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Title: History of the English People, Index
Author: Green, John Richard, 1837-1883
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of the English People, Index" ***

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                               HISTORY

                                  OF

                          THE ENGLISH PEOPLE


                                  BY

                       JOHN RICHARD GREEN, M.A.
               HONORARY FELLOW OF JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD


                                INDEX


                                London
                       MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD.
                     NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO.
                                 1896


          _First Edition, 1879; Reprinted 1882, 1886, 1891._
                      _Eversley Edition, 1896._



INDEX


  Abbot, George, Archbishop of Canterbury, iv. 341;
    his Puritanism, v. 90;
    protests against Lady Essex's divorce, 191;
    pleads for help for the Elector Palatine, 218;
    suspended, 255

  Abelard, i. 283, 285

  Abercromby, General, vii. 266

  Abercromby, Sir Ralph, viii. 140, 165

  Aberdeen sacked by Montrose, vi. 23

  Aberffraw, princes of, ii. 46, 108

  Abergavenny besieged by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 11

  Abergavenny, Edward Neville, first Lord, iii. 114

  Abergavenny, George Neville, tenth Lord, vii. 23

  Abermenai, English fleet repulsed from, ii. 54

  "Abhorrers," vi. 314

  Abingdon, Abbey of, its relations with Oxford, i. 306-308

  Abingdon, James Bertie, first Earl of, vii. 23

  Aboukir, battle of, viii. 141

  Acadia, strife of French and English in, vii. 242, 243

  Accursi, Francesco, ii. 102

  Aclea, battle of, i. 103

  Acre, siege of, viii. 141

  Acts of Parliament. _See_ Statutes

  Adam of Usk, ii. 178

  Adamnan's _Life of St. Columba_, i. 8

  Adams, John, vii. 281

  Addington, Henry, viii. 156, 170.
    _See_ Sidmouth

  Addison, Joseph, vii. 158, 159, 292

  Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror, i. 214

  Adelard of Bath, i. 282, 293

  _Admonition to the Parliament_, iv. 296

  Adrian IV., Pope, i. 250

  Adrian VI., Pope, iii. 249

  Ælfheah, Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 142;
    translation of, 145

  Ælfred, king of Wessex, i. 105;
    his struggle with the northmen, 106, 107;
    treaty with them, 107;
    character, 107-110;
    rule, 111, 112;
    literary and educational work, 113-115;
    organization of fleet and fyrd, 116;
    second struggle with northmen, _ib._, 117;
    death, 117;
    Asser's _Life of_, 5;
    _Sayings of_, 278, 280

  Ælfred, son of Æthelred II., i. 147, 148

  Ælfric, ealdorman of Central Wessex, i. 140

  Ælla, king of Deira, i. 52, 53

  Ælle, king of the South Saxons, i. 34

  Æsc, king of Kent, i. 49

  Æthelbald, king of Mercia, i. 90, 96

  Æthelbald, king of Wessex, i. 103

  Æthelberht, king of Kent, i. 56, 57, 59, 62, 65

  Æthelberht, king of Wessex, i. 103

  Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, i. 117, 118

  Æthelgifu, mother-in-law of King Eadwig, i. 136, 137

  Æthelfrith, king of Northumbria, i. 60, 62

  Ætheling, the, i. 11

  Æthelred, king of Mercia, i, 89

  Æthelred I., king of Wessex, i. 103-105

  Æthelred II., King, i. 139-141

  Æthelred, ealdorman of Mercia, i. 117

  Æthelric, king of Bernicia, i. 52, 53, 60

  Æthelstan, King, i. 119, 120

  Æthelweard's _Chronicle_, i. 5

  Æthelwine, ealdorman of East Anglia, i. 139, 140

  Æthelwulf, king of Wessex, i. 103

  Agénois, dispute about, ii. 197, 198, 209, 219

  Agincourt, battle of, iii. 30-32

  Agitators, Council of, vi. 52, 53, 57

  Agriculture, changes in, under Elizabeth, iv. 278

  Aidan, St., i. 69-71

  Aids, feudal, ii. 104;
    "free," 152, 153

  Aiguillon
    taken by the Earl of Derby, ii. 234;
    besieged by John of France, _ib._, 235

  Aislabie, Chancellor of the Exchequer, vii. 192

  Aix-la-Chapelle, peace of, vi. 250; vii. 231

  Albany, Robert, first Duke of, iii. 9, 16

  Albany, Alexander, third Duke of, iii. 232;
    Protector of Scotland, 235;
    struggle with Margaret, 247, 248

  Albemarle, Edward, Duke of, ii. 380; iii. 7.
    _See_ Rutland

  Albemarle, George Monk, Duke of (_see_ Monk), vi. 193

  Albemarle, Stephen, Count of, i. 192

  Alberoni, Cardinal, vii. 186-188

  Albigenses, ii. 7, 35

  Albinus, friend of Bæda, i. 94

  Alcwine, letters of, i. 4

  Alderman of a gild, i. 299

  Aldfrith, king of Northumbria, i. 91

  Aldgate, Priory of Holy Trinity at, i. 223

  Alençon,
    William the Conqueror's vengeance on, i. 179;
    reduced by Henry V., iii. 33

  Alençon, Francis, Duke of. _See_ Anjou

  Alexander III., Pope, i. 235

  Alexander I., Czar of Russia, viii. 164, 180, 198, 202

  Alexander III., king of Scots, ii. 135

  Alfred of Beverley, i. 246

  Alfune founds St. Giles', Cripplegate, i. 223

  Algiers bombarded by Blake, vi. 116

  Allen, Dr. William, iv. 307, 310, 353, 354;
    his _Defense of the English Catholics_, 354

  Alleyn, Joseph, vi. 223

  Alliance, Grand, vii. 49;
    its success, 79, 80, 88;
    breaks up, 89;
    the second, 107;
    Triple, vi. 249; vii. 185

  Almanza, battle of, vii. 134

  Alva, Ferdinand Alvarez, Duke of, iv. 225, 257, 258, 298, 300, 335

  Amboise,
    conspiracy of, iv. 175;
    edict of, 217

  America,
    early settlements in, iv. 329, 330, 345;
    Puritan emigration to, v. 308-314, 319, 320;
    English colonies in, vii. 236;
      their progress, 237;
      slavery in, _ib._;
      education in, 238;
      their political condition, 239, 240;
      relations with England, 241, 243, 244;
      strife with the French, 249;
      Pitt's policy in, 266;
    relations with England after the Seven Years' War, 280-283;
    Bute's policy towards, 310, 311;
    Grenville's, 320, 321, 326;
    English and American theories of their relation to England, 320-325;
    renewed attempt at taxation of, viii. 3, 4, 14;
    war with England, 22-26, 32;
    French settlements in, vii. 232, 242, 243;
      ceded to England, 307;
    Spanish conquests in, iv. 329, 330;
    English trade with, vii. 216;
    United States of, declare their independence, viii. 24;
    alliance with France, 28;
    peace with England, 41;
    importance of their independence, 42-44;
    increase of their carrying trade through the Continental System,
        177;
    embargo on trade with Europe, 182;
    pass an Act of Non-Intercourse with England and France, 183;
      repeal it, 184;
    cease intercourse with Great Britain, 192;
    war with England, 198, 203-205

  Amherst, General, vii. 266, 267, 269

  Amiens,
    Mise of, ii. 68;
    Peace of, viii. 167

  Ancrum Moor, battle of, iv. 29

  Anderida (Pevensey) destroyed by Saxons, i. 34

  André, Bernard, his _Life of Henry VII._, iii. 83

  Andredsweald, the, i. 33;
    attacked by northmen, 116

  Andrewes, Lancelot, Bishop of Winchester, v. 267

  Aneurin, ii. 49, 53

  Angeln, i. 9

  Anglesea
    conquered by Eadwine, i. 63;
    reduced by an English fleet, ii. 109;
    English routed in, 120

  Angoulême
    taken by Henry of Derby, ii. 234;
    regained by John of Normandy, _ib._

  Angoumois
    restored to Edward III., ii. 266;
    won by Du Guesclin, 287

  Angus, Archibald Douglas, sixth (or ninth) Earl of, iii. 231; iv. 22,
      29, 52

  Anhalt, Christian, Duke of, v. 177

  Anjou,
    documents for early history of, i. 7;
    counts of, 208-213;
    conquered by Philip Augustus, 269;
    cession of, ii. 63

  Anjou, Francis, Duke of, iv. 313, 316, 336-338, 348

  Anjou, Henry, Duke of, iv. 297, 298.
    _See_ Henry III., king of France

  Anjou, René, Duke of, iii. 61

  Anlaf, the sea-king, i. 120

  _Annales Angliæ et Scotiæ_, i. 274

  _Annales Cambriæ_, i. 7

  Anne, daughter of James, Duke of York, vi. 309; vii. 28;
    forsakes her father, 42;
    relations with the Churchills, 109-111;
    Queen, 112;
    her "Bounty," 123;
    resistance to the Whigs, 133;
    temper and policy, 135, 136;
    breaks with the Duchess of Marlborough, 138;
    threat to the Electress Sophia, 144;
    dismisses Oxford, 145;
    dies, 146

  Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II., ii. 348, 367

  Anne of Cleves, wife of Henry VIII., iii. 351; iv. 17

  Anselm, St., i. 193-196;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 196;
    struggle with William Rufus, _ib._, 197;
    recalled, 199;
    crowns Matilda, 200;
    supports Henry I., 201

  Antonio, Don, claimant of Portugal, iv. 367

  Antwerp,
    its trade with England, iv. 257;
    refugees from, 305, 324;
    sacked, 310;
    surrenders to Parma, 349

  Appeal, Court of, i. 256

  Appeals to the Pope, ii. 222;
    protest of Edward III. against, 274;
    forbidden, iii. 302;
    from Scotland, Edward I.'s claim to, ii. 140

  Appellant, the Lords, ii. 353, 354, 371

  Aquitaine,
    Henry Fitz-Empress's relations with, i. 226, 233;
    revolts against Richard I., 263;
    secured by Eleanor for John, 268;
    submits to Philip Augustus, 270;
    Edward III. does homage for, ii. 209;
      granted him in full sovereignty, 266;
    change in its attitude towards the English king, 280;
    relations with Spain, 282;
    rejects the hearth-tax, 285;
    its barons appeal to France, _ib._;
    regained by France, 287, 288;
    granted by Richard II. to John of Gaunt, 369.
    _See_ Guienne

  Archangel, discovery of, iv. 283

  Archers, the English, ii. 241, 242; iii. 31

  Architecture
    under Edward I., ii. 105, 106;
    domestic, its developement under Elizabeth, iv. 285-287

  Arcola, battle of, viii. 123

  Arcot seized by Clive, vii. 235

  Argyle, Archibald Campbell, fourth Earl of, iv. 114

  Argyle, Archibald Campbell, fifth Earl of, iv. 223, 230, 245, 260

  Argyle, Archibald Campbell, eighth Earl and first Marquis of (_see_
      Lorne), v. 341;
    his relations with Charles I., 363, 364;
    defeated at Inverlochy, vi. 38;
    restored to power, 63;
    proclaims Charles II. king, 71;
    death, 181; vii. 8

  Argyle, Archibald Campbell, ninth Earl of, vii. 8, 9

  Argyle, John Campbell, second Duke of, vii. 146, 183

  Aristotle, Edmund Rich lectures on, i. 288, 293

  Arkwright, Richard, viii. 60

  Arles, kingdom of, i. 262

  Arlington, Henry Bennet, Earl of (_see_ Bennet),
    Secretary of State, vi. 245;
    policy in Triple Alliance, 248, 250;
    Charles's confidant in the Treaty of Dover, 258;
    dismissed, 281

  Arlotta, mother of William the Conqueror, i. 157

  Armada, the Spanish,
    its gathering, iv. 344;
    sails, 356;
    off the Lizard, 357;
    its force, 360;
    reaches Calais, 361;
    its flight, 362;
    ruin, 363;
    its results, 364, 365;
    the second, v. 60

  Armagnac, Bernard, Count of, iii. 16, 17

  Arminians, the, v. 114, 266

  Arms, Assize of, i. 257

  Army, the English,
    its double character, ii. 240;
    the feudal, its composition, ii. 239;
    raised by the Parliament against Charles I., vi. 1;
    of the Associated Counties, 8, 13, 18;
    the New Model, 35-37;
    its character and policy, 50-52;
    seizes the king, 53;
    its "Humble Representation," _ib._, 54;
    marches on London, _ib._;
    negotiates with the Parliament, 54;
    with the king, 55;
    enters London, 56;
    resolves to bring Charles to account, 61;
    invades Scotland, 62;
    demands justice on the king, 64;
    struggle with the Parliament, 65, 66;
    mutiny in, 75;
    petitions for a new Parliament, 87;
    struggle with the Rump, 89;
    recalls the Rump, 149;
    drives it out again, 150;
    relations with Monk, 150, 151;
    its dissolution, 153;
    Charles II.'s, 182, 183; vii. 4;
    increased by James II., 11;
    Catholic officers in, 14, 15;
    Parliament's control over it established, vii. 61;
    reduced under William III., 97;
    increased again, 105, 107

  Army Plot, v. 359, 360

  Arnold, General, viii. 23

  Arran, James Hamilton, second Earl of, iv. 26, 199

  Arras, treaties of, iii. 56, 120, 170

  Arteveldt, Jacques van, ii. 227, 233

  Arteveldt, Philip van, ii. 349

  Arthur, leader of the Britons, i. 34;
    legends of, 246, 247; ii. 57

  Arthur of Britanny, i. 247, 260, 268

  Arthur, son of Henry VII., iii. 186, 187

  Articles of Religion, 1536, iii. 333, 337, 338;
    Five, iv. 156;
    Forty-two, 59, 160;
    Six, iii. 346;
    repealed, iv. 48;
    Thirty-nine, 59, 216;
    magistrates and public officers compelled to subscribe to, 273;
    subscription of ministers to, v. 156;
    Three (Whitgift's), iv. 341, 342; v. 115, 116

  Articles, Lords of the, iv. 228

  Artillery,
    first instance known of its use in field warfare, ii. 237;
    results of its introduction, iii. 95, 96

  Arundel, Thomas, Bishop of Ely, ii. 352;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 367, 370, 371, 373;
    persecuting tendencies, iii. 4;
    urges Richard II.'s death, 7;
    prevents confiscation of Church property, 15, 21;
    removed from the chancellorship, 25;
    convicts Lord Cobham of heresy, 27

  Arundel, Richard Fitz-Alan, fourth Earl of, ii. 353, 367, 370, 371

  Arundel, Henry Fitz-Alan, twelfth Earl of, iv. 173, 267, 268

  Arundel, Thomas Howard, fourteenth Earl of, v. 248

  Arundell of Wardour, Henry, third Lord, vi. 256, 296; vii. 20

  Ascham, Roger, iv. 134, 135

  Ashdown, battle of, i. 105

  Ashley, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Lord (_see_ Cooper), vi. 194;
    opposes the Act of Uniformity, 208;
    character, 216, 217;
    policy, 218, 219;
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, 245;
    change in his attitude on the question of toleration, 252;
    advises a dissolution, 253;
    schemes of toleration, 259;
    attitude towards war with Holland, 260.
    _See_ Shaftesbury

  Assandun, battle of, i. 143

  Assembly, the French National, viii. 86

  Asser, i. 5, 113

  Assize
    of Arms, i. 257;
    of Clarendon, 238;
    of the Forest, 267;
    of Northampton, 255

  Astley, Sir Jacob, vi. 42

  Aston, Sir Arthur, vi. 76

  Athelney,
    Ælfred at, i. 106;
    abbey at, 114

  Athenree, battle of, ii. 376

  Athlone captured by the English, iii. 329

  Atterbury, Francis, Bishop of Rochester, vii. 167

  Audley, James Touchet, Lord, iii. 74

  Aughrim, battle of, vii. 73

  Augsburg,
    conference at, iv. 21;
    treaty of, vii. 27

  Augustine, St., Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 57-59

  Austerlitz, battle of, viii. 173

  Australia, vii. 278

  Austria, Charles, Archduke of, iv. 193, 195

  Austria, Don John of, iv. 310-312

  Auxerre, battle near, iii. 39

  Avaux, Count of, vii. 59

  Avesbury, Robert of, ii. 177

  Avignon, the Popes at, ii. 216, 217, 221, 224

  Avowal, the, v. 268

  Avranches taken by Henry V., iii. 33

  Axholme, the Disinherited at, ii. 84, 85

  Aylesford, battle of, i. 33

  Aylmer, John, iv. 119

  Ayrshire, rising in, vi. 62


  Babington, Anthony, iv. 351, 352

  Bacon, Francis, v. 46-55;
    his political career, 222-224;
    last years, 225;
    _Life of Henry VII._, iii. 83

  Bacon, Sir Nicholas, iv. 152

  Bacon, Roger, i. 293; ii. 14-19;
    his _Opus Majus_, 19-21

  Badajoz stormed, viii. 199

  Badbury, battle of, i. 34

  Badby, Thomas, iii. 22

  Badlesmere, Lady, ii. 195

  Bæda, i. 91-95;
    his _History_, 4, 94

  Baillie's _Letters_, v. 73

  Bale, Bishop of Ossory, iv. 63, 109, 119, 128, 129

  Ball, John, ii. 268, 269, 318, 319, 336

  Balliol, Edward,
    acknowledged as king of Scots at the English court, ii. 204;
    seizes the crown, 210;
    driven out, 211;
    restored, 212;
    withdraws to England, 213, 214;
    resigns, 253

  Balliol, John,
    claimant of the Scottish crown, ii. 136;
    king, 138;
    resists Edward's claim to receive appeals, 140;
    alliance with France, 160;
    defies Edward, 161;
    surrenders, _ib._;
    released and goes to France, 170

  Balmerino, Arthur Elphinston, sixth Lord, vii. 230

  Bamborough
    founded by Ida, i. 52;
    attacked by Penda, 71

  Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, iv. 341; v. 156, 165

  Bank of England founded, vii. 86;
    suspends specie payments, viii. 126

  Bankers, foreign, in England, under Edward I., ii. 106, 107;
    expelled, 189

  Bannockburn, battle of, ii. 192, 193

  Bantry Bay, battle in, vii. 68

  Baptists, rise of the, vi. 28

  Barbour, John, ii. 177

  Barbury Hill, battle of, i. 37

  Bardolf, Thomas, Lord, iii. 18, 19

  Bards, the Welsh, ii. 53, 56; iii. 11

  Barebones, Praise-God, vi. 95

  "Bargemen" of Oxford, i. 308

  Barham Down, muster at, i. 333; ii. 74

  Barillon, French ambassador in England, vi. 298

  Barlow, Bishop of St. David's, iii. 336

  Barnes, Robert, iii. 262

  Barnet, battle of, iii. 142

  _Barnwell, Annals of_, i. 174, 273

  Barons,
    their struggle with William I., i. 188-190;
      with William Rufus, 191, 192;
      with Henry I., 201, 202;
    misdoings under Stephen, 220, 221;
    Henry II.'s dealings with, 233;
    change in their attitude towards crown and people, 325;
    relations with John, 332, 338, 339, 343;
      alliance with the Welsh against him, ii. 55;
    meeting at St. Edmund's, i. 344;
    at Brackley, 346;
    rise in arms, _ib._, 347;
    confer with John at Runnymede, 347;
    excommunicated by Innocent III., 354;
    call Lewis of France to their aid, 355;
    feudal party among, ii. 4, 5;
    refuse an aid to the Pope, 27;
    refuse subsidies to Henry III., 34, 35;
    their plan of reform, 37, 38;
    league against Henry III., 59, 60;
    expel the foreigners, 62;
    their rule, _ib._, 63;
    divisions among, 64;
    rise in arms, 67;
    submit to arbitration, 68;
    victory at Lewes, 70, 71;
    position after the war, 114;
    relations with Edward I., 115-117;
    decrease in numbers, 146, 147;
    struggle with Edward I., 164-166;
    relations with Edward II., 184, 190;
    under Edward III., relations with the crown, 293;
      with the Church, 294;
    their decline, iii. 94-96;
    effect of the French war on, 103, 104;
    new race of, under Henry VIII., iv. 13, 41;
    the northern, plot against Elizabeth, iv. 266, 267;
      rise, 268;
      defeated, 269;
    "greater" and "lesser," ii. 145;
    of the Exchequer, i. 206;
    of London, 319

  Barrier, the Dutch, vii. 102, 182

  Barrow, Isaac, vi. 167

  Bartholomew's Day, St.,
    the English, vi. 209;
    the French, iv. 299

  Basing House, siege of, vi. 42

  Basle, treaty of, viii. 111

  Bassano, battle of, viii. 123

  Basset, Philip, ii. 66

  Basset, Thomas, i. 345

  Bastille, capture of the, viii. 83

  Bastwick, John, v. 329

  Bates's case, v. 161

  Bath, the thegns of Wessex submit to Swein at, i. 143

  Bath, Henry de, ii. 33

  Battle Abbey, i. 164

  Baugé, battle of, iii. 36

  Bautzen, battle of, viii. 201

  Bavaria, Maximilian, Duke of, v. 177, 219

  Bavaria, Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of, vii. 101, 102

  Bavaria, Joseph, Electoral Prince of, vii. 92, 94

  Baxter, Richard,
    his address to Richard Cromwell, vi. 147;
    his eminence as controversialist and pastor, 210;
    his account of the expelled clergy, 222;
    supports a scheme of comprehension, 252;
    refuses the Indulgence, vii. 22;
    his _Autobiography_, vi. 157

  Bayeux
    surrendered to Henry V., iii. 33;
    northmen of, i. 155, 156

  Baylen, surrender of French troops at, viii. 186

  Bayonne submits to Charles VII., iii. 69

  Beachy Head, battle of, vii. 75

  Beaton, Cardinal, iv. 24, 33, 34

  Beauchamp, Edward Seymour Lord, v. 66, 121

  Beaufort, Edmund, Earl of Dorset, iii. 59;
    Regent of France, 60.
    _See_ Somerset

  Beaufort, Henry, Bishop of Winchester,
    chancellor, iii. 25, 43;
    struggle with Humphrey of Gloucester, 44;
    Cardinal and Legate, _ib._;
    supports Bedford, 55;
    retires, 59

  Beaufort, John. _See_ Somerset

  Beaufort, Margaret, iii. 165, 166, 172

  Beaujeu, Anne of, iii. 170, 171

  Beaumont, Henry I.'s palace of, at Oxford, i. 284, 307

  Bec, school of, i. 159

  Beckford, Alderman, vii. 256

  Bedford
    reduced by Eadward the Elder, i. 119;
    castle of, besieged by Hubert de Burgh, ii. 5

  Bedford, John, Duke of, iii. 38;
    regent of France, 39;
    alliance with Burgundy, _ib._;
    victories in France, _ib._, 40;
      difficulties, 44, 45;
    rule in Normandy, 55;
    death, 56

  Bedford, John Russell, first Earl of, iv. 47.
    _See_ Russell

  Bedford, Francis Russell, fourth Earl of, v. 358

  Bedford, William Russell, fifth Earl of, vi. 1

  Bedford, John Russell, fourth Duke of, vii. 242, 315, 317; viii. 4, 16

  Bedloe, William, vi. 297

  Beket, Gilbert, i. 225, 303

  Beket, Thomas, i. 225;
    agent of Archbishop Theobald, 226;
    chancellor, 232;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 235;
    rejects Constitutions of Clarendon, 236;
    at council of Northampton, 237;
    flight, _ib._;
    struggle with Henry II., 239;
    returns to England, 240;
    murdered, 241;
    canonized, _ib._;
    Henry's penance at his shrine, 255;
    his shrine desecrated, iii. 344

  Belesme, Robert of, i. 201, 202; ii. 47

  Bellahoe, battle of, iii. 329

  Bellasys, John, first Lord, vi. 256, 296; vii. 20

  Bellingham, Sir Edward, iv. 110

  Bellingham, John, viii. 196

  Benedict XII., Pope, ii. 218, 219

  Benedict Biscop, i. 79, 91, 92

  "Benedict of Peterborough," i. 174, 244

  "Benevolences"
    under Edward IV., iii. 152;
      declared illegal, 168;
    levied again, 171, 177;
    extension under Wolsey, 244, 251;
    resisted, 251, 252;
    again demanded, iv. 34;
    demanded by James I., v. 197, 198, 229;
    by Charles I., 253

  Bengal, Clive's successes in, vii. 261

  Bennet, Henry, vi. 221.
    _See_ Arlington

  Bensington, battle of, i. 98

  Bentham, Jeremy, viii. 195

  Beorn, nephew of Earl Godwine, i. 150, 151

  Beornwulf, king of Mercia, i. 102

  _Beowulf, Song of_, i. 24-26

  Bergerac taken by Henry of Derby, ii. 234

  Berkeley Castle, Edward II. murdered in, ii. 200

  Berkley, Sir Robert, v. 331, 351

  Berlin Decree, Napoleon's, viii. 176

  Bernicia
    conquered by the English, i. 52;
      by Eadwine, 62;
    recalls the line of Æthelfrith, 66;
    struggle against Penda, 71, 72

  Bernicians conquer Deira, i. 52, 53

  Bertha of Paris, wife of Æthelberht of Kent, i. 57

  Berwick
    stormed by Edward I., ii. 160, 161;
    Parliament at, 162;
    captured by Bruce, 194;
    by Edward III., ii. 211, 212;
    its peculiar political position, 212;
    recaptured by the Scots, 259, 263;
    Pacification at, v. 337

  Berwick, James FitzJames, Duke of, vii. 119, 134

  Beverley, peasant revolt at, ii. 324

  Bible,
    Wyclif's translation of, ii. 178, 343;
      Tyndale's, iii. 259-261;
        its circulation forbidden, 290;
    Coverdale's, 334, 335;
    misuse of, 344;
    its popularity, v. 82;
    literary influence, 83, 84;
    social influence, 84, 85;
    religious influence, 85;
    the Geneva, iv. 128;
    forbidden, v. 296

  "Bible-men," iii. 96

  Bidassoa, battle on the, viii. 202

  Bigod, Hugh, first Earl of Norfolk, i. 254

  Bigod, Roger, second Earl of Norfolk, i. 343

  Bigod, Roger, fourth Earl of Norfolk, ii. 45

  Bigod, Roger, fifth Earl of Norfolk, ii. 164-166

  Bigod, Hugh, Justiciar, ii. 60, 64, 66

  Bigorre restored to Edward III., ii. 266

  Billericay, villagers of, resist Richard II., ii. 332

  Bilney, Thomas, iii. 262

  Birinus, St., bishop in Wessex, i. 71

  Birmingham, its rise, vii. 196

  Bishoprics, new, erected under Henry VIII., iv. 13

  Bishops
    excluded from State offices, ii. 302;
    denounce Oldcastle and the Lollards, iii. 27;
    mode of appointment, 307, 308;
    position under Henry VIII., 308;
    under Edward VI., _ib._, iv. 60;
    proposal to exclude them from the House of Lords, v. 354, 355, 371;
      excluded, 377;
    restored, vi. 204;
    position under the Georges, vii. 171, 172;
    the Seven, 30, 31;
    in Scotland, their position under Knox, v. 137;
      abolished, 140;
      restored, 143, 166, 167

  "Bishops' War," the, v. 341-343

  _Black Book_, the, of 1536, iii. 310

  Black Death, the, ii. 252-254, 266, 288;
    its social results, 254, 255

  Blackfriars,
    Council at, ii. 339;
    trial of Henry VIII.'s divorce at, iii. 276;
    first public theatre at, v. 22

  Blacklow Hill, Gaveston beheaded on, ii. 190

  Blake, Robert,
    his defence of Taunton, vi. 78;
    commands the fleet against Rupert, _ib._;
    fights with Tromp and Ruyter, 86, 88;
    bombards Algiers, 116;
    victory at Santa Cruz, 124;
    outrage on his corpse, 201

  Blanchard, Alan, iii. 33, 34

  Blanche of Bourbon, wife of Pedro of Castille, ii. 282

  Blanche-Taque, ford of, ii. 236

  Blenheim, battle of, vii. 120-122

  Blois, Charles of, claimant of Britanny, ii. 233, 248

  Blondel, _De Reductione Normanniæ_, ii. 179

  "Bloody Circuit," the, vii. 10, 11

  Bloreheath, battle of, iii. 74

  Blount, Sir Thomas, ii. 200

  Blücher, Marshal, viii. 207, 210

  Boat, an Old English, found in Sleswick, i. 27, 28

  "Boatmen" of London, i. 308

  Bohemia, Protestant rising in, v. 216-219

  Bohun, Henry de, first Earl of Hereford, i. 343

  Bohun, Humfrey de, third Earl of Hereford, ii. 164, 166

  Bohun, Henry de, ii. 192

  Boleyn, Anne, iii. 267, 270, 273, 288;
    marries Henry VIII., 303;
    crowned, _ib._;
    beheaded, 323

  Boleyn, George, iii. 267

  Boleyn, Sir Thomas, iii. 267, 268.
    _See_ Wiltshire

  Bolinbroke, Roger, iii. 58

  Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Viscount (_see_ St. John), vii. 140;
    his scheme of a treaty of commerce, 142;
    rivalry with Harley, 143;
    his Schism Bill, _ib._;
    appoints Jacobites to office, 145;
    flies to the Pretender, 168;
      becomes his Secretary of State, 183;
    returns to England, 204;
    withdraws again, _ib._

  Bologna, University of, i. 282

  Bombay ceded to England, vi. 192; vii. 232

  Boniface, St., letters of, i. 4

  Boniface VIII., Pope, ii. 163, 170, 217, 224

  Boniface of Savoy, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 32, 72

  Bonner, Bishop of London, iv. 74, 89, 95, 97;
    sets up Bibles in St. Paul's, v. 82

  Bordeaux,
    Parliament of Gascony at, ii. 285;
    Richard II. born at, 306;
    surrenders to Charles VII., iii. 68, 71

  Born, Bertrand de, i. 263

  Borodino, battle of, viii. 200

  Boroughbridge, battle of, ii. 195

  Boroughs,
    their developement after Norman Conquest, i. 177;
    "farm" of, ii. 152;
    representation in Parliament, 73, 121, 152-154;
    reluctance to attend, 155;
    restriction of franchise in, iii. 99-101;
    new, created under the Tudors, iv. 234, 235;
    change in character of their representatives, 234, 235;
    qualification of members for, 235;
    the Five, i. 117, 120.
    _See_ Towns

  Borough-moot, the, i. 296

  Boscawen, Admiral, vii. 266

  Boston, outrage of barons on merchants at, ii. 116

  Boston (Massachusetts),
    its foundation, v. 310, 311;
    occupied by British troops, viii. 14;
    tea-riots at, 17, 18;
    siege of, 22, 23

  Bosworth Field, battle of, iii. 172

  Bothwell, James Hepburn, Earl of, iv. 226, 229;
    plots against Darnley, 242, 243;
    contrives his death, 244;
    charged with murder, _ib._;
    marries Mary, 245;
    flies, 246

  Boulogne
    captured by Henry VIII., iv. 30;
    restored to France, 33, 57;
    Napoleon's camp at, viii. 170, 171

  Bourbon, Cardinal of, iv. 348, 369, 372

  Bourbon, Charles, Duke of, iii. 246, 247, 269

  Bouvines,
    battle of, i. 342;
    besieged by Flemings, ii. 234

  Bow, the English, ii. 241, 242

  Boxley, miraculous rood at, iii. 343

  Boyle, Robert, vi. 166

  Boyne, battle of the, vii. 71

  "Boys," the, vii. 204, 226, 249

  Brabant, John III., Duke of, ii. 227, 244

  Brabant, John IV., Duke of, iii. 42, 43, 45

  Brackley, barons meet at, i. 346

  Braddock, General, vii. 245

  Bradford on Avon, battle of, i. 87

  Bradford, John, iv. 132

  Bradshaw, John, vi. 66, 91, 101;
    outrage on his corpse, 201

  Bradwardine, Thomas, ii. 276

  Bramber, Sir Nicholas, ii. 353

  Bramham Moor, battle of, iii. 19

  Brandywine, battle of, viii. 25

  Braose, William de, i. 332

  Breauté, Faukes de, ii. 4, 5

  Brecknock
    stormed by Æthelflæd, i. 118;
    Mortimer routed at, ii. 88

  Breda,
    Declaration of, vi. 152;
    Treaty of, 241, 243, 247

  Breitenfeld, battle of, v. 275

  Bremen, quarrel about, vii. 188, 189

  Brentford captured by Prince Rupert, vi. 3

  Breslau, treaty of, vii. 223

  Brest
    held by England, ii. 316;
    restored to Britanny, 368

  Brétigny, peace of, ii. 266

  Brewer or Briwere, William, i. 345; ii. 6

  Brézé, Pierre de, iii. 121

  Bribery, parliamentary, its beginnings, vi. 285, 300

  Brice's day, St., massacre of, i. 141

  Bridgeman, Sir Orlando, vi. 184

  Bridgewater, John Egerton, first Earl of, v. 305

  Bridgewater, Francis Egerton, third Duke of, viii. 55

  Brigham, treaty of, ii. 135

  Brihtnoth, ealdorman of East-Anglia, i. 139

  Brindley, James, viii. 55, 56

  Bristol,
    its slave-trade, i. 250;
    surrender to Henry of Lancaster, iii. 18;
    Protestant martyrs at, iv. 96;
    trade with Ireland, 282;
    surrender to Rupert, vi. 12;
    to the Parliament, 41;
    prosperity under Walpole, vii. 196

  Bristol, George Digby, second Earl of, vi. 221

  Britain,
    its condition under the Romans, i. 29, 30;
    legions withdrawn from, 31;
    attacked by Picts, Scots and Saxons, _ib._;
    becomes England, 39, 138;
    English conquest of, its peculiar character, 39-44;
    authorities for, 3

  Britain, Great, United Kingdom of, vii. 128

  Britanny
    submits to William the Conqueror, i. 158;
    war of succession in, ii. 233, 248;
    coast harried by an English fleet, iii. 16;
    relations with France and England, 166, 171, 179, 180

  Britanny, Anne of, iii. 179, 180

  Britanny, John, Duke of, ii. 315

  Britons
    defeated by Jutes in Kent, i. 33;
    their stubborn resistance, 40-42;
    alliance with Penda, 66;
    of Cumbria, defeated by Æthelfrith, 60, 61;
      by Ecgfrith, 87;
    of Strathclyde, their struggle with Æthelfrith, 60;
    submit to Eadward the Elder, 119

  Broc, Ranulf de, i. 241

  Broglie, General, vii. 264

  Brooke, Robert Greville, second Lord, v. 320, 354; vi. 7

  Brooklyn, battle of, viii. 24

  Brothers of the Pen, iii. 154

  Brown, Robert, v. 117

  Brown, William, martyr under Mary, iv. 95

  Browne, Archbishop of Dublin, iii. 341, 342; iv. 62, 63

  Browne, William, his _Pastorals_, v. 304

  Brownists, v. 117, 308

  Bruce, David, ii. 206;
    king of Scotland, 210;
    driven out, 211, 212;
    goes to France, 213;
    returns, 214, 229;
    prisoner, 243;
    released, 263;
    dies, 286

  Bruce, Edward, ii. 376

  Bruce, Robert, claimant of Scotland, ii. 136

  Bruce, Robert (Earl of Carrick), ii. 161, 170

  Bruce, Robert, grandson of the claimant, ii. 172;
    kills Comyn of Badenoch, 173;
    crowned, _ib._;
    put to flight, 174;
    character and adventures, 183, 184;
    his successes, 191-194;
    disabled by leprosy, 204;
    acknowledged as king by England, 206;
    dies, 210

  Bruges,
    negotiations at, ii. 303;
    gild of St. John at, iii. 154;
    Caxton at, 155

  Brunanburh, battle of, i. 120

  Brune, General, viii. 140

  Brunswick, Charles William, Duke of, viii. 101

  Brunswick, Ferdinand, Prince of, vii. 263, 264, 302

  _Brut, Chronicle of the_, Caxton's edition of, iii. 157

  _Brut y Tywysogion_, i. 7

  Brynglas, battle of, iii. 11, 13

  Buchan, Isabel, Countess of, ii. 173

  Buchan, constable of, iii. 39

  Buchanan, George, v. 124

  Buckingham, Henry Stafford, Duke of, iii. 163, 164, 166-168

  Buckingham, Edward Stafford, Duke of, iii. 242

  Buckingham, George Villiers, first Duke of (_see_ Villiers), v. 208;
    relations with Bacon, 222, 225;
    goes with Charles to Madrid, 232;
      returns, 233;
    his mastery over James, 235;
    policy, 236-238;
    relations with Charles I., 244;
    failure of his plans, 247;
    impeached, 250;
    urges the forced loan, 255;
    expedition to La Rochelle, 259;
    slain, 265

  Buckingham, George Villiers, second Duke of, vi. 163, 165;
    in Cabal ministry, 245, 253;
    negotiations with Lewis, 258;
    dismissed, 281;
    committed to the Tower, 288

  Bulmer, Lady, iii. 325

  Bungay, Friar, iii. 97

  Bunker's Hill, battle of, viii. 22

  Bunyan, John, v. 103, 104; vi. 262-265;
    his _Pilgrim's Progress_, 265-267;
    refuses the Indulgence, vii. 22

  Buonaparte, Jerome, viii. 185

  Buonaparte, Joseph, viii. 185, 186, 200

  Buonaparte, Louis, viii. 185

  Buonaparte, Napoleon, viii. 109, 113;
    campaign in Italy, 122, 123, 125;
    marches on Vienna, 125;
    designs on India, 131;
    conquers Malta and Egypt, 132;
    campaign in Syria, 141;
    victory at Aboukir, _ib._;
    First Consul, 142;
    victory at Marengo, _ib._;
    his policy and aims, 146, 147, 158, 168-170.
    _See_ Napoleon

  Burdett, Sir Francis, viii. 195

  Burford, battle of, i. 96

  Burgh, Hubert de, ii. 2-5, 29, 30

  Burgh-upon-Sands, Edward I. dies at, ii. 174

  "Burghers," i. 315

  Burgos, siege of, viii. 200

  Burgoyne, General, viii. 25, 26

  Burgundy, Philip I., Duke of, ii. 265

  Burgundy, Philip II., Duke of, ii. 286; iii. 5, 6, 12, 14

  Burgundy, Philip III., Duke of,
    alliance with Henry V., iii. 35;
    relations with Brabant, 42, 43, 45;
    withdraws his troops from siege of Orleans, 46;
    sells Jeanne d'Arc to the English, 53;
    joins Charles VII., 56, 122;
    cedes Picardy to Lewis XI., 122;
    mediates between Lewis and Edward, _ib._;
    dies, 130

  Burgundy, John, Duke of, iii. 16, 17;
    relations with England and France, 23, 24, 32;
    assassinated, 35

  Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Duke of. _See_ Charles

  Burgundy, Mary of, iii. 146, 147, 150, 151, 170

  "Burh," the old English, i. 294

  Burke, Edmund, vii. 332-337;
    supports the Declaratory Act, 338;
    attacks the Chatham ministry, 341;
    his scheme for reform of the constituencies, viii. 10;
    his proposals for conciliating America rejected, 20;
    his bill of Economical Reform, 64, 76;
    refuses office under Shelburne, 65;
    attitude towards the French Revolution, 87, 89;
    share in the impeachment of Hastings, 90;
    _Reflections_, _ib._;
    quarrel with Fox, 92, 93;
    _Appeal from the new to the old Whigs_, 93;
    supports the government against France, 104;
    _Letters on a Regicide Peace_, 116;
    death, 126

  Burleigh, William Cecil, Lord (_see_ Cecil), iv. 352;
    protests against expulsion of Puritan clergy, 342;
    his tract on _The Execution of Justice_, 5;
    his ill-will to Spenser, v. 12;
    death, 63

  Burley, Sir Simon, ii. 353

  Burnet, Gilbert, vi. 169;
    bishop of Salisbury, vii. 65;
    his _History of his own Time_, vi. 157

  Burns, Robert, viii. 46

  _Burton, Annals of_, i. 273

  Burton, John, v. 329

  Burton, Thomas, his _Diary_, v. 37

  Busaco, battle of, viii. 190

  Bute, John Stuart, third Earl of, vii. 302, 303;
    Prime Minister, 306;
    policy towards America, 310, 311;
    fall, 314

  Butler, Joseph, vi. 169

  Butler, Samuel, vi. 162

  Butler, the king's, origin of his office, i. 132

  Buttington, battle of, i. 117

  Byng, Admiral, vii. 248

  Byron, Commodore, vii. 277


  "Cabal," the, vi. 246, 303

  Cabinet, the, its origin, vi. 303

  Cabot, Sebastian, iii. 189; iv. 283, 330

  Cade, John, iii. 64-67

  Cadiz,
    Drake's expedition to, iv. 355;
    English descents on, v. 60, 247;
    blockaded by an English fleet, vii. 223

  Cadwallon, king of the Britons, i. 66, 67

  Cædmon, i. 77, 78

  Caen
    sacked by Edward III., ii. 235;
    stormed by Henry V., iii. 33;
    university at, 55

  Caermarthen besieged by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 14

  Caernarvon, castle built at, ii. 121

  Cahors, bankers of, ii. 107, 130

  Calabria, John, Duke of, iii. 126

  Calais
    besieged by Edward III., ii. 243;
      surrenders, 244;
    the six burgesses, 245-247;
    ceded to Edward, 266;
    threatened by the French, iii. 69, 70;
    Warwick repulsed from, 135;
    won by Guise, iv. 108;
    restored to France, 158

  Calamy, Edmund, v. 354; vi. 157

  Calcutta,
    its origin, vii. 232;
    the Black Hole of, 261

  Calvin, John, iv. 119, 123, 126

  Calvinism,
    system of, iv. 123-126;
    its political tendency, 171;
    in Scotland, accepted by Parliament, 187;
    its establishment sanctioned by Mary Stuart, 245;
    its growth in England, v. 86-89.
    _See_ Presbyterianism

  Calvinists,
    German, their position after Peace of Passau, v. 176, 177;
    Scotch, suppress Catholicism by force, iv. 218

  Cambray
    occupied by Philip VI. of France, ii. 219;
    besieged by Edward III., 220, 228;
    negotiations at, iv. 145;
    League of, iii. 206;
    treaty of, 234

  Cambridge, University of,
    its charters burnt by townsfolk, ii. 324;
    the New Learning at, iii. 201;
    Erasmus at, _ib._, 212, 213;
    resistance to benevolences at, 251;
    Lutherans at, 262;
    forced to approve Henry VIII.'s divorce, 292;
    foreign Protestants at, iv. 51;
    James II.'s dealings with, vii. 24

  Cambridge, Edmund, first Earl of, ii. 287.
    _See_ York

  Cambridge, Richard, second Earl of, iii. 30, 56, 57

  Cambridge, Richard, third Earl of. _See_ York

  Camden, Charles Pratt, first Lord, vii. 340; viii. 15

  Camden, John Jeffreys Pratt, second Earl, viii. 120.

