. +currus cum falcibus+. The wheels of these chariots were armed with
projecting scythes or hooks, which kept the enemy at a distance, or cut
them down, as the charioteers drove at full speed through their ranks.
These war chariots were in use among the Assyrians, Persians, Medes, and
Syrians in Asia, and in Europe among the Gauls and Britons. Some have
supposed that these are the ‘chariots of iron’ referred to in the books
of Joshua and Judges; but Xenophon (_Cyrop._, vi. i. 30) says that
‘scythe chariots’ were not introduced into Asia Minor till the time of

5. +elephantos cum turribus+, small turrets placed on the backs of the
elephants, and carrying a few soldiers.

6. +frenis+. The bits were sometimes made of silver and gold, and the
bridles decorated with jewels, etc.

+ephippiis+. The saddles in use among Eastern nations, the Greeks and
the Romans, consisted sometimes of a mere skin or cloth, sometimes of a
wooden frame, upon which padded cloth, etc., was stretched; from either
side cloths hung down, often dyed with bright colours, and decorated
with fringes, etc.

+monilibus+, necklets used as ornaments for horses, as well as for men
and women.

+phaleris+, bosses of metal attached as ornaments to the harness of
horses and the armour of men. They were sometimes hung as pendants to
the horse’s saddle, and jangled loudly as it charged forward against the
enemy. For these military ornaments cf. the well-known passage in
Verg.,_ Aen._ vii. 276--

  _Omnibus extemplo Teucris jubet ordine duci_
  _Instratos ostro alipedes pictisque tapetis;_
  _Aurea pectoribus demissa monilia pendent;_
  _Tecti auro, fulvum mandunt sub dentibus aurum._

7. +putasne+. Cf. ii. 5. note.

8. +Poenus+ (_Poenĭcus_ or _Pūnĭcus_), properly Phoenician, but
applied by Roman writers especially to the inhabitants of Carthage,
which was founded about 850 B.C. by Phoenician colonists, who came
probably from Tyre.


1. +Milo+ was the most famous wrestler in Greece; he was six times
victor in wrestling at the Olympic games and seven times at the Pythian
games. Many stories are told about his great strength: he is said to
have carried a heifer four years old on his shoulders through the
stadium (or race course, a distance of about 40 yards), to have then
killed it with a blow of his fist, and eaten the whole of it the same
day. He was a pupil of the great philosopher Pythagoras, at Crotona. One
day the pillar on which the roof of the school rested suddenly gave way,
but Milo supported the whole weight of the building, and gave the
philosopher and his disciples time to escape.

+Crotona+ was a Greek city on the S.E. coast of Italy, founded 740 B.C.
by the Achaeans. It became the most important city in S. Italy, owing to
its trade with the E. Mediterranean. It attained its greatest power in
510 by the defeat of its neighbour and rival Sybaris: on this occasion
Milo commanded the army of Crotona.

+Crotoniensis+. Note the use of the adj. where we employ a subst. and
prep., ‘Milo of Crotona’; so _pugna Cannensis_ (xl. 1.), ‘the Battle of
Cannae,’ etc.

3. +artem athleticam desisset+, ‘had given up athletics.’ The acc.
after _desino_ is rare, and chiefly poetical; but Cicero (_Fam._
vii. 1. 4) uses _artem desinere_.

5. +rimis in parte mediâ hiantem+, lit. ‘gaping open with cracks in
the middle.’

6. +an ullae ... adessent+. _Adessent_ is the subj. after the
dependent interrogative word _an_; the construction is called the
Indirect or Dependent Question, _Interrogatio Obliqua_. Thus ‘who are
you?’ is ‘_quis es?_’ but ‘I ask you who you are’ is ‘_interrogo quis

+ullae+. _Quisquam_ (pronoun) and _ullus_ (adjective) are used for ‘any’
in comparative and negative sentences, in questions expecting the answer
No, and in hypothetical sentences.

11. +rediit in naturam+, ‘returned to its natural (_i.e._ former)

12. +feris+, dat. after _praebuit_, ‘gave the man to the beasts to
tear to pieces.’ For this use of the gerundive cf. xiii. 1. note.


1. +Romae+, ‘at Rome,’ the locative case. This case, which had almost
died out in classical Latin, originally ended in _-i_ for the singular
and _-s_ for the plural. In some forms it still survived, viz., (1) in
such words as _militiae_ (earlier _militiai_), _belli_, ‘in the field,’
‘at the war’; _domi_, at home; _humi_, ‘on the ground’; _vesperi_ (or
_-e_), ‘in the evening’; _ruri_, ‘in the country’; _luci_, ‘in the
light’; and the adverbs _ubi_, ‘in which place’; _ibi_, ‘in that place,’
etc.; (2) in the names of towns--_Romae_ (earlier _Romai_), ‘at Rome’;
_Tarenti_, ‘at Tarentum’; _Carthagini_ (or _Carthagine_), ‘at Carthage,’
etc.; (3) in such phrases as _animi angor_, ‘I am vexed in mind’;
_maturus aevi_, ‘advanced in age,’ etc.

+Curiam+. The word Curia is connected with Cŭres, the chief town of the
Sabines, and Quĭrītes (or Cŭrītes), the inhabitants of Cŭres. It
originally denoted one of the 30 divisions into which the Romans and
Sabines were divided when they united in one community. The word was
then applied to the building used for the religious service of a Curia,
and afterwards especially to the building in which the Senate met.

2. +praetextatis+, _i.e._ wearing the _toga praetexta_, a white toga
with a broad purple border, worn under the Republic by the higher
magistrates, by persons engaged in paying vows, and by free-born
children. It is said to have been adopted from the Etruscans, and made
the royal robe by Tullus Hostilius; and to have been worn with the
_bulla_ by boys after the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, whose son at the
age of fourteen slew an enemy with his own hand in the Sabine war, and
was allowed as a reward to wear the royal robe.

+maior+, more important than usual.

4. +placuitque ut eam rem ne quis...+. ‘It was resolved that no one
should mention the matter until a decision had been arrived at’ (lit.
until it had been decreed).

+ut ... ne quis+, or _ne quis_, ‘that no one,’ is always used in a final
sentence instead of _ut nemo_; so _ne quid_, _ne ullus_, and _ne
unquam_, instead of _ut nihil_, _ut nullus_, _ut nunquam_. The
indefinite pronoun _quis_ is, as a rule, used for ‘any’ or ‘some’ in
relative sentences, and after _si_, _nisi_, _num_, _ne_, and _cum_; but
_aliquis_ is sometimes found after _si_, more rarely after _ne_.

5. +decreta esset+. The subj. is required, because this is a dependent
sentence forming part of the _Oratio Obliqua_ after _placuit_.

7. +egissent+, subj. after the dependent interrogative _quidnam_. Cf.
x. 6. note. For the same reason _videretur_, line 11, is in subj.

9. +lepidi mendacii consilium capit+, ‘bethought himself of an amusing

10. +utrum ... unusne ... an...+. The _-ne_ is ‘pleonastic,’ _i.e._
more than is required, for the sentence would be complete without
it--_utrum videretur utilius ut unus ... an (videretur utilius) ut
una...._ This idiom is chiefly ante-classical (found often in Plautus),
but Cicero uses it, ‘_est etiam illa distinctio, utrum illudne non
videatur aegre ferendum ... an ..._’ (Cic. _Tusc._ iv. 27, 59).
Translate ‘He said the Senate had discussed whether it seemed more
useful and advantageous to the State that one man should have two wives,
or that one woman should be married to two men.’


3. +matrum familias+, gen. plur. of _mater familias_. When _familia_
is compounded with _pater_, _mater_, _filius_, and _filia_, the old gen.
sing. _famili_+as+ is usually found, but _familiae_ also is frequently
used by Cicero and other writers, by Livy always. In Sallust and later
writers even _patres familiarum_ is found.

4. +una potius ... duae+. The order is _ut una (uxor) nupta fieret
duobus viris potius quam ut duae (uxores nuptae fierent) uni (viro)_.

6. +esset, vellet+, subj. after the dept. interrogatives _quae_ and
_quid_; so +institisset+ and +dixisset+. Cf. x. 6. note.

+quid sibi postulatio istaec vellet+, ‘what that demand of theirs
meant.’ _Quid sibi res vult_, ‘what does the thing mean?’ lit. ‘what
does it wish for itself?’ ‘what is its object or drift?’ so _quid tibi
vis_, ‘what do you mean, or want?’ and, more rarely, _quid mihi volo_,
‘what do I mean, or want?’


1. +Sertorius+ was a Roman general, who first distinguished himself in
Gaul. On the outbreak of civil war in 88 B.C. between Marius and Sulla
he joined the former. At first the Sullan party were victorious, but
when their leader went to the East to fight against Mitridates they were
defeated, and from 87-82 the Marian party were supreme. In 83 (or,
according to another writer, 82) Sertorius was sent to Spain as governor
in the Marian interest. Finding himself unable to hold his ground
against the Sullan generals, he crossed to Africa, and gained various
successes there. The Lusitani, who inhabited the western part of the
Spanish peninsula, then invited him to become their leader against the
Romans. He returned with a small force of 2,600 men, one third of whom
were Libyans, and then by his extraordinary influence over the natives,
and his great powers of organisation, succeeded in forming an army which
for years set at defiance every effort made by the generals of the
Sullan party, which was now in the ascendant. In 76 Pompeius was sent to
Spain with a large army to reinforce the Sullan generals, but for five
years more Sertorius held his ground. At last, in 72 B.C., he was
assassinated by Perperna and other of his own Roman officers, who were
jealous of his power.

+et utendi et regendi exercitus+, the gerundial attraction. When an
object is expressed after a gerund, the construction called the
gerundial, or +gerundival attraction+ is preferred. In this construction
the object is attracted (if it differs) into the case of the gerund, and
the gerund, taking adjectival inflections (and then called the
gerundive), is made to agree adjectivally with the object in number and


  _a._ The Acc., _praemisit milites ad Gallos insequendos_, ‘he sent
  the soldiers forward to pursue the Gauls.’

  _b._ The Gen., _causâ urbis delendae_, ‘for the sake of destroying
  the city.’

  _c._ The Dat., _bello gerendo me praefecistis_, ‘you placed me in
  command of the management of the war.’

  _d._ The Abl., _in vestigiis persequendis operam consumpsi_,
  ‘I spent labour in following their tracks.’

The Gerundival Attraction is of course only used with transitive verbs
which govern a direct object in the acc. case. The words _fungor_,
_fruor_, _utor_, _vescor_, _potior_ are exceptions; they are used both
in this construction and in the constructions explained in ii. and iii.
below, because they were originally transitive, and governed an acc.

The +gerunds+ and +gerundives+ are the substantival and adjectival forms
respectively of a participle in _-ndus_. Under the gerund are included
the substantival forms in _-ndum, -ndi, -ndo_; under the gerundive the
full adjectival declension in _-ndus, a, um_, etc.

+The uses of the gerund and gerundive+ may be divided under four

i. By its oblique cases the gerund (and the gerundive in the
construction mentioned above--the ‘gerundival attraction’) completes the
active infinite verb noun, which is only used in the nom. and acc., e.g.
_haec ad iudicandum sunt facillima_, ‘these matters are very easy to
decide’; _amor agendi, canendi_, etc., ‘love of acting, singing,’ etc.;
_causâ agendi_, ‘for the sake of acting’; _aqua utilis bibendo_, ‘water
useful for drinking’; _mens alitur discendo_, ‘the mind is nourished by

ii. The nom. (and in _oratio obliqua_ the acc.) of the gerund is used
intransitively with parts of the verb _sum_ (_est_, _erat_, _fuit_,
_esse_, etc.), as an impersonal verb to denote necessity, duty, or
suitability, e.g. _nunc est bibendum_, ‘now it is right to drink’,
_eundum est_, ‘there is a necessity to go’; _parendum est legibus_, ‘it
is necessary to be obedient to the laws.’ The person on whom the duty
falls is expressed by the dat. case, the ‘Dative of the Agent,’ except
after verbs which govern a dative; after these, to avoid ambiguity, the
agent is expressed by _a_ or _ab_ with the abl., e.g. _eundum est mihi_,
‘I must go,’ but _parendum est ei a te_, ‘you must obey him’.

iii. The gerundive is used (1) personally as a verb, usually with a
passive signification, e.g. _aqua bibenda est_, ‘water ought to be
drunk’; (2) as a mere epithet, e.g. _ridenda poemata_, ‘poems to be
laughed at.’

iv. The acc. of the gerundive is used in a final sense as an oblique
predicate, or complement, agreeing with the direct object of certain
transitive verbs--_curo_, _do_, _suscipio_, _habeo_, etc., e.g. _Caesar
pontem faciendum curavit_, ‘Caesar had a bridge made’; _agros eis
habitandos dedit_, ‘he gave them the lands to dwell in.’ Cf. vii. 3.

8. +usui+, predicative dative or dat. of purpose. Cf. _dono_, viii. 4.

+memoria+, etc. The order is _memoria prodita est neminem ex his
nationibus, quae cum S. faciebant_ (‘who served with Sertorius’), _cum
multis proeliis superatus esset_ (‘although he had been defeated in many
battles’), _unquam ab eo descivisse_.

9. _neminem._ The gen. of this word, _neminis_, is only found in
writers before Cicero, the abl. _nemine_ in late writers (_e.g._ Tacitus
and Suetonius), and once in Plautus; the plural is not used. Hence we

  Nom.,  _nemo_,              _nulli_, etc.
  Acc.,  _neminem_,           _nullos_, etc.
  Gen.,  _nullius_,           _nullorum_, etc.
  Dat.,  _nemini_,            _nullis_.
  Abl.,  _nullo_ or _nullâ_,  _nullis_.


1. +alba+. _Albus_ is a dull white as opposed to _ater_, dull black;
_candidus_, shining white, opposed to _niger_, shining black.

+eximiae pulchritudinis et celeritatis+, genitives of quality.

2. +dono+, predicative dat., or dat. of purpose. Cf. _dono_, viii. 4.

5. +factu+, the supine in _-u_, used as an abl. of respect. Cf.
_foedum dictu est_, ‘it is horrible to state’ (lit. ‘in the saying’),
and xxiv. 2, _utilia monitu suasuque_.

+quid+, the indef. pron.; so _cui_, line 13. For its use after _si_ cf.
xi. 4. note.

7. +dixerat+, indic. after _cum_ in a frequentative sense, ‘whenever
he had said that.’ Cf. vi. 8. note.

10. +in fugam se proripuit+, ‘took to hasty flight.’

18. +consuerat+, indic., because it is not part of what Sertorius
said, but a statement made by the author.

+quod opus esset facto+, ‘what had to be done.’ _Facto_ is the abl. of
the perf. part. pass.; for this use cf. _maturato, properato opus est_,
‘there is need of haste’; and the similar construction with the abl. of
the supine, _dictu opus est_ (Terence), ‘it is necessary to speak’;
_quod scitu opus est_ (Cicero), ‘what has to be known.’


+Tarquinius Superbus+, according to tradition, was the seventh and last
of the Roman kings (535-510 B.C.), the others being Romulus, Numa
Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius

1. +Libris Sibyllinis+. Little is known about the famous Sibylline
books. They were probably derived from Cumae in Campania, the seat of a
celebrated oracle. At Rome they were kept in a stone chest (_sacrarium_)
beneath the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, under the charge of certain
officers (_quindecimviri_), and consulted only by the special command of
the Senate. In 82 B.C. this temple was burnt and the books destroyed.
A fresh collection of oracles was made by ambassadors sent to the chief
cities of Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor. When the temple was rebuilt
these were deposited in the same place, but many spurious prophetic
books, purporting to be Sibylline oracles, seem to have got into
circulation at Rome, and several revisions of the books were ordered
from time to time. Christian writers frequently appeal to the Sibylline
oracles as containing prophecies of the Messiah.

2. +hospita+, feminine form of _hospes_. Cf. _antistes_ and
_sacerdos_, priest, _antistita_ and _sacerdota_ (in inscriptions),
priestess, _sospes_ and _sospita_, saviour, etc.

4. +eos velle vendere+, ‘(she said) that she wished to sell them.’

6. +nimium atque inmensum+, 300 pieces of gold, according to one form
of the legend.

+quasi ... desiperet+. _Quasi_, ‘as if,’ introducing a statement which
is not a fact, naturally governs the subj., ‘as if she were mad’ (but
she was not). In sentences of comparison introduced by such conjunctions
as _tanquam_, _ceu_, _quasi_, _velut_, etc., the subj. is usually found,
because the statement is usually not true; but when the statement is a
fact the indic. is employed, e.g. _Fuit olim, quasi nunc ego sum, senex_
(Plautus). Frequently _quasi_, etc., are used, not as conjunctions
introducing the sentence, but adverbially with a single word; in such
cases they do not affect the mood, e.g. _servis respublica et quasi
civitas domus est_ (_Pl. Ep._ viii. 16), ‘to slaves their home is a
state, and, as it were, a city.’ Cf. xviii. 5, _quasi consultans cum

7. +foculum+. _Fŏcŭlus_, deminutiveof _fŏcus_ (a hearth). Cf.
_rĭvŭlus_, a rivulet, and _rivus_, a river.

9. +vellet+, subj. after the dependent interrogative _ecquid_. Cf.
x. 6. note.

10. +sed enim+, ‘but indeed.’ Cf. the use of ἀλλὰ γὰρ in Greek.

14. +ore ... fit+, ‘now becomes serious and more attentive’ (lit. ‘of
a serious countenance and more attentive mind’). _Ore_ and _animo_ are
ablatives of quality.

19. +nusquam loci+, ‘nowhere in the world.’ The genitives _loci_,
_locorum_, _gentium_ and _terrarum_ are frequently used with adverbs of
place--_ubi_, _quo_, _unde_, _usquam_, _nusquam_, etc., e.g. _ubi
terrarum sumus_ (Cic.), ‘where on earth are we?’


1. +Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Maior+ was born in 234 B.C. He
is first mentioned in 218 B.C. at the battle of the Ticinus (cf. ix. 1.
note), in which he is said to have saved the life of his father P.
Scipio. He fought at Cannae, 216, and was chosen with App. Claudius to
command the remains of the Roman army after that great disaster. In 212
he was unanimously elected aedile. When the tribunes objected to the
election, because he was under the legal age, he replied, ‘If all the
Quirites wish to make me aedile, I am old enough.’ In 210, at the age of
twenty-four, he was appointed to command the army in Spain, having come
forward as a candidate for the post which all the old generals feared to
accept. By 207 he had conquered almost the whole of that country from
the Carthaginians. In 205 he was elected consul. He was anxious to cross
over to Africa and end the war by a blow at Carthage itself, but the
Senate, partly from jealousy, partly from timidity, opposed his plans
and would only grant him the province of Sicily, with power to cross
over to Africa if he thought it in the interests of the State; but this
permission they endeavoured to render useless by refusing him an army.
Volunteers however flocked from every part of Italy to his standard, and
in 204 he was able to land in Africa with a large force. In 203 he
defeated Hasdrubal and his ally Syphax, and in 202 brought the second
Punic war to an end by a great victory at Zama over Hannibal, who had
been recalled from Italy. In 201 peace was made, and Scipio, returning
to Rome, received the agnomen Africanus, and was overwhelmed with every
mark of honour. In 190 he served as legate under his brother, +Lucius
Scipio Asiaticus+, in the war against Antiochus (cf. ix. and xvii.) On
their return the accusations mentioned in xvi. and xvii. were made
against the brothers. In 185 Scipio retired into private life, and died
soon afterwards, probably in 183.

1. +tribunus plebis+. The tribuni plebis were appointed in 494, after
the secession to Mons Sacer, to protect the plebeians against the
patrician magistrates. At first they were two in number, afterwards they
were increased to ten.

3. +ut condicionibus+, etc., ‘that peace might be made with him
(_i.e._ Antiochus) on favourable conditions in the name of the Roman

7. +diem esse hodiernum+, ‘that this is the day on which ...’ (lit.
‘that it is to-day on which ...’).

9. +proelio+. The battle of Zama, Oct. 19th, 202 B.C.

11. +simus+, ‘let us not be ungrateful therefore to the gods....’

12. +censeo+, used parenthetically, ‘I propose.’ Cf. _quaeso_, ii. 4.

13. +gratulatum+, the supine in _-um_, used to express purpose after
the verb of motion, _eamus_.

17. +aedes+, in sing., a ‘temple’ (a single room), in the plur.,
a ‘house’ (a collection of rooms). As distinguished from _templum_,
_aedes_ is a simple building without division into rooms; _templum_ is a
large edifice consisting of many rooms, consecrated by the augurs, and
belonging often to several deities.

18. +sollemni+. _Sollemnis_, from _sollus_ (cf. ὅλος, _salvus_), whole;
prop. taking place every year, ‘established,’ especially of festivals;
then, with the religious force predominating, ‘religious,’ ‘festive,’


2. +M. Porcius Cato+, known as the Censor (234-149), first
distinguished himself in the second Punic war; in 204-3 he served as
Quaestor to Scipio Africanus in Sicily and Africa. From this time
forward he became the declared enemy of the Scipios and their friends,
who were introducing, he said, into Rome the luxury and refinement of
degenerate Greece and ruining the simple and honest Roman character. He
served with distinction in Spain, 195-4, and against Antiochus, 191. In
184 he was censor, and applied himself strenuously, but in vain, to stem
the tide of Greek luxury. He was one of the ambassadors sent to Africa
to arbitrate between Masinissa and the Carthaginians, and was so struck
by the flourishing condition of Carthage, that on his return he insisted
that, whilst that city existed, Rome would never be safe. Whenever he
was called upon for his vote in the Senate, whatever the subject before
the house was, he always concluded his remarks by ‘And I further am of
opinion that Carthage must be destroyed (_delendam esse Carthaginem_).’
The third Punic war, which broke out soon after his death, was largely
due to his influence.

5. +L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus+ served under his brother Africanus
in Spain, and in 190 defeated Antiochus at Mount Sipylus. Cf. xvi. 1.

3. +comparati in eum+. _Comparare hominem in aliquem_ is the regular
phrase for procuring a man to attack another. ‘Having been set upon

4. +pecuniae ... rationem redderet+, ‘to give an account of the money
paid by Antiochus, and the spoil....’

9. +allatum+, i.e. _dixit librum allatum esse_, ‘he said that it had
been brought.’

10. +aerarium+, the public treasury at Rome, in which, besides the
State treasure, the standards of the legions and copies of all decrees
of the Senate were kept. After the expulsion of the kings the Temple of
Saturn, at the head of the Forum, was used for this purpose.

10. +sed enim+, ‘but indeed.’ Cf. xv. 10.

11. +nec me ipse afficiam contumeliâ+, ‘nor will I insult myself with
my own lips (_ipse_).’

12. +coram+, ‘before their eyes.’

13. +quod cui+. The order is _quod ab eo ratio praedae posceretur, cui
salus ... deberet_, ‘indignant that an account of the booty was demanded
from a man, to whom the safety of the State and constitution ought to be

_Acceptum aliquid referre alicui_, lit. ‘to put down a thing as received
to a man’s account,’ ‘to credit him with it’; a metaphor from banking.


2. +Scipio Africanus+ “was unquestionably one of the greatest men of
Rome, and he acquired at an early age the confidence and admiration of
his countrymen. His enthusiastic mind led him to believe that he was a
special favourite of the gods; and he never engaged in any public or
private business without first going to the Capitol, where he sat some
time alone, enjoying communication from the gods. For all he proposed or
executed he alleged the divine approval; and the Roman people gave
credit to his assertions, and regarded him as a being almost superior to
the common race of men. There can be no doubt that Scipio believed
himself in the divine revelations, which he asserted to have been
vouchsafed to him, and the extraordinary success which attended all his
enterprises must have deepened this belief.”--Smith’s _Classical

3. +noctis extremo+, ‘at the end of night.’ The neuter _extremum_ is
used as a substantive, meaning ‘the end.’ Cf. _extremo anni_, Livy,
xxxv. 11. 1; _sub extremum noctis_, Sil. 4. 88.

4. +ventitare+. _Ventito_ is the frequentative form of _venio_.
Frequentative or iterative verbs denote repeated action: they are of the
first conjugation, and formed by adding _-to_, _-so_, _-ito_, or _-itor_
to the supine stem, or, more rarely, to the clipt stem, as _can-to_,
‘I sing often’; _cur-so_, ‘I run often’; _rog-ito_, ‘I ask often’;
_min-itor_, ‘I threaten often’; _haes-ito_, ‘I stick fast.’ Sometimes
one frequentative verb is formed from another, as _cant-ito_ from

+ac iubere ... Iovis+, ‘and to order the temple of Jupiter to be

5. +quasi consultans+. Cf. xv. 6. note.

7. +id temporis+. For this ‘genitive of the thing measured,’ depending
on a neuter pronoun, expressing quantity, hence often called the
‘partitive genitive,’ cf. _aliquid veri, falsi_; _id aetatis_; _nihil
reliqui facere_, ‘to leave nothing undone’ (Caes.); _quantum mercedis_
(xxxii. 17.); _si quid remedii_ (xxxiv. 8.), and such phrases as _navium
quod ubique fuerat in unum locum coegerant_ (Caes.). _Id_ in this phrase
is in the accusative. Similar adverbial accusatives are--_hoc noctis_,
_magnam partem_, _suam vicem_, _multum_, etc. The use of the acc. has
arisen from an extended use of the cognate acc. after intransitive verbs
(e.g. _servire servitatem_, _dormire noctem_, _dolere aliquid_, etc.).

+quod in eum solum ... incurrerent+, the order is _aeditumi ...
admirati, quod canes, semper in alios saevientes, neque latrarent neque
incurrerent in eum solum id temporis in Capitolium ingredientem_,
‘because he was the only man who entered the temple at that time, at
whom the dogs, that always attacked others, did not bark and fly.’

14. +re cibaria copiosum+, ‘well supplied with provisions.’

15. +eius potiundi+. Gerundival attraction, cf. xiii. 1. note.

16. +ius dicebat+, ‘he was administering justice,’ the technical term.

18. +in iure stare+, or _esse_, ‘to stand,’ ‘present oneself before a
magistrate’; _in ius ire_, ‘to go before a magistrate.’

19. +vadimonium promittere+, to promise or give security (bail) for a
man’s appearance, ‘for what day and what place’ (_i.e._ for his
appearance on what day and place) ‘he would order security to be given.’

+iuberet+, subj. after the dependent interrog. _quem_. Cf. x. 6. note.

21. +sese+, object. of _sistere_, ‘ordered him to present himself on
the third day in yonder place.’

22. +atque ita factum+, ‘and so it happened.’

+vadari+. _Vador aliquem_ = ‘I bind a man over by bail’: the object. of
_vadari_ here is _militem_; “on the third day, on which he had ordered
(them) to bind (the man) over to appear.”


1. +capite+. _Caput_ denotes the legal status of a citizen: he lost it
“as much if he were struck off the roll of citizens as if his head were
struck off his shoulders” (Wilkins, _R. Lit. Primer_). “I and two others
were trying a friend on a capital charge.”

4. +ad casum ... medendum+, ‘to remedy so perilous a mischance.’

6. +ad condemnandum+, sc. _hominem_, ‘I gave my vote in silence for
condemning the man.’


1. +Favorinus+ was a native of Arles, in Gaul; he was a famous
philosopher, and resided at different periods of his life in Rome,
Greece, and Asia Minor (about 110-130 A.D.).

3. +Curius+. M’ Curius Dentatus, consul in 290, 275, and 274 B.C.,
distinguished himself in the Samnite wars. He was a favourite hero of
the Romans, and celebrated as a type of the old-fashioned virtue and
frugality. The Samnites, it is said, once sent an embassy to him with
costly gifts. The messengers found the great general sitting by his
hearth, and roasting turnips. They proffered their gifts, but he
rejected them, saying that he would rather rule over those who possessed
gold than possess it himself.

4. +Fabricius+. Cf. viii. 1. note.

+Coruncanius+, consul 260 B.C., fought with success against the
Etruscans and against Pyrrus (cf. xxvii. 1. note); he was also a
distinguished lawyer, and the first plebeian who became Pontifex

5. +his+, abl. after the comparative _antiquiores_.

+antiquus+, ‘former,’ ‘ancient,’ is used of what has existed in past
time as opposed to _novus_, what has not previously existed, new.
_Vetus_ denotes what has existed for a long time, old, aged, opposed to
_rĕcens_, what has not existed for long, recent.

+Horatii+. The three brothers of the Horatian gens, who, according to
the legend, in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, fought against the
Curiatii, three brothers from Alba, to determine whether Rome or Alba
was to exercise the supremacy.

6. +Auruncorum+, etc., genitives depending of _verbis_, ‘used the
language of the Aurunci,’ etc. The Aurunci, Sicani, and Pelasgi were old
Italian races.

9. +quasi loquare+. Cf. xv. 6. note, ‘_quasi desiperet_.’

+Euandri+. The legend says that Euander, son of Hermes and an Arcadian
nymph, about 60 years before the Trojan war, led a Pelasgian colony from
Arcadia in Greece to Italy, and built the town of Pallantium at the foot
of the Palatine hill. Vergil represents Euander as still alive when
Aeneas came to Italy. (_Aeneid_, viii. 51.)

10. +abhinc multis annis+, ‘many years ago.’ To express ‘how long
ago,’ _abhinc_ and _ante_ are used with either abl. or acc. case. Cf.
_abhinc triennium huc commigravit_, ‘she came hither three years ago’
(Ter. _An._ i. 70).

11. +quae dicas+, ‘anything that you say.’ The subj. (a consecutive
subjunctive) after the relative marks the statement as indefinite; _quae
dicis_ would mean the particular words which you are actually using.

14. +sit+, subjunctive, because a dependent sentence in the _oratio
obliqua_ after _ais_.

16. +C. Julius Caesar+, the Dictator, 100-44 B.C. This quotation is
from his lost work _De Analogia_, written, it is said, when he was
crossing the Alps.

18. +ut tamquam+, ‘that you should avoid a rare word, as (you would
avoid) a rock.’


1. +T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus+ was another of the favourite
heroes of Roman history. His exploit here mentioned happened in 361. In
353 and again in 349 he was Dictator; in 347, 344, and 340, Consul. In
this last year Torquatus and P. Decius Mus gained a great victory over
the Latins near Mt. Vesuvius, and established the Roman supremacy in
Latium. It was shortly before this battle that the disobedient act of
his son occurred, mentioned at the end of xxii.

3. +torquis+, a ‘twisted neck chain,’ as opposed to _monile_ (cf.
ix. 6), which was made of beads, stones, etc., strung together.

+ex hoste detractam induit+, ‘he had taken from an enemy, and put on
himself.’ A participle and verb are frequently used in Latin where in
English two verbs are employed, e.g. _scripsit se profectum celeriter
adfore_, ‘he wrote (to say) that he had set out and would soon arrive.’

4. +fuerit+, subj. after the dependent interrogative _quis_. Cf. x. 6.

6. +cum ... processit+, etc. The indicative is used in past time after
_cum_, when the conjunction is purely temporal, and equivalent to _et
tum_. Cf. vi. 8 note.

