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Title: Foods That Will Win The War And How To Cook Them (1918)
Author: Goudiss, C. Houston, Goudiss, Alberta M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Foods That Will Win The War And How To Cook Them (1918)" ***

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Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH). Ithaca, NY:
Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University, Audrey
Longhurst, William Flis, and the Online Distributed

[Illustration: save

    _use more corn_

    _use more fish & beans_

    _use just enough_

    _use syrups_

  and serve
  the cause of freedom

[Illustration: food

  1--buy it with thought
  2--cook it with care
  3--serve just enough
  4--save what will keep
  5--eat what would spoil
  6--home-grown is best

_don't waste it_]









The authors can be reached by addressing the




_All rights reserved, including the translation into foreign
languages, including the Scandinavian._

[Illustration: _This is_ what GOD gives us.

What are you giving so that others may live?

_Eat less_

Send more to Europe or they will Starve]


Food will win the war, and the nation whose food resources are best
conserved will be the victor. This is the truth that our government
is trying to drive home to every man, woman and child in America. We
have always been happy in the fact that ours was the richest nation
in the world, possessing unlimited supplies of food, fuel, energy
and ability; but rich as these resources are they will not meet
the present food shortage unless every family and every individual
enthusiastically co-operates in the national saving campaign as
outlined by the United States Food Administration.

The regulations prescribed for this saving campaign are simple and
easy of application. Our government does not ask us to give up three
square meals a day--nor even one. All it asks is that we substitute as
far as possible corn and other cereals for wheat, reduce a little our
meat consumption and save sugar and fats by careful utilization of
these products.

There are few housekeepers who are not eager to help in this saving
campaign, and there are few indeed who do not feel the need of
conserving family resources. But just how is sometimes a difficult

This book is planned to solve the housekeeper's problem. It shows how
to substitute cereals and other grains for wheat, how to cut down
the meat bill by the use of meat extension and meat substitute dishes
which supply equivalent nutrition at much less cost; it shows the use
of syrup and other products that save sugar, and it explains how to
utilize all kinds of fats. It contains 47 recipes for the making of
war breads; 64 recipes on low-cost meat dishes and meat substitutes;
54 recipes for sugarless desserts; menus for meatless and wheatless
days, methods of purchasing--in all some two hundred ways of meeting
present food conditions at minimum cost and without the sacrifice of

Not only have its authors planned to help the woman in the home,
conserve the family income, but to encourage those saving habits which
must be acquired by this nation if we are to secure a permanent peace
that will insure the world against another onslaught by the Prussian
military powers.

A little bit of saving in food means a tremendous aggregate total,
when 100,000,000 people are doing the saving. One wheatless meal a
day would not mean hardship; there are always corn and other products
to be used. Yet one wheatless meal a day in every family would mean a
saving of 90,000,000 bushels of wheat, which totals 5,400,000,000 lbs.
Two meatless days a week would mean a saving of 2,200,000 lbs. of meat
per annum. One teaspoonful of sugar per person saved each day would
insure a supply ample to take care of our soldiers and our Allies.
These quantities mean but a small individual sacrifice, but when
multiplied by our vast population they will immeasurably aid and
encourage the men who are giving their lives to the noble cause of
humanity on which our nation has embarked.

_The Authors._


  FOREWORD       4

  SAVE WHEAT: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us to Save Wheat, with
          Practical Recipes for the Use of Other Grains       11
    A General rule for proportions in bread-making       15
    Use of Corn       18
    Use of Oats       20
    Use of Rye       22
    Use of Barley       23
    Use of Potatoes       24
    Use of Mixed Grains       25
    Pancakes and Waffles       27

  SAVE MEAT: Reasons Why Our Government Has Asked Us to Save Meat,
          with Practical Recipes for Meat Conservation       29
    Selection of Meat       33, 36, 37, 38
    Methods of Cooking       34, 35
    Charts       36, 37
    Comparative Composition of Meat and Meat Substitutes       38
    Economy of Meat and Meat Substitutes       39
    Meat Economy Dishes       41
    Fish as a Meat Substitute       44
    Fish Recipes       46
    Cheese as a Meat Substitute       49
    Meat Substitute Dishes       53

  SAVE SUGAR: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us to Save Sugar, with
          Practical Recipes for Sugarless Desserts, Cakes, Candies
          and Preserves      57
    Sugarless Desserts      61
    Sugarless Preserves      71

  SAVE FAT: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us to Save Fat, with
          Practical Recipes for Fat Conservation      73
    To Render Fats      78
    Various Uses for Leftover Fats      82

  SAVE FOOD: Reasons Why Our Government Asks Us Not to Waste Food,
          with Practical Recipes for the Use of Leftovers      83
    A Simple Way to Plan a Balanced Ration      84
    Table Showing Number of Calories per Day Required by Various
          Classes      91
    Sauces Make Leftovers Attractive       93
    Use of Gelatine in Combining Leftovers      97
    Salads Provide an Easy Method of Using Leftovers      99
    Use of Stale Bread, Cake and Leftover Cereals      102
    Soups Utilize Leftovers      106
    All-in-one-dish Meals--Needing only fruit or simple dessert,
          bread and butter to complete a well-balanced menu      109
    Wheatless Day Menus      113
    Meatless Day Menus      115
    Meat Substitute Dinners      116
    Vegetable Dinners      118
    Save and Serve--Bread; Meat; Sugar; Fat; Milk; Vegetables
          120, 121
    Blank Pages for Recording Favorite Family Recipes      122

_The Recipes in this book have been examined and approved by the
United States Food Administration_

_Illustrations furnished by courtesy of the United States Food


All the recipes in this book have been prepared and used in The School
of Modern Cookery conducted by _The Forecast Magazine_ and have been
endorsed by the U.S. Food Administration. They have been worked
out under the direction of Grace E. Frysinger, graduate in Domestic
Science of Drexel Institute, of Philadelphia, and the University
of Chicago. Miss Frysinger, who has had nine years' experience as
a teacher of Domestic Science, has earnestly used her skill to make
these recipes practical for home use, and at the same time accurate
and scientific.

The above illustration shows a class at the School of Modern Cookery.
These classes are entirely free, the instruction being given in
the interest of household economics. The foods cooked during the
demonstration are sampled by the students and in this way it is
possible to get in close touch with the needs of the homemakers and
the tastes of the average family.





A slice of bread seems an unimportant thing. Yet one good-sized slice
of bread weighs an ounce. It contains almost three-fourths of an ounce
of flour.

If every one of the country's 20,000,000 homes wastes on the average
only one such slice of bread a day, the country is throwing away
daily over 14,000,000 ounces of flour--over 875,000 pounds, or enough
flour for over a million one-pound loaves a day. For a full year
at this rate there would be a waste of over 319,000,000 pounds of
flour--1,500,000 barrels--enough flour to make 365,000,000 loaves.

As it takes four and one-half bushels of wheat to make a barrel
of ordinary flour, this waste would represent the flour from over
7,000,000 bushels of wheat. Fourteen and nine-tenths bushels of wheat
on the average are raised per acre. It would take the product of some
470,000 acres just to provide a single slice of bread to be wasted
daily in every home.

But some one says, "a full slice of bread is not wasted in every
home." Very well, make it a daily slice for every four or every ten
or every thirty homes--make it a weekly or monthly slice in every
home--or make the wasted slice thinner. The waste of flour involved
is still appalling. These are figures compiled by government experts,
and they should give pause to every housekeeper who permits a slice of
bread to be wasted in her home.

Another source of waste of which few of us take account is home-made
bread. Sixty per cent. of the bread used in America is made in the
home. When one stops to consider how much home-made bread is poorly
made, and represents a large waste of flour, yeast and fuel, this
housewifely energy is not so commendable. The bread flour used in the
home is also in the main wheat flour, and all waste of wheat at the
present time increases the shortage of this most necessary food.

Fuel, too, is a serious national problem, and all coal used in either
range, gas, or electric oven for the baking of poor bread is an actual
national loss. There must be no waste in poor baking or from poor care
after the bread is made, or from the waste of a crust or crumb.

Waste in your kitchen means starvation in some other kitchen across
the sea. Our Allies are asking for 450,000,000 bushels of wheat,
and we are told that even then theirs will be a privation loaf. Crop
shortage and unusual demand has left Canada and the United States,
which are the largest sources of wheat, with but 300,000,000 bushels
available for export. The deficit must be met by reducing consumption
on this side the Atlantic. This can be done by eliminating waste and
by making use of cereals and flours other than wheat in bread-making.

The wide use of wheat flour for bread-making has been due to custom.
In Europe rye and oats form the staple breads of many countries, and
in some sections of the South corn-bread is the staff of life. We have
only to modify a little our bread-eating habits in order to meet the
present need. Other cereals can well be used to eke out the wheat, but
they require slightly different handling.

In making yeast breads, the essential ingredient is gluten, which
is extended by carbon dioxide gas formed by yeast growth. With the
exception of rye, grains other than wheat do not contain sufficient
gluten for yeast bread, and it is necessary to use a wheat in varying
proportions in order to supply the deficient gluten. Even the baker's
rye loaf is usually made of one-half rye and one-half wheat. This is
the safest proportion for home use in order to secure a good texture.

When oatmeal is used, it is necessary to scald the oatmeal to prevent
a raw taste. Oatmeal also makes a softer dough than wheat, and it
is best to make the loaf smaller and bake it longer: about one hour
instead of the forty-five minutes which we allow for wheat bread.

The addition of one-third barley flour to wheat flour makes a light
colored, good flavored bread. If a larger proportion than this is
used, the loaf has a decided barley flavor. If you like this flavor
and increase the proportion of barley, be sure to allow the dough a
little longer time to rise, as by increasing the barley you weaken the
gluten content of your loaf.

Rice and cornmeal can be added to wheat breads in a 10 per cent.
proportion. Laboratory tests have shown that any greater proportion
than this produces a heavy, small loaf.

Potato flour or mashed potato can be used to extend the wheat, it
being possible to work in almost 50 per cent. of potato, but this
makes a darker and moister loaf than when wheat alone is used. In
order to take care of this moisture, it is best to reserve part of
the wheat for the second kneading.

Graham and entire wheat flour also effect a saving of wheat because
a larger percentage of the wheat berry is used. Graham flour is
the whole kernel of wheat, ground. Entire wheat flour is the flour
resulting from the grinding of all but the outer layer of wheat. A
larger use of these coarser flours will therefore help materially
in eking out our scant wheat supply as the percentage of the wheat
berry used for bread flour is but 72 per cent. Breads made from these
coarser flours also aid digestion and are a valuable addition to the

In order to keep down waste by eliminating the poor batch of bread,
it is necessary to understand the principles of bread-making.
Fermentation is the basic principle of yeast bread, and fermentation
is controlled by temperature. The yeast plant grows at a temperature
from 70 to 90 degrees (Fahrenheit), and if care is taken to maintain
this temperature during the process of fermentation, waste caused by
sour dough or over-fermentation will be eliminated. When we control
the temperature we can also reduce the time necessary for making a
loaf of bread, or several loaves of bread as may be needed, into as
short a period as three hours. This is what is known as the quick
method. It not only saves time and labor, but, controlling the
temperature, insures accurate results. The easiest way to control the
temperature is to put the bowl containing the dough into another of
slightly larger size containing water at a temperature of 90 degrees.
The water of course should never be hot. Hot water kills the yeast
plant. Cold water checks its growth. Cover the bowl and set it in the
gas oven or fireless cooker or on the shelf of the coal range. As the
water in the large bowl cools off, remove a cupful and add a cupful of
hot water. At the end of one and one-half hours the dough should have
doubled in bulk. Take it out of the pan and knead until the large gas
bubbles are broken (about ten minutes). Then place in greased bread
pans and allow to rise for another half hour. At the end of this time
it will not only fill the pan, but will project out of it. Do not
allow the dough to rise too high, for then the bread will have large
holes in it. A good proportion as a general rule to follow, is:

  3-1/2 cupfuls of flour (this includes added cereals)
  1 cupful of water or milk
  1/2 tablespoon shortening
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 cake of compressed yeast

    In this recipe sugar has been omitted because of the serious
    shortage, but after the war a teaspoon of sugar should be
    added. The shortening, although small in quantity, may also be

These materials make a loaf of about one pound, which should be
baked in forty to fifty minutes at a temperature of 450 degrees
(Fahrenheit). Allow a little longer time for bread containing oatmeal
or other grains. Such breads require a little longer baking and
a little lower temperature than wheat breads. If you do not use a
thermometer in testing your oven, place a piece of paper on the center
shelf, and if it browns in two minutes your oven is right. If a longer
period for raising is allowed than is suggested in the above recipe,
the yeast proportion should be decreased. For overnight bread use
one-quarter yeast cake per loaf; for six-hour bread, use one-half
yeast cake per loaf; for three-hour bread, use one yeast cake per
loaf. In baking, the time allowed should depend on the size of the
loaf. When baked at a temperature of 450 degrees, large loaves take
from forty-five to sixty minutes, small loaves from thirty to forty
minutes, rolls from ten to twenty minutes.

It is well to divide the oven time into four parts. During the first
quarter, the rising continues; second quarter, browning begins; the
third quarter, browning is finished; the fourth quarter, bread shrinks
from the side of the pan. These are always safe tests to follow in
your baking. When baked, the bread should be turned out of the pans
and allow to cool on a wire rack. When cool, put the bread in a stone
crock or bread box. To prevent staleness, keep the old bread away from
the fresh--scald the bread crock or give your bread box a sun bath at
frequent intervals.

Even with all possible care to prevent waste, yeast breads will not
conserve our wheat supply so well as quick breads, because all yeast
breads need a larger percentage of wheat. The home baker can better
serve her country by introducing into her menus numerous quick
breads that can be made from cornmeal, rye, corn and rye, hominy, and
buckwheat. Griddle cakes and waffles can also be made from lentils,
soy beans, potatoes, rice and peas.

Do not expect that the use of other cereals in bread-making will
reduce the cost of your bread. That is not the object. Saving of wheat
for war needs is the thing we are striving for, and this is as much
an act of loyalty as buying Liberty Bonds. It is to meet the crucial
world need of bread that we are learning to substitute, and not to
spare the national purse.

Besides this saving of wheat, our Government also asks us to omit
all fat from our yeast breads in order to conserve the diminishing
fat supply. This may seem impossible to the woman who has never made
bread without shortening, but recent experiments in bread-making
laboratories have proved that bread, without shortening, is just
as light and as good in texture as that made with shortening--the
only difference being a slight change in flavor. These experiments
have also shown that it is possible to supply shortening by the
introduction of 3 per cent. to 5 per cent. of canned cocoanut or of
peanut butter, and that sugar may also be omitted from bread-making
recipes. In fact, the war is bringing about manifold interesting
experiments which prove that edible and nutritious bread can be made
of many things besides the usual white flour.

The recipes herewith appended, showing the use of combinations of
cereals and wheat, have been carefully tested in The Forecast School
of Modern Cookery. Good bread can be made from each recipe, and the
new flavors obtained by the use of other grains make a pleasing and
wholesome variety.

A family which has eaten oatmeal or entire wheat bread will never
again be satisfied with a diet that includes only bread made from
bleached flour. Children, especially, will be benefited by the change,
as the breads made from coarser flours are not only more nutritious,
but are rich in the minerals and vitamine elements that are so
essential to the growth of strong teeth, bones and growing tissues.

The homemaker, too, will never regret her larger acquaintance with
bread-making materials, as the greater variety of breads that she will
find herself able to produce will be a source of pleasure and keen

[Illustration: Breads Made From the Coarser Flours, Whole Wheat,
Cornmeal, Rye, Conserve Our Wheat Supply]

_To Conform to U.S. Food Administration Regulations During the War,
Eliminate Fat and Sweetening in Breads--Whenever Fat Is Used, Use



  1 cup bread flour
  1 cup cornmeal
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 egg
  1/3 cup milk
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 tablespoon sugar

Mix and sift dry ingredients and cut in the fat. Beat the egg and add
to it the milk. Combine the liquid with the dry ingredients. Shape as
Parker House rolls and bake in a hot oven 12 to 15 minutes.


  2 cups cornmeal
  1 egg
  2 tablespoons sugar
  2 tablespoons fat
  2 cups sour or buttermilk
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon soda

Dissolve soda in a little cold water. Mix ingredients adding soda
last. Bake in hot oven 20 minutes.


  1-1/3 cups cornmeal
  1-1/2 cups boiling water
  3/4 cup milk
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 tablespoon molasses
  2/3 cup flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  4 teaspoons baking powder

Scald meal with boiling water. Add milk, fat and molasses. Add sifted
dry ingredients. Bake on hot griddle.


  1 cup white cornmeal
  2 cups boiling water
  1/4 cup bacon fat or drippings
  3 teaspoons baking powder
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 eggs
  3 slices bread
  1/2 cup cold water
  1 cup milk
Scald cornmeal with boiling water. Soak bread in cold water and
milk. Separate yolks and whites of eggs. Beat each until light. Mix
ingredients in order given, folding in whites of eggs last. Bake in
buttered dish in hot oven 50 minutes.


  2 cups water
  1 cup milk
  1 cup cornmeal
  1/3 cup sweet pepper
  1 tablespoon fat
  2 eggs
  2 teaspoons salt

Mix water and cornmeal and bring to the boiling point and cook 5
minutes. Beat eggs well and add with other materials to the mush.
Beat well and bake in a well-greased pan for 25 minutes in a hot oven.
Serve from the same dish with a spoon. Serve with milk or syrup.


  1-1/2 cups cornmeal
  1 cup bread flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1-1/3 cups milk
  2-1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar
  4 tablespoons fat
  1-1/4 teaspoons soda

Sift dry ingredients. Cut in the fat. Add liquid and drop by spoonfuls
on greased baking sheet. Bake in hot oven 12 to 15 minutes. These may
be rolled and cut same as baking powder biscuits.


  4 cups milk
  1/3 cup cornmeal
  1/3 cup molasses
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon ginger
  1 teaspoon allspice

Cook milk and meal in a double boiler 20 minutes; add molasses, salt
and ginger. Pour into greased pudding dish and bake two hours in a
slow oven, or use fireless cooker. Serve with milk. This makes a good
and nourishing dessert. Serves six.


  2 cups cornmeal
  5 cups water (boiling)
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 onion
  2 cups tomatoes
  2 cups cooked or raw meat cut in small pieces
  1/4 cup green peppers

To the cornmeal and 1 teaspoon salt, add boiling water. Cook one-half
hour. Brown onion in fat, add meat. Add salt, 1/8 teaspoon cayenne,
the tomatoes and green peppers. Grease baking dish, put in layer of
cornmeal mush, add seasoned meat, and cover with mush. Bake one-half


  1 cup cornmeal
  1/2 cup bread flour
  3 tablespoons molasses
  1 cup milk
  3 teaspoons baking powder
  2 teaspoons salt
  2 tablespoons fat

Beat thoroughly. Bake in greased muffin pans 20 minutes.


  2 cups cornmeal
  2 cups sweet milk (whole or skim)
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 egg

Mix dry ingredients. Add milk, well-beaten egg, and melted fat. Beat
well. Bake in shallow pan for about 30 minutes.


  2 cups cornmeal
  2 cups sour milk
  1 teaspoon soda
  2 tablespoons fat
  2 tablespoons corn syrup or molasses
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 egg

Mix dry ingredients. Add milk, egg and fat. Beat well. Bake in greased
pan 20 minutes.



  3 cups thick cooked oatmeal
  2 tablespoons fat
  1-1/2 tablespoons salt
  3 tablespoons molasses
  1-1/2 cakes yeast
  3/4 cup lukewarm water
  About 5 cups flour

To oatmeal add the sugar, salt and fat. Mix the yeast cake with the
lukewarm water, add it to the other materials and stir in the flour
until the dough will not stick to the sides of the bowl. Knead until
elastic, ten to fifteen minutes, moisten the top of the dough with
a little water to prevent a hard crust forming, and set to rise in a
warm place. When double its bulk, knead again for a few minutes. Shape
into loaves and put into greased pans. Let rise double in bulk and
bake in a moderate oven for about 50 minutes.


