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Title: Lessons in Music Form - A Manual of Analysis of All the Structural Factors and - Designs Employed in Musical Composition
Author: Goetschius, Percy, 1853-1943
Language: English
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LESSONS IN MUSIC FORM

A MANUAL OF ANALYSIS


OF ALL THE STRUCTURAL FACTORS AND DESIGNS

EMPLOYED IN MUSICAL COMPOSITION



BY

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, MUS. DOC.

(Royal Württemberg Professor)



AUTHOR OF

THE MATERIAL USED IN MUSICAL COMPOSITION, THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF
TONE-RELATIONS, THE HOMOPHONIC FORMS OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION, MODELS OF
THE PRINCIPAL MUSIC FORMS, EXERCISES IN MELODY WRITING, APPLIED
COUNTERPOINT, ETC.



$1.50



BOSTON

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY

New York -------- Chicago

CHAS. H. DITSON & CO. -------- LYON & HEALY

COPYRIGHT. MCMIV, BY OLIVER DITSON COMPANY

MADE IN U. S. A.



[Transcriber's note:  This book contains a few page references,
e.g., "...on page 122".  In such cases the target page number has been
formatted between curly braces, e.g. "{122}", and inserted into this
e-text in a location matching that page's physical location in the
original book.]



FOREWORD.


The present manual treats of the structural designs of musical
composition, not of the styles or species of music.  Read our AFTERWORD.

It undertakes the thorough explanation of each design or form, from the
smallest to the largest; and such comparison as serves to demonstrate
the principle of natural evolution, in the operation of which the
entire system originates.

This explanation--be it well understood--is conducted solely with a
view to the _Analysis_ of musical works, and is not calculated to
prepare the student for the application of form in practical
composition.  For the exhaustive exposition of the technical apparatus,
the student must be referred to my "Homophonic Forms."

The present aim is to enable the student to recognize and trace the
mental process of the composer in executing his task; to define each
factor of the structural design, and its relation to every other factor
and to the whole; to determine thus the synthetic meaning of the work,
and thereby to increase not only his own appreciation, interest, and
enjoyment of the very real beauties of good music, but also his power
to _interpret_, intelligently and adequately, the works that engage his
attention.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

The choice of classic literature to which most frequent reference is
made, and which the student is therefore expected to procure before
beginning his lessons, includes:--

The Songs Without Words of Mendelssohn; the _Jugend Album_, Op. 68, of
Schumann; the pianoforte sonatas of Mozart (Peters edition); the
pianoforte sonatas of Beethoven.

Besides these, incidental reference is made to the symphonies of
Beethoven, the sonatas of Schubert, the mazurkas of Chopin, and other
pianoforte compositions of Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Chopin, and Brahms.


PERCY GOETSCHIUS.

BOSTON, MASS., Sept., 1904.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.--INTRODUCTION.

  THE NECESSITY OF FORM IN MUSIC
  THE EVIDENCES OF FORM IN MUSIC
  UNITY AND VARIETY


CHAPTER II.--FUNDAMENTAL DETAILS.

  TIME
  TEMPO
  BEATS
  MEASURES
  RHYTHM
  MELODY


CHAPTER III.--FIGURE AND MOTIVE.

  THE MELODIC FIGURE
  DEFINING THE FIGURES
  THE MELODIC MOTIVE, OR PHRASE-MEMBER
  PRELIMINARY TONES


CHAPTER IV.--THE PHRASE.

  THE PHRASE
  LENGTH OF THE REGULAR PHRASE
  EXCEPTIONS
  CONTENTS OF THE PHRASE


CHAPTER V.--CADENCES.

  CADENCES IN GENERAL
  MODIFICATION, OR DISGUISING OF THE CADENCE
  THE ELISION
  SPECIES OF CADENCE
  PERFECT CADENCE
  SEMICADENCE
  LOCATING THE CADENCES


CHAPTER VI.--IRREGULAR PHRASES.

  CAUSES OF IRREGULARITY
  THE SMALL AND LARGE PHRASES
  THE PRINCIPLE OF EXTENSION
  INHERENT IRREGULARITY


CHAPTER VII.--THE PERIOD-FORM.

  PHRASE-ADDITION
  THE PERIOD


CHAPTER VIII.--ENLARGEMENT OF THE PERIOD-FORM.

  ENLARGEMENT BY REPETITION
  THE PHRASE-GROUP
  THE DOUBLE-PERIOD


CHAPTER IX.--THE TWO-PART SONG-FORM.

  THE SONG-FORM, OR PART-FORM
  THE PARTS
  THE FIRST PART
  THE SECOND PART


CHAPTER X.--THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM.

  DISTINCTION BETWEEN BIPARTITE AND TRIPARTITE FORMS
  PART I
  PART II
  PART III


CHAPTER XI.--ENLARGEMENT OF THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM.

  REPETITION OF THE PARTS
  EXACT REPETITIONS
  MODIFIED REPETITIONS
  THE FIVE-PART FORM
  GROUP OF PARTS


CHAPTER XII.--THE SONG-FORM WITH TRIO.

  THE PRINCIPAL SONG
  THE TRIO, OR SUBORDINATE SONG
  THE "DA CAPO"


CHAPTER XIII.--THE FIRST RONDO-FORM.

  EVOLUTION
  THE RONDO-FORMS
  THE FIRST RONDO-FORM


CHAPTER XIV.--THE SECOND RONDO-FORM.

  DETAILS


CHAPTER XV.--THE THIRD RONDO-FORM.

  THE EXPOSITION
  THE MIDDLE DIVISION
  THE RECAPITULATION


CHAPTER XVI.--THE SONATINE-FORM.

  CLASSIFICATION OF THE LARGER FORMS
  THE SONATINE-FORM


CHAPTER XVII.--THE SONATA-ALLEGRO FORM.

  ORIGIN OF THE NAME
  THE SONATA-ALLEGRO FORM
  THE EXPOSITION
  THE DEVELOPMENT, OR MIDDLE DIVISION
  THE RECAPITULATION
  DISSOLUTION
  RELATION TO THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM


CHAPTER XVIII.--IRREGULAR FORMS.

  CAUSES
  AUGMENTATION OF THE REGULAR FORM
  ABBREVIATION OF THE REGULAR FORM
  DISLOCATION OF THEMATIC MEMBERS
  MIXTURE OF CHARACTERISTIC TRAITS


CHAPTER XIX.--APPLICATION OF THE FORMS.

  APPLICATION OF THE SEVERAL DESIGNS IN PRACTICAL COMPOSITION
  AFTERWORD



LESSONS IN MUSIC FORM.


CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION.

THE NECESSITY OF FORM IN MUSIC.--So much uncertainty and diversity of
opinion exists among music lovers of every grade concerning the
presence of Form in musical composition, and the necessity of its
presence there, that a few general principles are submitted at the
outset of our studies, as a guide to individual reflection and judgment
on the subject.

Certain apparently defensible prejudices that prevail in the minds of
even advanced musical critics against the idea of Form in music,
originate in a very manifest mistake on the part of the "formalists"
themselves, who (I refer to unimpassioned theorists and advocates of
rigid old scholastic rules) place too narrow a construction upon Form,
and define it with such rigor as to leave no margin whatever for the
exercise of free fancy and emotional sway.  Both the dreamer, with his
indifference to (or downright scorn of) Form; and the pedant, with his
narrow conception of it; as well as the ordinary music lover, with his
endeavor to discover some less debatable view to adopt for his own
everyday use,--need to be reminded _that Form in music means simply
Order in music_.

Thus interpreted, the necessity of form, that is, Order, in the
execution of a musical design appears as obvious as are the laws of
architecture to the builder, or the laws of creation to the astronomer
or naturalist; for the absence of order, that is, Disorder, constitutes
a condition which is regarded with abhorrence and dread by every
rational mind.

A musical composition, then, in which Order prevails; in which all the
factors are chosen and treated in close keeping with their logical
bearing upon each other and upon the whole; in which, in a word, there
is no disorder of thought or technique,--is music with Form (_i.e._
good Form).  A sensible arrangement of the various members of the
composition (its figures, phrases, motives, and the like) will exhibit
both agreement and contrast, both confirmation and opposition; for we
measure things by comparison with both like and unlike.  Our nature
demands the evidence of _uniformity_, as that emphasizes the
impressions, making them easier to grasp and enjoy; but our nature also
craves a certain degree of _variety_, to counteract the monotony which
must result from too persistent uniformity.  When the elements of Unity
and Variety are sensibly matched, evenly balanced, the form is good.
On the other hand, a composition is formless, or faulty in form, when
the component parts are jumbled together without regard to proportion
and relation.

Which of these two conditions is the more desirable, or necessary,
would seem to be wholly self-evident.

The error made by pedantic teachers is to demand _too much_ Form; to
insist that a piece of music shall be a model of arithmetical
adjustment.  This is probably a graver error than apparent
formlessness.  Design and logic and unity there must surely be; but any
_obtrusive_ evidence of mathematical calculation must degrade music to
the level of a mere handicraft.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Another and higher significance involved in the idea of Form, that goes
to prove how indispensable it may be in truly good music, rests upon
the opposition of Form to the material.

There are two essentially different classes of music lovers:--the one
class takes delight in the mere sound and jingle of the music; not
looking for any higher purpose than this, they content themselves with
the purely sensuous enjoyment that the sound material affords.  To such
listeners, a comparatively meaningless succession of tones and chords
is sufficiently enjoyable, so long as each separate particle, each beat
or measure, is euphonious in itself.  The other class, more
discriminating in its tastes, looks beneath this iridescent surface and
strives to fathom the underlying _purpose_ of it all; not content with
the testimony of the ear alone, such hearers enlist the higher, nobler
powers of Reason, and no amount of pleasant sounds could compensate
them for the absence of well-ordered parts and their logical
justification.

This second class is made up of those listeners who recognize in music
an embodiment of artistic aims, an object of serious and refined
enjoyment _that appeals to the emotions through the intelligence_,--not
a plaything for the senses alone; and who believe that all music that
would in this sense be truly artistic, must exhibit "Form" as the end,
and "Material" only as a means to this end.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Still another, and possibly the strongest argument of all for the
necessity of form in music, is derived from reflection upon the
peculiarly vague and intangible nature of its art-material--tone,
sound.  The words of a language (also sounds, it is true) have
established meanings, so familiar and definite that they recall and
re-awaken impressions of thought and action with a vividness but little
short of the actual experience.  Tones, on the contrary, are not and
cannot be associated with any _definite_ ideas or impressions; they are
as impalpable as they are transient, and, taken separately, leave no
lasting trace.

Therefore, whatever stability and palpability a musical composition is
to acquire, _must be derived from its form, or design_, and not from
its totally unsubstantial material.  It must fall back upon the network
traced by the disposition of its points and lines upon the musical
canvas; for this it is that constitutes its real and palpable contents.


THE EVIDENCES OF FORM IN MUSIC.--The presence of form in music is
manifested, first of all, by the disposition of tones and chords in
symmetrical measures, and by the numerous methods of tone arrangement
which create and define the element of Rhythm,--the distinction of
short and long time-values, and of accented and unaccented (that is,
heavy and light) pulses.

This is not what is commonly supposed to constitute form in music, but
it is the fundamental condition out of which an orderly system of form
may be developed.  As well might the carpenter or architect venture to
dispense with scale, compass and square in their constructive labors,
as that the composer should neglect beat, measure and rhythm, in his
effort to realize a well-developed and intelligible design in the
whole, or any part, of his composition.  The beats and measures and
phrases are the barley-corn, inch and ell of the musical draughtsman,
and without these units of measurement and proportion, neither the
vital condition of Symmetry nor the equally important condition of
well-regulated Contrast could be clearly established.

The _beat_ is the unit of measurement in music.  The _measure_ is a
group of beats,--two, three, four, or more, at the option of the
composer.  The bounds of the measures are visibly represented (on the
written or printed page) by vertical lines, called bars; and are
rendered orally recognizable (to the hearer who does not see the page)
by a more or less delicate emphasis, imparted--by some means or
other--to the _first_ pulse or beat of each measure, as accent, simply
to mark where each new group begins.  Those who play or sing can
imagine how vague, and even chaotic, a page of music would look if
these vertical bars were omitted; and how much more difficult it would
be to read than when these (not only accustomed, but truly necessary)
landmarks are present.  Precisely the same unintelligible impression
must be, and is, conveyed to the hearer when _his_ landmarks, the
accents, are not indicated with sufficient emphasis or clearness to
render him sensible of the beginning of each new measure.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

The same primary system of measurement and association which is
employed in enlarging the beats to measures, is then applied to the
association of the measures themselves in the next larger units of
musical structure, the Motive, Phrase, Period, and so forth.  Unlike
the measures, which are defined by the accents at their _beginning_,
these larger factors of form are defined chiefly at their _end_, by the
impression of occasional periodic interruption, exactly analogous to
the pauses at the end of poetic lines, or at the commas, semicolons and
the like, in a prose paragraph.  These interruptions of the musical
current, called Cadences, are generally so well defined that even the
more superficial listener is made aware of a division of the musical
pattern into its sections and parts, each one of which closes as
recognizably (though not as irrevocably) as the very last sentence of
the piece.

Cadences serve the same purpose in music, then, as do the punctuation
marks in rhetoric; and an idea of the senselessness and confusion of a
musical composition, if left devoid of cadences in sufficient number
and force, may be gleaned from an experimental test of the effect of a
page of prose, read with persistent disregard of its commas, colons,
and other marks of "cadence."

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Another evidence of Form in music, that is at once subtle and powerful,
rests upon what might be termed the _linear_ quality of melody.  The
famous old definition of a line as a "succession of points," tallies so
accurately with that of melody (as a "succession of single tones"),
that it is not only proper, but peculiarly forceful, to speak of
melodies as _tone-lines_.  Our conception of a melody or tune, our
ability to recognize and reproduce it, depends far more upon its
undulations, its rising, falling, or resting level, than upon its
rhythmic features (the varying lengths of its tones).  These movements
trace a resonant line before our mind's eye as surely, though perhaps
not as distinctly, as the pencil of the artist traces the lines of an
image upon the paper; and this process is going on constantly, from
beginning to end, in every piece of music.  In a portrait it describes
the contours of face and figure,--in a word, the _Form_; in the musical
composition it fulfils, to a great extent, the self-same mission, that
of defining the Form.  One clear, predominating tone-line traces the
"air" or tune of the piece; and this is often the only line that
arrests the hearer's attention; but there are other tone-lines, less
prominent and less extended and coherent, gliding along harmoniously
beside the Melody proper, which (something like the shading in a
picture) contribute to the richness of the design, and perform their
share in proving and illuminating the Form of the whole.

This is most salient in music for orchestra, where each player
describes an individual tone-line, rendered all the more distinct and
recognizable by the specific "color" of his instrument; and that is the
chief, perhaps the sole, reason why the orchestra is esteemed the most
complete and perfect medium of musical expression.


UNITY AND VARIETY.--As much as opinions and beliefs may differ, among
music critics, as to the necessity of Form in music, and the conditions
of its existence, no reasonable objection can be taken to the
hypothesis that _Clearness and Attractiveness_ are the two vital
requisites upon which the enjoyment of any art depends.  The artist's
utterances or creations must be intelligible, and they must be
interesting.  The lack, partial or total, of either of these qualities
neutralizes the force of the intended impression, in precise proportion
to the default.

In musical composition these two requisites are embodied in the
principles of Unity and Variety.

_Unity_--in its various technical phases of Uniformity, Regularity,
Similarity, Equality, Agreement, or whatever other synonym we may find
it convenient to use--is the condition out of which the composer must
secure intelligibility, clearness, definiteness of expression.  Glance
at Ex. 2, and note the evidences of unity (similarity) in the rhythmic
and melodic formation of the first four measures.

_Variety_--in its most comprehensive application--is the medium he must
employ to arouse and sustain the hearer's interest.  Glance again at
Ex. 2, and note the contrast between the two halves of the first four
measures, and between these and the following two measures.

These conditions are, of course, squarely opposed to each other, though
their interaction is reciprocal rather than antagonistic; and, from
what has been said, it is obvious that they are of equal importance.
Hence, as was declared on the second page, the great problem of the
art-creator consists in so balancing their operations that neither may
encroach upon the domain of the other.  For too constant and palpable
Unity will inevitably paralyze interest; while too much Variety will as
surely tend to obscure the distinctness of the design.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

The workings of the principle of Unity (to which attention must first
be given, because it appears to come first in the order of creation)
are shown in the following elementary details of composition:--

(1) Music is not an art that deals with space, but with Time; therefore
the units of its metrical structure are not inches and the like, but
divisions of time, the basis of which is the _beat_.  The principle of
Unity dictates that the beats which are associated in one and the same
musical sentence shall be of equal duration.  Every musician admits the
necessity of keeping "strict time"--that is, marking the beats in
regular, equal pulses.  The sub-divisions of the beats (for example,
the eighth or sixteenth notes within a beat) must also be symmetric.
So imperative is this law that it generally prevails through the entire
piece, with only such temporary elongations or contractions (marked
_ritardando_ or _accelerando_) as may be introduced for oratorical
effects.

(2) The beats are grouped in _measures_ of uniform duration; that is,
containing equal numbers of beats.

(3) The natural _accent_ falls upon the corresponding beat, namely, the
first, of each measure; therefore it recurs regularly, at uniform
intervals of time.

(4) The _melodic contents_ of the first measure, or measures, are
copied (more or less literally) in the next measure, or measures; and
are encountered again and again in the later course of the piece, thus
insuring a fairly uniform melodic impression from which the character
and identity of the composition are derived.  Turn to the 8th Song
Without Words of Mendelssohn, and observe how insistently the figure

[Illustration: first fragment of 8th Song]

and its inversion

[Illustration: second fragment of 8th Song]

run through the whole number.

(5) The specific figure of the _accompaniment_ is usually reproduced
from measure to measure (or group to group) throughout whole sections
of the piece.  Observe, in the 37th Song Without Words, how constantly
the ascending figure of six tones recurs in the lower part (left hand).
Glance also at No. 30; No. 1; No. 25.  Many other evidences of Unity
are invariably present in good music, so naturally and self-evidently
that they almost escape our notice.  Some of these are left to the
student's discernment; others will engage our joint attention in due
time.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

In every one of these manifestations of unity there lies the germ of
the principle of Variety, which quickens into life with the action of
the former, always following, as offspring and consequence of the
primary unity.  Thus:--

(1) The _beats_, though uniform in duration, differ from each other in
force.  The first pulse in each measure (or metric group of any size)
is heavier, stronger, than the following.  It--the first--is the
"impulse," and is what is called the accent.  This dynamic distinction
it is that gives rise to the two fundamental classes of rhythm, the
duple and triple.  In duple rhythm the accent is followed by one
unaccented or lighter beat, so that regular alternation of heavy and
light pulses prevails incessantly.  In triple rhythm the accent is
followed by _two_ lighter beats, creating similarly constant, but
_irregular_ alternation of heavy and light pulses.

[Illustration: Duple and Triple Rhythm]

This distinction is so significant and so striking, that the music
lover who is eager to gain the first clues to the structural purpose of
a composition, should endeavor to recognize which one of these two
rhythmic species underlies the movement to which he is listening.  It
is fairly certain to be one or the other continuously.  Of duple
measure, the march and polka are familiar examples; of triple measure,
the waltz and mazurka.  The "regularity" of the former rhythm imparts a
certain stability and squareness to the entire piece, while triple
rhythm is more graceful and circular in effect.

(2) The same dynamic distinction applies also to whole _measures_, and

(3) to _accents_.  The first of two successive measures, or of two or
more accents, is always a trifle heavier than the other.

(4) The _melodic contents_ of the first measure may be exactly
reproduced in the succeeding measure; but if this is the case, they are
very unlikely to appear still again in the next (third) measure, for
that would exaggerate the condition of Unity and create the effect of
monotony.

[Illustration: Example 1.  Fragment of Folk-song.]

The measure marked _b_ is exactly like _a_.  But _c_ is all the more
contrasting, on account of this similarity.

Or, the melodic contents of a measure may be thus reproduced, as far as
the rhythm and direction of the tones are concerned, but--for
variety--they may be shifted to a higher or lower place upon the staff,
or may be otherwise modified.

[Illustration: Example 2.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

Compare the groups marked _a_ and _b_, and observe how the principles
of unity and variety are both active in these four measures, and how
their effect is heightened by the formation of _c_.

(5) The figures of the accompaniment, though reproduced in uniform
rhythmic values and melodic direction, undergo constant modifications
in pitch and in shape, similar, to those shown in Ex. 2.  See, again,
No. 37 of the Songs Without Words and note the changes in the formation
of the otherwise uniform six-tone groups.


LESSON 1.--The student is to study this chapter thoroughly, and write
answers to the following questions; if possible, without reference to
the text:--

1. What does Form in music mean?

2. Define the conditions which constitute good form.

3. When is a composition faulty in form?

4. What do discriminating listeners recognize in music?

5. What is the difference between the sounds of music and those of
language?

6. How does this prove the necessity of form?

7. By what is the presence of form in music shown?

8. What is the beat?

9. What is the measure?

10. By what means are the measures indicated, (1) to the reader; (2) to
the listener?

11. To what does the further multiplication of the beats give rise?

12. What are cadences?

13. What purpose do they serve in music?

14. What is the best general name for a melody?

15. What object does it fulfil in music form?

16. What are the two vital requisites upon which the enjoyment of an
art creation depends?

17. What purpose does Unity serve?

18. What purpose does Variety serve?

19. What is the great problem of the art-creator?

20. Define the conditions that confirm the principle of unity in music.

21. Define the evidences of variety in music.



CHAPTER II.  FUNDAMENTAL DETAILS.

TIME.--Time is the same thing in music that it is everywhere else in
nature.  It is what passes while a piece of music is being played,
sung, or read.  It is like the area of the surface upon which the
musical structure is to be erected, and which is measured or divided
into so many units for this, so many for that, so many for the other
portion of the musical Form.  Time is that quantity which admits of the
necessary reduction to units (like the feet and inches of a yardstick),
whereby a System of Measurement is established that shall determine the
various lengths of the tones, define their rhythmic conditions, and
govern the co-operation of several melodies sung or played together.
Time is the canvas upon which the musical images are drawn--in melodic
_lines_.


TEMPO.--This refers to the degree of motion.  The musical picture is
not constant, but panoramic; we never hear a piece of music all at
once, but as a panorama of successive sounds.  Tempo refers to the rate
of speed with which the scroll passes before our minds.  Thus we speak
of rapid tempo (_allegro_, and the like), or slow tempo (_adagio_), and
so forth.


BEATS.--The beats are the units in our System of Measurement,--as it
were, the inches upon our yardstick of time; they are the particles of
time that we mark when we "count," or that the conductor marks with the
"beats" of his baton.  Broadly speaking, the ordinary beat (in moderate
tempo) is about equivalent to a second of time; to less or more than
this, of course, in rapid or slow tempo.  Most commonly, the beat is
represented in written music by the quarter-note, as in 2-4, 3-4, 4-4,
6-4 measure.  But the composer is at liberty to adopt any value he
pleases (8th, 16th, half-note) as beat.  In the first study in
Clementi's "Gradus ad Parnassum," the time-signature is 3-1, the whole
note as beat; in the 8th Sung Without Words it is 6-16, the sixteenth
note as beat; in the last pianoforte sonata of Beethoven (op. 111),
last movement, the time-signatures are 9-16, 6-16, and 12-32, the
latter being, probably, the smallest beat ever chosen.


MEASURES.--A measure is a group of beats.  The beats are added
together, in measures, to obtain a larger unit of time, because larger
divisions are more convenient for longer periods; just as we prefer to
indicate the dimensions of a house, or farm, in feet or rods, rather
than in inches.

