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Title: Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon
Author: Gibbs, George, 1815-1873
Language: English
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                                  OF THE

                              CHINOOK JARGON,

                         TRADE LANGUAGE OF OREGON.

                             BY GEORGE GIBBS.

                                 NEW YORK:

                              CRAMOISY PRESS.



Some years ago the Smithsonian Institution printed a small vocabulary of
the Chinook Jargon, furnished by Dr. B.R. Mitchell, of the U.S. Navy, and
prepared, as we afterwards learned, by Mr. Lionnet, a Catholic priest, for
his own use while studying the language at Chinook Point. It was submitted
by the Institution, for revision and preparation for the press, to the
late Professor W.W. Turner. Although it received the critical examination
of that distinguished philologist, and was of use in directing attention
to the language, it was deficient in the number of words in use, contained
many which did not properly belong to the Jargon, and did not give the
sources from which the words were derived.

Mr. Hale had previously given a vocabulary and account of this Jargon in
his "Ethnography of the United States Exploring Expedition," which was
noticed by Mr. Gallatin in the Transactions of the American Ethnological
Society, vol. ii. He, however, fell into some errors in his derivation of
the words, chiefly from ignoring the Chihalis element of the Jargon, and
the number of words given by him amounted only to about two hundred and

A copy of Mr. Lionnet's vocabulary having been sent to me, with a request
to make such corrections as it might require, I concluded not merely to
collate the words contained in this and other printed and manuscript
vocabularies, but to ascertain, so far as possible, the languages which
had contributed to it, with the original Indian words. This had become the
more important, as its extended use by different tribes had led to
ethnological errors in the classing together of essentially distinct
families. Dr. Scouler, whose vocabularies were among the earliest bases of
comparison of the languages of the northwest coast, assumed a number of
words, which he found indiscriminately employed by the Nootkans of
Vancouver Island, the Chinooks of the Columbia, and the intermediate
tribes, to belong alike to their several languages, and exhibit analogies
between them accordingly.[A] On this idea, among other points of fancied
resemblance, he founded his family of Nootka-Columbians,--one which has
been adopted by Drs. Pritchard and Latham, and has caused very great
misconception. Not only are those languages entirely distinct, but the
Nootkans differ greatly in physical and mental characteristics from the
latter. The analogies between the Chinook and the other native
contributors to the Jargon are given hereafter.

[Footnote A: Journal Royal Geographical Society of London, vol. xi.,

The origin of this Jargon, a conventional language similar to the Lingua
Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro-English-Dutch of Surinam, the
Pigeon English of China, and several other mixed tongues, dates back to
the fur droguers of the last century. Those mariners whose enterprise in
the fifteen years preceding 1800, explored the intricacies of the
northwest coast of America, picked up at their general rendezvous, Nootka
Sound, various native words useful in barter, and thence transplanted
them, with additions from the English, to the shores of Oregon. Even
before their day, the coasting trade and warlike expeditions of the
northern tribes, themselves a sea-faring race, had opened up a partial
understanding of each other's speech; for when, in 1792, Vancouver's
officers visited Gray's Harbor, they found that the natives, though
speaking a different language, understood many words of the Nootka.

On the arrival of Lewis and Clarke at the mouth of the Columbia, in 1806,
the new language, from the sentences given by them, had evidently attained
some form. It was with the arrival of Astor's party, however, that the
Jargon received its principal impulse. Many more words of English were
then brought in, and for the first time the French, or rather the Canadian
and Missouri patois of the French, was introduced. The principal seat of
the company being at Astoria, not only a large addition of Chinook words
was made, but a considerable number was taken from the Chihalis, who
immediately bordered that tribe on the north,--each owning a portion of
Shoalwater Bay. The words adopted from the several languages were,
naturally enough, those most easily uttered by all, except, of course,
that objects new to the natives found their names in French or English,
and such modifications were made in pronunciation as suited tongues
accustomed to different sounds. Thus the gutturals of the Indians were
softened or dropped; and the _f_ and _r_ of the English and French, to
them unpronounceable, were modified into _p_ and _l_. Grammatical forms
were reduced to their simplest expression, and variations in mood and
tense conveyed only by adverbs or by the context. The language continued
to receive additions, and assumed a more distinct and settled meaning,
under the Northwest and Hudson's Bay companies, who succeeded Astor's
party, as well as through the American settlers in Oregon. Its advantage
was soon perceived by the Indians, and the Jargon became to some extent a
means of communication between natives of different speech, as well as
between them and the whites. It was even used as such between Americans
and Canadians. It was at first most in vogue upon the lower Columbia and
the Willamette, whence it spread to Puget Sound, and with the extension of
trade, found its way far up the coast, as well as the Columbia and Fraser
rivers; and there are now few tribes between the 42d and 57th parallels of
latitude in which there are not to be found interpreters through its
medium. Its prevalence and easy acquisition, while of vast convenience to
traders and settlers, has tended greatly to hinder the acquirement of the
original Indian languages; so much so, that except by a few missionaries
and pioneers, hardly one of them is spoken or understood by white men in
all Oregon and Washington Territory. Notwithstanding its apparent poverty
in number of words, and the absence of grammatical forms, it possesses
much more flexibility and power of expression than might be imagined, and
really serves almost every purpose of ordinary intercourse.

The number of words constituting the Jargon proper has been variously
stated. Many formerly employed have become in great measure obsolete,
while others have been locally introduced. Thus, at the Dalles of the
Columbia, various terms are common which would not be intelligible at
Astoria or on Puget Sound. In making the following selection, I have
included all those which, on reference to a number of vocabularies, I have
found current at any of these places, rejecting, on the other hand, such
as individuals, partially acquainted with the native languages, have
employed for their own convenience. The total number falls a little short
of five hundred words.

An analysis of their derivations gives the following result:

Chinook, including Clatsop                       200
Chinook, having analogies with other languages    21
Interjections common to several                    8
Nootka, including dialects                        24
Chihalis, 32; Nisqually, 7                        39
Klikatat and Yakama                                2
Cree                                               2
Chippeway (Ojibwa)                                 1
Wasco (probably)                                   4
Kalapuya (probably)                                4
By direct onomatopoeia                             6
Derivation unknown, or undetermined               18
French, 90; Canadian, 4                           94
English                                           67

I had no opportunity of original investigation into the Nootka proper, but
from the few words in different published vocabularies, and from some
imperfect manuscript ones in my possession of the Tokwaht, Nittinat, and
Makah dialects, have ascertained the number above given. Some of the
unascertained words probably also belong to that language. Neither was I
able to collate the Wasco or Kalapuya, but have assigned them on the
opinion of others. The former, also called Cathlasco, the dialect of the
Dalles Indians, is a corrupted form of the Watlala or Upper Chinook. With
the Chihalis, Yakama, and Klikatat, and the Nisqually, I had abundant
means of comparison.

The introduction of the Cree and Chippeway words is of course due to the
Canadians. None have been derived from the Spanish, as their intercourse
with the Nootka and Makah Indians was too short to leave an impression.
Spanish words, especially those relating to horses or mules and their
equipments, have of late come into general use in Oregon, owing to
intercourse with California, but they form no part of the Jargon. It might
have been expected from the number of Sandwich Islanders introduced by the
Hudson's Bay company, and long resident in the country, that the Kanaka
element would have found its way into the language, but their utterance is
so foreign to the Indian ear, that not a word has been adopted.

In the nouns derived from the French, the definite article _le_, _la_, has
almost in every instance been incorporated into the word, and the same has
in one or two instances been prefixed to nouns not of French origin.
Besides the words created by direct onomatopoeia, there are quite a number
which are really Indian, but have their origin in the similarity of sound
to sense.

Dr. Scouler's analogy between the Nootkan and "Columbian," or Chinook, was
founded on the following words:

_English._           _Tlaoquatch and Nutka._   _Columbian._
 plenty,              *aya,                     *haya.
 no,                  *wik,                     *wake.
 water,                tchaak,                   chuck.
 good,                *hooleish,                *closh.
 bad,                 *peishakeis,              *peshak.
 man,                 *tchuckoop,                tillicham.
 woman,               *tlootsemin,              *clootchamen.
 child,               *tanassis,                *tanass.
 now,                  tlahowieh,                clahowiah.
 come,                *tchooqua,                *sacko.
 slave,                mischemas,               *mischemas.
 what are you doing   *akoots-ka-*mamook,        ekta-*mammok.
 what are you saying  *au-kaak-*wawa,            ekta-*wawa.
 let me see,          *nannanitch,              *nannanitch.
 sun,                 *opeth,                    ootlach.
 sky,                 *sieya,                   *saya.
 fruit,               *chamas,                  *camas.
 to sell,             *makok,                   *makok.
 understand,          *commatax,                *commatax.

But of these, none marked with an asterisk belong to the Chinook or any of
its dialects. The greater part of them are undoubtedly Nootkan, though
there are errors in the spelling and, in some instances, in the meaning.
Of the rest, the Nootkan _tchaak_ and the Chinook _tl'tsuk_ alone presents
an analogy. _Klahowiah_ does not mean "now," nor do I believe it is
Nootkan, in any sense. It is, as explained in the dictionary, the Chinook
salutation, "How do you," "Good-bye," and is supposed to be derived from
the word for _poor_, _miserable_. _Mischemas_ is not Chinook, and is
probably not Nootkan. With the exception of Franchere, whose short
vocabulary was published by Mr. Gallatin, and Mr. Hale, all the writers
mentioned by Ludwig who have given specimens of the Chinook language, have
presented it in its Jargon form, more or less mixed with the neighboring
ones, and with corruptions of French and English words. Mr. Swan, among
others, has been led into this error. The place of his residence,
Shoalwater Bay, is common ground of the Chinook and Chihalis Indians, and
the degraded remnants of the two tribes are closely intermarried, and use
both languages almost indifferently.

Setting aside interjections, common in a more or less modified form to
several adjoining tribes, twenty-one words of those given in this
vocabulary present noticeable analogies between the Chinook and other
native languages. They are as follows:

_English._         _Chinook._      _Hailtzuk and Belbella._
 salmon berries,    klalilli,       olalli.

_English._       _Chinook and Clatsop._    _Nootka._
                                           Jewitt and Cook.
 water,           tl'tsuk : tl'chukw,       chauk : chahak.

_English._    _Chinook._    _Cowlitz._    _Kwantlen._    _Selish._
 six,          tákhum,       tukh'um,      tuckhum',      táckan.

_English._        _Chinook._    _Chihalis._    _Nisqually._
 deep,             kellippe,     kluputl,       klep
 glad,             kwan,                        kwal (_tame_)
 proud,            eyútl,                       júil.
 demon,            ichiatku,     tsiatko,       tsiatko.
 black bear,       eitchhut,                    chetwut.
 crow,             skaka,                       skaka.
 oyster,           klokhklokh,   chetlókh,      klokhklokh.
 game of "hands,"  itlokum,      setlokum.

_English._        _Chinook._    _Yakama and Klikatat._
 certainly,        nawitka,      n'witka.
 always,           kwanisum,     kwálisim.
 younger sister,   ats,          atse.
 road,             wehut,        wiet (_far_).
 barrel,           tamtúlitsh,   tamolitsh.
 buffalo,          emúsmus,      músmus.
 coyote,           itálipus,     talipa (_gray fox_).
 mouse,            kholkhol,     khóilkhoil.
 bread,            tsapelil,     saplil.
 needle,           okwépowa,     kapus (_a pin_).

The Clatsop (Klátsop) is merely a dialect of the Chinook (Tchinúk); the
Cowlitz (Káualitsk), Kwantlen, Chihalis (Tsihélis), and Nisqually
(N'skwáli), are severally languages belonging to the Sélish family. The
Yakama and Klikatat are dialects of one of the Sahaptin languages; and the
Tokwaht (Tokwát), Nittinat, and Makah (Maká), quoted in the dictionary,
are dialects of the Nootka (Nútka), of which the Hailtzuk or Belbella
(variously spelled Haeeltzuk and Hailtsa) is probably the northern type.
It thus appears that, with two or three exceptions, the analogies of the
Chinook, as contained in this vocabulary, are to be sought in the
immediately adjoining tongues, or those of languages belonging to the same
families with them; that these analogies, with perhaps one or two
exceptions, can by no means be considered radical, and that their
correspondence, or rather adoption, is easily accounted for by
neighborhood and habits of intermarriage. A much more remarkable
coincidence is the fact that two words included in this Jargon,--one from
the Nootkan, viz., _Mawitch_, a deer, venison; and the other Chinook,
_Mooluk_, an elk,--are also to be found in the Kowilth, the language of
Humboldt Bay, in California. As this bay was first discovered in the
winter of 1849-50, the words could not have been introduced by the fur

With regard to the form into which this dictionary has been thrown, an
explanation is necessary. The Jargon must in some degree be regarded as a
written language, the orthography of which is English. In Mr. Hale's
vocabulary alone has one more scientific been attempted, and of several
other printed, and numerous manuscript dictionaries in circulation, M.
Lionnet's alone, that I have met with, is according to the French.
Although no fixed system of spelling exists among them, I have therefore
deemed it best to preserve for the Jargon words that which most distinctly
represents the common English pronunciation; while for the Indian
derivations, I have adopted that recommended by the Smithsonian
Institution in collecting Indian vocabularies, using the Italian sounds of
the vowels, and representing the guttural of the German _ich_ by _kh_.
This seemed the more proper, as the work would thereby be rendered of
practical use, independent of what philological value it may possess.

In collating the words of the present work and obtaining their
derivations, I have been assisted by a number of friends; among whom I
should specially mention Mr. Alexander C. Anderson, of Victoria, V.I., and
Mr. Solomon H. Smith, of Clatsop, Oregon.

~Bibliography of the Chinook Jargon.~

_Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains._ By Rev. Samuel Parker.
12mo. Ithaca, N.Y., 1838.

"Vocabulary of the Chenook language, as spoken about Fort Vancouver," pp.

_Ethnography and Philology of the United States Exploring Expedition._ By
Horatio Hale. 4to. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1846.

A vocabulary of the "Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon," with an essay
thereon, and phrases, is given in this work, pp. 636-650.

_Transactions of the American Ethnological Society._ 2 vols., 8vo. New
York: Bartlett & Welford, 1845, 1848.

In vol. ii., pp. 62-70, under title of "Hale's Indians of Northwest
America," is a partial reprint of the above.

Rev. Z.B.Z. Bolduc, "_Mission de la Colombie._" 8vo. Quebec, 1843.

The Lord's Prayer in Jargon, "et quelques mots Tchinoucs et Sneomus." The
Snohomish is a tribe of Puget Sound. The Chinook words are merely Jargon.

_Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains, &c._ By Joel Palmer. 12mo.
Cincinnati, 1847, 1852.

"Words used in the Chinook Jargon," pp. 147-152.

_Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River, &c._ By
Alexander Ross. 12mo. London, 1849.

Ross gives a "Chinook Vocabulary," pp. 342-348, and words of the "mixed
dialect," p. 349. His Chinook is, however, also impure.

_Ten Years in Oregon._ By D. Lee and F.H. Frost. 12mo. New York, 1844.

"A short vocabulary of the Clatsop dialect." This is likewise Jargon.

_History, &c., of the Indian Tribes of the United States._ Collected by
Henry R. Schoolcraft. 4to. Parts 1-5. Philadelphia, 1851, 1855.

Lieut. G.F. Emmons gives a brief "Klatsop Vocabulary" in Part III., pp.
223, 224, which is of the same character.

Note 1 to article, "Philosophy of Utterance," Part V., pp. 548-551, a
"Vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon."

_Vocabulary of the Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon._ English, French,
and Jargon. 8vo. Washington, 1853. pp. 22.

Printed by the Smithsonian Institution, for private distribution. Without
title-page. This is the one by M. Lionnet, before referred to.

_The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years' Residence in Washington Territory._
By James G. Swan. 12mo. New York: Harpers, 1857.

"A vocabulary of the Chehalis and Chenook or Jargon Languages, with the
derivation of the words used in the latter," pp. 412-422.