  2 cups rolled oats
  2 cups boiling water
  1/3 cup molasses
  1 yeast cake
  3/4 cup lukewarm water
  1 tablespoon salt
  2 tablespoons fat (melted)
  About 6 cups bread flour

Scald the rolled oats with the boiling water and let stand until cool.
Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm water and add to the first mixture
when cool. Add the molasses, salt and melted fat. Stir in enough bread
flour to knead. Turn on a floured board. Knead lightly. Return to bowl
and let rise until double in bulk. Knead and shape in loaves and let
rise until double again. Bake in a moderate oven 45 minutes.


  1 cake compressed yeast
  2 cups boiling water
  1/2 cup lukewarm water
  2 cups rolled oats
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/4 cup brown sugar or 2 tablespoons corn syrup
  2 tablespoons fat
  4 cups flour
  1/2 cup chopped nuts.

Pour two cups of boiling water over oatmeal, cover and let stand until
lukewarm. Dissolve yeast and sugar in one-half cup lukewarm water,
add shortening and add this to the oatmeal and water. Add one cup of
flour, or enough to make an ordinary sponge. Beat well. Cover and set
aside in a moderately warm place to rise for one hour.

Add enough flour to make a dough--about three cups, add nuts and
the salt. Knead well. Place in greased bowl, cover and let rise in
a moderately warm place until double in bulk--about one and one-half
hour. Mould into loaves, fill well-greased pans half full, cover and
let rise again one hour. Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.


  1 cup cold porridge (stiff)
  1 cup boiling water
  1 tablespoon fat
  1/2 teaspoon baking powder or 1/4 teaspoon soda
  1 teaspoon corn syrup
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix soda, boiling water and fat. Mix all. Turn on board. Mould
flat--cut 1/4-inch thick and bake on griddle.


  1-1/3 cups flour
  2 tablespoons molasses
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons fat
  3 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg beaten
  1/2 cup milk
  1 cup cooked oatmeal

Sift dry ingredients. Add egg and milk. Add fat and cereal. Beat well.
Bake in greased tins 20 minutes.


  1-1/2 cups rolled oats
  1 cup bread flour
  1-1/3 teaspoons salt
  1-1/3 cups milk
  2-1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar
  4 tablespoons fat
  1-1/4 teaspoons soda

Sift dry ingredients. Cut in the fat. Add liquid and drop by spoonfuls
on greased baking sheet. Bake in hot oven 12 to 15 minutes. These may
be rolled and cut same as baking powder biscuits. (If uncooked rolled
oats are used, allow to stand in the milk for 30 minutes before making



  1 cup milk and water, or water
  1 tablespoon fat
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  1 teaspoon salt
  2-1/2 cups rye flour
  2-1/2 cups wheat flour
  1/2 cake compressed yeast
  2 tablespoons water

Combine ingredients. Mix into dough and knead. Let rise until double
original bulk. Knead again. When double bulk, bake about


  4 cups rye flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  6 teaspoons baking powder
  1-1/2 cups milk
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 cup chopped nuts

Mix dry ingredients thoroughly. Add milk, nuts and melted shortening.
Knead. Shape into rolls. Put into greased pans. Let stand one-half
hour. Bake in moderate oven 30 minutes.


  2 cups boiling water
  2 tablespoons sugar
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 cup lukewarm water
  2 tablespoons fat
  6 cups rye flour
  1-1/2 cups whole wheat flour
  1 cake yeast

To the boiling water, add the sugar, fat and salt. When lukewarm, add
the yeast which has been dissolved in the lukewarm water. Add the rye
and whole wheat flour. Cover and let rise until twice its bulk, shape
into loaves; let rise until double and bake about 40 minutes, in a
moderately hot oven.


  1-1/2 cups rye flour
  1 cup bread flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1-1/3 cups milk
  2-1/2 teaspoons cream of tartar
  4 tablespoons fat
  1-1/4 teaspoons soda

Sift dry ingredients. Cut in the fat. Add liquid and drop by spoonfuls
on greased baking sheet. Bake in hot oven 12 to 15 minutes. These may
be rolled and cut same as baking powder biscuits.



  1 cup milk and water, or water
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  1 tablespoon fat
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1-1/6 cups barley flour
  2-1/3 cups wheat flour
  1/2 cake compressed yeast

Soften the yeast in 1/4 cup lukewarm liquid. Combine ingredients. Mix
into a dough. Knead and let rise to double original bulk. Knead again.
Put in pan; when again double in bulk bake 45 minutes.


  1-1/4 cups whole wheat flour
  1 cup barley meal
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  3 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg
  1-1/4 cups sour milk
  1/2 teaspoon soda
  2 tablespoons drippings

Sift flour, barley meal, salt and baking powder. Dissolve soda in a
little cold water and add to sour milk. Combine flour mixture and sour
milk, add beaten egg and melted fat. Bake in muffin pans in a moderate
oven 25 minutes.


  2 tablespoons pork drippings
  3 cups boiling water
  1 cup barley meal
  2 eggs

Heat drippings in saucepan until slightly brown, add water and when
boiling, add barley meal, stirring constantly. Cook in a double
boiler one-half hour, cool, and add well-beaten yolks. Fold in whites,
beaten. Bake in greased dish in moderate oven one-half hour.


  5 cups milk
  1/2 cup barley meal
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon ginger
  3/4 cup molasses

Scald the milk, pour this on the meal and cook in double boiler
one-half hour; add molasses, salt and ginger. Pour into greased
pudding dish and bake two hours in a slow oven. Serve either hot or
cold with syrup.


  1 cup whole wheat flour
  1 cup barley meal
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  3 tablespoons fat
  3/4 cup sour milk
  1/3 teaspoon soda

Sift flour, barley meal, salt and baking powder together. Add fat.
Dissolve soda in one tablespoon cold water and add to sour milk.
Combine flour mixture and sour milk to form a soft dough. Turn out on
a well-floured board, knead slightly, roll to one-half inch thickness;
cut in small pieces and bake in a hot oven 15 minutes.



  1 cup mashed lightly packed potato
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 cup whole wheat flour
  1 teaspoons baking powder
  1 teaspoon salt
  About 1/2 cup milk or water in which potatoes were cooked

Add melted fat to mashed potato. Mix and sift flour, baking powder and
salt and add to potato mixture, add enough of the milk to make a soft
dough. Roll out 1/2 inch thick, cut with a biscuit cutter and bake in
a quick oven for 15 minutes. (If bread flour is used in place of whole
wheat, the biscuits are slightly lighter and flakier in texture.)


  1-1/2 cups tightly packed mashed potato
  2-1/2 cups wheat flour
  1 tablespoon warm water
  1/2 yeast cake
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Make dough as usual. Let rise in warm place for 15 minutes. Mould into
loaf, put in pan, let rise until double in bulk in warm place. Bake
for 45 minutes in hot oven.


  1/2 cup milk and water or water
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  4 tablespoons fat
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  4 cups boiled potatoes
  8 cups flour
  1/2 cake compressed yeast
  1/4 cup warm water

Dissolve yeast in the warm water. Add other ingredients and make same
as any bread.


  1/2 cake yeast
  1 cup milk (scalded)
  1 teaspoon fat
  3 tablespoons corn syrup (or 1 tablespoon sugar)
  3-1/2 cups flour
  2 cups potato (mashed and hot)
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 egg

Dissolve yeast in milk (luke warm). Stir in dry ingredients. Add
potato and knead until smooth. Let rise until light. Roll thin, fold
over, bake until brown.



  1 pint milk, or milk and water
  2 teaspoons salt
  2 tablespoons molasses
  1 yeast cake
  2 tablespoons fat

Mix as ordinary bread dough. Add 2 cups cornmeal and 2 cups rye meal
and enough whole wheat flour to knead. Let rise, knead, shape, let
rise again in the pan and bake 45 minutes.


  2 cups lukewarm water
  1 cake yeast
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/3 cup molasses
  1-1/4 cup rye flour
  1 cup corn meal
  3 cups bread flour

Dissolve yeast cake in water, add remaining ingredients, and mix
thoroughly. Let rise, shape, let rise again and bake.


  1 cup rye meal
  1 cup cornmeal
  1 cup graham flour
  2 cups sour milk
  1-3/4 teaspoons soda
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  3/4 cup molasses

Beat well. Put in greased covered molds, steam 2 to 3 hours.


  2 cups bread crumbs
  1/3 cup flour
  1 tablespoon fat, melted
  1-1/2 cups milk
  1 egg
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Cover crumbs with milk and soak 10 minutes. Beat smooth, add egg
yolks, dry ingredients sifted together and fat. Fold in beaten whites
of eggs. Bake in muffin tins in moderate oven for 15 minutes.


  1/3 cup boiling water
  1 cup cornmeal
  1/4 teaspoon soda
  1/4 cup molasses
  1 cup whole wheat flour
  1 cup rye flour
  3 teaspoons baking powder
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 cup milk
  1/3 cup raisins cut in halves
  1/4 cup chopped nuts
  2 tablespoons fat

Scald meal with boiling water, mix soda and molasses. Mix dry
ingredients, mix all thoroughly. Bake in muffin pans one-half hour.


  1 cup soy bean meal or flour
  1 cup whole wheat
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  1 tablespoon corn syrup
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 cup milk

Sift dry ingredients. Cut in fat. Add liquid to make soft dough. Roll
one-half inch thick. Cut and bake 12 to 15 minutes in hot oven.


  1 cup whole wheat flour
  1 cup cornmeal
  1 tablespoon fat
  1/2 teaspoon soda
  1 cup sour milk
  1 teaspoon salt

Mix as baking powder biscuit. Drop by spoonfuls on greased baking
sheet. Bake 15 minutes in hot oven.



  1 cup sour milk
  1/2 cup cooked cereal or
  1 cup bread crumbs
  1 tablespoon melted fat
  1 egg
  3/4 cup whole wheat flour
  1 teaspoon soda
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Mix bread crumbs, flour, salt; add beaten egg, fat and cereal; mix
soda with sour milk and add to other ingredients.


  2 cups split peas
  2 egg whites
  1/3 cup flour
  1 cup milk
  2 egg yolks
  2 tablespoons pork drippings
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoonful baking powder

Soak peas over night, cook, and when tender, put through a food
chopper and mix the ingredients. Bake on hot greased griddle.


  2 cups sour milk
  2 cups bread

Let stand until soft

Put through colander. For each one pint use:

  1 egg
  1 teaspoon soda
  2 teaspoons sugar
  1/4 teaspoon salt
  3/4 cup flour
  1 egg beaten

Mix well; bake at once on hot greased griddle.


  2 cups oatmeal
  1 tablespoon melted fat
  1/8 teaspoon salt


  1 egg beaten into a cupful of milk
  1 cupful flour into which has been sifted 1 teaspoonful baking

Beat well. Cook on a griddle. This is an excellent way to use
left-over oatmeal.


  2 cups of chopped potato
  1/2 cup milk
  1 egg
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 cups flour
  5 teaspoons of baking powder
  2 cups of hot water

Parboil potatoes in the skins for fifteen minutes. Pare and chop fine
or put through food chopper. Mix potatoes, milk, eggs and salt. Sift
the flour and baking powder and stir into a smooth batter. Thin with
hot water as necessary. Bake on a greased griddle.


  1 cup cold boiled rice
  1-1/2 cups milk
  2 eggs
  2 cups flour
  1/3 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon melted fat
  4 teaspoons baking powder

Add milk to rice and stir until smooth. Add salt, egg yolks beaten;
add flour sifted with baking powder and salt; add fat; add stiffly
beaten whites.


  1/2 cup boiled rice
  1/2 cup flour
  3 tablespoons fat
  1 pint milk
  2/3 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon soda

Stir rice in milk. Let stand one-half hour. Add other ingredients,
having dissolved soda in one tablespoon cold water.


  1 cup cornmeal
  1/2 cup flour
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  1/4 cup corn syrup
  1 egg
  1 pint milk
  1 tablespoon fat

Cook cornmeal and milk in double boiler 10 minutes. Sift dry
ingredients. Add milk, cornmeal; beaten yolks; fat, beaten whites.


  1 cup rye flour
  3/4 cup cornmeal
  1 teaspoon salt
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  1 tablespoon melted fat
  2 eggs
  1-1/4 cups milk

Sift dry ingredients. Add beaten yolks added to milk. Add fat and
stiffly beaten whites. If waffles are not crisp add more liquid.

[Illustration: Each Food Shown is Equivalent in Protein to the Platter
of Meat in the Center of the Picture.]



As a nation we eat and waste 80 per cent. more meat than we require to
maintain health. This statement, recently issued by the United States
Food Administration, is appalling when we consider that there is a
greater demand for meat in the world to-day than ever before, coupled
with a greatly decreased production. The increase in the demand for
meat and animal products is due to the stress of the war. Millions of
men are on the fighting line doing hard physical labor, and require
a larger food allowance than when they were civilians. To meet
the demand for meat and to save their grains, our Allies have been
compelled to kill upward of thirty-three million head of their stock
animals, and they have thus stifled their animal production. This was
burning the candle at both ends, and they now face increased demand
handicapped by decreased production.

America must fill the breach. Not only must we meet the present
increased demand, but we must be prepared as the war advances to meet
an even greater demand for this most necessary food. The way out of
this serious situation is first to reduce meat consumption to the
amount really needed and then to learn to use other foods that will
supply the food element which is found in meat. This element is called
protein, and we depend upon it to build and repair body tissues.

Although most persons believe that protein can only be obtained
from meat, it is found in many other foods, such as milk, skim milk,
cheese, cottage cheese, poultry, eggs, fish, dried peas, beans, cow
peas, lentils and nuts. For instance, pound for pound, salmon, either
fresh or canned, equals round steak in protein content; cream cheese
contains one-quarter more protein and three times as much fat; peanuts
(hulled) one-quarter more protein and three and a half times as much
fat; beans (dried) a little more protein and one-fifth as much fat;
eggs (one dozen) about the same in protein and one-half more fat. It
is our manifest duty to learn how to make the best use of these foods
in order to save beef, pork and mutton, to be shipped across the sea.
This means that the housekeeper has before her the task of training
the family palate to accept new food preparations. Training the family
palate is not easy, because bodies that have grown accustomed to
certain food combinations find it difficult to get along without them,
and rebel at a change. If these habits of diet are suddenly disturbed
we may upset digestion, as well as create a feeling of dissatisfaction
which is equally harmful to physical well-being. The wise housekeeper
will therefore make her changes gradually.

In reducing meat in the diet of a family that has been used to having
meat twice a day, it will be well to start out with meat once a day
and keep up this régime for a couple of weeks. Then drop meat for a
whole day, supplying in its stead a meat substitute dish that will
furnish the same nutriment. After a while you can use meat substitutes
at least twice a week without disturbing the family's mental or
physical equilibrium. It would be well also to introduce dishes
that extend the meat flavor, such as stews combined with dumplings,
hominy, or rice; pot pies or short cakes with a dressing of meat and
vegetables; meat loaf, souffle or croquettes in which meat is combined
with bread crumbs, potato or rice.

Meat eating is largely a matter of flavor. If flavor is supplied,
the reduction of meat in the diet can be made with little annoyance.
Nutrition can always be supplied in the other dishes that accompany
the meal, as a certain proportion of protein is found in almost every
food product. The meat that we use to obtain flavor in sauces and
gravies need not be large in quantity, nor expensive in cut. The poor
or cheap cuts have generally more flavor than the expensive ones,
the difference being entirely in texture and tenderness, freedom from
gristle and inedible tissue. There are many cereals, such as rice,
hominy, cornmeal, samp and many vegetable dishes, especially dried
beans of all kinds, that are greatly improved by the addition of meat
sauce and when prepared in this way may be served as the main dish of
a meal.

Dr. Harvey W. Wiley has stated that the meat eating of the future will
not be regarded as a necessity so much as it has been in the past, and
that meat will be used more as a condimental substance. Europe has for
years used meat for flavor rather than for nutriment. It would seem
that the time has come for Americans to learn the use of meat for
flavor and to utilize more skillfully the protein of other foods.

It may be difficult to convince the meat lover that he can radically
reduce the proportion of meat in his diet without detriment to health.
Many persons adhere to the notion that you are not nourished unless
you eat meat; that meat foods are absolutely necessary to maintain the
body strength. This idea is entirely without foundation, for the foods
mentioned as meat substitutes earlier in this chapter can be made to
feed the world, and feed it well--in fact, no nation uses so large a
proportion of meat as America.

The first step, therefore, in preparing ourselves to reduce meat
consumption is to recognize that only a small quantity of meat is
necessary to supply sufficient protein for adult life. The growing
child or the youth springing into manhood needs a larger percentage of
meat than the adult, and in apportioning the family's meat ration this
fact should not be overlooked.

The second step is to reduce the amount purchased, choosing cuts that
contain the least waste, and by utilizing with care that which we do
purchase. Fat, trimmings, and bones all have their uses and should be
saved from the garbage pail.

Careful buying, of course, depends on a knowledge of cuts, a study
of the percentage of waste in each cut, and the food value of the
different kinds of meat. Make a study of the different cuts, as shown
in the charts on pages 36, 37, and armed with this knowledge go forth
to the butcher for practical buying.

Then comes the cooking, which can only be properly done when the
fundamental principles of the cooking processes, such as boiling,
braising, broiling, stewing, roasting and frying are understood.
Each cut requires different handling to secure the maximum amount of
nutriment and flavor. The waste occasioned by improper cooking is a
large factor in both household and national economy.

It has been estimated that a waste of an ounce each day of edible meat
or fat in the twenty million American homes amounts to 456,000,000
pounds of valuable animal food a year. At average dressed weights,
this amounts to 875,000 steers, or over 3,000,000 hogs. Each
housekeeper, therefore, who saves her ounce a day aids in this
enormous saving, which will mean so much in the feeding of our men on
the fighting line.

So the housekeeper who goes to her task of training the family palate
to accept meat substitutes and meat economy dishes, who revolutionizes
her methods of cooking so as to utilize even "the pig's squeak," will
be doing her bit toward making the world safe for democracy.

The following charts, tables of nutritive values and suggested menus
have been arranged to help her do this work. The American woman has
her share in this great world struggle, and that is the intelligent
conservation of food.


BEEF--Dull red as cut, brighter after exposure to air; lean, well
mottled with fat; flesh, firm; fat, yellowish in color. Best beef from
animal 3 to 5 years old, weighing 900 to 1,200 pounds. Do not buy wet,
soft, or pink beef.

VEAL--Flesh pink. (If white, calf was bled before killed or animal too
young.) The fat should be white.

MUTTON--Best from animal 3 years old. Flesh dull red, fat firm and

LAMB--(Spring Lamb 3 months to 6 months old; season, February to
March.) Bones of lamb should be small; end of bone in leg of lamb
should be serrated; flesh pink, and fat white.

PORK--The lean should be fine grained and pale pink. The skin should
be smooth and clear. If flesh is soft, or fat yellowish, pork is not


Less expensive cuts of meat have more nourishment than the more
expensive, and if properly cooked and seasoned, have as much
tenderness. Tough cuts, as chuck or top sirloin, may be boned and
rolled and then roasted by the same method as tender cuts, the only
difference will be that the tougher cuts require longer cooking. Have
the bones from rolled meats sent home to use for soups. Corned beef
may be selected from flank, naval, plate or brisket. These cuts are
more juicy than rump or round cuts.

1. _For pot roast_ use chuck, crossrib, round, shoulder, rump or top

2. _For stew_ use shin, shoulder, top sirloin or neck.

3. _For steaks_ use flank, round or chuck. If these cuts are pounded,
or both pounded and rubbed with a mixture of 1 part vinegar and 2
parts oil before cooking, they will be very tender.

4. _Soups_--Buy shin or neck. The meat from these may be utilized
by serving with horseradish or mustard sauce, or combined with equal
amount of fresh meat for meat loaf, scalloped dish, etc.


1. _Roasting or Baking_--Oven roasting or baking is applied to roasts.

Place the roast in a hot oven, or if gas is used, put in the broiling
oven to sear the outside quickly, and thus keep in the juices.
Salt, pepper and flour. If an open roasting pan is used place a few
tablespoonfuls of fat and 1 cup of water in the pan, which should be
used to baste the roast frequently. If a covered pan is used basting
is unnecessary.

