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Title: The Biology, Physiology and Sociology of Reproduction - Also Sexual Hygiene with Special Reference to the Male
Author: Hall, Winfield Scott, 1861-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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SOCIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION***


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THE BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION

       *       *       *       *       *

Letters from Prominent Educators.


    "I consider the treatment of the subject the most sane and
    practical that I know of, and therefore feel that I can
    conscientiously recommend the book most heartily. There is no
    subject so much hampered by ignorance, misconception and
    prejudice as that with which the book deals. I am sure the
    treatment of the matter will result in a more wholesome and
    healthful conception of the entire subject."--=Dr. Henry F.
    Kallenberg, The Institute and Training School of Young Men's
    Christian Associations.=

    "Chapter four naturally brings everything to a practical focus
    and seems to me admirable. Chapter five, too, impressed me as
    very useful. The topical questions and their answers in the
    appendix was a very happy thought and adds materially to the
    value of the book."--=Dr. G. Stanley Hall, President Clark
    University.=

    "I have gone through the book carefully and I am greatly pleased
    with it. I think it is admirably adapted to the needs and
    temperament of college men, and possibly all men. The topics
    discussed are of prime importance and interest for young men,
    the method of presentation is in all respects commendable, and
    the style is practical and concrete. The book ought to find its
    way into the hands of a great many young men. It should be in
    the hands of fathers and even mothers who have sons in the
    adolescent period."--=Prof. M.V. O'Shea, University of
    Wisconsin.=

    "I have no hesitancy in saying that it is by far the best
    presentation of this very important subject that I have ever
    seen. It answers many important questions for which I have seen
    no answer elsewhere."--=Prof. William R. Manning, Purdue
    University.=

    "I have heard the lecture and read the book and do not hesitate
    to recommend it. It is all that a young man needs to read to
    inform him of his duties and his perils in this matter. The
    ethical ideals are high and the advice sensible and wise."--=Dr.
    Charles R. Henderson, Department of Sociology, University of
    Chicago.=

    "Some day Sexual Hygiene will have a place in the curriculum of
    every college. It is a subject that every college man does
    consider in one way or another, but often ignorantly, or under
    unwise guidance. Dr. Hall's book is so simple and sane as well
    as scientific, that I wish it might be in the hands of every
    college man in the country."--=Dr. George A. Coe, Northwestern
    University.=

    "I consider it admirable in both conception and execution. So
    far as I know, it is unique in its presentation of these
    matters, especially on the hygienic side and shall be pleased to
    recommend it at every opportunity."--=Dr. William T. Belfield,
    Bush Medical College, University of Chicago.=

    "The book seems to me calculated to be very useful, and should
    be in the hands of a large number of college
    undergraduates."--=Dr. Isaac Sharpless, President Haverford
    College.=

    "I have read the book and had other priests read it and all
    concur in my opinion that it is destined to become a powerful
    auxiliary to our young men in their struggle for a purer life.
    The language is not vague, but to the point, and every young man
    will understand it."--=Rev. A.M. Kirsch, University of Notre
    Dame.=

    "I have the strongest praise for the book as a whole--the
    biological foundation, directness, freedom from cant and prudery
    and the practical way in which the author gets to the level of
    his readers."--=Dr. C. Judson Herrick, Denison University,
    Ohio.=

    "I have read Dr. Hall's book with the keenest curiosity and
    interest. Why could not such a book have been in the hands of
    the youth of the past generations? We should have been all the
    better for it. The work seems to me to be simply and plainly
    stated. With such apparent thoroughness and good sense, good
    taste, I am sure the book will commend itself to every
    thoughtful reader."-=-Dr. Chas. M. Stuart, Garrett Biblical
    Institute, Evanston, Illinois.=


    [Illustration: (signed) Yours sincerely
     Winfield S. Hall]

       *       *       *       *       *


THE BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION

Also Sexual Hygiene with Special Reference to the Male.

by

WINFIELD S. HALL, Ph.D. (Leipzig), M.D., (Leipzig),

Professor of Physiology, Northwestern University Medical
School, Chicago; Member of the American Physiological
Society; Chairman of the Section of Pathology and Physiology,
American Medical Association 1904-5; Fellow of
The American Academy of Medicine, President
1905-6; Fellow of American Association for the
Advancement of Science, Etc., Etc.

Twelfth Edition



1911

Wynnewood Publishing Co.
2421 Dearborn St.,
Chicago.

Copyright
1907
by Winfield S. Hall



        To the YOUNG MAN, who is
        devoting years of his life to
        secure the HIGHEST DEGREE OF
        DEVELOPMENT of those powers
        of BODY and MIND that are to
        be HIS INSTRUMENTS in solving
        LIFE'S PROBLEMS, this little
        volume is DEDICATED in the
        spirit of FRATERNITY.

              THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE TO SIXTH EDITION.


The cordial reception given to this little book by the medical
profession, by educators, and especially by the young men of the
country, have by their demands for the book necessitated the
appearance of new editions in such rapid succession that no
far-reaching changes in the text have been possible even if they had
been needed. Happily, no extensive changes have been required.

In the second edition several corrections, typographical and verbal,
were made and additions made to the appendix. To the third edition the
chapter on Development was added. The fourth and fifth editions
received verbal changes here and added paragraphs there.

The sixth edition differs from the fifth in the addition of the
author's portrait as a frontispiece, the addition of an answered
question to the appendix and the listing of certain lecture topics,
with press notices and letters.

The book seems to be meeting a demand for accurate information briefly
and clearly stated.

                                                 THE AUTHOR.

Chicago, November 1, 1908.



FOREWORD.


Several years ago the author was asked by his students to present to
them some of the facts of Sexual Physiology and Hygiene. The plea of
"not a specialist in that line" was not accepted; so after a few weeks
devoted to a careful study of the literature the subject was
presented. It seemed to be acceptable, and other invitations followed
in successive years not only from the author's own institution but
from many others.

In the last few years the subject has been presented at all of the
leading institutions of learning in the middle west--at some of them
several times and always to large audiences.

In response to repeated requests for "a book" the author has finally
prepared this brief volume in which he has endeavored to present a
difficult subject in the true university spirit, frankly calling
things by their right names, always keeping in close accord with the
latest researches.

It is hoped that the chapter on Hygiene will in itself be a
justification for the book.

                                           WINFIELD S. HALL,
December, 1906.                                       Chicago.



CONTENTS.


Chapter I.

REPRODUCTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF BIOLOGY.

1. General Activities of Living Organisms                           11
  A. The Egoistic Activities                                        12
  B. The Phyletic Activities                                        13
      a. Reproduction                                               13
      b. Support and Protection of Offspring                        13
      c. Support and Protection of Weaker Members of Society        15
2. Some General Principles of Biology                               15
  A. Sacrifice and Compensation in Egoistic Activities              15
  B. Sacrifice and Compensation in the Phyletic Activities          16
      a. Lower Organisms                                            16
      b. Higher Organisms                                           19
  C. Summary of Principles                                          24
      a. The propagation of offspring and the protection
         and support of the young and defenseless,
         always involve sacrifice on the
         part of the parents and the stronger members
         of the race                                                24
      b. Sacrifice made consciously for the race is,
         in the natural order of things, compensated                24


Chapter II.

ADOLESCENCE IN THE MALE.

1. Physical Changes                                                 28
  A. General Changes in the Body                                    28
      a. Pilosity                                                   28
      b. The Voice                                                  29
      c. Bone, Muscle and Gland                                     30
  B. The Genital System                                             32
      a. Structural Changes                                         32
      b. Functional Changes                                         32
2. Psychical Changes                                                33
  A. Play and Work                                                  33
      a. Sports                                                     33
      b. Productive Employment                                      34
  B. Society                                                        35
  C. Religion                                                       36


Chapter III.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE GENITAL ORGANS.

1. Anatomy                                                          39
      a. The Penis                                                  39
      b. The Testes                                                 41
      c. The Spermatozoon                                           44
      d. The Epididymis                                             44
      e. The Seminal Vesicles                                       45
      f. The Prostate Gland                                         45
2. Physiology                                                       46
      a. Urethra                                                    46
      b. Cowper's Glands                                            46
      c. The Prostate Gland                                         48
      d. The Seminal Vesicles                                       48
      e. Testes                                                     55
3. Virility                                                         60


Chapter IV.

SEXUAL HYGIENE OF THE ADOLESCENT MALE.

1. Illicit Intercourse with Women                                   74
      a. Chancroid or Soft Chancre                                  78
      b. Gonorrhea                                                  79
      c. Syphilis                                                   80
2. Masturbation                                                     84
3. Continence                                                       90


Chapter V.

HYGIENE.

1. Diet                                                             95
      a. Choice of Food                                             95
      b. Stimulants and Narcotics                                   97
      c. The Dietetic Control of the Bowels                        104
      d. The Dietetic Control of Sleep                             110
      e. The Dietetic Control of the Kidneys and Skin              111
      f. The Dietetic Method of Curing a Cold                      111
2. Baths                                                           112
      a. The Bath for Cleanliness                                  112
      b. The Tonic Bath                                            114
3. Exercise                                                        115
4. The Hygienic Requirements of Sleep                              118
5. The Control of the Thoughts                                     120


Chapter VI.

DEVELOPMENT.

1. The Child                                                       125
2. Maternity                                                       128
3. Paternity                                                       130

APPENDIX.

Answers to questions                                           135-149



CHAPTER I.

REPRODUCTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF BIOLOGY.



REPRODUCTION FROM THE STANDPOINT OF BIOLOGY.


I. GENERAL ACTIVITIES OF LIVING ORGANISMS.

The casual observer, even if he watches thoughtfully the various
activities of plants and animals, would hardly believe these
activities capable of classification into two general classes. He
notes the germination of the plant seed and its early growth, step by
step approaching a stage of maturity; it blossoms, produces seed, and
if it is an annual plant, withers and dies. If it is a perennial plant
its leaves only, wither and die at the approach of winter, the plant
passing into a resting stage from which it awakes the following spring
to repeat again its annual cycle.

If he observes an animal he finds that it similarly develops to a
stage of maturity, reproduces its kind, withers and dies; but incident
to these general activities he notes numerous others that seem to have
no relation to the activity of the plant. He sees men tilling the
fields, felling the forests, building houses, factories and railroads;
he sees them build hospitals, colleges and churches. Is it possible to
group all of these activities of plants and animals into two general
groups? A more critical view of these activities makes it evident that
they are all directed either to the maintenance and protection of the
individual, or the maintenance and protection of the race. Those
directed towards the maintenance of self are called egoistic
activities, while those directed to the maintenance of the race are
called _phyletic activities_.


The Egoistic Activities.

The term egoistic implies that the effort is directed towards the ego
or self, and includes all of those activities directed to the support,
protection, defense and development of oneself. As illustrated in the
plant organism, the taking of nourishment from the air and soil, the
development of the stem, branches, roots and leaves, are egoistic
activities. In the animal--we may take, for example, man--the egoistic
activities begin with the drawing of nourishment from the mother's
breast and include all those activities of early childhood usually
called play, the real significance of which is to develop the
neuro-muscular system and the special senses, to that condition of
alertness and strength that will make the growing individual
self-supporting. A very large part of the activities of the
self-supporting human subject are directed towards the earning of his
daily bread, and of clothing and shelter. The activities of the school
and college period, devoted, as they are, almost exclusively to the
development of the youth's powers, intellectual or physical, are also
egoistic. Even the pursuit of pleasure and of sense gratification on
the part of the individual belongs to this same group of activities.


The Phyletic Activities.

As the etymology of the term suggests, these activities are devoted to
the propagation, maintenance and protection of the race.

a. =Reproduction.=--The most fundamental one of the activities for the
maintenance of the race is reproduction. Every living organism,
whether plant or animal, possesses the power to reproduce its kind.
Some plants produce spores and some produce seeds. Reference was made
above to the production of the flower in plants. The flower represents
the reproductive organ of the plant, and the real object of the flower
is to produce the seed. Animals produce eggs from which the young
develop, either through a process of incubation outside of a maternal
body or an analogous process within the maternal body. In the latter
case the young are brought forth as living organisms.

b. =Support and Protection of Offspring.=--Whether we consider the
plant seed, or the animal egg or newborn--in any case the parental
organism must provide for the support and protection of the offspring
during those stages of development when it is unable to support and
protect itself.

The plant deposits in or about the seed a supply of nourishment
sufficient to support it during the germinating process and until it
is able to gain its own support from the soil and air. Furthermore,
the plant protects the seed by means of the various seed envelopes,
against the cold and moisture of winter.

In a similar way the young animal is supplied by its parents with
nourishment. The young bird is incubated within the egg where a supply
of nourishment is provided sufficient to develop the bones, muscles,
nervous system, blood, glands and covering--all developed to a point
that makes the bird able to take from the mother during the early
weeks after its release from the shell, such nourishment as the mother
may provide. In the meantime it must be brooded and protected in the
parental nest until it is able to provide for its own protection.
Similarly the young mammal is developed within the body of the
maternal organism to a point where it is able to perform the primitive
functions of life. For weeks, months or even years, according to the
class of the animal, it must be supported and protected by its
parents. The human young receives milk from its mother's breast and
protection in its mother's arms during its first year, after which it
continues to receive nourishment, clothing and protection under the
parental roof for a period varying from eighteen to twenty years, or
even longer.

c. =Support and Protection of Weaker Members of Society.=--Young
animals are supported and protected because they are unable to support
and protect themselves. If they were not thus cared for the race would
become extinct. Now, there are certain individuals, orphans for
example, who have, through some accident, been deprived of their
natural support and protection. If these weaker members of society,
not yet able to support and protect themselves, were not provided for,
they would perish and become thus lost to the race. From the time of
primeval man to the present, these weaker individuals of society who
have been deprived of their natural protectors, have been cared for by
the stronger members of society and afforded such support and
protection as they may need to make them independent. In a similar way
the sick and defective members of society are cared for by the strong.
Thus we see that the building and maintenance of orphanages,
hospitals, asylums and "homes," are activities that belong clearly to
the group of phyletic or altruistic activities.


2. SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY.

Sacrifice and Compensation in Egoistic Activities.

The thoughtful student is very likely to ask--Why does man till the
fields? Why does man fell the forest trees? Why does he cultivate
domestic animals? Why does he delve in the earth for minerals? These
are all strenuous activities that require the outlay of time, talent
and strength. We may say that they are sacrifices that he makes and,
apparently, willingly. We have only to study the problem more closely
to see that he tills the fields and cultivates his domestic animals
for food; that he fells the forest trees to make for himself shelter;
that he cultivates certain plants and animals to procure for himself
clothing; that he delves in the earth to bring out mineral products to
use in the various industries that supply various elements of his
livelihood. It becomes manifest then that the egoistic activities of
an organism represent sacrifice followed by compensation. The
individual sacrifices in order that he may reap his reward or receive
his compensation. It may be stated as a general biological truth that,
_nature demands sacrifice or work on the part of all living organisms;
and, under normal conditions, metes out a compensation commensurate
with the sacrifice made_.


Sacrifice and Compensation in the Phyletic Activities.

a. =Lower Organisms.=--As an example of a lower organism we may take
the _amoeba_. If one watches an amoeba under the microscope he may see
it move about the field, creeping along the surface of the glass
plate; throwing out a pseudopodium here; invaginating a mouth or
stomach there; taking in and digesting minute plant organisms;
transporting itself across the field of the microscope through the aid
of improvised locomotory organs. All these activities are egoistic.
The amoeba is putting forth effort to gain its sustenance; it is
sacrificing energy to receive compensation in the form of support. If
we continue to watch this minute organism we will find that sooner or
later it goes into a resting stage which does not last long before we
can observe important internal changes making themselves manifest
first at the nucleus, which slowly divides into two equal portions
that separate, each carrying with it about half of the protoplasm of
the parent organism. As these two young amoebae lie side by side under
the microscope the thoughtful student will inquire--what has become of
the parent organism? Whereas at first there was one mature amoeba, now
we have before us two young amoebae of the next succeeding generation.
The parent organism has sacrificed its substance and its individuality
absolutely and completely for the next generation.

    [Illustration: Plate I Reproduction in the Amoeba.]

It may be said in general that _reproduction always involves a
division of the parent organism_. In the case of the amoeba the
division is into two equal portions. In the case of some of the lower
plants and animals the substance of the parent organism is divided
into many equal minute spores or eggs, each of which develops a new
organism.

b. =Higher Organisms.=--These also suffer a division of their body
protoplasm. However, instead of dividing into two or more equal parts
and merging their individuality immediately into the next generation,
the higher organisms divide off a very small portion of their
protoplasm to make an egg or seed while the parent organism lives on
to produce eggs or seeds on subsequent occasions.

While the parental sacrifice in eggs or spermatozoa is minute and
inconsiderable in the higher animals, the sacrifices subsequent to
this initial division are incalculably greater in higher animals than
in the lower organisms. We can cite no better example than the human
subject. The human ovum, divided off from the maternal organism, is a
minute globule of protoplasm, almost microscopic in size. The
sacrifice of the mother in producing the ovum is inconsiderable, but
the production of the ovum is simply the first step in the sacrifice
which the maternal organism makes.