7. +nudus+, ‘unarmed.’ _Nudus_ is used in many senses besides its
usual one of ‘unclothed,’ ‘naked’: _e.g._ ‘without a _toga_,’ _i.e._ ‘in
a tunic only,’ _nudus ara, sere nudus_ (Verg. _G._ i. 299); ‘uncovered
by turf,’ _silex nuda_ (Verg. _E._ i. 15); ‘leafless,’ _nudum nemus_;
‘without a garrison,’ _urbs nuda praesidio_ (Cic. _Att._ vii. 13-1);
‘destitute,’ _nuda senectus_ (Juv.); ‘unadorned,’ _nuda oratio_ (Cic.),

12. +si quis ... vellet, uti prodiret+, ‘that if any one was willing
to fight him, he should step forward.’ The tenses are historic, because
_conclamant_ is the historical present, and therefore equivalent to a
past tense. Primary tenses are sometimes used after a historic present,
but historic tenses are more common.

17. +scuto pedestri+. The _scutum_ was an oblong or oval shield (4 ft.
by 2½ ft., Polybius), made of wood or wickerwork. It was borrowed from
the Sabines and made the shield of the whole Roman army, superseding the
large circular _clipeus_, when the Roman soldiers first began to receive
pay, and to form a permanent army instead of an irregular militia (Livy,
viii. 8. etc.).

+cinctus+ in this connection is properly ‘surrounded’ with a girdle to
support a shield or sword, hence ‘armed with.’


1. +metu magno+, ‘amid great anxiety.’ An ablative of manner, closely
akin to the “ablative absolute.”

2. +sua disciplina+, ‘according to his custom,’ _i.e._ way of
fighting. Cf. _eadem nos disciplina utimur_, ‘our habits are the same’
(Plaut. _As._ i. 3. 49), and _disciplina militiae, bellica militaris_,
etc., ‘the art of war.’

3. +cunctabundus+. Cf. _moribundus_, vi. 11. note. The Gaul stood on
the alert ready to parry a blow, and waiting his opportunity. Manlius
disconcerted him by suddenly dashing him backwards.

7. +eo pacto ei ... +, etc., ‘in that way he got to close quarters
with him (_ei successit_) under his Gallic sword, and wounded his chest
with his Spanish sword (sc. _gladio_).’ The “Spanish sword” was a short
weapon, fitted for thrusting and stabbing at close quarters; the “Gallic
sword” a much longer and heavier weapon.

9. +pectus hausit+. _Haurire_ of a weapon in the sense of ‘wounding,’
‘tearing open,’ is found in Lucretius, Vergil, and often in Ovid:
probably the sword, etc., is regarded as devouring the flesh or drinking
the blood (Conington). Cf. Verg. _Aen._ x. 313--

              _Huic gladio perque aerea suta,
  Per tunicam squalentem auro, latus haurit apertum._

‘With his sword, through brazen coat of mail and tunic stiff with gold,
he wounded his unguarded side.’

17. +speculatum+. The supine is _-um_, expressing purpose after a verb
of motion.

+pugna interdicta+, ‘though he had been forbidden to fight.’ Abl.


1. +Agrum Pomptinum+. The Ager Pomptinus was a low plain on the coast
of Latium, between Circeii and Terracina; it was originally a fertile
cornland, but after the third century B.C., it became more and more
marshy, till at last the Pomptine marshes were the most malarious
district in Italy. They were partially drained from time to time, but no
permanent relief was afforded till the time of Pius VI. (1778). The
district is still the most unhealthy in Italy.

3. +vasta proceritate+, abl. of description.

+armis auro fulgentibus+, abl. abs., ‘a man of enormous stature, with
armour gleaming with gold.’

5. +per contemptum et superbiam+, ‘scornfully and haughtily.’ Cf. _per
vim_, ‘forcibly,’ etc.

6. +venire iubet+, etc., ‘bids anyone out of the whole Roman army who
dares to fight, to come forward and meet him,’ lit. ‘bids (him) come, if
anyone dares.’ _Auderet_ is in historical time, because _iubet_ is the
historic present, standing for a past tense. Cf. xxi. 12. note.

8. +tribunus militaris+. The _tribuni militum_, or _militares_, were
the chief officers of the legion; there were originally three,
afterwards six, to each legion.

+ceteris ... ambiguis+. Abl. absol., ‘since the rest hesitated.’

11. +progreditur ... obviam+, ‘advances to meet him.’

13. +vis quaedam divina fit+, ‘a miracle happens’: lit., a divine
power is manifested.

16. +laniabat ... revolabat+, the imperfects denote repeated action.

21. +statuam statuendam curavit+, ‘had a statue set up’: for this use
of _curo_ cf. xiii. 1. 4. note.

+Augustus+. Cf. xxix. 2. note.

+in foro suo+, the ‘Forum Augusti.’ There were three great _fora_ at
Rome, the F. Augusti, the F. Magnum, Vetus, or Romanum, and the F.

23. +monimentum+, in apposition to _simulacrum_.


1. +Aesopus+ lived about 570 B.C. Little is known about his life. He
was a slave, but was freed by one of his masters, Iadmon of Samos. He is
said to have visited Croesus, king of Lydia, and Pisistratus of Athens,
and to have been sent by the former to Delphi to distribute a gift of
money among the citizens. A dispute however arose, and he refused to
give any of the money, so the angry men of Delphi threw him over a
precipice. Later stories, without good authority, represent him as

+e Phrygia+. Cotioeum in Phrygia, Mesembria in Thrace, Samos, and Sardis
each claimed to be the birthplace of Aesop.

2. +utilia monitu suasuque+. The abl. of the supine in _-u_ is
regularly used as an abl. of respect. Cf. _nefas visu_, _turpe dictu_,
_facile factu_ (xxvii. 7.), etc.

5. +cum audiendi quadam inlecebra+, lit. ‘with some charm of hearing.’

7. +spem+, etc., ‘that in matters (_rerum_) which a man can manage
himself, hope and trust ought never to be placed in another, but in
himself,’ _i.e._ that a man ought not to rely upon another for what he
can do himself.

10. +Q. Ennius+. Cf. xxxviii. 9.

+satiris+. _Satira_ or _satura_ (_satur_ = full), properly a mixture of
all sorts of things, originally denoted a work which dealt with many
subjects; then the title was applied to poems which treated
‘didactically’ the follies and vices of mankind.

+versibus quadratis+, _versus quadrati_ (square) are those containing
eight or seven feet. These lines of Ennius are called _Septenarii_ or
_Tetrameter Catalectic_ verses. The principal feet in them are the
_trochee_ ¯ ¯ ˘, and _spondee_ ¯ ¯.

  Hōc ĕr|īt tĭb(i) | ārgŭ|mēntūm | sēmpĕr | īn prōmp|tū sĭ|tum,
  Nē quĭd | ēxpēc|tēs ă|mīcōs, | quod tŭt(e) | ăgĕrĕ | possĭ|es.

12. +semper in promptu situm+, ‘ever ready at hand.’

13. +ne quid+, etc., ‘not to wait for your friends at all (_quid_) in
a matter which (_quod_) you yourself can do.’

+possies+, old form of _possis_, pres. subj. of _possum_.


2. +id temporis+. Cf. xviii. 7. note, ‘at such a time, as a rule, that
the harvest is at hand when its young ones are just becoming fledged.’

3. +ea cassita+, that particular lark about which the story is told.

+congesserat+, used absolutely (_i.e._ without an object) in the sense
of making a nest, as we used the word ‘to build.’ Cf. Verg._ Ecl._
iii. 69, _locum aeriae quo congessere columbae_.

5. +dum iret+. _Dum_, like other temporal conjunctions, takes the
indic. (in Oratio R.) when _strictly_ temporal, but the subj. is
required when the notion of time is complicated with that of purpose,
consequence, etc. In other words, _dum_, ‘whilst,’ always takes the
indic., _dum_, ‘until,’ the indic. usually, the subj. sometimes, viz.,
when the idea of expecting or waiting for something comes in. Here
purpose is expressed: ‘to enable her to meanwhile go ...,’ ‘till she
should go.’ Cf. _priusquam emeret_, xxxiii. 4. note.

6. +quaesitum+, ‘to seek for food ...’; the supine in _-um_ expressing
purpose after a verb of motion. Cf. xvi. 13, xxii. 17.

7. +si quid+, etc., ‘if anything unusual happened.’ For the genitive
_quid rei_, cf. _id temporis_, xviii. 7. note.

11. +fac eas et roges+, a less peremptory way of expressing a command
than the simple imperative. Cf. _scribas velim_, _cura ut scribas_,
_scribe sis_ (for _si vis_), instead of _scribe_.

12. +veniant+, etc., subj. after _roges_, ‘ask them to come ...’

15. +orare+, the historical infinite, used instead of a finite verb.
In this construction, which is frequent in an animated description of a
scene, the pres. inf. only is used (besides the two perfects _odisse_
and _meminisse_, which have a present meaning). Dr. Kennedy (Pub. Sch.
Lat. Gr., 332) treats it as analogous to the omission of parts of the
verb _sum_ (e.g. _occisus_ for _occisus est_), as it leaves out the
expression of time, number, and person. ‘It is used to express the
occurrence of actions without marking the order of time.’ (Roby.)

17. +misit qui amicos roget+. _Roget_ is in subj., because the
relative expresses purpose: ‘has sent me to ask ....’ _Misit_ is the
perfect proper, ‘has sent,’ a primary tense, hence _roget_ is in the
pres. subj.

18. +otioso animo esse+, abl. of quality, lit. ‘bids them be of an
easy mind,’ _i.e._ ‘bids them be easy in mind.’


4. +isti+, ironical, ‘those friends of yours are laggards.’

+quin ... imus+, ‘why do we not rather go ...?’ The conjunction _quin_
(= _quî_, an old ablative, and _-ne_) is thus used in exhortations and
remonstrances (_a_) usually with the pres. indic., e.g. _quin
conscendimus equos?_ (Livy), ‘why do we not mount?’ _i.e._ ‘nay, mount
at once’: (_b_) sometimes with the imperative, _quin aspice me_, ‘nay,
look at me’; _quin dic uno verbo_, ‘just answer in a single word.’

5. +cognatos+. _Cognatus_ is a kinsman by blood, either on the
father’s or the mother’s side; _agnatus_, a blood relation on the
father’s side; _gentilis_, a member of the same _gens_, and bearing the
same gentile name, _e.g._ Cornelii, Fabii; all these three classes were
_consanguinei_, related by blood; _adfinis_, a relation by marriage, or
sometimes merely a neighbour.

8. +cognatos adfinesque nullos ferme ...+, lit. ‘as a rule no kinsmen
and neighbours were so good-natured,’ she said, ‘as to make no delay in
undertaking work, and to obey orders at once.’

14. +valeant+, ‘good-bye to ...,’ _i.e._ let us have no more to do

18. +id ubi ...+, the order is, _ubi mater audivit ex pullis dominum
dixisse id...._

19. +tempus cedendi et abeundi+, ‘it is time to go and be off.’

20. +in ipso enim+. The order is, _vertitur enim iam in ipso, cuia res
est, non in alio, unde petitur_, lit. ‘for (the work) now depends upon
the man himself, whose the property is, not upon another, from whom (the
work) is asked,’ _i.e._ who is asked to do the work.


1. +Pyrrus+ (318-272 B.C.), king of Epirus, was one of the most famous
generals of his age. In 280 he was invited to Italy by the Tarentines to
aid them in their struggle with Rome. He defeated the Romans in two
great battles, near Heraclea on the Siris in 280, and near Asculum in
279, but his own troops suffered so severely that he concluded an
armistice, and in 278 crossed to Sicily to help the Greek colonies in
that island against the Carthaginians. The incident mentioned in this
selection afforded the pretext for the truce. In 276 Pyrrus returned to
Italy, but he was decisively defeated by Curius Dentatus near Beneventum
and compelled to leave Italy. He went back to Epirus, and engaged in
many new warlike enterprises. In 272, when retreating from Argos, he was
stunned by a tile thrown by a woman, and slain by the pursuing soldiers.
Hannibal is reported to have said, that of all the great generals the
world had seen, Alexander was the greatest, Pyrrus the second, himself
the third; or, according to another version, Pyrrus the first, Scipio
the second, and himself the third.

+in terra Italia+, ‘in the land of Italy’; cf. xxxi. 7, _in terra
Graecia_, so _urbs Roma_, etc., the two substantives being in

4. +Fabricius+. Cf. viii. 1. note.

7. +facile factu+, ‘easy to do.’ Cf. xxiv. 2., _utilia monitu et
suasu_, note.

12. +salutem tutaretur+, ‘should protect himself from...,’ ‘be on his
guard against;’ lit. ‘protect his safety.’

13. +laudes ... scripsisse+, ‘it is said that Pyrrus wrote to the
Roman people, praising and thanking them ...,’ lit. ‘wrote praises and

+populo Romano+. Cf. _ad senatum scripsit_, line 9. The rule is that,
if the verb expresses or implies motion, _ad_ with the acc. is used to
express the remoter object; if no motion is implied, the dative is used;
so, _misit hoc ad me_, but _dedit hoc mihi_. Hence many verbs admit both
constructions, as they fall on the line between expressing motion and
not expressing it. _Scribo_ is one of these, for the letter has to be
sent, so motion is implied, but the verb itself expresses no motion.
This rule, however, is not always observed even in prose, and far less
so in poetry.


1. +In circo maximo+. The early Roman legends say that when Tarquinius
Priscus had taken the town of Apiolae from the Latins, he commemorated
his success by holding races and games in the Murcian Valley, between
the Palatine and Aventine hills. Round the valley temporary platforms
and stands were erected, and the course with its surroundings was called
‘_Circus_,’ either because the spectators stood in a circle or because
the races went round in a circle. Soon a permanent building was erected
in this valley. This was enlarged and beautified from time to time, and
known as the Circus Maximus, to distinguish it from the many similar
buildings which were erected in various parts of Rome. In the time of
Julius Caesar the Circus Maximus was about 600 yards in length, and 200
in width, and held 150,000 people: a century later it could hold twice
as many. The building was used chiefly for chariot-racing; but sometimes
the area was flooded, and naval battles were represented, and often
beasts were let loose in it to fight with one another, or with men,
either condemned criminals and captives, or _bestiari_, specially
trained for the purpose. This latter exhibition was called _venatio_,
or _pugna venationis_. Animals were brought in almost incredible numbers
from all parts of the Roman world to be thus slaughtered. Julius Caesar
once turned 500 lions into the arena together, and Augustus, in the
Monimentum Ancyranum, boasts that he had thus killed 3,500 elephants
during his reign.

2. +multae ibi ferae+, sc. _erant_.

7. +quasi admirans+. Cf. _quasi desiperet_, xv. 6. note.

15. +videres+, ‘you might have seen.’ Cf. Livy, _maesti, crederes
victos, redeunt in castra_, ‘you would have thought they had been
defeated.’ This use is confined to the second person singular (‘you’
indefinite = one); the subjunctive is explained by treating the
expression as part of a conditional sentence, the condition understood
being the reality of the subject. ‘If you had been there, you might have


2. +Caesar+, probably Claudius, emperor 41-54 A.D.; he was the fourth
emperor--Augustus being the first, Tiberius the second, and Caligula the
third. Caesar was originally the name of a patrician family of the
Julian _gens_. The name was taken by Augustus (Octavianus), as the
adopted son of the Dictator, C. Julius Caesar: by Tiberius, as the
adopted son of Augustus Caesar: and it continued to be used by Caligula,
Claudius, and Nero, as members, by adoption, or female descent, of
Caesar’s family. This family became extinct with Nero, but succeeding
emperors employed the name as part of their official title.

3. +uni+ with +illi+, ‘had spared him alone.’

+pepercisset+, subj. after the dependent interrogative _cur_.

5. +proconsulari imperio+. The _Proconsulare Imperium_ is the power
held by a man who acts _pro consule_, ‘in the place of a consul.’ As the
number of Roman provinces increased, it became the custom under the
Republic for men, who had held the office of consul, to accept the
government of provinces for a year, and rule these with the “_Imperium
Proconsulare_,” which was conferred by a special decree of the Senate
and of the people. Under the Empire the provinces were divided into two
groups: (1) the Senatorial Provinces (the more peaceful ones in which no
large armies were maintained), which were governed with _Imperium
Proconsulare_ by men who had been consuls or praetors: (2) the Imperial
Provinces, which were governed with _Praetorian_ power by _Legati
Caesaris_, who acted as the Emperor’s deputies.

+Africam+, the Roman name for the district round Carthage.

10. +consilium fuit+, ‘my plan was,’ ‘I purposed.’

14. +debili ... pede+. Abl. absol., ‘with one foot lame and

22. +volnere intimo expressi+, ‘I pressed out from the bottom of the
wound.’ Words compounded with _ab_, _cum_, _de_, and _ex_ usually govern
an abl., either with or (less frequently in prose) without the
preposition repeated.

23. +cruorem+: _cruor_ is ‘gore,’ _i.e._ blood which has flowed from a
wound; _sanguis_, either ‘gore,’ or blood circulating in the body.


1. +triennium totum+, acc. of duration of time; ‘for three whole

2. +eodemque et victu+, abl. of matter; ‘on the same food also.’

+nam quas+, etc. The order is--‘_ferebat ad specum mihi_ (to the cave
for me), _membra opimiora ferarum quas venabatur_,’ the antecedent
_ferarum_ being attracted into the relative sentence, and so becoming

7. +viam ... permensus+, ‘having travelled a journey of almost three

9. +rei capitalis+, the genitive of the charge used after verbs of
condemning and acquitting. _Res capitalis_ is a crime punishable by
death or loss of civil rights, _caput_ denoting both life and civil
status. Cf. xix. 1. note.

10. +damnandum curavit+. Cf. xiii. 1. 4. note.

11. +quoque+, the lion, as well as I, having been captured.


1. +in terra Graecia+. Cf. _in terra Italia_, xxvii. 1. note.

+fama celebri+, abl. of quality, ‘of great reputation.’

5. +Athenis+, ‘at Athens,’ the locative case. Cf. xi. 1. note.

+Electram+, etc. The order is--_acturus Electram Sophoclis, debebat
gestare urnam quasi cum Oresti ossibus_, ‘being about to play the part
of Sophocles’ Electra (_i.e._ the part of Electra in the play of
Sophocles called ‘the Electra’) he had to carry an urn, supposed to
contain (_quasi cum_) the bones of Orestes.’ Women’s characters were
played by men both on the Greek and on the Roman stage.

When Agamemnon, king of Argos and Mycenae, returned from the Trojan war,
he was murdered by his wife Clytaemnestra. Electra, their daughter,
contrived to save her young brother Orestes, and send him to the court
of Strophius, king of Phocis. After some years Orestes returned in
company with Pylades, the son of Strophius. At first he pretended to be
a messenger from Strophius, who had come to announce the death of
Orestes in a chariot race, in token of which he brought an urn
containing, he said, the ashes of the dead man. Finally, he made himself
known to Electra, and then slew Clytaemnestra and her lover Aegisthus.

+Sophocles+, 495-406, the great Athenian tragic poet, was thirty years
younger than Aeschylus and fifteen years older than Euripides. He is
said to have written 130 plays, but of these seven only have reached us,
of which the ‘Electra,’ here mentioned, is one.

6. +Oresti+. The gen. sing. of Greek proper names in _-es_ of the
third declension usually ends in _-i_, sometimes in _-is_. Hence we have
nom. and voc., Orestes; acc., Oresten and Orestem; gen., Oresti and
Orestis; dat., Oresti; abl., Orestĕ, rarely Orestē. The plural, when
used, follows the first declension.

11. +quasi Oresti amplexus+. _Oresti_ is the gen. depending on _ossa_

12. +itaque+, etc., lit. ‘and so when a play seemed to be represented,
(true) grief was represented.’

When the great English actor Macready played the part of Virginius, soon
after the death of his own daughter, he declared that his recent
experience of real grief gave a new force to his acting. Diderot, on the
other hand, in his famous _Paradoxe sur le Comédien_, maintains that the
emotions of the actor must be artificial, not real, to produce an
artistic effect.


2. +qui pro se ... advocaverunt+, ‘they engaged men to plead their
case’; lit. ‘who should speak for them,’ _qui_ being used in a final
sense, and hence the subj. For this sense of _advocaverunt_ cf. the
English word ‘advocate.’

4. +Demosthenes+, the greatest of Athenian orators, was born in 385
and died in 322 B.C. As a statesman his whole policy was directed to
resisting the aggressions of the Macedonian kings Philip and Alexander
(cf. vi.). He made many bitter enemies, of whom +Demades+ (line 22) was
one of the most important. Demades was a warm supporter of the
Macedonian party, and, as he is known to have been an unprincipled man,
this story probably applies to him, and not to Demosthenes.

11. +lana multa ... circumvolutus+, lit. ‘wrapped round as to his neck
with much wool.’ _Collum_ is the acc. of respect.

12. +eo+, for that reason, therefore.

14. +non synanchen ... sed argyranchen+, ‘that his throat was inflamed
not by cold, but by gold.’ _Argyranche_ (αργυραγχη) is a sarcastic word
coined to imitate _synanche_ (συναγχη), ‘an inflamed throat.’

15. +quin ... quoque+, ‘nay he even prided himself upon it,’ lit.
ascribed it as a glory (dat of purpose or complement, cf. viii. 4. note)
to himself. _Quinetiam_ is more common than the simple _quin_ in this

17. +quantum mercedis+. For this ‘genitive of the thing measured,’
usually called the ‘partitive genitive,’ depending of a neuter pronoun,
cf. _id temporis_, xviii. 7. note, ‘how much pay he had received for
acting.’ _Accepisset_ is subj. after the dependent interrogative

18. +uti ageret+, lit. in order to act, a final sentence. So ‘_ut

19. +talentum+, the Attic talent, £243 15s.


1. +Marcus Tullius Cicero+, the famous Roman orator, was born near
Arpinum on Jan 3rd, 106 B.C. He was consul in 63 B.C., and was murdered
Dec 7th, 43 B.C., by the emissaries of M. Antonius.

+in Palatio+, the Palatium or Mons Palatinus was the hill on the S.W.
of the Roman Forum. On it the original city is said to have been built.

2. +in praesens+ sc. _tempus_, ‘for the present’. _Praesens_, the
pres. participle of _praesum_, and _absens_, the pres. participle of
_absum_, are the only forms in which the pres. participle of _sum_ is

+P. Sulla+, the nephew of the great Dictator, L. Sulla, was accused of
complicity in the Catilinarian conspiracy. He was defended by Cicero and
Hortensius--the famous rival of Cicero, and, though certainly guilty,
was acquitted, 62 B.C.

+mutua ... tacita accepit+, ‘accepted as a secret loan....’

+sestertium viciens+, 2,000,000 _sestertii_, _i.e._ about £19,000. The
unit for reckoning large sums was the _sestertius_ or _nummus_ (¼ of a
_denarius_, the ordinary silver coin in use, or 2½ asses), in value
about 2¼d. Up to 2,000 the cardinal numbers were prefixed, e.g. _centum
sestertii_, _mille sestertii_, etc. The gen. plur. of _sestertius_ is
_sestertium_, so 2,000 _sestertii_ is _duo millia sestertium_. This form
_sestertium_ in time became treated as if it were a neuter singular.
Hence for _duo millia sestertium_, _duo_ or _bina sestertia_ was
written, as the ‘distributive’ form of the numeral was often used. Hence
for sums from 2,000 up to 1,000,000 _sestertii_ we have _duo_ or _bina
sestertia_, _sexaginta_ or _sexagena sestertia_, etc. For sums above
1,000,000 _sestertii_ the numeral adverb was generally employed: thus,
2,000,000 _sestertii_ was written _viciens centena_ (or _centum_)
_millia sestertium_, which was generally contracted into _viciens
sestertium_, or _viciens_ alone.

4. +priusquam emeret+. _Priusquam_ and _antequam_, like other temporal
conjunctions, usually govern the indicative; but when they introduce an
event which is expected, and its occurrence prevented, _i.e._ when they
convey any idea of purpose, they usually require the subjunctive. Cf.
note on _dum iret_, xxv. 5. Translate, “before he _could_ buy.”

+quod ... accepisset+, ‘that he had accepted.’ Fees to lawyers were
illegal at Rome; but the law was evaded in many ways.

10. +inter ridendum+, ‘amidst his laughing.’ Cf. note on the gerund,
xiii. 1.

+ἀκοινονοητοι+ (_akoinŏnŏētoi_), ἀ-κοινος-νοητος (νόησις), not having
common sense. The word is not found in extant Greek works.

11. +cum ignoratis+, ‘because you do not know that.’ This use of _cum_
with the indic., giving a reason, is common in early writers (_e.g._
Plautus), but only used by Cicero after such words as _laudo_ and
_gratulor_. Later writers do not employ it.

12. +patris familias+, ‘it is the custom of a prudent and careful
master of the household to say that he is not going to buy what he
wishes to purchase....’ For the genitive, cf. _cuiusvis hominis est
errare_, ‘it is any man’s nature to err,’ etc. The genitive may be
explained by saying that it depends upon some such word as _indoles_,
‘nature,’ _officium_, ‘duty,’ etc., understood.


3. +Mons Cispius+ was one of the peaks of Mons Esquilinus, on the E.
of the Forum.

+subeuntes montem+. Many intransitive verbs, especially verbs of motion,
gain a semi-transitive or transitive force by being compounded with
prepositions, chiefly prepositions which govern an acc., e.g. _adire_,
_circumvenire_, _adstare_, _adloqui_, _oppugnare_, etc. But many of
these compounds govern a dative, instead of, or as well as, an
accusative, e.g. _adlabi_, _succedere_. Some verbs compounded with
prepositions which govern an ablative take an accusative, e.g.
_convenire_, _expugnare_, etc.

4. +insulam+. _Insula_ was a house for poor people, let out in rooms
or flats to several families; as opposed to _domus_, the large mansion
of a single wealthy family.

+multis ... editam+, built to a great height with many floors.

7. +magni+, nominative, ‘the profits of city property are great.’

8. +si quid remedii+. For the gen. cf. _id temporis_, xviii. 7. note,
‘if any remedy could have been found to prevent houses burning so
constantly at Rome, I would have sold....’

10. +venum dedissem+. _Venum_ (neuter) is only found in the classical
period in the acc. sing., but Tacitus uses _veno_, and still later
writers _venui_. _Venum do_--often written as one word, _venumdo_,
contracted into _vendo_--is ‘I give for sale’; _venum eo_--often written
_veneo_--is ‘I am for sale.’ For the acc. cf. _pessum dare_, ‘I give to
destruction,’ and _pessum ire_, ‘I go to destruction.’

12. +annalem undevicensimum+, ‘the nineteenth book of the history
(annals) of Q. Claudius....’

13. +Mitridati+, genitive; cf. _Oresti_, xxxi. 6. note.

14. +defenderes+, subj. after the dependent interrogative _quo_.

15. +L. Cornelius Sulla+, surnamed Felix, was born in 138 and died 78
B.C. He first distinguished himself in Africa, when serving under Marius
in the campaign against Jugurtha (107-106). In 88 he was appointed to
the command of the war against Mitridates, but Marius, eager to obtain
this for himself, got a new law passed transferring the command to
himself. Sulla thereupon marched upon Rome with his troops, and Marius
fled, only to return and deluge the streets of Rome with blood, when his
rival had sailed for the East. The siege of Athens here referred to took
place in 86: in 83 Sulla returned to Rome, and quickly overthrew the
remains of the Marian party, Marius having died in 86. In 81 Sulla was
appointed Dictator. He devoted two years to reforming the State, and
restoring the power of the senate and aristocracy, and then retired into
private life in 79. In the following year he died.

+Piraeum+. Piraeus, Munychia, and Phalerum were the three harbours of


1. +Arion+. This story about Arion comes from the Greek historian
Herodotus. +Periander+ was “tyrant” of Corinth from 625 to 585 B.C. Like
most of the Greek “tyrants” he was a patron of art and literature.

+nobilis+ is common in the sense of ‘famous,’ as well as in its
technical use of one whose ancestors had held curule office.

+Methymnaeus+. Methymna was a town at the northern extremity of Lesbos.

5. +viseret+, the imperf. subj., because _proficiscitur_ is the
‘historical present’ standing for a past tense. Cf. xxi. 12. note.

8. +ut notiores+, ‘as better known....’

10. +in altum+, ‘the deep sea.’

11. +de necando Arione+, gerundial attraction. Cf. xiii. 7. note.

21. +carmen ... orthium+, Greek νόμος ὄρθιος, lit. the loud, high song,
was the name for a shrill, stirring air.


2. +cursum ... tenuerunt+, ‘held on their course.’

4. +fluitanti sese homini subdidit+, ‘placed itself under the floating

5. +incolumique corpore et ornatu+, abl. absol., ‘carried him to land
(_devexit_) at Taenarum, in the country of Laconia, with body and
clothes unharmed.’ _Taenarum_ is the acc. of ‘place whither.’

+in terram Laconicam+, lit. ‘to Taenarum into the land of Laconia.’ So
‘he set out for Carthage in Africa’ is ‘_profectus est Carthaginem in

6. +Taenarum+ was a promontory and town in the S.W. of Laconia, now
Cape Matapan.

7. +devexit+, ‘carried _down_,’ _i.e._ to land. The Greeks and Romans
spoke of the coast line as lower than both the inland country and the
‘high’ sea. Cf. the uses of ἀναβαίνω and καταβαίνω.

8. +talemque+, etc., lit. ‘presented himself to King Periander, not
expecting him, in the same guise (_talem_) as he had been in (_qualis_)
(when) carried on the dolphin.’

+quasi falleret+. Cf. _quasi desiperet_, xv. 6. note.

12. +dissimulanter+, secretly, hiding the truth; _simulanter_,
feignedly, pretending what does not exist (the form _simulanter_ is
post-classical). This distinction between _simulo_ and _dissimulo_ is
expressed in the pentameter--

  “_Quod non es simulas, dissimulasque quod es_,”

‘you pretend what you are not, and hide what you are.’

13. +audissent+, subj. after the dept. interrogative ‘_ecquid_.’

+unde venissent+, subj. because a dept. sentence in the _interrogatio
obliqua_, after _interrogavit_.

18. +ire infitias+, ‘to deny.’ For the phrase, cf. _ire exequias_, ‘to
attend a funeral.’ The acc. in these phrases must be compared with the
‘acc. of place whither’ after a verb of motion, _e.g._ _Romam_, _domum_,
_rus ire_; and the acc. of the supine used to express purpose after a
verb of motion, e.g. _lusum it Maecenas, dormitum ego_ (Horace),
‘Maecenas goes to play, I to sleep.’

20. +quod+, ‘the fact that...,’ introduces the substantival sentence
‘_simulacra ... visuntur_’ which is the subject of _est_.

21. +delphinus+ and +homo+ are in opposition with _simulacra_.


1. +ruris colendi insolens+, ‘ignorant of agriculture.’ For the
gerundial attraction, cf. xiii. 1. note.

3. +qui ... sciret+, ‘since he knew...,’ the relative when used in a
causal sense governs the subjunctive.

10. +faceret+, subj. after the dept. interrogative _cur_; ‘he asked
why he was making....’

13. +gratias agens+. The plural _gratias_ is always used with _agere_;
but after _referre_, _debere_, _sentire_, etc., the singular, _gratiam_,
is most commonly found.

