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Title: A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents - Volume 9, part 1: Benjamin Harrison
Author: Harrison, Benjamin, 1833-1901
Language: English
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A COMPILATION OF THE MESSAGES AND PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENTS

BY JAMES D. RICHARDSON

A REPRESENTATIVE FROM THE STATE OF TENNESSEE

VOLUME IX

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF CONGRESS 1902



Prefatory Note

This volume comprises the papers of Benjamin Harrison and of Grover
Cleveland (second term). The events of these two Administrations of
eight years, though highly interesting, coming as they do down to March
4, 1897, are so recent and fresh in the public mind that I need not
comment on them.

This volume is the last of the series, except the Appendix and Index
volume. The work of compiling was begun by me in April, 1895, just after
the expiration of the Fifty-third Congress. I then anticipated that
I could complete the work easily within a year. Though I have given my
entire time to the undertaking when not engaged in my official duties as
a Representative, instead of completing it within the time mentioned it
has occupied me for nearly four years. The labor has been far greater
than the Joint Committee on Printing or I supposed it would be. I had
no idea of the difficulties to overcome in obtaining the Presidential
papers, especially the proclamations and Executive orders. In the
Prefatory Note to Volume I, I said: "I have sought to bring together
in the several volumes of the series all Presidential proclamations,
addresses, messages, and communications to Congress excepting those
nominating persons to office and those which simply transmit treaties,
and reports of heads of Departments which contain no recommendation
from the Executive." But after the appearance of Volume I, and while
preparing the contents of Volume II, I became convinced that I had made
a mistake and that the work to be exhaustive should comprise every
message of the Presidents transmitting reports of heads of Departments
and other communications, no matter how brief or unintelligible the
papers were in themselves, and that to make them intelligible I should
insert editorial footnotes explaining them. Having acted upon the other
idea in making up Volume I and a portion of Volume II, quite a number of
such brief papers were intentionally omitted. Being convinced that all
the papers of the Executives should be inserted, the plan was modified
accordingly, and the endeavor was thereafter made to publish all of
them.

In order, however, that the compilation may be "accurate and
exhaustive," I have gone back and collected all the papers--those which
should have appeared in Volumes I and II, as well as such as were
unintentionally omitted from the succeeding volumes--excepting those
simply making nominations, and shall publish them in an appendix in the
last volume. While this may occasion some little annoyance to the reader
who seeks such papers in chronological order, yet, inasmuch as they all
appear at their proper places in the alphabetical Index, it is not
believed that any serious inconvenience will result.

The editor and compiler has resorted to every possible avenue and has
spared no effort to procure all public Presidential papers from the
beginning of the Government to March 4, 1897. He has looked out for
every reference to the work in the public prints, has endeavored to read
all the criticisms made because of omissions, and has availed himself of
all the papers to which his attention has been called by anyone; has
diligently and earnestly sought for same himself, and has, as stated
above, inserted all omitted papers in the Appendix, so that he feels
warranted in saying that if he has given to the country all he could
find and all any critic or reviewer has been able to find he has done
his whole duty and reasonable complaint can not be made if any paper is
still omitted. In view of the inaccessibility of many of the messages by
reason of their not having been entered on the journals of either House
of Congress, and of the fact that the Government itself does not possess
many of the proclamations and Executive orders, it may be that there
yet can be found a few papers omitted from this work; but with much
confidence, amounting to a positive conviction, I feel that assurance
may be safely given that only a few, if any at all, have been
overlooked.

Congress in June, 1897, by law requested me to prepare an index to the
entire compilation. I am now and have been for over two years engaged in
this work. I hope to be able to give the last volume, which will include
the Appendix and Index, as above stated, to Congress and the public in
about two months. It would have been completed at this time but for the
fact that in addition to making the Index simply an index to the various
messages and other papers I have added to it the encyclopedic feature.
There will therefore be found in the Index, in alphabetical order, a
large number of encyclopedic definitions of words and phrases used by
the Chief Executives, and of other politico-historical subjects. It
is believed that this feature will not detract in any manner from the
Index, but, on the other hand, will add largely to its value and to
the value of the entire compilation.

JAMES D. RICHARDSON.

NOVEMBER 24, 1898.



Benjamin Harrison

March 4, 1889, to March 4, 1893



Benjamin Harrison

Benjamin Harrison, twenty-third President of the United States, was born
at North Bend, Ohio, August 20, 1833. His father, John Scott Harrison,
was the third son of General William Henry Harrison, ninth President
of the United States, who was the third and youngest son of Benjamin
Harrison, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. John
Scott Harrison was twice married, his second wife being Elizabeth,
daughter of Archibald Irwin, of Mercersburg, Pa. Benjamin was the second
son of this marriage. His parents were resolutely determined upon the
education of their children, and early in childhood Benjamin was placed
under private instruction at home. In 1847 he and his elder brother were
sent to a school on what was known as College Hill, a few miles from
Cincinnati. After remaining there two years entered the junior class at
Miami University, at Oxford, Ohio, where he was graduated in 1852. Was
married October 20, 1853, to Caroline Scott, daughter of Dr. John W.
Scott, who was then president of Oxford Female Seminary, from which Mrs.
Harrison was graduated in 1852. After studying law under Storer & Gwynne
in Cincinnati, Mr. Harrison was admitted to the bar in 1854, and began
the practice of his profession at Indianapolis, Ind., which has since
been his home. Was appointed crier of the Federal court, at a salary of
$2.50 per day. This was the first money he had ever earned. Jonathan
W. Gordon, one of the leaders of the Indianapolis bar, called young
Harrison to his assistance in the prosecution of a criminal tried for
burglary, and intrusted to him the plea for the State. He had taken
ample notes of the evidence, but the case was closed at night, and the
court-house being dimly lighted by tallow candles, he was unable to read
them when he arose to address the court and jury, paying them aside,
he depended entirely upon his memory and found it perfect. He made an
eloquent plea, produced a marked impression, and won the case. Since
then he has always been an impromptu speaker. Formed a partnership later
with William Wallace, but in 1860 the latter became clerk of Marion
County, and the firm was changed to Harrison & Fishback, which was
terminated by the entry of the senior partner into the Army in 1862.
Was chosen reporter of the supreme court of Indiana in 1860 on the
Republican ticket. This was his first active appearance in the political
field. When the Civil War began assisted in raising the Seventieth
Indiana Regiment of Volunteers, taking a second lieutenant's commission
and raising Company A of that regiment. Governor Morton tendered him
the command of the regiment and he was commissioned its colonel. Mr.
Harrison appointed a deputy reporter for the supreme court. In the
ensuing autumn the Democratic State committee, considering his position
as a civil officer vacated by this military appointment, nominated and
elected a successor, although his term of office had not expired. Their
view was sustained by the State supreme court; but in 1864, while
Colonel Harrison was in the Army, the people of Indiana gave their
judgment by reelecting him to the position of supreme-court reporter
by an overwhelming majority. In 1862 the Seventieth Indiana went into
the field with Harrison as its colonel, their objective point being
Bowling Green, Ky. It was brigaded with the Seventy-ninth Ohio and the
One hundred and second, One hundred and fifth, and One hundred and
twenty-ninth Illinois regiments, under Brigadier-General Ward, of
Kentucky, and this organization was kept unchanged until the close of
the war. Colonel Harrison had the right of the brigade, and his command
was occupied at first in guarding railroads and hunting guerrillas, his
energies being largely spent in drilling his men. When General Rosecrans
set out for Chattanooga General Ward was sent on duty to Nashville, and
on January 2, 1864, his command was called to the front. Later this
brigade became the First Brigade of the Third Division of the Twentieth
Army Corps, under General Hooker, General Ward resuming its command.
The campaign under General Sherman, upon which his regiment with its
associate forces entered, was directed, as is now known, against the
Confederate army of General Joseph E. Johnston, and not against any
particular place. In the Federal advance one of the severest actions was
fought at Resaca, Ga., May 14 and 15, 1864, and the Seventieth Indiana
led the assault. His regiment participated in the fights at New Hope
Church and at Golgotha Church, Kenesaw Mountain, and Peach Tree Creek.
When Atlanta was taken by Sherman, September 2, 1864, Colonel Harrison
received his first furlough to visit home, being assigned to special
duty in a canvass of the State to recruit for the forces in the field.
Returning to Chattanooga and then to Nashville, he was placed in command
of a provisional brigade held in reserve at the battle at the latter
place (December 15 and 16, 1864), and was but little engaged. When the
fight was over he was sent in pursuit of the Confederate general Hood.
Recalled from that pursuit, was next ordered to report to General
Sherman at Savannah. While passing through New York he succumbed to an
attack of scarlet fever, but in a few weeks was able to proceed on his
way. Joining Sherman at Goldsboro, N.C., resumed command of his old
brigade, and at the close of the war went with it to Washington to take
part in the grand review of the armies. Was duly mustered out of the
service June 8, 1865, not, however, until he had received a commission
as brevet brigadier-general, dated January 23, 1865. Returning to
Indianapolis after the war, resumed his office of reporter of the
supreme court, but in 1867 declined a renomination, preferring to devote
himself exclusively to the practice of law. Became a member of the
firm of Porter, Harrison & Fishback, and, after subsequent changes,
of that of Harrison, Miller & Elam. Took part in 1868 and 1872 in the
Presidential campaigns in support of General Grant, traveling over
Indiana and speaking to large audiences. In 1876 at first declined a
nomination for governor on the Republican ticket, consenting to run only
after the regular nominee had withdrawn. In this contest he received
almost 2,000 more votes than his associates, but was defeated. Was a
member of the Mississippi River Commission in 1879. In 1880, as chairman
of the Indiana delegation in the Republican national convention, he cast
nearly the entire vote of the State for James A. Garfield for President.
President Garfield offered him a place in his Cabinet, but he declined
it, preferring the United States Senatorship from Indiana, to which
he had just been chosen, and which he held from 1881 to 1887. In the
Senate he advocated the tariff views of his party, opposed President
Cleveland's vetoes of pension bills, urged the reconstruction and
upbuilding of the Navy, and labored and voted for civil-service reform.
Was a delegate at large to the Republican national convention in 1884,
and in 1888 at Chicago was nominated for the Presidency on the eighth
ballot. The nomination was made unanimous, and in November he was
elected, receiving 233 electoral votes to 168 for Grover Cleveland.
Was inaugurated March 4, 1889. Was again nominated for the Presidency
at the national Republican convention which met at Minneapolis in 1892,
but was defeated at the November election, receiving 145 electoral
votes, against 276 votes for Grover Cleveland. Upon his retiring from
office located at Indianapolis, Ind., where he now resides.

       *       *       *       *       *



INAUGURAL ADDRESS.

FELLOW CITIZENS: There is no constitutional or legal requirement that
the President shall take the oath of office in the presence of the
people, but there is so manifest an appropriateness in the public
induction to office of the chief executive officer of the nation that
from the beginning of the Government the people, to whose service the
official oath consecrates the officer, have been called to witness the
solemn ceremonial. The oath taken in the presence of the people becomes
a mutual covenant. The officer covenants to serve the whole body of the
people by a faithful execution of the laws, so that they may be the
unfailing defense and security of those who respect and observe them,
and that neither wealth, station, nor the power of combinations shall be
able to evade their just penalties or to wrest them from a beneficent
public purpose to serve the ends of cruelty or selfishness.

My promise is spoken; yours unspoken, but not the less real and solemn.
The people of every State have here their representatives. Surely I do
not misinterpret the spirit of the occasion when I assume that the
whole body of the people covenant with me and with each other to-day
to support and defend the Constitution and the Union of the States, to
yield willing obedience to all the laws and each to every other citizen
his equal civil and political rights. Entering thus solemnly into
covenant with each other, we may reverently invoke and confidently
expect the favor and help of Almighty God--that He will give to me
wisdom, strength, and fidelity, and to our people a spirit of fraternity
and a love of righteousness and peace.

This occasion derives peculiar interest from the fact that the
Presidential term which begins this day is the twenty-sixth under our
Constitution. The first inauguration of President Washington took place
in New York, where Congress was then sitting, on the 30th day of
April, 1789, having been deferred by reason of delays attending the
organization of the Congress and the canvass of the electoral vote. Our
people have already worthily observed the centennials of the Declaration
of Independence, of the battle of Yorktown, and of the adoption of the
Constitution, and will shortly celebrate in New York the institution of
the second great department of our constitutional scheme of government.
When the centennial of the institution of the judicial department,
by the organization of the Supreme Court, shall have been suitably
observed, as I trust it will be, our nation will have fully entered
its second century.

I will not attempt to note the marvelous and in great part happy
contrasts between our country as it steps over the threshold into its
second century of organized existence under the Constitution and that
weak but wisely ordered young nation that looked undauntedly down the
first century, when all its years stretched out before it.

Our people will not fail at this time to recall the incidents which
accompanied the institution of government under the Constitution, or to
find inspiration and guidance in the teachings and example of Washington
and his great associates, and hope and courage in the contrast which
thirty-eight populous and prosperous States offer to the thirteen
States, weak in everything except courage and the love of liberty, that
then fringed our Atlantic seaboard.

The Territory of Dakota has now a population greater than any of the
original States (except Virginia) and greater than the aggregate of
five of the smaller States in 1790. The center of population when our
national capital was located was east of Baltimore, and it was argued
by many well-informed persons that it would move eastward rather than
westward; yet in 1880 it was found to be near Cincinnati, and the new
census about to be taken will show another stride to the westward. That
which was the body has come to be only the rich fringe of the nation's
robe. But our growth has not been limited to territory, population, and
aggregate wealth, marvelous as it has been in each of those directions.
The masses of our people are better fed, clothed, and housed than their
fathers were. The facilities for popular education have been vastly
enlarged and more generally diffused.

The virtues of courage and patriotism have given recent proof of their
continued presence and increasing power in the hearts and over the
lives of our people. The influences of religion have been multiplied
and strengthened. The sweet offices of charity have greatly increased.
The virtue of temperance is held in higher estimation. We have not
attained an ideal condition. Not all of our people are happy and
prosperous; not all of them are virtuous and law-abiding. But on the
whole the opportunities offered to the individual to secure the comforts
of life are better than are found elsewhere and largely better than they
were here one hundred years ago.

The surrender of a large measure of sovereignty to the General
Government, effected by the adoption of the Constitution, was not
accomplished until the suggestions of reason were strongly reenforced
by the more imperative voice of experience. The divergent interests
of peace speedily demanded a "more perfect union," The merchant,
the shipmaster, and the manufacturer discovered and disclosed to our
statesmen and to the people that commercial emancipation must be added
to the political freedom which had been so bravely won. The commercial
policy of the mother country had not relaxed any of its hard and
oppressive features. To hold in check the development of our commercial
marine, to prevent or retard the establishment and growth of
manufactures in the States, and so to secure the American market for
their shops and the carrying trade for their ships, was the policy of
European statesmen, and was pursued with the most selfish vigor.

Petitions poured in upon Congress urging the imposition of
discriminating duties that should encourage the production of needed
things at home. The patriotism of the people, which no longer found a
field of exercise in war, was energetically directed to the duty of
equipping the young Republic for the defense of its independence by
making its people self-dependent. Societies for the promotion of home
manufactures and for encouraging the use of domestics in the dress of
the people were organized in many of the States. The revival at the end
of the century of the same patriotic interest in the preservation and
development of domestic industries and the defense of our working
people against injurious foreign competition is an incident worthy of
attention. It is not a departure but a return that we have witnessed.
The protective policy had then its opponents. The argument was made,
as now, that its benefits inured to particular classes or sections.

If the question became in any sense or at any time sectional, it was
only because slavery existed in some of the States. But for this there
was no reason why the cotton-producing States should not have led or
walked abreast with the New England States in the production of cotton
fabrics. There was this reason only why the States that divide with
Pennsylvania the mineral treasures of the great southeastern and
central mountain ranges should have been so tardy in bringing to the
smelting furnace and to the mill the coal and iron from their near
opposing hillsides. Mill fires were lighted at the funeral pile of
slavery. The emancipation proclamation was heard in the depths of the
earth as well as in the sky; men were made free, and material things
became our better servants.

The sectional element has happily been eliminated from the tariff
discussion. We have no longer States that are necessarily only planting
States. None are excluded from achieving that diversification of
pursuits among the people which brings wealth and contentment. The
cotton plantation will not be less valuable when the product is spun in
the country town by operatives whose necessities call for diversified
crops and create a home demand for garden and agricultural products.
Every new mine, furnace, and factory is an extension of the productive
capacity of the State more real and valuable than added territory.

Shall the prejudices and paralysis of slavery continue to hang upon the
skirts of progress? How long will those who rejoice that slavery no
longer exists cherish or tolerate the incapacities it put upon their
communities? I look hopefully to the continuance of our protective
system and to the consequent development of manufacturing and mining
enterprises in the States hitherto wholly given to agriculture as a
potent influence in the perfect unification of our people. The men who
have invested their capital in these enterprises, the farmers who have
felt the benefit of their neighborhood, and the men who work in shop or
field will not fail to find and to defend a community of interest.

Is it not quite possible that the farmers and the promoters of the
great mining and manufacturing enterprises which have recently been
established in the South may yet find that the free ballot of the
workingman, without distinction of race, is needed for their defense as
well as for his own? I do not doubt that if those men in the South who
now accept the tariff views of Clay and the constitutional expositions
of Webster would courageously avow and defend their real convictions
they would not find it difficult, by friendly instruction and
cooperation, to make the black man their efficient and safe ally, not
only in establishing correct principles in our national administration,
but in preserving for their local communities the benefits of social
order and economical and honest government. At least until the good
offices of kindness and education have been fairly tried the contrary
conclusion can not be plausibly urged.

I have altogether rejected the suggestion of a special Executive policy
for any section of our country. It is the duty of the Executive to
administer and enforce in the methods and by the instrumentalities
pointed out and provided by the Constitution all the laws enacted by
Congress. These laws are general and their administration should be
uniform and equal. As a citizen may not elect what laws he will obey,
neither may the Executive elect which he will enforce. The duty to
obey and to execute embraces the Constitution in its entirety and the
whole code of laws enacted under it. The evil example of permitting
individuals, corporations, or communities to nullify the laws because
they cross some selfish or local interest or prejudices is full of
danger, not only to the nation at large, but much more to those who use
this pernicious expedient to escape their just obligations or to obtain
an unjust advantage over others. They will presently themselves be
compelled to appeal to the law for protection, and those who would use
the law as a defense must not deny that use of it to others.

If our great corporations would more scrupulously observe their legal
limitations and duties, they would have less cause to complain of the
unlawful limitations of their rights or of violent interference with
their operations. The community that by concert, open or secret, among
its citizens denies to a portion of its members their plain rights
under the law has severed the only safe bond of social order and
prosperity. The evil works from a bad center both ways. It demoralizes
those who practice it and destroys the faith of those who suffer by
it in the efficiency of the law as a safe protector. The man in whose
breast that faith has been darkened is naturally the subject of
dangerous and uncanny suggestions. Those who use unlawful methods, if
moved by no higher motive than the selfishness that prompted them, may
well stop and inquire what is to be the end of this.

An unlawful expedient can not become a permanent condition of
government. If the educated and influential classes in a community
either practice or connive at the systematic violation of laws that
seem to them to cross their convenience, what can they expect when the
lesson that convenience or a supposed class interest is a sufficient
cause for lawlessness has been well learned by the ignorant classes?
A community where law is the rule of conduct and where courts, not
mobs, execute its penalties is the only attractive field for business
investments and honest labor.

Our naturalization laws should be so amended as to make the inquiry
into the character and good disposition of persons applying for
citizenship more careful and searching. Our existing laws have been in
their administration an unimpressive and often an unintelligible form.
We accept the man as a citizen without any knowledge of his fitness,
and he assumes the duties of citizenship without any knowledge as to
what they are. The privileges of American citizenship are so great and
its duties so grave that we may well insist upon a good knowledge of
every person applying for citizenship and a good knowledge by him of
our institutions. We should not cease to be hospitable to immigration,
but we should cease to be careless as to the character of it. There are
men of all races, even the best, whose coming is necessarily a burden
upon our public revenues or a threat to social order. These should be
identified and excluded.

We have happily maintained a policy of avoiding all interference with
European affairs. We have been only interested spectators of their
contentions in diplomacy and in war, ready to use our friendly offices
to promote peace, but never obtruding our advice and never attempting
unfairly to coin the distresses of other powers into commercial
advantage to ourselves. We have a just right to expect that our
European policy will be the American policy of European courts.

It is so manifestly incompatible with those precautions for our peace
and safety which all the great powers habitually observe and enforce in
matters affecting them that a shorter waterway between our eastern and
western seaboards should be dominated by any European Government that
we may confidently expect that such a purpose will not be entertained
by any friendly power.

We shall in the future, as in the past, use every endeavor to maintain
and enlarge our friendly relations with all the great powers, but they
will not expect us to look kindly upon any project that would leave
us subject to the dangers of a hostile observation or environment. We
have not sought to dominate or to absorb any of our weaker neighbors,
but rather to aid and encourage them to establish free and stable
governments resting upon the consent of their own people. We have a
clear right to expect, therefore, that no European Government will
seek to establish colonial dependencies upon the territory of these
independent American States. That which a sense of justice restrains
us from seeking they may be reasonably expected willingly to forego.

It must not be assumed, however, that our interests are so exclusively
American that our entire inattention to any events that may transpire
elsewhere can be taken for granted. Our citizens domiciled for purposes
of trade in all countries and in many of the islands of the sea demand
and will have our adequate care in their personal and commercial
rights. The necessities of our Navy require convenient coaling stations
and dock and harbor privileges. These and other trading privileges
we will feel free to obtain only by means that do not in any degree
partake of coercion, however feeble the government from which we ask
such concessions. But having fairly obtained them by methods and for
purposes entirely consistent with the most friendly disposition toward
all other powers, our consent will be necessary to any modification or
impairment of the concession.

We shall neither fail to respect the flag of any friendly nation or the
just rights of its citizens, nor to exact the like treatment for our
own. Calmness, justice, and consideration should characterize our
diplomacy. The offices of an intelligent diplomacy or of friendly
arbitration in proper cases should be adequate to the peaceful
adjustment of all international difficulties. By such methods we will
make our contribution to the world's peace, which no nation values more
highly, and avoid the opprobrium which must fall upon the nation that
ruthlessly breaks it.

The duty devolved by law upon the President to nominate and, by and
with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint all public
officers whose appointment is not otherwise provided for in the
Constitution or by act of Congress has become very burdensome and its
wise and efficient discharge full of difficulty. The civil list is so
large that a personal knowledge of any large number of the applicants
is impossible. The President must rely upon the representations of
others, and these are often made inconsiderately and without any just
sense of responsibility. I have a right, I think, to insist that those
who volunteer or are invited to give advice as to appointments shall
exercise consideration and fidelity. A high sense of duty and an
ambition to improve the service should characterize all public
officers.

There are many ways in which the convenience and comfort of those who
have business with our public offices may be promoted by a thoughtful
and obliging officer, and I shall expect those whom I may appoint to
justify their selection by a conspicuous efficiency in the discharge of
their duties. Honorable party service will certainly not be esteemed
by me a disqualification for public office, but it will in no case be
allowed to serve as a shield of official negligence, incompetency, or
delinquency. It is entirely creditable to seek public office by proper
methods and with proper motives, and all applicants will be treated
with consideration; but I shall need, and the heads of Departments will
need, time for inquiry and deliberation. Persistent importunity will
not, therefore, be the best support of an application for office. Heads
of Departments, bureaus, and all other public officers having any duty
connected therewith will be expected to enforce the civil-service
law fully and without evasion. Beyond this obvious duty I hope to do
something more to advance the reform of the civil service. The ideal,
or even my own ideal, I shall probably not attain. Retrospect will be
a safer basis of judgment than promises. We shall not, however, I am
sure, be able to put our civil service upon a nonpartisan basis until
we have secured an incumbency that fair-minded men of the opposition
will approve for impartiality and integrity. As the number of such in
the civil list is increased removals from office will diminish.

While a Treasury surplus is not the greatest evil, it is a serious
evil. Our revenue should be ample to meet the ordinary annual demands
upon our Treasury, with a sufficient margin for those extraordinary but
scarcely less imperative demands which arise now and then. Expenditure
should always be made with economy and only upon public necessity.
Wastefulness, profligacy, or favoritism in public expenditures is
criminal. But there is nothing in the condition of our country or of
our people to suggest that anything presently necessary to the public
prosperity, security, or honor should be unduly postponed.

It will be the duty of Congress wisely to forecast and estimate
these extraordinary demands, and, having added them to our ordinary
expenditures, to so adjust our revenue laws that no considerable annual
surplus will remain. We will fortunately be able to apply to the
redemption of the public debt any small and unforeseen excess of
revenue. This is better than to reduce our income below our necessary
expenditures, with the resulting choice between another change of our
revenue laws and an increase of the public debt. It is quite possible,
I am sure, to effect the necessary reduction in our revenues without
breaking down our protective tariff or seriously injuring any domestic
industry.

The construction of a sufficient number of modern war ships and of
their necessary armament should progress as rapidly as is consistent
with care and perfection in plans and workmanship. The spirit, courage,
and skill of our naval officers and seamen have many times in our
history given to weak ships and inefficient guns a rating greatly
beyond that of the naval list. That they will again do so upon occasion
I do not doubt; but they ought not, by premeditation or neglect, to
be left to the risks and exigencies of an unequal combat. We should
encourage the establishment of American steamship lines. The exchanges
of commerce demand stated, reliable, and rapid means of communication,
and until these are provided the development of our trade with the
States lying south of us is impossible.

Our pension laws should give more adequate and discriminating relief to
the Union soldiers and sailors and to their widows and orphans. Such
occasions as this should remind us that we owe everything to their
valor and sacrifice.

It is a subject of congratulation that there is a near prospect of the
admission into the Union of the Dakotas and Montana and Washington
Territories. This act of justice has been unreasonably delayed in the
case of some of them. The people who have settled these Territories are
intelligent, enterprising, and patriotic, and the accession of these
new States will add strength to the nation. It is due to the settlers
in the Territories who have availed themselves of the invitations of
our land laws to make homes upon the public domain that their titles
should be speedily adjusted and their honest entries confirmed by
patent.

It is very gratifying to observe the general interest now being
manifested in the reform of our election laws. Those who have been for
years calling attention to the pressing necessity of throwing about the
ballot box and about the elector further safeguards, in order that our
elections might not only be free and pure, but might clearly appear to
be so, will welcome the accession of any who did not so soon discover
the need of reform. The National Congress has not as yet taken control
of elections in that case over which the Constitution gives it
jurisdiction, but has accepted and adopted the election laws of the
several States, provided penalties for their violation and a method
of supervision. Only the inefficiency of the State laws or an unfair
partisan administration of them could suggest a departure from this
policy.

It was clearly, however, in the contemplation of the framers of the
Constitution that such an exigency might arise, and provision was
wisely made for it. The freedom of the ballot is a condition of our
national life, and no power vested in Congress or in the Executive to
secure or perpetuate it should remain unused upon occasion. The people
of all the Congressional districts have an equal interest that the
election in each shall truly express the views and wishes of a majority
of the qualified electors residing within it. The results of such
elections are not local, and the insistence of electors residing in
other districts that they shall be pure and free does not savor at all
of impertinence.

If in any of the States the public security is thought to be threatened
by ignorance among the electors, the obvious remedy is education. The
sympathy and help of our people will not be withheld from any community
struggling with special embarrassments or difficulties connected with
the suffrage if the remedies proposed proceed upon lawful lines and are
promoted by just and honorable methods. How shall those who practice
election frauds recover that respect for the sanctity of the ballot
which is the first condition and obligation of good citizenship? The
man who has come to regard the ballot box as a juggler's hat has
renounced his allegiance.

Let us exalt patriotism and moderate our party contentions. Let those
who would die for the flag on the field of battle give a better proof
of their patriotism and a higher glory to their country by promoting
fraternity and justice. A party success that is achieved by unfair
methods or by practices that partake of revolution is hurtful and
evanescent even from a party standpoint. We should hold our differing
opinions in mutual respect, and, having submitted them to the
arbitrament of the ballot, should accept an adverse judgment with the
same respect that we would have demanded of our opponents if the
decision had been in our favor.

No other people have a government more worthy of their respect and love
or a land so magnificent in extent, so pleasant to look upon, and so
full of generous suggestion to enterprise and labor. God has placed
upon our head a diadem and has laid at our feet power and wealth beyond
definition or calculation. But we must not forget that we take these
gifts upon the condition that justice and mercy shall hold the reins
of power and that the upward avenues of hope shall be free to all the
people.

I do not mistrust the future. Dangers have been in frequent
ambush along our path, but we have uncovered and vanquished them all.
Passion has swept some of our communities, but only to give us a new
demonstration that the great body of our people are stable, patriotic,
and law-abiding. No political party can long pursue advantage at the
expense of public honor or by rude and indecent methods without protest
and fatal disaffection in its own body. The peaceful agencies of
commerce are more fully revealing the necessary unity of all our
communities, and the increasing intercourse of our people is promoting
mutual respect. We shall find unalloyed pleasure in the revelation
which our next census will make of the swift development of the great
resources of some of the States. Each State will bring its generous
contribution to the great aggregate of the nation's increase. And when
the harvests from the fields, the cattle from the hills, and the ores
of the earth shall have been weighed, counted, and valued, we will turn
from them all to crown with the highest honor the State that has most
promoted education, virtue, justice, and patriotism among its people.

MARCH 4, 1889.



SPECIAL MESSAGE.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 17, 1889_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit herewith, in answer to the Senate resolution of the 11th
ultimo, a report of the Secretary of State, with accompanying papers,
in regard to the case of Louis Riel, otherwise known as Louis David
Riel.[1]

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 1: Tried and executed by the authorities of British North
America for complicity in the rebellion in the Northwest Territory.]



PROCLAMATIONS.


BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

The following provisions of the laws of the United States are hereby
published for the information of all concerned:

Section 1956, Revised Statutes, chapter 3, Title XXIII, enacts that--

  No person shall kill any otter, mink, marten, sable, or fur seal, or
  other fur-bearing animal within the limits of Alaska Territory or in
  the waters thereof; and every person guilty thereof shall for each
  offense be fined not less than $200 nor more than $1,000, or imprisoned
  not more than six months, or both; and all vessels, their tackle,
  apparel, furniture, and cargo, found engaged in violation of this
  section shall be forfeited; but the Secretary of the Treasury shall
  have power to authorize the killing of any such mink, marten, sable, or
  other fur-bearing animal, except fur seals, under such regulations as
  he may prescribe; and it shall be the duty of the Secretary to prevent
  the killing of any fur seal and to provide for the execution of the
  provisions of this section until it is otherwise provided by law, nor
  shall he grant any special privileges under this section.

       *       *       *       *       *

Section 3 of the act entitled "An act to provide for the protection
of the salmon fisheries of Alaska," approved March 2, 1889, provides
that--

  Sec. 3. That section 1956 of the Revised Statutes of the United
  States is hereby declared to include and apply to all the dominion of
  the United States in the waters of Bering Sea, and it shall be the
  duty of the President at a timely season in each year to issue his
  proclamation, and cause the same to be published for one month in at
  least one newspaper (if any such there be) published at each United
  States port of entry on the Pacific coast, warning all persons against
  entering such waters for the purpose of violating the provisions of
  said section, and he shall also cause one or more vessels of the United
  States to diligently cruise said waters and arrest all persons and
  seize all vessels found to be or to have been engaged in any violation
  of the laws of the United States therein.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
pursuant to the above-recited statutes, hereby warn all persons against
entering the waters of Bering Sea within the dominion of the United
States for the purpose of violating the provisions of said section
1956, Revised Statutes; and I hereby proclaim that all persons found
to be or have been engaged in any violation of the laws of the United
States in said waters will be arrested and punished as above provided,
and that all vessels so employed, their tackle, apparel, furniture,
and cargoes, will be seized and forfeited.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 21st day of March, 1889, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and thirteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 8 of the act of Congress approved March 3,
1885, entitled "An act making appropriations for the current and
contingent expenses of the Indian Department and for fulfilling treaty
stipulations with various Indian tribes for the year ending June 30,
1886, and for other purposes," certain articles of cession and
agreement were made and concluded at the city of Washington on the 19th
day of January, A.D. 1889, by and between the United States of America
and the Muscogee (or Creek) Nation of Indians, whereby the said
Muscogee (or Creek) Nation of Indians, for the consideration therein
mentioned, ceded and granted to the United States, without reservation
or condition, full and complete title to the entire western half of the
domain of the said Muscogee (or Creek) Nation in the Indian Territory,
lying west of the division line surveyed and established under the
treaty with said nation dated the 14th day of June, 1866, and also
granted and released to the United States all and every claim, estate,
right, or interest of any and every description in and to any and all
land and territory whatever, except so much of the former domain of
said Muscogee (or Creek) Nation as lies east of said line of division
surveyed and established as aforesaid, and then used and occupied as
the home of said nation, and which articles of cession and agreement
were duly accepted, ratified, and confirmed by said Muscogee (or Creek)
Nation of Indians by act of its council approved on the 31st day of
January, 1889, and by the United States by act of Congress approved
March 1, 1889; and

Whereas by section 12 of the act entitled "An act making appropriations
for the current and contingent expenses of the Indian Department and
for fulfilling treaty stipulations with various Indian tribes for the
year ending June 30, 1890, and for other purposes," approved March 2,
1889, a sum of money was appropriated to pay in full the Seminole
Nation of Indians for all the right, title, interest, and claim which
said nation of Indians might have in and to certain lands ceded by
article 3 of the treaty between the United States and said nation of
Indians concluded June 14, 1866, and proclaimed August 16, 1866, said
appropriation to become operative upon the execution by the duly
appointed delegates of said nation specially empowered to do so of
a release and conveyance to the United States of all right, title,
interest, and claim of said nation of Indians in and to said lands in
manner and form satisfactory to the President of the United States; and

Whereas said release and conveyance, bearing date the 16th day of
March, 1889, has been duly and fully executed, approved, and delivered;
and

Whereas section 13 of the act last aforesaid, relating to said lands,
provides as follows:

  SEC. 13. That the lands acquired by the United States under said
  agreement shall be a part of the public domain, to be disposed of only
  as herein provided; and sections 16 and 36 of each township, whether
  surveyed or unsurveyed, are hereby reserved for the use and benefit of
  the public schools to be established within the limits of said lands
  under such conditions and regulations as may be hereafter enacted by
  Congress.

  That the lands acquired by conveyance from the Seminole Indians
  hereunder, except the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections, shall be
  disposed of to actual settlers under the homestead laws only, except
  as herein otherwise provided (except that section 2301 of the Revised
  Statutes shall not apply): _And provided further_, That any person
  who, having attempted to but for any cause failed to secure a title
  in fee to a homestead under existing law, or who made entry under
  what is known as the commuted provision of the homestead law, shall
  be qualified to make a homestead entry upon said lands: _And provided
  further_, That the rights of honorably discharged Union soldiers and
  sailors in the late Civil War as defined and described in sections 2304
  and 2305 of the Revised Statutes shall not be abridged: _And provided
  further_, That each entry shall be in square form as nearly as
  practicable, and no person be permitted to enter more than one quarter
  section thereof, but until said lands are opened for settlement by
  proclamation of the President no person shall be permitted to enter
  upon and occupy the same, and no person violating this provision shall
  ever be permitted to enter any of said lands or acquire any right
  thereto.

  The Secretary of the Interior may, after said proclamation and not
  before, permit entry of said lands for town sites, under sections 2387
  and 2388 of the Revised Statutes, but no such entry shall embrace more
  than one half section of land.

  That all the foregoing provisions with reference to lands to be
  acquired from the Seminole Indians, including the provisions pertaining
  to forfeiture, shall apply to and regulate the disposal of the lands
  acquired from the Muscogee (or Creek) Indians by articles of cession
  and agreement made and concluded at the city of Washington on the 19th
  day of January, A.D. 1889.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by said act of Congress approved
March 2, 1889, aforesaid, do hereby declare and make known that so much
of the lands as aforesaid acquired from or conveyed by the Muscogee (or
Creek) Nation of Indians and from or by the Seminole Nation of Indians,
respectively, as is contained within the following-described
boundaries, viz:

Beginning at a point where the degree of longitude 98 west from
Greenwich, as surveyed in the years 1858 and 1871, intersects the
Canadian River; thence north along and with the said degree to a point
where the same intersects the Cimarron River; thence up said river,
along the right bank thereof, to a point where the same is intersected
by the south line of what is known as the Cherokee lands lying west of
the Arkansas River, or as the "Cherokee Outlet," said line being the
north line of the lands ceded by the Muscogee (or Creek) Nation of
Indians to the United States by the treaty of June 14, 1866; thence
east along said line to a point where the same intersects the west line
of the lands set apart as a reservation for the Pawnee Indians by act
of Congress approved April 10, 1876, being the range line between
ranges 4 and 5 east of the Indian meridian; thence south on said line
to a point where the same intersects the middle of the main channel of
the Cimarron River; thence up said river, along the middle of the main
channel thereof, to a point where the same intersects the range line
between range 1 east and range 1 west (being the Indian meridian),
which line forms the western boundary of the reservations set apart,
respectively, for the Iowa and Kickapoo Indians by Executive orders
dated, respectively, August 15, 1883; thence south along said range
line or meridian to a point where the same intersects the right bank
of the North Fork of the Canadian River; thence up said river, along
the right bank thereof, to a point where the same is intersected
by the west line of the reservation occupied by the Citizen band of
Pottawatomies and the Absentee Shawnee Indians, set apart under the
provisions of the treaty of February 27, 1867, between the United
States and the Pottawatomie tribe of Indians, and referred to in the
act of Congress approved May 23, 1872; thence south along the said west
line of the aforesaid reservation to a point where the same intersects
the middle of the main channel of the Canadian River; thence up the
said river, along the middle of the main channel thereof, to a point
opposite to the place of beginning, and thence north to the place of
beginning (saving and excepting 1 acre of land in square form in the
northwest corner of section 9, in township 16 north, range 2 west of
the Indian meridian in Indian Territory, and also 1 acre of land in the
southeast corner of the northwest quarter of section 15, township 16
north, range 7 west of the Indian meridian in the Indian Territory,
which last-described 2 acres are hereby reserved for Government use and
control), will, at and after the hour of 12 o'clock noon of the 22d day
of April next, and not before, be open for settlement, under the terms
of and subject to all the conditions, limitations, and restrictions
contained in said act of Congress approved March 2, 1889, and the laws
of the United States applicable thereto.

And it is hereby expressly declared and made known that no other
parts or portions of the lands embraced within the Indian Territory
than those herein specifically described and declared to be open to
settlement at the time above named and fixed are to be considered as
open to settlement under this proclamation or the act of March 2, 1889,
aforesaid.

And warning is hereby again expressly given that no person entering
upon and occupying said lands before said hour of 12 o'clock noon of
the 22d day of April, A.D. 1889, hereinbefore fixed, will ever be
permitted to enter any of said lands or acquire any rights thereto, and
that the officers of the United States will be required to strictly
enforce the provision of the act of Congress to the above effect.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 23d day of March, A.D. 1889, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
thirteenth.

[SEAL.]

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

A hundred years have passed since the Government which our forefathers
founded was formally organized. At noon on the 30th day of April, 1789,
in the city of New York, and in the presence of an assemblage of the
heroic men whose patriotic devotion had led the colonies to victory and
independence, George Washington took the oath of office as Chief
Magistrate of the new-born Republic. This impressive act was preceded
at 9 o'clock in the morning in all the churches of the city by prayer
for God's blessing on the Government and its first President.

The centennial of this illustrious event in our history has been
declared a general holiday by act of Congress, to the end that the
people of the whole country may join in commemorative exercises
appropriate to the day.

In order that the joy of the occasion may be associated with a deep
thankfulness in the minds of the people for all our blessings in the
past and a devout supplication to God for their gracious continuance in
the future, the representatives of the religious creeds, both Christian
and Hebrew, have memorialized the Government to designate an hour for
prayer and thanksgiving on that day.

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, in response to this pious and reasonable request, do recommend
that on Tuesday, April 30, at the hour of 9 o'clock in the morning,
the people of the entire country repair to their respective places
of divine worship to implore the favor of God that the blessings of
liberty, prosperity, and peace may abide with us as a people, and that
His hand may lead us in the paths of righteousness and good deeds.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States of America to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done in the city of Washington, this 4th day of April, A.D. 1889, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
thirteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

A highly favored people, mindful of their dependence on the bounty of
Divine Providence, should seek fitting occasion to testify gratitude
and ascribe praise to Him who is the author of their many blessings.
It behooves us, then, to look back with thankful hearts over the past
year and bless God for His infinite mercy in vouchsafing to our land
enduring peace, to our people freedom from pestilence and famine, to
our husbandmen abundant harvests, and to them that labor a recompense
of their toil.

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States
of America, do earnestly recommend that Thursday, the 28th day of
this present month of November, be set apart as a day of national
thanksgiving and prayer, and that the people of our country, ceasing
from the cares and labors of their working day, shall assemble in their
respective places of worship and give thanks to God, who has prospered
us on our way and made our paths the paths of peace, beseeching Him to
bless the day to our present and future good, making it truly one of
thanksgiving for each reunited home circle as for the nation at large.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 1st day of November, A.D. 1889,
and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the Congress of the United States did by an act approved
on the 22d day of February, 1889, provide that the inhabitants of the
Territory of Dakota might upon the conditions prescribed in said act
become the States of North Dakota and South Dakota; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the area comprising the
Territory of Dakota should for the purposes of the act be divided on
the line of the seventh standard parallel produced due west to the
western boundary of said Territory, and that the delegates elected as
therein provided to the constitutional convention in districts north of
said parallel should assemble in convention at the time prescribed in
the act at the city of Bismarck; and

Whereas it was provided by the said act that the delegates elected as
aforesaid should, after they had met and organized, declare on behalf
of the people of North Dakota that they adopt the Constitution of the
United States, whereupon the said convention should be authorized to
form a constitution and State government for the proposed State of
North Dakota; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution so adopted
should be republican in form and make no distinction in civil or
political rights on account of race or color, except as to Indians not
taxed, and not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States
and the principles of the Declaration of Independence, and that the
convention should, by an ordinance irrevocable without the consent of
the United States and the people of said States, make certain
provisions prescribed in said act; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitutions of North
Dakota and South Dakota should, respectively, incorporate an agreement,
to be reached in accordance with the provision of the act, for an
equitable division of all property belonging to the Territory of
Dakota, the disposition of all public records, and also for the
apportionment of the debts and liabilities of said Territory, and that
each of said States should obligate itself to pay its proportion of
such debts and liabilities the same as if they had been created by such
States, respectively; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution thus
formed for the people of North Dakota should, by an ordinance of the
convention forming the same, be submitted to the people of North Dakota
at an election to be held therein on the first Tuesday in October,
1889, for ratification or rejection by the qualified voters of said
proposed State, and that the returns of said election should be made to
the secretary of the Territory of Dakota, who, with the governor and
chief justice thereof, or any two of them, should canvass the same, and
if a majority of the legal votes cast should be for the constitution
the governor should certify the result to the President of the United
States, together with a statement of the votes cast thereon and upon
separate articles or propositions, and a copy of said constitution,
articles, propositions, and ordinances; and

Whereas it has been certified to me by the governor of the Territory
of Dakota that within the time prescribed by said act of Congress a
constitution for the proposed State of North Dakota has been adopted
and the same ratified by a majority of the qualified voters of said
proposed State in accordance with the conditions prescribed in said
act; and

Whereas it is also certified to me by the said governor that at the
same time that the body of said constitution was submitted to a vote of
the people a separate article, numbered 20 and entitled "Prohibition,"
was also submitted and received a majority of all the votes cast for
and against said article, as well as a majority of all the votes cast
for and against the constitution, and was adopted; and

Whereas a duly authenticated copy of said constitution, article,
ordinances, and propositions, as required by said act, has been
received by me:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, do, in accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress
aforesaid, declare and proclaim the fact that the conditions imposed
by Congress on the State of North Dakota to entitle that State to
admission to the Union have been ratified and accepted and that the
admission of the said State into the Union is now complete.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 2d day of November, A.D. 1889, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the Congress of the United States did by an act approved
on the 22d day of February, 1889, provide that the inhabitants of the
Territory of Dakota might upon the conditions prescribed in the said
act become the States of North Dakota and South Dakota; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the area comprising the
Territory of Dakota should for the purposes of the act be divided on
the line of the seventh standard parallel produced due west to the
western boundary of said Territory, and that the delegates elected as
therein provided to the constitutional convention in districts south of
said parallel should at the time prescribed in the act assemble in
convention at the city of Sioux Falls; and

Whereas it was provided by the said act that the delegates elected as
aforesaid should, after they had met and organized, declare on behalf
of the people of South Dakota that they adopt the Constitution of the
United States, whereupon the said convention should be authorized to
form a constitution and State government for the proposed State of
South Dakota; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution so adopted
should be republican in form and make no distinction in civil or
political rights on account of race or color, except as to Indians not
taxed, and not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States
and the principles of the Declaration of Independence, and that the
convention should, by an ordinance irrevocable without the consent of
the United States and the people of said States, make certain
provisions prescribed in said act; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitutions of North
Dakota and South Dakota should, respectively, incorporate an agreement,
to be reached in accordance with the provisions of the act, for an
equitable division of all property belonging to the Territory of
Dakota, the disposition of all public records, and also for the
apportionment of the debts and liabilities of said Territory, and that
each of said States should obligate itself to pay its proportion of
such debts and liabilities the same as if they had been created by such
States respectively; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that at the election for delegates
to the constitutional convention in South Dakota, as therein provided,
each elector might have written or printed on his ballot the words
"For the Sioux Falls constitution" or the words "Against the Sioux
Falls constitution;" that the votes on this question should be returned
and canvassed in the same manner as the votes for the election of
delegates, and if a majority of all votes cast on this question should
be "For the Sioux Falls constitution" it should be the duty of the
convention which might assemble at Sioux Falls, as provided in the
act, to resubmit to the people of South Dakota, for ratification or
rejection, at an election provided for in said act, the constitution
framed at Sioux Falls and adopted November 3, 1885, and also the
articles and propositions separately submitted at that election,
including the question of locating the temporary seat of government,
with such changes only as related to the name and boundary of the
proposed State, to the reapportionment of the judicial and legislative
districts, and such amendments as might be necessary in order to comply
with the provisions of the act; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution formed for
the people of South Dakota should, by an ordinance of the convention
forming the same, be submitted to the people of South Dakota at an
election to be held therein on the first Tuesday in October, 1889, for
ratification or rejection by the qualified voters of said proposed
State, and that the returns of said election should be made to the
secretary of the Territory of Dakota, who, with the governor and chief
justice thereof, or any two of them, should canvass the same, and if
a majority of the legal votes cast should be for the constitution the
governor should certify the result to the President of the United
States, together with a statement of the votes cast thereon and upon
separate articles or propositions, and a copy of said constitution,
articles, propositions, and ordinances; and

Whereas it has been certified to me by the governor of the Territory of
Dakota that at the aforesaid election for delegates the "Sioux Falls
constitution" was submitted to the people of the proposed State of
South Dakota, as provided in the said act; that a majority of all the
votes cast on this question was "For the Sioux Falls constitution,"
and that the said constitution was at the time prescribed in the act
resubmitted to the people of South Dakota, with proper changes and
amendments, and has been adopted and ratified by a majority of the
qualified voters of said proposed State in accordance with the
conditions prescribed in said act; and

Whereas it is also certified to me by the said governor that at the
same time that the body of said constitution was submitted to a vote
of the people two additional articles were submitted separately, to
wit, an article numbered 24, entitled "Prohibition," which received a
majority of all the votes cast for and against said article, as well
as a majority of all the votes cast for and against the constitution,
and was adopted; and an article numbered 25, entitled "Minority
representation," which did not receive a majority of the votes cast
thereon or upon the constitution, and was rejected; and

Whereas a duly authenticated copy of said constitution, additional
articles, ordinances, and propositions, as required by said act, has
been received by me:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, do, in accordance with the act of Congress aforesaid, declare
and proclaim the fact that the conditions imposed by Congress on the
State of South Dakota to entitle that State to admission to the Union
have been ratified and accepted and that the admission of the said
State into the Union is now complete.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 2d day of November, A.D. 1889, and
of the independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the Congress of the United States did by an act approved
on the 22d day of February, 1889, provide that the inhabitants of the
Territory of Montana might upon the conditions prescribed in said act
become the State of Montana; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that delegates elected as therein
provided to a constitutional convention in the Territory of Montana
should meet at the seat of government of said Territory, and that after
they had met and organized they should declare on behalf of the people
of Montana that they adopt the Constitution of the United States,
whereupon the said convention should be authorized to form a State
government for the proposed State of Montana; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution so adopted
should be republican in form and make no distinction in civil or
political rights on account of race or color, except as to Indians not
taxed, and not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States
and the principles of the Declaration of Independence, and that the
convention should, by an ordinance irrevocable without the consent of
the United States and the people of said State, make certain provisions
prescribed in said act; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution thus formed
for the people of Montana should, by an ordinance of the convention
forming the same, be submitted to the people of Montana at an election
to be held therein on the 1st Tuesday in October, 1889, for
ratification or rejection by the qualified voters of said proposed
State, and that the returns of said election should be made to the
secretary of said Territory, who, with the governor and chief justice
thereof, or any two of them, should canvass the same, and if a majority
of the legal votes cast should be for the constitution the governor
should certify the result to the President of the United States,
together with a statement of the votes cast thereon and upon separate
articles or propositions, and a copy of said constitution, articles,
propositions, and ordinances; and

Whereas it has been certified to me by the governor of said Territory
that within the time prescribed by said act of Congress a constitution
for the proposed State of Montana has been adopted, and that the same,
together with two ordinances connected therewith, has been ratified by
a majority of the qualified voters of said proposed State in accordance
with the conditions prescribed in said act; and

Whereas a duly authenticated copy of said constitution and ordinances,
as required by said act, has been received by me:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, do, in accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress
aforesaid, declare and proclaim the fact that the conditions imposed by
Congress on the State of Montana to entitle that State to admission to
the Union have been ratified and accepted and that the admission of the
said State into the Union is now complete.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 8th day of November, A.D. 1889,
and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred
and fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas the Congress of the United States did by an act approved
on the 22d day of February, 1889, provide that the inhabitants of the
Territory of Washington might upon the conditions prescribed in said
act become the State of Washington; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that delegates elected as therein
provided to a constitutional convention in the Territory of Washington
should meet at the seat of government of said Territory, and that after
they had met and organized they should declare on behalf of the people
of Washington that they adopt the Constitution of the United States,
whereupon the said convention should be authorized to form a State
government for the proposed State of Washington; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution so adopted
should be republican in form and make no distinction in civil or
political rights on account of race or color, except as to Indians not
taxed, and not be repugnant to the Constitution of the United States
and the principles of the Declaration of Independence, and that the
convention should, by an ordinance irrevocable without the consent of
the United States and the people of said State, make certain provisions
prescribed in said act; and

Whereas it was provided by said act that the constitution thus formed
for the people of Washington should, by an ordinance of the convention
forming the same, be submitted to the people of Washington at an
election to be held therein on the first Tuesday in October, 1889, for
ratification or rejection by the qualified voters of said proposed
State, and that the returns of said election should be made to the
secretary of said Territory, who, with the governor and chief justice
thereof, or any two of them, should canvass the same, and if a majority
of the legal votes cast should be for the constitution the governor
should certify the result to the President of the United States,
together with a statement of the votes cast thereon and upon separate
articles or propositions, and a copy of said constitution, articles,
propositions, and ordinances; and

Whereas it has been certified to me by the governor of said Territory
that within the time prescribed by said act of Congress a constitution
for the proposed State of Washington has been adopted, and that the
same has been ratified by a majority of the qualified voters of said
proposed State in accordance with the conditions prescribed in said
act; and

Whereas it is also certified to me by the said governor that at the
same time the body of said constitution was submitted to a vote
of the people two separate articles, entitled "Woman suffrage" and
"Prohibition," were likewise submitted, which said separate articles
did not receive a majority of the votes cast thereon or upon the
constitution, and were rejected; also that at the same election the
question of the location of a permanent seat of government was so
submitted, and that no place received a majority of all the votes
cast upon said question; and

Whereas a duly authenticated copy of said constitution and articles,
as required by said act, has been received by me:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, do, in accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress
aforesaid, declare and proclaim the fact that the conditions imposed by
Congress on the State of Washington to entitle that State to admission
to the Union have been ratified and accepted and that the admission of
the said State into the Union is now complete.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 11th day of November, A.D. 1889,
and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred
and fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



EXECUTIVE ORDERS.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 11, 1889_.

Whereas civil-service rules for the railway mail service were approved
January 4, 1889, to go into effect March 15, 1889; and

Whereas it is represented to me by the Civil Service Commission in a
communication of this date that it will be impossible to complete
arrangements for putting said rules into full effect on said date, or
sooner than May 1, 1889:

_It is therefore ordered_, That said railway mail rules shall take
effect May 1, 1889, instead of March 15, 1889: _Provided_, That such
rules shall become operative and take effect in any State or Territory
as soon as an eligible register for such State or Territory shall be
prepared, if it shall be prior to the date above fixed.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 17, 1889_.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by including among the
places excepted from examination thereunder in section 2 the following:
"and inspector of furniture."

As amended so much of that section as relates to the office of Secretary
of the Treasury will read as follows:

  2. In the Department of the Treasury, in the office of the Secretary:
  Government actuary and inspector of furniture.

BENJ. HARRISON.



REGULATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMS, ORDNANCE STORES,
QUARTERMASTER'S STORES, AND CAMP EQUIPAGE TO THE TERRITORIES AND THE
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, PRESCRIBED BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
IN CONFORMITY WITH THE SECOND SECTION OF THE ACT ENTITLED "AN ACT TO
AMEND SECTION 1661, REVISED STATUTES, MAKING AN ANNUAL APPROPRIATION TO
PROVIDE ARMS AND EQUIPMENTS FOR THE MILITIA."

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 23, 1889_.

1. Arms, ordnance stores, quartermaster's stores, and camp equipage
shall be issued to the Territories on requisitions of the governors
thereof, and to the District of Columbia on requisitions approved by the
senior general of the District militia present for duty. Returns shall
be made annually by the senior general of the District militia in the
manner as required by sections 3 and 4 of the act above referred to in
the case of States and Territories.

2. It is forbidden to make issues to States and Territories in excess of
the amount to their credit under the provisions of section 1661, Revised
Statutes, as amended by the above act.

3. Any regulations established hitherto which in any way conflict with
these are hereby revoked.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

MAY 4, 1889.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by including among the
places excepted from examination thereunder in section 2 the following:
"custodian of dies, rolls, and plates at the Bureau of Engraving and
Printing, two subcustodians, keeper of the vault, and distributer of
stock."

As amended so much of that section as relates to the office of the
Secretary of the Treasury will read:

2. In the Department of the Treasury, in the office of the Secretary:
Government actuary, inspector of furniture, custodian of dies, rolls,
and plates at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, two subcustodians,
keeper of the vault, and distributer of stock.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 27, 1889_.

Departmental Rule VIII is hereby amended as follows:

At the end of section 1 insert an additional clause, as follows:

  (_d_) From the office of the President of the United States, after two
  years' continuous service therein immediately preceding the transfer,
  to any place in the classified service without examination, upon the
  requisition of the head of the Department to which the transfer is to
  be made and the certification of the Commission.

In section 2, line 1, after the word "authorized," insert the following:
"except as provided in section 1, clause (_d_)."

BENJ. HARRISON.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

EXECUTIVE ORDER.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 29, 1889_.

_It is hereby ordered_, That the several Executive Departments and the
Government Printing Office be closed on Thursday, the 30th instant, to
enable the employees to participate in the decoration of the graves of
the soldiers who fell during the rebellion.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 7, 1889_.

In November, 1862, President Lincoln quoted the words of Washington to
sustain his own views, and announced in a general order that--

  The President, Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, desires and
  enjoins the orderly observance of the Sabbath by the officers and men
  in the military and naval service. The importance for man and beast of
  the prescribed weekly rest, the sacred rights of Christian soldiers
  and sailors, a becoming deference to the best sentiment of a Christian
  people, and a due regard for the divine will demand that Sunday labor
  in the Army and Navy be reduced to the measure of strict necessity.


The truth so concisely stated can not be too faithfully regarded, and
the pressure to ignore it is far less now than in the midst of war. To
recall the kindly and considerate spirit of the orders issued by these
great men in the most trying times of our history, and to promote
contentment and efficiency, the President directs that Sunday-morning
inspection will be merely of the dress and general appearance, without
arms; and the more complete inspection under arms, with all men present,
as required in paragraph 950, Army Regulations, 1889, will take place on
Saturday.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  REDFIELD PROCTOR,
    _Secretary of War_.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 10, 1889_.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended as follows:

In section 2, at the end of paragraph 1, insert the following: "foremen
of laborers, skilled laborers, elevator conductors, foreman of cabinet
shop, and cabinetmakers."

So that as amended so much of section 2 as relates to the office of the
Secretary of the Treasury will read:

  In the office of the Secretary: Government actuary, inspector of
  furniture, custodian of dies, rolls, and plates at the Bureau of
  Engraving and Printing, two subcustodians, keeper of the vault, and
  distributer of stock, foremen of laborers, skilled laborers, elevator
  conductors, foreman of cabinet shop, and cabinetmakers.

In section 3 strike out the last paragraph and insert in lieu thereof
the following:

  In the Geological Survey: General assistant, executive officer, chief
  photographer, editor, all scientific employees of the Geological Survey
  officially designated as follows: Chief geologist, geologist, assistant
  geologist, chief paleontologist, paleontologist, and assistant
  paleontologist, chief chemist, chemist, assistant chemist, chief
  physicist, physicist, assistant physicist, chief geographer, geographer,
  assistant geographer, chief topographer, topographer, assistant
  topographer, chief hydrographer, hydrographer, assistant hydrographer,
  supervising engineer, engineer, assistant engineer, paleontological
  draftsman, chief mechanician, mechanician, assistant mechanician.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 18, 1889_.

Departmental Rule X, Customs Rule VII, Postal Rule VII, and Railway Mail
Rule VI are hereby amended by adding to each of said rules, at the end
thereof, the following:

  _Provided_, That certification may be made, subject to the other
  conditions of this rule, for the reinstatement of any person who served
  in the military or naval service of the United States in the late War of
  the Rebellion, and was honorably discharged therefrom, without regard to
  the length of time he has been separated from the service.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

JULY 26, 1889.

Clause (_h_) of section 2 of General Rule III is hereby amended by
adding to that clause, at the end thereof, the following: "or for
temporary appointment for not exceeding thirty days in any part of the
classified service."

Approved:

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

JULY 26, 1889.

Section 5 of Railway Mail Rule II is hereby amended by adding an
additional clause, as follows:

  (_c_) Printers, employed as such.

Approved:

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _August 17, 1889_.

Clause 5 of Railway Mail Rule II is hereby amended by adding thereto the
following clauses:

  (_d_) Clerks employed exclusively as porters in handling mail matter in
  bulk, in sacks, or pouches, and not otherwise.

  (_e_) Clerks employed exclusively on steamboats.

Approved:

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

AUGUST 20, 1889.

Clause 2 of Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by
including among the places excepted from examination in the office of
the Supervising Architect the following: "engineers and draftsmen of
classes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, not exceeding ten in all: _Provided_, That
these ten places shall cease to be excepted places from and after June
30, 1890."

As thus amended so much of clause 2 as relates to the office of the
Supervising Architect will read as follows:

In the office of the Supervising Architect: Supervising Architect,
assistant and chief clerk, confidential clerk to Supervising Architect,
photographer, engineers and draftsmen of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, not
exceeding ten in all: _Provided_, That these ten places shall cease to
be excepted places from and after June 30, 1890.

Approved:

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

OCTOBER 29, 1889.

Section 2 of Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by adding
to the places excepted from examination in the Bureau of Engraving and
Printing the following: "plate cleaners, transferrers, hardeners,
provers, pressmen, machinists, plumbers, carpenters, and blacksmiths."

Approved:

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

Section 2 of Railway Mail Rule IV is hereby amended by substituting for
clause (_b_) of said section the following:

  (_b_) The Commission shall certify from the register of the State or
  Territory in which the vacancy exists the names of the three eligibles
  thereon having the highest averages, resident in the counties of said
  State or Territory through or on the borders of which the section of the
  road passes on which the person to be appointed is to serve, who have
  not been three times certified: _Provided_, That if there are not three
  eligibles resident in said counties, then certification shall be made in
  like manner from the counties of said State or Territory nearest to the
  line of said road in which there are three eligibles; or if there are
  not three eligibles upon the register of said State or Territory, then
  certification may be made from the register of any adjoining State or
  Territory: _Provided further_, That if upon the register of the State
  or Territory in which vacancy exists there are the names of eligibles
  having a claim of preference under section 1754, Revised Statutes, the
  names of such eligibles shall be certified before the names of other
  eligibles of higher grade.


At the end of the rule add an additional section, as follows:

  7. In case of public and pressing exigency demanding the immediate
  employment of experienced railway mail clerks who can not be at once
  supplied in the manner provided for in section 2 of this rule, or by
  transfer under Rule V, or reappointment under Rule VI, there may be
  employed, without examination or certification, under such regulations
  as the Postmaster-General may prescribe, for a period not to exceed
  thirty days, which, with the consent of the Commission, may be extended
  to sixty days, any persons who have been in the railway mail service,
  who have the requisite knowledge and experience, who may be available.
  Every such employment and the reasons therefor shall be at once
  reported to the Commission.


Approved, November 1, 1889.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

Special Customs Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by adding to the places
excepted from examination at the port of New York the following:

  Office of the General Appraiser: Chief clerk and law clerk.

Approved, November 18, 1889.

BENJ. HARRISON.



FIRST ANNUAL MESSAGE.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 3, 1889_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

There are few transactions in the administration of the Government
that are even temporarily held in the confidence of those charged
with the conduct of the public business. Every step taken is under the
observation of an intelligent and watchful people. The state of the
Union is known from day to day, and suggestions as to needed legislation
find an earlier voice than that which speaks in these annual
communications of the President to Congress.

Good will and cordiality have characterized our relations and
correspondence with other governments, and the year just closed leaves
few international questions of importance remaining unadjusted. No
obstacle is believed to exist that can long postpone the consideration
and adjustment of the still pending questions upon satisfactory and
honorable terms. The dealings of this Government with other states have
been and should always be marked by frankness and sincerity, our
purposes avowed, and our methods free from intrigue. This course has
borne rich fruit in the past, and it is our duty as a nation to preserve
the heritage of good repute which a century of right dealing with
foreign governments has secured to us.

It is a matter of high significance and no less of congratulation that
the first year of the second century of our constitutional existence
finds as honored guests within our borders the representatives of all
the independent States of North and South America met together in
earnest conference touching the best methods of perpetuating and
expanding the relations of mutual interest and friendliness existing
among them. That the opportunity thus afforded for promoting closer
international relations and the increased prosperity of the States
represented will be used for the mutual good of all I can not permit
myself to doubt. Our people will await with interest and confidence the
results to flow from so auspicious a meeting of allied and in large part
identical interests.

The recommendations of this international conference of enlightened
statesmen will doubtless have the considerate attention of Congress and
its cooperation in the removal of unnecessary barriers to beneficial
intercourse between the nations of America. But while the commercial
results which it is hoped will follow this conference are worthy of
pursuit and of the great interests they have excited, it is believed
that the crowning benefit will be found in the better securities which
may be devised for the maintenance of peace among all American nations
and the settlement of all contentions by methods that a Christian
civilization can approve. While viewing with interest our national
resources and products, the delegates will, I am sure, find a higher
satisfaction in the evidences of unselfish friendship which everywhere
attend their intercourse with our people.

Another international conference having great possibilities for good has
lately assembled and is now in session in this capital. An invitation
was extended by the Government, under the act of Congress of July 9,
1888, to all maritime nations to send delegates to confer touching the
revision and amendment of the rules and regulations governing vessels
at sea and to adopt a uniform system of marine signals. The response to
this invitation has been very general and very cordial. Delegates from
twenty-six nations are present in the conference, and they have entered
upon their useful work with great zeal and with an evident appreciation
of its importance. So far as the agreement to be reached may require
legislation to give it effect, the cooperation of Congress is
confidently relied upon.

It is an interesting, if not, indeed, an unprecedented, fact that the
two international conferences have brought together here the accredited
representatives of thirty-three nations.

Bolivia, Ecuador, and Honduras are now represented by resident envoys of
the plenipotentiary grade. All the States of the American system now
maintain diplomatic representation at this capital.

In this connection it may be noted that all the nations of the Western
Hemisphere, with one exception, send to Washington envoys extraordinary
and ministers plenipotentiary, being the highest grade accredited to
this Government. The United States, on the contrary, sends envoys of
lower grades to some of our sister Republics. Our representative in
Paraguay and Uruguay is a minister resident, while to Bolivia we send a
minister resident and consul-general. In view of the importance of our
relations with the States of the American system, our diplomatic agents
in those countries should be of the uniform rank of envoy extraordinary
and minister plenipotentiary. Certain missions were so elevated by the
last Congress with happy effect, and I recommend the completion of the
reform thus begun, with the inclusion also of Hawaii and Hayti, in view
of their relations to the American system of states.

I also recommend that timely provision be made for extending to Hawaii
an invitation to be represented in the international conference now
sitting at this capital.

Our relations with China have the attentive consideration which their
magnitude and interest demand. The failure of the treaty negotiated
under the Administration of my predecessor for the further and more
complete restriction of Chinese labor immigration, and with it the
legislation of the last session of Congress dependent thereon, leaves
some questions open which Congress should now approach in that wise and
just spirit which should characterize the relations of two great and
friendly powers. While our supreme interests demand the exclusion of
a laboring element which experience has shown to be incompatible with
our social life, all steps to compass this imperative need should be
accompanied with a recognition of the claim of those strangers now
lawfully among us to humane and just treatment.

The accession of the young Emperor of China marks, we may hope, an era
of progress and prosperity for the great country over which he is called
to rule.

The present state of affairs in respect to the Samoan Islands is
encouraging. The conference which was held in this city in the summer
of 1887 between the representatives of the United States, Germany, and
Great Britain having been adjourned because of the persistent divergence
of views which was developed in its deliberations, the subsequent course
of events in the islands gave rise to questions of a serious character.
On the 4th of February last the German minister at this capital, in
behalf of his Government, proposed a resumption of the conference at
Berlin. This proposition was accepted, as Congress in February last was
informed.

Pursuant to the understanding thus reached, commissioners were appointed
by me, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who proceeded
to Berlin, where the conference was renewed. The deliberations extended
through several weeks, and resulted in the conclusion of a treaty which
will be submitted to the Senate for its approval. I trust that the
efforts which have been made to effect an adjustment of this question
will be productive of the permanent establishment of law and order in
Samoa upon the basis of the maintenance of the rights and interests of
the natives as well as of the treaty powers.

The questions which have arisen during the past few years between Great
Britain and the United States are in abeyance or in course of amicable
adjustment.

On the part of the government of the Dominion of Canada an effort has
been apparent during the season just ended to administer the laws and
regulations applicable to the fisheries with as little occasion for
friction as was possible, and the temperate representations of this
Government in respect of cases of undue hardship or of harsh
interpretations have been in most cases met with measures of transitory
relief. It is trusted that the attainment of our just rights under
existing treaties and in virtue of the concurrent legislation of the two
contiguous countries will not be long deferred and that all existing
causes of difference may be equitably adjusted.

I recommend that provision be made by an international agreement for
visibly marking the water boundary between the United States and Canada
in the narrow channels that join the Great Lakes. The conventional line
therein traced by the northwestern boundary survey years ago is not in
all cases readily ascertainable for the settlement of jurisdictional
questions.

A just and acceptable enlargement of the list of offenses for which
extradition may be claimed and granted is most desirable between this
country and Great Britain. The territory of neither should become a
secure harbor for the evil doers of the other through any avoidable
shortcoming in this regard. A new treaty on this subject between the two
powers has been recently negotiated and will soon be laid before the
Senate.

The importance of the commerce of Cuba and Puerto Rico with the United
States, their nearest and principal market, justifies the expectation
that the existing relations may be beneficially expanded. The
impediments resulting from varying dues on navigation and from the
vexatious treatment of our vessels on merely technical grounds of
complaint in West India ports should be removed.

The progress toward an adjustment of pending claims between the United
States and Spain is not as rapid as could be desired.

Questions affecting American interests in connection with railways
constructed and operated by our citizens in Peru have claimed the
attention of this Government. It is urged that other governments in
pressing Peru to the payment of their claims have disregarded the
property rights of American citizens. The matter will be carefully
investigated with a view to securing a proper and equitable adjustment.

A similar issue is now pending with Portugal. The Delagoa Bay Railway,
in Africa, was constructed under a concession by Portugal to an American
citizen. When nearly completed the road was seized by the agents of the
Portuguese Government. Formal protest has been made through our minister
at Lisbon against this act, and no proper effort will be spared to
secure proper relief.

In pursuance of the charter granted by Congress and under the terms of
its contract with the Government of Nicaragua the Interoceanic Canal
Company has begun the construction of the important waterway between the
two oceans which its organization contemplates. Grave complications for
a time seemed imminent, in view of a supposed conflict of jurisdiction
between Nicaragua and Costa Rica in regard to the accessory privileges
to be conceded by the latter Republic toward the construction of works
on the San Juan River, of which the right bank is Costa Rican territory.
I am happy to learn that a friendly arrangement has been effected
between the two nations. This Government has held itself ready to
promote in every proper way the adjustment of all questions that might
present obstacles to the completion of a work of such transcendent
importance to the commerce of this country, and, indeed, to the
commercial interests of the world.

The traditional good feeling between this country and the French
Republic has received additional testimony in the participation of
our Government and people in the international exposition held at
Paris during the past summer. The success of our exhibitors has been
gratifying. The report of the commission will be laid before Congress
in due season.

This Government has accepted, under proper reserve as to its policy in
foreign territories, the invitation of the Government of Belgium to take
part in an international congress, which opened at Brussels on the 16th
of November, for the purpose of devising measures to promote the
abolition of the slave trade in Africa and to prevent the shipment of
slaves by sea. Our interest in the extinction of this crime against
humanity in the regions where it yet survives has been increased by the
results of emancipation within our own borders.

With Germany the most cordial relations continue. The questions arising
from the return to the Empire of Germans naturalized in this country are
considered and disposed of in a temperate spirit to the entire
satisfaction of both Governments.

It is a source of great satisfaction that the internal disturbances of
the Republic of Hayti are at last happily ended, and that an apparently
stable government has been constituted. It has been duly recognized by
the United States.

A mixed commission is now in session in this capital for the settlement
of long-standing claims against the Republic of Venezuela, and it is
hoped that a satisfactory conclusion will be speedily reached. This
Government has not hesitated to express its earnest desire that the
boundary dispute now pending between Great Britain and Venezuela may be
adjusted amicably and in strict accordance with the historic title of
the parties.

The advancement of the Empire of Japan has been evidenced by the recent
promulgation of a new constitution, containing valuable guaranties of
liberty and providing for a responsible ministry to conduct the
Government.

It is earnestly recommended that our judicial rights and processes in
Korea be established on a firm basis by providing the machinery
necessary to carry out treaty stipulations in that regard.

The friendliness of the Persian Government continues to be shown by its
generous treatment of Americans engaged in missionary labors and by the
cordial disposition of the Shah to encourage the enterprise of our
citizens in the development of Persian resources.

A discussion is in progress touching the jurisdictional treaty rights of
the United States in Turkey. An earnest effort will be made to define
those rights to the satisfaction of both Governments.

Questions continue to arise in our relations with several countries in
respect to the rights of naturalized citizens. Especially is this the
case with France, Italy, Russia, and Turkey, and to a less extent with
Switzerland. From time to time earnest efforts have been made to
regulate this subject by conventions with those countries. An improper
use of naturalization should not be permitted, but it is most important
that those who have been duly naturalized should everywhere be accorded
recognition of the rights pertaining to the citizenship of the country
of their adoption. The appropriateness of special conventions for that
purpose is recognized in treaties which this Government has concluded
with a number of European States, and it is advisable that the
difficulties which now arise in our relations with other countries on
the same subject should be similarly adjusted.

The recent revolution in Brazil in favor of the establishment of a
republican form of government is an event of great interest to the
United States. Our minister at Rio de Janeiro was at once instructed to
maintain friendly diplomatic relations with the Provisional Government,
and the Brazilian representatives at this capital were instructed by
the Provisional Government to continue their functions. Our friendly
intercourse with Brazil has therefore suffered no interruption.

Our minister has been further instructed to extend on the part of this
Government a formal and cordial recognition of the new Republic so soon
as the majority of the people of Brazil shall have signified their
assent to its establishment and maintenance.

Within our own borders a general condition of prosperity prevails. The
harvests of the last summer were exceptionally abundant, and the trade
conditions now prevailing seem to promise a successful season to the
merchant and the manufacturer and general employment to our working
people.

The report of the Secretary of the Treasury for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1889, has been prepared and will be presented to Congress.
It presents with clearness the fiscal operations of the Government, and
I avail myself of it to obtain some facts for use here.

The aggregate receipts from all sources for the year were
$387,050,058.84, derived as follows:

  From customs                                          $223,832,741.69
  From internal revenue                                  130,881,513.92
  From miscellaneous sources                              32,335,803.23


The ordinary expenditures for the same period were $281,996,615.60,
and the total expenditures, including the sinking fund, were
$329,579,929.25. The excess of receipts over expenditures was, after
providing for the sinking fund, $57,470,129.59.

For the current fiscal year the total revenues, actual and estimated,
are $385,000,000, and the ordinary expenditures, actual and estimated,
are $293,000,000, making with the sinking fund a total expenditure of
$341,321,116.99, leaving an estimated surplus of $43,678,883.01.

During the fiscal year there was applied to the purchase of bonds, in
addition to those for the sinking fund, $90,456,172.35, and during the
first quarter of the current year the sum of $37,838,937.77, all of
which were credited to the sinking fund. The revenues for the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1891, are estimated by the Treasury Department at
$385,000,000, and the expenditures for the same period, including the
sinking fund, at $341,430,477.70. This shows an estimated surplus for
that year of $43,569,522.30, which is more likely to be increased than
reduced when the actual transactions are written up.

The existence of so large an actual and anticipated surplus should
have the immediate attention of Congress, with a view to reducing the
receipts of the Treasury to the needs of the Government as closely as
may be. The collection of moneys not needed for public uses imposes an
unnecessary burden upon our people, and the presence of so large a
surplus in the public vaults is a disturbing element in the conduct
of private business. It has called into use expedients for putting
it into circulation of very questionable propriety. We should not
collect revenue for the purpose of anticipating our bonds beyond the
requirements of the sinking fund, but any unappropriated surplus in the
Treasury should be so used, as there is no other lawful way of returning
the money to circulation, and the profit realized by the Government
offers a substantial advantage.

The loaning of public funds to the banks without interest upon the
security of Government bonds I regard as an unauthorized and dangerous
expedient. It results in a temporary and unnatural increase of the
banking capital of favored localities and compels a cautious and gradual
recall of the deposits to avoid injury to the commercial interests. It
is not to be expected that the banks having these deposits will sell
their bonds to the Treasury so long as the present highly beneficial
arrangement is continued. They now practically get interest both upon
the bonds and their proceeds. No further use should be made of this
method of getting the surplus into circulation, and the deposits now
outstanding should be gradually withdrawn and applied to the purchase of
bonds. It is fortunate that such a use can be made of the existing
surplus, and for some time to come of any casual surplus that may exist
after Congress has taken the necessary steps for a reduction of the
revenue. Such legislation should be promptly but very considerately
enacted.

