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Title: Alphabetical Vocabularies of the Clallum and Lummi
Author: Gibbs, George, 1815-1873
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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 SHEA'S

 LIBRARY OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

 XI.

 AMS PRESS, INC.
 NEW YORK



                  ALPHABETICAL VOCABULARIES

                            OF THE

                      CLALLAM AND LUMMI.

                              BY

                        GEORGE GIBBS.



 PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.



                          NEW YORK:
                       CRAMOISY PRESS.
                            1863.



 Transcriber's Note: Obvious printer errors have been corrected. All
 other inconsistencies are as in the original. A table of contents,
 though not present in the original, has been provided below:


   Preface

   Vocabulary of the Clallam
   A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, W, Y.

   Local Nomenclature of the Clallam Tribe

   Vocabulary of the Lummi
   A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, U, W, Y.

   Local Nomenclature of the Lummi Tribe

   Names of Lummi Chiefs



PREFACE.


The tribe of Clallams, as they are usually called by the residents of
Washington Territory--by the neighboring Indians named S'klal′am, and
denominated by themselves Nūs-klái yūm--inhabit the southern shore
of Fuca Strait, from about the Okĕho River on the west, to Port
Townshend on the east, bordering in the first direction on the Makahs,
sometimes called Classets (the Klaizzart of Jewitt), a tribe of the
Nootka family who inhabit Cape Flattery, and in the other on the
Chemakum, like themselves a branch of the Selish, though a yet more
remote one. Their language is the same, with some dialectic differences
only, as that of the Songhus and Sokes of Vancouver Island opposite. It
is this which has been referred to by Drs. Scouler and Latham as the
"Nusdalum," undoubtedly, in the first instance, a misprint.

The Clallam differs materially from the other Selish languages of the
Puget Sound country, though less from the Lummi than the rest. Its
noticeable feature is the frequent occurrence of the nasal _ng_.

The Lummi tribe live on the lower part of a river heading in the Cascade
Range, north-east of Mount Baker, and emptying by two mouths, one into
Bellingham Bay, the other into the Gulf of Georgia, the upper waters of
which are inhabited by the Nook-sahks (Nūk-sák). They are, however,
intruders here, their former country having been a part of the group of
islands between the continent and Vancouver Island, to which they still
occasionally resort. Their own name is Nūkh′lum-mi. The Skagits call
them Nūkh-lésh, and some of the other tribes Há-lum-mi. Their
dialectic affinities are rather with the Sannitch of the south-eastern
end of Vancouver Island than with any of the Indians of the main land,
and the two probably at one period formed a single tribe, which more
remotely was connected with the Clallams and Songhus. The Simiahmoo
(Si-mi-á-mu), a small remnant, living on the bay of that name, north of
them, belong likewise to this group. On the south the Lummi adjoin the
Samish and other bands of the Skagits, who in language approach the
Nisquallies.

Like the Clallam, their language abounds with the nasal _ng_, both as a
prefix and a termination. It has another peculiarity, in great measure
its own, in the broad sound of the letter _a_, somewhat as in the words
_mass_, _pass_, but even more prolonged. I have distinguished this in
the vocabulary by the italic. The letters _f_, _r_, _v_, _z_, are
wanting in both languages.

The Clallam and Lummi, as will be observed, contain three classes of
cardinals, which I have distinguished as _simple_, _personal_, and of
_valuation_, although these terms are not strictly accurate; certain
objects, besides men, being counted by the second, and others, as well
as money, by the third; I have never fully ascertained the distinctions
which govern their use. The words _animate_ and _inanimate_ do not
apply; those of _noble_ and _ignoble_, by which the French Missionaries
designated the names of objects in the Algonquin languages, probably
indicate the idea. Mr. Gallatin, in his "Notes on the Semi-Civilized
Nations of Mexico," &c.,[A] mentions the same peculiarity as existing in
the Mexican and Maya, in the former of which there are three different
terminations suffixed to the simple numbers, according to the objects
denoted. A similar distinction is found in the Makak language, and
traces of it, at least, are observable in the Pima. I imagine that by
inquiry the fact would be found to exist in other Indian tongues.
Singularly enough, this feature also characterizes some of the languages
of Micronesia.

[A] Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., vol, i., p. 54.

The affinities of the Clallam and Lummi with the Selish are too obvious
to require demonstration. Indeed Dr. Latham has already classed the
former with the Shewhapmukh, or, as he terms it, Atna, of Frazer River,
the northernmost of the Selish dialects. The term Atna, it may be
mentioned, is improperly applied as a family name to these languages, as
it is a Tákulli (Athabascan or Chepewyan) word, signifying, according to
Mr. A. C. Anderson, "strangers."

These two vocabularies were collected, the first at Port Townshend,
during a residence of a few months, the other at Simiámoo Bay, while I
was connected with the N. W. Boundary Commission. Neither of them
underwent more than a partial revision, and inaccuracies have therefore
doubtless crept in. They are, however, sufficiently reliable to afford
the basis of extending comparisons with the other Selish and the more
northern coast families.

Transcriber's Note: For greater legibility the letters originally marked
as _a_ and _u_ have been replaced with ä and ü in the vocabularies,
except where this would cause a conflict with an existing diacritical.



 VOCABULARY OF THE CLALLAM.


 A.

 ABOVE, tsits-itl.

 ABOARD, si-it-hwu.

 AFRAID, sá-si-si.

 AGAIN, hon-áng.

 ALIVE, é-yé.

 ALL, o-hün′na;
   _that's all_, aukhk.

 ALWAYS, wút-an-su;
   _I always work_, wút-an-su chá-ai.

 ANKLE, tsüts-hó-kwi-sun.

 ARRIVE _at_, _to_, tüss′tsen.

 ARM, tsái-is.

 ARROW, yetcht.

 ARROW HEAD, _of wood_, katstl;
   _of iron_, küm-tin-ái-in; (küm-tüm, _iron_.)

 AUTUMN, tchin-sót-le.

 AXE, s'kūk-üm′.


 B.

 BACK, _the_, stets-i′kwün.

 BAD, kwaukh, s'há-as.

 BARBERRY, "_Oregon grape_" (_berberis_), she′tchin.

 BARBS _of fish spear_, tsó-kwái-ten.

 BARK, chai-íkh.

 BARNACLE, tsóhngt.

 BAT, klat-li-pi-á-han.

 BASKET, mo-hói;
   _cedar bark_, t'shó-ikl;
   _fir root_, sp'chu.

 BEACH, kokh-hwéng-u.

 BEADS, kwé-kwe.

 BEAR, _black_, s'chi-kwáitsh;
   _grizzly_, kwái-it-shin.

 BEAVER, ské-yau.

 BEARD, kwün-tsen.

 BEHIND, il-kwá-us.

 BERRIES (_generic_), s'chá-yük-w'tl.

 BILBERRY, yé-hum.

 BIRDS:
   Sea ducks (_generic_), mó-ōk.
   Small land birds (_generic_), tsit-süm.
   Crane, si-é-hu.
   Crow, skwa-kwa′to.
   Duck, mallard (_a. boschas_), te′nük-sen.
   Duck, surf (_f. perspicillata_), klé-yin.
   Duck, velvet (_f. fusca_), ko-mat′sin-hlai.
   Duck, harlequin (_f. histrionica_), süs-sáu.
   Duck, scaup (_f. marila_), swét-st.
   Duck, goosander (_m. merganser_), ko-ōkw.
   Eagles, bald (_Haliaetus_), kwái-eng-s'n.
   Eagles, golden (_Aquila_), ku-táit-sin-hu.
   Goose, yükh-hó-na.
   Guillemot, sas-sé-mats.
   Gulls, kwun-né, ku-té-ük.
   Grebes, kla-ái-kun.
   Grouse, dusky, gné-et.
     ruffed, sté-yu-hūng.
   Heron, snōk-ho.
   Jay, s'háikh-hai.
   Pigeon, hüm-ókh.
   Raven, sku-to′.
   Sandpipers, ske′üks.

 BLACK, ün-ük-áikh, an-nu-káikh.

 BLANKET, swi′shi-atl;
   _of dog's hair_, sküm-éng-ütl.

 BLOOD, stó-yu-küm.

 BLUE, küs-küs-sho′it, an-nu-kwé-o.

 BOARD, se-y't-hu.

 BODY, ni-chi-chái-ten, n's-tats-kl.

 BODY, _parts of_:
   Head, skūng-i.
   Hair, si-at′t'n.
   Face, sats.
   Ear, skong′üs.
   Eye, kái-in.
   Nose, nük′s'n.
   Mouth, tsú-ts'n.
   Tongue, tikh′wh'lts.
   Teeth, tchin′nis.
   Beard, kwün-ūt-s'n.
   Neck, hōng-en.
   Arm, tsái-'s.
   Elbow, skōp-hai.
   Wrist, s'hōts-kwats.
   Hand, s'ch-hats′.
   Fingers, s'ch-hats′.
   Nails, ts-shūts.
   Breast or Chest, tsüng-ütl.
   Woman's Bosom, sküb-ó.
   Back, stets′i-kwün.
   Leg, s'hün-na.
   Ankle, tuts-hó-kwi-sun.
   Foot, kl-tá-s'n.
   Toes, kl-tá-s'n.
   Bone, st-zum.
   Heart, ha-chin-nin′.
   Blood, sto′yu-kün.
   Skin, kó-wi.
   Penis, shel′la.
   Testes, ng-at'sün.

 BOIL, _to_, kwái-yis.

 BONE, st-zum.

 BORE A HOLE, _to_, t'slük′wüt.

 BOTH, chá-sa.

 BOW, s'ho′mo-ten.

 BOW-STRING, sul-kwá-tchin.

 BOY, swé-wa-ūs, scha-chi-aitl.

 BRACELETS, tso′me-chin.

 BREAK, _to_, ti-kwüt′.

 BREASTS _of woman_, sküb-ó.

 BRING, _to_, an-ákh′w;
   _bring that_, (_imp._) an-akhw ta-sái-ya.

 BROAD, kl-k_ú_t.

 BROTHER, _elder_, sūt-hó-nük;
   _younger_, sái-tchin.

 BUCKET, skó-tün.

 BUFFALO, kwáisp.

 BUY, _to_, tá-kws.

 BURYING GROUND, má-kwa.

 BYE AND BYE, hets.


 C.

 CANOE, _Chinook pattern_, o-ót-hüs;
   _Cowitshin do._, sté-watl;
   _ducking canoe_, sno'h-wh'l.

 CARRY, _to_, óng-üt-un.

 CARPENTER, _worker in wood_, skai-án-hwu.

 CATCH, _to_, kl-kw_ú_t.

 CEDAR _bark_, si-ó-we;
   _wood_, ts-shái.

 CHEST _or breast_, _the_, tsüng′ütl;
   _chest_ (_box_), kló-yüks.

 CHIEF, si-ám.

 CHOP, _to_, kum-müt′.

 CLAM, _quahog_ (_Venus_), ski-hé-yu;
   _the large kind_ (_lutraria_), swá-hüm;
   _blue striated species_, skük-lái.

 CLOUDS, s'hu-nó-wüs.

 COCKLE, sklé-yōm.

 COD FISH, s'ká-kan.

 COLD, klá-tchi.

 COLORS:
   White, pük'h.
   Red, ün-tsükw′, an-nu-tsük′o.
   Black, ün-ük-aikh, an-nu-káikh.
   Blue, küs-küs-sho′it, an-nu-kwhé-o.
   Yellow, nüts-kwai-ye′win, an-nu-kwái-kwai.
   Green, ün-tlütlkh, an-nu-klikh′tl.

