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Title: Division of Words - Rules for the Division of Words at the Ends of Lines, with Remarks on Spelling, Syllabication and Pronunciation
Author: Hamilton, Frederick W. (Frederick William), 1860-1940
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Division of Words - Rules for the Division of Words at the Ends of Lines, with Remarks on Spelling, Syllabication and Pronunciation" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's Note:

1. Some examples which appear not to follow the preceding guideline are
printed thus in the original book. It looks as if sometimes the guideline
is mistaken.

2. Italicized text is rendered as _text_, bold text is rendered as =text=.

3. Accented syllables are marked with a single quote (').

4. This book uses several diacritical marks for phonetics, the table below
lists the codings used: (the "x" represents a character with a diacritical
mark)

Diacritical mark               Above         Below

Macron (straight line)         [=x]         [x=]
2 dots (diaeresis, umlaut)     [:x]         [x:]
Breve (u-shaped symbol)        [)x]         [x)]
Tilde                          [~x]         [x~]
Small capital I                [Ix]



TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES--PART VI. NO. 35


DIVISION OF
WORDS


RULES FOR THE DIVISION OF WORDS AT
THE ENDS OF LINES, WITH REMARKS
ON SPELLING, SYLLABICATION
AND PRONUNCIATION


BY

FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, LL.D.

EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR
UNITED TYPOTHETÆ OF AMERICA



PUBLISHED BY THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
1918



COPYRIGHT, 1918
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
CHICAGO, ILL.



PREFACE


The principal purpose of this book is to give in brief form the rules and
usages governing the division of words when the measure will not permit
ending the word and the line together. This matter is considered in its
relation to good spacing and to the legibility of the printed page.

Leading up to the discussion will be found some consideration of spelling,
the formation of syllables, pronunciation, and accent. This consideration
is necessarily brief, and no attempt has been made to give the rules for
spelling which are so frequently found in spelling books, or any of them.
In the writer's opinion such rules are of very little practical value. Good
spelling is not so much the result of remembering and applying rules as it
is of observation, practice, and memory. The lists of certain types of
troublesome words may be found useful for ready reference.

Syllable formation, pronunciation, and accent are considered because it is
hoped that the volumes of this series, particularly those in Part VI
(Correct Literary Composition) and Part VIII (History of Printing), will
contribute something to the general education of the apprentice as well as
to his skill in the trade.



CONTENTS


SPELLING

PRONUNCIATION

ACCENT

DIVISION OF WORDS

RULES FOR DIVISION OF WORDS

IMPORTANCE OF SPACING

DIVISION IN LINES OF DISPLAY

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

REVIEW QUESTIONS



DIVISION OF WORDS


The division of words when the words do not exactly fit the register of the
line has always been a source of trouble. In the days of the manuscript
makers devices such as crowding letters, reducing their size, or omitting
them altogether were freely used and words were arbitrarily divided when
the scribes so desired. During the greater part of the time every scribe
divided as he pleased, often in ways which seem very strange to us, like
the Greek custom of dividing always after a vowel and even dividing words
of one syllable. With the invention of printing, however, the number of
these devices was greatly diminished. It became a matter of spacing out the
line or dividing the word. Of course that meant frequent word division and
called for a systematization of rules with regard to this division. These
rules for division are necessarily based on spelling and syllabication.



SPELLING


The idea that there is one right way to combine the letters representing a
certain sound or group of sounds, that is a word, and that all other ways
are wrong and little short of shameful is a comparatively new idea among
us. The English speaking folk held down to a comparatively recent time that
any group of letters which approximately represented the sound was amply
sufficient as a symbol of the word. This sort of phonetic spelling was
commonly followed, and followed with great freedom. No obligation was
recognized to be consistent. In ordinary writing, such as letters and the
like, it is not unusual to find the same word spelled in a variety of ways
in the same document.

The last century has brought about an attempt to standardize spelling into
conventional forms any departure from which is regarded as highly
derogatory to the writer. In many cases these forms are fixed arbitrarily,
and in some there is even now disagreement among the highest authorities.
These difficulties and disagreements have two reasons: First, English is a
composite language, drawn from many sources and at many periods; hence
purely philological and etymological influences intervene, sometimes with
marked results, while there is a difference of opinion as to how far these
influences ought to prevail. Second, the English language uses an alphabet
which fits it very badly. Many letters have to do duty for the expression
of several sounds, and sometimes several of them have nearly or quite the
same sound. For example, there are a number of distinct sounds of _a_, _i_,
and _o_ while _g_ is sometimes indistinguishable from _j_ and _c_ from _k_.
This is not always a matter of modification of sounds by the sounds of
other letters combined with them. One has to learn how to pronounce
_cough_, _dough_, _enough_, and _plough_, the _ough_ having four distinct
sounds in these four words. Each one of these sounds, by the way, could be
exactly as well represented by another combination of letters which would
be unmistakable, viz., _coff_, _doe_, _enuff_, and _plow_. It is impossible
to tell except by the context either the pronunciation or the meaning of
_bow_. If the _ow_ is pronounced as in _low_, it means a weapon. If the
_ow_ is pronounced as in _cow_ it may mean either an obeisance or the front
end of a boat.

This standardization of spelling is unfortunately not quite complete,
although nearly so. Concerning the vast majority of the words in the
English language there is no difference of opinion. A few words are
differently spelled by different authorities. There are seven of these
authorities of the first rank, three English, Stormonth, the Imperial
Dictionary, and the Oxford Dictionary; and four American, Webster's
International, Worcester, the Century Dictionary, and the Standard
Dictionary. American printers may ordinarily disregard the English
authorities.

Any one of the four American authorities may be safely followed. In cases
where two spellings are given in the dictionary consulted, take the first
one. Ordinarily a printing office adopts one of the great authorities as a
standard and conforms the office style to it. All office copy will follow
it and all errors in copy from outside will be corrected by it. Spellings
differing from it will be regarded as errors, even though supported by
other authorities.

This rule, however, is subject to one very important exception. The author
has an unquestionable right to choose his own dictionary or to use any
spelling for which there is any authority, English or American. If he has
his own ideas on the subject of spelling he should be very careful that his
manuscript is correctly spelled according to his ideas, and clearly written
or typed. He should also indicate on the manuscript the authority he wishes
used in correcting the spelling in case of mistakes or illegible passages.
Every care should be taken to make the manuscript copy as correct as
possible and as legible as possible. Such care may be very troublesome at
first, but it will result in great saving of expense.

In addition to the authorities named there are the rules and "reformed"
spellings adopted by the American Philological Association and published by
the United States Government. These are followed fully in some offices,
partly in others, and in many not at all. This is a question of the office
style and the author's wish. If copy is clear and spelled according to any
authority, it is the compositor's duty to follow it. If it is misspelled or
illegible he is to correct it according to the office style unless
otherwise directed by the author in writing. If furnished with such a
direction he is to follow it. This procedure will clear the compositor of
all blame. Any questions which then arise lie between the author and the
proofreader.