The fertilized ovum makes a lodgment on the inner surface of the
uterus or womb and begins immediately to absorb its nourishment from
the maternal organism. It soon develops a heart and blood vessels so
related to the blood vessels of the mother that throughout its
intra-uterine existence the mother's blood supplies the growing child
all of the substance that is built up into bone, muscle, brain and
glands, preparing the young child to come into the world a living,
breathing, sentient organism. These draughts upon the vitality of the
maternal organism are so great that they frequently result in a very
sensible depletion of the mother's physical power, particularly
manifest in the depletion of the blood.

During the period when the young child is developing within the body
of the mother, she must make other sacrifices, viz., the withdrawal
from society more closely within the four walls of her home where she
busies herself many days in preparation of the wardrobe for the
expected child. Then there are sacrifices incident to childbirth
represented especially in the pain and travail of parturition. During
the first year of the child's life in normal cases, it draws its
nourishment from its mother's breast. This nourishment in turn is
elaborated by the milk-secreting glands from the mother's blood--still
further depleting her system. During its childhood and youth the
mother prepares the food, clothing and shelter of her child at no
small expense of her own time and strength. For years the mother holds
herself ready to watch by the bedside of her child should he fall
sick, and there is hardly a mother in the land who has not spent many
nights in this vigil by the bed of her sick child.

We might turn now briefly to the consideration of the sacrifices that
the father makes.

As is the case with mother so with the father, the initial sacrifice
in the division of a portion of his body is too small to be
considered, but in his case as in the case of the mother, the
sacrifice for the coming progeny is only initiated with the act of
procreation and continues through a period of fifteen, twenty or even
thirty years--sometimes progressively increasing to the last. These
sacrifices take the form, for the most part, of support and
protection, and begin soon after conception on the part of the
mother--as the pregnant woman usually requires much greater solicitude
and care on the part of the husband than she does on other occasions.

The normal father, like the normal mother, holds himself in readiness
to watch by the bedside of the sick child should the occasion arise,
and to make other sacrifices incident to the protection and support of
the child.

It is shown above that sacrifices incident to the egoistic activities
receive their compensation. The question next demanding our attention
is--do the sacrifices which are made incident to our phyletic
activities receive a compensation? The most striking solution of this
question would be a personal solution. Let any young man ask his
parents if they have been compensated for all the sacrifices they
have made for him. If this son is such a one as brings pride and
satisfaction to the parents it is very evident what their unhesitating
answer would be, viz., that they have been compensated many times over
for all the sacrifices they have made. In what does such compensation
consist? It can be expressed most briefly: LOVE OF OFFSPRING. This
principle of _love of offspring_ seems to be a more or less general
one in the whole realm of conscious living nature. That a tree could
possess this no one would suggest; that a sea urchin could possess it
no one would be likely to contend. It is probably possessed by all of
those animals that are conscious of sacrifices; that is, if an animal
is conscious of sacrifice he is capable of being conscious of this
compensation which we term, _love of offspring_. For organisms too low
in the scale of life to be conscious of either sacrifice or love of
offspring, nature seems to have arranged another scale of sacrifices
and compensations--sacrifice taking the form of contention for
possession of females and sacrifice in their support and protection,
the recompense being the gratification incident to sexual intercourse.

That this last factor may enter, to a certain extent, as a determining
factor among the higher animals cannot be questioned. The higher we
get in the scale of animal life the less the part played by _sexual
gratification_ and the greater the part played by _love of offspring_.
In some of the higher animals, especially those in which the family
circle is maintained or the community life highly developed, there is
frequently at work still another consideration that may play no small
part in ameliorating or compensating the sacrifice incident to
reproduction. Reference is here made to the expectation on the part of
the parents that support and protection will be provided for them in
their old age when they are unable to support or protect themselves.
That this plays any great part in determining the procreation in the
first place is not probable; but that it later becomes a matter of
consideration is not to be doubted. However, in so far as these
considerations of personal welfare enter into the compensation of the
parents for the sacrifices that they have made for their offspring, in
just so far do we remove these considerations from the realm of the
phyletic and place them within the realm of the egoistic.

Reverting again to a discussion of the lower organisms--we have yet to
consider the character and extent of the compensation which these
organisms, which are unconscious of sacrifice, receive. The conscious
sacrifice of higher animals receives a conscious compensation;
similarly the unconscious sacrifice of lower organisms receives an
unconscious compensation.

It will be remembered that the amoeba did not die, but that it was
_rejuvenated in its offspring_. In the next and every succeeding
generation there is no death, but a rejuvenation. It thus transpires
that these lowly organisms enjoy immortality; or perhaps it may be
better stated, that the protoplasm of these organisms enjoys
immortality and this immortality is the compensation for the sacrifice
which each successive individual makes unconsciously in the division
of its protoplasm. This principle of biology was first discovered and
formulated by the great German Biologist, Weissmann.


Summary of Principles.

a. The propagation of offspring and the protection and support of the
young and defenseless always involve sacrifice on the part of the
parents and the stronger members of the race.

b. Sacrifice made consciously for the race is, in the natural order of
things, compensated.



CHAPTER II

ADOLESCENCE IN THE MALE



ADOLESCENCE IN THE MALE.


The period of a young man's life from about fifteen to twenty-five
years, when he is growing from boyhood to mature adult life, is called
the period of _adolescence_. The period of adolescence is ushered in
by a series of physical and psychical changes which make a well
defined initial period called _puberty_. The period of puberty is
about two years in length, and in the average case among American
boys, covers the period between the fifteenth and seventeenth years,
and is completed when the youth can produce fertile semen capable of
fertilizing the human ovum. It is now universally recognized, however,
that when the youth reaches this point in his development, while he
may be called a man, he represents manhood in its lowest terms. He has
not reached either a physical or mental development or maturity which
justifies him in undertaking the responsibilities incident to
procreating his kind. It requires in the average case a period of
eight more years to develop the young man to the full stature of adult
manhood, possessing his full physical and mental powers and the
strength required of one who should assume the responsibilities of
parenthood, so that at the age of twenty-five in the average case the
young man may be said to have reached this period of complete
development and to have finished the adolescent period. We may
profitably now consider more in detail some of the changes incident to
this most important period.


1. PHYSICAL CHANGES.

General Changes in the Body.

a. =Pilosity.=--The human being belongs to the vertebrate class,
mammalia, and as a member of that class he possesses over the
cutaneous surface of the body, excepting the palms of the hands and
soles of the feet, hair follicles which produce the hairy covering
typical of mammals. A careful study of the distribution of the hair on
the surface of the human body, comparing it with that of the
anthropoid apes, demonstrates that the distribution is identical; and
the "lay" of the hair in any one region of the human body corresponds
exactly with that of the same region in the ape. For example--the hair
on the forearm points outward and upward; on the upper arm down-ward
and outward and so on throughout in the human and simian types. Every
child comes into the world with a coat of rudimentary hair which is
shed at once. Aside from the growth of hair on the head, including the
brows and the lashes, the skin is quite free from any noticeable
growth of hair for months or even years. Beginning at the age of
puberty, however, the growth of hair is very much accelerated over the
whole pilous surface of the body, particularly upon the face, in the
axilla and over the pubic region. It is a generally recognized law of
biology, that, at the period of sexual development, the hairy
mammalian character becomes accentuated. The increase in the growth of
hair at this time can have only one interpretation, viz., that the
ancestors of man represented a very much higher degree of pilosity
than is the case with man at the present time. It is interesting to
note in this connection the almost universal attempt of men to rid the
face of this hairy growth by various devices, either pulling the beard
or shaving it. The origin of this custom of depilation probably dates
back to the remote past and has been observed as a custom among both
savages and civilized peoples.

b. =The Voice.=--In all animals the voice plays an important part in
sexual and social relations. In many animals the voice seems to have
almost no other function than as a sex call, or a communication
between mates and between parents and young. The human subject
illustrates this general biological principle in the profound changes
which the voice undergoes at the time of puberty. These changes in the
male subject consist in increasing the depth of the larynx, thereby
increasing the length of the vocal cords which in turn modifies the
pitch of the voice, usually about an octave, making it not only lower
but much more pleasing in quality and greatly increased in volume.

c. =Bone, Muscle and Gland.=--Of incalculably greater importance than
the changes described above though perhaps less noticeable to the
casual observer, are those physical changes which the body undergoes
during the first half of the period of adolescence. I refer to the
growth of bone, of muscles and of those internal organs associated
with nutrition.

The first step in these profound physical changes is a rapid growth in
height that makes itself manifest about the fifteenth year. It is not
at all unusual for a boy to grow from four to six inches in a year.
This increase in height is very largely due to a lengthening of the
thigh and leg bones. In serial homology with the thigh and leg are the
bones of the arm and we find that these are undergoing an increase in
length commensurate with the increase of the legs. So the boy outgrows
his clothes; his coat sleeves are drawn up half way to his elbows and
his trousers half way to his knees. The muscles scarcely keep pace
with the bones in their growth, and tend to be flabby and to lack
usual tonicity. It is difficult for the youth to hold his back
straight and his shoulders back; he is awkward and ungainly in his
movements and becomes easily fatigued because of the condition of his
muscles. But the muscles follow immediately in their development and
rapidly gain volume and tonicity, filling out the arms, legs, back and
shoulders with large masses of firm muscular tissue. The growth of
these muscle masses changes the dimensions of the youth and he fills
out in his girths as rapidly as, in the previous period, he increased
in length measurements.

All of this increase in bulk can only be accomplished by increased
activity of all the nutritive processes. The appetite is practically
insatiable; the boy can eat three square meals in the day and lunches
between meals. If he wakes up in the night he is hungry. To accomplish
the digestion and absorption of this food material, the alimentary
tract throughout, and particularly the stomach is greatly increased in
size. To accomplish the distribution of the food (blood) the heart
also is increased in size and strength. With increased bulk of muscle
and increased quantity of food we have increased oxidation in the
tissues. This requires increased respiration, which demand is
satisfied by rapid development of the respiratory system. The thorax
increases in dimensions in all directions; it becomes deeper, broader
and longer. Not only does the thorax become more capacious but also
more mobile and more responsive to the varying requirements of the
system.

If we are interested in the biology of all these changes, we need not
go far to discover the natural causes at work to produce them. Nature
is preparing in the youth a home builder; it is preparing an
individual who can support and protect not only himself, but also a
family. This equipment in the case of primitive man must necessarily
be one of bone and brawn. While under the conditions of modern society
the necessity for bone and brawn is somewhat less marked, the plan of
nature is no less evident and no less interesting.


The Genital System.

a. =Structural Changes.=--The external genitals, besides showing the
pudendal pilosity referred to above, are all greatly increased in
size. The penis is increased in all of its dimensions, the testes
become very much increased in size, the scrotum, probably because of
the increased weight of the testes, is also lengthened.

b. =Functional Changes.=--The testes and associated glandular bodies
gradually develop the power of forming perfect semen, capable of
fertilizing the human ovum. When these organs thus become capable of
procreation, the period of puberty is complete.

In this connection it is important to note that the development of the
testes produces a profound effect upon both the physical and mental
characteristics of the young man. This effect is produced through a
substance formed in the testes and reabsorbed into the body, thus
gaining access to the blood where it exerts its mysterious but
profound influence. Just how this affects the mind and body will be
discussed in detail in a subsequent chapter.


2. PSYCHICAL CHANGES.

Play and Work.

a. =Sports.=--Most of the higher animals, particularly man, and all
races of men, devote a large part of the energies of the adolescent
period to sports or games in which individuals contend with each other
or teams of individuals contend with opposing teams in games that
bring into play the various powers of the neuro-muscular system: such
as alertness of all the senses, readiness and correctness of judgment,
agility, speed and strength of movement. Sports might be criticised by
some because they represent non-productive expenditure of energy. On
the other hand, no energy ever expended by man is so highly productive
of so precious a material as results from manly athletic sports. The
products of these games are the substances consumed by them,
paradoxical as that may at first appear. The use of brain, muscle and
glands and the consumption of the cell substances of these tissues
results in the development of the nerve, muscle and gland cells into
a condition larger, better equipped and more responsive than before
such use.

Thus, athletic sports, while they make draughts upon the nerves,
muscles and glands, develop all of these tissues to a high degree of
efficiency. The plan of nature in this instinctive indulgence in
sports must be evident. Nature is educating and developing the male
animal (man) to the highest possible degree of efficiency, so that
sports, instead of being non-productive, lead to the development of
structures possessing a high degree of value, not only to the
individual, but also to society.

Furthermore, those qualities of mind that are encouraged on the
athletic field between contestants in a game are the qualities that in
the later serious struggles of life make most for success.

b. =Productive Employment.=--Hardly less important than the influence
of sports is that of productive employment for the adolescent. That
the adolescent youth should not be assigned tasks that overtax his
physical or mental powers goes without saying, nor should he be
assigned tasks that consume so much of his time that he is unable to
take an active part with his fellows in field sports. However,
experience demonstrates that the youth undergoes a more wholesome all
around development if he takes some active part in a productive
employment, than if allowed to devote all of his energies to play.
The simple fact that he is held responsible for some duty about the
home or the shop develops in the youth not only a knowledge of how to
do things and a sympathy with the adults who are devoting their
strength largely to similar tasks, but--more important than either of
these considerations--these tasks develop in him the ability to
accomplish promptly and efficiently some piece of work as a duty--to
do it regularly and promptly because it is a duty without any
reference to a personal enjoyment in the task. If this important
lesson in life is learned during the early adolescent period, it will
make the path of life much less rugged than some seem to find it.


Society.

Incident to the activities of the athletic field, the youth is brought
into more or less intimate contact with fellows of his kind, both of
the same and of the opposite sex. While the boy of ten to fifteen
delights in the forming of "cliques, gangs and crowds," the boy of
seventeen delights equally in widening his circle of acquaintances.
The athletic contest gives him an opportunity not only to measure his
powers with those of the other young men, but also to win the respect
of his young lady acquaintances. There is no doubt but that the
approbation of his young lady friends for his prowess and strength as
manifested in sports, serves as a strong factor in the stimulation of
athletic contests and in bringing the sexes together in a purely
social capacity.


Religion.

While in his social relations the young man is seeking points of
tangency with those in his own plane, in his religious experience he
seeks to come into relation with his God; that is, with the power that
exists in the plane above his own. In the researches of Coe and of
Starbuck, made several years ago they discovered the following truth
and demonstrated it as a general principle: _(1) A vast majority of
professing Christians acknowledged their allegiance to God during the
early part of the adolescent period; and (2) a vanishingly small
percentage of professing Christians became so after the age of
twenty-five._



CHAPTER III.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE GENITAL ORGANS.



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE GENITAL ORGANS.


1. ANATOMY.

The external genitals of the human male consist of the penis and
scrotum, the latter containing the testes.

The _penis_ of the young man who has completed the stage of puberty
consists (1) of the two corpora cavernosa, as they are called, or
erectile bodies, called cavernosa because they contain numerous blood
sinuses which when filled cause the organ to erect. (2) Between and
beneath the corpora cavernosa lies the corpus spongiosum which
consists principally of the urethra. Around these three cylindrical
bodies there is a sheath of loose connective tissue, outside of which
is the skin.

About one inch of the distal end of the organ is differentiated into a
sort of head which is called the _glans_ over which, in the young
child, the skin is redoubled and called the _prepuce_ or foreskin. The
glans is covered and the prepuce is lined by mucous membrane. Over the
glans the mucous membrane is red, thin and moist and possesses
numerous nerve papillæ. The prepuce, as stated above, usually covers
the glans penis in young children and may do so throughout life. It is
sometimes adherent to the glans. This is abnormal, and as soon as it
is discovered the adhesions should be broken up by a physician. The
normal prepuce of the adolescent male should be free from the glans
and should be sufficiently loose easily to retract back of the glans,
a position it is likely to take in erection. If the prepuce extends
half an inch or more beyond the glans penis as a little flap of skin,
or if it is constricted at the opening so that it is difficult to
clear the glans or to replace the prepuce when it is once back of the
glans, the condition is not normal, and should have the attention of a
competent surgeon.

One can easily understand the need of a prepuce in the case of
primeval man, who was practically unprotected by clothing, but in the
present condition of civilized races the prepuce is certainly an
unnecessary appendage, and there are several good reasons why the
prepuce should be removed. This operation [circumcision] is not, in
any sense, to be looked upon as a mutilation, but simply a hygienic
measure made advisable, if not necessary, by the unnatural conditions
under which we are now existing.

Beneath the prepuce cheesy secretions from the glands back of the head
of the penis collect, and if the organ is not frequently cleansed
these accumulated secretions may serve as an irritant. Such local
irritation is one of the most prevalent causes of masturbation in
boys.

The removal of the prepuce in young children is an exceedingly simple
operation and not by any means difficult or dangerous in the adult. If
the prepuce is removed the organ will need no especial care, as
contact with the clothing will remove the secretions as they appear.
Furthermore, the glans penis becomes less sensitive and therefore less
subject to local irritation thus simplifying the young man's problems
in sexual hygiene.

The penis in its flaccid state varies considerably in size, due not
only to varying conditions of temperature but also to individual
peculiarities. The organ may vary between 2-1/2 inches and 6 inches in
length in the flaccid state and between 5 inches and 8 inches in the
erected condition. The size of the generative organs is not an index
of virility in the male.