Measures differ considerably in extent in various compositions,
inasmuch as the number of beats enclosed between the vertical bars may
be, and is, determined quite arbitrarily.  What is known as a Simple
measure contains either the two beats (heavy-light) of the fundamental
duple group, or the three beats (heavy-light-light) of the triple
group, shown in the preceding chapter.  Compound measures are such as
contain more than two or three beats, and they must always be
multiplications, or groups, of a Simple measure; for whether so small
as to comprise only the fundamental groups of two or three beats (as in
2-4, 3-8, 3-4 measure), or so large as to embrace as many as twelve
beats or more (as in 4-4, 6-4, 6-8, 9-8, 12-8 measure), the measure
represents, practically, either the duple or triple species, Simple or
Compound.  Thus, a measure of four beats, sometimes called (needlessly)
quadruple rhythm, is merely twice two beats; the species is actually
_duple_; the alternation of heavy and light pulses is regular; and
therefore the third beat is again an accent, as well as the first,
though _less heavy_.  A measure of 6-8 is triple species, with accents
at beats one and four, precisely as if an additional vertical bar were
inserted after the third beat.  In a word, then, the size of the
adopted measure is of no consequence, as long as it is retained
uniformly through the section to which it belongs; and there is no
_real_ difference between 2-4 and 4-4 measure, excepting in the number
of bars used.

A curious and rare exception to this rule of the compound measure
occurs when five or seven beats are grouped together.  This involves a
mingling of the duple and triple species, and, consequently, an
irregular disposition of the accents; for instance, 5-4 measure is
either 3+2 or 2+3 beats, with corresponding accentuation:

[Illustration: Beat accentuation]


RHYTHM.--This word signifies arrangement,--a principle applied, in
music, to the distribution or arrangement of the tones according to
their various _time-values_.  The system of measurement (or metric
system) furnishes tone material with all the details of division,
proportion and comparison; but this, alone, is not rhythm.  The metric
system affords the basis for rational and definable rhythm, but
"rhythm" itself does not enter into the proposition until
differentiated factors are associated and opposed to each other.

[Illustration: Example 3.  Rhythm.]

The first measure of this hymn is, by itself, merely an exponent of the
metric principle, for it consists of three uniform quarter-notes.  The
second measure, however, is a rhythmic one, because, by dotting the
first of the three beats, three different time-values are obtained
(dotted quarter, eighth, and quarter).  Further, by association and
comparison with each other, both measures assume a collective rhythmic
significance.

The rhythmic disposition of the tones is to a certain extent optional
with the composer, but by no means wholly so; the rules of rhythm are
probably the most definite and obvious of all the rules of music
writing.  They do not concern the analytical student intimately, but at
least the general distinction between regular and irregular rhythm
should be understood:--We have seen that the natural accent (the
"heavy" pulse) is invariably represented by the first beat of a
rhythmic group; and that one or two lighter pulses intervene before the
next accent appears.  Further, it is self-evident that the rhythmic
weight of a tone is proportionate to its length, or time-value; longer
tones produce heavier, and shorter tones lighter, impressions.  The
deduction from these two facts is, then, that the rhythmic arrangement
is _regular_ when the comparatively longer tones occupy the accented
beats, or the accented fractions of the beats; and _irregular_ when
shorter tones occupy the accents, or when longer tones are shifted to
any comparatively lighter pulse of the measure or group.

The rhythm of the second measure in Ex. 3 is regular, because the
longest tone stands at the beginning of the measure, thus confirming
(and, in fact, creating) the accent.  The rhythm in Ex. 1 is also
regular, throughout, the light eighth-notes occupying the light third
beat, and the heavy dotted-quarter the heavy pulse (in the third
measure).  Ex. 2 is strikingly definite in rhythm, because the
time-values are so greatly diversified; and the arrangement is regular.

On the other hand, the following is an example of irregular rhythm:

[Illustration: Example 4.  Fragment of Beethoven.]


The longer (heavier) tones are placed in the middle of the measure,
between the beats; the tie at the end of measure 3 places the heavy
note at the end, instead of the beginning, of the measure, and cancels
the accent of the fourth measure.  These irregular forms of rhythm are
called syncopation.  See also Ex. 6, second Phrase.


MELODY.--Any succession of _single_ tones is a melody.  If we strike
the keys of the piano with two or more fingers of each hand
simultaneously, we produce a body of tones, which--if they are so
chosen that they blend harmoniously--is called a Chord; and a series of
such chords is an illustration of what is known as Harmony.  If,
however, we play with one finger only, we produce a melody.  The human
voice, the flute, horn,--all instruments capable of emitting but one
tone at a time,--produce melody.

Melody constitutes, then, a _line of tones_.  If, as we have said, Time
is the canvas upon which the musical images are thrown, Melodies are
the lines which trace the design or form of these images.  This
indicates the extreme importance of the melodic idea in music form.
Without such "tone-lines" the effect would be similar to that of daubs
or masses of color without a drawing, without the evidence of contour
and shape.

A _good_ melody, that is, a melody that appeals to the intelligent
music lover as tuneful, pleasing, and intelligible, is one in which,
first of all, each successive tone and each successive group of tones
stands in a rational harmonic relation to the one before it, and even,
usually, to several preceding tones or groups.  In other words, the
tones are not arranged haphazard, but with reference to their
harmonious agreement with each other.  For a model of good melody,
examine the very first sentence in the book of Beethoven's pianoforte
sonatas:--

[Illustration: Example 5.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

The tones bracketed _a_, if struck all together, unite and blend in one
harmonious body, so complete is the harmonic agreement of each
succeeding tone with its fellows; the same is true of the group marked
_c_.  The tones bracketed _b_ and _d_ do not admit of being struck
simultaneously, it is true, but they are all parts of the same key (F
minor), and are closely and smoothly connected; hence their
concurrence, though not one of harmony (chord), is one of intimate tone
relation and proximity.  Further, the whole group marked 2 corresponds
in its linear formation, its rising, poising and curling, exactly to
the preceding group, marked 1.  This, then, is a _good_
melody,--tuneful, interesting, intelligible, striking and absolutely
definite.

In the second place, the tones and groups in a good melody are measured
with reference to harmony of time-values; that is, their metric
condition, and their rhythmic arrangement, corroborate the natural laws
already defined:--uniformity of fundamental pulse, uniform recurrence
of accent, and sufficient regularity of rhythmic figure to insure a
distinct and comprehensible total impression.  This also may be
verified in the time-values of Ex. 5.  Scrutinize also, the melodic and
rhythmic conditions of Exs. 1 and 2,--and the examples on later
pages,--and endeavor to vindicate their classification as "good"
melodies.  Ex. 4, though an exposition of irregular rhythm, is none the
less excellent on that account; on the contrary, this irregularity,
because wisely balanced by sufficient evidence of harmonious and
logical agreement, only heightens the beauty and effectiveness of the
melody.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Whenever whole bodies of tone are played successively, a number of
melody lines are being described,--as many, in fact, as there are tones
in each body.  For example, in playing a hymn-tune we describe (on the
keyboard) the four separate melodies known as the soprano, alto, tenor
and bass voices.  In a duet, unaccompanied, there are two melodic
lines; if accompanied, other melodic lines are added to these.  Thus we
recognize the same system of associated lines in music as in
architecture or drawing.  Very rarely indeed does one single unbroken
line portray a complete image.

But in music, as in drawing, the lines differ in their degrees of
importance and prominence; and, very commonly, one line over-shadows
all, or nearly all the rest.  This strongest tone-line is therefore apt
to be designated, somewhat unfairly, _the_ melody (the "tune" or "air"
is more just).  But, at all events, _this predominating melodic line is
the most important factor of the form, the one upon which the
definition and recognition of the "form" depend_; and it is therefore
necessary that the student learn to distinguish it, to acquire the
habit of centring his attention upon it,--in reading, listening to, or
analyzing music; and, in playing, to give it the emphasis it requires.

The importance of a tone-line depends solely upon its conspicuousness.
The principal melody--_the_ Melody--is the one which is most salient,
which most attracts the hearer's attention.  For this reason the
composer is induced to place his chief melody _above the rest of the
tone-lines, because the uppermost tone strikes the ear more acutely
than the lower ones_, and therefore the succession of highest tones
constitutes a conspicuous line that attracts and impresses the sense
most keenly.

Here then, at the top of the harmonic tone-complex, we look for the
chief melody; and here it will be found,--excepting when arbitrary
emphasis (by accentuation) is imparted to some lower tone-line, so that
it, for the time being, assumes a prominence equal, or superior, to
that of the uppermost line.  (This divided prominence is seen in the
18th Song Without Words--the _duet_.)


LESSON 2.--Write careful and complete answers to the following
questions:--

1. What is Time, as applied to music?

2. What is _tempo_?

3. Give a full definition of the beat.

4. By what time-value is it most commonly indicated?

5. Give a full definition of the measure.

6. Why do measures differ in size?

7. What is a simple measure?

8. What is a compound measure?

9. Define duple and triple rhythms.  (See also Chap. I.)

10. What does the term rhythm signify?

11. How is it applied in music?

12. When is the rhythm regular?

13. When is the rhythm irregular?

14. Define the difference between melody and harmony.

15. Give a full definition of melody.

16. What are the conditions of a good melody?

17. In what respect does music resemble architecture or drawing?

18. Are the tone-lines in a composition of equal importance?

19. What significance is to be attached to the principal tone-line?

20. Upon what does the importance of a tone-line depend?

21. Where is the chief melody usually placed?



CHAPTER III.  FIGURE AND MOTIVE.

THE MELODIC FIGURE.--The smallest unit in musical composition is the
single tone.  The smallest cluster of successive tones (from two to
four or five in number) that will convey a definite musical impression,
as miniature musical idea, is called a Figure.  Assuming the single
tone to represent the same unit of expression as a letter of the
alphabet, the melodic figure would be defined as the equivalent of a
complete (small) word;--pursuing the comparison further, a series of
figures constitutes the melodic Motive, equivalent to the smallest
group of words (a subject with its article and adjective, for example);
and two or three motives make a Phrase, equivalent to the complete,
though comparatively brief, sentence (subject, predicate, and object).
This definition, amply illustrated in the following examples, serves
also to point out the significant resemblance between the structure of
language and of music.  The principal melody is, as it were, the voice
of the speaker, whose message is framed wholly out of the primary
tones, or letters of the musical alphabet.  The association of primary
tone-units, in successive order, results first in the figure, then in
the motive, then the phrase, period, and so forth, in the manner of
natural growth, till the narrative is ended.  The following example,
though extending beyond our present point of observation, is given as
an illustration of this accumulative process (up to the so-called
Period):--

[Illustration: Example 6.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 6 continued.]

The tones bracketed _a_ are the Figures; two (in the last measures,
three) of these are seen to form Motives; two of these motives make the
Phrase; and the whole sentence, of two phrases, is a Period.  See also
Ex. 1 and Ex. 2, in which the formation of figures is very distinct.

The pregnancy and significance of each of these tiny musical "words"
(or figures, as we are to call them),--small and apparently imperfect
as they are,--can best be tested by concentrating the attention upon
each as if it stood alone upon the page; it is such vitality of the
separate particles that invests a musical masterwork with its power and
permanency of interest.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

DEFINING THE FIGURES.--It is not always easy to distinguish the figures
in a melodic sentence.  While they are unquestionably analogous to the
words in speech, they are by no means as concrete, nor are they
separated as distinctly, as the words upon a written or printed sheet.
This is in keeping with the intangible quality of music, and the
peculiar vagueness of its medium of expression; the quality which veils
its intrinsic purport from the mass of music admirers, and lends it
such exquisite and inexplicable charm to all hearers alike.

In a word, it is not the common practice for a composer to cut up his
melodic sentences into separately recognizable small particles, by
distinctly marking each component _figure_.  Here and there it is done,
by way of contrast, or emphasis, or for a definite rhythmic effect,--as
shown in Ex. 2 and Ex. 6.  But more generally the figures are so
closely interlinked that the whole sentence may impress the hearer as
one coherent strain, with an occasional interruption.  The very minute
"breaks" between figures are often nearly or quite imperceptible; and
in many cases it is possible to define the figures of a motive in
various, equally plausible ways, simply because the "breaks" (which are
of course surely present, and become more and more apparent between the
larger members of a composition) are likely to be too inconsiderable
among these, smallest factors of the melodic form.

The following three guides may serve to indicate the extremities of the
melodic figures:--

(1) A brief rest, or a longer tone, usually marks the end of a figure.
This is fully illustrated in Ex. 6.  See also Ex. 10, Ex. 12.

(2) Similarity of formation (rhythm and melodic direction) almost
invariably defines the mutually opposed, and therefore separable,
divisions of the melody,--both small and large.  For example (the
figures are bracketed _a_):--

[Illustration: Example 7.  Fragments of Czerny, Mendelssohn, and
Schumann.]

See also Ex. 1.  The operation of this exceedingly important rule of
"corresponding formation" (about which more will be said later on) is
seen--on a larger scale--in Ex. 2, Ex. 5, and Ex. 6, where it defines
the whole _motive_.

(3) In default of more definite signs, the figures may be found to
correspond to the metric groups (that is, in lengths of whole or half
measures).  Thus:--

[Illustration: Example 8.  Fragments of Beethoven.]

This example illustrates the interlinking of the figures, and suggests
the difficulty that may be encountered in the effort to define melodic
figures.  The difficulty is probably greatest in melodies of a lyric
character, where it is necessary to sustain the coherency of the
sentence; for instance, in many of the Songs Without Words,--see No.
40, No. 22, and others, in which an entirely definite separation of the
figures is well-nigh a hopeless task.

For this reason,--that is, because the melodic divisions are so minute
and vague between these smaller particles of the musical sentence,--it
is advisable _to give no heed to any factor smaller than the "motive,"_
and to undertake the analysis of nothing less than the latter; for even
the most scrupulous "phrasing," in the playing of a composition, must
avoid the risk of incoherency almost certain to result from distinctly
separating all the figures.  The melodies in Ex. 8 should not betray
the secret of their formation.


THE MELODIC MOTIVE OR PHRASE-MEMBER.--This, as has already been stated,
is a somewhat longer section, compounded of two or more figures.  Being
thus longer, the "breaks" or spaces between motives are generally more
emphatic and recognizable than those between the figures, and therefore
it is easier, as a rule, to define the extremities of motives.

Melodic motives differ in length from one to four measures; by far the
most common extent, however, is two measures, and the student will do
wisely to accept this dimension and analyze accordingly, unless there
is unmistakable evidence to the contrary.  The indications are
precisely the same as those illustrated in the preceding two examples
as guides for the definition of figures.

For example:--

[Illustration: Example 9.  Fragments of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and
Mozart.]

In the first of these examples the extent of the motives is proven by
each of the three given guides: the rest, which marks the end of the
first member; the similarity of melodic and rhythmic formation, which
proclaims the beginning of the second member, parallel with that of the
first; and the regular (two-measure) dimension.  In Nos. 2 and 3 there
are no rests between the motives, and the melodic formation differs;
here it is the standard of two measures that defines the members.

Ex. 3 is a two-measure motive.  In Exs. 2, 5, and 6, the motives are
all two measures in length.

In the following:--

[Illustration: Example 10.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

one is tempted to call each _single_ measure a motive, because of the
number of tones it contains, and the weight (length) of the final tone,
which makes a much more emphatic interruption than commonly occurs
between figures.

And in the following, on the other hand:--

[Illustration: Example 11.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

the entire four-measure sentence is evidently one motive, for there is
no recognizable indication of an interruption at any point.  The same
is true of the two melodies given in Ex. 8.

The following illustrates an irregular (uneven) association of
members:--

[Illustration: Example 12.  Fragment of Mozart.]

Here again, there may be a disposition to adopt the upper line of
brackets, assigning a single measure to each motive.  But both here,
_and in Ex. 10_, the student is advised to adhere to the two-measure
standard; he will avoid much needless confusion by so doing,--at least
until he shall have so developed and sharpened his sense of melodic
syntax that he can apprehend the finer shades of distinction in the
"motion and repose" of a melody.  Adopting the lower line of brackets,
we discover successive members of unequal length, the first one
containing two, the next one three measures.


PRELIMINARY TONES.--It is a singularly effective and pregnant quality
of the element of musical rhythm, that its operations are not bounded
by the vertical bars which mark off the measures.  That is to say, a
rhythmic figure (and, in consequence, a melodic figure or motive) does
not necessarily extend from bar to bar, but may run from the middle (or
any other point) of one measure, to the middle (or corresponding point)
of the next; precisely as prosodic rhythm comprises poetic feet which
begin either with an accented or with an unaccented syllable.  See Ex.
10.  Hence the significant rule, _that a melodic member may begin at
any part of a measure_, upon an accented or an unaccented beat, or upon
any fraction of a beat.  For example:--

[Illustration: Example 13.  Fragments of Mendelssohn.]

[Illustration: Example 13 continued.  Fragments of Mendelssohn and
Mozart.]


In No. 1, the motive begins squarely with the measure, upon the
accented beat.  In No. 2, the same motive is enlarged by two tones at
the outset, which locates its beginning upon the fourth 8th--the second
half of the second beat.  In No. 3 the motive begins upon an accented
beat, but it is the lighter (secondary) accent of the 3d beat.  The
various conditions of unaccented beginnings in Nos. 4, 5 and 6 are
easily recognizable.  In No. 7 quite a large fraction of a measure
precedes the first accent (at the beginning of the full measure).
Examine, also, all the preceding examples, and note the different
accented or unaccented locations of the first tone, in each figure and
motive.

When a figure or motive starts at the accented beat, it begins, so to
speak, in the right place; _any tone or tones which precede the accent
are merely preliminary or introductory tones_.  While they are very
desirable and necessary, in the fulfilment of certain purposes, they
are not an _essential_ part of the motive; they appear to represent the
ornamental rather than the stable element of the melodic sentence, and
their employment is therefore a matter of option and taste rather than
of absolute necessity.  The accent indicates the point where the body
of the motive begins; the accent is the point where the stake is
driven; all that goes before is simply preparatory,--the changeable
material which flutters about the fixed center.  Therefore the
preliminary tones do not indicate the _essential_ or actual beginning
of the motive, but its apparent or conditional beginning only; or what
might be called its _melodic_ beginning.  For this reason, also, the
actual "first measure" of a motive or phrase or sentence of any kind is
always the first FULL measure,--the measure which contains the first
primary accent; that is to say, the preliminary tone or tones do not
count as first measure.  For this reason, further, it is evident that
preliminary tones are invariably to be regarded as borrowed from the
final measure of the preceding motive or phrase; they must be accounted
for in someway,--must derive their metric pulse from some group,--and
as they cannot be a part of the first measure, they obviously form a
borrowed portion of the (preceding) last measure.  This will be better
understood by reference to Ex. 14, No. 3; the two 16ths at the end of
the 4th measure (preliminary tones of the following phrase) are
borrowed from the _f_ which precedes,--the final tone of the first
phrase, that would, but for this reduction, have been the full
half-note necessary to complete the four measures (like the final _g_).

Perhaps the most striking feature of this rule of preliminary tones is
the absolute freedom of its application.   It is _always_ wholly
optional with the composer to begin his figure or motive at whatever
part of the measure he may elect; at the accent or not; with or without
preliminary tones; to borrow beats from the preceding ending or not, as
his judgment or taste, or possibly some indirect requirement, may
decide.  So valid is this license, that it is by no means unusual to
find consecutive members of the same phrase beginning at different
points in the measure.  This results, apparently, in motives of
irregular, unsymmetric lengths; but no confusion is possible if the
student will recollect and apply the rule that the objective point (the
heart, so to speak) of each motive is the first primary accent it
contains; counting from these points, all irregularities of melodic
extent become purely accidental and harmless.  For illustration (the
preliminary tones are marked _a_):--

[Illustration: Example 14.  Fragments of Mozart, Beethoven, and
Mendelssohn.]

In No. 1, the first motive evidently ends with the longer tone,
_g_-sharp.  In No. 2, each one of the four motives differs from the
others in length; the sum of them is, however, exactly 24 beats, or 8
measures; hence, each one is _actually_ a two-measure motive, counting
from accent to accent.  The upper numbers indicate the _actual, vital_
beginning of each motive.

This very natural, and fairly common, inequality increases the
difficulty of analysis somewhat.  A knowledge of the principal chords,
and familiarity with their manner of employment in composition, greatly
facilitates the task, because the harmonic design furnishes in many
cases the only unmistakable clue to the extremities of the melodic
members.  The difficulty finally vanishes only when the student has
learned to appreciate the declamatory quality of all good melody, and
can detect its inflections, its pauses; can _feel_ which (and how many)
of its tones are coherent and inseparable, and where the points of
repose interrupt the current, and thus divulge the sense of the melodic
sentence.


LESSON 3.--Analyze the third Song Without Words of Mendelssohn (A
major, the so-called Hunting Song); first of all, locate the principal
melody,--it is not always the uppermost line of tones; then divide this
melody into its melodic motives, marking the "breaks" which separate
each from the following one; the figures may be noted, also, but only
mentally.  No. 35 may also be analyzed in the same manner.



CHAPTER IV.  THE PHRASE.

THE PHRASE.--It is not altogether easy to give a precise definition of
the phrase.  Like so many of the factors which enter into the
composition of this most abstract, ideal, and intangible of the arts,
the phrase demands considerable latitude of treatment, and will not
readily submit to strict limitations or absolute technical conditions.
Perhaps the most correct definition is, that the term phrase is
equivalent to "sentence," and represents the smallest musical section
that expresses a _complete_ idea; not necessarily wholly finished, and
therefore independent of other adjoining phrases, but at least as
complete _in itself_ as is an ordinary brief sentence in grammar, with
its subject, predicate, and object.  It should be sufficiently long to
establish the sense of tonality, the consciousness of beginning,
course, and ending, and should exhibit a certain (though limited)
amount of palpable and satisfying melodic and harmonic contents.  For
this reason, the Phrase, and nothing smaller, should be regarded as the
structural basis of musical form.

The factors defined in the preceding chapter (the figure and motive)
are, as a rule, decidedly less than is demanded of a complete phrase,
which--as has been intimated--usually consists in the union of two
(possibly more) motives,--just as the motive is compounded of figures,
and the latter of single tones.

In some, comparatively rare, cases the composer gives a phrase an
independent place upon his page, as complete miniature sentence, not
directly connected with other phrases.  This may be seen, very plainly,
at the beginning (the first four or five measures) of the Songs Without
Words, Nos. 28, 41, 35, 3, 4, 16.  Examine each, carefully, and the
nature of the phrase in its most definite form will become apparent.

Such independent phrases are most likely to be found, like the above,
at the beginning or end of a larger composition, to which they are
related indirectly, as isolated introduction, or postlude.  Thus, the
following complete phrase appears at the beginning of a song:

[Illustration: Example 15.  Fragment of Schubert.]

Its division into two melodic motives, and the subdivision of these
into figures, is plainly marked.

When the phrase assumes such a conspicuous position, and is so complete
and definite in its effect as the ones just seen, there is naturally no
difficulty in recognizing and defining its extremities.  But the task
of phrase analysis is by no means always thus easy.


LENGTH OF THE REGULAR PHRASE.--Fortunately for the work of analysis,
there are certain established landmarks of forms, so conscientiously
observed, and so firmly grounded in the practices of classic writing
(because the necessary consequences of natural law), that it is
generally practicable to fix fairly regular and plausible boundaries to
the phrase, notwithstanding the freedom and elasticity which
characterize the application of the syntactic principle in music.

Therefore the student will find that a phrase, in the great majority of
cases, covers exactly _four measures_, and will seldom be misled if he
looks for the end of his phrase four measures beyond its beginning.
This refers, be it understood, only to measures of average size (in the
ordinary time denominations, 3-4, 4-4, 6-8 measure).  If the measures
are uncommonly large (9-8, 12-8), the phrase will probably cover no
more than two of them; or, if small (2-4, or 3-4 in rapid tempo), the
phrase may extend to the eighth measure.  The operation of this
four-measure rule is exhibited with striking regularity and persistence
in the _Jugend Album_ of Schumann (op. 68); throughout its forty-three
numbers there are probably no more than a half-dozen phrases whose
length differs from this standard.  For example:

[Illustration: Example 16.  Fragment of Schumann, Op. 68, No. 11.]


