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´╗┐Title: Parent and Child Volume III., Child Study and Training
Author: Hall, Mosiah
Language: English
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PARENT AND CHILD

BY MOSIAH HALL

Volume Three

Child Study and Training

1916


FOR THE DESERET SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION, SALT LAKE CITY



A WORD OF INTRODUCTION


Home-making and the rearing of children is the fundamental business of this
world. To make a success of this business we must understand it. The loving
hearts of many parents are suffering for a multitude of mistakes that
loving intelligence might have prevented. We cannot save our children in
ignorance. To perform the duties of parenthood well, we must understand
them more clearly. We need light and uplift. These days demand greater
knowledge than ever before on the part of parents to meet and master the
problems that now confront fathers and mothers.

Particularly do we need to study child nature. A clearer understanding of
the laws governing the development of children would give parents great
help in guiding their children into paths of righteousness, and in
ministering to varying child needs as they develop.

To give definite help and new spirit to our work, this volume has been
prepared. The keynote of the book is _a more enlightened parenthood_. It
offers a series of lessons along a line most vital to parents--_Child Study
and Training_.

These lessons have been written for us by Mosiah Hall, Associate Professor
in Education of the University of Utah, and High School Inspector for the
State of Utah. We feel that he has done for our cause most excellent
service, and we gladly acknowledge our indebtedness to him.

This should be remembered: A book gives wisdom only in proportion to the
thought that is put into it by the reader. The suggestions of this volume
will become rich only as they are enriched by study. They will become
valuable only to the extent that they find application in our daily lives.
The lessons will be vitalized only as the teacher pours life into them.

To supplement and enrich the course, references are given with most of the
lessons, and a list of books is offered at the close of the book. Many of
these volumes have already been purchased and distributed through the
parents' class library. Each class should endeavor to procure at least one
copy of each of these books as it is called for in the various lessons. In
this way a good library can be gradually built up.

Our desire is to make these studies bring lasting returns for good. May God
add his blessings to make our work divinely successful,

Your brethren in the gospel,
Parents' Class Committee of Deseret Sunday
School Union Board,
HENRY H. ROLAPP, HOWARD R. DRIGGS.
NATHAN T. PORTER, EPHRAIM G. GOWANS.



A WORD FROM THE AUTHOR


This treatise on child study and training has been prepared primarily for
the Parents' classes in Sunday School under the direction of the General
Board. It is well adapted also for study by Parent-Teachers' Associations
and for reading in the home.

Its purpose is to acquaint parents with the most vital problems of child
life and character and to suggest some methods of solving these problems.
The work is not offered as a complete course in this great subject; it is
intended rather to open up the field of child study for parents.

The welfare of the race depends upon the proper birth and the correct
rearing of children. That this little volume may add its mite towards
the solution of the problem--at once the hope and the despair of
civilization,--is the wish of its author.

To the Parents' Class Committee and the General Superintendency of the
General Board, I desire to express my appreciation for the suggestions and
help they have extended to me in the preparation of this work.

To my wife, who achieves in practice what I imperfectly state in theory,
these studies are affectionately dedicated.

MOSIAH HALL.



THE BIRTHRIGHT OF CHILDHOOD


_It Is the Sacred Right of the Child To Be Well-Born_

If the child has any divine right in this world, it is the right to be
well-born, to be brought into the world sound of body and whole in mind. To
be given anything short of such a good beginning is to be handicapped
throughout life. Education and training cannot make up for the defects
imposed on the child by the sins of the fathers, which, the Good Book tells
us, are visited upon the children unto the third and fourth generation.

It is a fact to challenge attention that the child is the product of the
entire past. His essential nature is comparatively fixed at birth and is
beyond the power or caprice of parent or environment to change in any
fundamental particular during the short period of a lifetime. This
assertion must not be wrongly interpreted; the possibilities of training
and education are great, but they can do little to overcome all of the
defects placed upon the child by heredity.

Science tells us that normal children are born with the same number and
kind of instincts. By instinct is meant the tendency to do certain things
in a definite way without previous experience. In all children, for
example, we find the instinct of fear, the instinct for play, for
self-preservation. These instincts begin to manifest themselves more or
less strongly as the child develops.

Children also have certain capacities. Capacity may be defined as the
possibility to develop skill in certain directions. One, for instance, may
have a greater capacity to develop musical ability than another; so with
art or business, or ability for any other work. Capacities, more than
instincts, seem to depend on the characteristics of parents or immediate
ancestors. Thus a child may take after father or mother, or grandparent in
this or that particular ability. Instincts, on the other hand, seem to be
his inheritance from the race. But whatever his gifts from parent or past
the child is born a distinct individual. This is true not only with regard
to his physical organism but in respect to his spiritual nature. The
relative strength of his instincts, added to the number and quality of his
capacities determine what is called individuality. This is what makes each
child differ from all others, and this distinctive nature cannot be
essentially changed, within our brief lives, though it does possess
marvelous powers of development and adaptation. For illustration:
Cultivation may develop a perfect specimen of a crabapple, but no amount
of careful training could change the crabapple into a Johnathan. Likewise,
no system of education can hope to change a numskull into a Newton, or to
produce a Solomon from a Simple Simon.

The first vital concern of parents, therefore, should be to see that the
child is not robbed of his sacred birthright to be well-born.

It is a matter of regret that the white race generally is such a sorry
mixture of humanity. The good and the bad, the intelligent and the
ignorant, the feeble-minded and the strong, the criminal and the righteous,
have been combined so frequently and in so many ways that the marvel
is that more of the human race are not degenerate as the result of
contamination. Since the great characteristic of heredity is to breed true
and thus perpetuate its kind, and since training and education must take
the individual as he is, with only limited power to change his intrinsic
nature or to develop any capacity not present at birth, it becomes a matter
of serious importance that parents do all in their power to guide properly
the mating of their children. The teaching of the Gospel on this point is
most significant.

Heredity determines to a great extent the kind and the nature of the
individual, and thereby sets limits, which the environment may not
overcome. Among these limitations are the following:

1. The relative strength of instincts.

2. The number and kind of capacities.

3. The form, size and quality of bodily organs.

4. Susceptibility to, or power to resist disease.

5. The possibilities of mental attainment.

6. The possibilities of emotional and spiritual response.

7. The possibility to execute undertakings, to control situations, and to
govern self as well as others.

Heredity also endows a person with his peculiar temperament, with his good
or bad looks, and with the chief components of what is called personality.
On the other hand, training and education have almost everything to say
respecting the relative standing of the individual among the members of his
kind--whether or not he shall be a blighted or a perfect specimen. A fine,
sweet, juicy crabapple is more desirable than a scrubby, diseased Jonathan.

It is the province of training and education to take the individual as he
is born, and endeavor to make of him a perfect specimen of his kind. "A
child left to himself bringeth his parents to shame." If left alone or
improperly trained, a child is almost certain to revert to a lower type of
individual. The same high possibilities that, properly directed, produce
the superior being, if neglected, or subjected to a vicious environment,
produce the moral degenerate. The child is born morally neither good nor
bad, and while inherited tendencies may make development in one direction
easier than in another, it is possible for a favorable environment,
assisted by education, to develop any normal child into a sweet, wholesome
product of his kind.

Shearer in his "Management and Training of Children," says: "The child may
inherit instincts, but a kind Providence has ordained that he shall not
inherit habits. He may inherit certain tastes, but he does not inherit
temptation. He may bring into the world tendencies, but he does not bring
with him prejudices."



LESSON I


_Questions for Discussion_

1. What does the expression "being well-born" mean to you?

2. What responsibility is laid upon parents by the fact that the child is
the product of the past? Read the second commandment here and discuss its
significance in application to this point.

3. What are some of the instincts and capacities given to the child by
heredity?

4. Explain the difference between an instinct and a capacity. What seems
to be the source of our instincts?--our capacities?

5. What are the chief limitations placed by heredity upon the child?

6. What may education and environment hope to accomplish?

_References_: "The Right of the Child to be Well Born," will be found a
helpful book to study here. It may be well, if the book is available, to
have someone appointed to report on it or to read a few choice paragraphs
from it. Also read "Being Well Born," by Guyer.



IMPORTANT LAWS OF HEREDITY


_A Wise Application of the Laws of Inheritance Is the Most Certain Means of
Developing a Superior Race_

In the preface of Dr. Guyer's remarkable book, "Being Well Born," we read
the following: "It is no exaggeration to say that during the last fifteen
years, we have made more progress in measuring the extent of inheritance
and in determining its elemental factors than in all previous time." If
this is true, it would seem to be almost criminal for teachers and parents
to neglect to acquaint themselves with the fundamental laws of heredity.
This author says further: "Since what a child becomes is determined so
largely by its inborn capacities, it is of the utmost importance that
teachers and parents realize something of the nature of such aptitudes
before they begin to awaken them. For education consists in large measure
in supplying the stimuli necessary to set going these potentialities and of
affording opportunity for their expression."

_Mendel's_ law is probably the most important known principle of
inheritance. Through its application practically all of the improvements in
plants and animals have been brought about. This law may be explained as
follows: A certain kind of pure bred fowl is found which is either pure
white or black. If either color is mated with its own color the resulting
progeny will be true to the color of the parents, but if a white and a
black are crossed the result will be blue fowls possessing one-half the
characteristics of each parent, but strange to say, if two blue fowls are
mated the progeny will not be all blue, one-fourth will be white like one
grandparent, another one-fourth black like the other grandparent, and
one-half will be blue like the parents. If this experiment is repeated with
plants and animals having opposite characteristics, the same ratios as
above always result. This indicates that truly heritable traits or
characters are separate units and are inherited independently. The breeder
is thus enabled through selecting the traits or characters that are wanted
and crossing them with a well-known stock, to produce almost any trait or
quality that he desires. This law makes it possible to estimate the results
of cross breeding with almost mathematical exactness. Improved varieties of
fruits, grains and vegetables have been produced in this manner, and with
animals marvelous results have been achieved.

Luther Burbank, in his little book, "The Training of the Human Plant,"
says: "There is not a single desirable attribute which, lacking in a
plant, may not be bred into it. Choose what improvement you wish in a
flower, a fruit, or a tree, and by crossing, selection, cultivation and
persistence, you can fix this desirable trait irrevocably." And further:
"If then we could have twelve families under ideal conditions where these
principles could be carried out unswervingly, we could accomplish more for
the race in ten generations than can now be accomplished in a hundred
thousand years. Ten generations of human life should be ample to fix any
desired attribute. This is absolutely clear, there is neither theory nor
speculation."

_Acquirements of parents_ during their lifetime, according to the best
authorities, are not transmitted to any noticeable extent to their
children. This appears to be due to the fact that the cells concerned in
reproduction are set aside during embryonic life and from then on are
practically unmodified by the succeeding development and experiences of the
parent. In fact, during the lifetime of the individual, the germ cells are
so completely isolated from the growing organism that nothing but
nourishment in the shape of blood can possibly reach them, hence they can
be affected only by a vitiated or poisonous blood supply. It seems to be
true, therefore, that only the old, deeply-impressed traits, capacities,
or racial characters can be inherited. This is, no doubt, the chief secret
of the power of heredity to breed true.

It has been a popular belief that if parents acquired skill in music,
mathematics, or special ability in any other particular that such ability
could be imparted to their children, but in the light of the above facts,
this appears to be impossible. Of course, if such ability is a slumbering,
inborn trait of either parent, or of some immediate ancestor, the ability
might be transmitted.

It is reasonable to suppose, however, that any acquired trait or ability
of the parent, if practised and continued steadily by his children and
their descendants for many generations, will come to be an inborn trait
or character capable of being transmitted. Otherwise, it is extremely
difficult to understand how the human family can progress and become
permanently improved.

_Galton's_ law is believed to be approximately correct. It may be stated
as follows: Children inherit on the average one-half their characteristics
from parents, one-fourth from grandparents, one-eighth from
great-grandparents, and so on in ever diminishing ratio to remote
ancestors. But owing to the fact that some inheritable traits or
characters are likely to be dominant and others recessive, Galton's law
must be modified, so that only under the most favorable conditions can it
be regarded as reliable.

Owing to the fact that the primary elements or traits of character
contributed by each parent may combine in many ways in the embryo,
considerable variation in the children of the same parents is
inevitable--one child may resemble the father, another the mother, and
yet another some near ancestor. Variability is, therefore, the rule among
offspring in the same family, and in some instances it is decidedly
pronounced, but in all cases, the variation must be confined to the
possible combinations of characters transmitted from parents and ancestors.

_The law of regression_ represents the tendency of the extreme elements of
the race constantly to seek the middle or mediocre level. For example, the
children of superior parents are not likely to be so brilliant as their
parents, and the offspring of inferior people are somewhat better than
their parents. This "drag of the race" or "pull of ancestors" is no doubt
due to the fact that selection has never been practiced, hence the
two-thousand nearby ancestors were most likely an average lot of people,
and the "pull" is from the higher towards the lower level. The "pull" is a
help to the children of inferior parents but is a handicap to the superior.

If long-continued selection of parents were practiced, the regression
would disappear and the "pull" would be upward. Selection of parents
possessing superior elements of character and the prevention of the unfit
and the criminal from propagating their kind, seem the surest hope we have
of producing a permanently higher type.

It is well known that the extremes of the race are less fertile than the
means; and since fertility is the chief factor in fixing the type, in the
absence of selection and repression, the race appears doomed to remain at
the dead level of mediocrity. The tremendous significance of this fact is
that the welfare of the race--the gradual substitution of a superior for
the present mediocre type--rests absolutely upon the willingness and
ability of the superior class to do their full share in propagating the
race.



LESSON II


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What is the principle of heredity as discovered by Mendel? Explain by
illustrating how it works out in plants and animals.

2. What practical application is made of this law in producing better seed
and better breeds?

3. Illustrate Galton's law.

4. What significance has these laws in the improvement of the human race?

5. Account for the variability of children in the same family.

6. Why are some children inferior, some superior to their parents?

7. Illustrate the "pull of ancestors."

8. How might this "pull" be made upward instead of downwards, as it now
seems to be?

9. What sacred responsibility rests upon superior people to propagate the
race?

10. What are the gospel teachings regarding mixed marriages and the rearing
of families?

11. What practical steps can and should be taken to prevent feeble-minded
and vicious people from propagating their kind?

_Reference_: The Jukes-Edwards family by Dr. A.E. Winship. If this book be
available, have some member of the class make a report on it. "Training the
Human Plant," and "Being Well Born," will also be found helpful here.



THE MOTHER AND THE EMBRYO


_The Care of the Mother During the Embryonic Period Determines Largely the
Future Welfare of the Child_

In common with every organism the infant develops from a single germ cell
of almost microscopic size. Wrapped in this tiny cell are all the
possibilities of structure and character that combine to form the
complicated bodily organism and the particular mental endowment of the
coming child.

It was once believed that almost any kind of physical or mental change
could be brought about in the cell through appropriate control of the
environment, but the results of careful observation and experiment are
opposed to this view; all evidence points to the fact that no new character
or element can enter the embryo from without. The cell itself holds the
secret of what the future individual shall be.

The sole connection between the embryo and the mother is the narrow,
umbilical cord which contains no nerves and whose only function is to carry
blood to the growing organism; it may be seen, therefore, how impossible it
is for mental impressions and disturbances on the part of the mother to in
any way reach and affect the embryo. Once started on the road to
development, the embryo is so thoroughly subject to inner laws that nothing
from without can modify or change the direction of its growth except some
physical cause which interferes with the blood supply. An adequate supply
of pure blood is the principal requirement of the growing organism.
Whatever interferes with the blood supply or in any way affects its purity,
has an injurious affect upon the embryo. There is not the least doubt that
lack of nutrition and serious ill-health on the part of the mother have an
extremely bad effect upon the unborn offspring. Severe shock or grief,
worry, nervous exhaustion, disease, and poisons in the blood of the mother
are the most serious sources of injury; they render nutrition defective and
if poison enters directly the blood of the mother or is generated by toxins
through disease, the embryo will be poisoned and may be destroyed. Among
these poisons are alcohol, lead, and the toxins from tuberculosis and the
venereal diseases, gonorrhea and syphilis. To gonorrhea is attributed 80
per cent. of the blindness of children born blind; it is declared to be the
cause of 75 per cent. of all the surgical operations for female disorders
and of 45 per cent. of involuntary sterility in childless women. Syphilis
is the chief cause of feeble-mindedness, paresis, or softening of the
brain, and of most other mental defects in children.

From the foregoing, it is evident that the proper care of the mother so as
to insure a pure blood supply for the offspring ought to be one of the
chief concerns of society. This should not be left to the haphazard efforts
of individuals but ought to be provided for by the state. According to the
statements of life insurance companies, "expectant mothers are the most
neglected members of our population." Dr. Van Ingen, of New York City,
estimates that 90 per cent, of women in this country are wholly without
prenatal care.

Luther Burbank shows that in order even for a plant to grow properly it
must have abundance of sunshine, good air, and nourishing food; but not
many mothers at this time may have even these poor luxuries. Instead, too
many mothers are slaves to an insanitary kitchen where sunshine is scarcely
known and where overwork and worry destroy all appetite for food.

The welfare of the race demands that the mother shall be properly nurtured
and protected during this critical period. Abundance of sunshine, pure air,
light exercise and a variety of wholesome food are absolutely essential,
and the utmost pains should be taken to prevent worry, excitement, sickness
and above all contact with or exposure to poisons or disease.

It was once thought that whatever causes a mental disturbance in the mother
leaves its impress on the child. It is fortunate that this old notion is
false, as we have shown nothing but a physical change affecting the blood
supply can possibly influence the developing organism. Now and then a red
"flame" spot or so-called birthmark is found on the new-born child, but
this is due always to some physical cause which may be easily explained,
never is it a result of fear of some red object on the part of the mother.



LESSON III


DISCUSSION

1. How does embryonic life begin?

2. What is characteristic of the cell?

3. What secret does it hold?

4. What is the principal need of the embryo?

5. State fully how the blood supply may be vitiated and what terrible
consequences may follow.

6. How should the mother be cared for during this critical period?

7. How may mother drudgery in the home be reduced to a minimum?

8. What directions does Mrs. West give for the care of the mother? (See
bulletin, "Parental Care," by Mrs. West, which may be had free for the
asking. Address Children's Bureau, Department of Labor, Washington, D.C.)

9. _References_: The following books will be found helpful: "The Training
of the Human Plant," by Burbank; "The Right of the Child to be well born,"
by Dawson; "Being Well Born," by Guyer.

If these are available, they may be circulated through the parents'
library.



THE PLASTIC AGE OF CHILDHOOD


_Prolonged Infancy and the Long Period of Plasticity in the Infant Make
Training and Education Possible_

The child is born the weakest and most helpless of creatures. Unlike the
young of most animals, which within a few hours after birth move about and
perform most of the movements necessary to their existence, the infant is
so helpless that all its needs must be supplied by parents, otherwise it
would perish. Immediately after birth a colt or calf can walk or run almost
as fast as its mother; the chick just out of its shell can run about and
peck at its food. The child at one year of age can barely totter around and
all of its needs must be looked after by others. Moreover, the infant at
birth is practically blind and deaf and the senses of taste and smell and
touch just sufficiently developed to enable it to take nourishment.

This slowness of development, or prolonged infancy as it is called, is of
vast significance to the child. It marks at once the chief distinction
between the human infant and the young of all other animals. It makes
possible a long period of adjustment and training which otherwise would be
impossible. Most animals are born with a nervous system highly developed
and with most of the adjustment to the environment ready made, so that
after a short time all the activities of life are perfected and thereafter
automatic action and instinct rule their lives. Because of this lack of
infancy and absence of plasticity of the nervous system, animals are little
more than machines that perform their task with unvarying regularity in
response to outside stimulations. Animals, therefore, are unable to adjust
themselves to a change in environment, and as a result their lives are in
constant danger. In fact, countless millions of the lower forms of life are
perishing every hour because of the lack of possibility of adjustment.

The child, on the other hand, has an extremely long period of infancy, and
as a result, the nervous system is so plastic that it may be moulded,
fashioned and developed in almost any manner or direction, according to the
will of parents and the nature of the environment. The child, consequently,
may be educated. By education we mean the training and developing of
desirable instincts and capacities and the inhibiting of undesirable ones
so that the child may be able constantly to adjust himself to an
ever-changing environment.

Fiske, in "The Meaning of Infancy," Chapter 1, says: "The bird known as the
fly-catcher no sooner breaks the egg than it will snap at and catch a fly.
This action is not very simple, but because it is something the bird is
always doing, being indeed one of the very few things that this bird ever
does, the nervous connections needful for doing it are all established
before birth, and nothing but the presence of the fly is required to set
the operation going. With such creatures as the codfish, the turtle, or the
fly-catcher, there is nothing that can properly be called infancy. With
them, the sphere of education is extremely limited. They get their
education before they are born. In other words, heredity does everything
for them, education nothing.

"All mammals and most birds have a period of babyhood that is not very
long, but it is on the whole longer with the most intelligent creatures.
The period of helpfulness is a period of plasticity. The creature's career
is no longer exclusively determined by heredity. There is a period after
birth when its character can be slightly modified by what happens to it
after birth, that is, by its experience as an individual. It is no longer
necessary for each generation to be exactly like that which has preceded.
The door is opened through which the capacity for progress can enter.
Horses and dogs, bears and elephants, parrots and monkeys, are all
teachable to some extent, and we have even heard of a learned pig, and of
learned asses there has been no lack in the world.