 COMB, kl-sing′en.

 COME, _to_, en-át-sen;
   _I come_, an-ná;
   _come you_ (_imp._) an-ná-chi.

 COOK ON STONES, _to_, nūtch-kwé-nütl.

 COPULATE, _to_, kwat'tl.

 CORPSE, kó-i.

 COUGAR, kau-ét-sap.

 CUP, mét-kw.

 CUTTLE FISH, ské-mükw.

 CRAB, a-ché-he.

 CRANE, si-é-hu.

 CROW, skwa-kwá-to.

 CRY, _to_, hōng.


 D.

 DANCE, _to_, kwoi-é-ish-ten.

 DARKNESS, s'chät.

 DAUGHTER (_child_), nüng-ün′na.

 DAY, skwá-tchi.

 DEAD, kó-i.

 DEAD LAND (_country of the dead_), snó-nükw.

 DEEP, kletch.

 DEER, hōpt, smé-yis.

 DEMON (_the primal race_), s'hui-áb.

 DIG, _to_, tsé-yükwt;
   _dig out_, _to_, (_e.g. a canoe_), ká-hai-yu.

 DO, _to_, chá-ai.

 DOG, ská-ha; _plur._ ska-yá-ha.

 DOG FISH, s'kwats.

 DOOR, so'tl.

 DOWN STREAM, kwó-kwŭ.

 DREAM, _to_, (_1st pers. ind._) kwi-nóng-tüt-sen.

 DRINK, _I_, ko-kwát-sen; (ko, _water_.)

 DRIVE, _to_, kwi-hüt′l.

 DRUNK (_i.e. foolish_), as-hwá-kwu.

 DRY, há-ching.

 DUCK (_mallard_), té-nük-sen.

 DULL, n'ko-mūkh.

 DUNG, _to_, ká-ang.


 E.

 EAR, kwái-in.

 EARTH, _land_, sh-stüng′a-whün.

 EAGLE, _bald_, kwái-eng-s'n;
   _golden_, ku-táit-sin-hu.

 EAT, _to_, ts-kwin-sünt-sen, it-lun.

 ECHINUS, skwét-si.

 EGGS, sing-i-á-net.

 EIGHT, tats, tats-sái-ya, tats-háit-hu.

 ELBOW, skōp-hái-al-ka.

 ELK, kai-yétsh.

 END _or point_, elks.

 EVENING, táng-en.

 EYE, kái-in.

 EXCHANGE, _to_, at-shé-ti.


 F.

 FACE, sats.

 FAR, yé-ye, he-eh.

 FATHER, i-ái-in;
   _grandfather_, sé-ya.

 FEATHERS, s'chái.

 FIND, _to_, chó-nüt-sen.

 FINISH, _I have finished work_, ho-its′na kwin's chái.

 FINGERS, s'ch-hats.

 FIR TREE (_abies Douglassii_), skai-ái-nükh, chi-á-chitch;
   _fir bark_, tsi′yi.

 FIRE, só-nūts.

 FIRE WOOD, tl-káts.

 FIRST, i-chá-yi.

 FISH, tsâ'kw.

 FISH, ETC.:
   Cod fish, s'ká-kan.
   Crab, a-ché-e.
   Cuttle fish, ské-mükw.
   Dog fish, s'kwats.
   Flounder, hwau-kwün.
   Halibut, s'hōt'h.
   Herring, klōngt.
   Oulakan, kláis.
   Porpoise, s'hú-ma-hens.
   Salmon (_See "salmon"_).
   Sculpin, swan-itl.
   Shark, klá-yük-a-tét-s'n.
   Sturgeon, kw'táit-sin.
   Toad fish, s'chem-ükh.

 FISH GIG, sti-é-hu.

 FISHING LINE _of kelp_, schats.

 FISH _with a line_, _to_, tl-ti-ó-is.

 FISH WEIR, su-ta-t'hl.

 FIVE, kl-katcht, kl-küt-shái-ya, kl-küt-sháit'hu.

 FLESH, sli-ükw′.

 FLOUNDER, _flatfish_, hwau-kwün.

 FLY, _the insect_, kli-kái-a-hün-na.

 FOOT, kl-tá-sn.

 FOUR, ng-os, ni-sai-ya, nu-sáit-hu.

 FORMERLY, _a long time ago_, hēts.

 FROM, tó-kūt-s'n.

 FULL, es-si-át-st'l.


 G.

 GAFF, _for salmon_, kle-kwün.

 GAMBLING DISKS, sla-hal′lüm.

 GET UP, _to_, tsát-lüng.

 GIRL, slet-lát-li-ke.

 GIVE, _to_, ang-at.

 GO, _I_, (_1st pers. pres. ind._) hai-át-sen;
   _go_ (_imp._) óh'chi;
   _I go there_, ōts-na tá-sái-ya.

 GOAT (_aploceras_), shwét-le.

 GOOD, áikh, hatl;
   _good so_ (_that's well_), ái-yu-hó-nang;
   _good man_, ais swé-ka;
   _good dog_, ais ká-ha.

 GOOSANDER (_mergus merganser_), ho-ōk'w.

 GOOSE, yükh′ho-na.

 GRANDFATHER, sé-ya, tchütt.

 GRANDMOTHER, sé-ya.

 GRASS, s'hats-ai;
   _mat grass for thread_, klütl.

 GREASE _or oil_, smüts.

 GREBE (_podiceps_), kla-ái-kün.

 GREEN, ün-tl_ú_tlh, an-nu-klikhtl.

 GROUSE (_tetrao obscurus_), gné-et;
   (_tetrao umbellus_), ste′yu-hūng.

 GUILLEMOT, sas-sé-mats.

 GULL, ku-té-ük, kwün-né.

 GUM, _pitch_, tché-ükh.


 H.

 HAIL, chit-la-hái-sin.

 HAIR, si-at′tn.

 HAIQUA (_the dentalium_), klets′-chin.

 HALF, il-chukh′.

 HALIBUT, s'hōt'h, tsōt'h.

 HAND, s'ch-hats′.

 HARD, ko-sang′.

 HARE, _rabbit_, ka-káit-se.

 HAUL, _to_, ho-kwut′.

 HAT, s'ches′euk'h.

 HE, _when present_, tsa-mukw;
   _if absent_, netl.

 HEAD, skūng-i.

 HEAR, _I_, yai-yá-nüng-sen.

 HEART, ha-chin-nin′.

 HERE, te-at′hla.

 HERON (_ardea herodias_), snōk-ho.

 HERRING, klōngt.

 HIDE, _to_, kwai's.

 HIT, _I_, tcho′kwe-nūt-sen.

 HOLLA, _to_, kwá-kwüt-ching.

 HOW MANY? kwén-chis;
   _how many people?_ ko-nái-ya;
   _how many dollars?_ ko-nai chis ngün _dolla_;
   _how much money have you?_ ko-nai te chin _dolla_.

 HOUSE, ái-yüng;
   _my house_, n'skwai, te ai-yüng.

 HUNDRED, na-tcho-wütsh.

 HUNGRY, hwam.

 HUSBAND, _my_, n'swé-i-ka.


 I.

 I, ütza.

 ICE, sle′a-hu.

 INDIANS, _people_, tl-stái-ing-hu, ats-il-tái-ing-hu.

 INFANT, s'chá-in.

 IRON, küm-tüm′.

 ISLAND, kl-chás.


 J.

 JAY (_garrulus stelleri_), s'háikh-hai.

 JUST NOW, _lately_, chatsh′ta;
   _I have just come_ chatsh-ta't n's-ta′chi.


 K.

 KAMASS, k'whló-i.

 KETTLE, skwó-ten.

 KILL, _to_, ko-ché-yu.

 KNEE, skai-yá-ko.

 KNIFE, _sheath_, ko-kwái-is;
   _pocket_, náng-nün.

 KNOW, _I_, hüt-chét 't-sen.


 L.

 LAKE, tsé-ikhtl.

 LARGE, tchük.

 LATELY, _just now_, chátsh-ta.

 LAUGH, _to_, net′ching.

 LAZY, tsá-hūng.

 LEAF, s'chá-sün.

 LEAP, _to_, hwé-tüng.

 LEG, s'hün′na.

 LIE, _to_, kai-yükh′.

 LIGHT, wái-yu.

 LIGHTNING, chin-é-kwa.

 LIKE, hon-áng.

 LISTEN (_imp._), yá-ya-nüng-ōts-hu.

 LONG, klakt;
   _long ago_, hets.

 LOOK FOR, _to_, kli-yáng.

 LOSE, _to_, tsits-hwá-nüng.

 LOVE, _to_, nus-klé.

 LOW TIDE, süng-ōt-sen.

 LYNX (_L. fasciata_), tsát-sats.


 M.

 MALLARD, _duck_, té-nük-sen.

 MAMMALS:
   Bat, klat-li-pi-á-hün.
   Bear, black, s'chi-kwáitsh.
   Bear, grizzly, kwái-it-shin.
   Beaver, ské-yau.
   Buffalo, kwáisp.
   Cougar, kan-et′sap.
   Deer, hōpt, smé-yis.
   Dog, ská-ha.
   Elk, kai-yétsh.
   Goat, mountain, swét-le.
   Hare, rabbit, ka-káit-se.
   Lynx, tsat-sats.
   Mink, mis-tcho.
   Mouse, skwa′tün.
   Musk rat, skülkh-küt'lkh.
   Land otter, ska′atl.
   Sea otter, tüm′müs.
   Seal, äss′hu.
   Skunk, smat-s'n.
   Squirrel (_sciurus_), sp-si-yūt-s'n;
     (_tamias_), ha-hái-yu-wetsh.
   Wolf, sta′ching.
   Whale, ch-whé-yu.

 MAN, swé-ka; _plur._ swé-yi-ka;
   _young man_, swé-wūs;
   _old man_, kwilt-chák.

 MANY, ng' _ú_nn;
   _many men_, ng' üngt' swé-yi-ka.

 MAT, _of round rushes_ (_tulé_), taks-lats′hu;
   _flat do._ (_cat's tail_), su-ya-átsh, kai-nim;
   _cedar bark_, tsüm′müt.

 MAT NEEDLE, ho-k'h_ú_n.

 MEDICINE, s'tái-ing-hu.

 MEDICINE MAN, _magician or doctor_, s'hu-nām.

 MIDDLE, ets-tóng-en.

 MILK, sküb-ó.

 MINK, mis′tcho.

 MISS _a mark_, _to_, tang-ün;
   _miss the road_, _to_, ti-tákh.

 MISTAKE, _to_, _in speech_, ti-takh.

 MOCCASINS, klük′shin.

 MOLLUSCS, ETC.:
   Barnacle, tsōngt.
   Clams, quahog (_Venus_), ski-he-yu;
     large (_Lutraria_), swa′-hüm;
     blue striated, skük-hlái.
   Cockle (_cardium_), sklé-yōm.
   Hai-kwa (_Dentalium_), klets-chin.
   Mussel, to′yük.
   Oyster, klokh-klokh.
   Scallop (_pecten_), na′na.
   Sea egg (_echinus_), skwét-si.

 MOON, kl-káitsh.

 MORNING, kwá-tchi.

 MOSQUITO, pwáik-sen.

 MOTHER, tān.

 MOUNTAIN, h'kwi-étsh.

 MOUSE, skwá-tün.

