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Title: Punctuation - A Primer of Information about the Marks of Punctuation and - their Use Both Grammatically and Typographically
Author: Hamilton, Frederick W. (Frederick William), 1860-1940
Language: English
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TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES--PART VI, NO. 33


PUNCTUATION


A PRIMER _of_ INFORMATION ABOUT
THE MARKS OF PUNCTUATION AND
THEIR USE BOTH GRAMMATICALLY
AND TYPOGRAPHICALLY


BY

FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, LL. D.

EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR
UNITED TYPOTHETÆ OF AMERICA



PUBLISHED BY THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
1920



COPYRIGHT, 1920
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA
CHICAGO, ILL.



PREFACE


This book, like the others in this Part, makes no pretense at
originality. The author has studied and compared a considerable number
of works by the best authorities on the subject and has endeavored to
adapt the best of their contents to the use of printers' apprentices.
Every author has his own set of rules. At first sight, each set appears
inconsistent with those given by other writers. This inconsistency,
however, is generally more apparent than real. It arises from
differences in point of view, method of approach, and system of
classification.

An attempt has been made to compile from these sources a set of rules
which would bring before the pupil a correct and comprehensive view of
the best current usage, well illustrated by examples and accompanied by
practical typographical hints. The fact has been kept steadily in mind
that this book is intended for a certain definite class of pupils and no
pains have been spared to fit it to their needs.

Any treatise consisting, as this one necessarily does, mainly of rules
is practically useful only as a basis for constant and persistent drill.
It is, of course, valuable for reference, but the emergencies of the
day's work leave no time for consultation. These rules must be learned,
and not only learned but assimilated so that their correct application
becomes instinctive and instantaneous. This result can be secured only
by practice. Hence the emphasis laid on the exercises indicated in the
paragraphs introductory to the review questions.



CONTENTS

                              PAGE
INTRODUCTION                     1

THE COMMA                        7

THE SEMICOLON                   14

THE COLON                       16

THE PERIOD                      18

THE DASH                        20

THE PARENTHESIS                 23

THE BRACKET                     25

THE INTERROGATION               26

THE EXCLAMATION                 27

THE APOSTROPHE                  28

THE HYPHEN                      30

QUOTATION MARKS                 31

GENERAL REMARKS                 34

SUMMARY                         35

SUPPLEMENTARY READING           36

REVIEW QUESTIONS                37

GLOSSARY OF TERMS               40



PUNCTUATION



INTRODUCTION


Punctuation is a device by which we aid words to tell their story. Words
have done this at times without such aid, and may now do so, but at
constant risk of serious misunderstanding. This can be easily seen by
reading the following lines printed as they would have been written in
an ancient manuscript.

    WETHEPEOPLEOFTHEUNITEDSTATES
    INORDERTOFORMAMOREPERFECT
    UNIONESTABLISHJUSTICEINSUREDO
    MESTICTRANQUILITYPROVIDEFOR
    THECOMMONDEFENCEPROMOTETHE
    GENERALWELFAREANDSECURETHE
    BLESSINGSOFLIBERTYTOOURSELVES
    ANDOURPOSTERITYDOORDAINAND
    ESTABLISHTHISCONSTITUTIONFOR
    THEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA

Probably this particular passage could be read without danger of serious
misunderstanding. The two well-known passages which follow, however, are
cases where either a simple statement may become a ridiculous travesty
or a serious arraignment may become a eulogy by punctuation.

Punctuate the following so as to express two very different meanings:

    Lord Palmerston then entered on his head a white hat upon his feet
    large but well polished boots upon his brow a dark cloud in his hand
    a faithful walking stick in his eye a menacing glare saying nothing.

Punctuate the following in two ways: one to represent a very bad man,
and the other a very good man:

    He is an old man and experienced in vice and wickedness he is never
    found in opposing the works of iniquity he takes delight in the
    downfall of his neighbors he never rejoices in the prosperity of his
    fellow-creatures he is always ready to assist in destroying the
    peace of society he takes no pleasure in serving the Lord he is
    uncommonly diligent in sowing discord among his friends and
    acquaintances he takes no pride in laboring to promote the cause of
    Christianity he has not been negligent in endeavoring to stigmatize
    all public teachers he makes no effort to subdue his evil passions
    he strives hard to build up satans kingdom he lends no aid to the
    support of the gospel among the heathen he contributes largely to
    the devil he will never go to heaven he must go where he will
    receive the just recompense of reward.

Punctuation being intended for the sole purpose of making the text
intelligible and removing as many of the causes of possible
misunderstanding as may be, must depend in the last resort on a correct
understanding of the text. This understanding may be obtained from the
text itself, from the context, that is, the writing as a whole, or from
outside knowledge about the matter under consideration.

    The prisoner said the witness was a sneak thief.
    The prisoner, said the witness, was a sneak thief.

The meaning of this sentence depends entirely on the presence or absence
of the two commas.

Manuscript comes in to the printer hastily written by the customer,
author, or a reporter, or ticked over the telegraph wire, and there is
little or no punctuation. Probably the context will supply the needed
information and the line may be set up correctly. If there is no way of
finding out what the sentence means, follow copy. Insert no punctuation
marks which you are not sure are needed.

Punctuation as we know it is of recent invention. The practice of the
art of printing brought the necessity for a defined and systematized use
of the points which had, most of them, long been in existence, but which
had been used largely according to the personal preferences of the
scribes or copyists. With the coming of the new methods of book
reproduction came the recognized need for standardization and
systematization.

The most ancient inscriptions and manuscripts are merely strings of
letters, without spacing between words or sentences and without any
points of any sort, like the example on page 1.

The first mark to be used was the dot, or period. Its original purpose
was simply to furnish a resting place for the eye and the mind and so
help a little in the grouping of the letters into words, clauses, and
sentences, which the mind had hitherto been compelled to do unaided. It
was used at the end of a sentence, at the end of a clause, to indicate
abbreviations, to separate crowded words, especially where the sense was
ambiguous (ANICEMAN might be either AN ICE MAN or A NICE MAN), or even
as an æsthetic ornament between the letters of an inscription. In early
manuscripts the period is usually placed high ([Symbol: High Dot])
instead of low (.).

Sometimes a slanting mark (/) or a double dot (: or ..) was used to
indicate the end of an important section of the writing or even of a
sentence.

After a time spaces were introduced to show the grouping of the letters
and the words. At first the sentences were separated by spaces, then the
long words, and finally all words. In some languages, as in Italian,
there are still combinations of long and short words, such as the
combination of the pronoun with the verb, as in _datemi_, give me.

During the manuscript period different schools of copyists and even
different individuals used different marks and different systems of
pointing. For a considerable time the location of the dot indicated its
force. Placed high ([Symbol: High Dot]) it had the force of a period.
Placed in a middle position (·) it had the force of a comma. Placed low
(.) it had the force of a semicolon. The rule, however, was not
universally observed. A Latin manuscript of the seventh century has a
high dot ([Symbol: High Dot]) equivalent to a comma, a semicolon used as
at present, and a dot accompanied by another dot or a dash to indicate
the end of a sentence. A Latin manuscript of the ninth century shows the
comma and an inverted semicolon ([Symbol: Comma above Period]) having a
value between the semicolon and colon. Mediæval manuscript pointing,
therefore, approximates modern forms in places, but lacks
standardization into recognized systems.

The spread of printing brought new needs into prominence. The early
printers used the period at the end of the sentence, the colon, and
sometimes the slanting line (/). A reversed semicolon was used as a
question mark. Wynkyn de Worde, Caxton's successor in the printing
business in London, used five points in 1509. They were the period, the
semicolon, the comma, the "interrogative," and the parenthesis.

The systematization of punctuation is due mainly to the careful and
scholarly Aldus Manutius, who had opened a printing office in Venice in
1494. The great printers of the early day were great scholars as well.
For a very long time the chief concern of the printer was the opening of
the treasures of ancient thought to the world. They were therefore
compelled to be the students, critics, and editors of the old
manuscripts which served them as copy. They naturally took their
punctuation from the Greek grammarians, but sometimes with changed
meanings. The semicolon, for instance, is the Greek mark of
interrogation.