"But this educability of the higher mammals and birds is, after all, quite
limited. Conservatism still continues in fashion. One generation is much
like another. It would be easy for foxes to learn to climb trees, and many
a fox might have saved his life by so doing; yet quick-witted as he is,
this obvious device has never occurred to him."

The vital problem with parents is how to fill this period of plasticity,
how to provide an educative environment of the right kind.

Luther Burbank, in "The Training of the Human Plant," expresses complete
confidence in the power of the environment through appropriate training to
fashion the normal child, just as he could a plant, into a most delightful
and beautiful specimen of its kind. He says: "Pick out any trait you want
in your child, granted that he is a normal child, be it honesty, fairness,
purity, lovableness, industry, thrift, what not. By surrounding this child
with sunshine from the sky and your own heart, by giving the closest
communion with nature, by feeding this child well-balanced, nutritious
food, by giving it all that is implied in healthful environmental
influences, and by doing all in love, you can thus cultivate in the child
and fix there for all its life all of these traits, and on the other side,
give him foul air to breathe, keep him in a dusty factory or an unwholesome
school-room or a crowded tenement up under the hot roof; keep him away from
the sunshine, take away from him music and laughter and happy faces; cram
his little brains with so-called knowledge; let him have vicious associates
in his hours out of school, and at the age of ten you have fixed in him the
opposite traits. You have, perhaps, seen a prairie fire sweep through the
tall grass across a plain. Nothing can stand before it, it must burn itself
out. That is what happens when you let weeds grow up in your child's life,
and then set fire to them by wrong environment."

Mr. Burbank is probably over-enthusiastic in his belief that natural
education can do everything for the child; but it is certain that
environment does exercise a powerful influence, during the plastic age, in
determining his character.



LESSON IV


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Compare the helplessness of the infant at birth with the ability of the
young of other animals.

2. At one year of age, what is the comparison?

3. What is the significance of prolonged infancy respecting (a) possibility
of adjustment to environment, (b) possibility of training and education,
(c) possibility of profiting from experience, (d) the relation to heredity?

4. What advantage is it that man is born with the germs of many capacities
instead of with a few activities that are perfectly developed?

5. What is the chief function of education?

6. What does Burbank say respecting the possibilities of training?

7. What common-sense training should every child be given during this
period?

Good books, for further study on these points, are: "The Care and Training
of the Child," by Kerr, and "Fundamentals of Child Study," by Kirkpatrick.

If these volumes are in the library or otherwise available, it may be well
to have some member read and give a brief report on one or the other of
them.



THE NEEDS OF THE INFANT


_The Infant's First Needs Are Physical, and May Be Summed up in the Word
Nutrition_

The new-born child differs in nearly all particulars from the adult. It is
very unfortunate that the child in the past has been regarded as a
miniature adult and treated like "a little man."

The structure of muscle and bone and the proportion of various parts of the
body differ materially; the bones of the child for some time are soft and
largely composed of cartilages which may be easily bent out of shape and
permanently injured. The ratio of some of the parts is about as follows:

       *       *       *       *       *

Height of head of adult to that of infant--2 to 1
Length of body of adult to that of infant--3 to 1
Length of arm of adult to that of infant--4 to 1
Length of leg of adult to that of infant--5 to 1

Besides these easily observed differences, there are others of far more
consequence not easily seen, such as differences in the size, structure and
activity of vital organs, and in the almost total lack of nervous
development in the child as compared with the adult. All of these things
make of the child an individual so different from the adult that he must be
treated in accordance with his own nature and needs and with little regard
to the way in which an adult is considered.

Practically everything that the infant needs may be summed up in the one
word _nutrition_. A sufficient supply of pure milk from the mother is the
one supreme requirement. If this is assured, everything else is almost
certain to follow. Of course, the little one must be kept at the right
temperature, which is comparatively high during the first few months. An
abundance of pure, fresh air also must be supplied to both mother and
child. It is wise for both to spend much time in the open air and to sleep
on a screened porch.

The child should be kept quiet and permitted to sleep as long as nature
dictates. It is a positive sin to snatch the child from its bed, toss it up
and down and screech at it for the edification of curious visitors. Kissing
the child in the mouth should also be positively prohibited. The use of
patent medicines likewise, or even many of the "old mother remedies" should
never be indulged except on the advice of a competent physician. The needs
of the child for some time are strictly physical. Inner forces are at work
which cannot be assisted except indirectly through care of the physical
organism. So far as nervous or mental development is concerned the rule
should be, "Hands off, let Nature take her course."

Immediately after birth certain reflexive and instinctive movements, such
as sucking, crying, sneezing and clinging are manifested; and the sense of
taste and usually smell are also sufficiently active to enable the infant
to take nourishment. No other senses are active and no other movements
possible except the automatic action of vital organs and a few vague
spasmodic twitchings and movements of parts of the body known as impulsive.
Nothing, however, can be done from without to hasten the mental awakening;
Nature in her own due time will do this, and do it much better if not
hurried or interfered with.



LESSON V


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Show that the infant is not an adult in miniature.

2. What are some important differences between the child and the adult?

3. What is the supreme need of the infant? Why?

4. What should be observed in caring for the child?

5. What should be avoided in caring for the child?

6. What should be the rule in early mental development?

7. What is active in the child immediately after birth?

"The Care of the Child in Health," by Oppenheim, will be helpful here. If
the book is in the parents' library, let someone prepare and make a brief
report on it for next lesson.

The following other helps may be had for the asking by writing to the U.S.
Bureau of Education: "Parental Care," by Mrs. West, Series No. 1,
publication No. 4, U.S. Department of Labor, Children's Bureau. The
following chapter is taken from one of these bulletins prepared for parents
by our Government.



CARE OF THE BABY IN SUMMER


_Summer Is a Critical Time for the Infant, During This Time It Should
Receive the Most Careful Attention_

A baby must be kept as cool as possible in summer, because over-heating is
a direct cause of summer diarrhea. Even breast-fed babies find it hard to
resist the weakening effects of excessive heat. Records show that thousands
of babies, most of whom are bottle-fed, die every year in July and August,
because of the direct or indirect effects of the heat. Next in importance
to right food in summer are measures for keeping the baby cool and
comfortable; frequent baths, light clothing and the selection of the
coolest available places for him to play and sleep.

A baby should have a full tub bath every morning. If he is restless and the
weather is very hot, he may have in addition one or two sponge baths a day.
A cool bath at bedtime sometimes makes the baby sleep more comfortably. For
a young baby, the water should be tepid; that is, it should feel neither
hot nor cold to the mother's elbow. For an older baby it may be slightly
cooler, but should not be cold enough to chill or frighten him.

If the water is very hard a tablespoonful of borax dissolved in a little
water may be added to three quarts of water to soften it. Very little soap
should be used and that a very bland, simple soap, like castile. Never rub
the soap directly on the baby's skin, and be sure that it is thoroughly
rinsed off, as a very troublesome skin disease may result if a harsh soap
is allowed to dry on the skin.

Use a soft wash cloth made from a piece of old table linen, towel, knitted
underwear, or any other very soft material, and have two pieces, one for
the face and head and one for the body. The towel should be soft and clean
also. Even in summer the baby should be protected from a direct draft when
being bathed lest he be too suddenly chilled.

A young baby should be carefully held while in the tub. The mother puts her
left hand under the baby's arm and supports the neck and head with her
forearm. But an older baby can sit alone and in summer may be allowed to
splash about in the cool water for a few minutes.

When the bath is finished the baby should be patted dry, and the mother
should take great care to see that the folds and creases of the skin are
dry. Use a little pure talcum powder or dry sifted corn starch under the
arms and in the groin to prevent chafing. If any redness, chafing, or
eruption like prickly heat, develops on the skin, no soap at all should be
used in the bath. Sometimes a starch, or bran, or soda bath will relieve
such conditions.

_Bran Bath_. Make a little bag of cheesecloth and put a cupful of ordinary
bran in it and sew or tie the top. Let this bag soak in the bath, squeezing
it until the water is milky.

_Starch Bath_. Use a cupful of ordinary cooked starch to a gallon of water.
(If the laundry starch has had anything added to it, such as salt, lard,
oil, bluing, it must not be used for this purpose.)

_Soda Bath_. Dissolve a tablespoonful of ordinary baking soda in a little
water and add it to four quarts of water.

_Clothing_. Do not be afraid to take off the baby's clothes in summer. All
he needs in hot weather are the diaper and one other garment. For a young
baby this may be a sleeveless band which leaves the arms and chest bare,
and for an older baby only a loose, thin cotton slip or apron, or wrapper,
made in one piece with short kimono sleeves. Toward nightfall when the day
cools, or if the temperature drops when a storm arises, the baby should, of
course, be dressed in such a way as to protect him from chill.

Cotton garments are best for the baby in summer. All-wool bands, shirts and
stockings should not be worn at any time of the year, and in hot summer
weather only the thinnest, all-cotton clothing should touch the baby's
skin, unless he is sick, when a very light part-wool band may be needed. In
general, neither wool nor starch should be allowed in the baby's clothing
in summer. Wool is too hot and irritating and starched garments scratch the
baby's flesh.

The baby should be kept day and night in the coolest place that can be
found. The kitchen is usually the hottest room in the house, especially if
coal or wood is burned for fuel. While the mother is busy with her work the
baby should be kept in another room, or better, out of doors, if he can be
protected from flies and mosquitoes.

A play pen, such as is described in "Infant Care," a booklet published by
the Children's Bureau and sent free on request, makes it possible to leave
the baby safely by himself on the porch or in the yard, after he is old
enough to creep.

A screened porch on the shady side of the house is a boon to every mother,
affording a cool, secure place for the baby to play and also to sleep. Let
him have his daytime naps on the porch and sleep there at night during the
heat.

Do not be afraid of fresh air for the baby. He cannot have too much of it.
Night air is sometimes even better than day air, because it has been cooled
and cleansed of dust by the dew.

The essentials in the summer care of babies are:

1. Proper food, given only at regular intervals.

2. A clean body.

3. Fresh air, day and night.

4. Very little clothing.

5. Cool places to play and sleep in.

Do not give the baby medicine of any sort unless it is ordered by the
doctor. Never give him patent remedies which are said to relieve the pain
of teething, or to make him sleep, or to cure diarrhea, for such medicines
are likely to do the baby much more harm than good, especially in summer
when the digestion is so easily disturbed. It is so much easier to keep the
baby well than it is to cure him when he is sick, that wise mothers try to
take such care of the baby that he will not be sick.

Do not fail to give the baby a drink of cool water several times a day in
hot weather. Boil the water first, then cool it, and offer it to the baby
in a cup, glass, or nursing bottle. Babies and young children sometimes
suffer cruelly for lack of drinking water.



LESSON VI


QUESTIONS ON TEXT

1. What are the chief causes of sickness and death among children during
the summer time?

2. What are the best preventatives for baby ills during the hot months?

3. Discuss the importance of bathing and tell how to bathe the child.

4. What is the best way to dress the child during the heated time of the
year?

5. What provisions should be made for his sleeping?

6. Discuss the use of patent medicines.

7. What should be done regarding the drink of the child? Why?

8. What can best be done by the well-to-do and by the community as a whole
to protect and preserve the babies?

_Reference_: Selections from "Child Nature and Child Nurture," by St. John.



CHILD ACTIVITY


_This Activity Is Expressed in Simple Reflexes, Complex Instincts, or
Internally Caused Impulses_

As already mentioned, the physical needs of the infant are supreme. Proper
nourishment, the right temperature, bathing, and an abundance of fresh,
pure air constitute all of his requirements. The child is endowed, however,
with an enormous capacity for movement which is the outward expression of
his awakening mental life.

The first great mental fact to note is that the infant is born with the
capacity to respond to stimuli both from without and within. Touch the lips
of the new-born child with the nipple or even the finger, and immediately
the sucking instinct takes place; let a bright light shine into the open
eye, and the iris at once contracts; plunge the little one into cold water
or let it be subject to any bodily discomfort and at once the crying reflex
takes place. The simple, direct responses to stimuli such as sneezing,
coughing, wrinkling, crying, response to tickling, etc., are termed
reflexes. The more complex responses which are purposeful and are designed
to aid or protect the organism, such as sucking, clinging, fear, anger,
etc., are called instincts. Besides the movements which are the direct
result of stimulation, other movements more or less spasmodic and
uncoordinated take place which seem to be the result of internal causes not
easily understood.

The whole body is usually involved in these movements, and they are at
first extremely random in expression. These are termed impulses and are
undoubtedly due to the fact that the infant is a living, breathing
embodiment of energy, seeking the means of self-expression. In other words,
the infant is active from the beginning, and the slightest kind of internal
disturbance is sufficient at times to turn loose an immense number of
impulsive movements. This activity at birth is entirely uncontrolled. It
seems that in contrast to reflexes and instincts which have prearranged
bodily means of expression, the impulses must be subjected to a long period
of training and education before they are capable of being controlled and
transformed into that voluntary movement which is sometimes called will
power.

The immense number and strength of these random, impulsive movements in the
infant is in great contrast to the few, instinctive, unchangeable modes of
action in lower animals. As already stated, most animals come to the world
with the few movements necessary to their existence already provided for
and so fixed that future adjustment to new conditions is practically
impossible. The child, on the other hand, has marvelous capacity for
adjustment to new conditions and presents, therefore, possibilities for
training and education that have probably never yet been fully realized in
any child.

The reflexes and instincts, however, are much more fixed and certain in
their action than are the impulses. No matter what the training and
education of an individual may be, he will sneeze, even in church, if the
right stimulus is present; or he will cry and shed tears in public if the
melodrama excites the proper nerve centers. When the sex instinct is fully
aroused or the sentiment of love completely awakened, no one can foretell
what the action of the otherwise sane person will be.

All that training and education can do is to inhibit under ordinary
conditions certain undesirable tendencies and instincts and to strengthen
through exercise those that are desirable; and even then when a crisis
comes, the old, hereditary instinct is apt to break through its thin veneer
and actually frighten the individual at the unexpected strength it reveals.
Slap any man in the face and see what chance his life-long education has
against the old barbarous instinct for fighting. But notwithstanding the
strength and tenacity of instincts, training and education may inhibit
some of them and so transform others into useful habits that for most
purposes in life their subjugation seems complete.

A tremendous, almost divine power rests, therefore, in the hands of
parents--the power to mold and fashion and transform the impulses and
instincts of their children into whatsoever ideals of life and conduct they
themselves possess. Where is the parent who fully realizes his privilege
and completely performs his sacred duty?



LESSON VII


QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT

1. What are the supreme needs of the infant?

2. What is the first mental fact to note?

3. Illustrate reflex movement, instinctive movement, impulsive movement.

4. Contrast the impulses of children with the instincts of lower animals.

5. What opportunity is given parents through the impulsive movements of the
infant?

6. What only may training and education hope to accomplish with the
instincts of children?

7. What almost divine power is possessed by parents in the training of
children?

8. Quote from the Doctrine & Covenants also a passage that deals with the
responsibility of parents in teaching the gospel to their children.

_Reference_: For a further study of _instincts_, selections from
"Fundamentals of Child Study," by Kirkpatrick, will be found helpful. Also
chapters from "Elementary Psychology," by Phillips.



HABIT


_Habit Is the Tendency to Make Certain Actions Automatic. It Is a Great
Time Saver, and Forms the Basis for Training and the Acquirement of Skill_

Once activity starts in any direction, the tendency is to persist until
satisfaction is reached. If the movement results in pain or even
discomfort, or if the end reached is not satisfactory, the movement will be
inhibited or discontinued and probably will not be attempted the second
time. Whenever the end reached does give satisfaction, the activity is sure
to be repeated, and in these later attempts, efforts will be made to reach
the end more quickly and with less effort. This is done through eliminating
the unnecessary movements and combining the right ones until the complete
process is performed with ease and skill.

The repetition alone is not so important as the intelligent improvement of
the act through practice until a satisfactory degree of skill is obtained.
After the desired end is reached, attention to the process will cease, but
thereafter whenever the right stimulus is presented the act will be
repeated, and this will be done with much less effort than was first
employed; further repetitions of the act require less and less conscious
effort until at length it will be performed almost with the same sureness
and ease with which reflex or automatic movements take place. Any activity
whatsoever when reduced to this automatic stage is termed habit.

The importance of habit in the development of the child can scarcely be
over-estimated; in truth, it is the one great process which dominates
nine-tenths of all the activity of the individual throughout his entire
life. Habits ought to be our most helpful and reliable servants, but they
are too often enemies that bind us hand and foot and prevent the
realization of our highest possibilities.

Much of the training and education of the child consists, therefore, in
acquiring a series of useful habits and in inhibiting acts that might
result in habits that are undesirable. A child left to himself or
improperly reared will acquire all sorts of undesirable habits which may
have the effect of hampering his every movement and which may cause
eventually his disgrace and failure in life. Even the adult who fails to
practice the details of the various activities connected with his vocation
until they result in effective habits of work will usually fail, while the
man who has mastered the details of his occupation through reducing them to
a series of effective habits will surely succeed. Note the ease and
perfection with which the skilled workman performs his labor and compare
it with the slow, slovenly work of the unskilled laborer.

One important development of the future will be the employment of an expert
in each occupation whose business it will be to teach the workmen the most
efficient and economical way of doing his particular work. Even now in many
factories high-priced experts are secured whose duty it is to teach the
workmen how to eliminate all unnecessary movements in their work and how to
combine the right movements necessary to accomplish each task in the best
way and in the quickest time. In many instances, the output of the factory
has been increased from twenty-five to forty per cent, through this
sensible procedure.

Theoretically, good habits should be as easy to acquire as bad ones, but
practically this is not the case. Only a few bad habits are the result of
conscious choice and effort; for example, the acquiring of a liking for
tobacco and liquor, the taste of which for most children is disagreeable if
not nauseating at first, but this taste, through practice, often becomes an
uncontrollable craving. Most bad habits, however, come about unconsciously
and are the result of "just letting things happen." This, undoubtedly, is
what the proverb means which states, "Man is born to trouble as the sparks
are to fly upward."

Most good habits, on the other hand, are the result of conscious effort,
especially on the part of parents and teachers. A reason for this is that
the strongest instincts in children are those relating to self-preservation
and the gratification of personal desires, hence selfishness, greediness,
anger, and the fighting instinct are natural to the child, while
generosity, good manners, respect for the rights of others, and sympathy
require, in order to be properly developed, persistent effort and
education. Parents, therefore, must persevere in training up the child in
the way he should go if they would cultivate in him habits that bless his
whole life.

Imitation also plays a remarkable part in the formation of habits. The
child learns to walk, talk, use his hands in certain ways, and to eat,
sleep, and dress after the manner of his elders. He uses good language or
bad according to the examples heard; in fact, nearly everything a child
does is the result of copying after others. Whether his habits be good or
bad, efficient or slovenly, therefore, depends largely on the nature of the
examples he has to follow.



LESSON VIII


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. How are habits formed?

2. Give examples to show that habit dominates most of the activities of
life.

3. Why are good habits more difficult to form than bad ones?

4. Illustrate the power of imitation in the formation of habits.

5. What is the relation of habit to training and education?

6. What is the relation of habit to the skilled workman?

7. In what way can the expert increase efficiency in every vocation and
profession?

8. How might much time be saved in the home and on the farm by the
acquirement of effective habits in work?

_Reference_: For further study of habit see "Phillip's Elementary
Psychology."



HABIT CONTINUED


_Right Habits Must Be Acquired Early; Wrong Habits Are Broken Only Through
Tremendous Effort_

Whatsoever the parent desires in his child in the nature of attainment or
skill, of character or ideal, if not foreign to the nature of the child,
may be realized through attention to habit. But the training in right
habits should be accomplished during the golden age of childhood when body
and soul are plastic and impressions are easily made. Too early the
character hardens like cement and thereafter becomes well nigh impossible
to change. Think how difficult it is for the adult, but how easy for the
child, to acquire skill in music, or facility in speaking a foreign
language. With respect to moral virtue and spiritual sentiment, whatsoever
good fruit you look for in the man usually appears as seed and flower in
the child.

Among the habits that should be impressed early, habits that are absolutely
essential to success in life, are the following:

1. Promptness and regularity.

2. Obedience to right and justice.

3. Truthfulness and honesty.

4. Thoroughness.

5. Industry or the habit of work.

6. Persistence.

7. Temperance.

8. Courtesy and respect for the rights of others.

Crowning these and transcending them in importance are the supreme
sentiments and ideals of life, which cannot properly be regarded as habits;
they are sympathy, love, faith, reverence for religious convictions, and
the ideal of freedom or liberty.

Society itself could not endure but for the stability which habits afford.
It is easy to denounce custom and tradition as obstacles to progress and
reform, but it should be remembered that they are the social habits which
society has acquired through registering the experience of the past, and
that while some of them, such as intemperance and sexual vice, are
destructive of society, others, like co-operation, and the ideal of
freedom, are absolutely essential to human progress.