  Camden, William, v. 4;
    his _Life of Elizabeth_, iv. 3.

  Campeggio, Cardinal, iii. 272, 274, 277

  Camperdown, battle of, viii. 127

  Campian, Edmund, iv. 318, 320

  Campo Formio, treaty of, viii. 125

  Camulodunum (Colchester) reduced by East Saxons, i. 35

  Canada,
    French settlement in, vii. 242;
    Montcalm in, 244;
    conquered by the English, 269;
    ceded to England, 307;
    attacked by America, viii. 23, 203, 204;
    self-government granted to, 92

  Canals, introduction of, viii. 55, 56

  Canning, George, viii. 71;
    Foreign Secretary, 180;
    his dealings with Denmark, _ib._;
    Orders in Council, 181;
    supports rising in Spain, 186, 187;
    quarrel with Castlereagh, 188, 189;
    resigns, 189;
    presses for Catholic emancipation, 195

  Canons
    of 1604, v. 156;
    Scotch, of 1636, 327

  Canterbury, i. 57;
    archbishopric founded at, 59;
    becomes ecclesiastical centre of England, 83;
    sacked by northmen, 142;
    Theodore's school at, 92;
    historians of, 243;
    gild of Thanes at, 299;
    Walloon refugees at, iv. 51;
    Protestant martyrs in, 96;
    Church of Huguenots at, 306

  Cape of Good Hope ceded to England, viii. 112

  Capel, Arthur, first Lord, vi. 72

  Capel, Sir Henry, vi. 301

  Capuchins, Order of, founded, iv. 101

  Caradoc of Lancarvan, i. 7

  Caraffa, Cardinal, iv. 31, 100, 101.
    _See_ Paul IV.

  Carcassonne sacked by the Black Prince, ii. 260

  Cardigan,
    Norman conquest of, ii. 48;
    royal garrisons driven from, 55

  Carew, Sir Peter, iv. 82

  Carham, battle at, i. 146

  Carisbrook Castle, Charles I. prisoner at, vi. 59

  Carlisle
    becomes English, i. 87;
    granted to see of Lindisfarne, 88;
    ceded to David of Scotland, 217;
    invested by the Scots, ii. 160;
    Mary Stuart at, iv. 261

  Carlisle, Merks, deposed Bishop of, iii. 8

  Carlisle, Charles Howard, first Earl of, vi. 280

  Carlos, Don, son of Philip II. of Spain, iv. 213, 221

  Carlowitz, treaty of, vii. 97

  Carnot, Lazare, viii. 122

  Carolina, Colony of, vi. 259; vii. 236

  Caroline of Anspach, wife of George II., vii. 200, 203

  Carpenter, General, vii. 183

  Carr, Robert. _See_ Rochester, Somerset

  Carteret, John, second Lord, vii. 222, 223.
    _See_ Granville

  Carthagena, Vernon's defeat at, vii. 221

  Cartwright, Thomas, iv. 294-296, 342; v. 58, 117

  Carucage, i. 350

  Casale seized by Lewis XIV., vi. 335

  Cashel, synod at, i. 253

  Cassel, battles of, ii. 216; vi. 289

  Cassano, battle of, viii. 139

  Castille, Constance of, second wife of John of Gaunt, ii. 287, 302

  Castillon, Talbot defeated at, iii. 71

  Castlebar, battle of, viii. 130

  Castlemaine, Barbara Palmer, Countess of, vi. 221, 272; vii. 108.
    _See_ Cleveland.

  Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, Viscount,
    arranges the union with Ireland, viii. 153;
    quarrel with Canning, 188, 189;
    Foreign Secretary, 197

  Cateau-Cambrésis, treaty of, iv. 155, 158, 159, 171

  Catesby, Robert, v. 157, 158.

  Catharine of Aragon
    marries Arthur Tudor, iii. 186, 187;
    betrothed to Henry, 187, 188;
    marries him, 207;
    opposes the divorce, 269, 270, 276;
    banished from the palace, 298;
    her marriage annulled by Convocation, 303;
    confirmed by Pope and Cardinals, 304

  Catharine of Braganza, wife of Charles II., vi. 192

  Catharine of France, wife of Henry V., iii. 24, 35, 165

  Catharine of Medicis,
    queen-regent of France, iv. 188;
    her policy towards the Huguenots, 206-208;
    treaty with them, 216, 217;
    with England, 219;
    meeting with Alva, 225;
    negotiates with Elizabeth, 297;
    unites with the Guises against the Huguenots, 299;
    resumes her policy of toleration, 301

  Catharine II., Empress of Russia viii. 84, 85, 95

  Catholics, English,
    their position under Elizabeth, iv. 149, 195, 196;
    forbidden to join in Common Prayer, 214;
    fined for recusancy, _ib._;
    attitude towards Mary Stuart, 220;
    their scheme for the succession, _ib._, 221;
    plot against Elizabeth, 266, 267;
      rise, 268;
      defeated, 269;
    attitude towards the Bull of Deposition, 270;
    persecution of, 308, 309, 319-322;
    new plots, 350;
    Philip's and Allen's hopes of, 354;
    their loyalty, 358, 359;
    materials for their history, 5;
    James I. gives them relief, v. 150;
      begins to persecute them, 156, 157;
    their plots, 157-159;
    position under Charles II., vi. 185, 186, 220, 291, 293;
    excluded from Parliament, 297;
    admitted to office, etc., by James II., vii. 14, 15;
    included in his Declaration of Indulgence, 22;
    position under Walpole, 198;
    projects for their emancipation, viii. 179, 195, 196;
    Confederate, v. 366; vi. 15, 16;
    Irish, Charles I.'s and Wentworth's dealings with, v. 364;
    their condition in eighteenth century, viii. 33, 34, 117;
    plans for their emancipation, 119, 120, 152-155

  Catinat, Marshal, vii. 75

  Cavaliers, v. 372

  Cavendish, William, Lord,
    head of the Country party, vi. 272;
    takes office, 300;
    opposes the Exclusion Bill, 308;
    resigns, 315.
    _See_ Devonshire.

  Cavendish's _Life of Wolsey_, iii. 83

  Caxton, William, iii. 155-162

  Ceadda or Chad, St., i. 73

  Ceawlin, king of Wessex, i. 56

  Cecil, Richard, viii. 47

  Cecil, Robert,
    his rivalry with Essex, v. 63;
    treasurer, 172, 173;
    proposes the "great contract," 179;
    arranges the marriage of Princess Elizabeth, 210;
    dies, 185, 211

  Cecil, William, iv. 139-141;
    his political standpoint, 141-143, 150;
    advises Elizabeth to announce her accession to the Pope, 155;
    his share in her Scottish policy, 173, 176, 259;
    policy in Ireland, 240;
    demands a Protestant alliance and the surrender of Mary, 263;
    dealings with Norfolk, 266, 274.
    _See_ Burleigh

  Cedd, brother of Ceadda, i. 74

  Centwine, king of Wessex, i. 89

  Cenwealh, king of Wessex, i. 87

  Cenwulf, king of Mercia, i. 98, 101

  Ceolfrid, founder of Jarrow, i. 91

  Ceolred, king of Mercia, i. 90

  Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria, i. 91

  Ceorl, the English, i. 11

  Cerdic, king of the West Saxons, i. 34, 49

  Ceylon acquired by England, viii. 112

  Chad, St. _See_ Ceadda

  Chalgrove Field, fight at, vi. 10

  Châlus, Richard I. slain at, i. 267

  Champeaux, William of, i. 285

  Chancellor, Richard, iv. 282

  Chancellor, the, i. 206;
    his equitable jurisdiction, 256; ii. 112, 113;
    right of appointing, claimed for Great Council, ii. 38;
    made responsible to Permanent Council, 61;
    his woolsack, 226;
    of an university, i. 291, 292

  Chancery, Court of, ii. 113

  Chandos, Sir John, ii. 249

  Chapel, the Royal, clerks of, i. 206

  Chapman, George, v. 3, 42

  Charford, battle of, i. 34

  Charles (I.), son of James I.,
    schemes for his marriage, v. 211-214, 227, 230;
    goes to Madrid, 231, 232;
    returns, 233;
    his character, 234;
    marriage, 238, 241;
    king, 242;
    his policy, 243-245;
    quarrel with Parliament of 1625, 246, 247;
    with Parliament of 1626, 249, 250, 253;
    demands a benevolence, 253;
    levies a forced loan, 254;
    dismisses Crewe, _ib._;
    relations with France, 256-258;
    with the Parliament of 1628, 260-263;
    defends Buckingham, 264;
    rejects the Avowal, 269;
    dissolves Parliament again, 270, 272;
    his plans of personal government, 273;
    peace policy, 274, 275;
    relations with Gustavus Adolphus, 275, 276;
    financial measures, 276-280;
    grants a charter to Massachusetts, 311;
    position in 1635, 315, 316;
    consults the judges about ship-money, 323;
    dealings with Scotland, 325-328, 330-334;
    gathers an army, 337;
    pacification with the Scots, _ib._;
    summons Wentworth home, 338;
    relations with Richelieu, _ib._, 339;
    negotiates with the Scots, 342;
    summons Parliament again, 343;
    relations with Montrose, 359;
    assents to Strafford's attainder, 361;
    to perpetuation of the Parliament, 362;
    goes to Scotland, 363;
    his promises to the Irish, 364;
    returns to London, 367;
    attempt to seize the five members, 373-375;
    withdraws from London, 376;
    levies forces by commissions of array, 377;
    shut out from Hull, 378;
    goes to York, _ib._;
    raises his standard at Nottingham, vi. 2;
    goes to Shrewsbury, _ib._;
    defeated at Edgehill, 3;
    goes to Oxford, _ib._;
    besieges Gloucester, 13;
    negotiations in Ireland, 15, 16;
    successes in 1644, 22;
    marches on London, 23;
    defeated at Newbury, 24;
    returns to Oxford, _ib._;
    negotiates with the Parliament, 38;
    storms Leicester and relieves Chester, _ib._;
    routed at Naseby, 40, 41;
    treaty with the Irish, 42;
    goes to the Scotch camp, 46;
    refuses the Parliament's terms, 48;
      given up to it by the Scots, 49;
    seized by the army, 53;
    negotiates with the army, 55-57;
    escapes, 58;
    recaptured, 59;
    negotiates with parliament and the Scots, _ib._, 63;
    again seized by the army, 65;
    trial, 67;
    death, 68;
    authorities for his reign, v. 72

  Charles II.
    recognized by Holland as king of England, vi. 70;
    proclaimed in Scotland, 71;
    invited to Ireland, _ib._;
    his experiences in Scotland, 82;
    crowned at Scone, _ib._;
    invades England, 83;
    defeated at Worcester, 84;
    flies to France, _ib._;
    issues a declaration from Breda, 152;
    returns to England, _ib._;
    his scientific tastes, 165;
    character, 173-177;
    policy, 177-180;
    forms an army, 182, 183;
    his position in England, 184;
    ecclesiastical aims, 185, 186;
    foreign relations, 187, 192;
    marriage, 192;
    first ministry, 193;
    dealings with the regicides, 195;
    relations with Clarendon, 213-215, 221;
    issues a Declaration of Indulgence, 219;
    policy in Holland, 228, 229;
    refuses to dissolve Parliament, 241, 254;
    banishes Clarendon, 243;
    his new ministry, 245;
    attitude towards toleration, 252, 259;
    project for establishing Catholicism, 256;
    treaties with Lewis, 257, 258;
    issues second Declaration of Indulgence, 262;
      withdraws it, 273;
    relations with Shaftesbury, 275;
    makes peace with the Dutch, 281;
    makes another treaty with Lewis, 287;
    negotiations with Lewis, 291;
    position after peace of Nimeguen, _ib._, 293;
    attitude during the Popish plot. 297;
    plan for the succession of James, 307;
    struggle with Shaftesbury, 311-313, 321;
    recalls James, 315;
    resists the Exclusion, 321;
    dissolves the Parliament, 322;
    turns again to France, _ib._, 323;
    action in 1681, 323, 324;
    persecutes Nonconformists, recalls James, and arrests Monmouth, 335;
    his triumph, vii. 1;
    policy in his last years, 2;
    dealings with the towns, 3;
    increases his Guards, 4;
    sickness, _ib._;
    death, 5;
    authorities for his reign, vi. 157, 158

  Charles IV., emperor, ii. 236, 348

  Charles (V.), son of Philip of Austria, iii. 208;
    relations with England and France, 232, 233;
    king of Spain, 234;
    treaties with Francis I., _ib._;
    emperor, 240;
    visits England, 241;
    betrothed to Mary, 242;
    war with Francis, _ib._;
    league with Henry VIII. and the Pope, 243;
    successes in Italy, 244, 248, 250;
    treachery to Henry and Wolsey, 248, 249;
    new alliance with Henry, 250;
    expels Luther, 254;
    marriage, 266;
    relations with Lutherans, 275;
    proposes alliance with France against Henry, 336;
    his religious policy, iv. 18, 19;
    proposes a general council, 20;
    defeated in Hungary and Algiers, 24;
    attacked by Francis, _ib._;
    alliance with Henry, 27;
    failure of his plans of reunion, 30-32;
    treaty with France, 32;
    attacks the League of Schmalkald, 36;
    victory at Muhlberg, 50;
    policy towards Protestants, 51;
      persecutes them, 58;
    ruin of his plans, 65;
    treaty with Lutherans, _ib._;
    relations with Mary Tudor, 79, 80;
    abdicates, 98

  Charles III., king of Spain, vii. 126, 131;
    emperor (Charles VI.) 142, 199, 200, 220

  Charles VII., emperor, vii. 223, 225

  Charles IV., king of France, ii. 197, 198, 208

  Charles (V.) of France, duke of Normandy, ii. 264, 265;
    king, 281, 282, 285, 288

  Charles VI., king of France, iii. 5, 26, 35, 39

  Charles (VII.), Dauphin, iii. 26, 39, 46, 48;
    crowned, 52;
    received in Paris, 56;
    Le Mans surrendered to, 62;
    regains Normandy, _ib._;
    conquers Guienne, 68, 69

  Charles VIII., king of France, iii. 170;
    annexes Britanny, 179, 180;
    treaty with Henry VIII., 180;
    invades Italy, 186, 206

  Charles IX., king of France, iv. 188, 298, 299, 301

  Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, ii. 258, 259

  Charles II., king of Spain, vii. 90, 98

  Charles IV., king of Spain, viii. 185

  Charles XII., king of Sweden, vii. 183, 188, 189

  Charles the Bald, king of the West Franks, i. 209.

  Charles the Simple, king of the West Franks, i. 155

  Charles of Blois. _See_ Blois

  Charles the Bold, Count of Charolais, iii. 122, 125, 127, 128;
    duke of Burgundy, 130;
    league with Edward, _ib._;
    marries Margaret of York, 131;
    negotiates with the Lancastrians, 140;
    helps Edward, 141;
    attacks Lewis again, 145;
    his German possessions, 146;
    alliance with the emperor, _ib._, 147;
    with England, 148;
    besieges Neuss, _ib._, 149;
    slain, 150

  Charlestown, capture of, viii. 32

  Charmouth, battle of, i. 103

  Charter of Henry I., i. 198, 340, 341;
    of Stephen, 216;
    the Great, 348-352;
    provisions for its execution, 353;
    annulled by the Pope, 354;
    reissued under Henry III., ii. 1, 3;
    Langton's care for, 6;
    confirmed by Henry, _ib._, 34;
    Archbishop Peckham's appeal to, 118;
    confirmed by Edward I., 165, 166, 170;
    of the Forest, 165, 166, 170

  Charter-house, the, in London, ii. 253;
    its martyrs, iii. 320; v. 77

  Château-Gaillard, i. 265, 266

  Châtillon, Coligni, Cardinal of, iv. 207

  Chatham, William Pitt, first earl of (_see_ Pitt), vii. 340, 341;
    withdraws from public life, viii. 3;
      from the ministry, 6;
    proposes reform of the House of Commons, 9;
    strives to avert war with America, 20, 26;
    recalled to office, 29;
    death, 30

  Chaucer, Geoffrey,
    his early life, ii. 358, 359;
    early poems, 359-361;
    offices, person, temper, 362, 363;
    home at Westminster, 366;
    _Canterbury Tales_, 361, 363-366;
      Caxton's edition of, iii. 157

  Chauntries, suppression of, iv. 34, 54

  Cheke, Sir John, iv. 134

  Cherbourg,
    Henry of Lancaster at, ii. 259, 260;
    held by England, 316;
    surrendered to Navarre, 368;
    to Charles VII., iii. 62

  Cheshire, royalist rising in, vi. 150

  Chester,
    march of the West Saxons on, i. 38, 56;
    conquered by Æthelfrith, 60, 61;
    by William, 169;
    raid of Llewelyn ap Gruffydd on, ii. 85;
    blockade of, vi. 38

  Chester, Ranulf, earl of, i. 345, 347; ii. 5

  Chesterfield, defeat of the Disinherited at, ii. 87

  Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, fourth earl of, vii. 170, 203,
      226, 249

  "Chevy Chase," iii. 182

  Chichester, Stephen Berksted, Bishop of, ii. 71

  Chichester, Adam Moleyns, Bishop of, murdered, iii. 63

  Chichester, Sir Arthur, v. 287, 288

  Child, Sir Josiah, vi. 169

  Chili conquered by Spain, iv. 329

  Chillingworth, William, vi. 134-137

  Chinon,
    Henry II. dies at, i. 258;
    Charles VII. and Jeanne d'Arc at, iii. 48

  Chippenham, northmen at, i. 106

  Chippewa, battle of, viii. 204

  Chivalry, influence of, ii. 94

  Chotusitz, battle of, vii. 223

  "Christian Brethren," iii. 262

  Christianity
    brought to England, i. 57;
    progress in Kent, Essex, and East Anglia, 59;
    reaction against, 65;
    its struggle with heathenism, _ib._, 66, 70-73

  Christina, sister of Eadgar the Ætheling, i. 199

  _Chronica Angliæ_, ii. 177

  _Chronicle, the English_, i. 3-6, 115, 173, 203, 221, 278

  _Chronicle of Queen Jane_, iv. 3

  _Chronicon Scotorum_, i. 8

  Church, English,
    its foundation, i. 57-59;
    organized by Theodore, 81-84;
    its parish system, 84;
    share in resistance to the Danes, 145;
    William the Conqueror's dealings with, 187, 188;
    the Red King's, 193;
    decline of its political influence, 222;
    revival during the anarchy, 224;
    Henry II.'s dealings with, 235-237, 253;
    relation of universities to, 292;
    condition in early thirteenth century, ii. 7, 8;
    its political teaching, 23;
    beginnings of resistance to the Papacy, 27;
    Edward I.'s policy towards, 118, 119;
    papal demands on its revenues, etc., 222, 223;
    under Edward III., relations with the Papacy, 273-275;
    its wealth, 294;
    despoiled by Pope and King, 296;
    threatened in Parliament, 301;
    proposals to confiscate its property, iii. 15, 21;
    condition during Wars of the Roses, 96, 97;
    reform of, demanded by Parliament, 290;
    Henry VIII.'s dealings with, 296, 297, 301, 302;
    Thomas Cromwell's dealings with, 295, 310-312;
    spoliation of, under Henry VIII., iv. 13;
    condition at Cromwell's fall, 14, 15;
    spoliation under Edward VI., 66;
    demands for restoration of its property, 102, 103;
    Hooker's influence on, v. 113;
    Puritan demands for its reform, 118;
    the Long Parliament's dealings with, 352-355;
    Oliver Cromwell's dealings with, vi. 111;
    settlement after the Restoration, 199, 208-210;
    James II.'s dealings with, vii. 18, 19, 24;
    effects of the Revolution on, 63-66;
    condition under the Georges, 169-172;
    revival in, 205-211; viii. 46;
    Irish, its missionary zeal, i. 68, 69;
    later character, i. 80;
    relations with the English Church, 250;
    English and Irish divisions, iii. 338, 339;
    accepts the King's Supremacy, 339, 340;
    rejects religious change, 341;
    condition under Elizabeth, iv. 314, 315;
    Roman, its revival under Paul IV., iv. 99;
    position at the accession of Pius V., 249;
    of Scotland, Presbyterian. _See_ Kirk

  Churchill, Arabella, vii. 107, 108

  Churchill, John, vii. 107-109;
    his victory at Sedgemoor, 11, 109;
    deserts James II., 42.
    _See_ Marlborough.

  Cinque Ports
    support party of Montfort, ii. 70, 85, 86;
    their commerce, iv. 279;
    Flemish exiles in, 305, 323;
    mariners of, their victory off Dover, ii. 3;
    their fights with the French, 141, 142; iii. 7

  Cissa, king of the South Saxons, i. 34

  Cistercians
    settle in England, i. 222;
    their wool, 350; ii. 107

  Ciudad Rodrigo stormed, viii. 199

  Clair-on-Epte, treaty of, i. 155

  Clare submits to the English, iii. 329

  Clare, Richard, first Earl of, ii. 48

  Clare, Richard, sixth Earl of, i. 343

  Clare, Richard of (Strongbow), i. 252

  Clarence, George, Duke of,
    intrigues with Warwick, iii. 133;
    marries his daughter, 134;
    revolts, _ib._, 135;
    relations with Edward and Warwick, 137, 138, 141, 142;
    impeachment and death, 163

  Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, ii. 264, 293, 302

  Clarence, Thomas, Duke of, iii. 24, 26, 36

  Clarendon, Assize of, i. 238;
    Constitutions of, 235;
    Council of, _ib._

  Clarendon, Edward Hyde, first Earl of (_see_ Hyde), vi. 193;
    Lord Chancellor, _ib._, 205;
    his political theory, 205-207;
    his foreign policy, 213-215;
    relations with Charles II., 221;
    advises a dissolution, 241;
    banished, 243;
    his _History of the Rebellion_, v. 72;
    _Life_, vi. 157

  Clarendon, Edward Hyde, second Earl of, vii. 20, 76

  Clark, John, iii. 262

  Clarkson, Thomas, viii. 48

  Clement IV., Pope, ii. 18

  Clement V., Pope, ii. 172

  Clement VI., Pope, ii. 229, 236

  Clement VII., Pope, iii. 249;
    prisoner, 269;
    escapes, 272;
    dealings with Henry VIII.'s divorce, 271, 272, 274, 275, 277, 278;
    threatens Henry with excommunication, 302;
    annuls Cranmer's proceedings, 304;
    refuses to hold a Council, iv. 20

  Clement VIII., Pope, iv. 372

  Clément, Jacques, iv. 368

  Clergy, their privileges, i. 234;
    attacked by Henry II., 235-237;
    papal demands on, ii. 27, 28, 42, 222;
    relations with Edward I., 118, 120, 163;
    summoned to Parliament, 157;
      cease to attend, 158;
    strife of regular and secular, 295;
    bondage to Pope and king, _ib._, 296;
    decay of their moral influence, 296, 297;
    excluded from state offices, 302;
    attacked by John of Gaunt and Wyclif, 308;
    decline of their influence, iii. 96, 97;
    Wolsey's struggle with, 246;
    Thomas Cromwell's policy towards, 295;
    charged with breach of Præmunire, 296;
      submission, 297;
    their enslavement, 301, 302, 311, 312;
    allowed to marry, iv. 49;
    their five articles of 1559, 156, 157;
    Elizabeth's dealings with, 161, 162;
    their position and character in her reign, 302-304;
    growth of Puritanism among, 340; v. 89, 90;
    required to subscribe all the Articles, 156;
    struggle with James II., vii. 18, 19, 24, 30;
    condition under the Georges, 171, 172;
    character in the eighteenth century, viii. 47;
    Puritan, expelled, iv. 342; v. 156;
    Laud's dealings with, 295-297;
    their final expulsion, vi. 209;
      its results, 210-213;
    their sufferings, 222, 223

  Cleveland, Barbara Palmer, duchess of (_see_ Castlemaine), vi. 175

  Cleves, quarrel about, v. 178

  _Clericis Laicos_, bull, ii. 163

  Clifford, Thomas, eighth Lord, iii. 74

  Clifford, John, ninth Lord, iii. 78

  Clifford, Sir Thomas (first Lord Clifford of Chudleigh),
    commissioner of the Treasury, vi. 245, 261;
    Lord Treasurer, 271;
    resigns, 274

  Clinton, Sir Henry, viii. 32

  Clive, Robert, vii. 233;
    seizes Arcot, 235;
    victory at Plassey, 261, 262

  Clonmell stormed by Cromwell, vi. 79

  Closter-Seven, Convention of, vii. 249, 262

  Clydesdale, persecution of Catholics in, iv. 218

  Cnihtenagild at Aldgate, i. 223, 299

  Cnut, king of Denmark, i. 143;
    of England, 143-147

  Cnut II., king of Denmark, i. 189

  Coal, discovery of, viii. 56, 57

  Coalition ministry, the, viii. 65-69

  Cobham, Eleanor, iii. 43, 58, 97

  Cobham, Edward Brooke, Lord, iii. 69

  Cobham, John Oldcastle, Lord (_see_ Oldcastle), iii. 20, 23, 26, 28

  Coinage,
    new, under Edward I., ii. 119;
    debasement of, under Henry VIII., iv. 35;
    under Edward VI., 57, 66;
    reform of, under William III., vii. 89

  Coggeshall, Ralph of, i. 174

  Coke, Sir Edward, v. 202, 248, 263

  Colchester (Camulodunum)
    reduced by East Saxons, i. 35;
    Protestant martyrs of, iv. 144;
    siege of, vi. 61;
    surrender, 64

  Colchester, Thomas Beche, abbot of, hanged, iii. 350

  Coleman, Edward, vi. 293, 295, 298

  Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, viii. 135

  Colet, John,
    his theology, iii. 191, 192;
    lectures at Oxford, 192;
    Dean of St. Paul's, 197;
    founds school, 200;
    address to Convocation, 202, 203;
    charged with heresy, 203;
    protected by Warham and Henry, 204;
    protests against war, 210

  Colepepper, Sir John, v. 375, 378

  Colgan's _Lives of Irish Saints_, i. 8

  Coligni, Admiral, iv. 209, 216, 299

  Colman, bishop of Lindisfarne, i. 79, 80

  Columba, St., i. 69;
    Adamnan's _Life of_, 8

  Columban, St., i. 68

  Commendation, system of, i. 133, 321

  Commerce. _See_ Trade

  Commines, Philippe de, his comments on England, iii. 85, 107

  Commission, Court of High,
    established, iv. 216;
    its new powers in 1583, 340;
    Laud's use of, v. 295;
    its civil jurisdiction abolished, 363;
    restored, vii. 18;
    dissolved, 39

  Committee of Public Safety, vi. 1, 13;
    of the Two Kingdoms, 17

  Commonalty, scheme for its representation, ii. 61, 73

  Commons, the,
    summoned to Parliament, ii. 73, 153, 154;
    their right to share in all legislative action established, 196,
        202;
    House of, fully constituted, 203;
    petitions against papal encroachments, 225;
    its advance under Edward III., 231, 232, 298;
    shrinks from meddling with administration, 299;
    increasing share in legislation, 301;
    resists John of Gaunt's demands, 303;
    its action in the Good Parliament, 305;
    in Parliament of 1377, 311, 312;
    struggle with Richard II., 370;
    demands confiscation of Church lands, iii. 15, 21;
    changes in its character during Wars of the Roses, 99;
    struggle with Wolsey, 245;
    petition to Henry, VIII., 290;
    first detailed account of its proceedings, iv. 5;
    opposes Northumberland's policy, 66;
    struggle with Elizabeth, 238, 239;
      advance under her, v. 56, 57;
    relations with James I., 154, 155, 160-163, 179-182;
    action in Parliament of 1621, 221, 222, 224, 225;
    in that of 1625, 245-247;
    in that of 1626, 250, 253;
    draws up the Petition of Right, 260;
    action in 1640, 340;
    resolves on the trial of Charles I., vi. 66;
    abolishes Monarchy, 68;
    sets up a Commonwealth, _ib._;
    passes the Exclusion Bill, 319;
    rejects the Securities Bill, 320;
    impeaches Fitzharris, 323;
    its sovereignty, vii. 80;
    position under William, III., 81;
    relations with Marlborough, 123;
    the Whigs' management of, 176;
    proposals for its reform, viii. 9, 10, 63, 67, 75, 76, 195;
    adopts Catholic emancipation, viii. 196.
    _See_ Parliament

  Commonwealth
    established in England, vi. 68, 69;
    proclaimed in London, 73

  "Commune," the, in towns, i. 318; ii. 69

  Companies, trading, v. 161

  Compiègne, Jeanne d'Arc taken prisoner at, iii. 53

  "Complaint of the Commons of Kent," iii. 65, 66

  Comprehension Bill, vii. 63

  Compton, Bishop of London, vii. 18, 19, 28, 35

  Compurgation, i. 239, 313

  Comyn, John, regent of Scotland, ii. 170, 171

  Comyn, John, of Badenoch, ii. 173

  Condé, Louis I., Prince of, iv. 188, 209, 264, 267

  Condé, Louis II., Prince of, vi. 190

  Congregation, Lords of the,
    their relations with Mary of Guise, iv. 168;
    occupy Edinburgh, 169;
    relations with Elizabeth, 170-174;
    treaty with Francis and Mary, 176;
    rise against Mary, 245, 246

  Congress,
    the first American, vii. 330;
    at Philadelphia, viii. 19, 20, 22

  Connaught
    conquered by the English, iii. 329;
    Wentworth's dealings with, v. 364, 365

  Connecticut,
    first settlement of, v. 319, 320;
    refuses to join in war against England, viii. 203

  Conquereux, battle of, i. 212

  Conservators of the Peace, ii. 123

  Consilt, battle of, ii. 54

  Constable, Sir Robert, iii. 325

  Constable, the king's, origin of his office, i. 132

  Constance of Britanny, i. 247, 260

  Constantine, king of Scots, i. 119, 120

  Constantinople
    captured by the Turks, iii. 189;
    English exiles at, i. 167

  "Constitutional Clubs," viii. 95, 100

  Constitutions of Clarendon, i. 235

  Contades, General, vii. 264

  Continental System, viii. 175, 176;
    its results, 177

  Contract, the Great, v. 179

  Convention
    of 1660, vi. 152;
      declares itself a Parliament, 194;
    of 1689, vii. 44-47;
      becomes a Parliament, 60;
    the Constituent, vi. 94-98;
    the French, viii. 101;
    Scottish, of 1659, vi. 150;
      of 1689, vii. 51.
    _See_ Parliament

  Convocation,
    provincial, of the clergy, ii. 158;
    its legislative power taken away, iii. 301, 307;
    of 1413, iii. 20;
    of 1512, Colet's address to, 202, 203;
    of 1531, 296, 297;
    of 1532, 301;
    of 1533, 303;
    of 1604, its canons, v. 156;
    of 1689, vii. 63;
    of Perth, ii. 171

  Conway,
    castle built at, ii. 121;
    captured by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 10;
    recovered by Percy, 11

  Cook, Captain, vii. 278

  Cooper, Anthony Ashley, vi. 95;
    his early life, 215, 216;
    attacks Cromwell's memory, 148;
    advises the return of excluded members of the Rump, 151;
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, 194.
    _See_ Ashley

  Cope, Sir John, vii. 228

  Copenhagen,
    battle of, viii. 163;
    bombardment of, 180

  Copper, export of, from Cornwall, iv. 279

  Copy-holders, i. 323

  Corfe, Eadward the Martyr slain at, i. 139

  Cormac's _Glossary_, i. 8

  Cornwal, John, ii. 357

  Cornwall
    conquered by Ecgberht, i. 102;
    Royalist rising in, vi. 5, 6;
    tin-mines in, i. 30; ii. 107;
    export of tin from, iv. 279;
      of copper, _ib._;
    West Welsh of, become vassals of Æthelstan, i. 120

  Cornwall, Henry, Earl of, i. 345

  Cornwall, Richard, Earl of. _See_ Richard

  Cornwallis, Charles, second earl and first marquis,
    captures Charlestown, viii. 32;
    surrenders at York Town, _ib._;
    Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 130, 138;
    victories in India, 131

  Coronation-stone, the Scottish, ii. 162

  Coroners, i. 264; ii. 149

  Corresponding Society, viii. 106

  Cortes, Hernan, iv. 329

  Corunna,
    Drake's descent on, iv. 355;
    siege of, 367, 368;
    battle of, viii. 187

  Cotentin, the,
    conquered by William Longsword, i. 155;
    ceded to Robert by Henry I., 201

  Cotton, Bartholomew de, i. 274

  Cotton, manufacture of, viii. 53, 59, 193

  Council
    of Agitators, vi. 52;
    the Continual, ii. 114, 353; iii. 22, 23;
    the Great, i. 256, 351;
    changes in its character after Norman Conquest, ii. 144;
    its importance under Henry II., 144, 145;
    powers over taxation recognised by the Great Charter, 145;
    mode of summons to, 146;
    its composition under Henry III., _ib._;
    claim to appoint ministers, 38;
    demands for reform, 45;
    its assembly regulated by Provisions of Oxford, 61;
    becomes Parliament, 156;
    the King's, i. 256;
    its later developements, ii. 112;
    criminal jurisdiction, iii. 178;
    position under the Tudors, v. 186, 187;
    set aside by James I., 187;
    character after the Restoration, vi. 303;
    reorganized by Temple, _ib._, 304;
    of Nine, ii. 275;
    of the North, v. 285, 363;
    of Officers, vi. 49, 52, 64, 65;
    its plan for a new Parliament, 74;
    forces Richard Cromwell to dissolve Parliament, 149;
    Permanent, of Fifteen, ii. 61;
    the Privy, i. 256;
    of State, under the Commonwealth, vi. 72;
    broken up, 91;
    new one formed, 94;
    new, named by the Convention, 99;
    its organization, 100

  Councils,
    Church, their political results, i. 84, 224;
    Occasional, called by Edward III., ii. 292, 299;
    Provincial, of 1282, 120

  Counties, restriction of franchise in, iii. 101, 102

  County court (shire-court),
    preserved by William I., i. 185, 186;
    towns represented in, ii. 73;
    its composition and functions, 149;
    principle of representation in, _ib._, 150;
    election of knights of the shire in, 151, 152

  Country Party, the, vi. 272, 298

  Courcy, John de, ii. 374

  Courtenay, Bishop of London, ii. 309;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 339-341, 346

  Coutras, battle of, iv. 355

  Covenant,
    the Scottish, iv. 115, 116;
    renewed in 1638, v. 333;
    taken by the English Parliament, vi. 14, 16, 17;
    forced on the army, 50;
    taken by the Convention of 1660, 152;
    burnt in Westminster Hall, 204

  Coventry,
    Parliament at, iii. 75;
    Mary Stuart imprisoned at, iv. 269

  Coventry, Sir William, vi. 245, 272

  Coverdale, Miles, iii. 334

  Cowell, John, v. 169

  Cowley, Abraham, vi. 165

  Cowling Castle, headquarters of the Lollards, iii. 20, 27

  Cowper, William, Lord Keeper, vii. 125;
    chancellor, 175

  Cowper, William, poet, viii. 46

  Cox, Richard, iv. 119

  Crabbe, George, viii. 46

  Craft-gilds, i. 316-318

  Craggs, Secretary of State, vii. 192

  Cranfield, Lord Treasurer, v. 229, 236

  Cranmer, Thomas, iii. 272;
    supports the king's divorce, 291;
    proposes an appeal to the universities, _ib._;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 303;
    crowns Anne Boleyn, _ib._;
    tenders the oath of allegiance to More, 318, 319;
    attitude towards Lutheranism, 336;
      opposes persecution, 346;
    drifts into Protestantism, iv. 48, 59, 127;
    welcomes foreign refugees, 51;
    his view of Episcopacy, 60;
    remonstrates against Edward's "plan" for the succession, 70;
    sent to the Tower, 75;
    tried for treason, _ib._;
    his political position, 103, 104;
    share in the English Liturgy, 103;
    convicted of heresy, 104;
    death, 105;
    Strype's _Life of_, 3

  Crécy, battle of, ii. 237-239

  Cremona, battle of, vii. 118

  Crépy, treaty of, iv. 32, 33

  Creton's _History of Richard II._, ii. 179

  Crewe, Chief Justice, v. 254

  Crompton, Samuel, viii. 60

  Cromwell, Henry, vi. 109

  Cromwell, Oliver,
    his youth, v. 103; vi. 24, 25;
    alleged scheme of emigration, v. 320;
    share in Association of the Eastern Counties, vi. 8;
    at Marston Moor, 19, 22;
    quarrel with Manchester at Newbury, 24;
    his person, 25;
    regiment, 26;
    temper, 27;
    relations with Dissidents, 33, 36;
    his policy, 34;
    victory at Naseby, 40, 41;
    pleads for religious liberty, 44, 45;
    resigns his command, 53;
    rejoins the army, _ib._;
    negotiates with the king, 57;
    opposes the ordinance against heresy, 60;
    besieges the royalists in Pembroke, 61, 162;
    victory at Preston, 62;
    marches into Scotland, _ib._;
    charged with treason, 63;
    suppresses a revolt of the army, 75;
    campaign in Ireland, 76, 77, 79;
    returns, 79;
    Lord-General, _ib._;
    invades Scotland, _ib._;
    victory at Dunbar, 80;
    occupies Edinburgh, 82;
    victory at Worcester, 84;
    supports the demand for a new Parliament, 87;
    drives out the Rump, 90, 91;
    resigns his power to the Convention, 95;
    his political and social views, 97, 98;
    Protector, 100, 102;
    his administration, 103;
    quarrel with the Parliament of 1654, 102, 103, 105;
    his military despotism, 106-108;
    settlement of Scotland, 108, 109;
      of Ireland, 109, 110;
      of England, 111, 112;
    foreign policy, 114-117;
    struggle with Parliament of 1655, 119;
    the Crown offered to, _ib._, 120;
      refuses it, 121, 122;
    inaugurated as Protector, 122;
    successes abroad, 123, 124;
    failure at home, 125;
    his theory of the Christian State, 127, 128;
    failing health, 143;
    his "House of Lords," 144;
    dissolves the Parliament, 145;
    last illness, 146;
    death, 147;
    his corpse outraged, 201;
    authorities for his history, v. 73

  Cromwell, Richard, vi. 147, 149

  Cromwell, Thomas,
    his early life, iii. 282, 283;
    relations with Wolsey, 283-285;
    counsel to Henry about the divorce, 285;
    his policy, 294, 295;
    Lord Privy Seal, 304;
    Vicar-General, 306;
    dealings with the monasteries, 310, 311;
    with the clergy, 311, 312;
    his reign of terror, 312-315;
    temper, 315, 316;
    relations with the nobles, 321, 322;
    reform of religion, 333;
    Church policy in Ireland, 341, 342;
    orders removal of images, 343;
    dealings with Parliament, iv. 8, 9;
    last struggle, iii. 347-351;
    fall and death, 352;
    results of his policy, iv. 7-14

  Crotoy relieved by Talbot, iii. 56

  Crowland, i. 86;
    burnt by northmen, 104;
    Chronicle of, ii. 179, 180

  Croys, the, iii. 122, 125

  Crusades,
    their effect on learning, i. 282;
    of Richard I., 261;
    of Edward I., ii. 90;
    Henry IV.'s project of, iii. 25;
    Henry V.'s, 36, 38

  Cuba
    conquered by England, vii. 307;
    restored to Spain, _ib._

  Cudworth, Ralph, vi. 169

  Culloden, battle of, vii. 230

  Cumberland, William, Duke of, vii. 227, 230, 248, 251

  Cumberland, Henry Clifford, first Earl of, iii. 323

  Cumberland, Henry Clifford, second Earl of, iv. 162

  Cumberland, George Clifford, third Earl of, iv. 353, 358

  Cumbria,
    British kingdom of, i. 60;
    conquered by Ecgfrith, 87;
    by Eadmund, 123;
    granted to Malcolm, king of Scots, _ib._

  Cup-thegn (butler), i. 132

  "Customs" of the realm, i. 235

  Customs duties,
    Edward I.'s, ii. 107, 164, 172, 189;
    granted to Edward IV. for life, 89, 152;
    new, imposed by James I., v. 172;
    granted to Charles I. for a year only, 246

  Cuthbert, St., i. 74-76, 87, 88

  Cuthwulf, king of the West Saxons, i. 37

  Cynric, king of the West Saxons, i. 34, 49


  Dacres, William, third Lord, iv. 162

  Dacres, Leonard, iv. 269

  Dægsastan, battle of, i. 60

  Dalaber, Anthony, iii. 262

  Dalrymple, John, Master of Stair, vii. 52, 53

  Danby, Thomas Osborne, Earl of,
    Lord Treasurer, vi. 282;
    his policy, 282-286;
    duped by Charles, 287;
    his bill for the security of the Church, 288;
    foreign policy, 289, 290;
    impeached, 299;
    dismissed, 300;
    released from the Tower, vii. 2;
    warns William against James II., 28;
    signs the invitation to William, 35;
    prepares for a rising, 37;
    raises Yorkshire, 41;
    his policy in the Convention of 1689, 46;
    Lord President, 67

  Danegeld, i. 186, 207, 216, 350; ii. 104

  Danelaw, the, i. 107;
    its struggle with Ælfred, 116, 117;
    subdued by Eadmund, 120;
    rises against Eadred, 123;
    final submission, _ib._, 124;
    Dunstan's policy towards, 137

  Danes. _See_ Northmen

  Daniel, poet and historian, v. 4, 35

  Darcy, Thomas, Lord (of Aston), iii. 323-325

  Darien, colony of, vii. 89

  Darnley, Henry Stuart, Lord, iv. 220, 221;
    marries Mary Stuart, 224;
    quarrels with her, 227;
    share in Rizzio's murder, 228;
    dissolves Parliament, 229;
    reconciled to Mary, _ib._;
    plots against him, 242, 243;
    death, 244

  Dartford, peasant revolt at, ii. 319

  Dartmouth,
    Breton descent on, iii. 16;
    Warwick and Clarence land at, 138

  Dartmouth, George Legge, first Lord, vii. 77

  Daun, General, vii. 263, 302

  Davenant, Sir William, v. 303

  David I., king of Scots, i. 217; ii. 133;
    his Laws, ii. 171

  David II., king of Scots. _See_ Bruce

  David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon, ii. 134, 136

  David, brother of Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, ii. 119, 121

  Davies, Sir John, v. 303

  Davison, Secretary of State, iv. 352

  Dean, Forest of, iron-mines in, i. 30

  Deane, General, vi. 108

  Debt, the National, vii. 87

  "Defenders," viii. 119

  Deira,
    kingdom of, i. 36;
    conquered by Bernicians, 52, 53;
    submits to Oswald, 67;
      to Penda, 71.
    _See_ Northumbria

  Dekker, Thomas, v. 42

  Delaware, colony of, vii. 236

  Denham, Sir John, vi. 325

  Denmark,
    its monarchy founded, i. 128;
    relations with Sweden and Hanover, vii. 188, 189;
    joins leagues against England, viii. 162, 180;
    its fleet captured, 180, 181

  Deorham, battle of, i. 38, 61

  Derby,
    one of the Five Boroughs, i. 117;
    conquered by Æthelflæd, 118;
    Charles Edward at, vii. 228

  Derby, Henry Plantagenet I., Earl of, ii. 234, 235, 243

  Derby, Henry Plantagenet III., Earl of, ii. 353

  Derby, Henry III. of Lancaster, Earl of. _See_ Henry IV. (king).