15. +imperitus+ goes closely with _detruncat_. In English we should
use the adverb, ‘ignorantly (or, in his ignorance) cuts the tops

+vites suas sibi omnes et oleas+, ‘all the vines and olives that he

18. +pomis gignendis felicia+, lit. all the twigs ‘productive for
bearing fruit,’ _i.e._ ‘all the fruit-bearing twigs.’ _Pomis gignendis_
is the dative after _felicia_. For the gerundive attraction cf. xiii. 1.

+felicia+. The root of _felix_ is the same as the root of _fecundus_
(fruitful), _fetus_ (offspring), etc. Hence the earliest meaning of
_felix_ is fruit-bearing: in this sense it is used in Lucretius, Ovid,
Livy, etc., and the adverb _felicius_ in Verg. (_hic segetes, illic
veniunt felicius uvae._--Georg. i. 54.)


1. +Mitridates VI+., king of Pontus, 120-63 B.C., was the most
powerful foe whom the Romans encountered in the East. The first
Mitridatic war was brought to a successful conclusion by Sulla in 84
B.C.; the second, 83-82 B.C., was uneventful; the third, 74-63 B.C., in
which Pompeius distinguished himself, ended in the flight and suicide of
the king, as described in line 8.

2. +quorum ... cavebat+, ‘by the continual use of which he protected
himself from secret attempts at banquets’; _epularum_ is a descriptive
genitive depending on _insidiis_.

3. +quin ... est+. Cf. _quin quoque_, xxxii. 15. note, ‘nay, he

+ostentandi gratia+, ‘to show off.’

6. +in ultima regni+, ‘to the most distant parts of his kingdom.’

9. +Q. Ennius+ (239-169 B.C.), though a Greek by birth, spent his life
at Rome, and was regarded by the Romans as the father of their poetry,
_alter Homerus_ (Horace). His most important work was the _Annales_, an
epic poem upon the history of Rome. Only a few fragments of his writings
have reached us.

10. +Osce+. The Osci were a primitive people who lived in Campania.

14. +lingua locutus est+, ‘he spoke in the tongue and language of each
as skilfully as if he had been of that nation.’


1. +eloquentiae discendae causarumque orandi cupidus+, lit. ‘was
anxious to learn eloquence and to plead causes.’

+causarum orandi+, the genitive _orandi_ depends upon _cupidus_, and
_causarum_ is a genitive depending on the gerund _orandi_. This
construction (instead of the gerundial attraction, or the ordinary acc.
after the gerund) is very rare; but cf. _nobis fuit exemplorum eligendi
potestas_ (Cic de Juv. ii. 2), ‘we had the power of choosing examples.’

+in disciplinam ... sese dedit+, ‘entered himself as a pupil of
Protagoras,’ lit. gave himself to the teaching of Protagoras.

3. +Protagoras+, of Abdēra, in Thrace, was born about 480 B.C. and
died 411 B.C. He came to Athens before the year 445, and there
established a school. He was the first Greek philosopher who called
himself a ‘Sophist,’ and taught for pay.

+daturumque+, etc. The order is--_promisit se daturum esse grandem
pecuniam mercedem_, ‘promised to give a large sum as a remuneration....’
_Mercedem_ is in apposition with _pecuniam_.

6. +quo primo die+, ‘on the first day on which he pleaded and won a
case’; the antecedent _primo die_ is attracted into the relative
clauses, a common construction in Latin. Cf. xxx. 2.

8. +causas ... reciperet+, ‘did not undertake cases,’ _i.e._ take

12. +litem ... contestatur+ is the technical phrase for setting a suit
on foot by calling witnesses; ‘he brings an action against Euathlus.’

17. +ex sententia+, in accordance with the votes of the judges.
‘_Sententia_’ is an expressed opinion, hence our ‘sentence.’

18. +secundum te+, ‘in your favour.’

24. +pro causa mea senserint+, ‘shall have pronounced in my favour.’


1. +proelium Cannense+, 216 B.C. Cf. ix. 1. Note the use of the
adjective, where we use a subst. and prep., ‘the battle of Cannae.’

2. +electos ... misit+, ‘sent to Rome ten men chosen out of our
captives,’ _i.e._ ‘selected ten of our captives and sent them to Rome.’
Cp. xxi. 3. note.

3. +videretur+, ‘if it seemed good to the Roman people.’

4. +quos alteri plures acciperent+, ‘whom the one side received more
(than the other)’; _plures_ is acc. qualifying _quos_.

5. +argenti+, etc., ‘a pound and a half of silver by weight.’

6. +hoc iusiurandum eos adegit+, ‘bound them by this oath.’ _Adigere
aliquem iusiurandum_, or _ad iusiurandum_, is literally to drive a man
to an oath, _i.e._ to make him take it. After the time of Livy the
construction _adigere aliquem iure iurando_, ‘to bind a man by an oath,’
was more common.

12. +postliminio+, ‘by the right of _postliminium_.’ _Postliminium_ is
“the recovery of rights by a person returned from captivity, or the
recovery of rights over a person or thing recovered from hostile
possession” (Poste’s _Gaius_, § 129), since a man by hostile capture
became the slave of the enemy, and so during the interval of captivity
his rights as a free citizen were suspended. The usual derivation given
is from _post_ and _limen_, ‘a returning behind the threshold’; others
derive the _post_ from the same root as _potestas_ and _possessio_.

+liberatos religione+, ‘freed from their obligation.’

19. +quoniam+, etc., lit. ‘since, when they had left the enemy’s camp,
they had returned to it (_eo lem._ lit. to the same place) on an
imaginary pretext, as if for some accidental reason, and so had again
left (the camp) not bound by an oath.’

24. +censores+. Two censors were elected every five years (_lustrum_);
they held office for 18 months. Their duties were (1) to take the
census, _i.e._ the register of the citizens and their property; (2) to
exercise a supervision over the morals of the citizens, and punish
defaulters by the _nota censoria_, and degrade them in various ways.
The consequence of the _nota_ was _ignominia_.



[_The words in brackets are not to be translated._]


1. Vergil used to produce his verses like a bear.

2. The verses of Vergil were at first rough and unfinished.

3. He used to polish and correct his rough verses like a bear.

4. That animal by licking gives features to its shapeless offspring.

5. All the verses of Vergil were afterwards polished and corrected.

6. The offspring of that animal is at first rough and shapeless.

7. It produces a shapeless offspring, but afterwards licks and forms it.

8. The rough verses were polished and corrected by Vergil, as (its)
offspring is licked and formed by that animal.


1. Philemon was an author by no means equal to Menander.

2. Do you not blush, whenever you defeat me in such contests?

3. Philemon did not blush when he met Menander.

4. Philemon often defeated Menander in those contests.

5. Menander will meet Philemon by chance.

6. Menander, a writer of comedies, defeated Philemon by bribery.

7. Menander and Philemon were by no means equal.

8. How do you defeat me in these contests?


1. A wonderful thing is told by Plutarch about the palm.

2. Great weights were placed by the philosophers on the stem of that
palm tree.

3. The tree will not yield, but will rise against the great weight.

4. They have made the palm the emblem of victory.

5. Why is this tree an emblem of victory in battle?

6. The stem of the tree was not bent by the weights placed upon it.

7. Philosophers tell many wonderful tales about this tree.

8. This tree was made by the Greeks the emblem of victory.


1. It is said that Xanthippe was the wife of Socrates the philosopher.

2. Socrates had a very bad-tempered wife, Xanthippe by name.

3. He did not drive his quarrelsome wife from home.

4. I can bear the impertinence of the others more easily.

5. The wife of Socrates was very quarrelsome both day and night.

6. The friends of Socrates wondered at his bad-tempered wife.

7. Why has your quarrelsome and bad-tempered wife not been driven from

8. Alcibiades, the friend of Socrates, wondered at Xanthippe, the
quarrelsome wife of that philosopher.


1. Voluntary labours used to strengthen the body of Socrates.

2. He used to stand day and night motionless.

3. Socrates lived in perfect health for almost his whole life.

4. A plague ravaged the city of Athens in the Peloponnesian war.

5. Socrates kept his bodily vigour during the plague which ravaged

6. He used to stand with his eyes directed to the same place.

7. Socrates bore very many labours to strengthen his body.

8. He directed his eyes to the same place from one sunrise to the next


1. King Alexander had a wonderful horse called Bucephalas.

2. No one, except King Alexander, could mount this horse.

3. The king, seated on this horse, performed many brave deeds in the
Indian war.

4. Darts were thrown from all sides at King Alexander.

5. The king was carried back at full speed by the dying horse from the
middle of the battle.

6. A town, called Bucephalon, was built by Alexander in that place.

7. The horse was pierced by many wounds and fell down almost lifeless.

8. Alexander built a town in India, which he called Bucephalon in honour
of his wonderful horse Bucephalas.


1. Alcibiades was educated by his uncle Pericles.

2. A flute-player endeavoured to teach Alcibiades to play the flute.

3. The flute was handed to Alcibiades by his master.

4. The flute was thrown away and broken by the boy Alcibiades.

5. The Athenians unanimously ceased to play the flute.

6. The uncle caused the boy to be taught to play the flute.

7. The wise uncle caused many masters to be summoned.

8. Flute-playing was formerly considered by the Athenians a most
honourable accomplishment.


1. The Samnites sent ambassadors to C. Fabricius, the Roman general.

2. They offered the Roman general a large sum of money as a gift.

3. Many things were lacking to the magnificence of his home.

4. Fabricius could control his eyes, mouth and ears.

5. Fabricius was unwilling to receive the money from the Samnites.

6. The Samnites know (how) to use the money.

7. Fabricius did many things for the Samnites after peace had been made.

8. The Roman general was unwilling to use the Samnite money.


1. The king had collected his forces on the plain.

2. King Antiochus was about to make war on his enemies, the Roman

3. The army of the king was glittering with gold and silver trappings.

4. He manœuvred his chariots, cavalry and elephants.

5. These things will be enough for the greedy Romans.

6. Many elephants had been collected by Antiochus.

7. Hannibal jeered at the cowardice of Antiochus’ soldiers.

8. The king had collected chariots with sickles and elephants with


1. The death of Milo was wonderful and pitiable.

2. Athletics were abandoned by Milo (when) advanced in age.

3. A large oak was standing near the road.

4. He thrust his fingers into the hollows of the tree.

5. Milo endeavoured with his fingers to tear open the oak.

6. The tree returned to its natural position and shut in his hands.

7. The man was torn to pieces by wild beasts.

8. The oak was torn open by the hands of Milo.


1. The Roman senators used to enter the senate house with their sons.

2. The senators were consulting about a very important matter.

3. No one spoke about the matter, (which had been) adjourned to the next

4. The mother of the boy Papirius was very anxious to hear the matter.

5. It is advantageous to the state for one man to have two wives.

6. The boy was unwilling to tell his mother those matters.

7. In that city one woman was not married to two men.

8. I must be silent, for I am not allowed to tell you this.


1. On hearing this she betook herself in alarm to the other women.

2. Next day a crowd of women came to the senate-house.

3. What is this crowd of women, and what do these demands mean?

4. The boy advances into the middle of the senate-house and says these

5. Afterwards no boy entered the senate-house except Papirius.

6. The name (of) “Praetextatus” was given to the boy.

7. The women were frightened and surrounded the senate-house weeping and

8. The senators wondered, when they saw the crowd of matrons.


1. Sertorius was an energetic general, skilled in commanding an army.

2. In times of difficulty he used to pretend dreams and tell lies to the

3. A certain man gave Sertorius a white doe of remarkable beauty.

4. This doe has been presented to me by heaven.

5. The doe used to converse with Sertorius and advise him.

6. He announced that the doe had given him this advice.

7. The soldiers willingly obeyed Sertorius as if (he were) a god.

8. The doe, which had been given him as a gift, was of remarkable beauty
and extraordinary speed.


1. The doe, alarmed by an inroad of the enemy, took to flight.

2. The doe one day hid in a neighbouring marsh, and was searched for in

3. It was believed that Sertorius’ doe had perished.

4. Sertorius ordered the man, who found the doe, to be silent.

5. The doe appeared to me in the middle of the night and foretold what
must be done.

6. The doe was suddenly let loose into the room, in which Sertorius and
his friends were sitting.

7. The credulity of these barbarians was very useful to the general.

8. No one deserted Sertorius, though he was often conquered.


1. An old woman brought nine books to King Tarquin.

2. She said that she wished to sell the books, which she had brought.

3. The woman demanded an immense (sum of) money, and therefore the king

4. Three out of the nine books were burnt before the king’s face.

5. The king said that the old woman was certainly mad.

6. She sold these books for the same price that she had demanded for

7. Tarquin at first despised the old woman, but afterwards bought the
three remaining books.

8. The books, which this old woman sold to Tarquin, are called the
Sibylline (books).


1. Scipio Africanus did not receive money from King Antiochus.

2. Scipio made peace with Antiochus on favourable terms.

3. Many charges were made against Scipio by M. Naevius.

4. This is the day on which Scipio conquered Hannibal in a very great
battle in Africa.

5. This victory of Scipio in the land of Africa was very famous.

6. They went to the Capitol, to give thanks to Jupiter.

7. The assembly did not pass sentence on Scipio.

8. They all followed Scipio to his house with rejoicings and


1. Cato, Scipio’s enemy, won over a certain tribune, named Petilius.

2. He was unwilling to give an account of the money and spoil to the

3. Scipio produced a book, in which was written an account of the money
and the spoil.

4. He tore the book to pieces with his own hands.

5. The safety of the state ought to be ascribed to Scipio.

6. He rose and produced a book, in which were the accounts.

7. I will not read the accounts to you, for I am unwilling to insult

8. Scipio had taken much money and spoil in the war against Antiochus,
and had written an account of it in a book.


1. Old writers have told many (tales) about the life and deeds of

2. Before dawn Scipio used to go to the temple of Jupiter.

3. The dogs did not attack Scipio as he went to the Capitol.

4. The attendants of the temple wondered that the dogs did not bark at

5. Scipio was attacking a very strong town, situated in Spain.

6. There was small hope of taking this strong town.

7. He ordered bail to be given by the soldier for (his appearance on)
the third day.

8. Scipio stretched out his hand towards the town, which he was


1. The man must be condemned by the law.

2. I consulted about the life of my friend with the judges.

3. I persuaded the other judges to acquit my friend.

4. He silently gave his vote for condemning the man.

5. The duty of a friend and of a judge was thus safe.

6. He consulted with himself about the life of his friend.

7. Two out of the three judges acquitted my friend.

8. It is the duty of a judge to condemn a man, who ought by the law to
be condemned.


1. A certain young man was very fond of old words.

2. In his daily conversations he used old-fashioned expressions.

3. The Pelasgi were the first who inhabited Italy.

4. He used old-fashioned words, as though he were talking with the
mother of Evander.

5. He did not wish any one to understand what he said.

6. You ought to be silent, and thus you would gain what you wish for.

7. You ought to use modern expressions, if you wish to be understood.

8. I love the old Aurunci, for they were honourable and good.


1. Titus Manlius took a necklace from an enemy, whom he had killed.

2. He was named Torquatus in honour of a necklace, which he had taken
from an enemy.

3. A certain Gaul advanced with a shield and two swords.

4. A Gaul advanced, who surpassed the other in height and strength.

5. He beckoned with his hand, and cried with a very loud voice.

6. The others dared not fight against this enemy, on account of his
dreadful appearance.

7. The barbarian began to jeer at them, because no one dared to advance.

8. T. Manlius was grieved that the others dared not fight against the


1. The two soldiers, the Roman and the Gaul, fought on the bridge in the
sight of both armies.

2. Manlius trusted in his courage, the Gaul in his skill.

3. The enemy’s shield was struck again by Manlius.

4. Manlius wounded the Gaul’s shoulder with his Spanish sword.

5. The Roman threw his enemy down and cut off his head.

6. The bloodstained necklace was taken from the neck of the Gaul by

7. The son of Manlius killed an enemy, who had challenged him, although
he had been forbidden to fight by his father.

8. Harsh commands are called “Manlian,” because this Manlius beheaded
his own son.


1. The consul drew up the Roman lines facing the vast forces of the

2. The arms of the Gallic leader shone with gold.

3. The Gaul, a man of enormous height, advanced shaking his spear.

4. He haughtily ordered any Roman to come, who dared to fight against

5. Whilst the others were wavering between shame and fear, Valerius
advanced boldly against the enemy.

6. A raven suddenly attacked the eyes of the Gaul.

7. The raven, having torn the hands and face of the Gaul, perched on the
head of Valerius.

8. Thus, helped by the bird, he killed his enemy, and in honour of the
victory was named Corvinus.


1. Aesop, who lived in Phrygia, was a very wise writer of fables.

2. He invented amusing stories, and thus gave useful advice.

3. Philosophers give useful advice, but what they say is not amusing.

4. Aesop invented an amusing story about a lark.

5. This fable about the lark warned men that their hopes ought to be
placed in themselves.

6. Q. Ennius composed many verses about this story of Aesop.

7. This is a proof that our confidence ought to be placed in ourselves.

8. It is the custom with philosophers to give useful advice, with
writers of fables amusing advice.


1. It is said that a lark built in the corn.

2. The corn was ripening when the young ones were unfledged.

3. The lark went to search for food, and left her young ones in the

4. If anything unusual happens, said she, tell me when I return home.

5. The young ones saw the owner of the crops calling his son.

6. The owner’s friends were unwilling to assist him in the harvest.

7. Make haste, mother, and carry us to another nest.

8. The lark said that it was not necessary to take her young ones to
another home.


1. When the mother had flown to seek food, the owner returned to the
field with his son.

2. He told his son that the friends were loiterers, for they had not

3. Let us go, said he, and ask our relations to help us to-morrow.

4. The young ones told their mother that the master had sent for his

5. The master said that he would himself reap the corn with his sickle.

6. The relations neglected to come, and so the master and his son
themselves reaped the corn.

7. The mother said that it was time to go; for what he had ordered would
now be done.

8. The matter now depends on the master himself, not on his friends.


1. Pyrrhus fought many battles with success in the land of Italy.

2. Timochares, a friend of Pyrrhus, wished to kill the king by poison.

3. If we agree about the reward, I promise to kill the king by poison.

4. My son is the king’s cup-bearer, and so he will easily be able to
give poison to the king.

5. Fabricius wrote to the Roman Senate, that Timochares wished to kill
King Pyrrhus by poison.

6. The Senate advised the king to act more cautiously.

7. Your friends wish to kill you by poison; therefore it is necessary to
act very cautiously.

8. The king wrote to the Roman Senate, thanking and praising them, and
restored all the prisoners whom he had taken.


1. A lion of enormous size was brought into the circus.

2. Many slaves had been given by their masters to fight wild beasts.

3. An enormous and terrible lion attracted the attention of all by its

4. It is said that the lion, seeing Androclus, suddenly stood still.

5. It is said that the lion wagged its tail like a dog, and licked the
man’s hands.

6. The slave recovered his lost courage and turned his eyes on the lion.

7. You might have seen the lion licking the legs and hands of the slave.

8. A mimic hunt was given in the circus, for which many wild-beasts had
been sent from Africa.


1. Loud shouts were aroused by this wonderful sight.

2. Caesar asked why the lion spared Androclus alone.

3. A wonderful and marvellous story was told Caesar by the slave.

4. The slave, driven to flight by his master’s daily blows, took refuge
in the desert.

5. At mid-day the slave hid in a cave, to which a lion came.

6. An enormous lion was coming to the cave, with one foot lame, groaning
and sighing.

7. He was at first terrified by the sight of the lion, but soon
recovered his courage.

8. The slave pulled a large thorn out of the lion’s foot; the lion then
placed its foot in his hands and slept.


1. He said that for three years he had lived in the same cave as the

2. I used to cook my food by the mid-day sun, because I had no fire.

3. I am weary of this wild-beast’s life, and I will leave the cave.

4. His master arrested him and sent him from Africa to Rome.

5. My master had me condemned to death and given to the wild-beasts in
the Circus.

6. The lion, after I was separated from it, was taken and sent to Rome.

7. Androclus, after telling this wonderful tale, was pardoned and
presented with the lion.

8. They gave money to the slave and flowers to the lion, which had been
the host of the man.


1. Polus, a famous actor in Greece, had a well-loved son.

2. Polus lost his son, and mourned for him many days.

3. Polus was about to act the “Electra” of Sophocles, and to carry the
bones of Orestes in his hands.

4. Electra carried the remains of her brother in an urn, and wept for
his death.

5. Electra, the sister of Orestes, was dressed in mourning and carried
the remains of her brother.

6. She took the urn from the tomb and carried it in her hands.

7. The urn, which Electra was carrying, had been placed in a tomb.

8. Polus carried in his hands the remains of his own son, and wept for
his, not Orestes’, death.


1. It is said that ambassadors came from Athens to Miletus to ask for

2. They pleaded for the Milesians, but Demades replied that help ought
not to be given to them.

3. Demades maintained that the Milesians were not worthy of help.

4. He said that it would not be advantageous to the state to give help.

5. It is said that Demades received from the Milesian ambassadors as
much money as he asked for.

6. I am suffering from an inflamed throat and therefore I cannot oppose
the Milesian demands.

7. He did not conceal what he had done, but said he had received much

8. You received three talents for acting, I received more for being


1. Cicero wished to buy a house on the Palatine, but had no money at the

2. P. Sulla lent Cicero 5,000,000 sesterces secretly.

3. You have received, said they, money from Sulla for buying a house.

4. Cicero afterwards bought the house with the money which he had
received from Sulla.

5. I said that I did not wish to buy that house, because I was a
cautious father of a family.

6. Cicero’s friends reproached him with this lie.

7. Cicero told that lie, because he had received money from a defendant.

8. Cicero wished to buy that house, but he said that he did not wish to
buy it.


1. Many friends accompanied Julianus home.

2. A block, many stories high, was blazing.

3. He said that property in the city gave great returns.

4. There is no remedy to prevent houses at Rome burning.

5. He sold all his country property and bought city property.

6. The philosopher said that alum was the best remedy for fire.

7. A wooden tower, which had been built to defend the city, was smeared
with alum by Archelaus.

8. Q. Claudius says that this tower, smeared with alum, could not burn.


1. Arion of Lesbos lived at Corinth, and was loved by Periander.

2. Arion went to Italy and charmed the ears of all in that land.

3. He gained much money by playing, and afterwards wished to return to
King Periander at Corinth.

4. He chose a Corinthian ship, because he thought the sailors would be
more friendly to him.

5. Arion gave all his money to the sailors, but prayed them to spare his

6. The sailors ordered Arion to spring down into the sea, in order that
they might take possession of his money.

7. In a loud voice he sang this song, and then threw himself into the

8. He took his lyre in his hand and, standing on the stern, began to
sing a song.


1. The sailors thought that Arion had perished in the sea, and held on
their course to Corinth.

2. It is said that a dolphin carried the man safe to Taenarum.

3. Arion went from Taenarum to Corinth and related what had happened to

4. The king believed that Arion was deceiving him, and ordered him to be
guarded for two days.

5. The king ordered the sailors to be sent for, and asked them if they
had heard anything about Arion.

6. The sailors told the king that Arion was living in Italy.

7. Arion stood forth before the astounded sailors, who thought that he
had perished in the sea.

8. At Taenarum two bronze figures stand as a proof of this tale.


1. A certain barbarian bought a large farm planted with olives and

2. The Thracian saw his neighbour pruning his trees.

3. He asked his neighbour why he pulled up the vine suckers.

4. The trees of his neighbour were more fruitful than his own.

5. He thanked his neighbour and went home rejoicing.

6. The ignorant Thracian took a sickle, and began to cut off the most
luxuriant foliage of the trees.

7. He cut off all the fruitful twigs of the apple-trees.

8. The ignorant man thought that he was pruning his trees, as his
neighbour had done.


1. The King of Pontus was very skilled in medicine.

2. It is said that these medicines are good for dissipating poisons.

3. The King of Pontus for his whole life was on his guard against secret

4. Mitridates often drank poison to show that it was harmless to him.

5. He slew himself with his own sword, (after) having in vain tried the
strongest poisons.

6. Ennius could speak Greek, Latin and Oscan, and so he used to say that
he had three hearts.

7. The King of Pontus knew the languages of all the nations under his
dominion, twenty-two in number.

8. Mitridates used to talk with the men of each nation, whom he had
under his dominion, in the language of that nation, and not through an


1. He gave Protagoras half of the money which he asked for, and promised
to give the remaining half afterwards.

2. I will give you, said he, the remaining half on the first day on
which I win a case.

3. He was a pupil of Protagoras for a long while, but did not undertake
any case.

4. He did not undertake any case, in order to avoid paying the rest of
the money.

5. Protagoras thought that his plan for gaining the money was very

6. If the verdict is given in your favour,[A] it will be necessary for
you to pay me the money.

7. The judges left the matter unsettled, because they did not know what
sentence they ought to give.

8. The wise judges adjourned the law-suit to a very distant day.

    [Footnote A: The verdict is given in my favour: pronuntiatum est
    pro me.]


1. Hannibal chose ten prisoners and sent them to Rome.

2. He wished after the battle of Cannae to make an exchange of prisoners
with his enemies.

3. The Roman prisoners promised with an oath to return to Hannibal.

4. They told the senators what Hannibal had said about an exchange of

5. Their relations embraced them and prayed them with tears not to
return to Hannibal.

6. Of the ten prisoners eight returned to Hannibal, and two only
remained at Rome.

7. The two prisoners, who remained at Rome, were despised by all.

8. The censors branded with every mark of infamy the prisoners, who had
refused to return to Hannibal.


_The parts of regular verbs are not given._

_A dot occurring in a word separates the parts of a compound._

+A.+ for Aulus, -i.

+a, ab+, _prep. gov. abl._, from, by.

+ab·eo+, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, -īre, 4 _v. n._, I go away.

+ab·hinc+, _adv._, henceforward, since.

+ab·iĭcio+, -iēci, -iectum, 3 _v. a._, I throw away, throw from.

+ab·lēgo+, _v. a._ 1, I send away.

+ab·solvo+, -solvi, -sŏlūtum, 3 _v. a._, I set loose, I acquit.

+ăbundē+, _adv._, abundantly, sufficiently. (ab·undo, I overflow; cf.
unda, a wave.)

+ac+, _conj._, and.

+ac·cēdo+, -cessi, -cessum, 3 _v. n._, I go to, I approach. (ad, cēdo.)

+ac·cĭdo+ (or adcĭdo), -cidi, no sup., 3 _v. n._, I fall to, fall out,
happen. (ad, cădo.)

+ăcies, -ei+, _f._, line-of-battle (lit. sharp edge). (ācer, ăcus.)

+ac·cĭpio+, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 _v. a._, I receive, learn, hear. (ad,

+ac·cūso+, 1 _v. a._, I impeach, blame.

+ācer+, acris, acre, _adj._, sharp, eager, energetic.

+ăcerbus, -a, -um+, _adj._, bitter, bad-tempered. (ācer.)

+ācrĭter+, _adv._, sharply, keenly. (ācer.)

+actor+, -ōris, _m._, actor. (ăgo.)

+acturus+, _fut. part._, fr. ăgo.

+ăd+, _prep. gov. acc._, to, for.

+ad·cido+. Cf. accido.

+ad·do+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I bring to, add.

+ăd·eo+, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, 4 _v. n._, I go to, approach.

+ad·eō̆+, _adv._, thus far; usque adeo, to such an extent, (ad, is; cf.

+ad·fĕro+ (or affĕro), -tŭli, -lātum, 3 _v. a._, I bring to.

+ad·ficio+. Cf. afficio.

+ad·fīnis+ (or affinis), -e, _adj._, neighbouring to, related to (by
marriage); as a _subst._, neighbour, relation.

+ad·ĭgo+, -ēgi, -actum, 3 _v. a._, I drive to. adigo aliquem (ad)
iusiurandum, I drive a man to an oath, make him swear. (ăgo.)

+ad·hĭbeo+, -hĭbui, -hĭbĭtum, 2 _v. a._, I bring to, employ. (hăbeo.)

+ad·ĭpiscor+, -eptus, 3 _v. dep._, I obtain. (ăpiscor.)

+ad·iŭvo+, -iūvi, -iūtum, 1 _v. a._, I assist.

+ad·mīrātio+, -ōnis, _f._, wonder.

+ad·mĭror+, 1 _v. dep._, I wonder at.

+ad·mitto+, -mīsi, -missum, 3 _v. a._, I bring to, bring in, admit.

+ad·mŏdum+, _adv._, lit. to a measure, in a high degree, very. (mŏdus.)

+ad·no+, 1 _v. n._, I swim to.

+ad·prĕhendo+ (or apprehendo), -prĕhendi, -prĕhensum, 3 _v. a._,
I seize.

+adsĭduus+, -a, -um, _adj._, constant, eager, diligent. (adsideo: cf.
continuus, fr. contineo.)

+adsĭdue+, _adv._, constantly. (adsiduus.)

+ad·signo+, 1 _v. a._, I attribute to. (signum.)

+ad·sum+, -fui, -esse, _v. n._, I am present.

+adŭlescens+ (or adŏlescens), -entis, _c._, young man, young woman.

+adŭlescentia+, -ae, _f._, youth, manly strength, (ad·olesco.)

+adŭlor+, 1 _v. dep._, I fawn on, flatter.

+ad·vĕnio+, -vēni, -ventum, 4 _v. n._, I come to, approach.

+ad·versārius+, -a, -um, _adj._, turned towards, opposed to; _subst._,
antagonist. (ad, versus.)

+ad·versum+, or +ad·versus+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, towards,

+ad·verto+, -verti, -versum, 3 _v. a._, I turn towards, observe
(generally in phrase ‘animum adverto’).

+ad·vŏco+, 1 _v. a._, I call to my aid.

+ad·vŏlo+, 1 _v. n._, I fly towards.

+aedes+ (or aedis), -is, _f._, a building, temple; in _pl._, a house.

+aedĭtŭmus+, -i, _m._, keeper of temple, sacristan. (aedes.)

+aegrē+, _adv._, with difficulty, scarcely. aegre passus, displeased.

+ăēneus+, -a, -um, _adj._, brazen. (aes.)

+aerārium+, -ii, _n._, treasury. (aes.)

+aes+, aeris, _n._, copper, brass, money.

+Aesōpus+, -i, _m._, Aesop. (Αἴσωπος.)

+aetas+, -ātis, _f._, age (for aevĭtas, fr. aevum, αἰών.)

+affero+. Cf. adfero.

+af·fĭcio+, -fēci, -fectum, 3 _v. a._, I affect in some way: afficio
contumeliâ, I affect, brand with disgrace, _i.e._ I disgrace, insult.

+Afrĭca+, -ae, _f._, Africa, _i.e._ the land round Carthage.

+Afrĭcānus+, -i, _m._, agnomen of Scipio.

+ăger+, agri, _m._, land, territory. (ἀγρός, cf. English acre, German

+ăgo+, ēgi, actum, 3 _v. a._, I drive, do, act; of the Senate,
I transact, I discuss: ago gratias, I give thanks; bene ago, I fare
well, prosper.

+āio+, _v. n._, _defective_, I say.

+ἀκοινονόητοι+ (cf. xxxiii. 10, note), deficient in common sense.

+āla+, -ae, _f._, wing.

+albus+, -a, -um, _adj._, white.