I recommend a revision of our tariff law both in its administrative
features and in the schedules. The need of the former is generally
conceded, and an agreement upon the evils and inconveniences to be
remedied and the best methods for their correction will probably not be
difficult. Uniformity of valuation at all our ports is essential, and
effective measures should be taken to secure it. It is equally desirable
that questions affecting rates and classifications should be promptly
decided.

The preparation of a new schedule of customs duties is a matter of great
delicacy because of its direct effect upon the business of the country,
and of great difficulty by reason of the wide divergence of opinion as
to the objects that may properly be promoted by such legislation. Some
disturbance of business may perhaps result from the consideration of
this subject by Congress, but this temporary ill effect will be reduced
to the minimum by prompt action and by the assurance which the country
already enjoys that any necessary changes will be so made as not to
impair the just and reasonable protection of our home industries. The
inequalities of the law should be adjusted, but the protective principle
should be maintained and fairly applied to the products of our farms as
well as of our shops. These duties necessarily have relation to other
things besides the public revenues. We can not limit their effects by
fixing our eyes on the public Treasury alone. They have a direct
relation to home production, to work, to wages, and to the commercial
independence of our country, and the wise and patriotic legislator
should enlarge the field of his vision to include all of these. The
necessary reduction in our public revenues can, I am sure, be made
without making the smaller burden more onerous than the larger by reason
of the disabilities and limitations which the process of reduction puts
upon both capital and labor. The free list can very safely be extended
by placing thereon articles that do not offer injurious competition to
such domestic products as our home labor can supply. The removal of the
internal tax upon tobacco would relieve an important agricultural
product from a burden which was imposed only because our revenue from
customs duties was insufficient for the public needs. If safe provision
against fraud can be devised, the removal of the tax upon spirits used
in the arts and in manufactures would also offer an unobjectionable
method of reducing the surplus.

A table presented by the Secretary of the Treasury showing the amount
of money of all kinds in circulation each year from 1878 to the present
time is of interest. It appears that the amount of national-bank notes
in circulation has decreased during that period $114,109,729, of which
$37,799,229 is chargeable to the last year. The withdrawal of bank
circulation will necessarily continue under existing conditions. It is
probable that the adoption of the suggestions made by the Comptroller
of the Currency, namely, that the minimum deposit of bonds for the
establishment of banks be reduced and that an issue of notes to the
par value of the bonds be allowed, would help to maintain the bank
circulation. But while this withdrawal of bank notes has been going on
there has been a large increase in the amount of gold and silver coin in
circulation and in the issues of gold and silver certificates.

The total amount of money of all kinds in circulation on March 1,
1878, was $805,793,807, while on October 1, 1889, the total was
$1,405,018,000. There was an increase of $293,417,552 in gold coin,
of $57,554,100 in standard silver dollars, of $72,311,249 in gold
certificates, of $276,619,715 in silver certificates, and of $14,073,787
in United States notes, making a total of $713,976,403. There was during
the same period a decrease of $114,109,729 in bank circulation and of
$642,481 in subsidiary silver. The net increase was $599,224,193. The
circulation per capita has increased about $5 during the time covered by
the table referred to.

The total coinage of silver dollars was on November 1, 1889,
$343,638,001, of which $283,539,521 were in the Treasury vaults and
$60,098,480 were in circulation. Of the amount in the vaults
$277,319,944 were represented by outstanding silver certificates,
leaving $6,219,577 not in circulation and not represented by
certificates.

The law requiring the purchase by the Treasury of $2,000,000 worth of
silver bullion each month, to be coined into silver dollars of 412-1/2
grains, has been observed by the Department, but neither the present
Secretary nor any of his predecessors has deemed it safe to exercise the
discretion given by law to increase the monthly purchases to $4,000,000.
When the law was enacted (February 28, 1878) the price of silver in the
market was $1.204 Per ounce, making the bullion value of the dollar 93
cents. Since that time the price has fallen as low as 91.2 cents per
ounce, reducing the bullion value of the dollar to 70.6 cents. Within
the last few months the market price has somewhat advanced, and on the
1st day of November last the bullion value of the silver dollar was 72
cents.

The evil anticipations which have accompanied the coinage and use of the
silver dollar have not been realized. As a coin it has not had general
use, and the public Treasury has been compelled to store it. But this
is manifestly owing to the fact that its paper representative is more
convenient. The general acceptance and the use of the silver certificate
show that silver has not been otherwise discredited. Some favorable
conditions have contributed to maintain this practical equality in their
commercial use between the gold and silver dollars; but some of these
are trade conditions that statutory enactments do not control and of the
continuance of which we can not be certain.

I think it is clear that if we should make the coinage of silver at the
present ratio free we must expect that the difference in the bullion
values of the gold and silver dollars will be taken account of in
commercial transactions; and I fear the same result would follow any
considerable increase of the present rate of coinage. Such a result
would be discreditable to our financial management and disastrous to all
business interests. We should not tread the dangerous edge of such a
peril. And, indeed, nothing more harmful could happen to the silver
interests. Any safe legislation upon this subject must secure the
equality of the two coins in their commercial uses.

I have always been an advocate of the use of silver in our currency.
We are large producers of that metal, and should not discredit it. To
the plan which will be presented by the Secretary of the Treasury for
the issuance of notes or certificates upon the deposit of silver bullion
at its market value I have been able to give only a hasty examination,
owing to the press of other matters and to the fact that it has been
so recently formulated. The details of such a law require careful
consideration, but the general plan suggested by him seems to satisfy
the purpose--to continue the use of silver in connection with our
currency and at the same time to obviate the danger of which I have
spoken. At a later day I may communicate further with Congress upon this
subject.

The enforcement of the Chinese exclusion act has been found to be very
difficult on the northwestern frontier. Chinamen landing at Victoria
find it easy to pass our border, owing to the impossibility with the
force at the command of the customs officers of guarding so long an
inland line. The Secretary of the Treasury has authorized the employment
of additional officers, who will be assigned to this duty, and every
effort will be made to enforce the law. The Dominion exacts a head tax
of $50 for each Chinaman landed, and when these persons, in fraud of our
law, cross into our territory and are apprehended our officers do not
know what to do with them, as the Dominion authorities will not suffer
them to be sent back without a second payment of the tax. An effort will
be made to reach an understanding that will remove this difficulty.

The proclamation required by section 3 of the act of March 2, 1889,
relating to the killing of seals and other fur-bearing animals, was
issued by me on the 21st day of March,[2] and a revenue vessel was
dispatched to enforce the laws and protect the interests of the United
States. The establishment of a refuge station at Point Barrow, as
directed by Congress, was successfully accomplished.

Judged by modern standards, we are practically without coast defenses.
Many of the structures we have would enhance rather than diminish the
perils of their garrisons if subjected to the fire of improved guns, and
very few are so located as to give full effect to the greater range of
such guns as we are now making for coast-defense uses. This general
subject has had consideration in Congress for some years, and the
appropriation for the construction of large rifled guns made one year
ago was, I am sure, the expression of a purpose to provide suitable
works in which these guns might be mounted. An appropriation now made
for that purpose would not advance the completion of the works beyond
our ability to supply them with fairly effective guns.

The security of our coast cities against foreign attacks should not rest
altogether in the friendly disposition of other nations. There should be
a second line wholly in our own keeping. I very urgently recommend an
appropriation at this session for the construction of such works in our
most exposed harbors.

I approve the suggestion of the Secretary of War that provision be made
for encamping companies of the National Guard in our coast works for
a specified time each year and for their training in the use of heavy
guns. His suggestion that an increase of the artillery force of the Army
is desirable is also, in this connection, commended to the consideration
of Congress.

The improvement of our important rivers and harbors should be promoted
by the necessary appropriations. Care should be taken that the
Government is not committed to the prosecution of works not of public
and general advantage and that the relative usefulness of works of that
class is not overlooked. So far as this work can ever be said to be
completed, I do not doubt that the end would be sooner and more
economically reached if fewer separate works were undertaken at the same
time, and those selected for their greater general interest were more
rapidly pushed to completion. A work once considerably begun should not
be subjected to the risks and deterioration which interrupted or
insufficient appropriations necessarily occasion.

The assault made by David S. Terry upon the person of Justice Field,
of the Supreme Court of the United States, at Lathrop, Cal., in August
last, and the killing of the assailant by a deputy United States marshal
who had been deputed to accompany Justice Field and to protect him from
anticipated violence at the hands of Terry, in connection with the legal
proceedings which have followed, suggest questions which, in my
judgment, are worthy of the attention of Congress.

I recommend that more definite provision be made by law not only for the
protection of Federal officers, but for a full trial of such cases in
the United States courts. In recommending such legislation I do not at
all impeach either the general adequacy of the provision made by the
State laws for the protection of all citizens or the general good
disposition of those charged with the execution of such laws to give
protection to the officers of the United States. The duty of protecting
its officers, as such, and of punishing those who assault them on
account of their official acts should not be devolved expressly or by
acquiescence upon the local authorities.

Events which have been brought to my attention happening in other
parts of the country have also suggested the propriety of extending by
legislation fuller protection to those who may be called as witnesses in
the courts of the United States. The law compels those who are supposed
to have knowledge of public offenses to attend upon our courts and grand
juries and to give evidence. There is a manifest resulting duty that
these witnesses shall be protected from injury on account of their
testimony. The investigations of criminal offenses are often rendered
futile and the punishment of crime impossible by the intimidation of
witnesses.

The necessity of providing some more speedy method for disposing of the
cases which now come for final adjudication to the Supreme Court becomes
every year more apparent and urgent. The plan of providing some
intermediate courts having final appellate jurisdiction of certain
classes of questions and cases has, I think, received a more general
approval from the bench and bar of the country than any other. Without
attempting to discuss details, I recommend that provision be made for
the establishment of such courts.

The salaries of the judges of the district courts in many of the
districts are, in my judgment, inadequate. I recommend that all such
salaries now below $5,000 per annum be increased to that amount. It is
quite true that the amount of labor performed by these judges is very
unequal, but as they can not properly engage in other pursuits to
supplement their incomes the salary should be such in all cases as to
provide an independent and comfortable support.

Earnest attention should be given by Congress to a consideration of the
question how far the restraint of those combinations of capital commonly
called "trusts" is matter of Federal jurisdiction. When organized, as
they often are, to crush out all healthy competition and to monopolize
the production or sale of an article of commerce and general necessity,
they are dangerous conspiracies against the public good, and should be
made the subject of prohibitory and even penal legislation.

The subject of an international copyright has been frequently commended
to the attention of Congress by my predecessors. The enactment of such a
law would be eminently wise and just.

Our naturalization laws should be so revised as to make the inquiry into
the moral character and good disposition toward our Government of the
persons applying for citizenship more thorough. This can only be done
by taking fuller control of the examination, by fixing the times for
hearing such applications, and by requiring the presence of some one who
shall represent the Government in the inquiry. Those who are the avowed
enemies of social order or who come to our shores to swell the injurious
influence and to extend the evil practices of any association that
defies our laws should not only be denied citizenship, but a domicile.

The enactment of a national bankrupt law of a character to be a
permanent part of our general legislation is desirable. It should be
simple in its methods and inexpensive in its administration.

The report of the Postmaster-General not only exhibits the operations
of the Department for the last fiscal year, but contains many valuable
suggestions for the improvement and extension of the service, which are
commended to your attention. No other branch of the Government has so
close a contact with the daily life of the people. Almost everyone uses
the service it offers, and every hour gained in the transmission of the
great commercial mails has an actual and possible value that only those
engaged in trade can understand.

The saving of one day in the transmission of the mails between New York
and San Francisco, which has recently been accomplished, is an incident
worthy of mention.

The plan suggested of a supervision of the post-offices in separate
districts that shall involve instruction and suggestion and a rating
of the efficiency of the postmasters would, I have no doubt, greatly
improve the service.

A pressing necessity exists for the erection of a building for the joint
use of the Department and of the city post-office. The Department was
partially relieved by renting outside quarters for a part of its force,
but it is again overcrowded. The building used by the city office never
was fit for the purpose, and is now inadequate and unwholesome.

The unsatisfactory condition of the law relating to the transmission
through the mails of lottery advertisements and remittances is clearly
stated by the Postmaster-General, and his suggestion as to amendments
should have your favorable consideration.

The report of the Secretary of the Navy shows a reorganization of the
bureaus of the Department that will, I do not doubt, promote the
efficiency of each.

In general, satisfactory progress has been made in the construction of
the new ships of war authorized by Congress. The first vessel of the new
Navy, the _Dolphin_, was subjected to very severe trial tests and to
very much adverse criticism; but it is gratifying to be able to state
that a cruise around the world, from which she has recently returned,
has demonstrated that she is a first-class vessel of her rate.

The report of the Secretary shows that while the effective force of the
Navy is rapidly increasing by reason of the improved build and armament
of the new ships, the number of our ships fit for sea duty grows very
slowly. We had on the 4th of March last 37 serviceable ships, and though
4 have since been added to the list, the total has not been increased,
because in the meantime 4 have been lost or condemned. Twenty-six
additional vessels have been authorized and appropriated for; but it is
probable that when they are completed our list will only be increased to
42--a gain of 5. The old wooden-ships are disappearing almost as fast as
the new vessels are added. These facts carry their own argument. One of
the new ships may in fighting strength be equal to two of the old, but
it can not do the cruising duty of two. It is important, therefore, that
we should have a more rapid increase in the number of serviceable ships.
I concur in the recommendation of the Secretary that the construction of
8 armored ships, 3 gunboats, and 5 torpedo boats be authorized.

An appalling calamity befell three of our naval vessels on duty at the
Samoan Islands, in the harbor of Apia, in March last, involving the
loss of 4 officers and 47 seamen, of two vessels, the _Trenton_ and the
_Vandalia_, and the disabling of a third, the _Nipsic_. Three vessels of
the German navy, also in the harbor, shared with our ships the force of
the hurricane and suffered even more heavily. While mourning the brave
officers and men who died facing with high resolve perils greater than
those of battle, it is most gratifying to state that the credit of the
American Navy for seamanship, courage, and generosity was magnificently
sustained in the storm-beaten harbor of Apia.

The report of the Secretary of the Interior exhibits the transactions
of the Government with the Indian tribes. Substantial progress has been
made in the education of the children of school age and in the allotment
of lands to adult Indians. It is to be regretted that the policy of
breaking up the tribal relation and of dealing with the Indian as an
individual did not appear earlier in our legislation. Large reservations
held in common and the maintenance of the authority of the chiefs and
headmen have deprived the individual of every incentive to the exercise
of thrift, and the annuity has contributed an affirmative impulse toward
a state of confirmed pauperism.

Our treaty stipulations should be observed with fidelity and our
legislation should be highly considerate of the best interests of
an ignorant and helpless people. The reservations are now generally
surrounded by white settlements. We can no longer push the Indian back
into the wilderness, and it remains only by every suitable agency to
push him upward into the estate of a self-supporting and responsible
citizen. For the adult the first step is to locate him upon a farm,
and for the child to place him in a school.

School attendance should be promoted by every moral agency, and those
failing should be compelled. The national schools for Indians have been
very successful and should be multiplied, and as far as possible should
be so organized and conducted as to facilitate the transfer of the
schools to the States or Territories in which they are located when the
Indians in a neighborhood have accepted citizenship and have become
otherwise fitted for such a transfer. This condition of things will be
attained slowly, but it will be hastened by keeping it in mind; and in
the meantime that cooperation between the Government and the mission
schools which has wrought much good should be cordially and impartially
maintained.

The last Congress enacted two distinct laws relating to negotiations
with the Sioux Indians of Dakota for a relinquishment of a portion of
their lands to the United States and for dividing the remainder into
separate reservations. Both were approved on the same day--March 2.
The one submitted to the Indians a specific proposition; the other
(section 3 of the Indian appropriation act) authorized the President
to appoint three commissioners to negotiate with these Indians for
the accomplishment of the same general purpose, and required that any
agreements made should be submitted to Congress for ratification.

On the 16th day of April last I appointed Hon. Charles Foster, of Ohio,
Hon. William Warner, of Missouri, and Major-General George Crook, of the
United States Army, commissioners under the last-named law. They were,
however, authorized and directed first to submit to the Indians the
definite proposition made to them by the act first mentioned, and only
in the event of a failure to secure the assent of the requisite number
to that proposition to open negotiations for modified terms under the
other act. The work of the commission was prolonged and arduous, but the
assent of the requisite number was, it is understood, finally obtained
to the proposition made by Congress, though the report of the commission
has not yet been submitted. In view of these facts, I shall not, as at
present advised, deem it necessary to submit the agreement to Congress
for ratification, but it will in due course be submitted for
information. This agreement releases to the United States about
9,000,000 acres of land.

The commission provided for by section 14 of the Indian appropriation
bill to negotiate with the Cherokee Indians and all other Indians owning
or claiming lands lying west of the ninety-sixth degree of longitude for
the cession to the United States of all such lands was constituted by
the appointment of Hon. Lucius Fairchild, of Wisconsin, Hon. John F.
Hartranft, of Pennsylvania, and Hon. Alfred M. Wilson, of Arkansas,
and organized on June 29 last. Their first conference with the
representatives of the Cherokees was held at Tahlequah July 29, with
no definite results. General John F. Hartranft, of Pennsylvania, was
prevented by ill health from taking part in the conference. His death,
which occurred recently, is justly and generally lamented by a people he
had served with conspicuous gallantry in war and with great fidelity in
peace. The vacancy thus created was filled by the appointment of Hon.
Warren G. Sayre, of Indiana.

A second conference between the commission and the Cherokees was begun
November 6, but no results have yet been obtained, nor is it believed
that a conclusion can be immediately expected. The cattle syndicate now
occupying the lands for grazing purposes is clearly one of the agencies
responsible for the obstruction of our negotiations with the Cherokees.
The large body of agricultural lands constituting what is known as the
"Cherokee Outlet" ought not to be, and, indeed, can not long be, held
for grazing and for the advantage of a few against the public interests
and the best advantage of the Indians themselves. The United States
has now under the treaties certain rights in these lands. These will
not be used oppressively, but it can not be allowed that those who by
sufferance occupy these lands shall interpose to defeat the wise and
beneficent purposes of the Government. I can not but believe that the
advantageous character of the offer made by the United States to the
Cherokee Nation for a full release of these lands as compared with other
suggestions now made to them will yet obtain for it a favorable
consideration.

Under the agreement made between the United States and the Muscogee (or
Creek) Nation of Indians on the 19th day of January, 1889, an absolute
title was secured by the United States to about 3,500,000 acres of land.
Section 12 of the general Indian appropriation act approved March 2,
1889, made provision for the purchase by the United States from the
Seminole tribe of a certain portion of their lands. The delegates of the
Seminole Nation, having first duly evidenced to me their power to act
in that behalf, delivered a proper release or conveyance to the United
States of all the lands mentioned in the act, which was accepted by
me and certified to be in compliance with the statute.

By the terms of both the acts referred to all the lands so purchased
were declared to be a part of the public domain and open to settlement
under the homestead law. But of the lands embraced in these purchases,
being in the aggregate about 5,500,000 acres, 3,500,000 acres had
already, under the terms of the treaty of 1866, been acquired by the
United States for the purpose of settling other Indian tribes thereon
and had been appropriated to that purpose. The land remaining and
available for settlement consisted of 1,887,796 acres, surrounded on all
sides by lands in the occupancy of Indian tribes. Congress had provided
no civil government for the people who were to be invited by my
proclamation to settle upon these lands, except as the new court which
had been established at Muscogee or the United States courts in some of
the adjoining States had power to enforce the general laws of the United
States.

In this condition of things I was quite reluctant to open the lands to
settlement; but in view of the fact that several thousand persons, many
of them with their families, had gathered upon the borders of the Indian
Territory with a view to securing homesteads on the ceded lands, and
that delay would involve them in much loss and suffering, I did on the
23d day of March last issue a proclamation[3] declaring that the lands
therein described would be open to settlement under the provisions of
the law on the 22d day of April following at 12 o'clock noon. Two land
districts had been established and the offices were opened for the
transaction of business when the appointed time arrived.

It is much to the credit of the settlers that they very generally
observed the limitation as to the time when they might enter the
Territory. Care will be taken that those who entered in violation of the
law do not secure the advantage they unfairly sought. There was a good
deal of apprehension that the strife for locations would result in much
violence and bloodshed, but happily these anticipations were not
realized. It is estimated that there are now in the Territory about
60,000 people, and several considerable towns have sprung up, for which
temporary municipal governments have been organized. Guthrie is said to
have now a population of almost 8,000. Eleven schools and nine churches
have been established, and three daily and five weekly newspapers are
published in this city, whose charter and ordinances have only the
sanction of the voluntary acquiescence of the people from day to day.

Oklahoma City has a population of about 5,000, and is proportionately as
well provided as Guthrie with churches, schools, and newspapers. Other
towns and villages having populations of from 100 to 1,000 are scattered
over the Territory.

In order to secure the peace of this new community in the absence of
civil government, I directed General Merritt, commanding the Department
of the Missouri, to act in conjunction with the marshals of the United
States to preserve the peace, and upon their requisition to use the
troops to aid them in executing warrants and in quieting any riots or
breaches of the peace that might occur. He was further directed to use
his influence to promote good order and to avoid any conflicts between
or with the settlers. Believing that the introduction and sale of
liquors where no legal restraints or regulations existed would endanger
the public peace, and in view of the fact that such liquors must first
be introduced into the Indian reservations before reaching the white
settlements, I further directed the general commanding to enforce the
laws relating to the introduction of ardent spirits into the Indian
country.

The presence of the troops has given a sense of security to the
well-disposed citizens and has tended to restrain the lawless. In one
instance the officer in immediate command of the troops went further
than I deemed justifiable in supporting the _de facto_ municipal
government of Guthrie, and he was so informed, and directed to limit the
interference of the military to the support of the marshals on the lines
indicated in the original order. I very urgently recommend that Congress
at once provide a Territorial government for these people. Serious
questions, which may at any time lead to violent outbreaks, are awaiting
the institution of courts for their peaceful adjustment. The American
genius for self-government has been well illustrated in Oklahoma; but it
is neither safe nor wise to leave these people longer to the expedients
which have temporarily served them.

Provision should be made for the acquisition of title to town lots in
the towns now established in Alaska, for locating town sites, and for
the establishment of municipal governments. Only the mining laws have
been extended to that Territory, and no other form of title to lands can
now be obtained. The general land laws were framed with reference to the
disposition of agricultural lands, and it is doubtful if their operation
in Alaska would be beneficial.

We have fortunately not extended to Alaska the mistaken policy of
establishing reservations for the Indian tribes, and can deal with them
from the beginning as individuals with, I am sure, better results; but
any disposition of the public lands and any regulations relating to
timber and to the fisheries should have a kindly regard to their
interests. Having no power to levy taxes, the people of Alaska are
wholly dependent upon the General Government, to whose revenues the
seal fisheries make a large annual contribution. An appropriation for
education should neither be overlooked nor stinted.

The smallness of the population and the great distances between the
settlements offer serious obstacles to the establishment of the usual
Territorial form of government. Perhaps the organization of several
sub-districts with a small municipal council of limited powers for each
would be safe and useful.

Attention is called in this connection to the suggestions of the
Secretary of the Treasury relating to the establishment of another port
of entry in Alaska and of other needed customs facilities and
regulations.

In the administration of the land laws the policy of facilitating in
every proper way the adjustment of the honest claims of individual
settlers upon the public lands has been pursued. The number of pending
cases had during the preceding Administration been greatly increased
under the operation of orders for a time suspending final action in a
large part of the cases originating in the West and Northwest, and by
the subsequent use of unusual methods of examination. Only those who are
familiar with the conditions under which our agricultural lands have
been settled can appreciate the serious and often fatal consequences to
the settler of a policy that puts his title under suspicion or delays
the issuance of his patent. While care is taken to prevent and to expose
fraud, it should not be imputed without reason.

The manifest purpose of the homestead and preemption laws was to promote
the settlement of the public domain by persons having a _bona fide_
intent to make a home upon the selected lands. Where this intent is well
established and the requirements of the law have been substantially
complied with, the claimant is entitled to a prompt and friendly
consideration of his case; but where there is reason to believe that
the claimant is the mere agent of another who is seeking to evade a law
intended to promote small holdings and to secure by fraudulent methods
large tracts of timber and other lands, both principal and agent should
not only be thwarted in their fraudulent purpose, but should be made to
feel the full penalties of our criminal statutes. The laws should be so
administered as not to confound these two classes and to visit penalties
only upon the latter.

The unsettled state of the titles to large bodies of lands in the
Territories of New Mexico and Arizona has greatly retarded the
development of those Territories. Provision should be made by law for
the prompt trial and final adjustment before a judicial tribunal or
commission of all claims based upon Mexican grants. It is not just to an
intelligent and enterprising people that their peace should be disturbed
and their prosperity retarded by these old contentions. I express the
hope that differences of opinion as to methods may yield to the urgency
of the case.

The law now provides a pension for every soldier and sailor who was
mustered into the service of the United States during the Civil War and
is now suffering from wounds or disease having an origin in the service
and in the line of duty. Two of the three necessary facts, viz, muster
and disability, are usually susceptible of easy proof; but the third,
origin in the service, is often difficult and in many deserving cases
impossible to establish. That very many of those who endured the
hardships of our most bloody and arduous campaigns are now disabled from
diseases that had a real but not traceable origin in the service I do
not doubt. Besides these there is another class composed of men many of
whom served an enlistment of three full years and of reenlisted veterans
who added a fourth year of service, who escaped the casualties of battle
and the assaults of disease, who were always ready for any detail, who
were in every battle line of their command, and were mustered out in
sound health, and have since the close of the war, while fighting with
the same indomitable and independent spirit the contests of civil life,
been overcome by disease or casualty.

I am not unaware that the pension roll already involves a very large
annual expenditure; neither am I deterred by that fact from recommending
that Congress grant a pension to such honorably discharged soldiers and
sailors of the Civil War as, having rendered substantial service during
the war, are now dependent upon their own labor for a maintenance and by
disease or casualty are incapacitated from earning it. Many of the men
who would be included in this form of relief are now dependent upon
public aid, and it does not, in my judgment, consist with the national
honor that they shall continue to subsist upon the local relief given
indiscriminately to paupers instead of upon the special and generous
provision of the nation they served so gallantly and unselfishly. Our
people will, I am sure, very generally approve such legislation. And I
am equally sure that the survivors of the Union Army and Navy will feel
a grateful sense of relief when this worthy and suffering class of their
comrades is fairly cared for.

There are some manifest inequalities in the existing law that should be
remedied. To some of these the Secretary of the Interior has called
attention.

It is gratifying to be able to state that by the adoption of new and
better methods in the War Department the calls of the Pension Office for
information as to the military and hospital records of pension claimants
are now promptly answered and the injurious and vexatious delays that
have heretofore occurred are entirely avoided. This will greatly
facilitate the adjustment of all pending claims.

The advent of four new States--South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, and
Washington--into the Union under the Constitution in the same month,
and the admission of their duly chosen representatives to our National
Congress at the same session, is an event as unexampled as it is
interesting.

The certification of the votes cast and of the constitutions adopted in
each of the States was filed with me, as required by the eighth section
of the act of February 22, 1889, by the governors of said Territories,
respectively. Having after a careful examination found that the several
constitutions and governments were republican in form and not repugnant
to the Constitution of the United States, that all the provisions of the
act of Congress had been complied with, and that a majority of the votes
cast in each of said proposed States was in favor of the adoption of
the constitution submitted therein, I did so declare by a separate
proclamation as to each--as to North Dakota and South Dakota on
Saturday, November 2;[4] as to Montana on Friday, November 8,[5] and as
to Washington on Monday, November 11.[6]

Each of these States has within it resources the development of which
will employ the energies of and yield a comfortable subsistence to a
great population. The smallest of these new States, Washington, stands
twelfth, and the largest, Montana, third, among the forty-two in area.
The people of these States are already well-trained, intelligent, and
patriotic American citizens, having common interests and sympathies with
those of the older States and a common purpose to defend the integrity
and uphold the honor of the nation.

The attention of the Interstate Commerce Commission has been called to
the urgent need of Congressional legislation for the better protection
of the lives and limbs of those engaged in operating the great
interstate freight lines of the country, and especially of the yardmen
and brakemen. A petition signed by nearly 10,000 railway brakemen was
presented to the Commission asking that steps might be taken to bring
about the use of automatic brakes and couplers on freight cars.

At a meeting of State railroad commissioners and their accredited
representatives held at Washington in March last upon the invitation of
the Interstate Commerce Commission a resolution was unanimously adopted
urging the Commission "to consider what can be done to prevent the loss
of life and limb in coupling and uncoupling freight cars and in handling
the brakes of such cars." During the year ending June 30, 1888, over
2,000 railroad employees were killed in service and more than 20,000
injured. It is competent, I think, for Congress to require uniformity
in the construction of cars used in interstate commerce and the use of
improved safety appliances upon such trains. Time will be necessary to
make the needed changes, but an earnest and intelligent beginning should
be made at once. It is a reproach to our civilization that any class
of American workmen should in the pursuit of a necessary and useful
vocation be subjected to a peril of life and limb as great as that of
a soldier in time of war.

The creation of an Executive Department to be known as the Department of
Agriculture by the act of February 9 last was a wise and timely response
to a request which had long been respectfully urged by the farmers of
the country; but much remains to be done to perfect the organization of
the Department so that it may fairly realize the expectations which
its creation excited. In this connection attention is called to the
suggestions contained in the report of the Secretary, which is herewith
submitted. The need of a law officer for the Department such as is
provided for the other Executive Departments is manifest. The failure of
the last Congress to make the usual provision for the publication of the
annual report should be promptly remedied. The public interest in the
report and its value to the farming community, I am sure, will not be
diminished under the new organization of the Department.

I recommend that the weather service be separated from the War
Department and established as a bureau in the Department of Agriculture.
This will involve an entire reorganization both of the Weather Bureau
and of the Signal Corps, making of the first a purely civil organization
and of the other a purely military staff corps. The report of the Chief
Signal Officer shows that the work of the corps on its military side has
been deteriorating.

The interests of the people of the District of Columbia should not be
lost sight of in the pressure for consideration of measures affecting
the whole country. Having no legislature of its own, either municipal
or general, its people must look to Congress for the regulation of all
those concerns that in the States are the subject of local control. Our
whole people have an interest that the national capital should be made
attractive and beautiful, and, above all, that its repute for social
order should be well maintained. The laws regulating the sale of
intoxicating drinks in the District should be revised with a view to
bringing the traffic under stringent limitations and control.

In execution of the power conferred upon me by the act making
appropriations for the expenses of the District of Columbia for the
year ending June 30, 1890, I did on the 17th day of August last appoint
Rudolph Hering, of New York, Samuel M. Gray, of Rhode Island, and
Frederick P. Stearns, of Massachusetts, three eminent sanitary
engineers, to examine and report upon the system of sewerage existing in
the District of Columbia. Their report, which is not yet completed, will
be in due course submitted to Congress.

The report of the Commissioners of the District is herewith transmitted,
and the attention of Congress is called to the suggestions contained
therein.

The proposition to observe the four hundredth anniversary of the
discovery of America by the opening of a world's fair or exposition in
some one of our great cities will be presented for the consideration of
Congress. The value and interest of such an exposition may well claim
the promotion of the General Government.

On the 4th of March last the Civil Service Commission had but a single
member. The vacancies were filled on the 9th day of May, and since then
the Commissioners have been industriously, though with an inadequate
force, engaged in executing the law. They were assured by me that a
cordial support would be given them in the faithful and impartial
enforcement of the statute and of the rules and regulations adopted
in aid of it.

Heretofore the book of eligibles has been closed to everyone, except
as certifications were made upon the requisition of the appointing
officers. This secrecy was the source of much suspicion and of many
charges of favoritism in the administration of the law. What is secret
is always suspected; what is open can be judged. The Commission, with
the full approval of all its members, has now opened the list of
eligibles to the public. The eligible lists for the classified
post-offices and custom-houses are now publicly posted in the respective
offices, as are also the certifications for appointments. The purpose of
the civil-service law was absolutely to exclude any other consideration
in connection with appointments under it than that of merit as tested by
the examinations. The business proceeds upon the theory that both the
examining boards and the appointing officers are absolutely ignorant
as to the political views and associations of all persons on the
civil-service lists. It is not too much to say, however, that some
recent Congressional investigations have somewhat shaken public
confidence in the impartiality of the selections for appointment.

The reform of the civil service will make no safe or satisfactory
advance until the present law and its equal administration are well
established in the confidence of the people. It will be my pleasure,
as it is my duty, to see that the law is executed with firmness and
impartiality. If some of its provisions have been fraudulently evaded
by appointing officers, our resentment should not suggest the repeal of
the law, but reform in its administration. We should have one view of
the matter, and hold it with a sincerity that is not affected by the
consideration that the party to which we belong is for the time in
power.

My predecessor, on the 4th day of January, 1889, by an Executive order
to take effect March 15, brought the Railway Mail Service under the
operation of the civil-service law.[7] Provision was made that the order
should take effect sooner in any State where an eligible list was sooner
obtained. On the 11th day of March Mr. Lyman, then the only member of
the Commission, reported to me in writing that it would not be possible
to have the list of eligibles ready before May 1, and requested that the
taking effect of the order be postponed until that time, which was
done,[8] subject to the same provision contained in the original order
as to States in which an eligible list was sooner obtained.

As a result of the revision of the rules, of the new classification, and
of the inclusion of the Railway Mail Service, the work of the Commission
has been greatly increased, and the present clerical force is found to
be inadequate. I recommend that the additional clerks asked by the
Commission be appropriated for.

The duty of appointment is devolved by the Constitution or by the law,
and the appointing officers are properly held to a high responsibility
in its exercise. The growth of the country and the consequent increase
of the civil list have magnified this function of the Executive
disproportionally. It can not be denied, however, that the labor
connected with this necessary work is increased, often to the point of
actual distress, by the sudden and excessive demands that are made upon
an incoming Administration for removals and appointments. But, on the
other hand, it is not true that incumbency is a conclusive argument for
continuance in office. Impartiality, moderation, fidelity to public
duty, and a good attainment in the discharge of it must be added before
the argument is complete. When those holding administrative offices so
conduct themselves as to convince just political opponents that no party
consideration or bias affects in any way the discharge of their public
duties, we can more easily stay the demand for removals.

I am satisfied that both in and out of the classified service great
benefit would accrue from the adoption of some system by which the
officer would receive the distinction and benefit that in all private
employments comes from exceptional faithfulness and efficiency in the
performance of duty.

I have suggested to the heads of the Executive Departments that they
consider whether a record might not be kept in each bureau of all those
elements that are covered by the terms "faithfulness" and "efficiency,"
and a rating made showing the relative merits of the clerks of each
class, this rating to be regarded as a test of merit in making
promotions.

I have also suggested to the Postmaster-General that he adopt some plan
by which he can, upon the basis of the reports to the Department and of
frequent inspections, indicate the relative merit of postmasters of each
class. They will be appropriately indicated in the Official Register and
in the report of the Department. That a great stimulus would thus be
given to the whole service I do not doubt, and such a record would be
the best defense against inconsiderate removals from office.

The interest of the General Government in the education of the
people found an early expression, not only in the thoughtful and
sometimes warning utterances of our ablest statesmen, but in liberal
appropriations from the common resources for the support of education
in the new States. No one will deny that it is of the gravest national
concern that those who hold the ultimate control of all public affairs
should have the necessary intelligence wisely to direct and determine
them. National aid to education has heretofore taken the form of land
grants, and in that form the constitutional power of Congress to promote
the education of the people is not seriously questioned. I do not think
it can be successfully questioned when the form is changed to that of a
direct grant of money from the public Treasury.

Such aid should be, as it always has been, suggested by some exceptional
conditions. The sudden emancipation of the slaves of the South, the
bestowal of the suffrage which soon followed, and the impairment of the
ability of the States where these new citizens were chiefly found to
adequately provide educational facilities presented not only exceptional
but unexampled conditions. That the situation has been much ameliorated
there is no doubt. The ability and interest of the States have happily
increased.

But a great work remains to be done, and I think the General
Government should lend its aid. As the suggestion of a national grant
in aid of education grows chiefly out of the condition and needs of
the emancipated slave and his descendants, the relief should as far
as possible, while necessarily proceeding upon some general lines, be
applied to the need that suggested it. It is essential, if much good is
to be accomplished, that the sympathy and active interest of the people
of the States should be enlisted, and that the methods adopted should
be such as to stimulate and not to supplant local taxation for school
purposes.

As one Congress can not bind a succeeding one in such a case and as
the effort must in some degree be experimental, I recommend that any
appropriation made for this purpose be so limited in annual amount and
as to the time over which it is to extend as will on the one hand give
the local school authorities opportunity to make the best use of the
first year's allowance, and on the other deliver them from the
temptation to unduly postpone the assumption of the whole burden
themselves.

The colored people did not intrude themselves upon us. They were brought
here in chains and held in the communities where they are now chiefly
found by a cruel slave code. Happily for both races, they are now free.
They have from a standpoint of ignorance and poverty--which was our
shame, not theirs--made remarkable advances in education and in the
acquisition of property. They have as a people shown themselves to
be friendly and faithful toward the white race under temptations of
tremendous strength. They have their representatives in the national
cemeteries, where a grateful Government has gathered the ashes of
those who died in its defense. They have furnished to our Regular Army
regiments that have won high praise from their commanding officers for
courage and soldierly qualities and for fidelity to the enlistment oath.
In civil life they are now the toilers of their communities, making
their full contribution to the widening streams of prosperity which
these communities are receiving. Their sudden withdrawal would stop
production and bring disorder into the household as well as the shop.
Generally they do not desire to quit their homes, and their employers
resent the interference of the emigration agents who seek to stimulate
such a desire.

But notwithstanding all this, in many parts of our country where the
colored population is large the people of that race are by various
devices deprived of any effective exercise of their political rights and
of many of their civil rights. The wrong does not expend itself upon
those whose votes are suppressed. Every constituency in the Union is
wronged.

It has been the hope of every patriot that a sense of justice and of
respect for the law would work a gradual cure of these flagrant evils.
Surely no one supposes that the present can be accepted as a permanent
condition. If it is said that these communities must work out this
problem for themselves, we have a right to ask whether they are at work
upon it. Do they suggest any solution? When and under what conditions is
the black man to have a free ballot? When is he in fact to have those
full civil rights which have so long been his in law? When is that
equality of influence which our form of government was intended to
secure to the electors to be restored? This generation should
courageously face these grave questions, and not leave them as a
heritage of woe to the next. The consultation should proceed with
candor, calmness, and great patience, upon the lines of justice and
humanity, not of prejudice and cruelty. No question in our country can
be at rest except upon the firm base of justice and of the law.

I earnestly invoke the attention of Congress to the consideration of
such measures within its well-defined constitutional powers as will
secure to all our people a free exercise of the right of suffrage and
every other civil right under the Constitution and laws of the United
States. No evil, however deplorable, can justify the assumption either
on the part of the Executive or of Congress of powers not granted, but
both will be highly blamable if all the powers granted are not wisely
but firmly used to correct these evils. The power to take the whole
direction and control of the election of members of the House of
Representatives is clearly given to the General Government. A partial
and qualified supervision of these elections is now provided for by law,
and in my opinion this law may be so strengthened and extended as to
secure on the whole better results than can be attained by a law taking
all the processes of such election into Federal control. The colored man
should be protected in all of his relations to the Federal Government,
whether as litigant, juror, or witness in our courts, as an elector for
members of Congress, or as a peaceful traveler upon our interstate
railways.

There is nothing more justly humiliating to the national pride and
nothing more hurtful to the national prosperity than the inferiority of
our merchant marine compared with that of other nations whose general
resources, wealth, and seacoast lines do not suggest any reason for
their supremacy on the sea. It was not always so, and our people are
agreed, I think, that it shall not continue to be so. It is not possible
in this communication to discuss the causes of the decay of our shipping
interests or the differing methods by which it is proposed to restore
them. The statement of a few well-authenticated facts and some general
suggestions as to legislation is all that is practicable. That the great
steamship lines sailing under the flags of England, France, Germany,
Spain, and Italy, and engaged in foreign commerce, were promoted and
have since been and now are liberally aided by grants of public money
in one form or another is generally known. That the American lines of
steamships have been abandoned by us to an unequal contest with the
aided lines of other nations until they have been withdrawn, or in
the few cases where they are still maintained are subject to serious
disadvantages, is matter of common knowledge.

The present situation is such that travelers and merchandise find
Liverpool often a necessary intermediate port between New York and some
of the South American capitals. The fact that some of the delegates from
South American States to the conference of American nations now in
session at Washington reached our shores by reversing that line of
travel is very conclusive of the need of such a conference and very
suggestive as to the first and most necessary step in the direction of
fuller and more beneficial intercourse with nations that are now our
neighbors upon the lines of latitude, but not upon the lines of
established commercial intercourse.

I recommend that such appropriations be made for ocean mail service in
American steamships between our ports and those of Central and South
America, China, Japan, and the important islands in both of the great
oceans as will be liberally remunerative for the service rendered and
as will encourage the establishment and in some fair degree equalize
the chances of American steamship lines in the competitions which they
must meet. That the American States lying south of us will cordially
cooperate in establishing and maintaining such lines of steamships to
their principal ports I do not doubt.

We should also make provision for a naval reserve to consist of such
merchant ships of American construction and of a specified tonnage and
speed as the owners will consent to place at the use of the Government
in case of need as armed cruisers. England has adopted this policy, and
as a result can now upon necessity at once place upon her naval list
some of the fastest steamships in the world. A proper supervision of the
construction of such vessels would make their conversion into effective
ships of war very easy.

I am an advocate of economy in our national expenditures, but it is
a misuse of terms to make this word describe a policy that withholds
an expenditure for the purpose of extending our foreign commerce. The
enlargement and improvement of our merchant marine, the development of
a sufficient body of trained American seamen, the promotion of rapid and
regular mail communication between the ports of other countries and our
own, and the adaptation of large and swift American merchant steamships
to naval uses in time of war are public purposes of the highest concern.
The enlarged participation of our people in the carrying trade, the new
and increased markets that will be opened for the products of our farms
and factories, and the fuller and better employment of our mechanics
which will result from a liberal promotion of our foreign commerce
insure the widest possible diffusion of benefit to all the States
and to all our people. Everything is most propitious for the present
inauguration of a liberal and progressive policy upon this subject,
and we should enter upon it with promptness and decision.

The legislation which I have suggested, it is sincerely believed,
will promote the peace and honor of our country and the prosperity and
security of the people. I invoke the diligent and serious attention of
Congress to the consideration of these and such other measures as may
be presented having the same great end in view.

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 2: See pp. 14-15.]

[Footnote 3: See pp. 15-18.]

[Footnote 4: See pp. 20-24.]

[Footnote 5: See pp. 24-25.]

[Footnote 6: See pp. 25-26.]

[Footnote 7: See Vol. VIII, pp. 847-851.]

[Footnote 8: See p. 27.]



SPECIAL MESSAGES.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1889_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The act of Congress approved July 9, 1888, "for an international marine
conference to secure greater safety for life and property at sea," and
in virtue of which the present conference is now holding its sessions
at Washington, provides by the third section that the labors of the
conference shall terminate on the 1st day of January, 1890, or sooner,
by direction of the President.

I transmit herewith a report from the Acting Secretary of State,
accompanied with a letter from Rear-Admiral S.R. Franklin, United States
Navy, president of the conference, stating that in all probability the
labors of the conference can not be brought to a close by the time fixed
by the present law.

In consideration of the many important questions now under discussion by
the conference, which should if possible be satisfactorily determined
before the final adjournment, I earnestly recommend that a further act
be passed to enable the conference to continue its sessions for a period
of two months from January 1, 1890.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 18, 1889_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of 16th instant from the Secretary
of the Interior, submitting the report, with accompanying papers, of the
commission appointed under the provisions of the act of March 2, 1889
(25 U.S. Statutes at Large, p. 1002), to conduct negotiations with the
Coeur d'Alene tribe of Indians for the purchase and release by said
tribe of such portions of its reservation not agricultural and valuable
chiefly for minerals and timber as such tribe shall consent to sell,
etc., together with the agreement entered into by said commission
September 9, 1889, with said Indians.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 20, 1889_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 16th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting a draft of a bill "to provide for
the reduction of the Round Valley Indian Reservation, in the State of
California, and for other purposes." I invite your attention to the
papers herein referred to, showing the necessity for the proposed
legislation, and ask that the bill herewith receive careful and early
consideration.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 7, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I herewith inclose a report from the Secretary of State, with
accompanying papers, in relation to the death of George Pauls, a German
subject, at Wilmington, N.C., May 8, 1886, and the claim of his widow
for compensation on that account. In view of the statements made by the
Secretary of State, I earnestly recommend that an appropriation of
$5,000 be made in behalf of Mrs. Pauls.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 13, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State of the 13th
instant, recommending that the necessary means be provided to erect
suitable buildings on the grounds so generously presented in the year
1884 to this Government for the use of its legation at Bangkok by His
Majesty the King of Siam.

I commend the matter to the favorable consideration of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 16, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State, in relation
to the claim of the Government of Sweden and Norway, under the treaty
between the United States and that Government of July 4, 1827, for the
benefit of the lower rate of tonnage dues under the shipping acts of
1884 and 1886.

I recommend the immediate adoption by Congress of the necessary
legislation to enable this Government to apply in the case of Sweden and
Norway the same rule in respect to the levying of tonnage dues under the
treaty of 1827 as was claimed and secured by this Government under the
same instrument in 1828.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 20, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter of Professor T.C. Mendenhall, chairman of
a committee of the American Association for the Advancement of Science,
and president of that association, and also the memorial prepared by
said committee, relating to the preservation of the forests upon the
public domain.

I very earnestly recommend that adequate legislation may be provided
to the end that the rapid and needless destruction of our great forest
areas may be prevented.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 20, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of War, relating to the
condition and needs of the band of Apache Indians now held at Mount
Vernon Barracks and at Governors Island. The reports of General Crook
and Lieutenant Howard, which accompany the letter of the Secretary, show
that some of these Indians have rendered good service to the Government
in the pursuit and capture of the murderous band that followed Natchez
and Geronimo. It is a reproach that they should not in our treatment of
them be distinguished from the cruel and bloody members of the tribe now
confined with them.

I earnestly recommend that provision be made by law for locating these
Indians upon lands in the Indian Territory.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 27, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit, in reply to the resolution of the Senate of the 8th instant,
a report from the Secretary of State, with accompanying documents, in
relation to the execution of the acts of Congress approved May 6, 1882,
and October 1, 1888, concerning Chinese.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 10, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In pursuance of the power vested in me by the terms of the last clause
of section 3 of the act of Congress approved March 2, 1889, entitled
"An act making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses
of the Indian Department and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with
various Indian tribes for the year ending June 30, 1890, and for other
purposes," a commission, as therein authorized, was appointed,
consisting of Charles Foster, of Ohio, William Warner, of Missouri, and
General George Crook, of the United States Army. This commission was
specially instructed to present to the Sioux Indians occupying the Great
Sioux Reservation, for their acceptance thereof and consent thereto in
manner and form as therein provided, the act of Congress approved March
2, 1889, entitled "An act to divide a portion of the reservation of the
Sioux Nation of Indians in Dakota into separate reservations and to
secure the relinquishment of the Indian title to the remainder, and for
other purposes."

The report of the commission was submitted to me on the 24th day of
December, 1889, and is, with the accompanying documents and a letter of
the Secretary of the Interior, herewith transmitted for the information
of Congress. It appears from the report of the commission that the
consent of more than three-fourths of the adult Indians to the terms of
the act last named was secured, as required by section 12 of the treaty
of 1868, and upon a careful examination of the papers submitted I find
such to be the fact, and that such consent is properly evidenced by the
signatures of more than three-fourths of such Indians.

At the outset of the negotiations the commission was confronted by
certain questions as to the interpretation and effect of the act of
Congress which they were presenting for the acceptance of the Indians.
Upon two or three points of some importance the commission gave in
response to these inquiries an interpretation to the law, and it was
the law thus explained to them that was accepted by the Indians. The
commissioners had no power to bind Congress or the Executive by their
construction of a statute, but they were the agents of the United
States, first, to submit a definite proposition for the acceptance
of the Indians, and, that failing, to agree upon modified terms to
be submitted to Congress for ratification. They were dealing with an
ignorant and suspicious people, and an explanation of the terms and
effect of the offer submitted could not be avoided. Good faith demands
that if the United States accepts the lands ceded the beneficial
construction of the act given by our agents should be also admitted
and observed.

The chief difficulty in the construction of the act grows out of its
relation to prior treaties, which were by section 19 continued in
force so far as they are not in conflict with the terms of the act.
The seventh article of the treaty of 1868, relating to schools and
schoolhouses, is by section 17 of the act continued in force for twenty
years, "subject to such modifications as Congress shall deem most
effective to secure to said Indians equivalent benefits of such
education."

Section 7 of the treaty of 1868 provides only for instruction in the
"elementary branches of an English education," while section 17 of the
act, after continuing this section of the treaty in force, provides a
fund which is to be applied "for the promotion of industrial and other
suitable education among said Indians." Again, section 7 of the treaty
provides for the erection of a schoolhouse for every thirty children who
can be induced to attend, while section 20 of the act requires the
erection of not less than thirty schoolhouses, and more if found
necessary.

The commissioners were asked by the Indians whether the cost of the
English schools provided for in section 7 of the treaty and of the
schoolhouses provided for in the same section and in section 20 of the
act would be a charge against the proceeds of the lands they were now
asked to cede to the United States. This question was answered in the
negative, and I think the answer was correct. If the act, without
reference to section 7 of the treaty, is to be construed to express
the whole duty of the Government toward the Indians in the matter of
schools, the extension for twenty years of the provisions of that
section is without meaning.

The assurance given by the commissioners that the money appropriated by
section 27 of the act to pay certain bands for the ponies taken by the
military authorities in 1876 would not be a charge against the proceeds
of the ceded lands was obviously a correct interpretation of the law.

The Indians were further assured by the commissioners that the amount
appropriated for the expenses of the commission could not under the law
be made a charge upon the proceeds of their lands. This, I think, is a
correct exposition of the act.

It seems from the report of the commission that some of the Indians at
the Standing Rock Agency asked whether if they accepted the act they
could have the election to take their allotments under section 6 of the
treaty of 1868 and have the benefits of sections 8 and 10 of that
treaty, and were told that they could.

As the treaty is continued in force except where it contravenes the
provisions of the act, I do not see any difficulty in admitting this
interpretation.

It will be found that the commission has submitted many recommendations,
some of them involving legislation and others appealing to powers
already possessed by the executive department. The consent of the
Indians to the act was not made dependent upon the adoption of any of
these recommendations, but many of them are obviously just and promotive
of the true interests of the Indians. So far as these require
legislation they are earnestly commended to the attention of Congress.

The Secretary of the Interior has prepared and submits with his letter
transmitting the report of the commission the draft of a bill embodying
those recommendations of the commission requiring legislation.

The appropriations necessary to carry into effect the provisions of the
act should be promptly made and be immediately available.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 12, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State, respecting the
International Marine Conference which was held in the city of Washington
in the year 1889, together with a copy of the proceedings of the
conference, including the final act.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 17, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 11th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting a copy of a report from the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs and accompanying draft of a bill to amend
the first section of an act entitled "An act to provide for the
allotment of lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations,
and to extend the protection of the laws of the United States and the
Territories over the Indians, and for other purposes," approved February
8, 1887.

The matter is presented for the consideration and action of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 18, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 8th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting a report of the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs and accompanying agreement, made with the Sisseton and
Wahpeton bands of Dakota or Sioux Indians, for the purchase and release
of the surplus lands in the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, in the
States of North and South Dakota, the negotiations for said purchase and
release having been conducted under the authority contained in the fifth
section of the general allotment act of February 8, 1887 (24 U.S.
Statutes at Large, p. 388), which provides, among other things, that the
"purchase shall not be complete until ratified by Congress, and the form
and manner of executing such release shall also be prescribed by
Congress."

This agreement involves a departure from the terms of the general
allotment act in at least one important particular. It gives to each
member of the tribe 160 acres of land without regard to age or sex,
while the general law gives this allotment only to heads of families.
There are, I think, serious objections to the basis adopted in the
general law, especially in its application to married women; but if the
basis of the agreement herewith submitted is accepted, it would, I
think, result in some cases, where there are large families of minor
children, in excessive allotments to a single family. Whatever is done
in this case will of course become in some sense a precedent in the
cases yet to be dealt with.

Perhaps the question of the payment by the United States of the
annuities which were forfeited by the act of February 16, 1863
(12 U.S. Statutes at Large, p. 652), should not have been considered in
connection with this negotiation for the cession of these lands. But it
appears that a refusal to consider this claim would have terminated the
negotiation, and if the claim is just its allowance has already been
too long delayed. The forfeiture declared by the act of 1863 unjustly
included the annuities of certain Indians of these bands who were not
only guilty of no fault, but who rendered meritorious services in the
armies of the United States in the suppression of the Sioux outbreak
and in the War of the Rebellion.

The agreement submitted, as I understand, provides for the payment of
the annuities justly due to these friendly Indians to all the members
of the two bands per capita. This is said to be the unanimous wish of
the Indians, and a distribution to the friendly Indians and their
descendants only would now be very difficult, if not impossible.

The agreement is respectfully submitted for the consideration of
Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 24, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of 18th instant from the Secretary
of the Interior, submitting copy of a report from the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs, inclosing, with accompanying papers, a draft of a bill
authorizing the removal of the Indians of the Papago or Gila Bend
Reservation, in Maricopa County, Arizona Territory, to the Papago Indian
Reservation, in Pima County, in said Territory, or to the Pima and
Maricopa Indian reservations, commonly known as the Gila River and Salt
River Indian reservations, respectively, in said Territory, and for
other purposes.

The matter is presented for the early consideration and action of
Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 24, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 18th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting a copy of a report of the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs and accompanying item for insertion in
the bill making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses
of the Indian Department, which makes provision for further compensation
of Henry B. Carrington, special agent appointed under the act of March
2, 1889, "to provide for the sale of lands patented to certain members
of the Flathead band of Indians in Montana Territory, and for other
purposes," to secure the consent of the Indians thereto and appraise
the lands and improvements thereof; for an appropriation to remove the
Indians whose lands have been sold to the Jocko Reservation, and for
additional legislation considered necessary to complete this matter,
as suggested by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

I also transmit a copy of the report of Special Agent Carrington and its
inclosures.

The matter is presented for the early consideration of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 4, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In pursuance of the authority and direction contained in the act of
Congress approved January 14, 1889, entitled "An act for the relief and
civilization of the Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota," three
commissioners were appointed by the President on February 26, 1889, as
therein authorized and directed, namely, Henry M. Rice, of Minnesota,
Martin Marty, of Dakota, and Joseph B. Whiting, of Wisconsin, to
negotiate with said Indians.

The commissioners have submitted their final report, with accompanying
papers, showing the results of the negotiations conducted by them, and
the same has been carefully reviewed by the Secretary of the Interior in
his report to me thereon.

Being satisfied from an examination of the papers submitted that the
cession and relinquishment by said Chippewa Indians of their title and
interest in the lands specified and described in the agreement with the
different bands or tribes of Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota
was obtained in the manner prescribed in the first section of said act,
and that more than the requisite number have signed said agreement, I
have, as provided by said act, approved the said instruments in writing
constituting the agreement entered into by the commissioners with said
Indians.

The commissioners did not escape the embarrassment which unfortunately
too often attends our negotiations with the Indians, namely, an
indisposition to treat with the Government for further concessions while
its obligations incurred under former agreements are unkept. I am sure
it will be the disposition of Congress to consider promptly and in a
just and friendly spirit the claims presented by these Indians through
our commissioners, which have been formulated in the draft of a bill
prepared by the Secretary of the Interior and submitted herewith.

The act of January 14, 1889 (25 U.S. Statutes at Large, p. 642),
evidently contemplated the voluntary removal of the body of all these
bands of Indians to the White Earth and Red Lake reservations; but a
proviso in section 3 of the act authorized any Indian to take his
allotment upon the reservation where he now resides. The commissioners
report that quite a general desire was expressed by the Indians to avail
themselves of this option. The result of this is that the ceded land can
not be ascertained and brought to sale under the act until all of the
allotments are made.

I recommend that the necessary appropriations to complete the surveys
and allotments be made at once available, so that the work may be begun
and completed at the earliest possible day.

A copy of the report made by the commissioners, with copies of all the
papers submitted therewith, except the census rolls, is herewith
presented for the information of the Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 24, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In answer to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 8th
instant, in relation to the employment by the Regular Army of the United
States of Indian scouts for the purpose of pursuing hostile Indians in
their raids in the territory of the United States and Mexico, and in
regard to the proposed transfer of the Apache Chiricahua Indians from
Mount Vernon Barracks, Ala., to Fort Sill, Ind. T., I transmit herewith
a communication from the Secretary of State on the subject, together
with the accompanying papers.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 29, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the 28th instant,
the House of Representatives concurring, I return herewith the bill
(S. 1332) entitled "An act granting to the city of Colorado Springs,
in the State of Colorado, certain lands therein described for water
reservoirs."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 31, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I herewith transmit a report from the Secretary of State, in relation
to the discriminating duty now imposed upon foreign works of art,
and recommend that action thereon looking to the removal of the
discrimination be taken by Congress during its present session, if
practicable.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 15, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I herewith transmit, in reply to the resolution of the House of
Representatives of the 3d instant, a report from the Secretary of State,
accompanied by certain correspondence in regard to the seizure of the
schooner _Rebecca_ by the Mexican customs authorities at Tampico in
February, 1884.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 18, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith the fifth annual report of the Commissioner of Labor.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 18, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In compliance with the resolution of the House of Representatives, the
Senate concurring, I return herewith House bill No. 5179, entitled "An
act fixing the rate of interest to be charged on arrearages of general
and special taxes now due the District of Columbia if paid within a
specified time."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 21, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives, the
Senate concurring, I return herewith House bill No. 105, entitled
"An act in relation to immediate transportation of dutiable goods,
amendatory of the act of July 10, 1880."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 21, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In answer to the resolution of the Senate dated March 25 last, in
relation to La Abra Silver Mining Company and the distribution or
payment of moneys to that corporation on account of the award in its
favor by the Mexican Government, I transmit herewith a report from the
Secretary of State upon the subject, together with the accompanying
papers.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 30, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with a resolution of the Senate, the House of
Representatives concurring, I return herewith Senate bill 895, entitled
"An act to organize the Territory of Oklahoma, to establish courts in
the Indian Territory, and for other purposes."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 8, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In answer to the resolution of the House of Representatives of March 31,
1890, respecting the importation into foreign countries of breadstuffs
and provisions from the United States and the rates of duty imposed upon
such articles, I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State
on the subject, together with the accompanying papers.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 13, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 10th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, and the accompanying copies of
correspondence, relative to the condition of the Northern Cheyenne
Indians at the Pine Ridge Agency, S. Dak.

The desire of these Indians to be united upon some common reservation
with their brethren now occupying the Tongue River Reserve, in Montana,
is quite natural, and such an arrangement would, I think, promote the
best interests of both of these bands.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 17, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of this date, I return
herewith the bill (S. 903) entitled "An act for the erection of a public
building in Cedar Rapids, Iowa."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 19, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I inclose herewith a draft of a bill submitted by the Secretary of the
Interior, providing for the survey and disposal of a tract of land
situated in the city of Monterey, Cal., known as the "Cuartel" lot.

The lot referred to is one of the tracts excluded from the survey of the
Pueblo lands of Monterey, Cal., by the decision of Acting Secretary of
the Interior Muldrow of October 4, 1887 (6 Land Decisions, p. 179), on
the ground that it was in a state of reservation for national purposes.

A communication from the Secretary of War to the Secretary of the
Interior, copy herewith, states that this lot has been occupied at
intervals by the War Department for military purposes, but as it is not
within the limits of any declared military reservation the act of July
5, 1884 (23 U.S. Statutes at Large, p. 103), providing for a transfer
to the Interior Department of abandoned military reservations, does not
apply.

The lot is no longer required for military purposes, and a willingness
is expressed by the War Department that the Department of the Interior
should assume control of it. A copy of the tracing, with notes, is
inclosed, showing an approximate survey and describing the situation
of the lot.

I also inclose a copy of a report of the Commissioner of the General
Land Office to the Secretary of the Interior, setting forth that under
the decision of Mr. Muldrow the tract of land known as the "Cuartel"
lot belongs to the United States by conquest and by treaty, and is in a
state of reservation for national purposes, and respectfully submitting
that Congress may continue its status as fixed by said decision or enact
appropriate laws providing for its disposition as public land.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 19, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a report of the International American Conference,
recently in session at this capital, recommending the survey of a route
for an intercontinental line of railroad to connect the systems of North
America with those of the southern continent, and to be conducted under
the direction of a board of commissioners representing the several
American Republics.

Public attention has chiefly been attracted to the subject of improved
water communication between the ports of the United States and those of
Central and South America. The creation of new and improved steamship
lines undoubtedly furnishes the readiest means of developing an
increased trade with the Latin-American nations. But it should not be
forgotten that it is possible to travel by land from Washington to the
southernmost capital of South America, and that the opening of railroad
communication with these friendly States will give to them and to us
facilities for intercourse and the exchanges of trade that are of
special value.

The work contemplated is vast, but entirely practicable. It will be
interesting to all, and perhaps surprising to most of us, to notice how
much has already been done in the way of railroad construction in Mexico
and South America that can be utilized as part of an intercontinental
line.

I do not hesitate to recommend that Congress make the very moderate
appropriation for surveys suggested by the conference and authorize the
appointment of commissioners and the detail of engineer officers to
direct and conduct the necessary preliminary surveys.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 21, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 20th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior and accompanying correspondence in the matter
of the request of the Seminole Nation of Indians for negotiations with
the Creek Nation of Indians for the purchase of an additional quantity
of land, being about 25,000 acres, for the use of the Seminoles. The
request is based upon the fact that former purchases do not embrace all
of the lands upon which the Seminole Indians have made improvements, and
which by the corrected survey were given to the Creeks. The money to be
paid for these lands is to be reimbursed to the Government by the
Seminoles.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 26, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In compliance with the resolutions of the House of Representatives of
the 23d instant, the Senate concurring, I return herewith the bills
H.R. Nos. 380 and 2007, entitled, respectively, "An act to amend an act
entitled 'An act to authorize the Cairo and Tennessee River Railroad
Company to construct bridges across the Tennessee and Cumberland
rivers,' approved January 8, 1889," and "An act granting a pension to
the widow of Adam Shrake."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 27, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, inclosing
a report adopted by the International American Conference, recently
in session at this capital, recommending the establishment of an
international American bank, with its principal offices in the city of
New York and branches in the commercial centers of the several other
American Republics.

The advantages of such an institution to the merchants of the United
States engaged in trade with Central and South America and the purposes
intended to be accomplished are fully set forth in the letter of the
Secretary of State and the accompanying report. It is not proposed to
involve the United States in any financial responsibility, but only to
give to the proposed bank a corporate franchise, and to promote public
confidence by requiring that its condition and transactions shall be
submitted to a scrutiny similar to that which is now exercised over our
domestic banking system.

The subject is submitted for the consideration of Congress in the belief
that it will be found possible to promote the end desired by legislation
so guarded as to avoid all just criticism.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 28, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 26th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, and accompanying item of appropriation, to
enable the President to continue the negotiations authorized by sections
14 and 15 of the Indian appropriation act approved March 2, 1889, with
the Cherokee Indians and with all other Indians owning or claiming lands
west of the ninety-sixth degree of longitude in the Indian Territory,
for the cession to the United States of all their title, claim, or
interest of every kind or character in and to said lands, etc.

The matter is presented for the favorable action of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 2, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives of the
29th ultimo, the Senate concurring, I return herewith the bill (H.R.
7345) entitled "An act authorizing and directing the Secretary of War
to establish new harbor lines in Portage Lake, Houghton County, Mich."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 2, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The International American Conference, recently in session at this
capital, recommended for adoption by the several American Republics--

1. A uniform system of customs regulations for the classification and
valuation of imported merchandise;

2. A uniform nomenclature for the description of articles of merchandise
imported and exported; and

3. The establishment at Washington of an international bureau of
information.

The conference also at its final session decided to establish
in the city of Washington, as a fitting memorial of its meeting, a
Latin-American library, to be formed by contributions from the several
nations, of historical, geographical, and literary works, maps,
manuscripts, and official documents relating to the history and
civilization of America, and expressed a desire that the Government of
the United States should provide a suitable building for the shelter
of such a library, to be solemnly dedicated upon the four hundredth
anniversary of the discovery of America.

The importance of these suggestions is fully set forth in the letter
of the Secretary of State and the accompanying documents, herewith
transmitted, to which I invite your attention.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 6, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of the 26th of May,
requesting me to "communicate to the Senate such information as may
be in possession of the executive department relating to the alleged
landing of an armed force from the United States revenue cutter _McLane_
at Cedar Keys, Fla., and the alleged entry of houses of citizens by
force, and their alleged pursuit of citizens of the United States in
the surrounding country, and the authority under which the commanding
officer of the cutter acted in any such matter," I submit for the
information of the Senate the accompanying correspondence, which
contains all the information possessed by the executive department
relating to the matters inquired about.

It will be observed that the United States collector of customs at
Cedar Keys had been driven from his office and from the town and the
administration of the customs laws of the United States at that port
suspended by the violent demonstrations and threats of one Cottrell, the
mayor of the place, assisted by his town marshal, Mitchell. If it had
been necessary, as I do not think it can be in any case, for a United
States officer to appeal to the local authorities for immunity from
violence in the exercise of his duties, the situation at Cedar Keys did
not suggest or encourage such an appeal, for those to whom the appeal
would have been addressed were themselves the lawless instruments of
the threatened violence. It will always be agreeable to me if the local
authorities, acting upon their own sense of duty, maintain the public
order in such a way that the officers of the United States shall have
no occasion to appeal for the intervention of the General Government;
but when this is not done I shall deem it my duty to use the adequate
powers vested in the Executive to make it safe and feasible to hold and
exercise the offices established by the Federal Constitution and laws.

The means used in this case were, in my opinion, lawful and necessary,
and the officers do not seem to have intruded upon any private right in
executing the warrants placed in their hands. The letter dated August 4
last, which appears in the correspondence submitted, appealing to me
to intervene for the protection of the citizens of Cedar Keys from the
brutal violence of Cottrell, it will be noticed, was written before the
appointment of the new collector. That the officers of the law should
not have the full sympathy of every good citizen in their efforts to
bring these men to merited punishment is matter of surprise and regret.
It is a very grim commentary upon the condition of social order at Cedar
Keys that only a woman, who had, as she says in her letter, no son or
husband who could be made the victim of his malice, had the courage to
file charges against this man, who was then holding a subordinate place
in the customs service.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 6, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of the 5th instant,
the House of Representatives concurring, I return herewith the bill
(S. 1293) entitled "An act for the relief of Charles F. Bowers."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 16, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the information of Congress with a view to
securing such legislation as may be appropriate, a communication from
the Secretary of the Interior, relating to the destruction by fires,
carelessly kindled or left, of the timber upon the public lands.

If proper penalties were imposed by law and a few convictions thereunder
secured, I do not doubt that much waste of our forests would be
prevented.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 18, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of the 16th instant,
relating to the negotiations by the Cherokee Commission for the purchase
of certain lands in the Indian Territory, I respectfully state that on
the 20th day of May and the 12th day of June, respectively, agreements
were Signed by the Iowa and the Sac and Fox tribes ceding to the United
States certain of their lands. The contracts and accompanying papers
were received at the Interior Department on the 2d and 17th days of
June, respectively, and are now under examination by the proper officers
of that Department. When these examinations are concluded, the papers
will, if found to be complete and conformable to law, be submitted to
Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 19, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for your information, a letter from the Secretary
of State, inclosing a report of the International American Conference,
which recommends that reciprocal commercial treaties be entered into
between the United States and the several other Republics of this
hemisphere.

It has been so often and so persistently stated that our tariff laws
offered an insurmountable barrier to a large exchange of products
with the Latin-American nations that I deem it proper to call especial
attention to the fact that more than 87 per cent of the products of
those nations sent to our ports are now admitted free. If sugar is
placed upon the free list, practically every important article exported
from those States will be given untaxed access to our markets, except
wool. The real difficulty in the way of negotiating profitable
reciprocity treaties is that we have given freely so much that would
have had value in the mutual concessions which such treaties imply.
I can not doubt, however, that the present advantages which the products
of these near and friendly States enjoy in our markets, though they are
not by law exclusive, will, with other considerations, favorably dispose
them to adopt such measures, by treaty or otherwise, as will tend to
equalize and greatly enlarge our mutual exchanges.

It will certainly be time enough for us to consider whether we must
cheapen the cost of production by cheapening labor in order to gain
access to the South American markets when we have fairly tried the
effect of established and reliable steam communication and of convenient
methods of money exchanges. There can be no doubt, I think, that with
these facilities well established and with a rebate of duties upon
imported raw materials used in the manufacture of goods for export our
merchants will be able to compete in the ports of the Latin-American
nations with those of any other country.

If after the Congress shall have acted upon pending tariff legislation
it shall appear that under the general treaty-making power, or under any
special powers given by law, our trade with the States represented in
the conference can be enlarged upon a basis of mutual advantage, it will
be promptly done.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 24, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives of
the 23d instant, the Senate concurring, I return herewith the bill
(H.R. 5702) "granting a pension to Ann Bryan."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 25, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with a resolution of the Senate of the 23d instant, the
House of Representatives concurring, I return herewith the bill (S. 145)
"for the relief of the legal representatives of Henry S. French."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 1, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In my annual message I called attention to the urgent need of
legislation for the adjustment of the claims under Mexican grants to
lands in Arizona and New Mexico.

I now submit a correspondence which has passed between the Department
of State and the Mexican Government concerning the rights of certain
Mexican citizens to have their claims to lands ceded to the United
States by the treaty adjusted and confirmed. I also submit a letter from
the Secretary of the Interior, with accompanying papers, showing the
number and extent of these claims and their present condition.

The United States owes a duty to Mexico to confirm to her citizens those
valid grants that were saved by the treaty, and the long delay which has
attended the discharge of this duty has given just cause of complaint.

The entire community where these large claims exist, and, indeed,
all of our people, are interested in an early and final settlement of
them. No greater incubus can rest upon the energies of a people in the
development of a new country than that resulting from unsettled land
titles.

The necessity for legislation is so evident and so urgent that I venture
to express the hope that relief will be given at the present session of
Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 2, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In compliance with the provisions of section 14 of the act of March 2,
1889, I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, an
agreement concluded between the commissioners appointed under that
section on behalf of the United States, commonly known as the Cherokee
Commission, and the Sac and Fox Nation of Indians in the Indian
Territory on the 12th day of June last.

The Sac and Fox Nation have a national council, and the negotiation was
conducted with that body, which undoubtedly had competent authority to
contract on behalf of the tribe for the sale of these lands. The letter
of the Secretary of the Interior and the accompanying papers, which are
submitted herewith, furnish all the information necessary to the
consideration of the questions to be determined by Congress.

The only serious question presented is as to that article of the
agreement which limits the distribution of the funds to be paid by the
United States under it to the Sac and Fox Indians now in the Indian
Territory. I very gravely doubt whether the remnant or band of this
tribe now living in Iowa has any interest in these lands in the Indian
Territory. The reservation there was apparently given in consideration
of improvements upon the lands of the tribe in Kansas. The band now
resident in Iowa upon lands purchased by their own means, as I am
advised, left the Kansas reservation many years before the date of this
treaty, and it would seem could have had no equitable interest in the
improvements on the Kansas lands, which must have been the result of the
labors of that portion of the tribe living upon them. The right of the
Iowa band to a participation in the proceeds of the sale of the Kansas
reservation was explicitly reserved in the treaty; but it seems to me
upon a somewhat hasty examination of the treaty that the reservation
in the Indian Territory was intended only for the benefit of those who
should go there to reside. The Secretary of the Interior has expressed a
somewhat different view of the effect of this treaty; but if the facts
are, as I understand, that the Iowa band did not contribute to the
improvements which were the consideration for the reservation and did
not accept the invitation to settle upon the reservation lands in the
Indian Territory, I do not well see how they have either an equitable or
legal claim to participate in the proceeds of the sale of those lands.

The whole matter is submitted for the consideration of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 2, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, inclosing
the recommendations of the International American Conference for the
establishment of improved facilities for postal and cable communication
between the United States and the several countries of Central and South
America.

I can not too strongly urge upon Congress the necessity of giving this
subject immediate and favorable consideration and of making adequate
appropriations to carry the recommendations into effect; and in this
connection I beg leave to call attention to what was said on the subject
in my annual message.[9] The delegates of the seventeen neighboring
Republics, which have so recently been assembled in Washington at the
invitation of this Government, have expressed their wish and purpose to
cooperate with the United States in the adoption of measures to improve
the means of communication between the several Republics of America.
They recognize the necessity of frequent, regular, and rapid steamship
service, both for the purpose of maintaining friendly intercourse
and for the convenience of commerce, and realize that without such
facilities it is useless to attempt to extend the trade between their
ports and ours.

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 9: See pp. 56-57.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 2, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for your information, a letter from the Secretary
of State, inclosing a copy of a resolution passed by the International
American Conference with reference to the celebration of the fourth
centennial of the discovery of America.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 2, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, as required by section 14 of the act of March 2,
1889, an agreement concluded on the 20th day of May last between the
commissioners on behalf of the United States, commonly known as the
Cherokee Commission, and the Iowa Indians residing in the Indian
Territory.

A letter of the Secretary of the Interior, which is accompanied by
communications from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and the Assistant
Attorney-General, is also submitted.

These papers present a full and clear statement of the matters of fact
and questions of law which Congress will need to consider in passing
upon the question of the ratification of the agreement, which is
submitted for its consideration and such action as may be deemed proper.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 11, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication from the Secretary of State,
including a report of the action of the International American
Conference, lately in session in this city, concerning the protection of
patents, trademarks, and copyrights in commerce between the American
Republics, to which I invite your attention.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 11, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I invite your attention to the accompanying letter of the Secretary of
State, submitting the recommendations of the International American
Conference for the better protection of the public health against the
spread of contagious diseases.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 12, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, inclosing a
copy of a report upon weights and measures adopted by the International
American Conference, recently in session at this capital.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 12, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, inclosing a
copy of a report of the International American Conference, recently
in session at this capital, recommending the establishment of an
international American monetary union, and suggesting that the President
be authorized to invite the several American nations to send delegates
to its first meeting in Washington on the first Wednesday of January
next; that authority also be granted for the appointment of three
delegates on the part of the United States, and that an appropriation
be made to meet the necessary expenses.

I commend these suggestions and hope they will receive the prompt
consideration of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 14, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, inclosing the
recommendation of the International American Conference with reference
to the adoption by the American Republics of a uniform code of
international law, to which your attention is respectfully directed.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 14, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, inclosing the
recommendations of the International American Conference, recently in
session at this capital, concerning a uniform system of port dues and
consular fees to be adopted by the several American Republics, to which
I invite your attention.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 15, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, inclosing
a resolution adopted by the International American Conference for
the erection of a memorial tablet in the diplomatic chamber of the
Department of State to commemorate the meeting of that body.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 15, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for your information, certain reports on the
subject of extradition adopted by the International American Conference
at its recent sessions in this city.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 15, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit two agreements concluded by the commission appointed under
section 14 of the act of March 2, 1889, commonly known as the Cherokee
Commission, with the Citizen band of Pottawatomie Indians and the band
of Absentee Shawnees, respectively, for the cession of certain lands to
the United States.