  Beef or mutton   (5 to 8 lbs.)  10 min. to the lb.  10 min. extra
  Lamb             (5 to 8 lbs.)  12 min. to the lb.  12 min. extra
  Veal             (5 to 8 lbs.)  15 min. to the lb.  15 min. extra
  Pork             (5 to 8 lbs.)  25 min. to the lb.  25 min. extra
  Turkey                          20 min. to the lb.
  Chicken                         30 min. to the lb.
  Duck                            30 min. to the lb.
  Goose                           30 min. to the lb.
  Game                            30 min. to the lb.

2. _Broiling_--Cooking over or under clear fire. This method is used
for chops or steaks.

Sear the meat on both sides. Then reduce the heat and turn the meat
frequently. Use no fat.

  _Time Table_--(Count time after meat is seared).
                1/2 inch chops or steaks, 5 minutes
                  1 inch chops or steaks, 10 minutes
                  2 inch chops or steaks, 15 to 18 minutes

3. _Pan Broiling_--Cooking in pan with no fat. _Time table same as for
broiling_ chops, steaks, etc.

4. _Sautéing_--Cooking in pan in small amount of fat. Commonly
termed "frying." Used for steaks, chops, etc. _Time table same as for


1. Boiling--Cooking in boiling water--especially poultry, salt meats,

2. Steaming--A method of cooking by utilizing steam from boiling
water, which retains more food value than any other. Too seldom
applied to meats.

3. Frying--Cooking by immersion in hot fat at temperature 400 to 450
degrees Fahrenheit. Used for croquettes, etc.

If a fat thermometer is not available, test by using small pieces of
bread. Put into heated fat:

A--For croquettes made from food requiring little cooking, such as
oysters, or from previously cooked mixtures, as rice, fish or meat
croquettes, bread should brown in one-half minute.

B--For mixtures requiring cooking, as doughnuts, fritters, etc., bread
should brown in one minute.


1. Pot Roasting--Cooking (by use of steam from small amount of water)
tough cuts of meat which have been browned but not cooked thoroughly.

Season meat. Dredge with flour. Sear in hot pan until well browned.
Place oil rack in pot containing water to height of one inch, but do
not let water reach the meat. Keep water slowly boiling. Replenish as
needed with boiling water. This method renders tough cuts tender, but
requires several hours cooking.

2. Stewing--A combination of methods which draws part of flavor into
gravy and retains part in pieces which are to be used as meat.

Cut meat into pieces suitable for serving. Cover one-half of meat with
cold water. Let stand one hour. Bring slowly to boiling point. Dredge
other half of meat with flour and brown in small amount of fat. Add
to the other mixture and cook slowly 1-1/2 to 2 hours, or until tender,
adding diced vegetables, thickening and seasoning as desired one-half
hour before cooking is finished.

3. Fricasseeing--Cooking in a sauce until tender, meat which has been
previously browned but not cooked throughout.

Brown meat in small amount of fat. Place in boiling water to cover.
Cook slowly until tender. To 1 pint of water in which meat is cooked,
add 1/4 cup flour, 1 teaspoon salt, 1/4 teaspoon cayenne, and 1/4 cup
milk, thoroughly blended. When at boiling point, add one beaten egg, 1
tablespoon chopped parsley and 1 tablespoon cold water well mixed, Add
cooked meat and serve.

[Illustration: VEAL]

Neck for stews.

Shoulder for inexpensive chops.

Sweetbread--broiled or creamed.

Breast for roast or pot roast.

Loin for roast.

Rump for stews.

Cutlet for broiling.

[Illustration: BEEF]

[Illustration: LAMB AND MUTTON]

Neck--use for stews.

Shoulder for cheaper chops.

Breast for roast

Ribs for chops or crown roast.

Loin for roast.

Flank for stews.

Leg for cutlet and roast.

[Illustration: PORK]

Head for cheese.

Shoulder same as ham but have it boned. Has same flavor and is much

Loin used for chops or roast.

Ham for boiling, roasting or pan broiling.


               |    ANIMAL  |
  Brains       |    Sheep   | Broiled or scrambled
               |    Pork    |      with egg
               |    Veal    |
  Heart        |    Pork    | Stuffed, baked or broiled
               |    Beef    |
               |    Beef    |
  Kidney       |    Lamb    | Stewed or sauted
               |    Veal    |
               |    Beef    | Fried, boiled, sauted or
  Liver        |    Veal    |   broiled
               |    Lamb    |
  Sweetbreads  | Young Veal | Creamed, broiled
               | Young Beef |
  Tail         |    Beef    | Soup or boiled
               |    Pork    |
  Tongue       |    Beef    | Boiled, pickled, corned
               |    Pork    |
  Tripe        |    Veal    | Broiled or boiled
  Fat          | All Animals| Fried out for cooking or
               |            |   soap making
               |            | Pickled or boiled or used
  Pigs Feet    |     Pork   | with meat from head
               |            | for head cheese


                                       |Carbo- |Mineral|
               | Water |Protein|  Fat  |hydrate|Matter |Calories
  Name         |  %    |   %   |   %   |   %   |   %   | per lb.
  Cheese       |  34.2 |  25.2 |  31.7 |   2.4 |   3.8 |  1,950
  Eggs         |  73.7 |  13.4 |  10.5 |   ... |   1.0 |    720
  Milk         |  87.0 |   3.3 |   4.0 |   5.0 |   0.7 |    310
  Beef         |  54.8 |  23.5 |  20.4 |   ... |   1.2 |  1,300
  Cod          |  58.5 |  11.1 |   0.2 |   ... |   0.8 |    209
  Salmon       |  64.0 |  22.0 |  12.8 |   ... |   1.4 |    923
  Peas         |  85.3 |   3.6 |   0.2 |   9.8 |   1.1 |    252
  Baked Beans  |  68.9 |   6.9 |   2.5 |  19.6 |   2.1 |    583
  Lentils      |  15.9 |  25.1 |   1.0 |  56.1 |   1.1 |  1,620
  Peanuts      |   9.2 |  25.8 |  38.6 |  24.4 |   0.2 |  2,490
  String Beans |  93.7 |   1.1 |   0.1 |   3.8 |   1.3 |     92
  Walnuts      |   2.5 |  18.4 |  64.4 |  13.0 |   1.7 |  3,182
  Almonds      |   4.8 |  21.0 |  54.9 |  17.3 |   2.0 |  2,940


Don't buy more than your family actually needs. Study and know what
the actual needs are, and you will not make unnecessary expenditures.

Learn what the various cuts of meat are, what they can be used for,
and which are best suited to the particular needs of your household.

Study the timeliness of buying certain cuts of meats. There are days
when prices are lower than normal.

Always check the butcher's weights by watching him closely or by
weighing the goods on scales of your own.

Always buy a definite quantity. Ask what the pound rate is, and note
any fractional part of the weight. Don't ask for "ten or twenty cents'

Select your meat or fish personally. There is no doubt that high
retail prices are due to the tendency of many housewives to do their
buying by telephone or through their servants.

Test the freshness of meat and fish. Staleness of meat and fish is
shown by loose and flabby flesh. The gills of fresh fish are red and
the fins stiff.

Make all the purchases possible at a public market, if you can walk
to it, or if carfare will not make too large an increase in the amount
you have set aside for the day's buying.

A food chopper can be made to pay for itself in a short time by the
great variety of ways it furnishes of utilizing left-overs.

If possible, buy meat trimmings. They cost 20 cents a pound and can be
used in many ways.

Buy the ends of bacon strips. They are just as nutritious as sliced
bacon and cost 50 per cent. less.

Learn to use drippings in place of butter for cooking purposes.

Buy cracked eggs. They cost much less than whole ones and are usually
just as good.

Keep a stock pot. Drop into it all left-overs. These make an excellent
basis for soup stock.

Don't throw away the heads and bones of fish. Clean them and use them
with vegetables for fish chowder or cream of fish soup.

Study attractive ways of serving food. Plain, cheap, dishes can be
made appetizing if they look attractive on the table.

Experiment with meat substitutes. Cheese, dried vegetables and the
cheaper varieties of fish can supply all the nutriment of meat at a
much lower cost.

Don't do your cooking "by guess." If the various ingredients are
measured accurately, the dish will taste better and cost less.

Don't buy delicatessen food if you can possibly avoid it. Delicatessen
meals cost 15 per cent. more than the same meals cooked at home, and
the food is not as nourishing. You pay for the cooking and the rent of
the delicatessen store, as well as the proprietor's profit.

Don't pay five or ten cents more a dozen for white eggs in the belief
that they are superior to brown eggs. The food value of each is the
same. The difference in shell color is due to the breed of hen.

Tell the butcher to give you the trimmings of chicken, i.e., the head,
feet, fat and giblets. They make delicious chicken soup. The feet
contain gelatine, which gives soup consistency.

Buy a tough, and consequently less expensive, chicken and make it
tender by steaming it for three hours before roasting.

Don't put meat wrapped in paper into the ice-box, as the paper tends
to absorb the juices.

Try to find a way to buy at least a part of your meats and eggs direct
from the farm. You will get fresher, better food, and if it is sent by
parcels post it can usually be delivered to your table for much less
than city prices.



  1 flank steak
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon pepper
  1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1 cup breadcrumbs
  1 tablespoon onion juice
  1 tablespoon chopped parsley
  1/2 teaspoon poultry seasoning
  1 pint boiling water
  1/3 cup of whole wheat flour

Reserve the water and the flour. Mix other ingredients. Spread
on steak. Roll the steak and tie. Roll in the flour. Brown in two
tablespoons of fat. Add the water--cover and cook until tender.


  1 lb. of meat from the neck, cross ribs, shin or knuckles
  1 sliced onion
  3/4 cup carrots
  1/2 cup turnips
  1 cup potatoes
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup flour
  1 quart water

Soak one-half of the meat, cut in small pieces, in the quart of water
for one hour. Heat slowly to boiling point. Season the other half
of the meat with salt and pepper. Roll in flour. Brown in three
tablespoons of fat with the onion. Add to the soaked meat, which has
been brought to the boiling point. Cook one hour or until tender.
Add the vegetables, and flour mixed with half cup of cold water. Cook
until vegetables are tender.


  1-1/2 cups breadcrumbs
  2 cups scalded milk
  1-1/2 cups chopped cooked ham
  2 egg yolks
  1 tablespoon chopped parsley
  1 teaspoon minced onion
  1/2 teaspoon paprika
  2 egg whites


  2 tablespoons butter
  3 tablespoons flour
  1 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons chopped parsley

For the soufflé, cook together breadcrumbs and milk for two minutes.
Remove from fire, add ham and mix well. Add egg yolks, first beating
these well; also the parsley (one tablespoon), onion and paprika. Fold
in, last of all, the egg whites whipped to a stiff, dry froth. Turn
quickly into a well-greased baking dish and bake in moderate oven for
thirty-five minutes, or until firm to the touch; meantime, make the
parsley sauce, so that both can be served instantly when the soufflé
is done; then it will not fall and grow tough.

For the parsley sauce, melt the butter in saucepan and stir in the
flour, stirring until perfectly smooth, then add the milk slowly,
stirring constantly; cook until thick, stir in the parsley and salt,
and serve at once in a gravy boat.



  1 cup flour
  1/2 cup milk
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  1 egg
  4 tablespoons water
  1/2 teaspoon salt


  2 cups coarsely chopped cold cooked meat
  1 tablespoon drippings
  1 medium-sized potato
  1 cup stock or hot water
  salt and pepper
  1 small onion

Any cold meat may be used for this. Cut it into inch pieces. Slice the
onion and potato and fry in drippings until onion is slightly browned.
Add the meat and stock, or hot water, or dissolve in hot water any
left-over meat gravy. Cook all together until potato is soft, but not
crumbled; season with the pepper and salt. Thicken with a tablespoon
of flour and turn into a pudding dish.

Make a batter by sifting together flour, baking-powder and salt; stir
in the egg and milk, mixed with the water. Beat hard until free from
lumps, then pour over meat and vegetables in the pudding and bake
until brown.


  1 pint chopped cooked mutton
  1 head shredded lettuce
  1 can cooked peas
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 tablespoon fat
  1-1/2 cups broth
  1 teaspoon of salt

Cook 15 minutes. Serve as a border around rice.


  2 cups chopped cooked mutton
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 teaspoon curry powder
  2 cups hominy
  1 cup peas or carrots
  1/2 pint of brown sauce or water

Put meat and vegetables in baking dish. Cover with rice, hominy, or
samp, which has been cooked. Bake until brown.


  2 cups hominy (cooked)
  1 cup chopped cooked ham
  1/3 cup fat
  1/3 cup flour
  1 teaspoon of salt
  1/8 teaspoon mustard
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 egg
  1 cup milk
  1/2 cup water

Melt the fat. Add the dry ingredients and the liquid slowly. When
at boiling point, add hominy and ham. Stir in the egg. Place in a
baking-dish. Cover with buttered crumbs. Bake until brown.


  1 tablespoon lemon juice
  1 tablespoon sour pickle
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 teaspoon celery salt

To 1 tablespoon of gelatine, softened in 1/2 cup of cold water add 1
cup of hot tomato juice and pulp. Add seasoned meat. Chill and slice.
May be served with salad dressing.


  1 cup chopped cooked meat
  2 cups raw potato, cut fine
  1 tablespoon onion juice
  2 tablespoons chopped parsley
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup drippings
  1/2 cup gravy or water

Melt fat in frying pan. Put in all the other ingredients. Cook over a
slow fire for 1/2 hour. Fold and serve as omelet.


  1-1/2 cups flour
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  3 tablespoons shortening
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  2 cups chopped, cooked meat
  1 teaspoon onion juice
  1/2 cup gravy or soup stock
  Salt and pepper
  3/4 cup milk and water

Mix flour, salt and baking powder. Rub in shortening, and mix to dough
with milk and water. Roll out to quarter of an inch thickness, bake
in layer cake tins. Put together with the chopped meat mixed with the
onion and seasoning, and heated hot with the gravy or stock. If stock
is used, thicken with a tablespoon of flour mixed with one of butter,
or butter substitute. Serve as soon as put together. Cold cooked fish
heated in cream sauce may be used for a filling instead of the meat.


Place a pig's head in 4 quarts of cold water and bring slowly to the
boil. Skim carefully and season the liquid highly with salt, cayenne
and a teaspoon of rubbed sage. Let the liquid simmer gently until the
meat falls from the bones. Strain off the liquid, remove the bones,
and chop the meat fine.

Measure the liquid and allow 1 cup of sifted cornmeal to 3 cups of
liquid. Blend the cornmeal in the liquid and simmer until it is the
consistency of thick porridge. Stir in the chopped meat and pour in
greased baking pans to cool. One-third buckwheat may be used instead
of cornmeal, and any kind of chopped meat can be blended with the pork
if desired. Any type of savory herb can also be used, according to

When scrapple is to be eaten, cut into one-half inch slices, dredge
with flour, and brown in hot fat.


As the main course at a meal, fish may be served accompanied by
vegetables or it may be prepared as a "one-meal dish" requiring only
bread and butter and a simple dessert to complete a nutritious and
well balanced diet. A lack of proper knowledge of selection of fish
for the different methods of cooking, and the improper cooking of
fish once it is acquired, are responsible to a large extent for the
prejudice so frequently to be found against the use of fish.

The kinds of fish obtainable in different markets vary somewhat, but
the greatest difficulty for many housekeepers seems to be, to know
what fish may best be selected for baking, broiling, etc., and the
tests for fish when cooked. An invariable rule for cooking fish is
to apply high heat at first, until the flesh is well seared so as to
retain the juices; then a lower temperature until the flesh is cooked
throughout. Fish is thoroughly cooked when the flesh flakes. For
broiling or pan broiling, roll fish in flour or cornmeal, preferably
the latter, which has been well seasoned with salt and cayenne. This
causes the outside to be crisp and also gives added flavor. Leftover
bits of baked or other fish may be combined with white sauce or tomato
sauce, or variations of these sauces, and served as creamed fish, or
placed in a greased baking dish, crumbs placed on top and browned and
served as scalloped fish. Fish canapes, fish cocktail, fish soup or
chowder; baked, steamed, broiled or pan broiled fish, entrees without
number, and fish salad give opportunity to use it in endless variety.

Combined with starchy foods such as rice, hominy, macaroni, spaghetti
or potato, and accompanied by a green vegetable or fruit, the dish
becomes a meal. Leftover bits may also be utilized for salad, either
alone with cooked or mayonaise salad dressing, or combined with
vegetables such as peas, carrots, cucumbers, etc. The addition of a
small amount of chopped pickle to fish salad improves its flavor, or
a plain or tomato gelatine foundation may be used as a basis for the
salad. The appended lists of fish suitable for the various methods
of cooking, and the variety in the recipes for the uses of fish,
have been arranged to encourage a wider use of this excellent meat
substitute, so largely eaten by European epicures, but too seldom
included in American menus. During the period of the war, the larger
use of fish is a patriotic measure in that it will save the beef,
mutton and pork needed for our armies.


  2 cups cooked meat or fish
  1 cup gravy or water
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 teaspoon onion juice

  2 cups rye flour
  1 teaspoon of salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  4 tablespoons fat
  1 cup gravy, water or milk

Place meat or fish and seasonings in greased dish. Make shortcake by
sifting dry ingredients, cut in fat, and add liquid. Place on top of
meat or fish mixture. Bake 30 minutes.


  1 cup codfish, soaked over night and cooked until tender
  2 cups cold boiled potatoes
  1/3 cup pimento
  2 cups breadcrumbs
  1 cup tomato sauce

Make sauce by melting 1/4 cup of fat, adding 2 tablespoons of whole
wheat flour.

  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 teaspoon onion juice, and, gradually
  1 cup of tomato and juice

Place the codfish, potatoes and pimento in a baking dish. Cover with
the tomato sauce, then the breadcrumbs, to which have been added 2
tablespoons of drippings. Bake brown.


  1 cup shrimps
  1 cup peas
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1-1/2 cups milk
  2 tablespoons flour

Melt fat, add dry ingredients, and gradually the liquid. Then add fish
and peas.


  2 cups breadcrumbs
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper (cayenne)
  1 teaspoon onion juice
  1 tablespoon parsley
  1 tablespoon chopped pickle
  1/4 cup fat

Mix well and fill fish till it is plump with the mixture.


  1 cup cooked fish
  1 cup celery
  2 tablespoons pickle
  1 cup salad dressing
  1 cup peas


  1 egg
  2 tablespoons flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon mustard
  2 tablespoons fat
  3/4 cup milk
  1/4 cup vinegar
  2 tablespoons corn syrup

Directions for making dressing: Mix all ingredients. Cook over hot
water until consistency of custard.


  1/4 lb. fat salt pork
  1 onion
  2 cups fish
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  Water to cover
  2 cups potatoes, diced

Cook slowly, covered, for 1/2 hour. Add 1 pint of boiling milk and 1
dozen water crackers.


  1/2 cup each of milk and water, boiling hot
  1 fish

Pour over fish. Let stand, warm, 25 minutes. Pour off. Dot with fat
and bake 25 minutes. One tablespoon chopped parsley on top.


  1 cup of cooked fish
  1-1/2 cups mashed potato
  1 tablespoon parsley
  1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1/2 teaspoon celery seed
  1 teaspoon lemon juice

Shape as croquette and bake in a moderate oven 25 minutes.


  1 cup chopped clams
  1-1/2 cups milk
  1 bay leaf
  3 tablespoons fat
  3 tablespoons flour
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
  1 tablespoon chopped parsley
  1 teaspoon lemon juice
  Yolks of 2 eggs
  1/2 cup breadcrumbs

Scald bay-leaf in milk. Make sauce, by melting fat with flour; add dry
ingredients, and gradually add the liquid. Add egg. Add fish. Put in
baking dish. Cover top with breadcrumbs. Bake 20 minutes.


  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 cup cooked shrimps
  1/2 cup cheese
  1/2 cup celery stalk
  1 cup milk

Melt fat, add dry ingredients, and gradually the liquid. Then add fish
and cheese. Bring to boiling point and serve.