_A Complete Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon._ English-Chinook, and
Chinook-English. To which is added numerous conversations, &c. 3d edition.
24mo, pp. 24. Portland, Oregon: published by S.J. McCormick.

Several editions of this work have been published; the last which I have
seen, in 1862.

_Guide-Book to the Gold Regions of Frazer River._ With a map of the
different routes, &c. 24mo, pp. 55. New York, 1858.

A vocabulary of the Jargon, pp. 45-55.

_The Chinook Jargon and English and French Equivalent Forms._ In "Steamer
Bulletin," San Francisco, June 21, 1858.

Contains an unarranged vocabulary of 354 words and phrases.

_The Canoe and the Saddle._ By Theodore Winthrop. 12mo. Boston: Ticknor &
Fields. 1863.

"A partial vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon," pp. 299-302.

_History of the Oregon Territory, &c._ By John Dunn. 2d edition. London,

"A few specimens of the language of the Millbank and Chinook tribes."
_Chinook tribe:_ 50 words and phrases, including digits. These words, as
usual, are in great part "Jargon," and belong to the Nootkan, _not_ to the

Besides the above, one, of which I have not the title before me, has been
published by Mr. A.C. Anderson, and several in the newspapers of Oregon
and Washington Territory.



NOTE.--The references, "Hale," "Cook," "Jewitt," are respectively to
Hale's "Ethnology of the United States Exploring Expedition," "Cook's
Voyages," and "Jewitt's Narrative." The others, as "Anderson," "Pandosy,"
"Shaw," "Tolmie," are from manuscript notes of those gentlemen in
possession of the writer.




~Ah-ha~, _adv._ Common to various tribes. _Yes._ Expression of simple
assent. On Puget Sound, E-ÉH.

~Ah'n-kut-te~, or ~Ahn-kot-tie~, _adv._ Chinook, ANKUTTI. _Formerly;
before now._ With the accent prolonged on the first syllable, _a long time
ago._ Ex. Ahnkutte lakit sun, _four days ago;_ Tenas ahnkutte, _a little
while since._

~Al-áh~, _interj._ Expression of surprise. Ex. Alah mika chahko! _ah,
you've come!_

~Al-kie~, _adv._ Chinook, ALKEKH. _Presently; in a little while; hold on;
not so fast._

~Al'-ta~, _adv._ Chinook, ALTAKH. _Now; at the present time._

~A-mo'-te~, _n._ Chinook, AMUTE; Clatsop, KLABOTÉ. _The strawberry._

~An-áh~, _interj._ An exclamation denoting pain, displeasure, or
depreciation. Ex. Anah nawitka mika halo shem, _ah, indeed you are without
shame._ On Puget Sound, Ad-de-dáh.

~Ats~, _n._ Chinook, idem; Yakama, ATSE (Pandosy). _A sister younger than
the speaker._ In the original, only when used by her brother.

~A-yáh-whul~, _v._ Chihalis, ATAHWUL. _To lend; borrow._

~Ay-kéh-nam.~See EH-KAH-NAM.


~Bé-be~, _n., v._ French. A word used towards children; probably a
repetition of the first syllable of BAISER. _A kiss; to kiss._

~Bed~, _n._ English, idem. _A bed._

~Bit~, or ~Mit~, _n._ English, BIT. _A dime or shilling._

~Bloom~, _n._ English, BROOM. _A broom._ Mamook bloom, _to sweep._

~Boat~, _n._ English, idem. _A boat,_ as distinguished from a canoe.

~Bos'-ton~, _n., adj._ _An American; American._ A name derived from the
hailing-place of the first trading-ships to the Pacific. Boston illahie,
_the United States._

~Bur-dash~, _n._ Can. French, BERDACHE (Anderson). _An hermaphrodite._ The
reputation of hermaphroditism is not uncommon with Indians, and seems to
attach to every malformation of the organs of generation. The word is of
very limited use.


~Cal'-li-peen~, _n._ French, CARABINE. _A rifle._

~Ca-nim~, _n._ Chinook, EKANIM. _A canoe._ Canim stick, _the cedar, or
wood from which canoes are usually made._

~Ca-po'~, _n._ French, CAPOT. _A coat._

~Chah'-ko~, _v._ Nootka, Clayoquot, CHAKO; Tokwaht, TCHOKWA. _To come; to
become._ Ex. Kansik mika chahko? _when did you come?_ Chahko kloshe, _to
get well._

~Chák chak~, _n._ Chinook, idem. _The bald eagle_ (by onoma.), from its
scream. Of only local use on the lower Columbia.

~Chee~, _adv., adj._ Chinook, T'SHI. _Lately; just now; new._ Chee nika
ko, _I have just arrived._ Hyas chee, _entirely new._

~Chet'-lo~, or ~Jet'-lo~, _n._ Chihalia, CHETLOKH. _An oyster._ Used on
the lower Columbia.

~Chet-woot~, _n._ Nisqually, idem. _A black bear._ Used only on Puget

~Chik'-a-min~, _n., adj._ Tokwaht, TSIKAMEN; Nootka, SICKAMINNY (Jewitt);
SEEKEMAILE (Cook). _Iron; metal; metallic._ T'kope chikamin, _silver;_ pil
chikamin, _gold_ or _copper._ Chikamin lope, _wire; a chain._

~Chik-chik~. See TSIK-TSIK.

~Chil-chil~. See TSIL-TSIL.

~Chitsh~, _n._ Chihalis, TSHITSH. _A grandmother._

~Chope~, _n._ Chihalis, TSHUP. _A grandfather._

~Cho'-tub~, _n._ Nisqually, idem. _A flea._ Used on Puget Sound.

~Chuck~, _n._ Nootka, CHAUK (Cook); CHAHAK, _fresh water_ (Jewitt);
Chinook, TLTSUK (Shortess); Clatsop, TL'CHUKW. _Water; a river or stream._
Salt chuck, _the sea;_ skookum chuck, _a rapid;_ solleks chuck, _a rough
sea;_ chuck chahko _or_ kalipi, _the tide rises or falls;_ saghilli _and_
keekwillie chuck, _high_ and _low tide._

~Chuk-kin~, _n., v._ Chihalis, TSUKAEN. _To kick._ Of local use only.

~Close.~ See KLOSE.

~Cly~, _v._ English. _To cry._

~Cole~, _adj._ English, COLD. Cole illahie, _winter;_ icht cole, _a year;_
cole sick waum sick, _the fever and ague._

~Comb~, _n._ English. _A comb._ Mamook comb, _to comb;_ mamook comb
illahie, _to harrow._

~Coo'-ley~, _v._ French, COUREZ, imp. of COURIR. _To run._ Cooley kiuatan,
_a race-horse;_ yahka hyas kumtuks cooley, _he can,_ i.e., _knows how to
run well._

~Coop'-coop~, _n._ Chinook, idem. _The smaller sized dentalium or shell
money._ See HYKWA.

~Co'-sho~, _n._ French, COCHON. _A hog; pork._ Siwash cosho, _a seal;_
literally, _Indian pig._

~Cul'-tus~, _adj._ Chinook, KALTAS. _Worthless; good for nothing; without
purpose._ Ex. Cultus man, _a worthless fellow;_ cultus potlatch, _a
present or free gift;_ cultus heehee, _a jest; merely laughing;_ cultus
nannitsh, _to look around;_ cultus mitlite, _to sit idle; to do nothing;_
cultus klatawa, _to stroll._ _Ques._ What do you want? _Ans._ Cultus,
i.e., _nothing._


~De-láte~, or ~De-létt~, _adj., adv._ French, DROITE. _Straight; direct;
without equivocation._ Ex. Klatawa delett, _go straight;_ delett wauwau,
_tell the truth._

~Di-áub~, or ~Yaub~, _n._ French, DIABLE. _The devil._ Sometimes used
combined with the article, as LEJAUB.

~D'ly~, or ~De-ly~, _adj._ English, DRY. Chahko dely, _to become dry;_
mamook dely, _to dry, v. a._

~Doc'-tin~, _n._ English. _A doctor._

~Dol'-la~, or ~Táh-la~, _n._ English. _A dollar; money._ Chikamin dolla,
_silver;_ pil dolla, _gold;_ dolla siághost, _spectacles._


~Eh-káh-nam~, _n._ Chinook, EKANAM. _A tale or story._ Used only on the
Columbia river. Often erroneously pronounced Ay-keh-nam.

~Eh-ko-li~, _n._ Chinook, ÉKOLI. _A whale._

~Ee'-na~, _n._ Chinook, IINA. _A beaver._ Eena stick (literally, _beaver
wood_), _the willow._

~Ee'-na-poo~, or ~In-a-poo~, _n._ Chinook, INAPU. _A louse._ Sopen inapoo,
_a flea._

~Ek'-keh~, _n._ Chinook, EKKE. _A brother-in-law._

~E'-la-han~, or ~E-lánn~, _n._ Chihalis, YELAÁN. _Aid; assistance; alms._
Mamook elann, _to help._

~E'-lip~, or ~El'-ip~, _adv._ Chihalis, ILIP. _First; before._ The
superlative. Klatawa elip, _go before;_ elip lolo chuck, _in the first
place carry water;_ elip kloshe, _best;_ elip tilikum, _n._ (literally,
_the first people), a race of beings who inhabited the world before the

~E-li'-te~, _n._ Chinook, ILAITEKH. _A slave._

~E-sált'h~, or ~Ye-sált'h~, _n._ Probably Wasco. _Indian corn or  maize._


~Get-up~, or ~Ket-op~, _v._ English. _To get up; rise._

~Glease~, _n._ English, GREASE, _fat, grease, or oil._ Hyeu glease, _very
fat;_ too-toosh glease, _butter._ See, also, LAKLES.


~Háh-lakl~, _adj._ Chinook, HÁLAKL. _Wide; open._ Ex. Mamook hahlakl la
pote, _open the door;_ chahko hallakl (as of the woods), _to open out;
become less dense._

~Háht-haht~, _n._ Nisqually, HATHAT. _The mallard duck._

~Hák-at-shum~, _n._ English. _A handkerchief._

~Ha'-lo~, _adj._ Quære u. d. not Chinook. _None; absent. Q._ Halo salmon
mika? _have you no fish? A._ Halo, _none. Q._ Kah mika papa? _where is
your father? A._ Halo, _he is out._ Halo wind, _breathless; dead;_ halo
glease, _lean;_ halo ikta, _poor; destitute._

~Haul~, _v._ English, idem. _To haul or pull._ Used with the active verb
mamook; as, mamook haul.

~Hee'-hee~, _n._ By onoma., HIHI (Hale). _Laughter, amusement._  Cultus
heehee, _fun;_ mamook heehee, _to amuse;_ heehee house, _any place of
amusement,_ as a tavern, bowling-alley, &c.

~Hóh-hoh~, _n., v._ Chinook (by onoma.), HOKHHOKH. _To cough._

~Hó-ku-melh~, _v._ Chihalis, idem. _To gather; to glean,_ as grain. Of
local use.

~Hóol-hool~, _n._ Chinook, KHOLKHOL; Klikatat. KHOILKHOIL. _A mouse._ Eyas
hoolhool, _a rat._

~House~, _n._ English. _A house._ Mahkook house, _a store;_ Boston house,
_an American-built house,_ as distinguished from a lodge.

~Howh~, _interj._ HAUKH. _Turn to; hurry._

~How'-kwutl~, _adv._ Chinook, HAUKATLH. An expression of inability. Ex.
Howkwutl nika klatawa? _how could I go?_

~Hul-lel'~, _v., n._ Chinook, idem. _To shake._ Used with the verb mamook,
as, mamook hullel, it becomes active.

~Hul-ó-i-ma~, _n., adj._ Chinook, S'HULLOYIBA. _Other; another;
different._ Ex. Huloima tilikum, _a different tribe or people;_ hyas
huloima, _very different._

~Humm~, _n., v._ Jargon. _A stink or smell; to stink._ An invented word.
Humm opootsh, _a skunk._

~Hunl'-kih~, _adj._ Chinook, HUNLKEKH. _Curled or curly; knotted;

~Huy-huy~, _n., v._ Canadian French, HUI-HUI. _A bargain or exchange; to
barter or trade._ Ex. Huyhuy la sille, _change the saddle;_ huyhuy tumtum,
_to change one's mind._ Mr. Andersen says this is a cant word of the
Canadians, signifying a hasty exchange. Its origin has been suggested in
_oui oui,_ yes yes.

~Hwah~, or ~Hwah-wa~, _interj._ Denotes surprise or admiration; also

~Hy'-ak~, _adv._, also used as imperative. Chinook, AI-AK. _Swift; fast;
quickly; hurry; make haste._

~Hy-as'~, _adj., adv._ Probably corrupted from the following. _Large;
great; very._ The general term for size. Hyas tyee, _a great chief;_ hyas
mahcook, _a great price; dear;_ hyas ahnkutte, _a long time ago;_ hyas
kloshe, _very good._

~Hy-iú~, _n., adj._ Nootka, IYAHISH (Jewitt); Tokwaht, AIYA. Jewitt also
gives HYO as the name for _ten._ _Much; many; plenty; enough._ Term of
quantity or multitude. Hyiu tilikum, _a crowd; many people;_ hyiu
muckamuck, _plenty to eat;_ tenas hyiu, _some; a, few;_ wake hyiu, _not
many_ or _not much._

~Hy'-kwa~, or ~Hy'-a-kwa~, _n._ Nootka, HAIHWA (i-whaw, Jewitt). _The
dentalium; the shell money or wampum of the Pacific coast._ It is used in
strings of a fathom long; shells of not more than forty to the fathom
being of full size, and the value increasing in proportion to their
length. The smaller sizes are called _coop-coop_ (q.v.). These shells were
formerly obtained by the Indians of the west coast of Vancouver Island,
and passed in barter as low down as California, and eastward to the
Blackfoot country.


~Ik'-kik~, _n._ Chinook, IKKIK._A fish-hook._

~Ik-poo'-ie~, _v._ Chinook, IKHPUI. _To shut._ Ikpooie la pote, _shut the
door;_ mamook ikpooie, _to surround;_ ikpooie kwillan, _deaf._

~Ikt~, or ~Icht~, _adj._ Chinook, IKHT. _One; once._ Used also as the
indefinite article. Ikt man, _a man;_ ikt-ikt man, _some one or other;
here and there one;_ ikt nika klatawa kopa yakka house, _I have been once
to his house._

~Ik'-tah~, _pron._ Chinook, IKTA. _What._ Iktah okook, _what is that?_
iktah mika tikegh, _what do you want?_ iktah, _well, what now?_

~Ik'-tah, _n._ From the foregoing. _A thing; goods; merchandise;
clothing._ Hyiu tenas iktah, _a great many trifles._ The use of the same
word for _what_ and for _things,_ has been noticed in some other languages
of this coast.

~Il'-la-hie~, _n._ Chinook, ILAHEKH. _The ground; the earth; dirt._ Tipso
illahie, _prairie;_ saghallie illahie, _mountains, or high land; heaven;_
hyiu illahie kopa, _dirty_ (literally, _much dirt upon_).