An example by Oppenheim, in his "Mental Growth and Control," well
illustrates the power of habit. A wealthy woman in New York City became
interested in the crowded tenements of the east side; she believed that
constant sickness, unclean habits, and the vicious characters of the people
were due largely to overcrowding. She secured, therefore, some well
furnished cottages in the suburbs and offered them rent free until such
time as the occupants should become well established. Her surprise was
great when they refused to move into these comparatively luxurious
quarters; they seemed to prefer the dirt and disease, the sickness and vice
to which they were accustomed. "She did not know the force of habit; she
was totally ignorant of the hard and fast condition into which people grow.
She had never stopped to consider how necessary it is for the world at
large to have such repression. Without this control there could be no
peace, no safety, no steady growth in civilized society. The poor would
attack the rich, the lawless and violent would assail the peaceful, the
indolent would refuse to labor, the regularity and studied discipline of
well-ordered life would absolutely cease. In their place anarchy would
reign and each day would make confusion worse confounded. Imagine, if you
can, what animals would be if they lacked restraint of habit. Man's power
over them would cease instantly and their strength would be a terrible
engine of destruction. Men would be as much worse as human intelligence
exceeds brute intelligence. One is quite safe in declaring that habit is
the great flywheel that regulates society."

Desirable habits, therefore, together with all necessary reforms, must
come about slowly; they should be the result of conscious training and
education in all the factors that make for a higher civilization.



LESSON IX


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What are some habits essential to success?

2. When should training to fix these habits begin? Why?

3. Why do many parents fail to fix right habits in their children?

4. How may wrong habits be overcome and right habits established?

5. What does Solomon say in regard to training the child?

6. Give reasons why community habits are so hard to change? What is the
good side of this strength of habit?

7. What is the quickest and surest way to bring about desirable social
reforms?



MAXIMS ON HABIT


_Professor James Gives Four Maxims to Follow in Breaking from an Old Habit
or in Acquiring a New One_

"1. _Take care 'o launch yourself with as strong and decided initiative as
possible_. Reinforce the right motive with every favorable circumstance;
put yourself in a condition that will make the right act easy and the wrong
one difficult. Take a public pledge if the case allows; in short, envelop
your resolution with every aid possible.

"2. _Never suffer an exception to occur until the new habit is securely
rooted_. Each lapse is like the letting fall of a ball of yarn that is
being wound; a single slip undoes more than a great many turns will wind
again. It is necessary above all things never to lose a battle; every gain
on the wrong side undoes the effects of many conquests on the right.

"3. _Seize every opportunity to act in the direction of the desired habit,
and permit no emotional prompting in its behalf to escape you_. 'Hell is
paved with good intentions,' hence to have good desires, thoughts,
intentions without actually working them out weakens and destroys the moral
fibre. 'Character is a completely fashioned will,' says J.S. Mill, and a
will in this sense is an aggregate of tendencies which act in a firm,
prompt, and definite way in every emergency of life. When a resolve or a
fine glow of feeling is allowed to evaporate without bearing fruit in
action, it is worse than a chance lost, it is a positive hindrance to the
carrying out of future resolutions. Nothing is more contemptible than a
sentimental dreamer who is carried away with lofty thoughts and feeling but
who never does a manly, concrete deed. Positive harm is done through
cultivating the emotions and sentiments if no outlet is found for some
appropriate action.

"4. _Keep the faculty of effort alive by a little gratuitous exercise every
day_. That is, be heroic, do every day something for no other reason than
that you would rather not do it, so that when the hour of dire need comes,
it may find you nerved and trimmed to stand the test. The man who practices
self-denial in unnecessary things will stand like a tower when everything
rocks around him and when his softer fellow mortals are winnowed like chaff
in a blast.

"The hell which theology once taught is no worse than the hell we make for
ourselves by habitually fashioning our characters in the wrong way. Could
the young but realize how soon they will become mere walking bundles of
habits, they would give more heed to their conduct while in the plastic
state. We are spinning our own fates, good or evil, and never to be undone.
Every small stroke of virtue or of vice leaves its never so little scar.
The drunken Rip Van Winkle excuses each drink he takes by saying, 'I won't
count this time.' He may not count it, and a kind heaven may not count it,
but down among his nerve cells and in the muscle fibres, the molecules are
counting it, registering and storing it up to be used against him when the
next temptation comes. Nothing we do in a strict, scientific sense is ever
wiped out; each thought and every deed is registered in the soul and helps
to compose that book out of which we will be judged on that great final day
when we are called upon to render an account of our stewardship."

Notwithstanding the difficulty, however, habits may be strengthened, or
abolished. The older they are the more difficult they will be to modify;
the chief factor involved is the amount of labor required to make the
change, the possibility of making it need never be questioned. Breaking the
habit of excessive use of drugs, tobacco, tea and coffee, or alcohol, will
occasion much discomfort, hardship, and even functional disturbance, but
these ills are only temporary, and the organism soon returns to its
original normal condition.

To break a well-established habit requires common sense, decision and
strength of purpose. "If you want to abolish a habit, you must grapple with
the matter as earnestly as you would with a physical enemy. You must go
into the encounter with all tenacity of determination, with all fierceness
of resolve, with a passion for success that may be called vindictive. No
human enemy can be as insidious, as persevering, as unrelenting as an
unfavorable habit. It never sleeps, it needs no rest, it has no tendency
toward vacillation and lack of purpose. It is like the parasite that grows
with the growth of the supporting body and like a parasite, it can best be
killed by violent separation and crushing.

"Every time we make an unsuccessful attempt, the final crushing is
indefinitely postponed, every time we put off the attempt, the desired
result fades farther and farther away. The habit persists and from time to
time the path becomes deeper and broader. In addition, during such a period
of weakness and indecision, you may be fostering another habit, that of
expecting defeat. From this lack of confidence and little faith in yourself
and destiny, you must by all means escape at any cost. There is nothing
more pathetic than the man who does not believe in himself. No one else
will believe in him. But he who has the enthusiasm of belief in himself
and never loses sight of his high purpose is the one who can perform
wonders."



LESSON X


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Discuss fully each of the maxims given by Professor James, illustrating
by experiences you have known.

2. What expression from Professor James is most impressive to you?

3. What hope is there for those enslaved by a bad habit? How can we best
help them?

4. What was Christ's way of dealing with such people?

5. What are the common habits that most trouble us? How can they be best
prevented or overcome?



HABITS OF INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD


_The First Physical Habits Acquired by the Child Are of Vast Importance and
Require Heroic Treatment on the Part of the Mother_

From the beginning both physical and mental habits will be acquired by the
child. At first, attention must be given chiefly to the regularity of
caring for the physical needs of the infant such as giving food at stated
intervals, and having a regular time for sleeping, bathing, and for being
dressed. It is astonishing how little trouble is caused by the infant when
it is trained in correct physical habits from the beginning, compared with
the babe that is treated in a spasmodic fashion--everything overdone
sometimes and nothing at all done at other times. In the former case the
little one is quiet and peaceful and sleeps, as it should, most of the
time, especially at night; in the latter case the child is fretful and
cross and requires the father to trudge it about at night much to his
discomfort and loss of temper.

Nature has given the infant a voice which is not only lusty but which is
apt to be used from the first with unnecessary liberality. It is the little
one's only means of responding to stimuli that cause discomfort; at first
the infant's cry is reflex and unconscious; but if every time it cries
something happens, a sort of dim consciousness is soon awakened and the
habit of crying for nothing or on the slightest provocation is soon
established, and thereafter the child will rule the household like a Czar.
If, on the other hand, the mother understands that the crying reflex is
largely unnecessary at the present time, since she has learned to
administer to the infant's every requirement with clock-like regularity,
she will, when assured that nothing ails the child, let it cry if it wants
to without giving it the least attention. One can scarcely believe how soon
the crying reflex will disappear under such treatment. If, on the other
hand, the child is taken up whenever it cries and walked and rocked and
fondled, it quickly learns that individuals were made solely to wait on it,
and the great instinct of selfishness is aroused which is likely to carry
in its wake a world of trouble and disappointment. Who has not heard a
crying child in an adjoining room stop suddenly to listen for the sake of
discovering whether or not the noises he heard are the regular movements of
a person coming to him or merely the irregular noises of the wind or of
moving furniture which do not concern him? Not only is the child plastic,
but too often a portion of the environment is also plastic and yielding and
usually to the lasting detriment of the child. The young mother who would
train her child to right habits must be heroic.

When the little one is old enough to sit up in his high chair at the table,
his conduct is not apt to be meek and good-mannered. He will snatch at
things and tip them over, plunge his fists into the gravy, and fill his
mouth with food, stuffing it in with both hands until he chokes. His mother
is usually ashamed and grieved at his barbarous conduct; but she need not
be, she should remember that good table manners are artificial, not
natural, and that they are by no means a racial acquirement. She must
resort, therefore, to necessary means to correct the child, even at times
to physical punishment, though she herself must leave the room to shed a
quiet tear over such seeming cruelty. Place the spoon in his hand and help
the child to make the necessary movements and punish him slightly if need
be whenever he departs too far from propriety, and it will be astonishing
how quickly the conventional habit of table manners will be acquired. The
kindest mother is the one who is brave enough to inflict some punishment
when this is the surest way to develop needed habits that are unnatural to
the child.

Soon the child learns to crawl; he does this because of the primal pleasure
he has in bodily movements and because he has reached satisfaction in
handling objects within his grasp; and since distant objects will not come
to him, he must go to them, and this he does as soon as he is able. If
objects would come to him whenever he desired, it is probable that he would
not learn to crawl for a long time. Sometimes exceedingly awkward modes of
crawling are acquired, which if noted and corrected when first attempted,
would save much labor and pains afterward.

So long as crawling answers all demands and gives full satisfaction, it
will be continued; but, usually because the child sees others walk, and
possibly also because he himself has the instinctive desire to walk,
crawling is no longer satisfactory. So he attempts to imitate the walking
of his elders and through the aid and encouragement received from them, he
accomplishes this marvelous feat--the greatest physical habit he will ever
require.



LESSON XI


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What are the first physical habits that the child should acquire?

2. What results from spasmodic training in these habits?

3. How should the crying reflex be treated?

4. How is selfishness early aroused? How can it be avoided?

5. Why should the young mother be heroic?

6. How may table manners, and other conventional habits be taught?

7. Why do the parents fail to implant right habits in their children?

The following will be found helpful for further studies on this subject:
"The Care of the Baby," by Holt; "The Care of the Child in Health," by
Oppenheim.



THE MEANING OF CONSCIOUSNESS


_Consciousness Is Expressed in Knowing, Feeling, and Willing, Each Phase of
Which Should Be Developed Fully and in Perfect Harmony_

As already remarked, the chief characteristic of the young child is
ceaseless activity. From the time he is able to walk, or even crawl, the
great instinct of curiosity is alive, and this at first is likely to lead
him into all sorts of places where he should not go and cause him to
investigate and even destroy some of the valued possessions of the
household. This is a critical period in the development of the child and
must be handled with rare judgment. Some knowledge of child psychology is
essential here to guide the parent.

About this time three types of mental activity will be noted in the child.

(1) _Feeling_ is one phase or type which expresses itself sometimes in
pleasure or pain and at other times in action or anger. The feeling phase
of consciousness gives color and tone to every act of life; it is the basis
of interest; without it, neither happiness nor sorrow could exist, nor
could there be faith or worship. When fully developed, it culminates in the
emotions and sentiments, the highest of which are friendship and sympathy,
love and duty, patriotism and reverence. The opposite of some of these is
anger, hate and jealousy. Feeling makes heaven or hell a possibility and
sometimes an actuality.

(2) The _knowing_ phase of mental activity is aware of the outside world as
well as of itself; it forms images of things and remembers; in its higher
aspects it judges and reasons. This phase of consciousness makes possible
invention and scientific achievement. By and through it, man overcomes his
environment and makes himself the master of the earth.

(3) The _volitional_ or _will_ phase of mental activity is first manifested
in the impulsive, spasmodic movements heretofore described. Later these
random movements are brought under control, then comes the ability to
select a desired stimulus from among several that are possible, and at
length the power to choose between two or more possible modes of action.
This highest form is termed voluntary action or will power. It is extremely
important to note that the will is not a separate power or faculty which
can be cultivated apart from other phases of consciousness. Many foolish
things have been written about the power of the will and its capacity
for infinite development; as a matter of fact, all three phases of
consciousness must be developed together. Every act of the mind of
necessity embraces all three phases, since it is impossible to know without
feeling or to experience feeling or knowing without activity. The will,
therefore, can never be quite so strong as the total consciousness; and
at every stage, it needs the feeling phase to give it motive and the
knowing phase to make it rational. Knowing, feeling, and willing,
therefore, are merely convenient terms that express the varying, changing
modes of consciousness, which at one time may be predominately feeling, at
another knowing, and again willing. The great fact to remember is that
consciousness develops as a unit, and the most highly trained mind is the
one in which each phase is developed not only to its maximum but at the
same time in perfect harmony with the other two as well as with the total
consciousness.

It is impossible to say which of the three phases develops first in the
infant, nor is it important to know; the significant fact is that all three
evolve together, and whenever activity is strong and well sustained, it is
evident that feeling and knowing also are well developed.

When the child is two years of age or over, as above remarked, usually an
appalling desire to destroy things is manifested. Dolls will be torn to
pieces, the toy bank smashed, and if a hammer can be had, nothing is too
sacred to be knocked to pieces. This is not depravity in the child, much
as it seems to be, it is a legitimate desire to investigate, to satisfy his
curiosity, and to find a means of satisfying his increasing power to do
something. Up to this time an object is to the child merely the activity
for which it stands; a ball is something to roll or toss, a hammer is to
strike with, and it is a matter of supreme indifference to him what is
struck. At this stage the child has no sense of values and he cannot
possibly know that one object may be hit with a hammer, while another
object, such as a mirror, may not. He must be taught this fact; at first it
is entirely beyond his experience.

But the child now has considerable capacity for knowing, hence the wise
parent can easily and quickly teach him to discriminate and even to be
careful to avoid injury to certain objects. No attempt should be made to
suppress this new-born power of this searcher after truth; this instinct is
the basis of invention and of scientific research; it must be properly
guided, but not subdued. Give him playthings which can be taken to pieces
and put together, dolls which can be dressed and undressed, horses which
can be harnessed and fastened to carts, blocks which can be built into
various forms, and above all, for a boy, a large, soft block of wood with
plenty of nails, tacks, and a hammer. The amount of energy he will expend
in filling the block with tacks or nails is astonishing. Other appropriate
ways of expressing his energy should also be provided. Give the child
something to do.

This rule ought to be rigidly observed: _Never cut straight across the
activity of a child, but always substitute some other act in place of the
one not desired_.



LESSON XII


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. How is the great instinct of curiosity at first manifested?

2. What three phases of consciousness are there? How do these develop?

3. What is meant by a well-trained mind?

4. What explains the child's tendency to destroy things? How may this
tendency be best overcome?

5. What rule should the parent carefully follow with relation to the
child's activity?

6. What are some sensible activities that may be easily provided for
children?

7. Why is it worth while for parents to devote some time, or even money, to
providing for the natural activities of children to express themselves in
the right ways?

For further study, selections from "Elementary Psychology," by Phillips,
will be found helpful.



POSITIVE VS. NEGATIVE TRAINING


_Train the Positive Side of the Child's Nature and the Negative Side Will
Need Little Attention_.

A negative method trains the child to be hard and critical, and to be
constantly looking for opposition to his wishes; it is the chief cause also
of slyness, ill-temper and disrespect.

The following illustrations are taken from Mrs. Harrison's inspiring little
book, entitled, "A Study of Child Nature." "A mother came to me in utter
discouragement, saying: 'What shall I do with my five-year-old boy? He is
simply the personification of the word _won't_.' After the conversation I
walked home with her. A beautiful child, with golden curls and great,
dancing, black eyes, came running out to meet us, and with all the
impulsive joy of childhood threw his arms about her. 'Don't do that, James,
you will muss mama's dress.' I knew at once where the trouble lay. In a
moment she said: 'Don't twist so, my son;' and 'Don't make such a noise.'
Within a few minutes the mother had used 'don't' five times. No wonder when
she said, 'Run in the house now, mama will come in a minute,' he replied:
'No, I don't want to.'"

"Two older children were playing in a room and soon became boisterous. The
busy mother did not notice them, but the little two-year-old child turned
round and called out impatiently: 'Boys, 'top.' Babies, like parrots, learn
the words they hear most frequently. 'Boys, stop,' a negative command, had
no doubt been used frequently in that household. How easy it would have
been to substitute the positive statement: 'Boys, run out in the back yard
and play ball,' or 'Run out into the garden and bring me some flowers for
the table.'

"A four-year-old boy when he first entered the kindergarten was the most
complete embodiment of negative training I have ever met. It was 'No, I
don't want to,' 'No, I won't sit by that boy,' 'No, I don't like blocks.'
Nothing pleased him; nothing satisfied him. He was already an isolated
character, unhappy himself and a source of discomfort to others. Soon after
beginning our work, I heard a whizzing sound, and Paul's voice crying out:
'Joseph has knocked my soldier off the table and he did it on purpose too.'
My first impulse was to say: 'Why did you do that? It was naughty. Go and
pick up Paul's soldier.' But that would have been negative treatment, too
much of which had been heaped upon him already; so, instead, I said: 'Oh,
well, Paul, never mind, Joseph doesn't know that we try to make each other
happy in kindergarten.'

"Some time afterwards I said: 'Come here, Joseph, I wish you to be my
messenger boy.' This was a privilege highly desired by the children. Joseph
came reluctantly as if expecting some hidden censure, but soon he was busy
running back and forth, giving each child the proper materials for the next
half-hour's work. As soon as the joy of service had melted him into a mood
of comradeship, I whispered: 'Run over now and get Paul's soldier.'
Instantly he obeyed, picked it up, and placed it on the table before its
owner, quietly slipped into his own place and began his work. His whole
nature for the time being was changed. Continued treatment of this kind
completely transformed the nature of the child."

Scolding and finding fault are the most common forms of negative training
employed by parents. Such treatment brings out and emphasizes the opposite
qualities from those desired, since they appeal to the very worst side of
the child's nature. Usually, too, the sympathy of the mother and the
affection of the child are separated and coldness takes their place.
Suggest to the child at the right time the act you wish him to do and
usually it will be quickly accomplished; then if a child is praised a
little for his promptness, he will soon grow into the habit of doing
promptly other more important tasks. The boy who dallied over everything he
did was soon cured by the simple device of counting while he ran an errand
and then praising him for his quick return. A little praise goes farther
than much censure. Sometimes a boy's tone and manner are lacking in respect
to his mother, or a girl becomes troublesome and defies authority. This
condition did not come about suddenly; it is the result of continued
negative treatment. Usually, if a boy is disrespectful or a girl impudent,
it is because the parents through neglect or improper training, have
unconsciously fostered such behavior.

Some children are timid and superstitious, too often they are laughed at
and ridiculed; on the other hand, fun should never be made of such children
and they should be given every opportunity to develop courage and
self-reliance. If a child is irreverent, he should have his eyes opened to
the wonders of creation and to the majesty and power displayed by the Maker
of the universe. So, in all cases, the parents should beware of the almost
universal, negative mode of training which represses, scolds, finds fault,
and results in producing hardness, slyness, obstinacy, and other
undesirable qualities; instead, positive methods should be employed. They
suggest correct action, substitute the right for the wrong, praise for
blame, encouragement rather than discouragement, and stimulate to higher
endeavor. However, if occasion demands, parents may be stern, unrelenting
and even resort to punishment.



LESSON XIII


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION


1. What is the main point of this lesson?

2. Discuss the "won't" child.

3. Discuss the "don't" boy.

4. Discuss scolding and finding fault versus judicious praise.

5. What is the value of suggestion in guiding children? Illustrate.

6. What often explains disrespect and impudence in children?

8. Illustrate some helpful ways that give positive training to children.

Selections from "The Dawn of Character," by Mumford, will be found helpful,
for further studies on this subject.



FOOD, DRESS AND TOYS


"_The Body Is More Than Raiment; and Life, More Than Meat_."

The normal child is born in a state of naturalness with respect to his
tastes and appetites and the endeavor should be to keep him in this natural
state. But too often his senses are stimulated to excess and an artificial
appetite is begun which usually leads to some form of intemperance. Much of
the excess in drinking is due, not to inheritance, but to vicious feeding.
A false appetite leads to physical unrest and uneasiness and this naturally
lends itself to the pleasure and excitement of drink.

"Why do you not eat the pickles, my son?" said one father; "they are very
nice." "No," said the boy, "I don't see any use in eating spiced pickles,
it doesn't help to make me strong; my teacher says so." Would that every
child were thus trained to prefer wholesome to unwholesome food. Our
schools are doing good work along these lines of personal hygiene; parents
should reinforce the efforts of the teacher by bringing the home hygiene up
to the right standards.

The clothing of children also deserves some attention. Probably in nothing
else is vanity and selfishness more easily displayed than in dress. How
rare a thing it is to find a beautiful child, simply or even plainly
dressed, who is neither vain of her good looks nor of her rich apparel. The
sweetest object in the world is a beautiful child, tastily dressed, free
from vanity, and perfectly natural and unspoiled. The mother who praises
her child's curls or rosy cheeks rather than the child's actions or inner
motives, is developing vanity of the worst kind--placing beauty of
appearance above beauty of conduct.

"Fashionable parties for children are abominations upon the face of the
earth." Soon enough the child will come in contact with that which is
unnatural and deceitful without having artificial conduct forced upon him.



LESSON XIV


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What may result from developing an artificial appetite in children?