It will be observed that the first (and also the third) of these
phrases consists of two exactly similar two-measure motives.  This
seems to lend some confirmation to the idea of a two-measure phrase;
but the student is warned against deviating from his four-measure
standard, upon such evidence as this.  Many instances will be found,
like these, in which the impression of a complete phrase is not gained
until the motive of two measures has been thus repeated; _the
repetition is necessary_, in order to finish the sentence, and this
proves that the two measures alone do not constitute the "complete
idea" which we expect the phrase to represent.

The same regularity of dimension will usually be found in all kinds of
dance music; in technical exercises (for instance, the études of Czerny
and others); and in all music of a simple or popular character.

      *       *       *       *       *       *

EXCEPTIONS.--In its ordinary, normal condition the phrase is a musical
sentence four measures in length.  But this rule has its necessary
exceptions; necessary because, as we have learned, the principle of
Variety is quite as vital as that of Unity or symmetry.  The phrase is
not always regular; by various means and for various reasons, it
occasionally assumes an irregular form.  When such irregular phrases
are encountered (phrases of less or more than four measures) the
student will best distinguish them by defining their extremities, their
beginning and ending--as "beginning" and "ending," without reference to
their length.  This should not be attended with any serious difficulty;
at least not to the observant student who reads his musical page
thoughtfully, and attaches some meaning to the figures and motives of
the melody; who endeavors to recognize the extent to which the
successive tones appear to cling together (like the letters in a word)
and constitute an unbroken melodic number,--and, in so doing, also
recognizes the points where this continuity is broken, and a new number
is announced.  Much assistance may be derived from the fact--striking
in its simplicity--that the ending of one phrase defines, at the same
time, the beginning of the next, and _vice versa_.  The locating of
one, therefore, serves to locate the other.  There is, usually,
something sufficiently indicative about a "beginning," to render it
noticeable to a careful observer, and the same is true of an "ending."
This is illustrated in the following:

[Illustration: Example 17.  Fragments of Beethoven.]


No. 1 is from the pianoforte sonata, op. 10, No. 3, second movement;
see the original.  This phrase exhibits an ending, unmistakably, in the
_fifth_ measure, and not in the fourth.  Its form is therefore
irregular.

In No. 2 (from the first pianoforte sonata), the first phrase ends with
the fourth measure, obviously, for the evidence of a new "beginning" in
the following measure is perfectly clear; the phrase is therefore
regular.  But the next phrase runs on to the _sixth_ measure from this
point (the tenth from the beginning of the whole), because there is no
earlier evidence of an "ending."  Observe that the first phrase has a
preliminary quarter-note, the second phrase none.  Turning to
Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words, the very first (introductory) phrase
of No. 3 is five measures in length; the first one in No. 35 also
contains five measures; the first one in No. 16, and in No. 9, contains
three measures.  The irregular phrase will be again considered (in a
different aspect) in a later chapter.

The recognition of these syntactic traits of the melodic sentence is of
great moment to the player, for they constitute the information upon
which conscious, intelligent, effective _phrasing_ depends; and without
intelligent phrasing, without a clear exposition of the formation and
arrangement of the members and phrases, full comprehension and adequate
enjoyment of a musical composition is impossible.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

CONTENTS OF THE PHRASE.--The question may arise, what is it that makes
a phrase,--the rhythm, harmony, or melody?  Strictly speaking, all
three; for music subsists in the ceaseless co-operation of these three
primary elements of composition, and no phrase is wholly complete
without the evidence of each and all.  Generalizing the definitions
already given, the function of each of these primary elements may be
thus described: The element of harmony regulates the choice of the
tones that are to sound together; the upright shafts of tone (chords)
which determine the _body_, or framework, of the music.  The element of
melody regulates the choice of single tones, selected from the
successive shafts of harmony, that are to form a connected line or
strand of tones (in horizontal order, so to speak),--something like a
chain or chains stretched from harmonic post to post, which describe
the figure or _outline_ of the musical image.  The element of rhythm
gives the whole body its _life_,--regulates the choice of varying
lengths, defining the infinitely varied "tapping" of the musical
mechanism.

It is evident, from this, that no vivid, satisfying musical impression
can be created in the absence of any one of these essential elements.
But, for all that, they are not of equal importance; and, in
determining the extremities of the phrase (and of all other factors of
musical structure), the melody takes precedence over harmony and
rhythm.  That is to say, that in his analysis of figures, motives,
phrases, periods, and so forth, the student's attention should be
centered upon the melody,--that chain of successive single tones which,
as repeatedly stated, usually describes the _uppermost_ line of the
harmonic and rhythmic body.  That is the reason why the illustrations
given in this book are so frequently limited to the melody alone; it is
the pencil point which traces the design, describes the form, of the
musical composition.


LESSON 4.--Procure the _Jugend Album_, op. 68, of Schumann, and mark
the phrases in Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 18, 20, and others.  In
the given numbers the phrases are all regular,--four measures in length.

Analyze in the same manner Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words, Nos. 27,
22 (first phrase, five measures), 48, 28, 35, and others; occasional
irregularities may be encountered.

Also Beethoven, pianoforte sonata; op. 14, No. 2, second movement (C
major, _andante_); and op. 26, first movement.

A few cautious experiments may also be made in analyzing any
composition which the student may chance to be studying, especially if
not too elaborate.  The necessary safeguard consists in simply passing
over every confusing point, limiting the analysis to those phrases that
are self defining, for the present,--until greater experience and
fuller information shall have been gained.



CHAPTER V.  CADENCES.

CADENCES IN GENERAL.--A cadence is the ending of a phrase.  Strictly
speaking, every interruption or "break" between figures, and between
all melodic members, is a cadence; but the term "cadence" is applied to
nothing smaller than entire phrases.

The cadence is the point of Repose which creates the necessary contrast
with the condition of Action that prevails more or less constantly
during the phrase; and the effect of this point of repose is,
therefore, to separate one phrase from the next.  The cadential effect
is generally produced by two or three chords, the last one of which is
called the cadence-chord, and stands, when the cadence is perfectly
regular, upon an accented beat of the final measure.  This, according
to our definition of the phrase, will most commonly be the fourth
measure.

For example:

[Illustration: Example 18.  Fragment of Schumann.]


The first chord in the fourth measure, on the accented beat, is the
"cadence-chord"; but the preceding chord (and possibly the one before
that, also) is naturally inseparable from the final one, and therefore
the entire cadence would be defined technically as embracing both (or
all three) of these chords.  The effect of repose is obtained _by the
length of the final chord_, which exceeds that of any other melody tone
in the phrase; its time-value is a dotted quarter, because of the
preliminary tone (_e_, before the first accent) which, in the original
(op. 68, No. 28), precedes the next phrase in exactly the same manner.

Illustrations of the regular cadence will be found, also, in Ex. 15 and
Ex. 16; in the latter,--consisting as it does of four consecutive
phrases, four cadences occur, distinctly marked by the _longer tone_ on
the accented beat of each successive fourth measure.


MODIFICATION OR DISGUISING OF THE CADENCE.--The most natural and
characteristic indication of a cadence is the _longer tone_, seen in
the examples to which reference has just been made; for a tone of
greater length than its fellows is, in itself, the most conclusive
evidence of a point of repose, as compared with the shorter tones in
the course of the sentence, whose more prompt succession indicates the
action of the phrase.  (See Ex. 29.)

From this the student is not to conclude that every long tone marks a
cadence.  The rhythmic design of a melody is obtained by a constant
interchange of long and short tones, without direct reference to the
cadence alone; and numerous examples will be found in which tones of
equal, or even greater, length than the cadence-tone occur in the
course of the phrase.  We have already seen that the end of a motive,
or even of a figure, may be marked by a longer tone, or its equivalent
in rests; and have been taught to expect a cadence in the fourth
measure only, as a rule.

But the direct evidence of a cadence afforded by a longer tone is
considered not only unnecessary, but in many cases distinctly
undesirable.  While cadences are indispensable, in music of clearly
recognizable form, it is equally true that they must not be so emphatic
as to check the current of melody and harmony too frequently or
completely, or destroy the continuity and coherence of the members.
And it is therefore an almost invariable practice, especially in music
of a higher order, to modify and disguise the cadences by some means or
other; that is, to diminish the weight of the characteristic "longer
tone,"--to counteract, partially or entirely, the impression of actual
cadential cessation, by continuing (instead of interrupting) the
rhythmic pulse.  This is so very common, and so confusing a device,
that the effect of the various methods employed to conceal or disguise
a cadence must be thoroughly understood.

It is necessary to remember, always, the rule that governs the actual
body of the phrase, and its possible preliminary tones; namely, that
the vital, essential starting-point of a phrase (and other factors of
musical form) is _the first primary accent_, the first beat of the
first _full_ measure.  The length of the phrase is reckoned from this
point, and consequently, the cadence-chord is entitled to all the beats
that remain, from its accent to the very end of the final measure.  For
example:

[Illustration: Example 19.  Fragment of Mozart.]

In this case the cadence-chord is not modified or disguised in the
least, but takes full advantage of the six beats that make the sum of
the fourth measure.

This important fact concerning the actual value of the cadence-chord
remains unchanged, through all the licenses taken in disguising or
(apparently) diminishing its value.  Whatever means may be resorted to,
in modifying the cadence, they do not alter the fact that _the
cadence-chord is always entitled to this full sum of beats_; and these
beats virtually represent the cadence-chord, either in its unchanged
form (as in Ex. 19 and Ex. 16) or in any of the manifold disguised
forms illustrated in the following examples.

One of the simplest forms is shown in Ex. 15:--The cadence-chord, on
the accented beat of the fourth measure, is entitled to the six beats
contained in that final measure.  One beat is borrowed for the
preliminary tone of the next phrase (that does not appear in our
example, but corresponds to the preliminary tone at the beginning); and
three beats are represented by rests, which cancel the resonance of the
melody-tone _g_, but do not actually negate the effect of the
cadence-chord.  In consequence of these two reductions, the time-value
of the _cadence-tone_ is diminished to two beats, and the whole cadence
assumes a lighter, less obstinate and stagnant character.  Of the six
beats belonging to the cadence-chord, four are occupied by the tones of
the accompaniment, which thus serves to bridge over the measure of
repose without destroying the impression of a cadence.

The treatment of the cadence is similar to this in Ex. 18.

In Ex. 17, No. 1, the cadence-chord falls, properly, upon the primary
accent (first beat) of the final measure--in this instance the fifth
measure, as we have learned.  The six beats to which it is entitled are
all occupied by the simple reiteration of the final melody tone, while
the sense of "interruption" is imparted by the long rest in the lower
parts.

It is by thus sustaining the rhythmic pulse, during the measure
allotted to the cadence-chord, that the desired dual impression,--that
of cadential interruption without actual cessation,--is secured.  It is
like rounding off a corner that might otherwise be too angular or
abrupt.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

The question naturally arises: What tones are chosen to provide
material for this continuation of the rhythm?  They are usually derived
from the cadence-chord, or its auxiliary embellishments; and the
methods employed may be classified as follows:

(1) The rhythmic pulse is marked in the accompanying (subordinate)
parts, as seen in Ex. 15, Ex. 18, and the following:--

[Illustration: Example 20.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]

[Illustration: Example 20 continued.]


The point of repose is marked by the longer melody tone _f_, on the
accent of the fourth measure.  The value of the cadence-chord is
recorded, however, in the living tones of the accompanying figure,
which here (as in almost every similar case in composition) continues
its rhythmic movement undisturbed.

(2) The cadence-chord, or, more properly, the _cadence-tone_ in the
melody, is shifted to some later beat in the cadence measure.  Thus:

[Illustration: Example 21.  Fragment of Mozart.]


In this example there is in reality no irregularity, because the
cadence-tone rests upon an _accented beat_ (the fourth, in 6-8
measure), and the conditions of a cadence are fulfilled by _any_
accent, primary or secondary, of the final measure.  But it belongs,
nevertheless, to this class of disguised cadences; for whatever
results, thus, in abbreviating the value of the cadence-chord, lightens
the effect of the cadence, and serves the desirable purpose so
persistently pursued by all good writers.  Further:--

[Illustration: Example 22.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 22 continued.  Fragments of Mendelssohn,
Schumann, and Mozart.]


Nos. 2 and 3 illustrate the method most commonly adopted in shifting
the cadence-tone forward to a later beat; namely, by placing an
embellishing tone (usually the upper or lower neighbor) of the
cadence-tone upon the accented beat belonging properly to the latter.
Nos. 4 and 5 are both extreme cases; the actual cadence-tone is shifted
to the very end of the measure, so that the effect of cadential
interruption is very vague and transient,--and will be quite lost
unless the player is intelligent enough to emphasize, slightly, the
phrasing (by making a distinct, though very brief, pause before
attacking the following measure).  See also Ex. 17, No. 2, the first
phrase; here, again, the melody runs on (through tones which embellish
the cadence-chord, _f-a-c_) to the last 8th-note of the fourth measure.

(3) A certain--entirely optional--number of tones are borrowed from the
value of the cadence-chord, as _preliminary tones_ of the following
phrase.  An illustration of this has already been seen in Ex. 14, No. 2
and No. 3.  It is the employment of such preliminary tones, that, as
thoroughly explained in Chapter III, creates a distinction between the
_melodic_ beginning and the actual vital starting point of the phrase;
or that gives the phrase an apparently shifted location in its measures.

Further (the actual cadence-tone is marked):--

[Illustration: Example 23.  Fragments of Beethoven and Mendelssohn.]

[Illustration: Example 23 continued.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]

No. 1 illustrates, again, the absence of preliminary tones in one
phrase, and their presence in the next.  In each of these examples
(excepting, perhaps, No. 2) the cadence is so thoroughly disguised that
there is little, if any, evidence left of the "point of repose."  In
No. 4, particularly, the cadence-measure is rhythmically the most
active one in the phrase.  And yet the presence of a genuine cadence at
each of these places, marked *, is as certain and indisputable as in
Ex. 19.  The ear will accept a cadence upon the slightest evidence _in
the right place_,--where a cadence is expected.  See, also, Mozart
pianoforte sonata No. 10 (in D major), first 12 measures; measure 8 is
a _cadence-measure_.

Here follow a few more examples which illustrate the most extreme
application of this principle of borrowed tones,--a mode of treatment
very common in the music of Mozart, Haydn, and, in fact, all classic
writers:--

[Illustration: Example 24.  Fragments of Mozart.]

[Illustration: Example 24 continued.  Fragment of Beethoven.]


It is difficult to believe that in each of these cases the long array
of 16th-notes should not constitute the actual beginning of the phrase,
but are only preliminary; and yet this is the only correct view to take
of it, and it is the view which will simplify all analysis, when
thoroughly comprehended.  It must be seen that the cluster of
16th-notes in the cadence-measure (of the preceding phrase) is
_one-sixteenth short of a full measure_, and, therefore, it does not
represent the first measure of the next phrase, because our inviolable
rule is that the first measure of a phrase is its first _full_ measure.
The above examples emphasize the correct manner of counting the
measures; and they simply illustrate possible methods of _disguising
the cadence_.

In some cases it is difficult to determine whether the tones which thus
disturb the "repose" of the cadence-measure belong to the cadence-chord
(that is, to the _present_ phrase), or, as preliminary tones, to the
following phrase.  Upon careful scrutiny, however, it will be found
possible to decide, by examining their melodic bearing, to which phrase
they pertain.  In Example 22, they are manifestly (even in No. 5) a
part of the present phrase; in Example 23 and 24 they are as certainly
preliminary to the phrase which follows.  In the following example they
seem to constitute an entirely independent little "interlude," without
direct reference to either phrase:

[Illustration: Example 25.  Fragment of Mozart.]

      *      *      *      *      *      *

THE ELISION.--Finally, there are some (very rare) instances where the
composer appears to yield to the seductive influence of such extensive
preliminary groups as those seen in Example 24, and by setting aside
the trifling discrepancy, permits the apparent preliminary tones to
represent the _actual first measure of the next phrase_.  This is
easily accomplished, when, as in Example 24, No. 2, it is only one
16th-note short of a full measure.  And although this 16th, being the
cadence-chord, is actually equivalent to the whole measure, it is
sometimes less confusing to the hearer to silence it.  This is called
stifling the cadence (or Elision); and its presence depends simply upon
sufficient proof that what was supposed to be the cadence-measure (and
to a certain extent is such) is at the same time _really the first
measure of the next sentence_.  The following contains an illustration
of the elision of a cadence:

[Illustration: Example 26.  Fragment of Mozart.]

[Illustration: Example 26 continued.]


The proofs of this very singular and apparently untrustworthy analysis
are: (1) That there is absolutely no doubt about the first cadence,
marked *; (2) that a cadence is consequently due, and expected, four
measures later,--this proving the measure in question to be the
"cadence-measure of the old phrase," as it is marked and as it appeals
to our sense of cadence; (3) that the last four measures unmistakably
represent a regular, compact phrase,--this proving that the
"cadence-measure of the old phrase" is unquestionably _at the same time
the first measure, or actual beginning, of the new phrase_.  In a word,
one measure is lost--not in effect, for the elements of the expected
cadence are all present,--but in the counting.  This lost measure is
the stifled cadence-measure, omitted by Elision.

Such cases are, as stated, very rare; so rare that the student will do
wisely to leave them quite out of his calculations.

In order to elucidate the embarrassing matter still more fully, we
shall take two more examples of a very misleading character, which the
superficial observer would probably define as elisions, but which are
almost certainly regular cases of disguised cadence merely:

[Illustration: Example 27.  Fragment of Mozart.]


Here again there is no doubt of the presence of a cadence at the first
*; but this "cadence-measure" appears almost as certainly to be at the
same time the initial measure of a new phrase.  This, however, proves
not to be the case, because _there are four measures left, without this
one_.  That is, counting backward from the final cadence, we locate the
"first measure" after, not _with_, the cadence-measure.  And this is
the way the passage was meant to sound by its author, and the way it
will and must sound to the student who has properly cultivated his
sense of cadence.

[Illustration: Example 28.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

This case is extremely misleading; it is hard to believe (and feel)
that the characteristic onset of the 16th-triplet figure does not
herald the new phrase; but all the indications of strict, unswerving
analysis (not to be duped by appearances) point to the fact that this
is one of the common cases of disguised cadence, and not an elision of
the cadence.  The _sforzando_ marks of Beethoven confirm this view,
and, as in Example 27, we have our four measures to the next cadence,
without this "cadence-measure."

The characteristic traits of all these various phases of cadence
formation are:--

(1) That the actual cadence-tone in the melody may be of any
time-value, from the full extent of the cadence-measure down to the
smallest fraction of that measure.  In Ex. 19 it was the former,
unbroken; in Ex. 17, No. 1, also, but broken into the six pulses of the
measure; in Ex. 20 it was shortened, by a rest, to one-half its real
value; in Ex. 26 it was reduced to one-quarter of its true value; in
Ex. 25, to one 8th-note; and in Ex. 24, No. 3, to one 16th-note.

(2) That the cadence-tone in the melody may be shifted forward to
almost any point beyond its expected position upon the primary accent.
In Ex. 20 (and many other of the given illustrations) it stands in its
legitimate place, at the beginning of the measure; in Ex. 21 it stands
upon the _second_ accent of the measure; in Ex. 22, No. 1, on the
second beat in 3-4 measure; in Ex. 22, No. 5, on the third beat of the
triple-measure; in Ex. 22, No. 4, on the last eighth note in the
measure.

(3) That in almost every case the effect of absolute cessation is
softened by marking the rhythm of the cadence-measure; in no case is
the rhythm permitted to pause (not even in Ex. 19, where the
accompaniment, not shown, is carried along in unbroken 8th-notes).   In
some part or other, by some means or other, the cadence-measure is kept
alive; either by continuing the accompaniment, as in Exs. 18 and 20, or
by quickly picking up a new rhythm, as in Exs. 27 and 28.  Conspicuous
exceptions to this rule will be found, it is true, in hymn-tunes and
the like; though occasionally even there, as the student may recall,
the rhythm, in some cadence-measures, is carried along by one or more
of the inner voices; for example, in the hymn-tune "Lead, Kindly
Light," of J. B. Dykes.  (See also Ex. 29.)


SPECIES OF CADENCE.--In text-books and musical dictionaries several
varieties of the cadence are distinguished, but they are chiefly
distinctions without any more than one essential point of difference,
namely, difference in force or weight.  It is therefore feasible to
reduce all these varieties to two,--the heavy cadence and the light
cadence.  The former is represented by the so-called Perfect cadence,
the latter by the many grades of Semicadence.


PERFECT CADENCE.--There is one method of checking the current of the
melodic phrase with such emphasis and determination as to convey the
impression of finality; either absolute finality, as we observe it at
the very end of a composition, or such relative finality as is
necessary for the completion of some independent section of the
piece,--conclusive as far as that section is concerned, though not
precluding the addition of other sections to this, after the desired
degree of repose has been felt.  This is known as the perfect cadence,
or full stop.  It is always made upon the _tonic harmony_ of some key
as cadence-chord, with the _keynote itself in both outer parts_,
and--when desired in its strongest form (without such disguising as we
have seen)--upon an _accented_ beat, and of somewhat longer duration
than its fellow tones.  For illustration:--

[Illustration: Example 29.  Fragment of Schubert.]

At the end of this four-measure phrase there is a perfect cadence,
exhibited in its strongest, most conclusive form.  It is practically
undisguised, though the cadence-chord is reduced to three beats (from
the four to which it is entitled) to make room for the preliminary beat
of the next phrase (calculated to correspond to the one at the
beginning of this phrase).

The cadence-chord is the tonic harmony of C minor; upon the primary
accent of the 4th measure; it is considerably longer than any other
tone in the phrase; and the keynote _c_ is placed both at the top and
at the bottom of the harmonic body.  See also Ex. 15; the cadence is
perfect, because the cadence-chord, on the accent of the 4th measure,
is the tonic harmony of G major, with the keynote as highest and as
lowest tone.  It is abbreviated by rests, which very slightly diminish
its weight.  Ex. 17, No. 2, closes with a perfect cadence; it is the
tonic harmony of C major, on an accent, and with the keynote in the two
extreme parts.  See also Ex. 20.

In the following:

[Illustration: Example 30.  Fragment of Schumann.]

the cadence-chord stands upon the secondary accent (3d beat) of the
final measure.  This method of shifting the cadence forward is
generally adopted in large species of measure (6-8, 9-8, and the like),
and has been defined among the devices employed in disguising or
_lightening_ the cadence.  In Ex. 22, No. 5, the cadence-chord is
shifted to the last beat (unaccented) of the final measure; this
lightens the cadence very materially, but it does not affect any of its
essential properties as perfect cadence.  The following is similar:--

[Illustration: Example 31.  Fragment of Schumann.]


The cadence-chord occupies the unaccented (2d) beat, and is no longer
than any other chord in the phrase.  Despite its striking brevity, it
is nevertheless a perfect cadence, disguised; it is the tonic chord of
C major, with the keynote at top and bottom.  See also Ex. 23, No. 1.

The following illustrations come under the head of the disguised
cadences seen in Ex. 24:--

[Illustration: Example 32.  Fragments of Mendelssohn and Schubert.]

In No. 1 the cadence is perfect, for it is the tonic chord of G major,
keynote _g_ at top and bottom, and on the primary accent of the fourth
measure; but the uninterrupted continuation of the movement of 16ths,
in the right hand, shortens the uppermost keynote to a single
16th-note, and would entirely conceal the cadence, were it not for the
distinct evidence of repose in the lower part.

In No. 2 the movement in the upper part appears to shatter the cadence;
the keynote does not appear on the accent, and its announcement at the
end of the first triplet is very brief.  For all that, it is an
unmistakable perfect cadence; the chord thus shattered (or "broken,"
technically speaking) is the tonic harmony of the key, and the keynote
_does_ appear as uppermost (and therefore most prominent) tone, in the
same order of percussion as that given to each of the preceding melody
tones.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

At the end of an entire piece of music, or of some larger section of
the piece, the cadence-chord, on the other hand, is often lengthened
considerably, for the sake of the greater weight and decision of
cadential interruption required at that place.  Thus:--

[Illustration: Example 33.  Fragment of Schubert.]