~In'-a-ti~, or ~Een-a-ti~, _prep., adv._ Chinook, INATAI. _Across;
opposite to; on the other side of._ Inati chuck, _on the other side of the
river;_ klatawa inati, _to cross over._

~Ip'-soot~, _v. a., v. n._ Chinook, ALHUPSO. _To hide one's self, or any
thing; to keep secret._ Ipsoot klatawa, _to steal off;_ ipsoot wau-wau,
_to whisper._

~Is'-ick~, _n._ Chinook, ISIK. _A paddle._ Mamook isick, _to paddle._

~Is'-ick stick~, _n._ Chinook and English. _The ash._ Literally,

~Is'-kum~, _v._ Chinook, idem. _To take; take hold of; hold; get._ Iskum
okook lope, _hold on to that rope;_ mika na iskum? _did you get it?_

~It'-lan~, or ~It'h-lan~, _n._ Chinook, ITHLANA. _A fathom; the length of
the extended arms._

~It'-lo-kum~, _n._ Chinook, idem; Chihalis, SETLOKUM. _The game of
"hand,"_--a common amusement. Mamook itlokum, _to gamble._

~Itl'-wil-lie~, _n._ Chinook, ETLWILI. _The flesh; meat of any animal._
Konaway nika itlwillie sick, _all my flesh is sore._

~Its'-woot~, or ~Its'-hoot~, _n._ Chinook, EITSHHUT. _A black bear._
Itshoot paseesie, _thick dark cloth or blankets._


~Kah~, _adv._ Chinook, KAKH. _Where; whither; whence._ Kah mika mitlite?
_where do you live?_ konaway kah, _everywhere;_ kah-kah, _here and there._

~Kah'-kah~, _n._ Chinook and Nisqually (by onoma.), SKAKA. _A crow._

~Káh-kwa~, _adv._ Nootka; Tokwaht, ACHKO. _Like; similar to; equal with;
as._ Kahkwa nika tumtum, _so I think_ (literally, _such [is] my heart_);
kahkwa hyas nika, _as large as I;_ kahkwa spose, _as if;_ kloshe kahkwa,
_that is right; good so._

~Kah'-na-way~, _n._ Chinook, T'KANAWÉ. _Acorns._ Kahnaway stick, _the
oak._ Used only on the Columbia river.

~Káhp-ho~, _n._Chinook, idem. _An elder brother, sister, or cousin._

~Káh-ta~, _adv._ Chinook, KÁTA. _How; why._ Kahta mika mamook okook? _why
do you do that?_ kahta mika chahko? _how did you come?_ kahta mika? _what
is the matter with you?_ pe kahta? _and why so?_

~Kal-ak-a-láh-ma~, _n._ Chinook, OKALAKALAMA. _A goose._ Used on the lower
Columbia river.

~Kal-a-kwáh-tie~, _n._ Chinook, KALAKWATI; Clatsop, KL'WHELATL. _The inner
bark of the cedar_ (thuja); _the petticoat, or skirt, formerly worn by
women, and often made of strands of bark._ Kalakwahtie stick, _the

~Ka-li'-tan~, _n._ Chinook, TKLAITAN. _An arrow; shot; a bullet._ Kalitan
le sac, _a quiver; a shot-pouch._

~Kal-lak'-a-la~, or ~Kul-luk'-ul-la~, _n._ Chinook, KALÁKALA. _A bird._

~Kám-ass~, or ~Lá-kam-ass~, _n._ Nootka. _The Scilla esculenta,_--a
bulbous root used for food by the Indians. Jewitt gives CHAMASS as the
Nootka for _fruit,_ also for _sweet, or pleasant to the taste._

~Kám-ooks~, _n._ Chinook, KLKÁBOKES. _A dog._ Kahkwa kamooks, _like a dog;

~Ka-mo'-suk~, _n._ Chinook, idem. _Beads._ Tyee kamosuk (chief beads),
_the large blue glass beads._

~Kap-su-ál-la~. Quære u. d. _To steal._ Kapsualla klatawa, _to steal
away;_ kapsualla mamook, _to do secretly._

~Kát-suk~, or ~Kót-suk~, _n._ Chinook, idem. _The middle or centre of any

~Kau'-py~, _n._ English. _Coffee._

~Ka-wák~, _v._ Chihalis, KAUAK. _To fly._ Not in general use.

~Káw-ka-wak~, _adj._ Chinook, KÂKAWAK. _Yellow, or pale green._

~Keé-kwil-lie~, _prep._ Chinook, KIK'HWILI. _Low; below; under; beneath;
down._ Mamook keekwillie, _to lower;_ mitlite keekwillie, _to set down;
put under._ Not used in the sense of "down stream."

~Keep'-wot~, _n._ Chinook, OKWÉPOWA; Yakama, KAPUS, _a pin_ (Pandosy). _A
needle; the sting of an insect; a thorn._ Shoes keepwot, _an awl._

~Keh'-loke~, _n._ Chinook, idem. _A swan._ Of local use only.

~Keh'-see~, or ~Ki'-su~, _n._ Chinook, EKÉSO. _An apron._

~Kéh-wa~, _adv._ Quære u. d. _Because._ Not in common use.

~Kel'-a-pi~, or ~Ká-la-pi~, _v._ Chinook, KELAPAI. _To turn; return;
overturn; upset._ Kelapi canim, _to upset a canoe;_ hyak kelapi, _come
back quickly;_ kelapi kopa house, _go back to the house;_ mamook kelapi,
_to bring, send, or carry back;_ kelapi tumtum, _to change one's mind._

~Kes'-chi~, or ~Kéh-tsie~. Chinook, KUKHTSI (Anderson). _Notwithstanding;
although._ Keschi yakka mamook kahkwa, _although he did so._ Not in common

~Ket'-ling~, or ~Kit'-ling~, _n._ English. _A kettle; can; basin, &c._

~Kil-it'-sut~, _n._ Chinook, OKWILIKTSHUT. _Flint; a bottle; glass._

~Kim'-ta~, or ~Kim-tah'~, _prep._ Chinook, KIMTA. _Behind; after;
afterwards; last; since._ Klatawa kimtah, _go behind;_ nika elip, pe yakka
kimtah, _I first, and he afterwards;_ okook kimtah, _the one behind;_
kimtah nika nannitsh mika, _since I saw you._

~King Chautsh~, _adj._ English, KING GEORGE. _English._ King chautshman,
_an Englishman._

~Ki'-nootl~, or ~Ki'-noos~, _n._ Chinook, EKAINUTL. _Tobacco._

~Kish-kish~, _v._ Chinook, idem. _To drive,_ as cattle or horses.

~Kiu'-a-tan~, _n._ Chinook, IKIUATAN. Cooley kiuatan, _a race-horse;_
stone kiuatan, _a stallion._

~Ki'-wa~, _adj._ Wasco, KAIWA (Shaw). _Crooked._ Of only local use.

~Ki'-yah~, _n._ Chihalis, KAIYAKH. _Entrails._

~Klah~, _adj._ Chinook, KLAKH. _Free or clear from; in sight._ Ex. Chee
yakka klah, _now he is in sight;_ klatawa klah, _to escape, as a
prisoner;_ chahko klah (of seed), _to come up;_ (of the woods), _to open
out;_ (of the weather), _to clear up;_ mamook klah, _to uncover._ Mr.
Anderson gives as the original meaning, _to open out or appear._

~Klah-hanie'~, or ~Klagh-anie'~, _adv._ Chinook, KLAKHANI. _Out of doors;
out; without._ Ex. Mamook klaghanie okook, _put that out;_ klatawa
klaghanie, _to go out._

~Kla'-how-ya.~ The ordinary salutation at meeting or parting. _How do you
do? good-bye;_ as, klahowya sikhs, _good-bye, friend._

~Kla-hów-yum~, _adj., n._ Chinook, KLAHÁUIA. _Poor; miserable; wretched;
compassion._ Ex. Hyas klahowyum nika, _I am very poor;_ mamook klahowyum,
_to take pity on; give alms; be generous._

The salutation above given probably originated in some whining reply to
the first whites, and a distinction has since arisen between the two modes
of spelling, which is, however, purely arbitrary.

~Kláh-wa~, _adv._ Chinook, KLAWAKH. _Slow; slowly._ Ex. Klatawa klahwa,
_go slowly._

~Klak~, _adv._ Chinook, KLAKW. _[To take] off._ Ex. Mamook klak stone
kiuatan, _to castrate a horse;_ mamook klak l'assiette, _take off the
plates;_ klak kopa wayhut, _get out of the road._

~Klák-sta~, or ~Kluk'-sta~, _pron._ Chinook, T'KLUKSTA. Ex. Klaksta mamook
okook? _who made or did that?_ halo klaksta, _no one._

~Klák-wun~, or ~Kléh-kwan~, _v._ Chihalis, KLAKWUN._To wipe, or lick._
Klakwun l'assiette, _to wipe a plate._

~Klale~, or ~T'klale~, _adj._ Chinook, TLEHL. _Black, or dark blue, or

~Klap~, _v._ Chinook, KLAP. _To find._ Ex. Mika na klap mika kiuatan? _did
you find your horse?_ klap tenas, _to be with child._

~Kla'-pite~, _n._ Chinook, KLIPAIT. _Thread; twine._

~Klás-ka~, or ~Klus'-ka~, _pron._ Chinook, KLUSKA. _They; thine; them._

~Klat'-a-wa~, _v._ Nootka, KLATTUNWAH (Jewitt); Nittinat, KLATÖUKH. _To
go._ Klatawa teáhwit, _to walk; go on foot;_ klatawa kopa kiuatan, _to
ride;_ klatawa kopa boat, _to sail;_ mamook klatawa, _to send._

~Kla-wháp~, _n._ Chinook, KLHUAP. _A hole._ Mamook klawhap, _to dig a

~Klem'-a-hun~, _v._ Chihalis, idem. _To stab; to wound; to dart; to cast
as a spear; to hook or gore as an ox._ Nika klemahun samun, _I spear

~Klihl~, or ~Klilt~, _adj._ Chinook, KLIHL. _Bitter._ Not of universal
use. Mr. Hale makes it KLITL, _sour._

~Klik'-a-muks~, _n._ Chinook, KLIKABUKS. _Blackberries,_ or more properly

~Klik'-wal-lie~, or ~Kloke'-wal-lie~. Chinook, KLIKWALI. _Brass wire; an
armlet or bracelet of brass wire._ Mr. Anderson gives the original meaning
as simply _brass._

~Klim-in'-a-whit~, _n., v._ Chinook, KLIMINAWHUT. _A lie; to lie._ Hyas
kumtuks kliminawhit, _he is a great liar_ (literally, _he knows well how
to lie_).

~Klim'-min~, or ~Klimmin-klimmin~, _adj._ Chinook, TKLEMIN-TKLEMIN. _Soft;
fine in substance._ The reduplication denotes the diminutive, but in
jargon it is generally used singly. Ex. Klimmin sapoleel, _flour;_ klimmin
illahie, _mud; marshy ground;_ mamook klimmin, _to soften as by dressing a

~Klip~, _adj._ Chinook, KELIPE; Chihalis, KLUPUTL; Nisqually, KLEP. _Deep;
sunken._ Klip chuck, _deep water;_ klip sun, _sunset._

~Klis'-kwiss~, _n._ Chinook, idem. _A mat._

~Klógh-klogh~, _n._ Chinook, OKLÓKHKLO. _Oysters._ The word is common to
the Puget Sound tribes, as well as to the Chinooks.

~Klo-náss~, _adv._ Chinook, idem. Expression of uncertainty or doubt.
_Perhaps; I don't know; may be so; who knows?_ Equivalent to the Spanish
_quien sabe._ Ex. Klonass nika klatawa, _perhaps I shall go. Q._ Kah mika
kahpho? _where is your brother? A._ Klonass, _I don't know._

~Klone~, _adj._ Chinook, TKLON. _Three._

~Klook~, _adj._ English. _Crooked._ Klook teáhwit, _broken legged; lame._

~Klootch-man~, _n._ Nootka and Tokwaht, KLUTSMA. _A woman;_ a female of
any animal. Tenas klootshman, _a girl;_ klootchman kiuatan,  _a mare._

~Klose~, or ~Kloshe~, _adj., adv._ Nootka; Tokwaht, KLOHTL; Makah,
KLOTELO; Nisqually, KLOB. _Good; well; well enough._ Kloshe nannitsh,
_look out; take care;_ hyas kloshe, _very well._

~Klose-spose~. Nootka, KLOHTL; English, SUPPOSE. _Shall or may I; let me._
Ex. Klose-spose nika mamook pia okook? _shall I cook that?_ (literally,
_[is it] good that I make cook that?_).

~Klugh~, or ~Klugh-klugh~. Chinook, KLUKH. _To tear._ Mamook klugh
illahie, _to plough_ (literally, _to tear the ground_).

~Kluk-ulh'~, or ~Klak-alh'~, _adj._ Chihalis, TLUKUTLH. _Broad or wide,_
as of a plank.

~Ko~, _v._ Chinook, idem. _To reach; arrive at._ Chee klaska ko, _they
have just come;_ kansih nesika ko kopa Nisqually? _when shall we reach

~Ko'-ko~, _v._ Chinook (by onoma). _To knock._ Koko stick, _a

~Kok'-shut~, _v._ Nootka, KAKHSHETL; Klaokwat, KWÁCHITL. In the original,
_dead._ _To break; broken; to beat._ Hyas kokshut, _broken to pieces._

~Kon'-a-way~, _adj._ Chinook, KÁNAWÉ. _All; every._ Klaska konaway
klatawa, _they have all gone;_ konaway tilikum, _everybody;_ konaway kah,

~Koo'-sah~, or ~Kó-sah~, _n._ Chinook, EKÓSAKH. _The sky._ Only used on
the Columbia.

~Ko'-pa~, _adv., prep._ Chinook, idem. _To; in; at; with; towards; of;
about; concerning; there or in that place._ Ex. Kopa nika house, _at my
house;_ lolo okook kopa mika, _take that home with you_ (equivalent to the
French _chez vous_); cultus kopa nika, _it is nothing to me. Q._ Kah okook
lope? _where is that rope? A._ (motioning with the chin towards the place)

~Ko-pet'~, _v., adv._ Chinook, idem. _To stop; leave off; enough._ Kopet
wau-wau, _stop talking;_ kopet ikt, _only one;_ kopet okook, _that's all;_
wake siah kopet, _nearly finished;_ kopet tomalla, _day after to-morrow._

~Kow~, _v._ Chinook, KAU-KAU. _To tie; to fasten._ Kow mika kiuatan, _tie
your horse;_ ikt kow, _a bundle._

~Kull~, _adj._ Chinook, K'HUL-K'HUL. _Hard in substance; difficult._
Chahko kull, _to become hard;_ mamook kull, _to harden; to cause to become
hard;_ hyas kull spose mamook, _it is very hard to do so;_ kull stick,
_oak or any hard wood._

~Kul-lagh'~, or ~Kul-lagh'-an~, _n._ Chihalis, KULLAKH; Lummi, KULLUKHAN.
_A fence; a corral, or inclosure._ Kullagh stick, _fence rails._ In the
original, it meant the stockade with which Indian houses are often

~Kum'-tuks~, or ~Káme-taks~, _v._ Nootka, KOMMETAK (Jewitt); Tokwaht,
KUMITUKS; Clayoquot, KEMITAK. _To know; understand; be acquainted with;
imagine; believe._ Mamook kumtuks, _to explain; teach;_ hyas kumtuks
solleks (literally, _well to understand anger), to be passionate;_ kopet
kumtuks, _to forget;_ halo kumtuks, _stupid; without understanding;_ (of a
horse) hyas yakka kumtuks cooley, _he can run fast_ (literally, _he knows
well to run_); kumtuks kliminawhit, _to be a liar; to understand lying;_
nika kumtuks okook tyee, _I know that chief;_ nika kumtuks Klikatat
wau-wau, _I understand the Klikatat language._

~Kun'-a-moxt~, _adj._ Chinook, KONAWAY MOXT. _Both; together_ (literally,
_all two_). Kunamoxt kahkwa, _both alike._

~Kun'-sih, Kan'-sih, Kun'-juk, Kun'-jie~, _adv._ Chinook, KUNSÉUKH. _How
many; when; ever._ Kunsih tilikum mitlite? _how many people are there?_
kunsih mika klatawa? _when do you go?_ wake kunsih, _never;_ mamook
kunsih, _to count._

~Kush'-is~, _n._ Chihalis, KOSHIS. _Stockings._ In the original, any
elastic article of dress. Not in general use.

~Kwah'-ne-sum~, _adv._ Chinook, KWÁNISUM; Yakama, KWÁLISIM. _Always;

~Kwáh'-nioe~, _n._ Klikatat, KWADDIS. _A whale._

~Kwáhta~, _n._ English. _The quarter of a dollar._ The quarter of any
number is usually expressed in Jargon by _tenas sitku,_ i.e., _a small

~Kwah'-tin~. See YAKWAHTIN.