In the case of the reformed spellings, however, the departure from the
ordinary appearance of the words is so great that the author cannot be
allowed full freedom to set aside the office style. If he is paying for the
printing he may insist on his spelling. If he is contributing to a
periodical and the printing is done at the publisher's expense it is for
the publisher to determine the style of printing to be used.

Any full consideration of the question of reformed spelling is hardly in
place in this book. The author may perhaps be permitted one observation.
Innovation in the use of the English language would appear to be primarily
the work of scholars, and the adoption of such innovations would seem to
belong to the book printer rather than to the commercial printer. The
public mind as a whole is conservative. It is not hospitable to changes and
does not soon become aware of them, much less familiar with them. The
commercial printer makes his appeal to the mind of the general public. He
will do well to use a vehicle familiar, intelligible, and acceptable to it.

Correct spelling is mainly a matter of habit and observation. To a certain
extent it is a matter of careful pronunciation, but this is not always a
safe or even a possible guide. The vowels preceding or following the one on
which the primary accent falls, sometimes called obscure vowels, are so
slurringly pronounced that even a pedantic precision will hardly make it
possible to indicate clearly which vowel is used. The writer remembers
seeing an examination paper written by a fourth year medical student in
which the word _fever_ was spelled _fevor_. A moment's thought will show
that so far as pronunciation is concerned the word might be spelled
_fevar_, _fevir_, _fevor_, _fever_, or _fevur_ without any appreciable
difference. The correct spelling is merely a matter of observation.

The author has on his desk at the moment of writing these lines half a
dozen good books, each containing a set of rules for spelling. From these
it would be easy to compile a set of fairly good rules. Each of these
rules, however, has exceptions, in some cases quite numerous. To remember
these rules with their exceptions would be a considerable mental task and
to apply them would be cumbrous and time consuming. The effort would
probably resolve itself into an actual learning of the words which present
difficulties. The best way to become a good speller is to form the habit
of careful reading, observing the form of every word as it passes before
the eye and so unconsciously fixing it in the memory. The dictionary should
be consulted whenever there is any doubt.

If you are to write a word, call up a mental picture of it, and if the
picture is not perfectly clear go to the dictionary and fix a correct image
of it in your mind. Be careful to pronounce every word you use as correctly
as possible and you will get all the aid pronunciation can give you.
Careless speaking and careless reading are the two great sources of
incorrect spelling.

The following tables will be found useful in settling practice with regard
to certain troublesome classes of words.


I

American usage tends to the termination _-ize_ where English usage often
sanctions _-ise_. Use the termination _-ise_ in

advertise
advise
appraise
apprise (_to inform_)
arise
chastise
circumcise
comprise
compromise
demise
devise
disfranchise
disguise
emprise
enfranchise
enterprise
exercise
exorcise
franchise
improvise
incise
merchandise
premise
reprise
revise
rise
supervise
surmise
surprise

Use the termination _-ize_ or _-yze_ in

aggrandize
agonize
analyze
anatomize
anglicize
apologize
apostrophize
apprize (_to value_)
authorize
baptize
brutalize
canonize
catechize
catholicize
cauterize
centralize
characterize
christianize
civilize
colonize
criticize
crystallize
demoralize
dogmatize
economize
emphasize
epitomize
equalize
eulogize
evangelize
extemporize
familiarize
fertilize
fossilize
fraternize
galvanize
generalize
gormandize
harmonize
immortalize
italicize
jeopardize
legalize
liberalize
localize
magnetize
memorialize
mesmerize
metamorphize
methodize
minimize
modernize
monopolize
moralize
nationalize
naturalize
neutralize
organize
ostracize
paralyze
particularize
pasteurize
patronize
philosophize
plagiarize
pulverize
realize
recognize
reorganize
revolutionize
satirize
scandalize
scrutinize
signalize
solemnize
soliloquize
specialize
spiritualize
standardize
stigmatize
subsidize
summarize
syllogize
symbolize
sympathize
tantalize
temporize
tranquilize
tyrannize
universalize
utilize
vaporize
vitalize
vocalize
vulcanize
vulgarize

II

Use the termination _-ible_ in the following words:

accessible
admissible
appetible
apprehensible
audible
cessible
coercible
compatible
competible
comprehensible
compressible
conceptible
contemptible
contractible
controvertible
convertible
convincible
corrigible
corrosible
corruptible
credible
decoctible
deducible
defeasible
defensible
descendible
destructible
digestible
discernible
distensible
divisible
docible
edible
effectible
eligible
eludible
enforcible
evincible
expansible
expressible
extendible
extensible
fallible
feasible
fencible
flexible
forcible
frangible
fusible
gullible
horrible
illegible
immiscible
impassible
intelligible
irascible
legible
miscible
negligible
partible
passible (_susceptible_)
perceptible
permissible
persuasible
pervertible
plausible
possible
producible
reducible
reflexible
refrangible
remissible
reprehensible
resistible
responsible
reversible
revertible
risible
seducible
sensible
tangible
terrible
transmissible
visible

In all other cases use _-able_.


III

The following nouns end in _-er_.

abetter
abstracter
accepter
adapter
adviser
affirmer
aider
almoner
annoyer
arbiter
assenter
asserter
bailer
caster
censer (vessel)
concocter
condenser
conferrer
conjurer
consulter
continuer
contradicter
contriver
convener
conveyer
corrupter
covenanter
debater
defender
deliberater
deserter
desolater
deviser
discontinuer
disturber
entreater
exalter
exasperater
exciter
executer (_except in law_)
expecter
frequenter
granter
idolater
imposer
impugner
incenser
inflicter
insulter
interceder
interpreter
interrupter
inviter
jailer
lamenter
mortgager (_except in law_)
obliger
obstructer
obtruder
perfecter
perjurer
preventer
probationer
propeller
protester
recognizer
regrater
relater
respecter
sailer (_ship_)
sorcerer
suggester
supplanter
upholder
vender

The following nouns end in _-or_.

abbreviator
abductor
abettor (_law_)
abominator
abrogator
accelerator
acceptor
accommodator
accumulator
actor
adjudicator
adjutor
administrator
admonitor
adulator
adulterator
aggregator
aggressor
agitator
amalgamator
animator
annotator
antecessor
apparitor
appreciator
arbitrator
assassinator
assessor
benefactor
bettor
calculator
calumniator
captor
castor (_oil_)
censor
coadjutor
collector
competitor
compositor
conductor
confessor
conqueror
conservator
consignor
conspirator
constrictor
constructor
contaminator
contemplator
continuator
contractor
contributor
corrector
councillor
counsellor
covenantor (_law_)
creator
creditor
cultivator
cunctator
debtor
decorator
delator (_law_)
denominator
denunciator
depredator
depressor
deteriorator
detractor
dictator
dilator
director
dissector
disseizor
disseminator
distributor
divisor
dominator
donor
effector
elector
elevator
elucidator
emulator
enactor
equivocator
escheator
estimator
exactor
excavator
exceptor
executor (_law_)
exhibitor
explorator
expositor
expostulator
extensor
extirpator
extractor
fabricator
factor
flexor
fornicator
fumigator
generator
gladiator
governor
grantor (_law_)
habitator
imitator
impostor
impropriator
inaugurator
inceptor
incisor
inheritor
initiator
innovator
insinuator
institutor
instructor
interlocutor
interpolator
interrogator
inventor
investor
juror
lector
legator
legislator
lessor
mediator
modulator
monitor
mortgagor (_law_)
multiplicator
narrator
navigator
negotiator
nonjuror
numerator
objector
obligor (_law_)
observator
operator
originator
pacificator
participator
peculator
percolator
perforator
perpetrator
persecutor
perturbator
possessor
preceptor
precursor
predecessor
predictor
prevaricator
procrastinator
procreator
procurator
professor
progenitor
projector
prolocutor
promulgator
propagator
propitiator
proprietor
prosecutor
protector
protractor
purveyor
recognizor (_law_)
recriminator
reflector
regenerator
regulator
relator (_law_)
rotator
sacrificator
sailor (_seaman_)
scrutator
sculptor
sectator
selector
senator
separator
sequestrator
servitor
solicitor
spectator
spoliator
sponsor
successor
suitor
supervisor
suppressor
surveyor
survivor
testator
tormentor
traitor
transgressor
translator
valuator
vendor (_law_)
venerator
ventilator
vindicator
violator
visitor