The _testes_ are the male generative glands and are described as about
1-1/2 inches in length, 1-1/4 inches in width and nearly 1 inch in
thickness. The testes are contained within the scrotal sac, the
outside coat of which is a thin wrinkled skin, within which are four
thin coats. Next to the testes and enveloping the spermatic cord is a
thin covering which is carried down into the scrotum when the testicle
leaves the abdomen, where it is formed. This descent of the testes
from the abdomen takes place normally in the later weeks of
intrauterine life. The testes may, however, through some unusual
condition, be retained and make their descent months or even years
later. If the testes have not descended by the end of the age of
puberty, the advice of a competent surgeon should be sought.

         { TESTICULAR                  { SPERMATOZOA
         {  CONTRIBUTION.              { SEMINAL GRANULES
         {                             { MUCIN AND WATER
         {
  SEMEN  { VESICULAR                   { ALBUMIN
         {  CONTRIBUTION.              { ALKALINE SALTS
         { (In quantity greater        { WATER
         {  than all the rest.)
         {
         { PROSTATIC                   { PROTEINS
         {  CONTRIBUTION.              { ALKALINE SALTS
         { (Viscid and opalescent.)    { WATER

    [Illustration: Plate II Male Sexual Apparatus]

The outer coat of the testis is called the tunica albuginea. [See
Plate 2.] This tunic or coat sends fibrous partitions into the testis
which divide the organ into lobules, each one being conical in shape
with the apex directed towards the epididymis, which is that mass of
blood vessels and tissues which one can feel on one side of each
testis. Within these lobules the spermatozoa are formed by a complex
process of cell division and cell germination upon whose description
we need not enter here.

The _spermatozoon_ may be described as the male sexual cell whose
function is to fertilize the female ovum. The spermatozoon is about
1/20 of an inch in length and consists of a head, body and a vibratile
tail. In the human spermatozoon the head is ovoid, appearing
pear-shaped or pointed in one view and elliptical in another.

The _epididymis_ referred to above, consists of a mass of coiled tubes
and blood vessels. After the secretion passes through the tortuous
coils of ciliated tubes of the epididymis, it is collected into a
single tube called the _vas deferens_, which passes as a part of the
spermatic cord from the scrotum, up through the groin and over the
pubic arch into the pelvic cavity, passing down back of the bladder
where it is slightly dilated into an _ampulla_, beyond which the duct
is again contracted into a narrow tube, and the two ducts, one from
either side, converge and pass into the _prostate gland_, where they
empty into the _urethra_.

_The seminal vesicles._--The seminal vesicles are small bladder-like
organs supposed originally to contain the secreted semen collected
from the testes. There are two of these vesicles, from each a small
duct joins the vas deferens making up what is known as the
_ejaculatory duct_. The two ejaculatory ducts coming together in the
prostate gland open into the urethra. _The seminal vesicles possess
glandular walls and secrete the substance which they contain, no part
of the secretion of the testes normally finding its way into the
vesicles._

_The prostate gland, a portion of which is homologous with the female
uterus and called uterus masculinus_, is situated around the neck of
the bladder and is traversed not only by the urethra (prostatic
portion), but also by the ejaculatory ducts. There are numerous gland
ducts which--collecting the secretion of the prostate gland--open into
the urethra in the prostatic portion.

Just beyond the prostate are two small glands called _Cowper's Glands_
whose ducts enter the urethra some distance beyond the prostate, at
the root of the penis.


2. PHYSIOLOGY.

In the treatment of the physiology of the various structures just
described, we may well reverse the order of treatment, thus leading up
step by step to a consideration of the more important organs.

a. =Urethra.= The canal or duct of the penis is called the urethra,
and it is important in considering its physiology to remember that it
has not only a double function to perform, but that the performance of
one function in a measure temporarily unfits it for performance of the
other and makes it necessary for a special measure of preparation.

The urinary excretion from the kidneys collecting in the urinary
bladder is passed out periodically through the urethra. This same
channel must transmit periodically secretions from the sexual
apparatus.

b. =Cowper's Glands= secrete only under sexual excitement, and usually
they secrete only when the sexual excitement reaches a stage which
induces an erection. The secretion is composed of a clear _alkaline
mucus_.

The purpose served in the natural economy by this alkaline mucus is a
very important one and it is essential that every young man should
understand it.

It will be remembered that the male urethra affords passage not only
for the urine, but also for the generative products. The urine is
acid in reaction and the frequent passage of urine along the urethra
leaves that duct acid in reaction under usual conditions. The
spermatozoa are very sensitive to acid and their vitality is seriously
impaired by acid of any kind, particularly the acid of the urine.
Nature has provided that the secretion from Cowper's glands should
precede the generative products along the urethra, thus neutralizing
the acid and insuring for the spermatozoa an alkaline passage from the
body.

Besides this important function of the secretion from Cowper's glands,
the slimy transparent mucus appearing at the glans penis under sexual
excitement serves as a natural lubricant covering the glans of the
male organ. A secretion from the female similarly prepares her organs
for sexual contact so that the delicate mucous membrane, particularly
of the female organs, shall not suffer abrasion.

Many young men have experienced the appearance of the secretion from
Cowper's glands and wholly misunderstanding its nature have feared
that they were losing some vital fluid. This misunderstanding of the
nature of this fluid makes the young man especially subject to the
misrepresentations of the advertising quack and charlatan who allege
that he is losing vital fluid and will, if not treated, undergo
general debility and loss of procreative power. This brief
explanation of the significance of the secretion of Cowper's glands
will protect the young man from any such misrepresentations.

c. =The Prostate Gland.=--That the prostate gland is intimately
associated with reproduction is evident from the fact that in those
male animals that have suffered castration before puberty, the
prostate gland withers and practically disappears. What then is the
role that this gland plays? Like Cowper's glands, it secretes only
during sexual excitement. Under such excitement its ducts become
gorged with a secretion peculiar to it and at the moment of the
emission or the ejaculation of the semen the numerous ducts empty
their contents into the urethra to be mingled with and made a part of
the semen.

The secretion of the prostate is composed of a watery solution of
protein and of alkaline salts and so closely similar to the secretion
of the seminal vesicles that we will consider its action along with
that of the secretion from the vesicles.

d. =The Seminal Vesicles.=--_The seminal vesicles secrete
continuously._ The secretion is composed of an aqueous solution of
albumin and of alkaline salts. This secretion together with the
secretion from the prostate gland is poured into the urethra at the
moment of sexual orgasm; they become mixed in their transit through
the urethra with the secretion from the testes. This mixture is known
as semen. [See pg. 42.]

It used to be supposed that the semen was secreted wholly by the
testes; that the testes were secreting continuously and that the
seminal vesicles were receptacles for the gradually accumulating semen
from the testes. The researches of Steinach and others have made the
old theory untenable and demonstrate that the semen is a mixture from
three distinct sources; that the testicles secrete their contribution
to the semen only during sexual stimulation; while the seminal
vesicles secreting their products continuously become periodically
filled and distended.

Let us inquire regarding the function of this alkaline albuminous
secretion from the vesicles and prostate. For what purpose does Nature
prepare such a secretion? The spermatozoa frequently remain several
days in the organs of the female before the ovum is found and
fertilized. During these several days the spermatozoa are exerting no
small amount of energy in their vigorous flagellate movement. For such
an expenditure of energy they must receive nourishment and
stimulation. The nourishment is supplied by the albumin and proteid of
the vesicular and prostatic secretions. The stimulation is supplied by
the salts also secreted by these glands. The recent researches of Loeb
and others have demonstrated the importance of mineral salts in
stimulating the activity of living cells. One can cite no better
example of this stimulant action than the influence of these
vesicular and prostatic salts upon the activity of the spermatozoa.

The vesicles and prostate may be looked upon as the commissariat of
the army of spermatozoa; the vesicles accumulating a stock of supplies
to be drawn upon at short notice; the prostate representing a factory
where a considerable quantity of supplies can be prepared at short
notice.

This _periodic distention of the seminal vesicles_ is a matter of very
considerable hygienic importance and must be thoroughly understood by
every young man who would lead a normal sexual life.

These organs in common with all other organs of the body are supplied
with two sets of nerves, one set passing away to the spinal cord and
carrying messages which indicate the condition of the organ or the
presence and character of any local stimulus; the other passing away
from the spinal cord to the organ and carrying secretory and motor
impulses. The secretory impulses are more or less continuous and as a
result, these glands secret continuously and become periodically
distended as described above. The motor impulses pass to the muscles
within the walls of the vesicles, causing a strong spasmodic
contraction of these muscles at the moment of emission of semen, thus
throwing the contents of the vesicles into the urethra at the same
moment when the epididymis the vas deferens and the ducts of the
prostate are emptying their secreted contents into the urethra.

Now the sensory nerves passing from the seminal vesicles up to the
erection and emission centers are stimulated by any unusual pressure
within the vesicles. Unusual pressure may be caused either by
distention due to accumulated secretion or by pressure upon the
vesicles from over-distended rectum or bladder. It sometimes happens
that two or more of these influences are acting at the same time.
These impulses are most likely to be effective when the subject is
asleep, and particularly if he is lying upon his back. The result of
the stimulus is to cause an erection, accompanied usually by an erotic
dream, the whole phenomenon culminating in an emission of the contents
of the seminal vesicles and followed, of course, by a relief of the
pressure which was the cause of the condition. This phenomenon has
been variously called _nocturnal emission_, "pollution" and
"dreaming-off."

Vecki, a specialist in physiology, hygiene and pathology of the sexual
apparatus, says that the nocturnal emission is a normal physiological
phenomenon, the object of which is to relieve pressure in the seminal
vesicles, and that in normal cases it occurs in fairly regular
periods, these periods varying in length with different individuals,
according to their physical condition and habits, the period being two
to four weeks, usually; though a considerably longer or shorter
period would not be looked upon as pathological. Vecki describes the
normal nocturnal emission as being accompanied by an erection, erotic
dreams, and an orgasm, the subject being wholly unconscious of the
condition until he is awakened at the moment of orgasm. Normally, the
subject experiences on the following day a feeling of relief and
well-being and should, normally, be wholly free from headache,
depression or languor.

Inquiry among a large number of normal healthy men convinces the
author that it is not at all unusual for these emissions to occur as
infrequently as once in two months in normal healthy men. On the other
hand, it is not unusual for them to occur as frequently as once in ten
days or even once a week and still be within the physiological limit.
However, when the emission occurs as frequently as once per week, it
should be looked upon as abnormal if it is followed by depression,
headache or lassitude. Cases are not unusual in which the nocturnal
emission is experienced as often as three times in a week after which
there will be a period of two to four weeks without an emission,
followed again by very frequent emissions, and a free period. This
phenomenon is an individual peculiarity, and is not to be looked upon
as abnormal.

Cases of too frequent nocturnal emissions accompanied by languor and
headache are usually caused by irritability or lack of tonicity of
the sexual apparatus, particularly of the seminal vesicles and the
ducts. This irritability and loss of tone is not infrequently caused
by masturbation, though it may also be caused by excessive sexual
intercourse, making itself manifest, of course, in either case, on
cessation of the habit of masturbation or the excessive sexual
intercourse.

Another cause of too frequent nocturnal emissions and one wholly
separate from any abuse of the sexual function is irritability and
mechanical irritation of the sexual apparatus--perhaps especially the
membranous and prostatic portion of the urethra--caused by the
presence of an excessive amount of oxalates in the urine. Oxalates
occur in the urine in sharp angular crystals and would seem to be in a
high degree irritating to the tender mucous membrane of the upper part
of the urethra. The almost invariable presence of these crystals in
excess in those cases that have not been accounted for by abuse of the
sexual function leads one to adopt the plausible theory that the
crystals are the cause of the irritability. However, we must not lose
sight of the fact that these crystals may be simply an accompaniment
of the too frequent emissions, and that the presence of oxalates in
the urine may be caused by some disturbance in the nutritive processes
that go on in the body, which disturbance causes not only the
irritability of the sexual apparatus, but also the presence of the
crystals.

When the seminal vesicles are much distended it occurs not
infrequently that the passage of a hard mass of fecal material through
the rectum will, by simple mechanical pressure on the seminal
vesicles, force out a few drops, perhaps as much as a teaspoonful, of
the contents of the vesicles. This would be called an _involuntary
emission_, but the liquid passed out must not be looked upon as semen.
It is simply the secretion of the seminal vesicles, and in losing it,
one is not losing a vital fluid or a fluid, any portion of which would
be reabsorbed; he is simply losing a fluid which would, in the natural
course of events, have passed away within the next few days as a
nocturnal emission.

These details have been explained in order that the young man may
fully understand the physiology of his sexual apparatus and not be
disturbed by the advertisements or the pamphlet literature of
charlatans who make a business of frightening young men into the
belief that in these experiences they are losing "vital fluid"--that
they are victims of "lost manhood," or that they are entering into a
condition of "general debility" and "impotence." As an actual fact,
involuntary loss of vital fluid (spermatorrhea), is a rare case even
in the practice of specialists in genito-urinary diseases, and in
these rare cases, the condition is usually a result of very great
excesses, sexual debauchery or one of the sequelæ of venereal disease.
[Read: Appendix 1, 13 and 17.]

e. =Testes.= No rational idea of the physiology of the testes can be
given without laying down as a fundamental physiological law, that
_the testes secrete under sexual stimulation only_. This same general
principle applies to all glands, i.e., that they secrete only under
the influence of some special stimulation. In harmony with that law,
the testes secrete only under the influence of sexual stimulation.

The sexual stimulation may be sub-divided into two general categories,
i.e., conscious sexual stimulation and subconscious sexual
stimulation.

_Conscious sexual stimulation_ is partly psychical and partly
physical. The physical stimulation is produced by physical proximity
of a member of the opposite sex. The physical and psychical phases of
conscious sexual stimulation are so intimately interwoven that it is
exceedingly difficult to discuss one without constant reference to the
other, and it may be said in this connection that the psychical
attitude of the two individuals of opposite sex who are brought into
close physical proximity will modify very greatly their local sexual
responses.

Reverting to the lower animals: when a female in rut or heat is
brought into proximity to the male, there seems to be on the part of
each animal a consciousness of the character and attitude of the other
animal and both animals are step by step excited by various physical
contacts and probably also psychical conditions to a high state of
sexual excitement, leading to the natural ultimate result, coitus, in
which event the sexual excitement culminates in the orgasm of the
male, which empties the secreted semen into the organs of the female.

It will be easily understood that, in human subjects whose social
relations permit them to indulge in coitus, close physical proximity,
and various caresses lead, step by step in the normal course of nature
to sexual excitement and sexual desire which culminates as described
above for the lower animals.

To revert to the function of the testes, we may say that during these
various stages of sexual stimulation and excitement the testes are
actively secreting thousands upon thousands of nascent spermatozoa,
which being released, are hurried along, partly by their own
flagellate movements and partly by the action of the cilia in the
ducts of the epididymis and the peristaltic contractions of the vas
deferens--hurried along the vas to the ampulla. If the period of
sexual excitement extends over fifteen to thirty minutes, the whole
duct system from the epididymis to the ampulla becomes gorged with the
secreted testicular product. This secretion consists of active motile
spermatozoa, of spermatic granules and of mucus. The latter is
secreted by the ducts of the epididymis and the vas deferens, the
testicle itself furnishing only spermatozoa, spermatic granules and a
small amount of liquid, just sufficient in quantity to float the
spermatozoa out of the testes into the ducts.

At the moment of sexual orgasm occurs what is known as, the emission
of semen. In this act the whole contents of the ampulla, vas deferens
and ducts of the epididymis, the contents of the seminal vesicles, and
the contents of the ducts of the prostate gland are all poured out by
spasmotic muscular contractions into the urethra and by contraction of
the walls of the urethra, ejected from that tube through the mouth of
the urethra. Thus, in the act of emission, there is an intimate mixing
together of the three contributions to the semen, i.e., the
_testicular, vesicular and prostatic_.

_Sub-conscious Sexual Stimulation._--Sub-conscious sexual stimulation
is not accompanied by erection or any mental or physical manifestation
of sexual excitement.

When a sexually mature individual is brought into more or less
intimate relations with a sexually mature individual of the opposite
sex under conditions where the secondary sexual qualities may have
free and unrestricted play, there can be no reasonable doubt that
both individuals experience a sub-conscious sexual stimulation which
will influence them both physically and psychically through
sub-conscious response of their sexual apparatus. One can easily
imagine, for example, that a young man may meet upon the skating rink
in winter a young lady for whom he has a very sincere admiration and
respect; she on the other hand entertains for him a similar admiration
and respect. They may skate together the whole afternoon and converse
upon politics, art or philosophy, the young woman feeling herself
swung along--almost actually carried on her companion's strong arm.
The whole experience is, in the highest degree, pleasurable and
exhilarating to her, yet she may be conscious of absolutely no sexual
stimulation. On the other hand, the young man experiences most exalted
pleasure in the company of his young lady friend--through the pressure
of her hand upon his arm, the lithe, graceful movement of body and
limbs, the smile, the light in the eye and the soft voice. All of
these give him an exquisite pleasure that he will be unable to
analyze, even if he were inclined to do so.

In his case, as in the case of the young woman, there has been
absolutely no conscious sexual stimulation; in the case of neither
individual has there been a thought of sex as such or of their sexual
apparatus, yet without a shadow of doubt, the sexual organs of both
individuals have been more or less active during this period--they
have been subject to sub-conscious sexual stimulation.