The period took its name from the Greek word [Greek: periodos],
periodos, meaning a division of a sentence or a thought, as we to-day
speak of an orator's eloquent periods.

The colon comes from the Greek [Greek: kôlon], kolon, meaning a limb.

The comma comes from the Greek [Greek: komma], komma, from [Greek:
koptein], to cut.

The semicolon, of course, is the half colon.

The question mark was made by writing the first and last letters of the
Latin word _questio_, a question, vertically, [Symbol: q over o]

The exclamation point was made by writing the letters of the Latin word
_Io_, joy, vertically, [Symbol: I over o]

The punctuation marks now in use and treated of in this book are as
follows:

  ,  comma
  ;  semicolon
  :  colon
  .  period
  ?  interrogation
  !  exclamation
( )  parentheses
[ ]  brackets
  '  apostrophe
  -  hyphen
 --  dash
" "  quotation marks

Other important marks used by printers, but not, strictly speaking,
marks of punctuation, are fully discussed in the volume on
_Abbreviations and Signs_ (No. 37) in this series.

There are two systems of punctuation in use, known respectively as the
close and open systems. The close, or stiff, system, using points
wherever they can be used, is of importance in precise composition of
every sort, such as laws, contracts, legal and ecclesiastical
statements, and the like. The open, or easy, system, omitting points
wherever they can be omitted, is used generally in the commoner forms of
composition. The tendency, sometimes pushed too far, is toward an
extremely open style of punctuation. The general attitude of writers and
printers may be summed up by saying that you must justify the use of a
punctuation mark, particularly a comma, rather than its omission.

But why should the printer bother himself about punctuation at all? Is
that not the business of the author, the editor, and the proofreader?
Strictly speaking, yes, but authors generally neglect punctuation, copy
is not usually carefully edited before going to the compositor, and
proofreader's corrections are expensive. It is therefore important that
the compositor should be intelligent about punctuation, whether he works
in a large or a small office.

The question of how far the printer may go in changing or supplying the
punctuation of copy will depend largely on circumstances. If the
condition of the manuscript is such as to show that the author really
intended to put a fully punctuated, correctly spelled, and properly
capitalized manuscript into the hands of the printer, he has a right to
have his wishes respected even if his ideas are not those which prevail
in the office. In such a case the compositor should follow copy
literally. If any questions are to be raised they should be discussed by
the proofreader _with the author_. The same rule holds in the case of
manuscripts edited before being sent to the composing room. The editor
has assumed all responsibility for the accuracy of the copy. In a great
many cases the copy will come in carelessly written and wholly unedited.
In such cases the compositor should punctuate as he goes along.

This is one of the tasks which subject the compositor to the test of
intelligence. Printing is not now and never will be a purely mechanical
trade. A printing office is no place for an apprentice who can not learn
to think.

This book contains a description of the functions of the punctuation
marks and the common rules for their use. Rules for the use of
punctuation marks are very different from rules for the use of purely
material things. They are useless unless applied intelligently. No set
of rules could be devised which would work automatically or relieve the
compositor from the necessity of thinking. Punctuation can never be
reduced to an exact science.

Certain general directions should be borne in mind by writers and
printers.

I. Learn by heart the rules for punctuation.

II. Note the peculiarities of the best writers and the best printers,
especially in contemporary examples.

III. Pay constant attention to punctuation in everything you write.

IV. Punctuate your sentence while you are writing it.

V. Understand what you are printing. _This is of supreme importance._
Punctuation is an aid to understanding. You cannot correctly punctuate
anything that you do not understand.



THE COMMA


The comma is by far the most difficult of all the punctuation marks to
use correctly. Usage varies greatly from time to time and among equally
good writers and printers at the same time. Certain general rules may be
stated and should be learned. Many cases, however, will arise in which
the rules will be differently interpreted and differently applied by
different people.

The comma is the least degree of separation possible of indication in
print. Its business is to define the particles and minor clauses of a
sentence. A progressive tendency may be seen in the printing of English
for centuries toward the elimination of commas, and the substitution of
the comma for the semicolon and of the semicolon for the colon. Compare
a page of the King James version of the Bible, especially in one of its
earlier printings, with a page of serious discourse of to-day and the
effects of the tendency will be easily seen. It is part of the general
tendency toward greater simplicity of expression which has developed the
clear and simple English of the best contemporary writers out of the
involved and ornate style of the period of Queen Elizabeth. An ornate
and involved style needs a good deal of punctuation to make it
intelligible, while a simple and direct style needs but very little
help.

This progressive change in the need for punctuation and in the attitude
of writers toward it accounts for the difference in usage and for the
difficulty in fixing rules to cover all cases. The present attitude
toward punctuation, especially the use of the comma, is one of aversion.
The writer is always held to justification of the presence of a comma
rather than of its absence. Nevertheless it is quite possible to go too
far in the omission of commas in ordinary writing. It is quite possible
to construct sentences in such a way as to avoid their use. The result
is a harsh and awkward style, unwarranted by any necessity. Ordinary
writing needs some use of commas to indicate the sense and to prevent
ambiguity.

Always remember that the real business of the comma is just that of
helping the meaning of the words and of preventing ambiguity by showing
clearly the separation and connection of words and phrases. If there is
possibility of misunderstanding without a comma, put one in. If the
words tell their story beyond possibility of misunderstanding without a
comma, there is no reason for its use. This rule will serve as a fairly
dependable guide in the absence of any well recognized rule for a
particular case, or where doubt exists as to the application of a rule.

Reversed, and usually in pairs, commas mark the beginning of a
quotation.

In numerical statements the comma separates Arabic figures by triplets
in classes of hundreds: $5,276,492.72.

In tabular work reversed commas are used as a sign for ditto.

    SCHOOLS TEACHING PRINTING

    Boston:  Boston Typothetæ School of Printing.
      "      Industrial Arts High School.
    Chicago: Lakeside Press School of Printing.
      "      Chicago Typothetæ School of Printing.
      "      Lane Technical High School.

The comma is placed between the words which it is intended to separate.
When used in connection with quotation marks, it is always placed inside
them.

    "Honesty is the best policy," as the proverb says.


_Rules for the Use of the Comma_

1. After each adjective or adverb in a series of two or more when not
connected by conjunctions.

    He was a tall, thin, dark man.

The rule holds when the last member of the series is preceded by a
conjunction.

    He was tall, thin, and dark.

The comma may be omitted when the words are combined into a single idea.

    A still hot day.
    An old black coat.

2. After each pair in a series of pairs of words or phrases not
connected by conjunctions.

    Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish,
    I give my hand and my heart to this vote.

    Formerly the master printer, his journeymen, even his apprentices,
    all lived in the same house.

3. To separate contrasted words.

    We rule by love, not by force.

4. Between two independent clauses connected by a conjunction.

    The press was out of order, but we managed to start it.

5. Before a conjunction when the word which preceded it is qualified by
an expression which does not qualify the word which follows the
conjunction.

    He quickly looked up, and spoke.

6. Between relative clauses which explain the antecedent, or which
introduce a new thought.

    The type, which was badly worn, was not fit for the job.

If the relative clause limits the meaning of the antecedent, but does
not explain it and does not add a new thought, the comma is not used.

    He did only that which he was told to do.

7. To separate parenthetical or intermediate expressions from the
context.

    The school, you may be glad to know, is very successful.
    The books, which I have read, are returned with gratitude.
    He was pleased, I suppose, with his work.

If the connection of such expressions is so close as to form one
connected idea the comma is not used.

    The press nearest the south window is out of order.

If the connection of such expressions is remote, parentheses are used.

    The Committee (appointed under vote of April 10, 1909) organized and
    proceeded with business.