 MOUTH, tsu′ts'n.

 MUSK RAT, skülkh-küt'lkh.

 MUSSEL, _the small blue_, to′yük.

 MY SISTER, na ais;
   _my house_, na ai-yüng;
   _my things_, n's-kwâ-na-akw.

 MYTHOLOGY:
   Nó-kwe-mătl _or_ Dó-kwe-bătl, _the principal supernatural being,
       corresponding to_ Ikáni _of the Chinooks_.
   S'hui-áb, _the primal or demon race_.
   S'hu-nām, _magic or medicine_.
   Te-yūtl-ma, _the genius of good fortune_.
   Hun-ha-né-ti, _a performance of conjuring or "tamá-nous" (Chinook), known
       to the Nisquallies as_ s'hí-na, _in which it is pretended that the
       person initiated is killed and then restored to life_.


 N.

 NAME, s'dá.

 NAILS, ts′shūts.

 NEAR, klat-lé-a-ke.

 NEEDLE, chát-sün.

 NECK, hōng-en.

 NEW, háu-us, k'hau-ós.

 NIGHT, s'nat′.

 NINE, tōkw, t'kwái-ya, t'kwáit-hu.

 NONE, á-wün-na, au-wüts-an.

 NOON, k'é-yit.

 NOSE, nük'sn.

 NOW, ti-á-no.

 NUMERALS:
   _Simple Cardinals--_
     1, nit′zo.
     2, chis′sa.
     3, klekhw.
     4, ng-os.
     5, kl-katcht
     6, t'hung.
     7, tsōks.
     8, tats.
     9, tōkw.
     10, ó-pen.

   _Personal Cardinals--_
     1, nát-so.
     2, chá-sa.
     3, kl-whái-ya.
     4, ni-sái-ya.
     5, kl-küt-shái-ya.
     6, tükh-üng-ái-ya.
     7, tsakw-tsái-ya.
     8, tats-sái-ya.
     9, t'kwái-ya.
     10, o-pen-ái.

   _Cardinals of Valuation--_
     1, n'sakt′hu.
     2, n'sháit-hu.
     3, kl-wháit-hu.
     4, nu-sáit-hu.
     5, kl-küt-sháit-hu.
     6, tükh-hüng-áit-hu.
     7, tsak-sáit-hu.
     8, tats-háit-hu.
     9, t-kwáit-hu.
     10, o-pen-áit-hu.
     11, o-pen it nitzo.
     12, o-pen i'tchüs-sa.
     20, t's-kwüss.
     30, h'l-lūtl-sha.
     100, na-tcho-wütsh.
     1000, p'né-itsh.


 O.

 OLD, snük-ai.

 OLD MAN, kwil′tchük;
   _old woman_, kwil′tchük slá-ni.

 ONE, nit′zo, nat′so, n'sákt-hu.

 OTTER, _land_, ská-atl;
   _sea_, tüm′-mus.

 OULAKAN, _a small fish_, klais.

 OUT DOORS, as-saktl′.

 OYSTER, klókh-klokh.

 OFF SHORE, tsát-so.


 P.

 PADDLE, _a_, hōng-üt.

 PADDLE, _to_, ist.

 PEOPLE, tl-stái-ing-hu, ats-il-tái-ing-hu.

 PENIS, shel′la.

 PIGEON, hüm-ókh.

 PIPE, pá-akw.

 PITCH, tché-ük.

 PLANK, sé-y't-hu.

 PLANTS, ETC.:
   Barberry (_berberis_), shé-tchin.
   Berries (_generic_), s'chá-yük-w'tl.
   Bilberry, yé-hun.
   Grass, s'hats-ái.
     used for mat thread, klütl.
   Kamass (_squilla_), k'whló-i.
   Rush, cat-tail, kwo-ōt.
   Sallal (_Gualtheria_), tak′a.
   Salmon berry, al-e′lo.
   Strawberry, té-yükw.
   Tobacco, smá-nash.

 POINT _or end_, elk'hs.

 POUND, _to_, _as grain_, tsüt.

 POUR, _to_, kwi-yet′.

 PORPOISE, s'hū-ma-héns.

 PRAIRIE, spelh′han.

 PREGNANT, as-kwá-kwai.

 PRESENTLY, kwa-kwát-hu.

 PRONOUNS:
   I, _absolute_, üt′za;
     _copulative, prefixed to a verb_, ats;
     _suffixed to do._, sün, sen, sin.
   My, na, n's, n, n'skwai.
   Thou, nükw;
     _copulative prefixed_, chin;
     _suffixed_, hu;
     _or in the imperative_, chi.
   He, _if present_, tsa-nükw;
     _absent_, netl.
   We, nüng'l, kl-ning′ütl.
   Ye, nükw, kl-nükw.
   They, kwas′sa, tsâ-ta.

 PRONGS OF FISH GIG, sta-whái-üts.

 PUSH, _to_, chōng-üt.


 Q.

 QUICK, _come quick!_ á-atl.


 R.

 RAIN, _to_, s'lem′hu.

 RAKE, _v._, _to take small fish with a rake_, tlüt′a-men.

 RAVEN, sku-tó.

 RED, ün-tsükw′, an-nu-tsük′o.

 RELATIONS, nis-chá-cha.

 RELATIONSHIPS:
   Father, i-ái-in.
   Mother, tan.
   Grandfather, sé-ya, tchüt.
   Grandmother, sé-ya.
   Son, my, nüng-ün′na.
   Daughter, my, nüng-ün′na.
   Husband, my, n'swé-yi-ka.
   Wife, my, n'slá-ni.
   Brother, elder, sūt-hó-nük.
     younger, sái-tchin.
   Sister, elder, sūt-hó-nük.
     younger, ais.

 RETURN, _to_, ho-wé-yüng.

 RHODODENDRON, kwalt-héltsh.

 RIVER, stó-a-wi.

 ROAST, _by the fire_, chük-ōts.

 ROPE, hwé-lüm.

 ROTTEN, _as wood_, tsá-kong;
   _as fruit_, skwâng′ütst.

 RUSH, _cat-tail_, kwo-ōt.

 RUN, _I_, skwá-nüng-üt′sen.


 S.

 SALLAL BERRIES, ták-a.

 SALMON:
   _S. quinnat_, kwit′shin.
   _S. truncatus_, klüt′shin.
   _S. Scouleri_, kütch′küs.
   _S. proteus_, hün′nün.
   _S. (undetermined)_, mét-hlets.
   _S. canis_, kl'whái.
   _S. Campbelli_, kwatcht.

 SALMON ROE, kai-yükh′.

 SALMON BERRIES, al-é-lo.

 SALT, klatl.

 SAND, pe-kwüt-chin.

 SAND PIPER (_tringa_), ské-uks.

 SCALLOP (_pecten_), ná-na.

 SCULPIN, swan-itl.

 SEA, kl-lalts.

 SEA FOWL, mó-ōk.

 SEAL, äss′hu.

 SEAL'S BLADDER, ts-só.

 SEASONS:
   Spring, tclin-es-hwó-as.
   Summer, kla-té-küm, tchin-é-si.
   Autumn, tchin-só-le.
   Winter, klá-tchi.

 SEAT, _the_, kló-wük.

 SEE, _to_, kwün't.

 SEVEN, tsōks, tsäkw-tsái-ya, tsäk-sáit-hu.

 SEW, _to_, chit-seng-üt-sen.

 SEINE, so-yük.

 SHADOW, nu-kwá-ku-no-sing, ká-katl.

 SHARK, klá-yük-a-tét-s'n.

 SHARP, ái-yūts.

 SHIRT, sli-pói-küt;
   _woollen do._, sno-wéks.

 SHOES, kwüt-lé-shin.

 SHOULDER, tsé-a-kwün.

 SHORT, chái-yetl.

 SICK, as-hátl'h;
   _I am sick_, as-hátl'h-sen.

 SING, _to_, te-yüm′tsen.

 SISTER, _elder_, sūt-hó-nük;
   _do. younger_, ais.

 SIT, _to_, á-müt.

 SIX, t'hüng, tükh-hüng-ái-ya, tükh-hüng-áit-hu.

 SKATE, _fish_, ká-kaukh.

 SKUNK, smát-s'n.

 SKY, tsit-sl.

 SKIN, kó-wi.

 SLAVE, skwé-its.

 SLEEP, _to_, et-tüt-sen.

 SMALL, klōt-la, ma-má-min.

 SMOKE, sp-kōng.

 SNAKE, swa-hüt-si.

 SNEEZE, _to_, há-süng.

 SQUIRREL (_Sciurus_), sp'si′yut-sen;
   (_Tamias_), ha-hái-yu-wetsh.

 SPEAK, _to_, kwái-it-sen.

 SPEAR FISH, _to_, te-chut.

 SPEAR, _pronged, for birds_, tsó-kwün, s'hōm.

 SPLIT, chá-yūts.

 SPOON, klä-müks.

 SPRING, chin-es-hwó-as.

 STAND, _to_, tsit-lüng.

 STAR, te-tó-se-na.

 STEAL, _to_, kan.

 STONE, s'nangt.

 STOP, hó-i;
   _stop talking_ (_imp._), süm-mó'h-tchi.

 STORY, yét-süm.

 STRANGER, natsh.

 STRAWBERRIES, té-yükw.

 STRIKE, _to_, kó-cht.

 STRONG, küm-küm′.

 STURGEON, kw'táit-sin.

 SUN, sū-shát'sht.

 SUMMER, kla-té-küm, tchin-é-si.

 SURF, skw-lai-yá-kan.

 SWIM, _to_, tüng-ōng.


 T.

 TAKE, _to_, kl-kwüt′.

 TEETH, tchin′nis.

 TELL THE TRUTH, _to_ (_1st pers._), as-klá'w-chin skwai.

 TEN, ó-pen, ó-pen-ai, ó-pen-áit-hu.

 TESTICLES, ng'át-sün.

 THAT THING (_the there_), ta-sái-ya.

 THERE, ta-sái-ya;
   _I go there_, ōts-na ta-sái-ya.

 THEY, kwas′sa, tsâ-ta.

 THICK, _as a plank_, ch'hlüt′.

 THIN, _as paper_, chá-chüm-é.

 THIRSTY, _I am_, kwa-kwái-ing-sen.

 THOU, nükw.

 THOUSAND, p'ne′itsh.

 THREE, klekhw, kl-hwái-ya, kl-hwáit-hu.

 THROW AWAY, _to_, kwá-nüs.

 THUNDER, áts-a-kwütl.

 TIDE, _high_, tüng;
   _low_, süng-ōt-sen.

 TIE, _to_, ké-a-küt.

 TOAD FISH (_cottus_), s'chem-ūk'h.

 TOBACCO, smá-nash.

 TO-DAY, te-a-skwá-tchi, ai-é-nük.

 TOES, kl-tá-s'n.

 TOGETHER, _two_, chá-sa.

 TO-MORROW, kwá-tchi.

 TO-NIGHT, as-nat′.

 TONGUE, tikh′hw'lts.

 TOWARDS SHORE, chái-yükw.

 TRAIL _or road_, so'tl.

 TREE, ski-kai-ái-yu.

 TRENCHER _or wooden dish_, klo-tá.

 TROUT, k'hu-má-mün.

 TROWSERS, no-sün′ten.

 TRUE, as-klá-wtl.

 TWO, chis′sa, chá-sa, n'sháit-hu.


 U.

 UNDER, ki-tchá-wtl.

 UNDERSTAND, _do you?_ hüt-chit′ūts-hu.