+Alcĭbĭădes+, -is or -i, _m._, Alcibiades. (Ἀλκιβιάδης.)

+āles+, -ĭtis, _adj._, winged; as _subst._, c., a bird. (āla.)

+Alexander+, -dri, _m._, Alexander. (Ἀλέξανδρος.)

+ălĭquĭs+, aliquid, _subst. pron._, some one, any one. (ălius, quis.)

+ălĭter+, _adv._, otherwise. (ălius.)

+ălius+, -a, -um, _adj._, other, another. (Cf. ἄλλος.)

+altē+, _adv._, deeply. (altus.)

+alter+, -ĕra, -ĕrum, _adj._, the one (or other) of two. (Cf. ălius.)

+altus+, -a, -um, _adj._, deep; as _subst._, altum, i, _n._, the deep
sea. (ălo, I nourish.)

+ălūmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, alum.

+ambĭguus+, -a, -um, _adj._, wavering, hesitating. (ambĭgo, fr. ambi,
Gr. ἀμφί, ăgo.)

+ambĭtus+, -us, _m._, lit. a going round, bribery. (ambio. fr. ambi, Gr.
ἀμφί, eo.)

+Ambrăciensis+, -e, _adj._, Ambracian, belonging to Ambrăcia, town in S.
of Epīrus.

+ăm·ĭcio+, -ĭcui or -ixi, -ictum, 4 _v. a._, I wrap around, clothe. (am
or amb, Gr. ἀμφί, and iăcio. Cf. ἀμφιβάλλω.)

+ămictus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. amĭcio. As _subst._, amictus, ūs _m._,

+ămīcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, friendly; _subst._, ămīcus, i, _m._,
a friend. (ămo.)

+ā·mitto+, -mīsi, -missum, 3 _v. a._, I send away, let go, lose.

+ămo+, 1 _v. a._, I love.

+am·plector+, -exus, 3 _v. dep._, I embrace. (am cf. am·icio, plecto,
I plait.)

+amplĭtūdo+, -ĭnis, _f._, dignity. (amplus.)

+amp·ŭto+, 1 _v. a._, I lop off.

+ăn+, _conj._, or, whether (in disjunctive interrogations).

+an·ceps+, -cĭpĭtis, _adj._, two-headed, doubtful, dangerous. (an, cf.
am·ĭcio, caput.)

+Androclus+, -i, _m._, Androclus.

+ănĭma+, -ae, _f._, soul. (animous, ἄνεμος, that which breathes.)

+ănĭm·ad·verto+, -ti, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I direct my attention to, notice.
(animus, ad, verto.)

+ănĭmus+, -i, _m._, mind. (Cf. anima.)

+annālis+, -e, _adj._, belonging to a year. As _subst._, annalis, -is,
_m._ (sc. liber), chronicle, annal. (annus.)

+annus+, -i, _m._, year.

+antĕ+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, before.

+antĕā+, _adv._, before.

+antĕ·quam+, _conj._, before that.

+Antĭŏchīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, belonging to Antiochus.

+Antĭŏchus+, -i, _m._, Antiochus (Ἀντίοχος.)

+antīquĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, antiquity, old times. (antiquus.)

+antīquĭtus+, _adv._, from of old, in former times. (antiquus.)

+antīquus+ (or anticus), -a, -um, _adj._, ancient. (ante.)

+Antōnius+, -ii, _m._, Antonius.

+ănus+, -us, _f._, old woman.

+ăpĕrio+, -ĕrui, -ĕrtum, 4 _v. a._, I open.

+ăpŏlŏgus+, -i, _m._, fable. (ἀπόλογος.)

+ap·pello+ (or +ad·pello+), 1 _v. a._, I drive to, go to, I accost,
appeal to.

+ap·pĕto+ (or +ad·peto+), -īvi and -ii, -ītum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._,
I seek for, long for, approach.

+ap·pono+ (or +ad·pono+), -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I place near.

+ap·prŏbo+ (or +ad·prŏbo+), 1 _v. a._, I approve, I confirm.

+aptus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. ăpo, ăpere, I fit to; fit, suited. (Cf.
apiscor, ἅπτω.)

+ăpŭd+, _prep. gov. acc._, near to, at the house of.

+arbor+, -ŏris, _f._, a tree.

+arcesso+, -īvi, -ītum, 3 _v. a._, I send for.

+Archĕlāus+, -i, _m._, Archelaus.

+ardeo+, arsi, arsum, 2 _v. n._, I am on fire, burn.

+arduus+, -a, -um, _adj._, steep, lofty.

+argentum+, -i, _n._, silver.

+argūmentum+, -i, _n._, proof, argument, plot. (arguo.)

+argy̆ranche+ (ἀργυράγχη). Cf. xxxii. 14, note.

+Ărīon+, ŏnis, _m._, Arion.

+Aristŏdēmus+, -i, _m._, Aristodemus.

+Ăristŏtĕles+, -is or -i, _m._, Aristotle.

+arma+, -orum, _n._, _plur. only_, arms.

+armilla+, -ae, _f._, bracelet. (arma.)

+armo+, 1 _v. a._, I arm, equip. (arma.)

+ars+, +artis+, _f._, art, skill. (Cf. arma.)

+arx+, +arcis+, _f._, citadel. (arceo.)

+a·scendo+, -ndi, -sum, 3 _v. n._, I mount up. (scando, I climb.)

+Ā̆sĭātĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, belonging to Asia.

+aspectus+, -us, _m._, look. (aspicio.)

+asper+, -ĕra, -ĕrum, _adj._, harsh, rough.

+a·spernor+, 1 _v. dep._, I despise. (ab, sperno.)

+a·spicio+, -exi, -ectum, 3 _v. a._, I behold, look at.

+as·porto+, 1 _v. a._, I carry away. (abs, porto.)

+as·sĭdeo+, -sēdi, -sessum, 2 _v. n._, I sit by; I besiege. (ad, sedeo.)

+assum+. Cf. adsum.

+astūtus+, -a, -um, _adj._, skilled, clever. (astus.)

+ăt+, _conj._, but.

+Ăthēnae+, -arum, _f. plur._ only, Athens.

+Ăthēniensis+, -e, _adj._, Athenian.

+āthlēta+, -ae, _m._, wrestler, athlete. (ἀθλητής.)

+āthlētĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, athletic. ars athletica, athletics.

+atquĕ+, _conj._, and.

+ā̆trox+, -ōcis, _adj._, frightful, fierce. (āter, black, gloomy.)

+Attĭca+, -ae, _f._, Attica.

+attentē+, _adv., comp._, attentius, attentively. (attendo.)

+at·tingo+, -tĭgi, -tactum, 3 _v. a._, I touch. (ad·tango.)

+auctor+, -ōris, _m._, author. (augeo.)

+audeo+, ausus, 2 _v. a._ and _n._, I dare.

+audio+, 4 _v. a._, I hear. (Cf. auris, ear.)

+audītor+, -ōris, _m._, hearer. (audio.)

+au·fĕro+, abs·tŭli, ab·lātum, au·ferre, 3 _v. a._, I carry away, take.
(ab, fero.)

+aureus+, -a, -um, _adj._, golden. (aurum.)

+auris+, -is, _f._, ear.

+aurum+, -i, _n._, gold.

+Aurunci+, -orum, _m._, the Aurunci.

+aut+, _conj._, or. aut ... aut, either ... or.

+autem+, _conj._, but, however, moreover.

+auxĭlĭum+, -ii, _n._, help. (augeo.)

+ăvārus+, -a, -um, _adj._, covetous, greedy. (ăveo, I long for.)

+āversus+, -a, -um, _part._ from āverto, turned away.

+ā·verto+, -ti, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I turn away.

+ăvis+, -is, _f._, bird.

+ăvuncŭlus+, -i, _m._, maternal uncle. (Diminutive of ăvus,

+barbăria+, -ae, _f._, foreign country. (barbărus.)

+barbărus+, -a, -um, _adj._, foreign. (βάρβαρος: cf. balbus,

+bellum+, -i, _n._, war.

+bellātor+, -ōris, _m._, warrior. (bellum.)

+bĕnĕ+, _adv._, well. bene facio, I benefit.

+bĕnĕfĭcium+, -ii, _n._, kindness. (bene, facio.)

+bestia+, -ae, _f._, wild beast.

+blandē+, _adv._, gently. (blandus).

+blandīmentum+, -i, _n._, blandishment. (blandior, I caress.)

+bŏnus+, -a -um, _adj._, good.

+Būcĕphălas+, -ae (Βουκεφάλας), _m._, Bucephalas. Cf. vi. 1. note.

+C.+ for Cāĭŭs or Gāĭŭs.

+caedes+, -is, _f._, lopping off, destruction. (caedo.)

+Caesar+, -ăris, _m._, Caesar.

+Cāĭŭs+, -i, _m._, Caius.

+callĭdĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, skill, cunning. (callidus.)

+campus+, -i, _m._, plain.

+cănis+, -is, _c._, dog. (κύων.)

+Cannensis+, -e, _adj._, of Cannae.

+căno+, cĕcĭni, cantum, 3 _v. a._, I sing, I play. cano tibiis = I play
the flute.

+canto+, 1 _v. n._ and _a._, I sing, I play (frequentative form of

+cantor+, -ōris, _m._, singer, musician. (căno.)

+cantus+, -us, _m._, song, melody. (căno.)

+căpesso+, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 _v. a._, I strive for, undertake.
(desiderative form fr. căpio.)

+căpio+, cēpi, captum, 3 _v. a._, I take. capio consilium, I form or
adopt a plan.

+Căpĭtōlium+, -ii, _n._, the Capitol. (căput.)

+căpĭtālis+, -e, _adj._, relating to the caput, _i.e._ life or civil
rights, capital. res capitalis, capital offence. (căput.)

+captīvus+, -i, _m._, captive, (căpio.)

+căput+, -ĭtis, _n._, head, life, civil rights. (Cf. κεφαλή.)

+carmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, song. (căno.)

+cassīta+, -ae, _f._, the crested lark, ălauda cristata, L. (cassis,
a helmet.)

+castrum+, -i, _n._, fort; in _plur._, a camp. (Cf. căsa, hut.)

+cāsus+, -us, _m._, accident, case. (cădo, I fall, happen.)

+căterva+, -ae, _f._, troop, band, body of men.

+Căto+, -ōnis, _m._, Cato. (cătus, shrewd.)

+cauda+, -ae, _f._, tail.

+causa+, -ae, _f._, cause, reason, case.

+causā+, _abl._ of causa, for the sake of, with _genitive_.

+cautē+, _adv._, cautiously, (cautus.)

+cautus+, -a, -um, _part._ from căveo, careful.

+căveo+, cāvi, cautum, 2 _v. n._, I am on my guard, cautious.

+căverna+, -ae, _f._, cave, hollow. (căvus, hollow.)

+cēdo+, cessi, cessum, 3 _v. n._ and _a._, I yield, go away, depart.

+cĕlĕber+, -bris, -bre, _adj._, numerous, famous.

+cĕlĕrĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, speed. (cĕler.)

+cēlla+, -ae, _f._, shrine, part of temple in which the image of the god

+cēlo+, 1 _v. a._, I conceal.

+censeo+, -ui, censum, 2 _v. a._, I assess, think, vote for, decree,

+censor+, -ōris, _m._, censor. (censeo.)

+centum+, _indecl. num. adj._, one hundred.

+certāmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, contest, competition. (certo, I strive.)

+cerva+, -ae, _f._, doe.

+cervix+, -īcis, _f._, neck.

+cessātor+, -ōris, _m._, loiterer. (cesso.)

+[cētĕrus]+, -a, -um, the other, the rest. The nom. sing. masc. is not
in use.

+Chīlō+, -ōnis, _m._, Chilo. (Χείλων.)

+cĭbārius+, -a, -um, _adj._, belonging to food (cĭbus). res cibaria,

+cĭbus+, -i, _m._, food.

+cĭcātrix+, -īcis, _f._, scar.

+Cĭcĕro+, -ōnis, _m._, Cicero.

+cingo+, -nxi, -nctum, 3 _v. a._, I surround, gird on, clothe.

+circum+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, around.

+circum·fĕro+, -tŭli, -lātum, 3 _v. a._, I carry round, report.

+circum·fundo+, -fūdi, -fūsum, 3 _v. a._, I pour around, surround.

+circum·plector+, -plexus, 3 _v. dep. a._, I embrace, surround.

+circum·spĭcio+, -spexi, -spectum, 3 _v. n._ and _a._, I look around,

+circum·volvo+, no perf., -vŏlūtum, 3 _v. a._, I roll round.

+circus+, -i, _m._ (κίρκος), circus.

+Cispius+ (mons), the Cispian hill.

+cĭtātus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. cĭto, urged on. citato cursu, at full

+cĭto+, 1 _v. a._, I urge on. (frequentative form of cieo.)

+cīvis+, -is, _c._, citizen.

+cīvĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, state. (cīvis.)

+clāmor+, -ōris, _m._, shout, noise. (clāmo.)

+clandestīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, secret. (clam.)

+Claudius+, -ii, _m._, Claudius.

+claudo+, -si, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I shut. (Cf. clavis, key, κλείω.)

+coepi+, coepisse, 3 _v. a._, defective (the _pres._ coepio only in
ante-classical writers.) _perf._ with _pres._ signific., I begin.

+cōgĭto+, 1 _v. a._, I meditate upon. (co, agito.)

+co·gnātus+, -a, -um, _adj._, related by blood; as _subst._, a kinsman.
(co, gnatus for natus.)

+co·gnōmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, surname. (co, nōmen.)

+co·gnōmĭno+, 1 _v. a._, I surname.

+co·gnosco+, -gnōvi, -gnĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I become acquainted with,
investigate a case. (nosco.)

+cōgo+, cŏēgi, cŏactum, 3 _v. a._, I drive together, compel, (co, ago.)

+col·lŏquor+, -lŏcūtus, 3 _v. dep._, I talk with.

+cŏlo+, cŏlui, cultum, 3 _v. a._, I cultivate. (Cf. ā̆grĭ-cŏla.)

+collum+, -i, _n._, neck.

+cŏma+, -ae, _f._, hair, foliage. (κόμη.)

+cŏmes+, -ĭtis, _c._, companion. (com, eo.)

+commentĭcius+, -a, -um, _adj._, pretended, false. (comminiscor.)

+cŏmĭtor+, 1 _v. dep._, I accompany. (cŏmes.)

+commentus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. commĭniscor.

+com·mĭniscor+, -mentus, 3 _v. dep._, I devise, invent. (Cf.

+cōmoedia+, -ae, _f._, comedy. (κωμῳδία.) certamina comoediarum,
dramatic competitions.

+com·păro+, 1 _v. a._, prepare, procure.

+compĕtītor+, -ōris, _m._, rival, competitor. (com·peto.)

+com·plōro+, 1 _v. a._, I bewail violently.

+com·plūres+, -a, rarely -ia, _adj._, several.

+com·pōno+, -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I place together, arrange,
compose. litterae compositae, forged letters.

+con·cēdo+, -cessi, -cessum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._, I yield, grant, retire.

+con·cĭdo+, ĭdi, no sup., 3 _v. n._, I fall down. (cădo.)

+con·cĭpio+, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 _v. a._, I take to myself. concepta
sanies, matter which has gathered in a wound. (căpio.)

+con·clāmo+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I cry out, shout together or loudly.

+con·demno+, 1 _v. a._, I sentence, condemn. (damno.)

+condĭcio+, -ōnis, _f._, agreement, conditions, terms, (con·dico.)

+con·do+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I bring together, build, lay up,

+con·fĕro+, -tŭli, -lātum, or collātum, 3 _v. a._, I bring together,
employ, attribute.

+con·fĭcio+, -fēci, -fectum, 3 _v. a._, I execute, finish. (făcio.)

+confīdentia+, -ae, _f._, boldness, confidence. (confīdo.)

+con·fīdo+, -fisus, 3 _v. n._, I trust in.

+con·firmo+, 1 _v. a._, I establish, confirm.

+confīsus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. confido, confident.

+con·formo+, 1 _v. a._, I shape.

+con·fūto+, 1 _v. a._, I restrain, silence. (futo, _intens._ form of

+con·gĕro+, -gessi, -gestum, 3 _v. a._, I bring together. Absolutely
(sc. nidum), I build a nest.

+con·grĕdior+, -gressus, 3 _v. dep._, I meet as friend, or foe,
I attack. (gradior.)

+congressio+, -onis, _f._, meeting, attack. (congredior.)

+cōn·iĭcio+, -iēci, -iectum, 3 _v. a._, I throw together, hurl. (iăcio.)

+coniūrātio+, -ōnis, _f._, conspiracy. (con·iūro.)

+cōnor+, 1 _v. dep._, I attempt.

+con·scisco+, -scīvi, or -scii, -scītum, 3 _v. a._, I approve of.
conscisco aliquid mihi, I adjudge something to myself; conscisco necem,
mortem, mihi, I kill myself.

+consensus+, -us, _m._, consent, agreement. (consentio.)

+con·sĕquor+, -sĕcūtus, 3 _v. dep._, I follow after, attain, gain.

+con·sĕro+, -sēvi, -sĭtum, or -sătum, 3 _v. a._, I sow, plant.

+con·sīdo+, -sēdi, -sessum, 3 _v. n._, I sit down, encamp. (sĕdeo.)

+consĭlium+, -ii, _n._, plan, purpose. (con, root sul; cf. consul.)

+con·sisto+, -stĭti, stĭtum, 3 _v. n._ and _a._, I halt.

+consĭtus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. consĕro.

+conspectus+, -us, _m._, sight, view. (conspĭcio.)

+con·spĭcio+, -spexi, -spectum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._, I look at with
attention, see.

+con·sterno+, 1 _v. a._, I stretch on ground, terrify.

+con·stĭtuo+, -ui, -ūtum, 3 _v. a._, I place (a thing) somewhere,
station. (stătuo.)

+con·sŭesco+, -suēvi, -suētum, 3 _v. n._, I grow accustomed.

+consul+, -ŭlis, _m._, consul. (Cf. consĭlium.)

+consŭlāris+, -e, _adj._, consular.

+consŭlo+, -lui, -ltum, 3 _v. n._ and _a._, I reflect, I consult with.
(Cf. consilium.)

+consulto+, 1 _v. a._, I deliberate upon, I debate. (frequentative form
of consŭlo.)

+consultum+, -i, _n._, decision, decree. (consŭlo.)

+con·temno+, -mpsi, -mptum, 3 _v. a._, I despise.

+con·tendo+, -di, -tum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._, I strain after, strive for,

+con·testor+, 1 _v. dep._, I call to witness. Contestor litem,
I introduce a lawsuit by calling witnesses. (testis.)

+con·tingo+, -tĭgi, -tactum, 3 _v. n._, I touch, reach to, happen.

+contĭnuo+, _adv._, immediately. (continuus, fr. con·tineo.)

+contio+, ōnis, _f._, meeting, assembly. (for con·ventio, a coming

+contrā+, _adv., prep. gov. acc._, against. contra dīco, I object to.
appeal against sentence.

+con·tueor+, -tuitus, 2 _v. dep._, I gaze upon.

+contŭmēlia+, -ae, _f._, disgrace, ignominy. (root tem: cf. con·temno.)

+con·turbo+, 1 _v. a._, I throw into disorder. (turba.)

+con·vello+, -velli (rarely -vulsi), -vulsum, 3 _v. a._, I tear
away, up.

+con·vĕnio+, -vēni, -ventum, 4 _v. n._ and _a._, I come together, agree
with, meet.

+con·verto+, -ti, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I turn round, manœuvre.

+con·vinco+, -vīci, -victum, 3 _v. a._, I completely conquer. I convict
of (a crime).

+convīvium+, -ii, _n._, banquet. (vīvo.)

+cōpia+, -ae, _f._, plenty, supply; in _plur._, forces. (co, ops.)

+cōpiōsus+, -a, -um, _adj._ with _abl._, well supplied with.

+cor, cordis+, _n._, heart. (Cf. καρδία.)

+cōram+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. abl._, in the presence of.

+Cŏrinthius+, -a, -um, _adj._, Corinthian.

+Cŏrinthus+, -i, _f._, Corinth.

+cŏrōna+, -ae, _f._, wreath, garland. (κορώνη.)

+cŏrōno+, 1 _v. a._, I crown. (cŏrōna.)

+corpus+, -ŏris, _n._, body.

+cor·rĭgo+, -rexi, -rectum, 3 _v. a._, I make straight, correct. (con,

+Cŏruncānius+, -ii, Coruncanius.

+Corvīnus+, -i, _m._, Corvinus. (corvus.)

+corvus+, -i, _m._, raven. (κόραξ.)

+cŏtīdĭānus+ (or +quŏtīdĭānus+), -a, -um, _adj._, daily. (cŏtīdĭē.)

+cras+, _adv._, to-morrow.

+Crassus+, -i, _m._, Crassus.

+crēdo+, -dĭdi, -ditum, 3 _v. a._, I entrust, I trust in, I believe.
Used absolutely, I suppose.

+crēdŭlĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, easiness of belief, credulity, (crēdŭlus,

+crīmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, charge, accusation.

+Crŏtōniensis+, -e, _adj._, of Crotona.

+crŭcĭātus+, -us, _m._, torture, (crŭcio, crux.)

+cruentus+, -a, -um, _adj._, stained with blood. (cruor.)

+cruor+, -ōris, _m._, gore, blood which has flowed from wounds.

+crūs, crūrĭs+, _n._, leg.

+cŭbĭcŭlum+, -i, _m._, a resting or sleeping room, (cŭbo.)

+cūius+, -a, -um, _interrog._ and _relat. adj. pron._, whose? or whose.

+cultus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. colo, cultivated, civilized.

+cum+ (or +quum+), _conj._, when, since, if, although.

+cum+, _prep. gov. abl._, with.

+cunctābundus+, -a, -um, lingering, (cunctor.)

+cunctor+, 1 _v. dep._, I loiter, linger.

+cunctus+, -a, -um, _adj._, all in a body, all. (for con·iunctus.)

+cŭneus+, -i, _m._, wedge, wedge-shaped body of troops.

+cŭpĭdus+, -a, -um, _adj._, eager, desirous, proud of (with gen.)

+cūr+, _adv._ and _conj._, why, wherefore.

+cūra+, -ae, _f._, care, anxiety.

+cūria+, -ae, _f._, senate-house. (Quiris, Cures.)

+Cŭrius+, -ii, _m._, Curius.

+cūro+, 1 _v. a._, I take care of. With gerundive, cf. vii. 3. note.
Curo puerum docendum, I get the boy taught. (cūra.)

+currus+, -us, _m._, chariot. (curro.)

+cursus+, -us, _m._, running, race, course. Cĭtato cursu, at full speed.

+custōdio+, 4 _v. a._, I guard. (custos.)

+custos+, -ōdis, _c._, guard.

+damno+, 1 _v. a._, I condemn. (damnum, hurt, loss.)

+de+, _prep. gov. abl._, concerning, from.

+dēbeo+, 2 _v. a._, I owe. (de, hăbeo.)

+dēbĭlis+, -e, _adj._, lamed, feeble. (de, habilis.)

+dĕcem+, _numer._, ten.

+dē·cerno+, -crēvi, -crētum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._, I determine, decide;
of the senate, I pass a decree.

+dē·cīdo+, -cīdi, -cīsum. 3 _v. a._, I cut off. (caedo.)

+de·clāmo+, 1 _v. n._ and _a._, I exercise myself in speaking, declaim.

+de·clāro+, 1 _v. a._, I show, proclaim.

+dĕcŏro+, 1 _v. a._, I adorn. (dĕcus, ornament, glory.)

+dēdĭtio+, -ōnis, _f._, surrender. (dēdo.)

+dē·dūco+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I lead away, withdraw, bring down.

+dē·fendo+, -di, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I ward off, keep off.

+dēfensor+, -ōris, _m._, defender. (dēfendo.)

+dē·fĕro+, -tŭli, -lātum, 3 _v. a._, I bring down, hand over.

+dē·fīo+, -fectus, -fĭĕri, _v. n._ (used as _passive_ of dēfĭcio), I am
wanting, I fail.

+dēformĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, ugliness, deformity. (dē·formis, ugly. Cf.

+dē·iĭcio+, -iēci, -iectum, 3 _v. a._, I throw down. (iăcio.)

+deīnceps+ (dissyl.), or +dĕïnceps+, _adv._, next, following. (deinde.)

+deīndĕ+ (dissyl.), or +dĕīndĕ+, _adv._, then, thereupon.

+dēlecto+, 1 _v. a._, I delight. (intens. of delĭcio.)

+dē·lĭgo+, -lēgi, -lectum, 3 _v. a._, I choose out, select. (lĕgo.)

+dē·līro+, 1 _v. n._, I rave. (de, lira, out of the furrow.)

+dē·lĭtesco+, -tui, 3 _v. n._, I lie hid, conceal myself. (lătesco,
inceptive of lăteo.)

+delphīnus+, -i, _m._, dolphin. (δελφίς.)

+Dēmādēs+, -is, _m._, Demades. (Δημάδης.)

+de·mĕto+, -messui, -messum, 3 _v. a._, I reap, mow.

+dē·mīror+, 1 _v. dep. a._, I wonder at.

+dē·mŏror+, 1 _v. dep._, I linger.

+Dēmosthĕnes+, -is and -i, _m._, Demosthenes. (Δημοσθένης.)

+dē·mulceo+, -mulsi, -mulctum, 2 _v. a._, I stroke down, caress.

+dēmum+, _adv._, at last. (de.)

+dēnĭquĕ+, _adv._, and then, finally. (de.)

+Dentātus+, -i, _m._, Dentatus.

+dēnuo+, _adv._, again. (For de novo.)

+dē·pŏpŭlor+, 1 _v. dep. a._, I ravage.

+dē·pŭto+, 1 _v. a._ I cut off, prune.

+de·rīdeo+, -si, -sum, 2 _v. a._, I laugh at.

+de·scisco+, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 _v. n._, I withdraw, revolt from,
abandon; with _prep._ ab and _abl._

+dē·sĕro+, -rui, -rtum, 3 _v. a._, I desert, abandon. (Lit., I undo,
sever; sero, I join.)

+dēsertus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. dēsĕro, lonely, desert.

+dē·sīdĕro+, 1 _v. a._, I long for.

+dē·sĭlio+, -ĭlui, -ultum, 4 _v. n._, I leap down, (sălio.)

+dē·sĭno+, -sii, rarely -sīvi, -sĭtum, 3 _v. n._ and _a._, I give up,

+dē·sĭpio+, no perf. or sup., -ere, _v. n._, I act foolishly, I am
foolish, (săpio.)

+dēsĭtus+, -a, -um, _part._ of desĭno, obsolete, disused.

+dē·spĭcio+, -exi, -ectum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._, I look down upon,

+dē·sum+, -fui, -esse, _v. n._, I am wanting.

+dē·tĕgo+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I uncover, discover.

+dē·tergeo+, -si, -sum, 2 _v. a._, I wipe off.

+dē·trăho+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I take away.

+dē·trunco+, 1 _v. a._, I lop, cut off.

+dĕ·ūro+, -ussi, -ustum, 3 _v. a._, I burn up.

+deus+, -i, _m._, god.

+dē·vĕho+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I carry away, carry down.

+dē·vĕnio+, -vēni, -ventum, 4 _v. n._, I come from, I go to, arrive at.

+dexter+, -tĕra, -tĕrum, and tra, trum, _adj._, on the right side,
right. (δεξιός.)

+Diāna+, -ae, _f._, Diana.

+dĭcio+, -ōnis, _f._, rule, jurisdiction. (Cf. dico, condicio.)

+dīco+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I say, tell, call.

+dictum+, -i, _n._, saying, command, (dīco.)

+dī·dūco+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I draw apart, separate.

+dies+, -ei, _m._ (in _sing. com._), day.

+dif·fero+, distŭli, dīlātum, 3 _v. a._, I carry away, put off.

+dif·fīcĭlis+, -e, _adj._, difficult, hard. (făcĭlis.)

+dī·gĕro+, -gessi, -gestum, 3 _v. a._, I separate, disperse, dissipate.

+dĭgĭtus+, -i, _m._, finger.

+dignĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, rank, dignity. (dignus.)

+dignus+, -a, -um, _adj._, worthy.

+dī·grĕdior+, -gressus, 3 _v. dep._, I go away. (grădior.)

+dī·lăcĕro+, 1 _v. a._, I tear to pieces.

+dīlūcesco+, luxi, no sup., 3 _v. n._, I begin to grow light. (Inceptive
form of dilūceo.)

+dīlūcĭdē+, _adv._, clearly. (dilūceo, lux.)

+dīmĭdium+, -ii, _n._, half, (di, medius.)

+dī·mitto+, -mīsi, -missum, 3 _v. a._, I send away, dismiss.

+dī·rĭgo+, -rexi, -rectum, 3 _v. a._, I arrange in a straight line,
I direct to.

+dis·cēdo+, -cessi, -cessum, 3 _v. n._, I depart, go away.

+di·scindo+, -scĭdi, -scissum, 3 _v. a._, I tear asunder, cut open.

+discī̆plīna+, -ae, _f._, teaching, knowledge, tactics, custom.
(discĭpŭlus, disco.)

+discĭpŭlus+, -i, _m._, disciple, follower. (disco.)

+disco+, dĭdĭci, no sup., 3 _v. a._, I learn. (Root da: cf. διδάσκω,

+dissĭmŭlanter+, _adv._, secretly. (dissĭmŭlo.)

+dĭū+, _adv._, for a long time. (dies.)

+dī·vello+, -velli, rarely -vulsi, -vulsum, 3 _v. a._, I tear asunder.

+dīves+, -ĭtis, _adj._, rich.

+dīvīnĭtus+, _adv._, from heaven, by divine providence or influence.
(dīvus, deus.)

+dīvīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, divine. (dīvus, deus.)

+do+, dĕdi, dătum, dăre, _v. a._, I give. (Cf. δίδωμι dōnum.)

+dŏceo+, -cui, -ctum, 2 _v. a._, I teach. (Cf. disco.)

+dŏleo+, -ui, -ĭtum, 2 _v. n._ and _a._, I grieve, I grieve for.

+dŏlor+, -ōris, _m._, pain, grief. (dŏleo.)

+dŏmi+, _adv._, at home. Locative case of dŏmus.

+dŏmus+, -us, _f._, home, house. (δόμος, root dem, to build.)

+dōnĕc+, _conj._, until.

+dōno+, 1 _v. a._, I give, I present. (do.)

+dōnum+, -i, _n._, gift, (do.)

+dorsum+, -i, _n._, back.

+dŭbĭto+, 1 _v. a._, I hesitate.

+dŭbius+, -a, -um, _adj._, doubtful. Dŭbio prŏcul, without doubt.

+dum+, _conj._, whilst, until.

+dŭŏ+, -ae, -ŏ, _numer._, two. (δύο.)

+dŭŏ·dē·vīginti+, _numer._, eighteen.

+dūrus+, -a, -um, _adj._, hard, harsh.

+dux, dŭcis+, _m._, leader. (dūco.)

+e, ex+, _prep. gov. abl._, out of, from. Ex republica, to the advantage
of the state.