8. To separate the co-ordinate clauses of compound sentences if such
clauses are simple in construction and closely related.

    He was kind, not indulgent, to his men; firm, but just, in
    discipline; courteous, but not familiar, to all.

9. To separate quotations, or similar brief expressions from the
preceding part of the sentence.

    Cæsar reported to the Senate, "I came, I saw, I conquered."
    The question is, What shall we do next?

10. To indicate the omission of the verb in compound sentences having a
common verb in several clauses.

    One man glories in his strength, another in his wealth, another in
    his learning.

11. To separate phrases containing the case absolute from the rest of
the sentence.

    The form having been locked up, a proof was taken.

12. Between words or phrases in apposition to each other.

    I refer to DeVinne, the great authority on Printing.

The comma is omitted when such an apposition is used as a single phrase
or a compound name.

    The poet Longfellow was born in Portland.
    The word _patriotic_ is now in extensive use.

13. After phrases and clauses which are placed at the beginning of a
sentence by inversion.

    Worn out by hard wear, the type at last became unfit for use.
    Ever since, he has been fond of celery.

The comma is omitted if the phrase thus used is very short.

    Of success there could be no doubt.

14. Introductory phrases beginning with _if_, _when_, _wherever_,
_whenever_, and the like should generally be separated from the rest of
the sentence by a comma, even when the statement may appear to be
direct.

    When a plain query has not been answered, it is best to follow copy.
    If the copy is hard to read, the compositor will set but few pages.

15. To separate introductory words and phrases and independent adverbs
from the rest of the sentence.

    Now, what are you going to do there?

    I think, also, Franklin owed much of his success to his strong
    common sense.

    This idea, however, had already been grasped by others.

Of course the comma is not used when these adverbs are used in the
ordinary way.

    They also serve who only stand and wait.
    This must be done, however contrary to our inclinations.

16. To separate words or phrases of direct address from the context.

    I submit, gentlemen, to your judgment.
    From today, my son, your future is in your own hands.

17. Between the name of a person and his title or degree.

    Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States.
    Charles W. Eliot, LL.D.

18. Before the word _of_ connecting a proper name with residence or
position.

    Senator Lodge, of Massachusetts.
    Elihu B. Root, Senator from New York.

19. After the salutatory phrase at the beginning of a letter, when
informal.

    Dear John,

When the salutation is formal a colon should be used.

    My dear Mr. Smith:

20. To separate the closing salutation of a formal letter from the rest
of the sentence of which it forms a part.

    Soliciting your continued patronage, I am,
                     Very sincerely yours,
                                    John W. Smith.

21. To separate two numbers.

    January 31, 1915.
    By the end of 1914, 7062 had been built.

22. To indicate an ellipsis.

    Subscription for the course, one dollar.

Exceptions to this rule are made in very brief sentences, especially in
advertisements: Tickets 25 cents. Price one dollar.

The foregoing rules for the use of the comma have been compiled from
those given by a considerable number of authorities. Further examination
of authorities would probably have added to the number and to the
complexity of these rules. No two sets of rules which have come under
the writer's observation are alike. Positive disagreements in modern
treatises on the subject are few. The whole matter, however, turns so
much on the use made of certain general principles and the field is so
vast that different writers vary greatly in their statements and even in
their ideas of what ought to be stated. It is very difficult to strike
the right mean between a set of rules too fragmentary and too incomplete
for any real guidance and a set of rules too long to be remembered and
used.

After all possible has been done to indicate the best usage it remains
true that the writer or the printer must, in the last resort, depend
very largely on himself for the proper application of certain
principles. The compositor may find himself helped, or restricted, by
the established style of the office, or he may at times be held to
strict following of copy. When left to himself he must be guided by the
following general principles:

I. The comma is used to separate for the eye what is separate in
thought.

The comma is not intended to break the matter up into lengths suited to
the breath of one reading aloud.

The comma is not an æsthetic device to improve the appearance of the
line.

II. The sole purpose of the comma is the unfolding of the sense of the
words.

III. The comma cannot be correctly used without a thorough understanding
of the sense of the words.

IV. In case of doubt, omit the comma.



THE SEMICOLON


The semicolon is used to denote a degree of separation greater than that
indicated by the comma, but less than that indicated by the colon. It
prevents the repetition of the comma and keeps apart the more important
members of the sentence. The semicolon is generally used in long
sentences, but may sometimes be properly used in short ones.


_Rules for the Use of the Semicolon_

1. When the members of a compound sentence are complex or contain
commas.

    Franklin, like many others, was a printer; but, unlike the others,
    he was student, statesman, and publicist as well.

    With ten per cent of this flour the bread acquired a slight flavor
    of rye; fifteen per cent gave it a dark color; a further addition
    made the baked crumb very hard.

    The meeting was composed of representatives from the following
    districts: Newton, 4 delegates, 2 substitutes; Dorchester, 6
    delegates, 3 substitutes; Quincy, 8 delegates, 4 substitutes;
    Brookline, 10 delegates, 5 substitutes.

2. When the members of a compound sentence contain statements distinct,
but not sufficiently distinct to be thrown into separate sentences.

    Sit thou a patient looker-on;
    Judge not the play before the play be done;
    Her plot has many changes; every day
    Speaks a new scene. The last act crowns the play.

3. When each of the members of a compound sentence makes a distinct
statement and has some dependence on statements in the other member or
members of the sentence.

    Wisdom hath builded her house; she hath hewn out her seven pillars;
    she hath killed her beasts; she hath mingled her wine; she hath
    furnished her table.

Each member of this sentence is nearly complete. It is not quite a full
and definite statement, but it is much more than a mere amplification
such as we might get by leaving out _she hath_ every time after the
first. In the former case we should use periods. In the latter we should
use commas.

4. A comma is ordinarily used between the clauses of a compound sentence
that are connected by a simple conjunction, but a semicolon may be used
between clauses connected by conjunctive adverbs. Compare the following
examples:

    The play was neither edifying nor interesting to him, and he decided
    to change his plans.

    The play was neither edifying nor interesting to him; therefore he
    decided to change his plans.

5. To indicate the chapter references in scriptural citations.

    Matt. i: 5, 7, 9; v: 1-10; xiv: 3, 8, 27.

The semicolon should always be put outside quotation marks unless it
forms a part of the quotation itself.

    "Take care of the cents and the dollars will take care of
    themselves"; a very wise old saying.



THE COLON


The colon marks the place of transition in a long sentence consisting of
many members and involving a logical turn of the thought. Both the colon
and semicolon are much less used now than formerly. The present tendency
is toward short, simple, clear sentences, with consequent little
punctuation, and that of the open style. Such sentences need little or
no aid to tell their story.


_Rules for the Use of the Colon_

1. Before _as_, _viz._, _that is_, _namely_, etc., when these words
introduce a series of particular terms in apposition with a general
term.

    The American flag has three colors: namely, red, white, and blue.

2. Between two members of a sentence when one or both are made up of two
or more clauses divided by semicolons.

    The Englishman was calm and self-possessed; his antagonist impulsive
    and self-confident: the Englishman was the product of a volunteer
    army of professional soldiers; his antagonist was the product of a
    drafted army of unwilling conscripts.

3. Before particular elements in a definite statement.

    Bad: He asked what caused the accident?
    Right: He asked, "What caused the accident?"

    Napoleon said to his army at the battle of the Pyramids: "Soldiers,
    forty centuries are looking down upon you."

    The duties of the superintendent are grouped under three heads:
    first, etc.

4. Before formal quotations.

    Write a short essay on the following topic: "What is wrong with our
    industrial system?"

When the formal introduction is brief, a comma may be used.

    St. Paul said, "Bear ye one another's burdens."

5. After the formal salutatory phrase at the opening of a letter.

    My dear Sir:

When the letter is informal use a comma.

    Dear John,

6. Between the chapter and verse in scriptural references.

    John xix: 22.

7. Between the city of publication and the name of the publisher in
literary references.

    "The Practice of Typography." New York: Oswald Publishing Company.