  Derby, Edward Stanley, third Earl of, iv. 267, 269

  Derby, William Stanley, ninth Earl of, vii. 23

  Derby, Earls of. _See_ Ferrars.

  Derbyshire, lead mines in, ii. 107

  D'Erlon, General, viii. 208, 209

  Dermod, king of Leinster, i. 251, 252

  Derry, colonisation of, v. 289

  Derwentwater, James Radcliffe, third Earl of, vii. 184

  Desmond, Gerald Fitzmaurice (or Fitzgerald), fifteenth Earl of, iv.
      315, 316

  Desmond, James Fitzgerald, seventeenth Earl of, v. 62

  Despenser, Hugh, justiciar, ii. 64, 66, 87

  Despenser, Hugh, the elder, ii. 194, 198.

  Despenser, Hugh, the younger, ii. 194, 195, 199

  Dettingen, battle of, vii. 224

  Devon
    rises against William. I., i. 168;
    against Somerset, iv. 55;
    secured by Prince Maurice for Charles I., vi. 13;
    rising in, under Monmouth, vii. 9

  Devonshire, William Cavendish, fourth Earl of (_see_ Cavendish), vii.
      28;
    signs the invitation to William III., 35;
    prepares for a rising, 37;
    heads the rising in the Midlands, 41

  Devonshire, Thomas Courtenay, fifth Earl of, iii. 69

  Devonshire, Thomas Courtenay, sixth Earl of, ii. 80

  Devon, Edward Courtenay, Earl of, iv. 78

  D'Ewes, Sir Symonds, iv. 5; v. 72

  D'Eyvill, John, ii. 84

  Dieppe burnt by the English fleet, i. 333

  Digby, Sir Everard, v. 159

  Digby, Sir Kenelm, vi. 168

  Digges, Sir Dudley, v. 251, 253

  Dioceses, English,
    origin of their limits, i. 82, 83;
    organized by Theodore, 83

  Directory, the French, viii. 113

  "Disinherited," the, ii. 84, 86-89

  "Dissidence," growth of, vi. 30-32

  D'Oillis, the, i. 284

  Domesday Book, i. 186

  Domfront taken by Henry V., iii. 33

  Dominic, St., ii. 9

  Dominicans (Black Friars) come to England, ii. 11

  Domrémy, home of Jeanne d'Arc, iii. 46

  Donne, John, v. 303

  Dorset, risings in, i. 168; vii. 9

  Dorset, John Beaufort, Marquis of (Earl of Somerset), iii. 7

  Dorset, Thomas Grey, second Marquis of, iii. 209

  Dorset, Thomas Sackville, first Earl of, v. 22

  Dorset, Charles Sackville, sixth Earl of, vii. 23

  Douay,
    English college at, iv. 307;
    Oxford refugees at, 317

  Douglas, Archibald, fourth Earl of, iii. 13, 14, 39

  Douglas, Sir Archibald, Regent of Scotland, ii. 211

  Douglas, James, ii. 184, 204, 205, 210

  Douglas, house of, their struggle with the Scot kings, iii. 184

  Dover,
    tumult at, in 1051, i. 152;
    resists Lewis of France, 355; ii. 2;
    surrenders to Henry III., 83;
    treaty of, vi. 257

  Dowdall, Archbishop of Armagh, iv. 62

  D'Oysel, French ambassador in Scotland, iv. 173

  Drake, Francis,
    his voyage round the world, iv. 333, 334;
    expedition to the Spanish Main, 349;
    to Cadiz and Corunna, 355;
    in the fleet against the Armada, 361, 362;
    expedition to Lisbon, 367

  Drama, English,
    its beginnings, v. 20-22;
    developement under Elizabeth, 22-24;
    after the Restoration, vi. 163, 164

  Drayton's _Polyolbion_, v. 35

  Dreux captured by Henry V., iii. 36;
    battle of, iv. 210

  Drogheda, massacre at, vi. 76, 77

  Dryden, Sir Erasmus, vi. 325

  Dryden, John, vi. 165, 324, 325;
    founder of the school of critical poets, 326;
    his tragedies, 327;
    comedies, 328, 329;
    _Annus Mirabilis_, 330;
    attitude in politics and religion, 331;
    _Absalom and Ahitophel_, 332-334;
    influence on literature, vii. 154-157

  Dublin, sieges of, i. 252; vi. 76

  Dublin, John Allen, Archbishop of, murdered, iii. 328

  Dubois, the Abbé, vii. 187

  Dudley, Lord Guildford, iv. 69, 75, 84

  Dudley, Lord Robert, iv. 193.
    _See_ Leicester

  Dudley, Edmund, iii. 199

  Dudo of St. Quentin, i. 6

  Dumouriez, General, viii. 101, 107

  Duncan, Admiral, viii. 127

  Dundas, Henry, viii. 171

  Dundee, John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount, vii. 51, 52

  Dunes, battle of the, vi. 124

  Dunkirk
    ceded to Cromwell, vi. 124;
    sold to France, 214;
    dismantled, vii. 142

  Dunluce, ships of the Armada wrecked off, iv. 363

  Dunning, John, Solicitor-General, viii. 15

  Dunois, Count of, iii. 49, 50, 62

  Dupleix, General, vii. 233-235

  Duquesne, Fort, vii. 243, 245, 266

  Duns Scotus, ii. 276

  _Dunstable, Annals of_, i. 273

  Dunstan, St., i. 120-123;
    his struggle with Eadwig, 136;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 137;
    policy and rule, _ib._, 138;
    fall, 139;
    _Lives of_, 6

  Durham,
    historians of, i. 243;
    King John at, 340

  Durie, John, v. 138


  Eadberht, king of Northumbria, i. 96, 97

  Eadgar, King, i. 137, 138;
    his Law, 144

  Eadgar, king of Scots, i. 197

  Eadgar, the Ætheling, i. 154, 165, 168, 170, 197

  Eadgyth, wife of Eadward the Confessor, i. 150, 165

  Eadmer, i. 173, 243

  Eadmund, St., king of East Anglia, i. 104

  Eadmund (the Magnificent), King, i. 120, 122, 123

  Eadmund Ironside, King, i. 143;
    his children, 144, 153

  Eadred, King, i. 123, 136

  Eadric, ealdorman of Mercia, i. 142-144

  Eadward the Elder, King, i. 117-119, 305

  Eadward the Martyr, King, i. 139

  Eadward the Confessor, King, i, 149-153, 158, 160;
    his Laws, 150, 199, 340;
    _Life of_, 6

  Eadwig, King, i. 136, 137

  Eadwig, son of Æthelred II., i. 144

  Eadwine, king of Northumbria, i. 62-64, 66

  Eadwine, earl of Mercia, i. 160, 165, 167, 170

  Eadwulf, earl of Northumbria, i. 146

  Ealdorman, the,
    his office, i. 48, 49;
    becomes a delegate of the king, 131;
    rises again to independence, 134;
    replaced by the earl, 146

  Ealdred, Archbishop of York, i. 166

  Earl, the, i. 11, 50;
    superseded by the thegn, 51

  Earldoms,
    the four great, i. 146;
    abolished, 185

  Earls supersede ealdormen, i. 146

  East Anglia,
    its conquest, i. 36;
    Christianity in, 59;
    subject to Mercia, 91;
    revolts, 102;
    conquered by the northmen, 104;
    bridled by Eadward the Elder, 117, 118;
    earldom of, 146;
    Protestant martyrs in, iv. 96

  "Easterlings," i. 303

  Eastern Counties, Association of the, vi. 8, 13

  East India Company, iv. 284; vii. 63, 232

  East-Saxons,
    their settlement, i. 35;
    conversion, 59

  Ebbsfleet, i. 31, 32, 58

  Ecclesiastical Courts separated from civil Courts, i. 188

  Ecgberht, king of Wessex, i. 101-103

  Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria, i. 86-89

  Ecgwine, Bishop of Worcester, i. 86

  Eddi's _Life of Wilfrid_, i. 4

  Edgecote, battle of, iii. 134

  Edgehill, battle of, vi. 3

  Edinburgh
    founded, i. 63;
    seat of the Scot kings, 147;
    won by Bruce, ii. 191;
    burnt by the English, iv. 28;
    castle of, besieged by Henry IV., iii. 9;
    treaty of, iv. 176;
    riot at, against the new Liturgy, v. 328;
    the Covenant signed at, 333;
    rises against James VII., vii. 50;
    "James the Eighth" proclaimed at, 228

  _Edinburgh Review_, the, viii. 195

  Edington, battle of, i. 107

  Edith. _See_ Matilda

  Edmund Rich, St., i. 287-289;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 33;
    obtains dismissal of Peter des Roches, _ib._;
    dealings with Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, 58;
    retires to Pontigny, 42

  Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry III., ii. 59, 82,
      87, 187, 188

  Edmund, Earl of Woodstock, ii. 293

  Edward (I.), son of Henry III.,
    defeated by the Welsh, ii. 59;
    joins Earl Simon, 64, 65;
    rejoins Henry, 65;
    marches against Llewelyn, 67;
    surrenders Windsor, _ib._;
    attempts to surprise London, 70;
    share in battle of Lewes, _ib._;
    prisoner, 71;
    escapes, 75;
    seizes Gloucester, 76;
    defeats the younger Simon, _ib._;
    meets Simon at Evesham, 77;
    attitude after the battle, 81;
    marches against Axholme, 85;
    negotiations for peace, _ib._;
    captures Adam Gurdon, 87;
    effects off his influence, 89;
    goes on Crusade, 90;
    King, _ib._;
    his motto, 41;
    his temper, 91-93;
    influence of chivalry on, 94, 95;
    spirit of legality, 96;
    moral temper, 97;
    military skill, _ib._, 98;
    political genius, 98, 99;
    constitutional aspect of his reign, 100, 101;
    first measures, 102, 103;
    progress of art and trade in his reign, 105-107;
    brings Llewelyn to submission, 108, 109;
    judicial reforms, 109-113;
    policy towards the barons, 116, 117;
    towards the Church, 118, 119;
    conquest of Wales, 119-121;
    legislation, 122-124;
    visit to Aquitaine, 123;
    expels the Jews, 131;
    relations with Scotland, 135-140;
    quarrel with France, 141, 142;
    summons Scotch barons to war in Guienne, 143;
    admits burgesses to Parliament, 154;
    his scheme for representation of clergy in Parliament, 157;
    storms Berwick, 160, 161;
    Scotland submits to, 161, 162;
    struggle with the clergy, 163;
    exactions from merchants, 164;
    quarrel with barons, 164, 165;
    goes to Flanders, 165;
    confirms the Charters, _ib._, 166, 170;
    truce with France, 168;
    victory at Falkirk, 169;
    treaty with France, 170;
    second conquest of Scotland, 171;
    his "New Custom," 172;
    absolved by the Pope from his oath to observe the Charters, _ib._;
    his vow on the swan, 173, 174;
    death, 174

  Edward (II.), son of Edward I., ii. 173, 174;
    character and policy, 184-186;
    marriage, 186;
    relations with Gaveston and the barons, 186-188;
    struggle with the Ordainers, 188-191;
    marches on Scotland, 191;
    defeated at Bannockburn, 192, 193;
    accepts the Ordinances, 194;
    campaign of 1319, _ib._;
    relations with the Despensers, 194, 195;
    truce with Scotland, 196;
    relations with France, 197, 198;
    flies to Lundy Island, 198;
    deposed, 199, 200;
    murdered, 200;
    authorities for his reign, 177

  Edward (III.) of Windsor, son of Edward II., ii. 198;
    proclaimed king, 199;
    arrests Mortimer, 207;
    relations with France, 208, 209;
    acknowledged as suzerain by Edward Balliol, 211;
    takes Berwick, _ib._;
    receives Balliol's homage, 212;
    declares war on France, 213;
    number of his forces, 216;
    continental alliances, 216-219;
    Vicar-General of the Empire, 219;
    negotiations with France, _ib._;
    besieges Cambray, 220;
    complains of papal exactions, 225;
    alliance with Flemish towns, 226, 227;
    besieges Tournay, 228;
    losses in Scotland, 229, 230;
    relations with Parliament, 230-233, 292, 299;
    supports John of Montfort in Britanny, 233;
    invades Normandy, 235;
    marches on Paris, _ib._;
    victory at Crécy, 237-239;
    causes of his military success, 242, 243;
    besieges Calais, 243;
    his treatment of the six burgesses, 245-247;
    the imperial crown offered to, 248;
    his character, 249-251;
    founds the Order of the Garter, 252;
    rebuilds Windsor Castle, _ib._
    alliance with Charles of Navarre, 258;
    with David Bruce, 263, 264;
    ravages France, 265;
    treaty with Burgundy, _ib._;
    with the Regent of France, 266;
    forbids entry of Papal bulls, 273;
    policy in Spain, 287;
    truce with Charles V., 288;
    his evil rule, 290, 291;
    compromise with the Pope, 296;
    death, 311

  Edward (IV.), Earl of March, iii. 75;
    victory at Mortimer's Cross, 78;
    King, 80;
    his finance, 89, 152;
    protection of trade, 106;
    his temper, 112, 116-118;
    relations with Lewis XI., 120, 121, 123, 124;
    marriage, 124;
    double-dealing with Lewis and Charles the Bold, 129, 130;
    league with Charles, 130;
    relations with Warwick, 131-135;
    driven out, 139;
      returns, 141;
    victory at Barnet, 142;
    marches against Margaret, 143;
      defeats her at Tewkesbury, 144, 145;
    new alliance with Charles against Lewis, 148;
    invades France, 149;
    makes peace with Lewis, 150;
    his rule, 151-153;
    death, 163

  Edward V., King, iii. 163, 167;
    More's _Life of_, 83, 218

  Edward (VI.), son of Henry VIII.,
    born, iii. 326;
    scheme for his marriage, iv. 26;
    his temper, 67;
    "plan" for the succession, 69, 70;
    death, 70;
    _Journal_, 3;
    Hayward's _Life of_, _ib._;
    his Grammar Schools, 62

  Edward (the Black Prince)
    proposed as Count of Flanders, ii. 233;
    exploits at Crécy, 237, 238;
    ravages Guienne, 259, 260;
    campaign on the Loire, 260;
    victory at Poitiers, 261-263;
    invested with Aquitaine, 281;
    supports Pedro the Cruel, 283;
    victory at Navarete, 284;
    imposes hearth-tax on Aquitaine, _ib._;
    summoned by France to answer the Gascon appeal, 285;
    storms Limoges, 286;
    marriage, 293;
    sickness, 286, 302;
    action in the Good Parliament, 305;
    death, 306

  Edward, son of Henry VI., iii. 71, 137, 140, 145

  Egypt
    conquered by Buonaparte, viii. 132;
    the French driven from, 165, 166

  _Eikon Basilike_, vi. 72

  Elba, Napoleon at, viii. 205

  Eleanor of Castille, wife of Edward I., ii. 93

  Eleanor of Poitou, wife of Henry II., i. 226;
    her claims on Toulouse, 233;
    turns against Henry, 254;
    imprisoned, 255;
    joins Richard in Sicily, 260;
    secures Aquitaine for John, 268;
    besieged at Mirebeau, _ib._;
    dies, 270

  Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III., ii. 32, 69, 72, 74

  Eleanor, daughter of King John, ii. 36

  Eliot, John, v. 195, 248, 249;
    attacks Buckingham, 249-252;
    sent to the Tower, 253;
      released, _ib._;
    proposes a Remonstrance, 262;
    share in the Avowal, 268;
    death, 273

  Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII., iv. 46;
    her classical scholarship, iii. 212;
    Thomas Seymour's attempt to marry her, iv. 56;
    sent to the Tower, 85, 136;
    Parliament refuses to oust her from the succession, 89;
    her person, 134;
    scholarship, _ib._, 135;
    relations with Mary, 136;
    Philip's policy towards, 137, 138;
    set free, 138;
    accession, 146;
    religious policy, 148-150, 152, 153;
    coronation, 153;
    refuses to marry Philip, 154;
    relations with Paul IV., 155, 156;
    her title acknowledged by Parliament, 156;
    restores the Prayer-Book, 158, 159;
    drops the title "Head of the Church," 160;
    dealings with the clergy, 161, 162;
    relations with Parker, 165, 166;
    with the Scotch Lords of the Congregation, 170, 172-175;
    treaty with Mary and Francis, 176;
    character, 177-181;
    statesmanship, 182-186;
    supports the Huguenots, 189;
    temporises with Pius IV., 192;
    refuses to send envoys to Trent, 193, 194;
    schemes for her marriage, 193, 195, 199;
    refuses a safe-conduct to Mary Stuart, 200;
    difficulties with Mary, 202-204;
    treaty with the Huguenots, 209, 210;
    with France, 219;
    her changes in the system of the monarchy, 232;
    policy in Ireland, 240;
    drift of her religious policy, 247, 248;
    difficulties with Mary and Alva, 257, 258;
    demands Mary's release, 259;
    refuses to recognize Murray's government, _ib._;
    renews marriage negotiations with Austria, 260;
    negotiates for Mary's restoration, 262;
    her temporizing policy, 264;
    bull of deposition against her, 265, 270;
    her relations with England, 274, 275, 287-289;
    checks the "liberty of prophesying," 290;
    relations with Parliament, 292, 293; v. 56-58;
    resists Puritan pressure, iv. 293, 294;
    scheme for her marriage with Henry of Anjou, 297;
    expels the "water-beggars," 298;
    attitude towards the Netherlands, 300;
    persecutes the Catholics, 308, 309;
    alliance with the Netherlands, 311;
    scheme for her marriage with Francis of Anjou, 313, 316, 337, 338;
    dealings with the Catholics, 319, 320;
    relations with Drake, 334;
    confers new powers on the Ecclesiastical Commission, 340;
    refuses Protectorate of the Netherlands, 349;
      sends them aid, _ib._;
    alliance with James VI., 350;
    plots against her, _ib._;
    signs the death-warrant of Mary Stuart, 352;
    her victory over party disunion, 364, 365;
    sends an expedition to Portugal, 367;
    help to Henry IV., 371;
    league with France and the Netherlands, v. 60;
    her loneliness, 63;
    waning popularity, 64, 65;
    last days, 65, 66;
    death, 67;
    materials for her history, iv. 3-5

  Elizabeth, Czarina of Russia, vii. 246, 306

  Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., iii. 133, 167, 168, 170, 171;
    marries Henry VII., 175

  Elizabeth, daughter of James I., v. 210

  Elizabeth Woodville. _See_ Woodville

  Elizabeth of France, wife of Philip II. of Spain, iv. 372

  Ellandun, battle of, i. 102

  Elliott, General, viii. 31, 41

  Elmet conquered by Eadwine, i. 63

  Elmham's _Life of Henry V._, ii. 179

  Ely
    burnt by northmen, i. 104;
    Cnut at, 145;
    the Ætheling Ælfred blinded at, 148;
    surrenders to William, 170;
    seized by the Disinherited, ii. 88

  Emma of Normandy, wife of Æthelred II., i. 141, 156

  "Emperor's men," the, i. 303

  Empson, Sir Richard, iii. 199

  Engla-land, i. 138

  England, Old, i. 9

  England,
    character of its settlement, i. 44-48;
    work of the northmen in, 129;
    first use of the name, 138;
    its peace under Cnut, 146;
    prosperity under Eadward and Harold, 153;
    effects of foreign rule on, 176-178, 278;
    fusion of Normans and English in, 200, 281;
    invaded by Robert of Normandy, 200, 201;
    civil war in, 219, 220;
    anarchy in, 220, 221;
    revival of national feeling in, 280, 281;
    Norman immigration to, 302;
    effects of loss of Normandy on, 325, 326;
    under Interdict, 330, 331;
    Friars arrive in, ii. 11;
    Provençals and Poitevins in, under Henry III. 32, 33;
    early finance, 103;
    relations with the Papacy, 26-28, 218, 219, 221-223, 225, 273-275,
        303;
    social changes after the Black Death, 254, 255;
    social strife in, 266-268, 289, 316, 317;
    sufferings under Edward III., 290, 291;
    constitutional, its beginnings, 100;
    its freedom established, iii. 85;
    moral and intellectual decay during Wars of the Roses, 97, 98, 115;
    social condition in fifteenth century, 104-107;
    agricultural changes in, 107, 108;
    evictions and enclosures in, 109, 110;
    definition of its foreign policy, 128;
    intellectual progress under Edward IV., 153, 154;
    the New Learning in, 191-196, 201;
    relations with the Papacy under Henry VIII., 288, 289, 299, 300,
        302;
    rejects Papal jurisdiction, 305;
    foreign Protestants in, iv. 51, 58, 59, 305;
    condition under Somerset, 54, 55;
    religious disorder in, 61;
    condition under Northumberland, 66;
    religious changes in, under Mary, 75;
    submits to Rome, 88, 89;
    effects of the Reformation on, 121, 122;
    attitude in Mary's later years, 134, 138, 139;
    condition at her death, 146, 147;
    religious chaos under Elizabeth, 162-165;
    becomes Protestant, 166, 167, 247, 248;
    its importance to the Papacy, 253, 254;
    parties in, 263;
    social condition under Elizabeth, 274-277, 283-287;
    religious condition, 289-291, 302-305;
    volunteers from, in the Netherlands, 324;
    unites against the Armada, 358;
    effect on, of the fight with Spain, 364;
    its maritime warfare with Spain, 370, 371;
    intellectual developement under Elizabeth, v. 1-11;
    condition at her death, 75, 76;
    growth of wealth and social advance, 77;
    rise of the squires, 78;
    growth of national spirit in, _ib._, 79;
    growth of the religious spirit in, 81;
    foreign rule of the Stuarts in, 148, 149;
    James I.'s proposal for its union with Scotland, 154;
    change in its attitude towards the crown, 171, 172, 183, 184;
    condition under Charles I., 280-282, 315, 316;
    declared a Commonwealth, vi. 68, 69;
    scheme of union with Holland, 81;
    with Scotland, 85;
    with Ireland, 86;
    war with Holland, _ib._, 88;
    condition under Cromwell and the major-generals, 106-108;
    progress of the Puritan ideal in, 125-128;
    scientific movement in, 131-133;
    Latitudinarians in, 133-137;
    modern, its beginnings, 160-161;
    intellectual progress after the Restoration, 163-171;
    union with Scotland and Ireland dissolved, 180;
    Restoration settlement of, 196-198;
    quarrel with the Dutch, 223, 224;
    war with Holland, 225-226, 238, 239, 261;
    attitude towards Lewis XIV., 228;
    its diplomacy under Charles II., 247, 248;
    declares war against Lewis XIV., vii. 49;
    alliance with Holland, 102, 104, 105;
    Union with Scotland, 127, 128;
    its European position after the Revolution, 147, 148;
    its European policy, 149-151;
    its intellectual influence, 151-153;
    character of political controversy in, 161;
    strength and weakness of public opinion in, 162-164;
    social condition under the Georges, 170, 171;
    alliance with France and Holland, 187;
    condition under Walpole, 195-198;
    alliance with France and Prussia, 199;
    quarrel with Spain for trade in America, 216, 217;
      declares war, 218;
    intercourse with India, 232;
    relations with America, 240, 241, 243, 244;
    treaty with Frederick II., 247, 248;
    war with France, 248, 249, 264;
    becomes a world-power, 274-277;
    annexations in the Pacific, 278, 279;
    its empire, 279;
    relations with America after the Seven Years' War, 280-283;
    results of the Revolution in, 286, 287;
    intellectual advance in the eighteenth century, 292, 293;
    war with Spain, 306;
    conquests in the West Indies, 307;
    its gains by the treaty of Paris, _ib._;
    English and American theories of its relation to America, 321-325;
    growing influence of public opinion in, viii. 1, 2, 10, 11;
    war with America, 22-26, 32, 41;
    relations with Ireland, 33;
    position after the American war, 45;
    religious movement in, 46, 47;
    industrial progress, 53-60;
    growing influence of the trading class in, 61;
    its condition as compared to the rest of Europe, 80;
    alliance with Prussia and Holland, 85;
    attitude towards the French Revolution, 87, 88, 93-95;
    panic in, 103-106;
    war with France, 108, 109;
    its colonial acquisitions in 1795, 112;
    condition during the French war, 114;
    its dogged temper, 115, 116;
    effects of the war on its industry and trade, 157, 158;
    League of Neutrals against her, 159, 160;
    declares war against Buonaparte, 170;
    effects of the Continental System on its industry and trade, 177;
    condition during the French war, 192-195;
    war with America, 198, 203-205;
    last strife with Napoleon, 207-211.
    _See_ English People

  Engle, the,
    their early home, i. 9, 10;
    settle in East Anglia and the north, 36;
    conquer Bernicia, 52.
    _See_ English, Mercians, South-Engle

  English people,
    their life in Old England, i. 10-22;
    religion, 22-24;
    temper, 24-26;
    love of the sea, 27;
    character of their conquests, 39-44;
    of their settlement, 44-48;
    changes in organization after the conquest, 48-52;
    tendencies towards unity, 53-55, 61, 83, 130;
    union under Ecgberht, 103;
    fusion of northmen with, 126, 127;
    effects of struggle with the northmen on, 129, 130;
    tendencies towards disintegration, 133, 134;
    effects of foreign rule on, 176-178;
    fusion of Normans with, 200, 281;
    support William Rufus, 191, 192;
    support Henry I., 201, 202;
    revival of national feeling, 280, 281;
    attitude under George III., vii. 312-314;
    new life in America, viii. 43, 44.
    _See_ England

  Episcopacy
    abolished in Scotland, v. 140;
    restored, 143, 166, 167;
    again abolished, 335;
    proposal to abolish it in England, 354

  Erasmus, Desiderius, iii. 193, 194;
    his relations with Warham, 196, 212;
    teaches Greek at Cambridge, 201;
    protests against war, 211;
    his _Praise of Folly_, 199, 219;
    edition of St. Jerome, 212, 213;
    of the New Testament, 213, 215;
    his theology, 214;
    defends the New Learning against Luther, 256

  Eric, king of Sweden, i. 128

  Essayists, the English, vii. 158-160

  Essex
    settled by the East Saxons, i. 35;
    submits to Wulfhere, 85;
    peasant revolt in, ii. 321;
    Protestantism in, under Mary, iv. 144;
    royalist rising in, vi. 59

  Essex, Arthur Capel, first earl of,
    commissioner of the Treasury, vi. 301;
    supports Shaftesbury and the Exclusion, 315, 319;
    plots with Monmouth, etc., 336;
    death, 337

  Essex, Robert Devereux, second earl of, v. 43, 62, 63

  Essex, Robert Devereux, third earl of,
    marries Frances Howard, v. 190;
    divorced, 191;
    resists a forced loan, 255;
    captain-general of the Parliamentary army, vi. 1;
    movements in 1642, 2, 3;
    captures Reading, 5;
    his inactivity, 6, 8-10;
    retires to Uxbridge, 12;
    relieves Gloucester, 13, 14;
    movements in 1644, 19, 22, 23;
    retires, 35

  Essex, Earls of. _See_ Fitz-Peter, Mandeville

  Essex, Frances, Countess of. _See_ Howard

  Estates of the realm, various groupings of, in Parliament, ii. 202,
      203

  Etherege, Sir George, vi. 157

  Eugene of Savoy, Prince, vii. 118, 120, 121, 131, 134

  Euphuism, v. 5

  Eustace, Count of Boulogne, i. 152, 167

  Eustace, son of King Stephen, i. 226, 227

  Eustace the Monk, ii. 2

  Eva, daughter of Dermod of Leinster, i. 252

  Evelyn's _Diary_, vi. 157

  Evesham
    founded, i. 86;
    battle of, ii. 77, 78

  Evreux, Charles of, ii. 315

  Exchange, the Royal, founded, iv. 280

  Exchequer, Court of, i. 206; ii. 109;
    Richard Fitz-Neal's _Dialogue_ on, i. 174, 244;
    closed, vi. 261

  Excise,
    Walpole's scheme of, vii. 195, 201, 202;
      revived by Pitt, viii. 77

  Exeter,
    northmen at, i. 106;
    Welsh driven from, 120;
    subdued by William I., 167, 168;
    tailors' gild at, 318;
    William of Orange received at, vii. 40

  Exeter, Henry Holland, duke of, iii. 140, 142

  Exeter, John Holland, duke of (Earl of Huntingdon), iii. 7, 8

  Exeter, Edward Courtenay, marquis of, iii. 322, 348, 350

  Exton, Sir Piers, iii. 8

  Exclusion Bill, the, vi. 307, 308, 319, 320

  Eylau, battle of, viii. 175


  Fabyan's _Chronicle_, ii. 179

  Fairfax, Edward, his version of Tasso, v. 2

  Fairfax, Ferdinando, second Lord, vi. 4

  Fairfax, Sir Thomas,
    his victory at Nantwich, vi. 18;
    commander-in-chief of the New Model army, 35, 36;
    victory at Naseby, 40, 41;
    in the west, 41;
    marches on Oxford, 46;
    suppresses royalist rising in Kent, 61;
    Colchester surrenders to, 64;
    marches on London, 65;
    suppresses mutiny, 75;
    superseded by Cromwell, 79;
    joins Monk, 151

  Falaise,
    birthplace of William the Conqueror, i. 157;
    treaty of, ii. 140;
    reduced by Henry V., iii. 33

  Falconberg, William Neville, Lord, iii. 113

  Falkirk, battles of, ii. 168, 169; vii. 229

  Falkland, Lucius Cary, second viscount,
    his plans of Church reform, v. 354;
    abandons Strafford's impeachment, 356;
    his political position, 368;
    becomes Charles's minister, 375;
    joins Charles at York, 378;
    death, vi. 14;
    influence on religious thought, 133

  Family Compact, the, vii. 215

  "Farm" of a borough, ii. 152

  Farmer, Anthony, vii. 25

  Farmers, rise of, ii. 240

  Farne, islet of, i. 71

  Fastolfe, Sir John, iii. 46, 162

  Fawkes, Guido, v. 158, 159

  Feckenham, Abbot of Westminster, iv. 106

  Felton, John, v. 264, 265

  Ferdinand (I.), Archduke of Austria, iii. 208, 243; iv. 19;
    Emperor, 98; v. 174, 175

  Ferdinand (II.), Archduke of Austria, v. 213;
    king of Bohemia, 216;
    Emperor, 217

  Ferdinand V., king of Aragon, iii. 186, 187, 207;
    forms the Holy League, 209;
    seizes Navarre, _ib._;
    dies, 234

  Ferdinand VII., king of Spain, viii. 185

  Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's, iv. 91

  Ferrars, Robert, fourth earl of Derby, i. 254

  Ferrars, Robert, eighth earl of Derby, ii. 87

  Feudalism,
    tendency to, in England after Danish wars, i. 133, 135, 136;
    the Conqueror's dealings with, 181-185;
    antagonism of the universities to, 289-291;
    revives under Henry III., ii. 4, 5;
    its military basis, 239;
    ruin, iii. 92-94

  Fielding, Henry, vii. 297

  Fifth-monarchy men, vi. 182

  Filmer, Sir Robert, vi. 171

  Finance,
    early English, ii. 103;
    William I.'s system of, i. 186

  Finch, Sir John,
    Chief-Justice, v. 331;
    Lord Keeper, 351

  First of June, battle of the, viii. 111

  Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester, iii. 201;
    his reply to Luther, 257:
    quarrel with the Commons, 290;
    sent to the Tower, 319;
    beheaded, 321

  Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, viii. 121, 128

  Fitzgerald, Lord Thomas, iii. 328

  Fitz-Hamo, Robert, ii. 48

  Fitzharris, Edward, vi. 323

  Fitz-Maurices, the, Earls of Desmond, ii. 377

  Fitz-Maurice, James, iv. 315

  Fitz-Neal, Richard, bishop of London and treasurer, i. 174, 223;
    his _Dialogue on the Exchequer_, 174, 244

  Fitz-Osbern, Roger, i. 189

  Fitz-Osbern, William, i. 167, 168, 183

  Fitz-Peter, Geoffry, Earl of Essex and justiciar, i. 267, 338, 339,
      341

  Fitz-Ralf, Richard, Chancellor of Oxford, ii. 295

  Fitz-Stephen, Robert, i. 252

  Fitz-Urse, Reginald, i. 241

  Fitz-Walter, Robert,
    captain of the Londoners, i. 305;
    conspires against John, 335;
    leader of the barons, 343;
    "Marshal of the Army of God and Holy Church," 346;
    counsels alliance with France, 355;
    besieges Lincoln, ii. 2

  Fitz-Warenne or Fitz-Warin, Fulk (the third), i. 343; ii. 42

  Fitz-Warenne, Fulk (the fifth), ii. 116

  Fitzwilliam, William, fourth Earl, viii. 104, 120

  Five Boroughs, the, i. 117, 120

  "Five members," the, v. 373-376

  Flambard, Ranulf, i. 192, 199.

  Flamsteed, John, vi. 166

  Flanders,
    its wool trade with England, ii. 107, 226;
    interdict in, 219, 224;
    alliance with Edward III., 226, 227;
    civil strife in, 233;
    joins Edward again, 244;
    struggle with France, 349;
    English gild of Merchant Adventurers in, iii. 155;
    decay of its trade, iv. 281;
    refugees from, in England, 305, 323;
    attacked by France, vi. 124

  Flanders, Lewis le Mâle, Count of, ii. 244, 286

  Flanders, Margaret of, ii. 286

  Fleet, English,
    created by Ælfred, i. 116;
    successes under John, 333, 337;
    under Hubert de Burgh, ii. 2, 3;
    repulsed from Abermenai, 54;
    reduces Anglesea, 109;
    victory at Sluys, 228;
    defeated by Spaniards, 313;
    harries the coast of Britanny, iii. 16;
    Henry VIII.'s, iv. 28, 29;
    Elizabeth's, 360;
    its fight with the Armada, 361, 362;
    declares for Charles I., vi. 59;
    re-created by Vane, 78;
    increased under William III., vii. 105, 107;
    blockades Cadiz and threatens Naples, 223;
    its share in the war with France, viii. 111, 127, 133;
    blockades Malta, 162, 165;
    attacks Copenhagen, 163, 180

  Fleetwood, General, vi. 121, 145, 150

  Flemings
    in Pembrokeshire, ii. 48, 55;
    settle in England under Edward III., 226;
    besiege Bouvines, 234;
    attack France, 244

  Fletcher, Giles, v. 304

  Fletcher, Phineas, v. 304

  Fleurus, battles of, vii. 75; viii. 109

  Flint,
    Richard II. taken prisoner at, ii. 381;
    castle captured by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 11

  Flodden, battle of, iii. 210

  Flood, Henry, viii. 37

  Florence,
    revival of letters at, iii. 189;
    commercial treaty with, iv. 282

  Florence of Worcester, i. 6, 173, 280

  Florida,
    Huguenot colony in, iv. 330;
    ceded to England, vii. 307;
    to Spain, viii. 41

  Flushing pledged to Elizabeth, iv. 349

  Foliot, Gilbert, his letters, i. 173

  Folk, the, i. 19

  "Folk-land," i. 47

  Folk-moot, the, i. 19, 20.