2. What should the young mother avoid in feeding her child?

3. What evils result from over-indulgence in candy, nick-nacks, soda water,
etc.?

4. In the dress of children how is vanity often developed?

5. What may result from constant praise of the good looks of the child?

6. Discuss proper dress in children.

For further help on these points read Mrs. Harrison's "Study of Child
Nature," pages 47 to 54.



CULTIVATING THE EMOTIONS


_It Is a Serious Mistake to Begin Educating the Intellect Before Training
the Emotions_

In the history of the race, art develops before science, just as in nature
the blossom comes before the fruit; so in the child emotions come before
reason, and he is attracted and his sympathies aroused by nearly any appeal
to his senses long before his understanding tells him why. Notwithstanding
this fact, nearly every educative effort is confined to the intellect and
the feelings are allowed to shift for themselves. The result is that many a
child grows up cold, hard, and matter-of-fact, with little of color, poetry
or sympathy to enrich his life. The common mistake is to starve the
emotions in order to overfeed the understanding. The education of the heart
must keep pace with that of the head if a well-balanced character is to be
developed. Even in school the teacher too often proceeds to stuff the child
with information before first awakening interest in the subject. Once
arouse the interest of a child in any subject and he will pursue it to
success.

Toys are of much value to children not only as promoters of play but
because they appeal to their sympathies and give exercise to the emotions.
The two great obstacles to the exercise of the right emotions are fear and
pity. Toys are great aids in overcoming these tendencies. Through dramatic
play with toys, children exercise their own imaginations and put action
into their own lives; and gradually fear and pity are overcome through the
confidence the child develops in himself.

"We find the instincts of the race renewed in each new-born infant. Each
individual child desires to master his surroundings. He cannot yet drive a
real horse and wagon, but his very soul delights in the three-inch horse
and the gaily-painted wagon; he cannot tame real tigers and lions, but his
eyes dance with pleasure as he places and replaces the animals of his toy
menagerie. He cannot at present run engines or direct railways, but he can
control for a whole half-hour the movements of his miniature train. He is
not yet ready for real fatherhood, but he can pet and play with, and rock
to sleep and tenderly guard the doll baby." Through toys the child
practises in miniature most of the activities of the adult and thus
gradually bridges the chasm between his small capacity and the great
realities and possibilities of life.

The heart should be trained as carefully as the head. Our emotions even
more than our reason govern us. Train the child to feel rightly, to admire
the good, the true and the beautiful, and you need not fear. He will
develop a love of home, of country and of God that will carry him safely
throughout all his life. This does not mean that we shall neglect the
training of his intellect; both heart and head should be trained together,
but the heart must not be neglected; for out of it, says the Good Book,
come the issues of life.



LESSON XV


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What may result from cultivating the intellect in children before
stimulating the emotions?

2. Which governs us most, our feelings or our reason?

3. How can we develop best the right emotions in childhood, such as
kindness and unselfishness?

4. In what ways may toys help to develop the child? Discuss here proper and
improper toys; which are preferable, dolls or Teddy Bears, in developing
motherly instincts? What about soldiers, firearms, etc., in their effect on
boys?

For further reading on this point, Mrs. Harrison's "Study on Child Nature"
will be found helpful. Let some member report from the book, if it be
available, dealing particularly with pages 66 to 70.



THE INFLUENCE OF LOVE


_Love Is the Vital Element Which Transforms Human Nature and Makes Life
Worth Living_

The sweetest word in all the language is _love_. Without it life is a
frozen tundra where the sun never shines. Home is beautiful because there
is love. If a planet exists where love is absent, then it contains no
fire-sides, the laughter of children is never heard, flowers do not grow
there, and the singing of birds is unknown.

If selfishness is ever overcome, if it is ever transformed into service, it
will be when love is triumphant; for love alone is great enough to
sacrifice itself for another. Love only can reach the sublime heights of
faith and exaltation, of reverence and worship. Love alone has the power to
say, "Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him."

There is, however, a strange contradiction or opposition in love. Sometimes
it is as weak and timid as a bashful girl, at other times, as strong and
heroic as an Amazon; now it is like the harmony in music or the delicate
coloring of a sunset; again, like the thunderous roar of Niagara or the
consuming fire of Vesuvius.

Love is an instrument with many strings, some so delicate that they catch
the sweetest symphonies of the soul, others so powerful that they resound
to the mighty storms and tempests of life, and some so vibrant that they
throb to the sorrows and heartaches of a bleeding world.

Affection is awakened in the child with his first smile in recognition of
his mother's face. How shall this budding affection be rightly nurtured and
developed so that it shall flower and bring forth good fruit? It is desired
that he shall be generous and possess good will towards others, that he
shall have sympathy and the spirit of sacrifice for those dear to him; but
too often the fruit of promise is eaten into by the worm of selfishness.

"Selfishness is the most universal of sins and the most hateful. Dante
placed Lucifer, the embodiment of selfishness, down below all other sinners
in the dark pit of the Inferno, frozen in a sea of ice. Well did the poet
know that this sin lay at the root of all others. Think, if you can, of one
crime or vice which has not its origin in selfishness."

As already stated, the primary instincts of the child favor the development
of selfishness and the gratification of the appetites and passions. The
utmost care, therefore, must be exercised by the parents, from the very
beginning, if the affections and desires of the child are to be trained
away from itself and not permitted to become self-centered. Happy is the
child whose mother knows how to direct those earliest manifestations of
love. The undisciplined senses and appetites easily degenerate into
indulgence of passion, or grow into that moral control which delights in
temperance.

The inborn desire for praise and recognition may express itself in bragging
vanity, or expand into heroic endeavor. So, too, there is a physical love
which expresses itself in a mere caress and a higher, purer, more glorious
love which manifests itself in service and self-sacrifice. The tremendous
hug of the little arms and the kiss of the rosy lips are manifestations of
physical love; while the child is in this loving mood the wise mother
should ask of him some little service, slight at first, but sufficient to
make him put forth some effort to serve her. In this way she can transform
this mere selfish love into the beginning of that spiritual love which
Christ commended when He said, "If ye love me, keep my commandments."

The parent stands to his child for the time being, as the one supreme
source of every power and blessing; the wise parent may establish
between himself and the little one almost the same beautiful and solemn
relationship as that which exists between the Supreme Giver of all good and
His children. "Not every one that sayeth unto me, 'Lord, Lord,' shall
enter into the Kingdom of Heaven, but he that doeth the will of my Father
which is in Heaven."

"Love is to be tested always by its effect upon the will. From the
beginning the will must be made strong and unselfish by repeated acts of
loving self-sacrifice. Contrast the selfish, all-absorbing love of Romeo
for Juliet, who could not live without the physical presence of the one he
loved, with that grandly beautiful love of Hector for Andromache, who, out
of the very love he bore her, could place her to one side and answer the
stern call of duty that she might never in the future have cause for
painful blush.

"I knew an ideal home where husband and wife were filled with the most
exalted love I have ever known, but the husband died. The wife said: 'All
that was beautiful or attractive in my life went out with my husband, and
yet I know that I must, for the love I bear him, remain and rear our child
as he would have him reared.' As I listened to these words, quietly uttered
by the courageous wife, I realized what love, real love, could help the
poor, stricken heart to endure."

The child must be trained through love to give up his own will to others,
and, from the beginning, learn to submit to things which are unpleasant.

If this thought is insisted on from the first, obedience will come easily
to the child; but woe be to both mother and child if egotism, self-will and
selfishness secure a fast hold upon the young heart.

A mother should never refuse the help offered by the child. If the work is
of such nature that the little one cannot share it, let the mother suggest
as a substitute something else which the child can do. Help turned away
begets idleness and nourishes selfishness. "No, dear, you cannot help dress
baby, but you may hand mama the clothes."

"A six-year-old boy, who had been taught true love through service, found
his mother one morning too ill to answer his many questions. 'Mama cannot
talk to you to-day, Philip, she has a severe headache.' He quietly closed
the door and soon there was a mysterious bumping and moving about of the
heavy furniture in the next room. Soon it all was still, then the door was
gently opened and little Philip tiptoed to his mother's bed and whispered,
'Mama, I have straightened the furniture and tidied up the room; is your
headache better?'

"A little three-year-old boy running rapidly stumbled and bumped his head
severely against the trunk of a tree. Loud cries of pain at once arose, but
his little brother took him by the arm and pushed him with all his might
towards his mother, saying in the most reassuring tone imaginable, 'Run to
mama, Ned, run to mama, she'll kiss it and make it well. Please run to her
quick.' 'Perfect love casteth out all fear.' Surely the wise mother can
devise a thousand ways by which to kindle the flame of love in her child
until her fond dreams for the little ones are transformed into living
realities. But the doubter may remark, 'What if I ask my child to do
something for me and he refuses or begins to make excuses or asks why his
brother can't do it?' You have simply mistaken the time for stretching the
young soul's wings. Begin the training when the child is in the loving mood
and you will rarely fail to get the desired response; yet, if need be,
command the performance of the deed, so that by repeated doing the selfish
heart may at length learn the pleasure of unselfishness and thus enter into
the joy of true living."

Let parents take this motto to heart: _Trust not the physical love of your
child, but seek to transform it into that higher love which manifests
itself in service. The real love of your child is measured by the extent to
which he will sacrifice his own comfort and pleasure to serve you_.



LESSON XVI


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why has the delicate sentiment of love such a power in shaping the lives
of men?

2. What may be said of selfishness?

3. How may the desire for praise be expressed?

4. Contrast physical and spiritual love.

5. How may love help to develop a strong will?

6. How must the child be taught obedience?

7. Illustrate how loving service may be secured.

8. How may the real love of the child for the parent be measured?



MORAL TRAINING


_There Is No Escape from Wrong-Doing. Mercy Cannot Rob Justice_

"Somehow I'll escape," is the fatal thought which blinds the poor fool who,
for the first time, treads the path of self-indulgence or wrong-doing. But
he ought to know that escape is impossible. No cave is dark enough, no
ocean deep enough to hide the transgressor from the consequences of his
misdeeds. A kind heaven may forgive him, and the one he injures may
overlook the offence; but his own body and mind cannot forget; they have
registered the deed once for all and it can never be atoned for or
forgotten. The doing of a bad deed changes the individual in some
particular, slight or great as the case may be, and, pathetic though it
seems, he cannot go back and try it over again; the scar remains, as if
seared by a hot iron, and, if the hurt is serious enough, heredity may pass
it down the ages.

How easily a bad habit is formed. "It won't hurt me" is whispered by the
siren voice of temptation, because the consequences of the transgression
are not felt or seen immediately, a second offence seems less serious than
the first. Soon habit steps in and stamps the process on mind and body and
before the author is conscious of it, a serious appetite or a degrading
vice is fastened upon him from which neither time nor effort, prayers nor
tears, may ever shake him free.

 "_Vice is a monster of such frightful mien,
  That to be hated needs but to be seen,
  But seen too oft, familiar with its face,
  We first endure, then pity, then embrace_."

  --Pope.

The child must be trained early to know: "The way of the transgressor is
hard," and "He that sows the wind must reap the whirlwind." It is a great
mistake for the parent to step in and free the child from the consequences
of his first wrong acts. Let the consequences fall on his own head, and
perchance they will teach him wisdom. The true purpose of punishment is to
teach the necessity of obedience to law. Everything that is good and
desirable will come to him who obeys the law upon which the blessing is
predicated; every evil falls on the head of him who constantly violates
law. In the final analysis, the punishments which nature inflicts are kind,
because they are warnings which, if heeded, will prevent serious injury.
The purpose of all discipline is to produce a self-governing individual,
not one who needs to be governed by someone else. Until a person learns to
govern himself he counts for little in this world.

Two serious mistakes are made in child government. One is the indulgence of
a soft, vacillating policy by the parent which permits a child to shirk his
duties and to escape from the natural results of his misdeeds. Through the
parent's taking upon his own shoulders the consequences of the child's
wrong-doing, the child is lured into the false belief that duty may be
shirked, responsibility set aside, and life be made to yield one sweet
round of pleasure. How will a child so trained be prepared to endure the
disappointments and heartaches of a world which compels each of us to
drink his portion of the bitter hemlock?

The other mistake is to employ unnatural or arbitrary punishments. Even the
smallest child has an instinctive idea of justice and resents anything
which he regards as unjust. On the other hand, he learns quickly the
inevitableness with which pain follows the violation of law, and how
certain is the working out of cause and effect.

Mrs. Harrison gives this admirable illustration: "The little one puts his
hand upon the hot stove; no whirlwind from without rushes in and pushes the
hand away from the stove, then with loud and vengeful blasts scolds him
for his heedlessness or wrong-doing. He simply is burned--the natural
consequences of his own deed; and the fire quietly glows on, regardless of
the pain which he is suffering. If again he transgresses the law, again he
is burned as quietly as before, with no expostulation, threat, or warning.
He quickly learns the lesson and avoids the fire thereafter, bearing no
grudge against it."

When the child scatters her toys and playthings all over the room, the
natural penalty is to require that they be gathered up and the room made
tidy; when the boy scampers across the newly-cleaned floor with his muddy
boots, he should be made to mop up the floor carefully; thus in a thousand
similar ways, the parent may train the child to observe care and order in
everything done.

Nothing is more beautiful than a large family where each child is taught to
care for and to rely upon himself, and to give a little willing service to
others. But the tired mother will remark, "Oh, yes, that all sounds very
nice, but mothers have no time to spare to eternally watch and train their
children." Hold a moment, there is a fallacy here; she ought to say, "I
have no time to spare because I failed to train the children in the manner
mentioned." In no other way can the mother save so much time as by taking a
little time at first to train the child to be neat, tidy and orderly, or
later to feel the inevitable consequences of violating law.

Instead of saving time in this sensible way, too often the mother loses
both time and the love of her child through becoming irritable and scolding
the little one for every offence committed. Nothing is worse than scolding,
a sound thrashing administered now and then is far less cruel. Nearly every
evil instinct in the child is aroused through fault-finding and scolding.
How long will it take to teach the parent, once for all, that scolding,
nagging, shutting up in the dark closets, and every other form of arbitrary
punishment arouse in the child a sense of injustice and resentment, which,
if not corrected later, will result in estrangement and loss of love
between parent and child? The child has a right to expect justice from his
parent. Only where this is found will the child develop that sense of
freedom and independence of thought and action which produce the highest
type of individual--one who is able to govern himself.

"But what shall be done when more serious offences are committed?" The
parent may well ask. In all likelihood there will be no serious offences if
the slight ones are treated properly. A mother came to me with her face
full of suppressed suffering. "What shall I do?" she remarked, "I have
discovered that my boy steals money from his father's purse." "Give him a
purse of his own," I answered, "and give him ways of earning money of his
own." It is asserted that more than half the boys sent to reform schools go
there because of theft. How many of them might have been saved if they had
been taught how to earn and to know the value of an honest dollar?

But so long as human nature is imperfect, and frailty so common, we must
expect in every family some occasion to arise that will tax the patience
and the love of the parent to the uttermost. No rule can be given that will
meet every crisis; common sense, justice, forbearance, faith and love may
be used in vain; and reproof, censure, and corporal punishment may also
fail in some supreme emergency, the only recourse that remains after all
these are exhausted is to permit the natural consequences of the deed to
fall upon the head of the transgressor.

Rule: _Parents should rarely punish the child, but should permit the
consequences of carelessness and wrong-doing to fall upon his own head.
Wisdom results from suffering pains and taking pains_.



LESSON XVII


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why do evil consequences follow bad deeds?

2. In what sense are nature's punishments kind?

3. What two mistakes are common in child government?

4. Illustrate how natural punishment may be employed by parents.

5. What may be resorted to in serious cases? For further discussion and
study of this subject the following references will be found helpful:

1. Chapter on Moral Education, from Spencer's "Education."

2. "Dealing with Moral Crises," by Cope, from "Religious Education in the
Family."

3. "Misunderstood Children," by Harrison.



ADOLESCENCE


_The Adolescent Period Is a Time of "Storm and Stress," When the Chief
Crises of Life Arise_

Most writers on psychology recognize in the life history of the child
several more or less distinct periods of development. The child is almost
a different being at different levels of his growth. Each period is marked
by peculiar physical, mental and moral characteristics which demand
specific treatment. So great and sudden are some of these changes that
they are sometimes likened to a metamorphosis, indicating an analogy with
certain insects as a change from the larvae and pupae stages to that of
butterflies.

Space will not permit more than a brief account of the most critical of
these periods, namely, the adolescent. This period begins at about the age
of thirteen in girls and fourteen in boys, and continues until about
eighteen. Physically, this stage starts with a very rapid growth which is
frequently doubled in rate within a single year. The girl may, in a few
months, change from a tall, angular, romping tomboy into a blooming,
dimpled young woman, bashful and afraid.

So much energy is required for physical growth that in the early stages of
this period difficult mental tasks cannot be well done. In a young man
especially, this period is marked by awkward, uncouth movements that
indicate uncertain adjustment. Frequently at this time the boy's voice
varies unsteadily from a high falsetto to a low pitch, which is most
mortifying to the youth, who is now bashful probably for the first time in
his life. The girl is suddenly very particular about her appearance, and
her clothes, and the youth for the first time delights in a starched shirt,
patent leather shoes and bright neck-ties.

The health of the individual at this time is usually good; susceptibility
to the diseases peculiar to childhood is slight, but there is increased
danger of acquiring adult diseases, and some writers claim that it is
during this time, when there are great physical disturbances, that the germ
of many adult diseases, such as tuberculosis, are apt to be implanted.
During the early part of this period it is unwise and dangerous for girls
to take part in such strenuous athletic games as basketball, or for boys to
indulge in football. Later when strength and equilibrium have been
restored, these games may be practiced without danger.

But the greatest of all changes, the one fundamental to adolescent life, is
the development of the sex instincts. Fortunate is the youth or maiden
whose parents are sensible and wise enough to instruct them concerning the
nature and purpose of these functions. Good books, such as "What a Boy
Should Know," and "What a Girl Should Know," are invaluable during this
critical time. This sudden ripening of the sex instinct is the cause of the
metamorphosis from childhood to early manhood and womanhood, and is the key
which explains the changes that characterize adolescence.

Emotionally, there is a tremendous awakening. The individual begins to feel
for the first time that he is actually alive and living; heretofore, life
has been a self-centered, matter-of-fact existence; now it enlarges and
becomes charged with intense feeling and significance. "Fear, anger, love,
pity, jealousy, emulation and ambition are either new-born or spring into
intense life."--James. All of these may be termed social instincts and they
imply a widening of the youth's horizon and include a "consciousness of
kind" that has heretofore been lacking.

Now, the youth or maiden truly falls in love; up to this time, regard for
the opposite sex has been merely a light fancy, barely skin deep; but now
it takes hold of the heart strings and plays upon them with an agony that
is truly heart rending. Who is there with red blood in his veins that does
not look back upon his first heart conflict with almost pathetic reverence?
Parents should be more concerned than they usually are over the conquest of
the heart of youth. Such affairs may carry with them consequences which are
more serious than could be anticipated.

At this time the youth or maiden is exceedingly resentful of arbitrary
restraint or punishment. There is a super-sensitiveness and a keen
self-consciousness which cannot brook harshness and coercion. Sympathy and
reasonableness must take the place of censure and punishment. Years ago I
remember seeing a father start to whip his boy who was just emerging into
the adolescent stage, a heavy stick was raised to strike, but the boy
looked his father in the eye without flinching and quietly remarked: "You
may whip one devil out, Father, but I promise you that you'll whip seven
devils in." The stick dropped from the astonished parent's hand; the boy
was never again punished by whipping.

The runaway curve for boys reaches its highest point at this time, and the
girl is likely to be insolent and unmanageable probably for the first and
only time in her life. The greatest crises of life arise at this time
because of the almost criminal ignorance of parents respecting these
revolutionary changes and also because children who may never before have
caused the parents the least trouble or heartache are now as unruly and
unmanageable as a volcano in eruption. This is the time when the youth is
driven from home by the irate father, the time when the rebellious daughter
is condemned without mercy, the critical period when most vices are begun
and most juvenile crimes committed. The parent is apt to exclaim here: "In
Heaven's name, what can be done?" Not even the wisdom of a Solomon could
answer completely; a few suggestions, however, may be offered which will
help to bridge over this critical period.

If the child has had positive training up to this time, the period of
"storm and stress" will be briefer and less severe than it would be
otherwise; but if the negative training has prevailed, there is less hope
that the storm will be weathered. The youth may be caught in the stream of
dissipation and whirled to destruction. At the very least, the parent must
expect fitful and obstinate behavior, and unreasonable action. In boys, the
beginning of the use of tobacco and liquor usually comes at this time. This
is the time, too, of sexual temptation, if not actual indulgence. The
temptation to do something startling is almost irresistible; robberies will
be planned, hold-ups thought of, abductions contemplated; the life of a
desperado entertained. The moral character seems to be in a state of
eruption.

On the other hand, his sympathies and affections may be appealed to as
never before. The parent who has made a confident of his boy or girl, who
has infinite patience and affection, and who fully senses what to except,
may, if other factors are favorable, help tide over this danger zone
without serious results. A steady chum, a little older than the boy, and a
companion more stable than the girl are a most fortunate aid to the parent.
There seems to be a brief time in the career of every youth or maiden when
the influence of his chum or companion is more potent for good or evil than
is the combined influence of parents and relatives.