The colon has been similarly employed in the imprints on the title pages
of books.

    New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880.

DeVinne remarks upon this use of the colon that it is traditional and
can not be explained.

The colon is sometimes used between the hours and minutes in indicating
time, like: 11:42 a.m.

DeVinne does not approve of this, though other authorities give it as
the rule. It is probably better to use the period in spite of its use as
a decimal point, which use was probably the motive for seeking something
else to use in writing time indications. In railroad printing the hour
is often separated from the minutes by a simple space without any
punctuation.



THE PERIOD


The period, or full stop, marks the end of a declarative sentence. As a
sign it has several other uses which will appear in the paragraphs
following.


_Rules for the Use of the Period_

1. At the end of every sentence unless interrogative or exclamatory.

2. After abbreviations.

    Nicknames, _Sam_, _Tom_, etc., are not regarded as abbreviations.

    The metric symbols are treated as abbreviations but the chemical
    symbols are not. M. (metre) and mg. (milligram) but H_{2} O and
    Na Cl.

    Per cent is not regarded as an abbreviation.

    The names of book sizes (12mo 16mo) are not regarded as
    abbreviations.

The period is now generally omitted in display matter after

    Running heads,
    Cut-in side-notes,
    Central head-lines,
    Box heads in tables,
    Signatures at the end of letters.

The period is omitted

    After Roman numerals, even though they have the value of ordinals.

    After MS and similar symbols.

    In technical matter, after the recognized abbreviations for
    linguistic epochs. IE (Indo-European), MHG (Middle High German)

    and after titles of well-known publications indicated by initials
    such as AAAPS (Annals of the American Academy of Political Science).

When a parenthesis forms the end of a declarative sentence the period is
placed outside the parenthesis, as in the preceding example. A period is
placed inside a parenthesis only in two cases.

1. After an abbreviation.

    This was 50 years ago (i.e. 1860 A.D.)

2. At the end of an independent sentence lying entirely within the
parenthesis.

    Lincoln was at the height of his powers in 1860 (He was elected to
    the presidency at this time.)

When a sentence ends with a quotation, the period always goes inside the
quotation marks.

    I have just read DeVinne's "Practice of Typography."

The same rule applies to the use of the other low marks, comma,
semicolon, and colon, in connection with quotation marks. Unlike most
rules of grammar and punctuation, this rule does not rest on a logical
basis. It rests on purely typographic considerations, as the arrangement
of points indicated by the rule gives a better looking line than can be
secured by any other arrangement.


_Other Uses of the Period_

1. The period is used as a decimal point.

2. The period is used in groups, separated by spaces, to indicate an
ellipsis.

    He read as follows: "The gentleman said . . . .
    he was there and saw . . . . the act in question."



THE DASH


The dash is a very useful mark which has been greatly overworked by
careless writers. It is very easy to make in manuscript and serves as a
convenient cover for the writer's ignorance of what point should
properly be used.

The conspicuousness of the dash makes it a very useful mark for guiding
the eye of the reader to the unity of the sentence. It is particularly
useful in legal pleadings where there is much repetition of statement
and great elaboration of detail. In such cases commas, semicolons, and
even parentheses are so multiplied that the relation of the clauses is
lost sight of. The confusion thus arising may often be cleared up by
intelligent use of the dash.

The dash is sometimes used to connect a side heading with the text that
follows, or to connect the end of that text with the name of the writer.

    A RULE FOR PEACE.--If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live
    peaceably with all men.--_St. Paul._

The dash is sometimes used in catalogue work as a ditto mark.

    DE VINNE, THEODORE LOW. Historic Printing Types. New York, 1886.
    ----The Invention of Printing. Francis Hart & Co., New York, 1878.
    ----Plain Printing Types. Oswald Publishing Co., New York, 1914.

French printers use the dash in printing dialogue as a partial
substitute for quotation marks. Quotation marks are placed at the
beginning and end of the dialogue and a dash precedes each speech. This
form is used even if the dialogue is extended over many pages.


_Rules for the Use of the Dash_

1. To mark abrupt changes in sentiment and in construction.

    Have you ever heard--but how should you hear?

2. To mark pauses and repetitions used for dramatic or rhetorical
effect.

    They make a desert, and call it--peace.
    Thou, great Anna, whom three states obey,
    Who sometimes counsel takes--and sometimes tea.

3. To express in one sentence great contrariety of action or emotion or
to increase the speed of the discourse by a succession of snappy
phrases.

    She starts--she moves--she seems to feel
    The thrill of life along her keel.

In this connection DeVinne gives the following excellent example from
Sterne:

    Nature instantly ebbed again;--the film returned to its place;--the
    pulse fluttered,--stopped,--went on,--throbbed,--stopped
    again,--moved,--stopped,--Shall I go on?--No.

Attention may be called to Sterne's use of the semicolon and the comma
with the dash, a use now obsolete except in rare cases.

4. To separate the repetition or different amplifications of the same
statement.

    The infinite importance of what he has to do--the goading conviction
    that it must be done--the dreadful combination in his mind of both
    the necessity and the incapacity--the despair of crowding the
    concerns of an age into a moment--the impossibility of beginning a
    repentance which should have been completed--of setting about a
    peace which should have been concluded--of suing for a pardon which
    should have been obtained--all these complicated concerns
    intolerably augment the sufferings of the victims.

5. At the end of a series of phrases which depend upon a concluding
clause.

    Railroads and steamships, factories and warehouses, wealth and
    luxury--these are not civilization.

6. When a sentence is abruptly terminated.

    If I thought he said it I  would--

7. To precede expressions which are added to an apparently completed
sentence, but which refer to some previous part of the sentence.

    He wondered what the foreman would say--he had a way of saying the
    unexpected.

8. To connect extreme dates in time indication.

    The war of 1861--1865. The war of 1861-1865.

9. To define verse references in the Bible or page references in books.

    Matt. v: 1--11.  Matt. v: 1-11.
    See pp. 50--53.  See pp. 50-53.

NOTE. In instances such as given in the two preceding rules the en dash
may sometimes serve if the em dash appears too conspicuous.

10. A dash preceded by a colon is sometimes used before a long quotation
forming a new paragraph. In other cases no point need accompany the
dash.

The dash is sometimes used as a substitute for commas. Writers on the
subject say that this use occurs when the connection between the
parenthetical clause and the context is closer than would be indicated
by commas. The distinction, if real, is difficult to see. It would be
better if none but the most experienced writers attempted the use of the
dash in this way.

Dashes are often used instead of marks of parenthesis. It is better to
let each mark do its own work.



THE PARENTHESIS


The parenthesis, commonly used in pairs, encloses expressions which have
no essential connection with the rest of the sentence, but are important
to its full comprehension. It is liable to be neglected by writers
because the dash is easier to make, and by printers because it is
generally thought to mar the beauty of the line. Its distinct uses,
however, should not be neglected.


_Rules for the Use of the Parenthesis_

1. To introduce into a sentence matter which is not essentially
connected with the rest of the sentence, but aids in making it clear.

    Trouble began when the apprentice (who had been strictly forbidden
    to do so) undertook to do some work on his own account.

    This year (1914) saw the outbreak of a general war.

2. In reports of speeches to enclose the name of a person who has been
referred to, or to indicate expressions on the part of the audience.

    The honorable gentleman who has just spoken (Mr. Lodge) has no
    superior on this floor in his knowledge of international law.
    (Applause.)

3. Parentheses enclosing interrogation points or exclamation points are
sometimes introduced into a sentence to cast doubt on a statement or to
express surprise or contempt.

    He said that on the fifth of January (?) he was in New York.

    This most excellent (!) gentleman.

4. Parentheses are used, generally in pairs, sometimes singly, to
enclose the reference letters or figures used to mark division and
classification in arguments or in precise statements.

    This is done because: (a) it is clearer; (b) it is shorter.

These signs may be printed in several ways.