In the case of the male, his testes have been awakened into an
activity of probably considerably less degree than in the case of
conscious sexual stimulation, and during this activity of the gland a
certain amount of the secretion has been formed.

The most natural question at this point is--What becomes of this
secretion? It is not likely that any great number of spermatozoa are
released, those that are probably make their way along the vasa
deferentia to the ampullæ. The liquid secretion of the testes probably
does not leave the testes but is reabsorbed. While there are many
features of this mysterious influence of the testes which have never
yet been cleared up, this seems certain, that the testes elaborate
what may be called an internal secretion, and that the elaboration of
this internal secretion is influenced by such stimulation as has just
been described above, under the head of sub-conscious sexual
stimulation.

An _internal secretion_ is a secretion formed by a gland, to be poured
into the blood or lymph system, while an _external secretion_ is
poured out through ducts to the exterior. The thyroid and adrenal
glands form internal secretions only, which secretions, poured into
the blood and lymph, profoundly affect the nutrition of the body. The
salivary glands and gastric glands form external secretions only;
which, when poured upon the food, digest it. The liver, pancreas and
testes form both external and internal secretions. The external
secretion of the testes is that which is poured out in a sexual
emission, as described above; the internal secretion of the testes
consists of substances formed by the testes of sexually mature
individuals, which substances, poured into the blood, profoundly
affect the development of the individual and his whole physical and
psychical character.


VIRILITY.

The best example that can be cited of the effect of this internal
secretion is the male of the horse kind.

Most young men have seen either at horse shows or upon farms or
ranches pedigreed stallions. No person can see one of these splendid
animals without admiring, if not actually standing in awe of his
inimitable physical force, beauty of form and grace and power of
action. He is a physical ideal of the horse kind. What is the source
of his strength and beauty?

The physical features that one notes peculiar to the stallion are,
first, the great breadth and depth of chest, great mass of shoulder
and hip muscles, and the high arched neck, fiery eye and luxuriant
mane and tail. Second, the functional features next noticeable are
the greater alertness and evident physical exuberance as manifested
especially in the gait and the frequent whinnying. The thoughtful
observer at the horse show or on the ranch cannot but compare these
animals with the gelding.

Two colts on the ranch may be full brothers,--from the same pedigreed
stallion and the same pedigreed dam. At the age of two years these two
young horses may be as alike as two peas in a pod. One of these
promising young animals is chosen, because of some commendable
peculiarity of temperament or action, to remain unmutilated, as a
procreator of his kind upon the ranch. The other is subjected to the
veterinarian's knife and ecraseur and deprived of the testes,--the
male sexual glands. From the day of this operation these two animals
(in every respect alike, except that one is unmutilated while the
other is deprived of the glands mentioned above) develop along
radically different lines. The stallion develops during his third year
into the noble animal described above. This third year is his period
of puberty and the changes which he undergoes physically and
psychically are closely parallel to the changes which the human
subject undergoes during his period of puberty. The gelding, on the
other hand, develops into an animal that is in every respect a neuter.
Physically this animal develops a body almost identical with that of
the female of the same species. Temperamentally the gelding is a
patient, plodding, beast of burden, and though under good grooming he
may show considerable life, while under the control of his driver, he
seldom shows any interest in other members of the horse family, either
male or female, and in the pasture or on the ranch his neutral sex
temperament is ever apparent. While he may contend mildly for a place
at the feeding trough, he never essays the defense of any weaker
members of the herd, and one stallion would put a hundred like him to
flight.

The thoughtful observer of this phenomenon cannot help wondering what
has made this radical difference in the development of these two
animals. The solution is not far to seek. From the beginning of
puberty to the beginning of senile decay, the stallion derives from
the testes what is referred to above as an internal secretion.

Physiologists have endeavored to determine exactly what substance
formed by the testes is reabsorbed into the lymph and blood. It may be
a substance called _spermin_, but whatever the substance is, the
physiologists agree that _the testes form some substance which is
absorbed by the blood and lymph, is carried to the brain and spinal
cord and there produces these profound effects indicated above_. So we
have discovered the source of the stallion's strength and beauty.

What is true of the horse is true of man. The young man at puberty
begins to receive from his testes the internal secretion which leads
to the development of his full manly powers. The sum total of the
qualities peculiar to manhood has been called VIRILITY. For want of a
better word, this term has been applied to the sum total of the male
qualities of any animal whatsoever, so that the male qualities of the
stallion are also compassed in the term virility.

The thoughtful and inquiring young man will naturally wish to know at
this point if this lesson from the beast of the field can be applied
in all its details to the human subject; if man, without any
artificial or unnatural means would develop a full and complete
virility; if like the horse, he can maintain a strict continence for
months or even years without suffering any abatement of virility and
of physical powers in general. The unequivocal answer of the medical
profession to these questions would be in the affirmative.

An exact parallel to the gelding referred to above can be found in the
eunuch of the Orient. If the human male is castrated before puberty he
develops into a being as different from a virile man as the gelding is
different from the stallion;--a being whose physique resembles in many
respects that of a woman, and whose temperament manifests qualities of
cringing servility and lack of initiative.

The external secretion of the testes differs from the internal
secretion in containing spermatozoa; it may be that there are other
differences. It is, however, generally believed that one or more of
the substances found in the external secretion appear in the internal
secretion. If this is true, it must be evident that excessive sexual
indulgence or masturbation can draw away from the system this precious
vital substance that is necessary to produce or maintain the virility.

It cannot be assumed that the condition of virility once attained will
necessarily always continue--it must be maintained. To be maintained,
this vital substance produced by the testes must be continuously
absorbed into the blood. When once the man or boy understands this, it
must be evident to him that he has, to a certain extent, the making or
marring of his own virility; that it is not simply an inexhaustible
endowment of nature; but, like such a natural resource as a forest or
a coal mine, may be exhausted and will be exhausted if not husbanded
carefully.

It is a well known fact in the medical profession that the ovaries of
the female exert upon her development an influence analogous to that
which the testes exert on the development of the male. For that
reason, a surgeon should, under no condition, remove both ovaries
(sexual glands) unless they are diseased in such a way as to
necessitate their complete removal in order to save the life of the
individual. If a woman of twenty-five were to suffer the loss of both
ovaries, she would go very early into a condition of senile decay. If
a female before puberty is deprived of both ovaries, it leads her to
develop masculine physical characteristics and her temperament is
wholly lacking in those characteristics which, summed up, might, for
the want of a better term, be called FEMININITY.



CHAPTER IV.

SEXUAL HYGIENE OF THE ADOLESCENT MALE.



SEXUAL HYGIENE OF THE ADOLESCENT MALE.


No rational or acceptable system of sexual hygiene for the human male
can be worked out without constant reference to the lower ranks of the
mammalian class and to primitive social conditions.

In our study of the anatomy and physiology of the sexual apparatus of
the human male, it must have become evident that man has many things
in common with other mammals, and that no adequate knowledge of man's
physical or psychical attributes can be obtained without a study of
similar phases of life among related animals.

All of the changes which Nature introduced into the physical and
psychical development of the adolescent male were of a character to
equip the individual for the maintenance and protection of a wife and
children. This development has been reached by the time the young man
is twenty-one to twenty-three years of age, when, in the average case,
he would be able, so far as concerns his physique and temperament, to
establish and maintain a home. The fact that his adolescent
development is complete by the age of twenty-five, and that he has, by
the time he arrives at that age, grown into the full stature of all
his physical and mental powers, may certainly be interpreted as
nature's indication that his home-building should be begun not later
than the twenty-fifth year. This means, then, that young men ought, if
possible, to marry as young as twenty-five.

But the conditions of society at the present time are such that a
large proportion of the young men, particularly those who are
preparing for any of the learned professions (theology, medicine, law,
pedagogy, etc.) are hardly through their professional courses by the
time they reach that age, and most of them feel that they must make a
start in their profession before they assume the responsibilities of
supporting a home. This means that a large proportion of them marry as
late as thirty years of age.

If we consider now those commercial, financial and industrial
vocations which involve considerable preparation in technical
institutions or a long apprenticeship (engineering, pharmacy,
manufacturing chemists, banking, journalism, etc., etc.) we find that
the young man is hardly able to establish such a home as most such
young men feel that they must maintain on any salary that they receive
before they are twenty-eight to thirty years old. This consideration
applies particularly to college and university men, as, almost without
exception, these men are preparing for some of the above mentioned
professions or vocations.

Now the conditions of college life, the field sports and athletics,
together with the social conditions, tend to develop in college
circles a body of most virile young men. The problem which now
confronts us is: How may these young men live a hygienic life under
these unnatural circumstances?

If a man becomes able to procreate his kind at seventeen but is hardly
able to marry before he is thirty he must solve the problem as to what
his attitude shall be regarding matters of sex. The earlier this
problem is solved the better it is for the young man. Unfortunately, a
large proportion of young men do not realize that they have any
problem in this field to solve until circumstances, more or less
accidental, have already established in them a mental attitude and,
perhaps, a habit of life that may not be either wholesome or wise.

From what has preceded, it must be evident that from the early months
of the period of puberty, through the adolescent and adult period,
even until some progress is made in the senile period, every normal
male will experience sexual desires. It has been shown that these
particular experiences are linked, more or less intimately, with the
condition of the sexual apparatus; but whatever the cause, we are
confronted with the question, What shall be done about it?

When a man experiences a sexual desire does it necessarily follow that
the desire must be satisfied? Some have reasoned that the muscles of
the arm, if not exercised, wither and become weak, therefore the
sexual desires, if not exercised will become weak, and the sexual
apparatus, if it does not exercise its function, must become withered
and atrophied. While this course of reasoning may seem rational and
the conclusion may seem tenable, it is well known to physiologists and
sociologists that the reasoning is fallacious; the fallacy rests in
the premises. It was assumed above that the activity of the sexual
glands was comparable with that of muscles.

We must not lose sight of the fact that the male sexual glands are
continuously active, and in this continuous activity get their
exercise. This activity develops them and keeps them physically
perfect after the onset of the period of puberty. Their activity
consists very largely in the formation of an internal secretion, the
office of which is to develop in the male the highest possible state
of virility. Nor must we lose sight of the fact that every procreative
act is performed at a sacrifice of some of this vital fluid on the
part of the male. A wanton sacrifice of vital fluid either in the act
of self abuse or in excessive venery is not justifiable under any
consideration; nor may these acts, under any circumstances, be looked
upon as sustaining to the gland a relation similar to that which
muscular exercise sustains to muscle tissue.

In the light of these facts every normal man would admit that
frequent masturbation or excessive sexual intercourse, in wedlock or
out, should certainly not be recommended as a method of developing the
sexual apparatus.

Most men, however, raise the question: "Is any indulgence or any
artificial means for satisfying the sexual inclination to be
discouraged?" This inclination comes to us in the course of nature.
Man in the primitive state would seek a mate as soon as he felt this
inclination; would fight for the possession of her as soon as he had
reached a sufficient stage of muscular development, and once in
possession of his mate, would take her to his perch in the trees or to
his cave. In his primitive home he would follow his sexual
inclination, impregnate his wife and protect her against all dangers.

Under our present social conditions the young man experiences all
these desires the same as his primitive ancestor, but he may not be
able to choose a mate and begin with her the building of a home for a
whole decade after he experiences the desire to do so. What is the
solution?

It must be evident that the solution lies in the acceptance of one or
another of three alternatives--either the young man may seek illicit
intercourse with women to satisfy his sexual desire, or he may adopt
some artificial measure, such as masturbation (self abuse) or,
finally, he may lead what is known as a continent life. By continence
we mean to adopt neither one of the first two alternatives mentioned,
but to leave the care of the sexual apparatus wholly with Nature.

We may now consider these three alternatives in turn.


1. ILLICIT INTERCOURSE WITH WOMEN.

By illicit intercourse with women we mean, sexual intercourse out of
wedlock. The term applies either to intercourse between any man and a
prostitute, between an unmarried man and a married woman, between an
unmarried man and an unmarried woman or between a married man and a
married woman not his wife. The term, illicit intercourse, applies to
all sexual intercourse that is illegal.

In our discussion of the young man's problem, we may confine our
consideration particularly to intercourse with professional
prostitutes and with clandestines, or women who are willing to accept
the sexual embrace for their own gratification or for money.

In this phase of sexual gratification, it is assumed that the woman
has these relations with various men. We purposely eliminate from this
discussion the deliberate seduction of pure girls for the purpose of
sexual gratification, as such seduction is a heinous offense against
the victim and against society, for which offense the man is legally
responsible. We are here discussing not the crimes of men, but their
vices.

The question that the young man naturally asks is--"Why should society
hold these relations as a vice when the woman, who is party to the
act, gives her free consent, perhaps even soliciting the relation, and
has given herself up to this sort of a life, either as a sole
occupation (prostitute) or as an auxiliary occupation (clandestine) to
supplement a wage on which she may not be able to live in luxury?"

The answer to this question is not far to seek. Women so occupied
have, as a rule, made themselves incapable of maternity. They are
outcasts from society, unfortunately exerting a most harmful influence
on all those who come into relation with them. Furthermore, they are
centers for the dissemination of venereal diseases which wreck the
health of all those who become infected. But for the uncontrolled
passions of men, there would be no such women. So while we,
individually, as men, may not be responsible for the ruin of any one
woman, we must confess that men as a class are responsible for this
condition of prostitution and clandestine intercourse. An overwhelming
majority of women would, if following their inclinations, seek these
relations in wedlock only and for procreation only. But many a young
woman, under promise of marriage, sometimes even under a bogus
marriage, is brought into a condition of hypnotism or into a mental
state that puts her in the power of the man whom she loves and
respects. If he deceives her and betrays her, continuing such betrayal
until the victim becomes pregnant, he will, in the average case, leave
her to bear her child in shame, while he slips away to other scenes of
activity. We cannot wonder then, that the girl--deserted, humiliated,
crushed by the one in whom she reposed absolute confidence; cast out
of society, perhaps thrust from the protection of her own father's
roof--gives up the struggle and says--"_What's the use?_"

A vast majority of such poor girls make their way to houses of ill
fame and give themselves over to a life of prostitution. Hardly one of
these women, if married by the man who brought her to this condition,
would have failed to make a true and loving wife and mother. So
society, while it casts these women out, has come to recognize that
men are the real sinners in such cases.

It may be added here, that an occasional girl goes wrong through
temperamental shortcomings within herself--perhaps she may even be a
degenerate; but the proportion of women who would willingly and
deliberately sacrifice their virtue is vanishingly small as compared
with the proportion of young men who seem to be willing to sacrifice
their virtue. This is probably in part due to their training.
Mothers, as a rule, instruct their daughters carefully regarding their
relations with boys and men. It is in part due to the instinctive and
inherent purity of mind of the normal woman.

Nature has devised a retribution for illicit intercourse in the form
of venereal disease. If the parties observe fidelity to the marriage
vows venereal disease is experienced in wedlock only on very rare
occasions, and then through some accidental infection, as from contact
with some public utensils, as a public water closet, a public towel or
drinking cup. So rare is this unfortunate accident, however, that we
may say, that intercourse in undefiled wedlock results normally in
pleasure and gratification to both parties, while intercourse out of
wedlock, or illicit intercourse, is destined, as a rule, to be visited
with retribution.

What form does this retribution that nature metes out to the vice of
illicit intercourse take? Besides the various psychic punishments, the
principal of which are remorse, and impure thoughts, there are
physical punishments in the form of venereal diseases. So prevalent
are these venereal diseases among lewd women, whether prostitutes or
clandestines, that specialists in this field say that "_all lewd women
are diseased part of the time and some lewd women are diseased all the
time_."

These sexual diseases are contagious--that is, transmitted by contact.
They are all germ diseases; one of them is practically local, one is
capable of spreading the infection to contiguous organs and one is
systemic.

a. =Chancroid or Soft Chancre.=--This is the least dangerous of the
venereal diseases. It is a contagious disease of purely local type,
usually acquired during the sexual act, the infection taking place
through a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane.

Chancroid may be single, though most often is multiple. It makes its
appearance in from one to five days after exposure, anywhere on the
penis, but most frequently on the under side of the glans beside the
frænulum as a small red spot. This rapidly takes the form of a blister
containing serum and pus, and in a few days may become the size of a
ten-cent piece. When the roof is removed the ulcer has the appearance
of having been punched out, the floor being covered with pus. It is
surrounded by a zone of inflammation and is painful.

If uncomplicated the disease runs its course in from two to five
weeks. The most common complication is swollen and suppurating glands
of the groin on one or both sides. This condition is termed _bubo_ or
"blue ball" in common language.

Sometimes serious complications arise which may prove dangerous and
require the individual to be confined to his bed for weeks.

b. =Gonorrhea.=--This is incomparably more serious than chancroid.
This disease is very prevalent among the incontinent, and it is
claimed by some specialists in this field that from sixty to
seventy-five per cent. of men have had gonorrhea before the age of
thirty.

It is a contagious disease, acquired usually during intercourse,
though the individual may become infected innocently from water
closets, bath tubs, etc.

To become infected it is not necessary that there be an abrasion of
the mucous membrane.