  Fontenoy, battle of, vii. 227

  Ford, John, v. 303

  Forests,
    Assize of the, i. 267;
    Charter of the, ii. 165, 166, 170;
    Law of the, 34;
    commission of, under Charles I., v. 277;
    New, disafforested by Great Charter, i. 352

  Forster, Thomas, vii. 184

  Fort St. George (Madras), vii. 232

  Fort William (Calcutta), vii. 232

  Fort William (Inverness-shire), vii. 52

  Fortescue, Sir Faithful, vi. 3

  Fortescue, Sir John, iii. 86

  Fotheringay, Mary Stuart beheaded at, iv. 352

  Fougères sacked by the English, iii. 62

  Fourmigny, battle of, iii. 62

  _Four Masters, Annals of the_, i. 7

  Fox, Edward, Bishop of Hereford, iii. 336

  Fox, Richard, Bishop of Winchester, iii. 202, 216, 230, 285

  Fox, Charles James,
    leader of the Whigs, viii. 63, 64;
    his jealousy of Shelburne, 65;
    his India Bill, 67, 68;
    his joy at the capture of the Bastille, 84;
    supports the Prince's claim to the Regency, _ib._;
    his Libel Act, 92;
    supports Pitt in giving self-government to Canada, 92;
    Burke's quarrel with him, _ib._;
    returns to office, 174;
    death, 178

  Foxe's _Book of Martyrs_, iv. 3

  France,
    war of William the Conqueror with, i. 190;
    invaded by Otto of Germany, 338;
    regency offered to Simon of Montfort, ii. 40;
    relations with Scotland, 141, 170, 171, 197, 213;
    treaty with Edward I., 170;
    claim of Edward III. to the throne, 208;
    Edward III. declares war with, 213;
    greatness at opening of Hundred Years' War, 215, 216;
    relations with the papacy, 217, 224;
    condition after battle of Poitiers, 264;
    ravaged by Edward III., 265;
    Edward III. renounces his claims on, 266;
    renewal of war with, 285;
    invaded by John of Gaunt, 287;
    relations with Scotland and Flanders, 349;
    truces with Richard II., 354, 368;
    relations with Henry IV., iii. 6;
    with the Percies, 12, 14;
    with Owen Glyndwr, 15, 18;
    civil war in, 16;
    relations with the Council of Henry IV., 23, 24;
      truce with, 26;
    Henry V.'s claims on, 28, 29;
      treaty with him, 35, 36;
    political position at close of Hundred Years' War, 119;
    relations with Maximilian and England, 170, 171;
    growth of its power, 205, 206;
    attacked by English, Germans, and Spaniards, 247;
    Mary Tudor's war with, iv. 108;
    relations with Scotland under Mary of Guise, 169-173;
    growth of the Huguenots in, 174, 206-208;
    Huguenot rising in, 209;
    massacre of Protestants in, 299;
    parties in, on death of Henry III., 369;
    re-united under Henry IV., 373;
    league with England and the Netherlands, v. 60;
    alliance with Holland, 316;
    growth of its power, vi. 113, 114;
    treaty with Cromwell, 117;
    its growing prosperity, 187-189;
    alliance with England and Holland, vii. 187;
    alliance with England and Prussia, 199;
    position after Treaty of Utrecht, 212;
    union with Spain, 213, 214;
      supports her against England, 219;
    alliance with Prussia, 221;
    claims on America and India, 232;
    war with England, 248, 249, 264, 265;
    withdraws from India and America, 307;
    policy in American war, viii. 28;
    league with America and Spain, 30;
    Pitt's treaty of commerce with, 79;
    condition in the eighteenth century, 81, 82;
    volunteers from, in Washington's army, 83;
    revolution in, _ib._, 86, 95, 96, 101;
    attitude towards England, 97-100;
    attacked by the Coalition, 101;
    royalty abolished in, _ib._;
    attacks Holland, 102;
    declares war on England, 103;
    reverses in 1793, 107;
    successes, 109, 110;
    Directory in, 113;
    dealings with Ireland, 121, 123-125;
    attacks Austria and Italy, 122;
    conquers Switzerland, 134, 135;
    takes Rome, 136;
    relations with Russia, _ib._, 137;
    conquers Italy, 139;
      forced to evacuate it, 140;
    Consulate in, 142;
    position after the Peace of Lunéville, 144, 145;
    driven from Egypt, 165, 166;
    invaded by the Allies, 202;
    the Bourbons return to, 203;
    Napoleon's last struggle in, 206;
    literature of, its influence on Chaucer, ii. 359, 360

  Franchise, restriction of, iii. 99-102

  Francis of Assisi, St., ii. 9, 12, 13

  Francis II., Emperor, viii. 96

  Francis I., king of France, iii. 232;
    campaign in Italy, 233;
    treaties with Maximilian and Charles, 234;
    with Henry VIII., 235;
    meeting with Henry, 241;
    struggle with Henry and Charles, 247;
    defeats in Italy, 248, 250;
    prisoner, 250;
    treaties with Henry, 266, 270;
    released, 267;
    intrigues with Lutherans and Papacy, iv. 22;
    attacks Charles, 24;
    negotiations with Scotland, _ib._;
    treaty with Charles, 32;
    with Henry, 33;
    sends explorers to America, 330

  Francis (II.), of France,
    marries Mary Stuart, iv. 53, 169;
    king, 174;
    treaties with Elizabeth and the Scots, 176;
    death, 188

  Franciscans (Grey Friars) in England, ii. 11

  Frankfort,
    English Protestants at, iv. 118, 119;
    their "troubles," 127, 128

  Franklin, Benjamin,
    his plan for the defence of the American colonies, vii. 243;
    sent as their agent to England, 326;
    counsels submission to the Stamp Acts, 330;
    relations with Chatham, viii. 20;
    mission to France, 28

  Frank-pledge, i. 238, 322

  Frederick II., Emperor, i. 293; ii. 7, 27

  Frederick III., Emperor, iii. 146, 147

  Frederick, Elector Palatine,
    marries Elizabeth of England, v. 210;
    king of Bohemia, 217;
    driven out, 220, 226

  Frederick II., king of Prussia, vii. 220;
    alliance with France, 221;
    victory at Chotusitz, 223;
    Silesia ceded to, _ib._;
    seizes Prague, 225;
    driven from Bohemia, _ib._;
    victory at Hohenfriedburg, 227;
    treaty with England, 247, 248;
    seizes Dresden, 248;
    victory at Prague, _ib._;
    defeated at Kolin, _ib._;
    victories at Rossbach, Leuthen and Zorndorf, 263;
    defeated at Hochkirch and Kunersdorf, _ib._;
    at Plauen, 264;
    campaign of 1760, 302;
    share in partition of Poland, viii. 85;
    death, _ib._

  Frederick, Prince of Wales, vii. 218

  Free Companies, the, ii. 281, 282

  Freeholders succeed the villeins, ii. 333

  Freeman, the English, i. 11, 12;
    sinks into the villein, 133, 321

  Fréteval,
    Henry II. and Thomas reconciled at, i. 240;
    Richard I. surprises Philip's treasure at, 263

  Friars, the, ii. 10-14;
    Lord Bacon's comment on, 21;
    their political influence, 22, 23;
    character and effect of their preaching, 24;
    attempt conversion of Jews, 127;
    oppose Wyclif, 335

  Friedland, battle of, viii. 175

  Frisians in Ælfred's fleet, i. 116

  "Frith" of Wedmore, i. 107

  Frobisher, Martin, iv. 331, 361

  Froissart, Jean, ii. 178

  Fuentes d'Onore, battle of, viii. 191

  Fyrd, the, i. 116, 161, 257; ii. 103, 122, 240


  Gage, General, viii. 19

  Gaimar, Geoffrey, i. 174, 247

  Gainsborough, Swein dies at, i. 143

  Gall, St., i. 68

  Gardiner, Stephen, iii. 272, 279;
    Bishop of Winchester, 298;
    expelled from the Council, 348;
    supersedes Norfolk in the king's counsels, iv. 24;
    excluded from the regency, 46;
    imprisoned, 54;
    Chancellor, 74;
    proposes Mary's marriage with Courtenay, 78;
    his aversion to the Spanish match, 80;
    attitude towards Rome, 87;
    tract _On True Obedience_, _ib._;
    change in his attitude, 88;
    threat to the Protestant refugees, 119;
    desires "to go roundly to work" with Elizabeth, 137;
    death, 98

  Garnet, Henry, Provincial of the Jesuits, v. 159

  Garter, Order of the, founded, ii. 252

  Gascony,
    Simon of Montfort's rule in, ii. 38-40;
    seized by Charles IV., 197;
    restored to Edward III., 266;
    resists the hearth-tax, 285;
    barons appeal to France against the Black Prince, _ib._;
    its final loss, iii. 70, 71

  Gates, General, viii. 26

  Gauden, Dr., vi. 72

  Gaunt, Elizabeth, vii. 11

  Gaunt, John of. _See_ John

  Gavel-kind, i. 324

  Gaveston, Piers, ii. 186-188, 190

  Gay, John, vii. 161

  Gemblours, battle of, iv. 312

  Geneva, Calvin at, iv. 126

  Genoa annexed by Napoleon, viii. 172

  Genoese at battle of Crécy, ii. 236, 238

  Geoffry, Archbishop of York, i. 330

  Geoffry of Britanny, son of Henry II., i. 247, 254, 257

  Geoffry of Monmouth, i. 246; ii. 57

  George I., King, vii. 146;
    his temper, 173;
    foreign policy, 187-189;
    death, 200

  George, Duke of Cambridge (George II.), vii. 144;
    his character, 173;
    King, 200;
    his foreign policy, 221, 223, 226, 247;
    victory at Dettingen, 224;
    death, 283

  George III., King, vii. 283;
    his character and aims, 284, 285;
    importance of his action, 285, 286;
    his power, 300;
    relations with Pitt, 305, 316, 328, 331, 339;
    with the Whigs, 305, 316, 328, 339;
    with Parliament, 309;
    urges the expulsion of Wilkes, viii. 6;
    renews the quarrel with America, 13;
    his personal government, 16, 17;
    his rejoicing at the quarrel with America, 19;
    madness, 84, 196;
    refuses emancipation to Catholics, 154, 155, 179

  George, Prince of Wales (George IV.), Regent, viii. 84, 196

  Georgia, colony of, vii. 236, 237

  Gerald of Wales, i. 174, 245, 246, 275, 285

  Germany,
    its relations with the Papacy, ii. 218;
    growth of Protestantism in, iv. 31; v. 175;
    Catholic reaction in, 176;
    attacked by Lewis XIV., vii. 38, 48, 118

  Gervase of Canterbury, i. 174

  _Gesta Stephani_, i. 173

  Gesith, the, i. 50

  Gewissas, i. 34

  Ghent,
    Charters confirmed at, ii. 166;
    revolt at, 233;
    John of Gaunt born at, 293;
    reduced by the French, 349;
    Pacification of, iv. 310, 311

  Gibbon, Edward, viii. 46

  Gibraltar
    ceded to England, vii. 142;
    besieged by the Spaniards, 199;
    Elliott's defence of, viii. 31, 41

  Gifford, Bonaventure, vii. 26

  Gilbert, Sir Humphry, iv. 345

  Gilbert, William, discovers terrestrial magnetism, vi. 131

  Gilbert, William, papal emissary in Ireland, iv. 317

  Gildas, i. 3

  Gilds, i. 298-300, 304;
    of English Merchant Adventurers in Flanders, iii. 155;
    of St. John at Bruges, 154;
    of the Staple, ii. 304;
    of tailors, i. 318;
    of weavers, 317;
    Ordinances of, 274;
    suppression of, iv. 54.
    _See_ Craft-gilds, Merchant-gild

  Ginkell, General, vii. 73

  Giraldus Cambrensis. _See_ Gerald

  Girondists, viii. 96

  Glamis, Patrick Lyon, Master of, v. 124

  Glamorgan
    conquered by Robert Fitz-Hamo, ii. 48;
      by Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, 58

  Glamorgan, Edward Somerset, Earl of, vi. 16

  Glanvill, Ranulf de, i. 255, 259;
    his treatise on law, 174, 244

  Glastonbury,
    St. Dunstan at, i. 121, 123;
    Arthur's tomb at, 247; ii. 57

  Glastonbury, Richard Whiting, abbot of, hanged, iii. 350

  Glencoe, massacre of, vii. 53, 54

  Glendower. _See_ Glyndwr

  Gloucester,
    northmen at, i. 106;
    Henry III. crowned at, ii. 1;
    seized by Edward, 76;
    besieged by Charles I., vi. 13;
      relieved, 14;
    Parliament at, ii. 289, 315

  Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of, iii. 33;
    his marriage with Jacqueline, 38, 42;
    Regent of England, 40;
      set aside, 41;
    Protector, _ib._;
    his love of literature, 40, 41;
    character, 41;
    recovers Hainault, 42;
    struggle with Beaufort, 44;
    represses Lollard risings, 96;
    retires, 58, 59;
    arrest and death, 61;
    his library, 161

  Gloucester, Richard, Duke of. _See_ Richard

  Gloucester, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of, ii. 351, 352;
    head of Continual Council, 353;
    struggle with Richard II., _ib._, 354;
    withdraws from Court, 370;
    arrested, _ib._;
    dies, 371

  Gloucester, Richard de Clare, Earl of, ii. 64-66

  Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare, Earl of,
    supports Simon de Montfort, ii. 67, 70, 71;
    quarrels with him, 75;
    his policy after Evesham, 81, 85, 86, 88;
    occupies London, 89;
    marries Johanna of Acre, 123

  Gloucester, Robert, Earl of. _See_ Robert

  Gloucester, Thomas Spenser, Earl of, iii. 7

  Godolphin, Sidney, vi. 315;
    takes office, vii. 98;
    Lord Treasurer, 112, 113;
    supports Occasional Conformity, 123;
    dismissed, 139

  Glyndwr, Owen, iii. 9-12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22

  Godfrey, Sir Edmondsbury, vi. 294, 295

  Godwine, Earl of Wessex, i. 146-153

  "Goliath, Bishop," i. 248

  Gondomar, Count of, v. 226, 229

  Goodman, Godfrey, Bishop of Gloucester, v. 298

  Goodman, Christopher, iv. 130, 131

  Goodrich, Bishop of Ely, iii. 336

  Gorm, king of Denmark, i. 128

  Government,
    Act of, vi. 122;
    Instrument of, 99, 102, 105

  Gower, Caxton's edition of, iii. 157

  Gowrie, William Ruthven, first Earl of, v. 128, 138

  Grafton, Augustus Henry Fitzroy, third Duke of, vii. 170, 340; viii.
      4, 15

  Grafton's _Chronicle_, iii. 83

  Grammont, Count, _Memoirs_ of, vi. 157

  Granby, John Manners, Marquis of, viii. 15

  Grantmesnil, Ivo of, i. 201

  Granville, John Carteret, second Earl (_see_ Carteret), vii. 225, 226

  Grasse, Admiral de, viii. 40

  Grattan, Henry,
    demands repeal of Poynings' Act, viii. 37;
    leads the Protestants in the Irish Parliament, 79;
    strives for its reform, 117, 118, 120

  Gravelines, battle of, iv. 108

  "Greater and lesser folk," i. 318

  Greek,
    study of, at Canterbury, i. 92;
    revival of, in fifteenth century, iii. 189, 190, 194, 195, 200

  Greene, General, viii. 32

  Greene, Robert, v. 8, 25, 26, 30, 31

  Greenvil, Sir Bevil, vi. 5, 6

  Greenway, Oswald, v. 159

  Greenwich, Ælfheah martyred at, i. 142

  Gregory the Great (Pope),
    his interview with English slaves, i. 53;
    sends Augustine to England, 57;
    his _Pastoral Book_ translated by Ælfred, 114

  Gregory VII., Pope, i. 187

  Gregory IX., Pope, ii. 27

  Gregory XIII., Pope, iv. 299;
    urges Philip to attack Elizabeth, 301;
    heads the Catholic movement, 306;
    plans a descent on Ireland, 315;
    sends Jesuits to England, 317

  Grenada conquered by England, vii. 307

  Grenville, William Wyndham, Lord, viii. 155;
    leader of the Old Whigs, 156;
    refuses office, 171;
    accepts it, 174;
    his Orders in Council, 178;
    fall of his ministry, 179

  Grenville, George,
    adherent of Pitt, vii. 247, 250;
    deserts him, 303, 328;
    head of the Admiralty, 311;
    prime minister, 314;
    character and policy, 316, 317, 320;
    death, viii. 16

  Grenville, Sir Richard, iv. 370, 371

  Gresham, Sir Thomas, iv. 280

  Gresham College, meetings of the Royal Society at, vi. 165

  Grew, Nehemiah, vi. 167

  Grey, John de, Bishop of Norwich, i. 329

  Grey of Ruthin, Reginald, third Lord, iii. 10

  Grey of Wilton, William, thirteenth Lord, iv. 175

  Grey of Wilton, Arthur, fourteenth Lord, v. 12

  Grey, Lady Catharine, iv. 70, 238; v. 121

  Grey, Lady Jane, iv. 69;
    proclaimed queen, 70;
    imprisoned, 71;
    trial, 75;
    beheaded, 84;
    _Chronicle of_, 3

  Grey, Lord Leonard, iii. 330

  Grey, Sir John, iii. 124

  Grey, Sir Thomas, iii. 30

  Grimbald, Abbot of Winchester, i. 113

  Grimston, Sir Harbottle, v. 324

  Grindal, Edmund,
    Protestant exile, iv. 119, 132;
    tutor of Elizabeth, 134;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 290; v. 17;
    Strype's _Life of_, iv. 4

  Grindecobbe, William, ii. 330, 332

  Grocyn, William, iii. 190, 197, 256

  Grosseteste, Robert, bishop of Lincoln,
    his letters, i. 274;
    his Constitutions, ii. 8;
    lectures at Oxford, 14;
    friendship with Bacon, 18;
    remonstrates against policy of Henry III., 34;
    friendship with Simon de Montfort, 41

  Grouchy, Marshal, viii. 208, 210

  Gruffydd ap Llewelyn, prince of Wales, ii. 47

  Gruffydd ap Conan, prince of North Wales, ii. 54

  Guader, Ralf de, i. 189

  Gualchmai, ii. 52, 54

  Gualo, legate, ii. 1

  Guesclin, Bertrand du, ii. 281, 283-287

  Guienne
    seized by Philip the Fair, ii. 142;
    restored to Edward III., 266;
    the Black Prince's ravages in, 259;
    attacked by Du Guesclin, 285;
    attacked by Armagnac, iii. 16;
    conquered by Charles VII., 68, 69.
    _See_ Aquitaine

  Guineas, the first, vi. 223

  Guise, Francis, Duke of, iv. 108, 174, 208, 210, 216

  Guise, Henry, Duke of, iv. 355, 356, 367

  Guise, Mary of. _See_ Mary

  Guisnes
    ceded to Edward III., ii. 266;
    meeting of Henry VIII. and Francis I. at, iii. 241;
    surrendered to France, iv. 108

  Gunpowder, effects of its introduction, iii. 95

  Gunpowder Plot, the, v. 158, 159

  Gurdon, Sir Adam, ii. 86, 87, 94

  Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, v. 275, 276

  Guthlac, St., i. 86

  Guthrum, king of East Anglia, i. 104, 106

  Guy, Bishop of Amiens, i. 6

  Gwent, the, i. 34

  Gwent (in Wales) rises against Eadward the Elder, i. 118

  Gwynn, Nell, vi. 176; vii. 5

  Gyrth, son of Godwine, i. 164

  Gyrwas, i. 117

  Gytha of Hordaland, i. 128


  Hainault, Jacqueline, Countess of, iii. 38, 42, 43

  Hainault, William I., Count of, ii. 198, 217

  Hainault, William II., Count of, ii. 220

  Hakluyt's _Voyages_, v. 10

  Hale, Sir Matthew, vi. 85, 96, 200

  Hales, Sir Edward, vii. 15

  Hales, John, theologian, vi. 134, 136, 137

  Hales, John, leader of Peasant Revolt, ii. 319

  Halidon Hill, battle of, ii. 211

  Halifax (Nova Scotia), its foundation, vii. 242

  Halifax, George Savile, first Viscount, Earl, and Marquis of, vi. 280;
    correspondence with Barillon, 298;
    takes office, 301;
    against the exclusion of James, 307;
    plans for the succession, 308;
    throws out the Exclusion Bill, 320;
    his Bill of Securities, _ib._;
    his Limitation Bill, 323;
    advises calling a new Parliament, 334;
    dismissed from the Privy Council, vii. 14;
    joins William III., 43;
    prays him to accept the Crown, 47;
    Lord Privy Seal, 67;
    opposes the war and the Bank, 88;
    death, 182

  Halifax, George Montague, second Earl of, vii. 242-244

  Hall, Joseph, Bishop of Norwich and satirist, v. 303

  Halle's _Chronicle_, iii. 83

  Halley, Edmund, vi. 166

  Hamilton, James, third Marquis and first Duke of, v. 275, 334-336,
      364;
    supports Charles I., vi. 58, 59;
    defeated at Preston, 62;
    executed, 72

  Hamilton, William, second Duke of, vi. 82, 84

  Hamilton, James, of Bothwellhaugh, iv. 271; v. 122

  Hamilton, General Gustavus, vii. 58

  Hamilton, Colonel, vii. 53

  Hammond, Colonel, vi. 59

  Hampden, Griffith, v. 320

  Hampden, John,
    his youth, v. 320;
    in Parliament of 1621, 321;
    resists forced loan, _ib._, 255;
    in Parliament of 1628, 321;
    his home, 321, 322;
    character, 322;
    friends and kindred, _ib._;
    refuses to pay ship-money, 323;
    trial of his case, 324, 330, 331;
    judgement against him annulled, 352;
    one of the "five members," 373;
    urges the abolition of Episcopacy, vi. 14;
    member of Committee of Public Safety, 1;
    his "Greencoats," 6, 7;
    his services in the war, 6-8;
    fight at Chalgrove, 10;
    death, 11;
    burial, 12

  Hampden, John, the younger, vi. 336

  Hampton Court,
    Wolsey's palace at, iii. 236, 253;
    treaty of, iv. 209;
    conference on religion at, v. 152

  Hanover, convention of, vii. 231

  Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, i. 128, 129

  Harald Hardrada, king of Denmark, i. 161, 162

  Harald Harefoot, king of England, i. 147

  Hardwicke, Philip Yorke, first Earl of, vii. 203, 245

  Hardyng's _Chronicle_, ii. 179

  Harfleur taken by Henry V., iii. 30

  Hargreaves, John, viii. 59

  Harley, Robert, vii. 102;
    Secretary of State, 124;
    intrigues against Marlborough, 132;
    dismissed, 138;
    returns to office, 139;
    rivalry with Bolingbroke, 143;
    countenances the South Sea bubble, 192.
    _See_ Oxford

  Harold, son of Godwine, Earl of East Anglia, i. 150;
    governor of the realm under Eadward, 153;
    campaign in Wales, _ib._, ii. 47;
    his oath to William, i. 159;
    king, 160;
    struggle with Tostig and Harald Hardrada, 161, 162;
    slain at Senlac, 165

  Harrington's version of Ariosto, v. 2

  Harrison, General, vi. 90, 91, 195

  Harry, Blind, i. 275

  Harthacnut, king, i. 147, 148

  Harvey, Gabriel, v. 11, 12

  Harvey, William, v. 52, 55; vi. 131

  Haselrig, Arthur,
    one of the Five Members, v. 373;
    charges against him, vi. 85;
    opposes the dissolution of the Rump, 89;
    in Parliament of 1654, 101;
    denies the legality of the government, 102;
    demands the dismissal of Fleetwood and Lambert, 150

  Hasting, i. 116, 117

  Hastings, battle of, i. 162-165

  Hastings, John, second Lord, claimant of Scotland, ii. 136

  Hastings (of Ashby), William, first Lord, iii. 163, 164

  Hastings, Henry, Lord, iv. 70.
    _See_ Huntingdon

  Hastings, Warren, viii. 31, 50, 51

  Havana conquered by England, vii. 307

  Havre
    surrendered to Elizabeth, iv. 210;
    capitulates to France, 217

  Hawarden Castle captured by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 11

  Hawke, Admiral, vii. 265

  Hawkesbury, Robert Banks Jenkinson, Lord, viii. 157.
    _See_ Liverpool

  Hawkins, John, iv. 283, 361

  Hawley, General, vii. 229

  Haxey, Sir Thomas, ii. 370

  Hayward's _Life of Edward VI._, iv. 3;
    his _Annals_, _ib._, 4

  Heathenism, its struggle with Christianity in England, i. 65, 66,
      70-73

  Heathfield, battle of the, i. 66

  Heaven's Field, battle of, i. 67

  Hebrides, Northmen in the, i. 129

  Hemingford or Heminburh, Walter of, ii. 177

  Hengest, i. 31, 49

  Henrietta Maria of France, wife of Charles I., v. 241, 376; vi. 4

  Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, vi. 192, 257

  Henry I., King, i. 198;
    charter and marriage, _ib._, 199;
    relations with the English people, 198, 200-202;
    with the barons, 202;
    conquers Normandy, _ib._;
    dealings with Wales, ii. 48;
    his rule, i. 203-205;
    administration, 205, 206;
    death, 214;
    literature at his court, 246;
    his charter produced by Langton, 340;
    his charter to London, 304;
      to Oxford, 309;
    "Laws" of, 339

  Henry (II.) Fitz-Empress, i. 226;
    comes to England, 227;
    treaty with Stephen, _ib._;
    king, 228;
    person and character, 229-231;
    results of his rule, 231;
    first measures, 232;
    Welsh war, _ib._; ii. 53, 54;
    extent of his continental dominions, i. 232, 233;
    war of Toulouse, 233;
    relations with the barons, _ib._;
      with the Church, 235-237, 253;
    struggle with Thomas, 236, 237, 239, 240;
    penance at his shrine, 255;
    legal reforms, 235-239, 255, 256;
    reforms of the King's Court, ii. 110, 111;
    visits Arthur's tomb at Glastonbury, i. 247; ii. 57, 58;
    dealings with Ireland, i. 250, 251, 253;
    rebellions against him, 254, 255;
    receives homage of Scotland, i. 255; ii. 134;
    reorganizes the fyrd, 257;
    revolt of his sons, _ib._;
    introduces taxation of personal property, _ib._;
    death, 258;
    charter to Oxford, 309

  Henry III., King,
    crowned, ii. 1;
    crowned again, 5;
    character and policy, 25, 26;
    relations with Rome, 26, 27, 59;
    campaigns in Britanny and Poitou, 29;
    quarrel with Hubert de Burgh, _ib._;
    personal government, 31;
    marriage, 32;
    foreign favourites, _ib._, 33;
    misrule, 34;
    confirms Charter, _ib._;
    second campaign in Poitou, 35;
    quarrels with Simon of Montfort, 39, 40;
    contributes to Matthew Paris's _Chronicle_, 44;
    goes to France, 64;
    forbids summoning of Parliament, _ib._;
    gets the Provisions of Oxford annulled by the Pope, 65;
    tries to surprise Simon at Southwark, 69;
    prisoner, 71;
    vengeance after Evesham, 79, 83;
    dies, 90

  Henry (IV.), Earl of Derby, son of John of Gaunt, ii. 351;
    one of the Lords Appellant, 353;
    position and policy, 369;
    supports Richard II., 370;
    Duke of Hereford, 372;
    quarrel with Norfolk, _ib._;
    exiled, _ib._;
    returns, 373, 379;
    captures Richard II. at Flint, 381;
    king, iii. 2;
    relations with Parliament, 3, 4;
      with the Church, 4;
      with France, 6;
      with the lords, 7;
    plot against him, 8;
    marches against Scotland, 9;
      against Owen Glyndwr, 10, 11;
    imprisons James of Scotland, 15, 16;
    epilepsy, 22;
    struggle with council and Parliament, 23-25;
    vow of crusade, 25;
    death, _ib._

  Henry (V.), son of Henry of Lancaster, ii. 378;
    his campaigns in Wales, iii. 10, 17, 18, 22;
    person and character, 17, 18;
    friendship with Oldcastle, 20, 27;
    policy, 22;
    struggle with the council, 24, 25;
    king, 25;
    coronation, 26;
    first measures, _ib._;
    action against Lollards, 27;
    claims French crown, 28;
    plot against him, 30;
    takes Harfleur, _ib._;
    victory at Agincourt, 30-32;
    alliance with Burgundy, 32;
    conquers Normandy, 33, 34;
    marriage and treaty with France, 35;
    enters Paris, 36;
    captures Dreux, _ib._;
    repulsed from Orleans, _ib._;
    besieges Meaux, _ib._;
    his plans, 37, 38;
    death, 36;
    _Life of_, by Titus Livius, iii. 41;
    authorities for his reign, ii. 179

  Henry VI., king, iii. 39;
    crowned at Paris, 55;
    his court at Rouen, _ib._;
    struggle with York, 68-70;
    idiotcy, 71;
    recovers, 72;
    prisoner, 74, 75;
    escapes to Scotland, 80;
    recaptured, 123, 127;
    sent to the Tower, 127;
    restored, 139;
    imprisoned again, 142;
    death, 145;
    library, 161;
    authorities for his reign, ii. 179, 180

  Henry (VII.) Tudor, iii. 145;
    early life, 165, 166;
    expedition to England, 167;
    goes to France, 171;
    lands at Milford Haven, _ib._;
    victory at Bosworth, 172;
    person and character, 173;
    title to the crown, 174, 175;
    marriage, 175;
    his government, 176-178;
    expedition to France, 179, 180;
    dealings with Ireland, 181, 182;
    with Scotland, 184, 185;
    with Spain, 186-188;
    patronage of Caxton, 161;
    chapel at Westminster, 174;
    death, 198;
    _Lives of_, 83

  Henry (VIII.), son of Henry VII.,
    betrothed to Catharine of Aragon, iii. 187;
    king, 198;
    person and tastes, _ib._, 199;
    protects the New Learning, 202, 204;
    temper, 204;
    policy towards France, 205, 207;
    marries Catharine, 207;
    relations with Ferdinand, _ib._;
    attempt on France, 209, 210;
    treaty with Lewis XII., 232;
    with Charles, 233;
    relations with Charles, 235;
    treaty with Francis, _ib._;
    seeks the Empire, 240;
    designs on France, _ib._;
    interview with Charles, 241;
      with Francis, _ib._;
    league with Charles and the Pope, 243;
    financial difficulties, _ib._, 244, 251, 252;
    new alliance with Charles, 250;
    supports the Papacy, 255;
    his _Assertion of the Seven Sacraments_, _ib._;
    named "Defender of the Faith," _ib._;
    protects Latimer, 263, 265;
    treaties with France, 266, 270;
    joins the Holy League, 266;
    seeks a divorce, 268, 272;
    relations with Anne Boleyn, 267, 270, 273, 274, 276;
      with Parliament, 288;
    forbids the circulation of Tyndale's Bible, 290;
    appeals to the Universities about his divorce, 292;
    claims to be "Head of the Church," 296;
    banishes Catharine from his house, 298;
    league with France, 302;
    threatened with excommunication, _ib._;
    marries Anne Boleyn, 303;
    takes title of "Supreme Head of the Church," 306;
    Cromwell's hold over him, 313, 314;
    marries Jane Seymour, 326;
    dealings with Ireland, 327, 328, 330-333;
    turns to the Lutherans, 335, 336;
    his Articles of Religion, 337, 338;
    attitude towards Protestantism, 345;
    excommunicated, 350;
    marries Anne of Cleves, 351;
    divorces Anne and marries Catharine Howard, iv. 17;
    marries Catharine Parr, 24;
    dealings with Scotland, 25-29;
    alliance with Charles, 27;
    campaign in France, 30;
    treaty with Francis, 33;
    financial difficulties, 34;
    offers aid to the League of Schmalkald, 36;
    drift of his religious policy, 37;
    address to Parliament in 1545, 38;
    his scheme for union of England and Scotland, 52;
    death, 45;
    will, 46, 69

  Henry V., Emperor, i. 208

  Henry VI., Emperor, i. 262

  Henry II., king of France, iv. 53, 65, 174

  Henry III., king of France (_see_ Anjou), iv. 301, 348, 356, 367, 368

  Henry, king of Navarre, iv. 348, 355, 367;
    king of France (Henry IV.), 368;
    victory at Ivry, 369;
    besieges Paris, _ib._;
    besieges Rouen, 371;
    conversion, 372;
    assassinated, v. 178

  Henry, son of Henry II.,
    betrothed to Margaret of France, i. 233;
    crowned, 240;
    rebels, 254, 257;
    dies, 257

  Henry of Almaine, ii. 87

  Henry, Bishop of Winchester, i. 224, 225

  Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, i. 264

  Henry, son of David I. of Scotland, ii. 134

  Henry of Essex, ii. 54

  Henry of Trastamara, ii. 282-284, 287

  Herbert, Arthur,
    carries the invitation to William III., vii. 35;
    Earl of Torrington, 68, 75

  Herbert, George, v. 113, 303

  Herbert, Philip, Lord, vi. 101

  Herbert, Sir Thomas, v. 72

  Hereford, Humfrey de Bohun, Earl of. _See_ Bohun

  Hereford, Henry, Duke of. _See_ Henry IV.

  Hereward, i. 170

  Herford, Nicholas, ii. 336, 339, 341, 343

  Herrick, Robert, v. 303

  Herrings, battle of the, iii. 46

  Hertford, Edward Seymour, Earl of, iv. 41;
    expedition to Scotland, _ib._, 29;
    head of the "new men," 45, 46;
    sends aid to the German Protestants, 50.
    _See_ Somerset

  Hertford, Edward Seymour, first Earl of, v. 121

  Hertfordshire, royalist rising in, vi. 59

  Hexham,
    battle of, iii. 123;
    chroniclers of, i. 173, 243

  Heywood, Thomas, v. 42

  Heyworth Moor, meeting of Yorkshire freeholders at, v. 378

  Higden, Ralph, ii. 356;
    Caxton's edition of, iii. 157

  Highlands,
    rising in, under Montrose, vi. 23;
      under Dundee, vii. 52;
      under Mar, 183;
      under Charles Edward, 228;
    conquest of, 230, 231

  Hild, abbess of Streoneshealh, i. 77

  Hilsey, Bishop of Rochester, iii. 336

  History, English,
    its beginning, i. 31;
    compilation of, under Ælfred, 115;
    new school of, under Henry II., 173, 174, 244;
    revival under Elizabeth, v. 3, 4;
    municipal, materials for, i. 274

  Hoard, the, at Winchester, i. 180, 188

  Hobbes, Thomas, vi. 138-141, 170

  Hoby, Sir Edward, v. 57

  Hoche, General, viii. 121, 123, 124

  Hochkirch, battle of, vii. 263

  Hohenfriedburg, battle of, vii. 227

  Hohenlinden, battle of, viii. 143

  Holinshed's _History_, iii. 83

  Holland,
    its alliance with France, v. 316;
    recognizes Charles II., vi. 70;
    relations with the Commonwealth, 81;
    war with England, 86, 88;
    alliance with Cromwell, 116;
    relations with Charles II., 186, 187;
    quarrel with England, 223, 224;
    war, 225, 226, 238, 239, 242;
    policy of Lewis XIV. towards, 251;
    war with England, 261, 268;
    attacked by Lewis, 268;
    declares war against him, vii. 49;
    acknowledges Philip V. as king of Spain, 101;
    alliance with England, 102, 105;
      with England and France, 187;
      with England and Prussia, viii. 85;
    attacked by France, 102;
    conquered, 110;
    made a kingdom for Louis Buonaparte, 185;
    annexed by Napoleon, 199

  Holland, Henry Rich, first Earl of, vi. 62, 72

  Hollis, Denzil, v. 373;
    member of Committee of Public Safety, vi. 1;
    his policy in 1646, 48, 49;
    ecclesiastical policy, 50;
    his expulsion demanded, 54;
    takes office under Charles II., 301;
    his _Memoirs_, v. 72

  Holmby House, Charles I. seized at, vi. 53

  Holy Island (Lindisfarne), i. 69

  Homildon Hill, battle of, iii. 12

  _Homilies, Book of_, iv. 59

  Honorius III., Pope, ii. 1

  Hood, Samuel, first Baron and Viscount, viii. 109

  Hooke, Robert, vi. 166

  Hooker, Richard, v. 110-112

  Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, iv. 61, 91, 120

  Hopton, Sir Ralph, vi. 5, 6

  Horder (treasurer), the, i. 132

  Horne, Robert, iv. 119

  Horsa, i. 31

  Horse-thegn (constable), i. 132

  Hospitals, suppression of, iv. 34

  Hotham, Sir John, v. 378

  Hough, John, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, vii. 25, 26

  Hounslow, camp at, vii. 16

  Howard of Effingham, Charles, second Lord, iv. 358, 360, 361

  Howard of Escrick, Edward, first Lord, v. 343

  Howard of Escrick, William, third Lord, vi. 336

  Howard, John, viii. 48-50

  Howard, Catharine, iv. 17, 24

  Howard, Frances, Countess of Essex, v. 190-193;
    of Somerset, 193, 205-207

  Howard, Sir Robert, iii. 286

  Howards, the, iii. 286

  Howe, Richard, first Earl, viii. 111

  Howe, John, vi. 210;
    refuses the Indulgence, vii. 22

  Howe, General Sir William, viii. 23, 25

  Howel Dda, Laws of, ii. 46

  Howden, Roger of, i. 174, 244

  Hrolf the Ganger, i. 154, 155

  Hubert Walter, Bishop of Salisbury, i. 262;
    Archbishop of Canterbury and justiciar, _ib._;
    his administration, 264;
    puts down tumult in London, 320;
    resigns justiciarship, 267;
    opposes John, 328;
    dies, 329

  Hubertsberg, treaty of, vii. 306

  Huddleston, Father John, vii. 4

  Hugh, St., Bishop of Lincoln, i. 174, 267

  Hugh, St. (martyr), of Lincoln, ii. 127

  Hugh the Wolf, Earl of Chester, ii. 47

  Huguenots, iv. 174-176;
    supported by Elizabeth, 189;
    growth of their power, 206-208;
    rising of, 209;
    treaty with Elizabeth, _ib._, 210;
      with Catharine, 217;
    defeated at Jarnac, 267;
    at Montcontour, 268;
    massacre of, 299;
    refugees at Canterbury, 306;
    settle in Florida, iv. 330;
    persecuted by Lewis XIV., vi. 317, 335; vii. 13;
    fly to England, 14

  Hull, Charles I. refused admittance to, v. 378

  Humbert, General, viii. 130

  Hundred, the, i. 19, 47

  Hundred-court, the, i. 20;
    preserved by William I., 185, 186;
    grand jury elected in, 264

  Hundred-Rolls, ii. 117

  Hundred Years' War,
    its beginning, ii. 213;
    change in its character, iii. 29;
    its effects, ii. 214, 215; iii. 103, 104

  Huntingdon
    reduced by Eadward, i. 119;
    granted to David of Scotland, ii. 134

  Huntingdon, Henry Hastings, third Earl of (_see_ Hastings), iv. 268

  Huntingdon, John Holland, Earl of (Duke of Exeter), iii. 7, 8

  Huntingdon, Henry of, i. 4, 173, 243

  Huntly, Alexander Gordon, fourth Earl of, iv. 199, 205

  Huntly, George Gordon, fifth Earl of, iv. 226

  Huntly, George Gordon, sixth Earl of, v. 139, 140

  Huntly, George Gordon, second Marquis of, v. 336, 337

  Hus-carls,
    Cnut's, i. 144, 146;
    Harthacnut's, 148;
    Harold's, 163, 164

  Huss, John, ii. 349

  Hussey, John, Lord, iii. 322, 325

  Hutchinson, Colonel, v. 81, 97;
    _Memoirs of_, 72

  Hutten, Ulrich von, iii. 256

  Hwiccas, i. 66

  Hyde, Anne, vi. 221

  Hyde, Edward, v. 362;
    organizes the Royalist party in Parliament, 367;
    joins Charles I. at York, 378;
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, vi. 205.
    _See_ Clarendon

  Hyde, Lawrence, vi. 315, 334

  Hyder Ali, viii. 131


  Iceland colonized by Northmen, i. 129

  Ida the Flame-bearer, i. 52

  Impositions of James I., v. 160

  Income-tax, viii. 137

  Independents, v. 308;
    emigrate to America, _ib._, 310;
    return, vi. 28;
    their petition to Charles II., 200

  India,
    Ælfred's intercourse with, i. 109, 113;
    English settlements in, vii. 232;
    French attack on, 233;
    Portuguese settlements in, 232;
    French withdraw from, 307;
    Warren Hastings' rule in, viii. 31, 32, 50;
    Fox's scheme for its government, 67, 68;
    Buonaparte's designs on, 131, 132

  Indulgence,
    first Declaration of, vi. 219, 220;
      second, 262, 273;
      third, vii. 22;
      fourth, 29, 30

  Ine, king of Wessex, i. 89, 90

  Ingelger of Anjou, i. 209

  Innocent III., Pope,
    quashes elections to Canterbury, i. 329;
    appoints Stephen Langton, 330;
    lays England under interdict, _ib._;
    sentences John to deposition, 333;
    annuls the Charter, excommunicates the barons, and suspends Langton,
        354

  Interdict
    in England, i. 330, 331;
    in Flanders, ii. 219, 224

  "Interim," the, iv. 51

  Inquisition, the, iv. 31, 101

  Inverlochy, battle of, vi. 38

  Iona, i. 69

  Ireland,
    materials for early history of, i. 7, 8;
    its condition after the Danish invasions, 249, 250;
    slave-trade with Bristol, 250;
    bull for conquest of, 251;
    Anglo-Norman invasion of, 252;
    Henry II. in, 253;
    Gerald de Barri's treatises on, 245, 285;
    students from, at Oxford, 291;
    condition after the Norman invasion, ii. 373-375;
    barons of, rise against John, i. 332, 333;
    John in, ii. 375, 376;
    Gaveston in, 187;
    Edward Bruce's expedition to, 376;
    condition under Edward III., 377;
    Richard II. in, 367, 378;
    Henry VII.'s dealings with, iii. 181, 182;
    condition under Henry VIII., 326, 327;
    conquest of, 328-330;
    Henry's government of, 330-333;
    effects of Cromwell's ecclesiastical policy in, 339-342;
    attempts to force the Reformation on, iv. 62, 63;
    condition under Mary, 109-111;
    trade with Bristol, iv. 282;
    condition under Elizabeth, 314, 315;
    rising in, 315, 316;
    condition after the fall of Smerwick, v. 61;
    rising in, under Hugh O'Neill, 62;
    condition under James I., 287, 288;
    Wentworth's rule in, 290-292, 364;
    rising in, 365;
    Charles I.'s dealings with, vi. 16;
    success of Ormond's diplomacy in, 71;
    Royalist successes in, 75;
    Cromwell's campaign in, 76, 77, 79;
    proposal for its union with England, 84, 86;
    its first representation in the English Parliament, 99;
    Cromwell's conquest and settlement of, 109, 110;
    first union with England, 110;
      union dissolved, 180;
    condition under Charles II., 181, 182;
      under James II., vii. 17, 55-59;
    war in, between James and William, 70-72;
    William's conquest of, 73, 74;
    relations with England, viii. 33;
    condition in eighteenth century, 34-36;
    demand for independence, 37, 38;
    made independent, 39;
    Pitt's dealings with, 78, 117, 118;
    peasant risings in, 119;
    Hoche's descent on, 124;
    panic in, _ib._, 125;
    revolt in, 129;
    second union with England, 139

  Ireton, Henry,
    supports the Independents, vi. 45;
    his influence with the army, 51;
    policy, 54, 56, 57, 81;
    Irish campaign and death, 109;
    his corpse outraged, 201

  Irishmen, United, viii. 118-120, 127, 128

  Iron,
    manufactures of, iv. 279;
    mines, i. 30; ii. 107;
    trade in eighteenth century, viii. 54, 57

  Isabel I., queen of Castille, iii. 186, 187

  Isabella of Angoulême, wife of King John, ii. 33

  Isabella of France, wife of Edward II., ii. 186, 197, 198, 207, 208

  Isabella of France, wife of Richard II., ii. 368

  Isabella, daughter of Philip II. of Spain, iv. 372; v. 121

  Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 290

  Italy,
    the Renascence in, iii. 189, 190;
    northern, conquered by Charles VIII. of France, 206;
      by Francis I., 233;
      by Buonaparte, viii. 122, 123, 125

  _Itinerarium Cambriæ_, i. 274

  _Itinerarium Regis Ricardi_, i. 174

  Ivar the Boneless, i. 104

  Ivry, battle of, iv. 369


  "Jack the Carter," ii. 318

  "Jack the Miller," ii. 318

  "Jack Trewman," ii. 318

  Jackson, General, viii. 205

  Jacobins, viii. 96

  Jacobites, vii. 68;
    their plots, 102, 103, 105;
    relations with the Tories, 166-168;
    rise in 1715, 183, 184;
      in 1745, 228-230

  Jacquerie, the, ii. 265

  Jamaica conquered by the English, vi. 117

  James (I.), son of Robert III. of Scotland, iii. 15;
    prisoner in England, 16;
    king, _ib._, 183;
    murdered, 184

  James IV., king of Scots, iii. 184, 185, 210

  James V., king of Scots, iii. 248; iv. 23, 25, 26

  James (VI.) of Scotland,
    born, iv. 231;
    crowned, 259;
    relations with Lennox and the Guises, 346;
    alliance with Elizabeth, 350;
    relations with Essex and Robert Cecil, v. 63;
    king of England, 122;
    his early life, 122-124;
    character and purpose, 124, 125;
    struggle with the nobles, 128;
      with the Kirk, 133, 134, 139-143;
    his _Basilikon Dôron_, 143;
    enters London, 146;
    person and character, 146-148;
    policy, 144, 149, 150;
    gives relief to the Catholics, 150;
    refuses Puritan demands, 152, 153;
    proposes union with Scotland, 154;
    takes title of King of Great Britain, 155;
    his impositions, 160, 161;
    struggle with the Assembly and the Kirk, 164-166;
      with English law, 168;
    his _True Law of Free Monarchy_, 169;
    his theory of monarchy, _ib._, 170;
    financial straits, 172;
    struggle with Parliament, 179-182;
    his own minister, 185, 186;
    sets aside the council, 187;
    his favourites, 188, 189;
    backs the divorce of Lady Essex, 190, 191, 193;
    immorality of his court, 193, 194;
    summons Parliament, 195;
      dissolves it, 196;
    revives benevolences, 197, 198, 229;
    checks the growth of London, 198, 199;
    increases the peerage, 200;
    relations with the judges, 201, 202;
    dismisses Coke, 202;
    policy towards Spain, 211, 212;
      towards Germany and Bohemia, 218, 219;
    revives monopolies, 222;
    quarrel with Parliament, 228, 229;
    tears its Protestation, 229;
    overborne by Buckingham, 235;
    death, 239;
    letters of, iv. 4;
    authorities for his reign, v. 71