    (a) a) (^a) ^a) (1) 1) (^1) ^1)

The old-fashioned form of parenthesis, always made too thin, may need a
thin space between it and its adjoining character when it is placed too
close to any letter that nearly fills the body in height, as in
( Hall ). The space may not be needed when the proximate character has a
shoulder, as in ( Art), or when the parenthesis follows a period.)

The italic form of parenthesis is objectionable in book work.
Distinction is sought for the word in italic and not for the parenthesis
enclosing the word. The italic parenthesis may be used in job-work or
full display lines of italic letters.



THE BRACKET


Brackets are used in pairs, like the parentheses. In Job composition
either brackets or parentheses may be used, as suits the fancy or is
convenient. In descriptive text matter, however, brackets should not be
used where parentheses are clearly indicated.


_Rules for the Use of the Bracket_

1. To enclose words or phrases which are entirely independent of the
rest of the sentence.

The enclosed words are usually comments, queries, corrections,
criticisms, or directions inserted by some person other than the
original writer or speaker.

2. To enclose passages of doubtful authenticity in reprints of early
manuscripts, special amendments to bills under legislative
consideration, or any other portions of a text which need peculiar
identification.

3. In legal or ecclesiastical papers to indicate numerical words which
may have to be changed, or to indicate where details are to be supplied.

    This is the first [_second or third_] publication.

    The officers shall remain in office [_here state the time_] or until
    their successors are duly qualified.

4. To avoid the confusion caused by a parenthesis within a parenthesis.

5. A single bracket is used to enclose the ending of a long line of
poetry which will not fit the register and has to be run over into an
adjoining line.

Doubt whether to use parentheses or brackets can usually be settled by
this general principle:

Parentheses always enclose remarks apparently made by the writer of the
text. Brackets enclose remarks certainly made by the editor or reporter
of that text.



THE INTERROGATION


The interrogation is the point that asks questions. It should always be
placed outside quotation marks unless it is a part of the quotation
itself.


_Rules for the Use of the Interrogation_

1. The interrogation point is used at the end of every direct question.

    Are you there?

Indirect questions, that is, statements that a question has been asked,
do not require the interrogation.

    He asked me if I was there.
    He asked the question, Are you there? and received no answer.

2. At the end of each of a series of questions thrown into a single
sentence.

    Did he speak in an ordinary tone? or shout? or whisper?

3. The interrogation, like a certain inflection in the voice, may
indicate that a sentence, though declarative in form, is really a
question and requires an answer.

    You are, of course, familiar with New York?



THE EXCLAMATION


The exclamation mark is the mark of strong emotion.


_Rules for the Use of the Exclamation_

1. After every expression of great surprise or emotion.

    Look, my lord! it comes!
    Angels and ministers of grace defend us!
    Alas! my father.

2. After interjections and other exclamatory words.

    Hurrah! Good! Away! Oh!

Where the exclamations are repeated without particularly emphasizing
each one, each may be followed by a comma except the last.

    Ha, ha, ha! That's a good joke!

O used as a vocative or to express a desire or imprecation does not call
for an exclamation.

    O John.
    Oh, yes.
    O, that night would come!

The exclamation is sometimes used in job printing to fill out a display
line or for other inadequate reasons. These uses should be avoided.



THE APOSTROPHE


The apostrophe is primarily the sign of the possessive case, but it has
several other uses.


_Rules for the Use of the Apostrophe_

1. The apostrophe for the possessive case is added only to nouns, not to
the pronouns, which have their distinct possessive forms. _Its_ is a
possessive pronoun. _It's_ is an abbreviation for _it is_. Do not use an
apostrophe with the possessive adjectives _hers_, _ours_, _yours_,
_theirs_, _its_.

2. All nouns in the singular and all nouns in the plural except those
ending in _s_ take an apostrophe and _s_ to form the possessive.

Nouns in the plural ending in _s_ take an apostrophe only to form the
possessive.

There is much difference of opinion as to the invariability of the rule
concerning singular nouns in _s_. DeVinne advises following the
pronunciation. Where the second _s_ is not pronounced, as often happens,
to avoid the prolonged hissing sound of another _s_, he recommends
omitting it in print.

    Moses' hat, for Moses's hat.
    For conscience' sake.

3. The apostrophe indicates the omission of letters in dialect, in
familiar dialogue, and in poetry.

    That's 'ow 'tis.
    'Twas ever thus.

When two words are practically made into one syllable, a thin space may
be put before the apostrophe, except that _don't_, _can't_, _won't_, and
_shan't_ are consolidated. This use of a space serves to distinguish
between the possessive in _s_ and the contraction of _is_.

    Where death 's abroad and sorrow 's close behind.

4. Figures expressing dates are often abbreviated, but it is not good
general practice.

    The boys of '61.
    It happened in '14.

5. The apostrophe is used to form the plural of letters and figures.

    Cross your t's and dot your i's.
    Make 3's and 5's more plain.

Except in these cases the apostrophe is not a plural sign and should be
so used only when it is intended to reproduce a dialect or
colloquialism.

    Wrong: All the Collins's were there.
    Right: All the Collinses were there.

The final _ed_ of past tenses and past participles was formerly
pronounced as a distinct syllable, thus: _clos-ed_, _belov-ed_, and this
pronunciation continued in common use in poetry long after it was
discontinued in prose. During this period of transition the modern
pronunciation was indicated by dropping the _e_ and using an apostrophe,
thus: _clos'd_, _belov'd_. It is now understood that while the full
spelling is to be used, the old pronunciation is not to be used unless
specially indicated by placing a grave accent over the _e_ of the last
syllable, thus: _belovèd_.

At the same period poets, especially, used an apostrophe to indicate a
silent _e_ as in _ev'ry_, but the usage is now obsolete.

Such abbreviations as _Dep't_, _Gov't_, _Sec'y_, and the like, are
objectionable in print. If such abbreviations are necessary it is better
to use the forms _Dept._, _Govt._, _Secy._



THE HYPHEN


The hyphen is used to join compound words; to mark the division of a
word too long to go entirely into one line; to separate the syllables of
words in order to show pronunciation; as a leader in tabular work. For
this last purpose the period is to be preferred to any other mark in
use. Tabular work without leaders is obscure and therefore
objectionable.



QUOTATION MARKS


Quotation marks are signs used to indicate that the writer is giving
exactly the words of another. A French printer named Morel used a comma
in the outer margin to indicate a quoted line about 1550. About a
century later another Frenchman, Ménage, introduced a mark («»)
resembling a double parenthesis but shorter. These marks were cast on
the middle of the type body so that they could be reversed for use at
either the beginning or the end of a quotation. The French have retained
these signs as their quotation marks ever since.

When the English adopted the use of quotation marks, they did not take
over the French marks, but substituted two inverted commas at the
beginning and two apostrophes at the end of the quoted paragraph. These
marks are typographically unsatisfactory. They are weak and therefore
hardly adequate to their purpose in aiding the understanding through the
eye. Being cast on the upper part of the type body, they leave a blank
space below and thus impair the beauty of the line and interfere with
good spacing. Certain rules for the position of quotation marks when
used with other marks are based upon these typographical considerations
rather than upon logical considerations.


_Rules for the Use of Quotation Marks_

1. Every direct quotation should be enclosed in double quotation marks.

    "I will go," said he, "if I can."

Reports of what another person has said when given in words other than
his own are called indirect quotations and take no marks.

    He said he would go if he could.

2. A quotation of several paragraphs requires quotation marks at the
beginning of each paragraph, but at the end of the last one only. In
legal documents, and sometimes elsewhere, quotations are defined and
emphasized by putting double commas at the beginning of every line of
the quotation.

The same result may be better obtained by using smaller type, or
indenting the quotation, or both.

3. A quotation included within another quotation should be enclosed by
single quotation marks.

    He said: "I heard him cry 'Put down that gun,' and then I heard a
    shot."