The last two measures are merely the prolongation of the final
cadence-chord.  See also, Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 4, last
five measures; No. 8, last eight measures; and others.

Another peculiarity of the final cadence is, that sometimes the
_uppermost_ tone is the 3d or 5th of the tonic chord, instead of the
keynote,--a significant device to counteract the dead weight of the
cadence-chord, especially when prolonged as just seen.  See No. 10 of
the Songs Without Words, last six measures; it is the tonic chord of B
minor, but the tone _d_ (the 3d) is placed at the top, instead of _b_.
Also No. 16, last chord; No. 38, last chord; No. 6, last three measures
(the 5th of the tonic chord as uppermost tone).  At any other point in
the piece this default of the keynote would, as we shall presently see,
almost certainly reduce the weight of the cadence from "perfect" to
"semicadence"; at the very end, however, it cannot mislead, because it
does not affect the condition of actual finality.


SEMICADENCE.--Any deviation from the formula of the perfect
cadence--either in the choice of some other than the tonic chord, or in
the omission of the keynote in either (or both) of the outer
parts--weakens the force of the interruption, and transforms the
cadence into a lighter, more transient, point of repose, for which the
term semicadence (or half-stop) is used.  The semicadence indicates
plainly enough the end of its phrase, but does not completely sever it
from that which follows.

It is these lighter, transient forms of cadence to which a number of
different names are given; for the student of analysis (and the
composer, also, for that matter) the one general term "semicadence," or
half-cadence, is sufficient, and we shall use no other.

If, then, a cadence is final in its effect, it is a perfect one; if
not, it is a semicadence.  The harmony most commonly chosen as the
resting-place of a semicadence is the chord of the _dominant_,--the
fifth step of the momentary key,--that being the harmony next in
importance to that of the tonic (the one invariably used for the
perfect cadence).  The following example illustrates the dominant
semicadence:--

[Illustration: Example 34.  Fragment of Brahms.]


The cadence-chord is the dominant harmony (root _e_) in the key of A
minor; neither of the two upper tones on the first and second beats is
the root of the chord; it is quite sufficient that the root appears as
lowermost tone, and even this is not necessary.  The "point of repose"
is shifted to the second beat, in the manner so amply illustrated in
the examples of the disguised cadence; the methods we have seen may be
applied to _any_ kind of cadence.

See also Ex. 18; the key, and therefore the chord, at the semicadence
is the same as that of the above example (simply major instead of
minor).

Also Ex. 23, No. 4; the semicadence chord is the dominant harmony of
E-flat major; it is skillfully disguised.  Ex. 25, dominant harmony of
A major.  Ex. 26, last four measures; the semicadence is made upon the
dominant of C minor.

In the following:

[Illustration: Example 35.  Fragment of Schumann.]

the semicadence in the fourth measure is made with the dominant harmony
of C major (the tones _g-b-d-f_); it is so disguised as to remove all
signs of interruption; but the chord _prevails_ throughout the measure,
and (as may be seen by reference to the original, op. 68, No. 3) the
next measure--the fifth--exactly corresponds to the first; this
indicates another "beginning," and proves our "ending."

But though the dominant is thus generally employed at the semicadence,
it is by no means the only available chord.  It must be remembered that
every cadence which does not fulfil the definite conditions of the
perfect cadence, is a semicadence.  Examine each of the following, and
determine why the point of repose is each time a semicadence:--Ex. 1;
Ex. 9, No. 3; Ex. 14, No. 2, fourth measure; Ex. 14, No. 3, fourth
measure; Ex. 19; Ex. 22, Nos. 3 and 4; Ex. 23, No. 2, fourth measure.

The distinction between the two species of cadence becomes most subtle
when the _tonic harmony_ is chosen for the semicadence, _but with some
other part of the chord than the keynote as uppermost (or lowermost)
tone_.  This might appear to lighten the perfect cadence too
immaterially to exercise so radical an influence upon the value
(weight) of the interruption.  The _keynote_, however, is so decisive
and final in its harmonic and melodic effect--everywhere in music--that
its absence more or less completely cancels the terminating quality of
the cadence-chord; in other words, the force of a tonic cadence depends
upon the weight and prominence of the _keynote_.

For example:

[Illustration: Example 36.  Fragment of Schubert.]


The first, second, and third of these cadences is made upon the tonic
harmony, on the accent of each successive fourth measure.  But they are
only _semicadences_, as the melody (uppermost part) rests upon the
Third of the chord, _c_, instead of the keynote; this substitution of
_c_ for _a-flat_ is sufficient to frustrate the perfect cadence and
diminish it to a transient interruption.  The final cadence is perfect,
however, because there the uppermost tone _is_ the keynote.  See also
Ex. 21; and Ex. 17, No. 2, fourth measure (semicadence, with _a_
instead of _f_ as principal tone in upper part, and disguised by the
continuation of rhythmic movement to the end of the cadence-measure).
In Ex. 17, No. 1, the cadence is made with the tonic harmony of G
minor, but with the Third (_b-flat_) at the top.


LOCATING THE CADENCES.--Next to the recognition and comparison of the
different melodic sections of a composition (in a word, the _melodic
delineation_ of the whole), the most significant task in music analysis
is the locating and classifying of the cadences.  They are the angles
of the design, so to speak; and have the same bearing upon the sense of
the music as punctuation marks have in rhetoric.  Intelligent and
effective phrasing, adequate interpretation of the composer's purpose,
is impossible without a distinct exposition of the cadences,--if not of
the inferior points of interruption between motives, also.

The best general rule for locating cadences is, probably, to look for
them in the right place, namely, in the _fourth measure_ from the
beginning of each phrase.  The fairly regular operation of this rule
has been verified in Lesson 4.  But exceptions have also been seen (in
Ex. 17), and many more are certain to be encountered, simply because
the principle of Unity (exemplified by the prevalence of the
four-measure standard) must interact with the principle of Variety
(exemplified in all phrases of irregular extent).

Therefore, the more reliable method, as already stated, is _to define
the beginning of the following phrase_,--for each successive beginning
involves a foregone cadence, of course.  No very definite directions
can be given; experience, observation, careful study and comparison of
the given illustrations, will in time surely enable the student to
recognize the "signs" of a beginning,--such as the recurrence of some
preceding principal member of the melody, or some such change in
melodic or rhythmic character as indicates that a new phrase is being
announced.


LESSON 5.  Analyze, again, Schumann, _Jugend Album_ (op. 68), No. 6,
locating every cadence and defining its quality,--as perfect cadence or
semicadence.  Also Nos. 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 14, 15, 16, 3,--and
others.  As a curious illustration of the difficulty which may
sometimes attend the analysis of phrases and cadences, the student may
glance at No. 31 (_Kriegslied_, D major); a more baffling example will
rarely be found, for the piece abounds in irregular phrase-dimensions,
and cadences that are disguised to the verge of unrecognizability; the
only fairly reliable clue the composer has given lies in the formation
of the melodic members (the clue intimated in the explanatory text
following Ex. 35).

Also Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 34 (first phrase six
measures long); No. 40; No. 18.

Also Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 22, third movement
(_Menuetto_); op. 28, second movement (_Andante_).

Again the student is reminded that it is not only permissible, but wise
and commendable, to pass by all confusing cases; without being careless
or downright superficial, to observe a certain degree of prudent
indifference at confusing points, trusting to that superior
intelligence which he shall surely gain through wider experience.



CHAPTER VI.  IRREGULAR PHRASES.

CAUSES.--The possibility of deviating from the fundamental standard of
phrase-dimension (four measures) has been repeatedly intimated, and is
treated with some detail in the text preceding Example 17, which should
be reviewed.  It is now necessary to examine some of the conditions that
lead to this result.

The causes of irregular phrase-dimension are two-fold; it may result

(1) from simply inserting an additional cadence, or from omitting one.  Or

(2) it may be the consequence of some specific manipulation of the
phrase-melody with a view to its extension or expansion, its development
into a broader and more exhaustive exposition of its contents.


THE SMALL AND LARGE PHRASES.--If a cadence is inserted before it is
properly due, it is almost certain to occur exactly _half-way_ along the
line toward the expected (regular) cadence,--that is, in the _second_
measure.  This is likely to be the case only when the tempo is so slow,
or the measures of so large a denomination, that two of them are
practically equal to four _ordinary_ measures.  By way of distinction,
such a two-measure phrase is called a Small phrase.  For example:--

[Illustration: Example 37.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]

There is no reasonable doubt of the semicadence in the second measure,
because enough pulses have been heard, up to that point, to represent the
sum of an ordinary phrase.  If this were written in 6-8 measure (as it
might be), it would contain four measures.  See, also, Song No. 22 of
Mendelssohn,--9-8 measure, adagio tempo; the phrases are "Small"; note
particularly the last two measures.  The same is true in No. 17.  About
Schumann, op. 68, No. 43 (_Sylvesterlied_), there may be some doubt; but
the measures, though of common denomination, contain so many tones, in
moderate tempo, that the effect of a cadence is fairly complete in the
second measure.

If, on the other hand, one of the regular cadences is omitted,--owing to
the rapidity of the tempo, or a small denomination of measure,--the
phrase will attain just double the ordinary length; that is, _eight_
measures.  An eight-measure phrase is called a Large phrase.  For
illustration:--

[Illustration: Example 38.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

There is not the slightest evidence of repose or interruption in the
fourth measure, nor of a new beginning in the fifth, wherefore the
cadence is not expected until four more measures have passed by.  The
inferior points of repose in the upper parts, at the beginning of the
5th, 6th and 7th measures, serve only to establish melodic, or rather
rhythmic, variety, and have no cadential force whatever.  See
Mendelssohn, Song No. 8; the first cadence appears to stand in the
_eighth_ measure; the tempo is rapid and the measures are small; it is
obviously a large phrase.  The phrase which follows is regular, however;
there _is_ a cadence in the twelfth measure, thus proving that Large
phrases may appear in company with regular phrases, in the same
composition.  In other words, the omission of an expected cadence (or the
insertion of an additional one) may be an _occasional_ occurrence,--not
necessarily constant.  See, again, No. 22 of the Songs Without Words; the
first and second phrases are small; the third phrase, however (reaching
from measure 6 to 9 without cadential interruption), is of regular
dimensions.


THE PRINCIPLE OF EXTENSION.--The other cause of modified phrase-dimension
is one of extreme importance, as touching upon the most vital process in
musical composition, namely, that of _phrase-development_.

Setting aside all critical discussion with reference to the question,
"What is good music?" and simply accepting those types of classic
composition universally acknowledged to be the best, as a defensible
standard (to say the least), we find that such a page of music exhibits
the pursuit of some leading thought (melodic motive or phrase), with
precisely the same coherence and consistency, the same evidence of
determined aim, as is displayed in the creation of a forcible essay, a
masterly poem, an imposing architectural plan, or any other work of art
that betrays intelligence and a definite, fixed, purpose.  This is no
more nor less than might be expected from the dominion of the law of
Unity.

The equally inflexible demands of Variety are satisfied by presenting
this self-same leading thought in ever new and changing aspects,--_not_
by exchanging the thought itself for a new one at each successive angle.
This latter faulty process would naturally lead to a conglomeration of
impressions, baffling comprehension and jeopardizing real enjoyment.

In a classic page of music we perceive that each successive unit grows,
more or less directly, out of those which go before; not so directly, or
with such narrow insistence as to produce the impression of sameness and
monotony, but with such consistency of design as to impart a unified
physiognomy to the whole.  Hence, it will often be found that every
melodic figure, during a certain section (if not the whole) of a
composition, may be traced to one or another of the figures which
characterized the first phrase, or the first two or three phrases, of the
piece.  This was emphasized by our reference, near the end of the first
chapter, to the 8th Song Without Words of Mendelssohn.  If the student,
in analyzing the melody of that composition, will endeavor to penetrate
some of the clever disguises employed by the composer (for the sake of
Variety), he will find the whole piece reducible to a very few melodic
figures, announced at or near the beginning.  See also No. 45 (C major),
No. 36, No. 26.  Also Schumann, op. 68, No. 7, No. 8, No. 18, No. 23.
Also Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 10, No. 2, last movement; op. 26,
last movement.

In musical composition this process is known as thematic development, and
it generally extends over the whole, or a greater part, of the piece.

Its operation on a smaller scale, with more limited reference to one
phrase alone, effects the development of the phrase _by extension_.

The process of extension or expansion, by means of which the phrase
usually assumes a somewhat irregular length, consists mainly in the
varied repetition of the figures or motives that it contains; and the
continuity of the whole, as extension of the _one phrase_, is maintained
by suppressing the cadence--suspending all cadential interruption--during
the lengthening process.  For example:

[Illustration: Example 39.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]


These six measures result from a repetition (variated) of the third and
fourth measures of the original--regular--four-measure phrase.  A cadence
is due in the fourth measure, but it is not permitted to assert itself;
and if it did, its cadential force would be neutralized by the entirely
obvious return to (repetition of) the motive just heard.  Further:--

[Illustration: Example 40.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]


There is no cadence in the fourth measure,--the current of the melody
obliterates it and hurries on, voicing the last measure again and again
until it dies away in the tenth measure, where a cadence ends it.  That
it should be the _tenth_ measure is purely accidental; the number of
measures is of little account in the act of extension; here, it was
continued until a convenient place was found (with reference to chord and
key) for the cadence.  Further:--

[Illustration: Example 41.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]

Measures 1, 2, 3 and 8 constitute the original regular four-measure
phrase.

The following regular phrase (to be found in the last movement of
Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 28):--

[Illustration: Example 42.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

is immediately followed by this lengthy and elaborate extension:--

[Illustration: Example 43.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 43 continued.]


The portion marked _b_ is a complete repetition, with quaint variation,
of the original four-measure phrase, marked _a_ in Ex. 42; _c_ is a
repetition of the last figure (just one measure) of the phrase, with the
melodic parts inverted, or exchanged; _d_ and _e_ are a literal
repetition of the two preceding measures--(_c_) and _c_; _f_ is another
recurrence of (_c_), with still another inversion of the melodies; _g_
repeats _e_ an octave higher; and _h_ is nothing more or less than a
curious repetition of _g_, in longer tones, and in reversed direction.
Distinct cadential interruption is carefully avoided after the original
phrase has been announced, that is, throughout Ex. 43,--which is the
significant proof (borne out by the manifest identity of the _melodic_
members) that these measures form part and parcel of the original phrase,
as extension or development of it, and _not_ a new phrase.   The total
length is sixteen measures, developed thus out of the original four.

For an exhaustive explanation of phrase-extension, with all the technical
details, the student is referred to my HOMOPHONIC FORMS, Chapter III.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

Another method of extending a phrase consists in prefacing a measure or
two of purely _introductory_ material; it is, therefore, rather
anticipation than prolongation, and is composed most commonly of the
figure of the accompaniment, announced briefly before the actual
phrase-melody begins.

This is shown very clearly in the first measure of the 22d Song Without
Words; also in the first measure of No. 7, No. 31, No. 42, No. 40, and
others; the first _two_ measures of No. 34, and No. 1; the first _three_
measures of No. 19, No. 26, and No. 37,--and needs no further
illustration.  It emphasizes the necessity of vigilance in defining the
correct _starting-point_ of the first phrase; for a mistake at the
beginning may interfere seriously with the locating of the cadences
(according to our fundamental four-measure rule).  For instance, in No.
42 the cadences do _not_ fall in the 4th, 8th, 12th measures--and so
on--but in the 5th, 9th, 13th, 17th, from the very beginning of the piece.

When the introductory passage is longer than _three_ measures, it
probably constitutes a complete phrase by itself, with its own cadence;
in which case, of course, it must not be analyzed as "extension."  For
example, at the beginning of No. 29; still more apparently at the
beginning of No. 28, No. 41, and others.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

INHERENT IRREGULARITY.--Finally,--there exists another, third, condition,
besides those mentioned at the head of this chapter, whereby a phrase may
assume an irregular dimension; not by doubling or dividing its length (as
in the large and small phrases) nor by the processes of extension,--but
by an arbitrary and apparently incalculable act of _melodic liberty_,--by
allowing the melody to choose its own time for the cadential
interruption.  This comparatively rare occurrence is illustrated in Ex.
17, No. 1 (five-measure phrase), and Ex. 17, No. 2, second phrase (six
measures long).  It is true that in each of these cases the "extra"
measures might be accounted for as "extension by modified
repetition,"--for instance, in No. 1 the _second_ measure might be called
a reproduction (or extension) of the first measure.  But cases will be
encountered where a phrase of three, five, six, or seven measures will
admit of no such analysis.  In such instances the student is compelled to
rely simply upon the evidence of _the cadence_.  As was advised in the
context of Ex. 17, he must endeavor to define the phrase by recognition
of its "beginning" and "ending," as such; or by exercising his judgment
of the "cadential impression."  See also Ex. 48, second phrase (six
measures).

See Schubert, pianoforte sonata No. 1 (A minor, op. 42)
_Scherzo_-movement; first 28 measures, divided into 5 phrases,--as
demonstrated by the melodic formation--of 5, 5, 5, 7 and 6 measures.
Also Schubert, _Impromptu_, op. 90, No. 3, measures 42 to 55 (phrases of
5, 5 and 4 measures.)


LESSON 6.  Analyze the following examples, locating the cadences and
defining their value (as perfect or semicadence); and determining the
nature of each irregular phrase (as small, large, or extended phrase):

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 22, second movement (_Adagio_), first
30 measures.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 28, _Scherzo_-movement.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 14, No. 3, _Menuetto_.

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words: No. 4, first 5 measures.

No. 46, last 9 1/2 measures.

No. 42, last 15 measures.

No. 45, last 11 measures.

No. 12, last 12 measures.

No. 14, last 11 measures.

No. 36, last 22 measures.

No. 37, last 11 measures.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 27, No. 2, last movement; measures 7 to
23 from the second double-bar.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 28, first movement; from the double-bar
(near the middle of the movement) measures 21 to 94 (_fermata_ symbol);
in this extraordinary specimen of phrase-development, the original
four-measure phrase yields seventy-four successive measures, with very
few cadences to divide it even into sections.  Same sonata, last
movement, last eighteen measures.



CHAPTER VII.  THE PERIOD-FORM.

PHRASE-ADDITION.--The phrase is the structural basis of all musical
composition.  By this is meant, not necessarily the single phrase, but
the phrase in its collective sense.

The phrase is, after all, only a unit; and the requirements of Variety
cannot be wholly satisfied by the mere development and extension of a
single phrase, except it be for a certain limited section of the piece,
or for a brief composition in small form (like Schumann, op. 68, No. 8).

The act of _addition_ does therefore enter into the processes of
music-writing, as well as _extension_.  Phrase may be added to phrase,
in order to increase the primary material, and to provide for greater
breadth of basis, and a richer fund of resources.  The condition to be
respected is, that such aggregation shall not become the ruling trait,
and, by its excess, supplant the main purpose,--that of _development_.
That is, it must be held rigidly within the domain of Unity.  The
student of the classic page will therefore expect to find a more or
less marked family resemblance, so to speak; prevailing throughout the
various phrases that may be associated upon that page.

Each additional phrase should be, and as a rule will be, sufficiently
"new" in some respect or other to impart renewed energy to the
movement; but--so long as it is to impress the hearer as being the same
movement--there will still remain such points of contact with the
foregoing phrase or phrases as to demonstrate its derivation from them,
its having "grown out" of them.

This process of addition (not to be confounded with the methods of
extending a single phrase, illustrated in the preceding chapter) is
exhibited first, and most naturally, in the so-called Period-form.


THE PERIOD.--The Period-form is obtained by the addition of a second
phrase to the first.  It is therefore, in a sense, a double phrase;
that is, it consists of two connected phrases, covering _eight ordinary
measures_, or just double the number commonly assigned to the single
phrase.

Each one of these phrases must, of course, have its individual cadence,
or point of repose; the first--called the _Antecedent phrase_--has its
cadence in the fourth measure, and the second--called the _Consequent
phrase_--in the eighth measure.  The effect of the Period-form is that
of a longer sentence interrupted exactly in the middle,--not unlike a
bridge of two spans, resting on a central pier.  But, precisely as the
central pier is only an intermediate point of support, and not terra
firma, so the ending of the Antecedent phrase is never anything more
weighty than a semicadence, while the definite, conclusive, perfect
cadence appears at the end of the Consequent phrase,--or of the entire
period-form.

The reason for this distinction of cadence is obvious.  A period is not
two separate phrases, but two related and coherent phrases which
mutually balance each other.  The Consequent phrase is not merely an
"addition" to the first, but is its complement and "fulfilment."  The
two phrases represent the musical analogy of what, in rhetoric, would
be called thesis and antithesis, or, simply, question and answer.  In a
well-constructed period the Antecedent phrase is, therefore, always
more or less _interrogative_, and the Consequent phrase _responsive_,
in character.

For illustration (Mendelssohn, No. 28):--

[Illustration: Example 44.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]


The co-operation, or interaction, of the principles of Unity and
Variety, is nowhere more strikingly shown than in the formulation of
the musical period.  Either element has the right to predominate, to a
reasonable degree, though never to the exclusion or injury of the
other.  In the above example, the principle of Unity predominates to a
somewhat unusual extent:--not only the figures (marked 1-2-3-4), and
the motives (_a-b_), are uniform, in the Antecedent phrase itself, but
the melody of the Consequent phrase corresponds very closely throughout
to that of the Antecedent, only excepting a trifling change in the
course (marked _N. B._), and the last few tones, which are necessarily
so altered as to transform the semicadence into a perfect cadence.  It
is this significant change, _at the cadence_, which prevents the second
phrase from being merely a "repetition" of the first one,--which makes
it a "Consequent," a response to the one that precedes.

Further (Mendelssohn, No. 23):--

[Illustration: Example 45.  Fragment of Mendelssohn.]


In this example also, the Consequent phrase is a complete affirmation
of its Antecedent, agreeing in its melodic form with the latter until
the cadence is nearly due, when an extra measure is inserted (as
extension), and the usual digression into the necessary perfect cadence
is made.  The condition of Unity predominates, but a noticeable
infusion of Variety takes place.

Further (Mozart, pianoforte sonata):--

[Illustration: Example 46.  Fragment of Mozart.]


Here, again, the condition of Unity prevails, but with a still greater
infusion of Variety; the melody of the Consequent phrase _resembles_
that of the Antecedent in every detail; the rhythm is identical, and it
is evident that the second phrase is designed to balance the first,
figure for figure, the principal change being that some of the figures
are simply turned upside down (compare the places marked _N. B._).  The
semicadence rests upon a dominant chord (fifth-step) of D major; the
perfect cadence upon the same chord, it is true, but as _tonic_ harmony
of A major, with keynote in the extreme parts.  Being a keynote, though
not in the original key, it is valid as perfect cadence.

Further (Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 13):--

[Illustration: Example 47.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 47 continued.]


In this example, the condition of Variety predominates decidedly.  The
Consequent melody differs totally from the Antecedent, even in rhythm,
and the necessary portion of Unity is exhibited only in equality of
length, _uniformity of accompaniment_, and similarity of character
(tonality, and general harmonic and rhythmic effect).  Observe the
diversity of melodic extent, in the two phrases, in consequence of the
preliminary tone borrowed from the semicadence for the Consequent
phrase.  Greater variety than here will rarely be found between two
successive phrases that are intended to form the halves of one coherent
period.

For more minute technical details see the HOMOPHONIC FORMS, Chapter V.


LESSON 7.  Analyze the following examples.  Locate the cadences;
compare the phrases and define the degrees of Unity and of Variety
exhibited in the melody, or elsewhere; and mark such irregularities of
forms (or extensions) as may be found:--

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 35, measures 5 1/2-13.  (By 5 1/2
is meant the _middle_ of the fifth measure, instead of its beginning.)

No. 45, first 8 measures.

No. 29, measures 4 1/2-12.

No. 14,   "   1-8.

No. 34,   "   1-10.

No. 18,   "   1-9; 10-17.

No. 9,    "   3 1/2-7.

No. 27,   "   5-12.

Schumann, op. 68, No. 3, measures 1-8; 9-16.