IV

Words which in their shortest form end in _-d_, _-de_, _-ge_, _-unit_,
_-rt_, _-se_, _-sr_, take the ending _-sion_; e.g., _abscind_,
_abscission_; _include_, _inclusion_; _emerge_, _emersion_; _remit_,
_remission_; _infuse_, _infusion_; _repress_, _repression_.

All others take the ending _-tion_.

The following are irregularities:

adhesion
assertion
attention
coercion
cohesion
crucifixion
declension
dimension
dissension
distortion
divulsion
expulsion
impulsion
insertion
intention
occasion
propulsion
recursion
repulsion
revulsion
scansion
suspicion
tension
version

Words ending in _-ance_, _-ence_; _-ancy_, _-ency_; _-ant_, and _-ent_,
often cause confusion when carelessly written.

The following is a list of the more common words with the _e_ form.

abducent
abhorrence, -ent
abluent
absent, -ence
absorbent
abstergent
abstinence, -ent
adherence, -ent
advertency, -ent
affluence, -ent
antecedence, -ent
apparent
appertinent
appetence, -ency
ardent
benevolence, -ent
circumference
coexistence
coherence, -ent
coincidence, -ent
competence, -ent
concurrence, -ent
condolence
conference
confidence, -ent
confluence, -ent
consentient
consequence
consequent
consistence, -ent
consistency
constituent
continence, -ent
convenience, -ent
corpulence, -ent
correspondence, -ent
currency, -ent
deference
delinquency, -ent
dependence, -ent
deponent
descendent (_adj._)
despondency, -ent
difference
diffidence, -ent
diffluent
efficiency, -ent
eminence, -ency
eminent
excellence, -ency
excellent
existence, -ent
expediency
feculence, -ent
flocculence, -ent
fluency, -ent
fraudulence, -ent
imminence, -ent
impatience, -ent
impellent
imprudence, -ent
impudence, -ent
incipience, -ent
incumbency, -ent
independence, -ent
indolence, -ent
inference
inherence, -ent
intermittent
iridescence, -ent
lambent
latency, -ent
leniency, -ent
magniloquence, -ent
malevolence, -ent
mellifluence, -ent
mollient
obedience, -ent
occurrence, -ent
omniscience, -ent
opulence, -ency
opulent
patience, -ent
pendent (_adj._)
pendency
penitence, -ent
permanence, -ent
permanency
pertinence, -ent
pestilence, -ent
poculent
portent
potency, -ent
precedence, -ent
preference
prescience, -ent
presence, -ent
presidency, -ent
proficiency, -ent
prominence, -ent
proponent
providence, -ent
prudence, -ent
purulence, -ent
quintessence
recurrence, -ent
reference
refluence, -ent
repellent
residence, -ency
resident
resolvent
resplendence, -ent
respondent
reverence, -ent
sentient
solvency, -ent
somnolency, -ent
subserviency, -ent
subsidence, -ency
subsistence, -ent
succulent
superintendence
superintendency
superintendent
tendence, -ency
transcendence, -ent
transcendency
transference
transient
transparency, -ent
transplendency, -ent
turbulence, -ent
vicegerency, -ent
virulence, -ent

Nearly all other words of this type take the _a_ form.

       *       *       *       *       *

The instructor should drill the pupils in spelling not only these "catch"
words, but a wide range of English words. These lessons may be taken to
advantage from some of the books mentioned in the list for supplementary
reading, from any other good spelling book, or even from the pages of any
well printed book or magazine. The words should be given out orally and
written down by the pupil. A good exercise is the reading of a paragraph
from any good book, or some stanza of poetry, the passage read to be taken
down by the pupil with care to spell, punctuate, and capitalize properly.

A number of topics sometimes treated under the head of spelling will be
found discussed in the "Printer's Manual of Style" (No. 41).



PRONUNCIATION


The English language is a difficult one to pronounce as well as to spell.
This arises from two causes. The English language has some sounds not
generally found in other languages, such as _w_ and _th_. As has already
been pointed out, the alphabet fits the language very badly. Careful
lexicographers indicate no less than seven sounds of _a_, five of _e_,
three of _i_, four of _o_ and six of _u_, as shown in the following table:

[=a] as in [=a]le
[Ia] as in sen[Ia]te
[)a] as in [)a]m
á as in ásk
[a:] as in [a:]ll
ä as in fäther
(a) as in fin(a)l

[=e] as in [=e]ve
[)e] as in [)e]nd
[Ie] as in ev[Ie]nt
[~e] as in f[~e]rn
(e) as in prud(e)nce

[=i] as in [=i]ce
[Ii] as in [Ii]dea
[)i] as in p[)i]n

[=o] as in [=o]ld
[Io] as in [Io]pen
[)o] as in [)o]dd
ô as in ôrb

[=u] as in [=u]se
[Iu] as in [Iu]nite
[)u] as in [)u]p
[u:] as in r[u:]de
[u=] as in f[u=]ll
û as in ûrn

In addition to these there are diphthongs, combinations of vowel sounds
pronounced as one syllable, such as

_ou_ as in _out_
_oi_ as in _oil_

There are also a number of digraphs or combinations of vowels or consonants
which have but one sound, such as

_ai_ as in _rain_
_eo_ as in _people_
_ou_ as in _soup_
_ou_ as in _soul_
_ph_ as in _phalanx_
_ch_ as in _chorus_ or _chair_

_C_ has two sounds, hard before _a_, _o_, and _u_, as in _cat_, _cot_, and
_cut_, and soft before _e_, _i_, and _y_, as in _cell_, _city_, and
_cycle_.

_G_ has two sounds, hard before _a_, _o_, and _u_, as in _gate_, _gone_,
and _gun_, soft before _e_, _i_, and _y_, as in _gem_, _gin_, and _gyve_,
although it is sometimes hard before _i_ as in _girl_.

_Ch_ is sometimes soft as in _chair_ and _arch_, and sometimes hard as in
_choir_.