4. Titles of books, essays, art works, etc., are usually enclosed in
quotation marks. When the books are supposedly familiar to all readers,
the marks are not used. You would not print "The Bible," "Paradise
Lost," "The Iliad."

The titles of books, etc., are sometimes printed in italics instead of
being enclosed in quotation marks. This is a matter of office style
rather than of good or bad practice.

5. In writing about plays or books, the name of the work may be quoted
and the name of a character italicized. This is done to avoid confusion
between the play, the character, and the real person portrayed. "William
Tell" is a play. _William Tell_ is a character in fiction. William Tell
is a national hero of Switzerland.

This usage is by no means uniform; here again, we are on the ground of
office style.

6. Names of vessels are sometimes quoted, sometimes italicized, and
sometimes printed without distinguishing marks. Here we are once more on
the ground of office style.

7. Sentences from a foreign language are usually enclosed in quotation
marks. Single words or phrases are usually printed in italics. Both
italics and quotation marks should not be used except under certain
unusual conditions or when positively ordered by the author.

8. Quotation marks may be used with a word to which the writer desires
to attract particular attention or to which he desires to give an
unusual, technical, or ironical meaning.

    This "gentleman" needs a shave.

9. When a quotation is long or when it is introduced in a formal manner,
it is usually preceded by a colon. Isolated words or phrases call for no
point after the introductory clause. This is true when the phrases so
quoted run to considerable length, provided there is no break in the
flow of thought and expression.

10. When a quotation ends a sentence the quotation marks are placed
after the period.

The comma is always placed inside the quotation marks.

The position of the other marks (semicolon, colon, exclamation, and
interrogation) is determined by the sense. If they form a part of the
matter quoted, they go inside the quote marks; if not, they go outside
them.

11. When quotation marks occur at the beginning of a line of poetry,
they should go back into the indention space.

    "Breathes there a man with soul so dead
     Who never to himself hath said,
      'This is my own, my native land'?"

This illustration is also a good example of the use of marks in
combinations. We have first the single quotation marking the end of the
included quotation, then the interrogation which ends the sentence, then
the double quotation marks in their proper position.

Quotation marks should not be used needlessly. Very familiar expressions
from the best known authors, such as _to the manor born_, _a conscience
void of offence_, _with malice toward none and charity for all_, have
become part of the current coin of speech and need not be quoted. Lists
of words considered as words merely, lists of books or plays, and other
such copy should be printed without quotation marks. Sprinkling a page
thickly with quotation marks not only spoils its appearance but makes it
hard to read, without adding to its clearness of meaning.



GENERAL REMARKS


Book titles are now set without points. This fashion was introduced by
Pickering of London about 1850. This method is generally to the
advantage of the title page thus treated. It is possible, however, to
carry it too far and so to obscure the sense. Commas should not be
omitted from firm names, such as Longmans, Green & Co., as in case of
such omission there is no way of knowing whether one or more persons are
indicated. Punctuation should not be omitted from the titles which may
accompany an author's name, nor from the date if day and month are given
as well as year.

Avoid the doubling of points wherever possible. When an abbreviation
precedes a colon, omit the period. When an abbreviation precedes a
comma, the period is often inserted, but in many cases one or the other
can be dropped to advantage. The dash is not generally preceded by a
comma, semicolon, or colon in current printing usage. A comma should
rarely go before the first parenthesis. If used at all with the
parentheses, it should follow the closing parenthesis. When a complete
sentence is enclosed in parentheses, the period falls within the
parentheses. When the enclosure is a brief passage at the end of a
sentence, the period falls outside the parentheses.

Do not put a period before the apostrophe and the possessive _s_ as in
_Co.'s_. The word _Company_ may be abbreviated to _Co._ although it is
not desirable to do so if it can be avoided. The possessive of _Co._ is
_Co's_.



SUMMARY


1. A comma separates clauses, phrases, and particles.

2. A semicolon separates different statements.

3. A colon is the transition point of the sentence.

4. A period marks the end of a sentence.

5. A dash marks abruptness or irregularity.

6. Parentheses enclose interpolations in the sentence.

7. Brackets enclose irregularities in the sentence.

8. An interrogation asks a question for an answer.

9. An exclamation marks surprise.

10. An apostrophe marks elisions and the possessive case.

11. Quotation marks define quoted words.



SUPPLEMENTARY READING


Correct Composition. By DeVinne. Oswald Publishing Company, New York.

The Writer's Desk Book. By William Dana Orcutt. Frederick A. Stokes
Company, New York.

A Manual for Writers. By Manly and Powell. The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.

Composition and Rhetoric. By Lockwood and Emerson. Ginn & Co., Boston.

The Art of Writing and Speaking the English Language. By Sherwin Cody.
The Old Greek Press, Chicago.

Handbook of Composition. By Edwin D. Woolley. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston.

English Composition, Book One, Enlarged. By Stratton D. Brooks. Ginn &
Co., Boston.



REVIEW QUESTIONS


SUGGESTIONS TO STUDENTS AND INSTRUCTORS

The following questions, based on the contents of this pamphlet, are
intended to serve (1) as a guide to the study of the text, (2) as an aid
to the student in putting the information contained into definite
statements without actually memorizing the text, (3) as a means of
securing from the student a reproduction of the information in his own
words.

A careful following of the questions by the reader will insure full
acquaintance with every part of the text, avoiding the accidental
omission of what might be of value. These primers are so condensed that
nothing should be omitted.

In teaching from these books it is very important that these questions
and such others as may occur to the teacher should be made the basis of
frequent written work, and of final examinations.

The importance of written work cannot be overstated. It not only assures
knowledge of material, but the power to express that knowledge correctly
and in good form.

If this written work can be submitted to the teacher in printed form it
will be doubly useful.


QUESTIONS

1. What is punctuation?

2. How were ancient manuscripts written?

3. What were the first punctuation marks, and how were they used?

4. What can you tell about punctuation marks in the manuscript period?

5. What can you tell about the punctuation of the early printers?

6. Who may be said to have systematized punctuation?

7. Give the names of the principal punctuation marks and the meaning of
the names.

8. Give a list of the punctuation marks now in use and show how they are
made.

9. Name and describe the two systems of punctuation.

10. What is the tendency in the use of punctuation?

11. Why is it necessary for a compositor to understand punctuation?

12. When should the compositor follow copy and when not?

13. What five general directions should always be remembered?

14. What is the comma used for?

15. What is the tendency in the use of commas?

16. What are reversed commas used for?

17. How are commas used with numerals?

18. How are commas used in table work?

19. How are commas placed in relation to the words whose meaning they
help?

20. Give the rules for the use of the comma.

21. What are the four general principles for the use of the comma?

22. What is the semicolon used for?

23. Give the rules for the use of the semicolon.

24. What is the colon used for?

25. Give the rules for the use of the colon.

26. What is the period used for?

27. Where are periods used?

28. Where are periods omitted?

29. How do we use the period in connection with parentheses?

30. How do we use the period in connection with quotation marks?

31. What is the reason for this rule?

32. What other uses has the period?

33. What is the dash used for?

34. What special use of the dash is found in French books?

35. Give the rules for the use of the dash.

36. Are other punctuation marks used with the dash?

37. What is the parenthesis used for?

38. Give the rules for the use of the parenthesis.

39. When would you use letter spacing with the parenthesis, and why?

40. What use is made of the italic parenthesis?

41. Give the rules for the use of the brackets.

42. What is the distinction in use between the bracket and the
parenthesis?

43. What is the interrogation point used for?

44. Give the rules for the use of the interrogation.

45. What is the exclamation point used for?

46. Give the rules for the use of the exclamation.

47. What is the apostrophe used for?

48. Give the rules for the use of the apostrophe.

49. What is the use of the apostrophe in past participles?

50. What is said of the use of the apostrophe in such abbreviations as
_Dep't_?

51. What is the hyphen used for?

52. What are quotation marks used for?

53. Give the rules for the use of quotation marks.

54. When are quotation marks omitted?

55. How are book titles now punctuated?

56. Should punctuation marks be doubled?

57. How is the comma used with parentheses?

58. How would you punctuate the possessive of an abbreviation, for
example, _the Doctor's house_, using the abbreviation _Dr._?