No. 5, measures 1-8; 9-16.  (Do not overlook the preliminary tones
which precede the first measure.)

The first eight measures of Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 22, 23, 24,
26, 30, 32, 39.  Also Nos. 13 and 28, first _ten_ measures.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 2, No. 1, _Adagio_, measures 1-8.
Same sonata, third movement, "Trio," measures 1-10.

Op. 2, No. 2, _Largo_, measures 1-8; also _Scherzo_, measures 1-8; also
_Rondo_, measures 1-8.

Op. 2, No. 3, measures 1-13; also _Scherzo_, measures 1-16; also last
movement, measures 1-8.

Op. 10, No. 1, _Finale_, measures 1-8; and measures 16 1/2-28.

Op. 10, No. 3, measures 1-10; also _Largo_, measures 1-9; 9 1/2-17;
also _Menuetto_, measures 1-16; also _Rondo_, measures 1-9.

Op. 14, No. 2, measures 1-8; also _Andante_, measures 1-8; also
_Scherzo_, measures 1-8.

After analyzing these examples, the student may venture to define the
periods in other compositions, classic or popular, especially such as
he may chance to be learning.



CHAPTER VIII.--ENLARGEMENT OF THE PERIOD-FORM.

The processes of extension and development are applied to the period in
the same general manner as to the phrase.  The results, however, are
broader; partly because every operation is performed on a
correspondingly larger scale, and partly because the resources of
technical manipulation increase, naturally, with the growth of the
thematic material.

Among the various methods adopted, there are three, each significant in
its own peculiar way, that provide sufficiently exhaustive directions
for the student of structural analysis.


ENLARGEMENT BY REPETITION.--The first and simplest method is to
increase the length of the period-form by the process of _repetition_;
repetition of the entire sentence, or of any one--or several--of its
component members, in a manner very similar to that already seen in
connection with the single phrase (Chap. VI, Ex. 39, etc.), and under
the same conditions of Unity and Variety; that is, the repetitions may
be nearly or quite literal, or they may have been subjected to such
alterations and variations as the skill and fancy of the composer
suggested.

An example of complete repetition (that is, the repetition of the
entire period), with simple but effective changes, may be found in
Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 13, _Adagio_, measures 1 to 16.
Examine it carefully, and observe, among other details, the treatment
of the perfect cadence (in the 8th measure).  See also, Song Without
Words, No. 27, measures 5 to 20.

The repetition of one of the two phrases is exhibited in the following
(Mozart, sonata No. 14):--

[Illustration: Example 48.  Fragment of Mozart.]


The Antecedent is a regular four-measure phrase, with semicadence (made
on the tonic chord, but with _3d_ as uppermost tone); the Consequent is
a six-measure phrase, with perfect cadence, and is repeated, with
partial change of register.  The whole is a "period with repeated
Consequent."

A somewhat elaborate example of extension by detail-repetition is seen
in the following (Chopin, Mazurka No. 20, op. 30, No. 3--see the
original):

[Illustration: Example 49.  Fragment of Chopin.]

[Illustration: Example 49 continued.]


These sixteen measures are the product out of eight measures, by
extension; that is, they are reducible to a simple period-form (as may
be verified by omitting the passages indicated under dotted lines), and
they represent in reality nothing more than its manipulation and
development.  The original 8-measure period makes a complete musical
sentence, and was so devised in the mind of the composer, _without the
extensions_.  The method of manipulation is ingenious; observe the
variety obtained by the striking dynamic changes from _ff_ to _pp_;
and, hand in hand with these, the changes from major to minor, and back
(as shown by the inflection of _b_-flat to _b_-double-flat).  These are
first applied to members only, of the Antecedent, as indicated by the
brackets _a_ and _b_, and then to the entire Consequent phrase.
Observe, also, that in the repeated form of the latter, the rhythm is
modified to a smoother form, during two measures.  The result here
achieved is constant Unity and constant Variety from almost every point
of view, admirably counterbalanced.


THE PHRASE-GROUP.--A second method consists in enlarging the
period-form to three phrases, by the same process of addition which, as
explained in the preceding chapter, transforms the single phrase into
the double-phrase or period.  In order to preserve the continuity of
the three phrases, it is evident that the second phrase must _also_
close with a semicadence,--the perfect cadence being deferred until the
last phrase is concluded.

{78}

This form, be it well understood, does not include any of the
triple-phrase designs which may result from merely repeating one or the
other of the two phrases that make a period, as is shown in Ex. 48.
_All such phrase-clusters as are reducible to two phrases_, because
nothing more than simple repetition has been employed in their
multiplication, should always be classed among ordinary periods; for
two successive phrases, if connected (that is, unless they are
purposely broken asunder by a definite perfect cadence at the end of
the first phrase) always represent the analogy of Question and Answer.

The enlarged form we are at present considering consists of three
_different_ phrases, as a general rule; probably very closely related,
or even distinctly resembling one another; but too independent,
nevertheless, to constitute actual repetition, and therefore to admit
of reduction to two phrases.  For this very reason it cannot justly be
called "period" at all, but takes the name of "phrase-group."  An
illustration by diagram will make the distinction clear:--

[Illustration: Phrase group diagram.]


Observe that the classification depends upon the number of
phrases,--upon the _melodic_ identity of the phrases,--and upon the
_quality of the cadences_.

No. 1 is illustrated in Ex. 15; No. 2, in Ex. 42 and the first four
measures of Ex. 43 (cadence not perfect, it is true, but same
phrase-melody and _same cadence_); No. 3 is seen in Ex. 44
(phrase-melody similar, but cadences different)--also in Ex. 47; No. 4
is seen in Ex. 48; No. 5 is rare, but an example will be discovered in
Lesson 8; No. 6 is illustrated in the following (Grieg, op. 38, No.
2):--

[Illustration: Example 50.  Fragment of Grieg.]


Comparing this sentence with Ex. 48, we discover the following
significant difference: There, no more than two phrases were present;
the whole sentence was _reducible_ to two phrases.  Here (Ex. 50),
however, no such reduction is possible; three sufficiently similar--and
sufficiently different--phrases are coherently connected, without
evidence of mere repetition; it is the result of Addition, and the form
is a _phrase-group_.  The first cadence is, strictly speaking, a
_perfect_ one; but of that somewhat doubtful rhythmic character, which,
in conjunction with other indications, may diminish its conclusive
effect, and prevent the decided separation which usually attends the
perfect cadence.  This is apt to be the case with a perfect cadence _so
near the beginning_ (like this one) that the impression of "conclusion"
is easily overcome.  In a word, there is no doubt of the unbroken
connection of these three phrases, despite the unusual weight of the
first cadence.  See also the first cadence in Ex. 51.

By simply continuing the process of addition (and avoiding a decisive
perfect cadence) the phrase-group may be extended to more than three
phrases, though this is not common.


THE DOUBLE-PERIOD.--A third method consists in expanding the period
into a double-period (precisely as the phrase was lengthened into a
double-phrase, or period), _by avoiding a perfect cadence at the end of
the second phrase_, and adding another pair of phrases to balance the
first pair.  It thus embraces four _coherent_ phrases, with a total
length of sixteen measures (when regular and unextended).

An important feature of the double-period is that the second period
usually resembles the first one very closely, at least in its first
members.  That is, the second phrase contrasts with the first; _the
third corroborates the first_; and the fourth either resembles the
second, or contrasts with all three preceding phrases.  This is not
always--though nearly always--the case.

The double-period in music finds its poetic analogy in almost any
stanza of four fairly long lines, that being a design in which we
expect unity of meaning throughout, the progressive evolution of one
continuous thought, uniformity of metric structure (mostly in
_alternate_ lines), the corroboration of rhyme, and, at the same time,
some degree and kind of contrast,--as in the following stanza of
Tennyson's:

  Phrase 1.  "The splendor falls on castle walls,
  Phrase 2.     And snowy summits old in story;
  Phrase 3.   The long light shakes across the lakes,
  Phrase 4.     And the wild cataract leaps in glory."

The analogy is not complete; one is not likely to find, anywhere,
absolute parallelism between music and poetry; but it is near enough to
elucidate the musical purpose and character of the double-period.  And
it accounts for the very general choice of this form for the hymn-tune.

The following illustrates the double-period, in its most regular and
convincing form (Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 49, No. 1):--

[Illustration: Example 51.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

Each phrase is four measures long, as usual; the first one ends (as in
Ex. 50) with one of those early, transient perfect cadences that do not
break the continuity of the sentence; the second phrase ends with a
semicadence,--therefore the sentence remains unbroken; phrase three is
_exactly_ like the first, and is therefore an Antecedent, as before;
phrase four bears close resemblance to the second one, but differs at
the end, on account of the perfect cadence.  The evidences of Unity and
Variety are easily detected.  The main points are, that the second pair
of phrases balances the first pair, and that the two periods are
connected (not _separate_ periods).  See also Ex. 53, first 16 measures.


LESSON 8.--Analyze the following examples.  They are not classified;
therefore the student must himself determine to which of the above
three species of enlargement each belongs:

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 29, measures 1-21, (first 4
measures an introductory phrase).

No. 37, first 17 measures.

No. 30, first 15 measures (last phrase irregular).

No. 16, measures 4-9 (small phrases).

No. 33, first 12 measures.

No. 27, first 20 measures (introductory phrase).

No. 3, first 29 measures, to double-bar (introductory phrase).

No. 36, first 27 measures (the similarity between phrase one and phrase
three proves the double-period form; the extra phrases are extension by
"addition," as in the group form).

No. 6, measures 8-17.

Mozart, pianoforte sonata.  No. 13 (Peters edition), first 16 measures.

Sonata No. 2, first 16 measures (last four measures are extension).

Sonata No. 3, last movement, first 16 measures.

Sonata No. 10, second movement, first 16 measures.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas; op. 49, No. 2, first 12 measures.

Op. 10, No. 3, first 16 measures.

Op. 10, No. 2, first 12 measures.

Op. 26, first 16 measures.

Op. 31, No. 2, last movement, first 31 measures (extension by
repetition).

Schumann, op. 68, Nos. 16, 20, 33, first 16 measures of each; No. 13,
first 10 measures; No. 15, first 16 measures.



CHAPTER IX.  THE TWO-PART SONG-FORM.

THE SONG-FORM OR THE PART-FORM.--Almost every musical composition of
average (brief) dimensions, if designed with the serious purpose of
imparting a clear formal impression, will admit of division into either
two or three fairly distinct sections, or Parts, of approximately equal
length.  The distinctness with which the points of separation are
marked, and the degree of independence of each of these two or three
larger sections, are determined almost entirely by the length of the
whole.  And whether there be two or three such divisions depends to
some extent also upon the length of the piece, though chiefly upon the
specific structural idea to be embodied.

A composition that contains two such sections is called a Two-Part (or
bipartite, or binary) form; and one that contains three, a Three-part
(tripartite, or ternary) form.

Such rare exceptions to these structural arrangements as may be
encountered in musical literature, are limited to sentences that, on
one hand, are so brief as to require no radical division; and, on the
other, to compositions of very elaborate dimensions, extending beyond
this structural distinction; and, furthermore, to fantastic pieces in
which the intentional absence of classified formal disposition is
characteristic and essential.

The terms employed to denote this species ("Song-form" or "Part-form")
do not signify that the music is necessarily to be a vocal composition
of that variety known as the "Song"; or that it is to consist of
several voices (for which the appellation "parts" is commonly used).
They indicate simply a certain _grade_,--not a specific variety,--of
form; an intermediate grade between the smallest class (like brief
hymn-tunes, for example), and the largest class (like complete
sonata-movements).  An excellent {84} type of this grade of Form is
found in the Songs Without Words of Mendelssohn, the Mazurkas of
Chopin, and works of similar extent.

The word Part (written always with a capital in these lessons) denotes,
then, one of these larger sections.  The design of the Part-forms was
so characteristic of the early German _lied_, and is so common in the
_song_ of all eras, that the term "Song-form" seems a peculiarly
appropriate designation, irrespective of the vocal or instrumental
character of the composition.

The student will perceive that it is the smallest class of forms--the
Phrase-forms,--embracing the phrase, period and double-period, to which
the preceding chapters have been devoted.  These are the designs which,
as a general rule, _contain only one decisive perfect cadence_, and
that at the end; and which, therefore, though interrupted by
semicadences, _are continuous and coherent_, because the semicadence
merely interrupts, and does not sever, the continuity of the sentence.
(This grade of forms might be called One-Part forms).


THE PARTS.--If we inquire into the means employed, in the larger
Part-forms, to effect the division of the whole into its broader Parts,
we find that the prime factors, here again, are Cadence and Melody.
The strongest sign of the consummation of a Part is a _decisive perfect
cadence_, resting, as usual, upon the tonic harmony of the chosen key;
a cadence sufficiently emphatic to interrupt the closer cohesion of the
phrases which, precede, and bring them, as completed Part, to a
conclusion.  Such a cadence, marking the end of the First Part, may be
verified in Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words, No. 23, measure 15; No.
3, measure 29 (at the double-bar,--a sign which frequently appears at
the termination of Part One); No. 20, measure 21; No. 27, measure 12;
No. 34, measure 10.

Another indication of the Part-form is a palpable change in melodic
character in passing from one Part into the next; sufficient to denote
a more striking "new beginning" than marks the announcement of a new
_phrase_ only.  The change, however, is as a rule _not very marked_; it
is sometimes, in fact, so slight as to be no more than simply palpable,
though scarcely definable on the page.  For these divisions are, after
all, the several "Parts" of one and the same song-form, and, therefore,
any such radical change in melodic or rhythmic character, or in general
style, as would make each Part appear to be a _wholly independent_
musical idea (subject or theme), would be manifestly inconsistent.

Generally, both these factors (cadence and melody) unite to define the
end of one Part and the beginning of the next.  Should either one be
feeble, or absent, the other factor will be all the more pronounced.
Thus, the cadence of Part One may be less decisive, if the change in
melodic character at the beginning of Part Two is well marked; this is
seen in No. 33, measure 12.  The reverse--a strong cadence and but
little melodic change,--in No. 13, measure 20.


THE FIRST PART.--Part One may be designed as period, double-period, or
phrase-group; sometimes, though very rarely, as single phrase,
repeated.  It ends, usually, with a strong perfect cadence on the tonic
chord of the original key, or of some related key (that is, one whose
_signature_ closely resembles that of the original key).  An
introductory phrase, or independent prelude, may precede it.


THE SECOND PART.--Part Two, as intimated, is likely to begin with a
more or less palpable change of melodic character,--by no means is this
always the case.  It may be designed, also, as period, double-period,
or phrase-group, and is somewhat likely to be a little longer (more
extended) than Part One.  A concluding section (called codetta if
small, coda if more elaborate) often follows, after a decided perfect
cadence in the original key has definitely concluded the Part.

The following is one of the simplest examples of the Two-Part Song-form
(a German _lied_ by Silcher):--

[Illustration: Example 52.  Fragment of German _lied_.]


The whole embraces four phrases, and might, for that reason, be
mistaken for a double-period.  But the _strong perfect cadence_ at the
end of the first period (reinforced by the repetition), and the
contrasting melodic formation of the second period, so separate and
distinguish the two periods as to make them independent "Parts" of the
whole.  It is not one "double-period," but _two fairly distinct
periods_.  The first cadence (in measure 4) has again, strictly
speaking, the elements of a perfect cadence, but, like others we have
seen (Exs. 50, 51), too near the beginning to possess any plausible
concluding power.

A somewhat similar specimen may be found in the theme of Mendelssohn's
Variations in D minor, op. 54, which see.  Each Part is a regular
period-form, with correct semicadence and perfect cadence.  The problem
of "agreement and independence" in the relation of Part II to Part I is
admirably solved; it is a masterly model of well-matched Unity and
Variety, throughout.

For a longer and more elaborate example, see No. 6 of the Songs Without
Words, in which, by the way, the principle of enlargement by the
addition of an independent prefix (introduction) and affix (coda) is
also illustrated:--

First number the forty-six measures with pencil.

The first cadence occurs in measure 7, and marks the end of the
prélude.  Part I begins in measure 8.  In measure 11 there is a
semicadence, at end of Antecedent phrase; in measure 17, a strong
perfect cadence, which, in connection with the subsequent change of
melodic form, distinctly defines the end of Part I (period-form,
extended).  Part II therefore begins in measure 18.  In measures 21,
25, 29, cadences occur, but none conclusive enough to close the Part.
This conclusion takes place, however, in measure 34.  Part II proves to
be a double-period.  A coda begins in measure 35; its first members
resemble the first phrase of Part I.  In measure 40 another section of
the coda begins, borrowed from the prélude.  For exhaustive technical
details of the Two-Part Song-form, see the HOMOPHONIC FORMS, Chapters 9
and 10.


LESSON 9.--Analyze the following examples of the Two-Part Song-form.
Define the form of each Part, marking and classifying all cadences; and
indicate introductions and codas (or codettas), if present.  _The first
step in the analysis of these forms is to divide the whole composition
into its Parts, by defining the end of Part One_.  The next step is to
define the beginning of Part One, and end of Part Two, by separating
the introduction and coda (if present) from the body of the form.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 57, Andante, Theme.

Op. 109, _Andante_, Theme.

Op. 111, last movement, Theme of Variations.

Op. 79, _Andante_, first 8 measures (unusually small); same sonata,
last movement, first 16 measures.

Op. 54, first 24 measures (each Part repeated).

Op. 31, No. 3, _Menuetto_ (without Trio).

Op. 26, "Trio" of _Scherzo_; also last movement, first 28 measures
(second Part repeated).

Op. 27, No. 2, "Trio" of _Allegretto_.

Mozart, pianoforte sonatas: No. 2 (Peters edition), _Andante_, measures
1-20; and measures 21-40.

Schumann, op. 68, No. 7; No. 4; No. 35; No. 42; No. 23 repeated; last
16 1/2 measures, (coda).



CHAPTER X.--THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN BIPARTITE AND TRIPARTITE FORMS.--We learned, in the
preceding chapter, that the Two-Part Song-form is a composition of
rather brief extent, with so decisive a perfect cadence in its course
as to divide it, in a marked manner, into two separate and fairly
individual sections or "Parts."

Between this and the next higher form,--that with _three_ such
Parts,--there is a distinction far more essential and characteristic
than that of mere extent; a distinction that does not rest simply upon
the number of Parts which they respectively contain.  Each of the two
classes of formal design, the Two-Part and the Three-Part, embodies a
peculiar structural idea; and it is the evidence of these respective
ideas,--the true content of the musical form,--which determines the
species.  The "number" of sections is, in this connection, nothing more
than the external index of the inherent idea.

The Two-Part forms embody the idea of _progressive growth_.  To the
first Part, a second Part (of similar or related melodic contents) is
added, in coherent and logical succession.  It should not be, and in
good clear form it is not, a purely numerical enlargement, for the
association of the second Part with a foregoing one answers the
purposes of confirmation and of balance, and is supposed to be so
effectuated as to institute and maintain unity of style, and some
degree of progressive development.  But the second Part, in this
bipartite design, does little or nothing more, after all, than thus to
project the musical thought on outward in a straight line (or along
parallel lines) to a conclusion more or less distant from the
starting-point,--from the melodic members which constitute the actual
germ, or the "text" of the entire musical discourse.  A very desirable,
not to say vital, condition is therefore {90} lacking, in the Two-Part
forms; namely, the corroboration of this melodic germ by an emphatic
return to the beginning and an unmistakable re-announcement of the
first (leading) phrase or phrases of the composition.

Nothing could be more natural than such corroboration.  Any line of
conduct, if pursued without deviation, simply carries its object
farther and farther away from its origin.  If, as in the circle, this
line is led back to the starting-point, it describes the most
satisfying and perfect figure; it perfects, by enclosing space.
Whereas, if it goes straight onward, it ultimately loses itself, or
loses, at least, its connection with its beginning and source.

Nowhere is this principle of _Return_ more significant and imperative
than in music, which, because of its intangibility, has need of every
means that may serve to define and illuminate its design; and hence the
superior frequency and perfection of the Three-Part form, _which, in
its Third Part, provides for and executes this Return to the
beginning_.  Its superiority and greater adaptability is fully
confirmed in the practice of composition; the number of Three-Part
forms exceeds the Two-Part, in musical literature, to an almost
surprising degree; and it may therefore be regarded as the design
peculiarly adapted to the purposes of ordinary music writing within
average limits.

The three successive divisions of the Three-Part Song-form may then be
characterized as follows:--


PART I.--The statement of the principal idea; the presentation of the
melodic and rhythmic contents of the leading thought, out of which the
whole composition is to be developed.  It is generally a period-form,
at least, closing with a firm perfect cadence in the principal key, or
one of its related keys.


PART II.--The departure (more or less emphatic) from this leading
melodic statement.  It is, for a time, probably an evident continuation
and development of the melodic theme embodied in the First Part; but it
does not end there; it exhibits a retrospective bent, and--when
thoroughly legitimate--its last few measures prepare for, and lead
into, the melodic member with which the piece began.  Its form is
optional; but, as a rule, decisive cadence-impressions are avoided,
unless it be the composer's intention to _close_ it with a perfect
cadence (upon any _other_ than the principal tonic), and accomplish the
"return to the beginning" by means of a separate returning passage,
called the Re-transition.


PART III.--The recurrence and corroboration of the original statement;
_the reproduction of Part I_, and therewith the fulfilment of the
important principle of return and confirmation.  The reproduction is
sometimes exact and complete; sometimes slight changes, or even
striking variations, possibly certain radical alterations, occur;
sometimes it is only a partial recurrence, the first few measures being
sufficient to prove the "Return"; sometimes, on the other hand,
considerable material (more or less related) is added, so that Part III
is longer than the First Part.

From this it appears that much latitude is given to the composer, in
his formulation of the Third Part.  All that the Part has to prove, is
its identity as confirmation of the leading motive, and this it may do
in many ways, and with great freedom of detail, without obscuring the
main purpose.  It is precisely this richness of opportunity, this
freedom of detail, which enhances the beauty and value of the
tripartite forms.

The following is a very regular example of the Three-Part Song-form
(Schumann, op. 68, No. 20):--

[Illustration: Example 53.  Fragment of Schumann.]

[Illustration: Example 53 continued.]


This version is as complete as it can conveniently be made upon one
single staff (chosen in order to economize space); but the student will
find the formal design somewhat more plastically defined in the
original, complete form, and he is therefore expected to refer to the
latter.  Part I is an unusually regular double-period, with three
semicadences and a strong perfect cadence, on the original tonic, to
mark its conclusion; the double-bar is an additional confirmation of
the end of the Part.  The second Part runs in the key of E major (the
dominant of the original key) throughout; its form is only a phrase,
but repeated,--as is proven by the almost literal agreement of the
second phrase with the preceding one, _cadence and all_.  Part III
agrees literally with Part I in its melodic formation, but differs a
little in the treatment of the lower (accompanying) voices.

In the theme of Mendelssohn's pianoforte Variations in E-flat major
(op. 82), which see, the design is as follows:--Part I is a period of
eight measures.  Part II is also an 8-measure period, ending upon the
tonic chord of B-flat major (the dominant key), as first eighth-note of
the 16th measure; the following eighth-note, b-natural, represents what
we have called the Retransition (in its smallest conceivable form), as
it fulfils no other purpose than that of leading back into the first
tone of the First Part.  Part III is _only a phrase_, and therefore
shorter than Part I; but it corroborates the _beginning_, and, in fact,
the entire contents of the First Part.

The plan of Mendelssohn's 28th Song Without Words is as follows:--First
number the 38 measures, _carefully_.  The first four measures are an
introductory phrase, or prélude; Part I begins in the second half of
measure 4 (after the double-bar) and extends, as regular 8-measure
period, to measure 12.  Part II follows, during the same measure; its
form is a period, extending to measure 20, and closing with a very
distinctly marked semicadence on the dominant chord (chord of D).  Part
III is 14 measures long, containing therefore six more measures than
the First Part; its first phrase is almost exactly like the first
phrase of Part I; its second phrase (measures 25-28) differs from any
portion of Part I, but closely resembles the melodic formation of Part
II; its third phrase is based upon the preceding one (_not_ as
repetition, however), and is expanded to the 34th measure.  The form of
Part III is phrase-group.  The last four measures are codetta, or
postlude, and corroborate the prélude.