+ĕdo+, ēdi, ēsum, 3 _v. a._, I eat. (Cf. ĕdax, ἔδω, ἐσθίω.)

+ecquĭs+, ecquĭd, _interrog. subst. pron._, whether any?

+ē·do+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I give forth, bring forth, produce,
utter, form, raise.

+ē·dūco+, 1 _v. a._, I rear, educate.

+ef·fĕro+, ex·tŭli, ē·lātum, 3 _v. a._, I bring out.

+ef·fĭcio+, -fēci, -fectum, 3 _v. a._, I bring to pass, accomplish. (ex,

+ĕgŏ+, _pers. pron._, I.

+ĕgŏ·mĕt+, I myself.

+ē·grĕdior+, -gressus, 3 _v. dep._, I go out, I leave. (grădior.)

+ēgrĕgĭus+, -a, -um, _adj._, distinguished, eminent. (e, grex, chosen
from the herd.)

+Ēlectra+, -ae, _f._, Electra. (Ἠλέκτρα.)

+ĕlĕphantus+, -i, _m._, elephant. (ἐλέφας.)

+ēlŏquentia+, -ae, _f._, eloquence. (ēlŏquor.)

+ē·lūdo+, -si, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I mock, jeer at.

+ē·mitto+, -mīsi, -missum, 3 _v. a._, I send out.

+ĕmo+, ēmi, emptum, 3 _v. a._, I buy.

+emptio+, -ōnis, _f._, purchase, buying. (ĕmo.)

+ĕnim+, _conj._, for. sed enim, but indeed.

+Ennius+, -ii, _m._, Ennius.

+ē·nuntio+, 1 _v. a._, I declare, mention.

+eo+, īvi or ii, ĭtum, īre, 4 _v. n._, I go. (Root i; cf. εῖμι.)

+eo+, _adv._, thither, for that reason, therefore. (is.)

+ĕphippium+, -ii, _n._, saddle, horse caparison. (ἐφίππιον, from ἐπὶ,

+ĕpŭlae+, -arum, _f._, feast, banquet. (In _sing._ ĕpŭlum, -i, _n._)

+ĕquĭtātus, -us+, _m._, cavalry. (ĕquus.)

+ĕquŭs+, -i, _m._, horse. (ἵππος.)

+ergo+, _adv._, therefore.

+ē·rŭbesco+, -bui, no sup., 3 _v. n. incep._, I grow red, blush.

+ĕt+, _conj._, and.

+ĕtĭam+, _conj._, also, even.

+ĕtĭam·si+, _conj._, even if.

+Euander+, -dri, _m._, Evander.

+Euathlus+, -i, _m._, Euathlus.

+ēverto+, -ti, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I overthrow.

+exanguĭs+, or +exsanguis+, -e, _adj._, bloodless, lifeless. (ex,

+ex·ănĭmātus+, _part._, from ex-ănĭmo, lifeless.

+ex·ănĭmo+, 1 _v. a._, I deprive of life. (anima.)

+ex·cīdo+, -cīdi, -cīsum, 3 _v. a._, I cut out, off. (caedo.)

+excĭto+, 1 _v. a._, I arouse. (Freq. form of excio.)

+ex·clāmo+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I cry out, exclaim.

+ex·eo, -ivi or ii, -ĭtum, -ire+, 4 _v. n._, I go out.

+ex·erceo, -ui, -ĭtum+, 2 _v. a._, I drive on, I practise. (arceo.)

+exercĭtus+, -us, _m._, army. (exerceo.)

+exerto+, or +exserto+, no perf. and sup., 1 _v. a._, I thrust out. (ex,
serto, freq. of sĕro.)

+ex·ĭgo+, -ēgi, -actum, 3 _v. a._, I drive out. (ăgo.)

+exĭlium+, or +exsilium+, -ii, _n._, exile. (exul.)

+exĭmius+, -a, -um, _adj._, extraordinary, uncommon. (eximo, I take out
of the mass.)

+ex·istĭmo+, 1 _v. a._, I judge, consider. (aestimo.)

+exĭtus+, -us, _m._, going out, departure. (exeo.)

+ex·ordior+, -orsus, 4 _v. dep. a._, I begin.

+ex·pecto+, or +ex·specto+, 1 _v. a._, I look for. (ex, specto.)

+ex·pĕrior, -pertus+, 4 _v. dep._, I try.

+ex·pīro+, or +ex·spīro+, 1 _v. a._, I breathe out. (ex, spiro.)

+ex·pōno+, -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I set forth, explain.

+ex·prĭmo+, -pressi, -pressum, 3 _v. a._, I press out. (prĕmo.)

+ex·prōmo+, -mpsi, -mptum, 3 _v. a._, I bring forth, utter.

+extemplo+, _adv._, immediately.

+ex·to+, or +ex·sto+, no perf. and sup., -are, _v. n._, I stand forth,
appear. (ex, sto.)

+extrā+, _prep. gov. acc._, outside. Extra tela, out of range.

+extrēmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, outermost, furthest. Extremâ nocte,
at the very end of night. Superl. degree from [exter and extĕrus,
post-classical], extĕrior, extrēmus, and extĭmus. (ex.)

+ex·urgo+, or +ex·surgo+, exurrexi, no sup., 3 _v. n._, I rise up. (ex,

+exūro+, -ussi, -ustum, 3 _v. a._, I burn up.

+Făbius+, -ii, _m._, Fabius.

+Fābrĭcius+, -ii, _m._, Fabricius.

+fābŭla+, -ae, _f._, fable, story. (fāri, to say.)

+făcĭlis+, -e, _adj._, easy, good-natured. (făcio.)

+făcĭnus+, -ŏris, _n._, deed, crime. (făcio.)

+făcio+, fēci, factum, făcĕre, 3 _v. a._, I make, do. Facio cum aliquo,
I take part with anyone.

+factum+, -i, _n._, deed. (făcio.)

+fācundia+, -ae, _f._, eloquence. (fāri, to say.)

+fallo+, fĕfelli, falsum, 3 _v. a._, I deceive. (σφάλλω, ἀ·σφαλής.)

+falsus+, -a, -um, _adj._, false. (fallo.)

+falx+, falcis, _f._, sickle.

+fāma+, -ae, _f._, renown. (fāri, to say.)

+fămĭlia+, -ae (old gen. -as), _f._, the slaves in a household,
a household.

+fămĭliāris+, -e, _adj._, belonging to a household (fămĭlia), intimate;
as _subst._, friend.

+Făvōrīnus+, -i, _m._, Favorinus.

+fēcundus+, -a, -um, _adj._, fruitful.

+fēlīcĭter+, happily: fēlīcius, fēlīcissime. (fēlix.)

+fēlix+, fēlīcis, _adj._, happy, rich.

+fĕra+, -ae, _f._, wild beast. (ferus.)

+fĕrē+, _adv._, almost.

+fĕrīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of wild beasts. (fĕrus.)

+fermē+, _adv._, nearly, about, usually. (Cf. fere.)

+fĕro+, tŭli, lātum, ferre, 3 _v. a._, I bear; I tell, say. (φέρω,

+fĕrox+, +fĕrōcis+, _adj._, fierce. (Cf. ferus.)

+fĕrus+, -a, -um, _adj._, wild. (Cf. ferox.)

+fervo+, -vi, no sup., 3, _v. n._, I grow hot; commoner form, ferveo,
-bui, no sup., 2.

+festīno+, 1, _v. n._ and _a._, I hasten.

+fētus+, -us, _m._, brood, offspring.

+fĭdes+, -ei, _f._, faith, trustworthiness. (fīdo.)

+fĭdes+, -is, _f._, string, stringed instrument, lyre; usually in plural

+fīdūcia+, -ae, _f._, trust, courage. (fido.)

+fīlius+, -ii, _m._, son.

+fingo+, -nxi, -nctum, 3 _v. a._, I form, fashion.

+fīo+, factus, fiĕri, _v. n._, (used as pass. of facio), I am made,

+firmo+, 1 _v. a._, I strengthen. (firmus.)

+flāgĭtium+, -ii, _n._, shameful act, disgrace. (flāgĭto.)

+flăgro+, 1 _v. n._, I burn, blaze.

+flāvesco+, no perf. and sup., 3 _v. n._, I become yellow. (Inceptive
form of flāveo.)

+flecto+, -xi, -xum, 3 _v. a._, I bend.

+flōs+, -ōris, _m._, flower.

+fluctus+, -us, _m._, wave. (fluo.)

+fluito+, 1 _v. n._, I float. (Intensitive form of fluo.)

+fŏcŭlus+, -i, _m._, little hearth, brazier. (diminutive of focus.)

+fŏris+, _adv._, out of doors, (fŏris, a door.)

+formīdo+, -ĭnis, _f._, fear.

+fors+, +fortis+, _f._, chance.

+fortĕ+, _adv._, by chance. (abl. of fors.)

+fortis+, -e, _adj._, brave.

+fortĭter+, _adv._, bravely. (fortis.)

+fortĭtūdo+, -ĭnis, _f._, bravery. (fortis.)

+fortuī̆tus+, -a, -um, _adj._, accidental. (fors.)

+frāter+, -tris, _m._, brother. (φράτηρ, clansman.)

+fraudŭlentus+, -a, -um, _adj._, deceitful. (fraus.)

+fraus+, fraudis, _f._, deceit.

+fraxĭnus+, -i, _f._, ash tree.

+frĕmĭtus+, -us, _m._, roaring (frĕmo.)

+frēnum+, -i, _n._, bridle, bit.

+frons+, frondis, _f._, leafy branch, foliage.

+frūges+, -um. Cf. frux.

+frūmentum+, -i, _n._, corn. (For frugĭmentum, cf. frux, fruor.)

+frustrā+, _adv._, in vain. (Cf. fraus.)

+frux+, frūgis, _f._, fruit. Nom. sing. rare; more common in plural.
(Cf. fruor.)

+fŭga+, -ae, _f._, flight, (fŭgio, φεύγω.)

+fŭgĭtīvus+, -a, -um, _adj._, fugitive. (fŭgio.)

+fulgeo+, fulsi, no sup., 2 _v. n._, I glitter. (Cf. fulgur, lightning.)

+fundo+, fūdi, fūsum, 3 _v. a._, I pour out, scatter.

+fundus+, -i, _m._, farm.

+furtim+, _adv._, secretly. (fur, thief.)

+fūsus+. Cf. fundo.

+gălea+, -ae, _f._, helmet.

+Gallĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, belonging to Gaul, Gallic.

+Gallus+, -i, _m._, a Gaul.

+Gellius+, -ii, _m._, Gellius.

+gĕmĭtus+, -us, _m._, groan. (gĕmo.)

+gens+, gentis, _f._, clan, race, nation. (Cf. gigno, genus.)

+gĕnus+, -ĕris, _n._, race, kind. (γένος, gens, gigno.)

+gĕro+, gessi, gestum, 3 _v. a._, I bear, I carry on.

+gesto+, 1 _v. a._, I carry. (Intens. of gĕro.)

+gigno+, gĕnui, gĕnĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I produce. (Cf. gens, genus.)

+glădius+, -ii, _m._, sword.

+glōria+, -ae, _f._, renown, glory.

+Graecē+, _adv._, in Greek.

+Graecia+, -ae, _f._, Greece.

+grāmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, grass.

+grāmĭneus+, -a, -um, _adj._, made of grass. (grāmen.)

+grandis+, -e, _adj._, great, large, abundant. Grandis natu, advanced in

+grātia+, -ae, _f._, favour, influence, gratitude, thanks: with agere in
plural only. In abl. gratiâ, for the sake of, with gen. (gratus.)

+grātŭlātio+, -onis, _f._, rejoicing, congratulation. (grātŭlor.)

+grātŭlor+, 1 _v. dep._, I congratulate, give thanks. (grātus.)

+gŭla+, -ae, _f._, throat.

+hăbeo+, 2 _v. a._, I have.

+hăbĭto+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I inhabit, dwell in. (Intensitive of

+haereo+, haesi, haesum, 2 _v. n._, I stick to.

+Hannĭbal+, -ălis, _m._, Hannibal.

+haud+, _adv._, not.

+haurio+, hausi, haustum, 4 _v. a._, I draw up, drink, tear open, wound.

+haut+ (or +haud+), _adv._, not.

+haut·quā·quam+, or +haud·qua·quam+, _adv._, by no means.

+Hercles+ (or Hercŭles), -is and -i. _m._, Hercules. For form Hercle,
cf. iii. 1. note.

+hīc, haec, hōc+, _demonstr. pron._, this.

+hīc+, _adv._, here.

+hĭlăris+, -e, _adj._, merry, amusing.

+hinc+, _adv._, hence. (hic.)

+hio+, 1 _v. n._, I open my mouth, gape. Rimis hiantem, with wide open
clefts, lit., gaping open with clefts.

+Hispānia+, -ae, _f._, Spain.

+Hispānĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Spanish.

+histrio+, -ōnis, _m._, actor. (Etruscan word hister, an actor.)

+hŏdiē+, _adv._, to-day. (hoc die.)

+hŏdiernus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of this day. (hŏdie.)

+hŏmo+, -ĭnis, _m._, man. (Cf. hūmānus.)

+hŏnestus+, -a, -um, _adj._, honourable, proper, respectable. (hŏnor.)

+hŏnor+, or +hŏnos+, -ōris, _m._, honour.

+Hŏrātius+, -ii, _m._, Horatius.

+hortor+, 1 _v. dep._, I encourage, urge. (Cf. ὄρνυμι, ὁρμή.)

+hospes+, -ĭtis, _m._, host, guest, stranger. (Cf. hostis, stranger,

+hospĭta+, -ae, _f._ (feminine form of hospes,) female host, guest,

+hostis+, -is, _c._, enemy.

+hūius·cĕ·mŏdi+, and +hūius·mŏdi+, of this kind. (Cf. mŏdus.)

+hŭmĕrus+, -i, _m._, shoulder.

+hŭmĭlis+, -e, _adj._, low, humble, insignificant. (hŭmus, ground.)

+iăcio, iĕci, iactum+, 3 _v. a._, I throw.

+iam+, _adv._, already, now.

+ĭbī̆+, _adv._, there, thereupon. (is.)

+ĭbī̆dem+, _adv._, in the same place, immediately. (ibi, dem. cf. idem.)

+ictus+, -us, _m._, blow, stroke. (Obsolete _present_, ico and icio,
I strike.)

+idcirco+, _adv._, therefore. (id-circo.)

+īdem+, +ĕădem+, +ĭdem+, _pron._, same. (is, and suffix dem.)

+ĭdōneus+, -a, -um, _adj._, fit.

+ĭgĭtur+, _conj._, then, therefore. (is, and suffix tur.)

+ignāvia+, -ae, _f._, cowardice. (in-gnāvus, lazy, cowardly; from navus,
or gnavus, busy.)

+ignis+, -is, _m._, fire.

+ignōmĭnia+, -ae, _f._, disgrace. (in-nōmen, or gnōmen, loss of good

+ignōro+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I am ignorant of. (ignārus, for in-gnarus
or -narus.)

+i·gnosco+, -nōvi, nōtum, 3 _v. a._, I pardon, overlook. (in-gnosco or

+i·gnōtus+, -a, -um, _adj._, unknown. (in·gnotus or notus.)

+īlex+, -ĭcis, _f._, holm-oak, or great scarlet oak. Quercus ilex L.

+īlĭco+ (or illico), _adv._, on the spot, immediately. (in, loco.)

+illĕ+, illă, illŭd, _demonstr. pron._, that, he.

+illīc+, _adv._, in that place, there. (ille, ce.)

+im·mōbĭlis+, -e, _adj._, motionless. (in, mŏveo.)

+impĕdio+, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 4 _v. a._, I hinder. (in, pes.)

+impĕrātor+, -ōris, _m._, general. (impĕro.)

+impĕrium+, -ii, _n._, command, empire. (impĕro.)

+impĕro+, 1 _v. a._, I command, I rule over (dat.).

+impetro+, 1 _v. a._, I accomplish, obtain.

+impĕtus+, -us, _m._, attack, force. (in·peto, I rush upon.)

+im·mītis+, -e, _adj._, stern.

+in+, _prep. gov. acc._ and _abl._, in, into, on, against.

+in·cēdo+, -cessi, -cessum, 3 _v. n._, I approach.

+incendium+, -ii, _n._, fire. (in-cendo, fr. in, candeo.)

+in·cīdo+, -cīdi, -cīsum, 3 _v. a._, I cut into, cut through, open. (in,

+in·cĭpio+, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 _v. a._, I begin. (in, căpio, I seize

+in·clūdo+, -si, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I shut in. (claudo.)

+in·cognĭtus+, -a, -um, _adj._, unknown. (in·cognosco.)

+in·cŏlŭmis+, -e, _adj._, uninjured, safe.

+in·cruentus+, -a, -um, _adj._, bloodless. (cruor.)

+in·curro+, -curri or -cŭcurri, cursum, 3 _v. n._, I rush into, rush
against, attack.

+incursio+, -ōnis, _f._, inroad, attack. (in·curro.)

+indĕ+, _adv._, thence, thenceforward. (is.)

+in·dīco+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I proclaim.

+Indĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Indian.

+in·dignus+, -a, -um, _adj._, unworthy.

+in·dūco+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I bring in, exhibit.

+induo+, -ui, -ūtum, 3 _v. a._, I put on. (ἐνδύω.)

+ineptus+, -a, -um, _adj._, unsuitable, foolish. (in, aptus.)

+ĭn·explĭcābĭlis+, -e, _adj._, hard to unfold, understand, intricate.
(in, ex, plico, I fold.)

+infĭtiae+, -arum, _f._, denial. Only used in _acc. plur._ in phrase
infitias ire, to deny. (infateor.)

+in·flo+, 1 _v. a._, I blow into or upon.

+informis+, -e, _adj._, shapeless. (forma.)

+infrā+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, below. (For inferă, _sc._

+in·fringo+, -frēgi, -fractum, 3 _v. a._, I break in upon, break.

+ingĕnium+, -ii, _n._, nature, talent, genius. (in, gigno.)

+ingens+, -entis, _adj._, immense.

+in·grātus+, -a, -um, _adj._, ungrateful.

+in·grĕdior+, -gressus, 3 _v. dep._, I step into, advance. (grădior.)

+ĭn·ĭmīcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, hostile; as _subst._, an enemy. (in,

+in·īquus+, -a, -um, unequal, unfair, dangerous. (in, aequus.)

+in·iūrātus+, -a, -um, _adj._, unsworn, relieved from oath. (in, iūro.)

+iniūria+, -ae, _f._, wrong, insult. (in, ius.)

+inlĕcĕbra+, or +illĕcĕbra+, -ae, _f._, attraction, allurement.

+inlustris+, or +illustris+, -e, _adj._, famous. (inlustro, I make

+inmānis+, or +immanis+, -e, _adj._, fierce. (in, mānus, old Latin
word = bonus: cf. manes, good spirits.)

+inmensus+, -a, -um, _adj._, immeasurable. (metior.)

+inmĕrĭto+, _adv._, undeservedly. (in, mereo.)

+in·mitto+, -mīsi, -missum, 3 _v. a._, I send in, thrust in, carry in,
incite or suborn against. Used absolutely, sc. equum, urge horse
forward, vi. 9.

+in·mortālis+, or +im·mortālis+, -e, _adj._, immortal.

+in·ŏpīnātus+, -a, -um, _adj._, unexpected. (in, ŏpīnor.)

+in·pĕrītus+, -a, -um, unskilled.

+in·perfectus+, -a, -um, _adj._, not thoroughly finished, unfinished.

+in·plūmis+, -e, _adj._, unfeathered, unfledged. (plūma.)

+in·pōno+, -pŏsui, -pŏsĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I place on.

+inquam+, _v. n._, defective, I say.

+in·quīro+, -sīvi, -sītum, 3 _v. a._, I search into, examine, (in,

+in·rīdeo+, -rīsi, -rīsum, 2 _v. a._ and _n._, I laugh at.

+insānia+, -ae, _f._, madness. (sānus.)

+in·scendo+, -endi, -ensum, 3 _v. a._, I climb up, mount. (scando.)

+in·sĭdeo+, -sēdi, -sessum, 2 _v. n._, I sit on, occupy, (sĕdeo.)

+in·sĭdiae+, -arum, _f._, _plur. only_, ambush, treachery. (insĭdeo.)

+insigne+, -is, _n._, badge, ornament. (in·signis, distinguished by a
mark, signum.)

+in·sisto+, -stiti, no sup., 3 _v. n._, I stand on, rest on, persist.

+in·sŏlens+, -entis, _adj._, unaccustomed to, with gen. (in, sŏleo.)

+insŏlenter+, _adv._, haughtily. (in·solens.)

+in·specto+, 1 _v. a._, I look upon. (Frequentative of in·spicio, from

+instinctus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. instinguo.

+instinguo+, -nxi, -nctum, 3 _v. a._, I incite. (Only in perf. part.
pass. in classical writers.)

+instĭtuo+, -ui, -ūtum, 3 _v. a._, I determine. (stătuo.)

+in·sto+, -stĭti, no sup., 1 _v. n._, I stand upon, press upon, insist.

+in·struo+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I build upon, I draw up, arrange.

+in·suesco+, -ēvi, -ētum, 3 _v. n._, I am accustomed.

+insŭla+, -ae, _f._, island, lodging-house.

+intĕger+, -gra, -gram, _adj._, untouched, sound. (tango.)

+intellĕgo+, -exi, -ectum, 3 _v. a._, I perceive, understand. (inter,

+inter+, _prep. gov. acc._, between, among.

+intĕr·ĕā+, _adv._, meanwhile. (inter·ea, from is.)

+inter·dīco+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I forbid.

+intĕr·eo+, -ii, -ĭtum, 4 _v. n._, I die. (Lit., I go among several
things, and so, disappear.)

+inter·fĭcio+, -fēci, -fectum, 3 _v. a._, I kill. (făcio, lit., I put

+intĕrim+, _adv._, meanwhile. (inter, im old acc. of is.)

+interĭtus+, -us, _m._, ruin, death. (intereo.)

+interpres+, -ĕtis, _com._, interpreter.

+inter·rŏgo+, 1 _v. a._, I question, ask.

+intĭmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, inmost, superlative from [intĕrus, not
found; cf. inter and intra], intĕrior.

+intrā+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, within.

+in·trĕpĭdus+, -a, -um, _adj._, fearless.

+intrō·dūco+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I bring in, introduce.

+intrŏ·eo+, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, 4 _v. n._, I go in, enter.

+intrō·grĕdior+, -gressus, 3 _v. dep._, I step in, enter. (grădior.)

+intrō·rumpo+, -rūpi, -ruptum, 3 _v. n._, I burst into.

+in·vĕnio+, -vēni, -ventum, 4 _v. a._, I come upon, find.

+in·vīsus+, -a, -um, _adj._, hated. (in·vĭdeo, I look at with evil eye,

+ipse+, -a, -um, _demonstr. pron._, himself, herself, itself.

+īra+, -ae, _f._, anger.

+is, ea, id+, _demonstr. pron._, that, he, she, it.

+istĕ+, -a, -ŭd, _demonstr. pron._, that of yours, that near you.

+istic+, -aec, -oc or -uc, _demonstr. pron._, that of yours, that near
you. (For iste·ce.)

+ĭta+, _adv._, thus, so.

+Ītălia+, -ae, _f._, Italy.

+ĭtem+, _adv._, likewise, also. (is.)

+ĭter+, itĭnĕris, _n._, journey. (eo.)

+ĭtĕrum+, _adv._, a second time, again. (Acc. sing. of comparative form
from is.)

+ĭtĭdem+, _adv._, in like manner. (ita, dem.)

+iŭbeo+, iussi, iussum, 2 _v. a._, I order.

+iūcunde+, _adv._, pleasantly. (iūcundus.)

+iūcundus+, -a, -um, _adj._, pleasant, delightful. (iŏcus.)

+iūdex+, -ĭcis, _m._, judge. (ius, dīco.)

+iūdĭco+, 1 _v. a._, I judge, decide. (ius, dīco.)

+Iūliānus+, -i, _m._, Julian.

+Iūpĭter+ (or Iuppĭter), Iŏvis, _m._, Jupiter, Jove. (Iovis pater: cf.
Ζεύς πατήρ. Iovis from root div, bright.)

+iūro+ and iūror (_dep_.), 1 _v. a._, I swear. (ius.)

+iūs+, iūris, _n._, right, law, justice. (Root iu, join: cf. ζεύγνυμι.)

+ius·iurandum+, iuris·iurandi, _n._, oath. (ius, iūro.)

+iustus+, -a, -um, _adj._, right, fair. (ius.)

+L.+, for Lucius.

+lăbor+, -ōris, _m._, toil, labour.

+Lăcĕdaemŏnius+, -a, -um, _adj._, Lacedaemonian, Spartan.

+Lăcōnĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Laconian, Lacedaemonian.

+lā̆crĭmo+, 1 _v. n._, I weep. (lā̆crĭma: cf. δάκρυ, tear.)

+laetĭtia+, -ae, _f._, joy. (laetus.)

+laetus+, -a, -um, _adj._, glad, rich.

+lambo+, -bi, -bĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I lick.

+lāmenta+, orum, _n._, _plur._ only, wailing, lamentation.

+lāna+, -ae, _f._, wool.

+lănio+, 1 _v. a._, I tear, mangle. (Cf. lăcer, torn to pieces.)

+latē+, _adv._, widely. (lātus.)

+lătēbra+, -ae, _f._, hiding place. (lăteo, I lie hid.)

+lătē̆brōsus+, -a, -um, _adj._, full of hiding places; hidden, retired.

+Lătīnē+, _adv._, in Latin.

+Lătīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Latin.

+lātro+, 1 _v. n._, I bark, bark at.

+lātus+, -a, -um, _adj._, broad.

+lātus+, -a, -um, _part._ of fĕro.

+lătus+, -ĕris, _n._, side.

+laudo+, 1 _v. a._, I praise. (laus.)

+laurus+, -us, _f._, bay tree, laurel tree.

+laus+, laudis, _f._, praise.

+laxo+, 1 _v. a._, I loosen, relax. (laxus; cf. languidus.)

+lēgātus+, -i, _m._, ambassador, lieutenant. (lēgo, -are, I send with a
charge, depute.)

+lĕgo+, -lexi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I collect, choose out, read. (λέγω,
λόγος, dilegens.)

+lēnĭter+, _adv._, gently. (lēnis: cf. lentus.)

+leo+, -ōnis, _m._, lion. λέων

+lĕpĭdē+, _adv._, charmingly, humorously. (lĕpĭdus.)

+lĕpĭdus+, -a, -um, _adj._, charming, humorous. (lĕpos, charm.)

+Lesbius+, -a, -um, _adj._, Lesbian, of Lesbos.

+lĕvo+, 1 _v. a._, I raise up, relieve. (Cf. +lĕvis+, light.)

+lex, lēgis+, _f._, law.

+lĭbenter+, _adv._, gladly, willingly. (lĭbet.)

+lĭber+, -bri, _m._, book. (Lit., inner bark of tree.)

+lībĕrālis+, -e, _adj._, befitting a freeman, decorous, noble. (līber.)

+lībĕro+, 1 _v. a._, I set free. (līber.)

+lībra+, -ae, _f._, pound. (Cf. λίτρα)

+lĭcet+, lĭcuit and lĭcĭtum est, 2 _v. n._, defective, it is allowable.

+ligneus+, -a, -um, _adj._., wooden. (lignum.)

+lignum+, -i, _n._, what is gathered (lĕgo) as firewood, wood.

+līneāmentum+, -i, _n._, feature. (līnea, a line.)

+lingua+, -ae, _f._, tongue.

+līs+, lītis, _f._, lawsuit.

+lītigiōsus+, -a, -um, quarrelsome. (lis.)

+littera+ (or +lītera+), -ae, _f._, letter. (lĭno.)

+lŏcus+, -i, nom. plur. -i and -a, _m._, place, position, rank.

+longē+, _adv._, far off, by far.

+longus+, -a, -um, _adj._, long, far off.

+lŏquor+, -cūtus, 3 _v. dep._, I speak, say.

+lōrum+, -i, _n._, thong, leash.

+Lūcius+, -ii, _m._, Lucius.

+luctus+, -us, _m._, mourning. (lūgeo.)

+lūgeo+, -xi, [-ctum], 2 _v. n._ and _a._, I mourn, mourn for.

+lūgū̆bris+, -e, _adj._, mournful. (lūgeo.)

+Lūsĭtānus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of Lusitania.

+lux+, lūcis, _f._, light, day. Lucis ortu, at sunrise; primâ luce,
at dawn. (lūceo.)

+M.+, for Marcus.

+măgis+, _adv._, more: comparative degree from magnŏpĕre, magis, maxime.
(Root magh: cf. μέγας.)

+măgister+, -tri, _m._, master. (măgis and comparative suffix ter.)

+magnĭtūdo+, -ĭnis, _f._, size. (magnus.)

+magnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, great. (Root magh: cf. μέγας.)

+māior, maius+, _adj._, comparative degree of magnus, maior, maxĭmus.

+mandātum+, -i, _n._, command. (mando.)

+mando+, 1 _v. a._, I entrust, command, enjoin upon. Mando litteris,
I commit to writing. (manus, do.)

+măneo+, -nsi, -nsum, 2 _v. n._, I remain.

+Manlius+, -ii, _m._, Manlius.

+mansŭētus+, -a, -um, _part._ from mansuesco, tamed, gentle.

+mansŭēsco+, -sŭēvi, sŭētum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._, I tame, grow tame.
(Manus, suesco, I accustom to the hand.)

+mănus+, -us, _f._, hand, band.

+Marcus+, -i, _m._, Marcus.

+mărĕ+, -is, _n._, sea. (Root mar, to shine: cf. marmor.)

+mărĭtĭmus+, -a, -um, belonging to the sea, maritime. (mare.)

+mărītus+, -i, _m._, husband. (mas.)

+māter+, -tris, _f._, mother. (μήτηρ.)

+māter·fămĭliās+, mātris·fămĭliās, _f._, mother of a family, matron.

+mātrĭmōnium+, -ii, _n._, marriage. (māter.)

+mātrōna+, -ae, _f._, matron. (māter.)

+mātūresco+, -rui, no sup., 3 _v. n. inceptive_, I become ripe.

+maxĭmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, greatest; superlative degree, from magnus,

+mĕdeor+, no perf., 2 _v. dep._, I cure.

+mĕdĭcīna+, -ae, _f._, medicine, remedy. (From adj. mĕdĭcīnus, _sc._

+mĕdĭcīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, medical. (Cf. mĕdeor.)

+mĕdĭcus+, -i, _m._, doctor. (Cf. mĕdeor.)

+mĕdius+, -a, -um, _adj._, middle. (μέσος.)

+membrum+, -i, _n._, limb.

+mĕmŏria+, -ae, _f._, memory, recollection, story. (mĕmor.)

+mĕmŏro+, 1 _v. a._, I call to remembrance, I relate. (Cf. memoria.)

+Mĕnander+, -dri, _m._, Menander. (Μένανδρος.)

+mendācium+, -ii, _n._, lie. (mendax, mentior.)

+mens+, mentis, _f._, mind. (Root mem; cf. memini.)

+mentior+, 4 _v. dep._, I tell lies. (Lit., I invent, root men: cf.