59. Give a brief summarized statement of the use of the twelve
punctuation marks.



GLOSSARY


ABSOLUTE--Free from the usual grammatical relations.

ANTECEDENT--That to which a relative pronoun or a relative clause
refers.

APPOSITION--When the meaning of a noun or pronoun is made clear or
emphatic by the use of another noun or pronoun, the two are said to be
in apposition.

CLAUSE--A group of words consisting of a subject and predicate with
their modifiers and forming a part of a sentence; a sentence within a
sentence.

COMPOUND SENTENCE--A sentence consisting of several clauses.

COÖRDINATE CLAUSES--Clauses of equal rank.

DECLARATIVE SENTENCE--A sentence which states a fact.

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE--A sentence which utters an exclamation.

INDEPENDENT ADVERBS--Adverbs not in grammatical relations with other
words in the sentence.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE--A sentence which asks a question.

MINOR CLAUSES--Clauses other than the principal clause or main statement
of a sentence.

PARENTHETICAL--Incidental; not an essential part of a sentence or
statement.

PARTICLE--One of the minor parts of speech not inflected, that is, not
undergoing changes in form.

PHRASE--An expression consisting usually of but a few words, denoting a
single idea, or forming a separate part of a sentence.

RELATIVE CLAUSE--A clause joined to the rest of the sentence by a
relative pronoun.

SALUTATION--A form of greeting, especially at the beginning or end of a
letter.

SALUTATORY PHRASE--The words forming a salutation, or greeting.



TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES


The following list of publications, comprising the TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL
SERIES FOR APPRENTICES, has been prepared under the supervision of the
Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in trade
classes, in course of printing instruction, and by individuals.

Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of
authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers of
the United States--employers, journeymen, and apprentices--with a
comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable,
up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the
printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.

The publications of the series are of uniform size, 5×8 inches. Their
general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as
practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the particular
contents and other chief features of each volume will be found under each
title in the following list.

Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in each
publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary information and
essential facts necessary to an understanding of the subject. Care has been
taken to make all statements accurate and clear, with the purpose of
bringing essential information within the understanding of beginners in the
different fields of study. Wherever practicable, simple and well-defined
drawings and illustrations have been used to assist in giving additional
clearness to the text.

In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use in
trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is accompanied by
a list of Review Questions covering essential items of the subject matter.
A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the subject or department
treated is also added to many of the books.

These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.

Address all orders and inquiries to COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, UNITED
TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U. S. A.


PART I--_Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials_

=1.= =Type: a Primer of Information=                  By A. A. Stewart

     Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes,
     font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture.
     44 pp.; illustrated; 74 review questions; glossary.

=2.= =Compositors' Tools and Materials=               By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads,
     brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47 pp.;
     illustrated; 50 review questions; glossary.

=3.= =Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture=           By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets,
     case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43 pp.;
     illustrated; 33 review questions; glossary.

=4.= =Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances=         By A. A. Stewart

     Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the
     press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59
     pp.; illustrated; 70 review questions; glossary.

=5.= =Proof Presses=                                  By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the customary methods and machines
     for taking printers' proofs. 40 pp.; illustrated; 41 review
     questions; glossary.

=6.= =Platen Printing Presses=                         By Daniel Baker

     A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical
     construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand
     press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on
     automatic presses of small size. 51 pp.; illustrated; 49 review
     questions; glossary.

=7.= =Cylinder Printing Presses=                   By Herbert L. Baker

     Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types
     of cylinder printing machines. 64 pp.; illustrated; 47 review
     questions; glossary.

=8.= =Mechanical Feeders and Folders=           By William E. Spurrier

     The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines;
     with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.

=9.= =Power for Machinery in Printing Houses=         By Carl F. Scott

     A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and
     allied machinery with particular reference to electric drive. 53
     pp.; illustrated; 69 review questions; glossary.

=10.= =Paper Cutting Machines=                       By Niel Gray, Jr.

     A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever
     cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting
     paper, 70 pp.; illustrated; 115 review questions; glossary.

=11.= =Printers' Rollers=                             By A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and
     care of inking rollers. 46 pp.; illustrated; 61 review questions;
     glossary.

=12.= =Printing Inks=                                 By Philip Ruxton

     Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by
     permission from Circular No. 53, United States Bureau of
     Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the
     everyday use of printing inks by Philip Ruxton. 80 pp.; 100 review
     questions; glossary.

=13.= =How Paper is Made=                  By William Bond Wheelwright

     A primer of information about the materials and processes of
     manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68 pp.; illustrated;
     62 review questions; glossary.

=14.= =Relief Engravings=                         By Joseph P. Donovan

     Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of
     engraving; woodcut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for
     reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=15.= =Electrotyping and Sterotyping=
                                  By Harris B. Hatch and A. A. Stewart

     A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and
     stereotyping. 94 pp.; illustrated; 129 review questions;
     glossaries.


PART II--_Hand and Machine Composition_

=16.= =Typesetting=                                   By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying,
     spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting.
     Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=17.= =Printers' Proofs=                              By A. A. Stewart

     The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with
     observations on proofreading. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=18.= =First Steps in Job Composition=               By Camille DeVéze

     Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in setting his first
     jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make
     good display in typography. 63 pp.; examples; 55 review questions;
     glossary.

=19.= =General Job Composition=

     How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and
     miscellaneous work. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

=20.= =Book Composition=                             By J. W. Bothwell

     Chapters from DeVinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition,"
     revised and arranged for this series of text-books by J. W. Bothwell
     of The DeVinne Press, New York. Part I: Composition of pages. Part
     II: Imposition of pages. 229 pp.; illustrated; 525 review
     questions; glossary.

=21.= =Tabular Composition=                           By Robert Seaver

     A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples
     of more difficult composition. 36 pp.; examples; 45 review
     questions.

=22.= =Applied Arithmetic=                            By E. E. Sheldon

     Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade,
     calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard
     tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with
     examples and exercises. 159 pp.

=23.= =Typecasting and Composing Machines=        A. W. Finlay, Editor

     Section I--The Linotype                        By L. A. Hornstein
     Section II--The Monotype                           By Joseph Hays
     Section III--The Intertype                    By Henry W. Cozzens
     Section IV--Other Typecasting and Typesetting Machines
                                                     By Frank H. Smith

     A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their
     mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART III--_Imposition and Stonework_

=24.= =Locking Forms for the Job Press=              By Frank S. Henry

     Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and
     about general work on the stone. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=25.= =Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press=       By Frank S. Henry

     Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods
     of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; review
     questions; glossary.


PART IV--_Presswork_

=26.= =Making Ready on Platen Presses=                 By T. G. McGrew

     The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive
     features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan,
     regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting
     gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=27.= =Cylinder Presswork=                             By T. G. McGrew

     Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers,
     ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and
     overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; review questions;
     glossary.

=28.= =Pressroom Hints and Helps=                 By Charles L. Dunton

     Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with
     directions and useful information relating to a variety of
     printing-press problems. 87 pp.; 176 review questions.

=29.= =Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts=      By A. W. Elson

     A primer of information about the distinctive features of the
     relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing.
     84 pp.; illustrated; 100 review questions; glossary.


PART V--_Pamphlet and Book Binding_

=30.= =Pamphlet Binding=                        By Bancroft L. Goodwin

     A primer of information about the various operations employed in
     binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated;
     review questions; glossary.

=31.= =Book Binding=                                 By John J. Pleger

     Practical information about the usual operations in binding books;
     folding; gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case
     making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and
     blank-book binding. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.


PART VI--_Correct Literary Composition_

=32.= =Word Study and English Grammar=               By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about words, their relations, and their
     uses. 68 pp.; 84 review questions; glossary.