The common practice of permitting the, adolescent to sleep away from home
is exceedingly dangerous. Many a youth may trace the beginning of his
degeneracy to the downward, push received when he slept away from home.
Care must be exercised also as to the kind of group he associates with; it
is too much to expect a youth to be better than the gang with whom he
consorts. During the most critical part of this critical, epoch neither
youth nor maiden should, attend parties, picnics, or social entertainments,
without a chaperon. This advice may seem radical, but if it is carried
out, perhaps for just one year, until equilibrium is restored, it may
prevent that _one act_ to which so many unfortunates attribute their
downfall.

Fortunate, too, is the adolescent who is permitted to attend a first-class
high school taught by sympathetic teachers who understand the needs of
adolescent nature. The imagination is now more vivid than it ever will be
again, the logical reason is beginning to evolve and this period is
preeminently "the breeding ground of ideas." The school more than any other
agency can keep the imagination, reason, and emotions so fully employed
that little time is left in which to indulge morbid feelings and immoral
thoughts. The school affords a moral atmosphere and gives a choice of good
associates which make it invaluable during this critical epoch. It also
disciplines the feelings and emotions and offers opportunity for emulation,
industry, and the display of both physical and mental power. In truth, the
school so occupies the attention and directs the interest that many a young
man and woman passes through this period unscathed, without ever sensing
the dangers which are escaped.

Finally, a "profound religious awakening" characterizes the early
adolescent stage. It may be doubted that a genuine religious conviction can
exist before this time; at least most writers hold that religious
conversion takes place, if at all, during this period. Previous to this
time, however, religious observance and ceremony should have become
habitual in order that conversion may be most profound. Nothing else is
more powerful than religious conviction and sentiment to reinforce good
conduct and to inhibit wrong action. Religious conviction, together with
the growth of ideals and the employment by the school of the physical and
intellectual capacities, all supplemented by parental counsel and guidance,
should insure the safe passage of the adolescent over this critical crisis
of his life.



LESSON XVIII


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What are the physical changes that occur during the adolescent period?

2. What dangers to health are common at this time? What safeguards should
be thrown about the youth to keep him strong in body?

3. Discuss the mental, moral, and emotional characteristics of the
adolescent.

4. What is the fundamental cause of the changes that take place?

5. What may be said about religious emotions and conversions during this
time?

6. What practical suggestions would you give to help the parents guide the
adolescent safely over this dangerous period of life?

_Supplemental Studies_: At this point it will be well to take the
supplemental lessons in this book, page 133 to end of volume. These studies
are based on the lectures given by Dr. John M. Tyler. They will blend
beautifully with Professor Hall's discussion and will reinforce strongly
the study of this adolescent age.



TRAINING IN THE HOME


_Certain Phases of Training and Education Can Be Best Accomplished by the
Home_

There are four great agencies or factors concerned in the training and
education of the child: these are, the home, the school, the church, and
the state, or society. Of these, the home ought to be the most helpful
since it is the most important. The child is a part of the flesh and blood
of the parents; he belongs to them in a vital way that transcends his
relationship to everything else in the world.

The parent, then, is the natural trainer and educator of the child,
particularly during the dependent period before the age of accountability
is reached. The parent ought not to shirk this duty or attempt to transfer
it to some other agency. But at the present time there is a strong tendency
to shift more and more responsibility to other agencies, especially to the
school. Many habits which the home once developed are now left largely to
the school; religious training is turned over more and more to the Sunday
School and the church, and much more of the time of children is now spent
in social amusements away from home than ever before.

Then, too, it is certain that the old-time home is passing. It seemed to
have higher ideals and more definite purposes in life than homes now
possess; moreover, it occupied most of the time of the child and taught
him to be industrious and proficient, and to regard life with much more
seriousness than does the home of to-day. The home or the family,
therefore, is not the great superlative factor that it ought to be in
the training and education of the child.

From the first chapter of Cope in "Religious Education in the Family,"
the following is quoted: "The ills of the modern home are symptomatic.
Divorce, childless families, irreverent children, and a decadence of the
old type of separate home life are signs of forgotten ideals, lost motives,
and insufficient purposes. When the home is only an opportunity for
self-indulgence, it easily becomes a cheap boarding house, a sleeping
shelf, an implement for social advantage. While it is true that general
economic development has effected marked changes in domestic economy, the
happiness and efficiency of the family do not depend wholly on the parlor,
the kitchen, or the clothes closet. Rather, everything depends on whether
the home and family are considered in worthy and adequate terms.

"Homes are wrecked because families refuse to take home life in religious
terms, in social terms of sacrifice and service. In such homes, organized
and conducted to satisfy personal desires rather than to meet social
responsibility, these desires become aims rather than agencies and
opportunities. What hope is there for useful and happy family life if the
newly-wedded youths have both been educated in selfishness, habituated to
frivolous pleasures and guided by ideals of success in terms of garish
display?

"It is a costly thing to keep a home where honor, the joy of love, and high
ideals dwell ever. It costs time, pleasure, and so-called social
advantages, as well as money and labor. It must cost thought, study and
investigation. It demands and deserves sacrifice; it is too sacred to be
cheap. The building of a home is a work that endures to eternity, and that
kind of work never was done with ease or without pain and loss and
investment of much time. Patient study of the problems of the family is a
part of the price which all may pay.

"No nobler social work, no deeper religious work, no higher educational
work is done anywhere than that of the men and women, high or humble, who
set themselves to the fitting of their children for life's business,
equipping them with principles and habits upon which they may fall back in
trying hours and making of home the sweetest, strongest, holiest, happiest
place on earth."

The home or family is, or ought to be, the supreme institution, not only
for propagating the race, but also for the preservation and rearing of
children.

There are certain things which only the home can do, which if not
accomplished by it, will likely remain undone. The acquisition of correct
physical habits by the child is one of them. It is preeminently the duty
and privilege of the parent in the early years of the child's life to
impress habits that will make for health and strength. The first six years
are more important physically to the child than all the remainder of his
life. During this time the natural tendency to over-indulgence of the
appetite should be inhibited, and temperance should be reduced to a habit.
The other desirable physical habits already referred to should also be
acquired. Furthermore, it is the sacred duty of the parent to see to it
that the child is not handicapped through physical defects of eye or ear,
enlarged tonsils, adenoids, decayed teeth, or by any other common
imperfection which may be easily and permanently remedied if taken in time,
but which, if neglected, may cause untold suffering and contribute to
failure in life.

The home is responsible directly for training the child to be neat, tidy
and clean in person; it should also train him in good manners, courtesy,
and regard for the rights of others. It also decides whether or not the
boy shall be a brave, manly little fellow or a timid cry-baby; whether or
not the girl shall be sweet, helpful and trustworthy, or shallow, idle and
vain.

The giving of knowledge and instruction in sex hygiene at the proper time
is also a peculiar duty of parents which they must not shirk.

The chief moral virtues are also the result of home training. An obedient,
honest, truthful disposition is characteristic of a good home; a sly,
deceitful, quarrelsome nature is the outcome of improper home influence,
Moreover, the first lessons in respect for law, order and justice are
implanted by the home; improper training in these virtues leads to disorder
and license.

The home, too, must teach the first lessons in industry and impress the
child with the fact that life is made up of work as well as play. Too often
the mother, especially, makes a slave of herself for the children, waits on
them night and day, allows them to sleep late in the morning, stay up late
at night and keep up an incessant round of pleasure while she herself stays
at home and shoulders the entire responsibility of the household. How much
happier the home where each child is trained to do some particular share of
work and to take some responsibility upon himself.

The boy should be permitted to help the father whenever possible. He
should be required to do things promptly and regularly and to learn through
actual experience the amount of toil and sweat required to earn an honest
dollar.

A taste for music and reading must be fostered in the home. Every family
should have some kind of musical instrument and at least a few choice books
for children. The influence of music and good literature on the tastes and
ideals of the future man and woman is so great that it can scarcely be
over-estimated. The use of correct and fluent language is largely a product
of the home. Children imitate the speech heard at home; if this is
incorrect, meagre, or coarse, the child is apt to have the same
imperfection follow him through life.

The family constitutes a most sacred and important social unit, and because
of its intrinsic nature, it can best develop in the child the highest
personal sentiment and social virtue. Among these are affection, sympathy,
love, generosity and good will. If these are not awakened and nurtured by
the home, then there is little hope that they will be acquired elsewhere,
and the child will likely grow into a stony-hearted, selfish pessimist.

Certain religious habits and sentiments also can be impressed naturally and
well only by the family. Among these are trust in God, the beginning of
faith, regard for ceremony, love of Bible stories, respect for authority,
and above all, prayer. The individual who has not been taught at his
mother's knee to pray is likely never to develop into a prayerful man or
woman.

The home is the child's earliest school, his first temple of worship, his
first social center. It is the place where everything in this life begins.
Most fortunate is the child that is guided to take his first steps aright
through the loving influence of a good home.



LESSON XIV


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What four great agencies are concerned in training and education?

2. Which is most important and why?

3. What is the indictment of the home?

4. What change has taken place respecting the relative importance of these
developing agencies?

5. The home is responsible for what physical habits?

6. What moral habits and virtues?

7. What mental habits and virtues?

8. What religious habits and sentiments?

9. What is the future outlook for the home and family?

It will be well at this point to review briefly the three beginning
chapters from "Religious Education in the Family," by Cope. The "Peril and
Preservation of the Home," by Jacob Riis, will also be found helpful
reading here.



TRAINING BY THE CHURCH


_The Influence of the Church Is Essential to Aid the Home in Developing the
Religious Instincts and Emotions of the Child_

Religious emotions and belief are among the most deeply imbedded instincts
of the race. They are also some of the earliest manifestations of
childhood. They accompany the individual throughout his entire life,
exercising a profound influence over his thoughts and conduct, and they
become the chief anchor of the soul when sorrow or old age comes. It would
be a great calamity, therefore, if religious instincts and sentiment
should suffer eclipse or disappear.

Rightly cultivated and trained, these natural feelings of religion grow
to spiritual power within us. Without such power, man is of little
consequence.

Upon the home naturally falls the duty of fostering the first feelings of
reverence towards God. The child who learns to lisp his prayers at his
mother's knee is started aright. The home must give the first lessons in
the love of God and goodness. If it fails, they are likely never to be
learned.

But the home needs the influence of the church here. It must have it to
round out the child's religious development. The church can do many things
for the child that the home cannot accomplish. It introduces him to
religious ceremonies and observances that satisfy his soul, and it helps
greatly to train him in religious habits.

One cannot estimate the value of all this upon the character of the child.
As a restraint from wrong conduct and an encouragement to right action, the
work of the church is most salutary. The solemn ceremonies, the sacred
music, the exhortations pointing heavenward, the general spirit of the
group at humble worship--all exercise upon the child an influence for good,
mysterious yet profound.

Clean, beautiful surroundings and orderly behavior are also very
impressive. The work of our Sabbath Schools is most beneficial. They offer
to parents a strong reinforcement in cultivating right religious habits
and emotions in the child. To go into one of our well-conducted Sunday
Schools, where order prevails, where the spirit of peace and prayer is
uppermost, to join in the singing, to listen to the uplifting instruction,
or, better still, to be given opportunity to take active part in this
religious service--all these make a deep and lasting impression upon the
youthful soul. Parents can do nothing better for their children and
themselves than to support loyally their Sunday Schools and other
religious organizations.

The habit of attending church should also be impressed during the
habit-forming period. But the supreme opportunity of the church lies in its
ability actually to convert the youth or maiden during the adolescent
period. This is a privilege which neither the church nor the home has
adequately comprehended. When the emotional nature of the individual is at
white heat, as it then is, impressions made are lasting, and conversion, if
made then, will be so deeply impressed that it is likely to last forever.

Churches in general fail to make the most of their opportunity here. They
too often stuff the heads of children with religious facts and formulae,
feeding them with the husks of theology, instead of giving them the
upbuilding food they need. Children, too, often are starving for real
spiritual food, hungering for the bread and thirsting for the water of
life.

Parents and teachers generally need to correct their methods of presenting
the gospel to children, especially to the adolescent, if they would get the
results desired. It is their failure to meet the child on his own religious
ground, not his indifference to religion that makes the boy and girl leave
Sabbath School during the time he most needs such an influence. Let them
study and master these problems: Are boys and girls being given ample
opportunity for spiritual self-expression? Are the beautiful lessons of
the gospel being translated into terms that appeal to their lives?

Our own church, we feel sure, is answering these questions in positive,
practical ways better and better every day; but there is still much left to
do even among us.

We have in our own church a working system that ministers to the daily
moral and spiritual needs of humanity--a constructive Christianity that
comes close to our lives. Our church is our opportunity to develop our own
spiritual powers and to cultivate those of our children. The church needs
our help to carry forward its ministry to mankind; but we need even more
the help of the church to enspirit and to comfort our lives and to give to
us and to our children the guidance and the training that will keep us all
in the paths of safety and peace:



LESSON XX


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What have you observed in children to prove that religious emotions are
instinctive?

2. In what ways can the home best foster the natural religious instincts of
childhood?

3. What religious habits should the home cultivate?

4. What can the church best develop in children?

5. Why should the parents support loyally the Sunday Schools and other
organizations of the church?

6. What is the supreme opportunity of the church during the adolescent age?

7. What means have you used successfully to develop the religious instincts
of your own children?

8. What opportunities for spiritual self-expression and service does our
own church offer?

9. In what ways are we richly rewarded by our free-will service in behalf
of our church?

"The Child and His Religion," by Dawson, will be a helpful book to study in
connection with this lesson.



TRAINING IN THE SCHOOL


_Certain Phases of Training and Education Can Be Accomplished Better by the
School Than by Any Other Agency. A National System of Industrial and
Vocational Education Should Be Established_

The school is a social institution whose functions are becoming daily more
widely understood and more clearly defined. In the history of civilization,
the school, as we know it, is a very recent institution. Nation after
nation has arisen, reached its zenith, declined, and passed away without
dreaming of such a thing as universal education. With the growth of
democracy, particularly during the Reformation, the ideal of education as
the birthright of every child became well defined and during the years that
have intervened, this ideal has become a living reality.

At first the universal education was advocated for the sake of the church.
Martin Luther believed that every child should have schooling so that he
might be able to read the Bible and study the catechism. For some time the
church had charge of and controlled education, but gradually, as democracy
developed, the influence of the state began to overshadow that of the
church, and education came to be recognized more and more as a function of
the state, and its control was gradually taken over by the latter
institution.

The chief function of education, therefore, may be seen clearly from the
foregoing. In a democracy it is necessary for every child to be educated
because the existence of free institutions is based upon the intelligence
of the masses. Jefferson once remarked: "If anyone believes that free
government and an ignorant people can exist at one and the same time, he
believes that which never was or never can be." Universal education is,
therefore, a social necessity; its chief purpose is to train and instruct
the child in the duties and ideals of citizenship. He must be instructed in
the history of his country and learn what the ideals are for which his
country stands; he must learn the real meaning of the words: equality,
justice and freedom; he must be taught that obedience to law is the highest
form of freedom, and that license is destructive both of self and country.
Furthermore, he must learn that in a free country every individual must be
taught to be self-dependent, that no one owes him a living, that he ought
to produce a little more than he consumes for the sake of the unfortunate.

The school, therefore, may teach better than any other agency the habits
and ideals of duty, social service, justice and patriotism. It also teaches
frequently better than does the home, the habits of obedience,
punctuality, regularity and industry.

A secondary purpose of the school is to assist the home to develop in the
child the physical, mental, moral and social habits and ideals to which we
have referred in previous lessons. To the shame of the home, it must be
said that the school is accomplishing its particular function far better
than is the home. The school rarely fails to exact obedience, regularity,
punctuality, and industry from the pupil; the home, on the other hand,
frequently fails to train children in these habits because of the softness
and vacillation of the parents. The school trains to proper habits of
hygiene and sanitation, and is often under the necessity of acquainting
parents with physical defects in their children which too often they have
overlooked.

Moreover, the school, as a larger social unit than the home, has some
distinct advantages over the latter: It can teach the obstinate,
quarrelsome child better than can the home the necessity of adjusting his
conduct to the requirements of the social group with which he associates.
In school, frequently for the first time, a child learns what is meant by
the ideals of duty and justice; furthermore, he is usually trained to
habits of industry, perseverance and self-control which the home too often
is not well prepared to teach.

The home, however, is far more important than is the school; the latter
might be abolished and some other form of education adopted by society
without calamitous results; but if the home were suddenly abolished, it is
probable that civilization itself would be shaken to its center, if not
destroyed. The home, therefore, ought to be better prepared and equipped to
fulfill its function than is the school; but not one parent in a thousand
is specially prepared for the duties of parenthood. The teacher, on the
other hand, is required to spend years in preparation for his work. He is
expected, moreover, to set a worthy example for children to follow. "As the
teacher so the school," is a maxim that has stood the test.

The school was never before so practical in its instruction as it is
to-day. In most of the junior and senior high schools, industrial work and
agriculture are taught. In the best schools girls are learning to sew,
mend, darn and cook. Many of them make their own dresses and trim their own
hats. In a few schools, uniform dress and shoes are adopted by the girl
students for the sake of economy and to prevent the silly mode of dressing
and the style of some girls. Much more could be done in this direction if
all mothers were sensible, but now and again word comes to the teacher: "I
can dress my girl well and I don't care to have her wear your cheap
uniform and your low-priced, low-heeled shoes." And again: "It's none of
your business how my girl dresses." Now, it must be conceded that the
parent has this right to object, but we surely question the wisdom of her
so doing. Many young girls on graduating from the eighth grade make their
own graduation dresses and confine the cost of the entire costume,
including shoes, to $5.00. Women graduating from the senior school often
make their dresses and confine the cost to within $10.00.

Most young men are taught manual art of some kind and agriculture. It is
seldom that any father objects to his son taking carpenter work, but once
in a while a farmer smiles at the thought of a "professor" teaching
farming. The results, however, of the good work in teaching better farming
is already seen throughout our country, and the time is not far distant
when "scientific agriculture" will return many fold the price of its
investment. The agricultural department at Washington reports that the
Burbank potato is adding $17,000,000 yearly to the wealth of the U.S.

The people, too, are well satisfied with this new type of school. They are
beginning to see that education is a very practical and vital matter and
is not merely for ornament. It is a rare thing now to hear the once common
remark that education is too expensive.

Statistics show that the average wages paid to unskilled laborers in the U.
S. is about $500 per annum; careful reports indicate that the average
yearly earnings of high school graduates is $1000. In a lifetime of 40
years the high school man will earn $20,000 more than the unlearned
laborer.

From a financial standpoint it is very evident that education pays, yet
five and one-half years is the average length of time the children of the
U.S. attend school. The nation ought to enrich itself through putting more
money into education.

The natural resources of the country are largely taken up and the free land
is practically all occupied. What then is to be the future of the great
mass of laborers unless a thorough-going system of industrial and
vocational training is made possible? The Industrial Commission appointed
recently by Congress found that three-fourths of the male laborers in the
U.S. earn less than $600 per annum, yet the U.S. Government has found "that
the point of adequate subsistence is not reached until the family income is
about $800 a year. Less than half the wage-earners' families in the U.S.
have an annual income of that size."

Now the rich can take care of themselves and the very poor and unfortunate
cannot be permanently helped, but this great middle class, upon whom the
nation must depend in every crisis, can and must be assisted to the extent,
at least, that conditions be made possible through which they may raise
their efficiency and so increase their earning capacity to a point
commensurate with their needs. A thorough-going, national system of
industrial and vocational "preparedness" would solve this problem.

The marvelous efficiency of Germany is due in large part to the fact that
her great middle classes have been made efficient through a national system
of trade schools.

The prosperity and perpetuity of a nation rests largely upon its ability to
provide an adequate number of highly trained experts to be leaders,
inventors and executives. In a democracy, these skilled leaders are
especially important. Among the problems to be solved are questions of
government, education, finance, economics, business, industry, health,
manufacturing, engineering and mining. Any nation that lacks guidance in
these particulars is indeed weak and pitiful. The universities, colleges,
and higher technical schools supply nine-tenths of these experts, yet in
the U.S. to-day there are only 250,000 students enrolled in all the
colleges and universities of the country; this is about one to 500 of the
population, a number entirely inadequate to perform the tremendous service
that will be expected of this nation in the near future.



LESSON XXI


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. State the nature of the school.

2. How did the ideal of universal education arise?

3. State the chief function of the school.

4. Name the habits and ideals peculiar to the school.

5. What is the secondary purpose of the school?

6. Contrast the efficiency of the home and the school.

7. What high compliment may be paid to teachers?

8. Is the comparison made between the home and the school overdrawn?

9. Compare the practical school of to-day with the school of the past.

10. Do you favor uniform dress for high school girls?

11. What is your opinion of modern style which so many mothers foster?

12. Have you any boys taking industrial work in school?

13. Prove that high school education pays.

14. What is the duty of a nation towards its great middle class?

15. Do you believe in a national system of industrial and vocational
schools?

16. Why are experts needed particularly in a democracy?



THE DUTY OF THE STATE


_The Social and Civic Institutions of the State (Society) Exert a Powerful
Influence over the Lives of Children. The Citizen Must See to It that this
Great Educative Influence of His Community Is Uplifting in Nature_

The vital relationship existing between parent and child is easy to
understand, but the close interdependence of the individual and the state
is much more difficult to comprehend. Yet in a very real sense the
individual and the state are reciprocally related. But just as the body is
more than an aggregate of all of its cells, so is society (the state)
something more than the sum total of its individual units. That a group of
people, or even one individual, may exert an influence over the thoughts
and actions of others is a reality of profound significance; that there is
a social conscience as well as an individual conscience is a fact that
cannot be refuted, and the part played by custom and tradition in shaping
the history of the world can hardly be estimated.