~Kwaist~, or ~Kweest~, _adj._ Chinook, KWAITST. _Nine._

~Kwa-lal'-kwa-lal'~, _v._ Chinook, KWULLIL-KWULLIL. _To gallop._

~Kwal'h~, _n._ Chihalis, KWATLH. _An aunt._

~Kwann~, _adj._ Chinook, KWAN-KWAN. _Glad._ According to Mr. Anderson, it
means a custom or habit. It is used by some in this sense as _tamed_ or
_broken,_ as of a horse (McCormick). KWAL is Nisqually for _tame._

~Kwass~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. _Fear; afraid; tame._ Mamook kwass, _to
frighten; to tame._

~Kwates~, or ~Kwehts~, _adj._ Chihalis, KWETS. _Sour._

~Kwéh-kweh~, _n._ Chinook, OKWÉKWE (by onoma). _A mallard duck._ Used
chiefly at mouth of the Columbia.

~Kwék-wi-ens~, _n._ Chihalis, idem. _A pin._ Of limited use.

~Kwéo-kwéo~, _n._ Chinook, T'KWEO-KWEO. _A ring; a circle._

~Kwetlh~, _adj._ Chihalis, idem. (Anderson). _Proud._ Not in general use.

~Kwin'-num~, _adj._ Chinook, KWENEM. _Five._

~Kwish~, or ~Kweesh~, _interj._ Refusing any thing contemptuously.
Equivalent to "_No you don't._" Used on the lower Columbia.

~Kwit'-shad-ie~, _n._ Nisqually, KWUTSHDIE. _The hare or rabbit._ Confined
to Puget Sound.

~Kwo-lann'~, or ~Kwo-lah'-nie~, _n._ Chihalis, KWOLÁN; Nisqually, KWILANI.
_The ear._ Halo kwolann, or, ikpooie kwolann, _deaf._

~Kwulh~, or ~Kwult~, _v._ Chinook, KWULT'H. _To hit; to wound with an
arrow or gun; to strike with a slick or stone; or in any manner without
cutting; to hit._

~Kwun'-nun~, _n._ Chihalis, idem. _A count; numbers._ Ex. Mamook kwunnun,
_to count._ Of merely local use.

~Kwutl~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. Literally, _fast._ _To push or squeeze,_ as
in packing; hyas mamook kwutl, _haul tight._


~La-bleed'~, _n._ French, LA BRIDE. _A bridle._

~La-boos'~, _n._ French, LA BOUCHE. _The mouth; mouth of a river._ Moxt
laboos, _the forks of a river._

~La-boo-ti'~, _n._ French, LA BOUTEILLE. _A bottle._

~La-ca-lat'~, _n._ French, LA CAROTTE. _A carrot._

~La-ca-set'~, _n._ French, LA CASETTE. _A box, trunk, or chest._

~La-clo-a~, _n._ French, LA CROIX. _A cross._

~Lagh~, _v._ Chinook, LAKH. _To lean; to tip, as a boat; to stoop; to bend
over, as a tree._ Wake mika lagh kopa okook house, _don't lean against
that house._

~La-gome~, _n._ French, LA GOMME. _Pitch; glue._ La gome stick,
_light-wood; the pitch-pine._

~La-gwin'~, or ~La-kween'~, _n._ Quære u. d. _A saw._

~La-hál.~ See SLAHAL.

~Lahb~, _n._ French, L'HERBE. The arbutus _uva ursi,_ the leaves of which
are used in smoking, alone or mixed with tobacco.

~La-hásh~, _n._ French, LA HACHE. _An axe or hatchet._

~La-kam-mas'.~ See KAMASS.

~Lak'-it~, or ~Lok'-it~, _adj._ Chinook, LAKT. _Four; four times._ Lakit
taht-lelum, _forty._

~La'-kles~, _n._ French, LA GRAISSE. _Fat; oil._ See, also, GLEASE.

~La-láh~, _v._ Chinook, LAKHWHOLA. _To cheat; fool; to practise jokes._
Mamook lalah, _to make fun._

~La-lahm'~, or ~La-lum'~, _n._ French, LA RAME._An oar._ Mamook lalahm,
_to row._

~La-láng~, _n._ French, LA LANGUE. _The tongue; a language._

~La-leem'~, _n._ French, LA LIME. _A file._

~La-messe'~, _n._ French, idem. _The ceremony of the mass._

~La-més-tin~, or ~La-mó-tchin~, _n._ French, LA MÉDECINE. _Medecine,_ not
including magic.

~Lam'-mi-eh~, or ~Lam-mi-i~, _n._ French, LA VIEILLE. _An old woman._

~La-món-ti~, or ~La-mó-ti~, _n._ French, LA MONTAGNE. _A mountain._

~La-peep'~, _n._ French, LA PIPE. _A tobacco-pipe._ Lapeep kullakala
(literally, the "pipe-bird"), _the band-tailed eagle,_ as its feathers
were used to ornament the pipe stems.

~La-péhsh~, _n._ French, LA PERCHE. _A pole; the setting-pole of a boat or

~La-pel-láh~, _v._ Quære if from the French, LE FOYER. Mamook lapellah,
_to roast before the fire._

~La-pelle'~, _n._ French, LA PELLE. _A shovel or spade._

~La-pe-osh'~, _n._ French, LA PIOCHE. _A mattock; a hoe._

~La-piége~, _n._ French, LA PIÉGE. _A trap._ Eena la piége, _a

~La-plash~, _n._ French, LA PLANCHE. _A board._

~La-po-el'~, _n._ French, LA POÊLE. _A frying-pan._ Mamook lapoel, _to

~La-póme~, _n._ French, LA POMME. _An apple._

~La-pool'~, _n._ French, LA POULE. _A fowl; poultry._ Siwash lapool, _the

~La-poo-shet'~, _n._ French, LA FOURCHETTE. _A fork._

~La-póte~, _n._ French, LA PORTE. _A door._

~La-sánjel~, _n._ French, LA CINGLE. _A girth; a sash; a belt._

~La-sée~, _n._ French, LA SCIE. _A saw._

~La-sell'~, _n._ French, LA SELLE. _A saddle._

~Lá-shal-loo~, or ~Lá-shal-lee~, _n._ French, LA CHARRUE. _A plough._

~La-shán-del~, _n._ French, LA CHANDELLE. _A candle._

~La-sháse~, _n._ French, LA CHAISE. _A chair._

~La-shen'~, _n_ French, LA CHAINE. _A chain._

~Las-siet'~, _n._ French, L'ASSIETTE. _A plate._

~La-swáy~, _n., adj._ French, LA SOIE. _Silk; silken._

~La-táhb~, _n._ French, LA TABLE. _A table._

~La-tet'~, _n._ French, LA TÊTE. _The head._ Pil latet, _red-headed._

~La-tlah'~, _n._ French, TRAIN; as, "ne faites pas de train." (Anderson).
_A noise._ Mamook latlah, _to make a noise._

~La-wen'~, _n._ French, L'AVOINE. _Oats._

~La-west'~, _n._ French, LA VESTE. _A waistcoat._

~Lazy~, _adj._ English, idem. _Lazy._

~Le-báh-do~ (often pronounced lab'-a-do), _n._ French, LE BARDEAU. _A

~Le-bal'~, _n._ French, idem. _A ball; bullet._ Tenas lebal, _shot._

~Le-bis'-kwie~, _n._ French, LE BISCUIT. _Biscuit; crackers; hard bread._

~Le-blau'~, _n., adj._ French, LE BLOND. _A sorrel horse; chestnut

~Le-clem'~, _n., adj._ French, LE CRÊME. _Cream-colored; a cream-colored
or light dun horse._

~Le-cock'~, _n._ French, LE COQ. _A cock; a fowl._

~Le-doo'~, _n._ French, LE DOIGT. _A finger._

~Le-gléy~, _n., adj._ French, LE GRIS, or English GRAY, with French
article. _A gray horse; gray._

~Le-jaub'~. See DIAUB.

~Le-kléh~, _n._ French, LE CLEF. _A key._ Mamook le kleh, _lock the door._

~Le-kloo'~, _n._ French, LE CLOU. _A nail; nails._

~Le-koo'~, _n._ French, LE COU. _The neck._

~Le-ky'e~, _n., adj._ Mr. Anderson derives this from a Canadian word
_caille,_ meaning _a piebald horse._ In its jargon use, it means, also, _a
spot, spotted,_ or _speckled;_ as, lekye salmon, _the spotted or winter
salmon_ (_salmo canis,_ Suckley).

~Le-lo'-ba~, _n._ French, LE RUBAN. _A ribbon._

~Le-loo'~, _n._ French, LE LOUP. _A wolf_ (the large wolf).

~Le-máh~, or ~Léh-ma~, _n._ French, LA MAIN. _The hand; the arm._ Kloshe
lemah, _the right_ (literally, _the good hand_); potlatch lemah, _shake

~Le-máh-to~, _n._ French, LE MARTEAU. _A hammer._

~Le-mel'~, _n._ French, LE MULET. _A mule._

~Le-mo'-lo~, _n., adj._ French Canadian, LE MORON; undoubtedly a
corruption of MARRON, _a runaway negro._ _Wild; untamed._ It applies to
men as well as animals, as, for instance, to the tribes which have had no
intercourse with the settlements.

~Le-moo'-to~, or ~Lam'-mu-to~, _n._ French, LES MOUTONS. _Sheep._

~Le-pan'~, _n._ French, LE PAIN. _Bread; raised or light bread._

~Le-pee'~, _n._ French, LE PIED. _The feet._

~Le-pish'-e-mo~, _n._ Quære u. d. _The saddle-blanket and housings of a

~Le-plét~, _n._ French, LE PRÊTRE. _A priest._

~Le-pwau'~, _n._ French, LES POIS. _Peas._

~Le-sak'~, _n._ French, LE SAC. _A bag; a pocket._

~Le-sap'~, or ~Le-zep'~, _n._ French, LES OEUFS. _An egg; eggs._

~Le-sée-blo~, _n._ French, LES ÉPERONS. _Spurs._

~Le-sée-zo~, _n._ French, LE CISEAU. _Scissors._

~Le-sóok~, _n._ French, LE SUCRE. _Sugar._

~Le-táh~, _n._ French, LE DENT. _The teeth._

~Le-whet'~, _n._ French, LE FOUET. _A whip._ Mamook lewhet, _to whip._

~Lice~, _n._ English. _Rice._

~Lik-pu'-hu~, or ~Lik'-po~, _n._ (Hale.) _An elder sister._ Mr. Hale gives
this as a Chinook word. If so, it is probably a corruption of KUP'HO. It
is not used in Jargon.

~Lip'-lip~, _v._ By onoma. (Hale). _To boil_ Mamook liplip, _to make, or
cause to boil._

~Ló-lo~, _v._ Chinook, idem. Originally, to carry a child on the back. In
Jargon, used in a more extended sense. _To carry; to load._ Lolo kopa
tsiktsik, _to carry in a cart._ Mamook lolo kopa canim, _to load into a

~Lo-lo'~, _adj._ Chinook, LOWULLO. _Round; whole; the entire of any
thing._ Lolo sapeleel, _whole wheat;_ mamook lolo, _to roll up_ (Shaw).

~Lope~, _n._ English, ROPE. _A rope._ Tenas lope, _a cord;_ skin lope, _a
raw hide, riata, or thong._

~Luk'-ut-chee~, or ~Lá-kwit-chee~, _n._ French, LA COQUILLE. (?) _Clams._
Used chiefly on Puget Sound.

~Lum~, _n._ English, RUM. _Spirits of any sort._


~Máh-kook~, _v., n._ Nootka, MÁKUK; Nittinat and Tokwaht, idem; Makah,
BÁKWATL. _To buy or sell; trade or exchange; a bargain._ As their buying
and selling was merely barter, the same word always answered for both
operations. Kah mika mahkook okook calipeen? _where did you buy that
rifle?_ hyas mahkook, _dear;_ tenas mahkook, _cheap._

~Máh-kook-house.~ _A trading-house or a store._

~Máh-lie~, _v._ Nisqually. _To forget._ Of local use on Puget Sound.

~Mahsh~, _v. a._ French, MARCHER. _To leave; to turn out; to throw away;
to part with; remove._ Ex. Mahsh chuck kopa boat, _bail the boat out;_
mahsh okook salmon, _throw away that fish;_ mahsh maika capo, _take off
your coat;_ mahsh! (to a dog) _get out!_ mahsh tenas, _to have a child; to
be delivered;_ yakka mahsh tum-tum kopa nika, _he has given me his orders,
or told me his wishes;_ mahsh kow, _to untie;_ mahsh stone, _to castrate._

~Máh-sie~, _v._ French, MERCIE. _Thank you._

~Máht-lin-nie~, _adv._ Chinook, MÁTLINI. _Off shore._ (In boating), _keep
off!_ (if on land), _towards the water._

~Máht-wil-lie~, _adv._Chinook, MÁTHWILI. _In shore; shoreward._ (As a
command), _keep in;_ (on land), _towards the woods, or the interior._

~Ma-láh, _n._ Chinook, MALAGH. _Tinware; crockery; earthenware._

~Mal-i-éh, _v._ French, MARIER. _To marry._

~Ma'-ma~, _n._ English, MAMMA. _A mother._

~Mam'-ook~, _v. a._ Nootka, MAMUK. _To make; to do; to work._ It is the
general active verb, and is used largely in combination with nouns and
other verbs; as, mamook chahko, _make to come, fetch;_ mamook kelipai,
_bring or send back;_ mamook isick, _to paddle;_ mamook illahee, _to dig._

~Man~, _n._ English, idem. _A man; the male of any animal._ Ex. Man
moolock, a _buck elk;_ tenas man, _a young man or boy._

~Mél-a-kwa~, or ~Mál-a-kwa~, _n._ French, MARANGOUIN. (Anderson.) _A

~Mel'-ass~, _n._ French, MELASSE. _Molasses._

~Mem'-a-loost~, _v., n., part._ Chinook, MÉMALUST. _To die; dead._ Mamook
memaloost, _to kill._

~Me-sáh-chie~, _adj._ Chinook, MASÁCHI. _Bad; wicked._

~Me-si'-ka~, _pron._ Chinook, MESÁIKA. _You; your; yours._

~Mi'-ka~, _pron._ Chinook, MÁIKA. _Thou; thy; thine._

~Mi'-mie~, _adv._ Chinook, MÁIAMI. _Down stream._

~Mist-chi'-mas~, _n._ Quære u. d. _A slave._ Dr. Scouler gives this word
as Nootka and Columbian. Mr. Hale makes it Chinook. It is certainly,
however, neither Chinook nor Chihalis; and Jewitt gives _kakoelth_ as
Nootka, while I find the Makah word _kotlo,_ and the Nittinat _kotl._

~Mit-áss~, _n._ Cree, MITAS. (Anderson.) _Leggings._ A word imported by
the Canadian French.

~Mit'-lite~, _v._ Chinook, MITLAIT. _To sit; sit down; stay at; reside;
remain._ It is also used in place of _to have_ and _to be._ Ex. Mitlite
kopa house, _he is in the house;_ mitlite hyiu salmon kopa mika? _have you
plenty of salmon?_ mitlite (_imp._), _sit down;_ cultus mitlite, _to stop
anywhere without particular object;_ mitlite tenas, _to be with child;_
mitlite keekwillie, _to put down._

~Mit'-whit~, _v._ Chinook, AMETWHET. _To stand; stand up._ Mitwhit stick,
_a standing tree; a mast._

~Mokst~, _adj._ Chinook, MAKST. _Two; twice._

~Moo'-la~, _n._ French, MOULIN. _A mill._ Stick moola, _a saw-mill._

~Moo'-lock~, _n._ Chinook, EMÚLUK. _An elk._ This word, strangely enough,
occurs also in the Koquilth of Humboldt Bay.