Letters from the Secretary of the Interior, the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, and the Assistant Attorney-General for the Department of the
Interior relating to the same matter are also submitted.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 17, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The act making appropriations to provide for the expenses of the
government of the District of Columbia for the fiscal year ending June
30, 1890, provides, among other things, that the President shall appoint
three competent sanitary engineers to examine and report upon the system
of sewerage existing in the District of Columbia, together with such
suggestions and recommendations as may to them seem necessary and
desirable for the modification and extension of the same, which report
was to be transmitted to Congress by the President at its next session.

In pursuance of the authority thus conferred, on the 17th of August,
1889, I appointed Rudolph Hering, of New York, Samuel M. Gray, of Rhode
Island, and Frederick P. Stearns, of Massachusetts, to make this
examination and report.

The gentlemen named were believed to have such ability and experience as
sanitary engineers as to guarantee an intelligent and exhaustive study
of the problem submitted to them.

I transmit herewith their report, which has just been submitted to me,
for the consideration of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 23, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In response to the resolution of the House of Representatives requesting
me, if in my judgment not incompatible with the public interest, to
furnish to the House the correspondence since March 4, 1889, between the
Government of the United States and the Government of Great Britain
touching the subjects in dispute in the Bering Sea, I transmit a letter
from the Secretary of State, which is accompanied by the correspondence
referred to in the resolution.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 29, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The recent attempt to secure a charter from the State of North Dakota
for a lottery company, the pending effort to obtain from the State of
Louisiana a renewal of the charter of the Louisiana State Lottery, and
the establishment of one or more lottery companies at Mexican towns near
our border have served the good purpose of calling public attention to
an evil of vast proportions. If the baneful effects of the lotteries
were confined to the States that give the companies corporate powers
and a license to conduct the business, the citizens of other States,
being powerless to apply legal remedies, might clear themselves of
responsibility by the use of such moral agencies as were within their
reach. But the case is not so. The people of all the States are
debauched and defrauded. The vast sums of money offered to the States
for charters are drawn from the people of the United States, and the
General Government through its mail system is made the effective and
profitable medium of intercourse between the lottery company and its
victims. The use of the mails is quite as essential to the companies
as the State license. It would be practically impossible for these
companies to exist if the public mails were once effectively closed
against their advertisements and remittances. The use of the mails by
these companies is a prostitution of an agency only intended to serve
the purposes of a legitimate trade and a decent social intercourse.

It is not necessary, I am sure, for me to attempt to portray the robbery
of the poor and the widespread corruption of public and private morals
which are the necessary incidents of these lottery schemes.

The national capital has become a subheadquarters of the Louisiana
Lottery Company, and its numerous agents and attorneys are conducting
here a business involving probably a larger use of the mails than that
of any legitimate business enterprise in the District of Columbia. There
seems to be good reason to believe that the corrupting touch of these
agents has been felt by the clerks in the postal service and by some of
the police officers of the District.

Severe and effective legislation should be promptly enacted to enable
the Post-Office Department to purge the mails of all letters,
newspapers, and circulars relating to the business.

The letter of the Postmaster-General which I transmit herewith points
out the inadequacy of the existing statutes and suggests legislation
that would be effective.

It may also be necessary to so regulate the carrying of letters by the
express companies as to prevent the use of those agencies to maintain
communication between the lottery companies and their agents or
customers in other States.

It does not seem possible that there can be any division of sentiment
as to the propriety of closing the mails against these companies, and
I therefore venture to express the hope that such proper powers as
are necessary to that end will be at once given to the Post-Office
Department.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 30, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit herewith a report from the Acting Secretary of State, in
response to a resolution of the Senate of the 23d instant, calling for
information touching the alleged arrest and imprisonment of A.J. Diaz
by the Cuban authorities and the action which has been taken in respect
thereto.

It will be seen that Mr. Diaz has been released.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _August 8, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I have received, under date of July 29 ultimo, a communication from Hon.
George W. Steele, governor of the Territory of Oklahoma, in which, among
other things, he says:

  A delegation from township 16, range 1, in this county, has just left
  me, who came to represent that there are at this time twenty-eight
  families in that township who are in actual need of the necessaries of
  life, and they give it as their opinion that their township is not an
  exception, and that in the very near future a large proportion of the
  settlers of this Territory will have to have assistance.

  This I have looked for, but have hoped to bridge over until after the
  legislature meets, when I thought some arrangement might be made for
  taking care of these needy people; but with little taxable property in
  the Territory, and very many necessary demands to be made and met, I
  doubt if the legislature will be able to make such provision until a
  crop is raised next year as will be adequate to the demands. * * *

  Now I know whereof I speak, and I say there are a great many people in
  this Territory who have not the necessary means of providing meals for
  a day to come and are being helped by their very poor neighbors. No one
  regrets more than I do the necessity of making the foregoing statement,
  and I have hoped to bridge the matter over, as I have said before,
  until the legislature would meet and see if some provision could be
  made.

  I now see the utter hopelessness of such a course, and I beg of you to
  call the attention of Congress to the condition of our people, with the
  earnest hope that provision may be made whereby great suffering may be
  relieved; and I assure you that so far as I am able to prevent it not
  one ounce of provisions or a cent of money contributed to the above
  need shall be improperly used.


Information received by me from other sources leads me to believe that
Governor Steele is altogether right in his impression that there will
be, unless relief is afforded either by public appropriation or by
organized individual effort, widespread suffering among the settlers
in Oklahoma. Many of these people expended in travel and in providing
shelter for their families all of their accumulated means. The crop
prospects for this year are by reason of drought quite unfavorable, and
the ability of the Territory itself to provide relief must be inadequate
during this year.

I am advised that there is an unexpended balance of about $45,000 of
the fund appropriated for the relief of the sufferers by flood upon the
Mississippi River and its tributaries, and I recommend that authority be
given to use this fund to meet the most urgent necessities of the poorer
people in Oklahoma. Steps have been taken to ascertain more particularly
the condition of the people throughout the Territory, and if a larger
relief should seem to be necessary the facts will be submitted to
Congress. If the fund to which I have referred should be made available
for relief in Oklahoma, care will be taken that so much of it as is
necessary to be expended shall be judiciously applied to the most worthy
and necessitous cases.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, August 15, 1890_.

_To the Senate_:

In compliance with the resolution of the Senate of the 26th of July,
1890, calling for all correspondence not already submitted to Congress
and now on file in the Department of State touching the efforts made
by this Government to secure the modification or repeal by the French
Government of its decree of 1881, prohibiting the importation into
France of American pork and kindred American products, I transmit
herewith a report from the Acting Secretary on the subject, with the
accompanying correspondence.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _September 3, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, which is
accompanied by three reports adopted by the conference of American
nations recently in session at Washington, relating to the subject of
international arbitration. The ratification of the treaties contemplated
by these reports will constitute one of the happiest and most hopeful
incidents in the history of the Western Hemisphere.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _October 1, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, in answer to the resolution of the House of
Representatives of August 20, 1890, concerning the enforcement of
proscriptive edicts against the Jews in Russia, a report from the
Secretary of State upon the subject.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, October 1, 1890_.

_To the Senate_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of September 17, 1890,
I inclose a report from the Secretary of State, transmitting all the
correspondence found among the files of his Department relating to the
claim of Thomas T. Collins against the Government of Spain.

BENJ. HARRISON.



VETO MESSAGES.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 26, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I return herewith without my approval the bill (H.R. 7170) "to authorize
the city of Ogden, Utah, to assume an increased indebtedness,"

The purpose and effect of this bill is to relieve the city of Ogden from
the limitation imposed by the act of July 30, 1886, upon all municipal
corporations in the Territories as to the indebtedness which they may
lawfully contract. The general law fixes the limit of 4 per cent upon
the last assessment for taxation; this bill extends the limit as to the
city of Ogden to 8 per cent. The purposes for which this legislation is
asked are not peculiar or exceptional. They relate to schools, street
improvements, and to sewerage, and are common to every prosperous and
growing town and city. If the argument by which this measure is
supported is adopted, the conclusion should be a repeal or modification
of the general law; but in my opinion the limitation imposed by the act
of 1886 is wise and wholesome and should not be relaxed.

The report of the governor of Utah for 1889 states the population of
Ogden to be 15,000, the valuation for taxation $7,000,000, and the
existing indebtedness $100,000. It will be noticed that under the
existing limit the city has power to increase its indebtedness
$180,000, which would seem to be enough to make a good beginning in the
construction of sewers, while the cost of street improvements is usually
met in large part by direct assessment upon the property benefited.

It is assumed in the report of the House committee that any city in
the States similarly situated "would have the making of the needed
improvements within its own power," while the fact is that almost all of
our States have either by their constitutions or statutes limited the
power of municipal corporations to incur indebtedness, and the limit is
generally lower than that fixed by the act regulating this matter in the
Territories. A large city debt retards growth and in the end defeats
the purpose of those who think by mortgaging the future to attract
population and property. I do not doubt that the citizens of Ogden will
ultimately realize that the creation of a municipal debt of over half a
million dollars by a city of 15,000 population--being $37 per capita--is
unwise.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 29, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I return without my approval the bill (H.R. 848) "to authorize the
construction of an addition to the public building in Dallas, Tex."

The bill authorizes the construction of a wing or addition to the
present public building at a cost of $200,000. I find that the bill
as originally introduced by the member representing the Congressional
district in which Dallas is situated fixed $100,000 as the limit of
the proposed expenditure, and it was so reported from the Committee
on Public Buildings and Grounds after conferring with the Supervising
Architect of the Treasury. A bill of the same tenor was introduced in
the Senate by one of the Senators from that State, fixing the same
limit of expenditure.

The public building at Dallas, for which a first appropriation of
$75,000 was made in 1882, subsequently increased to $125,000, was only
completed in 1889. It is probably inadequate now to the convenient
transaction of business, chiefly in that part assigned to the
Post-Office Department. The material and architectural style of any
addition are fixed by the present building and its ground area by
the available unoccupied space, as no provision is made for buying
additional ground. The present building is 85 by 56 feet, and Mr. John
S. Witwer, the postmaster and the custodian of the building, writing
to the Supervising Architect, advises that to meet the present and
prospective needs of the Government an addition at least two-thirds as
large as the present building should be provided. It will be seen from
the following extract from a letter of the Supervising Architect to the
chairman of the Senate Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, dated
February 17, 1890, that a building larger than that suggested can be
erected within the limit of $100,000. He says:

  From computations made in this office based upon data received it is
  found that an extension or wing about 40 by 85 feet in dimensions, three
  stories high, with basement, giving 3,400 square feet, in addition to
  the 4,760 square feet of the first-floor area of the building, of
  fireproof construction, can be erected on the present site within the
  limit of cost proposed by said bill, namely, $100,000.


It may be possible that an expenditure of $325,000 for a public building
at Dallas, if the questions of site, material, and architecture were all
undetermined, could be defended, but under existing conditions I do not
see how an appropriation of $200,000 can be justified when one-half that
sum is plainly adequate to such relief as the present site allows.

The legislation for the erection of public buildings has not proceeded,
so far as I can trace it, upon any general rules. Neither population nor
the extent of the public business transacted has always indicated the
points where public buildings should first be built or the cost of the
structures. It can not be expected that, in the absence of some general
law, the committees of Congress having charge of such matters will
proceed in their recommendations upon strict or equal lines. The bills
are individual, and if comparisons are attempted the necessary element
of probable future growth is made to cover all apparent inequalities. It
will be admitted, I am sure, that only a public need should suggest the
expenditure of the public money, and that if all such needs can not be
at once supplied the most general and urgent should have the preference.

I am not unfriendly to a liberal annual expenditure for the erection of
public buildings where the safe and convenient transaction of the public
business demands it and the state of the revenues will permit. It would
be wiser, in my opinion, to build more and less costly houses and to fix
by general law the amount of the annual expenditure for this purpose and
some order of preference between the cities asking for public buildings.

But in view of the pending legislation looking to a very large reduction
of our revenues and of the urgency and necessity of a large increase
in our expenditures in certain directions, I am of the opinion that
appropriations for the erection of public buildings and all kindred
expenditures should be kept at the minimum until the effect of other
probable legislation can be accurately measured.

The erection of a public building is largely a matter of local interest
and convenience, while expenditures for enlarged relief and recognition
to the soldiers and sailors of the war for the preservation of the
Union, for necessary coast defenses, and for the extension of our
commerce with other American States are of universal interest and
involve considerations, not of convenience, but of justice, honor,
safety, and general prosperity.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 4, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:


I return without my approval the bill (S. 1306) "for the erection of
a public building at Hudson, N.Y." Hudson, from the best information
attainable, is a city of only a little more than 10,000 population. If
the postal receipts are a fair indication of the growth of the city, it
has not been rapid, as they only increased about $4,000 in ten years.
The gross postal receipts for the year 1888 were but $14,809, and the
office force consists of three clerks and five carriers. There are no
other Government officers at Hudson entitled under the law to offices or
to an allowance for rent, unless it be a deputy collector of internal
revenue.

It appears from the bill and the correspondence with the Supervising
Architect that it is proposed to erect a two-story building, with
fireproof vaults, heating and ventilating apparatus, and elevators, 40
by 80 feet in dimensions. The ground-floor area of 3,200 feet, to be
devoted to the post-office, would give 400 square feet to each of the
present employees. The second story and the basement, each having the
same area, will be absolutely tenantless, unless authority is given by
law to the custodian to rent the rooms to unofficial tenants. It seems
to me to be very clear that the public needs do not suggest or justify
such an expenditure as is contemplated by this bill.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 12, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I return without my approval the bill (H.R. 7175) to provide for the
purchase of a site and the erection of a public building thereon at
Tuscaloosa, in the State of Alabama.

Judged by its postal revenues and by the force employed in the
office, the post-office at Tuscaloosa is not an important one. It has
one clerk, at a salary of $450, and no carriers. The report of the
Postmaster-General shows that the gross receipts for the year 1888 were
$6,379 and the net revenue less than $4,000. The annual receipts have
only increased about $3,000 in ten years. The rent now paid for a
building affording 2,200 square feet of floor space is $275.

A general proposition to erect public buildings at this scale of expense
in cities of the size of Tuscaloosa would not, I am sure, receive the
sanction of Congress. It would involve the expenditure for buildings of
ten times the present net revenues of such offices, and in the case
under consideration would involve an increased cost for fuel, lights,
and care greater than the rent now paid for the use of a room of ample
size. I would not insist that it must always be shown that a proposed
public building would yield an interest upon the investment, but in
the present uncertain state of the public revenues and expenditures,
resulting from pending and probable legislation, there is, in my
opinion, an absolute necessity that expenditures for public buildings
should be limited to cases where the public needs are very evident and
very imperative. It is clear that this is not such a case.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 17, 1890_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I return without my approval the bill (S. 1762) "to change the
boundaries of the Uncompahgre Reservation."

This bill proposes to separate from the Ute Indian Reservation in
Utah and restore to the public domain two ranges of townships along the
east side of the reservation and bordering the Colorado State line.
It is said that these lands are wholly worthless to the Indians for
cultivation or for grazing purposes, and it must follow, I think, that
they are equally worthless for such purposes to white men.

The object, then, of this legislation is to be sought not in any
public demand for these lands for the use of settlers--for if they
are susceptible of that use the Indians have a clear equity to take
allotments upon them--but in that part of the bill which confirms the
mineral entries, or entries for mineral uses, which have been unlawfully
made "or attempted to be made on said lands." It is evidently a private
and not a public end that is to be promoted. It does not follow, of
course, that this private end may not be wholly meritorious and the
relief sought on behalf of these persons altogether just and proper.
The facts, as I am advised, are that upon these lands there are veins
or beds of asphaltum or gilsonite supposed to be of very great value.

Entries have been made in that vicinity, but upon public lands, which
lands have been resold for very large amounts. It is not important,
perhaps, that the United States should in parting with these lands
realize their value, but it is essential, I think, that favoritism
should have no part in connection with the sales. The bill confirms all
attempted entries of these mineral lands at the price of $20 per acre
(a price that is suggestive of something unusual) without requiring
evidence of the expenditure of any money upon the claim, or even proof
that the claimant was the discoverer of the deposits.

The bill requires "good faith," but it will be next to impossible for
the officers of the Interior Department to show actual knowledge on the
part of the claimant of the lines of the reservation. The case will
practically be as to this matter in the hands of the claimant. But why
should good faith at the moment of attempting the entry, without any
requirement of expenditure, and followed, it may be, within twenty-four
hours by actual notice that he was upon a reservation, give an advantage
in the sale of these lands that may represent a very large sum of money?

In the second place, I do not think it wise, without notice even to the
Indians, to segregate these lands from their reservation. It is true, I
think, that they hold these lands by an Executive order, with a contract
right to take allotments upon them, and that the lands in question are
not likely to be sought as an allotment by any Indian. But the Indians
have been placed on this reservation and its boundaries explained to
them, and to take these lands in this manner is calculated to excite
their distrust and fears, and possibly to create serious trouble.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 20, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I return without my approval the bill (H.R. 3934) "to authorize the
board of supervisors of Maricopa County, Ariz., to issue certain bonds
in aid of the construction of a certain railroad."

This bill proposes to confer authority upon the supervisors of the
county of Maricopa to issue county bonds at the rate of $4,000 per mile
in aid of a railroad to be constructed from Phoenix northwardly to the
county line, a distance estimated at 50 miles, but probably somewhat
longer. The bill seems to have passed the House of Representatives under
an entire misapprehension of its true scope and effect. In the brief
report submitted by the Committee on Territories it is said that "by the
terms of the bill the county receives _bonds_ in payment of the money
proposed to be advanced," and in the course of the debate the Delegate
from Arizona mistakenly stated in response to a request for information
that the bill proposed a loan by the county, in exchange for which it
was to receive the bonds of the railroad company. In fact, the bill does
not provide for a loan to be secured by bonds, but for a subscription of
stock. How far this mistake may have affected the passage of the bill
can not of course be known.

The bill does not submit the question of granting this aid to a vote
of the people of the county, but confers direct authority upon the
supervisors to issue the bonds. It is said, however, that in April,
1889, an election was held to obtain the views of the people upon the
question. It does not appear from any papers submitted to me who were
the managers of this so-called election; what notice, if any, was given;
what qualifications on the part of voters were insisted upon, if any, or
in what form the question was presented. There was no law providing for
such an election. Being wholly voluntary, the election was, of course,
under the management of those who favored the subsidy, and was conducted
without any legal restraints as to the voting or certification. I have
asked for a statement of the vote by precincts, and have been given what
purports to be the vote at twelve points. The total affirmative vote
given was 1,975 and the negative 134. But of the affirmative vote 1,543
were given at Phoenix and 188 at Tempe, a town very near to Phoenix. If
there were no other objections to this bill, I should deem this alone
sufficient, that no provision is made for submitting to a vote of the
people at an election, after due notice and under the sanction of law,
the question whether this subscription shall be made.

But again, the bill proposes to suspend for this case two provisions
of the act of Congress of July 30, 1886--first, that provision which
forbids municipal corporations from subscribing to the stock of other
corporations or loaning their credit to such corporations, and, second,
that provision which forbids any municipal corporation from creating a
debt in excess of 4 per cent of its taxable property as fixed by the
last assessment. The condition of things then existing in Arizona had
not a little to do with the enactment by Congress of this law, intended
to give to the people of the Territories that protection against
oppressive municipal debts which was secured to the people of most of
the States by constitutional limitations. The wisdom of this legislation
is not contested by the friends of this bill, but they claim that the
circumstances here are so peculiar as to justify this exception. I do
not think so. In the States the limitation upon municipal indebtedness
is usually placed in the constitution, in order that it may be
inflexible. If a showing of need, gain, or advantage is to overcome the
barrier, then it is scarcely worth while to declare a limitation. Only
a belief that the limit is inflexible will promote care and economy in
administration. If this bill becomes a law, how can Congress refuse to
any county in any of the Territories the right to subscribe to the stock
of a railroad company, especially where the subscription would not
exceed the debt limit, upon a showing of the advantages of better and
cheaper communications?

Maricopa County is one of great extent. Its northern boundary is 95
miles long, its southern boundary 66, its eastern 45, and its western
102. This great area is to be taxed to construct a road which can, in
the nature of things, be of advantage to but a fraction of it. There is
no unity of interest or equality of advantage. It may very well be that
a section of these lands along the line of the road, and especially
town lots in Phoenix, would have an added value much greater than the
increased burden imposed, but it is equally clear that much property
in the county will receive no appreciable benefit.

The existing bonded indebtedness of Maricopa County is $272,000; the tax
assessment of the county is about $5,000,000, and the population is
estimated, by multiplying the vote cast in 1888 by 6, at about 12,000.
It will be seen that the bonded debt, to say nothing of a floating debt,
which is said to be small, is already largely in excess of the legal
limit, and it is proposed to increase it by a subscription that will
certainly involve $200,000, and possibly $250,000. If the bill becomes a
law, the bonded indebtedness will very closely approximate 10 per cent
of the assessed valuation of the property of the county.

The condition of things in the county of Yavapai, lying immediately
north of Maricopa, and through which this road is also to run, though
not directly affected by this legislation, is very instructive in this
connection.

By an act of the legislature of Arizona passed the year before the act
of Congress to which I have referred Yavapai County was authorized to
subscribe $4,000 per mile to this line of road. The total length of the
road in the county was 147 miles, and 74 miles, to Prescott, have been
constructed. The secretary of the Territory, in response to an inquiry,
states the debt of Yavapai County at $563,000 and the assessment for
taxation at "between six and seven millions." There are 73 miles of road
yet to be built from the present terminus, Prescott, to the south line
of the county, for which Yavapai County must make a further issue of
bonds of $292,000, making a total county debt of $855,000, or above 13
per cent upon the taxable assessment (taking that at $6,500,000), and
a per capita county debt of nearly $85, taking the population at about
10,600, as stated in the report of the Senate committee. Surely no one
will insist that the true and permanent prosperity of these communities
will be promoted by loading their energies and their industries with
these great debts. I feel the force of the suggestion that the freight
charges now imposed upon the farm and orchard products of Maricopa
County by the railroads now in operation are oppressive. But this bill
does not afford much relief even in that direction. There would be but
one competing point, viz, Phoenix. At all other points on the proposed
road the people would be subject to the exaction of just such rates as
are demanded by the other lines. If this bill contained some effective
provision to secure reasonable freight rates to the people who are to be
taxed to build the road, it would go far to secure my favorable
consideration for it.

I have carefully examined the reports of the committees and every
argument that has been submitted to me by the friends of the bill, but
I can not bring myself to believe that the permanent welfare of the
communities affected by it will be promoted by its passage.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 9, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:


I return herewith without my approval the bill (H.R. 5974) entitled "An
act extending the time of payment to purchasers of land of the Omaha
tribe of Indians in Nebraska, and for other purposes."

The United States holds the legal title of these lands, which have been
sold for the benefit of the Omaha Indians to secure the unpaid purchase
money, the time of payment of which it is proposed by this act to
extend. There is no objection that I know of, either on the part of
the United States or of the Indians, to the extension of the unpaid
installments due from purchasers. This relief is probably due to the
purchasers. The bill, however, contains the following provision:

  That all the lands the payment for which is hereby extended shall be
  subject to taxation in all respects by and in the State of Nebraska
  as if fully paid for and patents issued.


Now, while it is entirely proper that the interest of the purchasers in
these lands should share the burdens of the communities in which the
lands are located, the title of the United States and the beneficial
interest of the Indians in the lands should not be subjected to sale for
the delinquency of the purchasers in paying tax assessments levied upon
the lands. The effect of the provision which has been quoted would, in
my opinion, give to the purchaser at a tax sale a title superior to
the lien of the Government for purchase money. The bill should have
contained a proviso that only the interest of the purchasers from the
Government could be sold for taxes, and that the tax sale should be
subject to the lien of the United States for unpaid purchase money.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _September 30, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I return herewith without my approval the joint resolution (H. Res.
No. 39) declaring the retirement of Captain Charles B. Stivers, of the
United States Army, legal and valid, and that he is entitled as such
officer to his pay.

Captain Stivers was dismissed the service summarily by order of the
President on July 15, 1863. A subsequent examination into the causes
leading to this action seems to have satisfied the President that an
injustice had been done to the officer, and on the 11th day of August,
1863, an order was issued revoking the order of dismissal and restoring
Captain Stivers to duty as an officer of the Army. On December 30, 1864,
by a proper order from the War Department, after examination, Captain
Stivers was placed upon the retired list of the Army.

The Supreme Court has decided in the case of The United States _vs_.
Corson (114 U.S. Reports, 619):

First. That at the time of the issuance of the order of dismissal the
President had authority under the law to summarily dismiss an officer,
and that the effect of such an order was absolutely to separate the
officer from the service.

Second. That having been thus separated from the service he could not be
restored except by nomination to the Senate and its advice and consent
to the appointment.

Mr. Garland, as Attorney-General, gave an opinion to the Secretary of
War in the case of Captain Stivers, based upon the decision of the
Supreme Court to which I have referred, holding that Captain Stivers
was not an officer on the retired list of the Army. The present
Attorney-General, with whom I have conferred, takes the same view
of the law. Indeed, the decision of the Supreme Court to which I have
referred is so exactly in point that there can be no doubt as to the law
of the case. It is undoubtedly competent for Congress by act or joint
resolution to authorize the President, by and with the advice of the
Senate, to appoint Captain Stivers to be a captain in the Army of the
United States and to place him upon the retired list. It is also
perfectly competent by suitable legislation for Congress to give to this
officer the pay of his grade during the interval of time when he was
improperly carried upon the army lists. But the joint resolution which
I herewith return does not attempt to deal with the case in that way.
It undertakes to declare that the retirement of Captain Stivers was
legal and valid and that he always has been and is entitled to his pay
as such officer. I do not think this is a competent method of giving the
relief intended. The retirement under the law as it then existed was not
legal and valid, as the highest judicial tribunal under the Constitution
has declared, for the reason that Captain Stivers was not then an
officer on the active list. That being so, it follows, of course, that
he was not entitled to draw the pay of an office he did not hold.

The relief should have taken the form usual in such cases, which is to
authorize the appointment of the officer to a place made for him on the
retired list.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _October 1, 1890_.

_To the Senate_:

I return to the Senate without my approval the bill (S. 473) "for the
relief of the Portland Company, of Portland, Me."

This bill confers upon the Court of Claims jurisdiction to inquire into
and determine how much certain steam machinery built for the United
States under contract, and to be used in the vessels _Agawam_ and
_Pontoosuc_, cost the contractors over and above the contract price and
any allowances for extra work which have been made, and requires the
court to enter judgment in favor of the claimant for the excess of cost
above such contract price and allowances.

The bill differs from others which have been presented to me, and one of
which I have approved, in that it does not make the further allowance to
the contractors contingent upon the fact that the additional expense was
the result of the acts of the Government through its officers' causing
delays and increased cost in the construction of the work.

The bill in effect directs the court to ignore the contract entirely,
except as payments under it are to be treated as credits, and to allow
the contractors the cost of the work, and that without reference to
their own negligence or want of skill in executing the work. There would
seem to be no object in the Government's making a contract for work if
the contract is only to be binding upon the parties in the event that
the contractor realizes a profit.

I can not give my approval to the proposition applied here, which if
allowed here should be given general application, that every contractor
with the Government who during the early days of the war failed to
realize, by reason of increase in the cost of labor and materials, a
profit upon the contract shall now have access to the Court of Claims
to recover upon the _quantum meruit_ the cost of the work.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _October 1, 1890_.

_To the Senate_:

I return without my approval Senate bill No. 1857, "for the relief of
Charles P. Chouteau, survivor of Chouteau, Harrison & Valle."

This claim has been once presented to the Court of Claims and fully
heard. This bill authorizes a rehearing. I find upon examination that
every fact connected with the case necessary to the determination of the
question whether the claim should be appropriated for has already been
found and stated by the Court of Claims in a published opinion. Judgment
was given against the claimant upon the ground that a settlement had
been made and a receipt given in full. If in the opinion of Congress
this receipt, given under the circumstances which accompanied it, should
not be held a bar to such further appropriation as is equitable, all the
facts have been found that can be necessary to determine the question
what further payment should be made to the contractors. There can be no
reason, as it seems to me, for a retrial of the case in the Court of
Claims in the absence of any showing of newly discovered evidence. The
result would only differ from the result already obtained in that under
the bill which I return the court would enter a judgment instead of a
finding, and the judgment could only be paid after Congressional action.

The finding which has already been made, as I have said, is a complete
basis for any such action as Congress may think should be taken in the
premises.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _October 7, 1890_.

_To the Senate_:

I return without my approval the bill (S. 3830) "to prohibit bookmaking
of any kind and pool selling in the District of Columbia for the purpose
of gaming."

My objection to the bill is that it does not prohibit bookmaking and
pool selling, but, on the contrary, expressly saves from the operation
of its prohibitions and penalties the Washington Jockey Club "and any
other regular organizations owning race tracks no less than 1 mile in
length," etc.

If this form of gambling is to be prohibited, as I think it should be,
the penalties should include all persons and all places.

BENJ. HARRISON.



PROCLAMATIONS.


BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided in the act of Congress approved March 2, 1889,
entitled "An act to divide a portion of the reservation of the Sioux
Nation of Indians in Dakota into separate reservations and to secure
the relinquishment of the Indian title to the remainder, and for other
purposes"--

  That this act shall take effect only upon the acceptance thereof and
  consent thereto by the different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians,
  in manner and form prescribed by the twelfth article of the treaty
  between the United States and said Sioux Indians concluded April 29,
  1868, which said acceptance and consent shall be made known by
  proclamation by the President of the United States, upon satisfactory
  proof presented to him that the same has been obtained in the manner and
  form required by said twelfth article of said treaty, which proof shall
  be presented to him within one year from the passage of this act; and
  upon failure of such proof and proclamation this act becomes of no
  effect and null and void.


And whereas satisfactory proof has been presented to me that the
acceptance of and consent to the provisions of the said act by the
different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians have been obtained in
manner and form as therein required:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, by
virtue of the power in me vested, do hereby make known and proclaim the
acceptance of said act by the different bands of the Sioux Nation of
Indians and the consent thereto by them as required by the act, and said
act is hereby declared to be in full force and effect, subject to all
the provisions, conditions, limitations, and restrictions therein
contained.

All persons will take notice of the provisions of said act and of the
conditions, limitations, and restrictions therein contained, and be
governed accordingly.

I furthermore notify all persons to particularly observe that by said
act certain tracts or portions of the Great Reservation of the Sioux
Nation in the Territory of Dakota, as described by metes and bounds,
are set apart as separate and permanent reservations for the Indians
receiving rations and annuities at the respective agencies therein
named.

That any Indian receiving and entitled to rations and annuities at
either of the agencies mentioned in this act at the time the same shall
take effect, but residing upon any portion of said Great Reservation not
included in either of the separate reservations herein established, may
at his option, within one year from the time when this act shall take
effect, and within one year after he has been notified of his said right
of option, in such manner as the Secretary of the Interior shall direct,
by recording his election with the proper agent at the agency to which
he belongs, have the allotment to which he would be otherwise entitled
on one of said separate reservations upon the land where such Indian may
then reside.

That each member or the Ponca tribe of Indians now occupying a part of
the old Ponca Reservation, within the limits of the said Great Sioux
Reservation, shall be entitled to allotments upon said old Ponca
Reservation in quantities as therein set forth, and that when allotments
to the Ponca tribe of Indians and to such other Indians as allotments
are provided for by this act shall have been made upon that portion of
said reservation which is described in the act entitled "An act to
extend the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska," approved March
28, 1882, the President shall, in pursuance of said act, declare that
the Indian title is extinguished to all lands described in said act not
so allotted hereunder, and thereupon all of said land not so allotted
and included in said act of March 28, 1882, shall be open to settlement
as provided in this act.

That protection is guaranteed to such Indians as may have taken
allotments either within or without the said separate reservations under
the provisions of the treaty with the Great Sioux Nation concluded April
29, 1868; and that provision is made in said act for the release of all
title on the part of said Indians receiving rations and annuities on
each separate reservation to the lands described in each of the other
separate reservations, and to confirm in the Indians entitled to receive
rations at each of said separate reservations, respectively, to their
separate and exclusive use and benefit, all the title and interest of
every name and nature secured to the different bands of the Sioux Nation
by said treaty of April 29, 1868; and that said release shall not affect
the title of any individual Indian to his separate allotment of land
not included in any of said separate reservations, nor any agreement
heretofore made with the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad
Company or the Dakota Central Railroad Company respecting certain lands
for right of way, station grounds, etc., regarding which certain prior
rights and privileges are reserved to and for the use of said railroad
companies, respectively, upon the terms and conditions set forth in said
act.

That it is therein provided that if any land in said Great Sioux
Reservation is occupied and used by any religious society at the date
of said act for the purpose of missionary or educational work among the
Indians, whether situate outside of or within the limits of any of the
separate reservations, the same, not exceeding 160 acres in any one
tract, shall be granted to said society for the purposes and upon the
terms and conditions therein named; and

Subject to all the conditions and limitations in said act contained, it
is therein provided that all the lands in the Great Sioux Reservation
outside of the separate reservations described in said act, except
American Island, Farm Island, and Niobrara Island, regarding which
islands special provisions are therein made, and sections 16 and 36 in
each township thereof (which are reserved for school purposes), shall
be disposed of by the United States, upon the terms, at the price, and
in the manner therein set forth, to actual settlers only, under the
provisions of the homestead law (except section 2301 thereof) and under
the law relating to town sites.

That section 23 of said act provides--

  That all persons who, between the 27th day of February, 1885, and the
  17th day of April, 1885, in good faith entered upon or made settlements
  with intent to enter the same under the homestead or preemption laws of
  the United States upon any part of the Great Sioux Reservation lying
  east of the Missouri River, and known as the Crow Creek and Winnebago
  Reservation, which by the President's proclamation of date February 27,
  1885, was declared to be open to settlement, and not included in the
  new reservation established by section 6 of this act, and who, being
  otherwise legally entitled to make such entries, located or attempted
  to locate thereon homestead, preemption, or town-site claims by actual
  settlement and improvement of any portion of such lands, shall for a
  period of ninety days after the proclamation of the President required
  to be made by this act have a right to reenter upon said claims and
  procure title thereto under the homestead or preemption laws of the
  United States and complete the same as required therein, and their said
  claims shall for such time have a preference over later entries; and
  when they shall have in other respects shown themselves entitled and
  shall have complied with the law regulating such entries, and, as to
  homesteads, with the special provisions of this act, they shall be
  entitled to have said lands, and patents therefor shall be issued as in
  like cases: _Provided_, That preemption claimants shall reside on their
  lands the same length of time before procuring title as homestead
  claimants under this act. The price to be paid for town-site entries
  shall be such as is required by law in other cases, and shall be paid
  into the general fund provided for by this act.


It is furthermore hereby made known that there has been and is hereby
reserved from entry or settlement that tract of land now occupied by the
agency and school buildings at the Lower Brulé Agency, to wit:

The west half of the southwest quarter of section 24, the east half of
the southeast quarter of section 23, the west half of the northwest
quarter of section 25, the east half of the northeast quarter of section
26, and the northwest fractional quarter of the southeast quarter of
section 26, all in township 104 north of range 72 west of the fifth
principal meridian.

That there is also reserved as aforesaid the following-described tract
within which the Cheyenne River Agency, school, and certain other
buildings are located, to wit: Commencing at a point in the center of
the main channel of the Missouri River opposite Deep Creek, about 3
miles south of Cheyenne River; thence due west 5-1/2 miles; thence due
north to the Cheyenne River; thence down said river to the center of the
main channel thereof to a point in the center of the Missouri River due
east or opposite the mouth of said Cheyenne River; thence down the
center of the main channel of the Missouri River to the place of
beginning.

That in pursuance of the provisions contained in section 1 of said act
the tract of land situate in the State of Nebraska and described in
said act as follows, to wit: "Beginning at a point on the boundary
line between the State of Nebraska and the Territory of Dakota where
the range line between ranges 44 and 45 west of the sixth principal
meridian, in the Territory of Dakota, intersects said boundary line;
thence east along said boundary line 5 miles; thence due south 5 miles;
thence due west 10 miles; thence due north to said boundary line; thence
due east along said boundary line to the place of beginning," same is
continued in a state of reservation so long as it may be needed for the
use and protection of the Indians receiving rations and annuities at the
Pine Ridge Agency.

Warning is hereby also expressly given to all persons not to enter or
make settlement upon any of the tracts of land specially reserved by the
terms of said act or by this proclamation, or any portion of any tracts
of land to which any individual member of either of the bands of the
Great Sioux Nation or the Ponca tribe of Indians shall have a preference
right under the provisions of said act; and further, to in no wise
interfere with the occupancy of any of said tracts by any of said
Indians, or in any manner to disturb, molest, or prevent the peaceful
possession of said tracts by them.

The surveys required to be made of the lands to be restored to the
public domain under the provisions of the said act and as in this
proclamation set forth will be commenced and executed as early as
possible.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 10th day of February, A.D. 1890,
and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas that portion of the Indian Territory commonly known as the
Cherokee Strip or Outlet has been for some years in the occupancy of an
association or associations of white persons under certain contracts
said to have been made with the Cherokee Nation, in the nature of a
lease or leases for grazing purposes; and

Whereas an opinion has been given to me by the Attorney-General,
concurring with the opinion given to my predecessor by the late
Attorney-General, that whatever the right or title of said Cherokee
Nation or of the United States to or in said lands may be, no right
exists in said Cherokee Nation under the statutes of the United States
to make such leases or grazing contracts, and that such contracts are
wholly illegal and void; and

Whereas the continued use of said lands thereunder for grazing purposes
is prejudicial to the public interests:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, do
hereby proclaim and give notice--

First. That no cattle or live stock shall hereafter be brought upon said
lands for herding or grazing thereon.

Second. That all cattle and other live stock now on said outlet must be
removed therefrom not later than October 1, 1890, and so much sooner as
said lands or any of them may be or become lawfully open to settlement
by citizens of the United States; and that all persons connected with
said cattle companies or associations must, not later than the time
above indicated, depart from said lands.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 17th day of February, A.D. 1890,
and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred
and fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

The following provisions of the laws of the United States are hereby
published for the information of all concerned:

Section 1956, Revised Statutes, chapter 3, Title XXIII, enacts that--

  No person shall kill any otter, mink, marten, sable, or fur seal, or
  other fur-bearing animal within the limits of Alaska Territory or in
  the waters thereof; and every person guilty thereof shall for each
  offense be fined not less than $200 nor more than $1,000, or imprisoned
  not more than six months, or both; and all vessels, their tackle,
  apparel, furniture, and cargo, found engaged in violation of this
  section shall be forfeited; but the Secretary of the Treasury shall
  have power to authorize the killing of any such mink, marten, sable, or
  other fur-bearing animal, except fur seals, under such regulations as
  he may prescribe; and it shall be the duty of the Secretary to prevent
  the killing of any fur seal and to provide for the execution of the
  provisions of this section until it is otherwise provided by law, nor
  shall he grant any special privileges under this section.

       *       *       *       *       *


Section 3 of the act entitled "An act to provide for the protection of
the salmon fisheries of Alaska," approved March 2, 1889, provides that--

  SEC. 3. That section 1956 of the Revised Statutes of the United States
  is hereby declared to include and apply to all the dominion of the
  United States in the waters of Bering Sea, and it shall be the duty of
  the President at a timely season in each year to issue his proclamation,
  and cause the same to be published for one month in at least one
  newspaper (if any such there be) published at each United States port of
  entry on the Pacific coast, warning all persons against entering such
  waters for the purpose of violating the provisions of said section,
  and he shall also cause one or more vessels of the United States to
  diligently cruise said waters and arrest all persons and seize all
  vessels found to be or to have been engaged in any violation of the
  laws of the United States therein.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
pursuant to the above-recited statutes, hereby warn all persons against
entering the waters of Bering Sea within the dominion of the United
States for the purpose of violating the provisions of said section 1956,
Revised Statutes; and I hereby proclaim that all persons found to be or
have been engaged in any violation of the laws of the United States in
said waters will be arrested and punished as above provided, and that
all vessels so employed, their tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargoes,
will be seized and forfeited.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of March, 1890, and of the
Independence of the United States the one hundred and fourteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



PROCLAMATION.

SEPTEMBER 19, 1890.

_To whom it may concern_:

Whereas it has been represented to me that by reason of the drought
which has prevailed in the Indian Territory and in the adjoining States
the execution of my proclamation of February 17, 1890, requiring the
removal of all live stock from the Cherokee Outlet on or before October
1 would work great hardship and loss, not only to the owners of stock
herded upon the strip, but to the owners of cattle in the adjoining
States; and

Whereas the owners of all cattle now herded upon the outlet have
submitted to me a proposition in writing whereby they agree to remove
one-half of their stock from the outlet on or before November 1 and
the residue thereof and all their property and employees on or before
December 1 next, and to abandon all claims in said outlet:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, do
give notice and proclaim that the time heretofore fixed for the removal
of the live stock herded upon said outlet is extended to November 1 as
to one-half thereof and to December 1 next as to the residue thereof and
as to all property and employees.

BENJ. HARRISON.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided in the act of Congress entitled "An act to extend
the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska," approved March 28, 1882--

  That the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska shall be, and hereby
  is, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, extended so as to
  include all that portion of the Territory of Dakota lying south of the
  forty-third parallel of north latitude and east of the Keya Paha River
  and west of the main channel of the Missouri River; and when the Indian
  title to the lands thus described shall be extinguished the jurisdiction
  over said lands shall be, and hereby is, ceded to the State of Nebraska,
  and subject to all the conditions and limitations provided in the act of
  Congress admitting Nebraska into the Union, and the northern boundary of
  the State shall be extended to said forty-third parallel as fully and
  effectually as if said lands had been included in the boundaries of said
  State at the time of its admission to the Union; reserving to the United
  States the original right of soil in said lands and of disposing of the
  same: _Provided_, That this act, so far as jurisdiction is concerned,
  shall not take effect until the President shall by proclamation declare
  that the Indian title to said lands has been extinguished, nor shall
  it take effect until the State of Nebraska shall have assented to the
  provisions of this act; and if the State of Nebraska shall not by an
  act of its legislature consent to the provisions of this act within two
  years next after the passage hereof this act shall cease and be of no
  effect.


And whereas by section 13 of the act entitled "An act to divide a
portion of the reservation of the Sioux Nation of Indians in Dakota into
separate reservations and to secure the relinquishment of the Indian
title to the remainder, and for other purposes," approved March 2, 1889,
it is provided--

  That when the allotments to the Ponca tribe of Indians and to such
  other Indians as allotments are provided for by this act shall have
  been made upon that portion of said reservation which is described in
  the act entitled "An act to extend the northern boundary of the State
  of Nebraska," approved March 28, 1882, the President shall, in pursuance
  of said act, declare that the Indian title is extinguished to all lands
  described in said act not so allotted hereunder, and thereupon all of
  said land not so allotted and included in said act of March 28, 1882,
  shall be open to settlement as provided in this act: _Provided_, That
  the allotments to Ponca and other Indians authorized by this act to be
  made upon the land described in the said act entitled "An act to extend
  the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska" shall be made within
  six months from the time this act shall take effect.


And whereas the State of Nebraska, by an act of its legislature approved
May 23, 1882, entitled "An act declaring the assent of the State of
Nebraska to an act of Congress of the United States entitled 'An act to
extend the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska,' approved March
28, 1882," assented to and accepted the provisions of said act of
Congress approved March 28, 1882; and

Whereas allotments have been made to the Ponca tribe of Indians under
and in accordance with the provisions of said section 13 of the act
of March 2, 1889, and no other Indians having selected or applied for
allotments upon that portion of the reservation of the Sioux Nation of
Indians described in the act of March 28, 1882, aforesaid, and the six
months' limit of time within which said allotments were authorized to
be made having expired on the 10th day of August, 1890:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by the act (section 13) of March 2,
1889, aforesaid, and in pursuance of the act of March 28, 1882,
aforesaid, do hereby declare that the Indian title is extinguished to
all lands described in said act of March 28, 1882, not allotted to
the Ponca tribe of Indians as aforesaid and shown upon a schedule,
in duplicate, of allotments made and certified jointly by George P.
Litchfield, United States special agent, and James E. Helms, United
States Indian agent, July 31, 1890, and approved by the Acting
Commissioner of Indian Affairs October 14, 1890, and by the Acting
Secretary of the Interior October 22, 1890, one copy of which schedule
of allotments is now on file in the office of the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs and the other in the office of the Commissioner of the General
Land Office, Department of the Interior.

Be it known, however, that there is hereby reserved from entry or
settlement that tract of land now occupied by the agency and school
buildings of the old Ponca Agency, to wit: The south half of the
southeast quarter of section 26 and the south half of the southwest
quarter of section 25, all in township 32 north, range 7 west of the
sixth principal meridian.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 23d day of October, A.D. 1890, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  ALVEY A. ADEE,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

A PROCLAMATION.

By the grace and favor of Almighty God the people of this nation have
been led to the closing days of the passing year, which has been full
of the blessings of peace and the comforts of plenty. Bountiful
compensation has come to us for the work of our minds and of our hands
in every department of human industry.

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, do hereby appoint Thursday, the 27th day of the present month
of November, to be observed as a day of prayer and thanksgiving; and
I do invite the people upon that day to cease from their labors, to
meet in their accustomed houses of worship, and to join in rendering
gratitude and praise to our beneficent Creator for the rich blessings
He has granted to us as a nation and in invoking the continuance of His
protection and grace for the future. I commend to my fellow-citizens the
privilege of remembering the poor, the homeless, and the sorrowful. Let
us endeavor to merit the promised recompense of charity and the gracious
acceptance of our praise.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 8th day of November, A.D. 1890, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas an act of Congress in regard to collision at sea was approved
September 4, 1890, the said act being in the following words:

  _Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
  States of America in Congress assembled_, That in every case of
  collision between two vessels it shall be the duty of the master or
  person in charge of each vessel, if and so far as he can do so without
  serious danger to his own vessel, crew, and passengers (if any), to stay
  by the other vessel until he has ascertained that she has no need of
  further assistance, and to render to the other vessel, her master, crew,
  and passengers (if any), such assistance as may be practicable and as
  may be necessary in order to save them from any danger caused by the
  collision, and also to give to the master or person in charge of the
  other vessel the name of his own vessel and her port of registry, or the
  port or place to which she belongs, and also the name of the ports and
  places from which and to which she is bound. If he fails so to do, and
  no reasonable cause for such failure is shown, the collision shall, in
  the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been caused by
  his wrongful act, neglect, or default.

  SEC. 2. That every master or person in charge of a United States vessel
  who fails, without reasonable cause, to render such assistance or give
  such information as aforesaid shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor,
  and shall be liable to a penalty of $1,000 or imprisonment for a term
  not exceeding two years; and for the above sum the vessel shall be
  liable and may be seized and proceeded against by process in any
  district court of the United States by any person; one half such sum to
  be payable to the informer and the other half to the United States.

  SEC. 3. That this act shall take effect at a time to be fixed by the
  President by proclamation issued for that purpose.


And whereas it is provided by section 3 of the said act that it shall
take effect at a time to be fixed by the President by proclamation
issued for that purpose:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, do hereby, in virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3
of the said act, proclaim the 15th day of December, 1890, as the day on
which the said act shall take effect.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States of America to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this 18th day of November, A.D. 1890,
and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
fifteenth.

[SEAL.]

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



EXECUTIVE ORDERS.


AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include among
the exceptions from examination in the Department of Agriculture the
following:

  Scientific or professional experts to be employed in investigations
  specially authorized by Congress, but not to include any persons
  regularly employed in that Department nor any persons whose duties
  are not scientific or professional, and who are not experts in the
  particular line of scientific or professional inquiry in which they
  are to be employed.


Approved, January 29, 1890.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

Section 1 of Postal Rule II is hereby amended by adding to the subjects
of the clerk examination the following: "Reading addresses and physical
tests;" and to the subjects of carrier examination the following:
"Reading addresses."

Approved, January 29, 1890.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

Special Customs Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by adding thereto the
following:

  In the customs district of New York: Detectives employed exclusively
  as such.


Approved, March 10, 1890.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

That part of Special Departmental Rule No. 1 relating to the Coast and
Geodetic Survey, as printed on page 66 of the Fifth Annual Report of the
Commission, is hereby amended by striking out in line 3, after the word
"to," the words "general office assistant," and inserting in lieu
thereof the words "assistant in charge of office and topography;" so
that as amended the clause will read: "confidential clerk to assistant
in charge of office and topography."

Approved, March 10, 1890.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

MARCH 28, 1890.

Departmental Rule VII is hereby amended by adding thereto the following
section, to be numbered 7:

  7. In case of temporary absence, from sickness or other unavoidable
  cause, of clerks, copyists, or employees of other grades for which
  examinations are held, there may be certified in the manner provided
  for in this rule, and employed under such regulations as the heads of
  the several Departments shall prescribe, substitutes for such clerks,
  copyists, or other employees so absent; and such substitutes so employed
  in any Department shall be appointed in the order of their employment
  as substitutes to the regular grades of that Department without further
  certification as vacancies to which they are eligible may occur therein
  while so employed as substitutes, every such appointment to be at once
  reported to the Commission: _Provided_, That no person while employed
  as a substitute in one Department shall be certified as a substitute to
  any other Department, and that no person employed as a substitute shall
  by reason of such employment be deprived of any right of certification
  for a regular place to which he maybe entitled under the rules: _And
  provided further_, That service rendered as a substitute shall not be
  ground for reinstatement under Departmental Rule X. The time during
  which any substitute who shall be appointed to a regular place is
  actually employed as such shall be counted as a part of his period of
  probation. No substitute shall be employed in any Department otherwise
  than as herein provided.


Special Departmental Rule No. 2 is hereby revoked.

BENJ. HARRISON.



[From McPherson's Hand Book of Politics for 1890.]

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 24, 1890_.

_To the Attorney-General_:

I have had frequent occasion during the last six months to confer
with you in reference to the obstructions offered in the counties of
Leon, Gadsden, Madison, and Jefferson, in the State of Florida, to
the execution of the process of the courts of the United States. It is
not necessary to say more of the situation than that the officers of
the United States are not suffered freely to exercise their lawful
functions. This condition of things can not be longer tolerated. You
will therefore instruct United States Marshal Weeks as soon as he has
qualified to proceed at once to execute such writs of arrest as may be
placed in his hands. If he apprehends resistance, he will employ such
civil posse as may seem adequate to discourage resistance or to overcome
it. He should proceed with calmness and moderation, which should always
attend a public officer in the execution of his duty, and at the same
time with a firmness and courage that will impress the lawless with
a wholesome sense of the dangers and futility of resistance. You will
assure the officers of the law and those who have foolishly and wickedly
thought to set the law at defiance that every resource lodged with the
Executive by the Constitution and the laws will as the necessity arises
be employed to make it safe and feasible to hold a Federal commission
and to execute the duties it imposes.

Very respectfully,

BENJ. HARRISON.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

EXECUTIVE ORDER.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 27, 1890_.

_It is hereby ordered_, That the several Executive Departments and the
Government Printing Office be closed on Friday, the 30th instant, to
enable the employees to participate in the decoration of the graves of
the soldiers and sailors who fell in defense of the Union during the
War of the Rebellion.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

UNITED STATES CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION,
  _Washington, D.C., May 31, 1890_.

The PRESIDENT.

SIR: This Commission has the honor to recommend that Special
Departmental Rule No. 1 be amended by adding to the exceptions from
examination therein declared the following:

"In the Department of the Treasury, in the life-saving service:
Topographer and hydrographer."

We have the honor to be, your obedient servants,

CHAS. LYMAN,
  THEODORE ROOSEVELT,
    HUGH S. THOMPSON,
      _United States Civil Service Commissioners_.

Approved, June 3, 1890.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 14, 1890_.[10]

The death of John C. Frémont, a major-general on the retired list of
the Army of the United States, is an event calling for some appropriate
expression of the national sorrow and of a grateful appreciation of his
public services. His career was full of adventurous and useful discovery
and of devoted and conspicuous service both in civil and military
affairs. He opened the passes of the Rocky Mountains and gave value to
his discoveries by aiding to create an American State on the Pacific
Coast.

_It is therefore ordered_, That the national flag be displayed at
half-mast upon all the buildings of the Executive Departments in this
city until after the funeral shall have taken place.

By direction of the President:

E.W. HALFORD,
  _Private Secretary_.

[Footnote 10: Addressed to the heads of the Executive Departments, etc.]



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

Departmental Rule VIII, section 1, clause (_b_), is hereby amended
by inserting after the word "transacted" the following: "and from
the office of the Solicitor of the Treasury;" and after the word
"Department" where it last occurs the following: "or to said office;"
so that as amended the clause will read:

  (_b_) From a bureau of the Treasury Department in which business
  relating to the customs is transacted and from the office of the
  Solicitor of the Treasury to a classified customs district, and from
  such a district to such a bureau of the Treasury Department or to said
  office, upon requisition by the Secretary of the Treasury.


Approved, July 23, 1890.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

JULY 30, 1890.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by adding to the
places excepted from examination in the Department of Agriculture the
following:

  Wood engravers.


BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

SEPTEMBER 2, 1890.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by adding to the
places excepted from examination therein the following:

  In the Post-Office Department, office of the Postmaster-General:
  Stenographer as confidential clerk to the chief post-office
  inspector.


BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

OCTOBER 31, 1890.

Section 7 of Railway Mail Rule IV is hereby amended by inserting in line
7, after the word "days," the following: "or until the emergency ceases."

BENJ. HARRISON.



SECOND ANNUAL MESSAGE.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 7, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The reports of the several Executive Departments, which will be laid
before Congress in the usual course, will exhibit in detail the
operations of the Government for the last fiscal year. Only the more
important incidents and results, and chiefly such as may be the
foundation of the recommendations I shall submit, will be referred to
in this annual message.

The vast and increasing business of the Government has been transacted
by the several Departments during the year with faithfulness, energy,
and success.

The revenues, amounting to above $450,000,000, have been collected and
disbursed without revealing, so far as I can ascertain, a single case
of defalcation or embezzlement. An earnest effort has been made to
stimulate a sense of responsibility and public duty in all officers and
employees of every grade, and the work done by them has almost wholly
escaped unfavorable criticism. I speak of these matters with freedom
because the credit of this good work is not mine, but is shared by
the heads of the several Departments with the great body of faithful
officers and employees who serve under them. The closest scrutiny of
Congress is invited to all the methods of administration and to every
item of expenditure.

The friendly relations of our country with the nations of Europe and of
the East have been undisturbed, while the ties of good will and common
interest that bind us to the States of the Western Hemisphere have been
notably strengthened by the conference held in this capital to consider
measures for the general welfare. Pursuant to the invitation authorized
by Congress, the representatives of every independent State of the
American continent and of Hayti met in conference in this capital in
October, 1889, and continued in session until the 19th of last April.
This important convocation marks a most interesting and influential
epoch in the history of the Western Hemisphere. It is noteworthy that
Brazil, invited while under an imperial form of government, shared
as a republic in the deliberations and results of the conference. The
recommendations of this conference were all transmitted to Congress
at the last session.

The International Marine Conference, which sat at Washington last
winter, reached a very gratifying result. The regulations suggested have
been brought to the attention of all the Governments represented, and
their general adoption is confidently expected. The legislation of
Congress at the last session is in conformity with the propositions of
the conference, and the proclamation therein provided for will be issued
when the other powers have given notice of their adhesion.

The Conference of Brussels, to devise means for suppressing the slave
trade in Africa, afforded an opportunity for a new expression of the
interest the American people feel in that great work. It soon became
evident that the measure proposed would tax the resources of the Kongo
Basin beyond the revenues available under the general act of Berlin of
1884. The United States, not being a party to that act, could not share
in its revision, but by a separate act the Independent State of the
Kongo was freed from the restrictions upon a customs revenue. The
demoralizing and destructive traffic in ardent spirits among the tribes
also claimed the earnest attention of the conference, and the delegates
of the United States were foremost in advocating measures for its
repression. An accord was reached the influence of which will be very
helpful and extend over a wide region. As soon as these measures shall
receive the sanction of the Netherlands, for a time withheld, the
general acts will be submitted for ratification by the Senate. Meanwhile
negotiations have been opened for a new and completed treaty of
friendship, commerce, and navigation between the United States and the
Independent State of the Kongo.

Toward the end of the past year the only independent monarchical
government on the Western Continent, that of Brazil, ceased to exist,
and was succeeded by a republic. Diplomatic relations were at once
established with the new Government, but it was not completely
recognized until an opportunity had been afforded to ascertain that it
had popular approval and support. When the course of events had yielded
assurance of this fact, no time was lost in extending to the new
Government a full and cordial welcome into the family of American
Commonwealths. It is confidently believed that the good relations of the
two countries will be preserved and that the future will witness an
increased intimacy of intercourse and an expansion of their mutual
commerce.

The peace of Central America has again been disturbed through a
revolutionary change in Salvador, which was not recognized by other
States, and hostilities broke out between Salvador and Guatemala,
threatening to involve all Central America in conflict and to undo
the progress which had been made toward a union of their interests.
The efforts of this Government were promptly and zealously exerted
to compose their differences and through the active efforts of the
representative of the United States a provisional treaty of peace was
signed August 26, whereby the right of the Republic of Salvador to
choose its own rulers was recognized. General Ezeta, the chief of the
Provisional Government, has since been confirmed in the Presidency by
the Assembly, and diplomatic recognition duly followed.

The killing of General Barrundia on board the Pacific mail steamer
_Acapulco_, while anchored in transit in the port of San Jose de
Guatemala, demanded careful inquiry. Having failed in a revolutionary
attempt to invade Guatemala from Mexican territory, General Barrundia
took passage at Acapulco for Panama. The consent of the representatives
of the United States was sought to effect his seizure, first at
Champerico, where the steamer touched, and afterwards at San Jose.
The captain of the steamer refused to give up his passenger without a
written order from the United States minister. The latter furnished the
desired letter, stipulating as the condition of his action that General
Barrundia's life should be spared and that he should be tried only for
offenses growing out of his insurrectionary movements. This letter was
produced to the captain of the _Acapulco_ by the military commander at
San Jose as his warrant to take the passenger from the steamer. General
Barrundia resisted capture and was killed. It being evident that the
minister, Mr. Mizner, had exceeded the bounds of his authority in
intervening, in compliance with the demands of the Guatemalan
authorities, to authorize and effect, in violation of precedent, the
seizure on a vessel of the United States of a passenger in transit
charged with political offenses, in order that he might be tried for
such offenses under what was described as martial law. I was constrained
to disavow Mr. Mizner's act and recall him from his post.

The Nicaragua Canal project, under the control of our citizens, is
making most encouraging progress, all the preliminary conditions and
initial operations having been accomplished within the prescribed time.

During the past year negotiations have been renewed for the settlement
of the claims of American citizens against the Government of Chile,
principally growing out of the late war with Peru. The reports from our
minister at Santiago warrant the expectation of an early and
satisfactory adjustment.

Our relations with China, which have for several years occupied so
important a place in our diplomatic history, have called for careful
consideration and have been the subject of much correspondence.

The communications of the Chinese minister have brought into view the
whole subject of our conventional relations with his country, and at the
same time this Government, through its legation at Peking, has sought
to arrange various matters and complaints touching the interests and
protection of our citizens in China.

In pursuance of the concurrent resolution of October 1, 1890, I have
proposed to the Governments of Mexico and Great Britain to consider a
conventional regulation of the passage of Chinese laborers across our
southern and northern frontiers.

On the 22d day of August last Sir Edmund Monson, the arbitrator selected
under the treaty of December 6, 1888, rendered an award to the effect
that no compensation was due from the Danish Government to the United
States on account of what is commonly known as the Carlos Butterfield
claim.

Our relations with the French Republic continue to be cordial. Our
representative at that court has very diligently urged the removal of
the restrictions imposed upon our meat products, and it is believed that
substantial progress has been made toward a just settlement.

The Samoan treaty, signed last year at Berlin by the representatives of
the United States, Germany, and Great Britain, after due ratification
and exchange, has begun to produce salutary effects. The formation of
the government agreed upon will soon replace the disorder of the past by
a stable administration alike just to the natives and equitable to the
three powers most concerned in trade and intercourse with the Samoan
Islands. The chief justice has been chosen by the King of Sweden and
Norway on the invitation of the three powers, and will soon be
installed. The land commission and the municipal council are in process
of organization. A rational and evenly distributed scheme of taxation,
both municipal and upon imports, is in operation. Malietoa is respected
as King.

The new treaty of extradition with Great Britain, after due
ratification, was proclaimed on the 25th of last March. Its beneficial
working is already apparent.

The difference between the two Governments touching the fur-seal
question in the Bering Sea is not yet adjusted, as will be seen by the
correspondence which will soon be laid before the Congress. The offer
to submit the question to arbitration, as proposed by Her Majesty's
Government, has not been accepted, for the reason that the form of
submission proposed is not thought to be calculated to assure a
conclusion satisfactory to either party. It is sincerely hoped that
before the opening of another sealing season some arrangement may be
effected which will assure to the United States a property right derived
from Russia, which was not disregarded by any nation for more than
eighty years preceding the outbreak of the existing trouble.

In the tariff act a wrong was done to the Kingdom of Hawaii which I am
bound to presume was wholly unintentional. Duties were levied on certain
commodities which are included in the reciprocity treaty now existing
between the United States and the Kingdom of Hawaii, without indicating
the necessary exception in favor of that Kingdom. I hope Congress will
repair what might otherwise seem to be a breach of faith on the part of
this Government.

An award in favor of the United States in the matter of the claim of
Mr. Van Bokkelen against Hayti was rendered on the 4th of December,
1888, but owing to disorders then and afterwards prevailing in Hayti
the terms of payment were not observed. A new agreement as to the time
of payment has been approved and is now in force. Other just claims of
citizens of the United States for redress of wrongs suffered during the
late political conflict in Hayti will, it is hoped, speedily yield to
friendly treatment.

Propositions for the amendment of the treaty of extradition between the
United States and Italy are now under consideration.

You will be asked to provide the means of accepting the invitation of
the Italian Government to take part in an approaching conference to
consider the adoption of a universal prime meridian from which to reckon
longitude and time. As this proposal follows in the track of the reform
sought to be initiated by the Meridian Conference of Washington, held on
the invitation of this Government, the United States should manifest a
friendly interest in the Italian proposal.

In this connection I may refer with approval to the suggestion of my
predecessors that standing provision be made for accepting, whenever
deemed advisable, the frequent invitations of foreign governments to
share in conferences looking to the advancement of international reforms
in regard to science, sanitation, commercial laws and procedure, and
other matters affecting the intercourse and progress of modern
communities.

In the summer of 1889 an incident occurred which for some time
threatened to interrupt the cordiality of our relations with the
Government of Portugal. That Government seized the Delagoa Bay Railway,
which was constructed under a concession granted to an American citizen,
and at the same time annulled the charter. The concessionary, who had
embarked his fortune in the enterprise, having exhausted other means of
redress, was compelled to invoke the protection of his Government. Our
representations, made coincidently with those of the British Government,
whose subjects were also largely interested, happily resulted in the
recognition by Portugal of the propriety of submitting the claim for
indemnity growing out of its action to arbitration. This plan of
settlement having been agreed upon, the interested powers readily
concurred in the proposal to submit the case to the judgment of three
eminent jurists, to be designated by the President of the Swiss
Republic, who, upon the joint invitation of the Governments of the
United States, Great Britain, and Portugal, has selected persons well
qualified for the task before them.

The revision of our treaty relations with the Empire of Japan has
continued to be the subject of consideration and of correspondence.
The questions involved are both grave and delicate; and while it will be
my duty to see that the interests of the United States are not by any
changes exposed to undue discrimination, I sincerely hope that such
revision as Will satisfy the legitimate expectations of the Japanese
Government and maintain the present and long-existing friendly relations
between Japan and the United States will be effected.

The friendship between our country and Mexico, born of close
neighborhood and strengthened by many considerations of intimate
intercourse and reciprocal interest, has never been more conspicuous
than now nor more hopeful of increased benefit to both nations. The
intercourse of the two countries by rail, already great, is making
constant growth. The established lines and those recently projected add
to the intimacy of traffic and open new channels of access to fresh
areas of demand and supply. The importance of the Mexican railway system
will be further enhanced to a degree almost impossible to forecast if
it should become a link in the projected intercontinental railway.
I recommend that our mission in the City of Mexico be raised to the
first class.

The cordial character of our relations with Spain warrants the hope
that by the continuance of methods of friendly negotiation much may be
accomplished in the direction of an adjustment of pending questions and
of the increase of our trade. The extent and development of our trade
with the island of Cuba invest the commercial relations of the United
States and Spain with a peculiar importance. It is not doubted that a
special arrangement in regard to commerce, based upon the reciprocity
provision of the recent tariff act, would operate most beneficially for
both Governments. This subject is now receiving attention.

The restoration of the remains of John Ericsson to Sweden afforded a
gratifying occasion to honor the memory of the great inventor, to whose
genius our country owes so much, and to bear witness to the unbroken
friendship which has existed between the land which bore him and our
own, which claimed him as a citizen.

On the 2d of September last the commission appointed to revise the
proceedings of the commission under the claims convention between the
United States and Venezuela of 1866 brought its labors to a close
within the period fixed for that purpose. The proceedings of the late
commission were characterized by a spirit of impartiality and a high
sense of justice, and an incident which was for many years the subject
of discussion between the two Governments has been disposed of in
a manner alike honorable and satisfactory to both parties. For the
settlement of the claim of the Venezuela Steam Transportation Company,
which was the subject of a joint resolution adopted at the last session
of Congress, negotiations are still in progress, and their early
conclusion is anticipated.

The legislation of the past few years has evinced on the part of
Congress a growing realization of the importance of the consular service
in fostering our commercial relations abroad and in protecting the
domestic revenues. As the scope of operations expands increased
provision must be made to keep up the essential standard of efficiency.
The necessity of some adequate measure of supervision and inspection
has been so often presented that I need only commend the subject to
your attention.

The revenues of the Government from all sources for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1890, were $463,963,080.55 and the total expenditures
for the same period were $358,618,584.52. The postal receipts have not
heretofore been included in the statement of these aggregates, and for
the purpose of comparison the sum of $60,882,097.92 should be deducted
from both sides of the account. The surplus for the year, including the
amount applied to the sinking fund, was $105,344,496.03. The receipts
for 1890 were $16,030,923.79 and the expenditures $15,739,871 in excess
of those of 1889. The customs receipts increased $5,835,842.88 and the
receipts from internal revenue $11,725,191.89, while on the side of
expenditures that for pensions was $19,312,075.96 in excess of the
preceding year.

The Treasury statement for the current fiscal year, partly actual
and partly estimated, is as follows: Receipts from all sources,
$406,000,000; total expenditures, $354,000,000, leaving a surplus of
$52,000,000, not taking the postal receipts into the account on either
side. The loss of revenue from customs for the last quarter is estimated
at $25,000,000, but from this is deducted a gain of about $16,000,000
realized during the first four months of the year.

For the year 1892 the total estimated receipts are $373,000,000 and the
estimated expenditures $357,852,209.42, leaving an estimated surplus
of $15,147,790.58, which, with a cash balance of $52,000,000 at the
beginning of the year, will give $67,147,790.58 as the sum available
for the redemption of outstanding bonds or other uses. The estimates of
receipts and expenditures for the Post-Office Department, being equal,
are not included in this statement on either side.

The act "directing the purchase of silver bullion and the issue of
Treasury notes thereon," approved July 14, 1890, has been administered
by the Secretary of the Treasury with an earnest purpose to get into
circulation at the earliest possible dates the full monthly amounts of
Treasury notes contemplated by its provisions and at the same time to
give to the market for the silver bullion such support as the law
contemplates. The recent depreciation in the price of silver has been
observed with regret. The rapid rise in price which anticipated and
followed the passage of the act was influenced in some degree by
speculation, and the recent reaction is in part the result of the same
cause and in part of the recent monetary disturbances. Some months of
further trial will be necessary to determine the permanent effect of the
recent legislation upon silver values, but it is gratifying to know that
the increased circulation secured by the act has exerted, and will
continue to exert, a most beneficial influence upon business and upon
general values.

While it has not been thought best to renew formally the suggestion of
an international conference looking to an agreement touching the full
use of silver for coinage at a uniform ratio, care has been taken to
observe closely any change in the situation abroad, and no favorable
opportunity will be lost to promote a result which it is confidently
believed would confer very large benefits upon the commerce of the
world.

The recent monetary disturbances in England are not unlikely to suggest
a reexamination of opinions upon this subject. Our very large supply of
gold will, if not lost by impulsive legislation in the supposed interest
of silver, give us a position of advantage in promoting a permanent and
safe international agreement for the free use of silver as a coin metal.

The efforts of the Secretary to increase the volume of money in
circulation by keeping down the Treasury surplus to the lowest
practicable limit have been unremitting and in a very high degree
successful. The tables presented by him showing the increase of money
in circulation during the last two decades, and especially the table
showing the increase during the nineteen months he has administered the
affairs of the Department, are interesting and instructive. The increase
of money in circulation during the nineteen months has been in the
aggregate $93,866,813, or about $1.50 per capita, and of this increase
only $7,100,000 was due to the recent silver legislation. That this
substantial and needed aid given to commerce resulted in an enormous
reduction of the public debt and of the annual interest charge is matter
of increased satisfaction. There have been purchased and redeemed since
March 4, 1889, 4 and 4-1/2 per cent bonds to the amount of $211,832,450,
at a cost of $246,620,741, resulting in the reduction of the annual
interest charge of $8,967,609 and a total saving of interest of
$51,576,706.

I notice with great pleasure the statement of the Secretary that the
receipts from internal revenue have increased during the last fiscal
year nearly $12,000,000, and that the cost of collecting this larger
revenue was less by $90,617 than for the same purpose in the preceding
year. The percentage of cost of collecting the customs revenue was less
for the last fiscal year than ever before.

The Customs Administration Board, provided for by the act of June 10,
1890, was selected with great care, and is composed in part of men whose
previous experience in the administration of the old customs regulations
had made them familiar with the evils to be remedied, and in part of men
whose legal and judicial acquirements and experience seemed to fit them
for the work of interpreting and applying the new statute. The chief aim
of the law is to secure honest valuations of all dutiable merchandise
and to make these valuations uniform at all our ports of entry. It had
been made manifest by a Congressional investigation that a system of
undervaluation had been long in use by certain classes of importers,
resulting not only in a great loss of revenue, but in a most intolerable
discrimination against honesty. It is not seen how this legislation,
when it is understood, can be regarded by the citizens of any country
having commercial dealings with us as unfriendly. If any duty is
supposed to be excessive, let the complaint be lodged there. It will
surely not be claimed by any well-disposed people that a remedy may be
sought and allowed in a system of quasi smuggling.

The report of the Secretary of War exhibits several gratifying results
attained during the year by wise and unostentatious methods. The
percentage of desertions from the Army (an evil for which both Congress
and the Department have long been seeking a remedy) has been reduced
during the past year 24 per cent, and for the months of August and
September, during which time the favorable effects of the act of June 16
were felt, 33 per cent, as compared with the same months of 1889.

The results attained by a reorganization and consolidation of the
divisions having charge of the hospital and service records of the
volunteer soldiers are very remarkable. This change was effected in
July, 1889, and at that time there were 40,654 cases awaiting attention,
more than half of these being calls from the Pension Office for
information necessary to the adjudication of pension claims. On the 30th
day of June last, though over 300,000 new calls had come in, there was
not a single case that had not been examined and answered.

I concur in the recommendations of the Secretary that adequate and
regular appropriations be continued for coast-defense works and
ordnance. Plans have been practically agreed upon, and there can be no
good reason for delaying the execution of them, while the defenseless
state of our great seaports furnishes an urgent reason for wise
expedition.

The encouragement that has been extended to the militia of the States,
generally and most appropriately designated the "National Guard," should
be continued and enlarged. These military organizations constitute in a
large sense the Army of the United States, while about five-sixths of
the annual cost of their maintenance is defrayed by the States.

The report of the Attorney-General is under the law submitted directly
to Congress, but as the Department of Justice is one of the Executive
Departments some reference to the work done is appropriate here.

A vigorous and in the main an effective effort has been made to bring to
trial and punishment all violators of the law, but at the same time care
has been taken that frivolous and technical offenses should not be used
to swell the fees of officers or to harass well-disposed citizens.
Especial attention is called to the facts connected with the prosecution
of violations of the election laws and of offenses against United States
officers. The number of convictions secured, very many of them upon
pleas of guilty, will, it is hoped, have a salutary restraining
influence. There have been several cases where postmasters appointed by
me have been subjected to violent interference in the discharge of their
official duties and to persecutions and personal violence of the most
extreme character. Some of these cases have been dealt with through the
Department of Justice, and in some cases the post-offices have been
abolished or suspended. I have directed the Postmaster-General to pursue
this course in all cases where other efforts failed to secure for any
postmaster not himself in fault an opportunity peacefully to exercise
the duties of his office. But such action will not supplant the efforts
of the Department of Justice to bring the particular offenders to
punishment.

The vacation by judicial decrees of fraudulent certificates of
naturalization, upon bills in equity filed by the Attorney-General
in the circuit court of the United States, is a new application of a
familiar equity jurisdiction. Nearly one hundred such decrees have been
taken during the year, the evidence disclosing that a very large number
of fraudulent certificates of naturalization have been issued. And in
this connection I beg to renew my recommendation that the laws be so
amended as to require a more full and searching inquiry into all the
facts necessary to naturalization before any certificates are granted.
It certainly is not too much to require that an application for American
citizenship shall be heard with as much care and recorded with as much
formality as are given to cases involving the pettiest property right.

At the last session I returned without my approval a bill entitled
"An act to prohibit bookmaking and pool selling in the District of
Columbia," and stated my objection to be that it did not prohibit but in
fact licensed what it purported to prohibit.[11] An effort will be made
under existing laws to suppress this evil, though it is not certain that
they will be found adequate.

The report of the Postmaster-General shows the most gratifying progress
in the important work committed to his direction, The business methods
have been greatly improved. A large economy in expenditures and an
increase of four and three-quarters millions in receipts have been
realized. The deficiency this year is $5,786,300, as against $6,350,183
last year, notwithstanding the great enlargement of the service.
Mail routes have been extended and quickened and greater accuracy and
dispatch in distribution and delivery have been attained. The report
will be found to be full of interest and suggestion, not only to
Congress, but to those thoughtful citizens who may be interested
to know what business methods can do for that department of public
administration which most nearly touches all our people.

The passage of the act to amend certain sections of the Revised Statutes
relating to lotteries, approved September 19, 1890, has been received
with great and deserved popular favor. The Post-Office Department and
the Department of Justice at once entered upon the enforcement of the
law with sympathetic vigor, and already the public mails have been
largely freed from the fraudulent and demoralizing appeals and
literature emanating from the lottery companies.

The construction and equipment of the new ships for the Navy have made
very satisfactory progress. Since March 4, 1889, nine new vessels have
been put in commission, and during this winter four more, including one
monitor, will be added. The construction of the other vessels authorized
is being pushed both in the Government and private yards with energy and
watched with the most scrupulous care.