  1 large can salmon
  1/2 doz. soda crackers
  2 cups thin white sauce
  Salt, pepper
  1 hard-boiled egg

Alternate layers of the salmon and the crumbled crackers in a
well-greased baking dish, sprinkling each layer with salt, pepper,
the finely chopped hard-boiled egg, and bits of butter or butter
substitute, moistening with the white sauce. Finish with a layer of
the fish, sprinkling it with the cracker crumbs dotted with butter.
Bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes, or until the top is well

Fish for Frying.--Brook trout, black bass, cod steaks, flounder
fillet, perch, pickerel, pompano, smelts, whitefish steak, pike,
weakfish, tilefish.

Fish for Boiling.--Cod, fresh herring, weakfish, tilefish, sea bass,
pickerel, red snapper, salt and fresh mackerel, haddock, halibut,
salmon, sheepshead.

Fish for Baking.--Black bass, bluefish, haddock, halibut, fresh
mackerel, sea bass, weakfish, red snapper, fresh salmon, pickerel,
shad, muskellunge.

Fish for Broiling.--Bluefish, flounder, fresh mackerel, pompano,
salmon steak, black bass, smelts, sea bass steaks, whitefish steaks,
trout steaks, shad roe, shad (whole).



  2 cups of stale breadcrumbs
  1 cup of American cheese, grated
  2 teaspoons of salt
  1/8 teaspoon of pepper
  2 cups of milk
  1 egg
  2 tablespoons of fat

Mix well. Bake in a greased dish in moderate oven for 25 minutes.


  1 cup of cheese
  1 cup of milk
  1/4 teaspoon of mustard
  1/8 teaspoon of pepper
  2 tablespoons of flour
  1 teaspoon of fat
  1 teaspoon of salt
  1 egg

Put milk and cheese in top of double boiler over hot water. Heat until
cheese is melted. Mix other ingredients. Add to cheese and milk. Cook
five minutes, stirring constantly, and serve at once on toast.


Over 1 cup macaroni, boiled in salted water, pour this sauce:

  2 tablespoons flour
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 cupful milk
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/2 cup grated American cheese

Melt fat, add dry ingredients. Add liquid slowly. Bring to boiling
point. Add cheese. Stir until melted. Pour over macaroni.


  2 cups cooked cabbage
  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1-1/2 cups milk
  1 cup grated cheese
  1 teaspoon salt

Melt fat, add dry ingredients. Add milk gradually. When at boiling
point, add cheese. Pour over cabbage in greased dish and bake 20
minutes. Buttered crumbs may be put on top before baking if desired.


  2 cups stale breadcrumbs
  1 cup milk
  1 yolk of egg
  1 cup chopped nuts
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1/2 cup grated cheese

Shape and roll in dried breadcrumbs. Bake 20 minutes.


  1 tablespoon fat
  3/4 cup cooked corn
  1/2 cup tomato purée
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 cups grated cheese
  1/4 cup pimento
  1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon paprika

Heat purée. Add fat, corn, salt, paprika and pimento. When hot, add
cheese. When melted, add yolk. Cook till thick. Serve on toast.


  1/2 loaf thinly sliced bread
  1 cup cheese
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1/4 cup fat
  1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  2 eggs
  1/2 cup milk
  1/2 cup cooked celery knob or celery

Mix all ingredients except milk and bread. Spread on bread. Pile in
baking dish. Pour milk over the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven until
firm in center. Serve hot.


  1 cup cooked farina or rice
  1 cup cheese
  1 cup nuts
  1 cup milk
  1 egg
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Mix all thoroughly. Bake in greased dish 30 minutes.


  1 teaspoon onion juice
  1 cup grated cheese
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 cup beans (kidney)
  About 1 cup breadcrumbs

Soak and cook beans. Mix all ingredients into loaf. Baste with fat and
water. Bake 30 minutes. Serve with tomato sauce.


  1 cup spinach
  1 cup cheese
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1/2 cup breadcrumbs
  1 tablespoon fat
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Mix and bake in greased dish 20 minutes.


  1 cup breadcrumbs
  1 cup milk
  1 cup cheese
  1 egg
  2 tablespoons fat
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Soak bread 10 minutes in milk. Add fat and cheese. When melted, add
egg and seasoning. Cook in double boiler or bake 20 minutes.


  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1-1/2 cups tomato juice and pulp
  1 cup cheese
  1 cup cooked rice
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Melt fat. Add dry ingredients. Add liquid slowly. When at boiling
point, add cheese and rice. Serve hot.


  1 cup cooked cornmeal mush
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup cheese
  1/8 teaspoon pepper

While mush is hot place ingredients in layers in baking dish. Bake 20


  1/4 cup fat
  1/2 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 cups milk
  1/2 cup cheese
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne

Prepare same as tomato sauce. Serve with rice or spaghetti.


  1 pt. milk
  1/2 teaspoon soda
  2/3 cup flour
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 pt. tomatoes
  1 cup cheese

For both the sauces, melt fat, add dry ingredients and, gradually,
the liquid. When at boiling point, add cheese and serve. This is an
excellent sauce for fish.


  1/4 cup fat
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 pint milk
  1/4 cup flour
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1 cup cheese

Make as white sauce and add cheese. Pour over bread, sliced and
toasted. Bake in moderate oven.


  1/2 pint cottage cheese
  1/4 cup green peppers, chopped
  1/2 cup condensed milk
  1/8 teaspoon of cayenne
  1 tablespoon of gelatine
  2 tablespoons of cold water
  1 teaspoon salt

Soak the gelatine in the cold water until soft. Dissolve over hot
water. Add the other ingredients. Chill. Serve as a salad or as a
lunch or supper entrée.


  1 quart milk or part stock
  1/4 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/4 cup fat
  1 cup cheese
  1/4 tablespoon paprika

Cream fat and flour; add gradually the liquid, and season. When creamy
and ready to serve, stir in the cheese, grated.


  1 cup flour
  1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup water
  3 teaspoons baking powder
  1 tablespoon butter or fat
  8 tablespoons grated cheese

Mix like drop baking powder biscuit. Bake 12 minutes in hot oven.
This recipe makes twelve biscuits. They are excellent to serve with a
vegetable salad as they are high in nutrition.


  1-1/2 cups breadcrumbs
  2 cups milk
  3 cups chopped celery
  1 cup shaved cheese

Cook celery till tender. Put layer of crumbs in greased baking dish,
then celery; cover with cheese and sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Repeat to fill dish. Turn in boiling hot milk with 1 cup of celery
water. Bake for 30 minutes.



  1 cup flour
  2 teaspoons baking powder
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 cup milk
  1 egg
  6 oysters
  2 full tablespoons Kornlet

Sift dry ingredients, add milk, egg and Kornlet. Add oysters last. Fry
in deep fat, using a tablespoonful to an oyster.


  2 cups cooked salmon
  1 cup grated breadcrumbs
  2 beaten eggs
  1/2 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon paprika
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon chopped parsley
  1 teaspoonful onion juice

Mix thoroughly. Bake in greased dish 30 minutes.


Two cups lentils that have been soaked over night. Boil until soft,
with 2 small onions and 1 teaspoon each of thyme, savory, marjoram,
and 4 cloves. Drain. Add 1 teaspoon of salt, and put into baking dish.
Dot with fat. Bake for 30 minutes.


  1 cup of cooked hominy
  1/2 cup nuts
  1 tablespoon corn syrup
  1 teaspoon of salt
  1/8 teaspoon of pepper
  1 egg
  1 tablespoon melted fat

Mix and roll in dried breadcrumbs and bake in oven 20 minutes.


  1 cup soaked and cooked dried peas, beans, lentils or lima beans
  1/2 cup dried breadcrumbs
  1/4 cup fat
  1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon sage

Mix and shape as sausage. Roll in flour and fry in dripping.


  1 cup boiled rice or potato
  1 cup peanuts
  2/3 cup dried breadcrumbs
  3/4 cup milk
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  2 tablespoons fat

Mix well. Bake in greased pan 30 minutes.


  2 cups baked or boiled soy beans
  1-1/2 tablespoons molasses
  2 tablespoons butter or drippings
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon vinegar
  Pepper to taste
  1 egg
  1 scant cup breadcrumbs

When the beans are placed on to boil, put tablespoon fat and half an
onion with them. After draining well, put through the foodchopper,
keeping the liquid for soup stock. Mix all the ingredients, beating
the egg white before adding. Form into balls or cylinders, dip in the
leftover egg yolk, to which a few drops of water have been added, and
then coat with stale bread or cracker crumbs. Be sure the croquettes
are well covered, then fry brown. Serve with cream sauce or with
scalloped or stewed tomatoes. With a green salad, this is a complete


  1/3 cup dried breadcrumbs
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  1 egg
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 teaspoons chopped nuts
  1 teaspoon onion juice
  3 tablespoons fat
  3/4 cup milk
  1/2 cup pulp from peas, beans or lentils, soaked and cooked until

Mix well. Bake in greased pan 30 minutes. Serve with tomato sauce,
or white sauce, with 2 tablespoons nuts, or 2 teaspoons horseradish


One cup peas, beans or lentils soaked over night, then cooked until
tender. Put through colander. To 2 cups of mixture, add:

  2 eggs
  3/4 cup dried breadcrumbs
  2 teaspoons poultry seasoning
  2 teaspoons celery salt
  1/2 cup whole wheat flour
  1-1/2 cups tomato juice and pulp
  2 teaspoons onion juice
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 cups chopped peanuts

Mix thoroughly. Place in greased baking dish. Bake 30 minutes.


Two cups kidney beans, soaked over night. Cook until tender. Drain.

To each 2 cups of beans, add:

  2 tablespoons fat
  1 tablespoon chopped onion
  1/4 cup tomato pulp
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper

Mix thoroughly. Place in greased baking dish. Cover with 2 cups
crumbs, to which have been added 2 tablespoons melted fat. Bake 30
minutes in moderate oven.


  1 cup cooked spaghetti or macaroni
  1 cup carrots
  1 cup turnips
  1 cup cabbage
  2 cups milk
  1/2 cup onions
  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup chopped peanuts

Cook spaghetti until tender (about 30 minutes). Cook vegetables until
tender in 1 quart water, with 1 teaspoon of salt added. Melt fat, add
dry ingredients, add milk gradually and bring to boiling point each
time before adding more milk. When all of milk is added, add peanuts.
Put in greased baking dish one-half of spaghetti, on top place
one-half of vegetables, then one-half of sauce. Repeat, and place in
moderately hot oven 30 minutes.


  3 tablespoons of horseradish
  1 tablespoon vinegar
  1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1/2 cup of thick, sour cream, and
  1 tablespoon corn syrup, or
  4 tablespoons of condensed milk

Mix and chill.


  1/3 cup drippings
  1/4 cup of whole wheat flour
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1-1/2 cups meat stock or water
  1 teaspoon salt

Melt the fat and brown the flour in it. Add the salt and pepper and
gradually the meat stock or water. If water is used, add 1 teaspoon of
kitchen bouquet. This may be used for leftover slices or small pieces
of any kind of cooked meat.


"_To provide adequate supplies for the coming year is of absolutely
vital importance to the conduct of the war, and without a very
conscientious elimination of waste and very strict economy in our food
consumption, we cannot hope to fulfill this primary duty._"





One ounce of sugar less per person, per day, is all our Government
asks of us to meet the world sugar shortage. One ounce of sugar equals
two scant level tablespoonfuls and represents a saving that every man,
woman and child should be able to make. Giving up soft drinks and the
frosting on our cakes, the use of sugarless desserts and confections,
careful measuring and thorough stirring of that which we place in our
cups of tea and coffee, and the use of syrup, molasses or honey on our
pancakes and fritters will more than effect this saving.

It seems but a small sacrifice, if sacrifice it can be called, when
one recognizes that cutting down sugar consumption will be most
beneficial to national health. The United States is the largest
consumer of sugar in the world. In 1916 Germany's consumption was 20
lbs. per person per year, Italy's 29 to 30 lbs., that of France 37,
of England 40, while the United States averaged 85 lbs. This enormous
consumption is due to the fact that we are a nation of candy-eaters.
We spend annually $80,000,000 on confections. These are usually eaten
between meals, causing digestive disturbances as well as unwarranted
expense. Sweets are a food and should be eaten at the close of the
meal, and if this custom is established during the war, not only
will tons of sugar be available for our Allies, but the health of the
nation improved.

The average daily consumption of sugar per person in this country is 5
ounces, and yet nutritional experts agree that not more than 3 ounces
a day should be taken. The giving up of one ounce per day will,
therefore, be of great value in reducing many prevalent American
ailments. Flatulent dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, and stomach
acidity are only too frequently traced to an oversupply of sugar in
our daily diet.

Most persons apparently think of sugar merely as a sweetening agent,
forgetting entirely the fact that it is a most concentrated food.
It belongs to what is called the carbohydrate group, upon which we
largely depend for energy and heat. It is especially valuable to
the person doing active physical work, the open-air worker, or the
healthy, active, growing child, but should be used sparingly by other
classes of people. Sugar is not only the most concentrated fuel food
in the dietary, but it is one that is very readily utilized in the
body, 98 per cent. of it being available for absorption, while within
thirty minutes of the time it is taken into the system part of it is
available for energy.

As a food it must be supplied, especially to the classes of people
mentioned above, but as a confection it can well be curtailed. When it
is difficult to obtain, housekeepers must avail themselves of changed
recipes and different combinations to supply the necessary three
ounces per day and to gain the much-desired sweet taste so necessary
to many of our foods of neutral flavor with which sugar is usually

Our grandmothers knew how to prepare many dishes without sugar. In
their day lack of transportation facilities, of refining methods and
various economic factors made molasses, sorghum, honey, etc., the
only common methods of sweetening. But the housekeeper of to-day knows
little of sweetening mediums except sugar, and sugar shortage is to
her a crucial problem. There are many ways, however, of getting around
sugar shortage and many methods of supplying the necessary food value
and sweetening.

By the use of marmalades, jams and jellies canned during the season
when the sugar supply was less limited, necessity for the use of sugar
can be vastly reduced. By the addition to desserts and cereals of
dried fruits, raisins, dates, prunes and figs, which contain large
amounts of natural sugar, the sugar consumption can be greatly
lessened. By utilizing leftover syrup from canned or preserved fruits
for sweetening other fruits, and by the use of honey, molasses, maple
sugar, maple syrup and corn syrup, large quantities of sugar may be
saved. The substitution of sweetened condensed milk for dairy milk
in tea, coffee and cocoa--in fact, in all our cooking processes where
milk is required--will also immeasurably aid in sugar conservation.
The substitutes mentioned are all available in large amounts. Honey
is especially valuable for children, as it consists of the more simple
sugars which are less irritating than cane sugar, and there is no
danger of acid stomach from the amounts generally consumed.

As desserts are the chief factor in the use of quantities of sugar
in our diet, the appended recipes will be of value, as they deal with
varied forms of nutritious, attractive sugarless desserts. It is only
by the one-ounce savings of each individual member of our great one
hundred million population that the world sugar shortage may be met,
and it is hoped every housekeeper will study her own time-tested
recipes with the view of utilizing as far as possible other forms of
sweetening. In most recipes the liquid should be slightly reduced in
amount and about one-fifth more of the substitute should be used than
the amount of sugar called for.

With a few tests along this line one will be surprised how readily
the substitution may be made. If all sweetening agents become scarce,
desserts can well be abandoned. Served at the end of a full meal,
desserts are excess food except in the diet of children, where they
should form a component part of the meal.




  1 cup dry bread crumbs
  1 pint hot milk

  Let stand until milk is absorbed.

  1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup molasses
  1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon mixed spices, cloves, nutmeg, allspice, mace and ginger
  2/3 cup raisins, dates and prunes (steamed 5 minutes)

Mix and bake 45 minutes.


  1/2 cup pearl tapioca or sago
  3 cups water
  1/4 lb. dried apricots, prunes, dates or raisins
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons fat
  1/2 cup corn syrup

Soak fruit in water 1 hour. Add other ingredients. Cook directly over
fire 5 minutes, then over hot water until clear, about 45 minutes.


  6 slices stale bread
  1/4 cup fat
  2 egg yolks
  1 tablespoon corn syrup
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 cup milk
  1 cup marmalade or preserves

Mix eggs, corn syrup, salt and milk. Dip bread and brown in frying
pan. Spread with marmalade or preserves. Pile in baking dish. Cover
with any of the custard mixture which is left. Cover with meringue.
Bake 15 minutes.


  2 cups whole wheat flour
  1/2 cup milk
  1 tablespoon fat
  2 tablespoons sugar
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 egg
  1/2 lb. washed and scalded prunes, dates, figs or raisins
  2 teaspoons baking powder

To prunes, add 1/2 cup water and soak 10 minutes. Simmer in same water
until tender (about 10 minutes). Drain prunes and mash to a pulp.
Mix flour, baking powder and salt. Add beaten egg and milk. Mix to
a dough. Roll out thin, spread with prune pulp, sprinkle with two
tablespoons sugar. Roll the mixture and place in greased baking dish.
Bake 30 to 40 minutes. Take half cup of juice from prunes, add 1
tablespoon corn syrup. Bring to boiling point. Serve as sauce for
prune roll.


  1 pint milk
  1/8 cup cornstarch
  2 yolks of eggs
  1/3 cup orange marmalade
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla
  Few grains of salt

Mix cornstarch with 1/4 cup of cold milk. Scald rest of milk, add
cornstarch, and stir until thick. Cook over hot water 20 minutes.
Add rest of ingredients. Cook, stirring 5 minutes. Chill and serve
with two whites of eggs, beaten stiff, to which has been added 2
tablespoons orange marmalade. Two ounces grated chocolate and 1/3
cup corn syrup may be substituted for marmalade.


  2 cups strong boiling coffee
  2 tablespoons gelatine (granulated)
  2 tablespoons cold water
  1/4 cup corn syrup
  1 cup condensed milk
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Soak gelatine in cold water until soft. Add coffee and stir
until dissolved. Add other ingredients. Chill. One-quarter cup of
marshmallows may be cut up and added just before chilling.


  2 cups of left-over canned fruit or cooked dried fruit
  2 cups of the juice or water
  1/4 cup corn syrup
  2 tablespoons gelatine
  1 tablespoon lemon juice

Soften the gelatine in 2 tablespoons of the juice or water. Add the
rest of the fruit after it has been heated. When the gelatine is
dissolved, add the fruit, lemon juice and corn syrup. Pour in mold.


  1 cup cooked cereal
  2 cups milk
  1-1/2 tablespoons fat
  1 cup dates
  1/4 cup corn syrup
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon grated lemon rind
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla
  1 egg

Cook over hot water until thick, and boil or bake 20 minutes. Serve
with hot maple syrup.


Fill cored apples with 1 tablespoon honey, corn syrup, chopped dates,
raisins, marmalade, or chopped popcorn mixed with corn syrup in
the proportion of two tablespoons of syrup to a cup of corn. Put
one-quarter inch of water in pan. Bake until tender and serve apples
in pan with syrup as sauce.


Core apples. Cut just through the skin around the center of the apple.
Fill the center with popcorn and 1 teaspoon of corn syrup. Bake 30


  1/2 cup rice
  1-1/2 cups milk
  1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1/3 cup maple syrup
  1/2 cup raisins
  1 egg

Cook in top of double boiler or in steamer 35 minutes.


  1 cup cooked cereal
  1/2 cup corn syrup
  1/4 teaspoon mapline
  1/2 cup milk
  1/2 cup chopped nuts
  1/2 cup raisins or dates
  1 egg

Cook in double boiler until smooth. Serve cold with cream or place in
baking dish and bake 20 minutes.


  2 cups cooked oatmeal
  1 cup sliced apple
  1 cup peanuts
  1/2 cup raisins
  1/3 cup molasses
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Mix and bake in greased dish for 30 minutes. Serve hot or cold. This
is a very nourishing dish.


  1 pint milk
  1/3 cup cornstarch
  1/3 cup corn syrup
  1 egg
  1 teaspoon vanilla
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  2 oz. grated chocolate

Mix cornstarch with 1/4 cup cold milk. Scald rest of milk. Add
cornstarch. Cook until thick. Add a little of the hot mixture to
the chocolate when melted. Mix all ingredients and cook 5 minutes,
stirring constantly. Chill and serve with plain or chopped nuts.