For exhaustive technical details of the Three-Part Song-form, see the
HOMOPHOBIC FORMS, Chapters 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15.


LESSON 10.--Analyze the following examples of the Three-Part Song-form.
The first step, here again, is to fix _the end of the First Part_; the
next, to mark the beginning of the Third Part, by determining where the
_return to the beginning_ is made.  These points established, it
remains to fix the beginning of Part I, by deciding whether there is an
introductory sentence or not; then the end of Part II, by deciding
whether it leads directly into Part III, or comes to a conclusion
somewhat earlier, to make room for a Retransition; then the end of Part
III, by deciding whether a codetta or coda has been added.  The
extremities of the three Parts being thus determined, there will be no
difficulty in defining the _form_ of each.  Very particular attention
must be devoted to _the comparison of Part III with Part I_, in order
to discover, and accurately define, the difference between them,--in
form, in extent, in melodic formation, or in technical treatment.

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words: No. 22, No. 35, No. 32, No. 45, No.
42, No. 31, No. 27, No. 46, No. 25, No. 20, No. 26 (Re-transition,
middle of measure 25 to measure 29); No. 36 (beginning of Part III,
measure 60, somewhat disguised); No. 47, No. 12, No. 15, No. 3, No. 43,
No. 40, No. 37, No. 2, No. 33, No. 30, No. 1.

Schumann, op. 68; No. 3; No. 12, first 24 measures; No. 14, No. 16, No.
17, No. 21 (Part I closes with a semicadence, but made in such a manner
that it answers its purpose without the least uncertainty); No. 24, No.
25, No. 26, No. 28; No. 29, last 48 measures (including coda); No. 33
(long coda); No. 34; No. 37, first 32 measures; No. 38; No. 40, first
movement (2-4 measure); No. 41.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 2, No. 1, third movement,--both the
_Menuetto_ and the _Trio_.  Op. 2, No. 2, third movement,--both
_Scherzo_ and _Trio_.  Same sonata, last movement, first 16 measures
(Parts II and III consist of a single phrase each; therefore the whole
is diminutive in extent; but it is unquestionably Three-Part Song-form,
because of the completeness of Part I, and the unmistakable _return to
the beginning_).

Op. 7, _Largo_, first 24 measures.  Same sonata, third movement; also
the _Minore_.  Same sonata, last movement, first 16 measures.

Op. 10, No. 2, second movement, first 38 measures.

Op. 10, No. 3, _Menuetto_.

Op. 14, No. 1, third movement; also the _Maggiore_.

Op. 14, No. 2, second movement, first 20 measures.

Op. 22, _Menuetto_; also the _Minore_.

Op. 26, first 34 measures; same sonata.  _Scherzo_; same sonata,
_Funeral march_ (also the _Trio_; what is its form?).

Mozart, pianoforte sonatas: No. 15 (Peters Edition), _Andante_, first
32 measures.

No. 1, last movement, first 50 measures.

No. 12, first 18 measures.  Same sonata, _Trio_ of the second movement
(Part III returns to the beginning very briefly, and is otherwise
different from the First Part almost throughout).

No. 13, _Adagio_, first 16 measures.

Chopin, _Mazurkas_ (Peters edition), No. 11, No. 22, No. 24, No. 40,
No. 49.

In the following examples, the student is to determine whether the form
is Two-Part or Three-Part:--

Mendelssohn, op. 72 (six pianoforte pieces), No. 1; No. 2; No. 3, No.
4, No. 6.--Etudes, op. 104, No. 1, No. 3.

A curious example may be found in Schumann, op. 68, No. 32; the form is
actually Two-Part, but with a very brief reminiscence of the beginning
(scarcely to be called a Return) in the _last two measures_,--which
are, strictly speaking, no more than a codetta.  The Second Part is
repeated.

In Schumann's op. 68, Nos. 8, 9, and 11 (first 24 measures), the
_second_ Part is unusually independent in character; completely
detached from Part III, and exhibiting no symptoms of leading into the
latter, as second Parts have commonly been observed to do.



CHAPTER XI.  ENLARGEMENT OF THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM.

REPETITION OF THE PARTS.--The enlargement of the Three-Part Song-form
is effected, in the majority of cases, by simply repeating the Parts.
The composer, in extending the dimensions of his original design,
resorts as usual to the most legitimate and natural means at his
disposal--that of _repetition_.  By so doing, he reinforces the
principle of Unity, and, instead of obscuring, places the contents of
his design in a stronger and more convincing light.  It is true that
the act of mere repetition involves the risk of monotony; but against
this the composer has an efficient safeguard,--that of _variation_.  He
may modify and elaborate the repetition in any manner and to any extent
that seems desirable or necessary, the only limitations being that the
identity of the original Part must be preserved beyond all danger of
misapprehension, and (as a rule) that the cadences shall not be altered.

The act of repetition is applied to the First Part alone, and to the
_Second and Third Parts together_; very rarely to the Second Part
alone, or to the Third Part alone.


EXACT REPETITIONS.--When Part I,--or Parts II and III together,--are to
be repeated without any changes, it is customary to employ the familiar
repetition-marks (double-bar and dots); with "first and second ending,"
if, for any reason, some modification of the cadence-measure is
required.  This is illustrated in the 7th Song Without Words; Part I is
repeated alone, and Parts II and III together; both repetitions are
indicated by the customary signs, and each has a double ending.  See
also, Schumann, op. 68, No. 1; Part I is repeated exactly, with
repetition-marks; Parts II and III are also repeated literally (all but
the very last tone in the lower part), but written out,--apparently
without necessity.  Also No. 2; the literal repetition of Part I is
written out; Parts II and III have the repetition-marks.


MODIFIED REPETITIONS.--The quality and extent of the changes that may
be made, in order to enrich the composition without altering its
structural design, depend, as has been intimated, upon the judgment and
fancy of the composer.  The student will find no part of his analytical
efforts more profitable and instructive than the careful comparison of
these modified repetitions with the original Parts; nothing can be more
fascinating and inspiring to the earnest musical inquirer, than thus to
trace the operation of the composer's mind and imagination; to witness
his employment of the technical resources in re-stating the same idea
and developing new beauties out of it,--especially when the variations
are somewhat elaborate.

It must be remembered that mere repetition (even when modified,--as
long as it can be proven to be nothing more than repetition) does not
alter the form.  A phrase, repeated, remains a phrase; _nothing less
than a decided alteration of the cadence itself_ will transform it into
a double-phrase (or period).  Similarly, a period, repeated, remains a
period, and does not become a double-period; and a Part, repeated,
remains the same Part.  Therefore, the student will find it necessary
to concentrate his attention upon these larger forms, and exercise both
vigilance and discrimination in determining which sections of his
design come under the head of "modified repetition."

For an illustration of the _repeated First Part_, see the 9th Song
Without Words; Part I is a four-measure period (of two small phrases)
closing in the seventh measure; the following four measures are its
modified repetition.  For an example of the _repeated Second and Third
Parts_, see No. 48.  In No. 29, both repetitions occur, with
interesting changes; the repetition of Part I begins in measure 13;
that of Parts II and III in measure 35; the last 10 1/2 measures are a
coda.


{98}

THE FIVE-PART FORM.  The repetition of the Second and Third Parts
together is sometimes subjected to changes that are almost radical in
their nature, and therefore appear to modify the form itself.  These
important changes chiefly _affect the Second Part, when it reappears as
"Fourth" Part_.  When the alteration of the Second Part (that is, the
difference between Part IV and Part II) is sufficiently radical to
suggest the presence of a virtually new Part, the design is called the
Five-part Song-form.  The possible repetition of the First Part, it
will be inferred, does not affect this distinction in the least; it
hinges solely upon the treatment of the reproduction of _Part Two_.
For illustration:

[Illustration: Diagram of Parts.]


The Five-Part form is illustrated in the 14th Song Without
Words;--(first, number the measures; observe that the two endings of
Part I are to be counted as the _same measure_, and not separately;
they are both measure 8):--Part I extends to the double-bar, and is
repeated literally, only excepting the _rhythmic_ modification of the
final measure; Part II extends from measure 9 to 23; Part III, measures
24-35; Part IV, measures 36-47; Part V, measures 48-60; coda to the
end.  The comparison of Part IV with Part II discloses both agreement
and diversity; they are, obviously, _practically the same Part_, but
differ in key, in form, and in extent.  The comparison of Parts I, III,
and V reveals a similar condition, though the agreement here is much
closer, and each confirms the leading statement.

A more characteristic example will be found in the familiar F major
_Nachtstück_ of Schumann, op. 23, No. 4, which see:--Part I extends
from measure 2 to 9 (after 1 1/2 measures of recitative introduction);
Part II, measures 10-13; Part III, measures 14-21; Part IV, measures
22-32; Part V, measures 33-40; codetta to end.  The Fourth Part bears
very little resemblance to the Second, and assumes rather the character
of a wholly independent Part.


GROUP OF PARTS.--In some, comparatively rare, instances, the
arrangement of perfect cadences is such that,--coupled with
independence of melodic formation and character,--the composition seems
to separate into _four or more individual sections_ or Parts, with or
without a recurrence of the First one; or into three _different_ Parts,
lacking the evidence of the return to the beginning.  When such
irregularities are encountered, or when any conditions appear which
elude or baffle natural classification among the Three-Part Song-forms
(simple or enlarged), the piece may be called a group of Parts.  The
use of this term is entirely legitimate, and is commended to the
student on account of its convenience, for all examples of the
Song-form which, _upon thoroughly conscientious analysis_, present
confusing features, at variance with our adopted classification.  Of
one thing only he must assure himself,--that the design is a
_Song-form_ (_i.e._ an association of _Parts_), and not one of the
larger forms to be explained in later chapters.  The definition is
given in Chapter IX (on page 84).

A fair illustration of the utility of the term "Group of Parts" is seen
in Schumann, op. 68, No. 18.  Others will be cited in the following
Lesson.


LESSON 11.--Analyze the following examples of the enlarged Three-Part
Song-form.  As before, the form of each Part should be defined, and
introductions and codas (if present) properly marked.  All of the given
examples belong to this chapter, but are not classified; it is
purposely left to the student to determine where repetitions occur, and
whether they are exact, or variated,--in a word, to decide which of the
above diagrams the composition represents.

Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 3, No. 4, No. 8, No. 10, No. 11,
No. 12, No. 16, No. 17, No. 19, No. 21, No. 23, No. 24, No. 27, No. 31,
No. 34, No. 39, No. 43, No. 44, No. 46.

Schumann, op. 68, No. 5; No. 6; No. 10; No. 13; No. 15; No. 19; No. 22;
No. 30; No. 36; No. 43.

Mendelssohn, op. 72, No. 5.

Chopin, _Prélude_, op. 28, No. 17.

Mozart, pianoforte sonata No. 8, _Andante_ (entire).

Mozart, No. 18, _Andantino_ (of the "Fantasia").

Chopin, _Mazurkas_, No. 1, No. 2, No. 4, No. 5, No. 8, No. 15, No. 16,
No. 18, No. 37, No. 44, No. 48.


GROUPS OF PARTS:

Chopin, _Mazurkas_, No. 3 (apparently five Parts, not counting
repetitions; Part V corroborates Part I, but the intervening sections
are too independent to be regarded as one long Second Part,--as would
be the case if this corroboration were Part III).  Also No. 7 (same
design); No. 14 (four Parts, the last like the first); No. 19 (four
Parts, the fourth like the second); No. 20: No. 21; No. 27 (Part V like
I, Part IV like II); No. 34; No. 39; No. 41.

Schubert, _Momens musicals_, op. 94, No. 3.



CHAPTER XII.  THE SONG-FORM WITH TRIO.

Another method of enlargement consists in associating two
different--though somewhat related--Song-Forms.  The practice was so
common in certain of the older dances, particularly in the minuet, that
this design is also known as the _Minuet Form_.


THE PRINCIPAL SONG.--The first division, called the principal song, is
either a Two-Part or a Three-Part Song-form,--most commonly the latter.
It is generally entirely complete in itself; the fact that another
division is to be added, does not affect its character, form, or
conception.


THE "TRIO," OR SUBORDINATE SONG.--The division which follows, as second
song-form, was formerly called the "Trio," and it has retained the name
in the majority of examples of this form, although the old custom that
gave rise to the term has long since been discontinued.  A more
accurate designation, and one that we shall here adopt, is "Subordinate
Song."  (Other names, which the student will encounter, are "maggiore,"
"minore," "intermezzo," "alternative," etc.).

Like the principal song, its fellow (the subordinate song) may be
either a Two-Part or a Three-Part design.  It is very likely to
resemble its principal song in species of measure, tempo, and general
style; and its key may be the same as that of the principal division,
or, at least, related to it.  But similarity of style is by no means
obligatory, the element of contrast having become more important than
Unity, in a design of such extent.  It is also usually complete in
itself, though its connection with its principal song may involve a few
measures of transitional material.


THE "DA CAPO."--This association of song-forms is subject to the
principle which governs all tripartite forms, namely, the return to the
beginning, and confirmation of the first (or principal) statement; not
only because of the general desirability of such a return, but because
_the necessity for it increases with the growth of the form_.  In a
design that comprises a number of entire song-forms, it may be regarded
as indispensable.

Therefore, the subordinate song is followed by a recurrence of the
principal song,--called the _da capo_ (or "from the beginning"),
because of those Italian words of direction given to the player upon
reaching the end of the "Trio," or subordinate song.  The reproduction
of the principal division is likely to be literal, so that the simple
directions "_da capo_" suffice, instead of re-writing the entire
division.  But, here again, changes may be made,--generally unimportant
variations which do not obscure the form; or an abbreviation, or even
slight extension.  And a codetta or coda is sometimes added to the
whole.

The Song with Trio is thus seen to correspond to the Three-Part
Song-form, upon a larger scale.  The several _Parts_ of the latter
become complete _Song-forms_.  An important distinction, to which
especial attention must be directed, is the _completeness_ of the
contents of each song-form, and their fairly distinct _separation_ from
each other, in the Song with Trio.  The significance of these traits
will become apparent to the analytic student, as he progresses along
the line of form-evolution into the still larger designs.


LESSON 12.--The following examples all belong to the Song with Trio.
They should be analyzed as usual, each Song separately, defining the
Parts, their form, and other details, as minutely as possible.  Careful
analysis is the first condition of intelligent interpretation; and the
more complete the analysis, the fuller and more authoritative the
interpretation:--

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 2, No. 1, third movement; the
divisions are called _Menuetto_ and _Trio_, therefore this is an
authentic type of the present design; each is a complete Three-Part
Song-form; the key is the same, though a change from minor into major
takes place; after the _Trio_, the _Menuetto_ does not re-appear (on
the printed page), but its reproduction is demanded by the words
_Menuetto da capo_, at the end of the Trio.

Op. 2, No. 2, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 2, No. 3, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 7, third movement, _Allegro_ and _Minore_.

Op. 10, No. 2, second movement, _Allegretto_ (the subordinate song is
not marked, but is easily distinguished; there are no _da capo_
directions, because the principal song is re-written, with alterations).

Op. 10, No. 3, _Menuetto_ and _Trio_.

Op. 14, No. 1, second movement.  _Allegretto_ and _Maggiore_; a coda is
added.

Op. 22, _Menuetto_ and _Minore_.

Op. 26, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 27, No. 1, second movement, _Allegro molto_; the Trio is not
marked; the "_da capo_" is variated, and a coda follows.

Op. 27, No. 2, _Allegretto_ and _Trio_.

Op. 28, _Scherzo_ and _Trio_.

Op. 31, No. 3, _Menuetto_ and _Trio_.

Schumann, op. 68, No. 11; here there are no outward indications of the
Song with Trio, but that is the design employed; for the subordinate
song the measure is changed from 6-8 to 2-4, but the key remains the
same; the reproduction of the principal song is indicated in German,
instead of Italian.

No. 12, No. 29, No. 39 (here the _da capo_ is considerably changed).

In No. 37 the "subordinate song" is represented by no more than a brief
Interlude (measures 33-40) between the principal song and its
recurrence,--just sufficient to provide an occasion for the latter
(which, by the way, is also abbreviated).

Mozart, pianoforte sonatas: No. 2, _Andante cantabile_; each song-form
has two Parts; the subordinate song changes into the minor.

No. 9, second movement, _Menuettos_; the subordinate song is marked
"Menuetto II," a custom probably antedating the use of the word "Trio"
(see Bach, 2d English Suite, _Bourrée_ I and II).

No. 12, _Menuetto_.

Schubert, _Momens musicals_, op. 94, Nos. 1, 4, and 6.

Schumann, op. 82 (_Waldscenen_), Nos. 7 and 8.

Chopin, _Mazurkas_, Nos. 6, 12, 23, 47, 50.  In Nos. 10, 45, 46 and 51,
the subordinate song consists of one Part only, but is sufficiently
distinct, complete, and separate to leave no doubt of the form.

Also Chopin, _Nocturne_ No. 13 (op. 48, No. 1).

Examples of this compound Song-form will also be found, almost without
exception, in Marches, Polonaises, and similar Dance-forms; and in many
pianoforte compositions of corresponding broader dimensions, which, _if
extended beyond the very common limits of the Three-Part form_, will
probably prove to be Song with Trio.  This the student may verify by
independent analysis of pianoforte literature,--never forgetting that
uncertain examples may need (if small) to be classed among the
group-forms, or (if large) may be suspected of belonging to the higher
forms, not yet explained, and are therefore to be set aside for future
analysis.  Mention must be made of the fact that in some rare cases--as
in Mendelssohn's well-known "Wedding March"--_two Trios_, and
consequently two _da capos_, will be found.



CHAPTER XIII.  THE FIRST RONDO-FORM.

EVOLUTION.--It cannot have escaped the observant student of the
foregoing pages, that the successive enlargement of the structural
designs of musical composition is achieved by a process of natural
growth and progressive evolution.  No single form intrudes itself in an
arbitrary or haphazard manner; each design emerges naturally and
inevitably out of the preceding, in response to the necessity of
expansion, and conformably with the same constant laws of unity and
variety,--the active agents, along the entire unbroken line of
continuous evolution, being _reproduction_ (Unity) and legitimate
_modification_ (Variety); or, in other words, _modified repetition_.
It is upon the indisputable evidence of such normal evolution in the
system of musical structure, that our conviction of the legitimacy and
permanence of this system rests.

The diagrams which appear on pages 78 and 98 partly illustrate the line
of evolution, which, in its fullest significance, may be traced as
follows: the _tone_, by the simplest process of reproduction, became a
_figure_; the figure, by multiplication or repetition, gave rise to the
_motive_; the latter, in the same manner, to the _phrase_.  The
repetition of the phrase, upon the infusion of a certain quality and
degree of modification (chiefly affecting the cadences) became the
_period_; the latter, by the same process, became the double-period.
The limit of coherent phrase-succession (without a determined
interruption) being therewith reached, the larger Part-forms became
necessary.  The _Two-Part_ form emerged out of the double-period, the
two "connected" periods of which separated into two "independent"
Parts, by the determined interruption in the center.  And, be it well
understood, each new design having once been thus established, its
enlargement within its own peculiar boundaries followed as a matter of
course; I mean, simply, that the two Parts did not need to remain the
_periods_ that were their original type; the process of growth cannot
be stopped.  The _Three-Part_ form resulted from adding to the Two-Part
the perfecting reversion to the starting-point, and confirmation of the
principal statement.  The _Five-part_ form, and the _Song with Trio_
are enlargements of the Three-Part forms by repetition or
multiplication; and with the latter the limit of this particular
process appears to be achieved.  Any further growth must take place
from within, rather than by addition from without.

But the process of evolution continues steadily, as the student will
witness.  To one vital fact his attention is here called,--a fact which
he is enjoined to hold in readiness for constant application,--namely,
_that perfection of structural design is attained in the Three-Part
form, and that every larger (or higher) form will have its type in this
design, and its basis upon it_.  The coming designs will prove to be
expansions of the Three-Part form.


THE RONDO-FORMS.--The structural basis of the Rondo, and other larger
or (as they are sometimes called) higher forms, is the Subject or
Theme.  The form and contents of this factor, the Theme, are so
variable that a precise definition can scarcely be given.  It is a
musical sentence of very distinct character, as concerns its melodic,
harmonic and, particularly, its rhythmic consistency; and of sufficient
length to establish this individuality,--seldom, if ever, less than an
entire period or double-period; often a Two-Part, not infrequently a
complete Three-Part Song-form, though never more than the latter.

In the Rondo-forms, two or three such Themes are associated in such
_alternating succession that, after each new Theme, the first or
Principal Theme recurs_.  The term "Rondo" may be referred to this
trait, the periodic return of the Principal theme, which, in thus
"coming round" again, after each digression into another theme, imparts
a characteristic circular movement (so to speak), to the design.  In
the rondos, then, all the movements of musical development revolve
about one significant sentence or theme, the style of which therefore
determines the prevailing character of the whole composition.  This,
which is naturally called the Principal theme, is placed at the
beginning of the rondo.  Its end being reached, it is temporarily
abandoned for a second sentence, called the Subordinate theme, of more
or less emphatically contrasting style and of nearly or quite equal
length (generally shorter, however), and always in a different key.
After this there occurs the momentous _return to the beginning_,--the
most insistent and vital fundamental condition of good, clear, musical
form, of whatsoever dimension or purport,--and the _Principal_ theme
reasserts itself, recurring with a certain degree of variation and
elaboration (occasionally abbreviation), thus vindicating its title as
Principal theme, and stamping its fellow-theme as a mere digression.
After this,--if a still broader design is desired,--another digression
may be made into a new Subordinate theme, in still another key,
followed by the persistent return to the Principal theme.  And so on.
Upon the Subordinate theme, or themes, devolves the burden of variety
and contrast, while the Principal theme fulfils the requirements of
corroboration and concentration.  A coda, sometimes of considerable
length, is usually added; it appears to be necessary, as a means of
supplying an instinctive demand for balance, increased interest, and
certain other scarcely definable conditions of very real importance in
satisfactory music form.

Of the Rondo-forms there are three grades, distinguished respectively
_by the number of digressions_ from the Principal theme:--

The First Rondo-form, with one digression (or Subordinate theme), and
one return to the Principal theme;

The Second Rondo-form, with two digressions, and two returns;

The Third Rondo-form, with three digressions and three returns.  The
persistent recurrence of the Principal theme, something like a refrain,
and the consequent regular alternation of the chief sentence with its
contrasting subordinate sentences, are the distinctive structural
features of the Rondo.

{108}

THE FIRST RONDO-FORM.--This consists, then, of a Principal theme
(generally Two-Part or Three-Part Song-form); a Subordinate theme in a
different key (probably a smaller form); a recurrence of the Principal
theme (usually more or less modified or elaborated); and a coda.
Thus:--

 _Principal Theme.   Subordinate Theme.       Prin. Theme.    Coda._
 2- or 3-Part        Period, Double-period,   As before,      Optional
 Song-form.          2- or 3-Part             usually
 Probably a          form.  Different         variated.
 perfect cadence.    style and key.           Sometimes
 Possibly a few      Possibly a brief         abbreviated.
 beats or measures   codetta; and
 of transitional     usually a few
 material, leading   measures of
 into next theme.    Re-transition.

The design is that of the tripartite forms.  But it is not to be
confounded with the Three-Part _Song-form_, because at least one of its
Themes, and probably both, will be a Part-form by itself.  It is an
association of Song-forms, and therefore corresponds in design to the
_Song with Trio_.  The first Rondo differs from the latter, however, in
being more compact, more coherent and continuous, and more highly
developed.  This manifests itself in the relation of the Themes to each
other, which, despite external contrast, is more intimate than that
between the Principal and Subordinate Song (or Trio); further, in the
transitional passages from one Theme into the other (especially the
Re-transition, or "returning passage"); in the customary elaboration of
the recurring Principal Theme; and in the almost indispensable coda,
which often assumes considerable importance, and an elaborate form and
character.