The experiments conducted during the year to test the relative
resisting power of armor plates have been so valuable as to attract
great attention in Europe. The only part of the work upon the new ships
that is threatened by unusual delay is the armor plating, and every
effort is being made to reduce that to the minimum. It is a source of
congratulation that the anticipated influence of these modern vessels
upon the _esprit de corps_ of the officers and seamen has been fully
realized. Confidence and pride in the ship among the crew are equivalent
to a secondary battery. Your favorable consideration is invited to the
recommendations of the Secretary.

The report of the Secretary of the Interior exhibits with great fullness
and clearness the vast work of that Department and the satisfactory
results attained. The suggestions made by him are earnestly commended,
to the consideration of Congress, though they can not all be given
particular mention here.

The several acts of Congress looking to the reduction of the larger
Indian reservations, to the more rapid settlement of the Indians upon
individual allotments, and the restoration to the public domain of lands
in excess of their needs have been largely carried into effect so far as
the work was confided to the Executive. Agreements have been concluded
since March 4, 1889, involving the cession to the United States of about
14,726,000 acres of land. These contracts have, as required by law,
been submitted to Congress for ratification and for the appropriations
necessary to carry them into effect. Those with the Sisseton and
Wahpeton, Sac and Fox, Iowa, Pottawatomies and Absentee Shawnees, and
Coeur d'Alene tribes have not yet received the sanction of Congress.
Attention is also called to the fact that the appropriations made in the
case of the Sioux Indians have not covered all the stipulated payments.
This should be promptly corrected. If an agreement is confirmed, all of
its terms should be complied with without delay and full appropriations
should be made.

The policy outlined in my last annual message in relation to the
patenting of lands to settlers upon the public domain[12] has been
carried out in the administration of the Land Office. No general
suspicion or imputation of fraud has been allowed to delay the hearing
and adjudication of individual cases upon their merits. The purpose has
been to perfect the title of honest settlers with such promptness that
the value of the entry might not be swallowed up by the expense and
extortions to which delay subjected the claimant. The average monthly
issue of agricultural patents has been increased about 6,000.

The disability-pension act, which was approved on the 27th of June last,
has been put into operation as rapidly as was practicable. The increased
clerical force provided was selected and assigned to work, and a
considerable part of the force engaged in examinations in the field was
recalled and added to the working force of the office. The examination
and adjudication of claims have by reason of improved methods been more
rapid than ever before. There is no economy to the Government in delay,
while there is much hardship and injustice to the soldier. The
anticipated expenditure, while very large, will not, it is believed, be
in excess of the estimates made before the enactment of the law. This
liberal enlargement of the general law should suggest a more careful
scrutiny of bills for special relief, both as to the cases where relief
is granted and as to the amount allowed.

The increasing numbers and influence of the non-Mormon population of
Utah are observed with satisfaction. The recent letter of Wilford
Woodruff, president of the Mormon Church, in which he advised his people
"to refrain from contracting any marriage forbidden by the laws of the
land," has attracted wide attention, and it is hoped that its influence
will be highly beneficial in restraining infractions of the laws of the
United States. But the fact should not be overlooked that the doctrine
or belief of the church that polygamous marriages are rightful and
supported by divine revelation remains unchanged. President Woodruff
does not renounce the doctrine, but refrains from teaching it, and
advises against the practice of it because the law is against it. Now,
it is quite true that the law should not attempt to deal with the faith
or belief of anyone; but it is quite another thing, and the only safe
thing, so to deal with the Territory of Utah as that those who believe
polygamy to be rightful shall not have the power to make it lawful.

The admission of the States of Wyoming and Idaho to the Union are events
full of interest and congratulation, not only to the people of those
States now happily endowed with a full participation in our privileges
and responsibilities, but to all our people. Another belt of States
stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

The work of the Patent Office has won from all sources very high
commendation. The amount accomplished has been very largely increased,
and all the results have been such as to secure confidence and
consideration for the suggestions of the Commissioner.

The enumeration of the people of the United States under the provisions
of the act of March 1, 1889, has been completed, and the result will
be at once officially communicated to Congress. The completion of this
decennial enumeration devolves upon Congress the duty of making a new
apportionment of Representatives "among the several States according to
their respective numbers."

At the last session I had occasion to return with my objections several
bills making provisions for the erection of public buildings for the
reason that the expenditures contemplated were, in my opinion, greatly
in excess of any public need. No class of legislation is more liable
to abuse or to degenerate into an unseemly scramble about the public
Treasury than this. There should be exercised in this matter a wise
economy, based upon some responsible and impartial examination and
report as to each case, under a general law.

The report of the Secretary of Agriculture deserves especial attention
in view of the fact that the year has been marked in a very unusual
degree by agitation and organization among the farmers looking to an
increase in the profits of their business. It will be found that the
efforts of the Department have been intelligently and zealously devoted
to the promotion of the interests intrusted to its care.

A very substantial improvement in the market prices of the leading farm
products during the year is noticed. The price of wheat advanced from
81 cents in October, 1889, to $1.00-3/4 in October, 1890; corn from 31
cents to 50-1/4 cents; oats from 19-1/4 cents to 43 cents, and barley
from 63 cents to 78 cents. Meats showed a substantial but not so large
an increase. The export trade in live animals and fowls shows a very
large increase. The total value of such exports for the year ending June
30, 1890, was $33,000,000, and the increase over the preceding year was
over $15,000,000. Nearly 200,000 more cattle and over 45,000 more hogs
were exported than in the preceding year. The export trade in beef and
pork products and in dairy products was very largely increased, the
increase in the article of butter alone being from 15,504,978 pounds to
29,748,042 pounds, and the total increase in the value of meat and dairy
products exported being $34,000,000. This trade, so directly helpful
to the farmer, it is believed, will be yet further and very largely
increased when the system of inspection and sanitary supervision now
provided by law is brought fully into operation.

The efforts of the Secretary to establish the healthfulness of our meats
against the disparaging imputations that have been put upon them abroad
have resulted in substantial progress. Veterinary surgeons sent out by
the Department are now allowed to participate in the inspection of the
live cattle from this country landed at the English docks, and during
the several months they have been on duty no case of contagious
pleuro-pneumonia has been reported. This inspection abroad and the
domestic inspection of live animals and pork products provided for by
the act of August 30, 1890, will afford as perfect a guaranty for the
wholesomeness of our meats offered for foreign consumption as is
anywhere given to any food product, and its nonacceptance will quite
clearly reveal the real motive of any continued restriction of their
use, and that having been made clear the duty of the Executive will be
very plain.

The information given by the Secretary of the progress and prospects of
the beet-sugar industry is full of interest. It has already passed the
experimental stage and is a commercial success. The area over which the
sugar beet can be successfully cultivated is very large, and another
field crop of great value is offered to the choice of the farmer.

The Secretary of the Treasury concurs in the recommendation of the
Secretary of Agriculture that the official supervision provided by the
tariff law for sugar of domestic production shall be transferred to the
Department of Agriculture.

The law relating to the civil service has, so far as I can learn, been
executed by those having the power of appointment in the classified
service with fidelity and impartiality, and the service has been
increasingly satisfactory. The report of the Commission shows a large
amount of good work done during the year with very limited
appropriations.

I congratulate the Congress and the country upon the passage at the
first session of the Fifty-first Congress of an unusual number of laws
of very high importance. That the results of this legislation will be
the quickening and enlargement of our manufacturing industries, larger
and better markets for our breadstuffs and provisions both at home and
abroad, more constant employment and better wages for our working
people, and an increased supply of a safe currency for the transaction
of business, I do not doubt. Some of these measures were enacted at so
late a period that the beneficial effects upon commerce which were in
the contemplation of Congress have as yet but partially manifested
themselves.

The general trade and industrial conditions throughout the country
during the year have shown a marked improvement. For many years prior to
1888 the merchandise balances of foreign trade had been largely in our
favor, but during that year and the year following they turned against
us. It is very gratifying to know that the last fiscal year again shows
a balance in our favor of over $68,000,000. The bank clearings, which
furnish a good test of the volume of business transacted, for the first
ten months of the year 1890 show as compared with the same months of
1889 an increase for the whole country of about 8.4 per cent, while the
increase outside of the city of New York was over 13 per cent. During
the month of October the clearings of the whole country showed an
increase of 3.1 per cent over October, 1889, while outside of New York
the increase was 11.5 per cent. These figures show that the increase in
the volume of business was very general throughout the country. That
this larger business was being conducted upon a safe and profitable
basis is shown by the fact that there were 300 less failures reported
in October, 1890, than in the same month of the preceding year, with
liabilities diminished by about $5,000,000.

The value of our exports of domestic merchandise during the last year
was over $115,000,000 greater than the preceding year, and was only
exceeded once in our history. About $100,000,000 of this excess was in
agricultural products. The production of pig iron, always a good gauge
of general prosperity, is shown by a recent census bulletin to have been
153 per cent greater in 1890 than in 1880, and the production of steel
290 per cent greater. Mining in coal has had no limitation except that
resulting from deficient transportation. The general testimony is that
labor is everywhere fully employed, and the reports for the last year
show a smaller number of employees affected by strikes and lockouts than
in any year since 1884. The depression in the prices of agricultural
products had been greatly relieved and a buoyant and hopeful tone was
beginning to be felt by all our people.

These promising influences have been in some degree checked by the
surprising and very unfavorable monetary events which have recently
taken place in England. It is gratifying to know that these did not grow
in any degree out of the financial relations of London with our people
or out of any discredit attached to our securities held in that market.
The return of our bonds and stocks was caused by a money stringency
in England, not by any loss of value or credit in the securities
themselves. We could not, however, wholly escape the ill effects of a
foreign monetary agitation accompanied by such extraordinary incidents
as characterized this. It is not believed, however, that these evil
incidents, which have for the time unfavorably affected values in this
country, can long withstand the strong, safe, and wholesome influences
which are operating to give to our people profitable returns in all
branches of legitimate trade and industry. The apprehension that our
tariff may again and at once be subjected to important general changes
would undoubtedly add a depressing influence of the most serious
character.

The general tariff act has only partially gone into operation, some of
its important provisions being limited to take effect at dates yet in
the future. The general provisions of the law have been in force less
than sixty days. Its permanent effects upon trade and prices still
largely stand in conjecture. It is curious to note that the advance in
the prices of articles wholly unaffected by the tariff act was by many
hastily ascribed to that act. Notice was not taken of the fact that the
general tendency of the markets was upward, from influences wholly apart
from the recent tariff legislation. The enlargement of our currency by
the silver bill undoubtedly gave an upward tendency to trade and had
a marked effect on prices; but this natural and desired effect of the
silver legislation was by many erroneously attributed to the tariff act.

There is neither wisdom nor justice in the suggestion that the subject
of tariff revision shall be again opened before this law has had a
fair trial. It is quite true that every tariff schedule is subject to
objections. No bill was ever framed, I suppose, that in all of its rates
and classifications had the full approval even of a party caucus. Such
legislation is always and necessarily the product of compromise as to
details, and the present law is no exception. But in its general scope
and effect I think it will justify the support of those who believe that
American legislation should conserve and defend American trade and the
wages of American workmen.

The misinformation as to the terms of the act which has been so widely
disseminated at home and abroad will be corrected by experience, and the
evil auguries as to its results confounded by the market reports, the
savings banks, international trade balances, and the general prosperity
of our people. Already we begin to hear from abroad and from our
custom-houses that the prohibitory effect upon importations imputed to
the act is not justified. The imports at the port of New York for the
first three weeks of November were nearly 8 per cent greater than for
the same period in 1889 and 29 per cent greater than in the same period
of 1888. And so far from being an act to limit exports, I confidently
believe that under it we shall secure a larger and more profitable
participation in foreign trade than we have ever enjoyed, and that we
shall recover a proportionate participation in the ocean carrying trade
of the world.

The criticisms of the bill that have come to us from foreign sources
may well be rejected for repugnancy. If these critics really believe
that the adoption by us of a free-trade policy, or of tariff rates
having reference solely to revenue, would diminish the participation
of their own countries in the commerce of the world, their advocacy
and promotion, by speech and other forms of organized effort, of this
movement among our people is a rare exhibition of unselfishness in
trade. And, on the other hand, if they sincerely believe that the
adoption of a protective-tariff policy by this country inures to their
profit and our hurt, it is noticeably strange that they should lead the
outcry against the authors of a policy so helpful to their countrymen
and crown with their favor those who would snatch from them a
substantial share of a trade with other lands already inadequate to
their necessities.

There is no disposition among any of our people to promote prohibitory
or retaliatory legislation. Our policies are adopted not to the hurt of
others, but to secure for ourselves those advantages that fairly grow
out of our favored position as a nation. Our form of government, with
its incident of universal suffrage, makes it imperative that we shall
save our working people from the agitations and distresses which scant
work and wages that have no margin for comfort always beget. But after
all this is done it will be found that our markets are open to friendly
commercial exchanges of enormous value to the other great powers.

From the time of my induction into office the duty of using every
power and influence given by law to the executive department for the
development of larger markets for our products, especially our farm
products, has been kept constantly in mind, and no effort has been or
will be spared to promote that end. We are under no disadvantage in any
foreign market, except that we pay our workmen and workwomen better
wages than are paid elsewhere--better abstractly, better relatively to
the cost of the necessaries of life. I do not doubt that a very largely
increased foreign trade is accessible to us without bartering for it
either our home market for such products of the farm and shop as our own
people can supply or the wages of our working people.

In many of the products of wood and iron and in meats and bread-stuffs
we have advantages that only need better facilities of intercourse and
transportation to secure for them large foreign markets. The reciprocity
clause of the tariff act wisely and effectively opens the way to secure
a large reciprocal trade in exchange for the free admission to our ports
of certain products. The right of independent nations to make special
reciprocal trade concessions is well established, and does not
impair either the comity due to other powers or what is known as the
"favored-nation clause," so generally found in commercial treaties. What
is given to one for an adequate agreed consideration can not be claimed
by another freely. The state of the revenues was such that we could
dispense with any import duties upon coffee, tea, hides, and the lower
grades of sugar and molasses. That the large advantage resulting to the
countries producing and exporting these articles by placing them on the
free list entitled us to expect a fair return in the way of customs
concessions upon articles exported by us to them was so obvious that to
have gratuitously abandoned this opportunity to enlarge our trade would
have been an unpardonable error.

There were but two methods of maintaining control of this question open
to Congress--to place all of these articles upon the dutiable list,
subject to such treaty agreements as could be secured, or to place them
all presently upon the free list, but subject to the reimposition of
specified duties if the countries from which we received them should
refuse to give to us suitable reciprocal benefits. This latter method,
I think, possesses great advantages. It expresses in advance the consent
of Congress to reciprocity arrangements affecting these products, which
must otherwise have been delayed and unascertained until each treaty
was ratified by the Senate and the necessary legislation enacted by
Congress. Experience has shown that some treaties looking to reciprocal
trade have failed to secure a two-thirds vote in the Senate for
ratification, and others having passed that stage have for years awaited
the concurrence of the House and Senate in such modifications of our
revenue laws as were necessary to give effect to their provisions. We
now have the concurrence of both Houses in advance in a distinct and
definite offer of free entry to our ports of specific articles. The
Executive is not required to deal in conjecture as to what Congress will
accept. Indeed, this reciprocity provision is more than an offer. Our
part of the bargain is complete; delivery has been made; and when the
countries from which we receive sugar, coffee, tea, and hides have
placed on their free lists such of our products as shall be agreed
upon as an equivalent for our concession, a proclamation of that fact
completes the transaction; and in the meantime our own people have
free sugar, tea, coffee, and hides.

The indications thus far given are very hopeful of early and
favorable action by the countries from which we receive our large
imports of coffee and sugar, and it is confidently believed that if
steam communication with these countries can be promptly improved and
enlarged the next year will show a most gratifying increase in our
exports of breadstuffs provisions, as well as of some important lines
of manufactured goods.

In addition to the important bills that became laws before the
adjournment of the last session, some other bills of the highest
importance were well advanced toward a final vote and now stand upon the
calendars of the two Houses in favored positions. The present session
has a fixed limit, and if these measures are not now brought to a final
vote all the work that has been done upon them by this Congress is lost.
The proper consideration of these, of an apportionment bill, and of the
annual appropriation bills will require not only that no working day of
the session shall be lost, but that measures of minor and local interest
shall not be allowed to interrupt or retard the progress of those that
are of universal interest. In view of these conditions, I refrain from
bringing before you at this time some suggestions that would otherwise
be made, and most earnestly invoke your attention to the duty of
perfecting the important legislation now well advanced. To some of these
measures, which seem to me most important, I now briefly call your
attention.

I desire to repeat with added urgency the recommendations contained
in my last annual message in relation to the development of American
steamship lines.[13] The reciprocity clause of the tariff bill will be
largely limited and its benefits retarded and diminished if provision is
not contemporaneously made to encourage the establishment of first-class
steam communication between our ports and the ports of such nations as
may meet our overtures for enlarged commercial exchanges. The steamship,
carrying the mails statedly and frequently and offering to passengers a
comfortable, safe, and speedy transit, is the first condition of foreign
trade. It carries the order or the buyer, but not all that is ordered or
bought. It gives to the sailing vessels such cargoes as are not urgent
or perishable, and, indirectly at least, promotes that important adjunct
of commerce. There is now both in this country and in the nations of
Central and South America a state of expectation and confidence as to
increased trade that will give a double value to your prompt action upon
this question.

The present situation of our mail communication with Australia
illustrates the importance of early action by Congress. The Oceanic
Steamship Company maintains a line of steamers between San Francisco,
Sydney, and Auckland consisting of three vessels, two of which are of
United States registry and one of foreign registry. For the service done
by this line in carrying the mails we pay annually the sum of $46,000,
being, as estimated, the full sea and United States inland postage,
which is the limit fixed by law. The colonies of New South Wales and New
Zealand have been paying annually to these lines £37,000 for carrying
the mails from Sydney and Auckland to San Francisco. The contract under
which this payment has been made is now about to expire, and those
colonies have refused to renew the contract unless the United States
shall pay a more equitable proportion of the whole sum necessary to
maintain, the service.

I am advised by the Postmaster-General that the United States receives
for carrying the Australian mails, brought to San Francisco in these
steamers, by rail to Vancouver, an estimated annual income of $75,000.
while, as I have stated, we are paying out for the support of the
steamship line that brings this mail to us only $46,000, leaving an
annual surplus resulting from this service of $29,000. The trade of the
United States with Australia, which is in a considerable part carried by
these steamers, and the whole of which is practically dependent upon the
mail communication which they maintain, is largely in our favor. Our
total exports of merchandise to Australasian ports during the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1890, were $11,266,484, while the total imports of
merchandise from these ports were only $4,277,676. If we are not willing
to see this important steamship line withdrawn, or continued with
Vancouver substituted for San Francisco as the American terminal,
Congress should put it in the power of the Postmaster-General to make a
liberal increase in the amount now paid for the transportation of this
important mail.

The South Atlantic and Gulf ports occupy a very favored position toward
the new and important commerce which the reciprocity clause of the
tariff act and the postal shipping bill are designed to promote.
Steamship lines from these ports to some northern port of South America
will almost certainly effect a connection between the railroad systems
of the continents long before any continuous line of railroads can be
put into operation. The very large appropriation made at the last
session for the harbor of Galveston was justified, as it seemed to me,
by these considerations. The great Northwest will feel the advantage of
trunk lines to the South as well as to the East and of the new markets
opened for their surplus food products and for many of their
manufactured products.

I had occasion in May last to transmit to Congress a report adopted
by the International American Conference upon the subject of the
incorporation of an international American bank, with a view to
facilitating money exchanges between the States represented in that
conference.[14] Such an institution would greatly promote the trade we
are seeking to develop. I renew the recommendation that a careful and
well-guarded charter be granted. I do not think the powers granted
should include those ordinarily exercised by trust, guaranty, and
safe-deposit companies, or that more branches in the United States
should be authorized than are strictly necessary to accomplish the
object primarily in view, namely, convenient foreign exchanges. It is
quite important that prompt action should be taken in this matter,
in order that any appropriations for better communication with these
countries and any agreements that may be made for reciprocal trade
may not be hindered by the inconvenience of making exchanges through
European money centers or burdened by the tribute which is an incident
of that method of business.

The bill for the relief of the Supreme Court has after many years of
discussion reached a position where final action is easily attainable,
and it is hoped that any differences of opinion may be so harmonized as
to save the essential features of this very important measure. In this
connection I earnestly renew my recommendation that the salaries of the
judges of the United States district courts be so readjusted that none
of them shall receive less than $5,000 per annum.

The subject of the unadjusted Spanish and Mexican land grants and the
urgent necessity for providing some commission or tribunal for the trial
of questions of title growing out of them were twice brought by me to
the attention of Congress at the last session. Bills have been reported
from the proper committees in both Houses upon the subject, and I very
earnestly hope that this Congress will put an end to the delay which
has attended the settlement of the disputes as to the title between the
settlers and the claimants under these grants. These disputes retard the
prosperity and disturb the peace of large and important communities.
The governor of New Mexico in his last report to the Secretary of the
Interior suggests some modifications of the provisions of the pending
bills relating to the small holdings of farm lands. I commend to your
attention the suggestions of the Secretary of the Interior upon this
subject.

The enactment of a national bankrupt law I still regard as very
desirable. The Constitution having given to Congress jurisdiction of
this subject, it should be exercised and uniform rules provided for the
administration of the affairs of insolvent debtors. The inconveniences
resulting from the occasional and temporary exercise of this power by
Congress and from the conflicting State codes of insolvency which come
into force intermediately should be removed by the enactment of a
simple, inexpensive, and permanent national bankrupt law.

I also renew my recommendation in favor of legislation affording just
copyright protection to foreign authors on a footing of reciprocal
advantage for our authors abroad.

It may still be possible for this Congress to inaugurate by suitable
legislation a movement looking to uniformity and increased safety in the
use of couplers and brakes upon freight trains engaged in interstate
commerce. The chief difficulty in the way is to secure agreement
as to the best appliances, simplicity, effectiveness, and cost being
considered. This difficulty will only yield to legislation, which should
be based upon full inquiry and impartial tests. The purpose should be to
secure the cooperation of all well-disposed managers and owners; but the
fearful fact that every year's delay involves the sacrifice of 2,000
lives and the maiming of 20,000 young men should plead both with
Congress and the managers against any needless delay.

The subject of the conservation and equal distribution of the water
supply of the arid regions has had much attention from Congress, but has
not as yet been put upon a permanent and satisfactory basis. The urgency
of the subject does not grow out of any large present demand for the use
of these lands for agriculture, but out of the danger that the water
supply and the sites for the necessary catch basins may fall into the
hands of individuals or private corporations and be used to render
subservient the large areas dependent upon such supply. The owner of
the water is the owner of the lands, however the titles may run. All
unappropriated natural water sources and all necessary reservoir sites
should be held by the Government for the equal use at fair rates of the
homestead settlers who will eventually take up these lands. The United
States should not, in my opinion, undertake the construction of dams or
canals, but should limit its work to such surveys and observations as
will determine the water supply, both surface and subterranean, the
areas capable of irrigation, and the location and storage capacity
of reservoirs. This done, the use of the water and of the reservoir
sites might be granted to the respective States or Territories or to
individuals or associations upon the condition that the necessary
works should be constructed and the water furnished at fair rates
without discrimination, the rates to be subject to supervision by the
legislatures or by boards of water commissioners duly constituted. The
essential thing to be secured is the common and equal use at fair rates
of the accumulated water supply. It were almost better that these lands
should remain arid than that those who occupy them should become the
slaves of unrestrained monopolies controlling the one essential element
of land values and crop results.

The use of the telegraph by the Post-Office Department as a means for
the rapid transmission of written communications is, I believe, upon
proper terms, quite desirable. The Government does not own or operate
the railroads, and it should not, I think, own or operate the telegraph
lines. It does, however, seem to be quite practicable for the Government
to contract with the telegraph companies, as it does with railroad
companies, to carry at specified rates such communications as the
senders may designate for this method of transmission. I recommend that
such legislation be enacted as will enable the Post-Office Department
fairly to test by experiment the advantages of such a use of the
telegraph.

If any intelligent, and loyal company of American citizens were required
to catalogue the essential human conditions of national life, I do not
doubt that with absolute unanimity they would begin with "free and
honest elections." And it is gratifying to know that generally there is
a growing and nonpartisan demand for better election laws; but against
this sign of hope and progress must be set the depressing and undeniable
fact that election laws and methods are sometimes cunningly contrived to
secure minority control, while violence completes the shortcomings of
fraud.

In my last annual message I suggested that the development of the
existing law providing a Federal supervision of Congressional elections
offered an effective method of reforming these abuses.[15] The need
of such a law has manifested itself in many parts of the country, and
its wholesome restraints and penalties will be useful in all. The
constitutionality of such legislation has been affirmed by the Supreme
Court. Its probable effectiveness is evidenced by the character of the
opposition that is made to it. It has been denounced as if it were a
new exercise of Federal power and an invasion of the rights of States.
Nothing could be further from the truth. Congress has already fixed the
time for the election of members of Congress. It has declared that votes
for members of Congress must be by written or printed ballot; it has
provided for the appointment by the circuit courts in certain cases,
and upon the petition of a certain number of citizens, of election
supervisors, and made it their duty to supervise the registration of
voters conducted by the State officers; to challenge persons offering to
register; to personally inspect and scrutinize the registry lists, and
to affix their names to the lists for the purpose of identification and
the prevention of frauds; to attend at elections and remain with the
boxes till they are all cast and counted; to attach to the registry
lists and election returns any statement touching the accuracy and
fairness of the registry and election, and to take and transmit to
the Clerk of the House of Representatives any evidence of fraudulent
practices which may be presented to them. The same law provides for the
appointment of deputy United States marshals to attend at the polls,
support the supervisors in the discharge of their duties, and to arrest
persons violating the election laws. The provisions of this familiar
title of the Revised Statutes have been put into exercise by both the
great political parties, and in the North as well as in the South,
by the filing with the court of the petitions required by the law.

It is not, therefore, a question whether we shall have a Federal
election law, for we now have one and have had for nearly twenty years,
but whether we shall have an effective law. The present law stops just
short of effectiveness, for it surrenders to the local authorities all
control over the certification which establishes the _prima facie_ right
to a seat in the House of Representatives. This defect should be cured.
Equality of representation and the parity of the electors must be
maintained or everything that is valuable in our system of government is
lost. The qualifications of an elector must be sought in the law, not
in the opinions, prejudices, or fears of any class, however powerful.
The path of the elector to the ballot box must be free from the ambush
of fear and the enticements of fraud; the count so true and open that
none shall gainsay it. Such a law should be absolutely nonpartisan and
impartial. It should give the advantage to honesty and the control to
majorities. Surely there is nothing sectional about this creed, and if
it shall happen that the penalties of laws intended to enforce these
rights fall here and not there it is not because the law is sectional,
but because, happily, crime is local and not universal. Nor should it be
forgotten that every law, whether relating to elections or to any other
subject, whether enacted by the State or by the nation, has force behind
it; the courts, the marshal or constable, the _posse comitatus_, the
prison, are all and always behind the law.

One can not be justly charged with unfriendliness to any section or
class who seeks only to restrain violations of law and of personal
right. No community will find lawlessness profitable. No community can
afford to have it known that the officers who are charged with the
preservation of the public peace and the restraint of the criminal
classes are themselves the product of fraud or violence. The magistrate
is then without respect and the law without sanction. The floods of
lawlessness can not be leveed and made to run in one channel. The
killing of a United States marshal carrying a writ of arrest for an
election offense is full of prompting and suggestion to men who are
pursued by a city marshal for a crime against life or property.

But it is said that this legislation will revive race animosities, and
some have even suggested that when the peaceful methods of fraud are
made impossible they may be supplanted by intimidation and violence.
If the proposed law gives to any qualified elector by a hair's weight
more than his equal influence or detracts by so much from any other
qualified elector, it is fatally impeached. But if the law is equal and
the animosities it is to evoke grow out of the fact that some electors
have been accustomed to exercise the franchise for others as well
as for themselves, then these animosities ought not to be confessed
without shame, and can not be given any weight in the discussion without
dishonor. No choice is left to me but to enforce with vigor all laws
intended to secure to the citizen his constitutional rights and to
recommend that the inadequacies of such laws be promptly remedied. If to
promote with zeal and ready interest every project for the development
of its material interests, its rivers, harbors, mines, and factories,
and the intelligence, peace, and security under the law of its
communities and its homes is not accepted as sufficient evidence of
friendliness to any State or section, I can not add connivance at
election practices that not only disturb local results, but rob the
electors of other States and sections of their most priceless political
rights.

The preparation of the general appropriation bills should be conducted
with the greatest care and the closest scrutiny of expenditures.
Appropriations should be adequate to the needs of the public service,
but they should be absolutely free from prodigality.

I venture again to remind you that the brief time remaining for the
consideration of the important legislation now awaiting your attention
offers no margin for waste. If the present duty is discharged with
diligence, fidelity, and courage, the work of the Fifty-first Congress
may be confidently submitted to the considerate judgment of the people.

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 11: See pp. 93-94.]

[Footnote 12: See p. 49].

[Footnote 13: See pp. 56-58.]

[Footnote 14: See pp. 70-71.]

[Footnote 15: See p. 56.]



SPECIAL MESSAGES.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 4, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 3d instant from the Secretary
of the Interior, accompanied by an agreement concluded by the Cherokee
Commission with the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes of Indians for the
cession of certain lands and for other purposes.

The agreement is submitted for the consideration of Congress, as
required by law.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 5, 1890_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, in response to the resolution of the House of
Representatives of the 24th of September last, a report of the Secretary
of State and accompanying correspondence, in relation to the killing of
General J. Martine Barrundia by Guatemalan officers on board the Pacific
mail steamer _Acapulco_ in the port of San Jose, Guatemala, on the 28th
of August last.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I herewith transmit a communication from the Secretary of State, in
relation to a report upon the subject of cholera made by Dr. E.O.
Shakespeare pursuant to the act of Congress approved March 3, 1885.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of the Navy, accompanied
by a letter from the secretary of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, who transmits a memorial, addressed to the Government of the
United States, in relation to the late Captain John Ericsson.

The matter is presented for such action as the Congress may deem proper.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 17, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of War, accompanied by
a copy of a preliminary report of the board on gun factories and steel
forgings for high-power guns, appointed by me under the provisions of an
act entitled "An act making appropriations for fortifications," etc.,
approved August 18, 1890.

The report and accompanying papers are submitted for the information and
early attention of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 22, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter of the 18th instant from the Secretary
of the Interior, in relation to the disposition of timber on certain
Chippewa reservations in Wisconsin, together with copies of papers
relating thereto. The matter is presented for the action of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 23, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The Territorial legislature of Oklahoma, now in session, will adjourn by
limitation of law on to-morrow, the 24th instant. The act organizing the
Territory provided (section II) that certain chapters of the revised
statutes of Nebraska should be in force until after the adjournment of
the first session of the Territorial legislature.

The question of the location of the Territorial capital has so occupied
the time of the legislature and so distracted and divided its members
that no criminal code has been provided. It is urgently necessary that
Congress should at once, by joint resolution or otherwise, continue
the laws of Nebraska in force, and save pending criminal arrests and
prosecutions at least. The reconvening of the legislature does not
under the existing circumstances promise any relief.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 23, 1890_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter of the Secretary of the Navy, accompanied
by the report of the commission appointed by me by virtue of a provision
in the naval appropriation bill approved June 30, 1890, for the purpose
of selecting a suitable site "for a dry dock at some point on the shores
of the Pacific Ocean, or the waters connected therewith, north of the
parallel of latitude marking the northern boundary of California,
including the waters of Puget Sound and also Lakes Union and Washington,
in the State of Washington."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 5, 1891_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In further response to the resolution of the House of Representatives
requesting me, if in my judgment not incompatible with the public
interest, to furnish to the House the correspondence since March 4,
1889, between the Government of the United States and the Government
of Great Britain touching the subjects in dispute in the Bering Sea,
I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State, which is
accompanied by the correspondence which has taken place since my
message of July 23, 1890.[16]

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 16: See p. 80.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 10, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a memorial of the legislative assembly of the
Territory of Oklahoma, asking an appropriation for the relief of the
destitute people of that Territory.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 16, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith the report of the World's Columbian Commission, with
the accompanying papers.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 19, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the 17th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, submitting the agreement entered into between
the Crow Indians and the commission appointed to negotiate with them
for the sale to the United States of the western portion of their
reservation in Montana under the provisions of the act of September 25,
1890.

It is thought important by the Department that this matter receive the
consideration of Congress during the present session.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 26, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter of the Secretary of War, accompanied by
the final report of the board on gun factories and steel forgings for
high-power guns, and appendixes thereto.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 26, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter of the Secretary of the Interior,
accompanied by a letter from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who
transmits a draft of a bill for compensating the Indians of the Crow
Creek Reservation for the loss sustained by them by reason of their
receiving less land per capita in their diminished reservations than is
to be received by Indians occupying other diminished reservations.

The matter is presented for the early consideration of the Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 31, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The sudden death of the Hon. William Windom, Secretary of the Treasury,
in New York, on the evening of the 29th instant, has directed my
attention to the present state of the law as to the filling of a vacancy
occasioned by the death of the head of a Department.

I transmit herewith an opinion of the Attorney-General, from which
it will be seen that under the statutes in force no officer in the
Treasury Department or other person designated by me can exercise the
duties of Secretary of the Treasury for a longer period than ten days.
This limitation is, I am sure, unwise, and necessarily involves in
such a case as that now presented undue haste and even indelicacy.
The President should not be required to take up the question of the
selection of a successor before the last offices of affection and
respect have been paid to the dead. If the proprieties of an occasion as
sad as that which now overshadows us are observed, possibly one-half of
the brief time allowed is gone before, with due regard to the decencies
of life, the President and those with whom he should advise can take up
the consideration of the grave duty of selecting a head for one of the
greatest Departments of the Government.

Hasty action by the Senate is also necessarily involved, and
geographical limitations are practically imposed by the necessity of
selecting some one who can reach the capital and take the necessary oath
of office before the expiration of the ten days.

It may be a very proper restriction of the power of the President in
this connection that he shall not designate for any great length of time
a person to discharge these important duties who has not been confirmed
by the Senate, but there would seem to be no reason why one of the
assistant secretaries of the Department wherein the vacancy exists might
not discharge the duties of Secretary until a successor is selected,
confirmed, and qualified. The inconvenience of this limitation was made
apparent at the time of the death of Secretary Folger. President Arthur
in that case allowed one of the assistant secretaries, who had been
designated to act in the absence of the Secretary, to continue in the
discharge of such duties for ten days, then designated the same person
to discharge the duties for a further term of ten days, and then made a
temporary appointment as Secretary, in order to secure the consideration
that he needed in filling this important place.

I recommend such a modification of the existing law as will permit the
first or sole assistant, or, in the case of the Treasury Department,
where the assistants are not graded, that one who may be designated by
the President, to discharge the duties of the head of the Department
until a successor is appointed and qualified.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 10, 1891_.

_To the Senate_:

I transmit herewith the correspondence called for by the resolution of
the Senate of the 6th instant, relating to the conduct of Commander
Reiter in connection with the arrest and killing of General Barrundia.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 13, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The Admiral of the Navy, David Dixon Porter, died at his residence
in the city of Washington this morning at 8.15 o'clock, in the
seventy-eighth year of his age. He entered the naval service as a
midshipman February 2, 1829, and had been since continuously in service,
having been made Admiral August 15, 1870. He was the son of Commodore
David Porter, one of the greatest of our naval commanders. His service
during the Civil War was conspicuously brilliant and successful, and
his death ends a very high and honorable career. His countrymen will
sincerely mourn his loss while they cherish with grateful pride the
memory of his deeds. To officers of the Navy his life will continue
to yield inspiration and encouragement.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., February 14, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith the sixth annual report of the Commissioner of
Labor. This report relates to the cost of producing iron and steel and
the materials of which iron is made in the United States and in Europe,
and the earnings, the efficiency, and the cost of living of the men
employed in such production.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 14, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The death of William Tecumseh Sherman, which took place to-day at his
residence in the city of New York, at 1 o'clock and 50 minutes p.m., is
an event that will bring sorrow to the heart of every patriotic citizen.
No living American was so loved and venerated as he. To look upon his
face, to hear his name, was to have one's love of country intensified.
He served his country, not for fame, not out of a sense of professional
duty, but for love of the flag and of the beneficent civil institutions
of which it was the emblem. He was an ideal soldier, and shared to the
fullest the _esprit de corps_ of the Army; but he cherished the civil
institutions organized under the Constitution, and was a soldier only
that these might be perpetuated in undiminished usefulness and honor.
He was in nothing an imitator.

A profound student of military science and precedent, he drew from them
principles and suggestions, and so adapted them to novel conditions that
his campaigns will continue to be the profitable study of the military
profession throughout the world. His genial nature made him comrade to
every soldier of the great Union Army. No presence was so welcome and
inspiring at the camp fire or commandery as his. His career was
complete; his honors were full. He had received from the Government the
highest rank known to our military establishment and from the people
unstinted gratitude and love. No word of mine can add to his fame. His
death has followed in startling quickness that of the Admiral of the
Navy; and it is a sad and notable incident that when the Department
under which he served shall have put on the usual emblems of mourning
four of the eight Executive Departments will be simultaneously draped
in black, and one other has but today removed the crape from its walls.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 26, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State and accompanying
documents, in relation to the execution of letters rogatory in foreign
countries.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 26, 1891_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit herewith, in reply to the resolution of the Senate of the 9th
instant, a report from the Secretary of State, accompanied by the papers
relating to the commercial arrangement recently entered into with
Brazil.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 3, 1891_.

_To the Senate_:

In accordance with the resolution of the Senate of this date, I return
herewith Senate bill 1453, to provide for the purchase of a site and the
erection of a public building thereon at Saginaw, in the State of
Michigan.

BENJ. HARRISON.



VETO MESSAGES.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 24, 1890_.

_To the Senate_:

I return to the Senate, in which it originated, with my objections, the
bill (No. 544) "to provide for the purchase of a site and the erection
of a public building thereon at Bar Harbor, in the State of Maine." The
statement of a few facts will show, I think, that the public needs do
not justify the contemplated expenditure of $75,000 for the erection
of a public building at Bar Harbor. Only one public office, the
post-office, is to be accommodated. It appears from a report of the
Postmaster-General that the rent paid by the United States for a room
containing 875 square feet of floor space was in 1888 $300 and the
expenditure for fuel and lights $60. One clerk was employed in the
office and no carriers. The gross postal receipts for that year were
$7,000. Bar Harbor is almost wholly a summer resort. The population of
the town of Eden, of which Bar Harbor forms a part, as taken by the
census enumerators, was less than 2,000. During one quarter of the year
this population is largely increased by summer residents and visitors,
but for the other three quarters is not much above the census
enumeration. The postal receipts for 1890 by quarters show that for more
than half the year the gross receipts of the post-office are about $8
per day. The salary of a janitor for the new building would be more than
twice the present cost to the Government of rent, fuel, and lights.
I can not believe that upon reconsideration the Congress will approve
the contemplated expenditure.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 26, 1891_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I return herewith without my approval the bill (H.R. 12365) entitled
"An act to authorize Oklahoma City, in Oklahoma Territory, to issue
bonds to provide a right of way for the Choctaw Coal and Railway Company
through said city." This bill authorizes the corporation of Oklahoma
City to issue corporate bonds to the amount of $40,000 for the purpose
of providing the right of way for a railroad company through the city,
if the proposition shall receive the assent of a majority of the legal
voters at an election to be called for that purpose.

It is attempted to distinguish this case from the ordinary case of
a municipal grant to a railway company by the fact that this railway
company had located its line through the lands afterwards settled upon
under the town-site law before such settlement, and that the route thus
located cuts the plat of the city diagonally and in a way to be very
injurious to property interests.

Upon an examination of the facts it appears to me to be clear that no
legal location was made by the railway company prior to the acquisition
of the lands by the occupying settlers. Some preliminary surveys had
been made, but no map of location had been filed with the Secretary of
the Interior. If the rights of this company at this point of its road
as to right of way are derived from the general statute of the United
States upon that subject (U. S. Revised Statutes, Supplement, p. 87),
then section 4 distinctly saves the right of any settler who had located
prior to the filing of a profile of the road and the approval by the
Secretary of the Interior thereof. And if, on the other hand, the rights
of the company at the point indicated are derived from the act of
Congress of February 18, 1888, "to authorize the Choctaw Coal and
Railway Company to construct and operate a railway through the Indian
Territory, and for other purposes," section 6 of that act also plainly
protects the right of any occupying claimant. The latter statute, it
seems to me, was intended to grant a right of way only through Indian
lands, and if these lands were not such the general statute to which
I have referred would apply; but in either event the conclusion is the
same.

It appears from the report of the committee that its favorable action,
and, I must assume, the favorable action of Congress, proceeded upon the
theory that there was a real controversy, doubtful as to its issue, as
to the right of the railroad company to hold the line of its survey
through the city.

Stripped, then, of this claim the proposition is nakedly one to
authorize Oklahoma City to donate $40,000 to the Choctaw Coal and
Railway Company. The general statute of the United States prohibits
such grants, and this must stand until repealed as a continuing
expression of legislative opinion. If a departure from this rule is to
be allowed at all, certainly it should only be where the circumstances
are exceptional. Such circumstances, in my opinion, do not exist in
this case. Already I have received from other cities in the Territory
protests against special legislation of this sort, accompanied by the
suggestion that if this policy is admitted other cities shall also be
allowed to encourage the building of roads by donation.

Oklahoma City, according to the report of the Census Office, has a
population of about 4,100, and this donation would be equivalent to
nearly $10 per capita. Very little real estate, whether town-site or
country property, in this Territory is yet subject to assessment for
taxation. The people have not yet had time to accumulate, and Congress
has received appeals for aid to relieve a prevailing distress which the
Territorial authorities have found themselves unable to deal with. It
does not seem to me, in view of all these facts, that the wholesome rule
prescribed by the general statute should be departed from.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 26, 1891_.

_To the Senate_:

I return to the Senate without my approval the bill (S. 4620) "to
establish the Record and Pension Office of the War Department, and for
other purposes."

This bill proposes to change the designation of one of the divisions of
the War Department. It is now the "Record and Pension Division," and it
is proposed that it shall hereafter be the "Record and Pension Office"
of the War Department. The scope of the work assigned to this division
or office is not changed, but the organization now existing under
a classification made by the Secretary of War is by the bill made
permanent and put beyond the control of the Secretary. The change of
designation seems to have been intended to add dignity to the position,
and the effect of the bill is probably to require that the chief of this
office shall hereafter be appointed only by and with the advice and
consent of the Senate, though it is not clear that any provision is made
for a chief after the particular person designated in the bill has been
separated from the place or in case he is not appointed.

The real object of the bill is disclosed in the following clause:

  The President is hereby authorized to nominate and, by and with the
  advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint the officer now in charge
  of said Record and Pension Division to be a colonel in the Army and
  chief of said office.


It is fairly to be implied from the bill that in the opinion of Congress
the public interests would be promoted by making the contemplated change
in the grade of this office and by giving the rank and pay of a colonel
in the Army to the chief. A new and rather anomalous office is therefore
created--that of "colonel in the Army and chief of the Record and
Pension Office of the War Department"--but upon the condition that the
President shall nominate a particular person to fill it. I do not think
it is competent for Congress to designate the person who shall fill an
office created by law, and practically nothing remains of the bill under
consideration if this person is not to be appointed. The office is an
important one, connected with the active civil administration of the War
Department. I can not agree that the selection of the officer shall be
taken out of the discretion of the Executive, where the responsibility
for good administration necessarily rests. It is probably true that the
officer intended to be benefited is peculiarly deserving and has had
remarkable success in the discharge of the duties of the office; but
these are considerations for the appointing power, and might safely have
been left there.

If this particular appointment was backed by reasons so obvious as
to secure the support of both Houses of Congress, it should have been
assumed that these reasons could have been made obvious to the Executive
by the ordinary methods. In connection with the Army and Navy retired
lists, legislation akin to this has become quite frequent, too frequent
in my opinion; but these laws have been regarded as grants of pensions
rather than of offices.

If it is to be allowed that active places connected with the Executive
Departments can be created upon condition that particular persons are or
are not to be designated to fill them, the power of appointment might be
wholly diverted from the Executive to the Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 2, 1891_.

_To the Senate_:

I return herewith without my approval the bill (S. 3270) "for the relief
of the administratrix of the estate of George W. Lawrence."

If I rightly construe this bill, it authorizes the Court of Claims to
give judgment in favor of the contractor with the United States for
the construction of the vessels named (_Agawam_ and _Pontoosuc_) for
the difference between the contract price and the actual cost to the
contractor of building the vessels, subject only to the condition that
nothing shall be allowed for any advance in the price of labor or
material unless such advance occurred during the prolonged term for
completing the work rendered necessary by delay resulting from the
action of the Government. The bill is somewhat obscure, but I have,
I think, correctly stated the legal effect of it.

Undoubtedly in contracts made for army and navy supplies and
construction during the early days of the war there was not infrequently
loss to the contractor by reason of the advance in the cost of labor
resulting from the withdrawal of so large a body of men for service in
the field and the indirect result of this upon the cost of material; but
I can not believe that it is the purpose of Congress to reopen such
contracts at this late day and to pay to the contractors the cost of the
work or material which they stipulated to do or deliver at fixed prices.
In the matter of another vessel constructed by this same claimant and
in the case of one other similar claim I approved bills at the last
session, but they carefully limited any finding by the Court of Claims
to such losses as necessarily resulted from the interference by the
Government with the progress of the work, thus creating delays and
enhanced cost.

In those cases the Government only undertook to make good losses
resulting directly and unavoidably from its own acts. If the principle
which seems to me to be embodied in the bill under consideration is
adopted, I do not see how the Congress can refuse in all cases of all
sorts of contracts to make good the losses resulting from appreciation
in the cost of labor and material. The expenditure that such a policy
would entail is incalculable, and the policy itself is, in my judgment,
indefensible. The bill at the last session for the relief of this
claimant in the case of another vessel constructed by him was, as I have
said, carefully put upon the lines I have indicated, and if this claim
could have been maintained upon, those lines I assume that the bill
would have been similar in its provisions.

BENJ. HARRISON.



PROCLAMATIONS.


BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas satisfactory proof has been presented to me that provision has
been made for adequate grounds and buildings for the uses of the World's
Columbian Exposition, and that a sum not less than $10,000,000, to be
used and expended for the purposes of said exposition, has been provided
in accordance with the conditions and requirements of section 10 of
an act entitled "An act to provide for celebrating the four hundredth
anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus by
holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures,
and the products of the soil, mine, and sea, in the city of Chicago,
in the State of Illinois," approved April 25, 1890:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, by
virtue of the authority vested in me by said act, do hereby declare and
proclaim that such international exhibition will be opened on the 1st
day of May, in the year 1893, in the city of Chicago, in the State of
Illinois, and will not be closed before the last Thursday in October of
the same year. And in the name of the Government and of the people of
the United States I do hereby invite all the nations of the earth to
take part in the commemoration of an event that is preeminent in human
history and of lasting interest to mankind by appointing representatives
thereto and sending such exhibits to the World's Columbian Exposition as
will most fitly and fully illustrate their resources, their industries,
and their progress in civilization.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 24th day of December, 1890, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the Secretary of State of the United
States of America communicated to the Government of the United States of
Brazil the action of the Congress of the United States of America, with
a view to secure reciprocal trade, in declaring the articles enumerated
in said section 3, to wit, sugars, molasses, coffee, and hides, to be
exempt from duty upon their importation into the United States of
America; and

Whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Brazil
at Washington has communicated to the Secretary of State the fact that,
in due reciprocity for and in consideration of the admission into the
United States of America free of all duty of the articles enumerated in
section 3 of said act, the Government of Brazil has by legal enactment
authorized the admission, from and after April 1, 1891, into all the
established ports of entry of Brazil, free of all duty, whether
national, state, or municipal, of the articles or merchandise named in
the following schedule, provided that the same be the product and
manufacture of the United States of America:


  1.--SCHEDULE OF ARTICLES TO BE ADMITTED FREE INTO BRAZIL.

  Wheat.
  Wheat flour.
  Corn or maize and the manufactures thereof, including corn meal and
    starch.
  Rye, rye flour, buckwheat, buckwheat flour, and barley.
  Potatoes, beans, and pease.
  Hay and oats.
  Pork, salted, including pickled pork and bacon, except hams.
  Fish, salted, dried, or pickled.
  Cotton-seed oil.
  Coal, anthracite and bituminous.
  Rosin, tar, pitch, and turpentine.
  Agricultural tools, implements, and machinery.
  Mining and mechanical tools, implements, and machinery, including
    stationary and portable engines and all machinery for manufacturing
  and industrial purposes, except sewing machines.
  Instruments and books for the arts and sciences.
  Railway construction material and equipment.


And that the Government of Brazil has by legal enactment further
authorized the admission into all the established ports of entry of
Brazil, with a reduction of 25 per cent of the duty designated on the
respective article in the tariff now in force or which may hereafter
be adopted in the United States of Brazil, whether national, state,
or municipal, of the articles or merchandise named in the following
schedule, provided that the same be the product or manufacture of the
United States of America:

  2.--SCHEDULE OF ARTICLES TO BE ADMITTED INTO BRAZIL, WITH A REDUCTION
  OF DUTY OF 25 PER CENT.

  Lard and substitutes therefor.
  Bacon hams.
  Butter and cheese.
  Canned and preserved meats, fish, fruits, and vegetables.
  Manufactures of cotton, including cotton clothing.
  Manufactures of iron and steel, single or mixed, not included in the
    foregoing free schedule.
  Leather and the manufactures thereof, except boots and shoes.
  Lumber, timber, and the manufactures of wood, including cooperage,
    furniture of all kinds, wagons, carts, and carriages.
  Manufactures of rubber.


And that the Government of Brazil has further provided that the laws
and regulations adopted to protect its revenue and prevent fraud in the
declarations and proof that the articles named in the foregoing schedules
are the product or manufacture of the United States of America shall
place no undue restrictions on the importer nor impose any additional
charges or fees therefor on the articles imported;

And whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given assurance
to the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Brazil at
Washington that this action of the Government of Brazil in granting
exemption of duties to the products and manufactures of the United
States of America is accepted as a due reciprocity for the action of
Congress as set forth in section 3 of said act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff law of Brazil to be made public for the information of the
citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 5th day of February, 1891, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of an act approved March 3, 1891,
entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for other
purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set apart
  and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservations and limits thereof.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, by
virtue of the power in me vested, do hereby make known and proclaim that
there has been and is hereby reserved from entry or settlement and set
apart for a public forest reservation all that tract of land situate in
the State of Wyoming contained within the following-described
boundaries:

Beginning at a point on the parallel of 44° 50' where said parallel is
intersected by the meridian of 110° west longitude; thence due east
along said parallel to the meridian of 109° 30' west longitude; thence
due south along said meridian to the forty-fourth parallel of north
latitude; thence due west along said parallel to its point of
intersection with the west boundary of the State of Wyoming; thence due
north along said boundary line to its intersection with the south
boundary of the Yellowstone National Park.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or make
settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 30th day of March, A.D.1891, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

The following provisions of the laws of the United States are hereby
published for the information of all concerned:

Section 1956, Revised Statutes, chapter 3, Title XXIII, enacts that--

  No person shall kill any otter, mink, marten, sable, or fur seal, or
  other fur-bearing animal within the limits of Alaska Territory or in
  the waters thereof; and every person guilty thereof shall for each
  offense be fined not less than $200 nor more than $1,000, or imprisoned
  not more than six months, or both; and all vessels, their tackle,
  apparel, furniture, and cargo, found engaged in violation of this
  section shall be forfeited; but the Secretary of the Treasury shall
  have power to authorize the killing of any such mink, marten, sable, or
  other fur-bearing animal, except fur seals, under such regulations as
  he may prescribe; and it shall be the duty of the Secretary to prevent
  the killing of any fur seal and to provide for the execution of the
  provisions of this section until it is otherwise provided by law, nor
  shall he grant any special privileges under this section.

       *       *       *       *       *

Section 3 of the act entitled "An act to provide for the protection of
the salmon fisheries of Alaska," approved March 2, 1889, provides that--

  SEC. 3. That section 1956 of the Revised Statutes of the United States
  is hereby declared to include and apply to all the dominion of the
  United States in the waters of Bering Sea, and it shall be the duty
  of the President at a timely season in each year to issue his
  proclamation, and cause the same to be published for one month in at
  least one newspaper (if any such there be) published at each United
  States port of entry on the Pacific coast, warning all persons against
  entering such waters for the purpose of violating the provisions of
  said section, and he shall also cause one or more vessels of the United
  States to diligently cruise said waters and arrest all persons and
  seize all vessels found to be or to have been engaged in any violation
  of the laws of the United States therein.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
pursuant to the above-recited statutes, hereby warn all persons against
entering the waters of Bering Sea within the dominion of the United
States for the purpose of violating the provisions of said section 1956,
Revised Statutes; and I hereby proclaim that all persons found to be or
to have been engaged in any violation of the laws of the United States
in said waters will be arrested and punished as above provided, and that
all vessels so employed, their tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargoes,
will be seized and forfeited.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 4th day of April, 1891, and of the
Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to an act of Congress approved May 15, 1886, entitled
"An act making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses
of the Indian Department and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with
various tribes for the year ending June 30, 1887, and for other
purposes," an agreement was entered into on the 14th day of December,
1886, by John V. Wright, Jared W. Daniels, and Charles F. Larrabee,
commissioners on the part of the United States, and the Arickaree, Gros
Ventre, and Mandan tribes of Indians, residing on the Fort Berthold
Reservation, in the then Territory of Dakota, now State of North Dakota,
embracing a majority of all the male adult members of said tribes; and

Whereas by an act of Congress approved March 3, 1891, entitled "An act
making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the
Indian Department and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with various
Indian tribes for the year ending June 30, 1892, and for other
purposes," the aforesaid agreement of December 14, 1886, was accepted,
ratified, and confirmed, except as to article 6 thereof, which was
modified and changed on the part of the United States so as to read
as follows:

  That the residue of lands within said diminished reservation, after all
  allotments have been made as provided in article 3 of this agreement,
  shall be held by the said tribes of Indians as a reservation.


And whereas it is provided in said last above-mentioned act--

  That this act shall take effect only upon the acceptance of the
  modification and changes made by the United States as to article 6 of
  the said agreement by the said tribes of Indians in manner and form as
  said agreement was assented to, which said acceptance and consent shall
  be made known by proclamation by the President of the United States,
  upon satisfactory proof presented to him that the said acceptance and
  consent have been obtained in such manner and form.


And whereas satisfactory proof has been presented to me that the
acceptance of and consent to the provisions of the act last named by
the different bands of Indians residing on said reservation have been
obtained in manner and form as said agreement of December 14, 1886,
was assented to:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, by
virtue of the power in me vested, do hereby make known and proclaim the
acceptance of and consent to the modification and changes made by the
United States as to article 6 of said agreement by said tribe of Indians
as required by the act, and said act is hereby declared to be in full
force and effect, subject to all provisions, conditions, limitations,
and restrictions therein contained.

All persons will take notice of the provisions of said act and of the
conditions and restrictions therein contained, and be governed
accordingly.

I furthermore notify all persons to particularly observe that
a certain portion of the said Fort Berthold Reservation not ceded and
relinquished by said agreement is reserved for allotment to, and also
as a reservation for, the said tribes of Indians; and all persons are
therefore hereby warned not to go upon any of the lands so reserved for
any purpose or with any intent whatsoever, as no settlement or other
rights can be secured upon said lands, and all persons found unlawfully
thereon will be dealt with as trespassers and intruders; and I hereby
declare all the lands sold, ceded, and relinquished to the United States
under said agreement, namely, "all that portion of the Fort Berthold
Reservation, as laid down upon the official map of the" (then)
"Territory of Dakota published by the General Land Office in the year
1885, lying north of the forty-eighth parallel of north latitude, and
also all that portion lying west of a north and south line 6 miles west
of the most westerly point of the big bend of the Missouri River, south
of the forty-eighth parallel of north latitude," open to settlement and
subject to disposal as provided in section 25 of the act of March 3,
1891, aforesaid (26 U.S. Statutes at Large, p. 1035).

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 20th day of May, A.D. 1891, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas an agreement for a _modus vivendi_ between the Government of the
United States and the Government of Her Britannic Majesty in relation to
the fur-seal fisheries in Bering Sea was concluded on the 15th day of
June, A.D. 1891, word for word as follows:


  AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE GOVERNMENT
  OF HER BRITANNIC MAJESTY FOR A MODUS VIVENDI IN RELATION TO THE FUR-SEAL
  FISHERIES IN BERING SEA.

  For the purpose of avoiding irritating differences and with a view to
  promote the friendly settlement of the questions pending between the two
  Governments touching their respective rights in Bering Sea, and for the
  preservation of the seal species, the following agreement is made
  without prejudice to the rights or claims of either party:

  (1) Her Majesty's Government will prohibit until May next seal killing
  in that part of Bering Sea lying eastward of the line of demarcation
  described in article No. 1 of the treaty of 1867 between the United
  States and Russia, and will promptly use its best efforts to insure the
  observance of this prohibition by British subjects and vessels.

  (2) The United States Government will prohibit seal killing for the same
  period in the same part of Bering Sea and on the shores and islands
  thereof the property of the United States (in excess of 7,500 to be
  taken on the islands for the subsistence and care of the natives), and
  will promptly use its best efforts to insure the observance of this
  prohibition by United States citizens and vessels.

  (3) Every vessel or person offending against this prohibition in the
  said waters of Bering Sea outside of the ordinary territorial limits of
  the United States may be seized and detained by the naval or other duly
  commissioned officers of either of the high contracting parties, but
  they shall be handed over as soon as practicable to the authorities of
  the nation to which they respectively belong, who shall alone have
  jurisdiction to try the offense and impose the penalties for the same.
  The witnesses and proofs necessary to establish the offense shall also
  be sent with them.

  (4) In order to facilitate such proper inquiries as Her Majesty's
  Government may desire to make with a view to the presentation of the
  case of that Government before arbitrators, and in expectation that an
  agreement for arbitration may be arrived at, it is agreed that suitable
  persons designated by Great Britain will be permitted at any time, upon
  application, to visit or to remain upon the seal islands during the
  present sealing season for that purpose.

  Signed and sealed in duplicate at Washington, this 15th day of June,
  1891, on behalf of their respective Governments, by William F. Wharton,
  Acting Secretary of State of the United States, and Sir Julian
  Pauncefote, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., H.B.M. envoy extraordinary and minister
  plenipotentiary.

  WILLIAM F. WHARTON. [SEAL.]

  JULIAN PAUNCEFOTE. [SEAL.]


Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the said agreement to be made
public, to the end that the same and every part thereof may be observed
and fulfilled with good faith by the United States of America and the
citizens thereof.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of June, A.D. 1891, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 13 of the act of Congress of March 3,
1891, entitled "An act to amend Title LX, chapter 3, of the Revised
Statutes of the United States, relating to copyrights," that said act
"shall only apply to a citizen or a subject of a foreign state or nation
when such foreign state or nation permits to citizens of the United
States of America the benefit of copyright on substantially the same
basis as its own citizens, or when such foreign state or nation is a
party to an international agreement which provides for reciprocity in
the granting of copyright, by the terms of which agreement the United
States of America may at its pleasure become a party to such agreement;"
and

Whereas it is also provided by said section that "the existence of
either of the conditions aforesaid shall be determined by the President
of the United States by proclamation made from time to time as the
purposes of this act may require;" and

Whereas satisfactory official assurances have been given that in
Belgium, France, Great Britain and the British possessions, and
Switzerland the law permits to citizens of the United States the benefit
of copyright on substantially the same basis as to the citizens of those
countries:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States
of America, do declare and proclaim that the first of the conditions
specified in section 13 of the act of March 3, 1891, is now fulfilled in
respect to the citizens or subjects of Belgium, France, Great Britain,
and Switzerland.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 1st day of July, 1891, and of the
Independence of the United States the one hundred and fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the Secretary of State of the United
States of America communicated to the Government of Spain the action
of the Congress of the United States of America, with a view to secure
reciprocal trade, in declaring the articles enumerated in said section
3, to wit, sugars, molasses, coffee, and hides, to be exempt from duty
upon their importation into the United States of America; and

Whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Spain at
Washington has communicated to the Secretary of State the fact that, in
reciprocity and compensation for the admission into the United States of
America free of all duty of the articles enumerated in section 3 of said
act, the Government of Spain will by due legal enactment and as a
provisional measure admit, from and after September 1, 1891, into all
the established ports of entry of the Spanish islands of Cuba and Puerto
Rico the articles or merchandise named in the following transitory
schedule, on the terms stated therein, provided that the same be the
product or manufacture of the United States and proceed directly from
the ports of said States:


  TRANSITORY SCHEDULE.

  Products or manufactures of the United States to be admitted into Cuba
  and Puerto Rico free of duties:

   1. Meats, in brine, salted or smoked, bacon, hams, and meats preserved
      in cans, in lard or by extraction of air, jerked beef excepted.

   2. Lard.

   3. Tallow and other animal greases, melted or crude, unmanufactured.

   4. Fish and shellfish, live, fresh, dried, in brine, smoked, pickled,
      oysters and salmon in cans.

   5. Oats, barley, rye, and buckwheat, and flour of these cereals.

   6. Starch, maizena, and other alimentary products of corn, except corn
      meal.

   7. Cotton seed, oil and meal cake of said seed for cattle.

   8. Hay, straw for forage, and bran.

   9. Fruits, fresh, dried, and preserved, except raisins.

  10. Vegetables and garden products, fresh and dried.

  11. Resin of pine, tar, pitch, and turpentine.

  12. Woods of all kinds, in trunks or logs, joists, rafters, planks,
      beams, boards, round or cylindric masts, although cut, planed, and
      tongued and grooved, including flooring.

  13. Woods for cooperage, including staves, headings, and wooden hoops.

  14. Wooden boxes, mounted or unmounted, except of cedar.

  15. Woods, ordinary, manufactured into doors, frames, windows, and
      shutters, without paint or varnish, and wooden houses, unmounted,
      without paint or varnish.

  16. Wagons and carts for ordinary roads and agriculture.

  17. Sewing machines.

  18. Petroleum, raw or unrefined, according to the classification fixed
      in the existing orders for the importation of this article in said
      islands.

  19. Coal, mineral.

  20. Ice.

  Products or manufactures of the United States to be admitted into Cuba
  and Puerto Rico on payment of the duties stated:

  21. Corn or maize, 25 cents per 100 kilograms.

  22. Corn meal, 25 cents per 100 kilograms.

  23. Wheat, from January 1, 1892, 30 cents per 100 kilograms.

  24. Wheat flour, from January 1, 1892, $1 per 100 kilograms.

  Products or manufactures of the United States to be admitted into Cuba
  and Puerto Rico at a reduction of duty of 25 per cent:

  25. Butter and cheese.

  26. Petroleum, refined.

  27. Boots and shoes in whole or in part of leather or skins.


And whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of
Spain in Washington has further communicated to the Secretary of State
that the Government of Spain will in like manner and as a definitive
arrangement admit, from and after July 1, 1892, into all the established
ports of, entry of the Spanish islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico the
articles or merchandise named in the following schedules A, B, C, and D,
on the terms stated therein, provided that the same be the product or
manufacture of the United States and proceed directly from the ports of
said States:


  SCHEDULE A.

  Products or manufactures of the United States to be admitted into Cuba
  and Puerto Rico free of duties:

   1. Marble, jasper, and alabaster, natural or artificial, in rough or
      in pieces, dressed, squared, and prepared for taking shape.

   2. Other stones and earthy matters, including cement, employed in
      building, the arts and industries.

   3. Waters, mineral or medicinal.

   4. Ice.

   5. Coal, mineral.

   6. Resin, tar, pitch, turpentine, asphalt, schist, and bitumen.

   7. Petroleum, raw or crude, in accordance with the classification
      fixed in the tariff of said islands.

   8. Clay, ordinary, in paving tiles, large and small, bricks, and roof
      tiles unglazed, for the construction of buildings, ovens, and other
      similar purposes.

   9. Gold and silver coin.

  10. Iron, cast, in pigs, and old iron and steel.

  11. Iron, cast, in pipes, beams, rafters, and similar articles for
      the construction of buildings and in ordinary manufactures.
      (See repertory.)

  12. Iron, wrought, and steel, in bars, rails and bars of all kinds,
      plates, beams, rafters, and other similar articles for construction
      of buildings.

  13. Iron, wrought, and steel, in wire, nails, screws, nuts, and pipes.

  14. Iron, wrought, and steel, in ordinary manufactures, and wire cloth
      unmanufactured. (See repertory.)

  15. Cotton, raw, with or without seed.

  16. Cotton seed, oil and meal cake of same for cattle.

  17. Tallow and all other animal greases, melted or crude,
      unmanufactured.

  18. Books and pamphlets, printed, bound and unbound.

  19. Woods of all kinds, in trunks or logs, joists, rafters, planks,
      beams, boards, and round or cylindric masts, although cut, planed,
      tongued and grooved, including flooring.

  20. Wooden cooperage, including staves, headings, and wooden hoops.

  21. Wooden boxes, mounted or unmounted, except of cedar.

  22. Woods, ordinary, manufactured into doors, frames, windows, and
      shutters, without paint or varnish, and wooden houses, unmounted,
      without paint or varnish.

  23. Woods, ordinary, manufactured into all kinds of articles, turned or
      unturned, painted or varnished, except furniture. (See repertory.)

  24. Manures, natural or artificial.

  25. Implements, utensils, and tools for agriculture, the arts, and
      mechanical trades.

  26. Machines and apparatus, agricultural, motive, industrial, and
      scientific, of all classes and materials, and loose pieces for the
      same, including wagons, carts, and handcarts for ordinary roads
      and agriculture.

  27. Material and articles for public works, such as railroads,
      tramways, roads, canals for irrigation and navigation, use of
      waters, ports, light-houses, and civil construction of general
      utility, when introduced by authorization of the Government or if
      free admission is obtained in accordance with local laws.

  28. Materials of all classes for the construction, repair in whole or
      in part of vessels, subject to specific regulations to avoid abuse
      in the importation.

  29. Meats, in brine, salted and smoked, including bacon, hams, and
      meats preserved in cans, in lard or by extraction of air, jerked
      beef excepted.

  30. Lard and butter.

  31. Cheese.

  32. Fish and shellfish, live, fresh, dried, in brine, salted, smoked,
      and pickled, oysters and salmon in cans.

  33. Oats, barley, rye, and buckwheat, and flour of these cereals.

  34. Starch, maizena, and other alimentary products of corn, except corn
      meal.

  35. Fruits, fresh, dried, and preserved, except raisins.

  36. Vegetables and garden products, fresh and dried.

  37. Hay, straw for forage, and bran.

  38. Trees, plants, shrubs, and garden seeds.

  39. Tan bark.


  SCHEDULE B.

  Products or manufactures of the United States to be admitted into Cuba
  and Puerto Rico on payment of the duties stated:

  40. Corn or maize, 25 cents per 100 kilograms.

  41. Corn meal, 25 cents per 100 kilograms.

  42. Wheat, 30 cents per 100 kilograms.

  43. Wheat flour, $1 per 100 kilograms.

  44. Carriages, cars and other vehicles for railroads or tramways,
      where authorization of the Government for free admission has not
      been obtained, 1 per cent _ad valorem_.


  SCHEDULE C.

  Products or manufactures of the United States to be admitted into Cuba
  and Puerto Rico at a reduction of duty of 50 per cent:

  45. Marble, jasper, and alabaster of all kinds, cut into flags, slabs,
      or steps, and the same worked or carved in all kinds of articles,
      polished or not.

  46. Glass and crystal ware, plate and window glass, and the same
      silvered, quicksilvered, and platinized.

  47. Clay in tiles, large and small, and mosaic for pavement, colored
      tiles, roof tiles glazed, and pipes.

  48. Stoneware and fine earthenware, and porcelain.

  49. Iron, cast, in fine manufactures or those polished, with coating of
      porcelain or part of other metals. (See repertory.)

  50. Iron, wrought, and steel, in axles, tires, springs, and wheels for
      carriages, rivets and their washers.

  51. Iron, wrought, and steel, in fine manufactures or those polished,
      with coating of porcelain or part of other metals, not expressly
      comprised in other numbers of these schedules, and platform scales
      for weighing. (See repertory.)

  52. Needles, pens, knives (table and carving), razors, penknives,
      scissors, pieces for watches, and other similar articles of iron
      and steel.

  53. Tin plate in sheets or manufactured.

  54. Copper, bronze, brass, and nickel, and alloys of same with common
      metals, in lump or bars, and all manufactures of the same.

  55. All other common metals and alloys of the same, in lump or bars,
      and all manufactures of the same, plain, varnished, gilt, silvered,
      or nickeled.

  56. Furniture of all kinds, of wood or metal, including school
      furniture, blackboards, and other materials for schools, and all
      kinds of articles of fine woods not expressly comprised in other
      numbers of these schedules. (See repertory.)

  57. Rushes, esparto, vegetable hair, broom corn, willow, straw, palm,
      and other similar materials, manufactured into articles of all
      kinds.

  58. Pastes for soups, rice flour, bread and crackers, and alimentary
      farinas not comprised in other numbers of these schedules.

  59. Preserved alimentary substances and canned goods not comprised in
      other numbers of these schedules, including sausages, stuffed
      meats, mustards, sauces, pickles, jams, and jellies.

  60. Rubber and gutta-percha and manufactures thereof, alone or mixed
      with other substances (except silk), and oilcloths and tarpaulin.

  61. Rice, hulled or unhulled.


  SCHEDULE D.

  Products or manufactures of the United States to be admitted into Cuba
  and Puerto Rico at a reduction of duty of 25 per cent:

  62. Petroleum, refined, and benzine.

  63. Cotton, manufactured, spun or twisted, and in goods of all kinds,
      woven or knit, and the same mixed with other vegetable or animal
      fibers in which cotton is an equal or greater component part, and
      clothing exclusively of cotton.

  64. Rope, cordage, and twine of all kinds.

  65. Colors, crude and prepared, with or without oil, inks of all kinds,
      shoe blacking, and varnishes.

  66. Soap, toilet, and perfumery.

  67. Medicines, proprietary or patent and all others, and drugs.

  68. Stearine and tallow manufactured in candles.

  69. Paper for printing, for decorating rooms, of wood or straw, for
      wrapping and packing, and bags and boxes of same, sandpaper and
      pasteboard.

  70. Leather and skins, tanned, dressed, varnished, or japanned, of all
      kinds, including sole leather or belting.

  71. Boots and shoes in whole or in part of leather or skins.

  72. Trunks, valises, traveling bags, portfolios, and other similar
      articles in whole or in part of leather.

  73. Harness and saddlery of all kinds.

  74. Watches and clocks of gold, silver, or other metals, with cases of
      stone, wood, or other material, plain or ornamented.

  75. Carriages of two or four wheels and pieces of the same.


It is understood that flour which on its exportation from the United
States has been favored with drawbacks shall not share in the foregoing
reduction of duty.

The provisional arrangement as set forth in the transitory schedule
shall come to an end on July 1, 1892, and on that date be substituted by
the definitive arrangement as set forth in schedules A, B, C, and D.

And that the Government of Spain has further provided that the laws
and regulations adopted to protect its revenue and prevent fraud in
the declarations and proof that the articles named in the foregoing
schedules are the product or manufacture of the United States of America
shall place no undue restrictions on the importer nor impose any
additional charges or fees therefor on the articles imported; and

Whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given assurance
to the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Spain at
Washington that this action of the Government of Spain in granting
exemption of duties to the products and manufactures of the United
States of America on their importation into Cuba and Puerto Rico is
accepted for those islands as a due reciprocity for the action of
Congress as set forth in section 3 of said act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of Cuba and Puerto Rico to be made public for the
information of the citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 31st day of July, 1891, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the Secretary of State of the United
States of America communicated to the Government of the Dominican
Republic the action of the Congress of the United States of America,
with a view to secure reciprocal trade, in declaring the articles
enumerated in said section 3, to wit, sugars, molasses, coffee, and
hides, to be exempt from duty upon their importation into the United
States of America; and

Whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the
Dominican Republic at Washington has communicated to the special
plenipotentiary of the United States the fact that, in reciprocity and
compensation for the admission into the United States of America free
of all duty of the articles enumerated in section 3 of said act, the
Government of the Dominican Republic will by due legal enactment admit,
from and after September 1, 1891, into all the established ports of
entry of the Dominican Republic the articles or merchandise named in the
following schedules, on the terms stated therein, provided that the same
be the product or manufacture of the United States and proceed directly
from the ports of said States:


  SCHEDULE A.

  Articles to be admitted free of duty into the Dominican Republic:

   1. Animals, live.

   2. Meats of all kinds, salted or in brine, but not smoked.

   3. Corn or maize, corn meal, and starch.

   4. Oats, barley, rye, and buckwheat, and flour of these cereals.

   5. Hay, bran, and straw for forage.

   6. Trees, plants, vines, and seeds, and grains of all kinds for
      propagation.

   7. Cotton-seed oil and meal cake of same.

   8. Tallow, in cake or melted, and oil for machinery, subject to
      examination and proof respecting the use of said oil.

   9. Resin, tar, pitch, and turpentine.

  10. Manures, natural and artificial.

  11. Coal, mineral.

  12. Mineral waters, natural and artificial.

  13. Ice.

  14. Machines, including steam engines and those of all other kinds,
      and parts of the same, implements and tools for agricultural,
      mining, manufacturing, industrial, and scientific purposes,
      including carts, wagons, handcarts, and wheelbarrows, and parts
      of the same.

  15. Material for the construction and equipment of railways.

  16. Iron, cast and wrought, and steel, in pigs, bars, rods, plates,
      beams, rafters, and other similar articles for the construction
      of buildings, and in wire, nails, screws, and pipes.

  17. Zinc, galvanized and corrugated iron, tin and lead in sheets,
      asbestus, tar paper, tiles, slate, and other material for roofing.

  18. Copper in bars, plates, nails, and screws.

  19. Copper and lead pipe.

  20. Bricks, fire bricks, cement, lime, artificial stone, paving tiles,
      marble and other stones in rough, dressed or polished, and other
      earthy materials used in building.

  21. Windmills.

  22. Wire, plain or barbed, for fences, with hooks, staples, nails, and
      similar articles used in the construction of fences.

  23. Telegraph wire and telegraphic, telephonic, and electrical
      apparatus of all kinds for communication and illumination.


  24. Wood and lumber of all kinds for building, in logs or pieces,
      beams, rafters, planks, boards, shingles, flooring, joists,
      wooden houses, mounted or unmounted, and accessory parts of
      buildings.

  25. Cooperage of all kinds, including staves, headings, and hoops,
      barrels and boxes, mounted or unmounted.

  26. Materials for shipbuilding.

  27. Boats and lighters.

  28. School furniture, blackboards, and other articles exclusively for
      the use of schools.

  29. Books, bound or unbound, pamphlets, newspapers and printed matter,
      and paper for printing newspapers.

  30. Printers' inks of all colors, type, leads, and all accessories for
      printing.

  31. Sacks, empty, for packing sugar.

  32. Gold and silver coin and bullion.


  SCHEDULE B.