The disease manifests itself in from three to seven days after
exposure by swelling of the orifice of the urethra, peculiar
sensations between tickling and itching, and smarting or burning
during urination. The peculiar sensations fix the attention to the
genitals, thus causing frequent passage of urine.

These symptoms increase for about a week, when the disease reaches its
maximum degree of severity, which is maintained a variable time, the
discharge from the urethra being thick, creamy and of a greenish
yellow color.

In the majority of carefully treated cases, the discharge ceases in
from three to six weeks with apparent recovery. Unfortunately,
however, there is frequently a tendency for the disease to become
chronic. The discharge becomes thin and more watery and persists for
an indefinite period. This condition--chronic gonorrhea--is commonly
known as "gleet."

c. =Syphilis=, popularly termed the "pox," is a constitutional
affection of the type known as "blood diseases."

It is by far the most important and most greatly to be feared of the
venereal diseases. No disease has been so wide-spread in its
dissemination or more potent in its influence upon humanity.

It has been known for centuries, having been mentioned by Japanese
historians and in Chinese writings two thousand years ago.

Syphilis is contagious and is transmitted by inoculation. The
infectious material enters the broken surface of either the skin or
mucous membrane, called "contact" or "acquired" syphilis. When it is
transmitted by the mother to the embryo, it is called "hereditary" or
"inherited" syphilis.

The disease manifests itself first in a "_primary lesion_" which is a
local ulcer (hard chancre) at the point or points of inoculation at a
period ranging from ten to thirty days after exposure. It may appear
as an erosion or as a dry scaling and indurated papule, varying in
size from a pin-head to a silver dollar. The base of the ulcer is
indurated. It is oval in shape, perhaps somewhat irregular, with a raw
surface and red colored base devoid of pus.

Immediately following the appearance of the chancre, the glands in
direct connection with it become enlarged, hard and rarely painful,
but they have no tendency to suppurate like the enlarged glands of
chancroid.

The chancre disappears in a few weeks and then there is a period when
the individual has no outward manifestations of the disease. In about
six weeks after the chancre the so-called _secondary symptoms_ make
their appearance. They are heralded by headache, pains in the limbs
and back, nausea, sleeplessness and nervous irritability and fever,
followed by the appearance of a rash upon the face and body, falling
out of the hair, sore throat and mouth. These symptoms disappear to be
again followed by a period free from symptoms. After a longer or
shorter time the so-called _tertiary symptoms_ make their appearance,
which are many and varied.

The disease presents a succession of morbid constitutional
disturbances, appearing at variable intervals, and pursues a chronic
course.

This disease remains in the body for years and affects the most vital
organs, particularly the brain and spinal cord.

When one is infected with this disease he should seek the services of
a reputable physician. The treatment of this extends over a long
period, usually about three years, and must be strictly and
conscientiously carried out. Marriage upon the part of an individual
once infected should be only upon the approval of a physician.

After having detailed, as above, the terrible consequences of the
venereal diseases, it is hardly necessary to add that the young man
who deliberately seeks any of the usual chances for illicit
intercourse, is more than taking his life in his hands. If infection
with a venereal disease meant simply the death of the infected
individual, it would really be very much less deleterious to society
than is the present condition. When the young man "sows wild oats" and
catches incidently gonorrhea, that twenty years ago was considered a
sort of a "good joke," he will, in a large proportion of cases, lay
the foundation for broken health and will run a serious risk of
transmitting the disease to an innocent, pure wife.

When a woman catches this disease, particularly from her husband, she
is very likely to interpret the discharge as a leucorrhea, may say
nothing about it to her husband or her physician, but adopt simple
home treatment with antiseptic and astringent douches. Such treatment
will usually result in allaying the inflammation in the superficial
organs, but will not eradicate it from the deeper organs. It spreads
to the uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovaries and may even affect
peritoneal tissues, first of the pelvis, then of the abdomen--may even
finally affect the heart and joints. Of course, these are rather the
extreme limit, but they are not at all rare cases. Once this terrible
disease gets into a woman's organs, it is very likely to lead to a
sojourn in a hospital where she loses some portion of her body as a
sacrifice to this mogul of gonorrhea.

It is claimed by specialists in this field that at least sixty-five
per cent. of the operations that women are subjected to in the
hospitals for diseases of the pelvic organs are the results of
gonorrheal infection. Besides the cases that require operation, a
large proportion of cases of sterility is due to gonorrheal infection,
either in the man or woman, or both.

If we consider the revolting sequences of syphilis with its train of
operations, and progeny of scrofulous children, it would seem to make
the natural retribution for illicit intercourse infinitely outweigh
any brief pleasures derived from the enjoyment of the stolen fruits.

It hardly seems possible that any young man who knows the whole truth
about these venereal diseases and their terrible after-effects could
be tempted to indulge in illicit intercourse.


2. MASTURBATION.

The vice of masturbation or self-abuse is very likely to be learned in
boyhood, perhaps even by boys of six or eight years of age through
their associations with obscene playmates. It not infrequently
happens, however, that the habit is learned independent of these evil
associations. It has been explained above that secretions frequently
accumulate under the prepuce and accumulating there serve as a local
irritation, causing itching of the organ. This local irritation leads
the boy to attempt to allay the irritation through rubbing. Such
manipulation of the organ is very likely to excite it and to lead to
the discovery on the part of the boy that such local manipulation may
lead to pleasurable sensations of momentary duration. If he has not
been instructed by his parents that these organs are sacred to the
uses of manhood and that they will be injured if handled during
childhood, he is very likely to repeat this act until it becomes a
more or less fixed habit.

While it must be admitted that anything short of extreme excess in
this habit among little boys will not be permanently injurious if the
habit is stopped at puberty, it must be perfectly evident that if a
boy enters puberty with this habit, the psychical and physical
conditions of puberty are such as to make the habit very difficult to
stop. If it is not stopped a serious injury may result. So the
necessity hardly need be further urged for explaining to young boys
that these organs should not be handled.

After the boy enters puberty, the habit of masturbation either
acquired during puberty or carried into that stage from early boyhood,
begins to have a distinctly deleterious effect.

Let us now consider just what is the character of this deleterious
effect. From what we know of the physiology of the sexual apparatus,
it must be evident that a sexual orgasm could be produced during
waking hours only through strong stimulation of the activity of the
testes, accompanied by liberation of spermatozoa and of the other
elements of the vital fluid. Let us not forget in this connection, the
statement made above: that the testis produces two forms of secretion,
the internal secretion and the external secretion, the internal
secretion being absorbed, produces those male characteristics which we
group together under virility, while the external secretion is used
for procreation. Spermatozoa do not make any part of the internal
secretion. One reason for this must be evident, i.e., that being
cellular elements, they could not pass through the vessel walls and be
absorbed into the blood current, and if they could, by some special
adaptation, get into the blood current, there is no conceivable action
which they could perform in the body. We must then look upon the
internal secretion as composed of the liquid elements of the
testicular secretion.

So far as physiologists know at present, the external secretion
differs from the internal secretion only in possessing spermatozoa.
When we say that the testes form their external secretion under sexual
excitement only, we simply mean that they liberate or release
spermatozoa under sexual excitement. The spermatozoa must be looked
upon as the fertilizing element of the semen, while the liquid portion
of the semen probably contains that mysterious element which, absorbed
into the body, produces virility and which, passed out with the
spermatozoa, may have an important role to perform in the fertilizing
function.

If the adolescent young man is leading a continent life, we may assume
that from time to time he is subjected to conditions which serve as
strong sexual stimuli, arousing in him a definite desire for sexual
intercourse; but leading a continent life, he curbs his desire and
fixes his thoughts upon other subjects. In this way, though the sexual
excitement is brought quickly under abeyance, we can rest assured that
a certain number of spermatozoa have been released from the testes;
and that the other secretions have been increased in volume. The
excitement may be sufficient even to cause an erection, and produce a
few drops of the secretion of Cowper's glands. The spermatozoa,
together with a small amount of the liquid secretion, will make their
way gradually along the vasa deferentia and collect in the ampullæ.
The bulk of the liquid secretion, however, will, in the course of the
following hours or days, be reabsorbed, thus making for virility. The
small advance guard of spermatozoa that may have made their way to the
ampullæ will undergo a gradual decrease of their nascent activity, as
the days go by. On the occasion of the next nocturnal emission the
ampullæ will empty along with the seminal vesicles and these
spermatozoa pass out. If they be examined under the microscope as a
part of a normal nocturnal emission, they will be found to be almost
motionless or very greatly lacking in typical spermatozoon activity.

Now let us suppose that the young man, instead of curbing his sexual
appetite, resorts, after a season of erotic imaginations, to the act
of masturbation. We may picture the seminal ducts, vasa deferentia and
ampullæ as being gorged with the secretion of the testes, including,
of course, myriads of just released and nascent spermatozoa, together
with several cubic centimeters of the liquid portion of the testicular
secretion. The act of masturbation causes an orgasm and leads to a
complete emptying of all these ducts. Thus we note that in this case
the virile fluid is wasted, not being used in the procreative act or
reabsorbed to exert its influence on virility. Nature's ends have been
defeated. The system suffers a certain degree of depletion from which
it recovers only after hours or even days. It must be evident from
this picture of the processes that go on in the male sexual apparatus
incident to the act of masturbation that the act cannot be performed
repeatedly, as it naturally is when it becomes a habit, without
interfering with the virility of the adolescent male.

In the study of a large number of cases the author has found that the
principal _physical_ changes that occur in a young man as the result
of this habit are, flabbiness of muscle and clamminess of hands. The
really virile man possesses firm muscles and clear, direct eyes and a
strong grip; usually also a warm grip.

It has been thought by some that pimples on the face are a sign of
masturbation in the youth, but such is not the case. They are a sign
of lack of elimination through the kidneys and bowels and are not to
be interpreted as having any essential relation to masturbation. There
may possibly be an incidental relation growing out of the fact that in
some cases of masturbation that habit seems to affect the nutrition
and that in turn may cause the appearance of pimples on the face of
the adolescent. However, one must be very slow to pass judgment in
these cases.

Not the least important among the results of masturbation is the
attitude of the victim to society in general. This _psychical_ change
is noticed in immoderate cases of masturbation and takes the form of
disinclination to enter into any physical contests, or games; and
disinclination to cultivate the society of the opposite sex. Here
again one must be conservative in his judgment, because there are
individuals who possess a very retiring temperament naturally, and who
may become so engrossed in study or productive work that they take
little share in the society of either sex, so that individuals who may
be wholly innocent of any abuse of their sexual apparatus would suffer
a very grave injustice if they were classed among the masturbators. So
allow the author at this place to emphasize the importance of never
passing judgment on anybody in these matters on circumstantial
evidence.

While the damage that one may do to his system through the practice of
masturbation may not be very serious, in many cases that have come
under the author's observation in which the habit has reached extreme
limits, very serious, sometimes irretrievable damage has been done,
yet the encouraging feature of this whole matter is, that if the
adolescent youth, who is practicing this habit, is warned of its
danger and stops at once absolutely, nature comes to his rescue, and
gradually, step by step, but surely, rebuilds the whole fabric of his
virility, bringing back gradually the flush of perfect health into his
cheek, the light of perfect manhood into his eye and the tone of
perfect virility into his muscles.

This change can be wrought in from one to three years of absolute
continence. Nature, like a loving mother, heals the wounds of her
child with a kiss.


3. CONTINENCE.

Such frequent reference has been made above to continence in
antithesis to illicit intercourse and masturbation that little need be
said in addition to that which has preceded. The young man who holds
before his mental vision an ideal of the home he hopes some day to
establish--in which a pure wife reigns as queen, sovereign of his
life, and gently hovers over a brood of lusty boys and fair
girls--cannot for a moment consider as a sane solution of his sexual
problem, periodic visits to the house of ill fame or the periodic
lapse into illicit intercourse with clandestines; nor can he expect to
develop his powers, physically or intellectually to the highest
possible degree if he permits himself to contract that habit
[masturbation] which, step by step, undermines his development. There
is open to the young man only one of the three alternatives mentioned
above, i.e., TO LEAD THE "CONTINENT LIFE."

The continent life is a goal which every healthy young man should
strive to reach. To arrive at a goal that is before us and above us
requires sacrifice and brings compensation. The sacrifice takes the
form of the exertion of the whole will power of the man and the
painstaking observance of those rules of hygiene which make continent
living more easily attainable. The compensations of continence are
those that come from the assurance that the young man has of his
virility, of his worthiness to take the hand of a pure wife in
wedlock, of the consciousness of his ability to establish and maintain
a home, and to protect this home against all dangers.



CHAPTER V.

HYGIENE.



HYGIENE.


It is proposed in this chapter to outline, very briefly, a few simple
rules of hygiene, the observance of which will tend to bring the young
man into the highest possible state of physical development. Assuming
that he wishes to lead a continent life, the observance of these rules
will make that much desired condition more easily attainable.


1. DIET.

a. =Choice of Food.=--The young man who is boarding at a restaurant or
in a boarding club can modify his diet only within the range of the
menu provided. Fortunately, the young man can observe the most
important rule of diet, i.e., _to eat abstemiously_. Wherever one is
boarding he can eat temperately; he can avoid highly spiced foods, tea
and coffee. The observance of these simple rules will go a long way
towards simplifying his sexual problem. It has been discovered by the
study of the influence of diet upon sexual appetite, that the heavy
eating of rich and highly spiced foods, indulgence in stimulants and
narcotics, all tend to excite the sexual desires.

The author presents a menu that would be looked upon as a temperate
one for a student:

Breakfast.

Fruit
Well cooked cereal breakfast food with cream or a slice of bacon, an
egg, with bread and butter
Glass of milk, cocoa or cereal coffee

Dinner.

Soup
Meat, potatoes and gravy
One vegetable
Dessert:
(Custards, tapioca pudding, rice pudding, gelatin pudding or bread
pudding)
Water

Supper.

Creamed potatoes
Salmon or sardines
Bread and butter
Canned or stewed fruit
Cocoa or milk

If lunch is served at noon and dinner at night, the supper and dinner
as given above would correspond with lunch and dinner when dinner is
served at night.

If the young man is training heavily for foot ball or other heavy
athletics in which a training table is provided, he may eat a much
heavier diet than the one above outlined, having either eggs or meat
three times a day instead of once or twice and larger portions of each
food. However, even the man in athletic training needs less food than
is customary for men in training to take. If the foot ball teams would
eat somewhat less than they do and a smaller proportion of meat, they
would be much less likely to "train stale."

b. =Stimulants and Narcotics.=--It will be noted that no provision is
made for coffee or tea in the above menu. The general conditions of
life in a student community serve as a sufficient stimulation. Tea and
coffee are stimulants, and on general principles, it is not wise to
use stimulants unless one needs them. The college student does not
need any other stimulant than is afforded by the conditions in a
college community.

It may be fairly said that stimulants never benefit anybody who does
not need them. On the other hand, they may easily injure a person who
does not need them. Coffee for example, or tea, not only does not
assist digestion but actually retards it. All stimulants produce a
quickening of brain activity which is uniformly followed by a reaction
in which the brain activity is either slowed or confused. The coffee
drinker is almost certain to experience within an hour after a cup of
strong coffee an exhilaration, with heightened brain activity. If one
could experience this stimulation without any reaction, it might be
advisable, especially for those who need just such stimulation at
just such a time. However, when one considers that he cannot
experience stimulation without experiencing a compensatory depression,
he will see that it certainly does not pay to get the one at the
expense of the other, except under unusual conditions.

Now the question may naturally arise: What occasion would justify the
drinking of a strong cup of coffee? Suppose that one were due in an
examination and that he had only one examination in a day; suppose it
came at 8 o'clock. Let the student retire early the night before, rise
early, take a walk before breakfast and eat a very light breakfast. He
may take a cup of strong unsweetened black coffee with the breakfast.
He will find that this coffee proves a strong stimulant, particularly
if he has not been using it regularly, and that it produces the
stimulation just when he wants it. He will find that he is better able
to marshal his thoughts and to recall the various facts that he may
need to use in formulating his answers to the examination questions.
Under such conditions the author believes that it is justifiable for a
student to use coffee. But we must not forget that the coffee is a
drug; used for its drug action; used to produce a physiological effect
at a definite time. Having produced that effect, one may expect the
depression to follow after the examination.

Now the natural tendency, and a tendency which causes many people to
pass step by step into an excessive use of this stimulation, is to
relieve the depression which follows the first cup of coffee by taking
another cup and so on, taking coffee at each meal and perhaps
occasionally between meals. While some people of phlegmatic
temperament can stand such a drug habit for years without being very
seriously injured, it is certainly a habit to be strongly discouraged.
A person who does not use coffee or tea regularly, but wishes on rare
occasions to get a stimulation, can resort to it to produce that
effect, but after having gotten the effect let him get over the
depression as best he can, and not relieve it by taking a second cup.

If he has a week of examinations, it might be permissible to follow
such a regime as suggested above throughout the week. On the whole,
however, the use of these stimulants is to be discouraged.

=Narcotics= are those drugs which cause narcosis or a dulling of the
senses and a decreased activity of both the muscular and nervous
system.

One of the most common and typical narcotics is opium. Derived from
opium is morphine. Cocaine belongs also to the narcotics as do the
anæsthetics, such as chloroform, ether and common alcohol.

It is hardly necessary to say anything about the use of alcohol to
intelligent college men. Very seldom do college and university
students resort to alcoholic drinks, either for their drug effect or
in a spirit of conviviality.