 UP, té-yit.

 UPSET, kwái-kwi.


 W.

 WALK, _to_, shtüng.

 WANT, _to_, nūs-klé.

 WARM, kla-té-kün.

 WARRIOR, ns'cháng-kün.

 WASH _the face_, _to_, nūt-sá-ko-sen;
   _wash the clothes_, _to_, tsa-kwéng-ütl.

 WATER, ko.

 WATERFALL, tsét-sil-stó-a-wi.

 WAVES, n'kái-nükh, s'chó-ilts.

 WE, kl-ning′ütl.

 WEIR, _for fish_, sw'klátl.

 WHALE, ch'whé-yu.

 WHAT? stang;
   _what do you want?_ stang chins-klé;
   _what are you doing?_ stang chin-chái;
   _what is your name?_ stang chins-ná;
   _what is that?_ stang ta-sái-ya.

 WHERE? ta-hén;
   _where do you come from?_ cha-hén-tin stá-chi;
   _where do you go?_ twénts-hu.

 WHISTLE, _to_, nūs-kwi-ó-süng.

 WHITE, pük'h.

 WHITE MEN, hwa-né-tüm.

 WHO? tsan;
   _who is that?_ tsan ta-sái-ya.

 WIND, s't'chūng;
   _North wind_, kais-hwu;
   _South wind_, skangt, skang′üt.

 WIFE, _my_, n-slá-a-ni.

 WINGS, skl-kái-ai.

 WINTER, klá-chi.

 WITHIN, _inside_, es-ché-yu.

 WOLF, stá-ching.

 WOMAN, sla-ni.

 WOOD, _dead_, kwüt-lái.

 WORK OR DO, _to_, chai;
   _I work_, ats chái _or_ cháit-sen;
   _thou workest_, nük'w chái _or_ chái-üts-hu;
   _he works_, kw'sá chai;
   _we work_, nüng'l tsá-chái;
   _ye work_, nük'w't-sa ái-a-chái;
   _they work_, tsâ-tsa chi′chai.

 WORTHLESS, tl-whí-os.

 WRIST, s'hōts-kwats.

 WRITE, s'hé-ikh.


 Y.

 YAWN, _to_, wé-uks.

 YE, kl-nükw′;
   _all ye_, nükw′ hün′na.

 YELLOW, an-nu-kwái-kwai.

 YES, a-áh.

 YESTERDAY, chí-ak-kl.

 YOUNG MAN, swé-wus.

 YOUR, n'skwa;
   _your house_, n'skwa n'ái-yüng.



LOCAL NOMENCLATURE

OF THE CLALLAM TRIBE.


S'ng-o. A river running into the Strait of Fuca, above Neah Bay.

Ok-ho. Another river near the last.

Klat-lá-was. A village on the Strait.

Pisht'st. Village at Canel River, Pillar Point.

Kwa-há-mish. Fishing Station at Lyre River.

El-wha. The village at the mouth of the Elkwa, west of Port Angeles.

Tsi-whit′zen, Yin′nis. Villages at Port Angeles.

Stét-lum. Village at New Dungeness.

Shkwin. Village at Sequim Bay.

Ká-kaitl or Skwá-kwel. Village at Port Discovery.

Ká-tai. Lower village on Port Townshend.

Chem′a-kum. Village site at head of do.



 VOCABULARY OF THE LUMMI.


 A.

 ABOVE, se-suk′tl.

 ADZE, s'chüm′mün.

 AFRAID, sái-sin.

 AFTER, il-kwâ-wüs.

 ALDER, skwang-l'tch.

 ALIVE, hal-ikh, hal-lé.

 ALL, makw, mokw.

 ALWAYS, wai, wa-hái, o-wái-la;
   _always so_, wa-hái-yu shüng angs.

 ANGRY, kwin-tün.

 ARM, ta′lo;
   _my arm_, n′ta′lo;
   _right arm_, si-lä-me′ūs;
   _left arm_, suk-kwe′ūs.

 ARROW, yitcht.

 ASHES, kwái-chp.

 AT, _to be at_, lä-si _or_ lak-si;
   _he is at Lummi_, lä-si la Nūkh-lüm′mi.
   _See also "live," "be."_

 AXE, ku′küm. (küm-müt, _to chop_.)


 B.

 BACK, _the_, stas-kwitl.

 BAD, h'äs, s'häs.

 BAG _or sack_, chu-kwal′.

 BAIL A BOAT, _to_, chi-kwást;
   (_in Simiamoo_), kwül′lüt.

 BALD, ko′a-lekw.

 BARK, _of the fir_, chül′li;
   _of the cedar_, sl-kwüm′.

 BASKET, _potato basket_, kl-päk;
   _load basket_, s'pi-chä;
   _small basket_, pep-chälkh.

 BEADS, _large blue kind_, shkwe′-kwün;
   _small white do._, tsüts-hüt;
   _small green beads_, tchi-kwül-lekh′.

 BE, _to_, _See "at," "live."_
   _It is in the house_, lâk-si á-lung.

 BEAR, _black_, schüt′hün;
   _grizzly_, kwe′chin.

 BEARD, kwin′s'n;
   _moustache_, kwinks.

 BEAVER, skül-láu.

 BEFORE (_in point of time_), kwül-hés-lüt-sin.

 BELLY, kwül′la, kläs.

 BELOW, kläkhl.

 BIRD, _water fowl_, mo′ōk;
   _small birds_, tséts-at-süm.

 BIRDS:
   Eagles, golden eagle, kwül′-lüng-sen;
     bald eagle, yükh-wül-la.
   Hawks, pa-áls, tsekhw-tsükhw, tül-kwe′mitl, tsi-ha-litsh;
     sparrow hawk, süs-so-wak-chil-la.
   Owls, great horned owl, che′-tüng-hu;
     small owl, kwai-el-hu.
   Woodpeckers, logcock, skwül-lüt′tün;
     flicker (_P. Mexic._) tse′a-k't;
     small woodpeckers, tsüt-tüng.
   Swift (_Cypselus_), kuk-sátch.
   Kingfisher, süs-she′la.
   Robins (_T. Naevius_), kwüs-kük'h;
     (_T. Migrat._), tsel-tcha.
   Warblers, hu-hwül-lüsh.
   Chickadee (_Parus_), ts-ka-yis.
   Finches (_generic_), tch-kwa′kwa;
     ground robin, tül-tülk-si-nün;
     snow finch, tchi-sa-wütsh.
   Wren, te′ti-tüm.
   Raven, sku-takh.
   Fish Crow, sku-kwa′ta.
   Blue Jay, chi-ya.
   Magpie, s'hün′nün.
   Pigeon, hüm-ókh.
   Ruffed Grouse, skwüts, skwüts′ha.
   Dusky Grouse, ng'e′et.
   Sand-hill Crane, slem.
   Plover, chit-hün-natsh′.
   Oyster Catcher (_hematopus_), swó-kük.
   Yellow-shank Snipe, skük-ka′-ye.
   Beach Birds, small snipe (_?generic_), pel-latsh, skeks.
   Curlew, mük-mük-kwa.
   Swan, ho′ha-han.
   Snow Goose, kla-wükh-han, kla-hwa′han.
   Canada Goose, ákh-ha.
   Brant (_Bernicla_), hül-hül′tsh, hül-hül′cha.
   Mallard (_a. Boschas_), ti-nük-sen.
   Teal (_Nettion_), hüs-natch, chil-si′set.
   Shoveller (_Spatula_), klel-lük-tük-sen.
   Gadwal (_Chaulelasmus_), shes′-sün-na.
   Sea Ducks (_generic_), kwal′-hu.
   Golden eye (_Clangula_), hül-hül-lül′o-witl.
   Canvass back (_Aythya_), hókh-ko-nitsh.
   Spirit Duck (_Albeola_), hekh-kün-né, k'k-hün′na.
   Merganser (_Mergus Am._), kwa-ōkw;
     (_Mergus Serrator_), sküm-mätsh.
   Cormorant, mäs-sitch.
   Gulls, large kinds, kwün-né;
     small kinds, skókh-kwa.
   Loons (_Colymbus_), swa′kwün, hwekhw-kwüs.
   Grebes (_Podiceps_), skūl-küls′, hwa′nitsh, hwüt-tis.
   Guillemot (_Uria_), sko-kwa-kwüts, ko-kōkh-küts.

 BIRDS, _parts of_:
   Beak, nük′sünsh (v. _nose_).
   Wing, ki-ka′al, sk-ká-al.
   Feathers, stli-päl-kan, stakw.
   Quills, stli-käl.
   Down, skái-us.
   Tail, klap-ái-sin-itsh.
   Gall, müs-suns.
   Entrails, ük-khes.
   Gizzard, s'he′a-kwüns.
   Liver, t'ä-kas.
   Heart, tsä-li.

 BITE, _to_, tsing-ut-tüng.

 BLACK, nük-kikh.

 BLANKET, _feather blanket_ (_a native manufacture_), stüm-mo-whitl;
   _woollen do._, swâ-kwatl;
   _white blanket_, pe-kál-kwüt;
   _figured do._, nüt-sa′lo-wüt;
   _red do._, nu-kwim;
   _green do._, nük-chal-kwüt;
   _blue do._, chi-al-küt;
   _large dark blue do._, chil-tál-kwüt.

 BLAZE, _to_, hu-tâ-ku.

 BLIND, klä-litsh.

 BLOOD, säs-tchin.

 BLOW _with the breath_, _to_, pa′-hwt;
   _blow the nose_, _to_, nük-lüng-sin′na.

 BLUE, chi-á-lis;
   _pale_, ni-hwékw.

 BOARD, _planks_, sél-to.

 BOIL, _to_, kwül-lüs′.

 BONE, sōm, s'ham.

 BORE, _to_, _as with a gimlet_, slük′-wüt, nük-slük′wüt.

 BOSOM (_female_), sküm′ma.

 BOW, tsá-cha-sen.

 BOWSMAN, _of canoe_, he′u.

 BOX _or chest_, kla-yüks.

 BOY, s'ch-chi-álkh, schi′atl, stet-látkl.

 BRACELETS, _of brass wire_, tsa-met-chin.

 BREAD, _baked_, tau′ükh.

 BREAK, _to_, (_broken_), ti-kwüt-tüng.

 BREAST (_chest_), tsüng′ütl.

 BRING, _to_, an-ákh-hu.

 BROAD, nükh-hwái-ük-w'tl.

 BROTHER, _elder_, shi-itlkh;
   _younger_, sái-tchin, ni-whâ-ka.

 BURN, _I_, chükw′ sin;
   _it is burning_, ch'yükw.

 BURY, _to_, (_to cache_), as-chá-nütl.

 BUY, _to_, (_to trade or barter_), hwái-üm;
   _I want to buy_, nus-whái-yüm, nus-klé-a-küng sül-kül′la (nus-klé,
       _I wish_).

 BYE AND BYE, o-wäs-hés.


 C.

 CANOE (_generic_), skwâlkh;
   _Chinook and Makah pattern_, üt-hüs, ōt-hüs;
   _small do._, kük-ho′ütl;
   _large Kawitchen canoe_, shwâ-atl;
   _small fishing canoe_, sno′wh'tl;
   _shovel-nosed or burden canoe_, klai.

 CARRY, _to_, süng-at′;
   _to carry on the back_, süng-áng;
   _on the shoulder_, ang-ut-tün;
   _in the hand_, wi-kwo-nat′.

 CEDAR, (_Thuja_), h'pai.