  2 cups cooked oatmeal
  1/8 cup molasses
  1 cup raisins
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup chopped nuts
  1 egg (beaten)

Mix well. Bake in greased baking dish 30 minutes


  1/2 lb. prunes
  2-1/2 cups cold water
  2 tablespoons granulated gelatine
  1/2 cup corn syrup or 1/4 cup sugar
  2 teaspoons grated lemon or orange rind

Soak washed and scalded prunes in 2 cups cold water 10 minutes. Simmer
until tender (about 10 minutes). Soak gelatine in 1/2 cup cold water.
When soft, add to hot prune mixture. When gelatine is dissolved, add
other ingredients and place in mold. Chill, and stir once or twice
while chilling to prevent prunes settling to bottom of mold.


Core 6 apples. Cut line around apple just through skin. Fill center
with mixture of one-quarter cup each of dates, nuts and figs or
marmalade, to which has been added one-quarter cup corn syrup or
honey. Bake 30 minutes with one-quarter inch water in baking pan.
Stick outside of apple with blanched almonds to make porcupine quills.


  2 tablespoons melted fat
  2 cups crumbs
  1/2 cup of fruit juice or water
  1/4 cup corn syrup
  2 cups of left-over canned or cooked dried fruit

Put one-quarter of the crumbs on the bottom of a buttered baking pan.
Cover with one-half the fruit, one-half the corn syrup, one-half the
liquid, one-quarter of the crumbs; the other half of the fruit, juice
and corn syrup, and the rest of the crumbs, on top. Bake 20 minutes in
a hot oven.


  1/2 lb. pitted prunes
  1/3 cup corn syrup, or 2 tablespoons sugar
  1 cup water
  2 teaspoons lemon rind
  1/2 tablespoon fat
  1 tablespoon cornstarch

Wash and scald prunes. Soak ten minutes in the water. Simmer until
tender. Rub through colander. Add other ingredients, well blended.
Bring to boiling point. Use as filling for pastry.


  2 cups apples
  1 cup dates
  1 tablespoon, fat
  1 teaspoon lemon rind
  1/4 cup water

Mix all and use as filling for double crust, or cook until apples are
tender. Mix well and use as filling for tarts, etc.


  1-1/2 cups corn syrup
  1-1/2 cups water
  1/3 cup cornstarch
  2 eggs
  1 tablespoon lemon rind
  1/2 cup lemon juice (2 lemons)
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Mix cornstarch and 1 cup water. Add to corn syrup. Cook over
direct flame until thick. Cook over hot water 20 minutes. Mix other
ingredients. Add one-half cup water and add to other mixture. Cook 5
minutes and use as filling--hot or cold.


  1 cup sour cream (heated)
  1 cup chopped nuts
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  1 teaspoon gelatine
  2 tablespoons cold water

Soften gelatine in cold water. Add heated cream and when dissolved add
other ingredients. Chill and use for cake filling. This is a good way
of using up leftover cream which has turned.


  1 cup cranberries, chopped
  1 cup raisins
  1 cup corn syrup
  2 tablespoons flour mixed with 1/4 cup cold water
  2 tablespoons fat

Mix all. Bring to boiling point and place in double crust pastry or
cook until thick and use as filling for tarts.


  2 cups stewed pumpkin
  1 cup corn syrup
  1 egg
  2 tablespoons flour
  1 teaspoon cinnamon
  3/4 teaspoon nutmeg
  1/4 teaspoon allspice
  1/8 teaspoon ginger
  1 teaspoon vanilla
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1-1/2 cups milk

Mix all ingredients and bake in double crust pastry, or cook and serve
in cooked single crust with meringue.


  2 egg whites
  2 tablespoons corn syrup

Beat whites until very stiff. Add corn syrup by folding in. Do not


  1 cup corn syrup
  2 cups water
  2 cups raisins
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 teaspoons cinnamon
  1 teaspoon nutmeg
  1-1/2 cups fine cornmeal, 2 cups rye flour; or, 3-1/2 cups whole
          wheat flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons baking powder, or, 1/2 teaspoon soda

Cook corn syrup, water, raisins, fat, salt and spices slowly 15
minutes. When cool, add flour, soda or baking powder, thoroughly
blended. Bake in slow oven 1 hour. The longer this cake is kept, the
better the texture and flavor. This recipe is sufficient to fill one
medium-sized bread pan.


  2 tablespoons fat
  1/4 cup molasses
  1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup sour milk
  1 teaspoon soda
  2 cups whole wheat flour
  1 teaspoon ginger

Mix soda and molasses. Add other ingredients. Bake in muffin pans 20
minutes or loaf 40 minutes.


  1/4 cup fat
  1 cup corn syrup
  1-1/2 teaspoons mapline
  1 egg
  1 teaspoon baking powder
  1-1/4 cups whole wheat flour
  1/4 teaspoon soda
  1/4 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla
  1/2 cup coarsely cut nuts

Cream fat, syrup and mapline. Add beaten egg. Sift dry ingredients
and add alternately with milk. Add flavoring and nuts last. Beat well.
Bake 20 minutes in layer pan. This quantity makes one layer.


  6 slices of bread cut in half
  1/2 cup of milk
  1 egg  yolk
  1 tablespoon corn syrup
  2 tablespoons cocoanut
  Tart jelly

Mix milk, egg yolk and corn syrup. Dip bread in this mixture and brown
in frying pan, with small amount of fat. Spread with currant or other
tart jelly, preserve or marmalade. Sprinkle with cocoanut and serve as


  1 cup soy beans, finely chopped
  1/2 cup butter or shortening
  1/4 cup sugar
  1/3 cup corn syrup
  1/2 teaspoon lemon or vanilla
  1/2 cup flour
  1 egg
  2 teaspoons baking powder

Soak beans over night, boil for 1 hour. Drain. Cool and put through
food-chopper. Cream butter and sugar, add beans, egg. Sift flour with
baking powder and add to first mixture. Drop by teaspoonfuls on a
baking sheet and bake 8 minutes in a hot oven.


  1/2 cup fat
  1/2 cup sugar
  1 beaten egg
  1/3 cup molasses
  1/2 cup tart apple sauce
  1/2 cup raisins, dates, prunes or currants (chopped)
  1-1/2 cups flour
  1/2 teaspoon allspice
  1/4 teaspoon cloves
  1/2 teaspoon nutmeg

Cream fat and sugar. Add egg. Alternate dry ingredients (which have
been sifted together) with the liquid. Add fruit last. Beat well. Bake
as loaf about 15 minutes, or in muffin pans about 25 minutes.


  1 cup of molasses
  2 tablespoons of fat
  1 teaspoon soda and 1 teaspoon water (hot)
  1 cup of flour
  1 tablespoon ginger
  1/2 teaspoon cloves
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  About 3 cups flour

Heat molasses and fat until fat is melted. Sift spices with one cup of
flour. Dissolve soda in one teaspoon of hot water. Combine all and add
enough more flour to make dough stiff enough to roll out. Bake 12 to
15 minutes in moderate oven.


  1 cup molasses
  2 tablespoons fat
  1/2 cup boiling water
  1 cup flour
  1 teaspoon soda
  1/2 teaspoon ginger
  2 tablespoons cinnamon
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon of cloves

Mix molasses, fat, and boiling water. Sift dry ingredients. Add the
liquid. Add enough more flour (about four cups) to make dough stiff
enough to roll out. Cut and bake about 15 minutes in moderately hot


  1 cup honey or corn syrup
  1 tablespoon fat
  1 egg
  2 cups flour
  1 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 teaspoon cloves
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 cup chopped dates, figs, prunes or raisins
  3/4 teaspoon soda
  2/3 cup milk

Cream fat, honey and egg. Sift dry ingredients. Add alternately with
milk. Bake in loaf 45 minutes in moderate oven.


  1-1/2 cup molasses
  3/4 cup boiling water
  2-1/2 cups flour
  1-1/8 teaspoons soda
  1-1/2 teaspoons ginger
  3/4 teaspoon salt
  1/4 cup fat

Sift dry ingredients. Mix fat, molasses and boiling water. Add dry
ingredients. Beat briskly for a few minutes, and pour into greased
muffin pans. Bake twenty to thirty minutes in moderate oven.


  1-3/4 cups whole wheat flour
  3/4 cup cooked oatmeal
  2/3 cup corn syrup
  1/2 cup raisins, dates, prunes or figs
  1/4 teaspoon soda
  1/2 teaspoon baking powder
  1 teaspoon cinnamon
  3 tablespoons fat

Heat the corn syrup and fat. Sift dry ingredients and add to first
mixture. Add fruit last. Bake in muffin pans for 30 minutes.


  1 doz. salted wafers
  1/3 cup chopped dates
  1/3 cup chopped nuts
  1 egg white
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Beat egg white until very stiff. Add other ingredients and place on
the wafers. Place under broiler until a delicate brown.



  2 teaspoons gelatine
  2 tablespoons cold water
  1/3 cup corn syrup
  2 teaspoons cornstarch
  1/4 cup chopped nuts
  1/2 cup chopped dates
  1/2 cup chopped raisins
  1/4 teaspoon vanilla

Mix cornstarch with 1 tablespoon cold water. Heat corn syrup to the
boil, add cornstarch and cook for three minutes. Soften the gelatine
in two tablespoons cold water for five minutes; stir into the hot
syrup after taking from fire. When gelatine has dissolved add the
fruit and nuts and flavoring. Chill, cut in squares, and roll each in
powdered sugar.


  2 cups corn syrup
  1/2 teaspoon soda
  1 teaspoon water
  2 tablespoons vinegar

Boil the syrup for fifteen minutes, then add the soda. Cook until a
little snaps brittle when dropped in cold water. Add the vinegar when
this stage is reached and pour into oiled pans. When cool enough to
handle, pull until white; make into inch-thick rolls and clip off into
neat mouthfuls with oiled scissors, or chill and break into irregular
pieces when cold.


  1 cup corn syrup
  1 tablespoon fat
  1 cup peanuts

Boil syrup and fat until brittle when tested in cold water. Grease a
pan, sprinkle the roasted and shelled peanuts in it, making an even
distribution, then turn in the syrup. When almost cold mark into
squares. Cocoanut, puffed wheat or puffed rice may be used for candy
instead of peanuts.


Put equal quantity of seeded raisins and roasted peanuts through the
food chopper, using the coarsest blade. Moisten with molasses just
enough so that the mixture can be molded into a loaf. Chill, cut and
serve as candy. Chopped English walnuts combined with chopped dates or
figs make a very delicious loaf sweetmeat.


  1 cup corn syrup
  2 tablespoons vinegar

Cook syrup for fifteen minutes, add vinegar, then when a little snaps
when dropped in cold water turn over popped corn, mix well, and form
into balls with oiled hands, or if fritters are desired, roll out the
mass while warm and cut out with a greased cutter.


  1 cup shredded cocoanut
  1/2 cup chopped dates
  1/4 cup corn syrup
  1/8 teaspoon mapline

Mix corn syrup and mapline. Add enough to the dates and cocoanut to
form a stiff cake. Mold into neat square at least an inch thick. Let
stand in the refrigerator for one hour, then cut in squares and roll
each in cornstarch.


Mix one-half cup each of chopped peanuts and raisins. Add a teaspoon
of lemon juice and two tablespoons of cream cheese. Remove stones from
fine large dates, and in their place insert a small roll of the cheese
mixture. These are nice in place of candy or can be served with salad.


  1/2 cup raisins
  1/2 cup nuts
  2 tablespoons honey, maple syrup or corn syrup
  1/2 cup figs or dates

Put fruit and nuts through the food chopper, using the coarsest
blade. Add enough syrup or honey to make a stiff loaf. Place in the
refrigerator for one hour; slice and serve in place of candy, rolling
each slice in cornstarch.


Cut a slit in the side of dried figs, take out some of the pulp
with the tip of a teaspoon. Mix with one-quarter cup of the pulp and
one-quarter cup of finely chopped crystalized ginger, a teaspoon of
grated orange or lemon rind; and a tablespoon of lemon juice. Fill the
figs with mixture, stuffing them so that they look plump.



  1 lb. fruit
  1 cup corn syrup
  1/4 lb. ginger root or 2 oz. crystalized ginger

Steam or cook sliced and pared fruit in small amount of water until
tender. Add ginger and corn syrup. Cook 20 minutes slowly. Lemon skins
may be used instead of ginger root.


  1 cup left-over cooked fruit or pulp from skins and core
  3/4 cup corn syrup
  2 tablespoons vinegar
  1/2 teaspoon mixed ground spices, allspice, cloves and nutmeg

Cook slowly until thick.


Reduce 1 pint grape juice one-half by boiling slowly. Add 1 cup
vegetables (pumpkin or carrot). Add 2 teaspoons spices and 1 cup corn
syrup. Boil until of consistency of honey and place in sterilized jars
or glasses.


  5 lb. grapes
  1 pint water
  1 cup corn syrup

Cook grapes in water until soft. Mash; drain through jelly bag or
wet cheesecloth. Add corn syrup. Boil 5 minutes. Put into sterilized
bottles. If cork stoppers are used cover them with melted sealing wax.


  1 cup corn syrup
  2 oz. stick cinnamon
  12 allspice berries
  6 whole cloves
  1/4 cup vinegar

Boil 5 minutes. Add any fruit and cook slowly 20 minutes or until
fruit is clear and syrup thick. If hard fruits, such as pears,
quinces, etc., are used, steam for 20 minutes before adding to syrup.


  1 cup corn syrup
  1 cup water

Bring to boiling point. Use same as sugar and water syrup.


  2 cups crystal corn syrup       For each three pounds of fruit
  1/2 cup water

Use same as water and sugar syrup.


  1 pint cranberries
  1/2 cup water
  About 1 cup corn syrup

Cook cranberries in water very slowly until tender. Leave whole or
press through colander. Measure amount of mixture and add equal amount
of corn syrup. Cook slowly until mixture forms jelly when tested on
cold plate. Turn into mold which has been rinsed in cold water.


  1 cup of apricots
  1-1/2 cups cold water
  1 cup corn syrup
  1/2 cup chopped seeded raisins
  1 teaspoon orange rind

Soak apricots and raisins in the water two hours. Cook slowly until
very soft. Add other ingredients and cook slowly (about 30 minutes)
until slightly thick. Place in sterile jars or glasses and seal.




With the world-wide decrease of animal production, animal fats are now
growing so scarce that the world is being scoured for new sources of
supply. Our Government has asked the housewife to conserve all the
fats that come to her home and utilize them to the best advantage. To
this end it is necessary to have some knowledge of the character of
different fats and the purposes to which they are best adapted.

The word fat usually brings to one's mind an unappetizing chunk of
meat fat which most persons cannot and will not eat, and fatty foods
have been popularly supposed to be "bad for us" and "hard to digest."
Fats are, however, an important food absolutely essential to complete
nutrition, which repay us better for the labor of digestion than any
other food. If they are indigestible, it is usually due to improper
cooking or improper use; if they are expensive, it is merely because
they are extravagantly handled. The chief function of fatty food is
to repair and renew the fatty tissues, to yield energy and to maintain
the body heat. The presence of fat in food promotes the flow of the
pancreatic juice and bile, which help in the assimilation of other
foods and assist the excretory functions of the intestine. These are
badly performed if bile and other digestive fluids are not secreted in
sufficient quantity. The absence of fat in the diet leads to a state
of malnutrition, predisposing to tuberculosis, especially in children
and young persons.

It is claimed that the most serious food shortage in Germany is fat;
that the civilian population is dying in large numbers because of
the lack of it, and that Von Hindenburg's men will lose out on the
basis of fat, rather than on the basis of munitions or military
organization. Worst of all is the effect of fat shortage on the
children of the nation. Leaders of thought all over Europe assert
that even if Germany wins, Germany has lost, because it has sapped the
strength of its coming generation.

The term fat is used to designate all products of fatty composition
and includes liquid fats such as oils, soft fats such as butter, and
hard fats such as tallow. While all fats have practically the same
energy-value, they differ widely from each other in their melting
point, and the difference in digestibility seems to correspond to the
difference in melting point. Butter burns at 240 degrees Fahrenheit,
while vegetable oils can be heated as high as 600 degrees Fahrenheit,
furnishing a very high temperature for cooking purposes before they
begin to burn. The scorching of fat not only wastes the product, but
renders it indigestible, even dangerous to some people, and for this
reason butter should never be used for frying, as frying temperature
is usually higher than 240 degrees. It is well to choose for cooking
only those fats which have the highest heat-resisting qualities
because they do not burn so easily.

Beginning with the lowest burning point, fats include genuine butter,
substitute butters, lard and its substitutes, and end with tallow and
vegetable oils. Of the latter, there is a varied selection from the
expensive olive oil to the cheaper cottonseed, peanut, cocoanut and
corn oils and their compounds and the hydrogenated oils.

The economy of fat, therefore, depends on the choice of the fat used
for the various cooking processes as well as the conservation of
all fatty residue, such as crackling, leftover frying fats and soup
fat. For cooking processes, such as sauteing (pan frying), or deep
fat frying, it is best to use the vegetable and nut oils. These are
more plentiful, and hence cheaper than the animal fats; the latter,
however, can be produced in the home from the fats of meats and
leftover pan fats, which should not be overlooked as frying mediums.
Butter and butter substitutes are best kept for table use and for
flavoring. The hydrogenated oils, home-rendered fats, lard and beef
and mutton suet can be used for shortening fats.

In the purchase of meats, the careful housewife should see that
the butcher gives her all the fat she pays for, as all fats can be
rendered very easily at home and can be used for cooking purposes.
Butchers usually leave as large a proportion of fat as possible on
all cuts of meat which, when paid for at meat prices, are quite an
expensive item. All good clear fat should, therefore, be carefully
trimmed from meats before cooking. Few people either like or find
digestible greasy, fat meats, and the fat paid for at meat prices,
which could have been rendered and used for cooking, is wasted when
sent to table.

There are various methods of conserving fat. First, the economical use
of table fats; second, the saving of cooking; and third, the proper
use of all types of fat.

Economy in the use of table fats may best be secured by careful
serving. One serving of butter is a little thing--there are about
sixty-four of them in a pound. In many households the butter left on
the plates probably would equal a serving or one-fourth of an ounce,
daily, which is usually scraped into the garbage pail or washed off in
the dishpan. But if everyone of our 20,000,000 households should waste
one-fourth of an ounce of butter daily, it would mean 312,500 pounds
a day, or 114,062,500 pounds a year. To make this butter would take
265,261,560 gallons of milk, or the product of over a half-million
cows, an item in national economy which should not be overlooked.

When butter is used to flavor cooked vegetables, it is more economical
to add it just before they are served rather than while they are
cooking. The flavor thus imparted is more pronounced, and, moreover,
if the butter is added before cooking, much of it will be lost in
the water unless the latter is served with the vegetables. Butter
substitutes, such as oleomargarine and nut margarine, should be more
largely used for the table, especially for adults. Conserve butter
for children, as animal fats contain vitamines necessary for growing
tissues. Butter substitutes are as digestible and as nourishing as
butter, and have a higher melting point. They keep better and cost

Oleomargarine, which has been in existence for fifty years, was first
offered to the world in 1870 by a famous French chemist, Mege-Mouries,
who was in search of a butter substitute cheap enough to supply the
masses with the much-needed food element. He had noticed that the
children of the poor families were afflicted with rickets and other
diseases which could be remedied by the administration of the right
amount of fat. He combined fresh suet and milk and called the product
"oleomargarine." In the United States this product is now made of oleo
oil or soft beef fat, neutral lard, cottonseed and other oils, churned
with a small quantity of milk, and in the finer grades, cream is
sometimes used. A certain proportion of butter is usually added, and
the whole worked up with salt as in ordinary butter-making.

Owing to the fears of the butter-makers that oleomargarine would
supplant their product in popular favor, legislation was enacted that
restricted the manufacture of oleo and established a rigid system of
governmental inspection, so that the product is now manufactured
under the most sanitary conditions which furnishes a cleaner and more
reliable product than natural butter.

Nut margarine is a compound of cocoa oil, which so closely resembles
butter that only an expert can distinguish it from the natural
product. Both these butter substitutes are used in large amounts by
the best bakers, confectioners and biscuit manufacturers, and foolish
prejudice against butter substitutes should not deter their use in the

A large saving in cooking fats can be made by the careful utilization
of all fats that come into the home. Beef and mutton suet can be
rendered and made available. Fats which have been saved after meals
are cooked should be clarified--that is, freed from all objectionable
odors, tastes or color--so as to be made available as shortening and
frying fats.