  Articles to be admitted into the Dominican Republic at a reduction of
  duty of 25 per cent:

  33. Meats not included in Schedule A and meat products of all kinds
      except lard.

  34. Butter, cheese, and condensed or canned milk.

  35. Fish and shellfish, salted, dried, smoked, pickled, or preserved
      in cans.

  36. Fruits and vegetables, fresh, canned, dried, pickled, or preserved.

  37. Manufactures of iron and steel, single or mixed, not included in
      Schedule A.

  38. Cotton, manufactured, spun or twisted, and in fabrics of all kinds,
      woven or knit, and the same fabrics mixed with other vegetable or
      animal fibers in which cotton is the equal or greater component
      part.

  39. Boots and shoes in whole or in part of leather or skins.

  40. Paper for writing, in envelopes, ruled or blank books, wall paper,
      paper for wrapping and packing, for cigarettes, in cardboard,
      boxes, and bags, sandpaper and pasteboard.

  41. Tin plate and tinware for arts, industries, and domestic uses.

  42. Cordage, rope, and twine of all kinds.

  43. Manufactures of wood of all kinds not embraced in Schedule A,
      including wooden ware, implements for household use, and
      furniture in whole or in part of wood.


And that the Government of the Dominican Republic has further provided
that the laws and regulations adopted to protect its revenue and prevent
fraud in the declarations and proof that the articles named in the
foregoing schedules are the product or manufacture of the United States
of America shall place no undue restrictions on the importer nor impose
any additional charges or fees therefor on the articles imported; and

Whereas the special plenipotentiary of the United States has, by my
direction, given assurance to the envoy extraordinary and minister
plenipotentiary of the Dominican Republic at Washington that this action
of the Government of the Dominican Republic in granting exemption of
duties to the products and manufactures of the United States of America
on their importation into the Dominican Republic is accepted as a due
reciprocity for the action of Congress as set forth in section 3 of said
act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of the Dominican Republic to be made public for the
information of the citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 1st day of August, 1891, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of an act approved March 3, 1891,
entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for other
purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set
  apart and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservations and limits thereof.


And whereas the lands hereinafter described are public and forest
bearing, and on the 30th of March last I issued a proclamation[17]
intended to reserve the same as authorized in said act, but as some
question has arisen as to the boundaries proclaimed being sufficiently
definite to cover the forests intended to be reserved:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
for the purpose of removing any doubt and making the boundaries of said
reservation more definite, by virtue of the power in me vested by said
act, do hereby issue this my second proclamation and hereby set apart,
reserve, and establish as a public reservation all that tract of land
situate in the State of Wyoming embraced within the following boundary:

  Beginning at a point on the parallel of 44° 50' north latitude where
  said parallel is intersected by the east boundary of the Yellowstone
  National Park; thence due east along said parallel 24-1/2 miles; thence
  due south to the parallel of 44° north latitude; thence due west along
  said parallel to its point of intersection with the west boundary of
  the State of Wyoming; thence due north along said boundary to its
  intersection with the south boundary of the Yellowstone National Park;
  thence due east along the south boundary of said park to the southeast
  corner thereof; thence due north along the east boundary of said park
  to the place of beginning.


And warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or
make settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 10th day of September, A.D. 1891,
and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
fifteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 17: See pp. 142-143.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a written agreement made on the 12th day of June, 1890, the
Sac and Fox Nation of Indians, in the Territory of Oklahoma, ceded and
conveyed to the United States of America all title or interest of said
Indians in and to the lands particularly described in Article I of the
agreement, except the quarter section of land on which the Sac and Fox
Agency is located, and provided that the section of land now designated
and set apart near the Sac and Fox Agency for a school and farm shall
not be subject either to allotment or to homestead entry; that every
citizen of said nation shall have an allotment of land in quantity as
therein stated, to be selected within the tract of country so ceded,
except in sections 16 and 36 in each Congressional township, and except
the agency quarter section and section set apart for school and farm,
as above mentioned, or other lands selected in lieu thereof; that when
the allotments to the citizens of the Sac and Fox Nation are made the
Secretary of the Interior shall cause trust patents to issue therefor in
the name of the allottees, and that as soon as such allotments are so
made and approved by the Department of the Interior, and the patents
provided for are issued, then the residue of said tract of country
shall, as far as said Sac and Fox Nation is concerned, become public
lands of the United States, and, under such restrictions as may be
imposed by law, be subject to white settlement; and

Whereas by a certain other agreement with the Iowa tribe of Indians
residing on the Iowa Reservation, in said Territory, made on the 20th
day of May, 1890, said tribe surrendered and relinquished to the United
States all their title and interest in and to the lands of said Indians
in said Territory, and particularly described in Article I of said
agreement, and provided that each and every member of said tribe shall
have an allotment of 80 acres of land upon said reservation, and upon
the approval of such allotments by the Secretary of the Interior that
trust patents shall be issued therefor, and that there shall be excepted
from the operation of said agreement a tract of land not exceeding
10 acres, in a square form, including the church and schoolhouse and
graveyard at or near the Iowa village, which shall belong to said Iowa
tribe of Indians in common, subject to the conditions and limitations
in said agreement expressed; that the chief of the Iowas may select an
additional 10 acres, in a square form, for the use of said tribe in said
reservation, conforming in boundaries to the legal subdivisions of land
therein, which shall be held by said tribe in common, subject to the
conditions and limitations as expressed in relation thereto; and

Whereas it is provided-in the act of Congress approved February 13,
1891 (26 U.S. Statutes at Large, pp. 758, 759), section 7, accepting,
ratifying, and confirming said agreements with the Sac and Fox Nation
of Indians and the Iowa tribe of Indians--

  That whenever any of the lands acquired by the agreements in this act
  ratified and confirmed shall by operation of law or proclamation of
  the President of the United States be open to settlement they shall
  be disposed of to actual settlers only, under the provisions of the
  homestead laws, except section 2301, which shall not apply: _Provided,
  however_, That each settler under and in accordance with the provisions
  of said homestead laws shall before receiving a patent for his homestead
  pay to the United States for the land so taken by him, in addition to
  the fees provided by law, the sum of $1.25 for each acre thereof; and
  such person, having complied with all the laws relating to such
  homestead settlement, may at his option receive a patent therefor at the
  expiration of twelve months from date of settlement upon said homestead;
  and any person otherwise qualified who has attempted to but for any
  cause failed to secure a title in fee to a homestead under existing law,
  or who made entry under what is known as the commuted provision of the
  homestead law, shall be qualified to make a homestead entry upon any of
  said lands.


And whereas by a certain other agreement with the Citizen band of
Pottawatomie Indians, in said Territory, made on the 25th day of June,
1890, the said band of Indians ceded and absolutely surrendered to the
United States all their title and interest in and to the lands in said
Territory, and particularly described in Article I of said agreement,
and provided that all allotments of land theretofore made, or then being
made, or to be made, to members of said Citizen band of Pottawatomie
Indians under the provisions of the general allotment act approved
February 8, 1887, shall be confirmed; that in all allotments to be
thereafter made no person shall have the right to select his or her
allotment in sections 16 and 36 in any Congressional township, nor upon
any land heretofore set apart in said tract of country for any use by
the United States, or for schools, school-farm, or religious purposes;
nor shall said sections 16 and 36 be subject to homestead entry, but
shall be kept and used for school purposes; nor shall any lands set
apart for any use of the United States, or for school, school-farm, or
religious purposes, be subject to homestead entry, but shall be held by
the United States for such purposes so long as the United States shall
see fit to use them; and further, that the south half of section 7
and the north half of section 18, in township 6 north, range 5 east,
theretofore set apart by a written agreement between said band of
Indians and certain Catholic fathers for religious, school, and farm
purposes, shall not be subject to allotment or homestead entry, but
shall be held by the United States for the Sacred Heart Mission, the
name under which said association of fathers are conducting the church,
school, and farm on said lands; and

Whereas by a certain agreement with the Absentee Shawnee Indians, in
said Territory, made on the 26th day of June, 1890, said last-named
Indians ceded, relinquished, and surrendered to the United States all
their title and interest in and to the lands in said Territory, and
particularly described in Article I of said agreement, provided that all
allotments of lands theretofore made, or then being made, or to be made,
to said Absentee Shawnees under the provisions of the general allotment
act approved February 8, 1887, shall be confirmed; that in all
allotments to be thereafter made no person shall have the right to
select his or her allotment in sections 16 and 36 in any Congressional
township, nor in any land heretofore set apart in said tract of country
for any use by the United States, or for school, school-farm, or
religious purposes; nor shall said sections 16 and 36 be subject to
homestead entry, but shall be held by the United States for such
purposes so long as the United States shall see fit to use them; and

Whereas it is provided in the act of Congress accepting, ratifying, and
confirming said agreements with the Citizen band of Pottawatomie Indians
and the Absentee Shawnee Indians, approved March 3, 1891 (26 U.S.
Statutes at Large, pp. 989-1044), section 16--

  That whenever any of the lands acquired by either of the * * * foregoing
  agreements respecting lands in the Indian or Oklahoma Territory shall by
  operation of law or proclamation of the President of the United States
  be open to settlement they shall be disposed of to actual settlers only,
  under the provisions of the homestead and town-site laws, except section
  2301 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, which-shall not
  apply: _Provided, however_, That each settler on said lands shall before
  making a final proof and receiving a certificate of entry pay to the
  United States for the land so taken by him, in addition to the fees
  provided by law, and within five years from the date of the first
  original entry, the sum of $1.50 per acre, one-half of which shall be
  paid within two years; but the rights of honorably discharged Union
  soldiers and sailors as defined and described in sections 2304 and 2305
  of the Revised Statutes of the United States shall not be abridged
  except as to the sum to be paid as aforesaid; and all the lands in
  Oklahoma are hereby declared to be agricultural lands, and proof of
  their nonmineral character shall not be required as a condition
  precedent to final entry.


And whereas allotments of land in severalty to said Sac and Fox Nation,
said Iowa tribe, said Citizen band of Pottawatomies, and said Absentee
Shawnee Indians have been made and approved, and provisional patents
issued therefor, in accordance with law and the provisions of the
before-mentioned agreements with them respectively, and an additional
10 acres of land has been selected for the use of said Iowa tribe, to
be held by said tribe in common, in accordance with the provisions of
supplemental Article XII of the agreement with them; and

Whereas the lands acquired by the four several agreements hereinbefore
mentioned have been divided into counties by the Secretary of the
Interior, as required by said last-mentioned act of Congress before the
same shall be open to settlement, and lands have been reserved for
county-seat purposes, as therein required; and

Whereas it is provided by act of Congress for temporary government of
Oklahoma, approved May 2, 1890, that there shall be reserved public
highways 4 rods wide between each section of land in said Territory, the
section lines being the centers of said highways, but no deduction shall
be made from cash payments from each quarter section by reason thereof;
and

Whereas all the terms, conditions, and considerations required by said
several agreements made respectively with said tribes of Indians
hereinbefore mentioned, and of the laws relating thereto, precedent
to opening said several tracts of land to settlement, have been, as
I hereby declare, provided for, paid, and complied with:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, by
virtue of the power in me vested by the statutes hereinbefore mentioned,
also an act of Congress entitled "An act making appropriations for the
current and contingent expenses of the Indian Department and fulfilling
treaty stipulations with various Indian tribes for the year ending June
30, 1890, and for other purposes," approved March 2, 1889, and by other
the laws of the United States, and by said several agreements, do hereby
declare and make known that all of the lands acquired from the Sac and
Fox Nation of Indians, the Iowa tribe of Indians, the Citizen band of
Pottawatomie Indians, and the Absentee Shawnee Indians by the four
several agreements aforesaid, saving and excepting the lands allotted
to the Indians as in said agreements provided, or otherwise reserved
in pursuance of the provisions of said agreements and the said acts of
Congress ratifying the same and other the laws relating thereto, will,
at and after the hour of 12 o'clock noon (central standard time),
Tuesday, the 22d day of this the present month of September, and not
before, be opened to settlement, under the terms of and subject to all
the conditions, limitations, reservations, and restrictions contained
in said agreements, the statutes above specified, and the laws of the
United States applicable thereto.

The lands to be so opened to settlement are for greater convenience
particularly described in the accompanying schedule, entitled "Schedule
of lands within the Sac and Fox, Iowa, Pottawatomie (and Absentee
Shawnee) reservations, in Oklahoma Territory, opened to settlement by
proclamation of the President dated September 18, 1891," and which
schedule is made a part hereof.

Each entry shall be in square form as nearly as practicable; and no
other lands in the Territory of Oklahoma are opened to settlement under
this proclamation or the agreements ratifying the same.

Notice, moreover, is hereby given that it is by law enacted that until
said lands are opened to settlement by proclamation no person shall be
permitted to enter upon and occupy the same, and no person violating
this provision shall be permitted to enter any of said lands or acquire
any right thereto. The officers of the United States will be required to
enforce this provision.

And further notice is hereby given that it has been duly ordered that
the lands in the Territory of Oklahoma mentioned and included in this
proclamation be, and the same are, attached to the Eastern and Oklahoma
land districts in said Territory, severally, as follows:


  1. All that portion of the Territory of Oklahoma commencing at the
  southwest corner of township 14 north, range 1 east; thence east on
  town line between townships 13 and 14 to the west boundary of the
  Creek country; thence north on said boundary line to the middle of main
  channel of the Cimarron River; thence up the Cimarron River, following
  the main channel thereof, to the Indian meridian; thence south on said
  meridian line to the place of beginning, is attached to the Eastern
  land district in Oklahoma Territory, the office of which is now located
  at Guthrie.

  2. All that portion of said Territory commencing at the northwest
  corner of township 13 north, range 1 east; thence south on Indian
  meridian to the North Fork of the Canadian River; thence west up said
  river to the west boundary of the Pottawatomie Indian Reservation,
  according to Merrill's survey; thence south, following the line as run
  by O.T. Morrill under his contract of September 3, 1872, to the middle
  of the main channel of the Canadian River; thence east down the main
  channel of said river to the west boundary of the Seminole Indian
  Reservation; thence north with said west boundary to the North Fork
  of the Canadian River; thence east down said North Fork to the west
  boundary of the Creek Nation; thence north with said west boundary to
  its intersection with the line between townships 13 and 14 north of the
  Indian base; thence west on town line between townships 13 and 14 north
  to the place of beginning, is attached to the Oklahoma land district in
  said Territory, the office of which is now located at Oklahoma City.


In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 18th day of September, A.D. 1891,
and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of the act of Congress approved
March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to repeal the timber-culture laws, and
for other purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set apart
  and reserve in any State or Territory having public lands bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservation and the limits thereof.


And whereas the public lands in the State of Colorado within the limits
hereinafter described are in part covered with timber, and it appears
that the public good would be promoted by setting apart and reserving
said lands as a public reservation:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by section 24 of the aforesaid act
of Congress, do hereby make known and proclaim that there is hereby
reserved from entry or settlement and set apart as a public reservation
all those certain tracts, pieces, or parcels of land lying and being
situate in the State of Colorado and particularly described as follows,
to wit:

Beginning at a point between sections three (3) and four (4) on the
north boundary of township five (5) south, range eighty-seven (87) west
of the sixth principal meridian in Colorado; thence north 12 miles;
thence east to the southeast corner of township two (2) south, range
eighty-six (86) west; thence north between ranges numbered eighty-five
(85) and eighty-six (86) west to the base line; thence west along the
base line to the southwest corner of township one (1) north, range
eighty-five (85) west; thence north between ranges numbered eighty-five
(85) and eighty-six (86) west to a point between sections thirteen (13)
and twenty-four (24) on the east boundary of township five (5) north,
range eighty-six (86) west; thence west through the middle of township
five (5) north to the center of township five (5) north, range
ninety-one (91) west; thence south to a point between sections three
(3) and four (4) on the north boundary of township two (2) north, range
ninety-one (91) west; thence west six (6) miles to a point between
sections three (3) and four (4) on the north boundary of township two
(2) north, range ninety-two (92) west; thence south to a point on the
base line between sections thirty-three (33) and thirty-four (34) of
township one (1) north, range ninety-two (92) west; thence west along
the base line to a point between sections three (3) and four (4) on the
north boundary of township one (1) south, range ninety-two (92) west;
thence south to a point between sections three (3) and four (4) on the
north boundary of township two (2) south, range ninety-two (92) west;
thence west to the northwest corner of township two (2) south, range
ninety-three (93) west; thence south to the southwest corner of township
three (3) south, range ninety-three (93) west; thence east to the
northeast corner of township four (4) south, range ninety-two (92) west;
thence south to the southeast corner of township four (4) south, range
ninety-two (92) west; thence east to the place of beginning.

Excepting from the force and effect of this proclamation all land which
may have been prior to the date hereof embraced in any valid entry or
covered by a lawful filing duly made in the proper United States land
office, and all mining claims duly located and held according to the
laws of the United States and local rules and regulations not in
conflict therewith.

_Provided_, That this exception shall not continue to apply to any
particular tract of land unless the entryman or claimant continues to
comply with the law under which the entry, filing, or location was made.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or make
settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 16th day of October, A.D. 1891, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

It is a very glad incident of the marvelous prosperity which has crowned
the year now drawing to a close that its helpful and reassuring touch
has been felt by all our people. It has been as wide as our country, and
so special that every home has felt its comforting influence. It is too
great to be the work of man's power and too particular to be the device
of his mind. To God, the beneficent and the all-wise, who makes the
labors of men to be fruitful, redeems their losses by His grace, and the
measure of whose giving is as much beyond the thoughts of man as it is
beyond his deserts, the praise and gratitude of the people of this
favored nation are justly due.

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, do hereby appoint Thursday, the 26th day of November present,
to be a day of joyful thanksgiving to God for the bounties of His
providence, for the peace in which we are permitted to enjoy them, and
for the preservation of those institutions of civil and religious
liberty which He gave our fathers the wisdom to devise and establish and
us the courage to preserve. Among the appropriate observances of the day
are rest from toil, worship in the public congregation, the renewal of
family ties about our American firesides, and thoughtful helpfulness
toward those who suffer lack of the body or of the spirit.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 13th day of November, A.D. 1891,
and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas satisfactory proof has been given to me that no tonnage or
light-house dues, or other equivalent tax or taxes, are imposed upon
vessels of the United States in the ports of the island of Tobago, one
of the British West India Islands:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 11 of the
act of Congress entitled "An act to abolish certain fees for official
services to American vessels, and to amend the laws relating to shipping
commissioners, seamen, and owners of vessels, and for other purposes,"
approved June 19, 1886, do hereby declare and proclaim that from and
after the date of this my proclamation shall be suspended the collection
of the whole of the tonnage duty which is imposed by said section of
said act upon vessels entered in the ports of the United States from any
of the ports of the island of Tobago.

_Provided_, That there shall be excluded from the benefits of the
suspension hereby declared and proclaimed the vessels of any foreign
country in whose ports the fees or dues of any kind or nature imposed on
vessels of the United States, or the import or export duties on their
cargoes, are in excess of the fees, dues, or duties imposed on the
vessels of such country or on the cargoes of such vessels; but this
proviso shall not be held to be inconsistent with the special regulation
by foreign countries of duties and other charges on their own vessels,
and the cargoes thereof, engaged in their coasting trade, or with the
existence between such countries and other states of reciprocal
stipulations founded on special conditions and equivalents, and thus not
within the treatment of American vessels under the most-favored-nation
clause in treaties between the United States and such countries.

And the suspension hereby declared and proclaimed shall continue so long
as the reciprocal exemption of vessels belonging to citizens of the
United States and their cargoes shall be continued in the said ports of
the island of Tobago and no longer.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 2d day of December, A.D. 1891, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



EXECUTIVE ORDERS.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., January 19, 1891_.

The death of George Bancroft, which occurred in the city of Washington
on Saturday, January 17, at 3.40 o'clock p.m., removes from among the
living one of the most distinguished Americans. As an expression of the
public loss and sorrow the flags of all the Executive Departments at
Washington and the public buildings in the cities through which the
funeral party is to pass will be placed at half-mast on to-morrow and
until the body of this eminent statesman, scholar, and historian shall
rest in the State that gave him to his country and to the world.

By direction of the President:

ELIJAH W. HALFORD, _Private Secretary_.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

JANUARY 26, 1891.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by adding to the
exceptions from examination therein declared the following:


  In the Department of Agriculture, in the office of the Secretary,
  division of illustration and engraving: One artist.


BENJ. HARRISON.



DEPARTMENT OF STATE, _Washington, January 30, 1891_.


SIR:[18] The Hon. William Windom, Secretary of the Treasury of the
United States, died suddenly last night, in the city of New York, at the
hour of eleven minutes past 10 o'clock, in the sixty-fourth year of his
age. Thus has passed away a man of pure life, an official of stainless
integrity, distinguished by long and eminent service in both branches of
Congress and by being twice called to administer the national finances.
His death has caused deep regret throughout the country, while to the
President and those associated with him in the administration of the
Government it comes as a personal sorrow.

The President directs that all the Departments of the executive brand of
the Government and the officers subordinate thereto shall manifest due
respect to the memory of this eminent citizen in a manner consonant with
the dignity of the office which he has honored by his devotion to public
duty.

The President further directs that the Treasury Department in all its
branches in this capital be draped in mourning for the period of thirty
days, that on the day of the funeral the several Executive Departments
shall be closed, and that on all public buildings throughout the United
States the national flag shall be displayed at half-mast.

Very respectfully,

JAMES G. BLAINE.

[Footnote 18: Addressed to the heads of the Executive Departments, etc.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 13, 1891_.

_To the Heads of the Executive Departments_:

In token of respect to the memory of Admiral David D. Porter, who died
this morning, the President directs that the national flag be displayed
at half-mast upon all public buildings throughout the United States
until after his funeral shall have taken place, and that on the day of
the funeral public business in the Departments at Washington be
suspended.

E.W. HALFORD, _Private Secretary_.



GENERAL ORDERS NO. 16.

HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
    _Washington, February 14, 1891_.

I. The following order of the War Department is published to the Army:

  WAR DEPARTMENT, _Washington, February 14, 1891_.

  The death of General Sherman is hereby announced in the fitting words
  of the President in his message to Congress:

  [For message see p. 135.]


The following Executive order will be published to the Army:


  EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., February 14, 1891_.

  It is my painful duty to announce to the country that General William
  Tecumseh Sherman died this day at 1 o'clock and 50 minutes p.m., at his
  residence in the city of New York. The Secretary of War will cause the
  highest military honors to be paid to the memory of this distinguished
  officer. The national flag will be floated at half-mast over all public
  buildings until after the burial, and the public business will be
  suspended in the Executive Departments at the city of Washington and in
  the city where the interment takes place on the day of the funeral and
  in all places where public expression is given to the national sorrow
  during such hours as will enable every officer and employee to
  participate therein with their fellow-citizens.

  BENJ. HARRISON.


The Major-General Commanding will issue the necessary orders to the
Army.

_It is ordered_, That the War Department be draped in mourning for the
period of thirty days, and that all business be suspended therein on the
day of the funeral.

L.A. GRANT, _Acting Secretary of War_.


II. On the day of the funeral the troops at every military post will be
paraded and this order read to them, after which all labors for the day
will cease. The national flag will be displayed at half-staff from the
time of the receipt of this order until the close of the funeral. On the
day of the funeral a salute of seventeen guns will be fired at half-hour
intervals, commencing at 8 o'clock a.m. The officers of the Army will
wear the usual badges of mourning, and the colors of the several
regiments and battalions will be draped in mourning for a period of six
months.

The day and hour of the funeral will be communicated to department
commanders by telegraph, and by them to their subordinate commanders.
Other necessary orders will be issued hereafter relative to the
appropriate funeral ceremonies.

By command of Major-General Schofield:

J.C. KELTON, _Adjutant-General_.



GENERAL ORDER.

NAVY DEPARTMENT, _February 16, 1891_.


The following Executive order, announcing the death of General William
Tecumseh Sherman, is published for the information of the Navy and the
Marine Corps:

[For Executive order see preceding page.]

In accordance with the order of the President, the Navy Department will
be closed and all business suspended therein on the day of the funeral,
and the flag at all yards and stations will be displayed at half-mast
until after the burial of General Sherman, and in all places where
public expression is given to the national sorrow business will be
suspended at navy-yards or stations during such hours as will enable
officers and employees of the Navy to participate therein with their
fellow-citizens.

B.F. TRACY, _Secretary of the Navy_.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

FEBRUARY 18, 1891.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include among
the places excepted from examination therein the following:

  In the Department of Agriculture, in the office of the Secretary:
  Private secretary to the chief of the division of statistics.


BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

FEBRUARY 21, 1891.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include among
the places excepted from examination therein the following:

  In the Department of the Treasury, in the Coast and Geodetic Survey:
  Clerk to act as confidential clerk and cashier to the disbursing
  officer.

  In the Post-Office Department, office of Assistant Attorney-General:
  Confidential clerk to the Assistant Attorney-General.


BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., February 26, 1891_.

In accordance with an act of Congress approved September 27, 1890, the
following limits to the punishment of enlisted men, together with the
accompanying regulations, are established for the government in time of
peace of all courts-martial, and will take effect thirty days after the
date of this order:

I. Subject to the modifications authorized in subdivision 3 of this
section, the punishment for desertion shall not exceed the following:

1. In the case of a soldier who surrenders--

(_a_) When such surrender is made within thirty days after desertion,
confinement at hard labor, with forfeiture of pay and allowances, for
three months.

(_b_) When such surrender is made after an absence of more than thirty
days and not more than ninety days, confinement at hard labor, with
forfeiture of pay and allowances, for six months.

(_c_) When such surrender is made after an absence of more than ninety
days, dishonorable discharge, with forfeiture of all pay and allowances,
and confinement at hard labor for eighteen months: _Provided_, That in
the case of a deserter who had not been more than three months in the
service the confinement shall not exceed ten months.

2. In the case of a soldier who does not surrender--

(_a_) When at the time of desertion he shall have been less than three
months in the service, dishonorable discharge, with forfeiture of all
pay and allowances, and confinement at hard labor for one year.

(_b_) When at the time of desertion he shall have been three months or
more, but less than six months, in the service, dishonorable discharge,
with forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement at hard labor
for eighteen months.

(_c_) When at the time of desertion he shall have been six months or
more in the service, dishonorable discharge, with forfeiture of all pay
and allowances, and confinement at hard labor for two years and six
months.

3. The foregoing limitations will be subject to modification under the
following conditions:

(_a_) The punishment of a deserter may be increased by one year of
confinement at hard labor in consideration of each previous conviction
of desertion, and also by dishonorable discharge and forfeiture of all
pay and allowances when not already authorized.

(_b_) The punishment for desertion when joined in by two or more
soldiers in the execution of a conspiracy, or for desertion in the
presence of an outbreak of Indians or of any unlawful assemblage which
the troops may be opposing, shall not exceed dishonorable discharge,
forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement at hard labor
for five years.

II. Except as herein otherwise indicated, punishments shall not exceed
the limits prescribed in the following table:


  Offenses.                          Limit of punishment.

  _Under seventeenth
   article of war_.

  Selling horse or arms,             Three years' confinement at hard
    either or both                   labor; for noncommissioned officer,
                                     reduction in addition thereto.[19]

  Selling accouterments              Four months confinement at hard
                                     labor; for noncommissioned officer,
                                     reduction in addition thereto.[19]

  Selling clothing                   Two months' confinement at hard
                                     labor; for noncommissioned officer,
                                     reduction in addition thereto.[19]

  Losing or spoiling horse           Four months' confinement at hard
    or arms through neglect          labor; for noncommissioned officer,
                                     reduction in addition thereto.[19]

  Losing or spoiling                 One month's confinement at hard
    accouterments or clothing        labor; for noncommissioned officer,
    through neglect                  reduction in addition thereto.[19]


  _Under twentieth article of war_.

  Behaving himself with              Six months' confinement at hard labor
    disrespect toward his            and forfeiture of $10 per month for
    commanding officer               the same period; for noncommissioned
                                     officer, reduction in addition
                                     thereto.


  _Under twenty-fourth article of war_.

  Refusal to obey or using           Dishonorable discharge, with
    violence to officer or           forfeiture of all pay and allowances,
    noncommissioned officer          and imprisonment for 2 years.
    while quelling quarrels
    or disorders


  _Under thirty-first article of war_.

  Lying out of quarters              Forfeiture of $2; corporal, $3;
                                     sergeant, $4.


  _Under thirty-second article of war_.

  Absence without leave--

    Less than 1 hour (not            Forfeiture of 50 cents; corporal, $1;
      including absence from         sergeant, $2.
      a roll call)

    Less than 1 hour                 Forfeiture of $1; corporal, $2;
      (including absence from        sergeant, $3; first sergeant or
      a roll call)                   noncommissioned officer of higher
                                     grade, $4.

    From 1 to 6 hours                Forfeiture of $2; corporal, $3;
                                     sergeant, $4; first sergeant or
                                     noncommissioned officer of higher
                                     grade, $5.

    From 6 to 12 hours               Forfeiture of $3; corporal, $4;
                                     sergeant, $6; first sergeant or
                                     noncommissioned officer of higher
                                     grade, $7.

    From 12 to 24 hours              Forfeiture of $5; corporal, $6;
                                     sergeant, $7; first sergeant or
                                     noncommissioned officer of higher
                                     grade, $10.

    From 24 to 48 hours              Forfeiture of $6 and 5 days'
                                     confinement at hard labor. For
                                     corporal, forfeiture of $8; sergeant,
                                     $10; first sergeant or noncommissioned
                                     officer of higher grade, $12; or
                                     for all noncommissioned officers,
                                     reduction.

    From 2 to 9 days                 Forfeiture of $10 and 10 days'
                                     confinement at hard labor; for
                                     noncommissioned officer, reduction
                                     in addition thereto.

    From 10 to 29 days               Forfeiture of $20 and 1 month's
                                     confinement at hard labor; for
                                     noncommissioned officer, reduction
                                     in addition thereto.

    From 30 to 90 days               Three months' confinement at hard
                                     labor and forfeiture of $10 per month
                                     for same period; for noncommissioned
                                     officer, reduction in addition
                                     thereto.

    For more than 90 days            Dishonorable discharge and forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances and 3
                                     months' confinement at hard labor.


  _Under thirty-third article of war_.

  Failure to repair at the time
    fixed, etc., to the place of
    parade for--

  Reveille or retreat roll call      Forfeiture of 50 cents; corporal, $1;
                                     sergeant, $2; first sergeant, $3.

  Guard detail                       Forfeiture of $5; corporal, $8;
                                     sergeant, $10.

  Fatigue detail                     }
  Dress parade                       }
  The weekly inspection              }
  Target practice                    } Forfeiture of $2; corporal, $3;
  Drill                              } sergeant, $5.
  Guard mounting (by musician)       }
  Stable duty                        }


  _Under thirty-eighth article of war_.

  Drunkenness on--

  Guard                              Six months' confinement at hard labor
                                     and forfeiture of $10 per month for
                                     the same period; for noncommissioned
                                     officer, reduction in addition
                                     thereto.

  Duty as company cook               Forfeiture of $10.

  Extra or special duty              }
  At drill                           }
  At target practice                 }
  At parade                          } Forfeiture of $6; for
  At inspection                      } noncommissioned officer, reduction
  At inspection of company guard     } and forfeiture of $10.
    detail                           }
  At stable duty                     }


  _Under fortieth article of war_.

  Quitting guard                     Six months' confinement at hard labor
                                     and forfeiture of $10 per month for
                                     the same period; for noncommissioned
                                     officer, reduction in addition
                                     thereto.


  _Under fifty-first article of war_.

  Persuading soldiers to desert      Six months' confinement at hard labor
                                     and forfeiture of $10 per month for
                                     the same period; for noncommissioned
                                     officer, reduction in addition
                                     thereto.


  _Under sixtieth article of war_    Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 4
                                     years' imprisonment.


  _Under sixty-second article of war_.

  Manslaughter                       Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 10
                                     years' imprisonment.

  Assault with intent to kill        Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 10
                                     years' imprisonment.

  Burglary                           Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 5
                                     years' imprisonment.

  Forgery                            Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 4
                                     years' imprisonment.

  Perjury                            Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 4
                                     years' imprisonment.

  False swearing                     Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 2
                                     years' imprisonment.

  Robbery                            Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 6
                                     years' imprisonment.

  Larceny or embezzlement of
  property of the value of--[20]

    More than $100                   Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 4
                                     years' imprisonment.

    $100 or less and more than $50   Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 3
                                     years' imprisonment.

    $50 or less and more than $20    Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 2
                                     years' imprisonment.

    $20 or less                      Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture
                                     of all pay and allowances, and 1
                                     year's imprisonment.

  Disobedience of orders,            Six months' confinement at hard
  involving willful defiance         labor and forfeiture of $10 per
  of the authority of a              month for the same period; for
  noncommissioned officer in         noncommissioned officer, reduction
  charge of a guard or party         in addition thereto.

  Using threatening or insulting     One month's confinement at hard
  language or behaving in an         labor and forfeiture of $10; for
  insubordinate manner to a          noncommissioned officer, reduction
  noncommissioned officer while      in addition thereto.
  in the execution of his office

  Absence from fatigue duty          Forfeiture of $4; corporal, $5;
                                     sergeant, $6.

  Absence from extra or special      Forfeiture of $4; corporal, $5;
  duty                               sergeant, $6.

  Absence from duty as company       Forfeiture of $10.
  or hospital cook

  Introducing liquor into post or    Forfeiture of $3; for noncommissioned
  camp in violation of standing      officer, reduction and forfeiture
  orders                             of $5.

  Drunkenness at post or             Forfeiture of $3; for noncommissioned
  in quarters                        officer, reduction and forfeiture
                                     of $5.

  Drunkenness and disorderly         Forfeiture of $10 and 7 days'
  conduct, causing the offender's    confinement at hard labor; for
  arrest and conviction by civil     noncommissioned officer, reduction
  authorities at a place within      and forfeiture of $12.
  10 miles of his station

  Noisy or disorderly conduct in     Forfeiture of $4; corporal, $7;
  quarters                           sergeant, $10.

  Abuse by noncommissioned           Reduction, 3 months' confinement at
  officer of his authority over      hard labor, and forfeiture of $10 per
  an inferior                        month for the same period.

  Noncommissioned officer            Reduction and forfeiture of $5.
  encouraging gambling

  Noncommissioned officer making     Reduction, forfeiture of $8, and 10
  false report                       days' confinement at hard labor.

  Sentinel allowing a prisoner       Six months' confinement at hard labor
  under his charge to escape         and forfeiture of $10 per month for
  through neglect                    the same period.

  Sentinel willfully suffering       Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of
  prisoner under his charge to       all pay and allowances, and 1 year's
  escape                             imprisonment.

  Sentinel allowing a prisoner       Two months' confinement at hard labor
  under his charge to obtain         and forfeiture of $10 per month for
  liquor                             the same period.

  Sentinel or member of guard        Two months' confinement at hard labor
  drinking liquor with prisoners     and forfeiture of $10 per month for
                                     the same period.

  Disrespect or affront to           Two month's confinement at hard labor
  a sentinel                         and forfeiture of $10 per month for
                                     the same period; for noncommissioned
                                     officer, reduction in addition
                                     thereto.

  Resisting or disobeying sentinel   Six months' confinement at hard labor
  in lawful execution of his duty    and forfeiture of $10 per month for
                                     the same period; for noncommissioned
                                     officer, reduction in addition
                                     thereto.

  Lewd or indecent exposure of       Three month's confinement at hard
  person                             labor and forfeiture of $10 per
                                     month for the same period; for
                                     noncommissioned officer, reduction
                                     in addition thereto.


[Footnote 19: In addition to the stoppages "sufficient for repairing the
loss or damage," which the law requires the court-martial to adjudge.
The court's action under this requirement in the case of sale or loss
through neglect of clothing shall be limited to a confirmation of the
charge made against the offender on his clothing account.]

[Footnote 20: In specifications to charges of larceny or embezzlement
the value of the property shall be stated.]


III. (1) When a soldier shall be found guilty of an offense cognizable
when committed for the first time by an inferior court-martial, his
punishment therefor may exceed the prescribed limit by one-half if it
shall appear that during his current enlistment and within two years
preceding his trial he has been once convicted of one offense or more;
it may be doubled if he has been twice so convicted, and it may be
increased by one-half of the prescribed limit for every such previous
conviction: _Provided_, That upon proof of five or more previous
convictions the punishment may be that authorized for a fifth
conviction, or dishonorable discharge with forfeiture of all pay and
allowances. When found guilty of an offense cognizable only by a general
court-martial, and on proof of five or more previous convictions within
the two years, dishonorable discharge with forfeiture of all pay and
allowances may be added to any confinement at hard labor. And when
a noncommissioned officer shall be found guilty of an offense not
punishable by reduction, reduction may be added to the punishment if it
shall appear that he has been convicted of a military offense within one
year and during his current enlistment.

(2) After arriving at the findings a court-martial may be opened to
receive evidence of previous convictions. These convictions must be
proved by the records of previous trials or by duly authenticated orders
promulgating the same, showing the actual offenses of which the soldier
was convicted, except in the cases of convictions by summary court, when
a duly authenticated copy of the record of said court shall be deemed
sufficient proof. Charges forwarded to the authority ordering a general
court-martial or submitted to a summary garrison or regimental court
must be accompanied by the proper evidence of such previous convictions
as may have to be considered in determining upon a sentence. Paragraphs
1017 and 1018 of the Regulations are superseded by this order.

IV. This order prescribes the _maximum_ limit of punishment for the
offenses named, and this limit is intended for those cases where the
severest punishment should be awarded. In other cases the punishment
must be graded down according to the extenuating circumstances. Offenses
not herein provided for remain punishable as authorized by the Articles
of War and the custom of the service.

V. Summary courts are subject to the restrictions named in the
eighty-third article of war. Soldiers against whom charges may be
preferred for trial by summary court shall not be confined in the
guardhouse, but shall be placed in arrest in quarters before and during
trial and while awaiting sentence, unless in particular cases restraint
may be deemed necessary.

VI. The following substitutions for punishments named in Section II of
this order are authorized, at the discretion of the court:

Detention of pay to the extent of four times the amount of the
forfeiture; two days' confinement at hard labor for $1 of forfeited pay;
one day's solitary confinement on bread and water diet for two days'
confinement at hard labor or for $1 of forfeited pay: _Provided_, That a
noncommissioned officer not sentenced to reduction shall not be subject
to confinement: _And provided_, That solitary confinement shall not
exceed fourteen days at one time nor be repeated until fourteen days
have elapsed, and shall not exceed eighty-four days in one year.
Wherever the limit herein prescribed for an offense or offenses may
be brought within the punishing power of inferior courts-martial,
as defined by the eighty-third article of war, by substitution of
punishment under the provisions of this section, the aforesaid courts
shall be deemed to have jurisdiction of such offense or offenses.

VII. Sergeants shall not if they object thereto be brought to trial
before regimental, garrison, or summary courts-martial without the
authority of the officer competent to order their trial by general
court-martial; nor shall sergeants of the post noncommissioned staff
be reduced, but they may be dishonorably discharged whenever reduction
is included in the limit of punishment. Paragraphs 105 and 254 of the
Regulations, the latter as amended by General Orders, No. 67, series
of 1890, Adjutant-General's Office, are modified accordingly.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  REDFIELD PROCTOR,
    _Secretary of War_.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

MARCH 4, 1891.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include
among the places excepted from examination therein the following:

  In the Department of Agriculture, in the office of the Secretary: Clerk
  to act as appointment clerk.


BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

MARCH 16, 1891.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include among
the places excepted from examination therein the following:

  In the Post-Office Department, office of the First Assistant
  Postmaster-General: Assistant superintendent of free delivery.


BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

APRIL 3, 1891.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include among
the places excepted from examination therein the following:

  In the Treasury Department, office of the Secretary: One clerk in the
  office of the disbursing clerk.


BENJ. HARRISON.



CIVIL SERVICE--CLASSIFICATION OF INDIAN SERVICE.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, _Washington, April 13, 1891_.

By direction of the President of the United States and in accordance
with the third clause of section 6 of an act entitled "An act to
regulate and improve the civil service of the United States," approved
January 16, 1883--

_It is ordered_, That all physicians, school superintendents and
assistant superintendents, school-teachers, and matrons in the Indian
service be, and they are hereby, arranged in the following classes,
without regard to salary or compensation:

Class 1. Physicians.

Class 2. School superintendents and assistant superintendents.

Class 3. School-teachers.

Class 4. Matrons.

_Provided_, That no person who may be required by law to be appointed
to an office by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and
that no person who may be employed merely as a laborer or workman or in
connection with any contract schools, shall be considered as within this
classification, and no person so employed shall be assigned to the
duties of a classified place.

_It is further ordered_, That no person shall be admitted to any place
not excepted from examination by the civil-service rules in any of
the classes above designated until he or she shall have passed an
appropriate examination under the United States Civil Service Commission
and his or her eligibility has been certified to by said Commission or
the appropriate board of examiners.

JOHN W. NOBLE, _Secretary_.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 13, 1891_.

The Secretary of the Interior:

I approve of the within classification, and if you see no reason to
suggest any further modification you will please put it in force.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

APRIL 13, 1891.

Clause (_c_) of section 2 of General Rule III is hereby revoked, and
clauses (_d_), (_e_), (_f_), (_g_) and (_h_) are lettered, respectively,
(_c_), (_d_), (_e_), (_f_), and (_g_).

BENJ. HARRISON.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

EXECUTIVE ORDER.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 25, 1891_.

_It is hereby ordered_, That the several Executive Departments and the
Government Printing Office be closed on Saturday, the 30th instant, to
enable the employees to participate in the decoration of the graves of
the soldiers and sailors who fell in defense of the Union during the War
of the Rebellion.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., July 6, 1891_.

_To the People of the United States_:

The President, with a profound feeling of sorrow, announces the death of
Hannibal Hamlin, at one time Vice-President of the United States, who
died at Bangor, Me., on the evening of Saturday, July 4.

Few men in this country have filled more important and more
distinguished public positions than Mr. Hamlin, and in recognition of
his many eminent and varied services and as an expression of the great
respect and reverence which are felt for his memory it is ordered that
the national flag be displayed at half-mast upon the public buildings of
the United States on the day of his funeral.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _August 6, 1891_.

The civil-service rules are hereby amended as follows:

GENERAL RULE II.

In line 1 strike out the word "four" and insert in lieu thereof the word
"five." Add at the end of the rule the following:

  5. The classified Indian service.


GENERAL RULE III.

Strike out paragraphs 1 and 2 of section 6 of General Rule III and
insert in lieu thereof the following:

  So far as practicable and useful, competitive examinations shall be
  established in the classified civil service to test fitness for
  promotion, under such regulations as the Commission may make. Until
  such regulations have been applied to any part of the classified
  service promotions therein shall be made in the manner prescribed
  by the rule applicable thereto.


DEPARTMENTAL RULE VI.

Strike out the first sentence of section 6 and transfer the remaining
sentence to section 5. Change the numbers of sections 7, 8, 9, and 10
to 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively.

CUSTOMS RULE III.

Strike out the first sentence of section 5 and transfer the remaining
sentence to section 4. Change the numbers of sections 6, 7, 8, and 9
to 5, 6, 7, and 8, respectively.

POSTAL RULE III.

Strike out the first sentence of section 5 and transfer the remaining
sentence to section 4. Change the numbers of sections 6, 7, 8, and 9
to 5, 6, 7, and 8, respectively.

RAILWAY MAIL RULE III.

Strike out the first sentence of section 7 and transfer the remaining
sentence to section 4. Change the numbers of sections 8, 9, 10, 11, and
12 to 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, respectively.

RAILWAY MAIL RULE II.

Insert an additional clause to section 5, as follows:

  (_f_) Transfer clerks at junction points or stations where not more
  than two such clerks are employed.


RAILWAY MAIL RULE IV.

Insert an additional proviso at the end of clause (_b_) of section 2, as
follows:

  _Provided further_, That on a line on which the service does not
  require the full time of a clerk, and one can be employed jointly with
  the railroad company, the appointment may be made without examination
  and certification, with the consent of the Commission, upon a statement
  of the facts by the General Superintendent; but no clerk so appointed
  shall be eligible for transfer or appointment to any other place in the
  service.


In section 6, line 3, strike out the word "twenty" and insert in lieu
thereof the word "ten."

In section 7, line 6, strike out the word "thirty" and insert in lieu
thereof the word "sixty;" in the same line strike out the word "to" and
insert in lieu thereof the words "in periods of;" in line 7 strike out
the words "who have been in the railway mail service."

BENJ. HARRISON.



CIVIL SERVICE--INDIAN RULES.

INDIAN RULE I.

The classified Indian service shall include all the physicians, school
superintendents, assistant superintendents, school-teachers, and matrons
in that service, classified under the provisions of section 6 of the act
to regulate and improve the civil service of the United States, approved
January 16, 1883.

INDIAN RULE II.

1. To test fitness for admission to the classified Indian service
examinations of a practical character shall be provided on such subjects
as the Commission may direct for physician, superintendent, assistant
superintendent, teachers, and matrons.

2. The following age limitations shall apply to applicants for
examination for the classified Indian service: For physician, not under
25 years of age nor over 45; for superintendent, not under 25 nor over
50; for assistant superintendent and for teacher, not under 20 nor over
50; for matron, not under 25 nor over 55: _Provided_, That these
limitations shall not apply to the wives of superintendents of Indian
schools who apply for the position of matron, nor shall the maximum
limitations apply to persons allowed preference under section 1754,
Revised Statutes, by the Commission.

3. Blank forms of application shall be furnished by the Commission, and
the date of reception and also of approval by the Commission of each
application shall be noted on the application paper.

INDIAN RULE III.

1. The papers of every examination shall be marked under regulations
made by the Commission. Bach competitor shall be graded on a scale of
100, according to the general average determined by the markings.

2. Immediately after the general average shall have been ascertained
each competitor shall be notified that he has passed or has failed to
pass.

3. A competitor who has failed to pass an examination may, with the
consent of the Commission, be allowed reexamination at any time within
six months from the date of failure without filing a new application;
but if he be not allowed reexamination within six months he shall be
required to file a new application before being again examined.

4. No eligible shall be allowed reexamination during the period of his
eligibility unless he shall furnish satisfactory evidence to the
Commission that at the time of his examination, because of illness or
other good cause, he was incapable of doing himself justice; and his
rating on such reexamination shall cancel and be a substitute for his
rating on his former examination.

5. All competitors whose claim to preference under section 1754 of the
Revised Statutes have been allowed by the Commission who attain a
general average of 65 per cent or over, and all other competitors who
attain a general average of 70 per cent or over, shall be eligible for
appointment to the place for which they were examined. The names of all
the competitors thus rendered eligible shall be entered in the order of
grade on the proper register of eligibles.

6. When two or more eligibles are of the same grade, preference in
certification shall be determined by the order in which the application
papers are filed.

7. For the Indian service there shall be four districts and a separate
register of eligibles for each grade of examination for each district,
the names of males and females being listed separately on each register.
The districts shall be comprised as follows: No. 1, of the States of
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, South
Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming; No. 2, of the States of Idaho, Washington,
Oregon, Nevada, and that part of California lying north of the
thirty-seventh parallel of latitude, and the Territory of Utah; No. 3,
of that part of California lying south of the thirty-seventh parallel of
latitude, the Territories of Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, the Indian
Territory, and the States of Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas,
Louisiana, and Texas; No. 4, of all the States of the United States not
embraced in any of the foregoing districts, together with the District
of Columbia. Upon the written request of any eligible his name shall be
entered upon the register of any one or more of the districts other than
that in which he resides: _Provided_, That he shall state in writing his
willingness to accept service wherever assigned in any such district.

8. The period of eligibility to appointment shall be one year from the
date on which the name of the eligible is entered on the register unless
otherwise determined by regulation of the Commission.

INDIAN RULE IV.

1. All vacancies, unless filled by promotion, transfer, or
reappointment, shall be filled in the following manner:

(_a_) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, through the Secretary of the
Interior, shall, in form and manner to be prescribed by the Commission,
request the certification to him of male or female eligibles from the
district in which the vacancy exists.

(_b_) If fitness for the vacant place is tested by competitive
examination, the Commission shall certify from the proper register of
the district in which the vacancy exists the names of the three
eligibles thereon of the sex called for having the highest averages:
_Provided_, That the eligibles upon any register who have been allowed
preference under section 1754 of the Revised Statutes shall be certified
according to their grade before all other eligibles thereon: _And
provided further_, That if the vacancy is in the grade of matron or
teacher, and the wife of the superintendent of the school in which the
vacancy exists is an eligible, she may be given preference in
certification if the appointing officer so requests.

2. Of the three names certified to him the appointing officer shall
select one, and if at the time of making this selection there are more
vacancies than one he may select more than one: _Provided_, That if the
appointing officer to whom certification has been made shall object in
writing to any eligible named in the certificate, stating that because
of physical incapacity or for other good cause particularly specified
such eligible is not capable of properly performing the duties of the
vacant place, the Commission may, upon investigation and ascertainment
of the fact that the objection made is good and well founded, direct the
certification of another eligible in place of the one objected to.

3. Each person thus designated for appointment shall be notified,
and upon indicating acceptance shall be appointed for a probationary
period--if a physician, for six months, and if a school employee, to
expire at the end of the then current school year--at the end of which
period, if his conduct and capacity be satisfactory to the appointing
officer, he shall receive absolute appointment; but if his conduct and
capacity be not satisfactory to said officer he shall be so notified,
and this notification shall be his discharge from the service:
_Provided_, That any probationer may be discharged during probation for
misconduct or evident unfitness or incapacity.

4. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall require the officer
under whom a probationer may be serving to carefully observe and
report in writing upon the services rendered by and the character and
qualifications of such probationer as to punctuality, industry, habits,
ability, and adaptability. These reports shall be preserved on file, and
the Commission may prescribe the form and manner in which they shall be
made.

5. In case of the sudden occurrence of a vacancy in any school during a
school term which the public interest requires to be immediately filled,
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs is authorized, in his discretion,
to provide for the temporary filling of the same until a regular
appointment can be made under the provisions of sections 1, 2, and 3
of this rule, and when such regular appointment is made the temporary
appointment shall terminate. All temporary appointments made under this
authority and their termination shall at once be reported to the
Commission.

INDIAN RULE V.

Until promotion regulations shall have been applied to the classified
Indian service promotions therein may be made upon any test of fitness
determined upon by the promoting officer if not disapproved by the
Commission: _Provided_, That preference in promotion in any school shall
be given to those longest in the service unless there are good reasons
to the contrary; and when such reasons prevail they shall, through the
proper channels, be reported to the Commission: _And provided further_,
That no one shall be promoted to any grade he could not enter by
original appointment under the minimum age limitation applied thereto
by Indian Rule II, section 2, and that no one shall be promoted to the
grade of physician from any other grade.

INDIAN RULE VI.

Subject to the conditions stated in Rule IV, transfers may be made after
absolute appointment from one school to another and from one district to
another under such regulations as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,
with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, may prescribe.

INDIAN RULE VII.

Upon the requisition of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, through
the Secretary of the Interior, the Commission shall certify for
reinstatement in a grade or class no higher than that in which he was
formerly employed any person who within one year next preceding the
date of the requisition has through no delinquency or misconduct
been separated from the classified Indian service: _Provided_, That
certification may be made, subject to the other conditions of this rule,
for the reinstatement of any person who served in the military or naval
service of the United States in the late War of the Rebellion and was
honorably discharged therefrom, without regard to the length of time
he has been separated from the service.

INDIAN RULE VIII.

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall report to the Commission--

(_a_) Every probational and every absolute appointment in the classified
Indian service.

(_b_) Every refusal to make an absolute appointment and the reason
therefor, and every refusal to accept an appointment.

(_c_) Every separation from the classified Indian service and the cause
of such separation, whether death, resignation, or dismissal.

(_d_) Every restoration to the classified Indian service.

These rules shall take effect October 1, 1891.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL SERVICE RULES.

OCTOBER 9, 1891.

General Rule III, clause 6, is hereby amended by striking out the words
"under such regulations as the Commission may make" and substituting
therefor the following: "under regulations to be approved by the
President;" so that as amended the clause will read as follows:

  So far as practicable and useful competitive examinations shall be
  established in the classified civil service to test fitness for
  promotion under regulations to be approved by the President.


BENJ. HARRISON.

Whereas civil-service rules for the Indian service were approved to take
effect October 1, 1891; and

Whereas it is represented to me by the Civil Service Commission in a
communication of this date that no persons have as yet been examined for
appointment to that service, and that it seems probable that complete
arrangements for putting said rules into full effect will not be made
sooner than March 1, 1892:

_It is therefore ordered_, That said Indian rules shall take effect
March 1, 1892, instead of October 1, 1891: _Provided_, That said rules
shall become operative and take effect in any district of the Indian
service as soon as an eligible register for such district shall be
provided, if it shall be prior to the date above fixed.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _October 13, 1891_.

Upon the recommendation of the Commission the foregoing order is
approved.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

NOVEMBER 24, 1891.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include among
the places excepted from examination the following:

  In the Department of the Treasury, in the Bureau of Statistics: One
  confidential clerk to the Chief of the Bureau.


BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, December 4, 1891_.

SIR:[21] In my message to the first session of the Fifty-first Congress
I said:

  I have suggested to the heads of the Executive Departments that they
  consider whether a record might not be kept in each bureau of all those
  elements that are covered by the terms "faithfulness" and "efficiency,"
  and a rating made showing the relative merits of the clerks of each
  class, this rating to be regarded as a test of merit in making
  promotions.


In some of the Departments this suggestion has been acted upon in part
at least, and I now direct that in your Department a plan be at once
devised and put in operation for keeping an efficiency record of all
persons within the classified service, with a view to placing promotions
wholly upon the basis of merit.

It is intended to make provision for carrying into effect the
stipulations of the civil-service law in relation to promotions in
the classified service. To that end the rule requiring compulsory
examination has been rescinded. In my opinion the examination for
promotion of those who present themselves should be chiefly, if not
wholly, upon their knowledge of the work of the bureau or Department to
which they belong and the record of efficiency made by them during their
previous service. I think the records of efficiency kept from day to day
should be open to the inspection of the clerks.

Very respectfully, yours,

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 21: Addressed to the heads of the Executive Departments.]



THIRD ANNUAL MESSAGE.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 9, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The reports of the heads of the several Executive Departments, required
by law to be submitted to me, which are herewith transmitted, and the
reports of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney-General, made
directly to Congress, furnish a comprehensive view of the administrative
work of the last fiscal year relating to internal affairs. It would be
of great advantage if these reports could have an attentive perusal by
every member of Congress and by all who take an interest in public
affairs. Such a perusal could not fail to excite a higher appreciation
of the vast labor and conscientious effort which are given to the
conduct of our civil administration.

The reports will, I believe, show that every question has been
approached, considered, and decided from the standpoint of public duty
and upon considerations affecting the public interests alone. Again I
invite to every branch of the service the attention and scrutiny of
Congress.

The work of the State Department during the last year has been
characterized by an unusual number of important negotiations and by
diplomatic results of a notable and highly beneficial character. Among
these are the reciprocal trade arrangements which have been concluded,
in the exercise of the powers conferred by section 3 of the tariff law,
with the Republic of Brazil, with Spain for its West India possessions,
and with Santo Domingo. Like negotiations with other countries have been
much advanced, and it is hoped that before the close of the year further
definitive trade arrangements of great value will be concluded.

In view of the reports which had been received as to the diminution of
the seal herds in the Bering Sea, I deemed it wise to propose to Her
Majesty's Government in February last that an agreement for a closed
season should be made pending the negotiations for arbitration, which
then seemed to be approaching a favorable conclusion. After much
correspondence and delays, for which this Government was not
responsible, an agreement was reached and signed on the 15th of June, by
which Great Britain undertook from that date and until May 1, 1892, to
prohibit the killing by her subjects of seals in the Bering Sea, and the
Government of the United States during the same period to enforce its
existing prohibition against pelagic sealing and to limit the catch by
the fur-seal company upon the islands to 7,500 skins. If this agreement
could have been reached earlier in response to the strenuous endeavors
of this Government, it would have been more effective; but coming even
as late as it did it unquestionably resulted in greatly diminishing the
destruction of the seals by the Canadian sealers.

In my last annual message I stated that the basis of arbitration
proposed by Her Majesty's Government for the adjustment of the
long-pending controversy as to the seal fisheries was not acceptable.
I am glad now to be able to announce that terms satisfactory to this
Government have been agreed upon and that an agreement as to the
arbitrators is all that is necessary to the completion of the
convention. In view of the advanced position which this Government has
taken upon the subject of international arbitration, this renewed
expression of our adherence to this method for the settlement of
disputes such as have arisen in the Bering Sea will, I doubt not, meet
with the concurrence of Congress.

Provision should be made for a joint demarcation of the frontier line
between Canada and the United States wherever required by the increasing
border settlements, and especially for the exact location of the water
boundary in the straits and rivers.

I should have been glad to announce some favorable disposition of the
boundary dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela touching the
western frontier of British Guiana, but the friendly efforts of the
United States in that direction have thus far been unavailing. This
Government will continue to express its concern at any appearance of
foreign encroachment on territories long under the administrative
control of American States. The determination of a disputed boundary
is easily attainable by amicable arbitration where the rights of the
respective parties rest, as here, on historic facts readily
ascertainable.

The law of the last Congress providing a system of inspection for our
meats intended for export, and clothing the President with power to
exclude foreign products from our market in case the country sending
them should perpetuate unjust discriminations against any product of the
United States, placed this Government in a position to effectively urge
the removal of such discriminations against our meats. It is gratifying
to be able to state that Germany, Denmark, Italy, Austria, and France,
in the order named, have opened their ports to inspected American pork
products. The removal of these restrictions in every instance was asked
for and given solely upon the ground that we have now provided a meat
inspection that should be accepted as adequate to the complete removal
of the dangers, real or fancied, which had been previously urged. The
State Department, our ministers abroad, and the Secretary of Agriculture
have cooperated with unflagging and intelligent zeal for the
accomplishment of this great result. The outlines of an agreement have
been reached with Germany looking to equitable trade concessions in
consideration of the continued free importation of her sugars, but the
time has not yet arrived when this correspondence can be submitted to
Congress.

The recent political disturbances in the Republic of Brazil have
excited regret and solicitude. The information we possessed was too
meager to enable us to form a satisfactory judgment of the causes
leading to the temporary assumption of supreme power by President
Fonseca; but this Government did not fail to express to him its anxious
solicitude for the peace of Brazil and for the maintenance of the free
political institutions which had recently been established there, nor to
offer our advice that great moderation should be observed in the clash
of parties and the contest for leadership. These counsels were received
in the most friendly spirit, and the latest information is that
constitutional government has been reestablished without bloodshed.

The lynching at New Orleans in March last of eleven men of Italian
nativity by a mob of citizens was a most deplorable and discreditable
incident. It did not, however, have its origin in any general animosity
to the Italian people, nor in any disrespect to the Government of Italy,
with which our relations were of the most friendly character. The fury
of the mob was directed against these men as the supposed participants
or accessories in the murder of a city officer. I do not allude to this
as mitigating in any degree this offense against law and humanity, but
only as affecting the international questions which grew out of it. It
was at once represented by the Italian minister that several of those
whose lives had been taken by the mob were Italian subjects, and a
demand was made for the punishment of the participants and for an
indemnity to the families of those who were killed. It is to be
regretted that the manner in which these claims were presented was not
such as to promote a calm discussion of the questions involved; but this
may well be attributed to the excitement and indignation which the crime
naturally evoked. The views of this Government as to its obligations to
foreigners domiciled here were fully stated in the correspondence, as
well as its purpose to make an investigation of the affair with a view
to determine whether there were present any circumstances that could
under such rules of duty as we had indicated create an obligation upon
the United States. The temporary absence of a minister plenipotentiary
of Italy at this capital has retarded the further correspondence, but
it is not doubted that a friendly conclusion is attainable.

Some suggestions growing out of this unhappy incident are worthy the
attention of Congress. It would, I believe, be entirely competent for
Congress to make offenses against the treaty rights of foreigners
domiciled in the United States cognizable in the Federal courts. This
has not, however, been done, and the Federal officers and courts have no
power in such cases to intervene, either for the protection of a foreign
citizen or for the punishment of his slayers. It seems to me to follow,
in this state of the law, that the officers of the State charged with
police and judicial powers in such cases must in the consideration of
international questions growing out of such incidents be regarded in
such sense as Federal agents as to make this Government answerable for
their acts in cases where it would be answerable if the United States
had used its constitutional power to define and punish crime against
treaty rights.

The civil war in Chile, which began in January last, was continued, but
fortunately with infrequent and not important armed collisions, until
August 28, when the Congressional forces landed near Valparaiso and
after a bloody engagement captured that city. President Balmaceda at
once recognized that his cause was lost, and a Provisional Government
was speedily established by the victorious party. Our minister was
promptly directed to recognize and put himself in communication with
this Government so soon as it should have established its _de facto_
character, which was done. During the pendency of this civil contest
frequent indirect appeals were made to this Government to extend
belligerent rights to the insurgents and to give audience to their
representatives. This was declined, and that policy was pursued
throughout which this Government when wrenched by civil war so
strenuously insisted upon on the part of European nations. The _Itata_,
an armed vessel commanded by a naval officer of the insurgent fleet,
manned by its sailors and with soldiers on board, was seized under
process of the United States court at San Diego, Cal., for a violation
of our neutrality laws. While in the custody of an officer of the court
the vessel was forcibly wrested from his control and put to sea. It
would have been inconsistent with the dignity and self-respect of this
Government not to have insisted that the _Itata_ should be returned to
San Diego to abide the judgment of the court. This was so clear to the
junta of the Congressional party, established at Iquique, that before
the arrival of the _Itata_ at that port the secretary of foreign
relations of the Provisional Government addressed to Rear-Admiral Brown,
commanding the United States naval forces, a communication, from which
the following is an extract:

  The Provisional Government has learned by the cablegrams of the
  Associated Press that the transport _Itata_, detained in San Diego by
  order of the United States for taking on board munitions of war, and
  in possession of the marshal, left the port, carrying on board this
  official, who was landed at a point near the coast, and then continued
  her voyage. * * * If this news be correct this Government would deplore
  the conduct of the _Itata_, and as an evidence that it is not disposed
  to support or agree to the infraction of the laws of the United States
  the undersigned takes advantage of the personal relations you have been
  good enough to maintain with him since your arrival in this port to
  declare to you that as soon as she is within reach of our orders his
  Government will put the _Itata_, with the arms and munitions she took
  on board in San Diego, at the disposition of the United States.


A trial in the district court of the United States for the southern
district of California has recently resulted in a decision holding,
among other things, that inasmuch as the Congressional party had not
been recognized as a belligerent the acts done in its interest could not
be a violation of our neutrality laws. From this judgment the United
States has appealed, not that the condemnation of the vessel is a matter
of importance, but that we may know what the present state of our law
is; for if this construction of the statute is correct there is obvious
necessity for revision and amendment.

During the progress of the war in Chile this Government tendered its
good offices to bring about a peaceful adjustment, and it was at one
time hoped that a good result might be reached; but in this we were
disappointed.

The instructions to our naval officers and to our minister at Santiago
from the first to the last of this struggle enjoined upon them the most
impartial treatment and absolute noninterference. I am satisfied that
these instructions were observed and that our representatives were
always watchful to use their influence impartially in the interest of
humanity, and on more than one occasion did so effectively. We could not
forget, however, that this Government was in diplomatic relations with
the then established Government of Chile, as it is now in such relations
with the successor of that Government. I am quite sure that President
Montt, who has, under circumstances of promise for the peace of Chile,
been installed as President of that Republic, will not desire that in
the unfortunate event of any revolt against his authority the policy
of this Government should be other than that which we have recently
observed. No official complaint of the conduct of our minister or
of our naval officers during the struggle has been presented to this
Government, and it is a matter of regret that so many of our own
people should have given ear to unofficial charges and complaints that
manifestly had their origin in rival interests and in a wish to pervert
the relations of the United States with Chile.

The collapse of the Government of Balmaceda brought about a condition
which is unfortunately too familiar in the history of the Central and
South American States. With the overthrow of the Balmaceda Government
he and many of his councilors and officers became at once fugitives for
their lives, and appealed to the commanding officers of the foreign
naval vessels in the harbor of Valparaiso and to the resident foreign
ministers at Santiago for asylum. This asylum was freely given,
according to my information, by the naval vessels of several foreign
powers and by several of the legations at Santiago. The American
minister as well as his colleagues, acting upon the impulse of humanity,
extended asylum to political refugees whose lives were in peril. I have
not been willing to direct the surrender of such of these persons as are
still in the American legation without suitable conditions.

It is believed that the Government of Chile is not in a position, in
view of the precedents with which it has been connected, to broadly deny
the right of asylum, and the correspondence has not thus far presented
any such denial. The treatment of our minister for a time was such as to
call for a decided protest, and it was very gratifying to observe that
unfriendly measures, which were undoubtedly the result of the prevailing
excitement, were at once rescinded or suitably relaxed.

On the 16th of October an event occurred in Valparaiso so serious and
tragic in its circumstances and results as to very justly excite the
indignation of our people and to call for prompt and decided action on
the part of this Government. A considerable number of the sailors of the
United States steamship _Baltimore_, then in the harbor at Valparaiso,
being upon shore leave and unarmed, were assaulted by armed men nearly
simultaneously in different localities in the city. One petty officer
was killed outright and seven or eight seamen were seriously wounded,
one of whom has since died. So savage and brutal was the assault that
several of our sailors received more than two and one as many as
eighteen stab wounds. An investigation of the affair was promptly made
by a board of officers of the _Baltimore_, and their report shows that
these assaults were unprovoked, that our men were conducting themselves
in a peaceable and orderly manner, and that some of the police of the
city took part in the assault and used their weapons with fatal effect,
while a few others, with some well-disposed citizens, endeavored to
protect our men. Thirty-six of our sailors were arrested, and some of
them while being taken to prison were cruelly beaten and maltreated.
The fact that they were all discharged, no criminal charge being lodged
against any one of them, shows very clearly that they were innocent of
any breach of the peace.

So far as I have yet been able to learn no other explanation of this
bloody work has been suggested than that it had its origin in hostility
to those men as sailors of the United States, wearing the uniform of
their Government, and not in any individual act or personal animosity.
The attention of the Chilean Government was at once called to this
affair, and a statement of the facts obtained by the investigation we
had conducted was submitted, accompanied by a request to be advised of
any other or qualifying facts in the possession of the Chilean
Government that might tend to relieve this affair of the appearance of
an insult to this Government. The Chilean Government was also advised
that if such qualifying facts did not exist this Government would
confidently expect full and prompt reparation.

It is to be regretted that the reply of the secretary for foreign
affairs of the Provisional Government was couched in an offensive tone.
To this no response has been made. This Government is now awaiting the
result of an investigation which has been conducted by the criminal
court at Valparaiso. It is reported unofficially that the investigation
is about completed, and it is expected that the result will soon be
communicated to this Government, together with some adequate and
satisfactory response to the note by which the attention of Chile
was called to this incident. If these just expectations should be
disappointed or further needless delay intervene, I will by a special
message bring this matter again to the attention of Congress for
such action as may be necessary. The entire correspondence with the
Government of Chile will at an early day be submitted to Congress.

I renew the recommendation of my special message dated January 16,
1890,[22] for the adoption of the necessary legislation to enable this
Government to apply in the case of Sweden and Norway the same rule in
respect to the levying of tonnage dues as was claimed and secured to the
shipping of the United States in 1828 under Article VIII of the treaty
of 1827.

The adjournment of the Senate without action on the pending acts for
the suppression of the slave traffic in Africa and for the reform of
the revenue tariff of the Independent State of the Kongo left this
Government unable to exchange those acts on the date fixed, July 2,
1891. A _modus vivendi_ has been concluded by which the power of the
Kongo State to levy duties on imports is left unimpaired, and by
agreement of all the signatories to the general slave trade act the time
for the exchange of ratifications on the part of the United States has
been extended to February 2, 1892.

The late outbreak against foreigners in various parts of the
Chinese Empire has been a cause of deep concern in view of the numerous
establishments of our citizens in the interior of that country. This
Government can do no less than insist upon a continuance of the
protective and punitory measures which the Chinese Government has
heretofore applied. No effort will be omitted to protect our citizens
peaceably sojourning in China, but recent unofficial information
indicates that what was at first regarded as an outbreak of mob violence
against foreigners has assumed the larger form of an insurrection
against public order.

The Chinese Government has declined to receive Mr. Blair as the minister
of the United States on the ground that as a participant while a Senator
in the enactment of the existing legislation against the introduction of
Chinese laborers he has become unfriendly and objectionable to China.
I have felt constrained to point out to the Chinese Government the
untenableness of this position, which seems to rest as much on the
unacceptability of our legislation as on that of the person chosen,
and which if admitted would practically debar the selection of any
representative so long as the existing laws remain in force.

You will be called upon to consider the expediency of making special
provision by law for the temporary admission of some Chinese artisans
and laborers in connection with the exhibit of Chinese industries at the
approaching Columbian Exposition. I regard it as desirable that the
Chinese exhibit be facilitated in every proper way.

A question has arisen with the Government of Spain touching the rights
of American citizens in the Caroline Islands. Our citizens there long
prior to the confirmation of Spain's claim to the islands had secured
by settlement and purchase certain rights to the recognition and
maintenance of which the faith of Spain was pledged. I have had reason
within the past year very strongly to protest against the failure to
carry out this pledge on the part of His Majesty's ministers, which has
resulted in great injustice and injury to the American residents.

The Government and people of Spain propose to celebrate the four
hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by holding an
exposition at Madrid, which will open on the 12th of September and
continue until the 31st of December, 1892. A cordial invitation has
been extended to the United States to take part in this commemoration,
and as Spain was one of the first nations to express the intention to
participate in the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, it would
be very appropriate for this Government to give this invitation its
friendly promotion.

Surveys for the connecting links of the projected intercontinental
railway are in progress, not only in Mexico, but at various points along
the course mapped out. Three surveying parties are now in the field
under the direction of the commission. Nearly 1,000 miles of the
proposed road have been surveyed, including the most difficult part,
that through Ecuador and the southern part of Colombia. The reports of
the engineers are very satisfactory, and show that no insurmountable
obstacles have been met with.

On November 12, 1884, a treaty was concluded with Mexico reaffirming
the boundary between the two countries as described in the treaties of
February 2, 1848, and December 30, 1853. March 1, 1889, a further treaty
was negotiated to facilitate the carrying out of the principles of the
treaty of 1884 and to avoid the difficulties occasioned by reason of the
changes and alterations that take place from natural causes in the Rio
Grande and Colorado rivers in the portions thereof constituting the
boundary line between the two Republics. The International Boundary
Commission provided for by the treaty of 1889 to have exclusive
jurisdiction of any question that may arise has been named by the
Mexican Government. An appropriation is necessary to enable the United
States to fulfill its treaty obligations in this respect.

The death of King Kalakaua in the United States afforded occasion to
testify our friendship for Hawaii by conveying the King's body to his
own land in a naval vessel with all due honors. The Government of his
successor, Queen Liliuokolani, is seeking to promote closer commercial
relations with the United States. Surveys for the much-needed submarine
cable from our Pacific coast to Honolulu are in progress, and this
enterprise should have the suitable promotion of the two Governments.
I strongly recommend that provision be made for improving the harbor
of Pearl River and equipping it as a naval station.

The arbitration treaty formulated by the International American
Conference lapsed by reason of the failure to exchange ratifications
fully within the limit of time provided; but several of the Governments
concerned have expressed a desire to save this important result of
the conference by an extension of the period. It is, in my judgment,
incumbent upon the United States to conserve the influential initiative
it has taken in this measure by ratifying the instrument and by
advocating the proposed extension of the time for exchange. These views
have been made known to the other signatories.

This Government has found occasion to express in a friendly spirit, but
with much earnestness, to the Government of the Czar its serious concern
because of the harsh measures now being enforced against the Hebrews in
Russia. By the revival of antisemitic laws, long in abeyance, great
numbers of those unfortunate people have been constrained to abandon
their homes and leave the Empire by reason of the impossibility of
finding subsistence within the pale to which it is sought to confine
them. The immigration of these people to the United States--many other
countries being closed to them--is largely increasing and is likely
to assume proportions which may make it difficult to find homes and
employment for them here and to seriously affect the labor market. It is
estimated that over 1,000,000 will be forced from Russia within a few
years. The Hebrew is never a beggar; he has always kept the law--life by
toil--often under severe and oppressive civil restrictions. It is also
true that no race, sect, or class has more fully cared for its own than
the Hebrew race. But the sudden transfer of such a multitude under
conditions that tend to strip them of their small accumulations and to
depress their energies and courage is neither good for them nor for us.

The banishment, whether by direct decree or by not less certain indirect
methods, of so large a number of men and women is not a local question.
A decree to leave one country is in the nature of things an order to
enter another--some other. This consideration, as well as the suggestion
of humanity, furnishes ample ground for the remonstrances which we have
presented to Russia, while our historic friendship for that Government
can not fail to give the assurance that our representations are those of
a sincere wellwisher.

The annual report of the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua shows that
much costly and necessary preparatory work has been done during the year
in the construction of shops, railroad tracks, and harbor piers and
breakwaters, and that the work of canal construction has made some
progress.

I deem it to be a matter of the highest concern to the United States
that this canal, connecting the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans and giving to us a short water communication between our ports
upon those two great seas, should be speedily constructed and at the
smallest practicable limit of cost. The gain in freights to the people
and the direct saving to the Government of the United States in the use
of its naval vessels would pay the entire cost of this work within a
short series of years. The report of the Secretary of the Navy shows the
saving in our naval expenditures which would result.

The Senator from Alabama (Mr. Morgan) in his argument upon this subject
before the Senate at the last session did not overestimate the
importance of this work when he said that "the canal is the most
important subject now connected with the commercial growth and progress
of the United States."

If this work is to be promoted by the usual financial methods
and without the aid of this Government, the expenditures in its
interest-bearing securities and stock will probably be twice the actual
cost. This will necessitate higher tolls and constitute a heavy and
altogether needless burden upon our commerce and that of the world.
Every dollar of the bonds and stock of the company should represent a
dollar expended in the legitimate and economical prosecution of the
work. This is only possible by giving to the bonds the guaranty of the
United States Government. Such a guaranty would secure the ready sale at
par of a 3 per cent bond from time to time as the money was needed. I do
not doubt that built upon these business methods the canal would when
fully inaugurated earn its fixed charges and operating expenses. But if
its bonds are to be marketed at heavy discounts and every bond sold is
to be accompanied by a gift of stock, as has come to be expected by
investors in such enterprises, the traffic will be seriously burdened to
pay interest and dividends. I am quite willing to recommend Government
promotion in the prosecution of a work which, if no other means offered
for securing its completion, is of such transcendent interest that the
Government should, in my opinion, secure it by direct appropriations
from its Treasury.

A guaranty of the bonds of the canal company to an amount necessary
to the completion of the canal could, I think, be so given as not to
involve any serious risk of ultimate loss. The things to be carefully
guarded are the completion of the work within the limits of the
guaranty, the subrogation of the United States to the rights of the
first-mortgage bondholders for any amounts it may have to pay, and in
the meantime a control of the stock of the company as a security against
mismanagement and loss. I most sincerely hope that neither party nor
sectional lines will be drawn upon this great American project, so full
of interest to the people of all our States and so influential in its
effects upon the prestige and prosperity of our common country.