+merces+, -ēdis, _f._, price. (mĕreor, I earn.)

+mercor+, 1 _v. dep. a._, I buy. (merx, merchandise, mĕreor.)

+mĕreor+, 2 _v. dep._, I deserve, earn, (μέρος, share.)

+mĕrīdiānus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of mid-day. (merīdies for medi- dies,
from mĕdius, dies.)

+messis+, -is, acc. -em and -im, _f._ harvest. (mĕto.)

+Mēthymnaeus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of Methymna. (Μήθυμνα.)

+mĕto+, messui, messum, 3 _v. a._, I reap. (Cf. messis.)

+mĕtus+, -us, _m._, fear.

+meus+, -a, -um, _adj._, my.

+mĭco+, -ui, no sup., 1 _v. n._, I glitter.

+mī̆gro+, 1 _v. n._, I depart from, quit. (Cf. meo, I go.)

+mīles+, -ĭtis, _c._, soldier.

+Mīlēsius+, -a, -um, _adj._, of Miletus.

+Mīlētus+, -i, _f._, Miletus, a town in Asia Minor. (Μίλητος.)

+mīlĭtāris+, -e, _adj._, military. (mīles.)

+Mĭlo+, -ōnis, _m._, Milo.

+mĭnistro+, 1 _v. a._, I wait upon, serve up, hand. (mĭnister, servant.)

+mĭnor+, -us, _adj._, less. comparative of parvus. (Root min: cf. minuo,
I lessen.)

+mĭnor+, 1 _v. dep._, I threaten. (minae, threats.)

+mīrandus+, -a, -um, wonderful: _ger._ of mīror.

+mīrĭfĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, causing wonder, marvellous. (mīrus,

+mīror+, 1 _v. dep._, I wonder at. (Cf. mīrus.)

+mīrus+, -a, -um, _adj._, wonderful.

+mĭser+, -era, -erum, _adj._ wretched. (Root mi: cf. mĭnuo.)

+mĭserandus+, -a, -um, pitiable: _gerundive_ of mĭseror.

+mĭseror+, 1 _v. dep._, I pity. (mĭser.)

+mītis+, -e, _adj._, gentle.

+Mĭtrĭdātes+, -is and -i, _m._, Mitridates or Mithridates.

+mitto+, mīsi, missum, 3 _v. a._, I send.

+mōbĭlis+, -e, _adj._, movable, fickle. (For movibilis, from mŏveo.)

+mŏdestus+, -a, -um, _adj._, moderate, virtuous, discreet. (mŏdus.)

+mŏdŏ+, _adv._, only. (Lit., by measure, mŏdus.)

+mŏdus+, -i, _m._, measure, manner. huiusmodi, of this sort.

+moenia+, -ium, _n._, plur. only, defensive walls, ramparts. (Cf.

+mollis+, -e, _adj._, easy, soft, (moveo.)

+mŏneo+, 2 _v. a._, I warn, advise, remind.

+mŏnīle+, -is, _n._, collar, necklace.

+mŏnĭmentum+, -i, _n._, monument. (mŏneo, I remind.)

+mons+, montis, _m._, mountain.

+mŏrĭbundus+, -a, -um, _adj._, dying. (mŏrior.)

+mŏrior+, mortuus, 3 _v. n._, I die.

+mōrōsus+, -a, -um, _adj._, bad-tempered.

+mors+, mortis, _f._, death. (Cf. mŏrior.)

+mos+, mōris, _m._, manner, custom. More ursino, like a bear. De more,
according to custom, as usual.

+mox+, _adv._, soon.

+mŭliēbris+, -e, _adj._, womanly, (mŭlier.)

+mŭlier+, -ĕris, _f._, woman.

+multo+ (or +mulcto+), 1 _v. a._, I punish, fine.

+multus+, -a, -um, _adj._, many, much. Comp., plūs; sup., plūrĭmus.

+mundus+, -a, -um, _adj._, clean, tidy.

+mūnīmentum+, -i, _n._, fortification. (mūnio.)

+mūnio+, 4 _v. a._, I fortify. (Cf. moenia, mūrus.)

+murmur+, -ŭris, _n._, complaint.

+mūrus+, -i, _m._, wall. (Root mu: cf. mūnio, moenia.)

+mūtuus+, -a, -um, _adj._, borrowed, lent. (mūto, I change.)

+nam+, _conj._, for.

+nanciscor+, nactus, and nanctus, 3 _v. dep._, I obtain, reach.

+nāris+, -is, _f._, nostril, nose; usually in plural.

+narro+, 1 _v. a._, I tell, relate. (Cf. i·gnarus, nosco; root gna,

+nascor+, nātus, 3 _v. dep._, I am born, spring up.

+nātio+, -ōnis, _f._, race, nation. (nascor.)

+nātūra+, -ae, _f._, nature. Rediit in naturam, it returned to its
natural position. (nascor.)

+nātus+, -us, _m._, birth, age. Natu grandis, advanced in age. (nascor.)

+nauta+. Cf. navita.

+nāvālis+, -e, _adj._, naval. (nāvis.)

+nāvis+, -is, _f._, ship. (ναῦς.)

+nāvĭta+ (or +nauta+), -ae, _m._, sailor. (nāvis.)

+nē+, _adv._ and _conj._, not, in order that not, lest.

+-nĕ+, _enclitic interrog. particle._

+nĕbŭlo+, -ōnis, _m._, worthless fellow. (nĕbŭla, mist: cf. nūbes,

+nĕc+, neither, nor, and not.

+nĕcessĕ+, _adj._, _nom._ and _acc. neuter_ only, necessary.

+nĕco+, 1 _v. a._, I kill. (Cf. νέκυς, corpse.)

+neglĭgo+, and neglĕgo, -exi, -ectum, 3 _v. a._, I neglect. (nec, lĕgo,
I do not pick up.)

+nĕego+, 1 _v. n._ and _a._, I deny, refuse.

+nēmo+, -ĭnis, _pron._, no one. (ne, hŏmo.)

+nē·quā·quam+, _adv._, by no means.

+nĕquĕ+, neither, nor, and not.

+nex+, nĕcis, _f._, violent death. (nĕco.)

+nīdŭlus+, -i, _m._, a little nest. (demin. of nīdus.)

+nĭhĭl+, nīl, _n._, _indecl._, nothing.

+nĭhĭlo+, by nothing; cf. nĭhĭlum. Used with comparatives, nihilo minus,
none the less.

+nĭhĭlum+, -i, _n._, nothing.

+nĭmis+, _adv._, too much.

+nĭmĭum+, _adv._ and _subst._, too much.

+nĭ·sĭ+, _conj._, unless.

+nītor+, nīsus and nixus, 3 _v. dep._, I strive.

+nōbĭlis+, -e, _adj._, celebrated, noble. (For gnobilis, from nosco or

+nōmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, name. (Cf. nosco.)

+non+, _adv._, not.

+non·nĕ+, _interrog. adv._, is not?

+non·nullus+, -a, -um, _adj._, some, several.

+nos+, _plur._ of ego, we. (Cf. νώ.)

+nos met·ipsi+, we ourselves.

+nosco+, nōvi, nōtum, 3 _v. a._, I know. (Or gnosco, root gno: cf.
nōmen, nōbilis.)

+noster+, -tra, -trum, _adj._, our. (nōs.)

+nōta+, -ae, _f._, mark, brand. (nosco.)

+nōtus+, -a, -um, known, _part._ from nosco.

+nŏvem+, _numer._, nine.

+nŏvus+, -a, -um, _adj._, new.

+nox+, noctis, _f._, night. (νύξ.)

+noxa+, -ae, _f._, injury, harm. (nŏcco.)

+nūbo+, -psi, -ptum, 3 _v. n._, I am married (of the woman), with
_dative_. (Lit., I veil myself: cf. nūbes.)

+nūdus+, -a, -um, _adj._, bare, unarmed.

+nullus+, -a, -um, _adj._, none. (ne·ullus.)

+nūmen+, -ĭnis, _n._, nod, will, divinity. (nuo.)

+nŭmĕrus+, -i, _m._, number. (Cf. νέμω, I distribute, nummus.)

+nunc+, _adv._, now. (num·ce: cf. νῦν.)

+nunquam+, _adv._, never. (ne-unquam.)

+nuntio+, 1 _v. a._, I announce, report. (Cf. nŏvus.)

+nusquam+, _adv._, nowhere. (ne-usquam.)

+ŏb+, _prep. gov. acc._, on account of.

+ob·iĭcio+, and +ōbĭcio+, obiēci, obiectum, 3 _v. a._, I throw before,
I reproach with. (jăcio.)

+ob·lĭno+, -lēvi, -lĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I smear over.

+ŏb·oedio+, 4 _v. n._, I obey, with dative. (ob, audio.)

+ŏb·ŏrior+, -ortus, 4 _v. dep._, I grow, spring up.

+ob·pĕto+ (or +op·peto+), -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 _v. a._, I encounter.

+ob·pugno+ (or +op·pugno+), 1 _v. a._, I fight against, attack.

+ob·sĕcro+, 1 _v. a._, I beseech, entreat. (sacro, lit., I ask on
religious grounds, ob sacrum.)

+ob·sĭdeo+, -sēdi, -sessum, 2 _v. n._, I besiege. (sĕdeo.)

+obsĭdio+, -ōnis, _f._, siege. (obsĭdeo.)

+ob·servo+, 1 _v. a._, I notice, attend to.

+ob·tĭneo+, -ui, -tentum, 2 _v. a._, I hold. (tĕneo.)

+ob·vĕnio+, -vēni, -ventum, 4 _v. n._, I come in way of, fall to lot of.

+ob·viam+, _adv._, with dative, in the way. Obviam ire, progredi, etc.,
alicui, to meet anyone. (via.)

+ob·vius+, -a, -um, _adj._, in the way. (via.)

+oc·cīdo+, -cīdi, cīsum, 3 _v. a._, I kill. (caedo.)

+occŭpo+, 1 _v. a._, I seize, take hold of. (ob, căpio.)

+octo+, _num._, eight. (ὀκτώ.)

+octōginta+, _num._, eighty.

+ŏcŭlus+, -i, _m._, eye. (Cf. ὄσσε, the two eyes; ὄσσομαι, I see.)

+of·fĕro+, obtŭli, oblātum, 3 _v. a._, I offer, present.

+offĭcium+, -ii, _n._, service, work, duty. (For opificium, opus,

+ŏlea+, -ae, _f._, olive tree. (ἐλαία.)

+ŏleāgĭneus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of the olive. (ŏlea.)

+ŏleum+, -i, _n._, olive oil. (ἔλαιον.)

+ŏ·mitto+, -mīsi, -missum, 3 _v. a._, I neglect. (ob, mitto, I let go.)

+omnis+, -e, _adj._, all.

+ŏpĕra+, -ae, _f._, work. (Cf. ŏpus.)

+ŏpīmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, rich, fat, choice.

+ŏpīnio+, -ōnis, _f._, opinion, supposition. (opīnor.)

+oppĕrior+, -perītus and -pertus, 4 _v. dep._, I wait for. (Cf. experior
and peritus, from obsolete perior.)

+oppĭdum+, -i, _n._, town.

+op·pleo+, -ēvi, -ētum, 2 _v. a._, I fill up.

+op·prĭmo+, -essi, -essum, 3 _v. a._, I press against, oppress, crush.

+[ops]+, ŏpis, _f._, nom. sing. not used, power, wealth, help. (Cf.

+optĭmus+, -a, -um, superlative of bŏnus. (Cf. ops.)

+opto+, 1 _v. a._, I wish for. (Root op, pick out: cf. ὄψομαι.)

+optŭlit+ (or obtŭlit), fr. offĕro.

+ōrācŭlum+, -i, _n._, oracle, (ōro.)

+ŏrātio+, -onis, _f._, speech, (ōro.)

+Ŏrestes+, -is or -i, Orestes. (Ὀρέστης.)

+ŏrior+, ortus, 4 _v. dep._, I arise. Sol oriens, sunrise. (Cf. ὄρνυμι.)

+ornātus+, -us, _m._, attire. (orno.)

+orno+, 1 _v. a._, I adorn.

+ōro+, 1 _v. a._, I pray for, beg. (ōs.)

+orthius+, -a, -um, _adj._, high. Carmen orthium, νόμος ὄρθιος: cf. note
xxxv. 21.

+ortus+, -us, _m._, rising. (ŏrior.) solis ortu, at sunrise.

+ōs+, ōris, _n._, mouth, face.

+ŏs+, ossis, _n._, bone. (ὀστέον.)

+Oscē+, _adv._, in Oscan.

+ostendo+, -di, -sum and -tum, 3 _v. a._, I show. (obs·tendo.)

+ostento+, 1 _v. a._, I show; freq. form fr. ostendo.

+ōtiōsus+, -a, -um, _adj._, unoccupied, free, quiet. (ōtium.)

+P.+ for Publius, -ii, _m._, Publius.

+pābŭlum+, -i, _n._, food. (pasco.)

+păciscor+, -i, pactus, 3 _v. dep._, _a._ and _n._, I agree, bargain.
(Cf. pax, pactum.)

+pactum+, -i, _n._, agreement, manner. (păciscor.)

+pălam+, _adv._, openly.

+Pălātium+, -ii, _n._, the Palatine hill.

+palma+, -ae, _f._, palm.

+palmes+, -ĭtis, _m._, vine-shoot. (palma.)

+pălūs+, -ūdis, _f._, marsh. (πηλός, mud.)

+pango+, pĕpĭgi, pactum (also panxi and pēgi, panctum), 3 _v. a._,
I settle. (Cf. pax.)

+Păpīrius+, -ii, _m._, Papirius.

+pār+, păris, _adj._, equal.

+parco+, pĕperci, rarely parsi, parcĭtum and parsum, 3 _v. n._, with
dat., I spare.

+părens+, -entis, _c._, parent. (părio.)

+pāreo+, 2 _v. n._, with dative, I obey.

+părio+, pĕpĕri, părĭtum and partum, 3 _v. a._, I beget, produce.

+pars+, partis, _f._, part, side.

+partus+, -us, _m._, birth, offspring. (părio.)

+părum+, _adv._, too little. (Cf. parvus.)

+parvus+, -a, -um, _adj._, small. (Cf. paucus.)

+pastus+, -us, _m._, food, pasture. (pasco.)

+păter+, pātris, _m._, father. (πατήρ, root pa: cf. pasco.)

+pătior+, passus, 3 _v. dep._, I suffer, allow. Aegre passus,

+paucus+, -a, -um, _adj._, few. (Root pau: cf. παῦρος, paulus.)

+paulātim+, _adv._, by degrees, gradually. (paulus, little.)

+păvĕ·făcio+, -fēci, -factum, 3 _v. a._, I terrify. (păveo.)

+pax+, pācis, _f._, peace. (Root pac, make firm: cf. paciscor, pango,

+pectus+, -ŏris, _n._, breast: mind.

+pĕcūnia+, -ae, _f._, money. (pĕcus, cattle being the original standard
of value.)

+pĕdester+, -tris, -tre, _adj._, on foot; in plur. as subst.,
foot-soldiers. (pes.)

+Pĕlasgus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Pelasgian.

+Pĕlŏponnensiăcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Peloponnesian.

+pĕnĭtus+, _adv._, deeply, thoroughly.

+per+, _prep. gov. acc._, through.

+per·callesco+, -lui, no sup., 3 _v. a._, I am well versed in, know
well. (Inceptive form from per·calleo: cf. callĭdus.)

+per·contor+, 1 _v. dep._, I enquire.

+per·crēbesco+ (or +per·crebresco+), bui (or brui), no sup., 3 _v. n._,
I spread abroad. (creber.)

+per·cŭtio+, cussi, cussum, 3 _v. a._, I strike. securi percutio,
I behead. (quătio.)

+per·do+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I lose.

+pĕren·die+, _adv._, on the day after to-morrow. (πέραν, dies.)

+pĕr·eo+, -ii or -īvi, -ĭtum, 4 _v. n._, I pass away, die.

+per·fŏdio+, -fōdi, -fossum, 3 _v. a._, I dig through, pierce through.

+Pĕriander+, -dri, _m._, Periander.

+Pĕrĭcles+, -is or -i, _m._, Pericles.

+pĕrīcŭlum+, -i, _n._, danger.

+pĕrītus+, -a, -um, _adj._, skilled. (_Part._ fr. obsolete perior: cf.

+per·mētior+, -ensus, 4 _v. dep. a._, I measure through, travel over.

+per·mitto+, mīsi, missum, 3 _v. a._, I suffer, allow.

+per·mŏveo+, -mōvi, -mōtum, 2 _v. a._, I move thoroughly, rouse,

+per·mūtātio+, -ōnis, _f._, exchange. (per·mūto.)

+per·mūto+, 1 _v. a._, I exchange.

+per·pĕtior+, pessus, 3 _v. dep. n._, and _a._, I suffer, endure.

+per·suādeo+, -suāsi, suāsum, 2 _v. a._, I convince, persuade.

+per·taedet+, -taesum est, 2 _v. n._, impersonal; it thoroughly wearies.
(Acc. of person affected, and gen. of thing or person causing the

+per·vĕnio+, -vēni, -ventum, 4 _v. n._, I arrive at.

+pēs+, +pĕdis+, _m._, foot. (Cf. ποῦς, ποδός.)

+pestĭlentia+, -ae, _f._, plague. (pestis.)

+Pĕtīlius+, -ii, _m._, Petilius.

+pĕto+, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 _v. a._, I seek, ask for. (Lit., to fall
upon: cf. πίπτω.)

+pĕtŭlantia+, -ae, _f._, impudence. (Obsolete pĕtŭlo: cf. pĕto.)

+phălĕrae+, -arum, _f._, _plur._ only, ornaments for chests and
foreheads of horses. (φάλαρα.)

+Phĭlēmon+ (or +Phĭlēmo+), -ōnis, _m._, Philemon. (Φιλήμων.)

+phĭlŏsŏphus+, -i, _m._, philosopher. (φιλόσοφος.)

+Phrygia+, -ae, _f._, Phrygia.

+pĭget+, pĭguit and pĭgĭtum est, 2 _v. n._ (rarely used personally),
it troubles, displeases.

+pinna+, or +penna+, -ae, _f._, feather. (Root pet: cf. πέτομαι, I fly.)

+Pīraeus+, -i, the Piraeus, port of Athens.

+pius+, -a, -um, _adj._, dutiful, kind.

+plăceo+, 2 _v. n._, I am pleasing; often used impersonally, placet
mihi, it pleases me, seems good to me, is my opinion; of the senate,
it is resolved, determined.

+plăcĭdē+, _adv._, gently, quietly. (plăcĭdus, plăceo.)

+plānē+, _adv._, clearly, plainly. (plānus, level.)

+plebs+, plebis (or +plēbes+, -ei and -is), _f._, the common people.

+plērus·que+, -aque, -umque, _adj._, very many, most. (plerus: cf.
plēnus, root ple, fill.)

+plūmo+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I cover, or am covered with, feathers,
am fledged. (plūma.)

+plūs+, plūris, _adj._, more: comparative of multus.

+Plūtarchus+, -i, _m._, Plutarch.

+pōcŭlum+, -i, _n._, cup, goblet. (Cf. pōtus, a draught.)

+Poenĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._ Cf. Poenus.

+Poenus+, -a, -um, Punic, Carthaginian. Cf. ix. 8 note.

+poena+, -ae, _f._, punishment, penalty. (ποινή, punio, poeniteo.)

+Pŏlus+, -i, _m._, Polus.

+Pomptīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Pomptine, _i.e._ near Pometia, in Latium.

+pōmum+, -i, _n._, fruit or apple.

+pondo+, _adv._, in or by weight. (pondus.)

+pondus+, -ĕris, _n._, weight. (pendo, I hang up.)

+pōno+, pŏsui, pŏsĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I place.

+pons+, pontis, _m._, bridge. (prop, a path, πάτος, German Pfad, esp.
across a river: cf. Pontifex.)

+Pontus+, -i, _m._, district in Asia Minor.

+pŏpŭlus+, -i, _m._, people.

+porgere+. Cf. porrigo.

+porrĭgo+, -rexi, -rectum, 3 _v. a._, I stretch out. (Several contracted
forms, porgere, porge, porgite, etc.) (pro, rego.)

+posco+, pŏposci, no sup., 3 _v. a._, I demand.

+possies+, _old pres. subj._ of possum, for possis.

+possum+, pŏtui, posse, _v. n._, I am able. (pŏtis, sum.)

+post+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, afterwards, after.

+posteā+, _adv._, afterwards. (post, ea, from is.)

+postĕrior+, -us, comparative fr. posterus.

+postĕrus+, -a, -um, _adj._, coming after; as _subst._, descendant.
(post, _comp._ postĕrior, _sup._ postrēmus.)

+post·hac+, _adv._, after this, henceforth.

+postlīmĭnium+, -ii, _n._, return to rank and privileges. Cf. note
xl. 13. (post, limen, usual derivation.)

+post·quam+, _conj._, after that.

+postrēmus+, -a, -um, last; superlative from postĕrus. ad postremum,
at last.

+postrīdiē+, _adv._, on the next day. (postĕrus, dies.)

+postŭlātio+, -ōnis, _f._, demand. (postŭlo.)

+postŭlātum+, -i, _n._, demand. (postŭlo.)

+postŭlo+, 1 _v. a._, I demand. (posco.)

+pŏtior+, 4 _v. dep._, I obtain possession of; with gen. and abl.
(pŏtis, able.)

+pŏtius+, _adv._, rather; only used in comparative pŏtius, and superl.
pŏtissime. (fr. pŏtis, -e, _adj._, pŏtior, pŏtissimus.)

+praebeo+, 2 _v. a._, I offer, give.

+praeceps+, -ĭpĭtis, _adj._, head-first, headlong, (prae, căput.)

+prae·cīdo+, -cīdi, -cīsum, 3 _v. a._, I cut off. (caedo.)

+prae·cĭpio+, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 _v. a._, I take beforehand, I instruct.

+prae·clārus+, -a, -um, _adj._, famous.

+praeda+, -ae, _f._, booty, spoil.

+prae·dĭco+, 1 _v. a._, I proclaim, declare publicly.

+praedium+, -ii, _n._, farm, estate.

+praefectus+, -i, _m._, a man placed over, overseer, prefect. (prae,

+prae·for+, 1 _v. dep._, I say beforehand.

+prae·fulgeo+, -si, no sup., 2 _v. n._, I glitter.

+praemium+, -ii, _n._, reward.

+prae·mŏneo+, 2 _v. a._, I forewarn, admonish beforehand.

+praesens+, -entis, _adj._, present. (praesum.)

+prae·ses+, -ĭdis, _adj._, protecting; as _subst._, ruler. (prae,

+prae·sto+, -ĭti, -ĭtum (rarely -āvi, -ātum), 1 _v. n._ and _a._, I am
superior, I surpass.

+praeter+, _prep. gov. acc._, besides, except. (prae, and suffix ter.)

+praeterĭtus+, -a, -um, _part._ fr. praetereo, past.

+praetĕr·eo+, -ii or -īvi, ĭtum, 4 _v. n._ and _a._, I pass by.

+praetextātus+, -a, -um, _adj._, wearing the toga praetexta.

+prĕtiōsē+, _adv._, expensively, splendidly. (prĕtiōsus: cf. prĕtium.)

+prĕtium+, -ii, _n._, price.

+prīmum+, _adv._, at first. Ubi, or cum, primum, as soon as.

+prīmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, first, _superl._; no positive; _comp._ prior.
(Cp. priscus.)

+princĭpium+, -ii, _n._, beginning. (princeps.)

+prior+, -us, _adj._, former, _comp._; (Cf. prīmus.)

+prius+, _adv._, before. (prior.)

+prius·quam+, _conj._, before that.

+pro+, _prep. gov. abl._, before, for, in proportion to.

+prō·cēdo+, -cessi, -cessum, 3 _v. n._, I advance.

+prōcērĭtas+, -ātis, _f._, height. (prōcērus.)

+prōcērus+, -a, -um, _adj._, tall. (procello.)

+prō·consŭlāris+, -e, _adj._, proconsular, acting instead of a consul.

+prŏcŭl+, _adv._, absolutely, or with _abl._, with or without ‘ab’; at a
distance, far from. Dubio procul, without doubt.

+prŏ·cūro+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I take care of.

+prōd·eo+, -ii, -ĭtum, -ire, 4 _v. n._, I come forward, (pro, eo.)

+prō·do+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I give forth, report, relate;
I betray.

+proelium+, -ii, _n._, battle.

+prō·fĕro+, -tŭli, -lātum, 3 _v. a._, I bring forth, I prolong.

+prŏ·fĭciscor+, -fectus, 3 _v. dep. n._, I set out. (pro, făcio.)

+prŏ·fundus+, -a, -um, _adj._, deep; as _subst._ profundum, -i (_sc._
mare), deep sea.

+prō·grĕdior+, -essus, 3 _v. dep. n._, I advance. (grădior.)

+prŏ·indē+, _adv._, just so, just as.

+prō·iĭcio+, or +prō·ĭcio+, -iēci, -iectum, 3 _v. a._, I throw forward,
thrust forward. (iăcio.)

+prō·mitto+, -mīsi, -missum, 3 _v. a._, I send forth; I say beforehand,

+prō·mŏveo+, -mōvi, -mōtum, 2 _v. a._, I move forward, cause to advance.

+promptus+, -us, _m._, readiness. in promptu esse, to be at hand, ready.
(prōmo, I take forth.)

+prō·nuntio+, 1 _v. a._, I proclaim, announce.

+prŏpe+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, near, almost: prŏpe, prŏpius,

+prŏpĕro+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I hasten. (prŏpĕrus, quick.)

+prŏpinquus+, -a, -um, near, neighbouring; as _subst._, a neighbour.

+propter+, _prep. gov. acc._, on account of. (for propiter, fr. prŏpe.)

+proptĕr·eā+, _adv._, on account of those things, therefore.

+prō·pugno+, 1 _v. n._, I fight in front of, fight for, defend.

+prō·rĭpio+, -rĭpui, -reptum, 3 _v. a._, I drag forth; se proripere,
to rush forth, take refuge in. (răpio.)

+prorsus+, _adv._, forward, directly. (pro, versus.)

+prō·sĕquor+, -cūtus, 3 _v. dep. a._, I follow.

+prospectus+, -us, _m._, view. (prospĭcio.)

+prospĕrē+, _adv._, successfully. (prospĕrus, from prospe, answering to

+prō·sum+, -fui, prōdesse, _v. n._, I am of use to.

+Prōtăgŏras+, -ae, _m._, Protagoras.

+prō-tendo+, -di, -sum and -tum, 3 _v. a._, I stretch forth.

+prō·tĭnus+, _adv._, forthwith. (tĕnus, _prep._, as far as.)

+prō·vĕho+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I carry forward; in _pass._, I go
forward, I sail, etc.

+prō·vĭdens+, -entis, _part._ of provĭdeo, careful.

+prō·vĭdeo+, -vīdi, -vīsum, 2 _v. n._ and _a._, I foresee, I am careful.

+prōvincia+, -ae, _f._, sphere of duty, province.

+prō·vŏco+, 1 _v. a._, I call forth, challenge.

+proxĭmē+, _adv._, and _prep._ with _acc._, very near: super. fr. prŏpe.

+proxĭmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, very near: [prŏpis obsolete], prŏpior,
proxĭmus. (Cf. prŏpe.)

+prūdens+, -entis, _adj._, foreseeing, discreet. (For pro·vĭdens.)

+publĭcē+, _adv._, in behalf of the state.

+pŭdor+, -ōris, _m._, shame, modesty. (pŭdeo.)

+puer+, -ĕri, _m._, boy.

+pugna+, -ae, _f._, battle, contest. (Root pug, strike: cf. pugil,

+pugno+, 1 _v. a._, I fight. (pugna.)

+pulchrĭtūdo+, -ĭnis, _f._, beauty. (pulcher.)

+pullus+, -i, _m._, young animal or bird.

+pūnio+, -īvi or ii, ītum, 4 _v. a._, I punish. (poena.)

+puppis+, -is, _f._, stern, poop of ship.

+purgo+, 1 _v. a._, I make clean, clear. (pūrus, ăgo.)

+pŭto+, 1 _v. a._, I think. (Lit., I trim, arrange, and so reckon,
think; root, pu, cleanse: cf. purus.)

+Pyrrhus+, -i, _m._, Pyrrhus.

+quādrāgintā+, _num._, forty.

+quaero+, -sīvi or -sii, sītum, 3 _v. a._, I seek, inquire for, ask.

+quaeso+, -īvi or -ii, no sup., 3 _v. a._, I seek, beg. Used
parenthetically, ‘pray.’

+quaestus+, -us, _m._, gain, business. (quaero.)

+quālis+, -e, _adj. pron._, of what kind; talis ... qualis, such ... as.

+quam+, _conj._ and _adv._, than, as. (qui.)

+quam·ob·rem+, _adv._, _relative_ and _interrog._, wherefore.

+quam·quam+, _conj._, although.

+quantus+, -a, -um, _adj._, how great, as great. (quam.)

+quăsĭ+, _adv._, as if, just as. (quamsi.)

+quattuordĕcim+ (or quatuordĕcim), _numer._, fourteen.

+-quĕ+, _enclitic conj._, and.

+quĕo+, -īvi and -ii, -ĭtum, -ire, 4 _v. n._, I am able.

+quercus+, -us, _f._, oak.

+qui+, quae, quod, _rel. pron., indef. adj. pron._ and _inter. adj.
pron._, who, what.

+quĭă+, _conj._, because. (For qui-am, quî-iam, whereby now.)

+quīdam+, quaedam, quoddam (and quiddam, _subst._), _indef. pron._,
a certain one.

+quĭdem+, _adv._, indeed.

+quĭes+, -ētis, _f._, rest.

+quĭesco+, -ēvi, -ētum, 3 _v. n._, I rest, (quies.)

+quīn+, _conj._, that not, but that, but indeed, rather; _interrog._,
why not? (qui, ne.)

+quin·dĕcim·vĭr+, -i, a quindecimvir, one of the college of 15 men who
had charge of the Sibylline books.

+quinquĕ+, _numer._, five.

+quinquĭes+, _adv._, five times.

+quis+, quid, _inter. pron._, who? which?

+quis+, qua, quid, _indef. pron._, any.

+quis·nam+, quidnam, _inter. pron._, who, which, what pray? whoever?

+quis·piam+, quaepiam, quodpiam (and _subst._, quidpiam or quippiam),
_indef. pron._, any, some.

+quis·quĕ+, quaeque, quodque (and _subst._, quidque or quicque), _indef.
pron._, each, every.

+quis·quam+, quaequam, quicquam or quidquam, _indef. pron._, anyone.

+quo+, _adv._ and _conj._, for which reason, in order that, so that.

+quod+, _conj._, because, that. (qui.)

+quŏnĭam+, _adv._, since, because. (quom for cum, iam.)

+quŏquĕ+, _conj._, also.

+rādix+, -īcis, _f._, root. (Cf. ramus, branch; ῥίξα, root.)

+răpĭdus+, -a, -um, _adj._, swift. (răpio.)

+rătio+, -ōnis, _f._, reason, account. (reor.)

+rĕ·cēdo+, -cessi- -cessum, 3 _v. n._, I fall back, withdraw.