The intelligent people of the country realize the dangers that follow
the use of alcoholic beverages. It is very rare that educated people
use any alcohol and when used it is only in most moderate quantities,
and usually, on special occasions.

It is only comparatively recently that the absolute truth of the Bible
dictum that, "Wine is a mocker" has been realized.

Brandy and whiskey were taken for generations to make one warm on a
cold day because it gave one temporarily a flush of warm blood to the
skin, only to cool down the temperature of the body later, so that
instead of raising the temperature of the body, alcohol actually
lowers the temperature of the body.

Many people took alcohol when excessively hot to cool the body, but if
the temperature of the outside air is higher than the temperature of
the body, as is the case on excessively hot days in summer, the rush
of blood to the surface would only have the effect desired in the
first few minutes of the action of the alcohol. The skin would tend to
become dry, the temperature of the blood to rise, subject to the
influence of the hot air. This heated blood striking the vital organs
accounts for the fact that on those excessively hot days, when there
are many sunstrokes, most of them are among men who not only
habitually take alcohol, but who are under the influence of alcohol at
the time.

Many people have taken alcohol to improve digestion, but scientific
observations on digestion under the influence of alcohol have shown
that the digestion is actually retarded.

Many people have taken alcohol to make their muscles strong, and one
does actually imagine that he is stronger after a moderate dose of
alcohol, but many careful experiments on the part of numerous
observers have shown that the muscles are really less strong and can
do progressively less work the larger the dose of alcohol.

Many thought that alcohol would stimulate the action of the brain and
have taken it for that purpose; but experiments have shown that while
there is temporarily a greater activity of the brain, this activity is
less under control of the higher brain centers. The after dinner
champagne may loosen the tongue of the post-prandial speaker but he
may say many things which the judgment would not commend.

So, in all those applications that men have made of alcohol through
the ages, we find on careful examination, that in every case the
alcohol actually has an effect opposite to that which has been
attributed to it. How true then are the words of the Bible: "Wine is
a mocker."

If an alcoholic beverage actually helped the muscles, the brain or the
glands, one would find it seriously commended by athletic trainers and
coaches for preparation in athletic contests; one would find it
commended by the trainers of prize fighters to help them in their
preparation and in the final encounter; one would find it recommended
by mountain climbers and by Arctic explorers, to stimulate the muscles
for the exhausting ordeal of mountain climbing or to protect the
system from the penetrating cold of the northern latitudes; alcoholic
beverages are, however, not only not advised by these men for these
purposes, but on the other hand, all participants in these activities
are positively forbidden to use any alcoholic beverages, even in the
smallest quantities.

So the young man who would develop a clear thinking brain and a sound
body must leave alcoholic beverages alone. Further, the young man who
would have absolute control of his sexual desires, must leave alcohol
alone, for the first thing that alcohol does is to throw down the
lines of control. It is under the influence of alcohol that the young
man is almost sure to make his first visit to the house of
prostitution. If a girl lose her virtue, it takes place in a majority
of cases when she is under the influence of alcohol; but for this
influence lessening her control, she could not be seduced. _Hence one
of the requirements of continence is_ TOTAL ABSTINENCE.

Under the head of narcotics must be classed also tobacco, though
tobacco has several other effects than the narcotic one. It exerts
upon the mucous membranes an irritation and that is the reason why the
mucous glands of the mouth secrete so freely when one chews or smokes,
but the influence upon the nervous system is distinctly of a narcotic
character, and while tobacco is a mild narcotic, and while it can be
used by the adult moderately without serious results; this is certain,
that no man has ever been benefited by the use of tobacco. And while
many men have been injured, even by the moderate use, all men are
injured by the excessive use. Furthermore, boys and young men who have
not attained the full stature of their physical development are very
seriously injured and retarded in their development through even the
moderate use of tobacco. There is not an educator in America who will
not testify to the fact that the use of tobacco in any form by young
boys, retards both the physical and mental growth.

So tobacco certainly is another thing that is altogether proper to
leave alone, and its use at the very best cannot be defended on any
grounds other than that it is a sense gratification. And while it
must be admitted that it may serve as a sense gratification in the
case of the individual who participates in it, it must also be
remembered that tobacco smoke or the smell of tobacco is, in a very
high degree distasteful if not actually loathsome, to a large
proportion of society, and the young man who gratifies sense at the
expense of his neighbors, certainly is on the defensive.

In so far as tobacco is a narcotic, in just so far does it disarm and
put to sleep those aesthetic and moral impulses which are so helpful
in the maintenance of the continent life.

c. =The Dietetic Control of the Bowels.=--A most important hygienic
rule is to maintain a strict regularity of the bowels. By regularity
of the bowels we mean, a free, normal passage of the bowels at least
once in twenty-four hours. Two or three passages in twenty-four hours
are not too many.

A tendency towards constipation may be hereditary. The writer finds
that at least one case in four of persistent chronic constipation
among college men seems to be due to a hereditary tendency.

Those individuals who have from early infancy and throughout their
whole life suffered from a tendency to constipation and perhaps from
actual chronic constipation, find it exceedingly difficult to produce
normal regular daily movements of the bowels. Whether constipation is
chronic or occasional or whether it is hereditary or acquired, in any
case, it should be corrected if possible through modification of the
diet, and of daily habits.

First of all, one must remember in this connection that the lower
bowel or rectum is subject to education, and not by any means the
least important factor in overcoming a tendency to constipation, is
the regular morning visit to the water closet.

The author would discourage the habit which some have of "straining at
stool." This act of straining at stool together with the pressure
which the hard fecal masses make on the blood vessels, increases the
blood pressure in the veins of the rectum to such a high degree that
it is likely to cause hemorrhoids or piles. But if the position
favorable to the passage of the bowels be taken regularly, every
morning, and a reasonable time spent in that position, and if the
daily passage is brought about at that time, the muscles of the rectum
will be educated to the point of contracting upon its contents at that
time and under those conditions regularly, and this will be a strong
factor towards regulating the movements of the bowels.

But the most important thing to consider in this condition is the
dietetic regulation of the bowels. There are some foods that tend to
constipate while others act as a laxative.

Such foods for example, as contain a considerable portion of tannin,
are always constipating. Strong teas have a constipating effect,
particularly such as the bitter English Breakfast teas, in which there
is a very large proportion of tannin. This large percentage of tannin
accounts for the prevalence of constipation among female tea drinkers.

Unripe fruits contain a high percentage of tannin which, in the
ripening processes of the fruit, becomes changed into cellulose and
sugar. Any fruit that quickly turns brown after a cut surface is
exposed to the air and that stains a steel-bladed knife black quickly
when the fruit is cut, possesses a high percentage of tannin, and is
not in a wholesome condition to eat. Unripe peaches and apples possess
this characteristic. These fruits should be eaten only when ripe.

If one's diet contains too small a percentage of cellulose or pulp
material, a tendency to constipation will be noticed. It has been
found from investigation of this subject that the cellulose or
undigested material of the cereals, vegetables and fruits, is an
absolute essential to good bowel action. The cellulose makes bulk in
the bowels and the simple presence of this bulk of undigested material
stimulates the muscular contractions.

If one were to choose for example, a diet of meat, eggs, nuts, corn
starch, tapioca, sugar, fats and oils, i.e., diets which will be
almost completely digested and absorbed, leaving a very small amount
of undigested material in the intestines, the bulk of the material in
the intestines would be so small that they would not be stimulated to
contract. Therefore this small bulk of material, together with certain
excretions from the liver and other organs, would be retained in the
bowel and undergo fermentation there. Injurious substances which
result from the fermentation would be absorbed, causing what is known
as autointoxication, complicated with constipation. If one, however,
mixes with the condensed foods named above a good proportion of
cereals, fruits and vegetables, all of which possess a considerable
percentage of undigestible material, the presence of this undigestible
material in the intestines leads to strong peristaltic movements,
causing the passage of this material along the intestinal tract to the
rectum, which will be periodically evacuated. In such cereal foods as
the coarser meals (like oatmeal, various wheat preparations and corn
meal), the proportion of bran substance serves as a local stimulation
to the intestinal activity. The little bran scales being
sharp-cornered and rough, serve as a local irritant or mechanical
stimulation.

What has just been said regarding the advisability of eating some
coarser cereals must not be taken to mean that white bread is not
wholesome. On the other hand, white bread made from the roller process
flour is in a high degree nutritious and wholesome, and may well make
an important part of any dietary.

It is not hygienic to eat white bread or biscuits hot out of the oven.
These hot breads tend to form doughy masses which are almost
completely impervious to the digestive juices, and while they are
eventually digested, it takes a very much longer time to do so than
would be the case with stale bread, which is so readily masticated
into a creamy consistency. If one is subjected to conditions where he
must either eat hot biscuits or perhaps embarrass a most hospitable
hostess, there is only one thing for him to do, i.e., to eat the
biscuits.

It is possible, though difficult, to masticate hot bread so perfectly
that it is reduced to a smooth, creamy consistency, and no one should
ever swallow any bread which has not been so masticated.

Among the fruits, figs, prunes and apples seem to have the most
clearly marked laxative effect, though all ripe fruits generally, and
especially those that are taken uncooked, have a moderate laxative
effect. Belonging to this class of foods is rhubarb which, though not
a fruit, is usually served as a fruit either stewed or in puddings or
pies. There is no doubt that it exerts its laxative effect better if
taken stewed rather than with pastry.

If one then who is annoyed by a tendency to constipation wishes to
correct it, a rational change of diet would be, _to eat freely of
cereals and coarse breads and of various fruits, particularly apples,
figs and prunes_.

The most effective way to use these laxative fruits is to eat freely
of them just before retiring. The apples and figs may be eaten just as
they are received from the market. Prunes may be soaked in cold water
for twenty-four hours, then taken directly from the cold water and
eaten.

If this is not effective a supplementary regime may be adopted that is
only in part dietetic, i.e., _to rise_ ONE HOUR BEFORE BREAKFAST,
_drink two glasses of cold water and take a brisk walk of fifteen to
thirty minutes_. The cold water has a tonic effect upon the stomach,
preparing it for a rapid digestion of the breakfast. It also washes
out the accumulation of mucus in the stomach, which may easily equal a
pint in volume. This pint of mucous plus the pint of water, making a
quart of liquid altogether, pours through the pylorus, and during the
rapid walk, works its way rapidly down through the alimentary tract,
washing the whole tract and preparing it to receive and rapidly to
digest the next meal. This slimy water, having washed out the stomach
and small intestine, then passes into the large intestine, moistening
and lubricating its contents and causing it to move gradually towards
the rectum, where it stimulates a normal free passage of the bowels
after breakfast.

Any usual case of constipation will yield to this treatment. Such a
treatment is incomparably more rational than the taking of medicines.

d. =The Dietetic Control of Sleep.=--Most students study evenings. If
their heavy meal is a dinner at 5:30 or 6 p.m. they are likely to feel
very drowsy by 7:30 or 8 o'clock. This is a perfectly natural
experience, all animals manifesting a drowsiness after a heavy meal.
If one could lie down and sleep for an hour while his dinner is
digesting, he could probably rise at 9 o'clock and put in two or three
hours of good hard work. He would find himself at 11 or 12 o'clock so
thoroughly awake, however, that he might have difficulty in getting to
sleep if he retired at that hour. If, on the other hand, one has his
dinner in the middle of the day and a light supper at night, he is
able to begin studying within an hour after supper and keep it up
until he is ready to retire. In this case also, he is likely to be so
wide awake at the time of retiring that he may have difficulty in
getting to sleep. In either of these cases, it is altogether proper
and advisable to take a light lunch before retiring. A double purpose
can be served by this lunch. In the first place, the taking of
anything into the stomach that requires digestion tends to deplete the
circulation from other organs (brain in this case) to the stomach. In
the second place, the food may be so chosen as to exert a definite
_somnolent_ effect. Such foods are, _celery_, _lettuce_, _onions_,
_warm milk_. It may not be convenient to get warm milk at midnight,
but it would hardly be inconvenient to provide one's self with two or
three graham crackers and a stalk of celery. These with a drink of
water and a little brisk exercise before an open window ought so far
to divert the circulation from the brain as to enable one to fall
asleep quickly.

e. =The Dietetic Control of the Kidneys and Skin.=--The stimulation of
excretion through the kidneys and skin may be an exceedingly important
thing, particularly if one has just caught a cold and wishes to
establish free excretion. The food which has a most clearly marked
effect upon both kidneys and skin is the juice of the citrus fruits.
These fruits, as they appear in our markets, are _lemons_, _oranges_
and _grape fruit_. All of these fruits are in a high degree wholesome
as an addition to the dietary. Lemon juice is far more wholesome than
vinegar in salads. The juices of lemons and oranges make most
refreshing and deliciously cooling drinks in summer, and on occasions
where one wishes _to get a strong stimulation of the kidneys and skin,
he has only to drink large quantities of hot lemonade_.

f. =The Dietetic Method of Curing a Cold.=--A whole _quart of hot
lemonade_ may be taken on retiring after one has caught cold. The
effect in such a case would be to cause a free sweating and copious
urination. Both the action of the kidneys and the skin would tend to
carry away from the system the effete materials that have been
retained as a result of the cold.

It is hardly necessary to add in this connection that care should be
taken that during the sweating or immediately following it, the _body
should not be exposed to catch more cold_. In this method of treating
a cold, one should _take a strong cathartic_ such as two or three
teaspoonfuls of castor oil, and should remain in bed twenty-four
hours. During this twenty-four hours _no other food than a little
light broth should be taken_. This treatment usually completely breaks
up a cold and one is able, in two or three days, to make good the loss
of the twenty-four hours, during which time he was confined to his
room.

This dietetic method of caring for an acute catarrhal cold is
incomparably wiser and more economical than to drag around, hoping to
"wear out the cold," only to be worn out by it.


2. BATHS.

a. =The Bath for Cleanliness.=--Little need be said regarding the bath
for cleanliness except that it should be taken at least once in a week
during the colder portion of the year and perhaps as frequently as
once a day during that portion of the year when there is free
perspiration.

Where one is bathing for cleanliness he may well use soap and warm
water over the whole surface of the body. If he takes this bath just
before retiring, it is not necessary to take a cold shower or sponge
at the end of the bath. If, however, one takes a warm soap bath in the
morning the relaxing effect of the bath upon the skin makes it
necessary to take a cold shower or a cold sponge after the warm bath
in order to secure the tonic effect upon the skin and fortify one
against catching cold.

During the hot weather when one may bathe daily for cleanliness he
should guard against an excessive use of soap, as a daily soap bath
may have a tendency to remove the oils from the skin so completely as
to make the skin rough. With the daily bath for cleanliness it is
possible that warm water and soap need not be used more frequently
than once or twice a week and that a laving of the whole surface with
cold water followed by a vigorous rub down with a coarse towel may
serve the double purpose of insuring absolute cleanliness, and at the
same time serving as a skin tonic.

In this connection the author would emphasize the importance of
insuring absolute cleanliness of the sexual apparatus. In primeval
conditions less attention was necessary as these organs were more or
less exposed, but the present method of dress is such as to permit the
accumulation of the skin secretions. While these may in part be
removed by the friction against the clothing, it is advisable to wash
the external genitals and all neighboring surfaces as a regular part
of the daily toilet.

b. =The Tonic Bath.=--In warm weather when one takes a daily bath to
insure cleanliness, at least five of these baths each week may be in
cold water, sufficiently cold to secure the tonic effect as described
above. In cold weather, when one takes not more than one or two warm
soap baths a week, the cold tonic bath can be made to serve a most
important purpose in the hygiene.

Some have followed the custom of immersing the body completely in a
tub of cold water. This method of taking the cold bath is not to be
recommended except for those who are in the most robust health, and in
these cases, so vigorous a treatment is not necessary nor particularly
beneficial. The author has seen many people who were injured by this
method of taking the tonic bath.

There are two methods to be recommended: Those who have access to a
cold shower may stand for a moment, and for a moment only, under the
cold shower, then step at once upon a warm rug and rub the whole
surface of the body vigorously with a dry crash towel until the whole
surface of the body glows with the warmth of the reaction. If one does
not have access to the cold shower, he may take a most effective
tonic bath in his room, using cold water, the coldest obtainable, and
a bath sponge, or even a wash cloth, dipping the sponge into the cold
water, then pressing out enough of the water so that there will be no
excess of water to run over the surface of the body from the sponge.
Begin by sponging face, neck, shoulders, arms and chest, then wipe
these parts dry, subject them to vigorous friction with the crash
towel until the arms, shoulders and chest particularly glow with the
warmth of the reaction. While the upper half of the body is receiving
its bath the lower half may be kept covered, and conversely.

This tonic bath should be taken immediately upon arising in the
morning, and as a part of the morning toilet.

If one takes such a tonic bath on arising, then dresses hurriedly and
takes a brisk walk of fifteen or thirty minutes, the regime quickly
brings his body into the most vigorous and robust state of health;
unless there is something wrong with his digestion or his excretion,
and even moderate derangements of these will be very likely to be
corrected by the regime just suggested.