 CERTAINLY, _of course_, ho′wüs.

 CHALK (_properly a white diatomaceous earth used for cleaning skins_),
     stau′okw.

 CHIEF, si-ám.

 CHISEL, _of stone_, sh-we′ükh.

 CHOP WOOD, _to_, küm′müt.

 CLEAR SKY, shu-ewk'h-hu.

 CLEAR OFF, _to_, (_of the weather_), s'ai-yüt-tung;
   _it is clearing off_, ta-chil shu-auk-hu (_clear it comes_).

 CLOTH, _calico_, as-hálkh (_i.e. "figured"_);
   _domestics_, pük'h; (_white_);
   _baize_, tsats′a-whün;
   _flannel_, tsül′whüm.

 CLOUDS, spa′hu;
   _it is clouding over_, ta′chil nükh-no′-wüs.

 COALS _of fire_, chtist.

 COAL, _stone coal_, pe′chit.

 COAT, snu-éks.

 COLORS:
   White, pük′h.
   Black, nük-kikh.
   Red, n'sük'h, n'sükw.
   Blue, chi-á-lis;
     pale do., ni-hwekw.
   Yellow, n's-kwül-la-wün, nük-wái.
   Green, ni-tlut'h, nük-wái.

 COME, _to_, n'a, e-ná;
   _I come from Simiamoo_, si-tü-sin Si-mi-a-mu;
   _come with me_, nük-wá-shin-nus;
   _come into the house_, an-á-la we-lüng, _or_ an-ush-ta no é-lüng (a-lüng,
       _a house_);
   _come near_ (_imp._), n'at′la.

 COOK, _to cook on hot stones_, k'k'pak.

 COOKED, _it is cooked_ ("_done_"), kwül.

 COPULATE, _to_, sün-nókh.

 COUGH, _to_, ta′kwün.

 CRADLE, pat′süts.

 CRUSTACEANS:
   Crab, bes-kwu, ä-chükh.
   Spider Crab, ku-kwátl-shin.
   Stone Crab, ku-kwin-nó-wa.

 CRY, _I_, ho-ang′sün.

 COVER, _to_, kle-hwés-tüng.

 CUP, mem′tük'h.

 CUT _with a knife_, _to_, shipt.


 D.

 DANCE, _to_, koi-el′lish, kwi-é-lish.

 DARK, klatch.

 DAUGHTER, ng-ün′na.

 DAY, skwá-chil.

 DEAD, kwái-i, ko-áikh.

 DEEP, klütsh.

 DEER, smis, smé-is, hōpt;
   _a buck_, ses′tün ("_horned_");
   _in Kawitchen_, hau-pa;
   _amongst the forest or "Stick" Indians_, klalk-ten-na.

 DIG, _to_, _roots in general_, pä-nükhw′, pän-hu;
   _potatoes_, si-a-kwáls;
   _fern roots_, tlai-ükw;
   _clams_, kükh-hül′la.

 DIRTY, tüng-hwäs′.

 DISHES, nu-wh'tsh-kwé-la.

 DOG, sko-mái, ská-ha.

 DON'T, kwe-ét.

 DOOR, _also road_, satl.

 DREAM, _to_, kül-kül-la′sin.

 DRESS _a skin_, _to_, e′ükh.

 DRINK, _to_, kâ-ko, nus-kâkh;
   _I drink_, kwa′kwa-sün.

 DRUM, _to_, _as in conjuring or at dances_, kau-ä′tüng.

 DRUNK, _foolish_, as-hwákw, äs-hwákw-tün.

 DRY, sel′-üp.

 DUCK, spl-häntl;
   _mallard_, ti-nük-sen;
   (_vide "birds."_)

 DULL, _as a tool_, kül-lás.


 E.

 EAR, kwül′lün.

 EAR RINGS, sklau-ün.

 EARTH, _the_, _land_, s'che-tung′a-whün, s'che-tüng-a-hüng;
   _earth_, _dirt_, sé-yük.

 EAT, _to_, it′lün, it′l'nkh;
   _I eat_, nit-sít-lin, it-lün-sün.

 ECHO, sän-gün.

 EGG, sn'lng-_á_nt, kwün-kwün-né.

 EIGHT, tas, tus-sä-la, tus-sält-hu.

 ELBOW, _or knee-joint_, kl-yüt-sé-tün.

 ELK, kwáu-watsh, ky-yétsh, kai-yéts.

 END, _the end of anything_, sä-ans.

 EVENING, t'tang′en.

 EVERY^1 THING^2, mükw^1 stang^2.

 EXCHANGE, _to_, i-yakt′.

 EYE, kül′lüng.

 EYEBROW, süng′ün;
   _one-eyed_, as-takws.


 F.

 FACE, sas.

 FAR, chakw, chōkw.

 FART, tük-snitch. _It is the common expression of disgust at anything,
     or any one._

 FAT, _adj._, tlet-lük.

 FATHER, män.

 FEATHERS, stá-kw, sl'pal′kan.

 FEMALE, slá-ne.

 FETCH, _to_, an-ákhw.

 FILE, _a_, clük-hün;
   _to file_, chük-kás.

 FIND, _to_, kwün′nüng.

 FINGERS, chi-hals′.

 FINGER RINGS, hi-a′lüm-chis.

 FIR TREE, chül-li-íltsh, chül-chils′;
   _fir bark_, chül-li.

 FIRE, chük-hós;
   _bring fire_, kwün-tatsh.

 FIRST, il-chä-la.

 FISH, ETC.:
   Cod, ait.
   Flounder, o′we.
   Herring, slang-üt.
   Calorhynchus, skwâ-ma.
   Large cottus, skün-nákhw.
   Skate, kákh-kōkh.
   Oulakan (_thaleïchthys_), ti-a-ko-wa.
   Pencil fish, _a small fish that comes in schools_, katl.
   Salmon, _vide infra_.

 FISH, _parts of_:
   Scales, slés.
   Fins, ká-ting-üs.
   Tail, s'hüp-shin.
   Roe, he-a-hetl;
     herring roe, ché-mäsh.

 FISH WEIR, _large_, s'chi-yäk;
   _small do._, ti-k_á_p.

 FIVE, kl-kats, kl-kätch-sä-la, kütch-sält-hu.

 FLEA, tát-a-tlüm.

 FLESH, _meat_, slé-ükw.

 FLY, _a_, i-kwül′lüng, kwil-lüng.

 FOG, spi-á-hwün.

 FOOD, set-lün, sä-wün.

 FOOLISH, as-hwäkw.

 FOOT, s'hün′na.

 FOOT-PRINT, hün-nüug′en.

 FOREHEAD, skwang′us.

 FORMERLY, kwüt-li sil-la.

 FOUR, ng′oss, ni-s_á_-la, sält-hu.

 FRIEND, klé-nük-wil;
   _my friend_, n's-klé; (_literally, I like him_.)

 FULL, hēts.

 FUNDAMENT, kla-wákh.


 G.

 GAME (_beaver teeth dice_), smi′-la-li.

 GET, _to_, kwün′nüt;
   _I want^1 to get^2 pantaloons^3_, nus-klé-ük^1 kwün-nüt^2 sük-ké-üs^3;
   _get something to eat_, _fetch^1 food^2_, _imp._, kwün-nas-süng^1
       s'it-lün^2;
   _get into the canoe_, lä-ti kwüt-la-tsi ti shwá-atl; ái-ba kün
       slang′üt; (lä-tsi _seems to be "at" or "into;" vide "at" and
       "live;"_)
   _get fire wood_, _to_, tük-kütsh′.

 GIRL, st-hlá-ni, sln-chá-atl.

 GIVE, _to_, (_to give as a present_), üng-us;
   (_in the sense of "to help or to hand to,"_) klätch;
   _give it me_, an-ákhw, (_i.e. bring it._)

 GLOVES, ts'-kwá-lit-cha, no-sé-sin.

 GNAT, chetsks.

 GO, _to_, h'ya;
   _I go_, kwül-h'ya′-sün, yas-sin-sa;
   _I am going to Lummi_, yá-sin-kin Nūkh-lüm-mi;
   _presently I will go_, wi-a-sin-sa;
   _let us go_, is-tá;
   _go you_, _imp._, ho-ni-chitl'h;
   _go out_, _imp._, ské-lüng, ho-nes-ké-lüng (a-lung, _house_);
   _go there, a little further off_, yi-hé-wül-tül-lá.

 GOOD, aikh.

 GRAVE, _serious_, ōkw-hüm′.

 GRASS, s'hüs-sái.

 GREAT, hai-yikh′, ke-yikh′.

 GREEN, ni-tlüt′h, nük-wai.

 GREY HAIRED, süts-üm-mékhw.

 GUM, _resin_, _light wood_, smá-nitsh.

 GUN, _north west musket_, pú-yük (pu, _the sound of a gun_);
   _regulation musket_, yüm-k'sn;
   _rifle_, hai-choi-i-kütl;
   _double-barrelled gun_, nu-chüs′a-kun (chüssa, _two_);
   _pistol_, chi-chai-etl pú-yük (s'chi-chai-an, _an infant_);
   _revolver_, nün-hük-ün-ük-ün;
   _to load a gun_, h'nu-wül-lüs′sün;
   _to ram down the load_, sé-a-kün;
   _to fire a gun_, kwül-shül′la, (_Simiahmoo_) klüm-kwül′la.

 GUNPOWDER, kwälkh;
   _flints or caps_, kwül-län.


 H.

 HAIL, klüm-whái-la.

 HAIR, si-at′tün.

 HALF, kl-chükh′.

 HAMMER, _to_, h'kwüs′chis;
   _hammer_, _a_, s'kwüs′chis.

 HAND, sa′lüs.

 HANDLE, kült-shé-nün.

 HE, nekhl, nitlkh.

 HEAD, s-kwáng-i, skwâng-i.

 HEAR, _to_, chis′a-lan.

 HEART, st-sá-la, tsá-la.
   _In the sense of the mind_, h'ching-ing.

 HEAVY, hüm.

 HERE, ti-á-kwu.

 HIGH, ses'l.

 HONE, _or whetstone_, shu-táks.

 HOUSE, á-lüng;
   _the posts that support the roof_, k_á_-kan;
   _the ridge pole_, s'klüm-smelt-hu;
   _side plates_, ha′met-sin.

 HOW, _how shall I do it?_ swün-né-üng-set ti-á?

 HUNCHBACKED, sko-mé-sin.

 HUNDRED, nat′so-itch, nat′so-wütsh.

 HUNGRY, kwá-kwi.

 HUNTER, tsüm-á-mün-sa;
   _seal hunter_, nus-lám-ükh.

 HUNTING BAG, shit-t_á_-la.

 HUSBAND, n'stá-lush.


 I.

 I, us.

 ICE, s'lel-lokh, sé-ma.

 IN, _into_, nu-äs;
   _put in_, _imp._, nu-as′ ats-ches′sük;
   _to be at or in_, lak-si; _vide "live;"_
   _it is in the house_, lâk-si á-lüng.

 INDIANS, _people_, atl-tá-ling-hu.

 INFANT, s'chi-chái-an, kük-ké, n's-chái-in.

 IRON, küm-tüm′.

 ISLAND, kl-chas, s'kwüs-sá, sk'-sas.


 J.

 JEALOUS, sā-si-si.


 K.

 KICK, _to_, lüm-mat′.

 KILL, _to_, k'châ-tükh, ku-chel′la.

 KISS, _to_, nükh-wh'm-kwóst.