  James, duke of York (King James II.), vi. 182;
    Lord Admiral, 193;
    marries Anne Hyde, 221;
    fight with Opdam off Lowestoft, 225;
    conversion, 255;
    fight with De Ruyter, 268;
    owns himself a Catholic and resigns his office, 274;
    second marriage, 278;
    exempted from the act excluding Catholics from Parliament, 297;
    sent to Brussels, 300;
    plans for excluding him from the succession, 306;
    recalled, 310;
    goes to Scotland, _ib._;
    again recalled, 315, 335;
    king, vii. 5;
    his character, _ib._, 6;
    first measures, 6, 7;
    increases the army, 11;
    relations with France, 12;
    refuses to let William visit England, _ib._;
    dealings with the Catholics and the Parliament, 14, 15;
      with the judges, 15;
    establishes a camp at Hounslow, 16;
    restores the High Commission, 18;
    struggle with the Tory nobles, 19-21;
    issues Declarations of Indulgence, 22, 29;
    attempts to pack Parliament, 23, 29;
    dealings with the Universities, 24-26;
    relations with William of Orange, 26-28;
    struggle with the seven bishops, 30, 31;
    reinforces his army with Irish troops, 33;
    sides with Lewis against the Empire and Holland, 36;
    reverses his policy, 39;
    flight, 42-44;
    received as king by Lewis, 49;
    policy in Ireland, 55;
    lands at Kinsale, 56;
    his rule at Dublin, 58, 59;
    returns to France, 71;
    his plans, 77;
    death, 106;
    his _Autobiography_, vi. 157, 158

  James, William, ii. 340

  Jamestown, foundation of, v. 308

  Jarnac, battle of, iv. 267

  Jarrow, i. 91, 92;
    plundered by northmen, 101

  Jeanne d'Arc, iii. 46-55;
    _Procès de_, ii. 179

  Jeffreys, George, Chief-Justice, vii. 10, 19;
    Lord Chancellor, 31

  Jehan le Bel, ii. 178

  Jemappes, battle of, viii. 101

  Jena, battle of, viii. 174

  Jenkins's ear, vii. 217

  Jenkinson, Charles (first earl of Liverpool), vii. 311

  Jenkinson's Travels, v. 9

  Jersey, Charles II. in, vi. 78

  Jerusalem,
    Ælfred's intercourse with, i. 113;
    taken by Saladin, 257

  Jervis, Admiral, viii. 127

  Jesuits,
    Order of, founded, iv. 31, 101;
    missionaries in England, 317-320, 353;
    banished, v. 156;
    return, vii. 16;
    in England, materials for their history, iv. 5

  Jewel, John, iv. 119, v. 106

  Jews in England, i. 187, ii. 125, 130, 284, 307;
    expelled, ii. 131;
    return, vi. 112

  Joan of Arc. _See_ Jeanne

  Joan, daughter of Edward II., ii. 206

  Joan of Kent, wife of the Black Prince, ii. 293, 306

  Jocelin of Brakelond, i. 174

  Johanna, daughter of King John, ii. 54

  Johanna, daughter of Edward I., ii. 123

  John of Beverley, St., i. 77

  John, son of Henry II., i. 258;
    Lord of Ireland, ii. 374;
    struggle with Longchamp, i. 260, 261;
      with Hubert Walter, _ib._;
    king, 268;
    victory at Mirebeau, _ib._;
    loses his French dominions, 269;
    his character, 326-328;
    prepares for war with France, 328;
    Welsh rise against him, 333;
    his continental alliances, _ib._, 334;
    campaigns in Wales, ii. 54, 55;
    struggle with the Church, i. 329-331;
    relations with the baronage, 332, 338;
    sentenced by the Pope to deposition, 333;
    becomes the Pope's vassal, 337;
    absolved, 338;
    struggle with Langton, 340, 341;
    goes to France, 342;
    defeat and return, 343;
    struggle with the barons, 344-347;
    assents to Great Charter, 348, 353;
    gets it annulled by the Pope, 354;
    takes Rochester and marches on the north, _ib._;
    struggle with Lewis of France, 355;
    divides the Pale into counties, ii. 376;
    charter to Oxford, i. 309;
    death, 356;
    his submission to the Pope repudiated by Parliament, ii. 275

  John, king of Bohemia, ii. 236, 239

  John, duke of Normandy, ii. 234, 235;
    king of France, 258;
    Normandy rises against, 259;
    campaign against the Black Prince, 260, 261;
    prisoner, 262, 263;
    death, 281

  John of Austria, Don, iv. 310-312

  John of Cambridge, prior of St. Edmund's, ii. 329

  John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, ii. 287, 293, 294;
    position and policy, 302, 303;
    corrupt administration, 303;
    opposed by the Good Parliament, 305-307;
    action after its dismissal, 307;
    attacks Wykeham, 308;
    supports Wyclif, 309;
    withdraws from court, 311;
    expedition to St. Malo, 315;
    turns against Wyclif, 337, 341;
    goes to Spain, 350;
    intercedes for the Lords Appellant, 354;
    patron of Chaucer, 359;
    Aquitaine granted to, 369;
    death, 373

  John the Litster, ii. 325, 331

  John of London, pupil of Roger Bacon, ii. 16

  John of Northampton, mayor of London, ii. 345, 350

  John the Old Saxon, i. 113

  John of Salisbury, i. 173, 174, 250, 282, 283, 285

  Johnson, Samuel, vii. 204, 217; viii. 11

  Jonson, Ben, v. 42

  Joseph II., emperor, viii. 81, 85, 86

  Journalism, developement of, in the eighteenth century, vii. 298

  Juana of Castille, wife of Philip of Austria, iii. 186, 208

  Judges,
    limitations of their powers, ii. 110, 111;
    circuits of, i. 207;
    organized by Henry II., 256;
    regulated by the Great Charter, 350

  Julius II., Pope, iii. 187, 188, 209, 274

  Julius III., Pope, iv. 86

  Junius, viii. 9

  Junto, the, vii. 85

  Jurors, two classes of, i. 238;
    their functions in the Shire Court, ii. 149

  Jury,
    trial by, its origin, i. 238;
    the Grand, _ib._;
      mode of its election, 264;
    petty, 239

  Justice
    in Old England, i. 12, 13, 49;
    Henry II.'s organization of, 256;
    administration of, in towns, 297;
    provisions for, in Great Charter, 350, 352

  Justices of the Peace, ii. 123

  Justiciar, the, i. 206;
    barons claim right of electing, ii. 38, 60;
    made responsible to Permanent Council, 61

  Jutes, the,
    their early home, i. 10;
    land in Thanet, 31, 32;
    their victories in Kent, 33;
    settlements in Wight and along Southampton Water, 85

  Juxon, bishop of London and treasurer, v. 298


  Ken, Thomas, bishop of Bath and Wells, vii. 4

  Kenilworth,
    the younger Simon de Montfort defeated at, ii. 76;
    Richard of Cornwall prisoner at, 80:
    its garrison refuse to surrender, 86;
      surrender, 89;
    Edward II. in ward at, 199;
    Henry VI. at, iii. 66;
    Ban of, ii. 87-89;
    "Round Table" of, 95

  Kent,
    conquest of, i. 33;
    its rise under Æthelberht, 56;
    conversion, 59;
    relations with Eadwine, 64;
    conquered by Ine, 90;
    submits to Mercia, 91, 98;
    revolts against Offa, 98;
    against William I., 167;
    risings in, ii. 319; iii. 64;
    Complaint of the Commons of, iii. 65, 66;
    resists benevolences, 251;
    Protestant martyrs in, iv. 96;
    iron manufactures in, 279;
    royalist rising in, vi. 59, 61

  Kent, West, kingdom of, i. 83

  Kent, Edmund, earl of, son of Edward I., ii. 206, 207

  Kent, Joan of, ii. 293, 306

  Kent, Thomas Holland, earl of (duke of Surrey), iii. 7, 8

  Kent, the Nun of, iii. 319

  Kerry, rising in, iv. 315

  Ketel of St. Edmund's, i. 313

  Kildare, Gerald Fitzgerald, eighth Earl of, iii. 175, 181, 182

  Kildare, Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth Earl of, iii. 328

  Killiecrankie, battle of, vii. 52

  Killigrew, Tom, vi. 175

  Kilmarnock, William Boyd, fourth Earl of, vii. 230

  Kilsyth, battle of, vi. 41

  King, the, i. 48;
    nature and limits of his power, 49, 132;
    his "comrades," 50-52;
    increase of his importance through struggle with northmen, 131;
    his household officers become officers of state, 132;
    relations with England after loss of Normandy, 326;
    his revenue, ii. 103;
    relations with Parliament, 181-183;
    position at opening of Wars of the Roses, iii. 85, 86;
    the Convention's settlement of his position, vi. 197;
    in Council, i. 256; ii. 110, 111.
    _See_ Monarchy

  King's Bench, court of, ii. 109

  King's County, English settlement of, iv. 111

  King's Court, the, i. 186;
    its organization under Henry I., 206;
    under Henry II., 255; ii. 110, 111;
    regulated by Great Charter, i. 350;
    divided into three tribunals, ii. 109

  Kirk, the Scottish,
    its organization, v. 131, 132;
    relations with the people and the king, 132-136;
    its triumph, 140;
    new struggle with James, 164-166;
    dealings of Charles I. and Laud with, 326, 328, 330, 331;
    re-established, 335; vii. 54

  Kirk o' Field, iv. 244

  Knighthood,
    compulsory, under Edward I., ii. 118, 164;
    under Charles I., v. 277

  Knights,
    their complaint against the barons, ii. 62;
    right of attendance at the Great Council, 145;
    growth of their importance after the Barons' War, 147;
    relations with the Crown, _ib._, 148;
    of the shire, summoned to Parliament, 66, 71, 73, 150, 151;
    result of their election in county court, 151, 152;
    relations with the Lords, 202;
    grouped together with the burgesses as "the Commons," 203;
    petition for due election of, 300

  Knolles's _History of the Turks_, v. 4

  Knollys, Sir Francis, iv. 119, 215

  Knox, John, iv. 113-115, 119, 128;
    denounces Mary Tudor, 130;
    resists Mary Stuart, 201, 212, 218;
    breaks with Murray, 218;
    defies Mary, 220;
    calls for her death, 259;
    his character and influence, v. 130, 131;
    his Liturgy, 327;
    his _History of the Reformation_, iv. 4

  Knyghton, Henry, ii. 177, 179

  Kolin, battle of, vii. 248

  Kunersdorf, battle of, vii. 263


  Labour-rents, i. 322, 323;
    commutation of, 324;
    attempts to revive, ii. 257, 266, 267

  Labourdonnais besieges Madras, vii. 233

  Labourers,
    their position after the Black Death, ii. 255;
    condition under Richard II., 314;
    in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, iii. 109-111;
    under Elizabeth, iv. 275, 276

  Lacy, Henry de, ii. 188

  Lacy, Robert de, i. 201

  Læt, the, i. 14, 15

  Lafayette, Marquis de, viii. 83

  Lagos, battle off, vii. 273

  La Hire, iii. 49

  La Hogue, battle of, vii. 78

  Lake, Gerard, first viscount, viii. 130

  Lambert, General,
    his campaign against Hamilton, vi. 62;
    pursuit of Charles II., 83;
    resigns his command, 121;
    relations with Monk, 150, 151;
    escape and defeat, 152;
    exempted from pardon, 195

  Lambeth,
    Harthacnut dies at, i. 148;
    treaty of, ii. 3;
    the archbishop's chapel at, its transformations, v. 90;
    Laud's restoration of, 299, 300

  Lancashire, reluctance of its boroughs to send members to Parliament,
      ii. 155

  Lancaster, Blanche of, ii. 287

  Lancaster, Edmund, Earl of. _See_ Edmund

  Lancaster, Henry, Earl of, ii. 199, 203, 206

  Lancaster, Henry, first Duke of (_see_ Derby), ii. 258-260, 266

  Lancaster, Henry of (King Henry IV.) _See_ Henry

  Lancaster, Thomas, Earl of, ii. 188, 191, 193-195

  Lancelot, legend of, i. 247

  Land-tenure
    in Old England, i. 14;
    after Norman Conquest, 322-324;
    Edward I.'s legislation concerning, ii. 124, 125

  Land-tax, i. 186, 207, 350; ii. 103

  "Landless man," the, i. 322, 323

  _Lanercost, Chronicle of_, i. 273

  Lanfranc, abbot of Bec, i. 159;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 187;
    crowns William II., 191

  Langdale, Sir Marmaduke, vi. 40

  Langland, William, ii. 178, 179, 269-272

  Langport, battle of, vi. 41

  Langside, battle of, iv. 261

  Langton, Simon, i. 355

  Langton, Stephen, Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 330;
    comes to England, 338;
    relations with John and the Charter, 340, 341;
    suspended, 354;
    goes to Rome, _ib._;
    returns, ii. 3;
    supports Hubert de Burgh, 5;
    his care for the Charter, 6;
    death, 26

  Langton, Thomas, Bishop of Winchester, iii. 196

  Language, English,
    its literary revival in thirteenth century, i. 174;
    effects of Norman Conquest on, 278;
    Henry III.'s proclamation in, ii. 62;
    first used in opening Parliament, 300, 356;
    ordered to be used in law courts, 356; vii. 201;
    supersedes French, ii. 356, 357;
    changes in, in Caxton's time, iii. 159, 160;
    replaces Latin in church service, iv. 49;
    Welsh, ii. 50

  Lansdowne, William Fitzmaurice, first marquis of (_see_ Shelburne)
      viii. 115

  Lansdowne Hill, battle of, vi. 6

  Lathom House, siege of, vi. 19

  Latimer, William Latimer, fourth Lord, ii. 304, 306

  Latimer, George Neville, first Lord, iii. 114

  Latimer, John Neville, third Lord, iii. 323

  Latimer, Hugh, iii. 262-265;
    Bishop of Worcester, 336;
    imprisoned, 347;
    forced to resign, _ib._;
    denounces Warwick's government, iv. 57;
    sent to the Tower, 74;
    burnt, 92

  Latimer, William, iii. 201

  Latitudinarians, the, vi. 133-137, 168

  Laud, William, Bishop of St. David's, v. 293;
    his views and character, 245, 292-294;
    Bishop of London, 266;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 295;
    dealings with the Puritans, 295-297;
    revives the Bishops' Courts, 298;
    restores Lambeth Chapel, 299, 300;
    revives ritual, 300;
    dealings with Prynne, 306, 329;
    relations with Wentworth, 318;
    dealings with Scotland, 325-327;
    arrested, 351

  Lauderdale, John Maitland, second Earl and first Duke of, vi. 181,
      245, 259

  Lauffeld, battle of, vii. 231

  Lauzun, Count of, vii. 71, 72

  Law,
    common, ii. 110, 113;
    ecclesiastical, new code of, iv. 60;
    English, Glanvill's treatise on, i. 174, 244;
    of the Forest, ii. 34;
    Roman, revived study of, i. 282;
    in England, 283;
    influence of its imperial theories, ii. 95, 96

  "Lawmen" of the Five Boroughs, i. 118

  Laws,
    Old English, two classes of, i. 5;
    first put in writing, 59;
    of Æthelred, i. 138;
    of David of Scotland, ii. 171;
    of Eadgar, i. 144;
    of Eadward the Confessor, 150, 199, 340;
    of Henry I., 339;
    of Howel Dda, ii. 46

  Layamon, i. 174, 279

  League
    of Cambray, iii. 206;
    the Catholic, in Germany, v. 177, 232;
    the Holy, iii. 209, 210, 266;
    in France, iv. 348, 355, 356;
    of Neutrals, viii. 162-164;
    of Schmalkald, iii. 336; iv. 36, 50;
    of the Public Weal, iii. 122, 125, 126

  Learning,
    the New, iii. 194-198, 201, 202;
    its protest against war, 210;
    attitude after Wolsey's fall, 289, 291

  Leicester,
    one of the Five Boroughs, i. 117;
    surrenders to Æthelflæd, 118;
    condition under its earls, 297;
    regains right of compurgation, 313-315;
    stormed by Charles I., vi. 38

  Leicester, Robert de Beaumont, Earl of, i. 254

  Leicester, Robert Dudley, Earl of (_see_ Dudley), iv. 205, 349, 357;
      v. 58, 63

  Leighton, John, v. 305

  Leinster, kingdom of, i. 251, 252

  Leipzig, battle of, viii. 202

  Leith
    sacked by the English, iv. 29;
    siege of, 175, 176

  Leland, John, v. 4

  Lennox, Esmé Stuart, Duke of, iv. 346; v. 123

  Lennox, Matthew Stuart, Earl of, iv. 227, 244; v. 123

  Lennox, Margaret, Countess of, iv. 220, 221

  Leo X., Pope, iii. 249, 253, 254

  Leofa, slayer of Eadmund the Magnificent, i. 123

  Leofric, Earl of Mercia, i. 150, 152

  Leopold II., Emperor, viii. 95, 96

  Leopold V., Duke of Austria, i. 261

  Lepanto, battle of, iv. 297

  Leslie, Alexander, v. 335, 337.
    _See_ Leven

  Leslie, David, vi. 79, 80, 83, 84

  "Lesser barons." _See_ Knights

  Levant Company, v. 161

  Leven, Alexander Leslie, first Earl of (_see_ Leslie), vi. 18

  Lever, Thomas, iv. 119, 128, 132

  Lewes,
    battle of, ii. 70, 71;
    Mise of, 71;
    Protestant martyrs at, iv. 96

  Lewis of Bavaria, Emperor, ii. 217-219, 221, 229, 235, 248

  Lewis d'Outremer, king of France, i. 210

  Lewis VII., king of France, i. 233, 254

  Lewis (VIII.) of France,
    the English crown offered to, i. 355;
    successes in England, _ib._;
    defeated, ii. 2;
    withdraws, 3

  Lewis IX., king of France, ii. 35, 40, 68, 90

  Lewis XI., king of France, iii. 119;
    relations with Edward IV., 120, 121;
      with Burgundy, _ib._;
      with Margaret of Anjou, 121;
    negotiations with Warwick, 122, 123;
    struggle with League of the Public Weal, 126, 127;
    again seeks treaty with Edward, 128;
    Edward's negotiations with, 129;
    league against, 130;
    attacks Britanny, 132;
    captured and released by Charles, _ib._;
    stirs Warwick against Edward, 136;
    reconciles Warwick and Margaret, 137;
    alliance with Henry VI., 139;
    treaty with Edward, 150;
    seized Picardy, Artois, etc., _ib._;
    war with Maximilian, 151;
    treaty with him, 170;
    refuses to recognize Richard III., 169;
    death, _ib._

  Lewis XII., king of France (_see_ Orleans), iii. 206, 232

  Lewis XIII., king of France, v. 256

  Lewis XIV., king of France, vi. 188-189;
    his policy, 190, 191;
    alliance with Charles II., 192;
    relations with England and Holland, 227;
    sends his fleet to join the Dutch, 239;
    attacks Flanders, 247;
    his offers to Spain, 249;
    treaty with her, 250;
    policy towards Holland, 251;
    treaties with Charles, 257, 258;
    attacks Holland, 268;
    position after Peace of Nimeguen, 291, 316;
    persecutes the Huguenots, 317, 335;
    new agreement with Charles, 323;
    seizes Strassburg, Casale, and Luxemburg, 335;
    relations with James II., vii. 12;
    revokes the Edict of Nantes, 13;
    relations with James and Holland, 36, 38;
    attacks Germany, 38, 48;
    receives James II. at St. Germain, 49;
    war declared against, by England and Holland, _ib._;
    his fleet, 68;
    sends troops to Ireland, 71;
    his successes, 75, 76;
    turn of his fortune, 79, 80;
    treaty with William, 90, 91;
    seizes the Dutch Barrier, 102;
    acknowledges James's son as king of England, 106;
    attacks Germany again, 118, 119;
    his losses, 131, 134;
    offers terms, 134, 135;
    death, 183, 185

  Lewis XV., king of France, vii. 185, 225

  Lewis XVI., king of France, viii. 28;
    summons the States-General, 83;
    a Constitution forced on, 86;
    attempts flight, 95;
    imprisoned, 101;
    executed, 103

  Lewis XVIII., king of France, viii. 206, 211

  Lexington, skirmish at, viii. 22

  Leyva, Alonzo da, iv. 363

  _Liber Albus_ of London, i. 274

  _Liber de Antiquis Legibus_, i. 274

  _Liber Custumarum_ of London, i. 274

  Lichfield, diocese of, i. 83

  Liége taken by Marlborough, vii. 117

  Liegnitz, battle of, vii. 302

  Ligny, battle of, viii. 207

  Lilburne, John, vi. 28, 75, 78

  Lille reduced by Marlborough, vii. 134

  _Lillibullero_, vii. 33

  Lilly, William, iii. 200

  Limerick, siege of, vii. 72, 73

  Limitation Bill, vi. 323

  Limoges
    welcomes Du Guesclin, ii. 285;
    stormed by the Black Prince, 286

  Limousin restored to Edward III., ii. 266

  Linacre, Thomas, iii. 190, 197, 256

  Lincoln,
    one of the Five Boroughs, i. 117;
    battles of, 219; ii. 2;
    relieved by John, i. 356;
    Jews at, ii. 126, 127

  Lincolnshire
    surrendered to Ecgfrith by Wulfhere, i. 86;
    rising in, iii. 323

  Lindesay of the Byres, Patrick, sixth Lord, iv. 225, 228, 230

  Lindisfarne, i. 69, 79, 87, 97

  Lindiswaras, i. 73, 117

  Linen manufacture, Irish, its foundation, v. 291

  Lisbon, Drake's and Norris's expedition to, iv. 367, 368

  Lisle, Alice, vii. 11, 66

  Lisle, John Dudley, Lord, iv. 41, 46.
    _See_ Warwick

  Litany, the English, iv. 40

  Literature, English,
    its beginnings, i. 77, 93, 96;
    decay during struggle with Danes, 113;
    Ælfred's influence on, 114, 115;
    after Norman Conquest, 242, 243, 246, 278;
    under Henry II., 174, 244-249;
    under John, 278, 279;
    popular, during Peasant Revolt, ii. 318, 319;
    Wyclif's influence on, 338;
    revival in fourteenth century, 357, 358;
    effects of the Renascence on, v. 1-3;
    developement under Elizabeth, 3-11;
    after the Revolution, 154;
    in poetry, 156, 157;
    in prose, 157-161, 292, 293;
    beginning of a new developement with Dryden, 333;
    Welsh, ii. 49-54.
    _See_ Drama

  Lithsmen of London, i. 300

  Liturgy,
    the English, iv. 49;
    Knox's, v. 327;
    the Scottish (Laud's), of 1636, _ib._;
    rejected, 328.
    _See_ Prayer-Book

  Liverpool, its rise, vii. 196

  Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, second Earl of, viii. 196.
    _See_ Hawkesbury

  "Livery," ii. 311, 355; iii. 105

  Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, prince of North Wales, ii. 58;
    alliance with Montfort, 67, 76;
    raid upon Chester, 85;
    defeats Mortimer at Brecknock, 88;
    submits, 89;
    refuses homage to Edward I., 108;
    submission and marriage, 109;
    last revolt and death, 119, 120

  Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, prince of North Wales, ii. 5, 54-58, 108

  Llywarch Hen, ii. 49, 53

  Loans, forced,
    under Richard II., ii. 372;
    demanded by Wolsey, iii. 244;
      by Charles I., 254, 255

  _Loch Cé, Annals of_, i. 7

  Lochleven, Mary Stuart imprisoned at, iv. 257, 258

  Locke, John, vi. 170, 171, 259

  Logic, study of, at Oxford, i. 288

  Lollardry, ii. 339;
    suppressed at Oxford, 341;
    its later phases, 344-348;
    influence in Bohemia, 349;
    attitude under Henry IV., iii. 19, 21;
    sympathy of the Commons with, 21;
    rising under Oldcastle, 27;
    suppression of, 27, 28;
    its lingering existence, 96, 258;
    legal prohibitions of, rescinded, iv. 48;
    its influence in Scotland, 111

  Lodi, battle of, viii. 122

  London,
    Middle-Saxons settle round, i. 54;
      subject to the East-Saxons, 59;
        to Mercia, 85;
    beginnings of its commercial greatness, 138;
    resists Swein, 142;
      submits to him, 143;
        to the Conqueror, 165;
    its election of Stephen, 215;
    expels Matilda, 219;
    its share in religious revival, 222, 223;
    Normans in, 303;
    Henry I.'s charter to, 304;
    relations with Oxford, 308, 309;
    strife of classes in, 318-320;
    meeting of barons at, 340;
    joins the barons against John, 346;
    its liberties secured by Great Charter, 352;
    barons blockaded by John in, 355;
    defies the Pope, _ib._; ii. 8;
    Franciscans settle in, 12;
    Archbishop Boniface driven from, 32;
    supports Earl Simon, 67, 69, 70;
    its charter annulled, 82;
    its mayor imprisoned, 83;
    occupied by Gilbert of Gloucester, 89;
    supports Wyclif, 309, 310;
    threatened by revolted peasants, 321, 322;
    its Lollardry, 345;
    welcomes Henry of Lancaster, 379;
    Richard II. brought captive to, 381;
    betrayed to Edward IV. by Archbishop Neville, iii. 142;
    its petition to Richard III., 168;
    evades Wolsey's demand for a benevolence, 251;
    Protestants in, 347;
    Walloons in, iv. 51;
    unfavourable to Jane Grey's succession, 71;
    its Protestant sympathies, _ib._, 75;
    attitude in Wyatt's rising, 83-85;
    Protestant martyrs in, 96, 144;
    supplies sent from, to refugees abroad, 119;
    its commerce under Elizabeth, 280;
    Flemish settlers in, 281;
    traders of, send help to the Prince of Orange, 324;
    its contribution for defence against the Armada, 358;
    its advance under Elizabeth, v. 77;
    its increase checked, 198, 199, 277;
    its welcome to Prince Charles, 233;
    colonizes Derry, 289;
    sides with the Parliament against Charles I., 372, 375, 376;
    fortified by the Parliament, vi. 4;
    train-bands of, at battle of Newbury, 14;
    Independents and Baptists in, 28;
    petitions against toleration, 37;
    rises against the Parliament, 56;
    Plague at, 226;
    Fire at, 239;
    supports the Exclusion Bill, 308;
    riots in, 322, 323;
    supports Shaftesbury, 334;
    turns against him, 335, 336;
    Huguenot refugees in, vii. 14;
    Methodists in, 208;
    supports Pitt, 256, 305;
    supports Wilkes, 319; viii. 6, 8, 12;
    petitions to George III., 16, 20;
    supports the younger Pitt, 69;
    riot in, 113;
    "barons" of, i. 319;
    "boatmen" of, 308;
    St. Paul's Cathedral in, 223;
    Dooms of, 300;
    Gilds of, 299;
    "lithsmen" of, 300;
    merchants of, _ib._;
    Merchant Adventurers of, iv. 283, 284;
    materials for its municipal history, i. 274;
    portreeves of, i. 303;
    first theatres in, v. 22, 23;
    Tower of, i. 166;
    weavers of, 317, 318;
    Witenagemots at, i. 152, 153

  Londonderry
    colonized, v. 289;
    siege of, vii. 57, 58

  Longchamp, William, Bishop of Ely and justiciar, i. 260, 261, 264

  "Lord" and "man,"
    their mutual relations, i. 133;
    and villeins, i. 323-325

  Lords, House of,
    origin of its judicial character, i. 256;
    its composition under the Houses of Lancaster and York, iii. 94, 99;
    under Henry VIII., iv. 13, 14;
    rejects proposals of the Commons to confiscate Church property, iii.
        15, 22;
    its dealings with the Duke of York's claim to the Crown, 77;
    assents to bills for Church reform, 291;
    its address to the Pope, 297;
    increase in its numbers under the Stuarts, v. 199, 200;
    relations with Crown and Commons in 1641, 360;
    charges Cromwell with treason, vi. 63;
    rejects the ordinance for the trial of Charles I., 66, 67;
    abolished, 67, 69;
    Cromwell's substitute for, 144;
    the Bishops restored to, 204;
    rejects the Exclusion Bill, 320;
    proposal to limit its numbers, vii. 190, 191;
    its dealings with Wilkes, 318;
    rejects Chatham's bill for repeal of the Stamp Acts, viii. 19, 20;
    refuses Catholic emancipation, 196

  Lorne, Archibald Campbell, Lord, v. 326.
    _See_ Argyle

  Lorraine annexed by France, vii. 215

  Lorraine, the Cardinal of, iv. 267

  Lothian ceded to Malcolm I., i. 147

  Loughborough, Alexander Wedderburn, first Lord, viii. 154

  Louisburg, capture of, vii. 266

  Louisiana,
    French settlement in, vii. 242;
    ceded to England, 307

  Louviers captured by Henry V., iii. 33

  Lovat, Simon Fraser, thirteenth Lord, vii. 230

  Lovelace, John, third Lord, vii. 42

  Lowestoft, battle of, vi. 225

  Lowlands, alleged grant of, by Cnut to the Scots, ii. 132

  Lucy, Geoffrey de, i. 345

  Lucy, Richard de, i. 343, 344

  Luddite riots, viii. 194

  Ludlow, General, vi. 109;
    his _Memoirs_, v. 72

  Lumley, John, Lord, iv. 267, 268

  Lumley, Richard, second Viscount, vii. 35, 37

  Lunéville, Peace of, viii. 143

  Luther, Martin, iii. 253-257

  Lutherans
    in England, iii. 262;
    their progress on the Continent, 275;
    importation of their books forbidden, 304;
    Henry VIII.'s alliance with, 336;
    growth in Germany, iv. 31;
    refuse to send representatives to Trent, 35, 36;
    reject Henry VIII.'s advances, 36;
    defeated at Muhlberg, 50;
    take refuge in England, 51;
    again invited to Trent, 193;
    position after Peace of Passau, v. 176

  Lutterworth, Wyclif at, ii. 343, 344

  Luttrell, Colonel, viii. 8

  Luttrell's _Diary_, vi. 158

  Lutzen, battle of, viii. 201

  Luxemburg
    seized by Lewis XIV., vi. 335;
    restored to Spain, vii. 91

  Luxemburg, Francis Henry de Montmorency, Duke of, vii. 75, 79, 80

  Luxemburg, Jacquetta of, iii. 124

  Lydgate, John, iii. 17, 40;
    Caxton's edition of, 157

  Lyly, John, v. 5

  Lymne, its fall, i. 33

  Lynn,
    King John at, i. 356;
    its charter annulled, ii. 79

  Lyons, Richard, ii. 304, 306, 323

  Lyttelton, Lord Keeper, v. 378

  Lyttelton, George, first Lord, vii. 249


  _Mabinogion_, i. 7; ii. 50, 51

  Macclesfield, Fitton Gerard, third Earl of, vii. 37

  Machyn's _Diary_, iv. 3

  Mackay, General, vii. 52

  Madison, James, President of the United States, viii. 198

  Madras,
    its origin, vii. 232;
    razed by Labourdonnais, 233

  Magdalen of Valois, queen of Scots, iv. 23

  Magdeburg, siege of, iv. 64

  Magesætas, i. 66

  Magna Carta. _See_ Charter, the Great

  Mahrattas, vii. 234, 235; viii. 31

  Maidstone, Protestant martyrs at, iv. 96

  Maine
    conquered by counts of Anjou, i. 212;
    by William of Normandy, 158, 213;
    by Philip Augustus, 269;
    ceded to France, ii. 63

  "Maintenance," ii. 311; iii. 105

  Mainwaring, Dr. Roger, v. 254, 267

  Major-Generals, Cromwell's, vi. 107, 118, 119

  Malcolm I., king of Scots, i. 123

  Malcolm II., king of Scots, i. 146

  Malcolm III., king of Scots, i. 170, 197

  Maldon, battle of, i. 139

  Malet, Robert, i. 201

  Malet, William, i. 343

  "Malignants," vi. 47, 83, 99, 194, 201

  Malmesbury, James Harris, first Lord, viii. 121, 123

  Malmesbury, William of, i. 4, 6, 173, 243, 244

  Malplaquet, battle of, vii. 136

  Malta
    conquered by Buonaparte, viii. 132;
    blockaded by a British fleet, viii. 162;
    surrenders, 165

  "Maltôte," ii. 166

  Man, Isle of, conquered by Eadwine, i. 63

  Manchester seized by Eadward the Elder, i. 119;
    its rise, vii. 196

  Manchester, Edward Montagu, second Earl of (_see_ Mandeville),
    head of the Association of the Eastern Counties, vi. 8, 13, 18;
    quarrels with Cromwell, 24, 34;
    retires, 35

  Mandeville, Geoffrey de, Earl of Essex, i. 343

  Mandeville, Edward Montagu, Viscount, v. 354, 358.
    _See_ Manchester

  Manor, the, i. 322-323

  Mans, Le,
    seized by Geoffrey Martel, i. 212;
    rebels against William Rufus, 197;
    Henry II. besieged in, 258;
    surrendered to Charles VII., iii. 62

  Mansel, John, ii. 8

  Mansfield, Count, v. 239

  Mansfield, William Murray, first Earl of, vii. 259

  Mansion, Colard, iii. 155

  Mantes, William the Conqueror wounded at, i. 190

  Manton, Thomas, vi. 252

  Mantua,
    siege of, viii. 123;
    surrenders to Buonaparte, 125

  Manufactures,
    growth of, under Elizabeth, iv. 278-280;
    in Yorkshire, their rise, v. 281;
    English, in eighteenth century, viii. 53, 54, 59, 60;
    altered conditions of, 193, 194;
    of linen, in Ireland, v. 291;
    of silk, at Spitalfields, vii. 14

  Manumissions, sale of, to the king's serfs, i. 325

  Map, Walter, i. 174, 247-249

  Mar, John Erskine, sixth Earl of, vii. 145, 183

  March, Edward, Earl of. _See_ Edward IV.

  March, Roger Mortimer, first Earl of. _See_ Mortimer

  March, Roger Mortimer, fourth Earl of, ii. 378

  March, Edmund Mortimer, fifth Earl of, iii. 2, 13, 14, 28, 30

  Marchers, the Lords, ii. 67, 75, 80-82, 85

  Mardyke, capture of, by the French, vi. 124

  Mare, Sir Peter de la, ii. 306, 307, 311

  Marengo, battle of, viii. 142

  Maria Theresa of Austria, vii. 199;
    queen of Hungary, 220;
    her struggle with Frederick the Great, 221, 223, 225, 246

  Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI., iii. 61;
    her policy, 72, 74;
    flies to Scotland, 75;
    victory at St. Albans, 79;
    defeated at Towton, 80;
    appeals to Lewis XI., 121;
    defeated at Hexham, 123;
    reconciled with Warwick, 137;
    lands at Weymouth, 143;
    captured at Tewkesbury, 145

  Margaret, wife of Malcolm III., king of Scots, i. 170

  Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., wife of James IV. of Scotland, iii.
      185;
    her second marriage, 231;
    strife with Albany, 232, 235, 247, 248;
      with her husband, iv. 22

  Margaret, the "Maid of Norway," ii. 135

  Margaret of York,
    schemes for her marriage, iii. 128-130;
    marries Charles the Bold, 131;
    patroness of Caxton, 155;
    supports Lambert Simnel, 176;
    supports Perkin Warbeck, 180

  Margaret Beaufort. _See_ Beaufort

  Marignano, battle of, iii. 233

  Marisco. _See_ Marsh

  Marlborough, Parliament at, ii. 89

  Marlborough, John Churchill, Earl of (_see_ Churchill), vii. 50, 110;
    campaign in Ireland, 72, 73;
    plans of treason, 77;
    relations with William III. and Anne, 111, 112;
    Captain-General, 112;
    relations with the allies, 113, 114;
    his temper, 115, 116;
    his military genius, 117;
    campaign in 1702, _ib._;
    difficulties with the Dutch, 118;
      Duke, _ib._;
    campaign of 1704, 119-122;
    supports Occasional Conformity, 123;
    relations with the Tories, _ib._, 124;
      with the Whigs, 125;
    troubles with the Allies, 125;
    campaign of 1706, 126, 127;
    difficulties at home, 131-133;
    campaign of 1708, 134;
      of 1709, 136;
    attacked by the Tories, 138, 140;
    his fall, 141;
    imbecility, 182

  Marlborough, Sarah Jennings, Duchess of, vii. 110, 111, 133, 136, 138

  Marlowe, Christopher, v. 26, 27, 29, 31, 35

  Marmont, General, viii. 199

  "Marprelate, Martin," iv. 5, 342, 343

  Marseilles besieged by Charles V., iii. 248, 249

  Marsh, Adam, i. 274; ii. 14, 40, 41

  Marshal, William, first Earl of Pembroke,
    opposes John, i. 328, 329;
    character and position, 345;
    counsels John to accept the Charter, 347;
    his fidelity to John, ii. 1;
    "governor of king and kingdom," 2;
    death, 3

  Marshal, William, second Earl of Pembroke, i. 343; ii. 36

  Marshal, Richard, third Earl of Pembroke, ii. 33, 34

  Marshall, Stephen, v. 354

  Marston, John, v. 42

  Marston Moor, battle of, vi. 19

  Martinengo, Papal nuncio, iv. 193

  Martinico conquered by England, vii. 307;
    restored to France, _ib._

  Marvell, Andrew, vi. 329

  Mary, daughter of Henry VIII.,
    betrothed to the Dauphin, iii. 235;
    to Charles V., 242, 250;
    refuses to conform to Protestantism, iv. 58;
    proclaimed queen, 71;
    enters London, 74;
    person and character, _ib._;
    her aim, 75, 76;
    schemes for her marriage, 78-80;
    relations with Parliament, 81, 85;
    revolt against her, 82-84;
    marriage, 86;
    persecutions, 91, 95, 96, 144;
    disappointment, 98;
    relations with Paul IV., 102, 103, 106;
    refounds abbeys, 106;
    war with Franco, 108;
    dealings with Ireland, 109, 111;
    effect of her persecutions, 118;
    Protestant denunciations of, 130, 131;
    death, 145

  Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, vi. 282;
    plan for her marriage, 283;
    married, 290;
    refuses to reign alone, vii. 46;
    declared queen, 47;
    death, 88

  Mary Stuart
    born, iv. 25;
    proposal for her marriage with Edward VI., 26, 28;
    crowned, 28;
    marries the Dauphin, 53, 169;
    her claims to the English crown, 79, 153;
    treaties with Elizabeth and the Lords, 176;
    returns to Scotland, 196, 201;
    person and character, 196-198;
    policy, 199-201, 208, 211, 212;
    relations with Elizabeth, 205;
    scheme of marriage with Leicester, _ib._;
      with Don Carlos, 206, 213, 221;
    relations with Knox and the Calvinists, 218;
    turns to the Lennoxes, 222;
    proposes to marry Darnley, 223;
    expels Murray, 225;
    demands to be recognized as Elizabeth's successor, 226;
    her plans for Scotland and England, _ib._;
    quarrel with Darnley, 227;
    captured, 229;
    escapes to Dunbar, _ib._;
    returns, 230;
    birth of her son, 231;
    relations with Darnley and Bothwell, 242, 243;
    sanctions the establishment of Protestantism, 245;
    marries Bothwell, _ib._;
    captured by the Lords, 246;
    prisoner at Lochleven, 257, 258;
    forced to resign, 259;
    escapes, 260;
    defeated at Langside, 261;
    flies to Carlisle, _ib._;
    refuses to clear herself, 262;
    plans for her marriage with Arran, 263;
      for her marriage with Norfolk, _ib._, 265;
    plots with Norfolk, 265, 271, 272;
    given in charge to Lord Huntingdon, 268;
    imprisoned at Coventry, 269;
    scheme of marriage with Don John, 310;
    joins Babington's plot, 351;
    trial and death, 352;
    bequeaths her claims to Philip, 353;
    materials for her history, 4

  Mary of Guise, queen of Scotland, iv. 23, 25, 28;
    Regent, 112;
    relations with the Protestants, 118, 168;
    with France, 170;
    death, 176

  Mary of Modena, wife of James II., vi. 278; vii. 29, 34

  Mary, daughter of Henry VII., iii. 232; iv. 46

  Maserfeld, battle of the, i. 71

  Masham, Mrs., vii. 132

  Massachusetts,
    first settlement in, v. 310;
    first charter granted to, 311;
    protests against English taxation, vii. 326;
    proposes a congress, 330;
    its assembly dissolved, viii. 14;
    resists the tea-duty, 15;
    its charter altered, 18;
    takes up arms against England, 19;
    repudiates English government, 23;
    refuses to join in war against England, 203, 204

  Massena, General, viii. 140, 189-191

  Massey, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, vii. 25

  Massinger, Philip, v. 303

  Matilda of Flanders, wife of William the Conqueror, i. 159

  Matilda or Maud (Edith), wife of Henry I., i. 198-200, 246

  Matilda or Maud, daughter of Henry I., i. 208, 213, 219, 220

  Matthias, Emperor, v. 177, 213, 217

  Maud. _See_ Matilda

  Maunay, Sir Walter, ii. 234, 246, 253

  Maurice, Bishop of London, i. 223

  Maurice, Prince, vi. 13, 19, 22

  Maximilian I. of Austria, iii. 147;
    marries Mary of Burgundy, 151;
    war with Lewis XI., _ib._;
    treaty with him, 170;
    supports Perkin Warbeck, 180;
    relations with France, 232-234;
    death, 239;
    policy towards Luther, iv. 18

  May's _History of the Long Parliament_, v. 72

  Mayenne, Charles of Lorraine, Duke of, iv. 367, 372

  _Mayflower_, the, v. 309

  Mayne, Cuthbert, iv. 309

  Maynooth stormed, iii. 328, 329

  Mayor of a town,
    successor of portreeve, i. 303;
    right of electing, 315;
    of Oxford, 310

  Mazarin, Cardinal, vi. 114, 117, 190

  Measures, uniformity of, enacted by Great Charter, i. 352

  Meaux taken by Henry V., iii. 36

  Medina Sidonia, Duke of, iv. 360, 362

  Medway, the Dutch in the, vi. 242

  Melfort, John Drummond, first Earl of, vii. 17

  Melrose,
    Cuthbert at, i. 75;
    _Chronicle_ of, 273;
    English raid on, iv. 29

  Melville, Andrew, v. 133, 136, 138, 164, 165

  Menou, General, viii. 164, 166

  Meonwaras, i. 85

  Merchadé, i. 265

  Merchant Adventurers,
    English, in Flanders, iii. 155;
    of London, iv. 283, 284

  Merchant Associations, iv. 233, 283

  Merchant-gild, the, i. 297, 300;
    struggle with craft-gilds, 316-318;
    of London, 319