The island of Navassa, in the West Indian group, has, under the
provisions of Title VII of the Revised Statutes, been recognized by
the President as appertaining to the United States. It contains guano
deposits, is owned by the Navassa Phosphate Company, and is occupied
solely by its employees. In September, 1889, a revolt took place among
these laborers, resulting in the killing of some of the agents of the
company, caused, as the laborers claimed, by cruel treatment. These men
were arrested and tried in the United States court at Baltimore, under
section 5576 of the statute referred to, as if the offenses had been
committed on board a merchant vessel of the United States on the high
seas. There appeared on the trial and otherwise came to me such
evidences of the bad treatment of the men that in consideration of this
and of the fact that the men had no access to any public officer or
tribunal for protection or the redress of their wrongs I commuted the
death sentences that had been passed by the court upon three of them.
In April last my attention was again called to this island and to the
unregulated condition of things there by a letter from a colored
laborer, who complained that he was wrongfully detained upon the island
by the phosphate company after the expiration of his contract of
service. A naval vessel was sent to examine into the case of this man
and generally into the condition of things on the island. It was found
that the laborer referred to had been detained beyond the contract limit
and that a condition of revolt again existed among the laborers. A board
of naval officers reported, among other things, as follows:

  We would desire to state further that the discipline maintained on the
  island seems to be that of a convict establishment without its comforts
  and cleanliness, and that until more attention is paid to the shipping
  of laborers by placing it under Government supervision to prevent
  misunderstanding and misrepresentation, and until some amelioration is
  shown in the treatment of the laborers, these disorders will be of
  constant occurrence.


I recommend legislation that shall place labor contracts upon this and
other islands having the relation that Navassa has to the United States
under the supervision of a court commissioner, and that shall provide
at the expense of the owners an officer to reside upon the island, with
power to judge and adjust disputes and to enforce a just and humane
treatment of the employees. It is inexcusable that American laborers
should be left within our own jurisdiction without access to any
Government officer or tribunal for their protection and the redress of
their wrongs.

International copyright has been secured, in accordance with the
conditions of the act of March 3, 1891, with Belgium, France, Great
Britain and the British possessions, and Switzerland, the laws of those
countries permitting to our citizens the benefit of copyright on
substantially the same basis as to their own citizens or subjects.

With Germany a special convention has been negotiated upon this subject
which will bring that country within the reciprocal benefits of our
legislation.

The general interest in the operations of the Treasury Department has
been much augmented during the last year by reason of the conflicting
predictions, which accompanied and followed the tariff and other
legislation of the last Congress affecting the revenues, as to the
results of this legislation upon the Treasury and upon the country. On
the one hand it was contended that imports would so fall off as to leave
the Treasury bankrupt and that the prices of articles entering into the
living of the people would be so enhanced as to disastrously affect
their comfort and happiness, while on the other it was argued that the
loss to the revenue, largely the result of placing sugar on the free
list, would be a direct gain to the people; that the prices of the
necessaries of life, including those most highly protected, would not be
enhanced; that labor would have a larger market and the products of the
farm advanced prices, while the Treasury surplus and receipts would be
adequate to meet the appropriations, including the large exceptional
expenditures for the refunding to the States of the direct tax and the
redemption of the 4-1/2 per cent bonds.

It is not my purpose to enter at any length into a discussion of
the effects of the legislation to which I have referred; but a brief
examination of the statistics of the Treasury and a general glance at
the state of business throughout the country will, I think, satisfy
any impartial inquirer that its results have disappointed the evil
prophecies of its opponents and in a large measure realized the hopeful
predictions of its friends. Rarely, if ever before, in the history of
the country has there been a time when the proceeds of one day's labor
or the product of one farmed acre would purchase so large an amount of
those things that enter into the living of the masses of the people.
I believe that a full test will develop the fact that the tariff act of
the Fifty-first Congress is very favorable in its average effect upon
the prices of articles entering into common use.

During the twelve months from October 1, 1890, to September 30, 1891,
the total value of our foreign commerce (imports and exports combined)
was $1,747,806,406, which was the largest of any year in the history of
the United States. The largest in any previous year was in 1890, when
our commerce amounted to $1,647,139,093, and the last year exceeds this
enormous aggregate by over one hundred millions. It is interesting,
and to some will be surprising, to know that during the year ending
September 30, 1891, our imports of merchandise amounted to $824,715,270.
which was an increase of more than $11,000,000 over the value of the
imports of the corresponding months of the preceding year, when the
imports of merchandise were unusually large in anticipation of the
tariff legislation then pending. The average annual value of the imports
of merchandise for the ten years from 1881 to 1890 was $692,186,522, and
during the year ending September 30, 1891, this annual average was
exceeded by $132,528,469.

The value of free imports during the twelve months ending September 30,
1891, was $118,092,387 more than the value of free imports during the
corresponding twelve months of the preceding year, and there was during
the same period a decrease of $106,846,508 in the value of imports of
dutiable merchandise. The percentage of merchandise admitted free of
duty during the year to which I have referred, the first under the new
tariff, was 48.18, while during the preceding twelve months, under the
old tariff, the percentage was 34.27, an increase of 13.91 per cent.
If we take the six months ending September 30 last, which covers the
time during which sugars have been admitted free of duty, the per cent
of value of merchandise imported free of duty is found to be 55.37,
which is a larger percentage of free imports than during any prior
fiscal year in the history of the Government.

If we turn to exports of merchandise, the statistics are full of
gratification. The value of such exports of merchandise for the twelve
months ending September 30, 1891, was $923,091,136, while for the
corresponding previous twelve months it was $860,177,115, an increase
of $62,914,021, which is nearly three times the average annual increase
of exports of merchandise for the preceding twenty years. This exceeds
in amount and value the exports of merchandise during any year in the
history of the Government. The increase in the value of exports of
agricultural products during the year referred to over the corresponding
twelve months of the prior year was $45,846,197, while the increase in
the value of exports of manufactured products was $16,838,240.

There is certainly nothing in the condition of trade, foreign or
domestic, there is certainly nothing in the condition of our people of
any class, to suggest that the existing tariff and revenue legislation
bears oppressively upon the people or retards the commercial development
of the nation. It may be argued that our condition would be better if
tariff legislation were upon a free-trade basis; but it can not be
denied that all the conditions of prosperity and of general contentment
are present in a larger degree than ever before in our history, and
that, too, just when it was prophesied they would be in the worst state.
Agitation for radical changes in tariff and financial legislation can
not help but may seriously impede business, to the prosperity of which
some degree of stability in legislation is essential.

I think there are conclusive evidences that the new tariff has created
several great industries, which will within a few years give employment
to several hundred thousand American working men and women. In view of
the somewhat overcrowded condition of the labor market of the United
States, every patriotic citizen should rejoice at such a result.

The report of the Secretary of the Treasury shows that the total
receipts of the Government from all sources for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1891, were $458,544,233.03, while the expenditures for the same
period were $421,304,470.46, leaving a surplus of $37,239,762.57.

The receipts of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, actual and
estimated, are $433,000,000 and the expenditures $409,000,000. For the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1893, the estimated receipts are
$455,336,350 and the expenditures $441,300,093.

Under the law of July 14, 1890, the Secretary of the Treasury has
purchased (since August 13) during the fiscal year 48,393,113 ounces of
silver bullion at an average cost of $1.045 per ounce. The highest price
paid during the year was $1.2025 and the lowest $O.9636. In exchange for
this silver bullion there have been issued $50,577,498 of the Treasury
notes authorized by the act. The lowest price of silver reached during
the fiscal year was $O.9636 on April 22, 1891; but on November 1 the
market price was only $O.96, which would give to the silver dollar a
bullion value of 74-1/4 cents.

Before the influence of the prospective silver legislation was felt
in the market silver was worth in New York about $O.955 per ounce.
The ablest advocates of free coinage in the last Congress were most
confident in their predictions that the purchases by the Government
required by the law would at once bring the price of silver to $1.2929
per ounce, which would make the bullion value of a dollar 100 cents and
hold it there. The prophecies of the antisilver men of disasters to
result from the coinage of $2,000,000 per month were not wider of the
mark. The friends of free silver are not agreed, I think, as to the
causes that brought their hopeful predictions to naught. Some facts are
known. The exports of silver from London to India during the first nine
months of this calendar year fell off over 50 per cent, or $17,202,730,
compared with the same months of the preceding year. The exports of
domestic silver bullion from this country, which had averaged for the
last ten years over $17,000,000, fell in the last fiscal year to
$13,797,391, while for the first time in recent years the imports of
silver into this country exceeded the exports by the sum of $2,745,365.
In the previous year the net exports of silver from the United States
amounted to $8,545,455. The production of the United States increased
from 50,000,000 ounces in 1889 to 54,500,000 in 1890. The Government is
now buying and putting aside annually 54,000,000 ounces, which, allowing
for 7,140,000 ounces of new bullion used in the arts, is 6,640,000 more
than our domestic products available for coinage.

I hope the depression in the price of silver is temporary and that a
further trial of this legislation will more favorably affect it. That
the increased volume of currency thus supplied for the use of the people
was needed and that beneficial results upon trade and prices have
followed this legislation I think must be very clear to everyone. Nor
should it be forgotten that for every dollar of these notes issued a
full dollar's worth of silver bullion is at the time deposited in the
Treasury as a security for its redemption. Upon this subject, as upon
the tariff, my recommendation is that the existing laws be given a full
trial and that our business interests be spared the distressing
influence which threats of radical changes always impart. Under existing
legislation it is in the power of the Treasury Department to maintain
that essential condition of national finance as well as of commercial
prosperity--the parity in use of the coined dollars and their paper
representatives. The assurance that these powers would be freely and
unhesitatingly used has done much to produce and sustain the present
favorable business conditions.

I am still of the opinion that the free coinage of silver under existing
conditions would disastrously affect our business interests at home and
abroad. We could not hope to maintain an equality in the purchasing
power of the gold and silver dollar in our own markets, and in foreign
trade the stamp gives no added value to the bullion contained in coins.
The producers of the country, its farmers and laborers, have the highest
interest that every dollar, paper or coin, issued by the Government
shall be as good as any other. If there is one less valuable than
another, its sure and constant errand will be to pay them for their
toil and for their crops. The money lender will protect himself by
stipulating for payment in gold, but the laborer has never been able to
do that. To place business upon a silver basis would mean a sudden and
severe contraction of the currency by the withdrawal of gold and gold
notes and such an unsettling of all values as would produce a commercial
panic. I can not believe that a people so strong and prosperous as ours
will promote such a policy.

The producers of silver are entitled to just consideration, but they
should not forget that the Government is now buying and putting out of
the market what is the equivalent of the entire product of our silver
mines. This is more than they themselves thought of asking two years
ago. I believe it is the earnest desire of a great majority of the
people, as it is mine, that a full coin use shall be made of silver
just as soon as the cooperation of other nations can be secured and a
ratio fixed that will give circulation equally to gold and silver. The
business of the world requires the use of both metals; but I do not see
any prospect of gain, but much of loss, by giving up the present system,
in which a full use is made of gold and a large use of silver, for one
in which silver alone will circulate. Such an event would be at once
fatal to the further progress of the silver movement. Bimetallism is
the desired end, and the true friends of silver will be careful not to
overrun the goal and bring in silver monometallism with its necessary
attendants--the loss of our gold to Europe and the relief of the
pressure there for a larger currency. I have endeavored by the use of
official and unofficial agencies to keep a close observation of the
state of public sentiment in Europe upon this question and have not
found it to be such as to justify me in proposing an international
conference. There is, however, I am sure, a growing sentiment in Europe
in favor of a larger use of silver, and I know of no more effectual way
of promoting this sentiment than by accumulating gold here. A scarcity
of gold in the European reserves will be the most persuasive argument
for the use of silver.

The exports of gold to Europe, which began in February last and
continued until the close of July, aggregated over $70,000,000. The net
loss of gold during the fiscal year was nearly $68,000,000. That no
serious monetary disturbance resulted was most gratifying and gave to
Europe fresh evidence of the strength and stability of our financial
institutions. With the movement of crops the outflow of gold was
speedily stopped and a return set in. Up to December 1 we had recovered
of our gold lost at the port of New York $27,854,000, and it is
confidently believed that during the winter and spring this aggregate
will be steadily and largely increased.

The presence of a large cash surplus in the Treasury has for many years
been the subject of much unfavorable criticism, and has furnished an
argument to those who have desired to place the tariff upon a purely
revenue basis. It was agreed by all that the withdrawal from circulation
of so large an amount of money was an embarrassment to the business of
the country and made necessary the intervention of the Department at
frequent intervals to relieve threatened monetary panics. The surplus on
March 1, 1889, was $183,827,190.29. The policy of applying this surplus
to the redemption of the interest-bearing securities of the United
States was thought to be preferable to that of depositing it without
interest in selected national banks. There have been redeemed since
the date last mentioned of interest-bearing securities $259,079,350,
resulting in a reduction of the annual interest charge of $11,684,675.
The money which had been deposited in banks without interest has been
gradually withdrawn and used in the redemption of bonds.

The result of this policy, of the silver legislation, and of the
refunding of the 4-1/2 per cent bonds has been a large increase of
the money in circulation. At the date last named the circulation was
$1,404,205,896, or $23.03 per capita, while on the 1st day of December,
1891, it had increased to $1,577,262,070, or $24.38 per capita. The
offer of the Secretary of the Treasury to the holders of the 4-1/2 per
cent bonds to extend the time of redemption, at the option of the
Government, at an interest of 2 per cent, was accepted by the holders of
about one-half the amount, and the unextended bonds are being redeemed
on presentation.

The report of the Secretary of War exhibits the results of an
intelligent, progressive, and businesslike administration of a
Department which has been too much regarded as one of mere routine. The
separation of Secretary Proctor from the Department by reason of his
appointment as a Senator from the State of Vermont is a source of great
regret to me and to his colleagues in the Cabinet, as I am sure it will
be to all those who have had business with the Department while under
his charge.

In the administration of army affairs some especially good work has
been accomplished. The efforts of the Secretary to reduce the percentage
of desertions by removing the causes that promoted it have been so
successful as to enable him to report for the last year a lower
percentage of desertion than has been before reached in the history
of the Army. The resulting money saving is considerable, but the
improvement in the morale of the enlisted men is the most valuable
incident of the reforms which have brought about this result.

The work of securing sites for shore batteries for harbor defense and
the manufacture of mortars and guns of high power to equip them have
made good progress during the year. The preliminary work of tests and
plans which so long delayed a start is now out of the way. Some guns
have been completed, and with an enlarged shop and a more complete
equipment at Watervliet the Army will soon be abreast of the Navy in gun
construction. Whatever unavoidable causes of delay may arise, there
should be none from delayed or insufficient appropriations. We shall be
greatly embarrassed in the proper distribution and use of naval vessels
until adequate shore defenses are provided for our harbors.

I concur in the recommendation of the Secretary that the three-battalion
organization be adopted for the infantry. The adoption of a smokeless
powder and of a modern rifle equal in range, precision, and rapidity of
fire to the best now in use will, I hope, not be longer delayed.

The project of enlisting Indians and organizing them into separate
companies upon the same basis as other soldiers was made the subject
of very careful study by the Secretary and received my approval. Seven
companies have been completely organized and seven more are in process
of organization. The results of six months' training have more than
realized the highest anticipations. The men are readily brought under
discipline, acquire the drill with facility, and show great pride in the
right discharge of their duty and perfect loyalty to their officers,
who declare that they would take them into action with confidence. The
discipline, order, and cleanliness of the military posts will have a
wholesome and elevating influence upon the men enlisted, and through
them upon their tribes, while a friendly feeling for the whites and
a greater respect for the Government will certainly be promoted.

The great work done in the Record and Pension Division of the War
Department by Major Ainsworth, of the Medical Corps, and the clerks
under him is entitled to honorable mention. Taking up the work with
nearly 41,000 cases behind, he closed the last fiscal year without a
single case left over, though the new cases had increased 52 per cent
in number over the previous year by reason of the pension legislation
of the last Congress.

I concur in the recommendation of the Attorney-General that the right in
felony cases to a review by the Supreme Court be limited. It would seem
that personal liberty would have a safe guaranty if the right of review
in cases involving only fine and imprisonment were limited to the
circuit court of appeals, unless a constitutional question should in
some way be involved.

The judges of the Court of Private Land Claims, provided for by the act
of March 3, 1891, have been appointed and the court organized. It is now
possible to give early relief to communities long repressed in their
development by unsettled land titles and to establish the possession and
right of settlers whose lands have been rendered valueless by adverse
and unfounded claims.

The act of July 9, 1888, provided for the incorporation and management
of a reform school for girls in the District of Columbia; but it has
remained inoperative for the reason that no appropriation has been made
for construction or maintenance. The need of such an institution is very
urgent. Many girls could be saved from depraved lives by the wholesome
influences and restraints of such a school. I recommend that the
necessary appropriation be made for a site and for construction.

The enforcement by the Treasury Department of the law prohibiting the
coming of Chinese to the United States has been effective as to such as
seek to land from vessels entering our ports. The result has been to
divert the travel to vessels entering the ports of British Columbia,
whence passage into the United States at obscure points along the
Dominion boundary is easy. A very considerable number of Chinese
laborers have during the past year entered the United States from
Canada and Mexico.

The officers of the Treasury Department and of the Department of Justice
have used every means at their command to intercept this immigration;
but the impossibility of perfectly guarding our extended frontier is
apparent. The Dominion government collects a head tax of $50 from every
Chinaman entering Canada, and thus derives a considerable revenue from
those who only use its ports to reach a position of advantage to evade
our exclusion laws. There seems to be satisfactory evidence that the
business of passing Chinamen through Canada to the United States is
organized and quite active. The Department of Justice has construed the
laws to require the return of any Chinaman found to be unlawfully in
this country to China as the country from which he came, notwithstanding
the fact that he came by way of Canada; but several of the district
courts have in cases brought before them overruled this view of the
law and decided that such persons must be returned to Canada. This
construction robs the law of all effectiveness, even if the decrees
could be executed, for the men returned can the next day recross our
border. But the only appropriation made is for sending them back to
China, and the Canadian officials refuse to allow them to reenter
Canada without the payment of the fifty-dollar head tax. I recommend
such legislation as will remedy these defects in the law.

In previous messages I have called the attention of Congress to the
necessity of so extending the jurisdiction of the United States courts
as to make triable therein any felony committed while in the act of
violating a law of the United States. These courts can not have that
independence and effectiveness which the Constitution contemplates so
long as the felonious killing of court officers, jurors, and witnesses
in the discharge of their duties or by reason of their acts as
such is only cognizable in the State courts. The work done by the
Attorney-General and the officers of his Department, even under the
present inadequate legislation, has produced some notable results in
the interest of law and order.

The Attorney-General and also the Commissioners of the District of
Columbia call attention to the defectiveness and inadequacy of the
laws relating to crimes against chastity in the District of Columbia.
A stringent code upon this subject has been provided by Congress for
Utah, and it is a matter of surprise that the needs of this District
should have been so long overlooked.

In the report of the Postmaster-General some very gratifying results are
exhibited and many betterments of the service suggested. A perusal of
the report gives abundant evidence that the supervision and direction
of the postal system have been characterized by an intelligent and
conscientious desire to improve the service. The revenues of the
Department show an increase of over $5,000,000, with a deficiency for
the year 1892 of less than $4,000,000, while the estimate for the year
1893 shows a surplus of receipts over expenditures.

Ocean mail post offices have been established upon the steamers of the
North German Lloyd and Hamburg lines, saving by the distribution on
shipboard from two to fourteen hours' time in the delivery of mail at
the port of entry and often much more than this in the delivery at
interior places. So thoroughly has this system, initiated by Germany and
the United States, evidenced its usefulness that it can not be long
before it is installed upon all the great ocean mail-carrying
steamships.

Eight thousand miles of new postal service has been established upon
railroads, the car distribution to substations in the great cities has
been increased about 12 per cent, while the percentage of errors in
distribution has during the past year been reduced over one-half. An
appropriation was given by the last Congress for the purpose of making
some experiments in free delivery in the smaller cities and towns.
The results of these experiments have been so satisfactory that the
Postmaster-General recommends, and I concur in the recommendation,
that the free-delivery system be at once extended to towns of 5,000
population. His discussion of the inadequate facilities extended under
our present system to rural communities and his suggestions with a view
to give these communities a fuller participation in the benefits of the
postal service are worthy of your careful consideration. It is not just
that the farmer, who receives his mail at a neighboring town, should
not only be compelled to send to the post-office for it, but to pay a
considerable rent for a box in which to place it or to wait his turn at
a general-delivery window, while the city resident has his mail brought
to his door. It is stated that over 54,000 neighborhoods are under the
present system receiving mail at post-offices where money orders and
postal notes are not issued. The extension of this system to these
communities is especially desirable, as the patrons of such offices
are not possessed of the other facilities offered in more populous
communities for the transmission of small sums of money.

I have in a message to the preceding Congress expressed my views
as to a modified use of the telegraph in connection with the postal
service.[23] In pursuance of the ocean mail law of March 3, 1891, and
after a most careful study of the whole subject and frequent conferences
with shipowners, boards of trade, and others, advertisements were issued
by the Postmaster-General for 53 lines of ocean mail service--10 to
Great Britain and the Continent, 27 to South America, 3 to China and
Japan, 4 to Australia and the Pacific islands, 7 to the West Indies,
and 2 to Mexico. It was not, of course, expected that bids for all
these lines would be received or that service upon them all would be
contracted for. It was intended, in furtherance of the act, to secure as
many new lines as possible, while including in the list most or all of
the foreign lines now occupied by American ships. It was hoped that a
line to England and perhaps one to the Continent would be secured; but
the outlay required to equip such lines wholly with new ships of the
first class and the difficulty of establishing new lines in competition
with those already established deterred bidders whose interest had been
enlisted. It is hoped that a way may yet be found of overcoming these
difficulties.

The Brazil Steamship Company, by reason of a miscalculation as to
the speed of its vessels, was not able to bid under the terms of the
advertisement. The policy of the Department was to secure from the
established lines an improved service as a condition of giving to them
the benefits of the law. This in all instances has been attained. The
Postmaster-General estimates that an expenditure in American shipyards
of about $10,000,000 will be necessary to enable the bidders to
construct the ships called for by the service which they have accepted.
I do not think there is any reason for discouragement or for any turning
back from the policy of this legislation. Indeed, a good beginning has
been made, and as the subject is further considered and understood by
capitalists and shipping people new lines will be ready to meet future
proposals, and we may date from the passage of this law the revival of
American shipping interests and the recovery of a fair share of the
carrying trade of the world. We were receiving for foreign postage
nearly $2,000,000 under the old system, and the outlay for ocean mail
service did not exceed $600,000 per annum. It is estimated by the
Postmaster-General that if all the contracts proposed are completed it
will require $247,354 for this year in addition to the appropriation for
sea and inland postage already in the estimates, and that for the next
fiscal year, ending June 30, 1893, there would probably be needed about
$560,000.

The report of the Secretary of the Navy shows a gratifying increase of
new naval vessels in commission. The _Newark, Concord, Bennington_, and
_Miantonomoh_ have been added during the year, with an aggregate of
something more than 11,000 tons. Twenty-four warships of all classes are
now under construction in the navy-yards and private shops; but while
the work upon them is going forward satisfactorily, the completion of
the more important vessels will yet require about a year's time. Some
of the vessels now under construction, it is believed, will be triumphs
of naval engineering. When it is recollected that the work of building
a modern navy was only initiated in the year 1883, that our naval
constructors and shipbuilders were practically without experience in the
construction of large iron or steel ships, that our engine shops were
unfamiliar with great marine engines, and that the manufacture of steel
forgings for guns and plates was almost wholly a foreign industry,
the progress that has been made is not only highly satisfactory, but
furnishes the assurance that the United States will before long attain
in the construction of such vessels, with their engines and armaments,
the same preeminence which it attained when the best instrument of ocean
commerce was the clipper ship and the most impressive exhibit of naval
power the old wooden three-decker man-of-war. The officers of the Navy
and the proprietors and engineers of our great private shops have
responded with wonderful intelligence and professional zeal to the
confidence expressed by Congress in its liberal legislation. We have now
at Washington a gun shop, organized and conducted by naval officers,
that in its system, economy, and product is unexcelled. Experiments with
armor plate have been conducted during the year with most important
results. It is now believed that a plate of higher resisting power than
any in use has been found and that the tests have demonstrated that
cheaper methods of manufacture than those heretofore thought necessary
can be used.

I commend to your favorable consideration the recommendations of the
Secretary, who has, I am sure, given to them the most conscientious
study. There should be no hesitation in promptly completing a navy of
the best modern type large enough to enable this country to display its
flag in all seas for the protection of its citizens and of its extending
commerce. The world needs no assurance of the peaceful purposes of the
United States, but we shall probably be in the future more largely a
competitor in the commerce of the world, and it is essential to the
dignity of this nation and to that peaceful influence which it should
exercise on this hemisphere that its Navy should be adequate both upon
the shores of the Atlantic and of the Pacific.

The report of the Secretary of the Interior shows that a very gratifying
progress has been made in all of the bureaus which make up that complex
and difficult Department.

The work in the Bureau of Indian Affairs was perhaps never so large as
now, by reason of the numerous negotiations which have been proceeding
with the tribes for a reduction of the reservations, with the incident
labor of making allotments, and was never more carefully conducted.
The provision of adequate school facilities for Indian children and the
locating of adult Indians upon farms involve the solution of the "Indian
question." Everything else--rations, annuities, and tribal negotiations,
with the agents, inspectors, and commissioners who distribute and
conduct them--must pass away when the Indian has become a citizen,
secure in the individual ownership of a farm from which he derives his
subsistence by his own labor, protected by and subordinate to the laws
which govern the white man, and provided by the General Government or
by the local communities in which he lives with the means of educating
his children. When an Indian becomes a citizen in an organized State
or Territory, his relation to the General Government ceases in great
measure to be that of a ward; but the General Government ought not at
once to put upon the State or Territory the burden of the education of
his children.

It has been my thought that the Government schools and school buildings
upon the reservations would be absorbed by the school systems of the
States and Territories; but as it has been found necessary to protect
the Indian against the compulsory alienation of his land by exempting
him from taxation for a period of twenty-five years, it would seem to
be right that the General Government, certainly where there are tribal
funds in its possession, should pay to the school fund of the State what
would be equivalent to the local school tax upon the property of the
Indian. It will be noticed from the report of the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs that already some contracts have been made with district schools
for the education of Indian children. There is great advantage, I think,
in bringing the Indian children into mixed schools. This process will
be gradual, and in the meantime the present educational provisions and
arrangements, the result of the best experience of those who have been
charged with this work, should be continued. This will enable those
religious bodies that have undertaken the work of Indian education with
so much zeal and with results so restraining and beneficent to place
their institutions in new and useful relations to the Indian and to his
white neighbors.

The outbreak among the Sioux which occurred in December last is as to
its causes and incidents fully reported upon by the War Department
and the Department of the Interior. That these Indians had some
just complaints, especially in the matter of the reduction of the
appropriation for rations and in the delays attending the enactment of
laws to enable the Department to perform the engagements entered into
with them, is probably true; but the Sioux tribes are naturally warlike
and turbulent, and their warriors were excited by their medicine men
and chiefs, who preached the coming of an Indian messiah who was to
give them power to destroy their enemies. In view of the alarm that
prevailed among the white settlers near the reservation and of the fatal
consequences that would have resulted from an Indian incursion, I placed
at the disposal of General Miles, commanding the Division of the
Missouri, all such forces as were thought by him to be required. He
is entitled to the credit of having given thorough protection to the
settlers and of bringing the hostiles into subjection with the least
possible loss of life.

The appropriation of $2,991,450 for the Choctaws and Chickasaws
contained in the general Indian appropriation bill of March 3, 1891, has
not been expended, for the reason that I have not yet approved a release
(to the Government) of the Indian claim to the lands mentioned. This
matter will be made the subject of a special message, placing before
Congress all the facts which have come to my knowledge.

The relation of the Five Civilized Tribes now occupying the Indian
Territory to the United States is not, I believe, that best calculated
to promote the highest advancement of these Indians. That there should
be within our borders five independent states having no relations,
except those growing out of treaties, with the Government of the United
States, no representation in the National Legislature, its people not
citizens, is a startling anomaly.

It seems to me to be inevitable that there shall be before long some
organic changes in the relation of these people to the United States.
What form these changes should take I do not think it desirable now to
suggest, even if they were well defined in my own mind. They should
certainly involve the acceptance of citizenship by the Indians and a
representation in Congress. These Indians should have opportunity to
present their claims and grievances upon the floor rather than, as now,
in the lobby. If a commission could be appointed to visit these tribes
to confer with them in a friendly spirit upon this whole subject, even
if no agreement were presently reached the feeling of the tribes upon
this question would be developed, and discussion would prepare the way
for changes which must come sooner or later.

The good work of reducing the larger Indian reservations by allotments
in severalty to the Indians and the cession of the remaining lands to
the United States for disposition under the homestead law has been
prosecuted during the year with energy and success. In September last I
was enabled to open to settlement in the Territory of Oklahoma 900,000
acres of land, all of which was taken up by settlers in a single day.
The rush for these lands was accompanied by a great deal of excitement,
but was happily free from incidents of violence.

It was a source of great regret that I was not able to open at the
same time the surplus lands of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Reservation,
amounting to about 3,000,000 acres, by reason of the insufficiency of
the appropriation for making the allotments. Deserving and impatient
settlers are waiting to occupy these lands, and I urgently recommend
that a special deficiency appropriation be promptly made of the small
amount needed, so that the allotments may be completed and the surplus
lands opened in time to permit the settlers to get upon their homesteads
in the early spring.

During the past summer the Cherokee Commission have completed
arrangements with the Wichita, Kickapoo, and Tonkawa tribes whereby, if
the agreements are ratified by Congress, over 800,000 additional acres
will be opened to settlement in Oklahoma.

The negotiations for the release by the Cherokees of their claim to
the Cherokee Strip have made no substantial progress so far as the
Department is officially advised, but it is still hoped that the cession
of this large and valuable tract may be secured. The price which the
commission was authorized to offer--$1.25 per acre--is, in my judgment,
when all the circumstances as to title and the character of the lands
are considered, a fair and adequate one, and should have been accepted
by the Indians.

Since March 4, 1889, about 23,000,000 acres have been separated from
Indian reservations and added to the public domain for the use of those
who desired to secure free homes under our beneficent laws. It is
difficult to estimate the increase of wealth which will result from the
conversion of these waste lands into farms, but it is more difficult
to estimate the betterment which will result to the families that have
found renewed hope and courage in the ownership of a home and the
assurance of a comfortable subsistence under free and healthful
conditions. It is also gratifying to be able to feel, as we may, that
this work has proceeded upon lines of justice toward the Indian, and
that he may now, if he will, secure to himself the good influences of
a settled habitation, the fruits of industry, and the security of
citizenship.

Early in this Administration a special effort was begun to bring up the
work of the General Land Office. By faithful work the arrearages have
been rapidly reduced. At the end of the last fiscal year only 84,172
final agricultural entries remained undisposed of, and the Commissioner
reports that with the present force the work can be fully brought up by
the end of the next fiscal year.

Your attention is called to the difficulty presented by the Secretary
of the Interior as to the administration of the law of March 3, 1891,
establishing a Court of Private Land Claims. The small holdings intended
to be protected by the law are estimated to be more than 15,000 in
number. The claimants are a most deserving class and their titles are
supported by the strongest equities. The difficulty grows out of the
fact that the lands have largely been surveyed according to our methods,
while the holdings, many of which have been in the same family for
generations, are laid out in narrow strips a few rods wide upon a stream
and running back to the hills for pasturage and timber. Provision should
be made for numbering these tracts as lots and for patenting them by
such numbers and without reference to section lines.

The administration of the Pension Bureau has been characterized during
the year by great diligence. The total number of pensioners upon the
roll on the 30th day of June, 1891, was 676,160. There were allowed
during the fiscal year ending at that time 250,565 cases. Of this number
102,387 were allowed under the law of June 27, 1890. The issuing of
certificates has been proceeding at the rate of about 30,000 per month,
about 75 per cent of these being cases under the new law. The
Commissioner expresses the opinion that he will be able to carefully
adjudicate and allow 350,000 claims during the present fiscal year. The
appropriation for the payment of pensions for the fiscal year 1890-91
was $127,685,793.89 and the amount expended $118,530,649.25, leaving an
unexpended surplus of $9,155,144.64.

The Commissioner is quite confident that there will be no call this year
for a deficiency appropriation, notwithstanding the rapidity with which
the work is being pushed. The mistake which has been made by many in
their exaggerated estimates of the cost of pensions is in not taking
account of the diminished value of first payments under the recent
legislation. These payments under the general law have been for many
years very large, as the pensions when allowed dated from the time of
filing the claim, and most of these claims had been pending for years.
The first payments under the law of June, 1890, are relatively small,
and as the per cent of these cases increases and that of the old cases
diminishes the annual aggregate of first payments is largely reduced.
The Commissioner, under date of November 13, furnishes me with the
statement that during the last four months 113,175 certificates were
issued, 27,893 under the general law and 85,282 under the act of June
27, 1890. The average first payment during these four months was
$131.85, while the average first payment upon cases allowed during the
year ending June 30, 1891, was $239.33, being a reduction in the average
first payments during these four months of $107.48.

The estimate for pension expenditures for the fiscal year ending June
30, 1893, is $144,956,000, which, after a careful examination of the
subject, the Commissioner is of the opinion will be sufficient. While
these disbursements to the disabled soldiers of the great Civil War are
large, they do not realize the exaggerated estimates of those who oppose
this beneficent legislation. The Secretary of the Interior shows with
great fullness the care that is taken to exclude fraudulent claims, and
also the gratifying fact that the persons to whom these pensions are
going are men who rendered not slight but substantial war service.

The report of the Commissioner of Railroads shows that the total debt of
the subsidized railroads to the United States was on December 31, 1890,
$112,512,613.06. A large part of this debt is now fast approaching
maturity, with no adequate provision for its payment. Some policy for
dealing with this debt with a view to its ultimate collection should be
at once adopted. It is very difficult, well-nigh impossible, for so
large a body as the Congress to conduct the necessary negotiations and
investigations. I therefore recommend that provision be made for the
appointment of a commission to agree upon and report a plan for dealing
with this debt.

The work of the Census Bureau is now far in advance and the great bulk
of the enormous labor involved completed. It will be more strictly a
statistical exhibit and less encumbered by essays than its immediate
predecessors. The methods pursued have been fair, careful, and
intelligent, and have secured the approval of the statisticians who
have followed them with a scientific and nonpartisan interest. The
appropriations necessary to the early completion and publication of the
authorized volumes should be given in time to secure against delays,
which increase the cost and at the same time diminish the value of
the work.

The report of the Secretary exhibits with interesting fullness the
condition of the Territories. They have shared with the States the great
increase in farm products, and are bringing yearly large areas into
cultivation by extending their irrigating canals. This work is being
done by individuals or local corporations and without that system which
a full preliminary survey of the water supply and of the irrigable lands
would enable them to adopt. The future of the Territories of New Mexico,
Arizona, and Utah in their material growth and in the increase,
independence, and happiness of their people is very largely dependent
upon wise and timely legislation, either by Congress or their own
legislatures, regulating the distribution of the water supply furnished
by their streams. If this matter is much longer neglected, private
corporations will have unrestricted control of one of the elements of
life and the patentees of the arid lands will be tenants at will of the
water companies.

The United States should part with its ownership of the water sources
and the sites for reservoirs, whether to the States and Territories or
to individuals or corporations, only upon conditions that will insure to
the settlers their proper water supply upon equal and reasonable terms.
In the Territories this whole subject is under the full control of
Congress, and in the States it is practically so as long as the
Government holds the title to the reservoir sites and water sources
and can grant them upon such conditions as it chooses to impose. The
improvident granting of franchises of enormous value without recompense
to the State or municipality from which they proceed and without proper
protection of the public interests is the most noticeable and flagrant
evil of modern legislation. This fault should not be committed in
dealing with a subject that will before many years affect so vitally
thousands of our people.

The legislation of Congress for the repression of polygamy has, after
years of resistance on the part of the Mormons, at last brought them to
the conclusion that resistance is unprofitable and unavailing. The power
of Congress over this subject should not be surrendered until we have
satisfactory evidence that the people of the State to be created would
exercise the exclusive power of the State over this subject in the same
way. The question is not whether these people now obey the laws of
Congress against polygamy, but rather would they make, enforce, and
maintain such laws themselves if absolutely free to regulate the
subject? We can not afford to experiment with this subject, for
when a State is once constituted the act is final and any mistake
irretrievable. No compact in the enabling act could, in my opinion,
be binding or effective.

I recommend that provision be made for the organization of a simple form
of town government in Alaska, with power to regulate such matters as
are usually in the States under municipal control. These local civil
organizations will give better protection in some matters than the
present skeleton Territorial organization. Proper restrictions as to
the power to levy taxes and to create debt should be imposed.

If the establishment of the Department of Agriculture was regarded by
anyone as a mere concession to the unenlightened demand of a worthy
class of people, that impression has been most effectually removed by
the great results already attained. Its home influence has been very
great in disseminating agricultural and horticultural information,
in stimulating and directing a further diversification of crops, in
detecting and eradicating diseases of domestic animals, and, more than
all, in the close and informal contact which it has established and
maintains with the farmers and stock raisers of the whole country. Every
request for information has had prompt attention and every suggestion
merited consideration. The scientific corps of the Department is of a
high order and is pushing its investigations with method and enthusiasm.

The inspection by this Department of cattle and pork products intended
for shipment abroad has been the basis of the success which has attended
our efforts to secure the removal of the restrictions maintained by the
European Governments.

For ten years protests and petitions upon this subject from the packers
and stock raisers of the United States have been directed against these
restrictions, which so seriously limited our markets and curtailed the
profits of the farm. It is a source of general congratulation that
success has at last been attained, for the effects of an enlarged
foreign market for these meats will be felt not only by the farmer, but
in our public finances and in every branch of trade. It is particularly
fortunate that the increased demand for food products resulting from the
removal of the restrictions upon our meats and from the reciprocal trade
arrangements to which I have referred should have come at a time when
the agricultural surplus is so large. Without the help thus derived
lower prices would have prevailed. The Secretary of Agriculture
estimates that the restrictions upon the importation of our pork
products into Europe lost us a market for $20,000,000 worth of these
products annually.

The grain crop of this year was the largest in our history--50 per cent
greater than that of last year--and yet the new markets that have been
opened and the larger demand resulting from short crops in Europe have
sustained prices to such an extent that the enormous surplus of meats
and breadstuffs will be marketed at good prices, bringing relief and
prosperity to an industry that was much depressed. The value of the
grain crop of the United States is estimated by the Secretary to be
this year $500,000,000 more than last; of meats $150,000,000 more, and
of all products of the farm $700,000,000 more. It is not inappropriate,
I think, here to suggest that our satisfaction in the contemplation of
this marvelous addition to the national wealth is unclouded by any
suspicion of the currency by which it is measured and in which the
farmer is paid for the products of his fields.

The report of the Civil Service Commission should receive the careful
attention of the opponents as well as the friends of this reform. The
Commission invites a personal inspection by Senators and Representatives
of its records and methods, and every fair critic will feel that such
an examination should precede a judgment of condemnation either of the
system or its administration. It is not claimed that either is perfect,
but I believe that the law is being executed with impartiality and that
the system is incomparably better and fairer than that of appointments
upon favor. I have during the year extended the classified service to
include superintendents, teachers, matrons, and physicians in the Indian
service. This branch of the service is largely related to educational
and philanthropic work and will obviously be the better for the change.

The heads of the several Executive Departments have been directed to
establish at once an efficiency record as the basis of a comparative
rating of the clerks within the classified service, with a view to
placing promotions therein upon the basis of merit. I am confident
that such a record, fairly kept and open to the inspection of those
interested, will powerfully stimulate the work of the Departments and
will be accepted by all as placing the troublesome matter of promotions
upon a just basis.

I recommend that the appropriation for the Civil Service Commission be
made adequate to the increased work of the next fiscal year.

I have twice before urgently called the attention of Congress to the
necessity of legislation for the protection of the lives of railroad
employees, but nothing has yet been done. During the year ending June
30, 1890, 369 brakemen were killed and 7,841 maimed while engaged in
coupling cars. The total number of railroad employees killed during
the year was 2,451 and the number injured 22,390. This is a cruel and
largely needless sacrifice. The Government is spending nearly $1,000,000
annually to save the lives of shipwrecked seamen; every steam vessel
is rigidly inspected and required to adopt the most approved safety
appliances. All this is good. But how shall we excuse the lack of
interest and effort in behalf of this army of brave young men who in our
land commerce are being sacrificed every year by the continued use of
antiquated and dangerous appliances? A law requiring of every railroad
engaged in interstate commerce the equipment each year of a given per
cent of its freight cars with automatic couplers and air brakes would
compel an agreement between the roads as to the kind of brakes and
couplers to be used, and would very soon and very greatly reduce the
present fearful death rate among railroad employees.

The method of appointment by the States of electors of President and
Vice-President has recently attracted renewed interest by reason of a
departure by the State of Michigan from the method which had become
uniform in all the States. Prior to 1832 various methods had been
used by the different States, and even by the same State. In some the
choice was made by the legislature; in others electors were chosen by
districts, but more generally by the voters of the whole State upon a
general ticket. The movement toward the adoption of the last-named
method had an early beginning and went steadily forward among the States
until in 1832 there remained but a single State (South Carolina) that
had not adopted it. That State until the Civil War continued to choose
its electors by a vote of the legislature, but after the war changed its
method and conformed to the practice of the other States. For nearly
sixty years all the States save one have appointed their electors by
a popular vote upon a general ticket, and for nearly thirty years this
method was universal.

After a full test of other methods, without important division or
dissent in any State and without any purpose of party advantage, as
we must believe, but solely upon the considerations that uniformity
was desirable and that a general election in territorial divisions not
subject to change was most consistent with the popular character of our
institutions, best preserved the equality of the voters, and perfectly
removed the choice of President from the baneful influence of the
"gerrymander," the practice of all the States was brought into harmony.
That this concurrence should now be broken is, I think, an unfortunate
and even a threatening episode, and one that may well suggest whether
the States that still give their approval to the old and prevailing
method ought not to secure by a constitutional amendment a practice
which has had the approval of all. The recent Michigan legislation
provides for choosing what are popularly known as the Congressional
electors for President by Congressional districts and the two Senatorial
electors by districts created for that purpose. This legislation was, of
course, accompanied by a new Congressional apportionment, and the two
statutes bring the electoral vote of the State under the influence of
the "gerrymander."

These gerrymanders for Congressional purposes are in most cases
buttressed by a gerrymander of the legislative districts, thus making it
impossible for a majority of the legal voters of the State to correct
the apportionment and equalize the Congressional districts. A minority
rule is established that only a political convulsion can overthrow. I
have recently been advised that in one county of a certain State three
districts for the election of members of the legislature are constituted
as follows: One has 65,000 population, one 15,000, and one 10,000, while
in another county detached, noncontiguous sections have been united to
make a legislative district. These methods have already found effective
application to the choice of Senators and Representatives in Congress,
and now an evil start has been made in the direction of applying them to
the choice by the States of electors of President and Vice-President. If
this is accomplished, we shall then have the three great departments of
the Government in the grasp of the "gerrymander," the legislative and
executive directly and the judiciary indirectly through the power of
appointment.

An election implies a body of electors having prescribed qualifications,
each one of whom has an equal value and influence in determining the
result. So when the Constitution provides that "each State shall
appoint" (elect), "in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct,
a number of electors," etc., an unrestricted power was not given to the
legislatures in the selection of the methods to be used. "A republican
form of government" is guaranteed by the Constitution to each State, and
the power given by the same instrument to the legislatures of the States
to prescribe methods for the choice by the State of electors must be
exercised under that limitation. The essential features of such a
government are the right of the people to choose their own officers and
the nearest practicable equality of value in the suffrages given in
determining that choice.

It will not be claimed that the power given to the legislature would
support a law providing that the persons receiving the smallest vote
should be the electors or a law that all the electors should be chosen
by the voters of a single Congressional district. The State is to
choose, and under the pretense of regulating methods the legislature
can neither vest the right of choice elsewhere nor adopt methods not
conformable to republican institutions. It is not my purpose here to
discuss the question whether a choice by the legislature or by the
voters of equal single districts is a choice by the State, but only to
recommend such regulation of this matter by constitutional amendment as
will secure uniformity and prevent that disgraceful partisan jugglery
to which such a liberty of choice, if it exists, offers a temptation.

Nothing just now is more important than to provide every guaranty for
the absolutely fair and free choice by an equal suffrage within the
respective States of all the officers of the National Government,
whether that suffrage is applied directly, as in the choice of members
of the House of Representatives, or indirectly, as in the choice of
Senators and electors of President. Respect for public officers and
obedience to law will not cease to be the characteristics of our people
until our elections cease to declare the will of majorities fairly
ascertained without fraud, suppression, or gerrymander. If I were
called upon to declare wherein our chief national danger lies, I should
say without hesitation in the overthrow of majority control by the
suppression or perversion of the popular suffrage. That there is a real
danger here all must agree; but the energies of those who see it have
been chiefly expended in trying to fix responsibility upon the opposite
party rather than in efforts to make such practices impossible by either
party.

Is it not possible now to adjourn that interminable and inconclusive
debate while we take by consent one step in the direction of reform by
eliminating the gerrymander, which has been denounced by all parties as
an influence in the selection of electors of President and members of
Congress? All the States have, acting freely and separately, determined
that the choice of electors by a general ticket is the wisest and
safest method, and it would seem there could be no objection to a
constitutional amendment making that method permanent. If a legislature
chosen in one year upon purely local questions should, pending a
Presidential contest, meet, rescind the law for a choice upon a general
ticket, and provide for the choice of electors by the legislature, and
this trick should determine the result, it is not too much to say that
the public peace might be seriously and widely endangered.

I have alluded to the "gerrymander" as affecting the method of selecting
electors of President by Congressional districts, but the primary intent
and effect of this form of political robbery have relation to the
selection of members of the House of Representatives. The power of
Congress is ample to deal with this threatening and intolerable abuse.
The unfailing test of sincerity in election reform will be found in a
willingness to confer as to remedies and to put into force such measures
as will most effectually preserve the right of the people to free and
equal representation.

An attempt was made in the last Congress to bring to bear the
constitutional powers of the General Government for the correction
of fraud against the suffrage. It is important to know whether the
opposition to such measures is really rested in particular features
supposed to be objectionable or includes any proposition to give to
the election laws of the United States adequacy to the correction
of grave and acknowledged evils. I must yet entertain the hope that
it is possible to secure a calm, patriotic consideration of such
constitutional or statutory changes as may be necessary to secure
the choice of the officers of the Government to the people by fair
apportionments and free elections.

I believe it would be possible to constitute a commission, nonpartisan
in its membership and composed of patriotic, wise, and impartial men,
to whom a consideration of the question of the evils connected with our
election system and methods might be committed with a good prospect of
securing unanimity in some plan for removing or mitigating those evils.
The Constitution would permit the selection of the commission to be
vested in the Supreme Court if that method would give the best guaranty
of impartiality. This commission should be charged with the duty of
inquiring into the whole subject of the law of elections as related
to the choice of officers of the National Government, with a view to
securing to every elector a free and unmolested exercise of the suffrage
and as near an approach to an equality of value in each ballot cast as
is attainable.

While the policies of the General Government upon the tariff, upon the
restoration of our merchant marine, upon river and harbor improvements,
and other such matters of grave and general concern are liable to be
turned this way or that by the results of Congressional elections and
administrative policies, sometimes involving issues that tend to peace
or war, to be turned this way or that by the results of a Presidential
election, there is a rightful interest in all the States and in every
Congressional district that will not be deceived or silenced by the
audacious pretense that the question of the right of any body of legal
voters in any State or in any Congressional district to give their
suffrages freely upon these general questions is a matter only of local
concern or control. The demand that the limitations of suffrage shall
be found in the law, and only there, is a just demand, and no just man
should resent or resist it. My appeal is and must continue to be for
a consultation that shall "proceed with candor, calmness, and patience
upon the lines of justice and humanity, not of prejudice and cruelty."

To the consideration of these very grave questions I invite not only the
attention of Congress, but that of all patriotic citizens. We must not
entertain the delusion that our people have ceased to regard a free
ballot and equal representation as the price of their allegiance to
laws and to civil magistrates.

I have been greatly rejoiced to notice many evidences of the increased
unification of our people and of a revived national spirit. The vista
that now opens to us is wider and more glorious than ever before.
Gratification and amazement struggle for supremacy as we contemplate
the population, wealth, and moral strength of our country. A trust
momentous in its influence upon our people and upon the world is for
a brief time committed to us, and we must not be faithless to its first
condition--the defense of the free and equal influence of the people in
the choice of public officers and in the control of public affairs.

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 22: See pp. 59-60.]

[Footnote 23: See p. 127.]



SPECIAL MESSAGES.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 16, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for your information, a letter from the Secretary
of State, inclosing the first annual report and copies of the bulletins
of the Bureau of the American Republics.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 23, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith the report of the board appointed by me under a
clause in the District of Columbia appropriation act approved August 6,
1890, "to consider the location, arrangement, and operation of electric
wires in the District of Columbia," etc., to which the attention of
Congress is respectfully invited.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 23, 1891_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

My attention having been called to the necessity of bringing about a
uniform usage and spelling of geographic names in the publications of
the Government, the following Executive order was issued on the 4th day
of September, 1890:

  As it is desirable that uniform usage in regard to geographic
  nomenclature and orthography obtain throughout the Executive
  Departments of the Government, and particularly upon the maps and
  charts issued by the various Departments and bureaus, I hereby
  constitute a Board on Geographic Names and designate the following
  persons, who have heretofore cooperated for a similar purpose under
  the authority of the several Departments, bureaus, and institutions
  with which they are connected, as members of said board:

  Professor Thomas C. Mendenhall, United States Coast and Geodetic
  Survey, chairman.

  Andrew H. Allen, Department of State.

  Captain Henry L. Howison, Light-House Board, Treasury Department.

  Captain Thomas Turtle, Engineer Corps, War Department.

  Lieutenant Richardson Clover, Hydrographic Office, Navy Department.

  Pierson H. Bristow, Post-Office Department.

  Otis T. Mason, Smithsonian Institution.

  Herbert G. Ogden, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.

  Henry Gannett, United States Geological Survey.

  Marcus Baker, United States Geological Survey.

  To this board shall be referred all unsettled questions concerning
  geographic names which arise in the Departments, and the decisions
  of the board are to be accepted by these Departments as the standard
  authority in such matters.

  Department officers are instructed to afford such assistance as may be
  proper to carry on the work of this board.

  The members of this board shall serve without additional compensation
  and its organization shall entail no expense on the Government.


The report of the board thus constituted has been submitted to me, and
is herewith transmitted for the information of Congress and with a view
to its publication in suitable form if such action is deemed by Congress
to be desirable.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 5, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The famine prevailing in some of the Provinces of Russia is so severe
and widespread as to have attracted the sympathetic interest of a
large number of our liberal and favored people. In some of the great
grain-producing States of the West movements have already been organized
to collect flour and meal for the relief of these perishing Russian
families, and the response has been such as to justify the belief that
a ship's cargo can very soon be delivered at the seaboard through the
generous cooperation of the transportation lines. It is most appropriate
that a people whose storehouses have been so lavishly filled with all
the fruits of the earth by the gracious favor of God should manifest
their gratitude by large gifts to His suffering children in other lands.

The Secretary of the Navy has no steam vessel at his disposal that
could be used for the transportation of these supplies, and I therefore
recommend that he be authorized to charter a suitable vessel to receive
them if a sufficient amount should be offered, and to send them under
the charge of a naval officer to such Russian port as may be most
convenient for ready distribution to those most in need.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 6, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 4th instant from the Secretary of the Interior, accompanied by
an agreement concluded by and between the Cherokee Commission and the
Wichita and affiliated bands of Indians in the Territory of Oklahoma,
for the cession of certain lands and for other purposes.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 6, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 4th instant from the Secretary of the Interior, submitting the
agreement entered into between the Indians of the Colville Reservation,
in the State of Washington, and the commissioners appointed under the
provisions of the act of August 19, 1890, to negotiate with them for
the cession of such portion of said reservation as said Indians may be
willing to dispose of, that the same may be opened to white settlement.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 6, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 4th instant from the Secretary of the Interior, accompanied by an
agreement concluded by the Cherokee Commission with the Tonkawa Indians
in Oklahoma Territory, for the cession of all their right, title, claim,
and interest of every kind and character in and to the lands occupied by
them in said Territory, and for other purposes.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 11, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 8th instant from the Secretary of the Interior, submitting the
agreements concluded by and between the Cherokee Commission and the
Kickapoo tribe of Indians in the Territory of Oklahoma, for the cession
of certain lands and for other purposes.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 11, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 4th instant from the Secretary of the Interior, submitting the
agreement entered into between the Indians of the Pyramid Lake
Reservation and the commission appointed under the provisions of the
Indian appropriation act of March 3, 1891, for the cession and
relinquishment of the southern portion of their reservation in the State
of Nevada.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 11 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 4th instant from the Secretary of the Interior, submitting the
agreement entered into between the Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians of the
Shoshone or Wind River Reservation, in the State of Wyoming, and the
commission appointed under the provisions of the Indian appropriation
act of March 3, 1891, for the cession and relinquishment of a portion
of their said reservation.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 18, 1892_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit herewith to the Senate a report of the Secretary of State,
in answer to the resolution of the Senate of the 12th instant, making
inquiries regarding payments of the awards of the claims commission
under the convention of July 4, 1868, between the United States and
Mexico.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 19, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a letter of the Secretary of the Navy, accompanied
by the report of the commission appointed by me by virtue of a provision
in the naval appropriation act approved June 30, 1890, "to select a
suitable site, having due regard to commercial and naval interests, for
a dry dock at some point on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico or the
waters connected therewith."

The Secretary of the Navy approves the recommendations of the
commission, and they are respectfully submitted for the consideration
of the Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In my annual message delivered to Congress at the beginning of the
present session, after a brief statement of the facts then in the
possession of this Government touching the assault in the streets of
Valparaiso, Chile, upon the sailors of the United States steamship
_Baltimore_ on the evening of the 16th of October last, I said:

  This Government is now awaiting the result of an investigation which
  has been conducted by the criminal court at Valparaiso. It is reported
  unofficially that the investigation is about completed, and it is
  expected that the result will soon be communicated to this Government,
  together with some adequate and satisfactory response to the note by
  which the attention of Chile was called to this incident. If these
  just expectations should be disappointed or further needless delay
  intervene, I will by a special message bring this matter again to the
  attention of Congress for such action as may be necessary.


In my opinion the time has now come when I should lay before the
Congress and the country the correspondence between this Government
and the Government of Chile from the time of the breaking out of the
revolution against Balmaceda, together with all other facts in the
possession of the executive department relating to this matter. The
diplomatic correspondence is herewith transmitted, together with some
correspondence between the naval officers for the time in command in
Chilean waters and the Secretary of the Navy, and also the evidence
taken at the Mare Island Navy-Yard since the arrival of the _Baltimore_
at San Francisco. I do not deem it necessary in this communication to
attempt any full analysis of the correspondence or of the evidence.
A brief restatement of the international questions involved and of the
reasons why the responses of the Chilean Government are unsatisfactory
is all that I deem necessary.

It may be well at the outset to say that whatever may have been said
in this country or in Chile in criticism of Mr. Egan, our minister at
Santiago, the true history of this exciting period in Chilean affairs
from the outbreak of the revolution until this time discloses no act on
the part of Mr. Egan unworthy of his position or that could justly be
the occasion of serious animadversion or criticism. He has, I think,
on the whole borne himself in very trying circumstances with dignity,
discretion, and courage, and has conducted the correspondence with
ability, courtesy, and fairness.

It is worth while also at the beginning to say that the right of
Mr. Egan to give shelter in the legation to certain adherents of the
Balmaceda Government who applied to him for asylum has not been denied
by the Chilean authorities, nor has any demand been made for the
surrender of these refugees. That there was urgent need of asylum is
shown by Mr. Egan's note of August 24, 1891, describing the disorders
that prevailed in Santiago, and by the evidence of Captain Schley
as to the pillage and violence that prevailed at Valparaiso. The
correspondence discloses, however, that the request of Mr. Egan for a
safe conduct from the country in behalf of these refugees was denied.
The precedents cited by him in the correspondence, particularly the case
of the revolution in Peru in 1865, did not leave the Chilean Government
in a position to deny the right of asylum to political refugees, and
seemed very clearly to support Mr. Egan's contention that a safe conduct
to neutral territory was a necessary and acknowledged incident of the
asylum. These refugees have very recently, without formal safe conduct,
but by the acquiescence of the Chilean authorities, been placed on
board the _Yorktown_, and are now being conveyed to Callao, Peru.
This incident might be considered wholly closed but for the disrespect
manifested toward this Government by the close and offensive police
surveillance of the legation premises which was maintained during most
of the period of the stay of the refugees therein. After the date of my
annual message, and up to the time of the transfer of the refugees to
the _Yorktown_, the legation premises seemed to have been surrounded by
police in uniform and police agents or detectives in citizen's dress,
who offensively scrutinized persons entering or leaving the legation,
and on one or more occasions arrested members of the minister's family.
Commander Evans, who by my direction recently visited Mr. Egan at
Santiago, in his telegram to the Navy Department described the legation
as "a veritable prison," and states that the police agents or detectives
were after his arrival withdrawn during his stay. It appears further
from the note of Mr. Egan of November 20, 1891, that on one occasion at
least these police agents, whom he declares to be known to him, invaded
the legation premises, pounding upon its windows and using insulting and
threatening language toward persons therein. This breach of the right
of a minister to freedom from police espionage and restraint seems to
have been so flagrant that the Argentine minister, who was dean of
the diplomatic corps, having observed it, felt called upon to protest
against it to the Chilean minister of foreign affairs. The Chilean
authorities have, as will be observed from the correspondence, charged
the refugees and the inmates of the legation with insulting the police;
but it seems to me incredible that men whose lives were in jeopardy and
whose safety could only be secured by retirement and quietness should
have sought to provoke a collision, which could only end in their
destruction, or to aggravate their condition by intensifying a popular
feeling that at one time so threatened the legation as to require Mr.
Egan to appeal to the minister of foreign affairs.

But the most serious incident disclosed by the correspondence is that
of the attack upon the sailors of the _Baltimore_ in the streets of
Valparaiso on the 16th of October last. In my annual message, speaking
upon the information then in my possession, I said:

  So far as I have yet been able to learn, no other explanation of this
  bloody work has been suggested than that it had its origin in hostility
  to those men as sailors of the United States, wearing the uniform of
  their Government, and not in any individual act or personal animosity.


We have now received from the Chilean Government an abstract of the
conclusions of the fiscal general upon the testimony taken by the judge
of crimes in an investigation which was made to extend over nearly three
months. I very much regret to be compelled to say that this report does
not enable me to modify the conclusion announced in my annual message.
I am still of the opinion that our sailors were assaulted, beaten,
stabbed, and killed not for anything they or any one of them had done,
but for what the Government of the United States had done or was charged
with having done by its civil officers and naval commanders. If that be
the true aspect of the case, the injury was to the Government of the
United States, not to these poor sailors who were assaulted in a manner
so brutal and so cowardly.

Before attempting to give an outline of the facts upon which this
conclusion rests I think it right to say a word or two upon the legal
aspect of the case. The _Baltimore_ was in the harbor of Valparaiso by
virtue of that general invitation which nations are held to extend to
the war vessels of other powers with which they have friendly relations.
This invitation, I think, must be held ordinarily to embrace the
privilege of such communication with the shore as is reasonable,
necessary, and proper for the comfort and convenience of the officers
and men of such vessels. Captain Schley testifies that when his vessel
returned to Valparaiso on September 14 the city officers, as is
customary, extended the hospitalities of the city to his officers and
crew. It is not claimed that every personal collision or injury in which
a sailor or officer of such naval vessel visiting the shore may be
involved raises an international question, but I am clearly of the
opinion that where such sailors or officers are assaulted by a resident
populace, animated by hostility to the government whose uniform these
sailors and officers wear and in resentment of acts done by their
government, not by them, their nation must take notice of the event
as one involving an infraction of its rights and dignity, not in a
secondary way, as where a citizen is injured and presents his claim
through his own government, but in a primary way, precisely as if its
minister or consul or the flag itself had been the object of the same
character of assault.

The officers and sailors of the _Baltimore_ were in the harbor of
Valparaiso under the orders of their Government, not by their own
choice. They were upon the shore by the implied invitation of the
Government of Chile and with the approval of their commanding officer;
and it does not distinguish their case from that of a consul that his
stay is more permanent or that he holds the express invitation of the
local government to justify his longer residence. Nor does it affect
the question that the injury was the act of a mob. If there had been
no participation by the police or military in this cruel work and no
neglect on their part to extend protection, the case would still be one,
in my opinion, when its extent and character are considered, involving
international rights. The incidents of the affair are briefly as
follows:

On the 16th of October last Captain Schley, commanding the United States
steamship _Baltimore_, gave shore leave to 117 petty officers and
sailors of his ship. These men left the ship about 1.30 p.m. No incident
of violence occurred, none of our men were arrested, no complaint was
lodged against them, nor did any collision or outbreak occur until about
6 o'clock p.m. Captain Schley states that he was himself on shore and
about the streets of the city until 5.30 p.m.; that he met very many of
his men who were upon leave; that they were sober and were conducting
themselves with propriety, saluting Chilean and other officers as they
met them. Other officers of the ship and Captain Jenkins, of the
merchant ship _Keweenaw_, corroborate Captain Schley as to the general
sobriety and good behavior of our men. The Sisters of Charity at the
hospital to which our wounded men were taken when inquired of stated
that they were sober when received. If the situation had been otherwise,
we must believe that the Chilean police authorities would have made
arrests. About 6 p.m. the assault began, and it is remarkable that the
investigation by the judge of crimes, though so protracted, does not
enable him to give any more satisfactory account of its origin than is
found in the statement that it began between drunken sailors. Repeatedly
in the correspondence it is asserted that it was impossible to learn
the precise cause of the riot. The minister of foreign affairs, Matta,
in his telegram to Mr. Montt under date December 31, states that the
quarrel began between two sailors in a tavern and was continued in the
street, persons who were passing joining in it.

The testimony of Talbot, an apprentice, who was with Riggin, is that
the outbreak in which they were involved began by a Chilean sailor's
spitting in the face of Talbot, which was resented by a knockdown. It
appears that Riggin and Talbot were at the time unaccompanied by others
of their shipmates. These two men were immediately beset by a crowd of
Chilean citizens and sailors, through which they broke their way to a
street car, and entered it for safety. They were pursued, driven from
the car, and Riggin was so seriously beaten that he fell in the street
apparently dead. There is nothing in the report of the Chilean
investigation made to us that seriously impeaches this testimony. It
appears from Chilean sources that almost instantly, with a suddenness
that strongly implies meditation and preparation, a mob, stated by the
police authorities at one time to number 2,000 and at another 1,000,
was engaged in the assault upon our sailors, who are represented as
resisting "with stones, clubs, and bright arms." The report of the
_intendente_ of October 30 states that the fight began at 6 p.m. in
three streets, which are named; that information was received at the
_intendencia_ at 6.15, and that the police arrived on the scene at 6.30,
a full half hour after the assault began. At that time he says that a
mob of 2,000 men had collected, and that for several squares there was
the appearance of a "real battlefield."

The scene at this point is very graphically set before us by the Chilean
testimony. The American sailors, who after so long an examination have
not been found guilty of any breach of the peace so far as the Chilean
authorities are able to discover, unarmed and defenseless, are fleeing
for their lives, pursued by overwhelming numbers, and fighting only to
aid their own escape from death or to succor some mate whose life is in
greater peril. Eighteen of them are brutally stabbed and beaten, while
one Chilean seems from the report to have suffered some injury, but how
serious or with what character of weapon, or whether by a missile thrown
by our men or by some of his fellow-rioters, is unascertained.

The pretense that our men were fighting "with stones, clubs, and bright
arms" is in view of these facts incredible. It is further refuted by the
fact that our prisoners when searched were absolutely without arms, only
seven penknives being found in the possession of the men arrested, while
there were received by our men more than thirty stab wounds, every one
of which was inflicted in the back, and almost every contused wound was
in the back or back of the head; The evidence of the ship's officer of
the day is that even the jackknives of the men were taken from them
before leaving the ship.

As to the brutal nature of the treatment received by our men, the
following extract from the account given of the affair by the La Patria
newspaper, of Valparaiso, of October 17, can not be regarded as too
friendly:

  The Yankees, as soon as their pursuers gave chase, went by way of the
  Calle del Arsenal toward the city car station. In the presence of an
  ordinary number of citizens, among whom were some sailors, the North
  Americans took seats in the street car to escape from the stones which
  the Chileans threw at them. It was believed for an instant that the
  North Americans had saved themselves from popular fury, but such was
  not the case. Scarcely had the car begun to move when a crowd gathered
  around and stopped its progress. Under these circumstances and without
  any cessation of the howling and throwing of stones at the North
  Americans, the conductor entered the car, and, seeing the risk of the
  situation to the vehicle, ordered them to get out. At the instant the
  sailors left the car, in the midst of a hail of stones, the said
  conductor received a stone blow on the head. One of the Yankee sailors
  managed to escape in the direction of the Plaza Wheelright, but the
  other was felled to the ground by a stone. Managing to raise himself
  from the ground where he lay, he staggered in an opposite direction
  from the station. In front of the house of Señor Mazzini he was again
  wounded, falling then senseless and breathless.


No amount of evasion or subterfuge is able to cloud our clear vision
of this brutal work. It should be noticed in this connection that the
American sailors arrested, after an examination, were during the four
days following the arrest every one discharged, no charge of any breach
of the peace or other criminal conduct having been sustained against
a single one of them. The judge of crimes, Foster, in a note to the
_intendente_ under date of October 22, before the dispatch from this
Government of the following day, which aroused the authorities of Chile
to a better sense of the gravity of the affair, says:

  Having presided temporarily over this court in regard to the seamen of
  the United States cruiser _Baltimore_, who have been tried on account
  of the deplorable conduct which took place, etc.


The noticeable point here is that our sailors had been tried before
the 22d of October, and that the trial resulted in their acquittal and
return to their vessel. It is quite remarkable and quite characteristic
of the management of this affair by the Chilean police authorities that
we should now be advised that Seaman Davidson, of the _Baltimore_, has
been included in the indictment, his offense being, so far as I have
been able to ascertain, that he attempted to defend a shipmate against
an assailant who was striking at him with a knife. The perfect
vindication of our men is furnished by this report. One only is found
to have been guilty of criminal fault, and that for an act clearly
justifiable.

As to the part taken by the police in the affair, the case made by Chile
is also far from satisfactory. The point where Riggin was killed is only
three minutes' walk from the police station, and not more than twice
that distance from the _intendencia_; and yet according to their
official report a full half hour elapsed after the assault began before
the police were upon the ground. It has been stated that all but two of
our men have said that the police did their duty. The evidence taken at
Mare Island shows that if such a statement was procured from our men it
was accomplished by requiring them to sign a writing in a language they
did not understand and by the representation that it was a mere
declaration that they had taken no part in the disturbance. Lieutenant
McCrea, who acted as interpreter, says in his evidence that when our
sailors were examined before the court the subject of the conduct of the
police was so carefully avoided that he reported the fact to Captain
Schley on his return, to the vessel.

The evidences of the existence of animosity toward our sailors in
the minds of the sailors of the Chilean navy and of the populace of
Valparaiso are so abundant and various as to leave no doubt in the mind
of anyone who will examine the papers submitted. It manifested itself
in threatening and insulting gestures toward our men as they passed
the Chilean men-of-war in their boats and in the derisive and abusive
epithets with which they greeted every appearance of an American sailor
on the evening of the riot. Captain Schley reports that boats from the
Chilean war ships several times went out of their course to cross the
bows of his boats, compelling them to back water. He complained of the
discourtesy, and it was corrected. That this feeling was shared by men
of higher rank is shown by an incident related by Surgeon Stitt, of
the _Baltimore_. After the battle of Placilla he, with other medical
officers of the war vessels in the harbor, was giving voluntary
assistance to the wounded in the hospitals. The son of a Chilean army
officer of high rank was under his care, and when the father discovered
it he flew into a passion and said he would rather have his son die than
have Americans touch him, and at once had him removed from the ward.
This feeling is not well concealed in the dispatches of the foreign
office, and had quite open expression in the disrespectful treatment of
the American legation. The Chilean boatmen in the bay refused, even for
large offers of money, to return our sailors, who crowded the Mole,
to their ship when they were endeavoring to escape from the city on
the night of the assault. The market boats of the _Baltimore_ were
threatened, and even quite recently the gig of Commander Evans, of
the _Yorktown_, was stoned while waiting for him at the Mole.

The evidence of our sailors clearly shows that the attack was expected
by the Chilean people, that threats had been made against our men, and
that in one case, somewhat early in the afternoon, the keeper of one
house into which some of our men had gone closed his establishment in
anticipation of the attack, which he advised them would be made upon
them as darkness came on.

In a report of Captain Schley to the Navy Department he says:

  In the only interview that I had with Judge Foster, who is
  investigating the case relative to the disturbance, before he was aware
  of the entire gravity of the matter, he informed me that the assault
  upon my men was the outcome of hatred for our people among the lower
  classes because they thought we had sympathized with the Balmaceda
  Government on account of the _Itata_ matter, whether with reason or
  without he could of course not admit; but such he thought was the
  explanation of the assault at that time.


Several of our men sought security from the mob by such complete or
partial changes in their dress as would conceal the fact of their being
seamen of the _Baltimore_, and found it then possible to walk the
streets without molestation. These incidents conclusively establish that
the attack was upon the uniform--the nationality--and not upon the men.

The origin of this feeling is probably found in the refusal of this
Government to give recognition to the Congressional party before it
had established itself, in the seizure of the _Itata_ for an alleged
violation of the neutrality law, in the cable incident, and in the
charge that Admiral Brown conveyed information to Valparaiso of the
landing at Quinteros. It is not my purpose to enter here any defense of
the action of this Government in these matters. It is enough for the
present purpose to say that if there was any breach of international
comity or duty on our part it should have been made the subject of
official complaint through diplomatic channels or for reprisals for
which a full responsibility was assumed. We can not consent that these
incidents and these perversions of the truth shall be used to excite
a murderous attack upon our unoffending sailors and the Government
of Chile go aquit of responsibility. In fact, the conduct of this
Government during the war in Chile pursued those lines of international
duty which we had so strongly insisted upon on the part of other nations
when this country was in the throes of a civil conflict. We continued
the established diplomatic relations with the government in power until
it was overthrown, and promptly and cordially recognized the new
government when it was established. The good offices of this Government
were offered to bring about a peaceful adjustment, and the interposition
of Mr. Egan to mitigate severities and to shelter adherents of the
Congressional party was effective and frequent. The charge against
Admiral Brown is too base to gain credence with anyone who knows his
high personal and professional character.

Recurring to the evidence of our sailors, I think it is shown that there
were several distinct assaults, and so nearly simultaneous as to show
that they did not spread from one point. A press summary of the report
of the fiscal shows that the evidence of the Chilean officials and
others was in conflict as to the place of origin, several places being
named by different witnesses as the locality where the first outbreak
occurred. This if correctly reported shows that there were several
distinct outbreaks, and so nearly at the same time as to cause this
confusion. The La Patria, in the same issue from which I have already
quoted, after describing the killing of Riggin and the fight which from
that point extended to the Mole, says:

  At the same time in other streets of the port the Yankee sailors fought
  fiercely with the people of the town, who believed to see in them
  incarnate enemies of the Chilean navy.


The testimony of Captain Jenkins, of the American merchant ship
_Keweenaw_, which had gone to Valparaiso for repairs, and who was a
witness of some part of the assault upon the crew of the _Baltimore_, is
strongly corroborative of the testimony of our own sailors when he says
that he saw Chilean sentries drive back a seaman seeking shelter upon
a mob that was pursuing him. The officers and men of Captain Jenkins's
ship furnish the most conclusive testimony as to the indignities which
were practiced toward Americans in Valparaiso. When American sailors,
even of merchant ships, can only secure their safety by denying their
nationality, it must be time to readjust our relations with a government
that permits such demonstrations.

As to the participation of the police, the evidence of our sailors shows
that our men were struck and beaten by police officers before and after
arrest, and that one at least was dragged with a lasso about his neck by
a mounted policeman. That the death of Riggin was the result of a rifle
shot fired by a policeman or soldier on duty is shown directly by the
testimony of Johnson, in whose arms he was at the time, and by the
evidence of Charles Langen, an American sailor, not then a member of
the _Baltimore's_ crew, who stood close by and saw the transaction. The
Chilean authorities do not pretend to fix the responsibility of this
shot upon any particular person, but avow their inability to ascertain
who fired it further than that it was fired from a crowd. The character
of the wound as described by one of the surgeons of the _Baltimore_
clearly supports his opinion that it was made by a rifle ball, the
orifice of exit being as much as an inch or an inch and a quarter in
width. When shot the poor fellow was unconscious and in the arms of a
comrade, who was endeavoring to carry him to a neighboring drug store
for treatment. The story of the police that in coming up the street they
passed these men and left them behind them is inconsistent with their
own statement as to the direction of their approach and with their duty
to protect them, and is clearly disproved. In fact Riggin was not behind
but in front of the advancing force, and was not standing in the crowd,
but was unconscious and supported in the arms of Johnson when he was
shot.

The communications of the Chilean Government in relation to this
cruel and disastrous attack upon our men, as will appear from the
correspondence, have not in any degree taken the form of a manly and
satisfactory expression of regret, much less of apology. The event was
of so serious a character that if the injuries suffered by our men had
been wholly the result of an accident in a Chilean port the incident was
grave enough to have called for some public expression of sympathy and
regret from the local authorities. It is not enough to say that the
affair was lamentable, for humanity would require that expression even
if the beating and killing of our men had been justifiable. It is not
enough to say that the incident is regretted, coupled with the statement
that the affair was not of an unusual character in ports where foreign
sailors are accustomed to meet. It is not for a generous and sincere
government to seek for words of small or equivocal meaning in which
to convey to a friendly power an apology for an offense so atrocious
as this. In the case of the assault by a mob in New Orleans upon the
Spanish consulate in 1851, Mr. Webster wrote to the Spanish minister,
Mr. Calderon, that the acts complained of were "a disgraceful and
flagrant breach of duty and propriety," and that his Government "regrets
them as deeply as Minister Calderon or his Government could possibly
do;" that "these acts have caused the President great pain, and he
thinks a proper acknowledgment is due to Her Majesty's Government."
He invited the Spanish consul to return to his post, guaranteeing
protection, and offered to salute the Spanish flag if the consul should
come in a Spanish vessel. Such a treatment by the Government of Chile of
this assault would have been more creditable to the Chilean authorities,
and much less can hardly be satisfactory to a government that values its
dignity and honor.

In our note of October 23 last, which appears in the correspondence,
after receiving the report of the board of officers appointed by Captain
Schley to investigate the affair, the Chilean Government was advised of
the aspect which it then assumed and called upon for any facts in its
possession that might tend to modify the unfavorable impressions which
our report had created. It is very clear from the correspondence that
before the receipt of this note the examination was regarded by the
police authorities as practically closed. It was, however, reopened and
protracted through a period of nearly three months. We might justly have
complained of this unreasonable delay; but in view of the fact that the
Government of Chile was still provisional, and with a disposition to be
forbearing and hopeful of a friendly termination, I have awaited the
report, which has but recently been made.