~Moon~, _n._ English, idem. _The moon._ Ikt moon, _a month;_ sick moon,
_the wane or old moon._

~Moos'-moos~, _n._ Klikatat, MÚSMUS; Chinook, EMÚSMUS. _Buffalo; horned
cattle._ The word, slightly varied, is common to several languages. Mr.
Anderson derives it from the Cree word _moostoos,_ a buffalo, and supposes
it to have been imported by the Canadians; but Father Pandosy makes
_musmus_ Yakama.

~Moo'-Sum~, _v., n._ Chihalis, MÚSAM. _To sleep; sleep._ Tikegh moosum,
_or_ olo moosum, _to be sleepy_ (literally, _to want, or be hungry for
sleep_); nika hyas moosum, _I slept very sound._

~Mów-itsh~, or ~Mah'-witsh~, _n._ Nootka, MAUITSH (Hale); Nittinat,
MOITSH, _a deer;_ Nootka, MOOWATSH, a _bear_ (Jewitt). _A deer; venison._
Frequently used to signify a wild animal; as, huloima mowitch, _a strange
or different kind of beast._ The meaning given in Jewitt's book is
probably a misprint. Like _moolock,_ an elk, the word is found in the
Koquilth of Humboldt Bay.

~Múck-a-muck~, _n., v._ Quære u. d. MAKAMAK (Hale). _To eat; to bite;
food._ Muckamuck chuck, &c., _to drink water, or other liquid._ Neither
Chinook nor Chihalis. Mr. Anderson considers it an invented word.

~Mus'-ket~, _n._ English, idem. _A gun or musket._ Stick musket, _a bow._


~Na.~ The interrogative particle. Ex. Mika na klatawa okook sun? _do you
go to-day?_ Interrogation is, however, often conveyed by intonation only.

~Na-áh, _n._ Chinook, TLKANÁA. _A mother._ (Hale.) Peculiar to the
Columbia, and now in fact obsolete, the Euglish MA'MA being used instead.

~Nah~, _interj._ Common to several languages. _Look here! I say!_ Nah
sikhs! _halloo, friend!_ Also used in common conversation to call
attention to some point not thoroughly understood. In the Yakama language,
it is the sign of the vocative; as, nah tehn! _O man._

~Nan'-itsh~, _v._ Quære u. d. _To see; look; look for; seek._ Nanitsh!
_look there!_ kloshe nanitsh! _look out! take care!_ cultus nanitsh, _to
look round idly, or from curiosity only._ Mamook nanitsh, _to show._ The
word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Dr. Scouler gives _nannanitch_ as
Nootka and Columbian. It is possibly tbe former.

~Nau'-its~, _adv._ Chihalis, NOITSH. Mr. Hale gives this for _off shore;
on the stream._ It means, according to Mr. Anderson, the _sea-beach,_  and
is not properly a Jargon word.

~Na-wit'-ka~, _adv._ Chinook, idem; Klikatat and Yakama, N'WITKA. _Yes;
certainly; yes indeed; to be sure._ Nawitka wake nika kumtuks, _indeed I
don't know._ In answer to a negative question, many Indians use it as
affirming the negative. Ex. Wake mika nanitsh? _did you not see [it]?_
Nawitka, _I did not._

~Nem, _n._ English, NAME. _A name._ Mamook nem, _to name, or call by

~Ne-nám-ooks, _n._ Chinook, ENANÁMUKS. _The land otter._

~Ne si'-ka~, _pron._ Chinook, NISÁIKA. _We; us; our._

~Ne'-whah.~ Chinook, NIWHA. It seems to be an adverb used, as is often the
case, as a verb, the meaning being _hither, come,_ or _bring it hither._
Ex. Newhah nika nanitsh, _here, let me see it._

~Ni'-ka~, _pron._ Chinook, NAIKA. _I; me; my; mine._

~Nose~, _n._ English, idem. _The nose;_ also, _a promontory._ Boat nose,
_the bow of a boat._


~O'-koke~, or ~O'-kook, _pron._ Chinook, OKÖK. _This; that; it._ Iktah
okook? _what is that?_ okook sun, _to-day;_ okook klaksta, _he who;_ okook
klaska, _they_ (being present). It is often abbreviated to _oke;_ as, _oke

~O'-la-pits-ki~, _n._ Chinook, OÖLPITSKI. (Hale.) _Fire._ Not properly a
Jargon word.

~O'-le-man~, _n., adj._ English, OLD MAN. _An old man; old; worn out._
Hyas oleman kiuatan, a _very old horse._ As regards articles, used in the
sense of worn out.

~Ol'-hy-iu~, _n._ Chinook, OLHAIYU. _A seal._

~O'-lil-lie~, or ~O'-lal-lie~, _n._ Belbella, idem. (Tolmie.) Originally
the salmon berry. Chinook, KLÁLELLI, _berries in general. Berries._ Shot
olillie, _huckleberries;_ siahpult olillie, _raspberries;_ salmon olillie,
_salmon berries,_ &c. On Puget Sound, always called OLALLIE.

~O'-lo~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. _Hungry._ Olo chuck, _thirsty;_ olo moosum,

~O'-luk~, _n._ Chihalis, idem. _A snake._

~O'-na~, _n._ Chinook, EÓNA. _The razor fish or solen; clams._ Used only
at mouth of the Columbia.

~Oos'-kan~, _n._ Chinook. _A cup; a bowl._

~O'-pe-kwan~, _n._ Chinook, ÓPEKWANH. _A basket; tin kettle._

~O'-pitl-kegh~, _n._ Chinook, ÓPTLIKE. _A bow._

~O'-pit-sah~, _n._ Chinook, ÓPTSAKH. _A knife._ Opitsah yakka sikhs _(the
knife's friend), a fork._ The word is also used to denote _a sweetheart._

~O'-poots~, or ~O'-pootsh~, _n._ Chinook, OBÉPUTSH, _the fundament._ _The
posterior; the fundament; the tail of an animal._ Boat opoots, _the
rudder;_ opoots-sill, _a breech clout._

~Óte-lagh, _n._ (Hale.) Chinook, OÖTLAKH. _The sun._ Not properly a Jargon

~Ow~, _n._ Chinook, AU. _A brother younger than the speaker._


~Pahtl~, _adj._ Chinook, PÁTL. _Full._ Pahtl lum _or_ paht-lum, _drunk;_
pahtl chuck, _wet;_ pahtl illahie, _dirty;_ mamook pahtl, _to fill._

~Paint~, or ~Pent~, _n., adj._ English, PAINT. Mamook pent, _to paint._

~Papa~, _n._ English, idem. _A father._

~Pa'see-sie~, _n._ Chinook, PASÍSI. _A blanket; woollen cloth._

~Pa-si'-ooks~, _n., adj._ Chinook, PASÍSIUKS. _French; a Frenchman._

Mr. Hale supposed this to be a corruption of the French word _Français._
It is, however, really derived from the foregoing word, PASISI, with the
terminal UKS, which is a plural form applied to living beings. Lewis and
Clarke (vol. ii., p. 413) give _Pashisheooks,_ clothmen, as the Chinook
name for the whites, and this explanation was also furnished me by people
of that tribe. It has since been generally restricted to the French
Canadians, though among some of the tribes east of the Cascade Range, it
is applied indiscriminately to all the Hudson's Bay people.

~Pchih~, or ~Pit-chih~, _adj._ Quære u. d. _Thin in dimension,_ as of a
board. (Shaw.) Not in common use.

~Pe-chúgh~, _adj._ Chinook, PTSEKH. _Green._

~Pee~, _conj._ French, PUIS. (Anderson.) _Then; besides; and; or; but._
Pee weght, _and also; besides which;_ pee nika wauwau wake, _but I say,

~Peh'-pah~, _n._ English, PAPER. _Paper; a letter; any writing._ Mamook
pehpah, _to write._

~Pel'-ton~, _n., adj._ Jargon. _A fool; foolish; crazy._ Kahkwa pelton,
_like a fool;_ hyas pelton mika, _you are very silly._ The Indians adopted
this word from the name of a deranged person, Archibald Pelton, or perhaps
Felton, whom Mr. Wilson P. Hunt found on his journey to Astoria, and
carried there with him. The circumstance is mentioned by Franchêre, in his
"Narrative," trans, p. 149.

~Pe-shak'~, or ~Pe-shuk'~, _adj._ Nootka, PESHUK; Nittinat, idem. _Bad._

~Pe-what'-tie~, _adj._ Chinooi, PIHWÁTI. _Thin,_ like paper, &c.

~Pi'-ah~, _n., adj._ English, FIRE. _Fire; ripe; cooked._ Mamook piah, _to
cook; to burn;_ piah-ship, _a steamer;_ piah olillie, _ripe berries;_ piah
sapolill, _baked bread;_ piah sick, _the venereal disease;_ saghillie
piah, _lightning._

~Pil~, _adj._ Chinook, TLPELPEL. Father Pandosy gives PILPILP, as
signifying _red,_ in the Nez Percé or Sahaptin, also. _Red; of a reddish
color._ Pil illahie, _red clay or vermilion;_ pil dolla, _gold;_ pil
chickamin, _copper;_ pil kiuatan, _a bay or chestnut horse._

~Pil'-pil~, _n._ Jargon. _Blood._ Mahsh pilpil, _to bleed; to menstruate._
Derived from the foregoing.

~Pish~, _n._ English. _Fish._

~Pit-lilh'~, or ~Pit-hlil'~, _adj._ Quære u. d. _Thick in consistence,_ as

~Piu-piu~, _n._ French, PUER, _to stink._ Or from the sound often uttered
expressive of disgust at a bad smell. _A skunk._

~Poh~, _v._ Chinook, idem. By onoma. Mamook poh, _to blow out or
extinguish,_ as a candle.

~Po'-lak-lie~, _n., adj._ Chinook, POLAKLI. _Night; darkness; dark._
Tenas polaklie, _evening;_ hyas polaklie, _late at night; very dark;_
sit-kum polaklie, _midnight_ (literally, _the half night_).

~Po'-lal-lie~, _n._ Quære French, POUDRE. _Gunpowder; dust; sand._
Polallie illahie, _sandy ground._ The word is certainly neither Chinook
nor Chihalis.

~Poo~, _n._ By onoma. (Hale). _The sound of a gun._ Mamook poo, _to
shoot;_ moxt poo, _a double-barrelled gun;_ tohum poo, _a six-shooter._
Nisqually, OPOO, _to break wind._

~Poo'-lie~, _adj._ French, POURRI. _Rotten._

~Pot'-latch~, or ~Paht'-latsh~, _n., v._ Nootka, PAHCHILT (Jewitt);
PACHAETL, or PACHATI (Cook). _A gift; to give._ Cultus potlatch, _a
present or free gift._

~Pow'-itsh~, _n._ Chinook, PAUITSH. _A crab-apple._

~Puk'-puk~, _n._ Probably an invented word. _A blow with the fist; a
fist-fight._ Mamook pukpuk, _to box; to fight with the fists;_ pukpuk
solleks, _to fight in anger._

~Puss'-puss~, _n._ English. _A cat._ On Puget Sound, pronounced
_pish-pish._ Hyas pusspuss, _a cougar._


~Ságh-a-lie~, or ~Sah'-ha-lie~, _adj._ Chinook, SAKHALI; Clatsop,
UKHSHAKHALI. _Up; above; high._ Saghalie tyee (literally, _the chief
above_), _God._ A term invented by the missionaries for want of a native

~Sail~, or ~Sill~, _n._ English, SAIL. _A sail; any cotton or linen
goods._ Mamook sail, _to make sail;_ mamook keekwillie sail, _to take in
sail;_ tzum sail, _printed cloth or calico._   ~Sa-kol'-eks~, or
~Se-kol'-uks~, _n._ Chinook, TSAKÁLUKS, _leggings._ _Trowsers;
pantaloons._ Keekwillie sakoleks, _drawers._   ~Sal-lal'~, _n._ Chinook,
KLKWUSHALA. (SHELWELL of Lewis and Clarke.) _The sallal berry;_ fruit of
_gualtheria shallon._

~Salmon~, _n._ English, idem. _The salmon; fish generally._ Tyee salmon,
i.e., _chief salmon, the spring salmon (salmo kwinnat,_ Rich.); masahchie
salmon, _a winter species (salmo canis,_ Suckley); tzum salmon, _salmon

~Salt~, _n., adj._ English, idem. _Salt, or a salt taste._ Salt chuck,
_the sea._   ~Sán-de-lie~, _n., adj._ French, CENDRÉ. _Ash-colored._
(Anderson.) _A roan horse; roan-colored._

~Sap'-o-lill~, _n._ Chinook, TSÁPELEL. _Wheat, flour, or meal._ Piah
sapolill, _baked bread;_ lolo sapolill, _whole wheat._ The word has been
erroneously supposed to come from the French _la farine._ It is, however,
a true Indian word, and seems common to various Columbia river tribes.
Pandosy gives SAPLIL as Yakama for _bread;_ Lewis and Clarke write it

~Se-áh-host~, or ~Se-agh'-ost~, _n._ Chinook, SIÁKHOST, _the face._ _The
face; the eyes._ Halo seahhost, _blind;_ icht seahhost, _one-eyed;_ lakit
seahhost (_four eyes_), or dolla seahhost, _spectacles_.

~Se-áh-po~, or ~Se-áh-pult~, ~n.~ French, CHAPEAU. _A hat or cap._
Seahpult olillie, _the raspberry._

~Shame~, or ~Shem~, _n._ English, idem. _Shame._ Halo shem mika? _arn't
you ashamed of yourself?_

~Shán-tie~, _v._ French, CHANTER. _To sing._

~She-lok'-um~, _n._ Chinook, TSHAILAKUMIT. (Anderson.) _A looking-glass;

~Ship~, _n._ English, idem. _A ship or vessel._ Stick ship, _a sailing
vessel;_ piah ship, _a steamer;_ ship-man, _a sailor._

~Shoes~, _n._ English, idem. _Shoes; skin shoes; moccasins._ Stick shoes,
_boots or shoes made of leather._

~Shot~, _n._ English, idem. _Shot; lead._ Shot olillie, _huckleberries._

~Shu'-gah~, or ~Shu'-kwa~, _n._ English. _Sugar._

~Shugh~, _n._ Chinook, SHUKHSHUKH. _A rattle._ An imitation doubtless of
the sound. (Anderson.) Shugh-opoots, _a rattlesnake._

~Shut~, _n._ English, SHIRT. _A shirt._

~Shwáh-kuk~, _n._ Chihalis, SHWAKÉUK. _A frog._

~Si-áh~, _adj._ Nootka, SAIÁ. _Far; far off._ Comparative distance is
expressed by intonation or repetition; as, siah-siah, _very far;_ wake
siah, _near, not far._ Jewitt gives SIEYAH as the _sky_ in Nootka, which
was perhaps the true meaning, or, more probably, they called the sky "the

~Si-am~, _n._ Chinook, ISHAIEM. _The grizzly bear._

~Sick~, _adj._ English, idem. _Sick._ Cole sick, _the ague;_ sick tum-tum,
_grieved; sorry; jealous; unhappy._

~Sikhs~, or ~Shikhs~, _n._ Chinook, SKASIKS; Sahaptin, SHIKSTUA.
(Pandosy.) _A friend._ Used only towards men.

~Sin'-a-moxt~, _adj._ Chinook, SINIMAKST. _Seven._

~Si'-pah~, _adj._ Wasco. (Shaw.) _Straight,_ like a ramrod. Of only local

~Sis'-ki-you~, _n._ Cree. (Anderson.) _A bob-tailed horse._

This name, ludicrously enough, has been bestowed on the range of mountains
separating Oregon and California, and also on a county in the latter
State. The origin of this designation, as related to me by Mr. Anderson,
was as follows. Mr. Archibald R. McLeod, a chief factor of the Hudson's
Bay Company, in the year 1828, while crossing the mountains with a pack
train, was over-taken by a snow storm, in which he lost most of his
animals, including a noted bob-tailed race-horse. His Canadian followers,
in compliment to their chief, or "bourgeois," named the place the Pass of
the Siskiyou,--an appellation subsequently adopted as the veritable Indian
name of the locality, and which thence extended to the whole range, and
the adjoining district.