In view of the close relationship between the individual and society, it is
passing strange that while the individual is expected to possess a high
standard of character, society itself may indulge in all sorts of
questionable practices without so much as a challenge. Many a person winks
at the frivolity and immorality of society, while at the same time he
expects the most circumspect behavior on the part of his neighbor. The
existence of these two standards which ought to coincide but which in
reality are far apart is responsible for many failures in the training of
children.

As soon as the infant begins to observe and imitate the actions of members
of the household, its social training begins; play with the neighbor's
child extends the process, and the social group or "gang" with which the
child associated, impresses permanently its thought and action. Frequently,
too, the chum or companion chosen by the child has more real influence over
its life than has the combined instruction of parents and teacher. As
already shown, the school is a social institution and the same is largely
true of the Sunday School. The example of adults also makes a profound
impression upon the conduct of children. The home and the school may teach
convincingly the injurious effects of tobacco and alcohol, but so long as
society sanctions the sale of these poisons and respected adults indulge in
them, just so long will the efforts of home and school, be, to a large
extent, counteracted. The same is true with respect to any other virtue or
excellence, the home, school, and church may unite in emphasizing the most
wholesome discipline, but so long as society is a living, seething
contradiction of this teaching, the instruction will fall upon deaf ears
and be but as "sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal."

The fact is that our nation is yet too young to be fully conscious of its
opportunities and responsibilities. A democratic form of government from
its very nature must develop slowly towards its ideals. It must expect at
first to be much less certain and efficient in its action than is a highly
centralized government. This inability on the part of popular government to
attain its ideals is reflected also in its subordinate civic units; neither
state nor city governments have yet solved the problem of efficient and
economical administration, although it is a pleasure to note that some
cities are making real progress in this direction. In many communities,
however, the weakness of decentralized government is most apparent. This is
particularly true in many towns; here is seen too frequently a lack of
civic pride, inefficient officers and failure to enforce the law.

The humiliating fact obtains that frequently a few lawless individuals
often not more than from 3 to 5 per cent of the population, are permitted
to set the moral pace, while the 95 per cent, of law-abiding citizens are
either asleep to their duties or else fail to see that the remedy is in
their own hands. In many instances a few persons are allowed to undermine
the morals of the community. In one town of our state a single individual
was permitted for 25 years to corrupt the morals of many young men of the
community through illegal traffic in liquor.

Parents should realize that next to heredity the social factors in a
community are likely to be the chief influence at work moulding and shaping
the lives of their children, and in the long run they must not expect the
average child to be better than the community in which he lives.

But the remedy for inefficient, free government is not far to seek;
universal education will solve the problem provided it includes, as it
should, instruction and training in civic and social duties. There is no
need to argue the superiority of democratic government over that of all
other forms; the freedom which we possess is worth all the suffering and
bloodshed of all the patriots that have ever lived. But nothing will run
itself; perpetual motion is a myth, and even a small town to be well
governed, must receive conscious, expert attention.

Unquestionably, a free government is the most complex and difficult of all
forms of government to administer, but the problem can be solved, and the
secret of success will be found in the individual himself. He must become
educated to realize his full duties and responsibilities as a free citizen,
in other words, he must become socialized. He must get over the notion that
the school is the only educational agency and must understand that every
influence that modifies conduct is educative in nature. Especially must he
learn that the community itself is the chief civic and social educator of
children, and as such it should be consciously organized to perform well
this responsibility.

Already communities are awakening to the need of perfect sanitary and
hygienic conditions, and clean town contests are the order of the day; this
is one of the most hopeful signs of better times, but there ought to be a
moral and mental awakening and contests for civic righteousness should be
inaugurated. Any community that can say: "In this town no influence is
permitted that could in any way corrupt the morals or ideals of children,"
should receive the highest award in the gift of the people and its praises
should be commemorated in song and story.

In ancient Greece every citizen regarded himself as a parent or guardian of
every child, and if any youth was seen in public to violate any of the
customs or ideals of the nation, it was the duty of the citizen to
chastise the boy and to otherwise instruct him in the duties of
citizenship. At the same time the citizen was careful himself to set an
example worthy of emulation. The result was the most perfect and harmonious
education that the world has ever seen--at once the inspiration and the
despair of all succeeding civilizations. Why should we not adopt some of
the Grecian methods suited to our needs? In Greece no citizen would think
of doing in public, or permitting to be done, anything which was not
desirable for the child to do either in public or private. Why should any
man who walks upright, with his head pointing to the stars, be permitted to
profane the name of Deity, to stagger under the influence of liquor, to
puff at a cigar, to gamble, to run a disorderly resort or show, to enrich
himself through the manufacture and sale of poisons, or to do anything else
that corrupts the community and destroys her children? Surely in our feeble
attempts at free government, the right hand knows not what the left is
doing.

But the remedy, as I have said, is in the hands of the citizens. While it
is true that certain reforms to be most effective must be national rather
than local, such, for example, as prohibiting the manufacture and sale of
poisonous drugs, tobacco and alcohol, it is, nevertheless, evident that the
initiative must be taken by the individual. His first duty is to convert
himself and then his neighbors before any nation-wide reform can be
undertaken.

It is one of the chief glories of a democracy that any desired good may be
obtained through conversion and co-operation. But since in most communities
90 per cent, or more of the citizens are law-abiding and would not
consciously do anything to destroy the children of the commonwealth, it
ought to be a simple matter to restrain the few that are lawless and
unsocial. There can be no possible doubt that any community that is fully
alive to its needs and responsibilities can bring about just such civic and
social conditions as it may desire. To help accomplish these purposes, it
is necessary that efficient officers are elected who will enforce the laws
and that public sentiment be aroused in support of these officials; in some
communities sympathy for law-breakers is so easily awakened that justice
cannot be enforced and law and order are placed in contempt.

The citizen in a democracy should realize that his training and education
are never completed, that life itself is the great school-master and that
one of the chief pleasures of existence is continued study and
investigation. His occupation, no matter what it is, will offer him some
opportunity for study and improvement, and a portion of his leisure time
ought to be devoted to books and magazines. He may, also, if he desires,
take an extension course or correspondence work offered by a higher
institution of learning, some of which are making earnest efforts to take
the college to the people. Every citizen should at least be identified with
some civic, social, or industrial organization in his town, such as a
debating and literary club, an agricultural society, or a commercial club.
If each community would seek out and utilize the talent within its
precinct, it might develop an intellectual and civic consciousness that
would rival the spirit of ancient Greece.

An old-time prophet uttered the inspiring thought: "The Glory of God is
intelligence," and the great latter-day Prophet added the supplement: "No
man can be saved in ignorance." It is the duty of the individual,
therefore, to be an eternal seeker after knowledge and perfection. In this
blessed age when the sun of education shines so brilliantly, none need to
slumber under the clouds of ignorance. May the sun shine until under its
regenerating influence the home, school, church and state may each awaken
to the full measure of its power and so prepare the way for the coming of
that mightier Son of Righteousness, who promises to reign for a thousand
years over a redeemed world.



LESSON XXII


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Show the close relationship between the individual and the state.

2. Account for the two different standards of conduct.

3. Indicate how social influences modify the character of children.

4. How do examples of the use of tobacco and liquor affect children?

5. Compare example and precept.

6. Why must a democratic form of government develop its ideals slowly?

7. Why is community government frequently inefficient?

8. What per cent, of the population usually "sets the moral pace?"

9. What is the remedy for inefficient free government?

10. Why is the community the chief civic and social educator of children?

11. What should receive the highest award in the gift of a people?

12. How did Greece train her children?

13. What evil practices should be prohibited in a community?

14. What reforms should be national rather than local?

15. How may the few lawless individuals be restrained?

16. What is the duty of the citizen towards self-improvement and education?



PART II



SUPPLEMENTAL STUDIES



MAN'S PARTNERSHIP WITH NATURE[1]


_Dr. John M. Tyler_

_Nature will bear our burdens for us, if we will obey her laws and heed
her suggestions_.

[Footnote 1: These supplemental studies are based on lectures by Dr. John
M. Tyler, given before the Utah Educational Association, by whose
permission they are used. Parents will find Dr. Tyler's book on Growth in
Education of great interest. It is listed with other books at the close of
this volume.]

How has all the material progress of the nineteenth century come about? I
think we shall find that it was due to man's intelligently and carefully
and scrupulously going into partnership with Nature by obeying her laws.
Not so very many years ago messages were sent across this continent by
pony-riders; it was a slow process and a very expensive one. Now I step
into an office here and I say, "I wish to send a message to my wife way out
yonder in Massachusetts." The man touches a button and says, "Your message
is in Massachusetts, sir." It is a miracle. The lightning has run with my
message. Electricity not only carries our messages, it lights our houses;
it turns many a wheel of machinery; it serves us beneficiently just as long
as we obey the laws of electricity; but when we offend against these laws,
it thwarts us or very likely destroys us. "Obey, and I will do anything
for you in the world," says Nature, "disobey and you cannot move me one
single inch." Coal hurries our great locomotives and long trains of
merchandise and carries men and women across this continent without any
great amount of human labor. The engineer and the brakeman do not get
behind and push those great palace cars of ours; it is Nature which drives
the train as if it were sport. Man guides and directs the water pouring
down our hillsides, turning wheels of countless factories. A few ounces of
gasoline send the automobile down the street, polluting the air and
endangering our lives. The power of Nature is absolutely irresistible and
unlimited; and furthermore, she is always working towards some great and
good end.

When I was a child I used to hear that Nature was bad, and we used to have
sermons to the natural man. They were excellent sermons, too, but they
ought to have been preached to the unnatural man. The natural child was
considered a child of wrath, and, having that reputation, he quite
frequently lived up to it; but Nature is beneficient, as long as we let her
be so, and she is always working toward great and grand ends. She has been
working towards a higher and nobler and a better race of men than you and I
are to-day. She is working for a race of men and women who shall tower
above us as the sages and prophets in Athens and Jerusalem towered above
their slaves. Can we not trust her just a little?

Did you ever think that it is the most marvelous thing in the world that
such a thing as a chicken ever comes out of such a thing as an egg? If only
one chicken were hatched in a century, we would go from here to the
Himalaya mountains to see the miracle of that chicken coming out of that
egg. You put an egg under a very stupid old hen, and all the hen does is to
keep that egg warm, and leave it alone; after twenty days there comes out a
chicken. How in the world did that chicken ever frame that body? How did it
build the skeleton and string the muscles, and spin the nerves? If every
nerve in that body did not make just the right connection, that chicken
would be paralyzed. If you could watch the development of that chicken in
the egg, your hair would stand on end. Isn't it Nature that makes those
chickens? You and I can't make them. Nature puts a shell around the egg
with the express purpose that we are to keep our fingers out and let her
alone. She says: "I am on very important business now and I am going to do
some strange things; if you could watch me you would interfere with me, and
if you interfere with me, you will ruin me or ruin the chicken, so I want
you to stand to one side and leave me entirely alone; and while I might do
a good many things that you don't like, I shall bring a chicken out of that
egg;" and she does; she has been making them for thousands of years in that
same old stupid way, but she brings the chicken out all right.

Sometimes she seems to blunder still worse. She takes an egg which we
suppose is going to turn into a frog, and she brings out of it a
tadpole--neither fish, flesh nor fowl nor anything else. After a while the
tadpole gets legs and has a long tail; it must lose that tail in order to
become a frog. A benevolent zoologist one day started in to help the
tadpole by snipping off the tadpole's tail; he made a frog of him in a
hurry, but the strange thing was that that frog never was able to leap
properly. Nature had been relying on the material that was in the tail. She
was going to shift it forward and put it in the hind legs, but when the
zoologist cut it off, she couldn't build the hind legs right after that.

A good deal of our education seems to me like trying to make frogs in a
hurry by cutting off their tails. Nature can make chickens; she can make
frogs. She can make bugs that will eat up everything which human ingenuity
ever tried to raise. She will make weeds which you and I can't possibly
kill even though we fight against them all summer long. We can trust Nature
to form these things; isn't it fair to trust her with the children for a
little while at least? Wouldn't it be well--I never heard of this
experiment being tried, but I should like to see it tried very much
indeed--I do wish that sometime somebody would leave a baby alone for
twenty minutes and see what it would do if it were left to itself.

What is the great characteristic of all living things? It is that they
grow; we cannot make them grow, but they grow of themselves. The farmer
plants his crop of corn. He doesn't get a jackscrew and put under every
hill of corn, and go around every morning and give the screw a turn and a
twist and hoist the hill up in the air. He prepares the soil as best he
can. He puts in the seed; he keeps down the weeds; he keeps out things and
living beings which will injure the crop as far as he can; then he leaves
it alone to God and Nature to make that corn grow, and in time he gets a
bountiful harvest.

I believe that education some day will be somewhat like raising a crop of
corn. We shall learn to keep the child under the best condition possible.
We shall learn to keep down harmful and injurious surroundings or forces so
far as they can interfere with him. We shall stimulate growth in every
possible way; that I grant you; and when we have done that, we shall leave
the rest calmly to Nature and to the good Lord who made that child for some
good purpose.

It is a grand thing to have the child learn to see for himself the glories
of this magnificent world. I verily believe that when you and I go home,
while the good Lord will be very merciful with us because of our sins, I
don't see how he can forgive many of us for not having had a great deal
better time in this glorious world in which He has put us. When you open
the child's eyes to the beauties and the glories of Nature you have done a
great thing for it. But, after all, that is not the grandest thing to my
mind. The grandest part is that every wave of vibration that goes in
through the eyes as the child looks at Nature, and pours into the brain,
stimulates that brain to a larger growth than it would otherwise possibly
have attained, and the child is a larger and a grander child for that
Nature study.

We believe in manual training because it gives us skilled fingers and
enables us to do deftly and well a great many things which we otherwise
could not do at all, and which most of us men have to go to our wives and
ask them to do for us. But that is not the grandest part of manual
training; the grandest part is the reaction from the finger upon the brain,
stimulating the brain to realize all its ideals, and stimulating it so
that whenever it sees good work of any kind in this world it shall
appreciate it heartily and enjoy it with the joy of the artist.

We speak of physical training and physical training is brain training in
the end, it is training in growth. It is very evident, however, that the
growth and development of a baby is something different from the growth and
development of a child; and the growth in the child is very different from
that in the youth and that of the youth from that of the adult. In the baby
the vital organs are growing faster. In the young child the muscular system
is coming to the front, and he runs and plays and through the stimulus of
that muscular exercise he brings out every organ in the body and gains that
magnificent health which he so much needs.

Then, after a time, the brain comes to the front and grows and develops
more rapidly than any other part of the body. Our business as teachers is
always so to stimulate, by proper exercise, the growing organs that they
shall grow faster and further than they ever could without our aid. We are
not to always hasten it. This is one thing we must bear in mind: precocity
is the worst foe of a sound education. It is the boy and the girl who
mature slowly but mature surely that in the end possess the earth. We must
not hasten the process, but when we find the organ is ready to grow and
develop, then we must give it adequate stimulus. In other words, the
stimulus must be of the right kind, and there must be just enough of it,
just enough blood to stimulate the muscles, just as much study as will best
stimulate the growing and very immature intellectual centers in the brain.
Then we will increase the stimulus as the power increases and demands the
stronger exercise, and so stimulating the growing parts by adequate
exercise, we bring one part after another up to such development that we
have one harmonious whole of perfect health.

You remember that when the old deacon in Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem
started in to build the one-horse shay, he said, "Every shay that has ever
been made has broken down, because there was always a weakest spot in it;
now I am going to make a shay that never will break down, because I am
going to make the weakest part just as strong as the rest." We cannot
always do that, but if we can make that part somewhere near as strong as
the rest, we are past masters in education.

If we obey Nature's laws, all of her powers will be on our side; and with
all her powers on our side and the very stars in their courses fighting for
us, we cannot possibly fail, there is absolutely nothing which is
impossible to us. We must be strong and of good courage, if we are to guide
these little people into the land sworn unto their fathers before them.



LESSON I


QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What is meant by the expression, "Man's partnership with Nature?"
Illustrate how man makes Nature serve him.

2. In what way can man enter into a partnership with Nature regarding his
own body?

3. What can man do best when it comes to making things grow?

4. What do you think of the "hurry" methods in education?

5. What is the most we can do in providing for the education of the child?

6. How does Nature help us in the training process?

7. What does Nature try to make sure of first in the child?

8. When does the brain of the child begin to develop rapidly?

9. What advice would you give about precocity in children? Why?

10. What should we study in our children to give them a strong and even
development?



CONSERVATION OF THE CHILD


_By Dr. J.M. Tyler_

When the good Lord sets out to develop a child, the first organ with which
He starts is the stomach. The stomach is the foundation of all greatness.
It is a matter of daily observation if not of experience that a man can get
along very well with very few brains, but a man can't get along at all
without a good digestive system. The digestive system furnishes all the
material for growth and the fuel which is continually burned or consumed in
our nerves and muscles. Now, any furnace requires besides fuel, a good
draught. When we burn the fuel, by uniting it with the oxygen thus brought
in, we get the energy which draws our locomotives and our great ships.
Similarly in our bodies, our lungs bring in the oxygen and the heart and
blood-vessels carry the fuel and the oxygen to every part of the body. But
every furnace requires a smoke-stack to carry off the waste, and,
similarly, we must have in our bodies an excretory system to remove the
waste of the burned-up material and of the used-up tissue of the heart,
muscles and nerves. This constitutes the digestive system; the lungs, the
excretory system and the circulatory system are absolutely necessary to
support the combustion which is going on in nerve and muscle and without
which energy is impossible.

All productive labor manifests itself through the muscles. Our muscles
directly write the book, speak the word, build the railroads, do the deeds.
Our muscles are of very different ages. In the child the trunk muscles are
developed first; the shoulder muscles next; the arm muscles next; the
finger muscles last of all. The heavy muscles of trunk, shoulder and thigh
require but a small amount of nervous impulse or control, and they react
strongly on all the vital organs, as is shown every time that we take a
walk. The finest and youngest muscles of the fingers require a very large
amount of nervous control for a very small output of muscular energy and
their exercise stimulates the very highest centers in the brain, and this
is the great argument for physical training, that through one muscle or
another you can stimulate and develop as you choose either any vital organ
or the highest center in the brain.

Never forget the maxim of the old German physiologist that "Health comes in
through the muscles and flows out through the nerves." The nervous system
was created for good and wise ends, but in many people it has become a
nuisance. Its use is to insure that every stimulus from the external world
shall call forth a response suited to the emergency. A fly lights upon my
face; I wave my hand and drive him away. The fly has tickled my face; there
is the external stimulus. A sensory impulse travels to the brain or to some
other center and a motor impulse goes from there to a certain muscle in my
arm which moves my hand and drives away the fly. The impulse has called out
a response suited to that emergency. You watch a cat walk across the lawn;
you will think that fool cat is going to fall down, it is going so slowly
and it can hardly raise one foot above the other, but watch it when it sees
its prey; every muscle seems to turn to steel; it is ready for the spring.
When that spring is made there is no energy wasted. After that the cat does
not move for two hours; no wasting energy there. Wasting of energy is a
sin.

I awaken in the morning, and the first horrible emergency of the day
confronts me at once, I have to get up. How I get up I have no idea.
Professor James once said that when a man thinks about it he never does get
up, and that's right; but I find myself in the middle of the floor and that
is all I know, and then the cold air or the sight of my clothes or
something reminds me to start dressing, and the putting on of one garment
leads to the putting on of another. The pangs of hunger call me to the
breakfast table; the bell calls me to work; and so all day long response
follows stimulus; the day's work is a success or a failure according to the
response which I make to the stimuli which I receive.

There is a marvelous picture given in the scripture in the parable of the
poor man going down from Jerusalem to Jericho and getting wounded and left
by the road-side. Three men pass that way. They all see the same thing. The
light is reflected from the poor sufferer into the eyes of these
passers-by; a flood of vibration passes on to the brain and then the motor
impulses go out to the muscles. In the case of the good Samaritan, the
impulse went from the brain or the spinal nerve to the arms and he stooped
down and picked the poor fellow up and carried him off; while in the priest
and the Levite the impulses all went down into the legs and the cowards
hustled off for Jericho.

A healthy nervous system is the rarest thing in this wide world. I have one
illustration in mind, which I always like to think of, which I am going to
give you of a perfectly healthy and normal nervous system. It was possessed
by a good old negro minister. He had been preaching to his congregation for
a long time on the subject of meekness and it had not produced the desired
effect; so he said to them one morning: "Brethren, I'se gwine to give you
the illustration of meekness for a week now and show you what it is," and
the old man did. His congregation naturally rose to the occasion: They
insulted his wife; they abused his children; they stoned his dog; they
stole his chickens; they did everything under the heaven to break down the
meekness of that man; but he went on through the week and came into church
the next Sunday and began to preach. The congregation recognized that their
time was short and they redoubled their efforts, but all in vain. Finally,
about five minutes before the closing of the service, he turned to the
congregation and said: "Brethren, I think I ought to denounce to this
congregation that my week of meekness is just about up, and when the clock
in yonder steeple strikes twelve, I'se gwine to quit preachin', close this
blessed Bible, go down from this pulpit, and then, Brethren, Judgment day
and hell is gwine to break loose on some of you." Now, that old colored
minister had an ideal nervous system. There had not been one single
response all that week long, and not one single stimulus which had come in
from the outside had been lost either, but it was all waiting to leap into
that good right arm when the emergency was to be met, in the fullness of
time, and I commend you to go and do likewise.