 KNIFE, shpál-tin;
   _do. with one edge_, il-kákh-han;
   _two-edged_, wat-chä-han.

 KETTLE, _iron_, sklá-lup;
   _wooden_, sko′ten.

 KNOW, _to_, Do you know Ské-ükl? (_a man of that name?_) hüt-ché-tüs-hu
     Ské-ükl?


 L.

 LAKE, s'weltsh.

 LANCE, st-kwái-itch.

 LARGE, mokw.

 LAUGH, _I_, nün-nái-yüng-sen.

 LAZY, sä′hüng, sakhw;
   _I am lazy_, sa′whüng-sin.

 LEAF, s'chá-sün.

 LEAP, _to_, hwé-tüng.

 LEG, slá-hütsh, ská-kün;
   _calf of leg_, kátl-sün.

 LEND, _to_, ä-yil.

 LIAR, kai-yá-kan.

 LIE, _I_, hukh-kái-ya-kün.

 LIGHT, _adj._, stá-tu.

 LIGHTNING, cha-á-kwa-chük, cha-küts-o-kikh.

 LIKE, shün-ángs.

 LISTEN, _imp._, ni-hwú-i-yan.

 LIVE AT, _to_, läksi; (_this word appears to be the equivalent of the
     Nisqually_ at-suts, _and to be really an adverb signifying "presence"
     or "existence"_);
   _I live there_, läk-si tel-lá.

 LONG, _in dimension_, klä-kut.

 LOOK OUT! kwá-la.

 LOOKING GLASS, skwo-ná-süng, sku-ko-ná-süng, hu-ku-ná-sing;
   _the image or reflection in the glass_, kukh'-kütl.

 LOSE, _to_, ek-kwa.

 LOUSE, nüs′sün.

 LOVE, _to_, nūs-tlé, nis-klé.


 M.

 MAGIC, _conjuring_, ch'si-ó-wün;
   _for medicine_, shi-nám.

 MAKE, _to_, chai;
   _what are you making?_ stang n's chai?
   _I am making a canoe_, chai its sno′hwütl;
   _make fire_, _imp._, chük-kós.

 MAMMALS:
   Horse, stük-ké-u.
   Elk, kwá-watsh, kai-yéts.
     buck, sist-ün, _i.e._ "horned."
   Deer, smé-yis.
     buck, sist-ün.
     fawn, stül-la.
   Bear, black, späs.
     grizzly, kwái-et-chin.
   Big horn (_ovis montana_), kwe-kwüt-chen.
   Mountain goat (_aploceras_), swét-le, pi-külkh-kan.
   Racoon, blōps.
   Dog, skó-mai.
   Wolf, st'kái-ya.
   Cougar, shwo′wa.
   Lynx, sküts-a′müs.
   Beaver, skül-lá-u.
   Sea otter, tüm′müs.
   Land otter, s'katl.
   Seal, _á_ss′hu.
   Mink, kai-yakh, s'ché-a-kün.
   Weasel, kül-ké-la.
   Skunk, süp-pük.
   Squirrel (_sciurus_), tsip-si-á-sün.
   Striped squirrel (_tamias_), hwé-pe-chin.
   Kamass rat (_neotoma_), ná-wit.
   Mouse, kwa′tün.
   Mole, spi-lá-wün.
   Hare, ské-ka-was.

 MAMMALS, _parts of_:
   Neck, tatsh-süns.
   Atlas joint, kük-kak-w'chis.
   Ribs, lük-h'ws.
   Marrow of legs, tüts-üsh′shins.
   Brain, smet-küs.
   Gristle of vertebræ, kwa-á-lüs.
   Liver, stük′chüng.
   Lights, spül′hu.
   Paunch, spukh.
   Wind-pipe, hwang-ün.
   Tail, klo′wak-üs.
   Skin, kwül-los.
   A dressed skin, hül-la-kan.
   Hair, s'chais.
   Hoofs, kwâ-nüngs.
   Kidneys, sün-süns.
   Sinews of legs, kli-é-mins.
   Sinews of back, tüng-é-sens.
   Horns, tses′tün.
   Heart, tsá-la.
   Os calcis, kát-lin-süns.
   Thighs, kat-chat-chs.
   Saddle or hind quarters, as-satch-chatsh (chus-sa, _two_).
   Leg, sku-shüm-shins.
     Lower joint of do., s'hün-nüs.
   Fore quarter, tä-los.
     Both do., skül′la-hans.
   Fat, nas.
   Meat, slé-ük.

 MAN, swé-yi-ka.

 MANY, n'gann, n'gün;
   _many people_, n'günhl-tá-ling-hu;
   _I have many people_, n'gan al-tä-ling-hu ti-us.

 MAT, slä′wün;
   _the large mat used for making temporary lodges_, sá-letch;
   _cedar bark mat_, tsüm′müt, lo′kwai.

 MEND, _to_, chüts-ül-kwüt′tün.

 MERRY, nüks-né-ni.

 MIDDLE (_of length_), á-no-wüls.

 MISTAKE, _to_, _either in speech or on the road_, mäl-min.

 MOLLUSCS, RADIATES, ETC.:
   Small round clam (_Venus_), sküt-hlai;
     quahog (_Saxidomus_), sákh-hwa;
     large clam (_Lutraria_), swäm.
   Cockle (_cardium_), sk′läm.
   Mussel (_Mytilus_), klâ-küm.
   Oyster, klokh-klokh.
   Whelk, sük-kwái-yükh.
   Barnacle, süm-mai-ya.
   Chiton, hül′lüng.
   Land snail (_helix_), wük-kük'h.
   Slug (_limax_), kai-yat′lin.
   Sea egg (_Echinus_), skwét-si.
   Sea slug (_holothuria_), sekt.
   Star fish, kwül-lá-chi, kül-lä-sis.
   Cuttle fish, ské-mūk.
   Shells, ká-ya-men.

 MOON, kl-káltsh.

 MORNING, skwá-chi.

 MOSQUITO, kwá-an.

 MOTHER, tān.

 MOUNTAIN (_same as rock_), sng-ánt.

 MOUTH, sá-sün.

 MOVE FARTHER, yi-hé-wül tül-lá;
   _go there_, tük′whist.

 MUCH, n'gun;
   _much food_, n'gün sét-lün.

 MYTHOLOGY:
   Ha-áls, _the principal super natural being, equivalent to_ Hun-né _of
       the Nisquallies_, No-kw-makhl _of the Clallams and Skagits, and_
       Iká-ni _of the Chinooks_.
   S'hui-áb, _or_ S'hui-ám, _the pre-human demon race_.
   Yūtl-ma, _or_ Shwâ-mat-wun, _the spirit that presides over good
       fortune_.
   Ch'si′o-wün, _a particular gift or capacity acquired by fasting, etc.,
       or by incantation, similar to the Chinook tamánowas_.
   Shi-nám, _magic or medicine_.


 N.

 NAILS, t'sâls, chi-sá-lis.

 NAKED, klüt-säng.

 NAME, s'nä;
   _my name_, üs-nä. _Vide "who."_

 NAVEL, mük′h-hwoi-ye.

 NEAR, kl-ké-a-ke, tüt-lé-kai, sti-talst′.

 NEEDLE, chät′sün.

 NET, _for catching ducks, etc._, tük′hüm;
   _seine_, aukh-whói-yen.

 NEW, háu-wüs.

 NIGHT, snat.

 NINE, tük'hw, tük-whä-la, tük-whalt-hu.

 NO, a-wá, a-wükh′, ókh-wa.

 NONE, _there is none_, a-wün′na;
   _are you not ashamed?_ a-wün-na s'hét-sil? (_literally "no shame?"_)

 NOSE, nük′sün.

 NOSTRILS, skwá-lük-sen.

 NOW, ti-a, ti-an′k'h.

 NUMERALS:
   _Simple Cardinals--_
     1, nüt′sa.
     2, chüs′sa.
     3, klikhw.
     4, ng-oss′.
     5, kl-kats′.
     6, t'hünkh.
     7, tsákws.
     8, tats.
     9, tük'hw.
     10, o′pün.
     11, ó-pün it nüt′sa.
     12, ó-pün it chüs′sa.
     20, tsük-küs, tsük-wüs.
     30, kl-whl-shá.
     40, nüsl-shá.
     50, küts'hl-shá.
     60, tükh-hüm-shá.
     70, skwl-shá.
     80, tüsl-shá.
     90, to-wol-shá.
     100, nat-sa-wütsh.
     1000, o-päntsh.

   _Personal Cardinals--_
     1, nat′sa.
     2, chá-sa.
     3, kl-whái-la.
     4, ni-sä-la.
     5, hl'-katch-sä′la.
     6, tükh-hüng-ä-la.
     7, tsük-sä-la.
     8, tüs-sä-la.
     9, tük-hwä-la.
     10, o-pün-ä-la.
     20, nt-su-ku-sä-la.

   _Cardinals of Valuation--_
     1, tsak′wüt-hu.
     2, tch's-sält-hu.
     3, kl-whält-hu.
     4, sält-hu.
     5, kütch-sält-hu.
     6, tükh-hüng-ält-hu.
     7, sük-sält-hu.
     8, tüs-sält-hu.
     9, tük-whält-hu.
     10, o-pün-ält-hu.
     20, tsū-kw-sält-hu.


 O.

 OAK, s'chüng-altsh.

 OFF SHORE, tâl.

 OLD, tsa-küng, snük-kái;
   _an old man_, as-á-lokh, as-mes′sün.

 ONE, nüt-sa, nat′sa, tsak′wüt-hu.

 OUT DOORS, sét-lüng (a′lüng, _a house_).


 P.

 PADDLE, _to_, ist.

 PAN, _or plate_, lä-sün.

 PANTALOONS, sük-ké-us.

 PENIS, shel-l_á_.

 PEOPLE, _i.e._ _Indians_, atl-tá-ling-hu;
   _people inhabiting the woods_, "_Stick Indians_," mäs-hwi (_whence the
       name of a tribe on Fraser River, generally known as Maskwies_);
   _people living on the salt water_, s'chit-lals′ha (klals, _the sea_);
   _River Indians_, chis-tá-lo, stül-tá-lo (stá-lo, _a river_);
   _white men_, hwa-ni′tum.

 PERHAPS, yükh-whá.

 PIGEON, h'mo, hüm-o'h.

 PIN, _a_, hüm-mén;
   _large blanket pin_, kwün-né-sing.

 PIPE, päkw.

 PLANE, _to_ (_boards_), shé-shüb; (_probably by onomatopœia_).

 PLANTS, ETC.: (_See also Trees._)
   Salmon berry, al-é-la.
   Barberry, skwâ-cha-sitsh.
   Red raspberry, tük′wüm.
   Gooseberry, küm-kwéltsh.
   Dewberry, skül-nu-whélsh
   Rose bush, kül-kél.
     Berries of do., kül-lük.
   Snowberry bush, pat-saltsh.
     Berries of do., p'pi-kái-yas.
   Honeysuckle, kat-kat-éltsh, saltsh; (_the leaves are chewed as a
       medicine_.)
   Spiræa, kads-sulch.
   Wild pea, hüm-kwai-á-sin.
   Wild rye, pshai.
   Yarrow (_Achillia multifolia_), pül-lé-a-kwütsh; (_it is used to
       expedite delivery_.)
   Prickly pear (_cactus_), tsä-ta.
   Thorns, chit-tüm-mäs.
   Equisetum, mäkhw, á-is-küd.
     Root of do., ko-ma-lokh.
   Cat-tail rush, s_á_-kün.
   Tule or round rush, skwül-lül.
   Wild onion, swél-nitsh.
   Brake fern, sük-ka-an′.
     Roots of do. (_eaten_), skwi′yu.
   Small brake, tsük′kwa.
   Wood fern, s'hä-lüm.
   Liquorice fern (_an expectorant_), klüs-síp.
   Lichens, küt-che.
   Spanish moss, stül-hái-is.
   Liverworts, mükh′tül-lüs;
     _a species of moss with a peppery taste, used in medicine_, kät-si.
   Sea weeds, chil-lüm.
   Kelp (_fucus gigantia_), kwá-ang.