_Th_ has two sounds, soft, or surd, as in _thin_ and _death_, and hard, or
sonant, as in _then_ and _smooth_.

_S_ has two sounds, soft, or surd, as in _soft_ and _this_, and hard, or
sonant, as in _has_ and _wise_.

We have, therefore, twenty-six letters with which to express fifty or more
sounds, not counting the digraphs and diphthongs.

Correct pronunciation depends upon three things, correct sounding of the
letters, correct division into syllables, and correct placing of the
accent.

A syllable is the smallest separately articulated, or pronounced, element
in speech, or one of the parts into which speech is broken. It consists of
a vowel alone or accompanied by one or more consonants and separated by
them, or by a pause, from a preceding or following vowel. This division of
words into syllables is indicated in dictionaries by the use of the hyphen
thus: _sub-trac-tion_, _co-or-din-ate_. It will be observed that in the
first of these examples the vowels are all separated by consonants, while
in the second two of them are separated by a pause only.

The English language has the further peculiarity of using _l_ and _n_ as
vowels in syllabication, as in _middle_ (_mid-dl_) and _reck-on_
(_reck-n_).

The division of words into syllables for pronunciation is generally, but
not always, the same as that which should be followed in case the word has
to be divided typographically. As these text-books are intended to help the
apprentice as a speaker and writer of English as well as a printer, it is
worth while to give some attention to syllabication for pronunciation
before proceeding to discuss typographical division.[The illustrations from
this point to the end of this section on page 16 are not typographic
divisions. They concern pronunciation only.]

Two letters forming a diphthong or digraph are not to be separated.
_Coin-age_ (_oi_ diphthong) but _co-in-ci-dence_ (_oi_ not a diphthong).
_Excess_ (_ss_ digraph, pronounced practically like a single s) gives
_ex-cess-es_, _ex-cess-ive_, etc. Whether or not the letters thus occurring
together form a diphthong or digraph will depend on the derivation of the
word, thus in _cat-head_ (verb), a nautical term, _th_ is not a digraph but
in _ca-the-dral_ _th_ is a digraph, as is usually the case with these two
letters. You would not say _cat-hed-ral_.

Two vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, coming together but sounded
separately belong to separate syllables.

_A-or-ta_, _co-op-er-ate_, but _coop-er-age_, _moi-e-ty_.

Do not end a syllable with

     (_a_) _c_ or _g_ when soft, _en-ti-cing_, but _dic-tion_, _wa-ges_
     but _wag-on_.

     (_b_) _t_, _s_, _z_, _c_, _sc_, _g_, and _d_, when followed by _i_
     or _e_ giving the sound of _sh_; _ra-tion-al_, _o-cean_, _re-gion_,
     _as-cen-sion_.

     (_c_) _d_, _s_, _t_, and _z_ when followed by _u_ giving the sound
     of _ch_, _sh_, _zh_, or _j_, _cen-sure_, _sei-zure_, _na-ture_,
     _ver-dure_.

Do not begin a syllable with

     (_a_) _x_ with the sound of _ks_ or _gs_, _anx-ious_, _ex-act-ly_.

     (_b_) _r_ preceded by _a_ or _e_; _par-ent_, _av-er-age_, but by
     exception, _pa-rent-al_.

     (_c_) Single _l_, _n_, or _v_, followed by _i_ with the sound of
     _y_ consonant; _fol-io_ (_fol-yo_), _gen-ius_ (_gen-yus_),
     _sav-ior_ (_sav-yor_).

Prefixes and suffixes are generally separated, _yel-low-ish_, _eat-able_,
_pre-lude_. This last word is sometimes pronounced _prel-ude_ and this
pronunciation has some dictionary support, but it is objectionable.

A consonant or digraph between two sounded vowels usually joins the
following vowel, _rea-son_, _no-ti-fy_, _mo-ther_.

When two or three consonants capable of beginning a syllable come between
two sounded vowels they may all be joined to the following vowel.

     (_a_) When the preceding vowel is long and accented; _en-a-bling_,
     _He-brew_, _i-dler_.

     (_b_) When the following vowel is an accented syllable; _o-blige_,
     _re-dress_.

When two or three consonants capable of beginning a syllable come between
two sounded vowels one may be joined to the preceding vowel.

     (_a_) When the vowel is short; _tab-let_, _res-cue_, _mus-ket_.

     (_b_) When the consonants are _st_, _str_, or _sp_, if either the
     preceding or following vowel is accented; _mis-tress_, _aus-tere_,
     _oys-ter_, _sus-pect_.

When a consonant is doubled (not forming a digraph) the two are generally
separated; _beg-gar_, _bril-liant_, _cun-ning_.

The old-fashioned method of oral spelling by syllables
_m-a-s-mas-t-e-r-ter-master_ will be found extremely useful in teaching
correct syllabication. It is recommended that constant use be made of it in
spelling drill.



ACCENT


When a word consists of two syllables one of them receives more stress of
voice than the other. This stress of voice is called accent. If the word
consists of three or more syllables there is usually another syllable
stressed in somewhat less degree. This is called a secondary accent. In
some cases there may even be a third accent if the word is very long;
_In'-come_, _val-e-tu'-di-na'-ri-an_. This fact arises from the tendency
natural to all human speech to take more or less musical forms. The
monotony of a series of stressed or of unstressed sounds would be
unbearable. The pronunciation of such a series would be a highly artificial
and very difficult performance. Correct pronunciation is very greatly
concerned with the proper placing of the accent. Indeed the meaning of a
familiar word may be quite obscured by a misplaced accent. For example,
_he-red'-it-ary_ is a very familiar word, but when pronounced
_he-red-it'-ary_, as it was habitually by a friend of the author, we have
to stop and think before catching the meaning.

The placing of the accent in English is subject to two general rules.

     I  The accent clings to the syllable which gives the meaning to the
     word, or in technical terms, the root syllable, _re-call'_,
     _in-stall'_, _in-stal-la'-tion_ (accent falling on the syllable
     which defines the word as a noun), _in-her'-it_.

     II  Where the root syllable is not known the accent falls on the
     first syllable, with secondary accents following at intervals to
     relieve the voice.

This last tendency not infrequently supersedes the other, partly from the
natural habit of the language, and partly because the average man is not an
etymologist and knows very little about the derivation of the words he
uses. For example, in Shakespeare's time English people followed the first
rule and said _re-ven'-ue_, but now we say _rev'-e-nue_.

These two rules will serve as a good general guide to accent. Attention
should be paid to the pronunciation of good speakers, and care taken to
follow it. In case of doubt the dictionary should be consulted and the
proper accent carefully fixed in the mind.



DIVISION OF WORDS


When the words do not fit the line what shall we do? The early printers
used only one kind of spaces. In setting a line of type they proceeded
until there was no room in the line for the next complete word of the copy.
Then they filled out the line with spaces and began the next word on the
next line. The length of the register being known in advance and nothing
but spaces being used in setting the line, the compositor was spared much
that makes composition at once a hard labor and a fine art. The result was
an irregular margin at the right such as we now see in typewritten letters.