The following recipes and suggestions make possible the use of all
fats, and as fat shortage is one of the most serious of the world's
food problems, it is essential that every housekeeper have a larger
knowledge of the utilization and economy of this essential food.




Run the fat through the household meat grinder or chop fine in the
chopping bowl. Then heat in the double boiler until completely melted,
finally straining through a rather thick cloth or two thicknesses
of cheese cloth, wrung out in hot water. By this method there is no
danger of scorching. Fats heated at a low temperature also keep better
than those melted at higher temperature. After the fat is rendered,
it should be slowly reheated to sterilize it and make sure it is free
from moisture. The bits of tissue strained out, commonly known as
cracklings, may be used for shortening purposes or may be added to
cornmeal which is to be used as fried cornmeal mush.


To two pounds of fat (finely chopped if unrendered) add one-half pint
of milk, preferably sour. Heat the mixture in a double boiler until
thoroughly melted. Stir well and strain through a thick cloth or two
thicknesses of cheese cloth wrung out in hot water. When cold the fat
forms a hard, clean layer and any material adhering to the under
side of the fat, may be scraped off. Sour milk being coagulated is
preferable to sweet milk since the curd remains on the cloth through
which the rendered mixture is strained and is thus more easily
separated from the rendered fat which has acquired some of the milk
flavor and butter fat.


Cut fat in small pieces. Cover with cold water. Heat slowly. Let cook
until bubbling ceases. Press fat during heating so as to obtain all
the oil possible. When boiling ceases strain through cheesecloth and
let harden. If desired one-half teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon
pepper, 1 teaspoon onion and 1 teaspoon poultry seasoning may be added
before straining.


To mutton, duck or goose fat add equal amount of beef suet or
vegetable fat and render same as suet. This may then be used for
shortening, or pan broiling for meat or fish dishes, and not have the
characteristic taste of the stronger fats.

When rendering strong mutton, duck or goose fats if a small whole
onion is added the strong flavor of the fat is reduced. Remove the
onion before straining. It may be used in cooking.


Melt the fat in an equal volume of water and heat for a short time at
a moderate temperature. Stir occasionally. Cool and remove the layer
of fat which forms on the top, scraping off any bits of meat or other
material which may adhere to the other side.

Fats which have formed on top of soups, of cooked meats (such as pot
roast, stews), salt meats (such as corned beef, ham, etc.), or strong
fats, such as from boiled mutton, poultry and game, may be clarified
in this way and used alone or combined with other animal or vegetable
fats in any savory dish.


If fat is used for deep fat frying as croquettes, doughnuts, fritters,
etc., while fat is still hot, add a few slices raw potato and allow it
to stay in the fat until it is cool. Remove potato--strain fat, allow
to harden and it is ready to use. The potato absorbs odors from fat.


FAT 1: To 1 pound of unrendered fat (chopped fine) add 1 slice of
onion about one-half inch thick and two inches in diameter, 1 bay
leaf, 1 teaspoonful salt, and about one-eighth teaspoonful of pepper.
Render in a double boiler and strain.

FAT 2: To 1 pound unrendered fat (chopped fine) add 2 teaspoonfuls
of thyme, 1 slice onion, about one-half inch thick and two inches
in diameter, one teaspoonful salt and about one-eighth teaspoonful
pepper. Render in a double boiler and strain.

FAT 3: To 1 pound unrendered fat (chopped fine) add 1 teaspoonful
thyme, 1 teaspoonful marjoram, one-half teaspoonful rubbed sage, 1
teaspoonful salt, and about one-eighth teaspoonful pepper. Render in a
double boiler and strain through fine cloth.


A. Butter or other fat may be extended to double its original bulk and
reduce the cost of the fat 40 per cent. A patented churn, any homemade
churn, mayonnaise mixer, or bowl and rotary beater may be used for
the purpose. To any quantity of butter heated until slightly soft add
equal quantity of milk, place in the churn, add one teaspoon salt for
each one pound of butter used. Blend thoroughly in churn, mayonnaise
mixer, or in bowl with rotary beater until of even consistency. Place
in refrigerator to harden. Vegetable coloring, such as comes with
margarine or may be purchased separately, may be added if a deeper
yellow color is desired.


  1 lb. butter
  1 quart milk (2 pint bottles preferred)
  1 tablespoon granulated gelatine
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt

Soak gelatine in one-half cup of the milk. When softened, dissolve
over hot water. Let butter stand in warm place, until soft. Add
gelatine mixture, milk and salt and beat with Dover beater until
thoroughly mixed (about 15 minutes). Vegetable coloring such as comes
with margarine may be added if desired. Do not put on ice.


  1 lb. butter
  1 quart milk (2 pint bottles preferred)
  1 tablespoon granulated gelatine
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1 cup peanut butter

Soak gelatine in one-half cup of the milk. When softened, dissolve
over hot water. Let butter stand in warm place, until soft. Add
gelatine mixture, peanut butter, milk and salt and beat with rotary
egg beater until thoroughly blended (about 15 minutes). Vegetable
coloring such as comes with margarine may be added if desired. Put in
cool place to harden but do not put on ice as the gelatine would cause
the mixture to flake. It is preferable to make up this mixture enough
for one day at a time only.

D. To 1 pound of butter or butter substitute add one cup peanut
butter. Blend thoroughly with wooden spoon or butter paddle; this may
be used in place of butter as a new and delightful variation.

E. To 1 pound softened butter add 1 pound softened butter substitute
(oleomargarine, nut margarine, vegetable margarine) or hydrogenated
fat. Blend thoroughly with butter paddle or wooden spoon and use as


Whole wheat makes a more tasty crust than bread flour and all rye
pastry has even better flavor than wheat flour pastry. Half wheat or
rye and the other half cornmeal (white or yellow) makes an excellent
pastry for meat or fish pie. If cornmeal is added, use this recipe:


  1/2 cup cornmeal
  1/2 cup rye or wheat flour
  2 tablespoons fat
  1/3 cup cold or ice water
  1 teaspoon baking powder

Sift dry ingredients. Cut in fat. Add water and roll out on well
floured board.


Well made, digestible pastry should have a minimum of fat to make a
crisp flaky crust. It should be crisp, not brittle; firm, not crumbly.
Pastry may be made in large amounts, kept in refrigerator for several
days and used as needed. Roll out only enough for one crust at a time
as the less pastry is handled, the better.


  1 cup flour
  1/3 cup fat
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  About 1/4 cup cold or ice water

Mix flour and salt. Cut in fat and add just enough cold or ice water
to make the mixture into a stiff dough. Roll out. This recipe makes
one crust.


  2 cups flour
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  1/3 cup any kind of dripping
  1 cup meat stock or milk
  1 teaspoon salt

Sift dry ingredients. Cut in fat if solid, or add if liquid. Stir in
meat stock or milk to make a soft dough. Place on top of meat or
fish with gravy in greased baking dish and bake 30 to 40 minutes in
moderately hot oven.



  2 tablespoons savory drippings
  3 tablespoons flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon cayenne
  1-1/2 cups tomato juice and pulp
  1 teaspoon onion juice
  2 tablespoons chopped green pepper
  1 tablespoon chopped olives
  1 cup of rice
  1 cup water

Wash rice and soak in water 30 minutes. Melt fat, add dry ingredients
and gradually the tomatoes. Stir in rice and other ingredients, also
the water in which rice was soaked. Cook slowly one-half hour or until
rice is tender.


  2 cups pared and sliced potatoes
  2 tablespoons bacon drippings
  2 tablespoons minced onion
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/4 tablespoon cayenne
  1-1/2 cups boiling water
  1 tablespoon chopped green pepper or pimento

Melt drippings. Add onion and cook until slightly brown. Add other
seasonings and water. Pour over potatoes. Let cook slowly in oven
until potatoes are tender, about 30 minutes.


  2 cups flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  2 tablespoons drippings
  1 cup water, meat stock or milk

Sift dry ingredients. Cut in fat. Gradually add liquid to make a soft
dough. Roll out, place on greased pan and steam 20 minutes, or drop
into stew and cook covered 30 minutes. Serve at once.


  2 cups freshly cooked and diced potatoes
  1/3 cup bacon drippings
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons chopped peppers
  2 tablespoons vinegar
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Mix drippings, salt, pepper, vinegar and cayenne. Add to the potatoes
and mix thoroughly. Chill and serve. Cold cooked potatoes may be used,
but the flavor is better if mixed while potatoes are hot.


  1 can lye
  6 lbs. fat (Fat for soap should be fat which is no longer useful
          for culinary purposes.)
  1 quart cold water

To lye add water--using enamel or agate utensil. When cool add the fat
which has been heated until liquid. Stir until of consistency of honey
(about 20 minutes). Two tablespoons ammonia or two tablespoons borax
may be added for a whiter soap. If stirred thoroughly this soap will

[Illustration: The illustration shows various forms of food waste--the
discarded outside leaves of lettuce and cabbage, apple cores and
parings, stale bread and drippings.]



Elimination of food waste is to-day a patriotic service. It is also a
most effective method of solving our food problem. This country,
like all the powers at war, will undoubtedly be called upon to face
increasing prices so long as the war continues, and waste in any form
is not only needless squandering of the family income, but failure in
devotion to a great cause.

Food waste is due to poor selection of raw materials, to careless
storage and heedless preparation, to bad cooking, to injudicious
serving, and to the overflowing garbage pail.

To select food in such a way as will eliminate waste and at the same
time insure the best possible return for money spent, the housekeeper
must purchase for nutriment rather than to please her own or the
family palate.

When eggs are sixty and seventy cents a dozen their price is out of
all proportion to their food value. Tomatoes at five or ten cents
apiece in winter do not supply sufficient nutriment to warrant their
cost, nor does capon at forty-five cents a pound nourish the body
any better than the fricassee fowl at twenty-eight cents. In order
to prevent such costly purchasing, a knowledge of food values is
necessary. The simplest and easiest way to plan food values is to
divide the common food materials into five main groups and see that
each of these groups appear in each day's menu.



  Apples, pears, etc.,
  Oranges, lemons, all citrus fruits.


  Salads, lettuce, celery,
  Potherbs or "greens"
  Tomatoes, squash,
  Green peas, green beans,
  Potatoes and root vegetables.


  Milk, skim milk, cheese,
  Dried peas, beans, cow-peas,


  Cereals, grains, meals, flour,
  Cereal breakfast foods,
  Macaroni and other pastes,
  Cakes, cookies, starchy puddings,
  Potatoes, other starchy vegetables,




  Butter and cream,
  Lard, suet,
  Salt pork and bacon,
  Table and salad oils,
  Vegetable, nut, and commercial cooking fats and oils.

If from each of these groups the housekeeper, when buying, chooses
the lowest-cost food, she will provide the necessary nutriment for the
least expenditure of money. In war time such marketing is essential.

Other causes of waste in food purchasing may be enumerated as follows:
Ordering by telephone. This permits the butcher or grocer, who has
no time to make selection of foods, to send what comes ready to hand;
whereas if the housekeeper did her own selecting, she could take
advantage of special prices or "leaders"--food sold at cost or nearly
cost to attract patronage.

Buying out-of-season foods also makes marketing costly. Through
lack of knowledge concerning the periods at which certain fruits and
vegetables are seasonable, and therefore cheaper and in best flavor,
housekeepers frequently pay exorbitant prices for poor flavored,
inferior products.

Buying in localities where high rental and neighborhood standards
compel the shopkeeper to charge high prices, the consumer pays not
only for the rent and the plate glass windows, but for display of
out-of-season delicacies, game and luxury-foods. Markets should be
selected where food in season is sold; where cleanliness and careful
attention prevail rather than showy display.

Many a dollar is foolishly spent for delicatessen foods. The retail
cost of ready prepared foods includes a fraction of the salary of the
cook and the fuel, as well as the regular percentage of profit. The
food, also, is not so nourishing or flavorsome as if freshly cooked in
the home kitchen.

Buying perishable foods in larger quantities than can be used
immediately. Too frequently meats, fish, eggs, vegetables, milk and
cream are purchased in quantities larger than needed for immediate
consumption, and lack of knowledge of use of left-overs causes what is
not eaten to be discarded.

Buying non-perishable foods in small quantities instead of in bulk.
Food costs on an average 50 to 75 per cent. more when purchased in
small quantities. Select a grocer who keeps his goods in sanitary
condition and who will sell in bulk; then do your purchasing from him
on a large scale and extend the sanitary care to your own storeroom.

Buying foods high in price but low in food value. Asparagus, canned
or fresh, is not as nourishing, for instance, as canned corn or beans.
Strawberries out of season do not compare with dates, figs or raisins
which are to be had at all times.

Buying without planning menus. By this carelessness foods are often
purchased which do not combine well, and therefore do not appeal
to the appetite, and so are wasted. Unplanned meals also lead to an
unconscious extravagance in buying and an unnecessary accumulation of

Buying foreign brands when domestic brands are cheaper and often

Leaving the trimmings from meats and poultry at the butcher's. Bring
these home and fry out the fatty portions for dripping; use all other
parts for the stock pot.

Having purchased for nutriment and in sufficiently large quantities to
secure bulk rates, careful storage is the next step in the prevention
of waste. Flour, cereals and meals become wormy if they are not kept
in clean, covered utensils and in a cool place. Milk becomes sour,
especially in summer. This can be prevented by scalding it as soon
as received, cooling quickly, and storing in a cold place in covered,
well-scalded receptacles. Sour milk should not be thrown out. It
is good in biscuits, gingerbread, salad dressings, cottage cheese,
pancakes or waffles, and bread making.

Meats should not be left in their wrappings. Much juice soaks into the
paper, which causes a loss of flavor and nutriment. Store all meat in
a cool place and do not let flies come in contact with it.

Bread often molds, especially in warm, moist weather. Trim off moldy
spots and heat through. Keep the bread box sweet by scalding and
sunning once a week.

Cheese molds. Keep in a cool, dry place. If it becomes too dry for
table use, grate for sauces or use in scalloped dishes.

Winter vegetables wilt and dry out. Store in a cool place. If cellar
space permits, place in box of sand, sawdust or garden earth.

Potatoes and onions sprout. Cut off the sprouts as soon as they appear
and use for soup. Soak, before using, vegetables which have sprouted.

Fruits must be stored carefully so as to keep the skins unbroken.
Broken spots in the skin cause rapid decay. Do not permit good fruit
to remain in contact with specked or rotted fruit. Stored fruit should
be looked over frequently and all specked or rotted fruit removed.
Sweet potatoes are an exception. Picking over, aggravates the trouble.
See that these vegetables are carefully handled at all times; if rot
develops, remove only those that can be reached without danger of
bruising the sound roots. Sweet potatoes may also be stored like fruit
by spreading over a large surface and separating the tubers so that
they do not touch each other.

Berries should be picked over as soon as received and spread on a
platter or a large surface to prevent crushing and to allow room for
circulation of air.

Lettuce and greens wilt. Wash carefully as soon as received and use
the coarse leaves for soup. Shake the water from the crisp portions
and store in a paper bag in a cold refrigerator.

Lemons when cut often grow moldy before they are used. When lemons are
spoiling, squeeze out the juice, make a syrup of one cup of sugar and
one cup of water, boil ten minutes and add lemon juice in any amount
up to one cup. Bring to boiling point and bottle for future use. This
bottled juice may be used for puddings, beverages, etc. If only a
small amount of juice is needed, prick one end of a lemon with a fork.
Squeeze out the amount needed and store the lemon in the ice-box.

When we come to waste caused by careless preparation we may be
reminded of the miracle of the loaves and fishes--how all the guests
were fed and then twelve baskets were gathered up. Often after
preparation that which is gathered up to be thrown away is as large in
quantity and as high in food value as the portions used.

Vegetables are wasted in preparation by too thick paring, the
discarding of coarse leaves such as are found on lettuce, cabbage and
cauliflower, discarding wilted parts which can be saved by soaking,
throwing away tips and roots of celery and the roots and ends of
spinach and dandelions. All these waste products can be cooked tender,
rubbed through a sieve and used with stock for vegetable soup, or with
skimmed milk for cream soup. Such products are being conserved by
the enemy, even to the onion skin, which is ground into bread-making

Throwing away the water in which vegetables have been cooked wastes
their characteristic and valuable element--the mineral salts. Cooking
them so much that they become watery; under-cooking so that they
are hard and indigestible; cooking more than is required for a meal;
failing to use left-over portions promptly as an entree or for cream
soups or scalloped dishes--all these things mean an appalling waste of
valuable food material. Good food material is also lost when the water
in which rice or macaroni or other starchy food has been boiled is
poured down the kitchen sink. Such water should be used for soup

Fruits are wasted by throwing away the cores and skins, which can be
used for making sauces, jams and jellies, the latter being sweetened
with corn syrup instead of sugar.

Rhubarb is wasted by removing the pink skin from young rhubarb, which
should be retained to add flavor and color-attractiveness to the dish.

Raw food in quantity is frequently left in the mixing bowl, while
by the use of a good flexible knife or spatula every particle can
be saved. A large palette knife is as good in the kitchen as in the

       *       *       *       *       *

The next step in food preparation is cooking, and tons of valuable
material are wasted through ignorance of the principles of cooking.

Bad cooking, which means under-cooking, over-cooking or flavorless
cooking, renders food inedible, and inedible food contributes to world
shortage. Fats are wasted in cooking by being burned and by not being
carefully utilized as dripping and shortening. The water in which salt
meat, fresh meat, or poultry has been boiled should be allowed to cool
and the fat removed before soup is made of it. Such fat can be used,
first of all, in cooking, and then any inedible portions can be used
in soap making.

       *       *       *       *       *

Tough odds and ends of meat not sightly enough to appear on the table
are often wasted. They can be transformed by long cooking into savory
stews, ragouts, croquettes and hashes, whereas, if carelessly and
insufficiently cooked, they are unpalatable and indigestible. Scraps
of left-over cooked meat should be ground in the food-chopper and made
into appetizing meat balls, hashes or sandwich paste. If you happen to
have a soft cooked egg left over, boil it hard at once. It can be used
for garnishes, sauces, salads or sandwich paste.

       *       *       *       *       *

Use all bits of bread, that cannot be used as toast, in puddings,
croquettes, scalloped dishes or to thicken soup.

       *       *       *       *       *

Don't throw away cold muffins and fancy breads. Split and toast them
for next day's breakfast.

       *       *       *       *       *

Foods that survive the earlier forms of waste are often lost at table
by the serving of portions of like size to all members of the family.
The individual food requirements differ according to age, sex,
vocation and state of health. Each should be considered before the
food is served, then there will be no waste on the plates when the
meal is over. The following table, showing the daily requirement of
calories for men and women in various lines of work, illustrates this

  WOMEN               CALORIES
  Sedentary work    ... 2,400
  Active work       ... 2,700
  Hard manual labor ... 3,200

  MEN               CALORIES
  Sedentary work    ... 2,700
  Active work       ... 3,450
  Hard manual labor ... 4,150

Although the serving of food should be carefully planned so as to
prevent waste, care should be taken that growing children have ample
food. It is a mistake to suppose that a growing child can be nourished
on less than a sedentary adult. A boy of fourteen who wants to eat
more than his father probably needs all that he asks for. We must not
save on the children; but it will be well to give them plain food for
the most part, which will not tempt them to overeat, and tactfully
combat pernickety, overfastidious likes and dislikes.

The United States Food Administration is preaching the gospel of the
clean plate, and this can be accomplished by serving smaller portions,
insisting that all food accepted be eaten; by keeping down bread
waste, cutting the bread at the table a slice at a time as needed; by
cooking only sufficient to supply moderately the number to be fed, and
no more. It is a false idea of good providing that platters must leave
the table with a generous left-over. Waste of cooked food is a serious
item in household economy, and no matter how skillfully leftovers are
utilized, it is always less expensive and more appetizing to provide
fresh-cooked foods at each meal.