+rĕ·cĭpio+, -cēpi, -ceptum, 3 _v. a._, I take back, receive. (căpio.)

+rĕ·cĭto+, 1 _v. a._, I read out, repeat.

+rĕ·condo+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I put back, hide.

+rĕcordātio+, -onis, _f._, recollection. (re·cordor: cf. cor.)

+rĕ·cumbo+, -cŭbui, 3 _v. n._, I lie down again.

+rĕ·cŭpĕro+, 1 _v. a._, I recover. (căpio.)

+rĕ·curvo+, no perf., -ātum, 1 _v. a._, I bend back.

+red·do+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I give back, render, impart,
restore. (re, do.)

+rĕd·eo+, -īvi or -ii, -ĭtum, -ire, 4 _v. n._, I go back.

+rĕdĭtus+, -us, _m._, return. (rĕdeo.)

+rĕ·fĕro+, rētŭli (and rettŭli), rĕlātum, 3 _v. a._, I bring back,
return, turn back, attribute.

+rĕ·fŭgio+, -fūgi, no sup., 3 _v. n._ and _a._, I flee back, flee away,

+regnum+, -i, _n._, kingdom. (rex.)

+rĕgo+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I rule, direct. (rex.)

+rĕ·grĕdior+, -gressus, 3 _v. dep. n._, I return. (grădior.)

+reicit+, for reiicit.

+rē·iĭcio+, or +rē·ĭcio+, -iēci, -iectum, 3 _v. a._, I throw back,
postpone. (iăcio.)

+rĕlĭcus+. Cf. reliquus.

+rē̆lĭgio+, -ōnis, _f._, religious scruple, obligation.

+rĕ·linquo+, -līqui, -lictum, 3 _v. a._, I leave behind.

+rē̆lĭquĭae+, -arum, _pl._ only, remains. (rĕlĭquus.)

+rĕlĭquus+ (or relicus), -a, -um, _adj._, remaining. (rĕlinquo.)

+rĕmĕdium+, -ii, _n._, remedy, cure. (re, mĕdeor.)

+rĕ·mōtus+, -a, -um, _part._ from remŏveo, retired, distant.

+rĕ·mŏveo+, -mōvi, mōtum, 2 _v. a._, I move back, withdraw.

+reor+, rătus, 2 _v. dep. a._, I believe, think.

+rĕpentē+, _adv._, suddenly. (rĕpens, sudden.)

+rĕ·pĕto+, -īvi or -ii, -ītum, 3 _v. a._, I seek again. Memoriâ repeto,
I call to mind.

+rĕ·quīro+, -sīvi or -sii, -sītum, 3 _v. a._, I seek again, seek for.

+rēs+, rei, _f._, thing, deed.

+re·scindo+, -scĭdi, -scissum, 3 _v. a._, I tear open.

+re·scrībo+, -psi, -ptum, 3 _v. a._, I write back.

+re·spondeo+, -di, -sum, 2 _v. n._, I reply. (Lit., I promise in

+res·publĭca+, reipublicae, _f._, state.

+rĕ·surgo+, -surrexi, -surrectum, 3 _v. n._, I rise again.

+rĕ·tĭneo+, -ui, -tentum, 2 _v. a._, I hold back, keep. (tĕneo.)

+rĕŭs+, -i, _m._, defendant in an action, culprit. (res.)

+rĕ·vello+, -velli, -vulsum and -volsum, 3 _v. a._, I pull away, pull

+rĕ·verto+, -ti, -sum, 3 _v. n._, I turn back, return.

+rĕvertor+, -versus, 3 _v. dep. n._, I turn back, return.

+rĕ·vincio+, -nxi, -nctum, 4 _v. a._, I bind back, fasten.

+rĕ·vŏlo+, no perf. or sup., are, 1 _v. n._, I fly back.

+rex+, rēgis, _m._, king. (rĕgo.)

+rhētor+, -ŏris, _m._, teacher of oratory, rhetorician. (ῥήτωρ.)

+rīdeo+, -si, -sum, 2 _v. n._ and _a._, I laugh, laugh at, mock.

+rīma+, -ae, _f._, crack, cleft.

+rītĕ+, _adv._, duly, fitly. (ritus, religious observance.)

+rŏgo+, 1 _v. a._, I ask for, ask.

+Rōma+, -ae, _f._, Rome.

+Rōmānus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Roman.

+rostrum+, -i, _n._, beak, prow. (rōdo, I gnaw.)

+rŭbus+, -i, _m._, bramble. (rŭber, red.)

+rŭdis+, -e, _adj._, rough.

+rursum+ and rursus, _adv._, again. (For revorsum, from re·verto.)

+rustĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of the country, rural, rustic. (rus.)

+sā̆crārium+, -ii, _n._, shrine, sacristy. (săcer, sacred.)

+saepĕ+, _adv._, often. (Obsolete adj. saepis, frequent.)

+saepĕ·nŭmĕrō+, _adv._, often.

+saevio+, -ii, -ītum, 4 _v. n._, I rage, am fierce. (saevus.)

+sălum+, -i, _n._, the open sea. (σάλος.)

+sălūs+, -ūtis, _f._, safety. (Cf. salvus.)

+salvus+, -a, -um, _adj._, safe.

+Samnis+, -ītis, _adj._, Samnite.

+sanguĭnŏlentus+, -a, -um, blood-stained. (sanguis.)

+sănĭes+ (-em, -e, no genitive nor plural), _f._, corrupted blood,
matter. (sanguis.)

+săpiens+, -entis, _adj._, wise. (săpio.)

+sătĭra+, or sătŭra, -ae, _f._, a satire.

+sătis+, _adv._, sufficiently.

+scăteo+, no perf. or sup., -ēre, 2 _v. n._, I bubble, flow forth;
bubble over with: with _abl._

+scio+, -īvi, -ītum, 4 _v. a._, I know.

+Scīpio+, -ōnis, _m._, Scipio.

+scītē+, _adv._, cleverly, skilfully. (scio.)

+scŏpŭlus+, -i, _m._, rock. (σκόπελος.)

+scrībo+, -psi, -ptum, 3 _v. a._, I write. (γράφω, schreiben.)

+scriptor+, -ōris, _m._, writer, author. (scrībo.)

+scūtum+, -i, _n._, shield. (σκῦτος.)

+sē+, and sēsē, _gen._ sui, _reflex. pron._, himself, herself, itself.

+sēcessus+, -us, _m._, withdrawal. (sē·cēdo.)

+sē·cum+, for cum se, with himself, etc.

+sĕcundum+, _prep. gov. acc._, following after, according to. (sĕquor.)

+sĕcundus+, -a, -um, _adj._, following, second, favourable, (sĕquor.)

+sĕcūris+, -is, _f._, axe. securi percutio, I behead. (sĕco.)

+sēcūrus+, -a, -um, _adj._, free from care. (se, = sine, cura.)

+sed+, _conj._, but. sed enim, but indeed.

+sĕdeo+, sēdi, sessum, 2 _v. n._, I sit. (sēdes, insĭdiae.)

+sĕges+, -ĕtis, _f._, cornfield.

+sē·lībra+, -ae, _f._, half pound. (semi, libra.)

+sēmentis+, -is, _f._, seed, crop. (sēmen.)

+sē·mĕt+, strengthened form of se.

+semper+, _adv._, always. (Cf. sĕmel.)

+sĕnātor+, -ōris, _m._, Senator. (sĕnex.)

+sĕnātus+, -us, _m._, Senate.

+sĕnātus consultum+, -i, _n._, decree of Senate.

+sensim+, _adv._, slowly. (sentio, lit., perceptibly.)

+sententia+, -ae, _f._, way of thinking, opinion, decision. (sentio.)

+sentio+, -si- -sum, 4 _v. a._, I perceive, judge, decide.

+sentis+, -is, _m._, rarely _f._, thorn.

+se·orsum+, _adv._, separately, (se, verto.)

+sē·păro+, 1 _v. a._, I separate. (păro.)

+septem+, _numer._, seven. (Cf. ἑπτά.)

+sĕpulcrum+, -i, _n._, tomb. (sĕpĕlio.)

+sermo+, -ōnis, _m._, speech. (sĕro.)

+Sertōrius+, -ii, _m._, Sertorius.

+servo+, 1 _v. a._, I preserve.

+servus+, -i, _m._, slave.

+sestertium+, -ii, _n._, a thousand sestertii. Cf. note vi. 4.

+sĕvērē+, _adv._, austerely, severely.

+sex+, _numer._, six.

+sexāginta+, _numer._, sixty.

+si+, _conj._, if.

+Sĭbyllīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of the Sibyl, Sibylline. (Sĭbylla.)

+sīc+, _adv._ so, thus. ut ... sic, _correlatives_, as ... so.

+Sĭcāni+, -orum, _m._, the Sicani.

+sicco+, 1 _v. a._, I dry. (siccus, dry.)

+Sĭcĭlia+, -ae, _f._, Sicily.

+sīc·ŭt+, _adv._, just as, so as.

+signĭfĭco+, 1 _v. a._, I show, make known, signify, beckon. (signum,

+signum+, -i, _n._, sign, emblem.

+sĭlentium+, -ii, _n._, silence, (sĭleo.)

+silvestris+, -e, _adj._, woody. (silva.)

+sĭmŭl+, _adv._, at once, at same time.

+sĭmŭlācrum+, -i, _n._, image, representation, appearance. (sĭmĭlis,

+sĭmŭlo+, 1 _v. a._, I pretend. (similis.)

+sīn+, _conj._, but if. (si, ne.)

+sĭnĕ+, _prep. gov. abl._, without.

+sĭno+, sīvi, sĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I set down; I allow.

+sĭnus+, -us, _m._, folds of garment, bosom.

+sisto+, stiti, statum, 3 _v. a._ and _n._, I cause to stand, I stand.
Se sistere, to present oneself, appear, (sto, ἵστημι.)

+sĭtus+, -a, -um, _part._ from sĭno, situated.

+sīvĕ+ (or seu), _conj._, or if. Sive ... sive, whether ... or.

+sōbrius+, -a, -um, _adj._, not drunk, sober, moderate.

+Sōcrătes+, -is or -i, _m._, Socrates. (Σωκράτης.)

+sōl+, sōlis, _m._, sun.

+sōlemnis+ (or +solennis+ or +sollennis+), -e, _adj._, annual, stated,
customary, solemn. (sollus, whole, cf. ὅλος.)

+sŏleo+, -itus, 2 _v. n._, I am accustomed.

+sollers+, -ertis, _adj._, skilled: with gen. (sollus, whole.)

+sōlus+, -a, -um, _adj._, alone. (Cf. sollus, whole.)

+solvo+, -lvi, -lūtum, 3 _v. a._, I release, set loose. (se·luo.)

+somnium+, -ii, _n._, dream. (somnus, ὕπνος.)

+sŏnōrus+, -a, -um, _adj._, loud. (sŏnus.)

+Sŏphocles+, -is and -i, _m._, Sophocles. (Σοφοκλῆς.)

+Sp.+ for +Spurius+, -i, _m._, Spurius.

+spargo+, -si, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I sprinkle, strew.

+spĕcŭlor+, -atus, 1 _v. dep. a._, I spy out, reconnoitre. (spĕcio,
spĕcŭla, watch tower.)

+specto+, 1 _v. a._, I gaze at. (Intens. form of spĕcio.)

+spĕcus+, -us, _m._, cave.

+spēs+, -ei, _f._, hope. (Cf. spēro.)

+splendor+, -ōris, _m._, magnificence. (splendeo, I shine.)

+spŏlium+, -ii, _n._, spoil, booty.

+stătim+, _adv._, immediately. (sto.)

+stătus+, -us, _m._, position. (sto.)

+stirps+, stirpis, _f._, rarely _m._, stem, root.

+sto+, stĕti, stătum, stāre, 1 _v. n._, I stand. (ἵστημι.)

+stŏlo+, -ōnis, _m._, sucker of tree.

+strēnuus+, -a, -um, _adj._, active, energetic. (Cf. στερεός, hard.)

+struo+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I build up.

+stŭdeo+, -ui, no sup., 2 _v. a._, I am eager, I strive.

+stŭdium+, -ii, _n._, zeal, study. (stŭdeo.)

+stultus+, -a, -um, _adj._, foolish.

+stŭpĕ·făcio+, -fēci, -factum, 3 _v. a._, I make stupid or senseless;
I amaze. (stŭpeo.)

+suādeo+, -si, -sum, 2 _v. n._ and _a._, I persuade. (Cf. suāvis.)

+sŭb+, _prep. gov. acc._ and _abl._, under.

+sub·do+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I place under.

+sublātissĭmus+, _superl._ of sublātus, from tollo, very high.

+sŭbŏles+, -is, _f._, shoot. (sub, ŏlesco, grow.)

+sub·verto+, -ti, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I overthrow.

+suc·cēdo+, -cessi, -cessum, 3 _v. n._, I go under, go from under,
ascend, advance. (sub, cēdo.)

+suffrāgium+, -ii, _n._, vote.

+Sulla+, -ae, _m._, Sulla.

+sum+, fui, esse, _v. n._, I am.

+summus+, -a, -um, _adj._, highest; _superl._ fr. sŭpĕrus, sŭpĕrior,
sūprēmus or summus.

+sŭpĕr+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._ and _abl._, above, over, on,

+sŭperbia+, -ae, _f._, pride. (sŭperbus.)

+sŭperbus+, -a, -um, _adj._, proud, haughty. (sŭper.)

+sŭpĕrior+, -us, _adj._, higher, former; comp. fr. sŭpĕrus, supĕrior,
sū̆prēmus or summus.

+sŭpĕro, 1+ _v. a._, I overcome. (sŭper.)

+sŭperstes+, -ĭtis, _adj._, surviving.

+supplĭcium+, -ii, _n._, punishment. (supplex.)

+sursum+, _adv._, from below. (sub-versum.)

+suus+, -a, -um, _reflex. adj. pron._, his own, her own, its own.

+synanchē+, -es, _f._, (συνάγχη), a sore throat.

+T.+, for Titus, -i, _m._, Titus.

+tăberna+, -ae, _f._, shop. (Cf. tăbŭla, plank.)

+tăbŭlātūm+, -i, _n._, floor. (tăbŭla, plank.)

+tăceo+, 2 _v. n._ and _a._, I am silent, pass over in silence.

+tăcĭtus+, -a, -um, _part._ from taceo, not spoken of, silent.

+taedium+, -ii, _n._, weariness. (taedet.)

+Taenărum+, -i, _n._, and Taenărus, -i, _m._ and _f._, Taenarum and

+tălentum+, -i, _n._, talent (sum of money, £243 15s.). (τάλαντον.)

+tālis+, -e, _adj._, of such a kind, such.

+tam+, _adv._, so.

+tămen+, _adv._, however.

+tam·quam+, _adv._, just as, as if, as it were.

+tandem+, _adv._, at last.

+tantus+, -a, -um, _adj._, so great.

+Tarquĭnius+, -ii, _m._, Tarquin.

+tēlum+, i., _n._, dart.

+tempĕrantia+, -ae, _f._, moderation, temperance. (tempĕro, tempus.)

+tempestīvus+, -a, -um, _adj._, seasonable, ripe. (tempus.)

+templum+, -i, _n._, temple.

+tempus+, -ŏris, _n._, time.

+tĕneo+, tĕnui, tentum, 2 _v. a._, I hold, keep. Cursum teneo, I hold on
a course.

+tĕnŭis+, -e, _adj._, drawn out, thin, slender. (tĕneo.)

+terra+, -ae, land, country.

+terreo+, 2 _v. a._, I alarm. (τρέω.)

+terrĭfĭcus+, -a, -um, alarming, terrible. (terreo, făcio.)

+tertius+, -a, -um, _adj._, third. (ter.)

+testis+, -is, _c._, witness. (testor.)

+Thrācus+, -a, -um, _adj._, Thracian.

+Tib.+, for Tĭbĕrius, -ii, _m._, Tiberius.

+tībia+, -ae, _f._, pipe, flute.

+tībīcēn+, -ĭnis, _m._, flute-player. (For tibĭĭcen, fr. tībĭă, căno.)

+Tīmŏchăres+, -is and -i, _m._, Timochares.

+tŏga+, -ae, _f._, a garment, a toga. (tĕgo.)

+tollo+, sustŭli, sublātum, 3 _v. a._, I raise. (Cf. tŭli, tŏlĕro.)

+Torquātus+, -i, _m._, Torquatus.

+torques+ (and +torquis+), -is, _m._ and _f._, twisted necklace or
collar. (torqueo.)

+torreo+, torrui, tostum, 2 _v. a._, I roast.

+tōtus+, -a, -um, _adj._, all, whole.

+tracto+, 1 _v. a._, I handle, treat, polish. (Intens. of trăho.)

+trādo+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I hand over, give up, hand down,
relate. (trans, do.)

+trans·curro+, -curri and -cŭcurri, -cursum, 3 _v. n._, I run past,
I pass.

+trans·ĭgo+, -ēgi, -actum, 3 _v. a._, I drive through, I pierce. (ăgo.)

+transĭlio+, -īvi or -ui, no sup., 4 _v. a._ and _n._, I leap across,
leap over. (trans, sălio.)

+trĕmĭbundus+, -a, -um, _adj._, full of trembling. (trĕmo.)

+trĕpĭdans+, -antis, _part._ fr. trepido, trembling.

+trĕpĭdo+, 1 _v. n._, I am in a state of confusion or alarm. (Cf.

+trēs+, tria, _numer._, three. (τρεῖς, τρία.)

+trĭbūnus+, -i, _m._, tribune. (Lit., the chief of a tribe, trĭbus.)

+trīduum+, -i, _n._, space of three days. (tres, dies, _sc._ spătium.)

+triennium+, -ii, _n._, space of three years. (tres, annus, _sc._

+trĭgĕmĭnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, three born at a birth. (tres, geminus.)

+triumpho+, 1 _v. n._ and _a._, I triumph. (triumphus.)

+triumphus+, -i, _m._, a triumph. (θρίαμβος, procession in honour of

+tu+, _pers. pron._, thou. (σύ.)

+tum+, _adv._, then.

+tŭmultus+, -us, _m._, disturbance. (tŭmeo.)

+tunc+, _adv._, then. (tum-ce.)

+turba+, -ae, _f._, uproar, crowd.

+turpis+, -e, _adj._, base.

+turris+, -is, _f._, turret, tower.

+tūtē+, _adv._, safely. (tutus.)

+tūtor+, 1 _v. dep. a._, I watch, defend. (tueor.)

+tūtus+, -a, -um, _adj._, safe. (tueor.)

+tuus+, -a, -um, _adj._, thy. (tu.)

+ūber+, -ĕris, _adj._, rich, fertile.

+ŭbī̆+, _adv._, _relat._ and _interrog._, where, when. Ubi primum,
as soon as.

+ŭbī·quĕ+, _adv._, wherever, everywhere, anywhere.

+ullus+, -a, -um, _adj._, any. (For ūnŭlus, demin. of ūnus.)

+ultĭmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, farthest, super. fr. [ulter, obsolete; cf.
ultra] ultĕrior, ultimus.

+ultrā+, _adv._, and _prep. gov. acc._, beyond. (Cf. ultĭmus.)

+ultro+, _adv._, beyond, besides, of one’s own accord. (Cf. ultimus.)

+unda+, -ae, _f._, wave.

+un·dē·vīcēsĭmus+, -a, -um, _adj._, nineteenth.

+undĭquĕ+, _adv._, from or on all sides. (unde-que.)

+unguis+, -is, _m._, nail or talon. (ὄνυξ.)

+ūnĭcē+, _adv._, solely, especially. (unĭcus, unus.)

+ūnĭversus+, -a, -um, _adj._, all together. (unus, verto, turned into

+unquam+, or +umquam+, _adv._, at any time, ever.

+ūnus+, -a, -um, _numer._, one.

+urbānus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of the city. (urbs.)

+urbĭcus+, -a, -um, _adj._, of the city. (urbs.)

+urbs+, -is, _f._, city.

+urgeo+, ursi, no sup., 2 _v. a._, I press on, press hard upon, urge.

+urna+, -ae, _f._, urn. (Properly a vessel of burnt clay; ūro, I burn.)

+ursīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, like a bear. (ursus.)

+usquam+, _adv._, anywhere, in anything. (For ubs·quam, from ŭbi.)

+usquĕ+, _adv._, all the way, always. Usque adeo, to such an extent.
(For ubs·que, from ŭbi.)

+ūsus+, -us, _m._, use, advantage. (ūtor.)

+ŭt+, ŭtī, with _indic._, as, when; ut ... sic, _correlatives_, as ...
so; with _subj._, in order that, so that.

+ŭter·quĕ+, ū̆trăque, ū̆trumque, _adj. pron._, both, each.

+ūtĭlis+, -e, _adj._, useful. (ūtor.)

+ūtor+, ūsus, 3 _v. dep._, I use; with _abl._

+ū̆trum+, _interrog. adv._, whether. (ŭter.)

+uxor+, -ōris, _f._, wife.

+vădĭmōnium+, -ii, _n._, bail. (văs, a surety.)

+vădor+, 1 _v. dep. a._, I bind over by bail. (văs.)

+văleo+, 2 _v. n._, I am strong, I am of value. In leave-taking, vălē,
etc., farewell.

+Vălĕrius+, -ii, _m._, Valerius.

+vălĭdus+, -a, -um, _adj._, strong. (văleo.)

+vălītūdo (or vălētūdo)+, -ĭnis, _f._, health. (văleo.)

+vallum+, -i, _n._, a rampart with palisades. (vallus, a stake.)

+vărius+, -a, -um, _adj._, diverse, different.

+vastūs+, -a, -um, _adj._, empty, immense.

+-vĕ+, _enclitic_, or.

+vecto+, 1 _v. a._, I carry. (_intens._ of vĕho.)

+vĕho+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. a._, I carry.

+vēlox+, -ōcis, _adj._, swift. (Cf. vŏlo, -āre, I fly.)

+vĕl·ŭt+, +vĕl·ŭti+, _adv._, just as, as if.

+vēnātio+, -ōnis, _f._, hunting. (vēnor.)

+vendo+, -dĭdi, -dĭtum, 3 _v. a._, I sell. (vēnum, do.)

+vĕnēnum+, -i, _n._, poison.

+vĕnia+, -ae, _f._, pardon. Bonâ veniâ, by your kind leave.

+vĕnio+, vēni, ventum, 4 _v. n._, I come.

+vēnor+, 1 _v. dep. a._, I hunt.

+vēnum+, -i, _n._, sale. In classical writers only in acc. sing.

+ventĭto+, 1 _v. n._, I come frequently. (Intens. of vĕnio.)

+verber+, -ĕris, _n._, scourge, blow.

+verbum+, -i, _n._, word.

+Vergilius+, -ii, _m._, Vergil.

+vērō+, _adv._, in truth, but indeed. (vērus.)

+versus+, -us, _m._, a line, verse. (verto.)

+vertex+, -ĭcis, _m._, whirlpool, top, head. (verto.)

+verto+, -ti, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I turn; in _pass._ also with abl., I turn
upon, depend upon.

+vērus+, -a, -um, _adj._, true.

+vester+, -tra, -trum, _poss. pron._, your. (vos.)

+vestīgium+, -ii, _n._, footprint, sole of foot. (vestīgo, I track.)

+vestio+, 4 _v. a._, I clothe. (vestis, garment.)

+vĕtus+, -ĕris, _adj._, old.

+via+, -ae, _f._, road, way.

+vī̆bro+, 1 _v. a._ and _n._, I brandish, I shake.

+vīcĭes+, _adv._, twenty times.

+vīcīnus+, -a, -um, _adj._, neighbouring; as _subst._, a neighbour.
(vīcus, hamlet.)

+victōria+, -ae, _f._, victory. (victor, vinco.)

+victus+, -us, _m._, food, way of life. (vīvo.)

+vĭdeo+, vīdi, vīsum, 2 _v. a._, I see; in _pass._, I seem.
Impersonally, videtur mihi, it seems good to me.

+vīginti+, _numer._, twenty.

+vĭgor+, ōris, _m._, force, strength. (vĭgeo, I flourish.)

+vincio+, -nxi, -nctum, 4 _v. a._, I bind.

+vinco+, vīci, victum, 3 _v. a._, I conquer.

+vindĭco+, 1 _v. a._, I avenge. (vim-dico, I assert authority.)

+vīnum+, -i, _n._, vine, wine. (οἶνος.)

+viŏlens+, -entis, _adj._, impetuous. (vis.)

+vir+, vĭri, _m._, man, husband.

+virgultum+, -i, _n._, twig. (For virgŭlētum, fr. virgŭla, demin. of
virga, branch, twig.)

+virtūs+, -ūtis, _f._, valour. (vir.)

+vis+ (vim, vi, no _gen. sing._, _plur._ vīres, etc.), _f._, strength,
force. (ἴς.)

+vīso+, -si, -sum, 3 _v. a._, I behold. (Intens. of vĭdeo.)

+vīta+, -ae, _f._, life. (vivo.)

+vītis+, -is, _f._, vine.

+vīvo+, -xi, -ctum, 3 _v. n._, I live.

+vŏco+, 1 _v. a._, I call. (vox.)

+volgus+ (or +vulgus+), -i, _n._, rarely _m._, common people; in _abl._,
volgo, as _adv._, commonly.

+vŏlo+, -ui, no sup., velle, 3 _v. a._, I wish for. Quid hoc sibi vult,
what does this mean.

+vŏlo+, 1 _v. n._, I fly.

+vŏluntārius+, -a, -um, _adj._, voluntary. (vŏlo, I wish.)

+vos+, _plur._ of tu, you.

+vox+, vōcis, _f._, voice, expression. (vŏco.)

+vulgus+ and +vulgo+. Cf. volgus.

+vulnus+, or +volnus+, -ēris, _n._, wound. (Cf. vello, I tear.)

+vultus+, -us, _m._, countenance.

+Xanthippe+, -es, _f._, Xanthippe. (Ξανθίππη.)


_For details about Latin words turn to the Latin-English Vocabulary._

+abandon+, desino.

+able, I am+, possum.

+about+, de.

+accompany+ (home), prosequor.

+accomplishment+, disciplina.

+account+, ratio.

+account, on account of+, propter.

+acquit+, absolvo.

+act+, ago.

+actor+, histrio, actor.

+adjourn+, profero, differo.

+administer+ (justice), dico (jus).

+advance+, incedo, procedo, prodeo, progredior.

+advanced+ (in age), grandis (natu).

+advantageous to+, e, ex.

+advise+, moneo.

+after+, post.

+afterwards+, postea, posthac.

+again+, denuo, iterum.

+against+, adversus, adversum, in.

+age+, natus.

+agree+, convenio.

+alarm, in+, trepidans.

+all+, omnis.

+allowed, it is+, licet.

+almost+, fere, prope.

+alone+, solus.

+alum+, alumen.

+ambassador+, legatus.

+amusing+, hilaris, iucundus.

+and+, et, atque, -que.

+animal+, bestia, fera.

+announce+, praedico.

+another+, alius.

+anxious+, cupidus.

+appear+, videor.

+appearance+, aspectus.

+apple-tree+, pomum.

+approve+, probo.

+arms+, arma.

+army+, exercitus.

+arouse+, excito.

+arrest+, adprehendo.

+as+, ut, velut.

+as if, as though+, quasi.

+ask+, interrogo, rogo; peto, oro.

+ask for+, peto, oro.

+ascribe+, acceptum refero.

+assembly+, contio.

+assist+, adiuvo.

+astound+, stupefacio.

+at+, in.

+athletics+, ars athletica.

+attack+, oppugno, pugno in, incurro.

+attendant+, aeditumus.

+attract attention+, converto oculos, animum.

+author+, scriptor.

+back, in the+, aversus.

+bad-tempered+, morosus.

+bail+, vadimonium.

+barbarian+, barbarus.

+bark+, latro.

+battle+, pugna, proelium.

+bear+ (_v._), fero.

+bear-like+, ursinus.

+beauty+, pulchritudo.

+because+, quod.

+beckon+, significo.

+before+, ante, coram.

+begin+, coepi.

+behead+, securi percutio.

+believe+, credo.

+bend+, flecto.

+besiege+, obsideo.

+betake+, adfero.

+bird+, avis.

+blaze+, flagro.

+block+, insula.

+blood-stained+, cruentus.

+blow+, verber.

+blush+, erubesco.

+bodily+, _genitive of_ corpus.

+body+, corpus.

+boldly+, intrepidus.

+bone+, os.

+book+, liber.

+both+, uterque,

+both ... and+, et ... et.

+boy+, puer.

+brand+ (with mark of infamy), adficio.

+brave+, fortis, strenuus.

+brazen+, aeneus.

+break+, infringo.

+bribery+, ambitus.

+bridge+, pons.

+bring+, fero.

+bring in+, introduco.

+brother+, frater.

+build+, struo, condo, congero.

+burn+, ardeo, deuro.

+but+, sed, at.

+buy+, emo, mercor.

+by no means+, nequaquam, haudquaquam.

+call+, appello, voco.

+called+, nomine.

+camp+, castra.

+can+, possum.

+carry+, fero, vecto.

+carry back+, refero.

+carry to+, asporto.

+case+, causa, res.

+cause+, (_v._), curo _with gerundive_.

+cautious+, cautus.

+cavalry+, equitatus.

+cave+, specus.

+cease+, omitto.

+censor+, censor.

+centre+, media pars.

+certain, a+ (_indef._), quidam.

+certainly+, procul dubio.

+challenge+, provoco.

+chance, by+, forte.

+chariot+, currus.

+charm+, demulceo.

+choose+, deligo, eligo.

+citizen+, civis.

+city+, urbs.

+city, in the+ (_adj._), urbanus, urbicus.

+clever+, astutus.

+collect+, comparo.

+come+, venio.

+come to+, pervenio.

+comedy+, comoedia.

+command+, imperium.

+command+ (army), rego.

+conceal+, celo.

+condemn+, condemno, damno.

+confidence+, confidentia.

+congratulation+, gratulatio.

+conquer+, vinco, supero.

+consider+, habeo; +I am considered+, videor, habeor.

+conspiracy+, coniuratio.

+consult+, consulo, consulto.

+contest+, certamen.

+control+, impero.

+conversation+, sermo.

+converse with+, colloquor.

+cook+, torreo.

+corn+, sementes.

+correct+, corrigo.

+country+ (_adj._), rusticus.

+courage+, animus.

+course+, cursus.

+cowardice+, ignavia.

+credulity+, credulitas.

+crop+, seges.

+crowd+, turba, caterva.

+crown+ (_s._), corona.

+crown+ (_v._), corono.

+cry+, conclamo.

+custom+, mos.

+cut off+, decido, praecido.

+daily+, quotidianus.

+dare+, audeo.

+dart+, telum.

+daughter+, filia.

+dawn+, prima lux.

+day+, dies.

+death+, mors, exitus e vita; (condemn to) +death+, capitis (damno.)

+deceive+, fallo.

+deed+, facinus, factum.

+defeat+, vinco, supero.

+defend+, defendo.

+defendant+, reus.

+demand+ (_s._), postulatum, postulatio.

+demand+ (_v._), posco.

+depart+, digredior.

+depend on+, vertor in.

+desert+ (_s._), locus desertus.