With improvements in types and typography the squaring out of the page soon
came into fashion. In many cases this can be done by the careful use of
spaces so as to bring a certain number of words squarely out to the end of
the line. There have been printers who have insisted that this should
always be done. Their efforts have not, however, been successful. They
result in a freakish looking page with white spots in the lines where
letters or words have been spaced out to fill the register. It would be
better, on the whole, to resort to the practice of the old masters and
leave the right-hand margin irregular.

Ordinarily the difficulty has been met by dividing words and putting a part
of a word on one line and the rest of it on another, indicating the break
by a hyphen. The hyphen in such a case is always the closing character in
the first line. Clearly this division must be so made as to assist the
reader in his task. The primary purpose of all printing is to be read.
Anything that adds to the legibility of the printing improves it; anything
that detracts from its legibility harms it. How can we so divide words that
the legibility and intelligibility of the text will be maintained, the line
justified to register, and the beauty of the page enhanced? These
ends--legibility, intelligibility, and beauty--are the aims of all the
rules which have been devised for the division of words. These are the
things the reader will see and by them he will judge the results. He will
probably know nothing about the rules by which the compositor gains his
results. The compositor needs to know the rules, but to remember always
that they are only means by which to secure results.

There have been several attempts to devise systems of division, but no one
of them is thoroughly consistent or universally adopted.

One system requires the division of a word when the pronunciation will
permit on the vowel at the end of the syllable. It has the defect of making
no provision for syllables that end in consonants. Moreover, if rigorously
applied it would give us such divisions as _ca-pa-ci-ty_, _cata-stro-phe_,
_lexi-co-gra-pher_, _pre-fe-rence_, _pro-gno-sti-cate_, and _re-co-gnize_.

Another system requires the division of consolidated words at the junction
of their elements, for example:

_magn-animous_
_cata-clysm_
_found-ation_
_oceano-graphy_
_theo-logy_
_know-ledge_
_lexi-co-grapher_
_in-fer-ence_
_pre-judice_
_pro-gnos-ticate_
_pro-position_
_typo-graphy_

In some cases this rule would lead to queer looking divisions. More serious
objections are that the system does not provide for words that are long
enough to be divided but are yet not consolidated words, and, most of all,
that the average compositor is not an accomplished etymologist and knows
very little about the derivation, make up, and compounding of the words he
has to set up. He may be familiar, for example with the word _rheostat_,
but it would puzzle him to tell from what language it is derived, while the
word _enclave_ would probably send him to the dictionary for meaning as
well as derivation, unless he happened to be used to one particular kind of
writing.

Another system, and probably on the whole the best one, requires the
division of the word on the accented syllable.

_theol-ogy_
_catas-trophe_
_geog-raphy_
_lexi-cog-rapher_
_pref-erence_
_prog-nos-ticate_

It will be noted that some of these examples show division in more than one
place, that is on the syllables which bear either the primary or the
secondary accent. This rule does not provide for the cases when the
division must come on an unaccented syllable. The cases, however, when the
division cannot be made to come on either the syllable bearing the primary
accent or one bearing a secondary accent will be comparatively few.



RULES FOR DIVISION OF WORDS


I The general rule, then, is to divide according to pronunciation, not
according to etymology or any hard and fast rule.

     As far as possible, consistently with pronunciation and good
     spacing, divide according to meaning and derivation, where known.

     _un-even_, not _une-ven_, _auto-mobile_, not _automo-bile_,
     _en-abled_, not _ena-bled_.

II Divide on a vowel wherever practicable. In case a vowel alone forms a
syllable in the middle of a word it should be run into the first line.

_busi-ness_
_sepa-rate_
_criti-cism_
_particu-lar_
_colo-nies_
_dou-ble_
_pro-gress_
_pro-duct_
_noi-sy_
_wo-man_
_pa-tron_
_me-moir_

III When two consonants meet between vowels, and the syllable ends on one
consonant, the division may properly be made between the consonants, the
pronunciation determining the place of division.

_advan-tage_
_plain-tiff_
_Wil-liam_
_exces-sive_
_scur-rilous_
_mas-ter_
_gram-mar_
_profes-sor_
_moun-tain_

IV When three consonants come together between two vowels the first of
which is short, the division comes after the first consonant.

_han-dle_
_chil-dren_
_frus-trate_

V A single consonant between two vowels should be joined to the first
vowel, if it is short; if the first vowel is long the consonant goes with
the second.

_riv-er_
_ri-val_

VI Diphthongs should not be divided.

_peo-ple_
_Cae-sar_

VII Words compounded with a prefix should preferably be divided on the
prefix.

_dis-avow_
_in-herit_
_un-concern_

VIII The terminations _-able_, _-ible_, _-tion_, _-cial_, _-tive_, and
_-ive_ should go over to the next line.

_read-able_
_convert-ible_
_inten-tion_
_discuss-ion_

     The termination _-sion_ ordinarily goes over as in

_occa-sion_
_apprehen-sion_
_cis-sion_
_declen-sion_

     Occasionally, however, the strong emphasis needed for the _s_ will
     call for a different arrangement, as in _divis-ion_.

IX The terminations _-ing_, _-en_, _-ed_, _-er_, _-est_, and the plural
_-es_ go over to the next line except when the preceding consonant is
doubled, or when they follow _c_ or _g_ soft.

_lead-ing_
_beat-en_
_larg-er_, but
_lat-ter_
_for-cing_
_ran-ging_

X Do not end a line with _j_ or with _c_ or _g_ soft.

_pro-cess_
_ne-cessary_
_pre-judice_
_prog-eny_

XI Adjectives in _ical_ divide on the _i_.

_physi-cal_
_inimi-cal_

XII In derivatives of words ending in _-t_, the division follows the
accent.

_objec-tion_, not _object-ion_, _defec-tion_, not _defect-ion_, but
_respec-tively_, not _respect-ively_ and _distinc-tion_, not
_distinct-ion_.

XIII Never separate _c_ and _g_ from the vowels _e_, _i_, and _y_ upon
which their soft sound depends.

_re-li-gion_
_ca-pa-ci-ty_

XIV Never separate _q_ from _u_, _qu_ is a single sound.

XV Do not divide _nothing_.

XVI Do not divide words of four letters.

XVII Do not divide words of five or six letters if it can be avoided. Good
spacing, however, must be considered of first importance.

XVIII In wide measures (20 ems or more) do not divide so as to end or begin
a line with a syllable of two letters. Here again, however, good spacing is
the first consideration.

XIX Do not divide words of two syllables pronounced as one, including past
participles of short words.

_heaven_
_power_
_prayer_
_beamed_
_often_

XX Avoid additional hyphens in hyphenated words if possible.

_object-lesson_
_fellow-being_
_poverty-stricken_

XXI Do not separate a divisional mark (_a_), (_1_) from the matter to which
it pertains.

XXII Do not divide an amount stated in figures.

XXIII Do not divide proper names, especially those of persons, if it can be
avoided.

XXIV Do not divide initials or such combinations as _a.m._, _B.C._

XXV Do not divide the last word on a page so as to carry a part of it to
the next page.

XXVI Do not divide the last word of the last full line of a paragraph.

XXVII More than two divisions in successive lines should be avoided.