3. EXERCISE.

Incident to the above topic mention has been made of the brisk morning
walk before breakfast. This has a most salutary tonic effect besides
the influence that it exerts upon the bowel movements. Not the least
important result of this morning exercise depends on the fact that the
lungs are repeatedly and completely inflated with the pure out-of-door
air. This naturally exerts a most valuable influence upon the
development of the lungs in the youth or the maintenance of their
vigor in middle age.

The increased heart action is also advantageous as it leads to
hastened circulation through the muscles, glands and brain. This
hurrying blood current not only carries nutriment to these organs, but
carries away their accumulations of effete material to the excretory
glands.

The student must be cautioned not to overdo this early morning
exercise. The mile run, the mile row or any other strenuous exercise
is strongly to be discouraged at this time of the day. If one overdoes
morning exercise, he is likely to feel somewhat depleted and fatigued,
throughout the remainder of the forenoon, and his ability to do a high
grade of mental work is decreased rather than increased.

Besides the morning exercise, every person who wishes to live a
vigorous physical life should have from one to two hours of heavier
exercise during the latter part of the day or evening. This exercise
may take any one of many forms. It may be golf, tennis, foot-ball,
base-ball, cricket, rowing, lacrosse, basket-ball, cross country
running, track or gymnasium work, etc., etc. The immediate results of
this exercise should be largely to increase lung and heart action and
to cause a sufficient fatigue of the muscular system so that rest is
sought and may be followed by dreamless, recuperative sleep.

It might at first seem paradoxical that to build up strong muscles we
must first fatigue them, but that seems to be Nature's plan. The only
way to build up a strong physique is to use that physique and use it
to its maximum capacity.

If one exercises thus freely and eats abstemiously he ought not to lay
on fat. If he does lay on fat, he may know that he is eating more than
he needs and he should make his diet more temperate. The youth of
eighteen or nineteen who is tall and rather spare, and whose muscular
system has not reached its full development would, of course, increase
his weight incident to the growth of his muscular system. This
increase in weight must not be confused with increase of weight
through fat deposit. The latter should be avoided--the former should
be encouraged.

Not by any means the least important thing accomplished by physical
exercise is the association with his fellows incident to his exercise.
The courage, nerve control, quick judgment, agility and strength
required on the foot-ball field make no small part of the young man's
equipment to fight the battles of life. The conditions of these games
give frequent opportunities for the young man to cultivate the spirit
of honesty and fair play--the spirit, without which, no man can reach
his highest success in the real contests of life.


4. THE HYGIENIC REQUIREMENTS OF SLEEP.

The personal hygiene of sleep is by no means an unimportant topic,
though it may be briefly treated.

The amount of sleep that each individual requires and should take can
only be determined by the individual. Some seem to require ten hours,
others eight, others six, while rarely individuals are found who seem
to thrive on even so little as five hours of sleep out of twenty-four.
The average requirement seems to be about eight hours. If one has by
experience or experiment determined the amount of sleep which he
requires, he should so plan his daily regime that he can secure that
amount of sleep. While a brief departure from this regime may be
without serious results, any prolonged departure from it will
certainly bring its natural retribution. So, the young man having
determined how much sleep he needs, should adopt a daily program that
will provide for just that many hours in bed, and he should early
establish the habit of going to sleep at once upon retiring, and of
arising at once upon awakening. Dallying in bed has led many a young
man to lapse into habits of thought and of action that are in a high
degree deleterious, morally and physically.

So far as one may choose the equipment of his sleeping apartment, he
should choose a hard bed and a cover as light as possible and yet be
comfortable.

One should never retire with cold feet. A most effective way to warm
the feet is to dip them for a moment in cold water and then rub them
vigorously with a coarse towel until they glow with warmth.
Furthermore, no more effective remedy for habitual cold feet could be
devised than this nightly tonic bath.

One will add greatly to his comfort and decrease largely the danger of
taking cold if he provides himself with a pair of warm bed room
slippers, which should always be worn during one's excursions to the
bath room, and during his tonic sponge bath.

As to posture in bed, the experience of men in general is, that the
most comfortable posture and the most hygienic one is to lie upon the
side. The right side is to be preferred to the left because in this
position, the heart being on the upper side, is not embarrassed in its
free movement by the superincumbent lung tissue. Furthermore, this
position facilitates the passage of digesting foods from the stomach.
To maintain comfortably this side position, requires that the knees
be at least moderately drawn up. This posture when asleep is
practically identical with that of nearly all higher animals, and is
unquestionably the most hygienic one for man. No animal but man ever
lies upon its back unless it is dead. Furthermore, the dorsal position
puts tendons, nerves and muscles on a stretch, while the flexed
lateral position puts these in a more or less relaxed position, which
is most favorable to rest.

It goes without saying that sleeping rooms should always be thoroughly
ventilated. The occupant should take care that he does not lie in a
direct draught from a window or door, because it has been found by
experience that one is less likely to catch cold if he sleeps out of
doors than he is if he sleeps in a direct draught from a window or
door. Just why this is has not been satisfactorily accounted for, but
the fact remains. So if you must sleep in the house, secure perfect
ventilation without direct draughts.


5. THE CONTROL OF THE THOUGHTS.

There is no more effective safeguard for the man who wishes to lead a
continent life than the control of the thoughts. It goes without
saying that the man who thinks about sexual matters, especially the
one whose imagination runs wild upon all kinds of sexually
stimulating images, is only inviting temptation to relax his
continence. If he controls his thoughts during those times when he is
less amenable to temptation, he is far more likely to be able to
control his acts at those times when his physical condition makes him
most amenable to temptation.

The most effective way to control the thoughts is so to plan one's
work as to insure the complete occupation of the mind with affairs
that are wholly independent of sexual experiences or considerations.
One should set a mark for himself so high above his present position
that he is compelled to put forth strenuous and unremitting efforts in
order to accomplish his aim. The old saying that, "Satan finds work
for idle hands to do" is all too true. Anyone may observe the
influence of idleness or even the influence of a partially occupied
program upon the habits of the youth and young man. Beard and
Rockwell, in their valuable work on this subject say: "Go to work;
develop your muscles and brain; resolve to become at least useful if
not famous. The activity which will be necessary in carrying out these
ambitions will divert the mind from imaginary evils, if they are
imaginary, and will be one of the best means to cure the real ones."



CHAPTER VI.

DEVELOPMENT.



DEVELOPMENT.


The development of the child within the uterus of the mother
represents a chapter in the life history of every individual so
important in its relations to maternity and paternity that every young
man should be acquainted with at least its general features.

As stated in the chapter on Reproduction, every living organism begins
life as a single cell, or globule of protoplasm. In the case of the
human subject, the cell from which each child begins its development
is formed by the fusion of two cells or globules of protoplasm, one
furnished by the mother, and called the ovum, or egg; the other
furnished by the father, and called the spermatozoon. The egg is very
much larger than the spermatozoon, and contains enough yolk material
to afford nourishment for the embryo for a number of days.

When the ovum reaches the finished state, which is called "maturity,"
it leaves the ovary, and is carried along the fallopian tube (see
accompanying figure) into the uterus, where it usually finds a
lodgment in the upper part, as shown in Figure I. Once the minute ovum
has been caught in the projections of the velvety inner surface of the
uterus, this thick velvety lining of the uterus in the neighborhood of
the ovum begins a rapid growth, gradually enveloping the rapidly
expanding ovum, as shown in Figures I and II of the accompanying
plate.

Within the ovum there are taking place some of the most marvelous
changes in the whole life history of the individual. The nucleus of
the fertilized egg, and the protoplasm which surrounds it, divide into
two cells, then into four, eight, sixteen, etc. These divisions follow
each other in such rapid succession that there are many hundreds of
cells by the end of the first twenty-four hours. These cells soon
begin to arrange themselves into layers and groups, which, step by
step, develop the different tissues and organs of the body.

By the end of thirty days the little embryo, about as large as one
inch of the end of a lead pencil, would be recognized as the embryo of
some mammalian animal, but it would be quite impossible to say whether
it would develop into a human being or some other animal, if it were
seen quite apart from its immediate surroundings. By the end of
another thirty days, however, the little embryo has multiplied its
size several times, and has reached a form instantly recognizable as
the young of the human kind, as shown in Figure IV. It still, however,
retains the vestige of a little tail, which within the next thirty
days will have been completely absorbed.

    [Illustration: THE FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION]

Note that the little two months embryo has projecting from its abdomen
a large structure which is labeled "cord." This cord is a part of what
is called the umbilical cord, and it is this that joins the embryo
to the mother. Note in Figure III the large stalk of this cord passing
upward from the body of the embryo and merging into the structures in
the top of the uterus. Note further that there are little branching
structures passing from the base of this stalk up into the base of the
uterus. These branching structures are loops of blood-vessels, and
they form part of the placenta, or "afterbirth." Through this cord the
embryo receives its nourishment from the mother. The blood of the
mother bathes these loops of blood-vessels, and the embryo absorbs
from the mother's blood the nourishment which builds its bones,
muscles, brain, spinal-cord, and glands. From the same source the
embryo receives the oxygen necessary for the maintenance of its life.

From the third month on to the end of the nine months, the amount of
material which the mother must provide for the development of the
child within her womb amounts to no small draft on her physical
resources. It is not at all uncommon for a mother in the later months
of pregnancy to become quite pale, her blood having been impoverished
to provide material for the development of her child.


MATERNITY.

What has been said above regarding the contributions which the
maternal organism must make toward the development of the offspring
must have impressed on the mind of the reader that _maternity means,
first of all, sacrifice_.

This sacrifice begins when the girl first enters upon womanhood.

With the expulsion of the ripened ovum comes, each month, a week of
special physical drain, when work must be lightened and vigorous
exercise curtailed, when exposure to cold or dampness may mean loss of
health.

Under these circumstances a woman should at this time deny herself the
pleasure of dancing; of skating or swimming; of sleigh-rides or
cross-country walks and the young man should make it less difficult
for her by acquiescing without question or demur in her request to be
excused from such recreation.

It is a fact that more sacrifice is involved in maternity among the
more highly cultivated nations of the human race than is true of
aboriginal peoples, or among the lower animals. Conditions of modern
life, and particularly urban life, leave the female organism less able
to endure the drafts made upon the system by maternity, so that to
bear a child may mean not only the sacrifice of comfort, but even the
sacrifice of health.

The highly sensitive, delicately adjusted nervous system of the woman
is perhaps more profoundly influenced than any other part of her
being. This manifests itself particularly in a heightened degree of
sensitiveness. It goes without saying that the pregnant woman
deserves at the hands of all who come in contact with her, and
particularly at the hands of her husband, most considerate and
sympathetic treatment. Her little whims and vagaries, however
unreasonable, must always be treated seriously, and with delicate and
tactful consideration. The members of her family, particularly the
husband, owe it to her and to her child to keep her in as happy a
frame of mind as possible.

When we consider the real significance of maternity to the race, to
society, and to the family, we must feel that, of all human relations,
maternity is the most sacred, and that no condition should be allowed
to mar it, and no consideration to take precedence of it.


PATERNITY.

After the husband had contributed the male sexual cells, or
spermatozoa, in this wonderful process above outlined, it might seem
that there is little he can do, except to wait, while nature carries
on the process. The reader will remember, however, from the chapter on
Reproduction, that the contribution of the spermatozoa only initiates
the sacrifices that the paternal organism must make in this process.
Are there any demands on paternity between the time of conception of
the new life and its birth?

As already mentioned under the preceding topic, the pregnant mother
needs gentle and loving care. She needs to have her little whims and
foibles overlooked. She needs to be protected, so far as possible,
from every influence that might depress or make her unhappy. She needs
to be guarded against any unusual physical exertion, and above all,
she needs at this time more than at any other time, the manifested
affection and sympathy of her husband.

There is another sacrifice, if it may be so called, which the husband
is called upon to make during the pregnancy of his wife, namely, _to
abstain absolutely from sexual intercourse during the period of
pregnancy and for two or three months following_. This means
practically one year of continent living. All other animals observe
this period of continence. Nature demands that man observe it in
common with other animals. Man is the only animal that has
transgressed this fundamental law of nature. The retribution which
nature metes out to the transgression of this law is various.
Sometimes, but rarely, the sexual excitement on the part of the woman
may cause an abortion, or a miscarriage. The more usual result makes
itself manifest in the drain on the nervous energy of the woman. When
we consider that maternity in the human race involves greater
sacrifice than in any other animal, it would seem that the addition of
this last demand, namely, of satisfying the sexual desires of the
husband during the period of pregnancy, might prove "the straw that
breaks the camel's back," and result in the more or less complete
nervous breakdown of the woman. The author submits this question to
all fair-minded men: Is it not due to the wife that she be not asked
to satisfy the recurring sexual desires of the husband during the
period when her life and its energies are so sacred to the race, to
society, and to the family?

The author submits this question because some men are known to
transgress this law of nature. Fortunately the proportion of men who
thus transgress is not large.

Let us stand for these things: (1) _An equal standard of purity for
men and women_, (2) _A strenuous, virile, continent manhood_, (3)
_Sexual temperance in wedlock_.



APPENDIX



APPENDIX.


Personal conferences and correspondence with young men regarding the
solution of their problems have brought out several questions that are
so frequently repeated as to make it evident that the answering of
them would serve the purpose of clearing up certain questions or
doubts, more or less important in the minds of many young men. It has
been decided to group these answers in an appendix rather than to
incorporate them in the body of the book, as many of them seem not
quite relevant to the topics outlined under the several chapters.

1. _How do we know that during the nocturnal emission the products of
the testes are not present?_

The spermatozoa found in the nocturnal emission, if present at all,
are found to be very much less active than the spermatozoa of semen
secreted during sexual excitement. The seminal vesicles are not
receptacles for the testicular secretion. The ampullæ seem to serve
that purpose in a limited degree.

Considering all these facts, it seems to be a tenable conclusion that
the few and sluggish spermatozoa seen in the product of the nocturnal
emission are those that have, from time to time, collected in the
ampullæ, and that during the time immediately preceding the nocturnal
emission the testes are not actively releasing nascent spermatozoa.
This function of the testes seems to be reserved for periods of
conscious sexual stimulation.

2. _How may one control too frequent emissions?_

If emissions are too frequent for the individual case, they are
followed by depletion and malaise. Even if they occur as infrequently
as once in two weeks and are followed by the above symptoms, they must
be considered as too frequent, or abnormal in that case. On the other
hand, they may occur as frequently as twice a week in plethoric robust
individuals, and especially in men who have had frequent sexual
intercourse, and who have for some reason discontinued it. And even
though they occur as frequently as twice a week, if they are followed
by a feeling of relief and wellbeing, they must not be considered as
too frequent for that individual under the conditions.

So the frequency limit of nocturnal emissions is more or less
independent of the time and quite dependent upon the reaction of the
individual to the emission. If, following the criterion above
outlined, one finds that his emissions are too frequent, because of
accompanying depletion and malaise, this frequency may be modified
either by changes of the diet or by changes of hygiene.

For a more extended discussion, see text above on nocturnal emissions.

3. _Do the organs of reproduction actually develop after the age of
seventeen or nineteen or even to the twenty-fifth year as is the
case with the physical and mental powers?_

The brain of an individual adds no nerve cells after a very early age.
The brain increases only very slightly in size and weight after the
age of puberty, and then only under special conditions and this
increase in weight and size is not due to the addition of any new
cells, but simply to a slight increase in the bulk of those cells
already present. In a similar way the sexual apparatus undergoes,
during the period of puberty (fifteen to seventeen) a very rapid
growth, reaching by the end of the period of puberty (seventeenth or
nineteenth year) their full size.

4. _Are enlarged veins in the scrotum dangerous?_

Enlarged veins of the scrotum represent dilatation of the veins of the
epididymis. These are thin walled vessels that respond to any
increased internal blood pressure, perhaps showing a special tendency
in this direction during that period of rapid growth of the sexual
apparatus in the early part of the adolescent period. If the
enlargement is only moderate, it may disappear, or at least become
spontaneously arrested in its growth, in which case it need cause no
concern. If these veins, however, dilate until they form a
considerable mass, known as VARICOCELE, they may affect the sexual
apparatus deleteriously in two ways: (1) The increased weight in the
scrotal sac may cause the sac to become elongated and to annoy the
subject by its traction on the spermatic cord. This lengthened scrotum
with its contents may also be exposed to mechanical pressure or even
to injury from the clothing, etc., which would not occur if the
scrotal sac were short, holding the testes close to the body. (2) Of
far more importance is the danger of the varicocele gradually
encroaching by pressure upon the testis, perhaps to cause a partial
atrophy of that gland. This condition is a comparatively rare one, and
inasmuch as it seldom occurs in both testes, the possibility of
causing sterility on the part of a man is remote.

The extension of the scrotum and the "bearing-down" sensation may be
relieved through the wearing of a suspensory bandage. Such a bandage
may be obtained at any drug store or surgical instrument house, and if
properly fitted, will usually relieve any such discomfort as described
above. If the varicocele is quite large, the subject will do well to
consult a competent surgeon and to take his advice.

5. _Is the emptying of the seminal vesicles thru nocturnal emission a
universal phenomenon among continent men?_

The nocturnal emission is not a universal method of emptying the
seminal vesicles. Some continent men never have nocturnal emissions.
The reason may be sought in one of two directions: (1) The usual cause
of absence of nocturnal emissions is to be found in the fact that in
the man in question the seminal vesicles are periodically drained by
_involuntary diurnal emissions_, occurring usually when the
individual is at stool. These emissions are likely to occur once in
two to four weeks and take the place of the nocturnal emission. (2)
Rarely we find virile, continent men whose vesicular secretion is so
scanty that they are never conscious of its emission.