It is only a step, thank fortune, from the ridiculous to the sublime, just
as it is only a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. Another
illustration of a perfect nervous system: You remember how our Lord spent a
whole day in preaching, in healing, working deeds of kindness, in pouring
out sympathy and comfort, the strain of which on a man's nervous energy is
worse than anything else in the world, and how at the close of the day He
went into the little boat, took the hard cushion on which the steersman
sat, threw it down in the bottom of the boat, and laid Himself down with
His head on that hard cushion and slept like a child through the rocking of
the boat and the roaring of the storm, until His disciples came to Him
saying, "Lord, save us: we perish." There is not one man in a thousand who
could do that work or could put out one-tenth part of that nervous energy
and then sleep like that. Anybody who thinks that the Prophet of Nazareth
was a weak or a feeble man has made the mistake of his life. He was perfect
physically or He never could have done His work.

All this work of developing a steady nerve, of developing the vital organs
for the use of the muscles, has been going on until the child is nine or
ten years old. It has been going on very rapidly, and in as much as the
exercise has been suitable, as his digestion has been good, his growth has
been very rapid. During the first three years of its life the child
increases its weight more than three-fold. During the next three years it
adds over forty per cent. to this amount and between six and nine adds over
thirty per cent. more; and when the boy is about eleven years old, or the
girl is about ten, then the growth almost stops that year. It drops to a
minimum. I call your attention to this thought: the minimum growth is more
in a girl than in a boy. A girl is always more precocious than a boy. She
is a year older than he at nine or ten, and when she is fourteen, fifteen,
sixteen, she is two years older than the boy. When the girl is ten and the
boy eleven, growth drops to the minimum. Why is that? Nature is economizing
her material and husbanding her resources against the trying years which
are to come.

You remember the story of the time when Pharoah in his dream saw the seven
fat kine followed and devoured by the seven lean kine; he was told that his
dream signified seven years of plenty, to be followed by seven years of
famine, and was advised to store up the harvests of the good years against
the hard times to follow. This is a picture of the child's life. The first
seven years of the child's life are years of plenty, when it is storing up
material for the years of hard trial, the years of famine, which are close
at hand.

I am going to talk most of the girl because she needs more attention than
the boy. Growth is a very expensive process. It begins in the bone. When
the bones lengthen out, then every muscle, every nerve has to be lengthened
out to suit that extra length, and that means a great deal of waste for
that rebuilding, but it is something worse than that. You know perfectly
well that out of the butterfly egg there comes the caterpillar, and that
caterpillar goes into a cocoon, and during the life of the cocoon every
organ is changed there and it comes out a butterfly. That is what we call a
metamorphosis.

The girl between ten and sixteen is undergoing a metamorphosis just as sure
as that caterpillar is undergoing a metamorphosis. If you leave town for a
few years and come back, you know all the old men and women haven't changed
any, except to die off. The babies have grown some; but the boy and the
girl seem to be grown all over again. That is, the girl whom you left at
nine years old and on coming back find her sixteen, has dropped down her
skirts, has drawn up her hair, and that is the butterfly cocoon, and it is
a mighty pretty butterfly cocoon. That is waste again. It is waste, waste,
on all sides and all of that waste is going into the blood, no other place
to put it; it ought to be got out at once. But there is another thing
about it; all the food must be digested, and so oxygen must be gained and
waste must be eliminated. All the organs in the trunk between those ages of
ten and fourteen are relatively both larger and smaller in girls than at
any other period of life.

It looks as though Nature was making a bad blunder, but she is really
making the best of a very bad bargain, doing the best she can under hard
circumstances. With these small vital organs and this tremendous draught on
the body for new material and the large amount of waste to be eliminated,
you are sure to have trouble. That trouble is going to manifest itself
first of all in the blood. The blood is going to be poor blood during those
years, unless you remedy it. Poor blood, first of all, depresses the
nervous system, and the girl feels gloomy and good for nothing; she hates
to go out into the cold air because she chills; yet that cold air is what
she needs more than anything else in the world. She hates to make an effort
and won't take the exercise she needs if she can possibly help it. The
exercise she must have. Her appetite has gone all wrong. She likes to live
on caramels, pickles, and all such things as that. Now, my friends, I want
to tell you, when anything goes wrong with the appetite, then the whole
system goes wrong, remember that. Observations were made some years ago in
Sweden of a number of the bodily disorders that occur between the ages of
thirteen and nineteen. These examiners found that there was one disorder
which attacked, put in general numbers, sixty per cent. of the girls in the
Swedish schools between the ages of thirteen and nineteen, and, indeed, it
never fell below sixty per cent. and was usually a great deal more. In
Denmark, the examination was made in the field where the children are
healthier, and then the figures gave forty per cent. The troubles usually
show themselves in the form of pallor; the girl is pale. They frequently
break out in the form of headache, loss of appetite, resistance to marked
effort and sometimes with a cold. Now, if the seat of the cold is in the
blood, because it is loaded with waste and ought to be removed, there is
one thing sure, that waste never will be removed until it is thoroughly
oxidized. That is the first thing to do, oxidize it. The only way to
oxidize the blood is to get the lungs full of good, pure air.

The girl wants just as much lung capacity as she can possibly get. We find
that the girl during those years is a little taller and a little heavier
than the boy, and she needs more oxygen to every pound of waste in the body
than the boy does, because the waste is going on faster. The average girl
has about three-fourths as much lung capacity for every pound of the waste
in the body, as has the average boy. What the girl needs is more lung
capacity to get in more oxygen. How is she going to get the lung capacity
sitting in the house? How is she going to get it when she is tied down in
the grammar school room with a book before her eyes?

The worst of it all is that the girl leaves off playing games in the open
air just about the time when she needs them the most, and not having the
open air play and the open air games, she can't get the lung capacity and
the oxygen. Another thing that hinders the girl is this: there is no place
for her to play where she can do all she wants to and not have people
looking over the fence and finding fault with her for having a good time.
Every girl ought to have a place where she can play in the open air and not
be bothered and we ought to get more and more games for girls of that age.
Another thing, the exercise should not be too severe. Don't kill a girl
with physical training; because you can kill her that way just as you can
kill her with books. Some of our physical training is too severe for a girl
of that age. She must have plenty of the right kinds of games and they
should be in the open air, and they should be such as she will enjoy and
love; if they are not of that kind it won't help a great deal. If you can
build up lung capacity in that way then you are drawing in the oxygen;
then you are getting out the waste, and you will find the girl will come
out all right in nine cases out of ten.

It is a fact, proved by physical examination, that all during this period
the better scholars have the larger lung capacity. Those of you who have
taught in the grammar schools year after year will know that a bright girl,
one that has been very bright, will have a year when she will come to you
and will be absolutely stupid and can't learn. "What ails the girl?" you
wonder. She will tell you, "I don't know what ails me; I can't learn
anything. I have become a fool and I was not always one." The trouble is
with the lung capacity; it isn't with the brain; the brain is all right. If
you tell that girl to wake up in order to make up that lack of mental
ability by studying harder, you are doing the unpardonable sin. I am
telling it to you straight. That is not the remedy. The remedy is more play
in the open air, then you will find that that girl's brain will clear up.
Many a poor girl has been put in poor condition by being urged to study
hard, when the fault was that nobody knew enough to turn her out into the
fresh air which the Lord intended she should have.

We ought to have in every school five minutes, it would be better to have
ten minutes, between school exercises, when the girls can walk up and
down, chat with one another and get the blood out of the overloaded head
and down into the cold feet. Better still, turn them out in the open air
and let them run; that would be another blessing. Don't keep the girls
sitting too long at that period. Don't let them sit with wet feet or
skirts. That is just about as bad as getting smallpox. Teach them some of
the sense which you ought to have if you haven't.

I haven't said a word for the boy, for this good reason: you can't kill him
if you try, thank the Lord. You can't kill him if you try, not because he
is so very tough; boys are not as tough as girls, physically; but you can't
kill them; because they won't let you; but I am sorry to say, some few
women teachers are killing off the future women. Again and again I have
heard it said by the girls: "We can get along all right with Mr. So and So;
we can get on the blind side of him all the time; we can fool him, but when
we try to get around Miss So and So she puts it to us awfully, and in the
neatest way, to get the work done." Now, why the women can't have a little
mercy on the younger people is something I cannot understand at all.

And yet, while I haven't said a word for the boy, ought we not to regard
him a little? Now and then there is the ambitious boy, and then again there
is your studious boy; there is your bookish boy; there is your shy boy who
does not get into the games. He is the boy you should watch all the time.
There is the boy who has become delicate and finicky, because he has been
doddled at home. I hope you haven't got so many of them here as we have in
the East, but he is here and you must watch him, because his parents are
doing everything in the world to spoil him. You must stand on the Lord's
side of him if you can, for these boys need your help. If you give a little
excess of mercy, a little bit more physical vigor gained by this regime of
open-air exercise and exercise between the school periods, you simply will
be erring on the safe side and doing good to that girl and such boys,
because on these years of metamorphosis depend the life and the happiness
of the girl and the boy.

Perhaps you are getting ready for examinations. I want to tell you Nature
has her examinations just as well as you do. Does not she examine the baby
and see that baby can't go on, and many babies do not go on. Then the death
rate sinks; at eleven and twelve it is very low, very low, indeed, only
perhaps two or three in a thousand, in many countries. Nature is giving
them a chance to see whether they will get ready for the second
examination. Right after or during puberty the death rate rises. At
eighteen, nineteen and twenty, it has gone up. That is Nature's second
examination, to see whether that boy or girl is fit to send out into the
world to take part in the great drama of life, and if she is conditioned at
this time, then it means invalidism for two, three, four, five years, and
if she is badly conditioned, it may mean death. When you are preparing
those girls for the examination, do not forget your own examination,
because it is coming on very fast.

I have talked very plainly this morning and I hope you will forgive me. You
may say, "We don't need that talk now." I hope you don't. You will need it
in a generation or two; I don't care how strong that pioneer blood was
which has come down to your first generation here, we had just as good in
Massachusetts a hundred or a hundred and fifty years ago, but we are
getting rid of it just as fast as we can, the Lord forgive us; and you will
do that here if you don't look out. If you have strong, red blood, hold on
to it; because that is the grandest gift of God to man; it is a treasure
which must be handed down unimpaired from generation to generation, that
our boys and girls may be strong and efficient for the work of life which
lies before them.



LESSON II


(General Subject: "Conservation of the Child," read carefully the foregoing
lecture by Dr. Tyler.)

_The Body as an Instrument of the Soul_

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What are the teachings of the Latter-day Saints regarding the relation
of the body to the soul?

2. In the light of these teachings, what is demanded of every Latter-day
Saint as to the treatment of his body? How are we living up to these
teachings?

3. What are the four essential things we must do to keep the body engine
described by Dr. Tyler, in perfect condition?

4. What would you think of an engineer who fed his engine dirt with his
coal, or let his draughts and flues clog with soot, or failed to remove the
clinkers, or let his engine get dusty and rusty? In what similar ways are
people neglecting their bodies?

5. Discuss this as a health maxim: Clean food, clean air, clean water,
clean thoughts, and clean consciences.

6. What was the Savior's constant command to the sick?

7. Give one practical suggestion as to training children to take proper
care of their God-given bodies--of keeping them clean, both inside and out.



LESSON III


_The Foundation of Health_

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

_Reference_: The foregoing lecture by Dr. Tyler.

1. Discuss Dr. Tyler's remark: "The stomach is the foundation of all
greatness."

2. Name three home habits which, in your opinion, are doing most to ruin
the stomachs, especially of children?

3. Discuss the "piecing habit," the "sweetmeat craze," irregularity of
meals, and the "hurrying habit," as applied to disorders of the stomach.

4. Someone said recently that people are paying more to-day to cure their
stomachs from ills brought on by bad habits in eating than they are to
build churches, schools and all other public improvements put together.
Discuss the assertion.

5. How can parents save money now being wasted on stomach troubles, and at
the same time lay the foundation for good health in their children and
themselves? Give at least one way.



LESSON IV


"_Nerve Leaks_"

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

_Reference_: The foregoing lecture by Dr. Tyler.

1. What are two good evidences of a perfectly healthy nervous system?

2. Physicians tell us that nerve diseases are increasing at an alarming
rate in our country. What is the greatest cause for this increase?

3. What home habits have you noticed that lead to nervousness? Discuss here
the effects of scolding, hurrying, talking, noise, lack of system, as
"nerve leaks."

4. What practical suggestion would you offer to parents to help them to
bring control, calm and harmony into their daily lives--to make their homes
more places of rest and peace?

5. What ways can we take to conserve and strengthen the nerves of our
children? Through what habits of life are we helping to wreck their nerves?



LESSON V


_Child Growth_

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. Discuss the varying stages of child growth, their rapidity, the critical
periods, etc.

2. Growth means waste. By what means does the body get rid of the waste
that comes with growth and change?

3. What are some of the ill effects of keeping this waste in the system?
Give your experiences and observations with children.

4. When is the child's blood likely to be most loaded with the waste caused
by growth? How can we best help the boy or girl to clear the system of this
waste? What mistakes are we making in this vital matter?

5. What practical suggestions would you give to our parents, teachers, and
communities to help them safeguard their children during dangerous periods,
and keep their pioneer blood clean and pure?



THE ADOLESCENT BOY AND GIRL


GROWTH DURING THE HIGH SCHOOL AGE

_Dr. John M. Tyler_

The boy and the girl during adolescence have now attained their full height
and practically their full weight, although the boy has a little to gain
still; they are pretty well grown by this time. If I had to choose between
two questions, the first might be, "Have you a good appetite?" but the
second question I would ask is, "What is your lung capacity?" The lungs
have increased very rapidly at fourteen to sixteen in the boy; in the girl
the increase has been smaller and quite irregular. It ought to be more
regular than it is, I am convinced. The heart has gained greatly in
capacity. The arteries have expanded much less than the heart, and the
result is that there is a much higher blood pressure than there has been at
any time before. The brain has attained practically full size and weight.
The addition now will be mainly in the very highest area, where the
addition of fibres might make all the difference between the possibility of
genius and the possibility of mediocrity. The sensory and the nervous areas
are fully matured. The higher mental area and the higher mental power are
now coming on to stay.

The boy, you will notice, at this stage begins to argue a great deal more
than he ever did before. He wants to argue nearly every question. He likes
the debating society. His idea of heaven, it seems to me, is a place where
debating is indulged in. A goodly amount of exercise for those
psychological and mental powers will do him no harm.

The mortality, or the death rate, is low, but the morbidity is increasing
at this time, in the boy at least. Vigorous physical exercise is now
needed. Ordinary play is not enough. Gymnastics also for the development
and training of the hand and the wrist, training in quickness and precision
of movement are all excellent exercise, all the finer muscles should be
trained now, and probably less training should be given to the heavy
fundamental muscles which are all important in childhood.

Athletics are exceedingly useful. They should be, however, for all, and not
merely for a few who join the teams, who need them the very least of all. I
think our modern college athletics will some day be looked upon as one of
the most ridiculous habits of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. That
twenty-two men should engage in mortal combat, with anywhere from one to
twenty thousand on the side lines,--if you can get anything more ridiculous
than that, I should like to know where you can find it. Athletics should
not be too severe, however, yet, the boy ought not to have century runs and
long halves of football, especially if the heart is still weak. The tissues
of the body have not yet gained the toughness that they will gain at a
later time. Every commander in the field dreads to have boys of eighteen,
nineteen, or twenty sent to him, because, as Napoleon said of his young
recruits, "they die off like flies." The hard bed, with light covering, the
cold room, the cold bath will now aid in toughening the boy, provided he is
healthy; but under no circumstances begin that until the pubertal period is
fully by.

The danger of over-pressure in the high school, especially after the first
year, is to my mind not very great. The boy and the girl now both stand a
good deal of work; but the greatest danger for the boy and the girl in the
high school is that they will take too much social enjoyment. An evening
theatre party, followed by a supper, a late dance, will take more strength
out of a boy and girl than three days of study. There is nothing that is
so wearing. If you can keep down the social over-pressure, I do not
believe the over-pressure from study will do any great harm in high
schools.

The larger bodies, the large heart and lungs, well oxygenated blood, and
fresh vitality of every artery and tissue, gives a buoyance, a strength
and a courage, a source of power and sense of it too, a longing for
complete freedom, a revolt against all control, which the boy will never
feel later; if he does not feel it now. I am describing, perhaps, rather
the college boy than the high school boy; but bear this in mind, that I am
describing what your boys in the high school will be a year or two later if
they are not that now, and it is for this stage you must prepare them,
even, if they have not already entered upon it.

A new, wide world, just as fresh as on the morning of creation, a new fire,
a life of boundless opportunity, which is endless in scope and time, are
opening out before the boy and the girl. They see the parents and the
teachers drag around, understanding, as they think, neither them nor life
itself; and they are right to a certain extent. There is no doubt about
that; we do not hold on to the vision of glory of this world and of this
life which we had in youth as we ought to and as it is our duty to do. The
boy and the girl criticize us fairly, when they think that we don't
appreciate this magnificent world in which we live.

When a man gets to be my age, while I suppose he probably has more
humility, he comes to know and he comes to have a very cheerful, optimistic
view of the world. He has made up his mind that the Lord does not intend
to change the world a great deal anyhow, and, on the whole, he is very much
content to leave it the way it is. That is not so with young people at all.
The boy and the girl must learn and know all about it. That is one thing
they are determined to do at the outset. The boy girds up his loins and he
goes whither he will. He must taste of every experience for himself. He
will meet joy and sorrow with the same frolicking, welcoming spirit. He has
never been saddened by experience nor disillusioned by disappointment and
failure. He will try all the knowledge of good and evil if it costs him
Paradise.

Nature is loosening every leading string now and is getting him free to
complete his own individual development and to forge his own character. We
cannot stop him if we would. It is very lucky that we cannot. It is better
that we should not stop him even if we could; nevertheless, he has very
little self-knowledge and still less self-control. Impulses well up from
changes going on within him or from stimuli which come to him from without.
He does not understand them. He does not know where they come from. He does
not know what they mean. He is ill-prepared to face them, and now he goes
one way and now the other. He has just about as clear a conception of the
value of time as a child has. He has not outgrown childhood in that
respect. He cannot possibly play a waiting game. That is the last thing
that he can do. If the sun shines to-day it is always going to be bright
weather. If the maiden of his adoration frowns to-day, the sun will never
shine again. He is either on the Delectable Mountain or in the Valley of
Humiliation, and he is far more frequently in the latter than we think. He
is rarely between the two, and he is not going to tell us when he is in the
Valley of Humiliation, nor when he is on the top of the Delectable
Mountain.

There is a reticence about him at this time which we should learn to
respect and to reverence. I told you at the first meeting that Nature put
the shell around the egg so we would keep our fingers out of it, and Nature
puts that shell of reticence around the boy and the girl at that time so we
will keep our blundering fingers out and leave them to solve their problems
with their help and that of the good Lord who is watching over them.

Authority has little hold over him at this time, traditions none at all.
The influence of early training which have rooted themselves in his very
life are very powerful and they will hold him, and the Lord have mercy on
the boy whose early traditions do not hold him at that time. Remember it
is not his fault; that is a sad thought for us parents. We must take the
responsibility for these defects in the early training of our children.

The boy is led by class and group feeling at this time. You take him at
eight or ten and he is an admirable little fellow in many respects. He
wants to play fair, and if the other fellow does not play fair he will
smite him, just as Samson smote the Philistines, if he can, and that is the
occasion of much friction. After a time there is danger that he will not
play as fair as he did when he was younger, for a time at least, because he
is swallowed up in the team, or the society, or the group, or the gang,
whatever it may be, to which he belongs, and he will give himself body and
soul to help that team to win. This has its bad side, a very bad side, I
grant you. If you would understand the boy, every now and then you must
study the psychology of the mob. But there is a very good side also,
because he is generous to a fault. Now is the time in his life when he will
go down with the team, and in order for the team to win he will make a play
when you and I would hesitate to make it. We had better respect the boy. He
is loyal to his leader and to his friends. It is the epoch of the heart,
and out of the heart, remember, are the issues of life. He has a great deal
more heart than he has head knowledge at this time, and I confess I rather
like him for it.

You remember what Paul says to those knowledge-worshiping Corinthians as to
knowledge: "It will vanish away; for we know in part." Those of us who have
lived more than half a century have seen nine-tenths of our knowledge
vanish away in just that fashion because we knew in part. But, says Paul,
there are some things that abide, and one of them is faith. That is never
done away with; another is hope, and the third and sure abiding thing is
love, which is three-thirds in the heart, and out of the heart are the
issues of life; the heart is often wiser than the head. Do not under-value
and never despise the value of the greatness of heart in the boy; for Great
Heart is the only champion who ever killed Giant Despair.

The boy at this age is seeking for a king. He is very likely to be like old
St. Christopher, he will serve the strongest if he can find him. Tides of
religious feeling are sweeping in on him now; but if you want to convert
him you must hold up before him no mediaeval example, but the great,
magnificent, athletic life of that Divine Master who has been so often
misrepresented to us.