One would think that with the various uses to which all kinds of
foodstuffs may be put that there would be little left for the yawning
garbage pail. But the Secretary of the United States Department of
Agriculture is responsible for the statement that $750,000,000 worth
of food has been wasted annually in the American kitchen. Undoubtedly
a large part of this wastefulness was due to ignorance on the part of
the housewife, and the rest of it to the lack of co-operation on
the part of the employees who have handled the food but not paid the

According to a well-known domestic scientist, the only things which
should find their way to the garbage pail are:

  Egg shells--after being used to clear coffee.
  Potato skins--after having been cooked on the potato.
  Banana skins--if there are no tan shoes to be cleaned.
  Bones--after having been boiled in soup kettle.
  Coffee grounds--if there is no garden where they can be used for
          fertilizer, or if they are not desired as filling for
  Tea leaves--after every tea-serving, if they are not needed for
          brightening carpets or rugs when swept.
  Asparagus ends--after being cooked and drained for soup.
  Spinach, etc.--decayed leaves and dirty ends of roots.

If more than this is now thrown away, you are wasting the family
income and not fulfilling your part in the great world struggle. Your
government says that it is your business to know what food your family
needs to be efficient; that you must learn how to make the most of
the foods you buy; that it is your duty to learn the nature and uses
of various foods and to get the greatest possible nourishment out of
every pound of food that comes to your home.

The art of utilizing left-overs is an important factor in this
prevention of waste. The thrifty have always known it. The careless
have always ignored it. But now as a measure of home economy as well
as a patriotic service, the left-over must be handled intelligently.

The following recipes show how to make appetizing dishes from products
that heretofore in many homes have found their way to the extravagant

In these recipes, sauces are prominent because they are of great
value in making foods of neutral flavor, especially the starchy winter
vegetables, and rice, macaroni and hominy, as attractive as they are
nutritious; salads are included, since these serve to combine odds
and ends of meats and vegetables; gelatine dishes are provided because
gelatine serves as a binder for all kinds of leftovers and is an
extremely practical way of making the most rigid saving acceptable;
desserts made of crumbs of bread and cake, or left-over cereals, are
among the major economies if they are worked out in such a way that
they do not involve the extravagant use of other foodstuffs. All the
recipes in this economy cook-book have been thoughtfully adapted to
the conditions of the time, and will show the practical housekeeper
how to supply wholesome, flavorsome food for the least cost.

       *       *       *       *       *



  1/4 cup flour
  1/4 cup fat
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1-1/2 cups milk

Melt fat. Add dry ingredients and a little of the milk. Bring to
boiling point. Continue adding milk a little at a time until all is
added. Serve with vegetables, fish, eggs, meats.


  1/2 cup cheese (cream or American) added to
  1-1/2 cups white sauce

Excellent to serve with macaroni, hominy or vegetables.


  1/2 cup shrimps
  1/4 teaspoon salt
  1 cup white sauce

Serve on toast, or with starchy vegetables.


  1/4 cup horseradish
  1 tablespoon chopped pimento
  1 cup white sauce



  1 cup white sauce
  2 sliced hard-cooked eggs
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1/8 teaspoon salt

Excellent for spinach and vegetables, or fish.


  1/4 cup fat
  1/3 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon of cayenne
  1-1/2 cups brown stock, or
  1-1/2 cups water and 2 bouillon cubes
  1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce

Melt fat until brown. Add flour. Heat until brown. Add liquid
gradually, letting come to boiling point each time before adding more
liquid. When all is added, 1 teaspoon kitchen bouquet may be added if
darker color is desired.


  1 cup brown sauce
  3 tablespoons chopped olives

Make brown sauce as given in foregoing recipe, then while it is hot
stir in the chopped olives, and serve.


  1 cup brown sauce
  1/4 cup chopped peanuts
  1/8 teaspoon salt

A good sauce to serve with rice, macaroni, hominy or other starchy
foods. It supplies almost a meat flavor to these rather insipid foods.


  1 cup brown sauce
  1/2 cup chopped mushrooms

Add mushrooms to fat and flour before adding liquid. If fresh
mushrooms are used, cook for two or three minutes after adding liquid.


  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  2 cups vegetable stock,
  1 cup vegetable stock
  1 cup milk.

Vegetable stock is the water in which any vegetable is cooked. Make as
white sauce.


  1/3 cup butter substitute
  1/4 cup flour
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 cup boiling water
  2 tablespoons chopped parsley

Make as white sauce, reserving 2 tablespoons of the fat to add just
before serving.


  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1 teaspoon Worcestershire
  1 teaspoon onion juice
  1-1/2 cups tomato

Melt fat; add dry ingredients and gradually the liquid, letting sauce
come to boiling point each time before adding more liquid.


  1/4 cup fat
  1/2 cup milk
  1/2 cup powdered sugar
  1 teaspoon vanilla, or
  1 tablespoon brandy
  1 cup mashed cooked fruit

Mix thoroughly. Let chill and serve with steamed or baked pudding.


  1/2 cup milk
  1/2 cup cocoanut and milk
  2 tablespoons corn syrup
  2 tablespoons cornstarch
  1 teaspoon vanilla

Mix ingredients. Bring to boiling point over direct fire. Cook over
hot water 20 minutes. Use with leftover stale cake, baked or steamed
puddings. If canned cocoanut containing milk is used, plain milk may
be omitted.


  1 cup molasses
  2 tablespoons fat
  1 tablespoon flour, plus
  1 tablespoon cold water
  1-1/2 tablespoons vinegar

Mix together. Bring to boiling point and serve with any pudding.


  1 cup (crystal) corn syrup
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 egg
  1/2 cup water
  1 tablespoon cream
  1 teaspoon vanilla

Beat egg light. Pour on gradually the hot corn syrup and water,
beating egg with eggbeater. Add cream and vanilla. Serve at once.


  1/2 cup corn syrup
  1 egg
  1/3 cup milk
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Mix corn syrup and spices. Add beaten yolks and milk. Cook over hot
water until thick. Add vanilla and beaten whites. Serve hot or cold.


  3 tablespoons fat
  1/3 cup maple sugar
  2 eggs
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1/2 teaspoon allspice
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla
  1/3 cup milk

Cream fat, sugar and spices. Add beaten yolks and milk. Cook in double
boiler until thick. Add vanilla and beaten whites. Serve hot or cold.


  1 cup tomato sauce
  1/2 cup grated cheese

Add cheese while sauce is hot and just before serving. Do not boil
sauce after adding cheese.


To one cup tomato sauce, add

  2 tablespoons chopped green pepper
  3 tablespoons chopped celery
  3 tablespoons chopped carrot


  1/3 cup butter substitute or hydrogenated oil
  1/3 cup corn syrup
  1/3 cup sugar
  1 teaspoon flavoring

Cream all together. This method reduces the necessary sugar


  1/2 cup corn syrup
  1 tablespoon fat
  1/4 cup lemon juice
  1 teaspoon lemon rind
  2 tablespoons cornstarch
  3 tablespoons lemon juice
  1/2 cup orange juice
  2 teaspoons orange rind
  1 tablespoon flour
  1 tablespoon water

Mix ingredients. Bring to boiling point and serve.


  1 cup cranberries
  1 cup water
  1 cup corn syrup
  1/2 cup raisins or nuts
  2 tablespoons fat

Cook cranberries in water until they are soft and the water is almost
entirely absorbed. Add other ingredients and cook about 20 minutes
slowly until thick enough to use as sauce.



  2 tablespoons cold water
  2 tablespoons gelatine

Let stand until gelatine is soft. Add 1 pint boiling water, or fruit
juice from canned fruit.

  1/4 cup lemon juice
  2/3 cup corn syrup, or
  1/2 cup sugar

Stir until gelatine is dissolved. Add 1 cup leftover fruit. Place
in mold which has been dipped in cold water. Stir occasionally while
hardening so fruit does not settle to the bottom. Or a little gelatine
may be poured in mold and allowed to grow almost hard; then some
fruit arranged on it and more gelatine poured in. Repeat until mold is
filled; then chill, and turn out carefully.


  1-1/2 cups boiling tomato juice and pulp
  2 tablespoons cold water
  2 tablespoons gelatine
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon paprika
  1/4 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  2 cups of any one vegetable, or of mixed vegetables

Soften gelatine in the cold water. Add other ingredients and chill.
Stir once or twice while chilling so vegetables do not settle to the


  2 tablespoons gelatine
  2 tablespoons cold water
  1 cup boiling gravy, tomato juice, or 1 cup boiling water into
          which 1 bouillon cube has been dissolved
  1 cup left-over meat or fish chopped fine
  1 cup chopped celery or cooked vegetable
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Soften gelatine in cold water. Add other ingredients. Stir until
gelatine is dissolved. Pour into mold dipped into cold water. Chill.
Stir once or twice while hardening so meat does not settle to the
bottom. Serve with salad dressing.


  1 cup cooked rice
  1 cup corn syrup
  1 tablespoon gelatine
  2 tablespoons water
  1/2 cup cherries or other cooked fruit
  1/2 cup nuts
  1/2 cup juice of fruit

Chill and serve.


  1 cup cooked salad dressing
  2 tablespoons gelatine
  2 cups any left-over fish, meat or vegetables
  2 tablespoons cold water

Use any well-seasoned salad dressing. Soften the gelatine in the cold
water. Dissolve over boiling water. Add to salad dressing. Add other
ingredients well seasoned and chill.


  1 pint cottage cheese
  1/2 cup pimento or green pepper
  1 cup milk
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  2 tablespoons granulated gelatine
  4 tablespoons cold water

Soften gelatine in the cold water. Dissolve over hot water. Add all
ingredients. Mix thoroughly and place in mold which has been rinsed
with cold water. When firm, serve as salad.


  2 tablespoons gelatine softened in
  1/3 cup cold water
  1 pint clabbered milk, or fruit juice
  1 cup sugar
  1 teaspoon vanilla
  1 cup crushed fruit
  2 egg whites

Mix gelatine with milk. Add sugar. When it begins to thicken, beat
with rotary beater. Add vanilla and fruit. Fold in egg whites and
turn into mold. Apple sauce, strawberries, rhubarb, pineapple or
raspberries may be used.


  1 tablespoon gelatine
  2 cups boiling water
  3/4 cup sugar
  1/2 cup lemon juice
  1/2 cup grated cocoanut
  2 cups apples, chopped
  1 cup celery
  1/2 cup chopped nuts
  3 pimentoes
  1 tablespoon grated onion
  1/3 teaspoon salt

Soften gelatine in 2 tablespoons cold water, then dissolve in the
boiling water, but do not cook after gelatine is put in. Add all other
ingredients. Mold and chill. Serve with cooked or mayonnaise salad
dressing, plain or on lettuce leaves.



  1 cup cooked potatoes
  1 cup cooked carrots
  1 cup cooked peas
  1 cup cooked beets

Make a French dressing of

  1/2 cup oil
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons vinegar
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Mix dressing thoroughly and pour over the vegetables. If vegetables
are kept in different bowls instead of mixed together, the flavor
of the salad is improved. Any vegetable may be used in this way. Let
stand 30 minutes. When ready to serve, place each portion in a nest
made of two lettuce leaves or other salad, green. If desired, cooked
dressing may be mixed with the vegetable in place of French dressing,
or may be served with it.


  1 cup left-over baked beans, cooked dried peas, or beans or
          lentils, or cooked rice, rice.
  1 cup chopped celery
  3 tablespoons chopped pepper
  3 tablespoons chopped pickle
  1 cup cooked salad dressing

Mix ingredients thoroughly and let stand 30 minutes to blend flavor


  2 cups chopped cabbage
  1 cup peanuts
  1 cup chopped apples
  1 cup salad dressing

Mix ingredients and serve with French dressing. This salad looks very
appetizing when served in cups made of hollowed out red apples, the
pulp removed being used in the salad.


  1 cup American or cream cheese
  2 tablespoons vinegar
  1/3 cup oil
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  2 tablespoons chopped olives
  3 tablespoons chopped nuts

Blend all ingredients thoroughly. Shape as desired and chill. Serve
with French dressing. (If American cheese is used, grate or cut fine.)


Left-over small portions of fruits may be blended in almost any
combination to form a salad. Plain French dressing or French dressing
made with fruit juice in place of vinegar, or cooked dressing or
mayonnaise may be combined with the fruit. Bananas combine well with
any other fruit and, being the least expensive fruit, may be used as
the basis of fruit salads.


  1 cup cooked peas or carrots
  1 cup cooked cold rice

Mix with dressing made of

  1/3 cup oil
  1 tablespoon vinegar
  1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1/4 teaspoon curry powder

Mix all ingredients; serve cold, either plain, on lettuce leaves, or
in nests made of cabbage or celery.


  2 cups potatoes from fresh-cooked, or left-over baked, boiled or
          mashed potatoes.
  1/4 cup chopped parsley
  1 teaspoon onion juice
  1 cup cooked salad dressing
  3 tablespoons chopped green pepper may be added if desired.

If mixed while cooked dressing is hot, then chilled, the flavor is
much improved.

Left-over mashed potatoes may be combined with cooked corn and green
pepper for a delicious salad.


  1 cup left-over meat or fish
  3 tablespoons chopped pickle
  1/2 cup chopped celery
  1 cup cooked salad dressing

Mix ingredients thoroughly and serve. If one-quarter cup of French
dressing is mixed with meat or fish, 30 minutes before adding other
ingredients, the flavor is much improved.


  1 cup cooked cauliflower
  1 cup cooked salad dressing
  3 tablespoons chopped pickle
  1 tablespoon chopped pimento
  1 tablespoon vinegar

Blend ingredients thoroughly and serve. Cauliflower which has been
creamed or scalloped may be used, if sauce is carefully rinsed from
the vegetable.


Grind raw carrot in food chopper. Make French dressing with chicken
fat instead of oil. Mix ingredients and serve.

  1 cup raw carrots
  1/2 cup oil (preferably oil from chicken fat)
  1 tablespoon vinegar
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1 tablespoon parsley
  1/8 teaspoon paprika


  2 tablespoons flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 egg
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  2 tablespoons granulated gelatine, plus 2 tablespoons cold water
  1 teaspoon mustard
  1 teaspoon curry powder
  3 tablespoons melted fat
  1 cup milk
  1/3 cup vinegar
  2 cups cooked rice
  2 tablespoons chopped olives

Mix dry ingredients, add egg and blend thoroughly. Add melted fat,
milk and vinegar. Cook over hot water until thick as custard. Soften
gelatine in cold water. Add to the hot dressing. When dissolved add
rice and olives, place in mold and chill. Serve plain or with 1/2 cup
French dressing.



  1 cup dried crumbs
  1 pint hot milk

Let stand until milk is absorbed, then add

  1/4 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup molasses
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 cup dates, cut small
  1 egg
  1/2 teaspoon mixed cloves, nutmeg, allspice, ginger

Mix ingredients. Bake 40 minutes in moderately hot oven. This pudding
is so well flavored that it does not really require a sauce, but if
one is desired the molasses sauce on page *86, or the hard or lemon
sauce on page *87 will be found to suit.


  1/4 lb suet
  1/2 lb chopped figs
  1 cup sour apple (cored, pared and chopped)
  1 cup milk
  1/2 cup molasses
  1/2 cup corn syrup
  1 cup breadcrumbs
  2 eggs
  1/3 cup flour

Cream suet; add figs, apple and corn syrup. Pour milk over bread. Add
yolks, beaten. Combine. Add flour and egg whites. Steam 4 hours.


  1/4 cup pearl tapioca
  1/3 cup corn syrup, or
  1/4 cup sugar
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 cup water
  1 cup milk
  1 cup fruit

Soak tapioca in the water over night. Add the other ingredients except
the fruit and cook over hot water until the tapioca is clear. Add
fruit and 1 teaspoon vanilla and chill.


  1/3 cup rice
  1 cup milk
  1/3 cup corn syrup
  1 teaspoon vanilla
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 egg
  1 cup fruit

Cook rice with milk in double boiler 30 minutes. Add other ingredients
and cook 10 minutes. Chill and serve.


  1 cup stale breadcrumbs
  2 cups scalded milk
  1/2 cup corn syrup
  1/2 cup chopped nuts
  2 eggs
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla
  3/4 cup chopped figs, dates or raisins

Pour scalded milk over breadcrumbs. Beat eggs. Add other ingredients.
Bake 25 to 35 minutes in moderate oven.


  1 cup crumbs
  2 cups milk
  1 oz. chocolate
  1/3 cup sugar
  1/2 cup corn syrup
  2 eggs
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon vanilla

Use whites for meringue with 2 tablespoons corn syrup.


  1 pint stale cake crumbs
  1 cup milk

Soak 1 hour; heat and add

  2 yolks of eggs
  2 teaspoons vanilla

Chill, shape, roll in eggs and crumbs and brown in frying pan. Serve
with hard sauce.


  2 cups milk
  1 cup any ready-to-eat cereal
  1 egg (beaten)
  1/3 cup molasses
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  1 cup raisins, dates or prunes

Mix ingredients. Bake 30 to 40 minutes in moderately hot oven.


  2 cups crumbs
  2 cups fish
  2 tablespoons chopped parsley
  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 teaspoons onion juice
  1-1/2 cups milk
  1 teaspoon salt
  2 tablespoons fat

Melt fat, add dry ingredients and gradually the liquid to make a
smooth sauce. Add onion juice, lemon juice, parsley and fish. Mix with
crumbs 2 tablespoons fat. Place crumbs on top. Bake in greased pan 25


  2 cups cooked rice
  1 quart tomatoes
  1/4 to 1 lb. hamburg steak
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  3 teaspoons salt
  2 tablespoons onions, chopped
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Add rice to tomatoes. Add seasoning and meat, browned. Bake in
casserole about 2 hours.


  3 cups stale bread crumbs
  2 cups milk
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1/4 teaspoon poultry seasoning
  1 tablespoon onion juice and pulp
  2 eggs
  4 teaspoons baking powder
  1-1/2 cups chopped peanuts

Add bread to milk; add seasoning, beaten eggs, baking powder, and
peanuts. Pour into greased, lined baking tin. Bake in moderate oven 40


  1 cup cooked farina or rice
  1 cup cheese
  1 cup nuts
  1 cup milk
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 egg
  1 teaspoon salt

Mix ingredients thoroughly. Bake in greased dish 30 minutes.


  2 cups cold cooked beans
  1 egg beaten
  1 cup breadcrumbs
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  1 tablespoon minced onion
  2 tablespoons catsup
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Shape into loaf. Bake 25 minutes. Serve with tomato sauce.


Use leftover bread as French toast by dipping in mixture of

  1 cup milk
  1 tablespoon corn syrup
  1 egg beaten

Then brown in frying pan in small amount of fat. Spread with
marmalade, jelly, cocoanut, or preserves and serve as dessert.


  One cup dried apricots, peaches or prunes soaked two hours in two
          cups of water.
  1 cup bread crumbs
  2/3 cup corn syrup
  1 teaspoon orange or lemon rind
  2 eggs
  1/8 teaspoon salt
  1 teaspoon lemon juice
  1/2 cup chopped nuts

Mix ingredients. Place in greased baking dish and bake 30 minutes in
moderately hot oven.


  1/4 cup fat
  1 pint milk
  2 qts. milk
  1/4 cup flour
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1 cup cheese

Make as white sauce and add cheese. Pour over bread, sliced and
toasted. Bake in moderate oven.


  3 cups dried breadcrumbs
  3 tablespoons maple syrup
  1/2 teaspoon salt

Mix thoroughly and place in moderately hot oven for 20 minutes,
stirring frequently. Remove and serve as breakfast food. Very
inexpensive and delicious. Graham, corn or oatmeal bread is best for
this purpose, but any bread may be used.


  1 cup leftover cereal
  1 cup chopped peanuts
  1/2 cup dried breadcrumbs
  1 beaten egg

Shape as croquettes and bake in oven or pan-broil. Serve with tart


  1 cup stale bread
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1/2 cup grated cheese
  1/4 cup milk
  2/3 cup flour
  1/4 teaspoon salt

Make into dough; roll 1/4 inch thick. Cut into strips 6 inches long
and 1/2 inch wide. Place on baking sheet. Bake 20 minutes in moderate
oven. Serve with soup, salad, or pastry.


In nearly every case when meat is purchased, some bone is paid for.
Too frequently this is either left at the market or thrown away in
the home. Bones, gristle, tough ends, head and feet of chickens, head,
fins and bones of fish, etc., should be utilized for making soup.