~Sit'-kum~, _n., adj._ Chinook, SITKUM (Anderson); Clatsop, ASITKO. _A
half; apart._ Sitkuni dolla, _half a dollar;_ sitkum sun, _noon;_ tenas
sitkum, _a quarter, or a small part._

~Sit'-lay~, or ~Sit'-li-ay~, _n._ French, LES ETRIERS. (Anderson.)

~Sit'-shum~, _v._ Chihalis, idem. _To swim._

~Si'-wash~, _n., adj._ French, SAUVAGE. _An Indian; Indian._

~Skin~, _n._ English, idem. _Skin._ Skin shoes, _moccasins;_ stick skin,
_the bark of a tree._

~Skoo'-kum~, or ~Skoo-koom'~, _n., adj._ Chihalis, SKUKUM. _A ghost; an
evil spirit or demon; strong._ Skookum tumtum, _brave;_ skookum chuck, _a

~Skwak'-wal~, _n._ Chinook, SKAKULH (Anderson); Clatsop, SKAKOLI. _A
lamprey eel._ Of local use only.

~Skwis'-kwis~, _n._ Chinook, Cathlamet dialect. _A squirrel._

~Sla-hal'~, _n._ Chinook, ETLALTLAL. _A game played with ten small disks,
one of which is marked._

~Smet'-ocks~, _n._ Chihalis, SMETTAKS. _The large clam (Lutraria)._ Used
only at the mouth of the Columbia river.

~Smoke~, _n._ English, idem. _Smoke; clouds; fog; steam._

~Snass~, _n._ Quære u. d. _Rain._ Cole snass, _snow._ The word is neither
Chinook nor Chihalis, and is perhaps manufactured.

~Snow~, _n._ English, idem. _Snow._

~Soap~, _n._ English, idem. _Soap._

~So-le'-mie~, _n._ Chinook, SULAMICH (Anderson); Clatsop, SHÖLBE. _The

~Sol'-leks~, or ~Sah'-leks~, _n., adj._ Quære u. d. _Anger; angry._ Mamook
solleks, _to fight;_ tikegh solleks, _to be hostile;_ kumtuks solleks, _to
be passionate._

~So'-pe-na~, _v._ Chinook, T'SOPENA. _To jump; to leap._

~Spo'-oh~, or ~Spo'-eh~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. _Faded; any light color,_
as pale blue, drab, &c. Chahko spoeh, _to fade._

~Spoon~, _n._ English, idem. _A spoon._

~Spose~, _conj._ English, SUPPOSE. _If; supposing; provided that; in order
that._ Spose mika nanitsh nika canim, _if you see my canoe;_ spose nika
klatawa kopa Chinook, _if or when I go to Chinook;_ kahkwa spose, _as if._

~Stick~, _n., adj._ English, idem. _A stick; a tree; wood; wooden._ Stick
skin, _bark;_ ship stick, _a mast;_ mitwhit stick, _a standing tree,_ icht
stick, _a yard measure;_ stick shoes, _leather shoes or boots,_ as
distinguished from skin shoes or moccasins; kull stick, _oak_ (hard wood);
isick stick, _the ash_ (paddle wood).

~Stock'-en~, _n._ English. _Stockings or socks._

~Stoh~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. _Loose._ Mamook stoh, _to untie; unloose;
undo._ Metaphorically, _to absolve._

~Stone~, _n._ English, idem. _A rock or stone; bone; horn; the testicles._
Stone kiuatan, _a stallion;_ mahsh stone, _to castrate._

~Stote'-kin~, _adj._ Chinook, STOKTKIN. _Eight._

~Stutch'-un~, _n._ English, STURGEON. _The sturgeon._

~Suk-wal'-al~, _n._ Chinook (Hale); Clatsop, SHUKWALÁLA, _a gun or
musket._ No longer used in Jargon.

~Sun~, _n._ English, idem. _The sun; a day._ Tenas sun, _early;_ sitkum
sun, _noon;_ klip sun, _sunset._

~Sun'-day~, _n._ English, idem. _Sunday._ Icht Sunday, _a week;_ hyas
sunday, _a holiday._ A flag hoisted on a particular occasion is sometimes
also called Sunday. The other days of the week are usually counted from
this; as, icht, mokst, klone sun kopet Sunday, _one, two, or three days
after Sunday._ Saturday used to be called at the Hudson's Bay Company's
posts "muckamuck sun," _food day,_ as the one on which the rations were


~Tagh'-um~, ~To'-hum~, or ~Tugh'-um~, _adj._ Chinook, TAKHUM; Cowlitz,
TUKHUM; Kwantlen, TUKHUM'; Selish, TÁKKAN. _Six._

~Táhl-kie~, or ~Táhnl-kie~, _adv._ Chinook, TÁNLKI. _Yesterday._ Icht
tahlkie, _day before yesterday._

~Táh-nim~, _v._ Chihalis, idem. _To measure._ Of only local use, and not
strictly Jargon.

~Taht'-le-lum~, or ~Tot'-le-lum~, _adj._ Chinook, TATLELUM. _Ten._ The
combinations from this are simple. Moxt, klone, &c., tahtlelum, signifying
_twenty, thirty,_ &c.; tahtlelum pe icht, &c., _eleven, twelve, &c._

~Tál-a-pus~, _n._ Chinook, ITALIPAS; Yakama, TELIPA. (Pandosy.) _The
coyote or prairie wolf._ A sort of deity or supernatural being, prominent
in Indian mythology. _A sneak._

~Ta-máh-no-us~, _n._ Chinook, ITAMÁNAWAS. _A sort of guardian or familiar
spirit; magic; luck; fortune; any thing supernatural._ One's particular
forte is said to be his _tamahnous._ Mamook tamahnous, _to conjure; "make
medecine;"_ masahchie tamahnous, _witchcraft or necromancy._ Mr. Andersen
restricts the true meaning of the word to _conjuring._

~Ta-mo'-litsh~, or ~Ta-mow'-litsh~, _n._ Chinook, TAMULITSH (Anderson);
Yakama, TAMOLITSH (Pandosy). _A tub; barrel; bucket._ Icht tamolitsb, _a
bushel measure._

~Tanse~, _v., n._ English, DANCE. _To dance._

~T'chuk'-in~, or ~Tsugh'-ken~. See CHUCKIN.

~Tea~, _n._ English, idem. _Tea._

~Te-áh-wit~, _n._ Chinook, TIÁWI; Clatsop, KLÁAWIT. _The leg; the foot._
Klatawa teahwit, _to go on foot; to walk;_ klook teahwit, _lame._

~Téh-teh~, _v._ Clatsop, TETEHAHA. _To trot,_ as a horse. Of local use

~Ten'-as~, or ~Tan'-as~, _n., adj._ Nootka, TANAS; Tokwaht, TENES. _Small;
few; little; a child; the young of any animal._ Mokst nika tenas, _I have
two children;_ tenas hyiu, _a few;_ tenas sun, _early._ Jewitt gives
TANASSIE for _a child_ in Nootka.

~Te-péh~, _n._ Chinook, TEPKÉH. _Quills; the wings of a bird._

~Tik-égh~, or ~Tu-kégh~, _v._ Chinook, TIKEKH. _To want; wish; love;
like._ Hyas tikegh, _to long for;_ ikta mika tikegh? _what do you want?_

~Tik'-tik~, _n._ By onoma. _A watch._

~Til'-i-kum~, _n._ Chinook, TILIKHUM. _People._ Applied generally, it
means those who are not chiefs. Cultus tilikum, _common or insignificant
persons;_ huloima tilikum, _strangers;_ nika tilikum, _my relations._ It
is also used to signify a _tribe_ or _band._

~Til'-i-kum-má-ma~, _n._ (Hale.) Chinook, TLKAMÁMA. _A father._ The word
is not in use in Jargon.

~Till~, or ~Tull~, _adj., n._ English, TIRE. _Tired; heavy; weight; a
weight._ Hyas till nika, _I am very tired;_ kansih till okook, _how much
does that weigh;_ mamook till, _to weigh._

~Tin'-tin~, _n._ By onoma. _A bell; a musical instrument._ Mamook tintin,
_to ring a bell._ Among the Indians round the Hudson Bay Company's posts,
the hours were thus known; as, mokst tintin kopet sitkum sun, _two hours,_
i.e., _two bells after noon._

~T'kópe~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. _White; light-colored._

~Tlehl~. See KLALE.

~Tl'kópe~, _v._ Chinook, idem. _To cut; hew; chop._

~Toh~, or ~Tooh~. By onoma. Mamook toh, _to spit._ A manufactured word.

~Tóke-tie~, _adj._ Kalapuya. _Pretty._ Not in common use.

~To'-lo~, _v._ Kalapuya. _To earn; to win at a game; to gain._ Kansih
dolla nika tolo spose mamook? _how many dollars will I earn if I work?_

~To'-luks~, _n._ Clallam, TOYUK. _The mussel._ Used on Puget Sound only.

~To-mól-la~, _adv._ English, TO-MORROW. Ikt tomolla, _or_ copet tomolla,
_the day after._

~Tot~, _n._ Chihalis, TOT, or TAT. _An uncle._

~To'-to~, _v._ By onoma. Chinook, TOKH-TOKH. _To shake; sift any thing;

~To-toosh'~, or ~Ta-toosh'~, _n._ Chippeway, TOTOSH. (Schoolcraft.) _The
breasts of a female; milk._ Totoosh lakles, _butter._

~To-wagh'~, _adj._ Chinook, TOWAKH. _Bright; shining; light._

~Tsee~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. _Sweet._

~Tsee'-pie~, _v._ Kalapuya. _To miss a mark; to mistake one's road; to
make a blunder in speaking; to err or blunder._ Tseepie wayhut, _to take
the wrong road._

~Tshi'-ke~, _adv._ (Hale.) Quære u. d. _Directly; soon._ Not Jargon.

~Tshis~, _adj._ Chinook, idem. _Cold._ Not in common use.

~Tsi-át-ko~, _n._ Chihalis, Nisqually, &c., idem; Clatsop, ÉCHIATKU. _A
nocturnal demon,_ much feared by the Indians. The Skagits give this name
to the "Couteaux," a tribe of Indians on Frazer River, of whom they stand
in like awe.

~Tsik'-tsik~, or ~Tchik'-tchik~, _n._ By onoma. _A wagon; a cart; a
wheel._ Tsiktsik wayhut, _a wagon-road._

~Tsil'-tsil~, or ~Chil'-chil~, _n._ Chinook, ECHILCHIL. (Anderson.)
_Buttons; the stars._

~Tsish~, _v._ By onoma., in imitation of the sound of a grindstone.
(Shaw.) Mamook tsish, _to sharpen._ Of local use.

~Tsóle-pat~, _n._ Klikatat. _A shot-pouch._ Of local use only.

~Tso'-lo~, _n._ Kalapuya. (Shaw.) _To wander in the dark; to lose one's
way._ Used in the Willamette valley.

~Tsugh~, _n., v._ Chinook, idem. _A crack or split._ Mamook tsugh, _to
split;_ chahko tsugh, _to become split or cracked,_ as by the heat of the
sun; mamook tsugh illahie, is by some used instead of klugh, for _to

~Tsuk~. See CHUCK.

~Tuk-a-mo'-nuk~, or ~Tak-a-mo'-nak~, _adj._ Chinook, ITAKAMONAK. _A
hundred._ It is, like ten, combined with the digits; as, icht, moxt, klone
takamonak, _one hundred, two hundred, three hundred,_ &c. Hyas takamonak,
_or_ tahtlelum takamonak, _a thousand._

~Tuk'-wil-la~, or ~To'-kwil-la~, _n._ Kalapuya. _The hazel-nut; nuts

~Tum'-tum~, _n._ By onoma., from the pulsations of the heart. (Anderson.)
_The heart; the will; opinion._ Mahsh tumtum, _to give orders,_ mamook
tumtum, _to make up one's mind;_ mamook closhe tumtum, _to make friends or
peace;_ sick tumtum, _grief; jealousy;_ moxt tumtum nika, _I am
undecided,_ i.e., _I have two wills. Q._  Kah nesika klatawa? _where shall
we go? A._  Mika tumtum, _wherever you please; as you will._ Ikta mika
tumtum? _what do you think?_ Halo tumtum, _without a will of one's own,_
as a child. The heart seems to be generally regarded as the seat of the
mind or will.

~Tum-wa'-ta~, _n._ TUM, by onoma.; English, WATER. _A waterfall, cascade,
or cataract._ Lewis and Clarke give TIMM as used by the Indians above the
Dalles of the Columbia in directing them to the falls.

~Tup'-shin~, or ~Tip'-sin~, _v._ Chihalis, TUPSHIN. _A needle._ Mamook
tipsin, _to sew; to mend; to patch._

~Túp-so~, or ~Tip'-so~, _n._ Chinook, TEPSO, _a leaf._ _Grass; leaves,
fringe; feathers; fur._ Often but incorrectly employed for YAKSO, _hair;_
tipso illahie, _prairie;_ dely tipso, _hay._

~Ty'-ee~, _n., adj._ Nootka, TAIYI; TYEE (Jewitt). _A chief._ Any thing of
superior order. Saghalie tyee, _the Deity;_ tyee salmon, _the spring
salmon._ TOYON is given by some of the northwestern voyagers as the Eskimo
appellation for _chief._

~Tzum~, _n., adj._ Chinook, idem. _Mixed colors; spots or stripes; a mark
or figure; writing; paint; painted._ Tzum sill, _printed calico;_ tzum
pehpa, _writing;_ mamook tzum, _to write;_ tzum illahie, _blazed or
surveyed land._


~Wagh~, _v._ Chinook, WAKH, _To pour; to spill; to vomit._ Mamook wagh
chuck, _pour out some water._

~Wake~, _adv._ Nootka, WIK (Jewitt); Tokwaht, WEK. _No; not._

~Wa'-ki~, _adv._ (Hale.) Chinook, WAKI. _To-morrow._ Not Jargon.

~Wap'-pa-too~, _n._ Quære u. d. _The root of the Sagitaria sagittifolia,_
which forms an article of food; _the potato._ The word is neither Chinook
nor Chihalis, but is everywhere in common use.

~Wash~, _v._ English, idem. Mamook wash, _to wash._

~Waum~, _adj._ English, WARM. Hyas waum, _hot;_ waum illahie, _summer;_
mamook waum, _to heat;_ waum-sick-cole-sick, _fever and ague._

~Wau'-wau~, _v., n._ Nootka; Nittinat, WÁWE. _To talk; speak; call; ask;
tell; answer; talk or conversation._ Cultus wauwau, _idle talk; stuff;
nonsense;_ hyas wauwau, _to shout._

~Way'-hut~, ~Hweh'-kut~, or ~Wee'-hut~, _n._ Chinook, WÉHUT, _a road;_
Yakama, WIET, _far._ _A road or trail._ Tsik-tsik wayhut, _a wagon-road._
About Vancouver, on the Columbia, it is pronounced HWÉHKUT; on Puget
Sound, WEEHUT.

~Weght~, _conj._ Chinook, idem. _Again; also; more._ Pe nika weght, _and I
too;_ pahtlatsh weght, _give me some more;_ tenas weght, _a little more

~Whim~, _v._ Wasco. (Shaw.) _To fell._ Whim stick, _a fallen tree;_ mamook
whim okook stick, _fell that tree._ Also, _to throw,_ in wrestling. Of
local use only.

~Win'-a-pie~, _adv._ Nootka; Nittinat, WILAPI. _By-and-bye; presently;
wait._ Of local use; the Chinook ALKI being more common.

~Wind~, or ~Win~, _n._ English, idem. _Wind._ The winds are often known by
the country from which they blow; as, for instance, on the Columbia, an
easterly is a Walla-walla wind; at the mouth of the river, a southerly is
a Tilamooks wind, &c. _Breath._ Ex. Halo wind, _out of breath; dead._


~Yah'-hul~, _n._ Chinook, YAKHUL; EUEKHOL. _A name._ Not in general use.