XXVIII Never divide at all if you can help it.



IMPORTANCE OF SPACING


It must always be remembered that good spacing is the first consideration.
Nothing is more offensive to the eye of a good judge of printing than bad
spacing. "Rivers" of white, dark spots, crowded black text, are very
serious blemishes to a page. An ordinary book page is a study in color, the
colors employed being black and white. Proper combination, balance, and
proportion are as important here as in places where a variety of colors is
employed. Many of the foregoing rules must be held subject to the
exigencies of proper spacing. A rigid adherence, for example, to the rule
that not more than two consecutive lines should end with divided words will
not justify a badly spaced, unsightly line. There are many things that look
worse than a hyphen at the end of the last full line in a paragraph.
Avoidance of dividing the last word on a page, however, would justify even
bad spacing, because of the gain to the reader. In the last resort, the
interests of the reader must always have first consideration.

Division is greatly affected by the length of the measure. A long measure,
18 or 20 ems or more, gives greater opportunity for arranging the spacing,
but, on the other hand, makes division on short syllables conspicuous and
out of proportion. Very short register, as in two-column Bibles or in cases
where illustrations are inserted in the text, presents very great
difficulties and often calls for division which would not be allowable
elsewhere. Such cases often call for the exercise of the greatest care and
ingenuity.

It often happens that the author can be of great assistance to the printer
in making a handsome page. A change of a phrase, or even of a word will
avoid a difficulty which cannot be avoided by a printer except at the cost
of bad division or bad spacing. If the author is a sensible person he will
gladly cooperate with the printer in giving his thoughts clothing
appropriate to their intrinsic beauty and value. After the printer has
exhausted his resources he should not hesitate to carry his troubles to the
author.



DIVISION IN LINES OF DISPLAY


As a rule division is never used in lines of display. In these cases the
display is the important thing. Every word long enough to be divided is
important enough to be displayed and emphasized. Divided words are weakened
words. Lines of irregular lengths are used of set purpose.

In title pages words of bold display must never be divided. In minor lines
of display, such as subtitles and summaries, words are often divided. A
subheading of two lines should never be divided in the first line when it
is possible to turn the full word over on to the next line. The shortening
of the first line is never a blemish, but a too short second line following
a hyphened first line is always a fault.

There is a school of ultra-artistic composition in book titles which
affects a solid squaring up and hesitates at no means to secure its
effects. It sets a definite measure and forces the lines into it, dividing
words arbitrarily and using no hyphen. This is a passing fancy and will
pass as eccentricities always pass. It should not be used unless the author
insists upon it. The man who pays the bills has a right to have his work
done as he pleases. The intelligent printer, however, will not allow the
peculiarities of the individual customer to affect his general practice.


_Note_

The pupil is referred to the appendix to DeVinne's "Correct Composition"
for rules for the division of French, German, and Spanish words. The same
appendix contains also a very excellent list of words which are spelled
differently by different authorities, together with divisions for them.



SUPPLEMENTARY READING


Correct Composition. By Theodore L. DeVinne. Oswald Publishing Co., New
York.

The Writer's Desk Book. By William Dana Orcutt. Frederick A. Stokes Co.,
New York.

A Manual for Writers. By John Matthews Manly and John Arthur Powell. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Worcester's New Pronouncing Spelling Book. The American Book Company, New
York.

The Art of Writing and Speaking the English Language: Dictionary of Errors.
By Sherwin Cody. The Old Greek Press, Chicago.

     (This is one of a series of six very excellent but inexpensive
     little books bearing the same general title and by the same author.
     They will be found very useful in connection with Part VI of the
     Typographic Technical Series generally.)



QUESTIONS


1. Is the spelling of English standardized?

2. How long have we considered correct spelling important?

3. What two causes exist for difficulties in spelling?

4. What are the principal English authorities?

5. What are the principal American authorities?

6. How are these authorities used in printing offices?

7. What are the rights and duties of the author in the matter of spelling?

8. What may be done in matter of "reformed" spelling?

9. What is a safe attitude for the commercial printer toward "reformed"
spelling, and why?

10. On what does correct spelling mainly depend?

11. What is the best way to become a good speller?

12. Why is English difficult to pronounce?

13. What is a diphthong?

14. What is a digraph?

15. What are the two sounds each of _c_, _g_, _de_, _th_, and _s_? Give
examples of each.

16. How many letters are there in the English alphabet and how many sounds
do they express?

17. Upon what does correct pronunciation depend?

18. What is a syllable, and of what does it consist?

19. What peculiar use is made of _l_ and _n_ in English?

20. How do we treat the parts of a diphthong or digraph?

21. How do we know whether or not these compounds are diphthongs or
digraphs?

22. What about vowel combinations?

23. With what should a syllable not end?

24. With what should a syllable not begin?

25. What is the rule regarding prefixes and suffixes?

26. How do we treat two or three consonants capable of beginning a
syllable?

27. How do we treat two or three consonants capable of ending a syllable?

28. How do we treat doubled consonants?

29. What is accent?

30. Do words ever have more than one accent, and why?

31. What are the two general rules for the placing of accent?

32. What did the early printers do when the words did not fit the line, and
why?

33. What practice came into use later?

34. What methods of doing this have been devised?

35. What considerations govern practice in this regard?

36. Give two systems of division which have been proposed.

37. What is the general rule for division?

38. What is the rule about vowels?

39. What is the rule about two consonants?

40. What is the rule about three consonants?

41. What should you do with a single consonant between two vowels?

42. How should you treat diphthongs?

43. What is the rule for words compounded with a prefix?

44. What should be done with the terminations _-able_, _-ible_, _-tion_,
_-cial_, _-tive_, _-ive_, and _-sion_?

45. What should be done with the terminations _-ing_, _-en_, _-ed_, _-er_,
and _-est_, and the plural _-es_?

46. What letters should not end a line?

47. How are adjectives in _ical_ treated?

48. How are derivatives of words ending in _-t_ treated?

49. What is the special rule about _c_ and _g_?

50. What is the rule about _qu_, and why?

51. What is the rule about _nothing_?

52. What is the rule about words of four letters?

53. How should you treat words of five or six letters?

54. What should be avoided in wide measures?

55. How should you treat words of two syllables pronounced as one?

56. How should hyphenated compounds be treated?

57. What should you do with divisional marks?

58. How should you treat amounts stated in figures?

59. How should you treat proper names?

60. How are initials and similar combinations treated?

61. What is the rule about the last word on a page?

62. What is the rule about the last word of the last full line of a
paragraph?

63. What is the rule about divisions in successive lines?

64. What is the rule about division generally?

65. What effect has spacing on deciding about division?

66. What effect has length of measure on division?

67. What can you do when the text presents unusual difficulty as to spacing
and division?

68. What is the rule about division in lines of display, and what is the
reason for it?

69. What is the usage with regard to division on title pages?

70. What can you say about eccentricities in the author's or customer's
ideas about division and lay-out?

       *       *       *       *       *

As in the other volumes of this Part, the instructor should not content
himself with having the student learn the rules. He should give drills in
spelling and pronunciation and should give problems in composition
involving the application of rules. Constant and prolonged practice is
indispensable to proficiency in all these matters.



TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES


The following list of publications, comprising the TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL
SERIES FOR APPRENTICES, has been prepared under the supervision of the
Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in trade
classes, in course of printing instruction, and by individuals.

Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of
authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers of
the United States--employers, journeymen, and apprentices--with a
comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable,
up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the
printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.

The publications of the series are of uniform size, 5×8 inches. Their
general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as
practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the particular
contents and other chief features of each volume will be found under each
title in the following list.

Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in each
publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary information and
essential facts necessary to an understanding of the subject. Care has been
taken to make all statements accurate and clear, with the purpose of
bringing essential information within the understanding of beginners in the
different fields of study. Wherever practicable, simple and well-defined
drawings and illustrations have been used to assist in giving additional
clearness to the text.

In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use in
trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is accompanied by
a list of Review Questions covering essential items of the subject matter.
A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the subject or department
treated is also added to many of the books.

These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.

Address all orders and inquiries to COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, UNITED
TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.


PART I--_Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials_

=1.= =Type: a Primer of Information=                   By A.A. Stewart

     Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes,
     font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture.
     44 pp.; illustrated; 74 review questions; glossary.

=2.= =Compositors' Tools and Materials=                By A.A. Stewart

     A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads,
     brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47 pp.;
     illustrated; 50 review questions; glossary.

=3.= =Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture=            By A.A. Stewart

     A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets,
     case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43 pp.;
     illustrated; 33 review questions; glossary.

=4.= =Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances=          By A.A. Stewart

     Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the
     press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59
     pp.; illustrated; 70 review questions; glossary.

=5.= =Proof Presses=                                   By A.A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the customary methods and machines
     for taking printers' proofs. 40 pp.; illustrated; 41 review
     questions; glossary.

=6.= =Platen Printing Presses=                         By Daniel Baker

     A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical
     construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand
     press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on
     automatic presses of small size. 51 pp.; illustrated; 49 review
     questions; glossary.

=7.= =Cylinder Printing Presses=                   By Herbert L. Baker

     Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types
     of cylinder printing machines. 64 pp.; illustrated; 47 review
     questions; glossary.

=8.= =Mechanical Feeders and Folders=           By William E. Spurrier

     The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines;
     with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.

=9.= =Power for Machinery in Printing Houses=         By Carl F. Scott

     A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and
     allied machinery with particular reference to electric drive. 53
     pp.; illustrated; 69 review questions; glossary.

=10.= =Paper Cutting Machines=                       By Niel Gray, Jr.

     A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever
     cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting
     paper, 70 pp.; illustrated; 115 review questions; glossary.

=11.= =Printers' Rollers=                              By A.A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and
     care of inking rollers. 46 pp.; illustrated; 61 review questions;
     glossary.

=12.= =Printing Inks=                                 By Philip Ruxton

     Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by
     permission from Circular No. 53, United States Bureau of
     Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the
     everyday use of printing inks by Philip Ruxton. 80 pp.; 100 review
     questions; glossary.

=13.= =How Paper is Made=                  By William Bond Wheelwright

     A primer of information about the materials and processes of
     manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68 pp.; illustrated;
     62 review questions; glossary.

=14.= =Relief Engravings=                         By Joseph P. Donovan

     Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of
     engraving; woodcut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for
     reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=15.= =Electrotyping and Stereotyping=
                                   By Harris B. Hatch and A.A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and
     stereotyping. 94 pp.; illustrated; 129 review questions;
     glossaries.


PART II--_Hand and Machine Composition_

=16.= =Typesetting=                                    By A.A. Stewart

     A handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying,
     spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=17.= =Printers' Proofs=                               By A.A. Stewart

     The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with
     observations on proofreading. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=18.= =First Steps in Job Composition=               By Camille DeVéze

     Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in getting his first
     jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make
     good display in typography. 63 pp.; examples; 55 review questions;
     glossary.

=19.= =General Job Composition=

     How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and
     miscellaneous work. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=20.= =Book Composition=                              By J.W. Bothwell

     Chapters from DeVinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition,"
     revised and arranged for this series of text-books by J.W. Bothwell
     of The DeVinne Press, New York. Part I: Composition of pages. Part
     II: Imposition of pages. 229 pp.; illustrated; 525 review
     questions; glossary.

=21.= =Tabular Composition=                           By Robert Seaver

     A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples
     of more difficult composition. 36 pp.; examples; 45 review
     questions.

=22.= =Applied Arithmetic=                             By E.E. Sheldon

     Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade,
     calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard
     tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with
     examples and exercises. 159 pp.

=23.= =Typecasting and Composing Machines=         A.W. Finlay, Editor

     Section I--The Linotype                         By L.A. Hornstein
     Section II--The Monotype                           By Joseph Hays
     Section III--The Intertype                    By Henry W. Cozzens
     Section IV--Other Typecasting and Typesetting Machines
                                                     By Frank H. Smith

     A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their
     mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART III--_Imposition and Stonework_

=24.= =Locking Forms for the Job Press=              By Frank S. Henry

     Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and
     about general work on the stone. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=25.= =Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press=       By Frank S. Henry

     Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods
     of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART IV--_Presswork_

=26.= =Making Ready on Platen Presses=                  By T.G. McGrew

     The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive
     features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan,
     regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting
     gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=27.= =Cylinder Presswork=                              By T.G. McGrew

     Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers,
     ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and
     overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=28.= =Pressroom Hints and Helps=                 By Charles L. Dunton

     Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with
     directions and useful information relating to a variety of
     printing-press problems. 87 pp.; 176 review questions.

=29.= =Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts=       By A.W. Elson

     A primer of information about the distinctive features of the
     relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing.
     84 pp.; illustrated; 100 review questions; glossary.


PART V--_Pamphlet and Book Binding_

=30.= =Pamphlet Binding=                        By Bancroft L. Goodwin

     A primer of information about the various operations employed in
     binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated;
     review questions; glossary.

=31.= =Book Binding=                                 By John J. Pleger

     Practical information about the usual operations in binding books;
     folding; gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case
     making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and
     blank-book binding. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.


PART VI--_Correct Literary Composition_

=32.= =Word Study and English Grammar=                By F.W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about words, their relations, and their
     uses. 68 pp.; 84 review questions; glossary.

=33.= =Punctuation=                                   By F.W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their
     use, both grammatically and typographically. 56 pp.; 59 review
     questions; glossary.

=34.= =Capitals=                                      By F.W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical
     typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48 pp.; 92 review
     questions; glossary.

=35.= =Division of Words=                             By F.W. Hamilton

     Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks
     on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42 pp.; 70 review
     questions.

=36.= =Compound Words=                                By F.W. Hamilton

     A study of the principles of compounding, the components of
     compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34 pp.; 62 review questions.

=37.= =Abbreviations and Signs=                       By F.W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with
     classified lists of those in most common use. 58 pp.; 32 review
     questions.

=38.= =The Uses of Italic=                            By F.W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the history and uses of italic
     letters. 31 pp.; 37 review questions.