He is a very lovable being, that boy is, at times. Oh, you are reverencing
him to-day; well, then bear in mind that probably about the same time
tomorrow morning you will be gripping for the scruff of his neck, and when
you grip him, grip him hard, it is no time for half-way measures. Never hit
a boy at that age with a switch. If you do you are lost. Either don't hit
at all or hit hard.

A great deal of the child still remains in him, his instability, for
instance. He might well say of himself, "my name is legion." In the
remainder of his young life everything that is trifling and worthless all
comes to the surface, just as it does in the fermenting liquor, the strong
and sweet are all hidden below the froth. You cannot see it. You can very
easily do him injustice. You must sympathize with him. Remember your own
foolish youth when you were his age; remember your own blunders and then
you will have a great patience with him and great admiration for him,
because these blunders are not a great deal worse than they are. If you
can't do this, then leave him to Nature, for you cannot help him.

We found, during the years of puberty, a physical metamorphosis, when the
body was all made over, and now, during those years of adolescence we have
a mental metamorphosis that is just as complete as the physical
metamorphosis. All things are becoming new. They have not become new yet,
but they are becoming new; hence it must be a time of instability, of
self-education, of the strange mixture of the very new and the very old,
the bad and the good, of that which is passing away and which has passed
away long ago, and that which has not yet come. Look a little deeper into
him; you will find he has a pretty good primitive system of morality; it is
a very primitive one, consisting mainly of loyalty to his friends. Treat
him "square," as he says, and fairly, and then you may purr and curb him
just as you will.

Remember that tides of religious power and influence have been sweeping
through him. The first one came probably at twelve, if we may trust our
statistics; the second stronger, at fourteen, and then the third--perhaps a
good many don't feel the first one or second--the third perhaps at sixteen.
The one which comes over him at sixteen will affect heart and intellect and
will, and everything, and he will stay converted probably. If you convert
him at twelve, he probably will fall from grace before he is fifteen. It is
rather interesting to notice that those periods when his experiences are
likely to be very deep and very strong, are the years when his chest girth
is expanding the most rapidly. A very good bit of physiology or psychology
or of anything else you choose to call it, to learn is this:

If you want to convert a man to religion, get plenty of good, fresh air
into his body; you never can do it in an ill-ventilated room.

It is a period of seeing visions and of dreaming dreams; you know that, if
you remember your boyhood and girlhood. Those dreams and visions are the
most substantial things there are in his life or in yours or mine; for
"where there is no vision the people perish." Wendell Phillips used to say
that "the power which overthrew slavery and hurled it to the ground was
young men and young women dreaming dreams by patriots' graves." There is a
good deal more than rhetoric in that statement. Endless possibilities are
in these dreams and visions. It is a period of promise, of magnificent
promise, which you and I as teachers are privileged to see afar off before
they are even glimpsed by his parents and many of his friends.

The great question now is, Will the promise and the vision ever be
realized, or will they fade out and disappear and leave him a Philistine?
And lucky if he is not a brute, for the only brute in this world, my
friends, is a degenerate man. When you hear a man say that he has cut his
eye-teeth, and he has got rid of his dreams and his visions, then may the
Lord have mercy on the soul of that man, because he is dead. The
all-important question now is, Can you get that dream and that vision so
burned into his memory, so blazing before his eyes, that he will never
forget it and never lose sight of it, and win it if it costs him his life?
Then you have educated him.

These visions are far more important than all of the science, even the
biology, that a man can learn in college. It is the business of the parent
and teacher at this time to bring to birth and to sturdy growth high aims,
purposes, ideals, the whole spiritual life. Your business in early
childhood is with the physical, because that is the important thing at that
time, if you can build a very healthy little animal, you have done well;
but during the high school age you must build the spiritual. If you don't
feel this, I cannot explain it to you; and if you don't feel this within
you, if it is all meaningless and mere noise, don't you dare teach a high
school, for you are not big enough nor deep enough to do that.

The great question, after all, is not how much learning have you been able
to put into him, but how much of the finer ambitions, how much power, how
deeply and strongly they hunger for the very best. An ounce of inspiration
at this time is worth more than a pound or a ton of learning; I am no foe
of learning, either. The high school is and will remain the people's
college. It is the only college that a great part of the people ever will
know. Do not neglect that great fraction who are never going to get
anything higher and beyond in order to put your time on those who are going
on to colleges and universities. You must be the people's support, and you
may well thank fortune that it doesn't seem to be nine-tenths of your
business out here in the West to fit boys and girls for a college
examination. If that ever threatens to become your business, then you
withstand it and face it to the death, for there is nothing will ruin
education faster than that; I know sorrowfully whereof I speak.

You remember in "Pilgrim's Progress" that when Christian had left the
Interpreter's House, he strayed away and went down into the Valley of
Humiliation, where he walked between the snares and was in danger of
falling into many a pitfall; there he wandered through darkness; there he
could not see the Delectable Mountains any more, and there he fought with
Giant Apollyon for his life; but when Christian passed that way he did not
find it half so bad by any means. He had a companion by the name of Great
Heart, remember, and Great Heart said to him, "Do you know that the soil of
this valley is probably the most fertile that the crow flies over?"

The Valley of Humiliation, my friends, stretches sharp and clear athwart
the life of every man and woman between the Interpreter's House of his
early education and of his dreams and visions, and the Delectable
Mountains, and we all have to depart to it whether we will or no, and it is
the most fertile soil that the crow flies over, for in that Valley of
Humiliation men's muscles and nerves become steel, and man becomes the
shadow of the great rock in the Weary Land, and through heartaches the man
and the woman are made the soldiers and the choice heroes of Jehovah
Himself. It is into that Valley of Humiliation that the boy and the girl
are going to go from school after they leave you, and you must fit them for
it; many of you know well enough what it is and know what help they need.

You have read, all of you, a good many times probably, this marvelous
passage from Isaiah: "They that trust in the Lord shall renew their
strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not
be weary; and they shall walk, and not faint." I never thought what that
meant until one morning in college chapel our president turned to us and
said: "Most of you think that is an anti-climax," and we would say: "Why,
of course, for a man cannot fly like the eagle. He can walk down hill, what
is the use talking about that walking down hill." The old man shook his
head and said: "No, no. Anybody can fly like an eagle in his imagination;
when we are beginning any new work or any new study or anything new, we
fly; but after a time we cannot fly any more, we come down to a run; and
the man who wins out is not the man who can run, but the man who can 'walk
and not faint,' for that man has the endurance that we want."

There was a time some years ago--that has gone by too, thank fortune--when
we used to paraphrase things; that is, turn very good English into very bad
English. You wish to have a boy or girl catch the spirit of the poem, do
you not, to find in it inspiration and power, to find a beauty in life that
never was on sea nor land? A sweet voice is a very excellent thing in a
woman, and a very unusual thing in a man. The eye is not the grandest sense
organ we have; the ear is the path-way to the heart, and that is what you
want to understand. Did you ever try reading a beautiful poem or story
aloud to your children at your fireside or to the class and put your very
life's blood into it? I remember some things that a little girl teacher in
Massachusetts read to me a great many years ago, and there is a dent in my
old heart still. Try it some day. They cannot understand the poem, but they
feel it. It has gone deeper than the intellect. It has gone into the heart
and through the heart, it has got hold of the will and it has transfigured
the spirit and the whole being. In this way you are certainly teaching
literature; nobody can deny that. You have awakened a new interest. You
lead and inspire the adolescent to share your very best and highest
enthusiasm. After you have done that a few times your pupils will demand
the best; they won't be content with anything poor.

The highest human thing in the end is character, and character is formed
very early, very shortly before the boy leaves the high school. Just how it
is formed I do not know, but I know one thing, that while I cannot tell
anything about how successful a man will be intellectually in life from
what he does in college, or, sometimes, I cannot tell very much about how
large he will grow mentally, I know that boy will not rise very much higher
morally than he stands in college when you send him there. If, then, he has
secured a moral training and influence, I firmly believe he will stay so.
If he does not come to us in that shape the probability is that he never
will change for the good, but if he is filthy he will remain filthy still.
His character is made very largely in the high school.

How can you reach it? I think you can reach it a good deal through
literature. I do not see how anybody can read Mr. Hawthorne or Mr. Emerson,
and not long to be a gentleman, and feel as if he would like to be worthy
to kiss the hem of the garment of those literary gentlemen. You can read
history. You can make history a dreary chronicle. You can learn of kings
who never ought to have been born, and when they died, when they ought to
have been dead fifty years before, and all the long list of battles fought
which never ought to have been fought. You can make it just such a weary
chronicle. You do not, nowadays, thank fortune; I have seen teachers that
did. Or you can make that history the Eleventh Chapter of Hebrews, and you
can write your own Eleventh Chapter of Hebrews, if you will, for that
chapter never was intended to be finished; and if you cannot add to it with
your pioneer history of those who fought their way across the plains here
fifty or more years ago, then you are teaching history to mighty little
effect to this generation here in Utah. The whole story is just this, if
you can saturate your pupils with the character of just such men and women
as that, then you have trained a generation of heroes and nobody can spoil
them.

That is what, it seems to me, Mr. Martineau means in that dark passage, "We
shall never have a proper system of education until we have a proper
religion." We are a good deal lacking in the study of the Bible nowadays.
We go to it to prove the text, to "break the scales" of our adversaries,
and for other purposes. I do not use it for that purpose myself. If you
will read that old book until you can walk the street arm in arm with
Gideon and David and Jepthah and old Samson, too, yes, heaven bless him,
and Moses and Samuel, the prophets, then we are reading it to some purpose.
Until you know them all as your best friends, you have not begun to read
that book; for that is what it was intended for. The Bible is an advanced
text book of biology, the science of life. If you will train your boys and
girls to walk the streets and live with the heroes of the world, make them
form an intimate friendship with them, then you have trained those boys and
girls to be heroes themselves.

Did you ever try reading to them the defense which old Socrates makes,
which Plato wrote down for us? I do not know whether Socrates ever said it,
but it was worthy of him. Read it to your boys and girls some day. See what
they say about the Apology. And read the Crito. Let them sit with Socrates
in his prison there on the hillside and listen to his discussion, until, as
he says, he hears the voice of the law ringing in his ears and he cannot
hear anything else, and stays on to die. When the prison door is opened for
him to walk out, provided he would walk out with dishonor, he will not go.
Let them see the old hero die in Athens as the sun goes down. You have not
only awakened a new interest, you have evoked a higher life, and that is
what we are after, that is what you and I are here for, that is the only
way in the end to beat the record. That is the essential power of great
leaders, of great prophets, and of great teachers, and the seat of it is in
their personality.

I don't know what I am talking about there either, for personality defies
analysis and it defies resistance. It leaps from soul to soul just like an
infection. We hear a great deal about the infectiousness of bad things and
people are always talking about infectious disease and of corrupting
influences in the world and all that sort of thing. Do you suppose the Lord
has made this world so that everything that is bad is contagious and
everything that is good is not contagious? Are you going to slander the
Lord like that? It is about time that we wake up to the fact that the real
genuine article of goodness is a good deal more contagious than smallpox.

Heroism and hero-worship is the central thought of history from the time of
Gideon to the time of Sheridan, and down to our present time. Virtue, we
must remember, should strike just like electricity from a dynamo. You
remember that was the continual word of that Great Master of ours. Someone
in the crowd has touched me, Virtue has gone over into somebody else.
Virtue has gone out of me; strength has gone out of me and gone over into
somebody else. I am talking about something that I do not understand; but
something that you will know. Have you never, at the close of the day, when
you were tired, discouraged, wondered whether it is worth while to keep up
the fight? When you had been knocked flat and were pretty sure you were
out, and then you sat down for a little time by some strong man or strong
woman, and probably they did not say a great deal to you. They were men and
women of few words, and you did not say a great deal to them, but after a
little it began to come upon you that come what would you would fight
again? Courage had come into you. You do not know where it came from, or
how it came in, but you borrowed it and you go on your way the stronger
because of the infection from that strong man.

We must be healthy and strong and sympathetic. We must be a child with the
child and a boy with the boy, and yet we must lead and not follow. We must
be firm and patient and hopeful and courageous, and we must infect these
boys and girls with the very best that we have in us and something that is
a little better yet, and how are we going to get it? Why, we must be
continually infected from others; that is the only way. I don't care how
big your reservoir is, your irrigation reservoir, if there isn't a stream
going into it, it is going to be empty sometime. Look out for the streams
which come in from the hills and the heights of glory into your lives.

This is the glory of our life and our work. You are making the youth of the
twentieth century, as I said to you, and you are doing something grander;
for every bit of good that you give here in Utah will spread back to us in
Massachusetts and you are moulding the race into conformity with that which
is deepest and most permanent and most eternal in environment, and hence
all the powers of Nature are on your side.

"We are two," said Abbe Bacha to Mahomet, as they were plodding from Mecca
to Medina. "No," answered Mahomet, "We are three. God is with us." We cast
in our efforts with this grand tide of events which is sweeping on toward a
better age and better race, and we cannot fail. Therefore, let us gird up
our loins, be strong and of a very good courage; for, as I have said to you
once before, you shall lead these little people into the land of hope and
promise which the Lord swore unto their ancestors, their fathers, that He
would surely give them.



GENERAL SUBJECT


_The Adolescent, or High School Age_

Read carefully the foregoing lecture on "Growth During the High School
Age," by Dr. Tyler, for all these succeeding lessons.



LESSON VI


ATHLETIC NEEDS OF BOYS AND GIRLS

1. What steps have ever been taken in your community to provide for proper
athletic sports for the young? What success came of these efforts?

2. Give two reasons why wholesome physical recreation is necessary for
growing children.

3. What games and sports do you consider best for boys? For girls? Why?

4. What dangers come from uncontrolled athletics?

5. What do you think about the value of school athletics that develop only
a team?

6. What can be done, (1) by the parents, (2) by communities,

(a) To provide for wholesome games and sports for all the children?

(b) To provide proper leadership and supervision of these things?

(c) To regulate the excesses and check evils of the athletic spirit?

(d) To provide proper places in which to play?



LESSON VII


SOCIAL NEEDS

1. During what years does the desire to be with "the crowd" manifest itself
most strongly in boys and girls?

2. What difficulties come to the parents in the management of boys and
girls during this time?

3. In what ways can parents best exercise control over the companionships
of their children during this vital period?

4. In what ways can the social needs of boys and girls be provided for in
the home?

5. How far can and should parents go in participating in the pastimes of
their children? What can be done to keep up the spirit of companionship
between parents and children?

6. What can communities do to put down the "street corner" habits and the
"hoodlumism" that comes of the boy gangs?

7. What pastimes and practices can be fostered to bring about a
higher-minded companionship among young people?



LESSON VIII


KEEPING OUR BOYS AND GIRLS AT HOME

1. What are the first indications that our home is losing its hold upon our
boy? Our girl?

2. What influences are at work in each instance?

3. Is it because conditions outside the home offer more, or is the home
offering less of that which the boy or girl desires?

4. When you find your boy going to the pool room do you throw his deck of
cards into the fire and advise him as to what will happen if he attempts to
use such things in or about the house?

5. When your girl shows a preference for taking her leisure at Smith's or
Brown's rather than at home, do you at once adopt a code of rules and
proceed to make emphatic statements as to your intention to enforce those
rules and also to impose certain penalties?

6. Did it ever occur to you that "desire" may be diverted, but that it
cannot be destroyed?

7. Is it not best to divert by substitution rather than by prohibition?
Also to substitute in kind as near as may be?

8. What are you doing in your home to satisfy the desire which takes your
boy or girl to the neighbors or the public places?

9. What share are you taking in the interests of the growing boy or girl?

10. Parents, are you companionable? Do you get into the boy or girl's field
of discussion? Do you talk _with them_ rather than _to them_? Do you get
into their games, their troubles, their pleasures, their life?



LESSON IX


1. What certain acts or omissions entitle a boy to be classified as
"wayward?"

2. The first sign of waywardness is the breaking of what commandment, if
any?

3. Under any condition would you let your boy know that you considered him
wayward?

4. Should your regard for, as shown by your treatment of the wayward boy,
differ in the slightest degree from your regard for your treatment of the
circumspect, dutiful, and obliging boy?

5. Does the worst tendency of the boy call for any more from us than mere
direction?

6. Is not the boy's worst offence a bad form of satisfying a good desire?

7. What is your method of dealing with your boy? Is it "Never do that" or
"Better to do this?"

8. Do you ever undertake to show the boy how much more of the thing he is
after he can get out of a method that is all around helpful than one that
is all around harmful.

9. How would it do to substitute jointly planned "Do's" for unqualified
"Don'ts"?

10. In almost every instance can you not justly ascribe the boy's
waywardness to an unnatural companionship on your part or to no
companionship at all?



LESSON X


SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT IN BOYS AND GIRLS

"_Training the Child in the Way He Should Go_"

1. Quote from the Doctrine and Covenants a passage wherein parents are
admonished as to their duty in teaching the Gospel to their children.

2. Give three first steps in religious training in children.

3. What difficulties and successes have you, as parents, met with in
cultivating your little ones? proper habits in prayer, in attendance to
Sunday School and in other religious duties? To what do you ascribe your
success or failure?

4. At what age do boys and girls grow most careless as regards religion?
(Study the statistics of your Sabbath School on this point.)

5. Is it true that our religious training fails most just at the point
where the boy and girl are in greatest need of it? What are the causes of
this failure?

6. What can and must parents do to reinforce the Sunday School and our
other organizations in their efforts to guide the boy and girl safely
during their teens? during the critical periods of life?



LESSON XI


LIFE LESSONS DURING THE WAYWARD AGE

1. Show, by citing examples from history, that youth is a period of strong
religious tendencies. What can be done to keep the "dreams of youth" on
high ideals?

2. What stories? what lessons? to boys and girls at this time? What books
appeal most impressively to boys and girls at this time?

3. Recalling the things that left deepest impress on you for good or ill
during the period of "the teens," what advice would you give as to
cultivating in a child right feelings for religion?

4. Wherein do we as religious teachers most fail to get the boy or girl?

5. In what way should the Bible be taught during this age?

6. What individual work with boys and girls can and should be done by
parents and teachers to guide the children past the dangerous places?



LESSON XII


TEMPTATIONS OF BOYS AND GIRLS

1. What are the commandments children are likely to break first?

2. In what ways are homes often responsible for habits of lying, stealing,
profaning the name of God, and other sins?

3. How are the seeds of impurity often sown by thoughtless parents in the
home? Discuss here the vulgar story, and other evil suggestions.

4. What loose habits in companionship and courtship are being permitted by
parents to lead their children into evil?

5. By what effective means can parents co-operate to check the looseness
and rudeness and sinful practice that blight our homes and communities?



REFERENCE BOOKS FOR PARENTS' CLASSES


The following list of books will be found very helpful in this Study of
Children. The Public Library should provide these books for the parents, or
the class may be able gradually to build up such a library for class use.
These can be bought at the Deseret Sunday School Union, Salt Lake City,
Utah.

1. A Study of Child Nature, Elizabeth Harrison, National Kindergarten
   College, Chicago, Ill. $1.25

2. Religious Education in the Family, H.F. Cope, University of Chicago
   Press. $1.25

3. The Right of the Child to be Well Born, Dawson, Funk & Wagnalls, New
   York. $.75.

4. The Jukes Edwards Family, Winship. $1.20.

5. The Meaning of Infancy, Fiske, Houghton, Mifffin Co., Boston. $.35.

6. Education, Herbert Spencer. $.75

7. Fundamentals of Child Study, Kirkpatrick, Macmillan Co. $1.25.

8. Elementary Psychology, Phillips, Ginn & Co., Chicago. $1.25.

9. The Care of the Child in Health, Oppenheim, Macmillan Co. $1.00

10. The Healthy Baby, Dennett, The Macmillan Co. $1.00.

11. The Care of the Baby, Holt. $.75.

12. The Child and His Religion, Dawson, University of Chicago Press. $.75.

13. Child Nature and Child Nurture, St. John, Pilgrim Press. $.50.

14. The Problem of Boyhood, Johnson, University of Chicago Press. $1.00.

15. The Function of the Family and the Recovery of the Home, American
Baptist Pub. Soc. Each, $.15.

16. The Dawn of Character, Mumford, Longsman, Green & Co. $1.20.

17. Peril and Preservation of the Home, Jacob Riis, Jacobs Co.,
Philadelphia. $1.00.

18. Training of the Girl and Training of the Boy, McKeever, Macmillan.
    Each, $1.50.

19. The Moral Conditions and Development of the Child, Wright, Jennings
    & Graham. $.75.

20. Marriage and Genetics, Reed, Galton Press, Cincinnati, Ohio. $1.00.

21. The Coming Generation, Forbush, D. Appleton & Co., New York. $1.50.

22. Stories and Story Telling, St. John Eaton and Main. $.35.

23. Our Child Today and Tomorrow, Grunenburg, Lippincott. $1.25.

24. Misunderstood Children, Harrison. $1.23.

25. Town and City, Jewett, Ginn & Co. $.50.

26. After Twenty Years, Middleton. $1.25.

27. Training of the Human Plant, Burbank. $.60.

28. Education, Resources of Rural and Village Communities, J.K. Mart $1.00.

29. Being Well Born, Guyer. $1.00.

30. Growth in Education, Dr. John M. Tyler, Houghton, Mifflin Co. $1.50.





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