  Mercia
    under Penda, i. 66, 70-73;
    submits to Oswiu, 73;
    becomes Christian, _ib._;
    its revival under Wulfhere, 78, 85;
    struggle with Wessex, 90-91;
    greatness under Offa, 97, 98;
    struggle with Wales, ii. 46;
    civil strife in, i. 101;
    conquered by Ecgberht, 102;
    attacked by northmen, 104;
      conquered by them, 105;
    English, under ealdorman Æthelred, 117;
    annexed to Wessex, 118;
    revolts against Eadwig, 137;
    submits to Cnut, 143;
    earldom of, 146

  Mercians, their settlement, i. 37

  Meres, Francis, v. 32, 41, 42

  Merlin,
    legend of, i. 247;
    prophecies of, ii. 57, 119

  Merton, school of, i. 225

  Methodists, vii. 204-207, 210, 211;
    their influence, viii. 46

  Meulan captured by John of Bedford, iii. 39

  Meulan, Robert, count of, i. 201

  Mexico conquered by Cortes, iv. 329

  Michiel, Giovanni, iv. 3

  Middle English
    settle round Leicester, i. 37;
    become Christian, 72

  Middle Saxons, i. 54

  Middlesex elects Wilkes, viii. 5, 7

  Middleton, Thomas, v. 42

  Milan Decree, Napoleon's, viii. 181

  Mile-end, meeting of Richard II. and the Kentishmen at, ii. 322

  Milford Haven, Richard II. lands at, ii. 380

  Millenary Petition, v. 151

  Milton, John,
    his early life, v. 98-101;
    life at Horton, 302, 303;
    early poems, 304;
    _Comus_, 305, 306;
    _Lycidas_, 332;
    views on Church reform, 355;
    change in his ecclesiastical views, vi. 32;
    his sonnet on the Vaudois, 123;
    his _Defence of the English People_, 231;
    his later life, 232, 233;
    _Paradise Lost_, 234-237;
    _Areopagitica_, 305

  Minden, battle of, vii. 264

  Mines in England, i. 30; ii. 107; viii. 57

  Minorca
    ceded to England, vii. 142;
    lost, 248;
    restored, 307;
    ceded to Spain, viii. 41

  Mirebeau, Arthur of Britanny captured at, i. 268

  Mise
    of Amiens, ii. 68;
    of Lewes, 71

  Model, New. _See_ Army

  _Modus Tenendi Parliamentum_, i. 275

  Mogul Empire, the, vii. 234

  Monaco, soldiers of, at Crécy, ii. 236

  Monarchy,
    growth of its strength, iii. 88, 89;
    new policy, 89;
    causes of its power, 111;
    its position at Thomas Cromwell's death, iv. 7;
    changes in its system under Elizabeth, 232;
    James I.'s theory of, v. 169-171;
    change in its relations to the country, 183, 184;
    abolished, vi. 68;
    proposal to restore it, 119-121;
    restored, 152;
    character after the Restoration, 172, 173, 183, 184;
    character since the Revolution, vii. 60;
    its insignificance under the House of Hanover, vii. 172-175.
    _See_ King

  Monasteries, suppression of, iii. 310, 311, 346; iv. 13

  Monasticism,
    revival of, under Henry I. and Stephen, i. 222;
    its condition in the sixteenth century, iii. 309-310

  Monk, George,
    subdues the Highlands, vi. 108;
    commander in Scotland, 150;
    gathers a Convention at Edinburgh, _ib._;
    leads his army to London, 151;
    restores Charles II., 152;
    Duke of Albemarle, 193;
    fight with De Ruyter, 238

  Monmouth, James, Duke of, vi. 176, 309;
    schemes for his succession, 309, 310;
    comes to court, 312;
    ordered to leave London, _ib._;
    returns, 314;
    his progresses, 316, 322;
    arrested, 335;
    flight, 337;
    finds refuge at the Hague, vii. 8;
    his attempt on England, 9;
    defeat and death, 10

  Monmouth, Humfrey, iii. 258

  Monopolies,
    sale of, by Edward III., ii. 291;
    abolished by Elizabeth, v. 58;
    revived by James I., 222;
      by Charles I., 279

  Mons
    surprised by Lewis of Nassau, iv. 298;
    captured by Lewis XIV., vii. 76

  Montacute, Henry Pole, Lord, iii. 349, 350

  Montagu, John Neville, first Lord, iii. 113;
    victory at Hexham, 123;
    relations with Edward IV., 137, 138;
    joins Warwick and Clarence, 139;
    joins Warwick again, 142;
    slain, _ib._

  Montagu, Ralph, vi. 299

  Montague, Anthony Browne, first Viscount, iv. 267

  Montague, Charles, vii. 85;
    founds the Bank of England, 86;
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, 88;
    reforms the currency, 89;
    dismissed, 98;
    impeached, 105

  Montague, Dr. Richard, v. 245, 246;
    bishop of Chichester, 267, 298

  Montcalm, Marquis of, vii. 244, 268, 269

  Montcontour, battle of, iv. 268, 298

  Monteagle, William Parker, fourth Lord, v. 159

  Montereau, Duke John of Burgundy assassinated at, iii. 35

  Montfort, Amaury of (brother of Earl Simon), ii. 35

  Montfort, Amaury of (son of Earl Simon), ii. 83

  Montfort, Eleanor of, ii. 109

  Montfort, Henry of, ii. 81

  Montfort, John of, Duke of Britanny, ii. 233

  Montfort, Richard of, ii. 83

  Montfort, Simon IV. of, earl of Leicester, ii. 35

  Montfort, Simon V. of, ii. 35;
    marriage, 36;
    earl of Leicester, _ib._, 37;
    relations with the barons, _ib._;
    heads reforming party, 37, 38;
    protests against papal exactions, 38;
    Seneschal of Gascony, 38-40;
    quarrel with Henry III., 40;
    regency of France offered to, _ib._;
    character, 40-42;
    returns to England, 59;
    swears to Provisions of Oxford, 63;
    negotiations with France, _ib._;
    breach with Gloucester, 64;
    goes to France, 66;
    returns, 67;
    alliance with Llewelyn, _ib._;
    heads the barons in arms, _ib._;
    rejects the Mise of Amiens, 68, 69;
    victory at Lewes, 70, 71;
    his rule, 71;
    summons the commons to Parliament, 73, 153;
    quarrel with Gloucester, 75;
    last campaign, 76, 77;
    death, 78;
    his corpse mutilated, 80;
    his adherents disinherited, 82, 83;
    miracles at his tomb, 83

  Montfort, Simon, the younger,
    taken prisoner, ii. 70;
    defeated by Edward, 76;
    advances to Alcester, 77;
    falls back to Kenilworth, 80;
    releases his prisoners, _ib._;
    goes to Axholme, 84;
    surrenders to Edward, 85;
    flies over sea, 86

  Montgomery, Roger of, ii. 47

  Montreal taken by Amherst, vii. 269

  Montreuil besieged by the English, iv. 30

  Montrose, James Grahame, fifth earl and first marquis of, v. 337, 342;
    relations with Charles I., 359, 364;
    raises the Highlands for the king, vi. 23;
    his victories, _ib._, 38, 41;
    defeat at Philiphaugh, _ib._;
    executed, 78

  Moore, Sir John, viii. 186, 187

  Moot, the, i. 17, 18

  Morat, battle of, iii. 150

  Moray, Thomas Randolph, Earl of, ii. 213.
    _See_ Randolph

  More, Hannah, vii. 170; viii. 47

  More, Thomas,
    his person and character, iii. 216, 217;
    first appearance in Parliament, 218;
    his home-life, _ib._, 219;
    returns to court, 219;
    his lectures on "The City of God," 197;
    _Life of Edward the Fifth_, 83, 218;
    _Utopia_, 189, 220-228;
    Speaker of the Commons, 245;
    his reply to Luther, 257;
    Chancellor, 286, 289;
    resigns, 299;
    summoned to take the oath of succession, 317;
    refuses, 318;
    sent to the Tower, 319;
    beheaded, 321;
    his reverence for Parliament, iv. 9;
    Roper's _Life of_, iii. 83

  More, Thomas de la, ii. 177

  Moreau, General, viii. 122, 142, 143

  _Moriæ Encomium_, iii. 219

  Morice, Sir William, Secretary of State, vi. 194

  Morkere, Earl of Northumbria, i. 160, 165, 167, 170

  Mornington, Richard Wellesley, second Earl of, viii. 132.
    _See_ Wellesley

  Morrison, Robert, vi. 167

  Mortemer, battle of, i. 158

  Mortimer, Anne, iii. 56

  Mortimer, Edmund, Earl of March. _See_ March

  Mortimer, Sir Edmund, iii. 13

  Mortimer, Roger,
    supporter of Henry III., ii. 64, 72, 85;
    defeated by Llewelyn, 88;
    head of regency, 102

  Mortimer, Roger, conspires against Edward II., ii. 198;
    Earl of March, 206;
    fall, 207

  Mortimer's Cross, battle of, iii. 78

  Morton, John, Bishop of Ely and Archbishop of Canterbury, iii. 167,
      285;
    his "fork," 177

  Morton, James Douglas, fourth Earl of, iv. 114;
    Chancellor of Scotland, 224;
    aids Darnley against Mary, 228;
    flies, 230;
    recalled, 243;
    joins Argyle against Mary, 245;
    beheaded, 346

  Morton, Dr. Nicholas, iv. 265, 268

  Moscow, Napoleon's expedition to, viii. 200

  Mount Badon, battle of, i. 34

  Mountjoy, Charles Blount, eighth Lord, v. 62

  Mountnorris, Francis Annesley, Lord, v. 290

  Moveables, taxation of,
    under Henry II., i. 257;
    under Richard I., 350

  Mowbray, Robert, Earl of Northumberland, i. 192

  Mowbray, Roger, i. 254

  Muhlberg, battle of, iv. 50

  Munster,
    the Fitz-Maurices in, ii. 377;
    English conquest of, iii. 329;
    revolt in, v. 62

  Münster, Bernard van Galen, Bishop of, vi. 227

  Murimuth, Adam of, i. 274; ii. 177

  Murray, James Stuart, first earl of (_see_ Stuart), iv. 199;
    his policy, _ib._, 200, 201, 205;
    opposes the Darnley marriage, 223;
    plots with Elizabeth, 224;
    rises against Mary, _ib._;
    defeated, 225;
    returns, 229;
    pleads for Morton's recall, 243;
    goes to France, 244;
    Regent of Scotland, 259;
    defeats Mary at Langside, 260, 261;
    his charges against Mary, 262;
    murdered, 271; v. 122

  Murray, Sir Robert, vi. 166

  Mysore, sultans of, viii. 131


  Nalson's historical collections, v. 72

  Namur
    surrendered to Lewis XIV., vii. 79;
    taken by the Allies, 88

  Nanci, battle of, iii. 150

  Nantes, Edict of, revoked, vii. 13

  Nantwich, battle at, vi. 18

  Naples
    threatened by an English fleet, vii. 223;
    attacked by Austria, 224

  Napoleon, Emperor of the French (_see_ Buonaparte),
    his scheme for invading England, viii. 170, 171;
    victories at Ulm and Austerlitz, 173;
      at Jena, 174;
      at Eylau and Friedland, 175;
    his Berlin Decree, 176;
    Milan Decree, 181;
    masters Spain, 185;
      military successes there, 187;
    victory at Wagram, 188;
    seeks the alliance of America, 192;
    marches on Russia, 198, 200;
      retreats, 200, 201;
    last victories, 201;
    fall, 203;
    at Elba, 205;
    re-enters France, 206;
    raises an army, 207;
    victory at Ligny, _ib._;
    defeat at Waterloo, 208-210;
    exile to St. Helena, 211

  Narbonne sacked by the Black Prince, ii. 260

  Naseby, battle of, vi. 40

  Nash, Thomas, v. 8

  Nassau, Lewis, Count of, iv. 298

  Navarete, battle of, ii. 284

  Navarre, Anthony of Bourbon, king of, iv. 206

  Navy. _See_ Fleet

  Nectansmere, battle of, i. 89

  Neerwinden, battles of, vii. 80; viii. 107

  Nelson, Horatio, viii. 133, 172, 173

  Nennius, i. 3

  Netherlands,
    their importance to Philip II., iv. 255;
    rise against him, 256, 297, 298;
    alliance with Elizabeth, 311;
    English sympathy with, 323, 324;
    choose the Duke of Anjou for their sovereign, 336-338;
    Parma's successes in, 347;
    prevent Parma joining the Armada, 359;
    league with France and England, v. 60;
    submit to Philip V. of Spain, vii. 101;
    Marlborough's campaigns in, 117, 126, 127;
    invaded by Lewis XV., vii. 225;
    war in, 227, 231;
    conquered by France, viii. 109

  Neufmarché, Bernard of, ii. 47

  Neuss besieged by Charles the Bold, iii. 147-149

  Neville, Alexander, Archbishop of York, ii. 353

  Neville, Anne, iii. 137, 140

  Neville, Cecily, Duchess of York, iii. 73

  Neville, George, Chancellor, iii. 113, 123;
    Archbishop of York, 113;
    deprived of the seals, 130;
    betrays London to Edward, 142

  Neville, Ralph, Earl of Westmoreland, ii. 379

  Neville, house of, iii. 73, 112, 113

  Neville's Cross, battle of, ii. 243

  New Amsterdam, vi. 243

  Newark,
    king John dies at, i. 356;
    siege of, vi. 19

  Newburgh, William of, i. 174

  Newbury, battles of, vi. 14, 23, 24

  Newcastle-on-Tyne
    founded, i. 189;
    occupied by the Scots, v. 342;
    besieged by the Scots, vi. 23;
    Charles I. and the Scots at, 48;
    Parliament at, ii. 160

  Newcastle, William Cavendish, first Earl, Marquis and Duke of, vi. 4,
      18, 19

  Newcastle, John Holies, Duke of, vii. 134

  Newcastle, Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of, vii. 218;
    head of the ministry, 246;
    refuses subsidy to Russia, 247;
    jealous of Pitt, 250;
    resigns, _ib._;
    joins Pitt in forming a ministry, 251;
    opposes Pitt, 304;
    retires, 305

  New England,
    its settlement, v. 310-314;
    return of Independents from, vi. 28;
    its progress, vii. 237, 238

  New Forest, William the Red slain in the, i. 198

  Newgate, Friars at, ii. 12

  New Holland, vii. 277

  New Jersey, vii. 236

  "New men," the, i. 325

  New Orleans, English attempt on, viii. 205

  New River, the, v. 77

  New South Wales, vii. 278

  Newton, Isaac, vi. 167

  Newton, John, viii. 47

  Newtown Butler, battle of, vii. 58

  New York, vi. 243, vii. 236;
    its Assembly suspended, viii. 4, 14

  New Zealand, vii. 278

  Ney, Marshal, viii. 208, 210

  Niagara, Fort, vii. 243, 244, 267

  Nicholas, Sir Edward, vi. 194, 244

  Nigel, Bishop of Ely and treasurer, i. 218, 219

  Nile, battle of the, viii. 133

  Nimeguen, Peace of, vi. 291

  "Nithing," i. 151, 192

  Noailles, Duc de, vii. 224

  Nonconformity, rise of, vi. 27

  Nonconformists,
    their position after 1662, vi. 212, 213;
    attitude in 1665, 229;
    persecution of, _ib._, 230;
    the Cabal's dealings with, 251, 252;
    renewed persecution of, 335;
    position under James II., vii. 22;
      under William III., 64;
      under Anne, 123;
      under Walpole, 198

  Nonjurors, vii. 65

  Nootka Sound, dispute about, viii. 88

  Norfolk, rising of John the Litster in, ii. 325, 331

  Norfolk, John Howard, first Duke of, iii. 286

  Norfolk, Thomas Howard, second Duke of (_see_ Surrey), iii. 287

  Norfolk, Thomas Howard, third Duke of (_see_ Surrey), iii. 270, 287;
    his policy, 291, 294;
    puts down Pilgrimage of Grace, 324;
    arrests Cromwell, 352;
    returns to power, iv. 17;
    hostility to Protestants, _ib._;
    marches against Scotland, 23, 24;
    sent to the Tower, 45;
    leads the royal guard against Wyatt, 83

  Norfolk, Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of, iv. 173;
    plots with Mary Stuart, 265, 266;
    sent to the Tower, 268;
    released, 271;
    again plots with Mary, _ib._, 272;
    arrest and death, 274

  Norfolk, Henry Howard, seventh Duke of, vii. 21, 42

  Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, first Duke of (_see_ Nottingham), ii. 372,
      378

  Norfolk, John Mowbray, third Duke of, iii. 80

  Norfolk, Thomas, Earl of, son of Edward I., ii. 206, 207

  Norfolk, Earls of. _See_ Bigod

  Norham, Parliament at, ii. 136

  Norman, prior of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, i. 223

  Normandy,
    its relation to English history, i. 154;
    settlement of northmen in, 127, 141, 155;
    relations with France, 155, 156;
      with English kings, 156;
    Æthelred II. in, 143, 156;
    condition under William the Conqueror, 158, 159;
    pledged by Robert to William Rufus, 197;
    conquered by Henry I., 202;
    invaded by Lewis VII., 254;
      by Philip Augustus, 263;
    laid under interdict, 263;
    conquered by Philip, 269;
    ceded by Henry III., ii. 63;
    invaded by Edward III., 235;
    conquered by Henry V., iii. 33, 34;
    Bedford's rule in, 55;
    regained by Charles VII., 62;
    historians of, i. 6

  Normans,
    their settlement, i. 155;
    temper, _ib._, 158;
    in England under Eadward the Confessor, 151;
    their flight, 153;
    fusion with the English, 200, 281;
    settlers in London, 303;
    in Wales, ii. 48

  Norris, Sir John, iv. 367, 368

  North, Francis, Lord Keeper, vii. 10

  North, Frederick, Lord, viii. 16, 28, 33

  Northallerton, battle of, i. 217

  Northampton
    reduced by Eadward the Elder, i. 119;
    John's deposition proclaimed at, 333;
    John and Langton at, 340;
    Essex musters the Parliamentary army at, vi. 2;
    Assize of, i. 255;
    battle of, iii. 75;
    councils at, i. 237; ii. 120;
    treaty of, ii. 205

  Northampton, William Bohun, Earl of, ii. 237

  Northampton, George Compton, fourth Earl of, vii. 23

  Northampton, Henry Howard, Earl of, v. 191

  Northampton, William Parr, first Marquis of, iv. 47

  North folk, i. 42

  North Foreland, battles off the, vi. 238, 239

  Northmen,
    their temper, i. 100;
    attack Britain, 101;
    settle in Ireland, 103;
    victorious at Charmouth, _ib._;
    defeated at Aclea, _ib._;
    conquer Northumbria and East Anglia, 104;
    attack Wessex, 105;
    defeated at Ashdown, _ib._;
    invade Mercia, _ib._;
    Alfred's struggle with, 106, 107, 116, 117;
    attack Wessex, 118;
    character of their attack, i. 125, 126;
    fusion with English, 126, 127;
    their work in England, 129;
    settle in Iceland, the Orkneys and Hebrides, _ib._;
    again threaten England, 139;
    victory at Maldon, _ib._;
    bought off by Æthelred, 140;
    mercenaries in England, massacred, 141;
    settlement in Gaul. _See_ Normandy, Normans

  Northumberland
    granted to Henry of Scotland, ii. 134;
    lead-mines in, i. 30

  Northumberland, John Dudley, Duke of (_see_ Warwick), iv. 65, 67-69,
      71

  Northumberland, Henry Percy, first Earl of, ii. 378, 380; iii. 12-14,
      18, 19

  Northumberland, Henry Percy, second Earl of, iii. 28, 73, 74

  Northumberland, Henry Percy, third Earl of, iii. 80

  Northumberland, Henry Percy, fourth Earl of, iii. 138, 172

  Northumberland, Thomas Percy, seventh Earl of, iv. 268, 269, 274

  Northumberland, Henry Percy, ninth Earl of, iv. 353, 358

  Northumbria, kingdom of (Bernicia and Deira), i. 53, 60;
    greatness under Eadwine, 62-63;
    accepts Christianity, 64-65;
    greatness under Oswald, 67;
    Irish missionaries in, 69;
    struggle with Penda, 70-73;
    Cuthbert's mission-work in, 75, 76;
    monasteries in, 76, 77;
    religious strife in, 78-80;
    its power under Ecgfrith, 86, 87;
    struggle with the Picts, 88, 89;
      with Mercia, 89;
    schools and learning in, 91;
    repulses Æthelbald, 96;
    anarchy in, 97;
    submits to Ecgberht, 102;
    conquered by northmen, 104;
    submits to Eadward the Elder, 119;
    incorporated with Wessex and Mercia by Æthelstan, _ib._;
      rises against him, 120;
        against Eadmund, _ib._;
        against Eadwig, 137;
    earldom of, 146;
    revolts against Tostig, 160;
      against William I., 168;
    northern, conquered by the Scots, 146

  Norway, its monarchy founded, i. 128, 129

  Norwich,
    French settlers in, i. 303;
    clothiers of, resist benevolences, iii. 251;
    rising at, against Somerset, iv. 55;
    centre of the worsted trade, 279

  Nothelm, friend of Bæda, i. 94

  Nottingham,
    Æthelred I.'s treaty with the northmen at, i. 104;
    one of the Five Boroughs, 117;
    submits to Eadward the Elder, 119;
    Edward III. arrests Mortimer at, ii. 207;
    Charles I. raises his standard at, vi. 2

  Nottingham, Daniel Finch, second Earl of, vii. 28, 88, 124

  Nottingham, Thomas Mowbray, second Earl of, ii. 353, 370.
    _See_ Norfolk

  Nottingham, John Mowbray, fourth Earl of, iii. 18

  Nova Scotia,
    French settlers driven from, vii. 242;
    ceded to England, 307

  Novi, battle of, viii. 140

  Nowell, Alexander, Dean of St. Paul's, iv. 165

  Noy, William, v. 317

  Noyon, treaty of, iii. 234


  Oates, Titus, vi. 294-297; vii. 66

  Ockham, William, ii. 276

  Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 137

  Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, i. 167, 183, 189, 191

  Offa, king of Mercia, i. 96-98; ii. 46

  Oglethorpe, General, vii. 236

  O'Hara, General, viii. 109

  Ohio Company, vii. 242

  Olaf, king of Norway, i. 140

  Oldcastle, Sir John, ii. 345; iii. 19.
    _See_ Cobham

  Olivares, Count of, v. 233

  Olney, treaty of, i. 143

  O'Neal, Sir Phelim, v. 365

  O'Neill, Hugh, vi. 79

  O'Neill, Hugh, second Earl of Tyrone, v. 61, 62

  O'Neill, Owen Roe, vi. 71

  O'Neill, Shane, iv. 240, 241

  Opdam, Admiral, vi. 225

  Orange, William I., Prince of, iv. 264, 297, 300, 312, 338, 347

  Orange, William II., Prince of, vi. 70

  Orange, William III., Prince of. _See_ William

  "Orangemen," viii. 119, 120

  "Ordainers," the Lords, ii. 188

  Ordeal, trial by, i. 239

  Orderic, i. 6, 173

  Orders in Council,
    Lord Grenville's, viii. 178;
    Canning's, 181;
      repealed, 197

  Ordinance,
    Self-Denying, vi. 35;
    for suppression of blasphemies and heresies, vi. 60

  Ordinances
    changed into statutes, ii. 298;
    of 1311, 189, 191, 194, 195

  Orkneys, Northmen in the, i. 129

  Orleans,
    Henry V. repulsed from, iii. 36;
    siege of, 45, 46;
    relieved, 50, 51

  Orleans, Charles, Duke of, iii. 24, 26, 28

  Orleans, Lewis I., Duke of, iii. 5, 6, 12, 16, 17

  Orleans, Lewis II., Duke of, iii. 170.
    _See_ Lewis XII.

  Orleans, Philip II., Duke of, Regent of France, vii. 185, 213

  Ormond, James Butler, twelfth Earl of, vi. 16;
    invites Charles II. to Ireland, 71;
    besieges Dublin, 76;
    Duke, 182, 193;
    Lord Steward, 193;
    retires, 244;
    returns to the Council, 278;
    supports Parliamentary government, vii. 1

  Ormond, James Butler, second Duke of,
    Warden of the Cinque Ports, vii. 145;
    joins the Pretender, 168;
    tries to stir up a rising, 184;
    commands a Spanish fleet, 187

  Orosius, Ælfred's translation of, i. 114

  Orthez, battle of, viii. 202

  Orvieto, Edward I. visits the Pope at, ii. 102

  Osbern's _Lives of English Saints_, i. 243

  Osgod Clapa, i. 148

  Osney,
    abbey of, i. 284;
    annals of, 273

  Oswald, king of Bernicia, i. 67, 69-71

  Oswiu, king of Northumbria, i. 72, 73, 78-81, 86

  Otterbourne's _Chronicle_, ii. 179

  Otto of Saxony, king of the Germans, i. 264;
    his alliance with John, 334, 337;
    invades France, 338, 342

  Oudenarde, battle of, vii. 134

  Overbury, Sir Thomas, v. 192

  Oxford,
    first mention of, i. 305;
    submits to Swein, 143;
    siege of, 220;
    condition after Norman conquest, 306, 307;
      in the twelfth century, 283-285;
    relations with Abbey of Abingdon, 306, 308;
      with London, 308, 309;
    mayor substituted for reeve, 310;
    town-life, _ib._, 311;
    barons swear fealty to Henry Fitz-Empress at, 227;
    Richard I. born at, 259;
    Friars settle in, ii. 12;
    Charles I. at, vi. 3, 4;
    blockade of, 19;
    "bargemen" of, i. 308;
    charters, 309;
    church of St. Martin, 283, 306, 310;
      of St. Mary, 287, 288;
    Jews at, 307; ii. 127-129;
    merchant-gild, i. 308;
    Parliament at, ii. 60; v. 246; vi. 226, 322, 323;
    Portmannimote of, i. 306, 309;
    Port-meadow, 296, 306;
    Provisions of, ii. 61;
    University of, i. 285-287;
    Gerald of Wales at, 285;
    a papal legate mobbed at, 287; ii. 42;
    study of Aristotle at, i. 288, 293, 294;
    foreign students at, 291;
    revival of theology at, ii. 14;
    Roger Bacon at, 16, 17;
    attitude towards English liberty in thirteenth century, 22;
    Wyclif at, 276;
    ordered to condemn and arrest him, 310;
    condemns him, 337;
    displaces his opponents, _ib._;
    Wykeham's College at, 308;
    Lollardry at, 339-341;
    Duke Humphrey bequeaths his library to, iii. 40, 161;
    decay of scholarship at, 98;
    revival of Greek at, 190, 194, 202;
    Cardinal College at, 202, 262, 265;
    Lutheranism at, 262, 263;
    forced to approve Henry VIII.'s divorce, 292;
    opposes the royal supremacy, iv. 162;
    religious changes in, 304;
    Catholic refugees from, at Douay, 317;
    protests against the Millenary Petition, v. 152;
    declares for passive obedience, 170; vii. 1;
    James II.'s dealings with, 25, 26;
    Jacobitism in, 184;
    Methodists at, 205;
    supports the younger Pitt, viii. 69

  Oxford, Robert de Vere, third Earl of. _See_ Vere

  Oxford, Robert de Vere, ninth Earl of. _See_ Vere

  Oxford, John de Vere, twelfth Earl of, iii. 142, 177

  Oxford, Edward de Vere, seventeenth Earl of, iv. 318, 353, 358

  Oxford, Aubrey de Vere, twentieth Earl of, vii. 23

  Oxford, Robert Harley, Earl of (_see_ Harley), vii. 145


  Packenham, General, viii. 205

  Palatinate,
    war in the, v. 220;
    the Elector driven from, 226;
    reconquered by Gustavus of Sweden, 276

  Pale, the English,
    in Ireland, ii. 374;
      divided into counties, 376

  Pampeluna, siege of, viii. 202

  Pandulf, Cardinal, i. 333, 337, 344; ii. 3, 6

  Papacy, the,
    its relations with England under Henry III., ii. 1, 26-28, 59;
    English protests against its exactions, 38, 42;
    its relations with the Empire, 217, 218;
      with France, _ib._, 224;
      with England under Edward III., 218, 219, 221-223, 273-275, 303;
    complaints of King and Parliament against, 225;
    private arrangements with Edward III., 296;
    beginning of its struggle with Luther, iii. 253;
    England's relations with, under Henry VIII., 288, 289, 297, 299,
        300;
    appeals to, forbidden, 302;
    judicial and financial connexion with, broken, _ib._;
    its jurisdiction transferred to the Crown, 305, 306;
    submission to, under Mary, iv. 88, 89;
    its revival under Paul IV., 99, 100;
    relations with Elizabeth, 155;
    position and policy under Pius V., 250-253;
    under Gregory XIII., 306, 313

  Paris
    rises against the Regent Charles, ii. 264;
    threatened by Edward III., 265;
    Henry VI. crowned at, iii. 55;
    welcomes Charles VII., 56;
    besieged by Henry IV. (of France), iv. 369;
    relieved by Parma, 370;
    rising in, viii. 83;
    surrenders to the Allies, 203;
    Peace of, vii. 307;
    University of, i. 225, 282, 285, 290

  Paris, Matthew, i. 273; ii. 43, 44

  Parish system, its introduction, i. 84

  Parker, Matthew, Archbishop of Canterbury, iv. 165;
    his historical collections, v. 4;
    Strype's _Life of_, iv. 4

  Parker, Bishop of Oxford, vii. 25, 26

  Parkhurst, John, iv. 119

  Parliament,
    its origin, ii. 156;
    first scheme for representation of Commonalty in, 61;
    its summons forbidden by Henry III., 64;
    knights summoned to, 66, 150, 151;
    Commons summoned to, 73;
    representation of boroughs in, _ib._, 120, 121, 152-154;
    finally constituted in 1295, 156;
    attempt to include the clergy in, 157;
    fixed at Westminster, 158;
    Edward I.'s plan for representation of Scotland in, 171;
    relations with the Crown, 181-183;
    protests against papal exactions, 38, 222, 223, 225;
    demands the dismissal of Gaveston, 187;
    deposes Edward II., 199;
    growth of its power, 201;
    internal developement, _ib._, 202;
    grouping of Estates in, 202, 203;
    confirms recognition of Scotch independence, 205;
    progress under Edward III., 230-232;
    two Houses, 231;
    repudiates John's submission to Rome, 275;
    Edward III.'s relations with, 292;
    its assent made necessary for subsidies on wool, 298;
    English language first used in opening, 300, 356;
    petition for due election of knights to serve in, 300;
    acknowledges Richard II.'s claim to the succession, 307;
    refuses to enfranchise serfs, 335;
    struggle with Richard II., 352;
      deposes him, iii. 1;
    recognizes Henry IV., 2;
      its relations with him, 3, 4, 22, 23;
    importance at opening of Wars of the Roses, 86;
    relations with York and Lancaster, 91, 92;
    suspension under Edward IV., 91, 152;
    recognizes Henry VII., 174;
    Henry VIII.'s relations with, 288;
    asks for Church reform, 290;
    forbids appeals to Rome, 302;
    Cromwell's dealings with, iv. 8, 9;
    More's reverence for, 9;
    developement under Henry VIII., 9-11;
    temper under Edward VI., 66;
    packing of, 67, 234;
    relations with Mary, 77, 81, 85;
    advance under Elizabeth, 233-239; v. 56-58;
    "Admonition to," iv. 296;
    suspension under Charles I., 272;
    Pym's theory of, 346, 347;
    schemes of the Convention for its reform, vi. 99;
    first representation of Scotland and Ireland in, _ib._, 101;
    new constitution of, in 1657, 122;
    its strength and its weakness, 301, 302;
    secures control over taxation and the army, vii. 61;
    annual assembly, 62;
    control over trade, 63;
    the Whigs' management of, 176;
    its duration fixed at seven years, 185;
    relations with the people after the Revolution, 286-288;
    need for its reform, 289-292;
    George III.'s dealings with, 308, 309;
    its dealings with Wilkes, 318;
    publication of its debates, viii. 11;
    composition after Union with Ireland, 139;
    at Berwick, ii. 162;
    at Coventry, iii. 75;
    at Gloucester, ii. 289, 315;
    at Marlborough, 89;
    at Newcastle, 160;
    at Norham, 136;
    at Oxford, 60; v. 246; vi. 226, 323;
    at St. Albans, ii. 66;
    at Shrewsbury, 121, 371;
    at Winchester, 66, 80, 82;
    at York, 195;
    the Addled, v. 196;
    the Barebones, vi. 95;
    the Cavalier, 201-204, 207;
    moves to Oxford, 226;
    its attitude towards France, 228;
    relations with Charles, 240, 241;
    rejects a scheme of Protestant comprehension, 252;
    its distrust of the Cabal, 253;
    grants a subsidy for the fleet, 260;
    action in 1673, 271-274;
      in 1674, 280, 281;
    Danby's dealings with, 284-286;
    action in 1678, 290;
      dissolved, 299;
    the Convention, vi. 194;
    its dealings with the regicides, 195, 196;
    settlement of the nation, 196-198;
      of the Church, 199, 200;
    dissolved, 200, 201;
    the Club, iii. 91;
    the Good, ii. 177, 304-307;
    Long, its assembly, v. 349;
    proceedings in 1640, 350, 351;
      in 1641, 352-357, 362, 363, 369-371, 373-379;
    raises an army, 377; vi. 1;
    alliance with Scotland, 14, 15;
    takes the Covenant, 16;
    its ecclesiastical policy, 29, 30;
    negotiates with Charles, 38;
    attitude towards religious liberty, 45, 46;
    proposes terms to the king, 47;
    sets up Presbyterianism, 50;
    negotiates with the Army, 54;
    dealings with heresy, 60;
    negotiates again with Charles, 63;
    struggle with the Army, 65, 66;
    its ruin, 67;
    the Merciless, ii. 354;
    the Rump, vi. 66;
    its unwillingness to dissolve, 74, 77, 81, 84, 87;
    struggle with the army, 89;
    driven out, 90, 91;
    recalled, 149;
    driven out again, 150;
    second return and dissolution, 151;
    the Short, v. 340, 341;
    the Wonderful, ii. 354;
    of 1246, 38;
    of 1248, _ib._;
    of 1254, 73;
    of 1257, 59;
    of 1258, 60;
    of 1259, 64;
    of 1260, _ib._;
    of 1261, 66;
    of 1264, 71;
    of 1265, 72, 73, 75, 80, 82, 153;
    of 1266, 87;
    of 1267, 89;
    of 1275, 103, 107;
    of 1283, 121;
    of 1289, 123;
    of 1295, 143, 154, 156, 157, 160;
    of 1296, 160;
    of 1309, 187;
    of 1311, 189;
    of 1313, 191;
    of 1322, 195, 196;
    of 1327, 199;
    of 1328, 205;
    of 1340, 231;
    of 1341, 232;
    of 1351, 256, 273;
    of 1354, 299;
    of 1365, 274;
    of 1371, 301;
    of 1376, 289;
    of 1377, 310, 311;
    of 1378, 289, 312, 315;
    of 1379, 289, 316;
    of 1380, 316;
    of 1381, 334;
    of 1385, 352;
    of 1386, _ib._;
    of 1388, 353;
    of 1397, 370;
    of 1398, 371;
    of 1399, iii. 1;
    of 1404, 15;
    of 1413, 25;
    of 1426, 91;
    of 1447, 61;
    of 1450, 68;
    of 1451, _ib._;
    of 1454, 72;
    of 1455, 74;
    of 1461, 118;
    of 1484, 168;
    of 1485, 174;
    of 1515, 221;
    of 1523, 244;
    of 1529, 284, 288;
    its action in 1531, 297;
      in 1534, 305;
    of 1539, 345;
    of October 1553, iv. 75;
    of November 1554, 88;
    of 1559, 156, 157;
    of 1563, 214, 215;
    of 1570, 272;
    of 1571, 292;
    of 1581, 319;
    of 1604, v. 153-155, 157, 160-163;
    of 1610, 179-182;
    of 1614, 195, 196;
    of 1621, 220, 221, 225, 227-229;
    of 1624, 235;
    of 1625, 245-247;
    of 1626, 249, 253;
    of 1628, 259-264, 268-271;
    of 1640, _see_ Parliament, Long and Short;
    of 1654, vi. 101-106;
    of 1655, 117, 123;
    reassembles in 1658, 143;
      its strife with Cromwell, 144;
      dissolved, 145;
    of 1659, 148, 149;
    of 1660, _see_ Parliament, the Convention;
    of 1661, _see_ Parliament, the Cavalier;
    of 1679, vi. 299, 300, 304-306, 308;
    of 1680, 312, 319, 320;
    of 1681, 322-324;
    of 1685, vii. 7, 9, 14, 15, 23;
    of 1687, 23;
    of 1689, 60-67, 69;
    of 1690, 69, 88;
    of 1695, 88, 89;
    of 1699, 97, 98;
    of 1701, 101-105, 107;
    of 1702, 107;
    of 1705, 125;
    of 1714, 168;
    of 1768, viii. 4, 7, 8, 11, 12;
    of 1784, 69;
    Irish, of 1634, v. 291, 292;
      its condition in eighteenth century, viii. 35;
      rejects free trade with England, 79, 118;
      action in question of the Regency, 138;
    Scottish, accepts Calvinism, iv. 187;
    the Drunken, vi. 180;
    of 1543, iv. 26, 28;
    of 1563, 218;
    of 1566, 228, 229;
    of 1568, 260;
    of 1703, vii. 127.
    _See_ Commons, Lords, Statutes

  Parma, Alexander Farnese, prince of, iv. 312, 337, 347, 348;
    prepares to invade England, 356;
    his difficulties, 357, 359;
    raises the siege of Paris, 370;
    of Rouen, 371;
    dies, 373

  Parpaglia, Papal Legate, iv. 191, 192

  Parr, Catharine, iv. 24, 56

  Parry, William, iv. 350

  Parsons, Robert, iv. 318, 320, 345

  Partition Treaty, the first, vii. 93;
    second, 96

  Passau, treaty of, iv. 65; v. 175

  _Paston Letters_, ii. 180; iii. 104, 154

  Paterson, William, vii. 86

  Patrick, St., i. 68

  "Patriots," the, vii. 203, 204, 218

  Paul III., Pope, iii. 350; iv. 21, 35, 51, 64

  Paul IV., Pope (_see_ Caraffa), iv. 99, 101;
    his demands on England, 102, 145;
    on Elizabeth, 155, 156;
    death, 160

  Paul, emperor of Russia, viii. 137, 160-163

  Paulinus, St., i. 64, 67

  Pavia, battle of, iii. 250

  Peasant Revolt, the, ii. 319-332;
    its results, 333-335

  Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 118

  Pecock, Bishop of Chichester, iii. 96

  Pedro the Cruel, king of Castille, ii. 282-284

  Peerage, increase of,
    under James I., v. 200;
    under Charles I., _ib._;
    under Charles II., 201.
    _See_ Lords

  Peerage Bill, vii. 190, 191

  "Peep o' Day Boys," viii. 119

  Pelham, Henry, vii. 218, 226, 246, 250

  Pembroke
    surprised by the Royalists, vi. 59;
    besieged by Cromwell, 61;
    surrenders, 62

  Pembroke, William Herbert, first Earl of, iv. 65, 66, 70, 108, 268

  Pembroke, William Herbert, third Earl of, v. 43

  Pembroke, Thomas Herbert, eighth Earl of, vii. 23

  Pembroke, Earls of. _See_ Clare, Marshal, Tudor, Valence

  Pembrokeshire, Flemish and English settlement in, ii. 48

  Pencrych, Richard, ii. 357

  Penda, king of Mercia, i. 66, 70-73

  Pengwern becomes Shrewsbury, i. 98

  Peninsular War, viii. 186-188, 190, 191, 199, 200, 202

  Penn, William, vi. 335

  Pennsylvania, settlement of, vi. 335; vii. 236

  Penry, John, iv. 343

  Pepys, Roger, vi. 203

  Pepys, Samuel, vi. 174;
    his _Diary_, 157

  Perceval, Spencer, viii. 189, 195, 196

  Perche, Thomas, count of, ii. 2

  Percies, the, ii. 378, 379; iii. 12

  Percy, Henry (Hotspur), ii. 378;
    constable of North Wales, iii. 10;
    recovers Conway, 11;
    defeats the Scots at Homildon Hill, 12;
    plots against Henry IV., 13;
    slain, 14

  Percy, Thomas, v. 158

  Périgord restored to Edward III., ii. 266

  Perrers, Alice, ii. 304, 306, 307

  Perth,
    Convocation at, ii. 171;
    Protestant riot at, iv. 169

  Perth, James Drummond, fourth Earl of, vii. 17

  Peru conquered by Pizarro, iv. 329

  Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, vii. 189

  Peter of Savoy, ii. 32

  Peterborough
    founded, i. 86;
    burnt by northmen, 104

  Peterborough, John Mordaunt, first Earl of, vii. 37

  Peterborough, Charles Mordaunt, second Earl of, vii. 126, 131, 133

  Peters, Hugh, vi. 28, 66

  Petition
    of the Commons to Henry VIII., iii. 290;
    the Millenary, v. 151;
    of Right, 260, 261;
      accepted by Charles I., 263

  Petitions
    to the king in Parliament, ii. 159;
    changed into Statutes, iii. 90;
    Triers of, ii. 159

  "Petitioners" and "Abhorrers," vi. 314

  Petrarch, his influence on Chaucer, ii. 360

  Petre, Father Edward, vii. 20

  Petty, Sir William, vi. 132, 169

  Pevensey, William the Conqueror lands at, i. 162

  Phelips, Sir Robert, v. 247, 248

  Philadelphia, Congress at, viii. 19

  Philip I., king of France, i. 190

  Philip Augustus, king of France,
    leagues with Richard against Henry II., i. 258;
    quarrels with Richard, 259, 260;
    plots with John, 261;
    struggle with Richard, 263, 264;
    conquers Normandy, 268, 269;
    conquers Aquitaine, 270;
    charged by the Pope to depose John, 333

  Philip III., king of France, ii. 102

  Philip IV., the Fair, king of France,
    his relations with Scotland, ii. 141, 160;
    seizes Guienne, 142;
    truce with Edward, 168;
      treaty, 170;
    relations with the papacy, _ib._, 217, 224;
    his _Royal Book_, iii. 161