 PLANT, _to_, chin-eng-ütl.

 PLENTY, n'gün.

 POINT _of anything_, i-sük′sin.

 POOR, _wretched_, sül-lá-wa.

 PORCUPINE QUILLS, tsüts-ül-kan.

 PORPOISE, kwá-nat.

 POSTS _for supporting the roof of a house_, kä-kan.

 POUND, _to_ (_as seeds, grain_), kli-a-kwéng-ütl.

 PRAIRIE, spelkh′han.

 PREGNANT, skä-kwi.

 PRESENTLY, hwa-sing-ang′a;
   _in a little while_, h'wes′ta-ál, hu-as-ta-al′.

 PRONOUNS:
   I, us;
     _suffixed to a verb_ (_copulative_), sün.
   My, ti-us;
     _prefixed to noun_ (_possessive_), n's, nūs.
   Thou, nükw.
   Thy, ti-nük-wa.
   Thyself, tin-tsi-la.
   He (_that one_), nel, nitlh.
   We, minglkt, kl-ming′ülkh.
   Ye, nük-kwé-li-e.
   They, nan-etl-ya, kw-si-a-hal-tün.
   My canoe, nus-kwá n'shwâ-atl.
   Thy knife, süns-kwân's-päl-tün.
   His gun, tsä-ka po-yük.
   Our country, tsá-kwün tüng′-hu.
   Your house, tsüng a′nüng hä-la.
   Their father, k'sän män.

 PULL THE HAIR, _to_, heng-ükw-tün.

 PUT ON, _to_, _pantaloons_, hük-éw-sing;
   _a coat_, hut-ché-tüng.

 PUT INTO, _to_, _imp._, nu-ás ats-ches-sük.

 PUT DOWN, _to_, sä-kws.


 R.

 RAIN, slüm′mōkh.

 RAISE UP, _to_, sä-at.

 RAKE, _for taking herring and other small fish_, tlet′ha-men.

 RAPID, _in a river_, kwet′chüm.

 RAW, hets.

 RED, n'sük'h, n'sükw.

 RELATIONSHIPS:
   Father, män.
   Mother, tän.
   Husband, my, n'stá-lüsh.
   Wife, _idem_.
   Son or daughter, ng'ün′na.
   Brother, _if older than the speaker_, shí-itlh;
     _if younger_, sái-tchin.
   Elder sister, á-lish;
     _younger do._, sái-tchin.
   Grandfather, cha-mok.
   Grandmother, sé-la.
   Uncle, latl, hai'tch; (_as the nephew grows older, the uncle becomes
       an elder brother_.)
   Aunt, shé-ilsh.
   Father-in-law, slätl.
   Mother-in-law, _idem_.
   Brother-in-law, _idem (?)_.
   Sister-in-law, s'ng-at′hwun.
   Sister's husband, _idem_.
   Step father, n's-gnä-ün.
   Step mother, _idem_.
   Daughter-in-law, skwá-lo-wis.
   Husband's other wives, sái-ya.

 RIVER, stá-lo;
   _small stream_, stá-ta-lo.

 ROAD, satl.

 ROAST, _to_, _in ashes_, tül-lák;
   _on a stick_, s'kwül′lüng.

 ROCK, sng-ánt.

 ROPE, hwé-lüm.

 RUN, _to_, kwâ-nüng-üt, kwá-nüng-it.


 S.

 SAD, hätl-tin, hütch-ing′én.

 SAIL, _make sail_, _imp._, chai-a-kwün pa-kwün;
   _take in sail_, _imp._, klüng-äs.

 SALAMANDER, pét-h'yil.

 SALMON, _generic_, s'chän-hu.--
   _Various species:_
     kütch′küs _Salmo scoulerí_, RICHARDSON;
     hün-nün, _the hump-backed salmon_ (_S. Proteus_);
     sük-ké (_not ascertained_);
     yó-mutsh, _S. quinnat_, RICH.;
     kwal-hu, _S. canis_, SUCKLEY (_this name, it will be noticed, is
         also applied to sea ducks_);
     ké-ükh, _S. truncatus_?
     kwül-yauk, _salmon when exhausted by spawning_;
     tüghs, _salmon trout_ (_S. Campbelli_, SUCKLEY);
     su-kwái, _brook trout_ (_S. stellatus_, GRD.);
     hu-má-ni, _salmon fry._ (_This last word suggests the Spokane word
         for the brook trout_, hu-má-na.)

 SALT, klat′lün.

 SAND BEACH, s'het (_Lummi_), si-et′süm (_Kwantlen_).

 SAND SPIT, na-wa-létsh.

 SCOOP, _for bailing a canoe_, tsang′tün.

 SCRAPE, _to_, ekht.

 SCRATCH, _a_, si-héks.

 SCRATCH, _to_, hüt-ché-tüng;
   _I scratch_, hi-kék-sün.

 SEA, klals, kt'hlals.

 SEASONS:
   Spring, tchin-kwé-lis, tchin-kwai-lus.
   Summer, kwá-lus (kwá-lis, _warm_) tchin-é-yi.
   Autumn, chits-at-lin, tsa-whéngst.
   Winter, chints-é-hüm, chin-sá-tütsh, sá-titsh.

 SEE, _to_, lang-üt, lang-it.

 SELL, _to_, hwi-mä′la.

 SEVEN, tsâkws, tsük-sä-la, sük-sält-hu.

 SEW, _to_, chets.

 SHAKE HANDS, _to_, kwün-sest′.

 SHALLOW, shái-shüm.

 SHARP, ái-yas.

 SHARPEN, _to_, _to whet on a stone_, t'kas.

 SHAWL, süt-sá-müsh.

 SHIRT, küts-á-lis;
   _"hickory" shirt_, hütl-pé-wün.

 SHOES, _moccasins_, s'klük′a-shin.

 SHOOT, _to_, _with a bow_, ts-män.

 SHOT, hüs-üm-ákw.

 SICK, s'hatl.

 SICK, _I am_, s'hal'sün.

 SING, _to_, t'e-lüm, te′lim.

 SISTER, _elder_, á-lish;
   _younger_, sái-tchin.

 SIT, _to_, üm-müt, üm-mit, tsüm-má-no.

 SIX, t'hünkh, tükh-hüng-ä-la, tükh-hüng-ält-hu.

 SKIN, _dressed_, hül-kün;
   _un-dressed_, kwül′lo.

 SKY, sé-ishl, skwái-yil.

 SLEEP, _to_, ét-t-t, é-tüt-tüt, i-tit.

 SLEEPY, a-tá-tüng.

 SLOWLY, o-s'n-ang'h.

 SMALL, mi-mé-min.

 SMELL, _a_, häkw.

 SMELL, _to_, hük-kwül′la, hük-kwá-li.

 SMOKE, _to_, _a pipe_, smä-nis-tin (smá-nüsh, _tobacco_);
   _as a fire_, spát-lüng.

 SNAKE, s'alkh′ka.

 SNEEZE, _to_, hä-sing.

 SNORE, _to_, hwá-na-küng.

 SNOW, ná-ka.

 SON, ng-üu′na.

 SOUL, _the_, sül-lé.

 SOUR, sá-han.

 SOW, _to_, _grain_, _&c._, chái-its (chai, _to work_).

 SPEAK, _to_, kwal.

 SPEAR, _to_, _water fowl_, t'kwa′-nüm;
   _seals_, sái-yüm-mün;
   _fish_, t's-hüng′ün.

 SPLIT WOOD, _to_, sküt.

 STAB, _to_, met-át-üng-kwa;
   _Simiamoo_, ti-chet′üng-kwa.

 STAND, _to_, sít-lün.

 STAR, kó-s'n, kâ-s'n.

 STAY, _I will stay_, a-wüs-sin.

 STEAL, _I stole_, as-kwa-kan′;
   _you stole_, nük′wa kwa-kan′;
   _he stole_, nikhl-kwa-kan′.

 STEER, _to_, chün-nä-set; chük-ke-nüng.

 STEERSMAN, _of canoe_, as-kwá-at.

 STOCKADE, _fence_, kül-lükh′han.

 STONE, chet-hlákh;
   _rock_, sng-ánt.

 STOP, _I will stop here_, o-at′la-sün (_perhaps "I have arrived"_);
   _stop_, _imp._, _i.e. stop doing any thing_, un-nükhw kwá-tün s'chai;
   _stop_ (_when one is helped sufficiently to food_), hái;
   _stop_ (_talking_), süm-mukh.

 STRIKE, _to_, _with the fist_, nüt-sás-tüng.

 STRIPED, as-hé-ütsh.

 STRONG, kâm-küm, kwüm-kwüm.

 STURGEON, skwá-wütsh.

 SUN, sku-kül′.

 SWEET, sak-küng (aikh, _good_).

 SWIM, _to_, tüng-a-áng.


 T.

 TAKE, _to_, kwün′nut (_same as to get_).

 TAKE OFF, _to_, kl_á_-lis, klüt-sang′.

 TALE, _story_, skwül′kwül.

 TALL, kl'k-tákhl.

 TEETH, chin′nis.

 TEN, o′pün, o-pün-ä-la, o-pün-ält-hu.

 TESTICLES, má-tchin.

 THANK YOU, hekh.

 THAT, tül-lá, ta-lé;
   _that is Lucy's_, la Lucy ti-lé.

 THERE, ta-lá;
   _there it is_, e-i-té-i-ti, át-la-ti.

 THEY, nan-étl-ya, kw'si′a-hál-tün.

 THING, _things_, stang;
   _every thing_, nükw-stang.
   _It is noticeable that in this language, as well as in the Nisqually,
       Chinook, and probably in others, the word for "thing" is the same
       as that for "what."_

 THIEF, kán-kan.

 THIS, ti′et-hla.

 THOU, nükw;
   _thyself_, tin-tsi′la;
   _you are a Kanaka yourself_, Kanaka tin-tsi′la.

 THOUSAND, o-pántsh.

 THREAD, _twine_, hwé-lum.

 THREE, klikhw, kl-whái-la, kl-whält-hu.

 THROAT, haung′en.

 THROW, _to_, _as a stone_, tsi-lakh;
   _to throw away_, hwélt-hu.
   (_In the Simiamoo dialect_, é-kwüt; _to throw away with violence_,
       tim-müt.)

 THUMB, süs-táls.

 THUNDER, s'hó-hwas.

 TIDES:
   Flood tide, küm′mül.
   Ebb tide, hi-klatl'h.
   High tide, küm-küm′mül.
   Low tide, sham′shüm.

 TOBACCO, smá-nüsh.

 TOBACCO POUCH, smá-na-shá-la.

 TO-DAY, ti-a-káis, ti-o-skwá-chil.

 TOES, s'chüs'sün, snó-hwl-shin.

 TO-MORROW, kwá-chil, kwái-ikhl.