On the 21st instant I caused to be communicated to the Government of
Chile by the American minister at Santiago the conclusions of this
Government after a full consideration of all the evidence and of every
suggestion affecting this matter, and to these conclusions I adhere.
They were stated as follows:

  First. That the assault is not relieved of the aspect which the early
  information of the event gave to it, viz, that of an attack upon the
  uniform of the United States Navy having its origin and motive in a
  feeling of hostility to this Government, and not in any act of the
  sailors or of any of them.

  Second. That the public authorities of Valparaiso flagrantly failed in
  their duty to protect our men, and that some of the police and of the
  Chilean soldiers and sailors were themselves guilty of unprovoked
  assaults upon our sailors before and after arrest. He [the President]
  thinks the preponderance of the evidence and the inherent probabilities
  lead to the conclusion that Riggin was killed by the police or soldiers.

  Third. That he [the President] is therefore compelled to bring the case
  back to the position taken by this Government in the note of Mr. Wharton
  of October 23 last * * * and to ask for a suitable apology and for some
  adequate reparation for the injury done to this Government.


In the same note the attention of the Chilean Government was called to
the offensive character of a note addressed by Mr. Matta, its minister
of foreign affairs, to Mr. Montt, its minister at this capital, on the
11th ultimo. This dispatch was not officially communicated to this
Government, but as Mr. Montt was directed to translate it and to give
it to the press of the country it seemed to me that it could not pass
without official notice. It was not only undiplomatic, but grossly
insulting to our naval officers and to the executive department, as it
directly imputed untruth and insincerity to the reports of the naval
officers and to the official communications made by the executive
department to Congress. It will be observed that I have notified the
Chilean Government that unless this note is at once withdrawn and an
apology as public as the offense made I will terminate diplomatic
relations.

The request for the recall of Mr. Egan upon the ground that he was not
_persona grata_ was unaccompanied by any suggestion that could properly
be used in support of it, and I infer that the request is based upon
official acts of Mr. Egan which have received the approval of this
Government. But however that may be, I could not consent to consider
such a question until it had first been settled whether our
correspondence with Chile could be conducted upon a basis of mutual
respect.

In submitting these papers to Congress for that grave and patriotic
consideration which the questions involved demand I desire to say that
I am of the opinion that the demands made of Chile by this Government
should be adhered to and enforced. If the dignity as well as the
prestige and influence of the United States are not to be wholly
sacrificed, we must protect those who in foreign ports display the flag
or wear the colors of this Government against insult, brutality, and
death inflicted in resentment of the acts of their Government and not
for any fault of their own. It has been my desire in every way to
cultivate friendly and intimate relations with all the Governments of
this hemisphere. We do not covet their territory. We desire their peace
and prosperity. We look for no advantage in our relations with them
except the increased exchanges of commerce upon a basis of mutual
benefit. We regret every civil contest that disturbs their peace and
paralyzes their development, and are always ready to give our good
offices for the restoration of peace. It must, however, be understood
that this Government, while exercising the utmost forbearance toward
weaker powers, will extend its strong and adequate projection to its
citizens, to its officers, and to its humblest sailor when made the
victims of wantonness and cruelty in resentment not of their personal
misconduct, but of the official acts of their Government.

Upon information received that Patrick Shields, an Irishman and probably
a British subject, but at the time a fireman of the American steamer
_Keweenaw_, in the harbor of Valparaiso for repairs, had been subjected
to personal injuries in that city, largely by the police, I directed the
Attorney-General to cause the evidence of the officers and crew of that
vessel to be taken upon its arrival in San Francisco, and that testimony
is also herewith transmitted. The brutality and even savagery of the
treatment of this poor man by the Chilean police would be incredible if
the evidence of Shields was not supported by other direct testimony and
by the distressing condition of the man himself when he was finally able
to reach his vessel. The captain of the vessel says:

  He came back a wreck, black from his neck to his hips from beating,
  weak and stupid, and is still in a kind of paralyzed condition, and has
  never been able to do duty since.


A claim for reparation has been made in behalf of this man, for while he
was not a citizen of the United States, the doctrine long held by us, as
expressed in the consular regulations, is:

  The principles which are maintained by this Government in regard to
  the protection, as distinguished from the relief, of seamen are well
  settled. It is held that the circumstance that the vessel is American
  is evidence that the seamen on board are such, and in every regularly
  documented merchant vessel the crew will find their protection in the
  flag that covers them.


I have as yet received no reply to our note of the 21st instant, but in
my opinion I ought not to delay longer to bring these matters to the
attention of Congress for such action as may be deemed appropriate.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 23d instant from the Secretary of the Interior, submitting an
extract from the report of the commission appointed under the act of
January 12, 1891, entitled "An act for the relief of the Mission Indians
in the State of California," and other papers relating to the exchange
of lands with private individuals and the purchase of certain lands and
improvements for the use and benefit of the Mission Indians, with draft
of a bill to carry into effect the recommendations of said Mission
Commission.

I have approved the report of the Mission Commission, except as much as
relates to the purchase of lands from and exchange of lands with private
individuals, which is also approved subject to the condition that
Congress shall authorize the same.

The matter is presented with the recommendation for the early and
favorable action of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

Referring to a communication of June 11, 1890, concerning the adoption
by the Committee on Foreign Relations of a resolution respecting the
claim of William Webster against the Government of Great Britain, I
herewith transmit a report of the Secretary of State, with accompanying
documents, showing the action taken under that resolution.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a report of the Secretary of State, with
accompaniments, in relation to the claim of the representatives of the
late Hon. James Crooks, a British subject, against the Government of the
United States for the seizure of the steamer _Lord Nelson_ in 1812.

The favorable action of the Fiftieth and Fifty-first Congresses upon the
bills heretofore introduced for the relief of the claimants makes it
proper that I should recommend it anew for the consideration and final
disposition of the present Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 28, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith additional correspondence between this Government
and the Government of Chile, consisting of a note of M. Montt, the
Chilean minister at this capital, to Mr. Blaine, dated January 23; a
reply of Mr. Blaine thereto of date January 27, and a dispatch from
Mr. Egan, our minister at Santiago, transmitting the response of
Mr. Pereira, the Chilean minister of foreign affairs, to the note of
Mr. Blaine of January 21, which was received by me on the 26th instant.
The note of Mr. Montt to Mr. Blaine, though dated January 23, was not
delivered at the State Department until after 12 o'clock m. of the 25th,
and was not translated and its receipt notified to me until late in the
afternoon of that day.

The response of Mr. Pereira to our note of the 21st withdraws, with
acceptable expressions of regret, the offensive note of Mr. Matta of
the 11th ultimo, and also the request for the recall of Mr. Egan.
The treatment of the incident of the assault upon the sailors of the
_Baltimore_ is so conciliatory and friendly that I am of the opinion
that there is a good prospect that the differences growing out of
that serious affair can now be adjusted upon terms satisfactory to
this Government by the usual methods and without special powers from
Congress. This turn in the affair is very gratifying to me, as I am sure
it will be to the Congress and to our people. The general support of the
efforts of the Executive to enforce the just rights of the nation in
this matter has given an instructive and useful illustration of the
unity and patriotism of our people.

Should it be necessary I will again communicate with Congress upon the
subject.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 2, 1892_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In reply to a resolution of the Senate of the 27th ultimo, requesting
the President "to advise the Senate as to what action, if any, has been
taken ... to cause careful soundings to be made between San Francisco,
Cal., and Honolulu ... for the purpose of determining the practicability
of laying a telegraphic cable between those two points, or between any
point on the Pacific coast and the Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands,"
I inclose herewith a communication from the Secretary of the Navy, dated
January 30, 1892.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 9, 1892_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, in answer to the resolution of the House of
Representatives of the 13th of January last, a report from the Secretary
of State and accompanying papers.[24]

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 24: Correspondence with Spain, Brazil, Salvador, and the
Dominican Republic relative to reciprocal trade relations; copies of
commercial arrangements entered into with those countries; list of
import and export duties imposed by Brazil, Salvador, and the Dominican
Republic, and by Spain with respect to Cuba and Puerto Rico.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 10, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, as required by law, a communication of the 6th
instant from the Secretary of the Interior, with the report of the
Puyallup Indian Commission and accompanying papers.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 16, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

There was passed by the last Congress "An act for the protection of the
lives of the miners in the Territories," which was approved by me on the
3d day of March, 1891. That no appropriation was made to enable me to
carry the act into effect resulted, I suppose, from the fact that it was
passed so late in the session. This law recognizes the necessity of a
responsible public inspection and supervision of the business of mining
in the interest of the miners, and is in line with the legislation of
most of the States.

The work of the miner has its unavoidable incidents of discomfort and
danger, and these should not be increased by the neglect of the owners
to provide every practicable safety appliance. Economies which involve
a sacrifice of human life are intolerable.

I transmit herewith memorials from several hundred miners working in the
coal mines in the Indian Territory, asking for the appointment of an
inspector under the act referred to. The recent frightful disaster at
Krebs, in that Territory, in which sixty-seven miners met a horrible
death, gives urgency to their appeal, and I recommend that a special
appropriation be at once made for the salaries and the necessary
expenses of the inspectors provided for in the law.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 17, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

The Indian appropriation bill which was approved March 3, 1891, contains
the following provision:

  And the sum of $2,991,450 be, and the same is hereby, appropriated,
  out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to pay
  the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations of Indians for all the right, title,
  interest, and claim which said nations of Indians may have in and to
  certain lands now occupied by the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians under
  Executive order, said lands lying south of the Canadian River, and now
  occupied by the said Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians; said lands have
  been ceded in trust by article 3 of the treaty between the United
  States and said Choctaw and Chickasaw nations of Indians which was
  concluded April 28, 1866, and proclaimed on the 10th day of August of
  the same year, and whereof there remains, after deducting allotments as
  provided by said agreement, a residue ascertained by survey to contain
  2,393,160 acres; three-fourths of this appropriation to be paid to such
  person or persons as are or shall be duly authorized by the laws of
  said Choctaw Nation to receive the same, at such time and in such sums
  as directed and required by the legislative authority of said Choctaw
  Nation, and one-fourth of this appropriation to be paid to such person
  or persons as are or shall be duly authorized by the laws of said
  Chickasaw Nation to receive the same, at such times and in such sums as
  directed and required by the legislative authority of said Chickasaw
  Nation; this appropriation to be immediately available and to become
  operative upon the execution by the duly appointed delegates of said
  respective nations specially authorized thereto by law of releases and
  conveyances to the United States of all the right, title, interest, and
  claim of said respective nations of Indians in and to said land (not
  including Greer County, which is now in dispute), in manner and form
  satisfactory to the President of the United States; and said releases
  and conveyances, when fully executed and delivered, shall operate to
  extinguish all claim of every kind and character of said Choctaw and
  Chickasaw nations of Indians in and to the tract of country to which
  said releases and conveyances shall apply.


If this section had been submitted to me as a separate measure,
especially during the closing hours of the session, I should have
disapproved it; but as the Congress was then in its last hours a
disapproval of the general Indian appropriation bill, of which it was a
part, would have resulted in consequences so far-reaching and disastrous
that I felt it my duty to approve the bill. But as a duty was devolved
upon me by the section quoted, viz, the acceptance and approval of the
conveyances provided for, I have felt bound to look into the whole
matter, and in view of the facts which I shall presently mention to
postpone any Executive action until these facts could be submitted to
Congress. Very soon after the passage of the law it came to my knowledge
that the Choctaw Legislature had entered into an agreement with three
citizens of that tribe to pay to them as compensation for procuring this
legislation 25 per cent of any appropriation that might be made by
Congress. The amount to be secured by these three agents under this
agreement out of the three-fourths interest in the appropriation of the
Choctaw Nation is $560,896. I have information that a contract was made
by the Chickasaws to pay about 10 per cent of their one-fourth interest
to the agents and attorneys who represented them.

Within a month after the passage of the law R.J. Ward, one of the
agents, who was to divide with his associates the enormous sum to be
paid by the Choctaws, presented to me an affidavit dated April 4, 1891,
which is herewith submitted. It appears from his statement that the
action of the Choctaw Council in this matter was corruptly influenced
by the execution of certain notes signed by Ward for himself and his
associates in sums varying from $2,500 to $15,000. His associates deny
any knowledge of this, but the giving and existence of these notes is
not refuted. The statement of the two associates of Ward denying any
knowledge or participation in this fraud is also submitted, together
with other papers relating to the matter. Whatever may be the fact as to
the use or nonuse of corrupt methods to secure this legislation from the
Choctaw Council, I do not think the Congress of the United States should
so legislate upon this matter as to give effect to such a contract,
which I am sure must have been unnoticed when the measure was pending.
If the relations of these Indians to the United States are those of a
ward, Congress should protect them from such extortionate exactions.
We can not assume that the expenses and services of a committee of three
persons to represent this claim before Congress should justly assume
such proportions. The making of such a contract seems to convey
implications which I am sure are wholly unjust.

After the passage of the appropriation bill legislation was had by the
Choctaw Nation looking to the completion of the contract made with their
delegates as to the payment of this money; but subsequently, when it
was supposed that this extraordinary arrangement might require me to
bring the matter to the attention of Congress, an act was passed by
the Choctaw General Council, approved October 19, 1891, declaring all
contracts made by the Choctaw delegates with any attorneys in connection
with this appropriation void and of no effect. A copy of this law will
be found with the papers submitted. There has also been submitted to me
an unofficial copy of the opinion of the attorney-general of the Choctaw
Nation holding that this last legislation is unconstitutional and void.
I am of the opinion that if this appropriation is to stand provision
should be made for protecting these tribes against extortionate claims
for compensation in procuring action by Congress. Copies of the several
laws passed by the Choctaw Nation with reference to this matter will
be found in the accompanying papers. It will be noticed that the
distribution proposed is limited to Choctaws by blood, excluding the
freedmen and the white men who have been given full citizenship from any
participation. A protest against this method of distribution has been
filed by a white citizen of the tribe, and also a representation by Hon.
Thomas C. Fletcher, their attorney, on behalf of the freedmen. In view
of the fact that the stipulations of the treaty of 1866 in behalf of
the freedmen of these tribes have not, especially in the case of the
Chickasaws, been complied with, it would seem that the United States
should in a distribution of this money have made suitable provision
in their behalf. The Chickasaws have steadfastly refused to admit the
freedmen to citizenship, as they stipulated to do in the treaty referred
to, and their condition in that tribe and in a lesser degree in the
other strongly calls for the protective intervention of Congress.

After a somewhat careful examination of the question I do not believe
that the lands for which this money is to be paid were, to quote the
language of section 15 of the Indian appropriation bill, already set
out, "ceded in trust by article 3 of the treaty between the United
States and said Choctaw and Chickasaw nations of Indians which was
concluded April 28, 1866," etc. It is agreed that that treaty contained
no express limitation upon the uses to which the United States might put
the territory known as the leased district. The lands were ceded by
terms sufficiently comprehensive to have passed the full title of the
Indians. The limitation upon the use to which the Government might put
them is sought to be found in a provision of the treaty by which the
United States undertook to exclude white settlers and in the expressions
found in the treaties made at the same time with the Creeks and other
tribes of the purpose of the United States to use the lands ceded by
those tribes for the settlement of friendly Indians.

The stipulation as to the exclusion of white settlers might well have
reference solely to the national lands retained by the Choctaw and
Chickasaw tribes, and the reason for the nonincorporation in the treaty
with them of a statement of the purpose of the Government in connection
with the use of the lands is well accounted for by the fact that as
to these lands the Government had already, under the treaty of 1855,
secured the right to use them perpetually for the settlement of friendly
Indians. This was not true as to the lands of the other tribes referred
to. The United States paid to the Choctaws and Chickasaws $300,000, and
the failure to insert the words that are called words of limitation
in this treaty points, I think, clearly to the conclusion that the
commissioners on the part of the Government and the Indians themselves
must have understood that this Government was acquiring something
more than a mere right to settle friendly Indians, which it already
possessed, and something more than the mere release of the right which
the Choctaws and Chickasaws had under the treaty of 1855 to select
locations on these lands if they chose.

Undoubtedly it was the policy of this Government for the time to
hold these and the adjacent lands as Indian country, and many of the
expressions in the proclamations of my predecessors and in the reports
of the Indian Bureau and of the Secretary of the Interior mean this and
nothing more. This is quite different from a conditional title, which
limits the grant to a particular use and works a reinvestment of full
title in the Indian grantors when that use ceases. But those who hold
most strictly that a use for Indian purposes, where it is expressed,
is a limitation of title seem to agree that the United States might
pass a fee absolute to other Indian tribes in the lands ceded for their
occupancy. Certainly it was not intended that in settling friendly
Indians upon these lands the Government was to be restrained in its
policy of allotment and individual ownership. If for an adequate
consideration, by treaty, the United States placed upon these lands
other Indian tribes, it was competent to give them patents in fee for
a certain and agreed reservation. This being so, when the policy of
allotment is put into force the compensation for the unused lands should
certainly go to the occupying tribe, which in the case supposed had paid
a full consideration for the whole reservation.

It will hardly be contended that in such case this Government should
pay twice for the lands. In the appropriation under discussion this
principle is in part recognized, for no claim is made by the Choctaws
and Chickasaws for the lands allotted to the Cheyennes and Arapahoes.
The claim is for unallotted or surplus lands. The case of the Cheyennes
and Arapahoes is this: In consideration of other lands the Government
gave them a treaty reservation in the Cherokee Outlet, but never
perfected it by paying the Cherokees the stipulated price and placing
these Indians upon it. The Cheyennes and Arapahoes declined to go upon
the strip and located themselves farther south, where they now are. The
Government subsequently recognized their right to remain there, and set
apart the lands now being allotted to members of that tribe and the
lands for which payment is now claimed by the Choctaws and Chickasaws as
the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Reservation. I think the United States must be
held to have assented to the substitution of these lands for the treaty
lands in the Cherokee Strip, and that being true, when the reservation
is broken up, as now, by allotments, it would seem that the Cheyennes
and Arapahoes were entitled to be compensated for these surplus lands.
In fact, a commission which has been dealing with the tribes in the
Indian Territory has concluded an arrangement with them by which the
Government pays $1,500,000 for these surplus lands and for the release
of any claim to the Cherokee Strip, so that in fact in this agreement
with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes the Government has paid for the lands
for which payment is now claimed by the Choctaws and Chickasaws.

It should not be forgotten also that the allotment to the Cheyennes and
Arapahoes is still incomplete. The method of calculation which resulted
in stating the claim of the Choctaws and Chickasaws at $2,991,450 is
explained by a letter of Mr. J.S. Standley, one of the Choctaw
delegates, dated April 6, 1891. The agent for the Cheyennes and
Arapahoes wrote Mr. Standley that there were 600 Indians residing upon
the lands south of the Canadian River, and who it was supposed would
take allotments there, and upon this statement the legislation was
based. Now it must be borne in mind that the Cheyennes and Arapahoes
have the right to locate anywhere within their reservation, and that
instead of 600 double that number might have taken their allotments
south of the Canadian River upon these lands. This is not probable, but
a later report indicates that the number will certainly be in excess of
600. If the sum to be paid to the Choctaws and Chickasaws depended
upon a knowledge of the number of acres of unallotted land south of
the Canadian River, it would seem to have been reasonable that the
appropriation should have been delayed until the exact number of acres
taken for allotment had been officially ascertained. This has not yet
been done.

It is right also, I think, that Congress in dealing with this matter
should have the whole question before it, for the declaration of Indian
title contained in this item of appropriation extends to a very large
body of land and will involve very large future appropriations. The
Choctaw and Chickasaw leased district, embracing the lands in the Indian
Territory between the ninety-eighth and one hundredth degrees of west
longitude and extending north and south from the main Canadian River to
the Red River, including Greer County, contains, according to the public
surveys, 7,713,239 acres, or, excluding Greer County, 6,201,663 acres.
This leased district is occupied as follows:

Greer County, by white citizens of Texas, 1,511,576 acres. The United
States is now prosecuting a case in the courts to obtain a judicial
declaration that this county is part of the Indian country. If a
decision should be rendered in its favor, the claim of the Choctaws
and Chickasaws to be paid for these lands at the rate named in this
appropriation would at once be presented.

The Wichita Reservation is also upon the leased lands and is occupied
by the Wichitas, Caddoes, Delawares, and remnants of other tribes by
Department orders, made to depend upon the treaty with the Delawares in
1866 and some other unratified agreements with tribes or fragments of
tribes in 1872. This reservation contains 743,610 acres.

The Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Reservation is occupied by those Indians
under a treaty proclaimed August 25, 1868, which provides that said
district of country "shall be, and the same is hereby, set apart for the
absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the tribes herein named,
and for such friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time
they may be willing (with the consent of the United States) to admit
among them." This reservation contains 2,968,893 acres.

The Cheyennes and Arapahoes, whose surplus lands are to be paid for by
this appropriation, have occupied the country between the Washita and
Canadian rivers, extending west to the one hundredth degree of
longitude. This reservation contains 2,489,160 acres.

I have stated these facts in order that it may be seen what further
appropriations are involved in a settlement for all these lands upon the
basis which Congress has adopted. It does not seem to me to be a wise
policy to deal with this question piecemeal. It would have been better,
if a remnant of title remains in the Choctaws and Chickasaws to the
lands in the leased district, to have settled the whole matter at once.
Under the treaty of 1855 the Choctaws and Chickasaws quitclaimed any
supposed interest of theirs in the lands west of the one hundredth
degree. The boundary between the Louisiana purchase and the Spanish
possessions by our treaty of 1819 with Spain was as to these lands fixed
upon the one hundredth degree of west longitude.

Our treaty with the Choctaws and Chickasaws made in 1820 extended their
grant to the limit of our possessions. It followed, of course, that
these lands were included within the boundaries of the State of Texas
when that State was admitted to the Union, and the release of the
Choctaws and Chickasaws, whatever it was worth, operated for the benefit
of the State of Texas and not of the United States. The lands became
public lands of that State. For the release of this claim and for the
lease of the lands west of the ninety-eighth degree the Government of
the United States paid the sum of $800,000. In the calculations which
have been made to arrive at the basis of the appropriation under
discussion no part of this sum is treated as having been paid for the
lease. I do not think that is just to the United States. It seems
probable that a very considerable part of this consideration must have
related to the leased lands, because these were the lands in which the
Indian title was recognized, and the treaty gave to the United States a
permanent right of occupation by friendly Indians. The sum of $300,000,
paid under the treaty of 1866, is deducted, as I understand, in arriving
at the sum appropriated. It seems to me that a considerable proportion
of the sum of $800,000 previously paid should have been deducted in the
same manner.

I have felt it to be my duty to bring these matters to the attention of
Congress for such action as may be thought advisable.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 24, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the information of Congress, the annual report
of the World's Columbian Commission; a supplementary report of the
same commission, submitted February 16, 1892; the report of the board
appointed by me under section 16 of the act of April 25, 1890, to have
charge of the exhibit to be made by the Executive Departments, the
Smithsonian Institution, the Fish Commission, and the National Museum;
and the report of the board of lady managers, provided for by section
6 of the act referred to.

The information furnished by these reports as to the progress of the
work is not only satisfactory, but highly gratifying. The plan and scope
adopted and the site and buildings selected and now being erected are
fully commensurate with the national and international character of the
enterprise contemplated by the legislation of Congress. The Illinois
corporation has fully complied with the condition of the law that
$10,000,000 should be provided, and the Government commission reports
that "the grounds and buildings will be the most extensive, adequate,
and ornate ever devoted to such purposes." It seems, however, that from
five to eight millions of dollars more will, in the opinion of the
local board and the national commission, be necessary to prepare the
exposition for a complete and successful inauguration. It will be
noticed from the reports that it was first proposed by the local
commission to ask of Congress a loan of $5,000,000, to be repaid from
receipts, and that the national commission approved this suggestion.
Subsequently the Illinois exposition corporation reconsidered its action
and determined to ask a subscription of $5,000,000.

The supplementary report of the national commission seems to approve
this amended proposition. I have not myself that detailed information as
to the financial necessities of the enterprise which would enable me to
form an independent judgment of the additional amount necessary, and am
not, therefore, prepared to make any specific recommendation to Congress
upon the subject. The committees of Congress having this matter in
charge will undoubtedly obtain full and accurate information before
final action. The exposition, notwithstanding the limitations which
the act contains, is an enterprise to which the United States is so
far committed that Congress ought not, I think, to withhold just and
reasonable further support if the local corporation consents to proper
conditions.

Liberality on the part of the United States is due to the foreign
nations that have responded in a friendly way to the invitation of this
Government to participate in the exposition, and will, I am sure, meet
the approval of our people. The exposition will be one of the most
illustrious incidents in our civic history.

I transmit also certain resolutions adopted by representatives of the
National Guard of the various States appointed by the governors to
attend a convention which was held in Chicago on the 27th of October,
1891, with a view to consider the subject of holding a military
encampment at Chicago during the exposition.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith copy of a memorial of the Wichitas, Caddoes, and
affiliated tribes of Indians in Oklahoma Territory in the matter of
their claim to the lands they occupy, for consideration in connection
with the agreement concluded by and between the Cherokee Commission and
said Indians, and also with my communication of the 17th instant,[25]
relative to the act to pay the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians for certain
lands now occupied by the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians.

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 25: See pp. 229-234.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 8, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I herewith transmit, with a view to its ratification, a convention
signed at Washington the 29th of February, 1892, between the Governments
of the United States and Her Britannic Majesty, submitting to
arbitration the questions which have arisen between those Governments
concerning the jurisdictional rights of the United States in the waters
of the Bering Sea, and concerning also the preservation of the fur seal
in and habitually resorting to the said sea and the rights of the
citizens and subjects of either country as regards the taking of fur
seal in or habitually resorting to the said waters.

The correspondence not heretofore submitted to Congress in relation to
the Bering Sea matter is in course of preparation and will be
transmitted without delay.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 9, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 5th instant from the Secretary of the Interior, submitting the
agreement concluded by and between the commissioners for the United
States and the Cherokee Nation of Indians of the Indian Territory, for
the cession of certain lands and for other purposes.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, March 18, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I herewith transmit, in answer to the resolution of the Senate of the 3d
ultimo, a report from the Acting Secretary of State of the 17th instant,
transmitting information relative to and his opinion as to the purchase
of the unpublished correspondence and manuscripts of President James
Monroe.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _March 24, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication from the Board of Commissioners of
the District of Columbia, accompanied by a letter from the chairman of
the executive committee organized by the citizens of Washington for the
reception and entertainment of the Twenty-sixth Annual Encampment of the
Grand Army of the Republic, which is to be held in Washington during
September next. An appeal is made for an appropriation by Congress of
$100,000, one-half to be paid out of the District revenues, to aid in
defraying the expenses attending this reception.

The event is one of very high and, as I believe, of national interest,
and the attendance of the surviving Union soldiers will, I do not doubt,
be larger than at any annual encampment that has ever been held.
The public authorities of the cities or States, or both, in which
the encampments have been held have, I believe, usually appropriated
liberally to make the occasions worthy and the entertainment hospitable.
The parade of the survivors of our great armies upon Pennsylvania avenue
will bring vividly back to us those joyful and momentous days when the
great victorious armies of the East and of the West marched through the
streets of Washington in high parade and were received by our citizens
with joyful acclaim. It seems to me that it will be highly appropriate
for Congress suitably to aid in making this demonstration impressive and
in extending to those soldiers whose lives a beneficent Providence has
prolonged an opportunity to see in the security and peace, development
and prosperity, which now so happily pervade the national capital the
fruits of their sacrifice and valor.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 1, 1892_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with a resolution of the 30th ultimo, the House of
Representatives concurring, I return herewith the bill (S. 1057)
entitled "An act to punish the unlawful appropriation of the use of
the property of another in the District of Columbia."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 1, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I herewith transmit, in answer to the resolutions of the Senate of the
16th and 21st ultimo, a report from the Acting Secretary of State, with
accompanying statistics, showing the duties imposed by the Governments
of Venezuela and Colombia upon products of the United States imported
into these countries.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, April 4, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I transmit, in reply to the resolution of the Senate passed in executive
session on March 14, 1892, a report from the Secretary of State, with
accompanying documents, in relation to the correspondence relating to
the nonacceptance of Hon. Henry W. Blair as minister of the United
States to the Government of China.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 12, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I transmit, in reply to the resolution of the Senate under date
of December 15, 1891, a report from the Secretary of State, with
accompanying documents, in relation to the correspondence had with
regard to the impressment into its service and punishment by the
Government of Italy of Nicolino Mileo, a naturalized citizen of the
United States.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 14, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I herewith transmit, in response to the resolution passed in the Senate
on the 10th of March, 1892, a report of the Secretary of State and the
accompanying correspondence, had in relation to the claim of the
Venezuela Steam Transportation Company for the said company's relief.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _April 26, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I have received the resolution of the Senate of April 23, requesting
that, if not incompatible with the public interest, I inform the Senate
what steps have been taken toward the securing of an international
conference to consider the question of the free coinage of silver at
the mints of the nations participating in such conference, or as to the
enlarged use of silver in the currency system of said countries, and
that I transmit to the Senate any correspondence between the United
States and other governments upon the subject, and in response thereto
beg respectfully to inform the Senate that in my opinion it would not
be compatible with the public interest to lay before the Senate at this
time the information requested, but that at the earliest moment after
definite information can properly be given all the facts and any
correspondence that may take place will be submitted to Congress.

It may not be inappropriate, however, to say here that, believing that
the full use of silver as a coined metal upon an agreed ratio by the
great commercial nations of the world would very highly promote the
prosperity of all their people, I have not and will not let any
favorable opportunity pass for the promotion of that most desirable
result, or, if free international silver coinage is not presently
attainable, then to secure the largest practicable use of that metal.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 11, 1892_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

In compliance with the resolution of the House of Representatives, the
Senate concurring, I return herewith the bill (H.R. 3927) entitled
"An act to amend 'An act to provide for the performance of the duties
of the office of President in case of the removal, death, resignation,
or inability both of the President and Vice-President,' approved
January 19, 1886."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 11, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith the seventh annual report of the Commissioner of
Labor, which report relates to the cost of producing textiles and glass
in the United States and in Europe. It also comprehends the wages and
the cost of living of persons employed in the textile and glass
industries.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the Secretary of War, dated May
24, from which and from the accompanying papers it appears that the late
General George W. Cullum, of the United States Army, has by will devised
$250,000 to the Government of the United States for the erection of a
memorial hall upon the grounds of the Military Academy at West Point, to
be used as a "receptacle of statues, busts, mural tablets, and portraits
of distinguished deceased officers and graduates of the Military
Academy, of paintings of battle scenes, trophies of war, and such other
objects as may tend to give elevation to the military profession."

This ample and patriotic gift is hampered by no conditions and involves
no appropriation beyond the sum so generously donated.

The executors in order to facilitate action have prepared, and the same
is herewith submitted, the outline of a bill to carry into effect the
provisions of General Cullum's will.

There can be no occasion to urge upon Congress the immediate enactment
of a suitable law to carry into effect the patriotic purpose expressed
in the will.

I suggest that in the bill itself, or by a separate joint resolution,
suitable expression be given of the public appreciation of this crowning
service to the military profession and to his country rendered by
General Cullum.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _May 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In accordance with the provisions of section 4119 of the Revised
Statutes of the United States, I lay before you for revision a copy of
the regulations for the consular courts of the United States in Korea,
as decreed by the minister of this Government at Seoul March 31, 1892. I
also transmit an accompanying report by the Acting Secretary of State.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 20, 1892_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

The following resolution was passed by the Senate on the 24th day of
February last:

  _Resolved_, That the President be requested, if in his opinion not
  incompatible with the public interests, to inform the Senate of the
  proceedings recently had with the representatives of the Dominion of
  Canada and of the British Government as to arrangements for reciprocal
  trade between Canada and the United States.


In response thereto I now submit the following information:

On the 15th day of April last the Secretary of State submitted to me a
report, which is herewith transmitted. Shortly after the report came
into my possession I was advised by the Secretary that the British
minister at this capital had informed him that the Canadian government
desired a further conference on the subject of the discriminating canal
tolls of which this country had complained. This information was
accompanied by the suggestion that a response to the resolution of the
Senate might properly be delayed until this further conference was held.

On the 3d instant the British minister, in connection with Hon.
MacKenzie Bowell and Hon. George E. Foster, members of the Canadian
ministry, were received by the Secretary of State and a further
conference took place. In both of the conferences referred to Hon. John
W. Foster, at the request of the Secretary of State, appeared with him
on behalf of this Government; and the report of the latter conference
was submitted to me on the 6th instant by Mr. Foster, and is herewith
transmitted. The result of the conference as to the practicability of
arranging a reciprocity treaty with the Dominion of Canada is clearly
stated in the letter of Mr. Blaine, and was anticipated, I think, by him
and by every other thoughtful American who had considered the subject.
A reciprocity treaty limited to the exchange of natural products would
have been such only in form. The benefits of such a treaty would have
inured almost wholly to Canada. Previous experiments on this line had
been unsatisfactory to this Government. A treaty that should be
reciprocal in fact and of mutual advantages must necessarily have
embraced an important list of manufactured articles and have secured to
the United States a free or favored introduction of these articles into
Canada as against the world; but it was not believed that the Canadian
ministry was ready to propose or assent to such an arrangement. The
conclusion of the Canadian commissioners is stated in the report of
Mr. Blaine as follows:

  In the second place, it seemed to be impossible for the Canadian
  government, in view of its present political relations and obligations,
  to extend to American goods a preferential treatment over those of
  other countries. As Canada was a part of the British Empire, they did
  not consider it competent for the Dominion government to enter into
  any commercial arrangement with the United States from the benefits of
  which Great Britain and its colonies should be excluded.


It is not for this Government to argue against this announcement of
Canadian official opinion. It must be accepted, however, I think, as
the statement of a condition which places an insuperable barrier in
the way of the attainment of that large and beneficial intercourse and
reciprocal trade which might otherwise be developed between the United
States and the Dominion.

It will be noticed that Mr. Blaine reports as one of the results of the
conference "an informal engagement to repeal and abandon the drawback
of 18 cents a ton given to wheat (grain) that is carried through to
Montreal and shipped therefrom to Europe. By the American railways
running from Ogdensburg and Oswego and other American ports the shippers
paid the full 20 cents a ton, while in effect those by the way of
Montreal pay only 2 cents. It was understood that the Canadian
commissioners, who were all three members of the cabinet, would see to
the withdrawal of this discrimination."

From the report of the recent conference by Mr. Foster it will be
seen that the Canadian commissioners declare that this statement does
not conform to their understanding, and that the only assurance they
had intended to give was that the complaint of the Government of the
United States should be taken into consideration by the Canadian
ministry on their return to Ottawa. Mr. Foster, who was present at the
first conference, confirms the statements of Mr. Blaine. While this
misunderstanding is unfortunate, the more serious phase of the situation
is that instead of rescinding the discriminating canal tolls of which
this Government complains the Canadian ministry, after the return of
the commissioners from their visit to Washington, on April 4, reissued,
without any communication with this Government, the order continuing
the discrimination, by which a rebate of 18 cents a ton is allowed upon
grain going to Montreal, but not to American ports, and refusing this
rebate even to grain going to Montreal if transshipped at an American
port.

The report of Mr. Partridge, the Solicitor of the Department of State,
which accompanies the letter of the Secretary of State, states these
discriminations very clearly. That these orders as to canal tolls and
rebates are in direct violation of Article XXVII of the treaty of
1871 seems to be clear. It is wholly evasive to say that there is no
discrimination between Canadian and American vessels; that the rebate
is allowed to both without favor upon grain carried through to Montreal
or transshipped at a Canadian port to Montreal. The treaty runs:

  To secure to the citizens of the United States the use of the Welland,
  St. Lawrence, and other canals in the Dominion on terms of equality
  with the inhabitants of the Dominion.


It was intended to give to consumers in the United States, to our people
engaged in railroad transportation, and to those exporting from our
ports equal terms in passing their merchandise through these canals.
This absolute equality of treatment was the consideration for
concessions on the part of this Government made in the same article of
the treaty, and which have been faithfully kept.

It is a matter of regret that the Canadian government has not responded
promptly to our request for the removal of these discriminating tolls.

The papers submitted show how serious the loss inflicted is upon our
lake vessels and upon some of our lake ports. In view of the fact that
the Canadian commissioners still contest with us the claim that these
tolls are discriminating and insist that they constitute no violation
of the letter or spirit of Article XXVII of the treaty, it would seem
appropriate that Congress, if the view held by the Executive is
approved, should with deliberation and yet with promptness take such
steps as may be necessary to secure the just rights of our citizens.

In view of the delays which have already taken place in transmitting
this correspondence to Congress, I have not felt justified in awaiting
the further communication from the government of Canada which was
suggested in the recent conference.

Should any proposition relating to this matter be received it will
be immediately submitted for the consideration of the Senate, and if
forwarded within the time suggested will undoubtedly anticipate any
final action by Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 20, 1802_.

_To the Senate_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate dated March 14, 1892,
requesting that certain specified correspondence in regard to the claim
of Antonio Maximo Mora against the Government of Spain be communicated
to it; if not incompatible with the public interests, I transmit
herewith the report of the Acting Secretary of State on the matter.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _June 27, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate dated April 6, 1892,
directing the Secretary of State to send to the Senate, if not
incompatible with the public interests, copies of all commercial
agreements made with other countries, and also to report what steps have
been taken to negotiate a reciprocal commercial treaty with Mexico,
I submit herewith the reply of the Acting Secretary of State to that
resolution.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 1, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

For the information of the Senate and in further response to the
resolution of the Senate of February 24 last, I transmit herewith
a communication of the 24th ultimo from Mr. Herbert, the acting
representative of the British Government at this capital, addressed to
Mr. Wharton, Acting Secretary of State, upon the subject of Canadian
canal tolls; also a memorandum prepared and submitted to me by Mr. Adee,
Second Assistant Secretary of State, reviewing the communication of Mr.
Herbert, and a letter of the 28th ultimo from Mr. John W. Foster, who,
as I have previously stated, with Mr. Blaine represented this Government
in the conferences with the Canadian commissioners.

The position taken by this Government, as expressed in my previous
communication to the Senate, that the canal tolls and regulations of
which complaint has been made are in violation of our treaty with Great
Britain, is not shaken, but rather confirmed.

There can be no doubt that a serious discrimination against our
citizens and our commerce exists, and quite as little doubt that this
discrimination is not the incident but the purpose of the Canadian
regulation.

It has not seemed to me that this was a case in which we could yield to
the suggestion of further concessions on the part of the United States
with a view to securing treaty rights for which a consideration has
already been given.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 21, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I herewith transmit, for the information of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of State, forwarding certain bulletins of the
American Republics.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, July 23, 1892_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit, in reply to the resolution of the Senate passed in
executive session on the 21st instant and addressed to the Secretary of
State, a report of that officer, with accompanying documents, in further
relation to the nonacceptance of the Hon. Henry W. Blair as minister of
the United States to the Government of China, which question was the
occasion of my recent message to the Senate of the 4th of April
last.[26]

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 26: See p. 238.]



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 25, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I herewith transmit, in reply to the resolution of the Senate of June 6,
1892, a report from the Secretary of State, with its accompanying
papers, in relation to guano deposits on Areas Cays or Islands.

BENJ. HARRISON.



WASHINGTON, D.C., _July 27, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, with its accompaniments, a report from the
Secretary of the Navy of the Results of the survey made pursuant to
the act of March 2, 1891, "to enable the President to cause careful
soundings to be made between San Francisco, Cal., and Honolulu, in the
Kingdom of the Hawaiian Islands, for the purpose of determining the
practicability of the laying of a telegraphic cable between those
points."

BENJ. HARRISON.



VETO MESSAGES.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 19, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I return herewith without my approval the bill (S. 2729) entitled
"An act to amend an act entitled 'An act to establish circuit courts of
appeals, and to define and regulate in certain cases the jurisdiction
of the courts of the United States, and for other purposes.'"

The original act to which this amendment is proposed, constituting an
intermediate court of appeals, had for its object the relief of the
Supreme Court by limiting the cases which might be brought up for
hearing in that court. The first section of the bill under consideration
allows appeals in criminal cases where the sentence imposes no
imprisonment and the fine is as much as $1,000. The effect of this
provision will be to bring to the Supreme Court many cases that in my
opinion should be finally determined in the intermediate appellate
court, and so in part to defeat the general purpose of Congress in
constituting the intermediate court. But this objection would not alone
have sufficient weight in my mind to induce me to return the bill.
Section 3 of the bill is as follows:

  That no appeal shall hereafter be allowed from judgments of the Court
  of Claims in cases under the act of March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to
  provide for the adjudication and payment of claims arising from Indian
  depredations," except where the adjudication involves the construction
  or application of the Constitution or the validity or construction of
  a treaty or the constitutionality of a law of the United States:
  _Provided, however_, That upon such appeal it shall be competent for
  the Supreme Court to require, by certiorari or otherwise, the whole
  case to be certified for its review and determination upon the facts
  as well as the law.


I am advised by the Attorney-General that under the Indian-depredations
act 8,000 cases, involving an aggregate of damages claimed of about
$30,000,000, have already been filed. A number of these cases involve as
much as $100,000 each, while a few involve as much as $500,000 each and
one something over $1,000,000. The damages which may be awarded in these
cases by the Court of Claims are to be paid out of the trust funds of
the Indians held by the United States, or, if there are no such funds,
out of the Treasury of the United States. The law referring these cases
to the Court of Claims has had no judicial interpretation, and many
novel and difficult questions are likely to arise. It is quite a
startling proposition, and a very novel one, I think, that there shall
be absolutely no opportunity for the review in an appellate court,
in cases involving such large amounts, of questions involving the
construction of the statute under which the court is proceeding, or
those various questions of law, many of them new, which necessarily
arise in such cases.

Neither the claimants, the Indians, nor the Government of the United
States should be absolutely denied opportunity to bring their exceptions
to review by some appellate tribunal. I would not suggest that an appeal
should be allowed in all cases. Some limitation as to amount would be
reasonable, and perhaps some discretion might be lodged in the Supreme
Court as to granting appeals. The limitations, however, imposed by the
section I have quoted are so severe and unreasonable, in my judgment,
that I have felt compelled to return the bill to the Senate with a view
to its reconsideration.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _July 29, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I return herewith without my approval the bill (S. 1958) entitled "An
act to submit to the Court of Private Land Claims, established by an act
of Congress approved March 3, 1891, the title of William McGarrahan to
the Rancho Panoche Grande, in the State of California, and for other
purposes."

This bill came to me on the 20th instant, at a time when very many other
bills were submitted for my consideration, and it has not been possible
for me to make such an examination of the history of Mr. McGarrahan's
claim as would be necessary to form an intelligent judgment as to its
merits and just extent. It is quite possible that he has been wronged
and that he has a claim for some reparation from the Government. I can
not, however, think that this bill proceeds upon a just basis. It
provides that Mr. McGarrahan shall file his claim as the assignee of
Gomez in the Court of Private Land Claims for the lands described in the
title, and that if the court establishes the grant to Gomez it shall be
confirmed to McGarrahan. No evidence that he is the assignee of Gomez
is, I think, required by the bill, which assumes that fact instead of
submitting it to the court. If the claim is established, it is provided
in substance that all lands part of said grant which have been conveyed
by the Government or are in the occupancy of actual settlers, or "upon
which there are any smelting or reduction works, or the lands claimed
in connection with such reduction or smelting works," shall be excepted
from the patent which the Secretary of the Interior is directed to issue
to McGarrahan. By this provision the title of the New Idria Mining
Company, which has long contested with McGarrahan the title to a large
part of this property, is established and that company is relieved from
any responsibility to account for the profits made in mining. On the
other hand, the United States waives all benefit of judicial proceedings
which have resulted in its favor and gives Mr. McGarrahan an opportunity
_de novo_ to try all such questions; and the decision, if in his favor,
is not only to restore to him all the lands yet undisposed of, but the
United States assumes to pay him the value of the lands appropriated by
others and of their use for all these years and to account to him for
all profits that have been made by the New Idria Mining Company or
anyone else in quicksilver or other mining.

This seems to me to be wholly inadmissible. The amount involved must be
enormously large, though at present incapable of any accurate estimate.
If the title of the New Idria Company has been established by final
decrees of court placing that title beyond question and that company
beyond any call to respond for use and profits, why should the
Government of the United States, waiving in its behalf these decrees,
which would protect it also, assume a responsibility to account for the
value of the lands and for their use and for the net value of minerals
extracted by that company or others? It will be noticed in the quotation
I have made from the act that this company is allowed to take all the
land it may claim, but at the expense of the United States, not of
Mr. McGarrahan.

The bill is so framed as to give full protection to the New Idria Mining
Company to the full extent of its largest claim, while throwing upon the
United States a responsibility which that company should bear if the
title of Mr. McGarrahan is established.

The United States provided a proper tribunal for the trial of claims
founded upon Mexican grants. This claim was there tried, and if fraud
affected the judgment it is not, I think, chargeable to the Government;
the contest was chiefly between rival claimants. In this state of the
case it would seem that if the United States consents to open the
litigation and to wipe out all judicial findings and decrees a less
exacting measure of damages than that proposed in the bill should be
agreed on.

It is not my purpose, as I have intimated, to express the opinion that
Mr. McGarrahan is entitled to no relief. It seems to me, however, clear
that he is not entitled to the relief given by this bill, and that it
does not adequately protect the interests of the United States.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _August 3, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

I return herewith without my approval the bill (S. 1111) entitled "An
act to amend the act of Congress approved March 3, 1887, entitled 'An
act to provide for the bringing of suits against the Government of the
United States.'"

If I may judge from the very limited discussion of this measure in
Congress, the sweeping effects of it upon the administration of the
public lands could hardly have been fully realized. From the beginning
of the Government the administration of the public lands and the issuing
of patents under the land laws have been an Executive function.

The jurisdiction of the courts as to contesting claims for patents has
awaited the action of the General Land Office. Land offices have been
established and maintained in all the districts where public lands were
found, located with reference to the convenience of the settlers, and
the proceedings have been informal and inexpensive. It is true that at
times, by an administration of the Land Office unfriendly toward the
settlers, unnecessary delays involving much hardship have intervened in
the issuing of patents, but such is not the case now. The work of the
Land Office within the last three years has been so efficient and so
friendly to the _bona fide_ settler that the large accumulation of cases
there has been swept away, and the office, as I am informed by the
Secretary of the Interior, is now engaged upon current business.

It seems to me that a transfer in whole or in part of this business to
the courts, some of whose dockets are already loaded with cases, can not
tend to expedition, while it is very manifest that, by reason of the
greater formality in the taking and presentation of evidence which would
be required in court and of the long distances which settlers would have
to traverse in order to attend court, the costs in such cases would be
enormously increased.

It is proposed by this bill to give what is called concurrent
jurisdiction to the district courts of the United States and to the
Court of Claims to hear and determine all claims for land patents under
any law or grant of the United States. Whether concurrent with each
other or with each other and the Land Office is not clear.

It is quite doubtful under the rulings of the Supreme Court whether the
courts now provided by law for the Territories are "district courts of
the United States" within the meaning of this bill. The effect of this
legislation would, if they were held not to be such, be that as to all
suits relating to lands in the Territories of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah,
and Oklahoma no other forum is provided than the Court of Claims at
Washington. In this state of the case a settler, or one who has taken
a mineral claim in any of these Territories, would be subject to be
brought to the city of Washington for the trial of his case.

In view of the fact that all recent legislation of Congress has been
in the direction of subdividing judicial districts and of bringing the
United States courts nearer to the litigants, I can only attribute to
oversight the passage of this bill, which in my opinion would burden the
homesteader and preemptor whose claim is contested, whether by another
individual or by any corporation, by compelling him to appear at
Washington and to conduct with the formality and expense incident to
court proceedings the defense of his title. But even in the case of
land contests arising in the States where district courts exist the
plaintiff, it will be observed, by this act is given the option to sue
in those courts or to bring his adversary to Washington to litigate
the claim. Why should he have this advantage, one that is not given so
far as I know in any other law fixing the forum of litigation between
individuals? Not only is this true, but the Court of Claims was
established for the trial of cases between individuals and corporations
on the one side and the United States on the other, and so far as I now
recall wholly for the trial of money claims.

There are no adequate provisions of law, if any at all, for conducting
suits between individuals contesting private rights. The court has one
bailiff and one messenger, no marshal, and is not provided, I think,
either with the machinery or with the appropriation to send its
processes to the most distant parts of the country. Yet it is apparent
that under this bill the real issue would frequently be between rival
claimants, and not between either and the United States. This court,
too, is already burdened with business since the reference to it of the
Indian depredation claims, the French spoliation claims, etc., and it
certainly can not be thought that a more speedy settlement of land
claims could be there obtained than is now given.

Again, the bill is so indefinite in its provisions that it can not be
told, I think, what function, if any, remains to be discharged by the
General Land Office. It was said in answer to an interrogatory when the
bill was under consideration that it did not affect claims pending in
the Land Office; and yet it seems to me that its effect is to allow any
contestant in the Land Office at any stage of the proceedings there to
transfer the whole controversy to the courts. He may take his chances of
success in the Land Office, and if at any time he becomes apprehensive
of an adverse decision he may begin _de novo_ in the courts.

If it was intended to preserve the jurisdiction of the Land Office and
to hold cases there until a judgment had been reached, the bill should
have so provided, for it is capable of, and indeed seems to me compels,
the construction that either party may forsake the Land Office at any
stage of a contest. I am quite inclined to believe that if provision
were made, as in section 1063 of the Revised Statutes, relating to
claims in other departments, for the transfer to a proper court, under
proper regulations, of certain contest cases involving questions
affecting large classes of claims, it would be a relief to the Land
Office and would tend to a more speedy adjustment of land titles in such
cases, a result which would be in the interest of all our people.

Nothing is more disadvantageous to a community, its progress and peace,
than unsettled land titles. This bill, however, as I have said, is so
radical and seems to me to be so indefinite in its provisions that
I can not give it my approval.

BENJ. HARRISON.



PROCLAMATIONS.


BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the Secretary of State of the United
States of America communicated to the Government of Salvador the action
of the Congress of the United States of America, with a view to secure
reciprocal trade, in declaring the articles enumerated in said section 3
to be exempt from duty upon their importation into the United States of
America; and

Whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Salvador
at Washington has communicated to the Secretary of State the fact that,
in reciprocity for the admission into the United States of America free
of all duty of the articles enumerated in section 3 of said act, the
Government of Salvador will by due legal enactment, as a provisional
measure and until a more complete arrangement may be negotiated and put
in operation, admit free of all duty, from and after February 1, 1892,
into all the established ports of entry of Salvador the articles or
merchandise named in the following schedule, provided that the same be
the product or manufacture of the United States:


  SCHEDULE OF PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURES WHICH THE REPUBLIC OF SALVADOR
  WILL ADMIT FREE OF ALL CUSTOMS, MUNICIPAL, AND ANY OTHER KIND OF DUTY.

   1. Animals for breeding purposes.

   2. Corn, rice, barley, and rye.

   3. Beans.

   4. Hay and straw for forage.

   5. Fruits, fresh.

   6. Preparations of flour in biscuits, crackers not sweetened,
      macaroni, vermicelli, and tallarin.

   7. Coal, mineral.

   8. Roman cement.

   9. Hydraulic lime.

  10. Bricks, fire bricks, and crucibles for melting.

  11. Marble, dressed, for furniture, statues, fountains, gravestones,
      and building purposes.

  12. Tar, vegetable and mineral.

  13. Guano and other fertilizers, natural or artificial.

  14. Plows and all other agricultural tools and implements.

  15. Machinery of all kinds, including sewing machines, and separate or
      extra parts for the same.

  16. Materials of all kinds for the construction and equipment of
      railroads.

  17. Materials of all kinds for the construction and operation of
      telegraphic and telephonic lines.

  18. Materials of all kinds for lighting by electricity and gas.

  19. Materials of all kinds for the construction of wharves.

  20. Apparatus for distilling liquors.

  21. Wood of all kinds for building, in trunks or pieces, beams,
      rafters, planks, boards, shingles, or flooring.

  22. Wooden staves, heads, and hoops, and barrels and boxes for packing,
      mounted or in pieces.

  23. Houses of wood or iron, complete or in parts.

  24. Wagons, carts, and carriages of all kinds.

  25. Barrels, casks, and tanks of iron for water.

  26. Tubes of iron and all other accessories necessary for water supply.

  27. Wire, barbed, and staples for fences.

  28. Plates of iron for building purposes.

  29. Mineral ores.

  30. Kettles of iron for making salt.

  31. Kettles of iron for making sugar.

  32. Molds for making sugar.

  33. Guys for mining purposes.

  34. Furnaces and instruments for assaying metals.

  35. Scientific instruments.

  36. Models of machinery and buildings.

  37. Boats, lighters, tackle, anchors, chains, girtlines, sails, and all
      other articles for vessels, to be used in the ports, lakes, and
      rivers of the Republic.

  38. Printing materials, including presses, type, ink, and all other
      accessories.

  39. Printed books, pamphlets, and newspapers, bound or unbound, maps,
      photographs, printed music, and paper for music.

  40. Paper for printing newspapers.

  41. Quicksilver.

  42. Loadstones.

  43. Hops.

  44. Sulphate of quinine.

  45. Gold and silver in bars, dust, or coin.

  46. Samples of merchandise the duties on which do not exceed $1.

  It is understood that the packages or coverings in which the articles
  named in the foregoing schedule are imported shall be free of duty if
  they are usual and proper for the purpose.


And that the Government of Salvador has further stipulated that the laws
and regulations adopted to protect its revenue and prevent fraud in the
declarations and proof that the articles named in the foregoing schedule
are the product or manufacture of the United States of America shall
impose no additional charges on the importer nor undue restrictions on
the articles imported; and

Whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given assurance
to the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Salvador at
Washington that this action of the Government of Salvador in granting
freedom of duties to the products and manufactures of the United States
of America on their importation into Salvador and in stipulating for a
more complete reciprocity arrangement is accepted as a due reciprocity
for the action of Congress as set forth in section 3 of said act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of Salvador to be made public for the information of the
citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 31st day of December, 1891, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of the act of Congress approved
March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for
other purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set apart
  and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or, undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservation and the limits thereof.


And whereas the public lands in the Territory of New Mexico within the
limits hereinafter described are in part covered with timber, and it
appears that the public good would be promoted by setting apart and
reserving said lands as a public reservation:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by section 24 of the aforesaid act
of Congress, do hereby make known and proclaim that there is hereby
reserved from entry or settlement and set apart as a public reservation
all those certain tracts, pieces, or parcels of land lying and being
situate in the Territory of New Mexico and particularly described as
follows, to wit:

Commencing at the standard corner to township seventeen (17) north,
ranges thirteen (13) and fourteen (14) east (New Mexico principal base
and meridian) on the fourth (4th) standard parallel north; thence
northerly along the range line between ranges thirteen (13) and fourteen
(14) east to the closing corner between ranges thirteen (13) and
fourteen (14) east on the fifth (5th) standard parallel north; thence
along said fifth (5th) standard parallel to the southeast corner of
township twenty-one (21) north, range thirteen (13) east; thence north
six (6) miles; thence west twelve (12) miles; thence due south to the
fifth (5th) standard parallel; thence westerly on said fifth (5th)
standard parallel to a point due north of the northwest corner of
township seventeen (17) north, range eleven (11) east; thence south to
the fourth (4th) standard parallel; thence westerly on said fourth (4th)
standard parallel north seven and sixty-two one-hundredths (7.62) chains
to the northwest corner of township sixteen (16) north, range eleven
(11) east; thence southerly on the range line between townships sixteen
(16) north, ranges ten (10) and eleven (11) east, three (3) miles and
three and forty-three hundredths (3.43) chains to the corner to sections
thirteen (13), eighteen (18), nineteen (19), and twenty-four (24) on
said range line; thence easterly along the section lines to the range
line between ranges eleven (11) and twelve (12) east; thence northerly
three (3) miles and three (3) chains to the fourth (4th) standard
parallel north; thence easterly on said fourth (4th) standard parallel
eight (8) and fifty-hundredths (8.50) chains to the standard corner to
township seventeen (17) north, ranges eleven (11) and twelve (12) east;
thence northerly on the range line to the southwest corner of township
eighteen (18) north, range twelve (12) east; thence easterly on the
township line six (6) miles one and six-hundredths (1.06) chains to the
southeast corner of township eighteen (18) north, range twelve (12)
east; thence south six (6) miles to the fourth (4th) standard parallel
north; thence east along said fourth (4th) standard parallel to the
place of beginning.

Excepting from the force and effect of this proclamation all land which
may have been prior to the date hereof embraced in any valid Spanish or
Mexican grant or in any legal entry or covered by any lawful filing duly
made in the proper United States land office, and all mining claims duly
located and held according to the laws of the United States and rules
and regulations not in conflict therewith.

_Provided_, That this exception shall not continue to apply to any
particular tract of land unless the entry man or claimant continues to
comply with the law under which the entry, filing, or location was made.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or make
settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 11th day of January, A.D. 1892, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the attention of the Government of
Great Britain was called to the action of the Congress of the United
States of America, with a view to secure reciprocal trade, in declaring
the articles enumerated in said section 3 to be exempt from duty upon
their importation into the United States of America; and

Whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Great
Britain at Washington has communicated to the Secretary of State the
fact that, in view of the act of Congress above cited, the Government
of Great Britain has by due legal enactment authorized the admission,
from and after February 1, 1892, of the articles in merchandise named
in the following schedules, on the terms stated therein, into the
British colonies of Trinidad (which includes Tobago), Barbados, the
Leeward Islands (consisting of the islands of Antigua, Montserrat, St.
Christopher, Nevis, Dominica, with their respective dependencies, and
the Virgin Islands), the Windward Islands (consisting of St. Lucia,
St. Vincent, and their dependencies, but exclusive of Grenada and its
dependencies), and into the colony of British Guiana on and after
April 1, 1892:


  Table No. 1.--Applicable to British Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago,
  Barbados, the Leeward Islands, and the Windward Islands Excepting
  the Island of Grenada.


  SCHEDULE A.

  Articles to be admitted free of all customs duty and any other national,
  colonial, or municipal charges:

   1. Animals, alive, to include only asses, sheep, goats, hogs, and
      poultry, and horses for breeding.

   2. Beef, including tongues, smoked and dried.

   3. Beef and pork preserved in cans.

   4. Belting for machinery, of leather, canvas, or india rubber.

   5. Boats and lighters.

   6. Books,[27] bound or unbound, pamphlets, newspapers, and printed
      matter in all languages.

   7. Bones and horns.

   8. Bottles of glass or stone ware.

   9. Bran, middlings, and shorts.

  10. Bridges of iron or wood, or of both combined,

  11. Brooms, brushes, and whisks of broom straw.

  12. Candles, tallow.

  13. Carts, wagons, cars, and barrows, with or without springs, for
      ordinary roads and agricultural use, not including vehicles of
      pleasure.

  14. Clocks, mantel or wall.

  15. Copper, bronze, zinc, and lead articles, plain and nickel plated,
      for industrial and domestic uses and for building.

  16. Cotton seed and its products.

  17. Crucibles and melting pots of all kinds.

  18. Eggs.

  19. Fertilizers of all kinds, natural and artificial.

  20. Fish, fresh or on ice, and salmon and oysters in cans.

  21. Fishing apparatus of all kinds.

  22. Fruits and vegetables, fresh and dried, when not canned, tinned,
      or bottled.

  23. Gas fixtures and pipes.

  24. Gold and silver coin of the United States, and bullion.

  25. Hay and straw for forage.

  26. Houses of wood, complete.

  27. Ice.

  28. India-rubber and gutta-percha goods, including waterproof clothing
      made wholly or in part thereof.

  29. Implements, utensils, and tools for agriculture, exclusive of
      cutlasses and forks.

  30. Lamps and lanterns.

  31. Lime of all kinds.

  32. Locomotives, railway rolling stock, rails, railway ties, and all
      materials and appliances for railways and tramways.

  33. Marble or alabaster, in the rough or squared, worked or carved,
      for building purposes or monuments.

  34. Medicinal extracts and preparations of all kinds, including
      proprietary or patent medicines, but exclusive of quinine or
      preparations of quinine, opium, gange, and bhang.

  35. Paper of all kinds for printing.

  36. Paper of wood or straw for wrapping and packing, including surface
      coated or glazed.

  37. Photographic apparatus and chemicals.

  38. Printers' ink, all colors.

  39. Printing presses, types, rules, spaces, and all accessories for
      printing.

  40. Quicksilver.

  41. Resin, tar, pitch, and turpentine.

  42. Salt.

  43. Sewing machines and all parts and accessories thereof.

  44. Shipbuilding materials and accessories of all kinds, when used in
      the construction, equipment, or repair of vessels or boats of any
      kind, except rope and cordage of all kinds, including wire rope.

  45. Starch of Indian corn or maize.

  46. Steam and power engines, and machines, machinery, and apparatus,
      whether stationary or portable, worked by power or by hand, for
      agriculture, irrigation, mining, the arts and industries of all
      kinds, and all necessary parts and appliances for the erection
      or repair thereof or the communication of motive power thereto.

  47. Steam boilers and steam pipes.

  48. Sulphur.

  49. Tan bark of all kinds, whole or ground.

  50. Telegraph wire, telegraphic, telephonic, and electrical apparatus
      and appliances of all kinds for communication or illumination.

  51. Trees, plants, vines, and seeds and grains of all kinds, for
      propagation or cultivation.

  52. Varnish, not containing spirits.

  53. Wall papers.

  54. Watches when not cased in gold or silver, and watch movements
      uncased.

  55. Water pipes of all classes, materials, and dimensions.

  56. Wire for fences, the hooks, staples, nails, and the like
      appliances for fastening the same.

  57. Yeast cake and baking powders.

  58. Zinc, tin, and lead, in sheets, asbestus, and tar paper,
      for roofing.

  It is understood that the packages or coverings in which the articles
  named in the foregoing schedule are imported shall be free of duty if
  they are usual and proper for the purpose.


  SCHEDULE B.

  Articles to be admitted at 50 per cent reduction of the duty designated
  in the respective customs tariff now in force in each of said colonies:

  1. Bacon and bacon hams.

  2. Boots and shoes made wholly or in part of leather.

  3. Bread and biscuit.

  4. Cheese.

  5. Lard and its compounds.

  6. Mules.

  7. Oleomargarine.

  8. Shooks and staves.


  SCHEDULE C.

  Articles to be admitted at 25 per cent reduction of the duty designated
  in the respective customs tariff now in force in each of said colonies:

  1. Beef, salted or pickled.

  2. Corn or maize.

  3. Corn meal.

  4. Flour of wheat.

  5. Lumber of pitch pine, in rough or prepared for buildings.

  6. Petroleum and its products, crude or refined.

  7. Pork, salted or pickled.

  8. Wheat.

  It is understood that No. 4 of this schedule shall not apply to the
  colony of Trinidad, but it is stipulated that the duty on flour in
  said colony shall not exceed 75 cents per barrel.



And that the Government of Great Britain has by due legal enactment
authorized the admission, from and after February 1, 1892, of the
articles or merchandise named in the following schedules, on the terms
stated therein, into the British colony of Jamaica and its dependencies:


  Table No. 2.--Applicable to the Colony of Jamaica and its Dependencies.


  SCHEDULE A.

  Articles to be admitted free of all customs duty and any other
  national, colonial, or municipal charges:

   1. Animals, alive, and poultry.

   2. Beef, including tongues, smoked and dried.

   3. Beef and pork preserved in cans.

   4. Belting for machinery, of leather, canvas, or india rubber.

   5. Boats and lighters.

   6. Books,[28] bound or unbound, pamphlets, newspapers, and printed
      matter in all languages.

   7. Bones and horns.

   8. Bottles of glass or stone ware.

   9. Bran, middlings, and shorts.

  10. Bridges of iron or wood, or of both combined.

  11. Brooms, brushes, and whisks or broom straw.

  12. Candles, tallow.

  13. Carts, wagons, cars, and barrows, with or without springs, for
      ordinary roads and agricultural use, not including vehicles
      of pleasure.

  14. Coal and coke.

  15. Clocks, mantel or wall.

  16. Cotton seed and its products, to include meal, meal cake, oil,
      and cottolene.

  17. Crucibles and melting pots of all kinds.

  18. Drawings, paintings, engravings, lithographs, and photographs

  19. Eggs.

  20. Fertilizers of all kinds, natural and artificial.

  21. Fish, fresh or on ice, and oysters in cans.

  22. Fishing apparatus of all kinds.

  23. Fruits and vegetables, fresh and dried, when not canned, tinned,
      or bottled.

  24. Gas fixtures and pipes.

  25. Gold and silver coin of the United States, and bullion.

  26. Hay and straw for forage.

  27. Houses of wood, complete.

  28. Ice.

  29. India-rubber and gutta-percha goods, including waterproof clothing
      made wholly or in part thereof.

  30. Implements, utensils, and tools for agriculture, exclusive of
      cutlasses and forks.

  31. Iron, galvanized.

  32. Iron for roofing.

  33. Lamps and lanterns, not exceeding 10 shillings each in value.

  34. Lime of all kinds.

  35. Locomotives, railway rolling stock, rails, railway ties, and all
      materials and appliances for railways and tramways.

  36. Marble or alabaster, in the rough or squared, worked or carved,
      for building purposes or monuments.

  37. Paper of all kinds for printing.

  38. Paper of wood or straw for wrapping and packing, including surface
      coated or glazed.

  39. Photographic apparatus and chemicals.

  40. Printers' ink, all colors.

  41. Printing presses, types, rules, spaces, and all accessories for
      printing.

  42. Proprietary or patent medicines, recommended by their proprietors as
      calculated to cure disease or alleviate pain in the human subject.

  43. Quicksilver.

  44. Resin, tar, pitch, and turpentine.

  45. Sewing machines and all parts and accessories thereof.

  46. Shipbuilding materials and accessories of all kinds, when used in
      the construction, equipment, or repair of vessels or boats of any
      kind, except rope and cordage of all kinds, including wire rope,
      and subject to specific regulations to avoid abuse in the
      importation.

  47. Shocks and staves.

  48. Starch of Indian corn or maize.

  49. Steam and power engines, and machines, machinery, and apparatus,
      whether stationary or portable, worked by power or by hand, for
      agriculture, irrigation, mining, the arts and industries of all
      kinds, and all necessary parts and appliances for the erection
      or repair thereof or the communication of motive power thereto.

  50. Steam boilers and steam pipes.

  51. Sugar, refined.

  52. Sulphur.

  53. Tallow and animal greases.

  54. Tan bark of all kinds, whole or ground.

  55. Telegraph wire, telegraphic, telephonic, and electrical apparatus
      and appliances of all kinds for communication or illumination.

  56. Trees, plants, vines, and seeds and grains of all kinds for
      propagation or cultivation.

  57. Varnish, not containing spirits.

  58. Wall papers.

  59. Watches when not cased in gold or silver, and watch movements
      uncased.

  60. Water pipes of all classes, materials, and dimensions.

  61. Wire for fences, with the hooks, staples, nails, and the like
      appliances for fastening the same.

  62. Yeast cake and baking powders.

  63. Zinc, tin, and lead, in sheets, asbestus, and tar paper, for
      roofing.

  It is understood that the packages or coverings in which the articles
  named in the foregoing schedule are imported shall be free of duty if
  they are usual and proper for the purpose.


  SCHEDULE B.

  Articles to be admitted at 50 per cent reduction of the duty designated
  in the customs tariff now in force:

   1. Bacon and bacon hams.

   2. Bread and biscuit.

   3. Butter.

   4. Cheese.

   5. Lard and its compounds.

  Lumber of pitch pine, in rough or prepared for buildings, to be reduced
  to 9 shillings per 1,000 feet.


  SCHEDULE C.

  Articles to be admitted at 25 per cent reduction of the duty designated
  in the customs tariff now in force:

   1. Beef, salted or pickled.

   2. Corn and maize.

   3. Corn meal.

   4. Oats.

   5. Petroleum and its products, crude or refined.

   6. Pork, salted or pickled.

   7. Wheat.


And whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given the
assurance to the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of
Great Britain at Washington that this action of the Government of Great
Britain in granting remissions and alterations of duties in the British
colonies above mentioned is accepted as a due reciprocity for the action
of Congress as set forth in section 3 of said act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of the aforesaid British colonies to be made public for
the information of the citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 1st day of February, 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 27: The importation of books is subject to the provisions of
copyright laws.]

[Footnote 28: The importation of books is subject to the provisions of
copyright laws.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports and for other purposes," the attention of the Government of the
German Empire was called to the action of the Congress of the United
States of America, with a view to secure reciprocal trade, in declaring
the articles enumerated in said section 3 to be exempt from duty upon
their importation into the United States of America; and

Whereas the chargé d'affaires of the German Empire at Washington has
communicated to the special plenipotentiary of the United States the
fact that, in view of the act of Congress above cited, the German
Imperial Government has by due legal enactment authorized the admission,
from and after February 1, 1892, into the German Empire of the articles
or merchandise the product of the United States of America named in the
following schedule, on the terms stated therein:


  _Schedules of articles to be admitted into Germany_.

    Articles.                                            Rate of duty per
                                                           100 kilograms.

                                                                 _Marks_.

   1. Bran; malted germs                                            Free.
   2. Flax, raw, dried, broken, or hatcheled; also refuse portions  Free.
   3. Wheat                                                         3.50
   4. Rye                                                           3.50
   5. Oats                                                          2.80
   6. Buckwheat                                                     2.00
   7. Pulse                                                         1.50
   8. Other kinds of grain not specially mentioned                  1.00
   9. Barley                                                        2.00
  10. Rape seed, turnip seed, poppy, sesame, peanuts, and other
      oleaginous products not specially mentioned                   2.00
  11. Maize (Indian corn)                                           1.60
  12. Malt (malted barley)                                          3.60
  13. Anise, coriander, fennel, and caraway seed                    3.00
  14. Agricultural productions not otherwise designated             Free.
  15. Horsehair, raw, hatcheled, boiled, dyed, also laid in
      the form of tresses and spun; bristles; raw bed feathers      Free.
  16. Bed feathers, cleaned and prepared                            Free.
  17. Hides and skins, raw (green, salted, limed, dried),
      and stripped of the hair for the manufacture of leather       Free.
  18. Charcoal                                                      Free.
  19. Bark of wood and tan bark                                     Free.
  20. Lumber and timber:

    (a) Raw or merely roughhewn with ax or saw, with or without
        bark; oaken barrel staves                                   0.20

    (b) Marked in the direction of the longitudinal axis, or
        prepared or cut otherwise than by roughhewing; barrel
        staves not included under (a); unpeeled osiers and
        hoops; hubs, fellies, and spokes                            0.30

    (c) Sawed in the direction of the longitudinal axis;
        unplaned boards; sawed cantle woods and other articles
        sawn or hewn                                                0.80

  21. Wood in cut veneering; unglued, unstained parts of floors     5.00
  22. Hops; also hop meal[29]                                      14.00
  23. Butter; also artificial butter                               17.00
  24. Meat, slaughtered, fresh, with the exception of pork         15.00
  25. Pork, slaughtered, fresh, and dressed meat, with the
      exception of bacon, fresh or prepared                        17.00
  26. Game of all kinds (not alive)                                20.00
  27. Cheese, except Strecchino, Gorgonzola, and Parmesan          20.00
  28. Fruit, seeds, berries, leaves, flowers, mushrooms,
      vegetables, dried, baked, pulverized, only boiled down
      or salted--all these products so far as they are not
      included under other numbers of the tariff; juices of
      fruits, berries, and turnips, preserved without sugar,
      to be eaten; dry nuts                                         4.00
  39. Mill products of grain and pulse, to wit, ground or
      shelled grains, peeled barley, groats, grits, flour,
      common cakes (bakers' products)                               7.30
  30. Residue, solid, from the manufacture of fat oils,
      also ground                                                  Free.
  31. Goose grease and other greasy fats, such as oleomargarine,
      sperfett (a mixture of stearic fats with oil), beef marrow   10.00
  32. Live animals and animal products not mentioned elsewhere;
      also beehives with live bees                                 Free.

  33. Horses (remarks)                                      each   20.00
      (a) Horses up to 2 years old                            do   10.00
      (b) Colts following their dams                               Free.
  34. Bulls and cows                                                9.00
  35. Oxen                                                         25.50
  36. Calves less than 6 weeks old                                  3.00
  37. Hogs                                                          5.00
  38. Pigs weighing less than 10 kilograms                          1.00
  39. Sheep                                                         1.00
  40. Lambs                                                         0.50
  41. Wool, including animal hair not mentioned elsewhere,
      as well as stuffs made thereof:
      (a) Wool, raw, dyed, ground; also hair, raw, hatcheled,
          boiled, dyed; also curled                                Free.


[Footnote 29: Gross.]

And whereas the special plenipotentiary of the United States has, by my
direction, given assurance to the chargé d'affaires of the German Empire
at Washington that this action of the Government of the German Empire
in granting exemption of duties to the products and manufactures of the
United States of America on their importation into Germany is accepted
as a due reciprocity for the action of Congress as set forth in section
3 of said act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications
of the tariff laws of the German Empire to be made public for the
information of the citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 1st day of February, 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of the act of Congress approved
March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for
other purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set
  apart and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservations and the limits thereof.


And whereas the public lands in the State of Colorado within the limits
hereafter described are in part covered with timber, and it appears that
the public good would be promoted by setting apart and reserving said
lands as a public reservation:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by section 24 of the aforesaid act
of Congress, do hereby make known and proclaim that there is hereby
reserved from entry or settlement and set apart as a public reservation
all those certain tracts, pieces, or parcels of land lying and being
situate in the State of Colorado and particularly described as follows,
to wit:

Commencing at the northeast corner of section four (4), township eleven
(11) north, range sixty-seven (67) west of the sixth (6th) principal
meridian; thence proceeding westerly along the township line between
townships ten (10) and eleven (11) south to the northwest corner of
section six (6), township eleven (11) south, range sixty-eight (68)
west; thence southerly along the range line between ranges sixty-eight
(68) and sixty-nine (69) west to the southwest corner of section
eighteen (18), township thirteen (13) south, range sixty-eight (68)
west; thence westerly along the section line to the northwest corner of
section nineteen (19), township thirteen (13) south, range sixty-nine
(69) west; thence southerly along the range line between ranges
sixty-nine (69) and seventy (70) west to the southwest corner of section
thirty-one (31), township thirteen (13) south, range sixty-nine (69)
west; thence east along the township line between townships thirteen
(13) and fourteen (14) south to the half-section corner on said township
line of section two (2), township fourteen (14) south, range sixty-nine
(69) west; thence southerly through the middle of sections two (2),
eleven (11), and fourteen (14) to a point in the middle of the north
line of section twenty-three (23) of said township and range; thence
easterly along said northern section line to the northeast corner of
said section; thence southerly between sections twenty-three (23) and
twenty-four (24) to the middle of the east line of section twenty-three
(23); thence easterly through the middle of section twenty-four (24) to
the middle of the east line of said section twenty-four (24), township
fourteen (14) south, range sixty-nine (69) west; thence southerly along
the range line between ranges sixty-eight (68) and sixty-nine (69) west
to the southwest corner of section thirty-one (31), township fifteen
(15) south, range sixty-eight (68) west; thence east along the township
line between townships fifteen (15) and sixteen (16) south to the
southeast corner of section thirty-four (34), township fifteen (15)
south, range sixty-seven (67) west; thence northerly along the section
line to the northeast corner of the southeast quarter of section
twenty-two (22), township fifteen (15) south, range sixty-seven (67)
west; thence westerly to the northwest corner of the southeast quarter
of section twenty-one (21) of said last-named township and range; thence
southerly to the southwest corner of the southeast quarter of section
twenty-eight (28) of said township and range; thence westerly along
the section line to the corner common to sections twenty-five (25),
thirty-one (31), and thirty-six (36) of said township and range; thence
northerly on the section line to the corner common to sections one (1),
six (6), and twelve (12) of said township and range; thence easterly
along the section line to the corner common to sections five (5), six
(6), and eight (8); thence southerly along the section line to the
southwest corner of section eight (8) of said township and range; thence
easterly along the section line to the corner common to sections ten
(10), eleven (11), and fourteen (14) of said township and range; thence
northerly along the section line to the northeast corner of section
three (3); thence westerly to the northwest corner of section three (3)
of said township and range; thence northerly along the section line to
the corner common to sections sixteen (16), twenty-one (21), twenty-two
(22), and fifteen (15), township fourteen (14) south, range sixty-seven
(67) west; thence westerly along the section line to the northwest
corner of section nineteen (19) of said township and range; thence
northerly along the range line between ranges sixty-seven (67) and
sixty-eight (68) to the northeast corner of section one (1), township
fourteen (14) south, range sixty-eight (68) west; thence easterly along
the township line between townships thirteen (13) and fourteen (14)
south to the southeast corner of section thirty-three (33) of township
thirteen (13) south, range sixty-seven (67) west; thence northerly
along the section line to the place of beginning.