The evolution of the First Rondo-form of the Song with Trio may be
clearly traced in classic literature.  Many intermediate stages appear,
naturally; and it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the
design is Rondo or compound Song-form, simply because it is scarcely
possible to decide just when the "Trio" assumes the more intimate
relation of a Subordinate theme, or when the freedom and comparative
looseness of association (peculiar to the Song with Trio) is
transformed into the closer cohesion and greater smoothness of finish
_which fuses all the component Parts of the design into one compact
whole_,--the distinctive stamp of all so-called "higher" forms.

The thoughtful examination and comparison of the following four
examples will elucidate the matter:--

1. Beethoven, first pianoforte sonata (op. 2, No. 1), _Menuetto_ and
_Trio_.  Already analyzed as a perfectly genuine Song with Trio.

2. Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 28, second movement, _Andante_.
The principal Song is in the Three-Part form, with exact repetitions.
The subordinate song differs so radically in style, and each song is so
complete and distinct from the other, that the form is almost certainly
Song with Trio; but there is a strong intimation of the Rondo-form in
the elaborate variation of the _da capo_, and in the treatment of the
coda (last 17 measures), in which motives from both Songs are
associated so closely as to vindicate their kinship.  In a word, this
movement possesses,--despite the apparent independence of its
Songs,--some degree of that continuity, compactness and artistic finish
which culminate in the genuine Rondo-form.

3. Mozart, pianoforte sonata, No. 10, second movement (_Rondeau en
polonaise_).  The continuity and unity of this composition is so
complete that it is certainly a Rondo-form; the principal theme is a
fairly large Three-Part form; the subordinate theme (measure 47-69) is
a Two-Part form, the second part corresponding in contents to the
second Part of the principal theme; the _recurrence_ of the principal
theme is abbreviated to one of its three Parts, and is merged in the
coda (last seven measures), which assumes the nature of a mere
extension.  Despite all this evidence, there still remains a certain
impression of structural independence, which, so to speak, betrays the
"seams," and militates somewhat against the spirit of the perfect
Rondo-form.  See also, No. 13, Adagio.

4. Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 2, No. 2, _Largo_; the unessential
details omitted in the following (in order to economize space) appear,
of course, in the original,--to which the student is expected to refer.

[Illustration: Example 54.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 54 continued.]

[Illustration: Example 54 continued.]


This is a genuine First Rondo-form.  All the factors of which it is
composed, Phrases, Parts and Themes, are so closely interlinked that
the continuity, cohesion and _unity_ of the whole is complete.  The
variety of contents which these factors exhibit (greatest, naturally,
between the two themes), does not disturb the impression that the whole
movement is a unit.  This is due, at least partly, to the manner in
which the perfect cadences are disguised; each one is passed over with
the least possible check of rhythmic movement (measures 8, 19, etc.),
thus snugly dove-tailing the structural factors.  The coda is elaborate
and unusually long; it consists of several "sections," as follows (see
the original): from measure 1 (the last measure in Ex. 54) to measure
4, a phrase, derived from the second Part of the Principal theme;
measures 5-7, an abbreviated repetition; measures 8-14, a phrase,
derived from the Principal theme; measures 15-17, a transitional
passage; measures 18-25, a period, closely resembling Part I of the
Principal theme; measures 26-30, final phrase.


LESSON 13.--Analyze the following examples.  They are not classified;
the student must determine whether the form is pure First Rondo, or an
intermediate grade between Rondo and "Song with Trio."  One of the
examples is a genuine Song with Trio; and one is a _Three-Part
Song-form_; with reasonable vigilance the student will detect these
"catches."  To distinguish these three designs from each other,
recollect--

That the Three-Part Song-form consists of three _single Parts_, fairly
similar in character, fairly small in form, and severed either by a
firm cadence, or by unmistakable proof of new "beginning;"

That in the first Rondo-form, at least one of the themes (if not both)
contains _two_ (or three) Parts; and,

That in the Song with Trio, the two "Songs" are more independent of
each other, and more decisively separated, than are the "themes" of the
Rondo-form.

With reference to all uncertain cases, it must be remembered that _the
more doubtful a distinction is, the less important is its decision_.
These designs naturally merge one in another, and at times it is folly
to impose a definite analysis upon them.

The analysis should be as minute as possible, nevertheless.  The first
step is to define the extremities of the two themes.  This fixes the
coda (and the introduction, if present); the re-transition (returning
passage into the Principal theme); and the transition into the
Subordinate theme--if present.  The form of each theme must be defined
in detail, as in Ex. 54:--

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 2, No. 1, _Adagio_.

Op. 7, _Largo_.

Op. 2, No. 3, _Adagio_.

Op. 79, _Andante_.

Op. 27, No. 1, _Allegro molto_.

Schubert, pianoforte _Impromptus_, op. 90, No. 2; and No. 3.

Chopin, _Mazurka_, No. 26.

Chopin, _Nocturnes_: op. 27, No. 1.

Op. 32, No. 2.

Op. 37, No. 2.

Op. 48, No. 1.

Op. 55, No. 1; and No. 2

Op. 62, No. 1.

Op. 72, No. 1 (E minor, posthumous).



CHAPTER XIV.  THE SECOND RONDO-FORM.

As described in the preceding chapter, the Second Rondo-form contains
two digressions from the Principal theme, called respectively the first
and second Subordinate themes.  It bears the same relation to the
Five-Part Song-form, that the First Rondo-form bears to the Three-Part
Song-form.

For the sake of effective contrast, _the two Subordinate themes are
generally differentiated_ to a marked degree; more precisely stated,
the _second_ Subordinate theme is likely to differ strikingly both from
the Principal theme and from the first Subordinate theme; the result is
that, as a general rule, the second digression is more emphatic than
the first.

To prevent the enlarged design from assuming too great dimensions, the
several themes are apt to be more concise than in the first Rondo-form;
the Two-Part form is therefore more common than the Three-Part; the
first Subordinate theme is generally brief, and the Principal theme
upon its recurrences, is frequently abbreviated,--especially the last
one, which often merges in the coda.

An example of the second Rondo-form (which may be sufficiently
illustrated without notes) will be found in the last movement of
Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 49, No. 2 (G major).  Number the one
hundred and twenty measures, and define the factors of the form with
close reference to the following indications--the figures in
parenthesis denoting the measures:

_Principal theme_.  Part I (1-8), period-form; Part II (9-12), phrase;
Part III (13-20), period-form.

_Transition_, period-form (21-27), leading into the new key.

_First Subordinate theme_, period-form (28-36), with

_Codetta_, repeated (37-42).

_Re-transition_ (43-47).

_Principal theme_, as before (48-67).

_Second Subordinate theme_, double-period (68-83); the process of
_Re-transition_ manifests its inception about one measure before (82),
and is carried on to measure 87.

_Principal theme_, as before (88-107).

_Coda_, period, with modified repetition of consequent phrase
(108-119),--followed by an extra perfect cadence, as extension.


LESSON 14.--Analyze the following examples, as usual.  Review the
directions given in Lesson 13:--

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 10, No. 3, last movement.

Op. 14, No. 2, last movement (called _Scherzo_).

Op. 79, last movement (very concise).

Op. 13, _Adagio_ (still more concise.  Is this not a Five-Part
Song-form?)

Beethoven, _Polonaise_ for the pianoforte, op. 89.

Mozart, _Rondo_ in A minor, for pianoforte.



CHAPTER XV.  THE THIRD RONDO-FORM.

In this form of composition there are three digressions from the
Principal theme.  But, in order to avert the excess of variety, so
imminent in a design of such length, the digressions are so planned
that _the third one corresponds to the first_.  That is, there are here
again only two Subordinate themes (as in the Second Rondo-form), which
alternate with each other, so that the succession of thematic factors
is as follows: Principal Theme; 1st Subordinate Theme; Principal Theme;
2d Subordinate Theme; Principal Theme; 1st Subordinate Theme; Principal
Theme; and coda.

It will be observed that this arrangement is another confirmation and
embodiment of the Three-Part (tripartite) form, with its "recurrence of
the first section," magnified into larger proportions than any examples
thus far seen.  The three portions are called, _Divisions_.  The first
is known as the _Exposition_, comprising the Principal Theme, First
Subordinate Theme, and recurrence of the Principal Theme; the second
division consists of the Second Subordinate Theme only; the Third
Division is the _Recapitulation_ of the first Division.


THE EXPOSITION.--This first Division, the "statement," compounded of
two themes and a recurrence, is in itself a complete (though probably
very concise) First Rondo-form; therefore, in order to confirm the
intended design, at least one of its themes must contain two (or more)
Parts,--otherwise it would be no more, all together, than a Three-Part
Song-form, and the _whole_ Rondo would be reduced to the design of the
First Rondo-form.  In a word, the Exposition must correspond concisely
to the table given on page 108.  The First Subordinate theme takes its
usual emphatic position in a different key,--generally closely related
to the key of the Principal theme.

Sometimes, but by no means regularly, the Exposition closes with a
decisive perfect cadence in the original key.

The Middle Division.--As this should balance (at least approximately),
the Exposition, it is likely to be a fairly broad design,--not greater,
however, than a Three-Part Song-form (possibly with repetitions), and
often no more than a Two-Part form.  As intimated in the preceding
chapter, the Second Subordinate theme is usually strongly contrasted
with the other themes, in character, key, and length; but the same
unity of total effect is necessary, as in the smaller Rondo-forms.  The
re-transition (or returning passage) is often quite lengthy and
elaborate; it is seldom an independent section of the form, however,
but generally developed out of the last phrase of the theme, by the
process of "dissolution,"--to be explained more fully in Chapter XVII.


THE RECAPITULATION.--This corresponds, theoretically, to the _da capo_
in the Song with Trio, or to the variated recurrence of the Principal
theme in the First Rondo-form.  But it is more than either of these.
The term "Recapitulation" is more comprehensive than "recurrence" (in
the sense in which we have thus far employed the latter word), as it
always refers to the reproduction of a _collection_ of themes, and,
chiefly on this account, is subject to certain specific conditions of
technical treatment.

Recapitulation, in the larger designs of composition, _invariably
involves transposition_, or change of key,--the transposition of the
First Subordinate theme, from the key chosen for its first announcement
(in the Exposition) back _to the principal key_ of the piece.   This,
as may be inferred, greatly affects the original transition and
re-transition; and it may necessitate changes within the theme itself,
in consequence of the change of register.

Further, the last recurrence of the Principal theme being no less than
its fourth announcement, is rarely complete; as a rule, a brief
intimation (the first motive or phrase) is deemed sufficient, and this
is then dissolved into the coda; or the Principal theme, as such, is
omitted, or affiliated with the coda, or one of its sections.

{119}

For an illustration of the Third Rondo-form, the student is referred to
the last movement of Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, op. 2, No. 2, the
diagram of which is as follows:--

                            _Middle_
      _Exposition._        _Division_          _Recapitulation._
 ------------------------  ----------  ----------------------------------
 Pr.Th. 1stSub.Th. Pr.Th.  2d Sub.Th.  Pr.Th. 1st Sub.Th. Pr.Th. and Coda
 ------------------------  ----------  ----------------------------------
 A maj.   E maj.   A maj.   A minor    A maj.   A maj.        A maj.


For its detailed analysis, number the measures as usual (there are 187,
the "second ending" not being counted), and define each factor of the
form by reference to the given indications,--the figures in parenthesis
again denoting the measures:--

_Principal Theme_, Part I (1-8), period-form.  Part II (9-12), phrase.
Part III (13-16), phrase.

_Transition_, period-form (17-26), leading into the new key.

_First Sub. Theme_, period, Antecedent (27-32), Consequent (33-39).

_Re-transition_ (40).

_Principal Theme_, as before, (41-56).  This ends the EXPOSITION.

_Second Sub. Theme_, Part I (57-66), period, literal repetition.  Part
II (67-74) period-form.  Part III (75-79) phrase.

Parts II and III repeated (80-92); the process of _re-transition_
begins one measure earlier (91), and is pursued to measure 99.

The RECAPITULATION begins in the next measure with the

_Principal Theme_, as before, slightly modified (100-115).

_Transition_, as before, slightly abbreviated (116-123).

_First Subordinate Theme_, as before, but transposed to the principal
key, A major, and somewhat modified (124-135).

_Principal Theme_ begins in measure 135, where the preceding theme
ends; consequently, there is an Elision.  In measure 140 it is
dissolved into the

_Coda_: Section 1 (to measure 148).

Section 2 (149-160).

Section 3 (161-172).

Section 4 (173-180).

Section 5 (to end).


LESSON 15.--Analyze the following examples, as usual.  They represent
chiefly the Third Rondo-form, but _one example each_ of the First and
Second Rondo-forms have been introduced, to stimulate the vigilance of
the student.  Review the directions given in Lesson 13:

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas: op. 26, last movement, (very concise,
but a perfect model of the form).

Op. 28, last movement.

Op. 7, last movement.

Op. 2, No. 3, last movement.

Op. 13, last movement.

Op. 22, last movement.

Op. 14, No. 1, last movement.

Op. 31, No. 1, _Adagio_.

Beethoven, _Rondos_ for pianoforte, op. 51, No. 1; and op. 51, No. 2.

Mozart, pianoforte sonata, No. 4, last movement; No. 3, last movement.



CHAPTER XVI.  THE SONATINE FORM.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE LARGER FORMS.--The Sonatine form is the smaller
variety of two practically kindred designs, known collectively as the
Sonata-allegro forms.  In order to obtain a clear conception of its
relation to the latter, and also to the Rondo-forms, it is necessary to
subject the entire group of so-called "higher" forms to a brief
comparison.

The larger, broader, or "higher" designs of musical composition are
divided into two classes: the three _Rondo-forms_, and the two
_Sonata-allegro forms_.  The latter constitute the superior of the two
classes, for the following reasons:--

In the first place, the rondos rest upon a narrower thematic basis,
centering in one single theme--the Principal one--about which the other
themes revolve.  Further, their most salient structural feature is
nothing more significant than simple _alternation_ (of the Principal
theme with its one or more Subordinates) the Principal theme recurs
after each digression with a persistence that lends a certain
one-sidedness to the form,--only excepting in the Third (and highest)
Rondo-form, which, by virtue of its broad Recapitulation of the first
Division, approaches most nearly the rank of the Sonata-allegro design,
as will be seen.

In the Sonata-allegro forms, on the other hand, the leading purpose is
_to unite two co-ordinate themes upon an equal footing_; one is to
appear as often as the other; and the two themes _together_ constitute
the thematic basis of the design.  These are, as in the rondos, a
Principal theme (called principal because it appears first, and thus
becomes in a sense the index of the whole movement), and a Subordinate
theme (so called in contradistinction to the other),--contrasting in
character, as usual, but actually of equal importance, and of nearly or
quite equal length.  To these, there is commonly added a codetta (or
"concluding theme" as it is {122} sometimes called, though it seldom
attains to the dignity of a _theme_),--sometimes two, or even more,
codettas, which answer the general purpose of a coda, rounding off and
balancing this Division of the design.  This union of the two or three
thematic components that are to represent the contents of the design,
is the _Exposition_, or first Division, of the Sonata-allegro forms.
It indicates a point of contact between the latter and the rondo,--in
the _Third_ form of which we also find an Exposition.  Careful
comparison of the two types of exposition reveals the significant
difference between the two classes, however; in the Third Rondo, the
exposition was an _alternation_ of themes, with decided preference for
the principal one; in the Sonata-allegro it is a _union_ of themes,
without preference, resulting in a broader thematic basis.


THE SONATINE FORM.--In the Sonatine-form, or the smaller variety of the
sonata-allegro designs, this Exposition (or first Division) is followed
_at once_,--or after a few measures of interlude, or re-transitional
material,--by a Recapitulation of the Division, as was seen in the
Third Rondo-form, and under the same conditions of transposition as
there.  The diagram of the form is therefore as follows:--

          Exposition.                           Recapitulation.
 -----------------------------           ------------------------------
 PR. TH.    SUB. TH.  CODETTA.   Very    PR. TH.   SUB. TH.   CODETTA.
 -----------------------------   brief   ------------------------------
 As usual.  In some   Optional.  Inter-  As        In the     Also in
            related              lude    before.   principal  principal
            key.                                   key.       key.

An additional coda is, as usual, likely to appear at the end.

This diagram should be very carefully compared with that of the Third
Rondo-form on page 119, and the points both of agreement and
dissimilarity noted.  More minute details of the Sonatine form will be
given in the next chapter, in connection with the larger and more fully
developed Sonata-allegro form.

An illustration of the Sonatine-form will be found in Mozart, 6th
pianoforte sonata, _adagio_.  Number the measures, as usual, and
analyze with reference to the indications given; the figures in
parenthesis again denote the measures.

_Principal Theme_, B-flat major, period-form,--possibly double-period,
because of the slow tempo and large measures (1-8).  There is no
Transition.

_Subordinate Theme_, F major, period-form, extended.  Antecedent
(9-12); consequent, very similar (13-16); extension by addition of new
phrase, as in the group-form (16 1/2-19).

_Codetta_, also in F major, very brief, only one-half measure, and
repeated as usual (19 1/2-20).  This ends the Exposition.

_Interlude_, the remaining beats of measure 20; it is, of course, a
brief re-transition, and is therefore strongly suggestive of the First
Rondo-form, the _details of which exactly coincide, thus far, with the
above factors of the sonatine-form_.   Such coincidences merely confirm
the unbroken line of evolution, and are to be expected in the system of
legitimate, rational music designs.  The RECAPITULATION (the original
_da capo_) follows, beginning with the

_Principal Theme_, B-flat major, as before (21-28) but somewhat
embellished.  Again, there is no Transition.  (Here the similarity to
the First Rondo ends.)

_Subordinate Theme_, corresponds very closely to the former version,
but transposed to B-flat major, the principal key, and variated (29-39).

_Codetta_, also in B-flat major (39 1/2-40), slightly extended.  There
is no coda.


LESSON 16.--Analyze the following examples of the sonatine-form, in the
usual exhaustive manner:--

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas; op. 10, No. 1, _Adagio_.

Op. 31, No. 2, _Adagio_.

Mendelssohn, _Andante cantabile_ in B-flat major (pianoforte).

Mozart, pianoforte sonata.  No. 17, _Andante amoroso_ (somewhat longer
interlude).

Mendelssohn, _Presto agitato_ in B minor for pianoforte (preceded by an
"Andante cantabile" which has no connection with the sonatine-form of
the _presto_, but may also be analyzed).  This design is very broad;
each factor is expanded to its fullest legitimate extent, especially
the "codetta" section.



{124}

CHAPTER XVII.  THE SONATA-ALLEGRO FORM.

ORIGIN OF THE NAME.--The fully developed Sonata-allegro form is the
design in which the classic overture and the first movement of the
symphony, sonata and concerto are usually framed.  The student must be
careful not to confound this musical form with the _complete_ sonata of
three or four movements.  It is not to be called the "sonata form," but
the "sonata-allegro form."  It is to one movement only, generally the
first one, which is (or was) very commonly an _allegro_ tempo in the
sonata and symphony, that the present design refers; and its name,
sonata-allegro, is derived from that old historic species of the sonata
which consisted originally of but one movement, generally an _allegro_.


THE SONATA-ALLEGRO FORM.--As distinguished from the sonatine-form, with
its two Divisions, this larger species, based upon precisely the same
structural idea, has _three Divisions_,--the Exposition, a middle
Division called the Development (growing out of the brief interlude of
the sonatine-form), and the Recapitulation.  The diagram (the keys of
which correspond to the plan of Beethoven, op. 14, No. 2, first
movement) is as follows:

      Exposition.        Middle Div.         Recapitulation.
 ----------------------  -------------  -------------------------
 Pr.    Sub.   Codetta.  Development,   Phr.    Sub.    Codetta
 Th.    Th.              various keys,  Th.     Th.     and Coda.
 ----------------------  ending with    -------------------------
 G maj. D maj.  D maj.   Retransition.  G maj.  G maj.  G maj.


Compare this diagram, also, with that of the Third Rondo-form, and
note, accurately, the points of resemblance and contrast.

Compare it, further, with the diagram of the sonatine-form, on page
122.  It will be observed that here the Recapitulation does not follow
the Exposition at once, as there, but that a complete middle division
intervenes, instead of the brief interlude or re-transition; from which
the student may conclude that the sonatine-form gradually grows into
the sonata-allegro form, as this interlude becomes longer, more
elaborate, and more like an independent division of the design.  Or
inversely, and perhaps more correctly, the sonata-allegro becomes a
sonatine-design _by the omission (or contraction) of the middle
Division_.


THE EXPOSITION.--The presentation of the thematic factors, the
statement or Exposition of the two themes and codetta, is made exactly
as in the sonatine-form, though probably upon a broader scale.  The
Principal theme is usually a Two-Part Song-form, at least; often
Three-Part.  In broader designs, a separate transitional passage
appears; in more concise designs, the transition is developed out of
the last Part of the Principal theme by the process of dissolution--as
will be seen.  The object of the transition is, as usual, _to lead into
the new key_ (of the Subordinate theme).  It is sometimes, though very
rarely, omitted.

The Subordinate theme contrasts notably with its fellow, but asserts
equal importance, as a rule, and may be of equal, or nearly equal,
length.  The addition of a codetta is almost indispensable, and
frequently two or more appear, growing successively shorter, and
generally repeated.  In the sonata-allegro _the Exposition closes, as a
rule, with a very decisive perfect cadence_, followed by a double-bar,
and--especially in older sonatas--repetition-marks; the repetition of
the Exposition being justly considered important, as a means of
emphasizing the "statement," and enforcing the hearer's attention to
the thematic contents before preceding to their development in the
second division of the form.  In the sonatine-form, on the contrary,
this positive termination of the Exposition (and consequently the
double-bar and repetition) will very rarely be found.


THE DEVELOPMENT, OR MIDDLE DIVISION.  The second division of the
sonata-allegro form is devoted to a more or less extensive and
elaborate manipulation and combination of such figures, motives,
phrases or Parts of the Exposition as prove inviting and convenient for
the purpose, or challenge the imaginative faculty of the composer.  In
this division, opportunity is provided for the exhibition of technical
skill, imagination and emotional passion; for the creation of ingenious
contrasts and climaxes, and, in a word, for the development of
unexpected resources not strikingly manifest in the more sober
presentation of the thematic factors during the Exposition.  The
intermingling of _new material_ is naturally also involved in the
process of development; sometimes to such an extent that the new
predominates over the old,--in which case the middle Division is more
properly called an EPISODE.

This second Division of the sonata-allegro form (the Development or
Episode) corresponds precisely, as will be recognized, to the second
Part of the Three-Part Song-form; consequently, it represents the
"departure" (see page 90), and entails, in rational form, the
significant "return" to the beginning.  Further, it matches to some
degree the "digression" in the rondo-forms.  At all events, its
important structural function is to establish contrast; and the
necessity for corroboration of the leading thematic ideas--in
consequence of this contrast--is satisfied in the Division which
succeeds.

It is sometimes possible to mark the exact point where the Development
ends and the process of re-transition commences; but usually the return
to the beginning is accomplished so gradually that no sensible
interruption occurs.


THE RECAPITULATION.--This, the third Division, is, as usual, a review
of the original presentation of the thematic material,--the recurrence
of the Exposition.  It is sometimes a nearly exact reproduction,
_excepting the necessary change of key in the Subordinate theme and
codetta_, and such modification of the transitional section as may be
thereby involved.  Sometimes, however, considerable alteration is made,
at times so elaborate (especially in broader examples) that, though
preserving easy recognizability, the Recapitulation assumes the
appearance of a new version of the Exposition, and becomes a more
independent part of the design.

A _coda_ is almost always added; sometimes brief, but occasionally so
elaborate and extensive as to merit the appellation "second
Development."