=39.= =Proofreading=                                 By Arnold Levitas

     The technical phases of the proofreader's work; reading, marking,
     revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated by
     examples. 59 pp.; 69 review questions; glossary.

=40.= =Preparation of Printers' Copy=                 By F.W. Hamilton

     Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in
     preparing copy for the composing room. 36 pp.; 67 review questions.

=41.= =Printers' Manual of Style=

     A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions
     relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization,
     abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.

=42.= =The Printer's Dictionary=                       By A.A. Stewart

     A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about
     various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical
     terms explained. Illustrated.


PART VII--_Design, Color, and Lettering_

=43.= =Applied Design for Printers=                   By Harry L. Gage

     A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on
     the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats
     of harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and
     variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37 illustrations; 46
     review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=44.= =Elements of Typographic Design=                By Harry L. Gage

     Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building
     material of typography paper, types, ink, decorations and
     illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book,
     treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units.
     Illustrations; review questions, glossary; bibliography.

=45.= =Rudiments of Color in Printing=                By Harry L. Gage

     Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster
     effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with
     process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and
     chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value,
     intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory
     of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full
     color, and on various papers. Review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

=46.= =Lettering in Typography=                       By Harry L. Gage

     Printer's use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect.
     Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on
     type design. Classification of general forms in lettering.
     Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully
     illustrated; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=47.= =Typographic Design in Advertising=             By Harry L. Gage

     The printer's function in advertising. Precepts upon which
     advertising is based. Printer's analysis of his copy. Emphasis,
     legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising
     typography. Illustrations; review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

=48.= =Making Dummies and Layouts=                    By Harry L. Gage

     A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a
     proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout.
     Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy
     envelopes. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.


PART VIII--_History of Printing_

=49.= =Books Before Typography=                       By F.W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the
     history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62 pp.;
     illustrated; 64 review questions.

=50.= =The Invention of Typography=                   By F.W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about.
     64 pp.; 62 review questions.

=51.= =History of Printing--Part I=                   By F.W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the
     development of the book, the development of printers' materials,
     and the work of the great pioneers. 63 pp.; 55 review questions.

=52.= =History of Printing--Part II=                  By F.W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the printing industry
     from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship,
     internal conditions and industrial relations. 94 pp.; 128 review
     questions.

=53.= =Printing in England=                           By F.W. Hamilton

     A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present
     time. 89 pp.; 65 review questions.

=54.= =Printing in America=                           By F.W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes
     on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98 pp.;
     84 review questions.

=55.= =Type and Presses in America=                   By F.W. Hamilton

     A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and
     press building in the United States. 52 pp.; 61 review questions.


PART IX--_Cost Finding and Accounting_

=56.= =Elements of Cost in Printing=                By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

=57.= =Use of a Cost System=                        By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

=58.= =The Printer as a Merchant=                   By Henry P. Porter

     The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing.
     The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of
     the finished product. Review questions. Glossary.

=59.= =Fundamental Principles of Estimating=        By Henry P. Porter

     The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for
     estimating. Review questions. Glossary.

=60.= =Estimating and Selling=                      By Henry P. Porter

     An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their
     relation to selling. Review questions. Glossary.

=61.= =Accounting for Printers=                     By Henry P. Porter

     A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary
     books and accessory records. Review questions. Glossary.


PART X--_Miscellaneous_

=62.= =Health, Sanitation, and Safety=              By Henry P. Porter

     Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new;
     practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and
     rules for safety.

=63.= =Topical Index=                                 By F.W. Hamilton

     A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic
     Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

=64.= =Courses of Study=                              By F.W. Hamilton

     A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for
     classroom and shop work.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT


This series of Typographic Text-books is the result of the splendid
co-operation of a large number of firms and individuals engaged in the
printing business and its allied industries in the United States of
America.

The Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America, under whose
auspices the books have been prepared and published, acknowledges its
indebtedness for the generous assistance rendered by the many authors,
printers, and others identified with this work.

While due acknowledgment is made on the title and copyright pages of those
contributing to each book, the Committee nevertheless felt that a group
list of co-operating firms would be of interest.

The following list is not complete, as it includes only those who have
co-operated in the production of a portion of the volumes, constituting the
first printing. As soon as the entire list of books comprising the
Typographic Technical Series has been completed (which the Committee hopes
will be at an early date), the full list will be printed in each volume.

The Committee also desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to the many
subscribers to this Series who have patiently awaited its publication.

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION,
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA.

  HENRY P. PORTER, _Chairman_,
  E. LAWRENCE FELL,
  A.M. GLOSSBRENNER,
  J. CLYDE OSWALD,
  TOBY RUBOVITS.

FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, _Education Director_.



CONTRIBUTORS


=For Composition and Electrotypes=

ISAAC H. BLANCHARD COMPANY, New York, N.Y.
S.H. BURBANK & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
J.S. CUSHING & CO., Norwood, Mass.
THE DEVINNE PRESS, New York, N.Y.
R.R. DONNELLEY & SONS CO., Chicago, Ill.
GEO. H. ELLIS CO., Boston, Mass.
EVANS-WINTER-HEBB, Detroit, Mich.
FRANKLIN PRINTING COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
F.H. GILSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass.
STEPHEN GREENE & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
W.F. HALL PRINTING CO., Chicago, Ill.
J.B. LIPPINCOTT CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
MCCALLA & CO. INC., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE PATTESON PRESS, New York, New York
THE PLIMPTON PRESS, Norwood, Mass.
POOLE BROS., Chicago, Ill.
EDWARD STERN & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE STONE PRINTING & MFG. CO., Roanoke, Va.
C.D. TRAPHAGEN, Lincoln, Neb.
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, Mass.

=For Composition=

BOSTON TYPOTHETAE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, Boston, Mass.
WILLIAM F. FELL CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE KALKHOFF COMPANY, New York, N.Y.
OXFORD-PRINT, Boston, Mass.
TOBY RUBOVITS, Chicago, Ill.

=For Electrotypes=

BLOMGREN BROTHERS CO., Chicago, Ill.
FLOWER STEEL ELECTROTYPING CO., New York, N.Y.
C.J. PETERS & SON CO., Boston, Mass.
ROYAL ELECTROTYPE CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
H.C. WHITCOMB & CO., Boston, Mass.

=For Engravings=

AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS CO., Boston, Mass.
C.B. COTTRELL & SONS CO., Westerly, R.I.
GOLDING MANUFACTURING CO., Franklin, Mass.
HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Mass.
INLAND PRINTER CO., Chicago, Ill.
LANSTON MONOTYPE MACHINE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
MERGENTHALER LINOTYPE COMPANY, New York, N.Y.
GEO. H. MORRILL CO., Norwood, Mass.
OSWALD PUBLISHING CO., New York, N.Y.
THE PRINTING ART, Cambridge, Mass.
B.D. RISING PAPER COMPANY, Housatonic, Mass.
THE VANDERCOOK PRESS, Chicago, Ill.

=For Book Paper=

AMERICAN WRITING PAPER CO., Holyoke, Mass.
WEST VIRGINIA PULP & PAPER CO., Mechanicville, N.Y.





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