~Yáh-ka~, or ~Yok'-ka~, _pron._ Chinook, YÁKA. _He; his; him; she; it,

~Yah'-kis-ilt'h~, _adj._ Chinook, YAKISILT'H. _Sharp._ Mr. Anderson gives
as the original, "_cutting._"

~Yah'-wa~, _adv._ Chinook, YAWÁKH. _There; thither; thence; beyond._

~Yah'-whul~. See AYÁHWHUL.

~Yak'-so~, _n._ Chinook, idem. _The hair of the head; hair generally._

~Ya-kwah'-tin~, or ~Kwah'-tin~, _n._ Chinook and Clatsop, YAKWATIN. _The
belly; the entrails._

~Yaub~. See LEJAUB.

~Yel'-a-kwat~. See KALAKWAHTIE.

~Yi'-em~, _v., n._ Chihalis, YAIEM. _To relate; to tell a story; to
confess to a priest; a story or tale._

~Youtl~, _adj._ Quære Chihalis, EYUTLH; Nisqually, JUIL, _glad._ _Pleased;
proud;_ (of a horse), _spirited._ Hyas youtl yakka tumtum, _his heart is
very glad; he is much puffed up._

~Yoútl-kut~, _adj., n._ Chinook, YÚTLKUT. _Long_ (in dimension); _length._

~Yoút-skut~, or ~Yutes'-kut~, _adj._ Chinook, YÚTSKUTA. _Short_ (in

~Y-salt'h~, or ~Ye-salt'h~. See E-SALT'H.

~Yuk'-wa~, _adv._ Chinook, YAKWÁ. _Here; hither; this side of; this way._
Yukwa kopa okook house, _this side of that house._




~Above~, _ságh-a-lie._
~Absolve~, _mam'-ook stoh._
~Acorns~, _káh-na-way._
~Across~, _in'-a-ti._
~Afraid~, _kwass._
~After, Afterwards~, _kim'-ta._
~Again~, _weght._
~All~, _kon'-a-way._
~Alms~, _e'-la-han,_ or _e-lann'._
~Also~, _weght._
~Although~, _kégh-tchie._
~Always~, _kwáh-ne-sum._
~American~, _Boston._
~Amusement~, _hee'-hee._
~And~, _pee._
~Anger, Angry~, _sol'-leks._
~Apple~, _le pome._
~Apron~, _kéh-su,_ or _ki'-su._
~Arbutus uva ursi~, _lahb._
~Arrive at~, _ko._
~Arrow~, _ka-li'-tan._
~As if~, _káh-kwa spose._
~At~, _ko'-pa._
~Aunt~, _kwal'h._
~Awl~, _shoes keep'-wot._
~Axe~, _la-hash'._


~Bad~, _me-sáh-chie; pe-shuk'._
~Bag~, _le sak._
~Ball~, _le bal._
~Bargain~, _máh-kook; húy-húy._
~Bark~, _s'ick-skin._
~Barrel~, _ta-mo'-litsh._
~Basket~, _o'-pe-kwan._
~Beads~, _ka-mo'-suk._
~Bear~ (black), _chet'-woot; its'woot;_ (grizzly), _si-am'._
~Beat, to~, _kok'-shut._
~Beaver~, _ee'-na._
~Because~, _kéh-wa._
~Become, to~, _cháh-ko._
~Bed~, _bed._
~Before~, _e'-lip,_ or _el'-ip._
~Behind~, _kim'-ta._
~Bell~, _tin'-tin._
~Belly~, _ya-kwáh-tin._
~Below~, _kee'-kwil-lie._
~Belt~, _la san-jel'._
~Berries~, _o'-lil-lie; o'-lal-lie._
~Best~, _e'-lip closhe._
~Bird~, _kal-lak'-a-la._
~Biscuit~, _le bis'-kwee._
~Bitter~, _klihl._
~Black~, _klale._
~Blackberries~, _klik'-a-muks._
~Blanket~, _pa-see'-sie._
~Blind~, _ha'-lo se-áh-host._
~Blood~, _pil-pil._
~Blow out~, _mam'-ook poh._
~Blue~ (light), _spo'-oh._
~Blue~ (dark), _klale._
~Blunder, to~, _tsee'-pie._
~Board~, _la plash._
~Boat~, _boat._
~Bob-tailed; a bob-tailed horse~, _sis'-ki-you._
~Boil, to~, _lip'-lip._
~Bone~, _stone._
~Borrow, to~, _a-yáh-whul._
~Bosom~ (female), _to-toosh._
~Both~, _kun'-a-moxt._
~Bottle~, _la-boo-ti'._
~Bow~, _o'-pitl-kegh._
~Bowl~, _oos'-kan._
~Box~, _la ca-sett'._
~Bracelet~, _klik'-wal-lie._
~Brave~, _skoo'-kum tum'-tum._
~Bread~, _le pan._
~Break, to~, _kok'-shut._
~Breasts~, _to-toosh'._
~Breech clout~, _o'-poots sill._
~Bridle~, _la bleed._
~Bright~, _to-wágh._
~Broad~, _kluk-ulh'._
~Broom~, _bloom._
~Brother~, _káhp-ho,_ if elder than the speaker;
           _ow,_ if younger. Male cousins the same.
~Brother-in-law~, _ek'-keh._
~Bucket~, _ta-mo'-litsh._
~Buffalo~, _moos'-moos._
~Bullet~, _le bal; ka-li'-tan._
~Bundle~, _kow._
~But~, _pe._
~Butter~, _to-toosh' la-kles'._
~Buttons~, _tsil'-tsil._
~Buy, to~, _máh-kook._
~By-and-by~, _win'-a-pie._


~Candle~, _la shan-del'._
~Carrot~, _la ca-lat'._
~Carry, to~, _lo' lo._
~Cart~, _tsik'-tsik; chik'-chik._
~Cascade~, _tum' wa-ter._
~Castrate, to~, _mahsh stone._
~Cat~, _puss'-puss._
~Cataract~, _tum' wa-ter._
~Cattle~, _moos'-moos._
~Certainly~, _na-wit'-ka._
~Chain~, _la shen; chik'a-min lope._
~Chair~, _la shase._
~Cheat, to~, _la-láh._
~Chicken~, _la pool._
~Chief~, _ty-ee'._
~Child~, _ten'-as._
~Clams~, _o'-na; luk'-ut-chee; la-kwit'-chee._
~Clams~, the large kind, _smet-ocks._
~Clear up, to~, _cháh-ko klah._
~Cloth~ (cotton), _sail._
~Clouds~, _smoke._
~Coat~, _ca-po'._
~Coffee~, _kau'-py._
~Cold~, _cole; tshis._
~Comb~, _comb._
~Comb, to~, _mam'-ook comb._
~Come, to~, _cháh-ko._
~Confess, to~, _yi'-em._
~Conjuring~, _ta-máh-no-us._
~Cook, to~, _mam'-ook pi'-ah._
~Copper~, _pil chik'-a-min._
~Cord~, _ten'-as lope._
~Corn~, _e-salt'h', _or _ye-salt'h'._
~Corral~, _kul-lágh._
~Cotton goods~, _sail._
~Cough~, _hoh'-hoh._
~Count, to~, _mam'-ook kwun'-nun._
~Cousin~, see brother and sister.
~Coyote~, _tal'-a-pus._
~Crab apple~, _pow'-itsh._
~Cranberry~, _so'-le-mie._
~Crazy~, _pel'-ton._
~Cream colored~, _le clem._
~Crooked~, _ki'-wa._
~Cross~, _la clo-a'._
~Crow~, _káh-kah._
~Cry, to~, _cly._
~Cup~, _oos'-kan._
~Curly~, _hunl'-kih._
~Cut, to~, _tl'ko'-pe._


~Dance, to~, _tanse._
~Dark, darkness~, _po'-lak-lie._
~Day~, _sun._
~Dead~, _mem'-a-loost,_
~Deaf~, _ik-poo'-ie kwil-lan._
~Dear~, _hy'-as máh-kook._
~Deep~, _klip._
~Deer~, _mow'-itsh._
~Demon~, _skoo'-kum._
~Devil~, _di-aub'; yaub; le-jaub'._
~Different~, _hul-o'-i-ma._
~Difficult~, _kull._
~Dig, to~, _mam'-ook il'-la-hie._
~Dime~, _bit,_ or _mit._
~Do, to~, _mam'-ook._
~Doctor~, _doc'-tin._
~Dog~, _kam'-ooks._
~Dollar~, _dol'-la,_ or _táh-la._
~Door~, _la po'te._
~Down stream~, _mi'-mie._
~Drink, to~, _muck'-a-muck._
~Drive, to~, _kish'-kish._
~Drunk~, _páht-lum._
~Dry~, _de-ly'._
~Duck~ (Mallard), _kwéh-kweh; háht-haht._
~Dust~, _po'-lal-lie._


~Eagle~, _chak'-chak._
~Ear~, _kwo-lann'._
~Early~, _ten'-as sun._
~Earn, to~, _to'-lo_
~Earth~, _il'-la-hie._
~Eat, to~, _muck'-a-muck._
~Egg~, _le sap'; le zep'._
~Eight~, _sto'-te-kin._
~Elk~, _moo'-lock._
~Enclosure~, _kul-lágh._
~English~, _king chautsh._
~Englishman~, _king chautsh._
~Enough~, _hi-yu'; ko-pet'._
~Entreiils~, _ki-yágh._
~Evening~, _ten'-as po'-lak-lie._
~Every~, _kon'-a-way._
~Exchange~, _húy-huy._
~Eyes~, _se-áh-host._


~Face~, _se-áh-host._
~Faded~, _spo'-oh._
~Falsehood~, _klim-in'-a-whit._
~Far~, _si-áh._
~Fast~ (quick), _hy-ak'._
~Fast~ (tight), _kwutl._
~Fasten, to~, _kow._
~Fat~, _glease._
~Father~, _pa'-pa._
~Fathom~, _it'-lan._
~Fear~, _kwass._
~Fell, to~ (as a tree), _mam'-ook whim._
~Fence~, _kul-lágh._
~Fetch, to~, _mam'-ook cháh-ko._
~Fever~, _waum sick._
~Few~, _ten'-as._
~Fight, to~, _mam'-ook sol'-leks._
~Fight, with fists~, _mam'-ook puk'-puk._
~Figured~ (as calico), _tzum._
~File~, _la leem._
~Fill, to~, _mam'-ook pahtl._
~Find, to~, _klap._
~Fingers~, _le doo._
~Fire~, _pi'-ah; o-la-pits'-ki._
~First~, _e'-lip,_ or _el'-ip._
~Fish~, _pish._
~Fish-hook~, _ik'-kik._
~Five~, _kwin'-num._
~Flea~, _so'-pen e'-na-poo; cho'-tub._
~Flesh~, _itl'-wil-lie._
~Flint~, _kil-it'-sut._
~Flour~, _sap'-o-lill._
~Fly, to~, _ka-wak'._
~Fog~, _smoke._
~Food~, _muck'-a-muck._
~Fool~, _pel'-ton._
~Foolish~, _pel'-ton._
~Foot~, _le-pee'._
~Forever~, _kwáh-ne-sum._
~Forget, to~, _máh-lie._
~Fork~, _la poo-shet'._
~Formerly~, _áhn-kut-te,_ or _áhn-kot-tie._
~Four~, _lak'-it, _or _lok'-it._
~Fowl~, _la pool._
~French~, Frenchman, _pa-si'-ooks._
~Friend~, _sikhs,_ or _shikhs._
~Frog~, _shwáh-kuk._
~Fry~, to, _mam'-ook la po-el'._
~Frying-pan~, _la po-el'._
~Full~, _pahtl._
~Fundament~, _o'-poots._


~Gallop, to~, _kwa-lal'-kwa-lal'._
~Gather, to~, _ho'-ku-melh._
~Get, to~, _is'-kum._
~Get out~, _mahsh._
~Get up~, _get-up',-or ket-op'._
~Ghost~, _skoo'-kum._
~Gift~, _cul'-tus pot'-latch._
~Give, to~, _pot'-latch._
~Glad~, _kwann._
~Go, to~, _klat'-a-wa._
~God~, _ságh-a-lie ty-ee'._
~Gold~, _pil chik'-a-min._
~Good~, _klose,_ or _kloshe._
~Good-bye~, _kla-how'-ya._
~Goods~, _ik'-tah._
~Goose~, _whuy'-whuy; kal-ak-a-láh-ma._
~Grandfather~, _chope._
~Grandmother~, _chitsh._
~Grease~, _la-kles'; glease._
~Green~, _pe-chugh'._
~Grey; a grey horse~, _le gley._
~Grizzly bear~, _si-am'._
~Ground~, _il'-la-hie._
~Gun; musket~, _suk'-wa-lal._


~Hair~, _yak'-so._
~Half~, _sit'-kum._
~Hammer~, _le máh-to._
~Hand~, _le máh._
~Hand~ (game of), _it'-lo-kum._
~Handkerchief~, _hak'-at-shum._
~Hard~, _kull._
~Hare~, _kwit'-shad-ie._
~Harrow, to~, _mam'-ook comb il'-la-hie._
~Hat~, _se-áh-po; se-áh-pult._
~Haul~, _haul._
~Hazel-nuts~, _tuk'-wil-la._
~He, his~, _yáh-ka._
~Head~, _la tet._
~Heart~, _tum'-tum._
~Heaven~, _ságh-il-lie il'-la-hie._
~Heavy~, _till._
~Help, to~, _mam'-ook e-lann'._
~Here~, _yuk'-wa._
~Hermaphrodite~, _bur'-dash._
~Hide, to~, _ip'-soot._
~High~, _ságh-a-lie._
~Hit, to~, _kwul'h._
~Hoe~, _la pe-osh'._
~Hog~, _co'-sho._
~Hole~, _kla-whap'._
~Holiday~, _sunday._
~Horn~, _stone._
~Horse~, _kiu'-a-tan._
~House~, _house._
~How~, _káh-ta._
~How are you~, _kla-how'-ya._
~How many~, _kun'-sih; kun'-juk._
~Hundred~, _tuk-a-mo'-nuk._
~Hungry~, _o'-lo._
~Hurry~, _howh; hy-ak'._


~I~, _ni-ka._
~If~, _spose._
~In~, _ko'-pa._
~Indian~, _si'-wash._
~In shore~, _máht-wil-lie._
~Iron~, _chik'-a-min._
~It~, _yáh-ka._


~Jealous~, _sick tum'-tum._
~Jump, to~, _so'-pe-na._


~Kam-ass root~, _la'-ka-mass._
~Kettle~, _ket-ling._
~Kick, to~, _chuk'-kin._
~Kiss, to kiss~, _be'-be._
~Knife~, _o'-pit-sah._
~Knock, to~, _ko'-ko._
~Knotty~, _hunl'-kih._
~Know, to~, _kum'-tuks._


~Lame~, _klook te-áh-wit._
~Lamprey eel~, _skwak'-wal,_
~Language~, _la lang._
~Large~, _hy-as'._
~Lately~, _chee._
~Laughter~, _hee'-hee._
~Lazy~, _lazy._
~Leap, to~, _so'-pe-na._
~Leaf~, _tup'-so,_ or _tip'-so._
~Lean, to~, _lagh._
~Leave, to~, _mahsh._
~Leave off, to~, _ko-pet'._
~Leg~, _te-áh-wit._
~Leggings~, _mi-tass'._
~Lend, to~, _a-yáh-whul_
~Lick, to~, _klak'-wun._
~Lie, to~, _klim-in'-a-whit._
~Like~, _káh-kwa._
~Like, to~, _tik-égh._
~Little~, _ten'-as._
~Long~, _youtl'-kut._
~Long ago~, _áhn-kut-te,_ or _áhn-kot-tie._
~Look, to~, _nan'-itsh._
~Look here!~ _nah._
~Look out!~ _klose nan'-itsh._
~Looking-glass~, _she-lok'-um._
~Loose~, _stoh._
~Lose the way, to~, _tso'-lo; tsee-pie' way-hut._
~Louse~, _e'-na-poo,_ or _in'-a-poo._
~Love, to~, _tik-égh._