6. (a) _Should a man who for three to six years of his boyhood
practiced masturbation think of wedlock?_

(b) _If one has not lived a pure life but has reformed, may he ask a
pure woman to be his wife?_

Such questions as these are very frequently asked and with most
serious motives. A vast majority of boys and young men who practice
self-abuse, do so either wholly ignorant of the fact that it is wrong
or cognizant only in a vague way of the evil of the practice.

To consign a man to the Hades of homelessness and the sorrow of
childlessness because through ignorance he lapsed from purity during a
few months or years of his life, would be meting out a retribution far
in excess of the sin. If nature intended such a retribution to be
meted out she would have led the way by causing an atrophy or some
other form of disease in the subject who had abused his sexual organs.
But nature does not do that. If the young man who, from his twelfth to
his eighteenth year, has practiced masturbation, is shown the error of
his way and breaks the habit absolutely, nature quickly comes to his
rescue and rehabilitates his virility completely, unless he has been
guilty of extreme excess in the habit. This rehabilitation of virility
after self-abuse is usually experienced in from one to three years,
according to the case and the extent of the practice.

The complete mastery of a habit after it has through years been
forging its chains about the youth, is in itself no small victory and
should go a long way towards extenuating his lapse. The young man who
can conquer himself and learn to lead a pure life, free from his early
habit and above reproach not only in his acts toward womankind but
also in all his thoughts of woman deserves his well-earned reward. He
deserves the respect of all pure women and should be able to win the
love of one whom he may with clear conscience ask to be his wife, and
with whom he may confidently expect to build a typical home.

7. _Should a man have intercourse for any purpose other than for
procreation?_

In the normal course of events, if intercourse is indulged in for
procreation only, it would come as often as once, perhaps twice in a
month; that is, either just before the menstrual period of the woman
or just after, the woman being most easily impregnated at these two
periods.

A man who has led a continent life before marriage should have no
difficulty in controlling his sexual appetite to that extent. If the
sexual intercourse occurs as infrequently as once or twice in a month,
the man, by living thus continently, will find it much more easy to
maintain his continence during the twelve-month period after his wife
becomes pregnant before he can properly have intercourse with her
again, than would be the case if he had had sexual relations much more
frequently.

That the man desires intercourse much more frequently than as above
outlined and that the woman, in the vast majority of cases, does not
desire intercourse except for procreation and about as frequently as
above indicated is, without any reasonable doubt, due to hereditary
tendencies. Under primeval conditions, and in fact, until
comparatively recent times, the vast majority of mankind were
polygamous, the strong men of the race--those who procreated their
kind--having as many wives as they could support and protect, the weak
men of the race being crowded aside, sometimes castrated, to become
the burden bearers for the strong.

Under conditions of polygamy the woman is rarely subjected to sexual
intercourse for other than procreative purposes, and even granting
that the man has intercourse for procreation only, if he had twelve
wives, he would be having it twelve times as frequently as any one of
them. That these experiences on the part of a long line of maternal
ancestors should lead the women of today to desire sexual intercourse
for procreation only, is easy to understand; that the impulses
transmitted along the paternal line of ancestors should lead the men
of today to desire intercourse far more frequently than this can,
under monogamous conditions be indulged, is also easy to understand.

8. _How frequently may sexual intercourse be indulged, in the marriage
state?_

If one is to overstep the bounds mentioned above, i.e., to indulge in
sexual intercourse once or twice in a month for procreation only and
not at all during the period of pregnancy and childbed period, the
limit is then set, not by strictly normal and anthropological
considerations, but by the health of the individuals. The author has
seen young married couples who had carried their sexual intercourse to
such extremes as seriously to deplete the physical vigor and menace
the health of both parties. Just how frequent indulgence will have
this effect in any particular case is impossible to say. In some cases
twice a week may have this effect; in other cases once in twenty-four
hours might be borne for a considerable time. In any case the
condition is an unnatural one and is certain to bring a natural
retribution in some form--either broken health, or sterility of the
wife, and depleted powers of the husband, or weak and sickly children,
separated by long intervals.

9. _How long is it possible for a young man to waste his vital fluid
and yet be able to raise healthy children?_

This question cannot be answered in other than most general terms. The
author has known one case of a young man who, for several years,
practiced masturbation several times a day, so far depleting his
powers that he could not walk erect, his muscles were flabby, his
testes were very soft and small, his eyes shifty, his hands clammy and
his mind incoherent in its working. He seemed to be a candidate for
the asylum and would probably have gone there if radical means had not
been adopted to break him of the habit. He was broken, however,
absolutely, and never performed the act after his nineteenth birthday.
Within three years he had completely recovered his virility. He had
nearly doubled in weight and in lung capacity and a large part of his
increased weight was in great bulk of muscle of high tonicity--muscle
which he had gained by heavy physical work upon a ranch. His sexual
organs had completely regained their tonicity and without doubt, their
virility. He had so far recovered mentally that he finished a course
of professional study and entered with great success upon the practice
of his chosen profession.

On the other hand, a middle-aged man consulted the author regarding
the sterility of his wife. After examination, it was found that the
husband had practiced masturbation about twice a week from the age of
puberty to his twenty-fourth year, when he was married. He assured the
author that at the time of his marriage his testicles were, as far as
he had known, similar to the testicles of other young men, and that
during his married life he had never had intercourse with his wife
more frequently than once in a month, but that during that time he had
noticed a gradual atrophy of the testes. At the time of the
examination only small atrophied remains of these testes could be
discovered. The sterility of the wife was due, without any question,
to the absolute impotence of the husband, and so far as the history of
the case would suggest, there was no other assignable cause of this
impotence than the eight years of masturbation.

From these two cases, it must be evident that no rules can be laid
down. In one case the subject recovered fully from a case of extreme
masturbation; in the other-case, a habit that would not be called
extreme resulted in impotence. It must be evident that the practice is
a dangerous one after puberty, as no individual can tell to which of
the above cases his may be similar.

10. _Granting that masturbation is harmful through loss of semen, is
there any compensation for this loss of semen in case of intercourse
with a woman?_

There is no doubt that an emission of semen following sexual
excitement is a draught upon the virile powers of the male animal. If
this sexual excitement is the artificial one cultivated by the
masturbator, the depletion seems to be more marked than is the case
with the normal, natural stimulation incident to sexual intercourse.
Some have suggested that the reciprocal influence of the woman can in
some way compensate for the vital fluid contributed by the male. It
is hardly likely that such a reciprocal influence is other than
psychical, but that is certainly sufficient to account for any
difference in these two forms of sexual gratification.

Nature calls upon the male animal to make a contribution for
procreation, which contribution is, always has been, and, in the very
nature of the case, always must be a certain tax upon the powers of
the male animal. When the intercourse is indulged for procreation
only, the male animal can well afford to make the contribution. Even
with that, the contribution which the male makes to procreation is
incomparably less depleting for him than are the contributions which
the female makes for her.

11. _Will vital fluid flow with every sexual intercourse?_

If vital fluid is present, and if the sexual intercourse is carried to
the point of causing an orgasm, there would, in all normal conditions,
be an emission of semen or "vital fluid."

12. _Is there any way to regulate intercourse so as to control the sex
of the offspring?_

While there are many theories upon this subject no one of them is
generally accepted by medical men.

13. _Will an intense and continuous desire on the part of a young man
for sexual intercourse cause a loss of seminal fluid?_

An intense and continuous desire for sexual intercourse will, without
question, cause an active secretion on the part of the testes, an
increased secretion on the part of the seminal vesicles and an active
secretion on the part of the prostate gland and of Cowper's glands.
The secretion from Cowper's glands will make its way along the urethra
and appear at the opening of that duct, probably soiling the linen of
the subject. The accumulated semen from the other glands will tend
rather to aggravate than allay the sexual desires. Such a condition of
the sexual apparatus is likely to cause a nocturnal emission,
relieving this tension and emptying the gorged gland ducts. If the
nocturnal emission does not occur, the sexual desires are certain to
return to occupy the waking hours more or less completely. If the
nocturnal emission does occur, it will carry away not alone the
vesicular secretion, but also more or less of the nascent spermatozoa
and other constituents of the vital fluid. Seasons of intense and
prolonged sexual excitement are in a high degree inimical to
continence, and even though the subject does not fully submit to his
inclination, his nocturnal emissions, which are likely to come
frequently, carry away the product of the testicular secretion,
thereby depleting to a certain extent, his virility. It is hardly
necessary to urge the importance of resisting these onslaughts of
sexual passion in their very incipiency.

14. _How may the habit of masturbation best be brought under
control?_

The first thing to accomplish is the purification of the thoughts. The
most effective way to purify the thoughts is to divert them to a pure
and strictly non-sexual subject--e.g., _pure mathematics_. The young
man who is trying to break this habit will do well to follow very
closely the rather strenuous regime outlined under hygiene in the body
of the book. If his condition is complicated because of the presence
of a very long loose foreskin, he will be wise to have this removed by
the simple operation of _circumcision_. If he should awake in the
night and feel the temptation to resort to his old habit, he should
resist the temptation in its first stage and instantly put his mind on
some subject quite foreign to his sexual apparatus. If he does not
succeed by force of will in diverting his mind from himself, the best
thing to do is to arise, dress and walk. If walking will not do it let
him run, and keep moving in the open air, under God's blue sky until
he is so tired he can hardly put one foot before the other. Then if he
will retire to his room, he will probably have no further difficulty
at that time.

15. _What influence has dancing upon the young man's solution of his
sexual problems?_

It hardly seems possible that a virile, husky young man, in his early
twenties, could be subjected for several hours to the conditions of
the modern dance hall, where he is brought into very close physical
contact with young women, dressed to expose their secondary sexual
features, perfumed to excite in a man his hereditary sexual
instincts; held so close to his partner in the round dance that he is
conscious of every movement of her limbs, and all of these under the
influence of artificial light and music--I say, it is hardly possible
for a virile young man to be subjected to all these conditions without
experiencing an extreme sexual excitement. That such an experience
often repeated not only does not simplify the young man's problem, but
seriously complicates it is not a matter of doubt on the part of
anyone who has studied these problems. All specialists in this field,
without a single exception, concur in the belief that the dance is a
device of the devil so far as the young man is concerned. That the
young women are, for the most part, quite innocent of the effect of
all these conditions upon their young men friends is also believed by
those who have studied the problem. If they were conscious of it, a
large majority of them would not longer consent to be the party to
such unfortunate conditions. The Square Dance, the Virginia Reel and
similar dances of the times of our grandparents are not remotely to be
compared in this matter with the modern Round Dance.

16. _May lost Virility be regained by use of "Remedies" or medicines
of any kind?_

No. Positively and absolutely, _No_. Many such nostrums are advertised
in the public prints. Many are sold by charlatans and quacks. No
reputable physician would hold out to his patient the hope that any
drug could bring back lost manhood.

_Lost manhood or lost virility may be regained by right living only._
The prescription for right living is as follows: _Live a continent
life_ and follow _a strenuous and sane regime of personal hygiene_,
such as outlined in chapter V above.

17. _Is the production of semen modified by nutrition?_

The production of semen is greatly modified by the state of nutrition.
Remember in this connection that semen is partly from the testes
(Spermatozoa) and partly from the vesicles and prostate. The formation
and release of spermatozoa is only slightly modified by the condition
of nutrition; while the rate of secretion from the vesicles is greatly
modified in quantity. This accounts for the fact that well nourished
men who eat heavily are very likely to experience frequent nocturnal
emissions, when living continently.



  LECTURES
  by the
  Author of Reproduction and Sexual Hygiene.

  THE YOUNG MAN'S PROBLEM.

  Heard by 20,000 men last year.

  WHAT IS SAID ABOUT IT.


The Young Men's Christian Association of Philadelphia.
Walter M. Wood, General Secretary

                                           October 17, 1908.
To Whom it May Concern:

    It is with great pleasure that I pay a tribute of appreciation
    to the excellent service of Dr. Winfield S. Hall, in his
    presentation to audiences of young men of the vital problems of
    sexual hygiene.

    With the intelligence of a trained and experienced physician,
    with the thoroughness and frankness of an expert teacher and
    with the delicacy and motive of a Christian gentleman, he
    presents the "Young Man's Problem" in such a way as to make him,
    in my judgment, one of the most helpful counselors of young men
    on the American platform today.

                                             Sincerely,
                                                 W.M. WOOD.


University of Notre Dame.

Winfield Scott Hall, M.D.,
Northwestern University Medical School.

My Dear Dr. Hall:

    In your lecture on "The Young Man's Problem" and in your book on
    "Sexual Hygiene" you are doing a great service for the rising
    generation. I am convinced that one great source of vice is
    ignorance about the matters touched upon in your lecture and
    book. Priests are constantly giving instruction on these same
    points, but it is a distinct advantage to have their teaching
    reinforced by a distinguished physician, expressing himself with
    the plainness of the laity and speaking always in a most
    reverential spirit. For students seventeen years of age or more
    your presentation of this difficult subject will be a God-send,
    for it abates curiosity, dissipates ignorance, warns of perils
    and arouses a manly desire for a clean life.

                             Very sincerely yours,
                                    JOHN CAVANAUGH, C.S.C.,
                                                  President.


Central Department, Young Men's Christian Association, Chicago.

                                           October 21, 1908.

Dr. Winfield S. Hall, Northwestern University Medical School.
My Dear Dr. Hall:

    Our committee wants to know if we cannot arrange a date with you
    this year to deliver your lecture on "The Young Man's Problem."
    I also want some more of your books on Reproduction and Sexual
    Hygiene.

    I cannot forbear to express my very hearty appreciation of the
    splendid service you have done and are doing to the young
    manhood of our country in this lecture and this book. I have
    never heard a presentation of the subject which takes hold so
    deeply upon thoughtful men, and your book is by all odds the
    best thing in print on this subject. Your scientific, yet
    popular method and the absence of vague moralizing are
    convincing and inspiring in their effects. I trust we may hear
    you this year.

                                 Very truly yours,
                                      HERBERT W. GATES,
                                      Secy., Religious Work.


THE SECRET OF MANHOOD

Given to many audiences of boys in High-School, Academy, Y.M.C.A. and
Summer Camp.


The Institute and Training School of Young Men's Christian
Associations, Chicago and Lake Geneva.

                                            October 7, 1908.

Dr. Winfield S. Hall, Northwestern Medical School, Chicago, Ill.

My Dear Dr. Hall:

    I want to express my appreciation of your talk to boys on Sexual
    Hygiene. I listened with the greatest of interest to your
    presentation before the Boys' Conference at Lake Geneva the past
    summer and it seemed to me that both in substance and in form of
    presentation you hit the nail on the head in a way I had never
    before seen it done. I believe that your contribution to boys in
    this direction is to be even greater than that which you have
    been making to young men.

                                       Sincerely yours,
                                              FRANK H. BURT,
                                                  President.


State Agricultural College of Colorado.

Dr. Winfield S. Hall,
  Fort Collins, Colo., October 27, 1908.
    Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago.

Dear Doctor:

    I wish to testify to the value of your lecture to boys from 12
    to 16 years of age. You have touched a vital subject in a most
    original way that impresses every boy that hears you. You lead
    up to your "Secret of Manhood" in a manner that holds the
    attention, impresses the truth you want to teach, so that it is
    sure to be of lasting good.

    This lecture I regard as the very best of its kind, which I have
    ever heard.

                                       Sincerely yours,
                                                 W.H. OLIN.
          Vice Dean, State Agricultural College of Colorado.


Princeton Township High School.

                           Princeton, Ill., October 6, 1908.

    Dr. Winfield S. Hall of the Northwestern University Medical
    School recently gave a talk to our high school boys along
    physiological lines, setting forth very scientifically but
    plainly many delicate and important truths which every boy
    should know. Dr. Hall is a master of his subject and his manner
    is so dignified and yet sympathetic that he commands respect and
    holds the closest attention. I feel sure that such a talk given
    to boys and young men does a great amount of good.

                                             Sincerely,
                                          H.S. MAGILL, JR.,
                                                  Principal.


International Committee, Young Men's Christian Association.

W.S. Hall, M.D., Chicago, Ill.
  Chicago, Ill., October 4, 1908.

My dear Doctor:

    I am more than glad to speak a word in commendation of your
    lecture to boys on the "Secret of Manhood." To me it is the most
    sane, safe and logical presentation of a much avoided subject
    that I have ever heard. The boys at the Lake Geneva Conference
    were strongly impressed without the undue excitement and morbid
    curiosity that so often accompany the presentation of the
    subject of "Personal Purity." And not only were the boys
    benefited, but all the fifty boy workers present, representing
    the entire Central West, had nothing but words of highest praise
    for the way you handled the subject before two hundred older
    boys.

    I am glad that you are getting out material for a booklet on the
    "Secret of Manhood," and shall be pleased to see the manuscript.
    We are much in need of such a thing and believe the
    International Committee can aid you in getting it out if
    necessary. Yours cordially,

                                                F.A. CROSBY,
         Boys' Work Secy., International Committee. Y.M.C.A.



       *       *       *       *       *



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