 TONGUE, té-whls.

 TRADING HOUSE _or store_, shwui-mäl (hwi-mä-la, _to sell_).

 TREES, _forest_, s'ki-lá-lüng-hu.

 TREES, ETC.:
   Red pine (_P. ponderosa_), kwa-kwa-yé-la-hilp.
   Dwarf pine (_P. contorta_), kwákhwl-ch.
   Spruce fir (_Abies Menzesii_), chi-kwüt′lp.
   White fir (_A. grandis_), sko′-me-yüks.
   Hemlock spruce (_Abies ---- ----_), s'ke-éltch.
   Yew, tlng-kálsh.
   Cedar (_Thuja_), h'chá-chiltsh.
   Red cedar (_Juniperus_), pits-in-ái-ilp.
   Arbutus (_A. Menzesii_), kō-kwéltsh.
   Trailing arbutus (_A. uva-ursi_), kwün-neltsh; _the leaves of this
       vine are used for smoking_.
   Birch, kats-ül′tch.
   Maple (_A. macrophylla_), küm′ an-ilp.
   Vine maple (_A. circinata_), shé-chülp.
   Alder, s'kwáng-ültsh.
   Crab apple tree, kükh-whétsh.
     Fruit of do., ka-ákhw.
   Elder, tsé-wükh.
   Willow, swül-létsh.

 TREES, _parts of_:
   Roots, ko′mel-lokh.
   Fir cones, ta-má-ku-küns.
   Pitch or rosin, smá-nitsh.
   Leaves, sats-tlá.
   Fir bark, t'chül-le.
   Cedar bark, shl-kōm.
     Inner bark of do., skwekhw.
   Willow bark (_used for making seines_), swá-lakh.
   Rotten wood, pi-kwái.

 TWO, chus-sa, chá-sa, tch's-sält-hu.


 U.

 UNCOVER, _to_, küt-lést.

 UNDERSTAND,--
   _I understand that_, hüt-che-tu ti-ats;
   _I don't understand_, o-ná kwins-hu-chet;
   _Do you understand Clallam?_ hüt-che-tüt kwüs-sa Nūs-klái-yūm?

 URINATE, ché-wa. (_This applies to either sex, there not being a
     distinction made, as in the Nisqually._)


 W.

 WALK, _to_, s-tüng, sh-tüng.

 WANT, _to_, sklé;
   _I want_, n's-klé;
   _I don't want_, á-wa sins-kle.

 WARM, kwass, kwá-lüs.

 WARRIOR, nus-chang-kün, mich-kül′lo-wütl.

 WASH, _to_, (_the hands_), tsük-sé-sümg;
   (_the face_), tsük-wá-süng;
   (_clothes_), tsük-ül-kwo′-tüng;
   _I wash_, sa-kwüm′sün.

 WATER, kaukh.

 WAVES, skwüt-la-lák-ün.

 WE, ninglkh, kl-ning-ülkh.

 WET, klük-sét, tsa-müng.

 WHAT, stäng, stäng-wüt;
   _what is that?_ stang ti-á?
   _what are you doing?_ stang nis-chai?
   _what food do you buy?_ stang kwa chats sä′wun?
   _what?_ (_in answer to a call_), stang?
   _what is the matter with you?_ es-tang hat-su?
   _what do you want?_ stang sins-kle ti-nük-wa;
   _what is your name?_ (_vide "who."_)

 WHERE, a-hén;
   _where is my gun?_ t'hén-ku ken po-yük?
   _I don't know where_, kwá-hen ish-tük′ka;
   _where do you come from (whence you?)_ tsa-héns-hu, tsa-hénts-hu?
   _where are you going (whither you?)_ t'whéns-hu, twéntst-hu?

 WHISTLE, _to_, sh-pi-lás.

 WHITE, pük'h.

 WHO, wät, wat;
   _who did that?_ wat′la kwuts-chái-a ti-a?
   _what (literally "who") is your name?_ wat-tun-má? wat kud sna?

 WIFE, n'stá-lush (_same as husband_).

 WIND, st-châng.

 WINDS:
   West, ste-wüt.
   W. N. W., tent-sa-lük.
   N. W. and North, s'chá-yüm.
   S. S. E., skang-üt.
   S. W., s'chis.

 WINGS, sk-käl.

 WIPE, _to_, (_the face_), nu-hwa-chá-süng;
   (_the hands_), chékw-sim.

 WOLF, st-kái-ükh.

 WOMAN, slá-ni.

 WOOD, s'chütl;
   _a log_, kwt-hlái;
   _dry wood_, stä-ta-chi.

 WORK (_do_, _make_), chái.

 WORTHLESS, kl-hül-o-_á_s.

 WRESTLE, _to_, tsäl-tüng.

 WRITE, _to_, hül′lüt.


 Y.

 YAWN, _to_, we′a-küs.

 YE, YOU, nük-kwé-li-é.

 YELLOW, n's-kwül-la-wün, nük-wai.

 YES, a-áh;
   _yes indeed, certainly_, ho′wüs, hu′üs, si-ēt

 YESTERDAY, chi-lak'hl.

 YOUNG, s'hwé-wils.



 LOCAL NOMENCLATURE

 OF THE LUMMI TRIBE.


 Chil-tün-nüm. Point Roberts.

 No-ku-me′khil. A creek running into the bay.

 Pi-kalps. The Indian village of Camp Simiamoo.

 Sim-i-a′mu. The name of the band.

 Kul-la′han. "Stockade," the site of the old village.

 A′la-la. Creek at the head of Drayton harbor.

 Se′litsh. The site on the sand spit of ditto. The name Tsi-he′lis has
     the same signification.

 Kwūd-shäd. Mount Baker.

 Hōl-hōl-ok'h. Site between Drayton harbor and Birch bay.

 Tsáu-wükh. Site on Birch bay.

 Tut-si-nüts. Slái-ek-sen. Sandy point.

 Cháu-üks. North end Lummi island.

 St'kwäp. A site on eastern side of do.

 Ska′lek-shün. Fishing on west side of do.

 Mam-e′ük _or_ S'müm-mé-ük. The mountain on south end of do.

 Klé-kwa-ni. A rock off S. W. end of ditto. It is a s'hui-yáb or demon.

 To-whütsh. Eliza island.

 Ku-kwa-né-üng. Viti rocks.

 Chá-chu-sen. Part of the Delta of Lummi river.

 Skül-há-netl, Sla-yüks. Mouths of the river on Hale's passage.

 Tom-whik-sen. The winter village on the passage.

 Tä′la-pi. Another neighboring site.

 Swūl-é-sen _or_ S'hūl-e-sen. The Portage.

 N-ūs-ká-la-hüm. The neck of Point Francis.

 Sé-liss. Point Francis. (_Vide_ Sé-litsh, _supra._)

 Klik-a-té-nus. The small prairie at the military station, Fort Bellingham.

 Kwal-lu-hūm (Squallicum). The small creek above Whatcom.

 What-com. The outlet of the lake. The name refers to the noise of its
     waters.

 Si-hōm. The site of the Bellingham Bay Coal Mine.

 Ma-mó-si. Pattle's claim.

 Sis′lit-chüm. Thomas's claim.

 Tai-chá-mish. The cove at Cullum's claim.

 Tchük-a-nüts. The inner bight of Bellingham bay.

 S'hüts-küs. Point William, or Samish point.

 As-é-a-kün. Samish village behind the island.

 Pen-ūkh-hu. Vendovi island. The name is derived from that of a
     bulbous root growing there.

 T'châ-kwil-la. N. W. point of Gueymes island.

 T'kwâ-wa-tchin. N. E. side of do.

 Kwil-shants. S. E. point of do.

 Nūkh-whai-i-mikhl. Samish village S. W. side of do.

 Tál-la-lokh, Nu-kwüt-lá-al. Localities on Fidalgo island.

 Mük-kük'hs. N. E. point of do.

 Sküt-lüs. Sinclair island.

 Tüt-sékh. Cypress island.

 Tütl-ki-té-nüs. Strawberry harbor on do.

 Shé-üng-tl'h. The peak on the N. end of do. It is the nest of the
     thunder bird.

 S'nūk-nokh-hw'tl. Site on western side of Blakely island.

 Nūs-kwi-chen′nüm. James's island.

 Chis-si-ná-a. Bird rocks off Decatur island.

 Hüt-tát-ch'l. Site of Indian village on S. E. end of Orcas island.

 Ko-pé-tün. S. E. point of eastern bay in Orcas island.

 Mūk-kwūl-nitch. Small lake and cascade emptying into the eastern bay.

 I-ukh′kan. The cove at Mūk-kwūl-nitch.

 Chin-chin-tsé-lūng. A rock on the eastern shore of the bay. It was
     another demon--a woman who committed adultery with every one. She
     was turned into stone by Ha-áls, but her spirit remains. She used to
     live at that place in summer, but went up the bay in the winter.

 Nūkh-whái-yūm. Deadman's rock in the eastern bay. An old cemetery
     of the Lummi Indians.

 Tsül-whé-sün. A site at the head of the bay.

 Swá-lakh. Mount Constitution, on Orcas island. The name is also given to
     the eastern bay itself, or rather to the country upon it.

 S'ko-ma-ang. A mountain on the peninsula between the eastern and middle
     bays. The name refers to a berry called _t'kwa′ma_, and means "_like
     that berry_."

 A′la-la, "_like a house_," from _a′lung_, "_a house_." Another hill on
     Orcas island. The name also applies to the land bordering on the
     middle bay.

 Nūs-kül-ling-üs. The point at the entrance of the middle or A′la-la bay.

 Skwék-sen. A rock on the eastern side of do. This was another demon.

 I′ye-hün. The bald hill at the head of A′la-la bay.

 T'kai-yetsh. The extreme S. W. point of Orcas island.

 Nukh-ló-kwoi. A site on the W. side of do.

 Kwi-nüs. N. point of Lopez island.

 Sklél-nip. Sand point N. end of do.

 Nu-chad-kwun. E. point of do.

 S'whül-lütsh. The lagoon on the W. side of do. (Its Clallam name,
     _Pal-pi-yu_.)

 Kūt-ül′la. E. point of Shaw's island.

 Hüs-sáltsh, Hwi-chá-sen. Localities on the S. side of do.

 Kl-chang. Point on N. side do.

 Nūk-pá-katsh. Rocky islet N. side do.

 Kla-lá-ka-mish. Former inhabitants of the E. side of San Juan island; a
     band of Lummis now extinct.

 Si-a′lüng-hu. Hudson's Bay farm, San Juan island.

 Wa-hül-a-nün. Hudson's Bay salmon house, San Juan do.

 Kl-whái-ten. Patos island.

 Klakhw-küm (_mussels_). Patos island.

 Pen-ōkh. Matia group. The name has the same signification as that of
     Vendovi island.

 Chu-shé-nüng. Sucia group.

 Si-lá-ka-mish. Spiedur island.

 Kwün-nüs. Stuart island.

 S'Hün-ne. Waldron island.

 Le-mäl-tcha, Stä-shum. Former villages on Waldron island.

 El-t'nlh. Point Disney, do.

 Pl-hunk'-'sun. W. point, do.



 NAMES OF LUMMI CHIEFS.


 Sa-hōp-kan, now dead.

 Chil-lük, his son, also dead.

 Cháu-its-hūt, another son, and

 Chil-lé-ük.

   The last is Chief of the North Lummis, and Cháu-its-hūt of the
   southern band.

 Hu-té-sa-lük, at Simiamoo.





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