~Magic~, _ta-máh-no-us._
~Make, to~, _mam'-ook._
~Man~, _man._
~Many~, _hy-iu'._
~Marry, to~, _mal-i-éh._
~Mass~ (Ceremony of), _la messe._
~Mast~, _ship stick._
~Mat~, _klis'-kwiss._
~Mattock~, _la pe-osh'._
~Measure, to~, _tah'-nim._
~Meat~, _itl'-wil-lie._
~Medicine~, _la mes'-tin._
~Mend, to~, _mam'-ook tip'-shin._
~Menstruate, to~, _mahsh pil'-pil._
~Metal, metallic~, _chik'-a-min._
~Middle, the~, _kat'-suk,_ or _kot'-suk._
~Midnight~, _sit'-kum po'-lak-lie._
~Milk~, _to-toosh'._
~Mill~, _moo'-la._
~Mind, the~, _tum'-tum._
~Miss, to~, _tsee'-pie._
~Mistake, to~, _tsee'-pie._
~Moccasins~, _skin-shoes._
~Molasses~, _mel-ass'._
~Money~, _chik'-a-min._
~Month~, _moon._
~Moon~, _moon._
~More~, _weght._
~Mosquito~, _mel'-a-kwa._
~Mother~, _mama; na'-ah._
~Mountain~, _la mon'-ti._
~Mouse~, _hool'-hool._
~Mouth~, _la boos._
~Much~, _hy-iu'._
~Mule~, _le mel._
~Musical Instrument~, _tin'-tin._
~Musket~, _musket._
~Mussels~, _to'-luks._
~My, mine~, _ni'-ka._


~Nails~, _le cloo._
~Name~, _nem; yah-hul._
~Near~, _wake si-áh._
~Neck~, _le cou._
~Needle~, _keep'-wot._
~New~, _chee._
~Night~, _po'-lak-lie._
~Nine~, _kwaist,_ or _kweest._
~No, not~, _wake._
~Noise~, _la tlah._
~None~, _ha'-lo._
~Nonsense~, _cul'-tus wau'-wau._
~Noon~, _sit-kum sun._
~Nose~, _nose._
~Notwithstanding~, _kégh-tchie._
~Now~, _al'-ta._
    1, _ikt._
    2, _mokst._
    3, _klone._
    4, _lakit._
    5, _kwinnum._
    6, _taghum._
    7, _sinnamokst._
    8, _stotekin._
    9, _kwaist._
   10, _tahtlelum._
   11, _tahtlelum pe ikt_
   20, _mokst tahtlelum._
  100, _ikt takarnonuk._
~Nuts~, _tuk'-wil-la._


~Oak~, _kull stick._
~Oar~, _la lahm; la lum._
~Oats~, _la wen._
~Off~, _klak._
~Off shore~, _máht-lin-nie_
~Oil~, _glease._
~Old~, _o'-le-man._
~Old man~, _o'-le-man._
~Old woman~, _lam'-mi-eh._
~One~, _ikt._
~One-eyed~, _ikt se-áh-host._
~Open~, _háh-lakl._
~Opposite to~, _in'-a-ti._
~Or~, _pe._
~Order, to~, _mahsh tum'-tum._
~Other~, _hul-o'-i-ma._
~Otter~ (land), _ne-mam'-ooks._
~Our~, _ne-si'-ka._
~Out doors~, _klágh-a-nie._
~Ox~, _moos'-moos._
~Oyster~, _chet'-lo,_ or _jet'-lo; klógh-klogh._


~Paddle, a~, _is'-ick._
~Paddle, to~, _mam'-ook is'-ick._
~Paint~, _pent._
~Paint, to~, _mam'-ook pent._
~Paper~, _péh-pah._
~Peas~, _le pwau._
~People~, _til'-i-kum._
~Perhaps~, _klo-nas'._
~Petticoat~, _kal-a-kwah'-tie._
~Piebald~, _le kye._
~Pin~, _kwek'-wi-ens._
~Pipe~, _la peep._
~Pitch~, _la gome._
~Plate~, _la si-et'._
~Pleased~, _youtl._
~Plough~, _le shal-loo'._
~Plough, to~, _klugh il'-la-hie._
~Pole~, _la pehsh._
~Poor~, _kla-how'-yum; ha'-lo ik'-ta._
~Pork~, _co'-sho._
~Posteriors~, _o'-poots._
~Potato~, _wap'-pa-too._
~Pour, to~, _wagh._
~Powder~, _po'-lal-lie._
~Prairie wolf~, _tal'-a-pus._
~Presently~, _al'-kie; win'-a-pie_
~Pretty~, _to'ke-tie._
~Priest~, _le plet._
~Proud~, _youtl; kwetl'h._
~Provided that~, _spose._
~Pull~, _haul._


~Quarter~, _ten'-as sit'-kum._
~Quarter~ (of a dollar), _kwah-ta._
~Quick~, _hy-ak'._
~Quills~, _te-péh._


~Rabbit~, _kwit'-shad-ie._
~Rain~, _snass._
~Rattle~, _shugh._
~Rattlesnake~, _shugho'-pools._
~Razor fish~, _o'-na._
~Reach~, _ko._
~Red~, _pil._
~Relate, to~, _yi'-em._
~Return, to~, _kel'-i-pi._
~Ribbon~, _le lo'-ba._
~Rice~, _lice._
~Rifle~, _cal'-li-peen._
~Ring, a~, _kwéo-kwéo._
~Ripe~, _pi'-ah._
~River~, _chuck._
~Road~, _way'-hut._
~Roan colored~, _san'-de-lie._
~Roast~, _mam'-ook la pel-lah'._
~Rock~, _stone._
~Rope~, _lope._
~Rotten~, _poo'-lie._
~Round~, _lo'-lo._
~Rudder~, _boat o'-poots._
~Rum~, _lum._


~Sack~, _le sak._
~Saddle~, _la sell._
~Saddle housings~, _le pish'-e-mo._
~Sail~, _sail._
~Sailor~, _ship'-man._
~Salmon~, _salmon._
~Salt~, _salt._
~Sand~, _po'-lal-lie._
~Sash~, _la san-jel'._
~Saw~, _la gwin; la scie._
~Say, to~, _wau'-wau._
~Scissors~, _le see'-zo._
~Sea~, _salt-chuck._
~Seal~, _ol'-hi-yu si'-wash co'-sho._
~See, to~, _nan'-itsh._
~Sell, to~, _máh-kook._
~Seven~, _sin'-a-moxt._
~Sew, to~, _mam'-ook tip'-shin._
~Shake, to~, _to-to; hul'-lel._
~Shame~, _shem._
~Sharp~, _yáh-kis-ilt'h._
~Sharpen, to~, _mam'-ook tsish._
~She, her~, _yah-ka._
~Sheep~, _le moo'-to._
~Shell money~ (the small size), _coop-coop;_ (the large), _hy-kwa._
~Shingle~, _le-báh-do._
~Shining~, _to-wágh._
~Ship~, _ship._
~Shirt~, _shut._
~Shoes~, _shoes._
~Shoot, to~, _mam'-ook poo._
~Short~, _yútes-kut._
~Shot~, _shot; ten'-as le bal._
~Shot pouch~, _ka-li-tan le-sac'; tsole'-pat._
~Shout, to~, _hy'-as wau'-wau._
~Shovel~, _la pell._
~Shut, to~, _ik-poo'-ie._
~Sick~, _sick._
~Sift, to~, _to-to._
~Silk~, _la sway._
~Silver~, _t'kope chik'-a-min._
~Similar~, _káh-kwa._
~Since~, _kim-ta._
~Sing, to~, _shan'-tie._
~Sister~, _káhp-ho,_ if older than the speaker; _ats,_ if younger.
~Sit, to~, _mit'-lite._
~Six~, _tógh-um._
~Skin~, _skin._
~Skunk~, _hum o'-poots; piu'-piu; skub'-e-you._
~Sky~, _koo'-sagh._
~Slave~, _e-li'-te; mist'-shi-mus._
~Sleep~, _moo'-sum._
~Slowly~, _kláh-wa._
~Small~, _ten'-as._
~Smell, a~, _humm._
~Smoke~, _smoke._
~Snake~, _o'-luk._
~Snow~, _snow; cole snass._
~Soap~, _soap._
~Soft~, _klim'-min._
~Sorrel colored~, a sorrel horse, _le blau._
~Sorry~, _sick tum'-tum._
~Sour~, _kwates._
~Spade~, _la pell._
~Speak, to~, _wau'-wau._
~Spill, to~, _wagh._
~Spirits~, _lum._
~Split~, _tsugh._
~Split, to~, _mam'-ook tsugh._
~Spectacles~, _dol'-la se-ágh-ost,_ or _lak-it se-agh-ost._
~Spit, to~, _mam'-ook toh._
~Split, to become~, _cháh-ko tsugh._
~Spoon~, _spoon._
~Spotted~, _le kye; tzum._
~Spurs~, _le see'-blo._
~Squirrel~, _skwis'-kwis._
~Stab, to~, _klem'-a-hun._
~Stand, to~, _mit'-whit._
~Stars~, _tsil'-tsil._
~Stay, to~, _mit'-lite._
~Steal, to~, _kap-su-al-la._
~Steam~, _smoke._
~Steamer~, _pi'-ah ship._
~Stick, a~, _stick._
~Stink, a~, _piú-piú; humm._
~Stirrup~, _sit'-lay._
~Stockings~, _stock'-en; kush-is'._
~Stone~, _stone._
~Stop, to~, _ko-pet'._
~Store~, _máh-kook house._
~Story~, _eh-káh-nam._
~Straight~, _de-láte,_ or _de-let'; si'-pah._
~Strawberries~, _a-mo'-te._
~Strong~, _skoo'-kum._
~Sturgeon~, _stutch'-un._
~Sugar~, _le sook; shu'-gah; shu'-kwa._
~Summer~, _waum il'-la-hie._
~Sun~, _sun; óte-lagh._
~Sunday~, _sunday._
~Sunset~, _klip sun._
~Suppose~, _spose._
~Swan~, _káh-loke._
~Sweep, to~, _mam'-ook bloom._
~Sweet~, _tsee._
~Swim~, _sit'-shum._


~Table~, _la tahb._
~Tail~, _o'-poots._
~Take, to~, _is'-kum._
~Take care~! _klose nan'-itsh._
~Take off~, or ~out~, _mam'-ook klak; mahsh._
~Tale~, or ~story~, _yi'-em; eh-káh-nam._
~Talk, to~, _wau'-wau._
~Tame~, _kwass._
~Tea~, _tea._
~Teach, to~, _mam'-ook kum'-tuks._
~Tear, to~, _klugh._
~Teeth~, _le táh._
~Tell, to~, _wau'-wau._
~Ten~, _táht-le-lum._
~Testicles~, _stone._
~Thank you~, _máh-sie._
~That~, _o'-koke._
~That way~, _yáh-wa._
~There~, _yáh-wa; ko-páh._
~They~, _klas'-ka._
~Thick~ (as molasses), _pit'-lilh._
~Thin~ (as a board), _p'chih; pe-what'-tie._
~Thing~, _ik'-tah._
~This~, _o'-koke._
~This way~, _yuk'-wa._
~Thou, thy, thine~, _mi'-ka._
~Thread~, _kla-píte._
~Three~, _klone._
~Throw away~, _mahsh._
~Tide~, see _chuck._
~Tie, to~, _kow._
~Tight~, _kwutl._
~Tinware~, _ma-láh._
~Tip, to~, _lagh._
~Tired~, _till._
~To, towards~, _ko'-pa._
~Tobacco~, _ki'-nootl; ki'-noos._
~To-morrow~, _to-mol'-la._
~Tongue~, _la lang._
~Trail~, _way'-hut._
~Trap~, _la piége._
~Tree~, _stick._
~Tree, fallen~, _whim stick._
~Trot, to~, _téh-teh._
~Trowsers~, _sa-kol'-eks._
~True~, _de-láte._
~Truth~, _de-láte wau'-wau._
~Tub~, _ta-mo'-litsh._
~Twine~, _ten-as lope; kla-píte._
~Two, twice~, _mokst._


~Uncle~, _tot._
~Under~, _kee'-kwil-lie._
~Understand, to~, _kum'-tuks._
~Unhappy~, _sick tum'-tum._
~Untamed~, _le-mo'-lo._
~Untie, to~, _mam'-ook stoh; mahsh kow._
~Up~, _ságh-a-lie._
~Upset, to~, _kel'-i-pi._
~Us~, _ne-si'-ka._


~Venereal, the~, _pi'-ah sick._
~Venison~, _mow'-itsh._
~Very~, _hy-as'._
~Vessel~, _ship._
~Vest~, _la west._
~Vomit, to~, _wagh._


~Wagon~, _tsik'-tsik; chik'-chik._
~Wander, to~, _tso'-lo._
~Want, to~, _tik-égh._
~Warm~, _waum._
~Wash, to~, _mam'-ook wash._
~Watch, a~, _tik'-tik._
~Water~, _chuck._
~Waterfall~, _tum'-water._
~We~, _ne-si'-ka._
~Weigh, to~, _mam'-ook till._
~Wet~, _pahtl chuck._
~Whale~, _eh'-ko-lie; kwáh-nice, kwad'-dis._
~What~, _ik'-tah._
~Wheat~, _sap'-o-lill._
~Wheel~, _tsik'-tsik; chik'-chik._
~When~, _kan'-sih; kun-juk._
~Where~, _kah._
~Whip~, _le whet._
~White~, _t'kope._
~Who~, _klak'-sta._
~Whole~, _lo'-lo._
~Why~, _káh-ta._
~Wicked~, _me-sáh-chie._
~Wide~, _kluk-ulh'._
~Wild~, _le mo'-lo._
~Will, the~, _tum'-tum._
~Willow~, _ee'-na stick._
~Win, to~, _to'-lo._
~Wind~, _wind._
~Winter~, _cole il'-la-hie._
~Wipe, to~, _klak'-wun._
~Wire~, _chik'-a-min lope._
~Wish, to~, _tik-égh._
~With~, _ko'-pa._
~Without~, _ha'-lo._
~Wolf~, _le-loo'._
~Woman~, _klootsh'-man._
~Woman~ (old), _lam'-mi-eh._
~Wood, wooden~, _stick._
~Work, to~, _mam'-ook._
~Worn out~, _o'-le-man._
~Worthless~, _cul'-tus._
~Wound, to~, _klem'-a-hun._
~Write, to~, _mam'-ook péh-pah; mam'-ook tzum._
~Writing~, _tzum._


~Year~, _ikt cole._
~Yellow~, _kaw'-ka-wak._
~Yes~, _áh-ha; e-éh._
~Yes indeed~, _na-wit'-ka._
~Yesterday~, _táhl-kie; táhl-kie sun._
~You, your, yours~, _me-si'-ka._
~Young~, _ten'-as._


Nesika papa klaksta mitlite kopa saghalie, kloshe kopa nesika
 Our  father  who   stayeth  in  the above, good   in   our

tumtum      mika nem; kloshe mika tyee  kopa konaway tilikum;
hearts (be) thy name;  good  thou chief among  all    people;

kloshe mika tumtum kopa illahie, kahkwa kopa saghalie. Potlatch
good   thy   will  upon  earth     as    in  the above.  Give

konaway sun nesika muckamuck. Spose nesika mamook masahchie,
 every  day  our     food.     If     we     do     ill,

wake     mika hyas solleks, pe  spose klaksta masahchie kopa
(be) not thou very  angry,  and  if   any one   evil   towards

nesika, wake nesika solleks kopa klaska. Mahsh    siah kopa
  us    not    we    angry towards them. Send away far from

nesaika konaway masahchie.
  us      all     evil.

Kloshe kahkwa.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or, Trade Language of Oregon" ***

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+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.