=33.= =Punctuation=                                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their
     use, both grammatically and typographically. 56 pp.; 59 review
     questions; glossary.

=34.= =Capitals=                                     By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical
     typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48 pp.; 92 review
     questions; glossary.

=35.= =Division of Words=                            By F. W. Hamilton

     Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks
     on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42 pp.; 70 review
     questions.

=36.= =Compound Words=                               By F. W. Hamilton

     A study of the principles of compounding, the components of
     compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34 pp.; 62 review questions.

=37.= =Abbreviations and Signs=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with
     classified lists of those in most common use. 58 pp.; 32 review
     questions.

=38.= =The Uses of Italic=                           By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the history and uses of italic
     letters. 31 pp.; 37 review questions.

=39.= =Proofreading=                                 By Arnold Levitas

     The technical phases of the proofreader's work; reading, marking,
     revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated by
     examples. 59 pp.; 69 review questions; glossary.

=40.= =Preparation of Printers' Copy=                By F. W. Hamilton

     Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in
     preparing copy for the composing room. 36 pp.; 67 review questions.

=41.= =Printers' Manual of Style=

     A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions
     relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization,
     abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.

=42.= =The Printer's Dictionary=                      By A. A. Stewart

     A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about
     various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical
     terms explained. Illustrated.


PART VII--_Design, Color, and Lettering_

=43.= =Applied Design for Printers=                   By Harry L. Gage

     A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on
     the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats
     of harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and
     variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37 illustrations; 46
     review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=44.= =Elements of Typographic Design=                By Harry L. Gage

     Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building
     material of typography paper, types, ink, decorations and
     illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book,
     treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units.
     Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=45.= =Rudiments of Color in Printing=                By Harry L. Gage

     Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster
     effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with
     process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and
     chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value,
     intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory
     of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full
     color, and on various papers. Review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

=46.= =Lettering in Typography=                       By Harry L. Gage

     Printer's use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect.
     Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on
     type design. Classification of general forms in lettering.
     Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully
     illustrated; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

=47.= =Typographic Design in Advertising=             By Harry L. Gage

     The printer's function in advertising. Precepts upon which
     advertising is based. Printer's analysis of his copy. Emphasis,
     legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising
     typography. Illustrations; review questions; glossary;
     bibliography.

=48.= =Making Dummies and Layouts=                    By Harry L. Gage

     A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a
     proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout.
     Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy
     envelopes. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.


PART VIII--_History of Printing_

=49.= =Books Before Typography=                      By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the
     history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62 pp.;
     illustrated; 64 review questions.

=50.= =The Invention of Typography=                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about.
     64 pp.; 62 review questions.

=51.= =History of Printing--Part I=                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the
     development of the book, the development of printers' materials,
     and the work of the great pioneers. 63 pp.; 55 review questions.

=52.= =History of Printing--Part II=                 By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the printing industry
     from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship,
     internal conditions and industrial relations. 94 pp.; 128 review
     questions.

=53.= =Printing in England=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present
     time. 89 pp.; 65 review questions.

=54.= =Printing in America=                          By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes
     on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98 pp.;
     84 review questions.

=55.= =Type and Presses in America=                  By F. W. Hamilton

     A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and
     press building in the United States. 52 pp.; 61 review questions.


PART IX--_Cost Finding and Accounting_

=56.= =Elements of Cost in Printing=                By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

=57.= =Use of a Cost System=                        By Henry P. Porter

     The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should
     show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions.
     Glossary.

=58.= =The Printer as a Merchant=                   By Henry P. Porter

     The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing.
     The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of
     the finished product. Review questions. Glossary.

=59.= =Fundamental Principles of Estimating=        By Henry P. Porter

     The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for
     estimating. Review questions. Glossary.

=60.= =Estimating and Selling=                      By Henry P. Porter

     An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their
     relation to selling. Review questions. Glossary.

=61.= =Accounting for Printers=                     By Henry P. Porter

     A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary
     books and accessory records. Review questions. Glossary.


PART X--_Miscellaneous_

=62.= =Health, Sanitation, and Safety=              By Henry P. Porter

     Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new;
     practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and
     rules for safety.

=63.= =Topical Index=                                By F. W. Hamilton

     A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic
     Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

=64.= =Courses of Study=                             By F. W. Hamilton

     A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for
     classroom and shop work.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT


This series of Typographic Text-books is the result of the splendid
co-operation of a large number of firms and individuals engaged in the
printing business and its allied industries in the United States of
America.

The Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America, under whose
auspices the books have been prepared and published, acknowledges its
indebtedness for the generous assistance rendered by the many authors,
printers, and others identified with this work.

While due acknowledgment is made on the title and copyright pages of those
contributing to each book, the Committee nevertheless felt that a group
list of co-operating firms would be of interest.

The following list is not complete, as it includes only those who have
co-operated in the production of a portion of the volumes, constituting the
first printing. As soon as the entire list of books comprising the
Typographic Technical Series has been completed (which the Committee hopes
will be at an early date), the full list will be printed in each volume.

The Committee also desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to the many
subscribers to this Series who have patiently awaited its publication.

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION,
UNITED TYPOTHETAE OF AMERICA.

  HENRY P. PORTER, _Chairman_,
  E. LAWRENCE FELL,
  A. M. GLOSSBRENNER,
  J. CLYDE OSWALD,
  TOBY RUBOVITS.

FREDERICK W. HAMILTON, _Education Director_.



CONTRIBUTORS


=For Composition and Electrotypes=

ISAAC H. BLANCHARD COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
S. H. BURBANK & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
J. S. CUSHING & CO., Norwood, Mass.
THE DEVINNE PRESS, New York, N. Y.
R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS CO., Chicago, Ill.
GEO. H. ELLIS CO., Boston, Mass.
EVANS-WINTER-HEBB, Detroit, Mich.
FRANKLIN PRINTING COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
F. H. GILSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass.
STEPHEN GREENE & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
W. F. HALL PRINTING CO., Chicago, Ill.
J. B. LIPPINCOTT CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
MCCALLA & CO. INC., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE PATTESON PRESS, New York, New York
THE PLIMPTON PRESS, Norwood, Mass.
POOLE BROS., Chicago, Ill.
EDWARD STERN & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE STONE PRINTING & MFG. CO., Roanoke, Va.
C. D. TRAPHAGEN, Lincoln, Neb.
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, Mass.

=For Composition=

BOSTON TYPOTHETAE SCHOOL OF PRINTING, Boston, Mass.
WILLIAM F. FELL CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
THE KALKHOFF COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
OXFORD-PRINT, Boston, Mass.
TOBY RUBOVITS, Chicago, Ill.

=For Electrotypes=

BLOMGREN BROTHERS CO., Chicago, Ill.
FLOWER STEEL ELECTROTYPING CO., New York, N. Y.
C. J. PETERS & SON CO., Boston, Mass.
ROYAL ELECTROTYPE CO., Philadelphia, Pa.
H. C. WHITCOMB & CO., Boston, Mass.

=For Engravings=

AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS CO., Boston, Mass.
C. B. COTTRELL & SONS CO., Westerly, R. I.
GOLDING MANUFACTURING CO., Franklin, Mass.
HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Cambridge, Mass.
INLAND PRINTER CO., Chicago, Ill.
LANSTON MONOTYPE MACHINE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa.
MERGENTHALER LINOTYPE COMPANY, New York, N. Y.
GEO. H. MORRILL CO., Norwood, Mass.
OSWALD PUBLISHING CO., New York, N. Y.
THE PRINTING ART, Cambridge, Mass.
B. D. RISING PAPER COMPANY, Housatonic, Mass.
THE VANDERCOOK PRESS, Chicago, Ill.

=For Book Paper=

AMERICAN WRITING PAPER CO., Holyoke, Mass.
WEST VIRGINIA PULP & PAPER CO., Mechanicville, N. Y.





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