  Philip VI., of Valois, king of France, ii. 209;
    relations with Pope and Emperor, 218;
    attacks the Agénois and occupies Cambray, 219;
      withdraws, 220;
    supports Charles of Blois in Britanny, 233;
    offers to restore Aquitaine, 235;
    defeated at Crécy, 237-239;
    fails against Edward and the Flemings, 244

  Philip, son of Charles V. (Philip II. of Spain), iv. 79, 80;
    king of Naples, 86;
    marries Mary, _ib._;
    person and manners, _ib._;
    policy in England, 89, 90;
    lord of Burgundy and king of Spain, 98;
    leaves England, _ib._;
      returns, 107;
    war with France, 108;
    policy towards Elizabeth, 137, 138, 154, 159, 175;
      hopes for her conversion, 190;
    compels Pius IV. to recall Parpaglia, 192;
    urges Elizabeth to send envoys to Trent, 194;
    sends help to the Guises, 209;
    delays the Bull for deposition of Elizabeth, 214;
    turns towards Mary Stuart, 222;
    relations with Mary and the Pope, 254, 255;
    difficulties in the Netherlands, 255, 256;
    refuses to join the French against England, 268;
    his rule, 326-328;
      character, 328;
      policy, _ib._, 329;
    king of Portugal, 335;
    assembles the Armada, 344;
      despatches it, 356;
    designs on France, 369;
    sends troops to the Leaguers, 371;
    sends a second Armada, v. 60;
    supports Irish rising, 62

  Philip IV., king of Spain, vi. 190

  Philip, Duke of Anjou, vii. 99, 100;
    king of Spain (Philip V.), 101, 141, 142, 186

  Philip, Archduke of Austria, iii. 170, 186, 208

  Philiphaugh, battle of, vi. 41

  Philippa of Hainault, wife of Edward III., ii. 198, 245-247

  Philippines,
    the, conquered by England, vii. 307;
    restored to Spain, _ib._

  Philpot, John, ii. 312

  Picardy
    ceded to Burgundy, iii. 120;
    restored to France, 122

  Pichegru, General, viii. 110

  Pickering, Sir Gilbert, vi. 325

  Picts, the, i. 30;
    defeated by Hengest and Horsa, 32;
    own Ecgfrith's supremacy, 88;
      defeat him at Nectansmere, 89

  _Piers the Ploughman_, ii. 178, 269-272

  Pilgrim Fathers, the, v. 308-310

  Pilgrimage of Grace, iii. 323

  Pillnitz, conference at, viii. 96

  Pinkie Cleugh, battle of, iv. 53

  Pitt, William, vii. 204, 220;
    opposes treaty with Russia, 247;
    his relations with Walpole and the Pelhams, 249-251;
    his lofty spirit, 251-255;
      patriotism, 255-257;
      eloquence, 257-259;
      statesmanship, 259, 260;
    supports Frederick II., 262, 263;
    his place among English statesmen, 275, 276;
    rejects peace with France and supports Frederick, 302;
    plans of war in 1761, 303;
    resigns, 304;
    relations with George III. and the Whigs, 316;
    denounces the Stamp Act, 327;
    recalled to office, 328;
    again withdraws, 329;
    supports American resistance, 331;
    demands repeal of the Stamp Act, 331;
    his policy towards America, 337;
    attacks the Declaratory Act, 338;
    forms a ministry, 339, 340.
    _See_ Chatham

  Pitt, William, the younger, viii. 52, 62;
    his Reform Bill, 63, 64;
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, 65;
    new scheme for parliamentary reform, 67;
    First Lord of the Treasury, 69;
    his temper, 70-72;
      statesmanship, 72-74;
    his plans of parliamentary reform, 75, 76;
    finance, 77;
    treaty of commerce with France, 79;
    advocates abolition of slave-trade, _ib._;
    resists the prince's claim to the regency, 84;
    attitude towards the French Revolution, 84, 86, 88, 89, 91, 95;
    supports Fox's Libel Act, 92;
    gives a constitution to Canada, _ib._;
    endeavours to maintain peace, 102, 103;
    position after the declaration of war, 104, 105;
    his financial difficulties, 113, 114;
    negotiations with France, 121, 126;
    introduces the Income-Tax, 137;
    effects union with Ireland, 138, 139;
    his position during the war, 148-151;
    revives plans for Catholic emancipation in Ireland, 152-155;
    retires, 148, 155;
    opposes Russia, 161;
    returns to office, 170;
    subsidizes a league against Napoleon, 172;
    death, 173, 174

  Pittsburg, vii. 266

  Pius II., Pope, iii. 162

  Pius IV., Pope,
    his policy, iv. 190, 191;
    recalls the council to Trent, 192, 193;
    forbids attendance of Catholics at English Church service, 214

  Pius V., Pope, iv. 226, 250;
    relations with Philip II., 254, 256;
    sends envoys to the English Catholics, 264;
    issues a Bull for deposition of Elizabeth, 265;
    sanctions the plans of Mary and Norfolk, 272

  Pius VI., Pope, viii. 136

  Pizarro, Francisco, iv. 329

  Place Bill, vii. 62, 82

  Plassey, battle of, vii. 261, 262

  Plattsburg, English attempt on, viii. 205

  Plauen, battle of, vii. 264

  Pleas,
    Common, Court of, ii. 109;
    of the Crown, i. 264; ii. 109

  Plymouth (Massachusetts), its foundation, v. 310

  Poinet, Bishop of Winchester, iv. 119, 129, 131

  Poitiers
    captured by Henry of Derby, ii. 235;
    battle of, 261-263

  Poitou,
    Henry III.'s campaign in, ii. 35;
    ceded to France, 63;
    recovered by Henry of Derby, 243;
    restored to Edward III., 266;
    won by Du Guesclin, 287

  Poland,
    contested election to the throne of, vii. 214;
    partitions of, viii. 85, 108

  Pole, Sir Geoffrey, iii. 349

  Pole, John de la, Earl of Lincoln, iii. 176

  Pole, Michael de la, Earl of Suffolk, ii. 350-353

  Pole, Reginald, iii. 333, 349; iv. 20;
    his attainder reversed, 88;
    received as Legate, _ib._;
    chief minister, 98, 99;
    suspected by the Pope, 102;
    deprived of the legation, 145;
    dies, 165

  Pole, Sir Richard, iii. 349

  Pole, William de la. _See_ Suffolk

  "Politicals," the, iv. 139, 141-143

  Poll-tax, ii. 311;
    renewed under Richard II., 316;
    resistance to, 319, 321;
    in 1641, v. 363

  Pont-de-l'Arche seized by Henry V., iii. 33

  Pontefract,
    Thomas of Lancaster executed at, ii. 195;
    Richard II. imprisoned at, iii. 7;
    Pilgrimage of Grace at, 323, 324

  Ponthieu,
    Harold wrecked on coast of, i. 159;
    Charles IV. demands homage of Edward II. for, ii. 197;
    granted in full sovereignty to Edward III., 266;
    seized by Charles V., 285

  Pontigny, St. Edmund of Canterbury at, ii. 42

  Pontlevoi, battle of, i. 212

  Pontoise,
    negotiations between France and England at, iii. 35;
    relieved by Talbot, 56

  Poor Laws, Elizabeth's, iv. 276, 277

  Pope, Alexander, vii. 204, 217, 294-297

  Popish Plot, the, vi. 294-298, 311, 313

  Porter, John, v. 82

  Portland, Breton descent on, iii. 16

  Portland, William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, third Duke of, viii. 104,
      180, 189

  Portland, Richard Weston, Earl of. _See_ Weston

  Port Mahon taken by the French, vii. 248

  Portmannimote, the, i. 296;
    of Oxford, 306, 309

  Porto Bello, capture of, vii. 219

  Portreeve, the, i. 315;
    of London, 303

  Portsmouth,
    Robert of Normandy lands at, i. 200;
    Bishop Moleyns of Chichester slain at, iii. 63

  Portsmouth, Louise de Quérouaille, Duchess of, vi. 176, 315, 321; vii.
      5

  Portugal
    annexed to Spain, v. 335;
    its colonies, 330, 336;
    revolts, vi. 190, 192;
    joins the Grand Alliance, vii. 119;
    conquered by Napoleon, viii. 185;
    Wellesley's campaigns in, 186-188, 190, 191

  Portugal, Don Antonio of, iv. 367

  "Post-nati," v. 162, 163

  Powell, Vavasour, vi. 223

  Powys
    conquered by Offa, i. 97;
    annexed by Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, ii. 55

  Poynings, Sir Edward, iii. 181

  Pragmatic Sanction, the, vii. 199, 200

  Prague
    seized by Frederick II., vii. 225;
    battles of, v. 220; vii. 248

  Prayer, Book of Common, iv. 49, 59;
    set aside, 76;
    adopted in Scotland, 118;
    retained in Essex, 144;
    restored, 158;
    declared schismatic by the Pope, 214;
    bill for its reform, 292;
    restored again, vi. 208;
    Scottish, of 1636, v. 327, 328

  Preachers, "poor," ii. 317, 335;
    unlicensed, forbidden by Convocation, iii. 20, 21

  Presbyterianism in England
    under Elizabeth, iv. 294, 296;
    attempts to establish it, v. 58;
    its relations with Puritanism, 59, 60;
    established in Scotland, 137, 138, 140, 335;
    the Long Parliament's relations with, 354, 355; vi. 14, 50;
    re-established in Scotland, vii. 54

  Presbyterians,
    their hostility to the sectaries, vi. 45;
    dominant position after the Restoration, 193;
    Clarendon's policy towards, 207;
      Charles II.'s, 209

  Press,
    censorship of, iv. 343;
    liberty of, established, vi. 305;
    growth of its power, viii. 11-13

  Preston,
    battle of, vi. 62;
    surrender of Jacobites at, vii. 184

  Prestonpans, battle of, vii. 228

  "Pride's Purge," vi. 65

  "Priests, Simple," ii. 317, 339

  Primers, English, iv. 40

  Printing, introduction of, iii. 155

  Prior, Matthew, vii. 138

  Privy Seals, Elizabeth's, iv. 233

  Proclamations, James I.'s use of, v. 168, 172

  "Protector," office of, offered to Oliver Cromwell, vi. 100

  Protestantism,
    its area at accession of Pius V., iv. 249, 250;
    in England, its advance under Edward VI., 59;
    effects of its spread among the people, 121, 122;
    growth under Elizabeth, 292, 302-305;
      position at her death, v. 107-109;
    in Germany, growth after Peace of Passau, 175;
    progress in Scotland, iv. 168, 169

  Protestants, English,
    More's dealings with, iii. 289;
    their outrages, 343-345;
    their position after Cromwell's fall, iv. 15, 16;
    their outrages, 91, 97;
    martyrdoms, 91-96, 144;
    growth of extreme views among, 119, 120;
    attitude towards the royal supremacy, 122;
    position under Elizabeth, 149;
    refugees, their leaning to Calvinism, 127;
    strife among, _ib._, 128;
    their writings, 128, 129, 133;
    foreign, in England, 51, 74, 305;
    German, Union of, v. 177

  Protestation of the Parliament to James I., v. 228, 229

  Provisions
    of Oxford, ii. 61;
    of Westminster, 62;
      annulled by the Pope, 65;
    by Mise of Amiens, 68

  Prussia,
    its alliance with England and France, vii. 199;
    attacked by Napoleon, viii. 174;
    rises against him, 201

  Prynne, John, v. 305, 306, 329, 352

  Pucklechurch, Eadmund the Magnificent slain at, i. 123

  Puiset, Hugh, Bishop of Durham, i. 260

  Pulteney, William, vii. 204

  Puritanism,
    its beginnings, iv. 132, 133, 339;
    its relations with Presbyterianism, v. 59, 60;
      with Calvinism, 86-88;
    growth among the people, 88, 89;
    among the clergy, 89, 90;
    relation to politics, 91-93;
    influence on society, 94-95;
      on conduct, 95-97;
    its relation to culture, 97, 98;
    its narrowness, 101, 102;
    its extravagance, 102-104;
    its persecution of witches, 106, 107;
    its doctrinal bigotry, 115;
      hatred of sectaries, 116-118;
      wish for reforms, 118, 119;
    its ideal of the State, vi. 127, 128;
    its political failure, 129;
      reaction from, _ib._, 130, 142, 143, 162-165;
    its fall, 153;
    its after-results, 154;
    its epic, 235-237

  Puritans,
    Elizabeth's relations with, iv. 339, 340;
    their temper at her death, v. 109, 110;
    appeal to James I., 151;
    Laud's dealings with, 295-297;
    their panic, 301, 302;
    migration to America, 310-314, 319, 320;
    Charles II.'s dealings with, vi. 208, 209

  "Purveyance," ii. 290, 298

  Pym, John, v. 262, 344, 345;
    his political theory, 346, 347;
    genius, 347, 348;
    carries Strafford's impeachment, 350;
    proposals for Church reform, 354;
    one of the "five members," 373;
    member of Committee of Public Safety, vi. 1;
    resists the abolition of Episcopacy, 14;
    agrees to the adoption of the Covenant, 14, 15;
    dies, 17;
    outrage on his corpse, 201


  Quakers,
    persecution of, vi. 230, 231;
    their settlement in Pennsylvania, 335

  Quarles, Francis, v. 303

  Quebec, capture of, vii. 267, 268

  Queen's County, English settlement of, iv. 111

  Queensberry, William Douglas, first Duke of, vii. 19

  Quiberon, battle of, vii. 265

  Quinci, Saher de, Earl of Winchester, i. 343

  "Quo warranto," ii. 117


  Rachentege, i. 221

  Radnor captured by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 10

  Rædwald, king of East Anglia, i. 59, 62

  Rahere founds St. Bartholomew's Priory, i. 223

  Raikes, Robert, viii. 47

  Raleigh, Sir Walter,
    discovers Virginia, iv. 345; v. 307;
    sent to the Tower, 215;
    last expedition, _ib._, 216;
    death, 216;
    his _History of the World_, 4;
    _Lives of_, iv. 5

  Ralph Niger, i. 174

  Ramillies, battle of, vii. 126

  Randolph, Sir Thomas, ii. 204, 210.
    _See_ Moray

  Rastadt, treaty of, vii. 141

  Ratæ (Leicester), i. 37

  Ratisbon, conference at, iv. 101

  Ravenspur,
    Henry of Lancaster lands at, ii. 379;
    Edward IV. lands at, iii. 141

  Ray, John, vi. 167

  Reading, John Cook, abbot of, hanged, iii. 350

  Redman, Robert, his _Life of Henry V._, ii. 179

  Reeves
    of towns, i. 296;
    of royal demesnes, summoned to council at St. Albans, 339

  Reformation
    in England, iv. 58-60;
    in Ireland, 62, 63.
    _See_ Calvinism, Calvinists, Huguenots, Lutherans, Protestantism,
        Protestants

  Reginald, sub-prior of Canterbury, chosen archbishop, i. 329

  Religion
    of the old English people, i. 22-24;
    Christian, _see_ Christianity, Church;
    revival in twelfth century, 222

  Remonstrance,
    the Grand, v. 369, 370;
    of the Council of officers, vi. 64;
    on the State of the Realm, v. 262, 264

  Renascence, the, iii. 188-190, 195;
    its influence on English literature, v. 1-3

  Réole, La, captured by Henry of Derby, ii. 234

  Representation,
    principle of, in old England, i. 20;
    parliamentary, its origin, ii. 149, 150

  Representation, Humble, of the army, vi. 53

  Repyngdon, follower of Wyclif, ii. 340, 341

  Requesens, governor of the Netherlands, iv. 300, 301, 310

  Reresby's _Memoirs_, vi. 157

  "Reserves," Papal, ii. 28

  Revolution,
    the English, its effect on the monarchy, vii. 60;
      on Parliament, 62;
      on the Church, 63, 64;
    the French, _see_ France

  Reynolds, Edward, Bishop of Norwich, vi. 200

  Rhode Island, settlement of, v. 313

  Rhys ap Tewdor, Prince of South Wales, i. 246; ii. 48

  Rich, Edmund. _See_ Edmund

  Richard (I.),
    born at Oxford, i. 259;
    rebels against Henry II., 254, 258;
    crowned, 259;
    releases the Scot-king from homage, ii. 134;
    crusade, i. 259, 261;
    prisoner, 261;
    homage to the emperor, 262;
    return, _ib._;
    exactions for his ransom, 350;
    character, 263;
    struggle with Philip Augustus, _ib._, 264;
    builds Château-Gaillard, 265-267;
    death, 267, 268

  Richard (II.), son of the Black Prince, ii. 303;
    his claim to the succession questioned, 306;
    acknowledged by Parliament, 307;
    king, 311;
    dealings with the Peasant Revolt, 322-324, 331, 332;
    his person, character, and policy, 350, 351;
    opposition to the Parliament, 352;
    struggle with Gloucester, 353, 354;
    his rule, 354, 355;
    campaign in Ireland, 367, 378;
    change in his temper, 368;
    marries Isabella of France, _ib._;
    quarrel with the Commons, 370, 371;
    tyranny, 372;
    seizes Lancastrian estates, 373;
    second expedition to Ireland, 379;
      return, 380;
    betrayed to Henry of Lancaster, 381;
    deposed, iii. 1;
    prisoner at Pomfret, 7;
    death, 8;
    burial, 28;
    authorities for his reign, ii. 178, 179

  Richard (III.), Duke of Gloucester,
    patron of Caxton, iii. 161, 163;
    expedition to Scotland, 163;
    Protector, 164;
    King, _ib._;
    rising against him, 167;
    his policy, 168, 169, 171;
    death, 172

  Richard, Earl of Cornwall, ii. 36;
    heads reforming party among the barons, 37;
    king of the Romans, 71;
    taken prisoner, _ib._;
    spared, by the younger Simon, 80;
      intercedes for him, 85

  Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy, i. 155, 156

  Richard Fitz-Neal. _See_ Fitz-Neal

  Richard of Devizes, i. 174

  Richardson, Chief-Justice, v. 297

  Richardson, Samuel, vii. 297

  Richelieu, Cardinal, v. 274, 338, 339

  Richelieu, Duke of, vii. 248

  Richmond, Edmund Tudor, Earl of, iii. 165

  Richmond, Margaret, Countess of. _See_ Beaufort

  Ridley, Bishop of London, iv. 91

  Ridolfi, Robert, iv. 265, 272, 273

  Right,
    Claim of, vii. 51;
    Petition of, v. 260, 261, 263

  _Rights, Book of_, i. 8

  Rights, Declaration of, vii. 46, 47, 60

  Rishanger, chronicler, i. 273, 274

  Rising, Castle, Queen Isabella imprisoned at, ii. 207

  Rivers, Sir Richard Woodville, first earl (_see_ Woodville), iii. 127,
      134

  Rivers, Anthony Woodville, second earl (_see_ Scales), iii. 161-163

  Rivoli, battle of, viii. 125

  Rizzio, David, iv. 222, 226, 228

  Robartes, Richard, first Lord, v. 200

  Robartes, John, second Lord, vi. 220, 301

  Robert I., king of Scots. _See_ Bruce

  Robert (II.), Steward of Scotland, ii. 213;
    king, 286

  Robert III., king of Scots, iii. 7, 15, 16

  Robert (the Magnificent), Duke of Normandy, i. 157

  Robert, son of William the Conqueror, i. 190;
    Duke of Normandy, 191;
    pledges Normandy to Rufus, 197;
    goes on crusade, _ib._;
      returns, 198;
    invades England, 200, 201;
    defeated at Tenchebray, 202

  Robert, Earl of Gloucester, i. 216, 217, 219, 220

  Robespierre, Maximilien, viii. 96

  Robinson, John, v. 308

  Rochelle, La,
    protests against severance from France, ii. 280;
    surrendered to France, 287;
    attempt to relieve it, 291;
    revolts, v. 256;
    siege of, _ib._;
    English expeditions to, 259, 263;
    surrenders, 266, 274

  Roches, Peter des, Bishop of Winchester and justiciar, i. 341, 347;
      ii. 32, 34

  Rochester
    surrenders to William the Red, i. 192;
      to John, 354;
    diocese of, i. 83

  Rochester, Robert Carr, Viscount, v. 190-193.
    _See_ Somerset

  Rochester, Laurence Hyde, Earl of (_see_ Hyde), vii. 2, 20, 98

  Rochester, John Wilmot, second Earl of, vi. 162

  Rockingham, Charles Watson Wentworth, second Marquis of,
    prime minister, vii. 329, 331;
    relations with Burke, 332;
    resigns, 339;
    draws away from Chatham, viii. 16;
    returns to office, 38;
    opposes reform, 64;
    death, 65

  Rocroi, battle of, vi. 190

  Rodney, Admiral, viii. 40

  Roger, Bishop of Salisbury and justiciar, i. 215, 218, 219

  Roger (the Poor), chancellor, i. 218

  Rogers, John, iv. 91, 95

  _Roland, Song of_, i. 163

  Romance, growth of, i. 246, 247

  Romances,
    the French, ii. 357;
      their influence on Chaucer, 360

  Rome,
    disappearance of its influence in England, i. 41, 44, 45;
    returns with Augustine, 58, 59;
    Ælfred's intercourse with, 113;
    stormed by the Duke of Bourbon, iii. 269

  Romorantin taken by the Black Prince, ii. 261

  Romsey, Abbey of, i. 199

  Rookwood of Euston Hall, iv. 308

  Roper's _Life of More_, iii. 83

  Rosbecque, battle of, ii. 349

  Roses, Wars of the,
    their beginning, iii. 77;
    their results, 86, 87

  Ross, General, viii. 204

  Rossbach, battle of, vii. 263

  Rostopchin, Count, viii. 162

  Roucoux, battle of, vii. 231

  Rouen,
    William I. dies at, i. 190;
    besieged by Lewis VII., 254, 255;
    Arthur murdered at, 268;
    siege of, by Henry V., iii. 33, 34;
    Jeanne d'Arc burnt at, 54;
    Henry VI.'s court at, 55;
    besieged by Henry IV. of France, iv. 371;
    relieved by Parma, _ib._

  Rouergue restored to Edward III., ii. 266

  "Roundheads," v. 372

  Roundway Down, battle of, vi. 6

  Royal Society, its beginnings, vi. 132, 165, 166

  Rudolf II., Emperor, v. 177

  Runnymede, i. 347

  Rupert, Prince,
    captures Brentford, vi. 3;
    his raid on Buckinghamshire, 9, 10;
    Bristol surrenders to, 12;
    defeated at Marston Moor, 19, 22;
    commands royalist ships, 71, 78;
    struggle with Blake, 78;
    sea-fights with the Dutch, 238, 277;
    returns to the Council, 278;
    his "drops," 166

  Rushworth's collection of State papers, v. 72

  Russell, John, Lord, iv. 47, 56.
    _See_ Bedford

  Russell, William, Lord,
    head of the Country party, vi. 272;
    correspondence with Barillon, 298;
    takes office, 300;
    supports the Exclusion, 306;
    resigns, 315;
    beheaded, 337;
    his attainder reversed, vii. 66

  Russell, Edward,
    signs the invitation to William III., vii. 35;
    goes to the Hague, 37;
    commands the fleet, 77;
    victory at La Hogue, 78;
    member of the Junto, 85, 88;
    resigns, 98;
    impeached, 105

  Russia,
    its alliance with Maria Theresa, vii. 246;
    treaty with George II., 247;
    invaded by Napoleon, 198, 200

  Russia Company, iv. 284

  Ruthin burnt by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 10

  Ruthven, Patrick, third Lord, iv. 225, 228, 230

  Rutland, Edward, Earl of (Duke of Albemarle), iii. 7, 8.
    _See_ Albemarle

  Rutland, Edmund, Earl of, iii. 78

  Rutland, John Manners, ninth Earl of, vii. 23

  Ruyter, Admiral De,
    his fights with Blake, vi. 88, 115;
      with Monk and Rupert, 238;
      with the Duke of York, 268

  Rye-House plot, vi. 337

  Rygge, Robert, chancellor of Oxford, ii. 340

  Ryswick, Peace of, vii. 90, 91


  Sacheverell, Dr., vii. 137

  Sackville, Lord John, vii. 265

  Sæberht, king of the East Saxons, i. 59

  St. Albans,
    risings of townsfolk at, ii. 84, 322, 325, 330-332;
    battles at, iii. 73, 74, 78;
    chroniclers of, i. 174, 273; ii. 43, 177;
    council at, i. 339;
    Parliament at, ii. 66

  St. Andrews, Cardinal Beaton murdered at, iv. 33

  St. Asaph's, John Trevor, bishop of, iii. 10

  St. Cloud, battle of, iii. 23

  St. Domingo
    discovered, iv. 329;
    English descent on, vi. 117

  St. Edmundsbury,
    abbey of, i. 104;
    town of, 311-313;
    battle near, 254;
    meeting of barons at, 344;
    strife of town and abbey, ii. 325-330

  St. John, Henry, vii. 124;
    his political writings, 138;
    returns to office, 139;
    intrigues against Marlborough, 140.
    _See_ Bolingbroke

  St. John, Oliver, v. 341, vi. 81

  St. Leger, Sir Anthony, iv. 62

  St. Lucia conquered by England, vii. 307

  St. Malo, John of Gaunt defeated at, ii. 315

  Saintonge
    restored to Edward III., ii. 266;
    won by Du Guesclin, 287

  St. Pierre, Eustache de, ii. 245

  St. Pol, Waleran, count of, iii. 6

  St. Quentin, battle of, iv. 108

  St. Ruth, General, vii. 73

  St. Vincent, Cape, battles of, viii. 40, 127

  St. Vincent, island of, conquered by England, vii. 307

  Saladin tithe, i. 257

  Salamanca, battle of, viii. 199, 200

  Salisbury,
    cathedral at, ii. 106;
    Protestant martyrs at, iv. 96

  Salisbury, Margaret, countess of, iii. 349

  Salisbury, Robert Cecil, first earl of. _See_ Cecil

  Salisbury, James Cecil, third earl of, vi. 288

  Salisbury, William Longsword, earl of, i. 337, 342, 343, 345

  Salisbury, William de Montacute, second earl of, ii. 306, 345, 352

  Salisbury, John de Montacute, third earl of, ii. 380; iii. 8, 9

  Salisbury, Thomas de Montacute, fourth earl of, iii. 45

  Salisbury, Richard Neville, earl of, iii. 73, 74, 75, 78, 112

  Salt-springs in Worcestershire, ii. 107

  Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, vii. 30, 45, 65

  Sanders, Nicholas, iv. 316

  Sandwich, Edward Montagu, first earl of, vi. 193, 214

  _San Graal_, poem of the, i. 174, 247

  San Sebastian, siege of, viii. 202

  Santa Cruz, Blake's victory at, vi. 124

  Saratoga, Burgoyne's surrender at, viii. 26

  Sardinia
    conquered by Spain, vii. 187;
    the duke of Savoy made king of, 188

  Sarsfield, Patrick, vii. 72, 73

  Sarum, Old, captured by the West Saxons, i. 37

  Saunders, Lawrence, iv. 91

  Sautre, William, iii. 5

  Savile, Sir Henry, v. 229

  Savile, Sir John, v. 284

  Savoy
    joins the Grand Alliance, vii. 119;
    joins the Triple Alliance, 187, 188

  "Savoy," the, ii. 32, 263, 321;
    conference at, vi. 204

  Saxe, Marshal, vii. 226, 231

  Saxons,
    their early home, i. 10;
    attack Britain, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34.
    _See_ East Saxons, Middle Saxons, South Saxons, West Saxons

  Saxony, Frederic III., elector of, iii. 254

  Saxony, Maurice, Duke of, iv. 50, 51, 64

  Say and Sele, James Fiennes, first Lord, iii. 66

  Saye and Sele, William Fiennes, first Viscount, v. 320, 354, 358; vi.
      194

  Scales, Anthony Woodville, Lord, iii. 130, 131.
    _See_ Rivers

  Scarborough,
    Piers Gaveston besieged in, ii. 190;
    peasant revolt at, 324

  Schmalkald, League of, iii. 336; iv. 36, 50

  Scholasticism, ii. 21, 22;
    its political influence, 22, 23

  Schomberg, duke of, vii. 70, 71

  Schools,
    English language supersedes French in, ii. 356, 357;
    founded by Ælfred, i. 114;
    under Henry VIII., iii. 200, 201;
    under Edward VI., 201; iv. 62;
    under Elizabeth, iii. 201;
    at Bec, i. 159;
    at Canterbury, 92;
    at Jarrow, 91;
    at York, _ib._;
    of the Friars, ii. 14;
    Sunday, viii. 47

  Science, physical,
    Roger Bacon's plea for, ii. 20;
    its beginnings in England, iii. 190; vi. 131, 132, 166, 167

  Scone,
    crowning-place of the Scottish kings, ii. 162;
    Robert Bruce crowned at, 173;
    Edward Balliol crowned at, 210;
    Charles II. crowned at, vi. 82.

  Scotland,
    its relations with William the Conqueror, i. 189;
      with William Rufus, 197;
    three divisions of the kingdom, ii. 131;
    relations with England in eleventh and twelfth centuries, 132-134;
    English claims to its homage, 134, 135;
      claimants of the crown, 136;
    Edward I. acknowledged as its overlord, 137;
    question of appeals from, 140;
    relations with France during Hundred Years' War, 141, 197, 213;
    submits to Edward I., 161;
    rises against him, 167-170;
    its overlordship claimed by the Pope, 170;
    Edward's first conquest and settlement of, 171, 172;
      his plan for its representation in English Parliament, 171;
    rises again, 173;
    Bruce's successes in, 191-193;
    truce with England, 196;
    renewed strife, 204;
    its independence recognized, 205;
    struggle with Edward III., 210-214;
    David Bruce's plans for the succession, 264;
    relations with Henry IV., iii. 7, 9;
      with Owen Glyndwr, 11;
    condition after Neville's Cross, 182, 183;
    relations with France and England, 184;
      with Henry VII., 185;
    condition after 1524, iv. 22, 23;
    league with France, 23;
    relations with Henry VIII., 26-28;
    Hertford's invasion of, 29;
    Somerset's relations with, 52, 53;
    Protestantism in, 111, 112, 115, 117;
    condition under Mary of Guise and the Lords of the Congregation,
        168, 169;
    strife of religions in, 218;
    unites against Mary, 245;
    condition during minority of James VI., v. 122, 124;
    work of the Stuarts in, 125, 126;
    political effect of the Reformation in, 127;
    character and rise of the people, 129, 130, 135;
    proposal for its union with England, 154;
    relations with Charles I., 325-328, 330, 333, 334;
    revolution in, 334, 335;
    rising in, 337;
    seeks help of France, 338, 339;
    struggle with Charles, 341, 342;
    pacification, 363;
    Charles I. in, _ib._, 364;
    treaty with the English Parliament, vi. 14, 16;
    first union with England, 85, 108;
    its first representation in the English Parliament, 99, 101;
    condition under Cromwell, 108, 109;
    its union with England dissolved, 180;
    Covenant abolished and Episcopacy restored in, 181;
    policy of Lauderdale in, 259;
    condition under James II., vii. 16, 17;
    William III. recognized as king in, 51;
    Jacobite risings in, 52, 183, 228-230;
    Presbyterianism restored in, 54;
    union with England, 127-129

  Scots, i. 31;
    submit to Eadward the Elder, 119;
    league with Cumbrians and Welsh against Æthelstan, 119, 120;
    alliance with Eadmund, 123;
    conquer northern Northumbria, 146;
    cession of Lothian to, its results, 147;
    invade England, 217, 254;
    their mode of warfare, ii. 204, 205;
    recapture Berwick, 259, 263;
    defeated at Homildon Hill, iii. 12;
    besiege York, vi. 18;
    besiege Newcastle, 23;
    give up Charles I. to the Parliament, 49;
    invade England again, 62;
    defeated at Preston, _ib._

  Scrope, Henry, Lord, iii. 30

  Scrope, Richard, Archbishop of York, iii. 18

  Scutage, i. 233, 257, 344, 350, 351; ii. 104

  "Sea-dogs," the, iv. 331-333

  Sectaries,
    their rise, v. 117;
    in London, vi. 28

  Sedgemoor, battle of, vii. 10

  Sedley, Sir Charles, vi. 163

  Selden, John, v. 306, 322

  Seminary priests, the, iv. 307-309, 354;
    banished, v. 156

  Senlac, i. 162, 163

  Serfs, manumission of, i. 325.
    _See_ Villeins

  Seven Years' War,
    its beginning, vii. 248;
    its importance, 273-275;
    its end, 307

  Seville, Treaty of, vii. 200

  Seymour, Sir Edward, vi. 253

  Seymour, Jane, iii. 326, 351

  Seymour, Thomas, Lord, iv. 47, 56

  Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley, Cooper, first earl of (_see_ Ashley
      Cooper),
    Lord Chancellor, vi. 271;
    speech on the war, 272;
    relations with the king, 275;
    change of policy, 276, 277;
    dismissed, 278;
    his plans, 279, 280;
    committed to the Tower, 288;
    released, 295;
    attitude towards the Popish plot, 295-297;
    correspondence with Barillon, 298;
    President of the Council, 300;
    supports the Exclusion, 306, 307;
    project for Monmouth's succession, 309, 310;
    dismissed again, 311;
    revives the plot, 312, 313;
    struggle with Charles, 313-315, 321, 324;
    arrested, 324;
    bill of his indictment thrown out, 334;
    popularity in London, _ib._;
    flight and death, 336

  Shakspere, William,
    his early life, v. 27-31;
    first plays, 31-35;
    historical plays, 35-36, 38-40;
    attitude towards religion, 37, 38;
    political sympathies, 39, 40;
    prosperity, 41, 42;
    gloom, 42-44;
    last plays, 45, 46;
    demand for his works in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
        vii. 292

  Sharp, Rev. Dr., vii. 18

  Shaxton, bishop of Salisbury, iii. 336, 347

  Shelburne, William Fitzmaurice, second earl of,
    President of the Board of Trade, vii. 315-319;
    protests against the prosecution of Wilkes, 318;
    resigns, 319;
    advocates repeal of the Stamp Act, 331, 338;
    takes office under Chatham, 340;
    resigns office, viii. 6;
    heads a ministry, 65;
    makes peace with America, _ib._;
    resigns, 66.
    _See_ Lansdowne

  Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, vi. 162

  Sheriffmuir, battle of, vii. 183

  Sheriffs,
    their position under William I., i. 185;
    appointment regulated by Provisions of Oxford, ii. 61;
    functions in the shire-court, 149;
    disqualified from serving in Parliament, 300

  Ship-money, v. 317;
    Laud's developement of, 318;
    Hampden's resistance to, 323;
    its legality asserted by the judges, _ib._;
    trial of Hampden's case, 324, 330;
    judgement on, 331;
    declared illegal, 352

  Shires, i. 185;
    restriction of franchise in, iii. 101, 102;
    the six, of York, i. 295

  Shire-court. _See_ County Court

  Shire-reeves, i. 131

  Shirley, James, v. 303

  Shore, Jane, iii. 117

  Shrewsbury (Pengwern), i. 98;
    castle at, 168;
    reduced by Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, ii. 55;
    Parliament at, 121, 371;
    battle of, iii. 14;
    Charles I. at, vi. 2

  Shrewsbury, John Talbot, first Earl of (_see_ Talbot), iii. 70, 71

  Shrewsbury, Charles Talbot, twelfth Earl and first Duke of, vii. 23,
      28;
    signs the invitation to William, 35;
    sends him funds, 37;
    Secretary of State, 67;
    negotiates with James, 77;
    member of the Junto, 88;
    President of the Council, 146

  Shropshire ravaged by the Welsh, iii. 19

  Sicily,
    crown of, offered to Edmund of England, ii. 59;
    ceded to Savoy, vii. 142, 186;
    conquered by Spain, 187

  Sidmouth, Henry Addington, first Viscount (_see_ Addington), viii.
      174, 179, 183

  Sidney, Algernon,
    supports the Independents, vi. 45;
    relations with Lewis XIV., 229, 298;
    holds meetings with Monmouth, etc., 336;
    beheaded, 337;
    his attainder reversed, vii. 66

  Sidney, Sir Henry, iv. 241

  Sidney, Sir Philip, v. 6, 7, 11, 12

  Sikhs, the, vii. 234

  Simeon of Durham, i. 6, 173, 243

  Simnel, Lambert, iii. 176

  Siward, Earl of Northumbria, i. 150, 152, 153

  Sixtus V., Pope, iv. 353

  Skeffington, Lord Deputy in Ireland, iii. 328

  Skelton, John, iii. 273; iv. 43

  Slanning, Sir Nicholas, vi. 6

  Slave-trade
    at Bristol, i. 250;
    negro, its beginning, iv. 283;
    in the eighteenth century, viii. 52;
    proposals for its abolition, _ib._, 79;
    abolished, 178, 179

  Slavery
    in Old England, i. 16, 17;
    dies out, 321, 322

  Sluys, sea-fight off, ii. 228

  Smerwick, slaughter of its garrison, iv. 316

  Smith, Adam, viii. 73

  Smith, John, settler of Virginia, v. 307

  Smith, Sir Sidney, viii. 141

  Smithfield,
    Priory of St. Bartholomew at, i. 223;
    Archbishop Boniface's visitation of, ii. 32

  Smollett, Tobias, vii. 297

  Snowdon, Lords of, ii. 53

  Solway Moss, battle of, iv. 25

  Somers, John, vii. 46;
    member of the Junto, 85;
    Lord Keeper, 88;
    retires, 98;
    impeached, 105;
    arranges the Union with Scotland, 128;
    President of the Council, 133;
      of the Royal Society, vi. 166;
    death, vii. 182

  Somerset
    conquered by West Saxons, i. 90;
    rises against William I., 168;
    lead-mines in, 30

  Somerset, John Beaufort, Earl of, (Marquis of Dorset), iii. 7

  Somerset, John Beaufort, first Duke of, iii. 59

  Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, second Duke of (_see_ Beaufort),
    Regent of France, iii. 62;
    recalled, 67;
    arrested, 68;
    released, _ib._;
    captain of Calais, 69;
    committed to the Tower, 71, 72;
      released, 72;
    slain, 74

  Somerset, Henry Beaufort, third Duke of, iii. 78, 80, 126

  Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, fourth Duke of, iii. 140, 143-145

  Somerset, Robert Carr, Earl of (_see_ Rochester), v. 193, 204-207

  Somerset, Edward Seymour, Duke of (_see_ Hertford), iv. 46;
    Protector, 47;
    his policy, 48, 53, 54;
    relations with Scotland, 52;
    victory at Pinkie Cleugh, 513;
    revolts against, 55;
    his misrule, 56;
    fall, 57;
    beheaded, 65

  Somerset, Charles Seymour, sixth Duke of, vii. 21, 146

  Somerset, Frances, Countess of. _See_ Howard

  Somerset, Margaret, Duchess of, iii. 161

  Somerton captured by Æthelbald, i. 91

  Somerville, plotter, iv. 350

  Soranzo's _Despatches_, iv. 3

  Sophia, Electress of Hanover, vii. 103, 144

  Soult, Marshal, viii. 188, 200, 202

  Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley, first Earl of (_see_ Wriothesley),
      iv. 47

  Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of, v. 41, 43

  Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley, fourth Earl of, vi. 193, 244

  South-Engle, i. 37, 119

  Southey, Robert, viii. 135

  South-folk, i. 42

  South-Saxons, kingdom of, i. 34

  South Sea Bubble, vii. 192

  Southwark
    burnt by William the Conqueror, i. 165;
    Bishop Beaufort's palace at, attacked, iii. 44

  Spain,
    its relations with Aquitaine and France, ii. 281, 282;
    Edward III.'s policy in, 282, 283, 287;
    its growth under Ferdinand and Isabel, iii. 186;
    its greatness under Philip II., iv. 325-327;
    possessions in the New World, 329;
    ruin of its power, 366;
    its relations with James I., v. 212-214, 226, 227, 230-233;
    decline, vi. 113, 190;
    Cromwell's war with, 117;
    relations with Charles II., 187;
      with Lewis XIV., 249, 250;
    joins the Grand Alliance, vii. 49;
    dispute for the succession in, 90, 92-94, 98, 99;
    English descent on, 118;
    Peterborough's campaign in, 126;
    attempts to regain its lost possessions, 186-188;
    end of the succession quarrel, 188;
    relations with Austria, 199, 200;
      with France, 213-216;
    efforts to regain monopoly of trade in America, 216, 217;
    war with England, 219, 306;
    cedes Florida, 307;
    league with France and America, viii. 30;
    mastered by Napoleon, 185;
    rises against him, 186;
    Wellesley's campaigns in, 187, 188, 199, 200;
    the French driven from, 202

  Speed's _Chronicle_, v. 4

  Spencer, George John, second Earl, viii. 104, 156

  Spenser, Edmund, v. 11-19

  Spice Islands conquered by England, viii. 112

  Spinola, Ambrogio, v. 219, 220

  Spires, Diet of, iv. 19

  _Sports, Book of_, v. 296

  Spottiswood, Archbishop of St. Andrews, v. 326

  Sprigge's _Anglia Rediviva_, v. 73

  Spurs, battle of the, iii. 210

  Stafford fortified by Æthelflæd, i. 118

  Stafford, William Howard, Viscount, vi. 321

  Stafford, Henry, iii. 166

  Stafford, Sir Humphrey, iii. 66

  Stafford, Thomas, iv. 107

  Stair, John Dalrymple, second Earl of, vii. 229

  Stamford,
    one of the Five Boroughs, i. 117;
    submits to Eadward the Elder, 119

  Stamford Bridge, battle of, i. 162

  Stamford, Henry Grey, first Earl of, vi. 5

  Standard,
    battle of the, i. 217;
    Harold's, at Senlac, 163, 164;
    of Wessex, the Golden Dragon, 96, 163

  Stanhope, James, first Earl, vii. 182, 190, 192

  Stanley, Thomas, Lord, iii. 171, 172

  Stanley, Sir William, iii. 172

  Staple, Gild of the, ii. 304;
    reform of, under Richard II., 355

  Star-Chamber, Court of, i. 256; ii. 112; iii. 178;
    regulates the Press, iv. 343;
    developement under Charles I., v. 278;
    Laud's use of, 329;
    its civil jurisdiction abolished by Long Parliament, 363