DISSOLUTION.--When any section of a higher form starts out with a
perfectly definite structural intention, pursues this intention for a
time (sufficient to establish it), but then insensibly diverges and
gradually adopts a new modulatory direction,--as transition into the
following section,--the form is said to be dissolved.  Such dissolution
takes place, naturally, within the _later_ section of the theme, or
Part, or whatever it may be, whose actual, definite ending in the
expected key is thus frustrated.  For instance, the second (or third)
Part of a theme may be dissolved; or the last phrase of a period or
double-period; or the repetition of a phrase.  And the dissolution is
invariably applied before a transition or re-transition, as a means of
interlocking the factors of the form more closely and coherently.
Therefore it is a process peculiarly adapted to the higher designs of
composition, and is seldom omitted in the sonata-allegro form.  For an
illustration, see Beethoven's sonata, op. 14, No. 2, first movement:
The Principal theme is a Two-Part Song-form; Part I, a period, from
measures 1 to 8; Part II begins in measure 9, and has every appearance
of becoming also a period; its Antecedent phrase closes in measure 12,
its Consequent begins in measure 13--but its end, _as Second Part_, in
the usual definite manner, cannot be indicated; the key is quietly
changed from G to D, and then to A, in obedience to the call of the
Subordinate theme (beginning in measure 26), into which these last 10
or 12 measures have evidently been a Transition.  The Second Part of
the Principal theme therefore includes the transition; but where the
Second Part (as such) ends, and the transition (as such) begins, it is
impossible to point out accurately.  The definition of this Principal
theme is, "Two-Part form with dissolved Second Part," or, still better,
"_with transitional Second Part_."

      *      *      *      *      *      *

In our illustration of the sonata-allegro form it is necessary, on
account of limited space, to select a very concise example, of unusual
brevity,--Beethoven, sonata, op. 49, No. 1, first movement; the
original may be referred to, for the omitted details:--

[Illustration: Example 55.  Fragment of Beethoven.]

[Illustration: Example 55 continued.]

[Illustration: Example 55 continued.]

[Illustration: Example 55 continued.]


The thematic factors are small, but none is omitted; every essential
component is represented.

For a more extended and fully developed example of the sonata-allegro
form, see Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 14, No. 2, first movement;
number the 200 measures, and verify all the details according to the
following analysis (figures in parenthesis refer as usual to the
measures):--

_Principal Theme_, Part I, period-form (1-8).  Part II (9- ), dissolved
(about 14) into _Transition_ ( -25).

_Subordinate Theme_, Part I, period, extended (26-36).  Part II,
period, probably (37-41-47).

_Codetta I_, period, extended (48-58).

_Codetta II_, Small phrase, extended (59-63).  Here the Exposition
closes, with the customary double-bar and repetition marks.

_Development_, Section I (64-73), from Principal theme.  Section 2
(74-80), from Subordinate theme.  Section 3 (81-98), from Principal
theme.  Section 4 (99-107), closely resembling the Principal theme, but
in a remote key.  This section practically ends the Development,
inasmuch as it culminates upon the _dominant of the original key_.
Section 5 (107-115), establishment of the dominant.  Section 6
(115-124), the _Re-transition_.  The _Recapitulation_ begins with the

_Principal Theme_, Part I, period (125-132).  Part II, group of
phrases, longer than before (133-152).

_Subordinate Theme_, as before, but in the principal key (153-174).

_Codetta (I)_, as before, but slightly extended (175-187).  The second
codetta is omitted.

_Coda_, phrase, repeated and extended (188-200).


RELATION TO THE THREE-PART SONG-FORM.--In a former chapter (XIII) the
Three-Part form was defined as the type of perfect structural design,
upon which every larger (or higher) form is based.  Nowhere is the
connection more striking, and the process of natural evolution out of
this germ more directly apparent, than in the sonata-allegro design.
See the diagram on page 124.  The Exposition corresponds to the First
Part, _so expanded as to comprise the two themes and codetta_, fused
into one larger division; the "statement" of a more comprehensive
thematic group than the ordinary Part contains, but no more, for all
that, than the usual initial "statement."  The Development corresponds
to the Second Part (proportionately expanded), and the Recapitulation
to the Third Part, or recurrence and confirmation of the "statement."

Any Three-Part Song-form, the moment that its First Part expands and
divides into the semblance of two fairly distinct thematic sections,
becomes what might be called a miniature sonata-allegro form.  Many
Three-Part Song-forms are so broad, and many sonata-allegros so
diminutive, that it is here again often difficult to determine the line
of demarcation between them.  Example 55 (cited because of its
comparative brevity) is scarcely more than such a broadly expanded
Three-Part Song-form.  An example which approaches much more nearly the
unmistakable Three-Part song, may be found in Mozart, sonata No. 12,
_Menuetto_:--

_Part I_, section one (embryo of a principal theme), measures 1-10,
period, extended; section two (embryo of a subordinate theme) measures
11-18, period, _in different key_.

_Part II_, group of three phrases, measures 19-30.

_Part III_, section one, as before, measures 31-40; section two, as
before, _but in the principal key_, measures 41-48.

This is, of course, a Three-Part Song-form; but the essential features
of the Sonata-allegro are unquestionably present, in miniature.

See also, Beethoven, sonata, op. 101, first movement; certainly a
sonata-allegro design, but diminutive.

      *      *      *      *      *      *

The superiority of the sonata-allegro form over all other musical
designs, is amply vindicated by the breadth of its thematic basis, the
straightforwardness and continuity of its structural purpose, the
perfection of its thematic arrangement, and the unexcelled provision
which it affords for unity, contrast, corroboration, balance, and
whatever else a thoroughly satisfactory structural design seems to
demand.  Hence, while brief triumphs of apparent "originality" may be
achieved by simply running counter to this and similar designs, it
seems scarcely possible that any musical form could be contrived that
would surpass the sonata-allegro, the last and highest of the forms of
composition.


LESSON 17.--Analyze the following examples, as usual, carefully
defining all the details of the form, according to the general plan
adopted in our text:--

Beethoven, pianoforte sonatas; op. 2, No. 1, first movement
(diminutive, but very complete and perfect).

Op. 2, No. 2, first movement.

Op. 10, No. 3, _Largo_.

Op. 22, first movement (four or five codettas).

Op. 14, No. 1, first movement.

Op. 22.  _Adagio_.

Op. 27, No. 2, last movement.

Op. 28, first movement.

Op. 31, No. 1, first movement.

Op. 31, No. 3, first movement (the last 2 1/2 measures of the
Exposition are a transitional Interlude, which leads back into the
repetition, and on into the Development).

Same sonata, _Scherzo_.

Op. 31, No. 2, last movement (coda contains the entire principal theme).

Op. 78, first movement (diminutive).

Op. 79, first movement.

Op. 90, first movement, (no "double-bar").

Op. 57, first movement.

Same sonata, last movement.

Mozart, sonatas: No. 7, first movement.

No. 3, first movement.  No. 4, first movement; also _Andante_.

No. 8, first movement.  No. 5, first movement.

No. 10, first movement.  No. 6, first movement.

No. 1, _Andante_.  No. 6, last movement.

Mendelssohn, pianoforte _Caprice_, op. 33, No. 2 (brief introduction).

Sonata, op. 6, first movement.

Op. 7, No. 7.

_Fantasia_, op. 28, last movement.

Schubert, pianoforte sonatas: op. 143, first movement.

Op. 42, first movement.

Op. 120, first movement.

Op. 147, first movement (in the Recapitulation, the principal theme is
transposed).

Op. 164, first movement (the same).

Beethoven, symphony, No. 5, first movement.

Symphony, No. 1, first _Allegro_; also the second movement; and the
_Finale_.



CHAPTER XVIII.  IRREGULAR FORMS.

CAUSES.--Despite the many points of resemblance between the various
forms to which our successive chapters have been devoted,--the natural
consequence of a continuous line of structural evolution to which each
plan owes its origin,--they are separate and independent designs, with
individual character and purpose; so much so, that the composer may,
and usually does, select and apply his form according to the purpose
which he has in view.  But the form is made for the music, not the
music for the form; no serious composer writes music for the sake of
the form, but chooses the form merely as a means to an end.  The
highest ideal of structural dignity and fitness is, to work from the
thematic germ _outward_, and to let the development of this germ, _the
musical contents_, determine and justify the structural plan and
arrangement.

But the aims of the composer outnumber the regular forms, and therefore
modifications are unavoidable, in order to preserve the latitude which
perfect freedom of expression demands.  The student may rest assured of
the existence of many irregular species of these fundamental forms (as
exceptions to the rule) and must expect to encounter no little
difficulty and uncertainty in defining the class to which his example
belongs,--until wider experience shall have made him expert.

All such irregular (or, in a sense, intermediate) varieties of form
must necessarily either admit of demonstration as modification of the
regular designs; or they will evade demonstration altogether, as
lacking those elements of logical coherence which constitute the vital
and only condition of "form and order" in musical composition.

To these latter comparatively "_formless_" designs belong:--all the
group-forms; the majority of fantasias, the potpourri, and, as a rule,
all so-called tone-poems, and descriptive (program) music generally.

On the other hand, those irregular designs which nevertheless admit of
analysis according to the fundamental principles of structural logic,
and are therefore directly referable to one or another of the regular
forms, may be classified in the following four-fold manner--as
Augmentation, Abbreviation, Dislocation, or Mixture, of the proximate
fundamental design.


1.  AUGMENTATION OF THE REGULAR FORM.--To this species belong those
forms (small and large) which are provided with a separate
Introduction, or Interludes, or an _independent_ Coda (in addition to,
or instead of, the usual consistent coda).

For example, Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 13, first movement; the
first ten measures (_Grave_) are a wholly independent Introduction, in
phrase-group form, with no other relation to the following than that of
key, and no connection with the fundamental design excepting that of an
extra, superfluous, member.  The principal theme of the movement (which
is a sonata-allegro) begins with the _Allegro di molto_, in the 11th
measure.  Similar superfluous sections, derived from this Introduction,
reappear as Interlude between the Reposition and Development, and near
the end, as independent sections of the coda.

In a manner closely analogous to that just seen, the fundamental design
of any movement in a _concerto_ is usually expanded by the addition of
periodically recurring sections, called the "_tutti_-passages," and by
a "_cadenza_," occurring generally within the regular coda.  In some
concerto-allegros (for instance, in the classic forms of Mozart,
Beethoven and others), the first orchestral _tutti_ is a complete
_introductory_ Exposition, in concise form, of the thematic material
used in the body of the movement.  See the first piano-forte concerto
of Beethoven, first movement.

Further, when the design is one of unusual breadth, as in some
symphonic movements, or in elaborate chamber music, the number of
fundamental thematic members may be so multiplied that it is necessary
to assume the presence of _two successive Subordinate themes_, of equal
independent significance,--such significance that neither of them could
be confounded with a mere codetta, or any other inferior thematic
member.  See Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 7, first movement; the
Subordinate theme runs from measure 41 to 59; it is followed by another
thematic section (60-93) which is so independent, important and
lengthy, that it evidently ranks coordinate with the former, as _second
Subordinate theme_.  It might, it is true, be called the second Part of
the Subordinate theme (the latter being no more than a repeated
period); or it might be regarded as the first codetta; its thematic
independence seems, however, to stamp it Second Subordinate theme.

Further, it is not uncommon to extend the sonatine-form by adding, at
the end, a more or less complete recurrence of the Principal
theme,--instead of, or dissolved into, the customary coda.  This may be
seen in Mozart, pianoforte sonata, No. 3, _Andantino_; the superfluous
recurrence of the Principal theme begins in measure 19 from the end,
after the regular sonatine-design has been achieved, fully, though
concisely.


2. ABBREVIATION OF THE REGULAR FORM.--This consists chiefly in the
omission of the Principal theme after the Development (that is, in
beginning the Recapitulation with the Subordinate theme).  Other
contractions, by omission of _portions_ (Parts) of important thematic
members, during the Recapitulation, are also possible, but not so
common.

An illustration of the omitted Principal theme may be found in
Mendelssohn, Songs Without Words, No. 5:--

_Principal Theme_, period, extended (measures 1-11, dissolved into
Transition--18).

_Subordinate Theme_, phrase, repeated and extended (19-28).  _Codetta_
(28-33).  _Double-bar_.

_Development_ (measures 34-58).  _Retransition_ (59-62).

_Principal Theme_--omitted.

_Subordinate Theme_, as before (63-76).  _Codetta_.


3. DISLOCATION OF THEMATIC MEMBERS.--By this is meant, any exchange or
alteration of the regular and expected arrangement of members.  This
can refer, naturally, only to what occurs _after the Exposition_,--that
is, during the Recapitulation; for it is the Exposition which
determines the plan, and regular order, of the thematic members.  For
example, Mozart, pianoforte sonata.  No. 13, first movement:--

_Principal Theme_, with _Transition_ (measures 1-27).

_Subordinate Theme_ (28-41).

_Codetta I_ (42-53).

_Codetta II_ (54-58).  In the Recapitulation, the arrangement is thus:--

_Principal Theme, Codetta I, Subordinate Theme, Codetta II_; that is,
the first codetta appears before, instead of after, the Subordinate
theme.


4. MIXTURE OF CHARACTERISTIC TRAITS.--This process tends to affiliate
the two distinct classes of larger or higher forms, whose respective
characteristics were explained and compared at the beginning of Chapter
XVI.  Upon very careful revision of this explanation, and reference to
the given diagrams, the student will perceive that the distinctive
trait of the sonata-allegro form is the section of Development which it
contains; and that of the three Rondo-forms is the absence of such a
Development.  Of the mixed forms under consideration there are two: one
in which a section of _Development_ is introduced into the Rondo (as
substitute for one of its Subordinate themes); and the other a
sonata-allegro, in which the Development is omitted, and a new theme (a
sort of additional Subordinate theme) inserted in its place.  In other
words, a Rondo (second or third form--probably _not_ the first
rondo-form) with a Development; and a sonata-allegro with a new Middle
theme, or Episode (as we have already called it).

The Rondo with Development is illustrated in Beethoven, pianoforte
sonata, op. 27, No. 1, last movement; it is the third rondo-form,
designed as follows:--

_Principal Theme_, Two-Part form (measures 1-24).

_Transition_ (25-35).

_First Subordinate Theme_, period, extended,--or phrase-group (36-56).
_Codetta_ (57-72).

_Re-transition_ (73-81).

_Principal Theme_ (82-97).

_Transition_ (98-106).  Then, instead of the Second Subordinate theme, a

_Development_ (106-138); followed by an elaborate

_Re-transition_ (139-166), and a regular

_Recapitulation_.  Two wholly independent coda-sections are added, an
_Adagio_ (derived from the third movement of the sonata) and a
_Presto_, based upon the Principal theme.

The sonata-allegro with new Middle theme is illustrated in Beethoven,
pianoforte sonata, op. 14, No. 1, first movement; the middle Division
contains a preliminary allusion to the Principal theme, but is
otherwise an entirely new thematic member, very suggestive of the
"Second Subordinate theme" of the Rondos (17-measures long,--up to the
Re-transition, in which, again, the Principal theme is utilized).


LESSON 18.--Analyze the following examples of Irregular form.  They are
classified, as in the text:--

1. Beethoven, sonata, op. 81, first movement.

Beethoven, sonata, op. 49, No. 2, first movement.

Beethoven, sonata, op. 2, No. 3, first movement.

Beethoven, sonata, op. 49, No. 1, last movement (_not_ "Rondo," as
marked, but sonatine-form, augmented).

Mozart, sonata No. 1, first movement.

Mozart, sonata No. 17, last movement (Rondo, with three Subordinate
themes).

Mendelssohn, _Capriccio brillant_, in B minor.  Schubert, pianoforte
sonata No. 8 (Peters ed.).  _Adagio_.

2. Mendelssohn, _Praeludium_, op. 35, No. 3.

Mozart, sonata No. 8, last movement.

Schubert, sonata No. 8, last movement.

Brahms, pianoforte _Capriccio_, op. 116, No. 1.

Chopin, pianoforte sonata, op. 35, first movement.

3. Mozart, sonata No. 3, first movement.

Mozart, sonata No. 13, last movement (the Development occurs _after_
instead of before the Principal theme,--in the Recapitulation).

4. Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 31, No. 1, last movement.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 90, last movement.

Mendelssohn, pianoforte étude, op. 104, No. 2.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 10, No. 1, first movement.

Beethoven, pianoforte sonata, op. 2, No. 1, last movement.

Mozart, sonata No. 7, _Andante_.

Mozart, sonata No. 14, last movement.



CHAPTER XIX.  APPLICATION OF THE FORMS.

The use of the various forms of composition, that is, their selection
with a view to general fitness for the composer's object, is,
primarily, simply a question of length.  The higher aesthetic law of
adjusting the design to the contents, of which we spoke in the
preceding chapter, comes into action after the main choice has been
determined.

The smallest complete form, that of the PHRASE, can scarcely be
expected to suffice for an independent piece of music, though its
occurrence as independent _section_ of an entire composition is by no
means rare.  The nearest approach to the former dignity is the use of
the Large phrase in one instance by Beethoven, as theme for his
well-known pianoforte Variations in C minor; this theme, and
consequently each variation, is a complete and practically independent
composition.  At the beginning of Beethoven's pianoforte sonata, Op.
27, No. 1, the student will find a succession of independent
four-measure phrases, each with a definite perfect cadence, and
therefore complete in itself; this chain of independent phrases is, in
fact, the structural basis of the entire first movement, interrupted
but briefly by the contrasting _Allegro_.  The simple phrase may, also,
find occasional application in brief exercises for song or piano; and
we have witnessed its use as introduction, and as codetta, in many of
the larger designs.

The next larger complete form, the PERIOD, is somewhat more likely to
be chosen for an entire composition, but by no means frequently.  The
early grades of technical exercises (public-school music, and similar
phases of elementary instruction) are commonly written in period-form,
and some of the smallest complete songs in literature (a few of
Schumann's, Schubert's, and others) may be defined as period-forms,
extended.  The theme of the Chaconne (found in the works of Handel,
Bach, and even some modern writers) is usually a period.  Of the
Préludes of Chopin for pianoforte (op. 28), at least four do not exceed
the design of the extended period.  But these are, naturally,
exceptional cases; the proper function of the period-form in music is,
to represent the _Parts_, and other fairly complete and independent
thematic members of larger forms.  This is very largely true of the
DOUBLE-PERIOD, also; though it is a very appropriate and common design
for the hymn-tune, and similar vocal compositions; and is somewhat more
likely to appear as complete composition (in exercises, smaller piano
pieces and songs) than is the single period.  Nine of Chopin's Préludes
are double-periods.

The TWO-PART SONG-FORM, as already intimated, is not as common as might
be supposed.  It is sometimes employed in smaller compositions for
piano (variation-themes and the like), or voice; and is probably the
form most frequently chosen for the hymn-tune.  But its most important
place in composition is in the larger forms, as its design adapts it
peculiarly to the purposes of the themes, both principal and
subordinate.

The THREE-PART SONG-FORM, on the contrary, is unquestionably the most
common of all the music designs.  Probably three-fourths of all our
literature are written in this form, with or without the repetitions,
or in the related Five-Part form.  It is therefore difficult to
enumerate the styles of composition to which this admirable design is
well adapted, and for which it is employed.

The GROUP-FORMS will be found in many songs, études, anthems, and
compositions of a fantastic, capricious, rather untrammeled character,
in which freedom of expression overrules the consideration of clear,
definite form.  It is the design perhaps most commonly selected for the
Invention, Fugue, and--particularly--the various species of Prélude;
though these styles, and others of decidedly fanciful purpose, are not
unlikely to manifest approximate, if not direct, correspondence to the
Three-Part Song-form.  The modern Waltz is usually a group of
Song-forms.

The SONG-FORM WITH TRIO is encountered in older dances, especially the
Menuetto, Passapied, Bourrée, and Gavotte (though even these are often
simple Three-Part form, without Trio); and in many modern
ones,--excepting the Waltz.  It is characteristic of the March,
Polonaise, modern Minuet, Gavotte and other dances, and of the
Minuet--or Scherzo-movement, in sonatas and symphonies.

The FIRST RONDO-FORM is sometimes substituted for the Song with Trio
(to which it exactly corresponds in fundamental design, as we have
learned) in compositions whose purpose carries them beyond the limits
of the Three- or Five-Part forms, and in which greater unity, fluency
and cohesion are required than can be obtained in the song with trio;
for instance, in larger Nocturnes, Romanzas, Ballades, Études, and so
forth.  The peculiar place for the First Rondo-form in literature,
however, is in the "slow movement" (_adagio, andante, largo_) of the
sonata, symphony and concerto, for which it is very commonly chosen.
It may also be encountered in the _small_ Rondos of a somewhat early
date; and is of course possible in broader vocal compositions (large
opera, arias, anthems, etc.).

From what has just been said, the student will infer that the
rondo-form is not employed exclusively in pieces that are called
"Rondo."  In the sense in which we have adopted the term, it applies to
a _design_, and not to a style, of composition; precisely as the
sonata-allegro form may appear in a composition that is not a sonata.
This must not be overlooked.  Furthermore, there are a few cases in
literature in which a movement marked "Rondo" is not written according
to the rondo-form.

The Second and Third Rondo-forms are so similar in purpose and
character that they are generally applied in the same manner, with no
other distinction than that of length.  Besides occasional occurrence
as independent compositions (for instance, the two Rondos of Beethoven,
op. 51, the A minor Rondo of Mozart, the Rondos of Field, Dussek,
Hummel, Czerny, etc.), these designs are most commonly utilized for the
_Finale_ (last movement) of the complete sonata, concerto,
string-quartet, trio, and other chamber-music styles; more rarely for
the finale of the symphony.

The SONATINE and SONATA-ALLEGRO FORMS, likewise, serve corresponding
purposes, and are chosen according to the length or breadth of design
desired.  The sonatine-form may therefore be expected in the first
movement of smaller sonatas, or sonatinas (as they are often called),
but it is not infrequently employed in the "slow movement" of larger
sonatas or symphonies.

The most distinguished of all music-designs, the sonata-allegro form,
is almost invariably chosen for the opening movement of sonatas,
symphonies, concertos, trios, string-quartets and similar compositions,
sometimes in greatly augmented dimensions.  It is also not unlikely to
appear in the slow movement, and _finale_, of the symphony.


LESSON 19.--The student may now indulge in independent research, in the
careful analysis of the following works:

The pianoforte sonatas of Haydn (every movement of each).  The sonatas
for pianoforte and violin of Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Rubinstein,
Grieg, and others.

The Trios of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Schubert.

The String-quartets (in pianoforte arrangement) of Haydn, Mozart,
Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Brahms, Schubert.

The Overtures (in pianoforte arrangement) of Mozart, Beethoven, Weber,
Cherubim.

The Concertos (pianoforte or violin) of Mozart, Beethoven, Mendelssohn,
Rubinstein, Saint-Saëns, Schumann, Grieg, Chopin.  Also a number of
smaller (single) pianoforte compositions:--the études of Chopin; a few
études of Czerny, Cramer, Clementi, Heller; the mazurkas, nocturnes,
and préludes of Chopin; and miscellaneous pieces by modern
writers,--Grieg, Rubinstein, Tschaikowsky (and other Russians),
Sgambati, Saint-Saëns, Moszkowski, Raff, Reinecke, Scharwenka, Schütte,
MacDowell,--or any other compositions, vocal or instrumental, in which
the student may be interested, or which he may be studying.

      *      *      *      *      *      *


AFTERWORD.

The expression "Musical Forms" is often used, somewhat carelessly and
erroneously, with reference to _Styles_ or _Species_ of composition,
instead of to the structural design upon which the music is based.  The
"Barcarolle," "Mazurka," "Étude," "Anthem," and so forth, are _styles_
of composition, and not necessarily identified with any of the
structural _designs_ we have been examining.  Read, again, our
FOREWORD.  The general conditions which enter into the distinctions of
_style_ are enumerated in my "Homophonic Forms," paragraph 97, which
the student is earnestly advised to read.  As to the manifold styles
themselves, with which the present book is not directly concerned, the
student is referred to Ernst Pauer's "Musical Forms," and to the music
dictionaries of Grove, Baker, Riemann, and other standard writers,
where a description of each style or species of composition may be
found.



THE END.





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