+desert+ (_v._), descisco ab.

+desire+, opto.

+despise+, contemno.

+difficulty, of+ (_adj._), difficilis.

+direct+, dirigo.

+discover+, detego.

+dissipate+, digero.

+distance, at a+, procul.

+distant+, longus.

+divine+, divinus.

+do+, facio.

+doe+, cerva.

+dog+, canis.

+dolphin+, delphin.

+dominion+, dicio.

+draw up+, instruo.

+dreadful+, inmanis.

+dream+, somnium.

+dress+, induo.

+drink+, haurio.

+drive+, cogo; (from home), exigo.

+duty+, officium.

+dying+, moribundus.

+each+, quisque.

+ear+, auris.

+easily+, faciliter.

+educate+, educo.

+eight+, octo.

+eighty+, octoginta.

+elephant+, elephantus.

+emblem+, signum.

+embrace+, amplector.

+endeavour+, conor.

+enemy+, hostis, inimicus.

+energetic+, acer.

+enormous+, ingens, vastus.

+enough+, satis.

+enter+, introeo, ascendo in.

+equal+, par.

+except+, nisi, praeter.

+exchange+, permutatio.

+exile+, exilium.

+expression+, vox.

+extraordinary+, egregius.

+eye+, oculus.

+fable+, fabula.

+face+, os.

+facing+, adversum, adversus.

+fall down+, concido.

+famous+, praeclarus, famâ celebri.

+farm+, fundus.

+father+, pater, paterfamilias.

+favourable+, mollis.

+fear+, metus.

+feature+, lineamentum.

+field+, ager.

+fight+, pugno.

+figure+, simulacrum.

+find+, invenio.

+fine+, pecunia.

+finger+, digitus.

+fire+, ignis, incendium.

+first+, primus.

+first at+, primum.

+fit+, aptus.

+five+, quinque.

+five times+, quinquies.

+flight+, fuga.

+flower+, flos.

+flute+, tibiae.

+flute-player+, tibicen.

+fly+, volo.

+foliage+, comae.

+follow+, prosequor.

+fond+, cupidus.

+food+, cibus, victus, pabulum.

+foot+, pes.

+for+, enim, nam.

+forbid+, interdico.

+forces+, copiae.

+foretell+, praedico.

+form+, conformo, fingo.

+formerly+, antea.

+fortify+, munio.

+free+, libero.

+friend+, amicus, familiaris.

+frighten+, consterno.

+from+, e, ex; a, ab.

+from all sides+, undique.

+front, in+, adversus.

+fruitful+, felix, fecundus, uber.

+full speed, at+, citato cursu.

+gain+, adipiscor, mihi obvenit.

+gain possession of+, potior.

+general+, imperator.

+gift+, praemium, donum.

+give+, do, reddo.

+give account of+, rationem reddo.

+give advice+, praecipio, moneo.

+give bail+, vadimonium dare, promittere.

+give thanks+, gratias ago.

+give vote+, sententiam fero.

+glitter+, mico.

+go+, eo, cedo.

+god+, deus.

+gold+ (_adj._), aureus.

+good+, bonus.

+good for, I am+, valeo.

+grass+, gramen.

+great+, magnus.

+greedy+, avarus.

+grieve+, doleo.

+groan+, gemitus edo.

+ground+, locus.

+grow+, nascor.

+guard+, custodio.

+guard, I am on my+, caveo.

+half+, dimidium.

+hand+, manus.

+hand to+, trado.

+happen+, fio, accido.

+harmless+, sine noxâ.

+harsh+, asper.

+harvest+, messis.

+haste, make+, propero.

+haughtily+, per superbiam.

+have+, habeo.

+head+, caput.

+hear+, audio.

+health+, valetudo.

+heart+, cor.

+heaven, by+, divinitus.

+height+, proceries, magnitudo.

+help+ (_s._), auxilium.

+help+ (_v._), adjuvo.

+herself+, ipsa, se.

+hide+, recondo, delitesco.

+high, many stories+, multis tabulatis editus.

+his+, suus, ejus.

+hold on+, teneo.

+hollow+, caverna.

+home+, domus.

+honour+, honor; +in honour of+, ob honorem.

+honourable+, honestus.

+hope+, spes.

+horse+, equus.

+host+, hospes.

+house+, aedes.

+how+, quomodo.

+hundred+, centum.

+hunt+, venatio.

+ignorant+, imperitus.

+immediately+, statim.

+immense+, inmensus.

+impertinence+, petulantia.

+important+, magnus.

+in+, in.

+in honour of+, ob honorem.

+infamy+, ignominia.

+inflamed-throat+, synanche.

+inhabit+, incolo, colo.

+inroad+, incursio.

+insult+, contumeliâ afficio.

+interpreter+, interpres.

+invent+, comminiscor.

+jeer at+, eludo, inrideo.

+judge+, iudex.

+justice+, ius.

+keep+, retineo.

+kill+, occido, interficio.

+king+, rex.

+know+, scio, percallesco.

+labour+, labor.

+lack+, desum.

+lame+, debilis.

+land+, terra.

+language+, lingua.

+large+, magnus, ingens.

+large sum of+, grandis.

+lark+, cassita.

+laugh at+, derideo.

+laurel+ (_s._), laurus.

+laurel+ (_adj._), laureus.

+law+, lex.

+law-suit+, lis.

+leader+, dux.

+leaf+, frons.

+leave+, relinquo.

+leg+, crus.

+lend+, dare ... mutuum.

+lick+, lambo, demulceo.

+lie+, mendacium.

+lies, tell+, mentior.

+life+, vita, caput.

+lifeless+, exanguis.

+like+, more (_with adj. or gen._).

+line+ (+of battle+), acies.

+linger+, demoror.

+lion+, leo.

+live+, vivo.

+loiterer+, cessator.

+long while, for a+, diu.

+loose, let+, emitto.

+lose+, amitto.

+loud+, sublatus, magnus.

+love+, amo.

+luxuriant+, laetus.

+lyre+, fides.

+mad, I am+, deliro.

+magnificence+, splendor.

+maintain+, retineo, contendo.

+make+, facio, reddo.

+make haste+, propero.

+man+, homo.

+manœuvre+, converto.

+many+, multus.

+many sorts of+, varius.

+mark+, nota.

+marriage+, matrimonium.

+married to, I am+, nubo.

+marsh+, palus.

+marvellous+, mirandus.

+master+, dommus, magister.

+matron+, materfamilias.

+matter+, res.

+mean, what does this+, quid hoc sibi vult.

+medicine+, medicina, res medicina.

+meet+, obviam fio.

+mid-day+, (_s._), dies medius.

+mid-day+, (_adj._), meridianus.

+middle+, medius.

+military+, militaris.

+mimic hunt+, pugna venationis.

+modern+, praesens.

+money+, pecunia.

+mother+, mater.

+motionless+, immobilis.

+mount+, inscendo.

+mourn for+, lugeo.

+mourning+, habitus lugubris.

+mouth+, os.

+much+, multus, grandis.

+much+, as much as, tantus ... quantus.

+must+, necesse est.

+my+, meus.

+myself+, ego ipse.

+name+, nomen, cognomen.

+nation+, gens.

+natural position+, natura.

+near+, prope.

+necessary+, necesse.

+neck+, collum.

+neck-lace+, torquis.

+neglect+, negligo.

+neighbour+, vicinus.

+neighbouring+, proximus.

+nest+, nidus.

+never+, nunquam, nusquam.

+next+, posterus.

+next day+, postridie.

+night+, nox.

+nine+, novem.

+no one+, nemo, nullus.

+not+, non, haud.

+number+, numerus.

+oak+, quercus.

+oath+, iusiurandum.

+obey+, pareo.

+offer+, offero.

+offspring+, fetus.

+often+, saepe.

+old+, antiquus, vetus.

+old days, in+, antiquitus.

+old-fashioned+, priscus.

+old woman+, anus.

+olive+, oleum.

+on, in+, super.

+one+, unus.

+one day+, quodam die.

+only+, modo.

+opinion, I am of+, censeo.

+oppose+, loquor contra.

+oracle+, oraculum.

+order+, jubeo, impero.

+order that, in+, ut, quo.

+other+, alius.

+others, the+, ceteri.

+ought+, debeo, _or gerundive_.

+out of+, e, ex.

+own, his+, suus.

+owner+, dominus.

+palm+, palma.

+pardon+, poenâ solvo.

+pass+ (sentence), fero (sententiam).

+pay+, do, solvo.

+peace+, pax.

+people+, populus, vulgus.

+perch on+, insisto.

+perfect+, integer.

+perform+, facio.

+perish+, pereo.

+persuade+, persuadeo.

+philosopher+, philosophus.

+pierce+, perfodio.

+pitiable+, miserandus.

+place+, (_s._), locus.

+place+ (hope), habeo (spem).

+place in+, condo.

+place on+, impono, pono.

+plague+, pestilentia.

+plain+, campus.

+plan+, consilium.

+plant+, consero.

+play+, cano.

+plead+, verba facere.

+poison+, venenum.

+polish+, tracto.

+position, natural+, natura.

+possession, take+, potior.

+praise+, laus.

+pray+, obsecro, oro.

+present+, dono, offero.

+pretend+, simulo.

+prevent, to+, ut ne, ne.

+price+, pretium.

+prisoner+, captivus.

+produce+, pario, edo, profero.

+promise+, promitto.

+proof+, argumentum.

+property+, praedium.

+propose+, censeo.

+provided with+, copiosus.

+prune+, amputo.

+publicly+, publice.

+pull out+, revello.

+pull up+, revello.

+punish+, vindico, punio, multo.

+pupil+, auditor.

+quarrelsome+, litigiosus.

+ravage+, depopulor.

+raven+, corvus.

+read+, recito.

+reap+, meto.

+receive+, accipio, fero.

+recover+, recupero.

+refuse+, nolo.

+rejoicing+ (_s._), laetitia.

+rejoicing+ (_adj._), laetus.

+relate+, narro, trado.

+relation+, cognatus.

+remain+, maneo.

+remaining+, reliquus.

+remains+, reliquiae.

+remarkable+, eximius.

+remedy+, remedium.

+reply+, respondeo.

+reproach+, obiicio.

+restore+, reddo.

+return+, redeo.

+returns+ (_s._), reditus.

+reward+, praemium.

+rise+, exurgo, resurgo.

+road+, via.

+roaring+, fremitus.

+room+, cubiculum.

+rough+, rudis.

+safe+, salvus, incolumis.

+safety+, salus.

+sailor+, nauta.

+same+, idem.

+save+, servo.

+say+, dico, narro.

+scorn+, aspernor.

+sea+, mare.

+search for+, quaero, requiro.

+seated on+, insidens.

+secret+, clandestinus, tacitus.

+secretly+, tacite.

+see+, video.

+sell+, vendo.

+senate+, senatus.

+senate-house+, curia.

+senator+, senator.

+send+, mitto.

+send for+, arcesso.

+sentence+, sententia.

+separate+, separo.

+shake+, vibro.

+shame+, pudor.

+shapeless+, informis.

+shield+, scutum.

+shine+, praefulgeo.

+ship+, navis.

+shoulder+, humerus.

+shout+, clamor.

+show+, ostendo.

+shut in+, includo.

+shut up+, claudo.

+sickle+, falx.

+siege+, obsideo.

+sigh+, murmura edo.

+sight+, aspectus.

+sight, in my+, me inspectante.

+silent, I am+, taceo.

+silently+, tacite.

+silver+ (_adj._), argenteus.

+sing+, cano.

+sister+, soror.

+sit+, sedeo.

+situated+, situs.

+six+, sex.

+size+, corpus.

+skill+, ars, disciplina.

+skilled+, peritus, sollers.

+slave+, servus.

+slay+, transigo.

+sleep+, quiesco.

+small+, parvus.

+smear+, lino.

+so+, ita, itaque.

+soldier+, miles.

+son+, filius.

+song+, carmen.

+soon+, mox.

+spare+, parco.

+speak+, loquor, dico, enuntio.

+spear+, telum.

+speed, at full+, citato cursu.

+speed+, celeritas.

+spoil+, praeda.

+spring into+, transilio.

+spring down+, desilio.

+stand+, sto.

+stand forth+, exto.

+stand still+, consisto.

+state+, respublica.

+stem+, lignum.

+stern+, puppis.

+story+, tabulatum (of house); apologus (tale).

+strength+, vis.

+strengthen+, firmo.

+stretch out+, protendo.

+strike+, percutio.

+strong+, validus, violentas.

+success, with+, prospere.

+such+, talis, ejusmodi.

+sucker+, suboles.

+suddenly+, repente.

+suffer from+, patior.

+summon+, arcesso.

+sunrise+, lucis ortus, sol oriens.

+supply+, copia.

+surpass+, praesto.

+surround+, cingo.

+sword+, gladius.

+tail+, cauda.

+take+, capio, fero.

+take from+, detraho.

+take to flight+, in fugam me proripio.

+take possession of+, potior.

+take refuge in+, concedo in.

+tale+, fabula.

+talent+, talentum.

+talk with+, colloquor.

+teach+, doceo.

+tear+, lanio.

+tear in pieces+, dilacero, discindo.

+tear open+, rescindo, divello.

+tell+, dico, narro, enuntio.

+tell lies+, mentior.

+temple+, templum.

+ten+, decem.

+term+, condicio.

+terrible+, terrificus.

+terrified+, territus.

+thank+, grates ago, gratias ago.

+thanks+, grates, gratiae.

+that+, ille, is.

+their+, suus, eorum, illorum.

+therefore+, itaque.

+thing+, res.

+think+, puto.

+third+, tertius.

+this+, hic.

+thorn+, stirps.

+though+, cum.

+three+, tres.

+three years+, triennium.

+through+, per.

+throw+, iacio, coniicio.

+throw away+, abiicio.

+throw down+, everto.

+thus+, ita, sic.

+time+, tempus.

+time, at the+, in praesens.

+tomb+, sepulcrum.

+to-morrow+, cras.

+towards+, ad.

+tower+, turris.

+town+, oppidum.

+trappings+, insignia.

+treachery+, insidiae.

+tree+, arbor.

+tribune+, tribunus.

+triumph+ (_s._), triumphus.

+triumph+ (_v._), triumpho.

+trust in+, confido.

+try+, experior, cognosco.

+turn to+ or +on+, refero.

+turret+, turris.

+twenty+, viginti.

+twenty-times+, vicies.

+twig+, virgultum.

+two+, duo.

+uncle+, patruus.

+understand+, intellego.

+undertake+, recipio.

+unfinished+, inperfectus.

+unfledged+, involucris.

+unsettled+, iniudicatus.

+unusual+, novus.

+unwilling, I am+, nolo.

+urn+, urna.

+use+, utor, expromo.

+useful+, utilis, magno usu _and_ magno usui.

+vain, in+, frustra.

+vast+, ingens.

+verdict, I give a+, pronuntio.

+verse+, versus.

+very+, admodum.

+victory+, victoria.

+vigour+, vigor.

+vine+, vinum.

+voice+, vox.

+voluntary+, voluntarius.

+vote+, sententia.

+wag+, moveo.

+war+, bellum.

+warn+, moneo, praemoneo.

+warrior+, bellator.

+wavering+, ambiguus.

+weary, I am, of this+, pertaedet me huius.

+weep+, lacrimo.

+weep for+, comploro.

+weight+, pondus.

+well-loved+, amatus.

+what+, quis.

+whatever+, quicumque.

+when+, ubi, cum.

+whenever+, ubicumque, cum.

+which+, qui.

+white+, albus.

+who+, quis, qui.

+whoever+, quicumque.

+whole+, totus.

+why+, cur.

+wife+, uxor.

+wild-beast+, fera, bestia.

+wild-beast, of a+, (_adj._), ferinus.

+willingly+, libenter.

+win+, vinco.

+win over+, comparo.

+with+, cum.

+wise+, sapiens.

+wish+, volo.

+woman+, mulier.

+woman, old+, anus.

+wonder at+, miror, admiror, demiror.

+wonderful+, minis, mirandus, mirificus.

+wooden+, ligneus.

+word+, verbum.

+worthy+, dignus.

+wound+ (_s._), vulnus.

+wound+ (_v._), haurio.

+write+, scribo.

+writer+, scriptor.

+you+, tu, vos.

+young man+, adulescens.

+young ones+, pulli.



    1.          xvii.  10
    2.          xvii.   4
    3.          xiii.   6
    4.             i.  17
    5.            ii.   1
    6.             v.   2
    7.            xv.  17
    8.             i.  14
    9.             v.   5
   10.            xv.  16
   11.             i.  23
   12.             i.  23
   13.            xv.  22
   14.            xv.  22
   15.             i.  19
   16.            iv.  18
   17.            iv.  18
   18.     vi. (vii.)   1
   19.             i.   3
   20.             i.  10
   21.            ix.  13
   22.            ix.  13
   23.            ix.  11
   24.            ii.  29
   25.            ii.  29
   26.            ii.  29
   27.           iii.   8
   28.             v.  14
   29.             v.  14
   30.             v.  14
   31.     vi. (vii.)   5
   32.            xi.   9
   33.           xii.  12
   34.            xv.   1
   35.           xvi.  19
   36.           xvi.  19
   37.           xix.  12
   38.          xvii.  16
   39.             v.  10
   40.     vi. (vii.)  18


_The Roman figures give the number of the selection, the Arabic figures
the number of the line in the selection._

  [Transcriber’s Note:
  The Notes and the Proper Names were printed as shown here,
  in a single merged Index.]

  _abhinc multis annis_, xx. 10.
  _ablative absolute_, v. 9.
  _acceptum referre_, xvii. 13.
  _accusative plural_ of 3rd declension in -is, ix. 2.
  _acerbus_, v. 5.
  _adfines_, xxvi. 5.
  _adigere_ aliquem iusiurandum, xl. 6.
  _adjective_ for English substantive and preposition, x. 1 (Milo
    Crotoniensis); xl. 1 (proelium Cannense).
  _advocare_, xxxii. 2.
  _aedes_, xvi. 17.
  _aerarium_, xvii. 10.
  _Aesopus_, xxiv. 1.
  _ager Pomptinus_, xxiii. 1.
  +ἀκοινονόητοι+, xxxiii. 10.
  _albus_, xiv. 1.
  _Alcibiades_, iv. 4.
  _Alexander_, vi. 1.
  _ambitus_, ii. 2.
  _animus_ and _mens_, v. 5.
  _Antiochus_, ix. 1.
  _antiquus_, xx. 4.
  _argyranche_, xxxii. 14.
  _Arion_, xxxv. 1.
  _Aristoteles_, iii. 1.
  _attraction of antecedent_ into relative clause, xxx. 2; xxxix. 6.
  _Aurunci_, xx. 6.
  _avunculus_, vii. 1.

  _Bucephalas_, vi. 1.
  _-bundus_ and _-cundus_, vi. 11.

  _Caesar_, C. Iulius, xx. 16.
  _Caesar_, Claudius, xxix. 2.
  _canere tibiis_, vii. 4.
  _Cannae_, ix. 1.
  _capitalis res_, xxx. 9.
  _caput_, xix. 1.
  _Cato_, xvii. 1.
  _censeo_ (parenthetically), xvi. 12.
  _censores_, xl. 24.
  _Chares_, vi. 2.
  _Cicero_, xxxiii. 1.
  _cinctus_, xxi. 17.
  _Circus_ Maximus, xxviii. 1.
  _Cispius_ Mons, xxxiv. 3.
  _cognati_, xxvi. 5.
  _comoediarum certamina_, ii. 2.
  _comparare_ hominem in aliquem, xvii. 3.
  _congerere_ (absolutely), xxv. 3.
  _consecution_ of tenses after historic present, xxi. 12; xxiii. 6;
    xxxv. 5.
  _contestari_ litem, xxxix. 12.
  _Coruncanius_, xx. 4.
  _Crotoniensis_, x. 1.
  _Crotona_, x. 1.
  _cruor_, xxix. 23.
  _cum_ (conj.), vi. 8; with indic. (1) frequentative, xiv. 7;
    (2) = et tum, xxi. 6; (3) = because, xxxiii. 11.
  _curia_, xi. 1.
  _Curius Dentatus_, xx. 3.
  _curo_ with gerundive, vii. 3; xiii. 1.

  _dative_ of purpose (predicative dat.), viii. 4.
  _Demades_, xxxii. 4.
  _Demosthenes_, xxxii. 4.
  _dependent_ interrogatives, x. 6.
  _desinere_ artem, x. 3.
  _deveho_ (de = to land), xxxvi. 7.
  _disciplina_, xxii. 2.
  _dissimulanter_, xxxvi. 12.
  _dum_ with subj., xxv. 5.

  _Electra_, xxxi. 5.
  _Ennius_, xxxviii. 9.
  _ephippium_, ix. 6.
  _Euander_, xx. 9.
  _exerceor_, in middle sense, iv. 7.

  _Fabricius_, viii. 1.
  _fac eas_, xxv. 11.
  _facto_ ... opus est, xiv. 18.
  _falcibus_ (currus cum), ix. 4.
  _familias_, xii. 3.
  _Favorinus_, xx. 1.
  _felix_ (fruitful), xxxvii. 18.
  _foculus_, xv. 7.
  _forum_, xxiii. 21.
  _frequentative_ verbs, xviii. 4.
  _frenis_ ... fulgentem, ix. 6.

  _genitive_ denoting “nature,” “duty” of, xxxiii. 12.
  _genitive_ after gerund (causarum orandi cupidus), xxxix. 1.
  _gerunds_ and _gerundives_, xiii. 1.
  _gratiae_, xxxvii. 13.

  _Hannibal_, ix. 1.
  _haurire_ pectus, xxii. 9.
  _hercle_, iii. 1.
  _Hispanicus_ gladius, xxii. 7.
  _historic_ infinitive, xxv. 15.
  _Horatii_, xx. 5.
  _hospita_, xv. 2.

  _id temporis_, xviii. 7.
  _imperium_ proconsulare, xxix. 5.
  _inceptive_ or inchoative verbs, ii. 5.
  _ingentis_, (acc. plur.), ix. 2.
  _in iure_ stare, xviii. 18.
  _inmittere_ (absolutely), vi. 9.
  _insula_ (lodging-house), xxxiv. 4.
  _interrogatives_, dependent, x. 6.
  _ire infitias_, xxxvi. 18.
  _ius_ dicere, xviii. 16.
  _iusiurandum_ aliquem adigere, xl. 6.

  _locative_ case, xi. 1.
  _loci_ (nusquam), xv. 19.

  (e) _mediis_ hostibus, vi. 12.
  _Menander_, ii. 1.
  _mens_ and _animus_, v. 5.
  _Methymna_, xxxv. 1.
  _middle_ signification of passive voice, iv. 7.
  _mihi_ and _ad me_ after verbs, xxvii. 13.
  _Milo_, x. 1.
  _Mitridates_, xxxviii. 1.
  _monilia_, ix. 6.

  _-ne_ pleonastic, xi. 10.
  _ne_ ... quis, xi. 4.
  _nemo_, xiv. 9.
  _nobilis_, xxxv. 1.
  _noctis_ extremo, xviii. 3.
  _nonne_, _num_, _-ne_, ii. 5.
  _nudus_, xxi. 7.
  _nusquam_ loci, xv. 16.

  _Orestes_, xxxi. 5.
  _Oresti_ (genitive), xxxi. 6.
  _orthium_ carmen, xxxv. 21.
  _Osce_, xxxviii. 10.

  _Palatium_, xxxiii. 1.
  _pareo_, _pario_, _paro_, i. 2.
  _participle_ and verb in Latin = two verbs in English, xxi. 3; xl. 2.
  _partitive_ genitive, id temporis, xviii. 7; quantum mercedis,
    xxxii. 17.
  _passives_ with middle signification, iv. 7.
  _Pelasgi_, xx. 6.
  _per_ contemptum, xxiii. 5.
  _Periander_, xxxv. 1.
  _Pericles_, vii. 1.
  _phalerae_, ix. 6.
  _Philemon_, ii. 1.
  _Piraeus_, xxxiv. 15.
  _plague_ of Athens, v. 10.
  _Plutarchus_, iii. 1.
  _Poenus_, ix. 8.
  _Pomptinus_ ager, xxiii. 1.
  _possies_, xxiv. 13.
  _postliminium_, xl. 12.
  (in) _praesens_, xxxiii. 2.
  _praetextatus_, xi. 2.
  _predicative_ dative, viii. 4.
  _prepositions_, verbs compounded with, xxix. 22; xxxiv. 3.
  _priusquam_ with subjunctive, xxxiii. 4.
  _proconsulare_ imperium, xxix. 5.
  _Protagoras_, xxxix. 3.
  _purpose_, dative of, viii. 4.
  _Pyrrus_, xxvii. 1.
  _Pythagoras_, x. 1.

  _quadrati_ versus, xxiv. 10.
  _quae_ dicas (indefinite), xx. 11.
  _quaeso_ (parenthetically), ii. 4.
  _quasi_, xv. 6.
  _qui_ with subjunctive (final), xxv. 17; (causal) xxxvii. 3.
  _quid_ ... sibi vult, xii. 6.
  (si) _quid_ rei, xxv. 7.
  _quin_ with indicative, xxvi. 4.
  _quis_ (indefinite), xi. 4.
  _quisquam_ and _ullus_, x. 6.

  _re_ in composition, i. 6.

  _Samnites_, viii. 1.
  _satira_, xxiv. 10.
  _scatebat_ iris, iv. 3.
  _Scipio_ Africanus, xvi. 1; xviii. 2.
  _Scipio_ Asiaticus, xvii. 5.
  _scutum_, xxi. 17.
  _securus_ with genitive, vi. 14.
  _sed_ enim, xv. 10.
  _sequence_ of tenses after historic present, xxi. 12; xxiii. 6;
    xxxv. 5.
  _sestertii_ and _sestertium_, vi. 3; xxxiii. 2.
  _Sertorius_, xiii. 1.
  _Sibyllini_ libri, xv. 1.
  _Sicani_, xx. 6.
  _Socrates_, iv. 1, 4.
  _sol_ oriens, v. 3.
  _sollemnis_, xvi. 18.
  _Sophocles_, xxx. 5.
  _Sulla_, L., xxxiv. 15.
  _Sulla_, P., xxxiii. 2.
  _supine_ in -um, xvi. 13; xxii. 17; xxv. 6.
  _supine_ in -u, xiv. 5; xxiv. 2; xxvii. 12.

  _Taenarum_, xxxvi. 6.
  _talentum_, xxxii. 19.
  _Tarquinius_ Superbus, xv. 1.
  _temporal_ conjunctions with subjunctive, cum, vi. 8; dum, xxv. 5;
    priusquam, xxxiii. 4.
  _tibiae_, vii. 4.
  _Torquatus_, xxi. 1.
  _torquis_, xxi. 3.
  _tribunus_ militaris, xxiii. 8.
  _tribunus_ plebis, xvi. 1.
  _turribus_ (elephanti cum), ix. 5.

  _ullus_, x. 6.

  _vadari_, xviii. 22.
  _vadimonium_, xviii. 19.
  _venum_ dare, xxxiv. 10.
  _Vergilius_, i. 1.
  _vertitur_ in, xxvi. 20.
  _videres_, xxviii. 15.
  _vult_, quid sibi, xii. 6.

  _Zama_, ix. 1.

         *       *       *       *       *
           *       *       *       *
       *       *       *       *       *

ERRATA (noted by transcriber)

The spelling “deminutive” (demin.) is used consistently.

A few terms were inconsistently italicized, including “e.g.”, “i.e.”
and “only” (in vocabulary notes such as “sing. only”). Rather than
try to second-guess the author, they have been left as printed.

_Errors and Irregularities:_

    Tarquinius ore iam serio atque attentiore animo fit  [Tarquinus]

  VI Note:
    entered the Punjaub  [_spelling unchanged_]
  XVI Note:
    +gratulatum+ ... the verb of motion  [notion]

  Latin-to-English Vocabulary:
    +dōnĕc+, _conj._, until.  [_Text has Greek ε for ĕ in “dōnĕc”_]
    +lībĕro+ ... (līber.)
      [_Macron in “līber” conjectural: printed text has “lıber” without
      visible macron or dot_]

_Missing or invisible punctuation:_

“Invisible” means that there is a suitably sized gap, but no printing
is visible.


    ... in eum locum, in quo ipse cum amicis esset,  [. for second ,]
    atque ibi solus diu demorari,  [. for ,]
    recubuit et quievit.”  [” missing]


    +P. Vergilius Maro+ ... after the fall of Troy  [. missing]
    +părĕre+ ..._parĭtum, -ĕre_  [- missing]
    +hercle+ ... ‘_me deus Fidius juvet_’  [’ missing]
  +The uses of the gerund and gerundive+
    ... e.g. _haec ad iudicandum sunt facillima_
    ... _sum_ (_est_, _erat_, _fuit_, _esse_, etc.)
    ... e.g. _nunc est bibendum_
      [_all periods in “e.g.” and “etc.” invisible_]
    ‘he gave them the lands to dwell in.’ Cf. vii. 3. note.
      [. missing after “dwell in” _and_ after “vii.”]
    +Publius Cornelius+ ... his father P. Scipio  [. missing]
    I am old enough.’  [” for ’]
    +ventitare+ ... ‘I stick fast.’  [” for ’]
    +11.+ +quae dicas+  [. invisible]
    +quin ... imus+ ... ‘nay, look at me’  [” for ’]
    +proconsulari imperio+ ... praetors: (2) the Imperial Provinces
      [_shown as printed, but : may be error for ;_]
    +Electram+ ... the bones of Orestes.’  [” for ’]
    +quin ... quoque+, [_ellipsis in printed phrase invisible_]
    +sestertium viciens+ ... or 2½ asses  [denominator invisible]


  +ad·ficio+. Cf. afficio.  [· invisible]
  +cŏrōna+, -ae  [- missing]
  +deus+, -i, _m._, god.  [. missing]
  +fācundia+, -ae, _f._, eloquence  [. invisible]
  +fēcundus+, -a, -um  [- missing]
  +gĕmĭtus+, -us  [- missing]
  +ignōro+ ... (ignārus, for in-gnarus or -narus.)  [) missing]
  +im·mītis+  [· invisible]
  +mīrĭfĭcus+, -a, -um  [first - missing]
  +ob·vĕnio+  [· invisible]
  +păvĕ·făcio+ ... (păveo.)  [. missing]
  +pax+, pācis ... (πήγνυμι.)  [. invisible]
  +Pĕriander+, -dri, _m._  [. for second ,]
  +quaero+, -sīvi or -sii, sītum  [second - missing]
  +quālis+, -e ... talis ... qualis
    [_ellipsis in “talis ... qualis” invisible_]
  +quam·ob·rem+, _adv._  [. invisible]
  +sŭpĕrior+, -us ... sū̆prēmus or summus.  [. invisible]
  +vastūs+, -a, -um  [second - missing]
  +vērus+, -a, -um,  [. after -um.,]
  +victōria+, -ae, _f._, victory. (victor, vinco.)  [. invisible]
  +vis+ (vim, vi, no _gen. sing._, _plur._ vīres, etc.)  [. invisible]


  +bail+, vadimonium  [. missing]
  +sight, in my+, me inspectante  [. missing]


  _Osce_, xxxviii. 10.  [. after “xxxviii” missing]

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