  States-General, the French, viii. 83;
    become a National Assembly, 86

  Statutes
    substituted for Ordinances, ii. 298, 299;
    Petitions changed into, iii. 90;
    of Apparel, 65;
    of Appeals, 302;
    of Occasional Conformity, vii. 123;
      repealed, 184:
    Conventicle, vi. 220;
    Corporation, 207;
    Declaratory, vii. 338;
    of Economical Reform, viii. 64. 76;
    of First-fruits, iii. 302, 304;
    Five Mile, vi. 229;
    of Grace, vii. 69;
    Habeas Corpus, vi. 305, 306;
      suspended, vii. 184; viii. 105, 113;
    of Heresy, iii. 4, 5;
      repealed, iv. 61;
      re-enacted, 89;
    of Indemnity and Oblivion, vi. 194, 196, 204;
    of Kilkenny, ii. 377;
    of Labourers, 255;
      attempts to enforce, 289, 313;
      demand for their repeal, iii. 65;
    of Libel, viii. 92;
    of Liveries, iii. 118, 177;
    of Maintenance, ii. 355; iii. 105;
    of Merchants, ii. 122;
    Mutiny, vii. 61, 62;
    of Mortmain, ii. 118, 119;
    Navigation, vi. 86; vii. 310;
    Poor Laws, iv. 276, 277;
    Poynings', iii. 181;
      repealed, viii. 37, 39;
    of Præmunire, ii. 274, 355;
    of Provisors, 273, 275, 355;
    "Quia Emptores," 124, 151;
    "de Religiosis," 118;
    of Rights, vii. 60;
    Schism, 143;
      repealed, 184;
    of Security, 129;
    Septennial, 185;
    of Settlement, 103, 127;
    Stamp, 326, 327;
      American resistance to, 330;
      Pitt and Shelburne demand its repeal, 331;
      repealed, 338;
    of Succession, iii. 317; iv. 45, 67;
    of Supremacy, iii. 305; iv. 157;
    Test, iv. 215, 273, 308; vi. 273;
      James II.'s endeavours to procure its repeal, vii. 22, 23;
    Toleration, 64;
    of Treason, ii. 292; iii. 314, 319;
    Triennial, v. 352; vii. 88;
    of Union with Scotland, 128;
    of Union with Ireland, viii. 139;
    of Uniformity, iv. 159; vi. 208;
    of Uses, ii. 355;
    of Wales, 121;
    of Westminster, the first, 103;
      second, 122;
      third, 124;
    of Winchester, 122;
    against Witchcraft, v. 105, 106

  Steam-engine, invention of the, viii. 57-59

  Steel Yard, the, iv. 282

  Steele, Richard, vii. 158

  Steinkirk, battle of, vii. 79

  Stephen of Blois, i. 214;
    chosen king, 215;
    crowned, 216;
    his charter, _ib._;
    revolts against him, 216, 217;
    quarrel with the Church, 218, 219;
    struggle with Matilda, 219, 220;
    proposes to crown his son, 226;
    treaty with Henry, 227;
    death, 228

  Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 161, 187

  Stillingfleet, Edmund, vi. 252; vii. 19

  Stirling,
    battle of, ii. 168;
    surrenders to Edward, 171;
    invested by Bruce, 191;
    Lords of the Congregation muster at, iv. 245

  Stoke, battle of, iii. 176

  Stokes, Peter, ii. 340

  Stow, battle of, vi. 42

  Stowe's _Chronicle_, v. 4

  Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of (_see_ Wentworth),
    his war policy, v. 340-342;
    impeached, 350;
    trial, 356;
    attainder, 357;
    death, 361

  Stralsund, siege of, v. 274

  Strassburg seized by Lewis XIV., vi. 335

  Stratford-on-Avon, Shakspere's home at, v. 28, 41, 46

  Stratford-le-Bow, Protestant martyrs at, iv. 144

  Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 232

  Strathclyde,
    its struggle with Æthelfrith, i. 60;
    submits to Eadward the Elder, 119

  Streoneshealh. _See_ Whitby

  Strickland, member of Parliament in 1571, iv. 292

  Strode, one of the "five members," v. 373

  Strongbow. _See_ Clare, Richard of

  Strype's historical collections, iii. 84; iv. 3, 4

  Stuart, Arabella, v. 121

  Stuart, Charles Edward, vii. 227-230

  Stuart, Esmé. _See_ Lennox

  Stuart, James Francis, son of James II., vii. 34, 35;
    known as the "Old Pretender," 103;
    acknowledged as king by Lewis XIV., 106;
    attainted, 107;
    withdraws to Lorraine, 143;
    plans a rising in Scotland, 183;
    proclaimed as "James VIII." at Edinburgh, 228

  Stuart, Lord James, Prior of St. Andrews, iv. 114, 199.
    _See_ Murray

  Stuarts, the,
    their work in Scotland, v. 125, 126;
    their lack of sympathy with England, 148, 149

  Stubbs, John, iv. 337, 338

  Stukely, Sir Thomas, iv. 315

  Suchet, General, viii. 191

  Sudbury, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 320, 323

  Suffolk, Charles Brandon, Duke of,
    his campaign in France, iii. 247;
    policy at home, 270, 277;
    President of the Council, 286;
    marriage, iv. 46, 69

  Suffolk, Frances Grey, Duchess of, iv. 69

  Suffolk, Henry Grey, Duke of, iv. 65, 69, 82, 84

  Suffolk, Thomas Howard, first Earl of, v. 191, 204

  Suffolk, Michael de la Pole, Earl of. _See_ Pole

  Suffolk, William de la Pole, Earl of, iii. 59, 61-63

  Sunderland, Robert Spencer, second Earl of, vi. 301;
    opposes the Exclusion, 307, 310;
      urges Charles II. to yield to it, 319, 321;
    relations with Charles, vii. 2;
      with James II., 12;
    betrays James to William, 37;
    urges the calling of a Parliament, 39;
    dismissed, 40;
    character, 82;
    his ministerial system, 83, 84, 98

  Sunderland, Charles Spencer, third Earl of,
    ambassador at Vienna, vii. 125;
    Secretary of State, 131;
    his policy, 132;
    dismissed, 139;
    in the Stanhope ministry, 190

  Surajah Dowlah, vii. 261, 262

  Surrey, rising in, iii. 64

  Surrey, Thomas Holland, Duke of (Earl of Kent), iii. 7, 8

  Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of, iv. 42-45

  Surrey, Thomas Howard, second Earl of, iii. 210.
    _See_ Norfolk

  Surrey, Thomas Howard, third Earl of, iii. 244, 248.
    _See_ Norfolk

  Surrey, Earls of. _See_ Warenne

  Sussex
    accepts Wulfhere's overlordship, i. 85;
    conquered by Ine, 90;
    rising in, iii. 64;
    Protestant martyrs in, iv. 96;
    ironworks in, iv. 279.
    _See_ South Saxons

  Sussex, Thomas Ratcliffe, third Earl of, iv. 111, 240, 241, 269

  Swan, Edward I.'s vow on the, ii. 95, 173, 174

  Sweden united under King Eric, i. 128

  Swein I., king of Denmark, i. 140-143

  Swein II., Estrithson, king of Denmark, i. 167

  Swein, son of Earl Godwine, i. 150, 151, 152

  Swereford, Alexander de, ii. 43

  Swift, Jonathan, vi. 158; vii. 138

  Swineshead, abbey of, i. 356

  Swinford, Catherine, ii. 369; iii. 59

  Sydenham, Thomas, vi. 166


  Table, the Round,
    legends of, i. 247;
    of Edward I., ii. 95;
    of Edward III., 249, 290

  "Tables," the, v. 331, 333

  Taillebourg, battle of, ii. 35

  Taillefer, i. 163

  Tailors' gild at Exeter, i. 318

  Talavera, battle of, viii. 188

  Talbot, John, Lord, iii. 56, 63.
    _See_ Shrewsbury

  Taliesin, ii. 53, 57

  Tallard, Marshal, vii. 120

  Talleyrand, Maurice de, viii. 206

  Tamworth fortified by Æthelflæd, i. 118

  Tancred, king of Sicily, i. 260

  Tangier
    ceded to England, vi. 192;
    English garrison withdrawn from, vii. 4

  Taunton
    founded by Ine, i. 89;
    Blake's defence of, vi. 78;
    Monmouth at, vii. 9

  Taxation
    under the Norman kings, ii. 104;
    under Richard I., i. 264, 350;
    under John, 330, 322, 351;
    regulated by Great Charter, 351; ii. 105, 145;
    under Edward III., 291;
    Wolsey's plans of, iii. 245, 246;
    character under Elizabeth, iv. 233;
    Parliament regains control over, vii. 60, 61;
    during the French war, viii. 114, 137;
    arbitrary, abolished, v. 352;
    indirect, its introduction and growth, ii. 105;
    of personal property, i. 257; ii. 105;
    of boroughs, 152, 153;
    of wool, 107;
    of America, schemes for, vii. 311, 326; viii. 3, 4, 14;
    papal, of the clergy, ii. 42

  Taylor, Jeremy, vi. 134-137, 326

  Taylor, Rowland, iv. 92-94

  Teignmouth burnt by the French, vii. 76

  Temple, Richard Grenville, second Earl, vii. 250, 304, 328, 339

  Temple, Sir Peter, v. 323

  Temple, Sir William,
    ambassador at Brussels, vi. 227;
    at the Hague, 249;
    Secretary of State, 301;
    reorganizes the council, 302-304;
    opposes the Exclusion, 307, 311;
    retires from politics, 315;
    assents to the Exclusion, 319;
    his _Memoirs_, 157

  Tenchebray, battle of, i. 202

  Testament, the New, Erasmus's edition of, iii. 213, 215

  Tewkesbury, battle of, iii. 144, 145

  Thames entered by northmen, i. 116

  Thanes, gild of, at Canterbury, i. 299

  Thanet,
    Jutes land in, i. 31, 32;
    Augustine lands in, 57, 58

  Thanet, Thomas Tufton, sixth Earl of, vii. 23

  Theatre, first public, in London, v. 22

  Thegns, i. 50-52;
    of the royal household, 132

  Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 223;
    legate, 225;
    his policy, 226, 227;
    study of law in his court, 283;
    retires from politics, 232;
    dies, 234

  Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 81, 83, 84;
    his school at Canterbury, 92

  Theology, revived study of, in thirteenth century, ii. 13, 14

  "Theow," the, i. 322

  Thirty Years' War, its beginning, v. 217, 219;
    its end, vi. 113

  Thomas of Canterbury, St. _See_ Beket

  "Thorough," Stafford's, v. 292

  Throckmorton, Sir Nicholas, iv. 175

  Thurlow's _State Papers_, v. 73

  Thurstan, Archbishop of York, i. 217

  Ticonderoga, Fort, vii. 244, 266, 267

  Tilbury, muster at, iv. 357, 359

  Tillotson, John, vi. 169, 252; vii. 19;
    Archbishop of Canterbury, 65

  Tilly, Count, v. 232

  Tilsit, peace of, viii. 175

  Tin,
    export of, from Cornwall, iv. 279;
    mines, i. 30; ii. 107

  Tippermuir, battle of, vi. 23

  Tippoo, Sultan of Mysore, viii. 131, 140

  Tithes, introduction of, i. 84

  Tithing, i. 322

  Titus Livius, his _Gesta Henrici V._, ii. 179; iii. 41

  Tone, Wolfe, viii. 120

  Torbay, William of Orange lands at, vii. 40

  Torgau, battle of, vii. 302

  "Tories,"
    origin of the name, vi. 315;
    their policy in 1689, vii. 45, 46;
    attack Marlborough, 138;
    their helplessness, 166, 167;
    withdraw from politics, 167, 168;
    return, 299;
    oppose the abolition of the slave-trade, viii. 179;
    govern during the war with Napoleon, _ib._, 180

  Torres Vedras, Wellington's defence of, viii. 190

  Torrington, Arthur Herbert, Earl of. _See_ Herbert

  Tortulf the Forester, i. 209

  Tostig, Earl of Northumbria, 153, 160-162

  Toulon, revolt of, viii. 109

  Toulouse,
    battle of, viii. 202;
    war of, i. 233, 234

  Touraine
    conquered by the Angevins, i. 212;
    by Philip Augustus, 269;
    ceded to France, ii. 63

  Tournaments under Edward III., ii. 251

  Tournay besieged by Edward III., ii. 228

  Tours
    won by Geoffry Martel, i. 212;
      by Philip Augustus, 258;
    council of, 235

  Tourville, Admiral, vii. 75, 78

  Towns, English,
    their origin, i. 294, 295;
    early constitution, 296;
    common lands, _ib._;
    relation to their lords, _ib._, 297;
    administration of justice in, 297, 313;
    emancipation, 300-302;
    struggle of classes in, 315-318;
    their liberties secured by Great Charter, 352;
    settlement of Friars in, ii. 10, 11;
    support Simon de Montfort, 68, 69;
    represented in county court, 73;
    representatives of, summoned to Parliament, _ib._;
    taxation of, 152, 153;
    forced labour in, 257;
    strikes and combinations in, 267;
    support the House of York, iii. 76;
    restriction of franchise in, 99-101;
    Charles II.'s dealings with, vii. 3.
    _See_ Boroughs

  Townshend, Charles, second Viscount,
    Secretary of State and Prime Minister, vii. 182, 189;
    resigns, 190;
    returns to office, 191;
    Secretary again under Walpole, 193;
    turned out, 203

  Townshend, Charles, vii. 247;
    takes office under Pitt, 250;
    deserts him, 303;
    President of Board of Trade, 310;
    refuses office under Grenville, 315;
    accepts it again under Chatham, 341;
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, viii. 3;
    death, 4

  Townshend's _Journal of Parliamentary Proceedings_, iv. 5

  Township, the Old English, i. 11

  Towton, battle of, iii. 79, 80

  Trade, English,
    under Eadgar, i. 138;
    growth after Norman Conquest, 177;
    regulated by Great Charter, 352;
    under Edward I., ii. 106, 107, 122;
    Richard's II.'s care for, 355;
    increase in fifteenth century, iii. 106;
    Edward's IV.'s laws for protection of, _ib._;
    growth under Richard III., iv. 282;
      under Henry VII., _ib._;
      under Elizabeth, 279-283; v. 77;
    struggle of the Commons for its freedom, 57, 58;
    Parliament gains control over, vii. 63;
    foreign, regulated by Statute of Staples, ii. 292;
    extension under Charles I., v. 281;
    effects of the Continental System on, viii. 177;
    effect of the American embargo on, 183;
    growth during the French war, 194;
    with English colonies in America, monopoly of, vii. 195, 241;
    with India, vii. 232;
    with Spanish America, 192, 216;
    Board of, established, 89.
    _See_ Iron, Tin, Wool, Slave

  Trade and Plantations, Board for, vii. 240

  Trade-gilds, i. 316-318

  Trafalgar, battle of, viii. 173

  "Trail-bastons," ii. 116

  Treasurer, the,
    origin of his office, i. 132;
    right of appointing, claimed for Great Council, ii. 38

  Treaties, commercial,
    with Florence, iv. 282;
    with France, viii. 79

  Trent, Council of, iv. 32, 35, 36;
    dispersed, 51;
    reassembles, 64;
    breaks up again, 65;
    reassembled again, 192

  Tresham, Francis, v. 159

  Tresilian, Chief-Justice, ii. 353

  Trevanion, Sir John, vi. 6

  Trevisa, John of, ii. 357

  Trichinopoly, Clive's relief of, vii. 235

  Triploe Heath, meeting of the army at, vi. 52

  Tristram,
    story of, i. 247;
    rimes of, ii. 360

  Trivet's _Annals_, i. 274

  Trokelowe's _Annals_, ii. 177

  Tromp, Martin, vi. 86, 88, 115

  Tromp, Cornelius, vi. 277

  Troyes, treaty of, iii. 35

  Trussel, Sir William, ii. 199

  Tudor, Edmund. _See_ Richmond

  Tudor, Henry. _See_ Henry VII.

  Tudor, Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, iii. 132, 143, 165

  Tudor, Owen, iii. 165

  "Tulchan-bishops," v. 137

  "Tun," the, i. 11, 295

  Tunstall, Cuthbert, iii. 256

  Turenne, Marshal, vi. 124

  Turgot, annalist of Durham, i. 243

  Turin, siege of, vii. 131

  Turkey, schemes for its partition, viii. 161, 162

  Turks capture Constantinople, iii. 189

  Turner, Sir James, v. 73

  Tyburn, Roger Mortimer beheaded at, ii. 207

  Tyler, Walter, ii. 319, 321, 323

  Tyndale, William, iii. 258, 259

  Tyrconnell, Richard Talbot, first Earl and Duke of, vii. 17, 55-57

  Tyrone, rising in, v. 62

  Tyrone, Con O'Neill, first Earl of, iv. 110, 240


  Udall, John, iv. 343

  Ulm, capitulation of, viii. 173

  Ulster,
    John de Courcy in, ii. 374;
    rising in, under Hugh O'Neill, v. 61, 62;
    colonization of, 288, 289

  Universities,
    rise of, i. 282;
    their cosmopolitan spirit, 290;
    democratic constitution, 291;
    relations with the Church, 292, 293;
    Friars at, ii. 13;
    revival of theology at, _ib._, 14;
    English, their decline during Wars of the Roses, iii. 98;
    the New Learning at, 201, 202;
    Henry VIII.'s appeal to, 291, 292;
    decline under Edward VI., iv. 62;
    James II.'s dealings with, vii. 24-26

  Urban V., Pope, ii. 275

  Uriconium burnt by the West Saxons, i. 38

  Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, v. 290, 353; vi. 199

  Utrecht,
    treaty of, vii. 141;
    Union of, iv. 312

  Uxbridge, negotiations at, vi. 38


  Vacarius, i. 283, 285

  Valence, Aymer de, Bishop of Winchester, ii. 33

  Valence, Aymer de, Earl of Pembroke, ii. 174, 183

  Valence, William de, Earl of Pembroke, ii. 33

  Val-ès-Dunes, battle of, i. 158

  Valois, Charles of, ii. 208

  Vane, Sir Harry, the elder, vi. 102

  Vane, Sir Harry (the younger),
    leader of the Independents, v. 354; vi. 45;
    negotiates with Scotland, 14, 108;
    opposes ordinance against heresy, 60;
    re-creates a navy, 78;
    his policy, 86, 89;
    attacks the Protectorate, 148;
    exempted from pardon, 195;
    executed, 204

  Vannes, Henry of Lancaster sails from, ii. 373

  Varangians, i. 167

  Varaville, battle of, i. 158

  Vassy, massacre of Protestants at, iv. 208

  Vaudois, massacre of, vi. 123

  Vendôme, Louis Joseph, Duke of, vii. 134

  Venner, leader of Fifth-Monarchy men, vi. 182

  Verden, quarrel about, vii. 188, 189

  Vere, Robert de (third Earl of Oxford), i. 343

  Vere, Robert de (ninth Earl of Oxford), ii. 350, 351, 353;
    Duke of Ireland, 377

  Vere, Sir Horace, v. 219

  Vergil, Polydore, ii. 180

  Verneuil, battle of, iii. 39

  Verney, Sir Edmund, v. 369

  Verney, Sir Ralph, v. 72

  Vernon, Admiral, vii. 219, 221

  Vervins, treaty of, v. 60, 62

  Vesci, Eustace de, i, 335, 347

  Vienne, John de, ii. 349

  Village, the English, i. 10, 11;
    its organization after the Norman Conquest, 322

  Villars, Marshal, vii. 134

  Villenage
    unknown in Kent, ii. 320;
    demand for its abolition in the eastern counties, 321;
    dies out, 333; iii. 65

  Villeneuve, Admiral, viii. 172

  Villeins, i. 133, 321-323;
    their relations with the lord, 323-325;
    rise into yeomen, ii. 240, 241;
    attempts to check their enfranchisement, 256, 257, 266, 267, 335;
    revolt of, _see_ Peasant Revolt

  Villeroy, Duke of, vii. 125, 126

  Villiers, George, v. 207-210.
    _See_ Buckingham

  Vimiera, battle of, viii. 187

  Vinegar Hill, battle of, viii. 130

  Virginia discovered, iv. 345;
    settled, v. 307, 308;
    heads resistance to the Stamp Act, vii. 330;
    remonstrates against taxation, viii. 14;
    adheres to England, 20

  Vitoria, battle of, viii. 202

  Voltaire, his visit to England, vii. 152

  Volunteers, the Irish, viii. 37


  Wace, i. 174, 247

  Wake, Baldwin, ii. 84, 86

  Wakefield, battle of, iii. 78

  Walcourt, skirmish at, vii. 50

  Walcheren, English expedition to, viii. 188

  Walden, Roger, Archbishop of Canterbury, ii. 371

  Wales,
    sources of its early history, i. 7;
    its struggle with Mercia, ii. 46;
    subject to the West Saxon kings, _ib._;
    Harold's campaign in, i. 153, ii. 47;
      William I.'s, i. 189, ii. 47;
      William II.'s, i. 198, ii. 48;
    Henry I.'s dealings with, 48;
    Henry II.'s campaigns in, i. 232; ii. 53, 54;
    Gerald de Barri's account of, i. 245, 274;
    John's campaigns in, ii. 54, 55;
    national revival in, 49-58;
    Edward's first campaign in, 59;
    outbreaks in, 65, 66;
    Edward I.'s annexations in, 109;
    conquest of, 119-121;
    incorporated with England, 121;
    revolts, 142, 143; iii. 9-12;
    students from, at Oxford, i. 291;
    Council of, v. 168.
    _See_ Welsh

  Walker, Obadiah, vii. 25

  Wall, the Roman, i. 30

  Wallace, William, ii. 167-169, 171

  Wallenstein, v. 274

  Waller, Edmund, vi. 325

  Waller, Sir William,
    defeated at Lansdowne Hill and Roundway Down, vi. 6;
    his reception by the Parliament, 13;
    joins Essex, 18, 19;
    defeated at Cropredy bridge, 22;
    retires, 35

  Wallingford, treaty of, i. 227

  Wallington, Nehemiah, v. 72, 73, 94

  Wallis, Dr. John, vi. 132

  Wallis, Captain, vii. 277

  Walloons, fugitive Protestant, in England, iv. 51, 58

  Walpole, Robert, vii. 134;
    his temper, 178;
    policy, 179-181;
    in the Townshend ministry, 182;
    resigns, 190;
    defeats the Peerage Bill, 191;
    returns to office, _ib._;
    head of the Government, 192, 193;
    his peace policy, 193, 194;
    finance, 195, 196;
    his policy of inaction, 197;
    towards Catholics and Nonconformists, 198;
    relations with George II., 200;
    Excise Bill, 195, 201-203;
    his jealousy of his colleagues, 203;
    strives to avoid war, 215, 217;
    loss of his power, 218;
    consents to war with Spain, _ib._;
    plans of alliance with Russia and Prussia, 220;
    fall, 222;
    rejects the project for an American Excise, 241

  Walsingham, Sir Francis, iv. 119; v. 63

  Walsingham's _History_, i. 274; ii. 177, 179; iii. 98

  Walter of Coutances, Archbishop of Rouen, i. 260, 261, 266

  Walter of Coventry, i. 273

  Walters, Lucy, vi. 176

  Walworth, William, ii. 312, 323

  Wanborough, battle of, i. 90

  Warbeck, Perkin, iii. 180, 181, 184, 185, 187

  Ward, Dr. Seth, vi. 132

  Wareham, northmen encamp at, i. 106

  Warenne, William, sixth Earl of, i. 345

  Warenne and Surrey, John, seventh Earl of, ii. 117

  Warenne and Surrey, John, eighth Earl of, ii. 162, 168

  Warham, William, Archbishop of Canterbury,
    his patronage of the New Learning, iii. 196-198;
    protects Colet, 204;
    helps Erasmus, 212, 215;
    the seals offered to, 289;
    death, 303

  Warner's _Albion's England_, v. 35

  Warwick, Guy Beauchamp, second Earl of, ii. 187, 190

  Warwick, Thomas Beauchamp, fourth Earl of, ii. 353, 370, 371

  Warwick, John Dudley, Earl of (_see_ Lisle), iv. 47;
    puts down revolt in Norfolk, 56;
    Protector, 57.
    _See_ Northumberland

  Warwick, Richard Neville, Earl of, iii. 73, 75;
    defeated at St. Albans, 79;
    victor at Towton, _ib._, 80;
    his greatness, 112, 113, 118;
    character, 114, 115;
    policy, 119, 122;
    negotiations with Lewis XI., 123, 124;
    rivalry with the Woodvilles, 127;
    mission to France, 129;
    estranged from Edward, 131;
    submits to him, 132;
    intrigues with Clarence, 133;
    revolts, 134, 135;
    repulsed from Calais, 135;
    difficulties with Burgundy, 136;
    alliance with the Lancastrians, 137;
    lands at Dartmouth, 138;
    restores Henry VI., 139;
    slain, 142

  Warwick, Edward Plantagenet, Earl of, iii. 175, 187

  Warwick, Robert Rich, second Earl of,
    resists a forced loan, v. 255;
    plans to emigrate, 319;
    put in command of the fleet, 378

  Warwick, Sir Philip, v. 72

  Washington, George,
    his attack on Duquesne, vii. 243;
      takes it, 266;
    his influence in Virginia, viii. 15;
    his character, 21, 22;
    his defence of Boston, 23;
    evacuates New York, etc., 24;
    his campaign of 1777, 25;
    forces Cornwallis to surrender, 32

  Washington city burnt by the English, viii. 204

  "Water-beggars," the, iv. 298

  Waterford besieged by Cromwell, vi. 77

  Waterloo, battle of, viii. 208-211

  Watling Street, i. 120

  Watt, James, viii. 58

  _Waverley, Annals of_, i. 273

  Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, iii. 66

  Weald, iron-mines in the, ii. 107

  Wearmouth,
    Benedict Biscop's abbey at, i. 91, 92;
    plundered by northmen, 101

  Weavers,
    gild of, i. 317;
    Flemish, in England under Edward III., ii. 226

  Wedmore, Peace of, i. 107

  Weights, uniformity of, enacted by Great Charter, i. 352

  Welles, Sir Robert, iii. 135

  Wellesley, Sir Arthur,
    his campaigns in Spain and Portugal, viii. 186, 188.
    _See_ Wellington

  Wellesley, Richard, Marquis (_see_ Mornington), viii. 140;
    his devotion to Pitt, 71;
    words on Pitt's death, 174;
    Foreign Secretary, 189

  Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, first Viscount and Duke of (_see_
      Wellesley),
    his campaigns in Spain and Portugal, viii. 190, 191, 199, 200, 202;
    enters France, 202;
    campaign in Belgium, 207-211

  Welsh, the,
    defeated by Cenwealh, i. 87;
    by Offa, 97;
    league with Scots and Cumbrians against Æthelstan, 119;
    rise against Æthelred II., 139;
    subdued by Harold, 153; ii. 47;
    rise against William I., i. 167;
      against John, 333, 334; ii. 55;
    national revival, 49-58;
    ravage Shropshire, iii. 19;
    Oxford students join Owen Glyndwr, 11;
    North, tributary to Æthelstan, i. 119, 120;
    West, become vassals of Æthelstan, i. 120;
    driven from Exeter, _ib._
    _See_ Britons, Wales

  Welwood's _Memoirs_, vi. 158

  Wendover, Roger of, i. 273; ii. 43

  Wentworth, Paul, iv. 238

  Wentworth, Peter, v. 56

  Wentworth, Thomas,
    member for Yorkshire, v. 195, 260, 282-284;
    policy and character, 285-287;
    Deputy in Ireland, 290;
    his rule there, 290-292, 364, 365;
    returns, 338.
    _See_ Strafford

  Wenzel of Bohemia, king of the Romans, ii. 348

  Wesley, Charles, vii. 207

  Wesley, John, vii. 207-210

  Wessex,
    its power under Ceawlin and Cuthwulf, i. 56;
      fall, _ib._;
    attacked by Eadwine, 63;
      subdued, 64;
    greatness under Ine, 89, 90;
    civil strife in, 90;
    subject to Mercia, _ib._, 91;
    rises against Æthelbald, 96;
    anarchy in, 97;
    greatness under Ecgberht, 102;
    attacked by northmen, 103, 105, 106;
    revival under Ælfred, 107, 112, 113;
    submits to Swein, 143;
      to Cnut, _ib._;
    its Golden Dragon standard, 96, 163;
    earldom of, 146.
    _See_ West Saxons

  Westfold, Harald of, i. 128

  West Indian Company, vi. 223

  West Indies, English conquests in, vii. 307

  Westminster, Eadward the Confessor's abbey at, i. 149;
    rebuilt by Henry III. ii. 25;
    completed under Edward I., 106;
    William I. crowned at, i. 166;
    the Scotch coronation stone removed to, ii. 162;
    refounded by Mary, iv. 106;
    Henry VII.'s chapel in, iii. 174;
    Assembly of Divines at, vi. 30;
    Caxton's press at, iii. 156;
    chapel of St. Stephen at, ii. 290;
    Chaucer's home at, 366;
    the Jerusalem Chamber at, iii. 25;
    Parliament fixed at, ii. 158;
    Provisions of, 62;
    Statutes of, 103, 122, 124

  "Westminster, Matthew of," ii. 43

  Westmoreland, Ralph Neville, first Earl of, iii. 14, 18

  Westmoreland, Ralph Neville, fourth Earl of, iii. 323

  Westmoreland, Henry Neville, fifth Earl of, iv. 162

  Westmoreland, Charles Neville, sixth Earl of, iv. 268, 269

  Weston, Lord Treasurer, v. 265;
    Earl of Portland, 276;
    revives monopolies, 279;
    success of his financial measures, 280;
    death, 315

  Westphalia,
    kingdom of, viii. 185;
    treaty of, vi. 113, 187

  West Saxons,
    foundation of their kingdom, i. 34;
    defeated by Arthur, _ib._;
    defeated in a raid upon Chester, 38;
    take Old Sarum, 37;
    conquer Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, _ib._;
    victory at Deorham, 38, 61;
    burn Uriconium, 38;
    driven back across Thames, 85;
    advance to south-west, 87;
    defeated at Bensington, 98.
    _See_ Wessex

  Wexford, massacre at, vi. 77;
    revolt at, viii. 129

  Wharton, Philip, fourth Lord, v. 343; vi. 288;
    member of the Junto, viii. 85;
    Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 133;
    death, 181

  Whethamstede, Abbot of St. Albans, iii. 40

  "Whiggamore Raid," vi. 62

  "Whigs,"
    origin of the name, vi. 62, 315;
    their policy in 1689, vii. 45;
    struggle with Marlborough and Anne, 132, 133;
    refuse peace, 136;
    dismissed from office, 139;
    invite Marlborough's aid, 145;
    their relations with the Church, 169;
      with the Crown, 172, 174;
      with Parliament, 175, 176;
    fidelity to the principles of the Revolution, 177;
    relations with public opinion, 289;
      with Pitt, 301;
    the "Old," viii. 104;
    in Scotland, their outrages, vii. 16

  White, Sir Thomas, iv. 157

  Whitefield, George, vii. 205, 209

  Whitehall built, iii. 236

  Whitelock, Bulstrode, v. 306, 322, 323;
    his _Memoirs_, 72

  _White Ship_, wreck of the, i. 207, 208

  Whitby (Streoneshealh),
    Hild's abbey at, i. 77;
    synod of, 79, 80;
      its effect on England, 80, 81

  Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, iv. 341, 343; v. 58;
    his Articles, iv. 341, 342; v. 115, 116;
    Strype's _Life of_, iv. 4

  Whittingham, Dean of Durham, iv. 127

  Wight, Isle of, annexed to Sussex, i. 85

  Wilberforce, William, viii. 48, 52

  Wilfrid, St., i. 79, 92;
    Eddi's _Life of_, 4

  Wilkes, John, vii. 249;
    his services to the Constitution, 313;
    attacks the Government in the _North Briton_, 314, 317, 318;
    arrested, 318;
    prosecuted for libel, _ib._;
    flies to France, _ib._;
    returned for Middlesex, viii. 5;
    imprisoned, 6;
    struggle with the Government, 7;
    with the House of Commons, _ib._, 8;
    his proposal for Parliamentary reform, 75

  Wilkins, Dr. John, vi. 132, 166

  William the Conqueror,
    duke of Normandy, i. 157;
    visits England, 158;
    subdues Maine and Britanny, _ib._;
    his claim on England, 160;
    lands at Pevensey, 162;
    exploits at Senlac, 163, 164;
    chosen king, 165;
    crowned, 166;
    returns to Normandy, 167;
    risings against him, _ib._, 168;
    his vengeance on the north, 168, 169;
    march on Chester, 169, 179;
    master of England, 170;
    receives the Scot king's fealty, _ib._;
    his character, 178, 179;
    rule, 179-181;
    dealings with feudalism, 181-185;
      with Old English judicial and administrative organization, 185;
    finance, 186;
    dealings with the Church, 187, 188;
      with Wales, 189; ii. 47;
    suppresses slave-trade at Bristol, i. 250;
    last war and death, 190

  William the Red,
    king, i. 191;
    revolts against him, _ib._, 192;
    his rule, 192;
    dealings with the barons, 193;
      with the Church, _ib._;
      with Anselm, 196;
      with Normandy and Scotland, 197;
      with Wales, 198; ii. 48;
    death, i. 198

  William III.,
    Prince of Orange, vi. 225;
    his youth, 269;
    repels the French invasion of Holland, 270, 277;
    his diplomatic success, 277;
    plans for his marriage, 283;
    defeated at Cassel, 289;
    marriage, 290;
    plans the Grand Alliance, 317;
    policy in England, _ib._, 318;
    visits England, 334;
    shelters Monmouth, vii. 8;
    forbidden to visit England, 12;
    relations with James II., 26-28;
    invited to England, 35;
    his preparations, 37;
    lands at Torbay, 40;
    his advance, 42;
    enters London, 44;
    calls a Convention, _ib._;
    declines to be Regent, 46;
    the Crown offered to, 47;
      he accepts it, 48;
    his foreign aims, _ib._;
    dealings with Scotland, 51;
    signs the warrant for the massacre of Glencoe, 53;
    relations with Parliament, 62, 63, 66, 69;
    campaign in Ireland, 71;
    goes to Flanders, 76;
    defeated at Steinkirk, 79;
    struggle with the Commons, 81, 82;
    treaty with Lewis, 90, 91;
    policy as to the Spanish succession, 92, 93;
    his unpopularity, 95;
    forced to send home his Dutch guards, 97;
    forms a new Grand Alliance, 107;
    his relations with Marlborough and Anne, 110;
    death, 112

  William the Ætheling, i. 207

  William the Lion, king of Scots, i. 255, 259; ii. 134

  William Longsword, duke of Normandy, i. 155

  William, son of Robert of Normandy, i. 203, 208, 213, 214

  William of Jumièges, i. 6

  William of the Long Beard, i. 319, 320

  Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, v. 255, 353, 371

  Williams, Roger, v. 312, 313

  Willis, Thomas, vi. 166

  Willoughby, Hugh, iv. 282; v. 9

  Wiltshire, rising in, iii. 67

  Wiltshire, Thomas Boleyn, Earl of, iii. 291.
    _See_ Boleyn

  Wiltshire, William Scrope, Earl of, iii. 18

  Winceby, skirmish at, vi. 33

  Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury,
    opposes Edward I., ii. 163, 165, 170;
    head of the "Ordainers," 188

  Winchester
    surrendered to William the Conqueror, i. 165;
    welcomes Stephen, 215;
    battle at, 220;
    pillaged by the younger Simon de Montfort, ii. 82;
    marriage of Philip and Mary at, iv. 86;
    Ælfred's abbey at, i. 113;
    Wykeham's college at, ii. 307;
    the royal hoard at, 180, 188;
    Parliament at, ii. 66, 80, 82

  Winchester, William Paulet, first marquis of, iv. 65

  Winchester, John Paulet, fifth marquis of, vi. 42

  Winchester, Charles Paulet, sixth marquis of, vii. 37

  Windebank, Secretary of State, v. 351

  Windham, William, viii. 104, 156, 171

  Windsor Castle
    seized by John, i. 261;
    surrendered by Edward to the barons, ii. 67;
    rebuilt by Edward III., 252

  Winter, Admiral De, viii. 127

  Winthrop, John, v. 311, 313

  Winwæd, battle of, i. 72, 73

  Wippedsfleet, battle of, i. 33

  Wishart, George, iv. 112

  Witchcraft,
    belief in, v. 105;
    statute against, 105, 106;
    Puritan action against, 106, 107

  Witenagemot, the, i. 19, 132, 134, 135

  Wither, George, v. 303

  Witt, John de, vi. 242, 249, 268, 269

  Wolsey, Thomas,
    his rise, iii. 230;
    policy, 231;
    greatness, 236;
    his industry, 237;
    legate, 238;
    negotiations with Francis and Charles, 240, 243;
    hopes of the Papacy, 240, 241, 249;
    revives benevolences, 244, 251;
    demands a forced loan, 244;
    struggle with the Commons, 245;
      with the clergy, 246;
    his power shaken, 253;
    attitude towards Lutheranism, 261, 263;
    founds Cardinal College, 202, 263;
    action in the king's divorce, 269, 270;
    embassy to France, 271;
    negotiations with the Pope, _ib._, 272;
    his unpopularity, 273;
    commissioner for the divorce, 272;
    his fall, 279, 280;
    suppresses monasteries, 311;
    arrested, 292;
    death, 293;
    Cavendish's _Life of_, 83

  Woodstock, Edmund, earl of, ii. 293

  Woodstock, Thomas of, ii. 293.
    _See_ Gloucester

  Woodville, Elizabeth, wife of Edward IV., iii. 124, 167, 168, 171, 176

  Woodville, Sir Richard, iii. 124.
    _See_ Rivers

  Woodward, John, vi. 167

  Wool,
    grants of, by Parliament to the king, ii. 230;
    taxation of, 107, 164, 298;
    trade in, under Edward I., 107;
      under Edward III., 226;
        monopolized by him, 229;
    in the eighteenth century, viii. 53

  Woolsack, the Lord Chancellor's, ii. 226

  Worcester,
    rising at, under Harthacnut, i. 148;
    threatened by Owen Glyndwr, iii. 18

  Worcester, Thomas Percy, earl of, iii. 13, 14

  Worcester, John Tiptoft, earl of, iii. 162

  Worcester, William of, ii. 179; iii. 40

  Worcestershire, salt springs in, ii. 107

  Wordsworth, William, viii. 135

  Worms,
    diet at, iii. 254;
    Tyndale at, 260

  Worsted trade, iv. 279

  Wriothesley, Lord Chancellor, iv. 46.
    _See_ Southampton

  Wulfhere, king of Mercia, i. 78, 85-87

  Wulfstan, St., bishop of Worcester, i. 192, 250

  Wulfstan explores the coast of Esthonia, i. 113

  Wurmser, General, viii. 123

  Wyatt, Sir Thomas, the elder, iv. 42

  Wyatt, Sir Thomas, the younger, iv. 82, 84, 85

  Wycherly, William, vi. 157, 163

  Wyclif, John, ii. 275-277;
    his treatise _De Dominio Divino_, 278, 279;
    commissioner for negotiations with the Pope, 303;
    his denunciation of Church property, 308, 309;
    summoned to trial for heresy, 309, 310;
    his "Simple Priests," 317;
    denies Transubstantiation, 337;
    condemned at Oxford, _ib._;
      at Blackfriars, 339;
    his English tracts, 338, 356;
    petition to king and Parliament, 342;
    his _Fasciculi Zizamorum_, 178;
    _Trias_, _ib._;
    his Bible, 178, 343;
    cited to Rome, 343;
    death, 344

  Wykeham, William of, bishop of Winchester, ii. 302, 305, 307-309

  Wykes's _Chronicle_, i. 274

  Wyndham, Sir William, vii. 168, 184

  Wolfe, General, vii. 267, 268


  Yeoman, the English, ii. 240, 241

  Yonge's (Walter) _Diary_, v. 71

  York,
    capital of Roman Britain, i. 36;
    occupied by William I., 167;
    stormed by rebels, 168;
    massacre of Jews at, ii. 129;
    provincial council at, 120;
    Parliament at, 195;
    held for Elizabeth by Lord Sussex, iv. 269;
    Charles I. at, v. 337, 378;
    besieged by Manchester, Fairfax, and Leven, vi. 18;
    surrenders, 22;
    its common pastures, i. 296;
    school at, 91;
    six shires of, 295;
    four wards, 296

  York, Edmund of Langley, Duke of (_see_ Cambridge),
    supports Richard II., ii. 370;
    regent, 379

  York, Edward, duke of (_see_ Albemarle, Rutland), iii. 15

  York, Frederick, duke of, viii. 108, 110, 140

  York, Richard, duke of (_see_ Cambridge), iii. 30;
    Regent of France, 56, 57;
    recalled, 60;
    sent to Ireland, 62, 63;
      returns, 67;
    struggle with Henry VI., 68-70;
    Protector of the Realm, 72;
    marriage, 73;
    rises in arms, _ib._;
    Protector again, 74;
    raises his standard at Ludlow, _ib._;
    flies to Ireland, 75;
    victory at Northampton, _ib._;
    his claims to the crown, 75-77;
    slain, 78

  York House (Whitehall) built, iii. 236

  Yorkshire,
    Pilgrimage of Grace in, iii. 322;
    rise of manufactures in, v. 281

  York Town, Cornwallis's surrender at, viii. 32

  Young, member for Bristol in 1450, iii. 68


  Zaragoza, siege of, viii. 187

  Zorndorf, battle of, vii. 263

  _Zürich Letters_, the, iv. 4

  Zutphen, battle of, iv. 349


_Printed by_ R. & R. CLARK, LIMITED, _Edinburgh_.



Transcriber's Notes:


This is the index for the 8 volume set of History of the English People.
It was included at the end of Volume VIII in the original. For ease in
accessibility, it has been removed and produced as a separate volume.

Words in italics in the original are surrounded by _underscores_.

The following corrections have been made to the text:

     Page 213: Æthelflæd{original has Ætheflæd}, Lady of the
     Mercians

     Page 222: under the entry, Burgundy, Philip III., withdraws
     his troops from siege of Orleans{original has Orléans}

     Page 237: under the entry, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII.,
     Parliament refuses to oust her from the succession{original
     has sucession}

     Page 244: Gilbert, William, discovers terrestrial{original has
     terrestial} magnetism

     Page 282: Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley{original has
     Wroithesley}, fourth Earl of





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