If a meat or fish chowder with plenty of vegetable accompaniment is
served, no other meat is required for the usual home meal.

If a cream of dried or fresh vegetables, or a meat stock soup with
plenty of vegetables or cereal content, is served, the amount of meat
eaten with the main course of the meal will be materially lessened.

Soups may be a most economical method of using water in which meat,
fish or vegetables have been cooked; also of utilizing small portions
of leftover meats, fish, vegetables or cereal.

Cream soups are made by cooking vegetables or cereal, then utilizing
the water in which they are cooked as part of the liquid for the soup.
Outer parts or wilted parts of vegetables may be utilized for soups
instead of being discarded. Water in which ham or mutton has been
boiled makes an excellent basis for dried or fresh vegetable soups.
In fact, soup can be made from all kinds of leftovers--the variety
and kind make little difference so long as the mixture is allowed to
simmer for several hours and is properly seasoned.


  1/3 cup fat
  1/3 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1 cup cereal or vegetable
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1 pt. milk
  1 pt. water, in which vegetable or cereal was cooked, or leftover
          water in which meat was cooked.

Melt fat, add dry ingredients and, gradually, liquid. When at boiling
point, add vegetables or cereal and serve.


Leftover bits of meat, bone, or gristle may be used alone or with some
fresh meat and bone from shin or neck.

To each 1 lb. of meat and bone, add 1 qt. cold water. Let stand 1
hour. Cover and bring slowly to boiling point and simmer 2 to 3
hours. Remove bones and meat. Let stand until cold. Skim off fat.
Add vegetables cut in small pieces, season as desired and cook until
vegetables are tender. Leftover cereals, as barley, oatmeal, etc.,
vegetables, macaroni, tapioca, sago, etc., etc., may be added for
increased food value.


  Bones and gristle from chicken or turkey
  2 qts. cold water
  1 cup okra
  1 tablespoon chopped pimento
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1/2 cup rice
  2 tablespoons fat
  1-1/2 cups tomatoes
  1/4 cup chopped parsley

Soak bones and gristle in the cold water 1 hour. Then boil slowly 1
hour, in same water. Strain out the bones and gristle and add other
ingredients to the liquor. Boil this mixture slowly 3/4 hour and


  1 cup dried peas, beans or lentils
  3 qts. cold water
  1 tablespoon onion pulp
  1 ham bone or 1/2 pound smoked sausage
  1 teaspoon celery salt
  2 teaspoons salt
  2 tablespoons flour, plus
  2 tablespoons cold water
  1/4 teaspoon pepper
  1 cup tomato

Wash and soak dried legume over night. In morning drain, add water,
ham bone or sausage and cook very slowly until tender. Add other
ingredients, cook 1/2 hour and serve.


  1 qt. boiling water
  1/2 cup carrots
  1/2 cup cabbage
  1 cup potatoes
  1 cup tomato juice and pulp
  1 tablespoon minced onion
  1/4 teaspoon pepper
  4 tablespoons fat
  4 cloves
  1 bayleaf
  2 teaspoons salt
  4 peppercorns
  2 tablespoons chopped parsley

Heat onion, pepper, salt, bayleaf and peppercorns with tomatoes for
20 minutes. Strain. To juice and pulp add other ingredients and cook
slowly 1 hour. Add parsley just before serving.


  2 cups diced carrots
  2 cups water
  1 cup milk
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  2 tablespoons fat
  2 tablespoons flour
  1 teaspoon salt

Cook the carrots in the water until tender. Melt the fat, add dry
ingredients, add gradually the 1 cup water in which the carrots were
cooked and the milk. When at boiling point, serve with a little grated
raw carrot sprinkled over top of soup. Any vegetable, raw or cooked,
may be used in the same way, as cauliflower, cabbage, peas, turnips,


  1 cup cooked or canned fish
  1 cup cooked potato, diced
  1 cup peas
  2 tablespoons fat
  2 tablespoons flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 teaspoon paprika
  2 cups milk
  1 cup water from boiled potatoes
  2 tablespoons chopped parsley
  1 teaspoon onion juice

Melt fat, add dry ingredients and gradually the liquid. When at
boiling point, add parsley and serve.


  1 cup cheese
  2 cups milk
  2 tablespoons fat
  1-1/4 teaspoons salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1/2 teaspoon celery salt
  3 tablespoons flour

Melt fat, add dry ingredients and gradually the liquid. When at
boiling point and just ready to serve add cheese. Any kind of cheese
may be used for this purpose.


  1 cup beans
  1 quart water
  1 tablespoon onion juice
  1/4 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1 cup brown stock
  1/4 teaspoon celery salt
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1 hard cooked egg
  1 lemon, sliced
  1/4 teaspoon mustard
  2 tablespoons flour, plus 2 tablespoons cold water

Soak beans over night, drain. Place in 1 quart of fresh cold water
and cook until very tender. Add other ingredients and bring to boiling
point. Slice thin, hard cooked egg and lemon from which seeds have
been removed and serve with each portion. Do not remove lemon rind as
this gives a piquant flavor.


  2 cups cooked diced potatoes
  2 cups water in which potatoes were cooked
  1 cup milk
  2 teaspoons onion juice
  2 tablespoons fat
  3 tablespoons flour
  1-1/2 teaspoons salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  2 tablespoons of finely chopped parsley
  1/4 cup grated cheese

Dice potatoes and cook slowly until very tender. Rub through strainer,
using potato and 2 cups of the water. Melt fat, add dry ingredients
and gradually the liquids and onion juice. When ready to serve,
sprinkle parsley and cheese over top.




  3/4 cup lentils
  1 cup rice
  1 quart tomatoes
  1 teaspoon Worcestershire
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  1/4 teaspoon bay leaf
  1/4 teaspoon sage

Soak lentils over night; drain; add one quart fresh water and one
teaspoon of salt. Cook slowly until tender. Add other ingredients.
Steam or bake for 45 minutes.


  1/2 cup cooked rice
  1 pint tomatoes
  1/3 cup green pepper chopped
  2 cups fresh or left-over cooked meat
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne

Mix all ingredients. Bake in greased dish slowly for one hour.


  1 cup hominy which has been soaked over night, drained
  1 quart fresh water and 1 teaspoon of salt added; cook until tender
  2 cups mutton from shoulder
  1 teaspoon kitchen bouquet
  1 teaspoon curry
  2 cups water
  1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
  1 tablespoon cornstarch
  1 cup diced beets
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Mix all ingredients thoroughly. Bake in covered casserole slowly for
one hour. Mutton should be cut in about one-inch pieces.


  4 cups water
  1 cup cornmeal
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/3 cup chopped peppers
  2 cups cooked meat
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

To cornmeal add one-half cup of cold water. Boil three cups of water
and add cornmeal. Boil five minutes. Add other ingredients. Cook in
greased baking dish for one hour.


  1 pint soy beans
  1/4 lb. salt pork
  1/2 teaspoon soda
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 onion
  1-1/2 tablespoons salt
  3/4 cup molasses
  3/4 tablespoon mustard
  Boiling water (about one quart)
  1 pint tomatoes
  2 cups cooked spinach

Soak beans over night; drain. Cover with fresh water and the soda and
boil, until skins break, but do not let beans become broken. Cut rind
from salt pork and cut into six or eight pieces. To 1 cup of boiling
water add the cayenne, salt, molasses, mustard and tomatoes. In bottom
of bean pot place the onion and a piece of salt pork. Add beans. Pour
over this the seasonings. Cover the beans with boiling water. Bake
three hours covered. Uncover, put spinach to which has been added
1 teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of vinegar, one-eighth teaspoon of
pepper, on top. Bake 30 minutes and serve.


One cup of kidney beans, soak over night; drain. Cover with fresh
water. Add 2 teaspoons of salt, cook in small amount of water until
tender. Force through colander. Measure 1-1/2 cups and add one-quarter
pound salt pork chopped fine, 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce, 1 cup
of water or meat stock or gravy.

Place half of mixture in greased baking dish. Cover with two cups
of spinach, to which has been added one-quarter cup of vinegar, 2
tablespoons of fat and one-half teaspoon of salt. Cover with other
half of bean mixture. Bake 20 minutes.


  1 cup macaroni
  1 cup peas
  1 pint tomatoes, juice and pulp
  1 cup grated cheese
  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Cook macaroni until tender in one quart of boiling water and one
teaspoon of salt; drain. Melt fat, add flour, salt and cayenne.
Gradually add tomatoes and when at boiling point remove from fire,
add cheese and peas. Place macaroni in greased baking dish, pour sauce
over it and bake 30 minutes.


  1/2 cup rice
  1 cup cheese
  1 cup corn
  1-1/2 cup milk
  1/4 cup fat
  1/4 cup flour
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne

Melt fat until brown. Add flour and seasonings. Heat until brown. Add
milk gradually. When at boiling point add other ingredients. Place in
baking dish and bake 45 minutes.


  3 lbs. fish
  2 cups diced potatoes
  1/3 cup chopped onion
  1/2 cup chopped salt pork
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 cup peas
  2 cups cold water
  2 tablespoons fat
  2 tablespoons flour
  1 cup diced carrots
  1 pint scalded milk

Cut fish into small pieces. Cover bones, fins and head with cold
water. Simmer 15 minutes; strain. Cook onion and salt pork until
brown. In kettle place layers of fish and mixed vegetables. To water
in which bones, etc., have been cooked, add the seasonings. Mix all
ingredients. Cook forty minutes, slowly, covered.


  1 smoked haddock
  1 cup samp, which has been soaked over night and cooked until tender
  1 quart water and 1 teaspoon of salt
  2 teaspoons horseradish (grated)
  1 pint tomatoes
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/4 teaspoon cayenne
  2 tablespoons cornstarch

Pour 1 cup of boiling water and one-half cup of boiling milk over
fish. Let stand one-half hour, pour off liquid. Place fish in baking
dish. Place samp on fish. Mix other ingredients and pour on top. Cover
and bake three-quarters of an hour.


  1 cup cooked spaghetti
  2 cups brown stock
  2 cups water, or
  2 bouillon cubes
  2 tablespoons flour
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/2 cup chopped peanuts
  1 cup diced carrots
  3 tablespoons chopped olives

Blend flour with 2 tablespoons cold water. Dissolve bouillon cubes in
the boiling water. Mix all ingredients. Place in casserole and bake 45
minutes or until spaghetti is tender.


  1 cup cooked lentils
  1 cup chopped peanuts
  1 cup grated cheese
  1 cup bread crumbs
  1 tablespoon fat
  2 tablespoons lemon juice
  1/2 teaspoon salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  1 teaspoon onion juice

Mix all. Place in a greased dish. Bake 30 minutes. Then pour over top
a sauce made by melting 2 tablespoons of fat, adding 2 tablespoons
flour, one-half teaspoon of salt and one-eighth teaspoon cayenne. Then
add 1 cup of milk gradually. When at boiling point add 3 tablespoons
of chopped olives. Pour this sauce over the roast and bake 20 minutes.
Serve at once.


  1 lb. codfish
  1/3 cup pimento
  1 cup cornmeal
  2 cups tomatoes, juice and pulp
  2 teaspoons salt
  1/8 teaspoon cayenne
  3 cups boiling water

Mix cornmeal with one-half cup of cold water. Add to the boiling
water. Boil five minutes. In greased baking dish place fish which
has been soaked over night. Place pimento on fish. Place cornmeal on
pimento. To tomatoes add seasonings and pour over all. Bake slowly 45


One-half cup dried peas, beans or lentils, soaked over night and
cooked until tender.

  1/2 cup turnips
  1/2 cup of carrots
  1 cup outer parts of celery
  1/2 cup of peas
  1/2 teaspoon celery salt
  1/8 teaspoon pepper
  3 tablespoons drippings
  3 tablespoons whole wheat flour
  1 teaspoon curry powder
  1 teaspoon salt
  1/2 cup meat stock or water
  1 cup tomato juice and pulp
  1 teaspoon onion juice

Melt the fat. Add the seasoning; gradually the liquid. Add the
vegetables. Cook 20 minutes. Serve very hot. This is an especially
good way of adding the necessary flavor to lentils.




  Stewed Prunes
  Corn Muffins
  Top Milk


  Cream of Spinach Soup
  All Rye Rolls
  Scalloped Potatoes


  Pot Roast
  Buttered Beets
  Fried Egg Plant
  Southern Spoon Bread
  Maple Cornstarch Pudding

       *       *       *       *       *



  Dried Apricots
  Rye and Peanut Muffins
  Top Milk


  Nut and Bean Loaf with White Sauce
  Corn Pone
  Oatmeal Cookies
  Currant or Plum Jelly


  Beef Casserole
  Baked Potatoes
  Green Beans
  Barley Biscuits
  Cranberry Tapioca Pudding

       *       *       *       *       *



  Baked Apple Stuffed with Nuts
  Fried Cornmeal Mush
  Maple Syrup


  Split Pea Soup
  Rye Muffins
  Corn Oysters
  Cranberry Jelly


  Mutton Pie
  Glazed Sweet Potatoes
  Pickled Beets
  Oatmeal Bread
  Scalloped Tomatoes
  Brown Betty



  Dried Peaches with Jelly Garnish
  Corn Puffs and Dates
  Top of Milk
  Rye Muffins


  Macaroni and cheese
  Corn and Rice Muffins
  Canned Fruit


  Cream of Carrot Soup
  Swiss Steak
  Stewed Tomatoes
  Natural Rice
  Cole Slaw
  Oatmeal Rolls
  Brown Betty



  Baked Apples with Marmalade Center
  Cream of Grits Cereal
  Top of Milk
  Rye Finger Rolls


  Cream of Lentil Soup
  Corn Muffins
  Hot Tea


  Casserole of Beef and Rice
  Baked Potatoes
  Stewed Corn
  Cabbage Salad
  Chocolate Cornstarch Pudding




  Baked Pears with Cloves and Ginger
  Cornmeal and Farina Cereal


  Welsh Rarebit
  Hot Tea
  Fruit Muffins
  Lettuce Salad


  Cream of Corn Soup
  Baked Fish
  Macaroni with Tomato Sauce
  Whole Wheat Bread
  Lyonnaise Potatoes
  Orange Sago Custard



  Dried Peaches
  Fried Hominy


  Bean Soup
  Lettuce Salad
  Cheese Straws


  Chicken Fricassee
  Baked Squash
  Cranberry Jelly
  Barley Muffins
  Mock Mince Pie



  Pearled Barley
  Top Milk
  Currant Jelly
  Rye Bread Toasted


  Mixed Vegetable Salad
  Boston Brown Bread
  Hot Tea


  Clam Chowder
  Spinach and Cheese Loaf
  Creamed Cauliflower
  Oatmeal Nut Bread
  Spice Pudding
  Hard Sauce


  Consommé with Spaghetti
  Cornmeal Muffins
  Cabbage and Cheese
  Julienne Potatoes
  Dressed Lettuce
  Jellied Prunes with Nuts

  Thin Bean Soup
  Rye Rolls
  Corn and Oyster Fritters
  Baked Potato
  Scalloped Tomato
  Apple and Celery Salad
  Graham Pudding with Hard Sauce

  Consommé with Tapioca
  Brown Bread
  Salmon Loaf or Escalloped Salmon
  Creamed Potatoes
  Lettuce Salad
  Gelatine Dessert

  Thin Cream of Celery Soup
  Rye Bread
  Nut Loaf
  Brown Sauce
  Scalloped Potatoes
  Lettuce Salad with Tomato Jelly
  Sago Pudding

  Scalloped Hominy and Cheese
  Swiss Chard or Spinach
  Whole Wheat Bread
  Stuffed Baked Potato
  Baked Pears
  Molasses Cookies

  Escalloped Codfish
  Baked Onions
  Corn Bread
  Apple Salad
  Fig and Date Pudding with Tart Jelly

  Cream of Barley Soup
  Turkish Pilaf
  War Muffins
  Apple and Cabbage Salad
  Chocolate Bread Pudding

  Cream of Rice Soup
  Rye Meal Rolls
  Kidney Bean Croquette
  Dried Apricot Butter
  Oranges, Bananas and Dates
  Ginger Cookies

  Bean Soup
  Welsh Rarebit or a Cheese Dish
  Natural Rice
  Tomato Sauce
  Corn Meal Parker House Rolls
  Dried Peach Pudding


  Corn Soup
  Oatmeal Bread
  Nut Loaf
  Tomato Sauce
  Green Beans
  Potatoes au Gratin
  Jellied Prunes

  Boston Roast
  Tart Jelly
  Whole Wheat Bread
  Creamed Cauliflower
  Cranberry Slump

  Kidney Beans with Rice
  Fried Apples with Raisins
  Celery in Brown Sauce
  Cornmeal Baking Powder Biscuits
  Tapioca Cream

  Baked Beans
  Boston Brown Bread
  Apple and Pimento Salad
  Gelatine Dessert

  Cream of Vegetable Soup
  Lima Bean Croquets
  Creamed Potatoes
  Pickled Beets
  Cornmeal and Rye Muffins
  Cottage Pudding

  Cream of Celery Soup
  Rye Bread
  Spinach Loaf
  Cabbage and Pepper Relish
  Brown Rice
  Marmalade Pudding

  Cream of Tomato Soup
  Corn Sticks
  Baked Macaroni and Cheese
  Baked Sweet Potatoes
  Beet and Cabbage Relish
  Whole Wheat Bread
  Apricot Shortcake
  Hard Sauce

Of our men we ask their lives; Of ourselves, a little less food.


TO SAVE BREAD. Serve bread or rolls made from corn, rye or from coarse
flours. Use breakfast foods and hot cakes, composed of corn, oatmeal,
buckwheat, rice or hominy. Serve no toast as garniture or under meat.
Serve war breads. Use every part of the bread, either fresh or stale,
for puddings and toast; or dried and sifted for baked croquettes; or
use to extend flour in the making of muffins and drop cakes.

TO SAVE MEAT. Use more chicken, hare, rabbits, duck, goose, lobster,
oysters, clams and egg and cheese dishes of all kinds. Use less beef,
mutton, and pork and serve smaller portions at table of these meats.
Have fewer of these items on the menu. Provide more entrees and
made-over dishes in which a smaller quantity of meat is extended by
the use of potatoes, rice, hominy, etc. Use beans, as they contain
nearly the same nutritive value as meat. Serve bacon only as a dish
and not as a garniture, and this way not more than once a week. Use
cheese, dried vegetables and nuts. Use fish and meat chowders. Use
meat extension dishes. Serve vegetable dinners.

TO SAVE SUGAR. Use less candy and sweet drinks. Use honey, maple
sugar, corn syrup, molasses and dark syrups with hot cakes and waffles
and in all cooking, in order to save butter and sugar. Use all classes
of fruit preserves, jam, marmalades and jellies. Do not frost or ice
cakes. Serve dried fruits with cereals, and no sugar is needed.

TO SAVE FATS. Serve as few fried dishes as possible, so as to
save both butter and lard, and in any event use vegetable oils for
frying--that is, olive oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, vegetable oil
compounds, etc. Trim all coarse fats from meats before cooking and use
the waste fats for shortening and for soap. We are short of soap fats
as our supplies of tropical oils used for soap-making are reduced. Do
not waste soap. Save fat from soup stock and from boiled meats. Use
butter substitutes where possible.

TO SAVE MILK. Use it all. Buy whole milk and let cream rise. Use this
cream, and you secure your milk without cost. Economize on milk and
cream except for children. Serve buttermilk. Serve cottage cheese
regularly in varying forms. It is especially nutritious. Use skimmed
milk in cooking. A great quantity of it goes to waste in this country.
Use cheese generally. The children must have milk whole, therefore
reduce the use of cream.

USE VEGETABLES. Use more vegetables and potatoes. Make fruits and
vegetables into salads and attractive dishes. Feature vegetable
dinners and salads of all kinds. Encourage the use of cheese with
salads. Make all types of salads from vegetables. We have a great
surplus of vegetables, and they can be used by substituting them for
staples so that the staples most needed will be saved.

Make all kinds of vegetable soups, especially the cream soups, in
which the waste from staple vegetables, such as outer leaves and
wilted parts, can be utilized. These are wholesome and nutritious and
save meat.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Foods That Will Win The War And How To Cook Them (1918)" ***

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