Excepting from the force and effect of this proclamation all surveyed
land which may have been prior to the date hereof embraced in any legal
entry or covered by any lawful filing duly made in the proper United
States land office, all unsurveyed lands on which valid settlement has
been made under any law of the United States, and all mining Claims duly
located and held according to the laws of the United States and rules
and regulations not in conflict therewith.

_Provided_, That this exception shall not continue to apply to any
particular tract of land unless the entry man, settler, or claimant
continues to comply with the law under which the entry, filing,
settlement, or location was made.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or make
settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 11th day of February, A.D. 1892,
and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

The following provisions of the laws of the United States are hereby
published for the information of all concerned:

Section 1956, Revised Statutes, chapter 3, Title XXIII, enacts that--

  No person shall kill any otter, mink, marten, sable, or fur seal, or
  other fur-bearing animal within the limits of Alaska Territory or in
  the waters thereof; and every person guilty thereof shall for each
  offense be fined not less than $200 nor more than $1,000, or imprisoned
  not more than six months, or both; and all vessels, their tackle,
  apparel, furniture, and cargo, found engaged in violation of this
  section shall be forfeited; but the Secretary of the Treasury shall
  have power to authorize the killing of any such mink, marten, sable, or
  other fur-bearing animal, except fur seals, under such regulations as
  he may prescribe; and it shall be the duty of the Secretary to prevent
  the killing of any fur seal and to provide for the execution of the
  provisions of this section until it is otherwise provided by law, nor
  shall he grant any special privileges under this section.

  SEC. 3. That section 1956 of the Revised Statutes of the United
  States is hereby declared to include and apply to all the dominion
  of the United States in the waters of Bering Sea; and it shall be the
  duty of the President at a timely season in each year to issue his
  proclamation, and cause the same to be published for one month at
  least in one newspaper (if any such there be) published at each United
  States port of entry on the Pacific coast, warning all persons against
  entering said waters for the purpose of violating the provisions of
  said section; and he shall also cause one or more vessels of the United
  States to diligently cruise said waters and arrest all persons and
  seize all vessels found to be or to have been engaged in any violation
  of the laws of the United States therein.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
pursuant to the above-recited statutes, hereby warn all persons against
entering the waters of Bering Sea within the dominion of the United
States for the purpose of violating the provisions of said section 1956,
Revised Statutes; and I hereby proclaim that all persons found to be or
to have been engaged in any violation of the laws of the United States
in said waters will be arrested and punished as above provided, and that
all vessels so employed, their tackle, apparel, furniture, and cargoes,
will be seized and forfeited.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed,

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of February, 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the Secretary of State of the United
States of America communicated to the Government of Nicaragua the action
of the Congress of the United States of America, with a view to secure
reciprocal trade, in declaring the articles enumerated in said section 3
to be exempt from duty upon their importation into the United States of
America; and

Whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of
Nicaragua at Washington has communicated to the Secretary of State the
fact that, in reciprocity for the admission into the United States of
America free of all duty of the articles enumerated in section 3 of
said act, the Government of Nicaragua will by due legal enactment admit
free of all duty, from and after April 15, 1892, into all the ports of
entry of Nicaragua the articles or merchandise named in the following
schedule, provided that the same be the product of the United States:


  SCHEDULE OF ARTICLES WHICH THE REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA WILL ADMIT FREE OF
  ALL KIND OF DUTY.

   1.  Animals, live.

   2.  Barley, Indian corn, wheat, oats, rye, and rice.

   3.  Seeds of all kinds for agriculture and horticulture.

   4.  Live plants of all kinds.

   5.  Corn meal.

   6.  Starch.

   7.  Beans, potatoes, and all other vegetables, fresh or dried.

   8.  Fruits, fresh or dried.

   9.  Hay, bran, and straw for forage.

  10. Cotton-seed oil and all other products of said seed.

  11. Tar, resin, and turpentine.

  12. Asphalt, crude or manufactured in blocks.

  13. Quicksilver for mining purposes.

  14. Coal, mineral or animal.

  15. Fertilizers for land.

  16. Lime and cement.

  17. Wood and lumber, in the rough or prepared for building purposes.

  18. Houses of wood or iron.

  19. Marble, in the rough or dressed, for fountains, gravestones, and
      building purposes.

  20. Tools and implements for agricultural and horticultural purposes.

  21. Wagons, carts, and handcarts.

  22. Iron and steel, in rails for railroads and other similar uses, and
      structural iron and steel for bridges and building purposes.

  23. Wire, for fences, with or without barbs, clamps, posts, clips, and
      other accessories of wire, not less than 3 lines in diameter.

  24. Machinery of all kinds for agricultural purposes, arts, and trades,
      and parts of such machinery.

  25. Motors of steam or animal power.

  26. Forgers, water pumps of metal, pump hose, sledge hammers, drills for
      mining purposes, iron piping with its keys and faucets, crucibles
      for melting metals, iron water tanks, and lightning rods.

  27. Roofs of galvanized iron, gutters, ridging, clamps, and screws for
      the same.

  28. Printing materials.

  29. Books, pamphlets, and other printed matter, and ruled paper for
      printed music, printing paper in sheets not less than 29 by 20
      inches.

  30. Geographical maps or charts and celestial and terrestrial spheres
      or globes.

  31. Surgical and mathematical instruments.

  32. Stones and fire bricks for smelting furnaces.

  33. Vessels and boats of all kinds, fitted together or in parts.

  34. Gold and silver in bullion, bars, or coin.

  It is understood that the packages or coverings in which the articles
  named in the foregoing schedule are imported shall be free of duty if
  they are usual and proper for the purpose.


And that the Government of Nicaragua has further stipulated that the
laws and regulations adopted to protect its revenue and prevent fraud
in the declarations and proof that the articles named in the foregoing
schedule are the product of the United States of America shall impose
no undue restrictions on the importer nor additional charges on the
articles imported; and

Whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given assurance to
the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Nicaragua at
Washington that this action of the Government of Nicaragua in granting
freedom of duties to the products of the United States of America on
their importation into Nicaragua is accepted as a due reciprocity for
the action of Congress as set forth in section 3 of said act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of Nicaragua to be made public for the information of
the citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 12th day of March, 1892, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas in section 3 of an act passed by the Congress of the United
States entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," approved October 1, 1890, it was
provided as follows:

  That with a view to secure reciprocal trade with countries producing
  the following articles, and for this purpose, on and after the 1st
  day of January, 1892, whenever and so often as the President shall be
  satisfied that the government of any country producing and exporting
  sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides, raw and uncured, or any of
  such articles, imposes duties or other exactions upon the agricultural
  or other products of the United States which, in view of the free
  introduction of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides into the
  United States, he may deem to be reciprocally unequal and unreasonable,
  he shall have the power and it shall be his duty to suspend, by
  proclamation to that effect, the provisions of this act relating to the
  free introduction of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the
  production of such country for such time as he shall deem just; and in
  such case and during such suspension duties shall be levied, collected,
  and paid upon sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the product of or
  exported from such designated country--


the duties hereinafter set forth; and

Whereas it has been established to my satisfaction and I find the fact
to be that the Government of Colombia does impose duties or other
exactions upon the agricultural and other products of the United States
which, in view of the free introduction of such sugars, molasses,
coffee, tea, and hides into the United States, in accordance with the
provisions of said act, I deem to be reciprocally unequal and
unreasonable:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3 of said
act, by which it is made my duty to take action, do hereby declare
and proclaim that the provisions of said act relating to the free
introduction of sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the production
of Colombia shall be suspended from and after this 15th day of March,
1892, and until such time as said unequal and unreasonable duties and
exactions are removed by Colombia and public notice of that fact given
by the President of the United States; and I do hereby proclaim that on
and after this 15th day of March, 1892, there will be levied, collected,
and paid upon sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the product of or
exported from Colombia during such suspension duties as provided by said
act, as follows:

  All sugars not above No. 13 Dutch standard in color shall pay duty on
  their polariscopic tests as follows, namely:

  All sugars not above No. 13 Dutch standard in color, all tank bottoms,
  sirups of cane juice or of beet juice, melada, concentrated melada,
  concrete and concentrated molasses, testing by the polariscope not
  above 75°, seven-tenths of 1 cent per pound, and for every additional
  degree or fraction of a degree shown by the polariscopic test
  two-hundredths of 1 cent per pound additional.

  All sugars above No. 13 Dutch standard in color shall be classified
  by the Dutch standard of color and pay duty as follows, namely:

  All sugars above No. 13 and not above No. 16 Dutch standard of color,
  1-3/8 cents per pound.

  All sugars above No. 16 and not above No. 20 Dutch standard of color,
  1-5/8 cents per pound.

  All sugars above No. 20 Dutch standard of color, 2 cents per pound.

  Molasses testing above 56°, 4 cents per gallon.

  Sugar drainings and sugar sweepings shall be subject to duty either as
  molasses or sugar, as the case may be, according to polariscopic test.

  On coffee, 3 cents per pound.

  On tea, 10 cents per pound.

  Hides, raw or uncured, whether dry, salted, or pickled; Angora-goat
  skins, raw, without the wool, unmanufactured; asses' skins, raw or
  unmanufactured, and skins, except sheepskins, with the wool on, 1-1/2
  cents per pound.


In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of March, 1892, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas in section 3 of an act passed by the Congress of the United
States entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," approved October 1, 1890, it was
provided as follows:

  That with a view to secure reciprocal trade with countries producing
  the following articles, and for this purpose, on and after the 1st
  day of January, 1892, whenever and so often as the President shall be
  satisfied that the government of any country producing and exporting
  sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides, raw and uncured, or any of
  such articles, imposes duties or other exactions upon the agricultural
  or other products of the United States which, in view of the free
  introduction of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides into the
  United States, he may deem to be reciprocally unequal and unreasonable,
  he shall have the power and it shall be his duty to suspend, by
  proclamation to that effect, the provisions of this act relating to the
  free introduction of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the
  production of such country for such time as he shall deem just; and in
  such case and during such suspension duties shall be levied, collected,
  and paid upon sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the product of or
  exported from such designated country--


the duties hereinafter set forth; and

Whereas it has been established to my satisfaction and I find the fact
to be that the Government of Hayti does impose duties or other exactions
upon the agricultural and other products of the United States which, in
view of the free introduction of such sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and
hides into the United States, in accordance with the provisions of said
act, I deem to be reciprocally unequal and unreasonable:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States
of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3 of
said act, by which it is made my duty to take action, do hereby declare
and proclaim that the provisions of said act relating to the free
introduction of sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the production
of Hayti shall be suspended from and after this 15th day of March,
1892, and until such time as said unequal and unreasonable duties and
exactions are removed by Hayti and public notice of that fact given by
the President of the United States; and I do hereby proclaim that on and
after this 15th day of March, 1892, there will be levied, collected, and
paid upon sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the product of or
exported from Hayti during such suspension duties as provided by said
act, as follows:

  All sugars not above No. 13 Dutch standard in color shall pay duty on
  their polariscopic tests as follows, namely:

  All sugars not above No. 13 Dutch standard in color, all tank bottoms,
  sirups of cane juice or of beet juice, melada, concentrated melada,
  concrete and concentrated molasses, testing by the polariscope not
  above 75°, seven-tenths of 1 cent per pound and for every additional
  degree or fraction of a degree shown by the polariscopic test
  two-hundredths of 1 cent per pound additional.

  All sugars above No. 13 Dutch standard in color shall be classified by
  the Dutch standard of color and pay duty as follows, namely:

  All sugar above No. 13 and not above No. 16 Dutch standard of color,
  1-3/8 cents per pound.

  All sugar above No. 16 and not above No. 20 Dutch standard of color,
  1-5/8 cents per pound.

  All sugars above No. 20 Dutch standard of color, 2 cents per pound.

  Molasses testing above 56°, 4 cents per gallon.

  Sugar drainings and sugar sweepings shall be subject to duty either as
  molasses or sugar, as the case may be, according to polariscopic test.

  On coffee, 3 cents per pound.

  On tea, 10 cents per pound.

  Hides, raw or uncured, whether dry, salted, or pickled; Angora-goat
  skins, raw, without the wool, unmanufactured; asses' skins, raw or
  unmanufactured, and skins, except sheepskins, with the wool on, 1-1/2
  cents per pound.


In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of March, 1892, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas in section 3 of an act passed by the Congress of the United
States entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," approved October 1, 1890, it was
provided as follows:

  That with a view to secure reciprocal trade with countries producing
  the following articles, and for this purpose, on and after the 1st
  day of January, 1892, whenever and so often as the President shall be
  satisfied that the government of any country producing and exporting
  sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides, raw and uncured, or any of
  such articles, imposes duties or other exactions upon the agricultural
  or other products of the United States which, in view of the free
  introduction of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides into the
  United States, he may deem to be reciprocally unequal and unreasonable,
  he shall have the power and it shall be his duty to suspend, by
  proclamation to that effect, the provisions of this act relating to the
  free introduction of such sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the
  production of such country for such time as he shall deem just; and in
  such case and during such suspension duties shall be levied, collected,
  and paid upon sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the product of or
  exported from such designated country--


the duties hereinafter set forth; and

Whereas it has been established to my satisfaction and I find the fact
to be that the Government of Venezuela does impose duties or other
exactions upon the agricultural and other products of the United States
which, in view of the free introduction of such sugars, molasses,
coffee, tea, and hides into the United States, in accordance with the
provisions of said act, I deem to be reciprocally unequal and
unreasonable:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States
of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3 of
said act, by which it is made my duty to take action, do hereby declare
and proclaim that the provisions of said act relating to the free
introduction of sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the production
of Venezuela shall be suspended from and after this 15th day of March,
1892, and until such time as said unequal and unreasonable duties and
exactions are removed by Venezuela and public notice of that fact given
by the President of the United States; and I do hereby proclaim that on
and after this 15th day of March, 1892, there will be levied, collected,
and paid upon sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides the product of or
exported from Venezuela during such suspension duties as provided by
said act, as follows:

  All sugars not above No. 13 Dutch standard in color shall pay duty on
  their polariscopic tests as follows, namely:

  All sugars not above No. 13 Dutch standard in color, all tank bottoms,
  sirups of cane juice or of beet juice, melada, concentrated melada,
  concrete and concentrated molasses, testing by the polariscope not
  above 75°, seven-tenths of 1 cent per pound, and for every additional
  degree or fraction of a degree shown by the polariscopic test
  two-hundredths of 1 cent per pound additional.

  All sugars above No. 13 Dutch standard in color shall be classified
  by the Dutch standard of color and pay duty as follows, namely:

  All sugar above No. 13 and not above No. 16 Dutch standard of color,
  1-3/8 cents per pound.

  All sugar above No. 16 and not above No. 20 Dutch standard of color,
  1-5/8 cents per pound.

  All sugars above No. 20 Dutch standard of color, 2 cents per pound.

  Molasses testing above 56°, 4 cents per gallon.

  Sugar drainings and sugar sweepings shall be subject to duty either as
  molasses or sugar, as the case may be, according to polariscopic test.

  On coffee, 3 cents per pound.

  On tea, 10 cents per pound.

  Hides, raw or uncured, whether dry, salted, or pickled; Angora-goat
  skins, raw, without the wool, unmanufactured; asses' skins, raw or
  unmanufactured, and skins, except sheepskins, with the wool on, 1-1/2
  cents per pound.


In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of March, 1892, and of the
independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of an act approved March 3, 1891,
entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for other
purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set apart
  and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservations and the limits thereof.


And whereas the lands hereinafter described are public and
forest bearing, and on the 11th day of February last I issued a
proclamation[30] intended to reserve the same as authorized in said act;
but as some question has arisen as to the boundaries proclaimed being
sufficiently definite to cover the lands intended to be reserved:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
for the purpose of removing any doubt and making the boundaries of said
reservation more definite, by virtue of the power in me vested by said
act, do hereby issue this my second proclamation and hereby set apart,
reserve, and establish as a public reservation all that tract of land
situate in the State of Colorado embraced within the following boundary:

Beginning at the northeast corner of section four (4), township eleven
(11) south, range sixty-seven (67) west of the sixth (6th) principal
meridian; thence westerly along the second (2d) correction line south
between townships ten (10) and eleven (11) south to the northwest corner
of section six (6), township eleven (11) south, range sixty-eight (68)
west; thence southerly along the range line between ranges sixty-eight
(68) and sixty-nine (69) west to the southwest corner of section
eighteen (18), township thirteen (13) south, range sixty-eight (68)
west; thence westerly along the section line between sections thirteen
(13) and twenty-four (24), fourteen (14) and twenty-three (23), fifteen
(15) and twenty-two (22), sixteen (16) and twenty-one (21), seventeen
(17) and twenty (20), and eighteen (18) and nineteen (19) to the
northwest corner of section nineteen (19), township thirteen (13) south,
range sixty-nine (69) west; thence southerly along the range line
between ranges sixty-nine (69) and seventy (70) west to the southwest
corner of section thirty-one (31) of said township; thence easterly
along the township line between townships thirteen (13) and fourteen
(14) south to the quarter-section corner on said township line between
section thirty-five (35), township thirteen (13) south, range sixty-nine
(69) west, and section two (2), township fourteen (14) south, range
sixty-nine (69) west; thence southerly through the middle of sections
two (2), eleven (11), and fourteen (14), township fourteen (14) south,
range sixty-nine (69) west, to the quarter-section corner on the section
line between sections fourteen (14) and twenty-three (23) of said
township and range; thence easterly along said section line to the
northeast corner of section twenty-three (23) of said township and
range; thence southerly along the section line to the quarter-section
corner on said line between sections twenty-three (23) and twenty-four
(24) of said township and range; thence easterly through the middle of
section twenty-four (24) to the quarter-section corner on the range
line between section nineteen (19), township fourteen (14) south, range
sixty-eight (68) west, and section twenty-four (24), township fourteen
(14) south, range sixty-nine (69) west; thence southerly along said
range line to the southwest corner of section thirty-one (31), township
fifteen (15) south, range sixty-eight (68) west; thence easterly along
the third (3d) correction line south between townships fifteen (15) and
sixteen (16) south to the southeast corner of section thirty-four (34),
township fifteen (15) south, range sixty-seven (67) west; thence
northerly along the section line between sections thirty-four (34) and
thirty-five (35), twenty-six (26) and twenty-seven (27), to the point
for the quarter-section corner on the section line between sections
twenty-two (22) and twenty-three (23), township fifteen (15) south,
range sixty-seven (67) west; thence westerly to a point for the legal
center of section twenty-one (21) of said township and range; thence
southerly to the southwest corner of the southeast quarter of section
twenty-eight (28) of said township and range; thence westerly along the
section line between sections twenty-eight (28) and thirty-three (33),
twenty-nine (29) and thirty-two (32), thirty (30) and thirty-one (31),
to the northwest corner of section thirty-one (31) of said township and
range; thence northerly on the range line between ranges sixty-seven
(67) and sixty-eight (68) west to the southwest corner of section six
(6) of said township and range; thence easterly along the section line
to the southeast corner of section six (6) of said township and range;
thence southerly along the section line to the southwest corner of
section eight (8) of said township and range; thence easterly along
the section line to the southeast corner of section ten (10) of said
township and range; thence northerly along the section line between
sections ten (10) and eleven (11), two (2) and three (3), township
fifteen (15) south, range sixty-seven (67) west, to the northeast corner
of section three (3) of said township and range; thence westerly along
the township line between townships fourteen (14) and fifteen (15) south
to the northwest corner of section three (3), township fifteen (15)
south, range sixty-seven (67) west; thence northerly along the
section line between sections thirty-three (33) and thirty-four (34),
twenty-seven (27) and twenty-eight (28), twenty-one (21) and twenty-two
(22), to the northeast corner of section twenty-one (21), township
fourteen (14) south, range sixty-seven (67) west; thence westerly along
the section line between sections sixteen (16) and twenty-one (21),
seventeen (17) and twenty (20), eighteen (18) and nineteen (19), to the
northwest corner of section nineteen (19) of said township and range;
thence northerly along the range line between ranges sixty-seven (67)
and sixty-eight (68) west to the northeast corner of section one (1),
township fourteen (14) south, range sixty-eight (68) west; thence
easterly along the township line between townships thirteen (13) and
fourteen (14) south to the southeast corner of section thirty-three
(33), township thirteen (13) south, range sixty-seven (67) west; thence
northerly along the section line between sections thirty-three (33) and
thirty-four (34), twenty-seven (27) and twenty-eight (28), twenty-one
(21) and twenty-two (22), fifteen (15) and sixteen (16), nine (9) and
ten (10), and three (3) and four (4) of townships thirteen (13), twelve
(12), and eleven (11) south, range sixty-seven (67) west, to the place
of beginning.

Excepting from the force and effect of this proclamation all lands which
may have been prior to the date hereof embraced in any legal entry or
covered by any lawful filing duly of record in the proper United States
land office, or upon which any valid settlement has been made pursuant
to law and the statutory period within which to make entry or filing of
record has not expired, and all mining claims duly located and held
according to the laws of the United States and rules and regulations not
in conflict therewith.

_Provided_, That this exception shall not continue to apply to any
particular tract of land unless the entryman, settler, or claimant
continues to comply with the law under which the entry, filing,
settlement, or location was made.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or make
settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 18th day of March, A.D. 1892, and
of the Independence Of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.

[Footnote 30: See pp. 260-262.]



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by the third article of the treaty between the United States of
America and the Sisseton and Wahpeton bands of Dakota or Sioux Indians
concluded February 19, 1867, proclaimed May 2, 1867 (15 U.S. Statutes
at Large, p, 505), the United States set apart and reserved for certain
of said Indians certain lands, particularly described, being situated
partly in North Dakota and partly in South Dakota and known as the Lake
Traverse Reservation; and

Whereas by agreement made with said Indians residing on said reservation
dated December 12, 1889, they conveyed, as set forth in article 1
thereof, to the United States all their title and interest in and to all
the unallotted lands within the limits of the reservation set apart as
aforesaid remaining after the allotments shall have been made, which are
provided for in article 4 of the agreement, as follows:

  That there shall be allotted to each individual member of the bands of
  Indians parties hereto a sufficient quantity, which, with the lands
  heretofore allotted, shall make in each case 160 acres, and in case no
  allotment has been made to any individual member of said bands, then
  an allotment of 160 acres shall be made to such individual.


And whereas it is provided in article 2 of said agreement--

  That the cession, sale, relinquishment, and conveyance of the lands
  described in article 1 of this agreement shall not take effect and
  be in force until the sum of $342,778.37, together with the sum of
  $18,400, shall have been paid to said bands of Indians, as set forth
  and stipulated in article 3 of this agreement.


And whereas it is provided in the act of Congress approved March 3, 1891
(26 U.S. Statutes at Large, pp. 1036-1038), section 30, accepting and
ratifying the agreement with said Indians--

  That the lands by said agreement ceded, sold, relinquished, and
  conveyed to the United States shall immediately, upon the payment
  to the parties entitled thereto of their share of the funds made
  immediately available by this act, and upon the completion of the
  allotments as provided for in said agreement, be subject only to entry
  and settlement under the homestead and town-site laws of the United
  States, excepting the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections of said
  lands, which shall be reserved for common-school purposes and be
  subject to the laws of the State wherein located: _Provided_, That
  patents shall not issue until the settler or entryman shall have paid
  to the United States the sum of $2.50 per acre for the land taken up
  by such homesteader, and the title to the lands so entered shall remain
  in the United States until said money is duly paid by such entryman or
  his legal representatives, or his widow, who shall have the right to
  pay the money and complete the entry of her deceased husband in her
  own name and shall receive a patent for the same.


And whereas payment as required by said act has been made by the United
States; and

Whereas allotments as provided for in said agreement, as now appears
by the records of the Department of the Interior, will have been made,
approved, and completed and all other terms and considerations required
will have been complied with on the day and hour hereinafter fixed for
opening said lands to settlement:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
do hereby declare and make known that all of the lands embraced in said
reservation, saving and excepting the lands reserved for and allotted to
said Indians and the lands reserved for other purposes in pursuance of
the provisions of said agreement and the said act of Congress ratifying
the same and other the laws relating thereto, will, at and after the
hour of 12 o'clock noon (central standard time) on the 15th day of
April, A.D. 1892, and not before, be opened to settlement under the
terms of and subject to all the terms and conditions, limitations,
reservations, and restrictions contained in said agreements, the
statutes above specified, and the laws of the United States applicable
thereto.

The lands to be opened for settlement are for greater convenience
particularly described in the accompanying schedule, entitled "Schedule
of lands within the Lake Traverse Reservation opened to settlement by
proclamation of the President dated April 11, 1892," and which schedule
is made a part hereof.

Warning, moreover, is hereby given that until said lands are opened to
settlement as herein provided all persons save said Indians are
forbidden to enter upon and occupy the same or any part thereof.

And further notice is hereby given that it has been duly ordered that
the lands mentioned and included in this proclamation shall be, and the
same are, attached to the Fargo and Watertown land districts, in said
States, as follows:

1. All that portion of the Lake Traverse Reservation commencing at
the northwest corner of said reservation; thence south 12° 2' west,
following the west boundary of the reservation, to the new seventh
standard parallel, or boundary line between the States of North and
South Dakota; thence east, following the new seventh standard parallel
to its intersection with the north boundary of said Indian reservation;
thence northwesterly with said boundary to the place of beginning, is
attached to the Fargo land district, the office of which is now located
at Fargo, N. Dak.

2. All that portion of the Lake Traverse Reservation commencing at
a point where the new seventh standard parallel intersects the west
boundary of said reservation; thence southerly along the west boundary
of said reservation to its extreme southern limit; thence northerly
along the east boundary of said reservation to Lake Traverse; thence
north with said lake to the northeast corner of the Lake Traverse Indian
Reservation; thence westerly with the north boundary of said reservation
to its intersection with the new seventh standard parallel, or boundary
line between the States of North and South Dakota; thence with the new
seventh standard parallel to the place of beginning, is attached to the
Watertown land district, the office of which is now located at
Watertown, S. Dak.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 11th day of April, A.D. 1892, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a written agreement made on the ---- day of October,
1890, the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes of Indians ceded, conveyed,
transferred, relinquished, and surrendered all their claim, title, and
interest in and to the lands described in article 2 of said agreement
as follows, to wit:

  Commencing at a point where the Washita River crosses the ninety-eighth
  degree of west longitude, as surveyed in the years 1858 and 1871;
  thence north on a line with said ninety-eighth degree to the point
  where it is crossed by the Red Fork of the Arkansas (sometimes called
  the Cimarron River); thence up said river, in the middle of the main
  channel thereof, to the north boundary of the country ceded to the
  United States by the treaty of June 14, 1866, with the Creek Nation
  of Indians; thence west on said north boundary and the north boundary
  of the country ceded to the United States by the treaty of March 21,
  1866, with the Seminole Indians to the one hundredth degree of west
  longitude; thence south on the line of said one hundredth degree to the
  point where it strikes the North Fork of the Red River; thence down
  said North Fork of the Red River to a point where it strikes the north
  line of the Kiowa and Conianclie Reservation; thence east along said
  boundary to a point where it strikes the Washita River; thence down
  said Washita River, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the
  place of beginning; and all other lands or tracts of country in the
  Indian Territory to which they have or may set up or allege any right,
  title, interest, or claim whatsoever.


_Provided_, That every member of said tribes shall have an allotment
of 160 acres of land, as in said agreement provided, to be selected
within the tract of country so ceded, except land in any part of
said reservation now used or occupied for military, agency, school,
school-farm, religious, or other public uses, or in sections 16 or 36
in each Congressional township, except, in cases where any Cheyenne or
Arapahoe Indian has heretofore made improvements upon and now uses and
occupies a part of said sections 16 and 36, such Indian may make his
or her selection within the boundaries so prescribed so as to include
his or her improvements; and except in that part of the lands by said
agreement ceded, now occupied and claimed by the Wichita and affiliated
bands of Indians described as follows, to wit:

  Commencing at a point in the middle of the main channel of the Washita
  River where the ninety-eighth meridian of west longitude crosses the
  same; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said river to
  the line of 98° 40' west longitude; thence up said line of 98° 40' due
  north to the middle of the main channel of the main Canadian River;
  thence down the middle of the main Canadian River to where it crosses
  the ninety-eighth meridian; thence due south to the place of beginning.


_And provided_, That said sections 16 and 36 in each Congressional
township in said reservation shall not become subject to homestead
entry, but shall be held by the United States and finally sold for
public-school purposes; and that when the allotments of lands shall have
been selected and taken by the members of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe
tribes as aforesaid and approved by the Secretary of the Interior the
title thereto shall be held in trust for the allottees, respectively,
for the period of twenty-five years in the manner and to the extent
provided for in the act of Congress approved February 8, 1887 (24 U.S.
Statutes at Large, p. 388); and

Whereas it is provided in the act of Congress accepting, ratifying, and
confirming the said agreement with the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians,
approved March 3, 1891 (26 U.S. Statutes at Large, pp. 989-1044),
section 16--

  That whenever any of the lands acquired by either of the * * *
  foregoing agreements respecting lands in the Indian or Oklahoma
  Territory shall by operation of law or proclamation of the President
  of the United States be opened to settlement they shall be disposed
  of to actual settlers only, under the provisions of the homestead and
  town-site laws, except section 2301 of the Revised Statutes of the
  United States, which shall not apply: _Provided, however_, That each
  settler on said lands shall before making a final proof and receiving
  a certificate of entry pay to the United States for the land so taken
  by him, in addition to the fees provided by law, and within five years
  from the date of the first original entry, the sum of $1.50 per acre,
  one-half of which shall be paid within two years; but the rights
  of honorably discharged Union soldiers and sailors as defined and
  described in sections 2304 and 2305 of the Revised Statutes of the
  United States shall not be abridged except as to the sum to be paid
  as aforesaid; and all the lands in Oklahoma are hereby declared to be
  agricultural lands, and proof of their nonmineral character shall not
  be required as a condition precedent to final entry.


And whereas allotments of land in severalty to said Cheyenne and
Arapahoe Indians have been made and approved in accordance with law and
the provisions of the before-mentioned agreement with them; and

Whereas the lands acquired by the said agreement hereinbefore mentioned
have been divided into counties by the Secretary of the Interior, as
required by said last-mentioned act of Congress, before the same shall
be opened to settlement, and lands have been reserved for county-seat
purposes as therein required, as follows, to wit:

For County C, the south one-half of section 19, township 16 north, range
11 west; for County D, the north one-half of section 13, township 18
north, range 17 west; for County E, the south one-half of section 15,
township 17 north, range 22 west; for County F, the south one-half of
section 8, township 13 north, range 23 west; for County G, the north
one-half of section 25, township 13 north, range 17 west; for County H,
the south one-half of section 13, township 9 north, range 16 west; and

Whereas it is provided by act of Congress for temporary government of
Oklahoma, approved May 2, 1890, section 23 (26 U.S. Statutes at Large,
p. 92), that there shall be reserved public highways 4 rods wide between
each section of land in said Territory, the section lines being the
center of said highways; but no deduction shall be made where cash
payments are provided for in the amount to be paid for each quarter
section of land by reason of such reservation; and

Whereas all the terms, conditions, and considerations required by said
agreement made with said tribes of Indians and by the laws relating
thereto precedent to opening said lands to settlement have been, as
I hereby declare, complied with:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by the statutes hereinbefore
mentioned, also an act of Congress entitled "An act making
appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the Indian
Department and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with various Indian
tribes for the year ending June 30, 1892, and for other purposes,"
approved March 3, 1891, and by other of the laws of the United States,
and by said agreement, do hereby declare and make known that all of said
lands hereinbefore described acquired from the Cheyenne and Arapahoe
Indians by the agreement aforesaid, saving and excepting the lands
allotted to the Indians as in said agreement provided, excepting also
the lands hereinbefore described as occupied and claimed by the Wichita
and affiliated bands of Indians, or otherwise reserved in pursuance of
the provisions of said agreement and the said act of Congress ratifying
the same, and other the laws relating thereto, will at the hour of
12 o'clock noon (central standard time), Tuesday, the 19th day of
the present month of April, and not before, be opened to settlement
under the terms of and subject to all the conditions, limitations,
reservations, and restrictions contained in said agreement, the statutes
above specified, and the laws of the United States applicable thereto.

The lands to be so opened to settlement are for greater convenience
particularly described in the accompanying schedule, entitled "Schedule
of lands within the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian Reservation, Oklahoma
Territory, opened to settlement by proclamation of the President."

Each entry shall be in square form as nearly as applicable; and no other
lands in the Territory of Oklahoma are opened to settlement under this
proclamation, the agreement with the said Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians,
or the act ratifying the same.

Notice, moreover, is hereby given that it is by law enacted that until
said lands are opened to settlement by proclamation no person shall be
permitted to enter upon and occupy the same, and no person violating
this provision shall be permitted to enter any of said lands or acquire
any right thereto, and that the officers of the United States will be
required to enforce this provision.

And further notice is hereby given that it has been duly ordered that
the lands mentioned and included in this proclamation shall be, and the
same are, attached to the Western land district, office at Kingfisher,
and the Oklahoma land district, office at Oklahoma City, in said
Territory of Oklahoma, as follows:

1. All of said lands lying north of the township line between townships
13 and 14 north are attached to the Western land district, the office of
which is at Kingfisher, in said Territory.

2. All of said lands lying south of the township line between townships
13 and 14 north are attached to the Oklahoma land district, the office
of which is at Oklahoma City, in the said Territory.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 12th day of April, A.D. 1892, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 13 of the act of Congress of March 3,
1891, entitled "An act to amend Title LX, chapter 3, of the Revised
Statutes of the United States, relating to copyrights," that said act
"shall only apply to a citizen or subject of a foreign state or nation
when such foreign state or nation permits to citizens of the United
States of America the benefit of copyright on substantially the same
basis as its own citizens, or when such foreign state or nation is a
party to an international agreement which provides for reciprocity in
the granting of copyright, by the terms of which agreement the United
States of America may at its pleasure become a party to such agreement;"
and

Whereas it is also provided by said section that "the existence of
either of the conditions aforesaid shall be determined by the President
of the United States by proclamation made from time to time as the
purposes of this act may require;" and

Whereas in virtue of said section 13 of the aforesaid act of Congress
a copyright agreement was signed at Washington on January 15, 1892, in
the English and German languages, by the representatives of the United
States of America and the German Empire, a true copy of the English
version of which agreement is, word for word, as follows:

  The President of the United States of America and His Majesty the
  German Emperor, King of Prussia, in the name of the German Empire,
  being actuated by the desire to extend to their subjects and citizens
  the full benefit of the legal provisions in force in both countries
  in regard to copyright, have to this end decided to conclude an
  agreement and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:

  The President of the United States of America, James G. Blaine,
  Secretary of State of the United States;

  His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, Alfons Mumm von
  Schwarzenstein, his chargé d'affaires near the Government of the United
  States of America, who, being duly authorized, have concluded the
  following agreement, subject to due ratification:

  ARTICLE I. Citizens of the United States of America shall enjoy in
  the German Empire the protection of copyright as regards works of
  literature and art, as well as photographs, against illegal
  reproduction, on the same basis on which such protection is granted
  to subjects of the Empire.

  ART. II. The United States Government engages in return that the
  President of the United States shall, in pursuance of section 13 of
  the act of Congress of March 3, 1891, issue the proclamation therein
  provided for in regard to the extension of the provisions of that act
  to German subjects as soon as the Secretary of State shall have been
  officially notified that the present agreement has received the
  necessary legislative sanction in the German Empire.

  ART. III. This agreement shall be ratified and the ratifications shall
  be exchanged at Washington as soon as possible.

  The agreement shall go into operation at the expiration of three weeks
  from the date of the exchange of its ratifications, and shall be
  applicable only to works not published at the time when it shall have
  gone into operation. It shall remain in force until the expiration of
  three months from the day on which notice of a desire for the cessation
  of its effects shall have been given by one of the contracting parties.

  Done in duplicate in the English and German languages, at the city of
  Washington, this 15th day of January, 1892.

  JAMES G. BLAINE. [SEAL.]
  A. v. MUMM. [SEAL.]


And whereas the official notification contemplated by Article II of the
said agreement has been received by this Government:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States
of America, do declare and proclaim that the first of the conditions
specified in section 13 of the act of March 3, 1891, is now fulfilled
in respect to the subjects of the German Empire.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, the 15th day of April, 1892, and of the
Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the Secretary of State of the United
States of America communicated to the Government of Honduras the action
of the Congress of the United States of America, with a view to secure
reciprocal trade, in declaring the articles enumerated in said section 3
to be exempt from duty upon their importation into the United States of
America; and

Whereas the consul-general of Honduras at New York has communicated to
the Secretary of State the fact that, in reciprocity for the admission
into the United States of America free of all duty of the articles
enumerated in section 3 of said act, the Government of Honduras will by
due legal enactment, as a provisional measure and until a more complete
arrangement may be negotiated and put in operation, admit free of all
duty, from and after May 25, 1892, into all the established ports of
entry of Honduras the articles or merchandise named in the following
schedule, provided that the same be the product or manufacture of the
United States:


  SCHEDULE OF PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURES FROM THE UNITED STATES WHICH THE
  REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS WILL ADMIT FREE OF ALL CUSTOMS, MUNICIPAL, AND ANY
  OTHER KIND OF DUTY.

   1. Animals for breeding purposes.

   2. Corn, rice, barley, and rye.

   3. Beans.

   4. Hay and straw for forage.

   5. Fruits, fresh.

   6. Preparations of flour in biscuits, crackers not sweetened,
      macaroni, vermicelli, and tallarin.

   7. Coal, mineral.

   8. Roman cement.

   9. Hydraulic lime.

  10. Bricks, fire bricks, and crucibles for melting.

  11. Marble, dressed, for furniture, statues, fountains, gravestones,
      and building purposes.

  12. Tar, vegetable and mineral.

  13. Guano and other fertilizers, natural or artificial.

  14. Plows and all other agricultural tools and implements.

  15. Machinery of all kinds, including sewing machines, and separate
      or extra parts of the same.

  16. Materials of all kinds for the construction and equipment of
      railroads.

  17. Materials of all kinds for the construction and operation of
      telegraphic and telephonic lines.

  18. Materials of all kinds for lighting by electricity and gas.

  19. Materials of all kinds for the construction of wharves.

  20. Apparatus for distilling liquors.

  21. Wood of all kinds for building, in trunks or pieces, beams,
      rafters, planks, boards, shingles, or flooring.

  22. Wooden staves, heads, and hoops, and barrels and boxes for
      packing, mounted or in pieces.

  23. Houses of wood or iron, complete or in parts.

  24. Wagons, carts, and carriages of all kinds.

  25. Barrels, casks, and tanks of iron for water.

  26. Tubes of iron and all other accessories necessary for water supply.

  27. Wire, barbed, and staples for fences.

  28. Plates of iron for building purposes.

  29. Mineral ores.

  30. Kettles of iron for making salt.

  31. Sugar boilers.

  32. Molds for sugar.

  33. Guys for mining purposes.

  34. Furnaces and instruments for assaying metals.

  35. Scientific instruments.

  36. Models of machinery and buildings.

  37. Boats, lighters, tackle, anchors, chains, girtlines, sails, and all
      other articles for vessels, to be used in the ports, lakes, and
      rivers of the Republic.

  38. Printing materials, including presses, type, ink, and all other
      accessories.

  39. Printed books, pamphlets, and newspapers, bound or unbound, maps,
      photographs, printed music, and paper for music.

  40. Paper for printing newspapers.

  41. Quicksilver.

  42. Loadstones.

  43. Hops.

  44. Sulphate of quinine.

  45. Gold and silver in bars, dust, or coin.

  46. Samples of merchandise the duties on which do not exceed $1.


It is understood that the packages or coverings in which the articles
named in the foregoing schedule are imported shall be free of duty if
they are usual and proper for the purpose.

And that the Government of Honduras has further stipulated that the laws
and regulations adopted to protect its revenue and prevent fraud in the
declarations and proof that the articles named in the foregoing schedule
are the product or manufacture of the United States of America shall
impose no additional charges on the importer nor undue restrictions on
the articles imported; and

Whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given assurance
to the consul-general of Honduras at New York that this action of the
Government of Honduras in granting freedom of duties to the products and
manufactures of the United States of America on their importation into
Honduras and in stipulating for a more complete reciprocity arrangement
is accepted as a due reciprocity for the action of Congress as set forth
in section 3 of said act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of Honduras to be made public for the information of the
citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 30th day of April, 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the Secretary of State of the United
States of America communicated to the Government of Guatemala the action
of the Congress of the United States of America, with a view to secure
reciprocal trade, in declaring the articles enumerated in said section 3
to be exempt from duty upon their importation into the United States of
America; and

Whereas the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of
Guatemala at Washington has communicated to the Secretary of State the
fact that, in reciprocity for the admission into the United States of
America free of all duty of the articles enumerated in section 3 of said
act, the Government of Guatemala will by due legal enactment of the
National Congress of that Republic admit free of all duty, from and
after the 30th day after the passage of the said act by the Congress of
Guatemala, into all the established ports of entry of that Republic the
articles or merchandise named in the following schedule, provided that
the same be the product or manufacture of the United States:


    SCHEDULE OF ARTICLES THE PRODUCT OR MANUFACTURE OF THE UNITED STATES
    TO BE ADMITTED INTO GUATEMALA FREE OF ALL CUSTOMS DUTIES AND OF ANY
    NATIONAL OR MUNICIPAL DUES AND NATIONAL PORT CHARGES.

   1. Live animals.

   2. Barley, corn or maize, and rye.

   3. Corn meal.

   4. Potatoes, pease, and beans.

   5. Fresh vegetables.

   6. Rice.

   7. Hay and straw for forage.

   8. Tar, pitch, resin, turpentine, and asphalt.

   9. Cotton-seed oil and other products of said seed.

  10. Quicksilver.

  11. Mineral coal.

  12. Guano and other fertilizers.

  13. Lumber and timber, in the rough or prepared for building purposes.

  14. Houses of wood or iron, complete or in parts.

  15. Fire bricks, lime, cement, shingles, and tiles of clay or glass
      for roofing and construction of buildings.

  16. Marble in slabs, columns, cornices, door and window frames,
      and fountains, and dressed or undressed marble for buildings.

  17. Piping of clay, glazed or unglazed, for aqueducts and sewers.

  18. Wire, plain or barbed, for fences, with hooks and staples for same.

  19. Printed books, bound or unbound; printed music; maps, charts,
      and globes.

  20. Materials for the construction and equipment of railways.

  21. Materials for electrical illumination.

  22. Materials expressly for the construction of wharves.

  23. Anchors and hoisting tackle.

  24. Railings of cast or wrought iron.

  25. Balconies of cast or wrought iron.

  26. Window blinds of wood or metal.

  27. Iron fireplaces or stoves.

  28. Machinery, including steam machinery for agriculture and mining,
      and separate parts of the same.

  29. Gold and silver, in bullion, dust, or coin.


It is understood that the packages or coverings in which the articles
named in the foregoing schedule are imported shall enter free of duty
if they are usual and proper for the purpose.

And whereas the Government of Guatemala has further stipulated that the
laws and regulations adopted to protect its revenue and prevent fraud
in the declarations and proof that the articles named in the foregoing
schedule are the product or manufacture of the United States of America
shall impose no undue restrictions on the importer and no additional
charges on the articles imported; and

Whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given assurance to
the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of Guatemala at
Washington that this action of the Government of Guatemala in granting
freedom of duties to the products and manufactures of the United States
of America on their importation into Guatemala, is accepted as a due
reciprocity for the action of Congress as set forth in section 3 of said
act; and

Whereas the diplomatic representative of the United States of America at
the city of Guatemala has been advised by the Government of Guatemala
of the passage on April 30, 1892, of an act by the National Congress of
that Republic approving the commercial arrangement concluded between the
Governments of the two Republics and of the issue of a decree admitting,
on and after the 30th day of May, 1892, the articles mentioned in the
above schedule being the product or manufacture of the United States of
America into the ports of Guatemala free of all duties whatsoever:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of Guatemala to be made public for the information of
the citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 18th day of May, 1892, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JAMES G. BLAINE,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas, pursuant to section 3 of the act of Congress approved October
1, 1890, entitled "An act to reduce the revenue and equalize duties on
imports, and for other purposes," the attention of the Government of
Austria-Hungary was called to the action of the Congress of the United
States of America, with a view to secure reciprocal trade, in declaring
the articles enumerated in said section 3 to be exempt from duty upon
their importation into the United States of America; and

Whereas the minister plenipotentiary of Austria-Hungary at Washington
has communicated to the Secretary of State the fact that, in view of the
act of Congress above cited, the Government of Austria-Hungary has by
due legal enactment authorized the admission, from and after May 25,
1892, into Austria-Hungary of all the articles of merchandise the
product of the United States of America named in the commercial treaties
which Austria-Hungary has celebrated with Germany and other nations on
the terms stated in said treaties; and

Whereas the Secretary of State has, by my direction, given assurance to
the minister plenipotentiary of Austria-Hungary at Washington that this
action of the Government of Austria-Hungary in granting exemption of
duties to the products and manufactures of the United States of America
on their importation into Austria-Hungary is accepted as a due
reciprocity for the action of Congress as set forth in section 3 of said
act:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States of America, have caused the above-stated modifications of
the tariff laws of Austria-Hungary to be made public for the information
of the citizens of the United States of America.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 26th day of May, 1892, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of the act of Congress approved
March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for
other purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set
  apart and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservations and the limits thereof.


And whereas the public lands in the State of Oregon within the limits
hereinafter described are in part covered with timber, and it appears
that the public good would be promoted by setting apart and reserving
said lands as a public reservation:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by section 24 of the aforesaid act
of Congress, do hereby make known and proclaim that there is hereby
reserved from entry or settlement and set apart as a public reservation
all those certain tracts, pieces, or parcels of land lying and being
situate in the State of Oregon and particularly described as follows,
to wit:

Beginning at the northwest corner of section six (6), township one (1)
south, range six (6) east, Willamette meridian; thence easterly on the
base line between townships one (1) north and one (1) south to the
southwest corner of section thirty-two (32), township one (1) north,
range six (6) east; thence northerly on the section line between
sections thirty-one (31) and thirty-two (32) to the northwest corner of
section thirty-two (32); thence easterly on the section line between
sections twenty-nine (29) and thirty-two (32) to the northeast corner of
section thirty-two (32); thence northerly on the section line between
sections twenty-eight (28) and twenty-nine (29) to the northwest corner
of section twenty-eight (28); thence easterly on the section line
between sections twenty-one (21) and twenty-eight (28) to the northeast
corner of section twenty-eight (28); thence northerly on the section
line between sections twenty-one (21) and twenty-two (22) to the
northwest corner of section twenty-two (22); thence easterly on the
section line between sections fifteen (15) and twenty-two (22) and
fourteen (14) and twenty-three (23) to the northeast corner of section
twenty-three (23); thence northerly along the section line between
sections thirteen (13) and fourteen (14) and eleven (11) and twelve (12)
to the northwest corner of section twelve (12); thence easterly on the
section line between sections one (1) and twelve (12) to the northeast
corner of section twelve (12); thence northerly on the eastern boundary
of section one (1) to the northeast corner of section one (1), all of
said sections being in township one (1) north, range six (6) east;
thence easterly to a point for the northeast corner of township one (1)
north, range seven (7) east; thence southerly to a point for the
southeast corner of section one (1), township one (1) north, range
seven (7) east; thence easterly to a point for the northeast corner of
section eight (8), township one (1) north, range eight (8) east; thence
southerly to a point for the northeast corner of section thirty-two (32)
of said township and range; thence easterly to a point for the northeast
corner of section thirty-three (33) of said township and range; thence
southerly to the southeast corner of section thirty-three (33) of said
township and range; thence westerly along the base line to the northwest
corner of section four (4), township one (1) south, range eight (8)
east; thence southerly on the section line between sections four (4) and
five (5) and eight (8) and nine (9) to the southeast corner of section
eight (8); thence easterly along the section line between sections nine
(9) and sixteen (16) to a point for the northeast corner of section
sixteen (16); thence southerly along the section line between sections
fifteen (15) and sixteen (16) to the southeast corner of section sixteen
(16); thence easterly along the section line between sections fifteen
(15) and twenty-two to the northeast corner of section twenty-two (22);
thence southerly between sections twenty-two (22), twenty-three (23),
twenty-six (26), twenty-seven (27), thirty-four (34), and thirty-five
(35) to the southeast corner of section thirty-four (34); thence
easterly along the southern boundary line of sections thirty-five (35)
and thirty-six (36) to the southeast corner of section thirty-six (36),
all of said sections being in township one (1) south, range eight (8)
east; thence southerly to a point for the southeast corner of township
two (2) south, range eight (8) east; thence westerly to the southeast
corner of township two (2) south, range seven (7) east; thence northerly
along the eastern boundary line of sections thirty-six (36), twenty-five
(25), twenty-four (24), and thirteen (13), township two (2) south, range
seven (7) east, to the southeast corner of section twelve (12) of said
township and range; thence westerly along the section line between
sections twelve (12) and thirteen (13), eleven (11) and fourteen (14),
ten (10) and fifteen (15), nine (9) and sixteen (16), eight (8) and
seventeen (17), and seven (7) and eighteen (18), township two (2) south,
range seven (7) east, and sections twelve (12) and thirteen (13), eleven
(11) and fourteen (14), ten (10) and fifteen (15), nine (9) and sixteen
(16), eight (8) and seventeen (17), and seven (7) and eighteen (18),
township two (2) south, range six (6) east, to the southwest corner of
section seven (7) of said township and range; thence northerly along the
western boundary of section seven (7) to the northwest corner of said
section, township two (2) south, range six (6) east; thence westerly on
the section line between sections one (1) and twelve (12), two (2) and
eleven (11), three (3) and ten (10), and four (4) and nine (9) to the
southwest corner of section four (4), township two (2) south, range five
(5) east; thence northerly on the section line between sections four (4)
and five (5) to the northwest corner of section four (4) in said
township and range; thence easterly on the township line between
townships one (1) and two (2) south, range five (5) east, to the
southwest corner of section thirty-five (35), township one (1) south,
range five (5) east; thence northerly on the section line between
sections thirty-four (34), thirty-five (35), twenty-six (26),
twenty-seven (27), twenty-two (22), and twenty-three (23) to the
northwest corner of section twenty-three (23) of said township and
range; thence easterly on the section line between sections fourteen
(14) and twenty-three (23), thirteen (13) and twenty-four (24), to the
northeast corner of section twenty-four (24) of said township and range;
thence northerly along the range line between ranges five (5) and six
(6) east to the place of beginning.

Excepting from the force and effect of this proclamation all lands which
may have been prior to the date hereof embraced in any legal entry or
covered by any lawful filing duly of record in the proper United States
land office, or upon which any valid settlement has been made pursuant
to law and the statutory period within which to make entry or filing
of record has not expired, and all mining claims duly located and held
according to the laws of the United States and rules and regulations
not in conflict therewith.

_Provided_, That this exception shall not continue to apply to any
particular tract of land unless the entryman, settler, or claimant
continues to comply with the law under which the entry, filing,
settlement, or location was made.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or make
settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 17th day of June, A.D. 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
_Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of the act of Congress approved
March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for
other purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set
  apart and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservations and the limits thereof.


And whereas the public lands in the State of Colorado within the limits
hereinafter described are in part covered with timber, and it appears
that the public good would be promoted by setting apart and reserving
said lands as a public reservation:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, by
virtue of the power in me vested by section 24 of the aforesaid act of
Congress, do hereby make known and proclaim that there is hereby
reserved from entry or settlement and set apart as a public reservation
all those certain tracts, pieces, or parcels of land lying and being
situate in the State of Colorado and particularly described as follows,
to wit:

Township ten (10) south of ranges sixty-eight (68), sixty-nine (69), and
seventy (70) west; township nine (9) south of ranges sixty-eight (68)
and sixty-nine (69) west; township eight (8) south of range sixty-nine
(69) west, and so much of township ten (10) south of range seventy-one
(71) west, township nine (9) south of range seventy (70) west, township
eight (8) south of range seventy (70) west, and township seven (7) south
of range sixty-nine (69) west as lie to the eastward of the South Platte
River.

Excepting from the force and effect of this proclamation all lands which
may have been prior to the date hereof embraced in any legal entry or
covered by any lawful filing duly of record in the proper United States
land office, or upon which any valid settlement has been made pursuant
to law and the statutory period within which to make entry or filing of
record has not expired, and all mining claims duly located and held
according to the laws of the United States and rules and regulations not
in conflict therewith.

_Provided_, That this exception shall not continue to apply to any
particular tract of land unless the entryman, settler, or claimant
continues to comply with the law under which the entry, filing,
settlement, or location was made.

Warning is hereby expressly given to all persons not to enter or make
settlement upon the tract of land reserved by this proclamation.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 23d day of June, A.D. 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and sixteenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  WILLIAM F. WHARTON,
    _Acting Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

_To whom it may concern_:

Whereas the governor of the State of Idaho has represented to me that
within said State there exist an insurrection and condition of domestic
violence and resistance to the laws to meet and overcome which the
resources at his command are unequal; and

Whereas he has further represented that the legislature of said State
is not now in session and can not be promptly convened; and

Whereas by reason of said conditions the said governor, as chief
executive of the State, has called upon me, as Chief Executive of the
Government of the United States, for assistance in repressing said
violence and restoring and maintaining the peace:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of section 4, Article IV, of the Constitution of the United
States and of the laws of Congress enacted in pursuance thereof,
do hereby command all persons engaged in said insurrection and in
resistance to the laws to immediately disperse and retire peaceably
to their respective abodes.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of July, A.D. 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and seventeenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JOHN W. FOSTER,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a joint resolution approved June 29, 1892, it was resolved by
the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America
in Congress assembled--

  That the President of the United States be authorized and directed to
  issue a proclamation recommending to the people the observance in all
  their localities of the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of
  America, on the 21st of October, 1892, by public demonstrations and by
  suitable exercises in their schools and other places of assembly.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States
of America, in pursuance of the aforesaid joint resolution, do hereby
appoint Friday, October 21, 1892, the four hundredth anniversary of the
discovery of America by Columbus, as a general holiday for the people of
the United States. On that day let the people, so far as possible, cease
from toil and devote themselves to such exercises as may best express
honor to the discoverer and their appreciation of the great achievements
of the four completed centuries of American life.

Columbus stood in his age as the pioneer of progress and enlightenment.
The system of universal education is in our age the most prominent and
salutary feature of the spirit of enlightenment, and it is peculiarly
appropriate that the schools be made by the people the center of the
day's demonstration. Let the national flag float over every schoolhouse
in the country and the exercises be such as shall impress upon our youth
the patriotic duties of American citizenship.

In the churches and in the other places of assembly of the people let
there be expressions of gratitude to Divine Providence for the devout
faith of the discoverer and for the divine care and guidance which has
directed our history and so abundantly blessed our people.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 21st day of July, A.D. 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and seventeenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JOHN W. FOSTER,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by reason of unlawful obstructions, combinations, and
assemblages of persons it has become impracticable, in my judgment, to
enforce by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings the laws of the
United States within the State and district of Wyoming, the United
States marshal, after repeated efforts, being unable by his ordinary
deputies or by any civil posse which he is able to obtain to execute the
process of the United States courts:

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the
United States, do hereby command all persons engaged in such resistance
to the laws and the process of the courts of the United States to cease
such opposition and resistance and to disperse and retire peaceably to
their respective abodes on or before Wednesday, the 3d day of August
next.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 30th day of July, A.D. 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and seventeenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JOHN W. FOSTER,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by an act of Congress approved July 26, 1892, entitled "An act
to enforce reciprocal commercial relations between the United States and
Canada, and for other purposes," it is provided--

  That with a view of securing reciprocal advantages for the citizens,
  ports, and vessels of the United States, on and after the 1st day
  of August, 1892, whenever and so often as the President shall be
  satisfied that the passage through any canal or lock connected with the
  navigation of the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, or the waterways
  connecting the same of any vessels of the United States, or of cargoes
  or passengers in transit to any port of the United States, is
  prohibited or is made difficult or burdensome by the imposition of
  tolls or otherwise which, in view of the free passage through the St.
  Marys Falls Canal now permitted to vessels of all nations, he shall
  deem to be reciprocally unjust and unreasonable, he shall have the
  power, and it shall be his duty, to suspend, by proclamation to that
  effect, for such time and to such extent (including absolute
  prohibition) as he shall deem just, the right of free passage through
  the St. Marys Falls Canal so far as it relates to vessels owned by the
  subjects of the government so discriminating against the citizens,
  ports, or vessels of the United States or to any cargoes, portions of
  cargoes, or passengers in transit to the ports of the government making
  such discrimination, whether carried in vessels of the United States or
  of other nations.

  In such case and during such suspension tolls shall be levied,
  collected, and paid as follows, to wit: Upon freight of whatever kind
  or description not to exceed $2 per ton, upon passengers not to exceed
  $5 each, as shall be from time to time determined by the President:
  _Provided_, That no tolls shall be charged or collected upon freight
  or passengers carried to and landed at Ogdensburg, or any port west of
  Ogdensburg and south of a line drawn from the northern boundary of the
  State of New York through the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and
  their connecting channels to the northern boundary of the State of
  Minnesota.

  SEC. 2. All tolls so charged shall be collected under such
  regulations as shall be prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury,
  who may require the master of each vessel to furnish a sworn statement
  of the amount and kind of cargo and the number of passengers carried
  and the destination of the same, and such proof of the actual delivery
  of such cargo or passengers at some port or place within the limits
  above named as he shall deem satisfactory; and until such proof is
  furnished such freight and passengers may be considered to have been
  landed at some port or place outside of those limits, and the amount
  of tolls which would have accrued if they had been so delivered shall
  constitute a lien, which may be enforced against the vessel in default
  wherever and whenever found in the waters of the United States.


And whereas the government of the Dominion of Canada imposes a toll
amounting to about 20 cents per ton on all freight passing through the
Welland Canal in transit to a port of the United States, and also a
further toll on all vessels of the United States and on all passengers
in transit to a port of the United States, all of which tolls are
without rebate; and

Whereas the government of the Dominion of Canada, in accordance with
an order in council of April 4, 1892, refunds 18 cents per ton of the
20-cent toll at the Welland Canal on wheat, Indian corn, pease, barley,
rye, oats, flaxseed, and buckwheat upon condition that they are
originally shipped for and carried to Montreal or some port east of
Montreal for export, and that if transshipped at an intermediate point
such transshipment is made within the Dominion of Canada, but allows no
such nor any other rebate on said products when shipped to a port of
the United States or when carried to Montreal for export if transshipped
within the United States; and

Whereas the government of the Dominion of Canada by said system of
rebate and otherwise discriminates against the citizens of the United
States in the use of said Welland Canal, in violation of the provisions
of Article XXVII of the treaty of Washington concluded May 8, 1871; and

Whereas said Welland Canal is connected with the navigation of the Great
Lakes, and I am satisfied that the passage through it of cargoes in
transit to ports of the United States is made difficult and burdensome
by said discriminating system of rebate and otherwise and is
reciprocally unjust and unreasonable:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin, Harrison, President of the United States of
America, by virtue of the power to that end conferred upon me by said
act of Congress approved July 26, 1892, do hereby direct that from and
after September 1, 1892, until further notice a toll of 20 cents per
ton be levied, collected, and paid on all freight of whatever kind or
description passing through the St. Marys Falls Canal in transit to any
port of the Dominion of Canada, whether carried in vessels of the United
States or of other nations; and to that extent I do hereby suspend from
and after said date the right of free passage through said St. Marys
Falls Canal of any and all cargoes or portions of cargoes in transit
to Canadian ports.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 18th day of August, A.D. 1892, and
of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and
seventeenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JOHN W. FOSTER,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas by a written agreement made on the 8th day of December, 1890,
the Crow tribe of Indians, in the State of Montana, agreed to dispose
of and sell to the United States, for certain considerations in said
agreement specified, all that portion of the Crow Indian Reservation
in the State of Montana lying west and south of the following lines,
to wit:

  Beginning in the mid-channel of the Yellowstone River at a point which
  is the northwest corner of section No. 36, township No. 2 north of
  range 27 east of the principal meridian of Montana; thence running in
  a southwesterly direction, following the top of the natural divide
  between the waters flowing into the Yellowstone and Clarks Fork rivers
  upon the west and those flowing into Pryor Creek and West Pryor Creek
  on the east, to the base of West Pryor Mountain; thence due south and
  up the north slope of said Pryor Mountain on a true meridian line to a
  point 15 miles due north from the established line between Montana and
  Wyoming; thence in a due easterly course on a parallel of latitude to a
  point where it intersects the mid-channel of the Big Horn River; thence
  following up the mid-channel of said river to a point where it crosses
  the Montana and Wyoming State line.


And whereas it is stipulated in the eleventh clause or section of said
agreement that all lands upon that portion of the reservation by said
agreement ceded which prior to the date thereof had been allotted in
severalty to Indians of the Crow tribe shall be retained and enjoyed by
them; and

Whereas it is provided in the twelfth clause or section of said
agreement that, in accordance with the provisions of article 6 of the
treaty of May 7, A.D. 1868, said cession of lands shall not be construed
to deprive without his or her consent any individual Indian of the Crow
tribe of his or her right to any tract of land selected by him or her in
conformity with said treaty or as provided by the agreement approved by
Congress April 11, A.D. 1882; and

Whereas it is further provided in said twelfth clause or section that in
ratifying said agreement the Congress of the United States shall cause
all such lands to be surveyed and certificates duly issued for the same
to said Indians, as provided in the treaty of May 7, 1868, before said
ceded portion of the reservation shall be opened for settlement; and

Whereas by the thirteenth clause or section of said agreement of
December 8, 1890, it is made a condition of said agreement that it
shall not be binding upon either party until ratified by the Congress of
the United States, and when so ratified that said cession of lands so
acquired by the United States shall not be opened for settlement until
the boundary lines set forth and described in said agreement have been
surveyed and definitely marked by suitable permanent monuments, erected
every half mile wherever practicable, along the entire length of said
boundary line; and

Whereas said agreement was duly ratified and confirmed by the
thirty-first section of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1891; and

Whereas it is provided in section 34 of said act of March 3, 1891--

  That whenever any of the lands acquired by the agreement with said
  Crow Indians hereby ratified and confirmed shall by operation of law
  or the proclamation of the President of the United States be open to
  settlement, they shall, except mineral lands, be disposed of to actual
  settlers only under the provisions of the homestead laws, except
  section 2301 of the Revised Statutes, which shall not apply: _Provided,
  however_, That each settler under and in accordance with the provisions
  of said homestead laws shall before receiving a patent for his
  homestead pay to the United States for the land so taken by him, in
  addition to the fees provided by law, and within five years from the
  date of the first original entry, the sum of $1.50 for each acre
  thereof, one-half of which shall be paid within two years; and any
  person otherwise qualified who has attempted to but for any cause
  failed to secure a title in fee to a homestead under existing law, or
  who made entry under what is known as the commuted provision of the
  homestead law, shall be qualified to make a homestead entry upon any
  of said lands in conformity with the provisions of this section; that
  any person who may be entitled to the privilege of selecting land in
  severalty under the provisions of article 6 of the treaty of May 7,
  1868, with the Crow Indians, and which provisions were continued in
  force by the agreement with said Indians ratified and confirmed by
  the act of Congress approved April 11, 1882, or any other act or
  treaty, shall have the right for a period of sixty days to make such
  selections in any part of the territory by said agreement ceded, and
  such locations are hereby confirmed: _Provided further_, That all
  white persons who located upon said Crow Reservation by reason of an
  erroneous survey of the boundary and were afterwards allowed to file
  upon their location in the United States land office shall have thirty
  days in which to renew their filings, and their locations are hereby
  confirmed; and that in all cases where claims were located under the
  mining laws of the United States, and such location was made prior to
  December 1, 1890, by a locator qualified therefor who believed that he
  or she was so locating on lands outside the Crow Indian Reservation,
  such locator shall be allowed thirty days within which to relocate the
  said mining claims so theretofore located by them within the limits
  of the ceded portion of said Crow Indian Reservation, and upon such
  relocation such proceedings shall be had as are conformable to law
  and in accordance with the provisions of this act.


And whereas the boundary lines of said ceded lands have been duly
surveyed and marked as stipulated in the thirteenth clause or section of
said agreement; and

Whereas a written agreement was concluded with said Crow Indians on the
27th day of August, 1892, under and by virtue of the following clause in
the Indian appropriation act of Congress approved July 13, 1892, to wit:

  * * * To enable the Secretary of the Interior, in his discretion, to
  appoint a commission to negotiate with the Crow Indians of Montana for
  a modification of the agreement concluded with said Indians December 8,
  1890, and ratified by Congress March 3, 1891, and to pay the necessary
  and actual expenses of said commissioners: _Provided_, That no such
  modification shall be valid unless assented to by a majority of the
  male adult members of the Crow tribe of Indians and be approved by the
  Secretary of the Interior.


Which said agreement was assented to by a majority of the male adult
members of the Crow tribe of Indians, as attested by their signatures
thereto, and has been duly approved by the Secretary of the Interior;
and

Whereas it is stipulated and agreed in the first clause or section of
said agreement of August 27, 1892, that the persons named in a schedule
attached to and made a part of said agreement, marked "Schedule A,"
include all the members of said Crow tribe who are entitled to the
benefits of the eleventh section of said agreement of December 8, 1890,
and that each of said persons is entitled to the land therein described
as his selection in full satisfaction of his claim under said section;
and that the persons named in a schedule attached to and made a part of
said agreement of August 27, 1892, marked "Schedule B," include all the
members of said tribe who are entitled to the benefits of the twelfth
section of said agreement of December 8, 1890, and of the proviso of the
thirty-fourth section of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1891,
extending the privilege of making selections on the ceded lands for a
period of sixty days, and that each of the said persons therein named is
entitled to retain the tract of land theretofore selected by him within
the limits of the tract of land therein described as containing his
selection of his claim under the said section (or the said proviso); and

Whereas it is stipulated and agreed by the second clause or section
of said agreement of August 27, 1892, that all lands ceded by said
agreement may be opened to settlement, upon the approval of the said
agreement, by proclamation of the President:

  _Provided_, That all lands within the ceded tract selected or set
  apart for the use of individual Indians and described in the aforesaid
  Schedules "A" and "B" shall be exempt from cession and shall remain
  a part of the Crow Indian Reservation, and shall continue under the
  exclusive control of the Interior Department until they shall have been
  surveyed and certificates or patents issued therefor as provided in the
  agreement of December 8, 1890, or until relinquished or surrendered by
  the Indian or Indians claiming the same: _Provided further_, That such
  lands shall be described as set forth in Schedules "A" and "B," and
  shall be exempted from settlement in the proclamation of the President
  opening the ceded lands, and that where lands so set apart are not
  described by legal subdivisions then the township or section or tract of
  land within whose limits such Indians' selections are located shall not
  be opened to settlement until the Indian allotments therein contained
  shall have been surveyed and proper evidence of title issued therefor.


Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by the agreements and statutes
hereinbefore mentioned and by other the laws of the United States, do
hereby declare and make known that all of the lands within that portion
of the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana ceded to the United States
by the said agreement of December 8, 1890, and hereinbefore described,
except those hereinafter mentioned and described, are open to settlement
under the terms of and subject to all the conditions, limitations,
reservations, and restrictions contained in the thirty-fourth section of
the act of Congress approved March 3, 1891, and hereinbefore quoted, and
other laws applicable thereto.

The lands exempted from the operation of this proclamation, being those
embraced in Schedules "A" and "B" attached to the agreement of August
27, 1892, are described as follows:


  1.--SURVEYED LANDS.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 NORTH, RANGE 26 EAST.

  Fractional section 24; the north half, the east half of southeast
  quarter, and west half of southwest quarter of fractional section 25;
  fractional section 26; lot 5 of fractional section 34; the north half
  of northeast quarter and the northeast quarter of northwest quarter
  of section 35; and the northeast quarter of northeast quarter of
  section 36.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 NORTH, RANGE 27 EAST.

  Fractional section 7; lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, the southwest quarter
  of northeast quarter, the southeast quarter, and the south half of the
  southwest quarter of fractional section 8; the south half of northwest
  quarter of section 9; the north half of the northwest quarter and the
  southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 17; fractional
  section 18; the north half and the southwest quarter of section 19.

  IN TOWNSHIP 3 SOUTH, RANGE 24 EAST.

  The north half of the southwest quarter of section 3; the southeast
  quarter of the northeast quarter and lots 2, 3, and 4 of section 4;
  fractional section 5; the southeast quarter and the south half of the
  southwest quarter of section 6; section 7; west half of section 8;
  the east half of the northwest quarter and the southwest quarter of
  the northwest quarter of section 17; lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, the
  northeast quarter of the northeast quarter, the south half of the
  northeast quarter, and the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter
  and the south half of section 18; lots 1, 3, 4, and 5 and the east half
  of southwest quarter, section 19; and lots 1, 2, 3, and 4 in section 30.

  IN TOWNSHIP 4 SOUTH, RANGE 23 EAST.

  Lots 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13, the south half of northwest quarter, the
  southeast quarter of southeast quarter, and the northeast quarter of the
  southwest quarter, section 1; section 2; the north half, the southeast
  quarter, and the north half of southwest quarter, section 3; section 4;
  the east half and the southwest quarter of section 8; the north half
  and the southwest quarter of section 9; the east half and the southwest
  quarter of section n; section 12; the north half, the south half of the
  southeast quarter, the east half of the southwest quarter, and lots 1,
  2, and 3 of section 13; the north half, the southeast quarter, and the
  south half of the southwest quarter of section 14; the north half of
  section 17; the north half, the east half of the southeast quarter, and
  the north half of the southwest quarter of section 18; the northwest
  quarter of section 19; the east half and the northwest quarter of
  section 20; the south half of the northwest quarter of section 22; all
  of section 23 except the northwest quarter of northwest quarter; section
  24; lots 2 and 3 in section 25; the north half of northeast quarter, the
  northwest quarter, the north half of the southwest quarter, and lots 1,
  2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 of section 26; the south half of the southeast quarter
  of section 27; the northwest quarter of section 33; the fractional east
  half and the southwest quarter of section 34; lots 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9,
  and 10 of section 35.

  IN TOWNSHIP 5 SOUTH OF RANGE 23 EAST.

  Lot 5 and southwest quarter of northwest quarter of section 2; lots 1,
  2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 14 and southeast quarter of southeast quarter
  of section 3; the fractional east half, the south half of northwest
  quarter, and the southwest quarter of section 4; the south half of the
  northeast quarter and the north half of the southeast quarter of section
  7; the south half of the north half and the south half of section 8;
  lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 and the west half of section 9; lots 1, 2,
  3, and 4, the west half of the northeast quarter, and the south half of
  section 10; the northwest quarter of section 15; section 16; the east
  half of the northeast quarter and the south half of section 17; the
  northwest quarter of the northeast quarter, the southeast quarter of the
  southeast quarter, the west half, and lots 1, 2, 4, and 5, section 20;
  the southwest quarter of section 21; the west half of southwest quarter,
  section 26; the south half of section 27; the west half of the northeast
  quarter, the northwest quarter, and the south half of section 28; lots
  1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7, the northwest quarter, the south half of the
  southeast quarter, and the west half of the southwest quarter of section
  29; the northeast quarter of northeast quarter, the northeast quarter
  of the southeast quarter, and the south half of the southeast quarter
  of section 30; the northeast quarter, the northeast quarter of the
  northwest quarter, and the southeast quarter of section 31; lots 3, 4,
  5, 6, 9, and 10, the southwest quarter of the southeast quarter, and the
  southwest quarter of section 32; lot 1, the north half of the northeast
  quarter, and the northwest quarter of section 33; and the west half of
  the northeast quarter and the northwest quarter of section 34.


  2.--UNSURVEYED LANDS WHICH WHEN SURVEYED WILL BE DESCRIBED AS FOLLOWS:

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 NORTH OF RANGE 15 EAST.

  The southwest quarter of the northwest quarter, the northwest quarter
  of the southwest quarter, and the south half of the southwest quarter
  of section 27; the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter and the
  east half of the southeast quarter of section 28; the east half of the
  northeast quarter of section 33; the north half, the north half of the
  southeast quarter, and the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter
  of section 34; the south half of the north half and the south half of
  section 35; and the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter, the
  southeast quarter, the north half of the southwest quarter, and the
  southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 36.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 NORTH, RANGE 16 EAST.

  The southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 31.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 SOUTH OF RANGE 15 EAST.

  The north half of the north half and the southeast quarter of the
  northeast quarter of section 1.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 SOUTH OF RANGE 16.

  The north half of the northeast quarter and the southwest quarter of
  the northwest quarter of section 6, and the southeast quarter of the
  northeast quarter of section 24.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 SOUTH OF RANGE 18 EAST.

  The southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 27; the
  northwest quarter of the southeast quarter and the south half of the
  southeast quarter of section 28; the north half of the northeast quarter
  of section 33; and the northeast quarter and the east half of the
  northwest quarter of section 34.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 SOUTH OF RANGE 17 EAST.

  The east half of the northeast quarter, the east half of the northwest
  quarter, the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter, the northwest
  quarter of the southeast quarter, and the northeast quarter of the
  southwest quarter of section 19; the south half of the southeast quarter
  and the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 28; and
  the north half of the northeast quarter and the northeast quarter of the
  northwest quarter of section 33.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 SOUTH OF RANGE 25 EAST.

  The northeast quarter of the southeast quarter, the south half of the
  southeast quarter, and the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of
  section 25, and the northeast Quarter of the northwest quarter and the
  west half of section 36.

  IN TOWNSHIP 1 SOUTH OF RANGE 26 EAST.

  The south half of the southeast quarter of section 19; the southeast
  quarter, the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter, and the south
  half of the southwest quarter of section 20; the west half of the
  southwest quarter of section 21; the west half of the northwest quarter
  of section 28; the north half and the northwest quarter of the southwest
  quarter of section 29; the north half of the northeast quarter, the
  southeast quarter of the northeast quarter, the southwest quarter of the
  northwest quarter, the north half of the southeast quarter, and the
  southwest quarter of section 30.

  IN TOWNSHIP 2 SOUTH OF RANGE 13 EAST.

  The southwest quarter of the northwest quarter and the northwest quarter
  of the southwest quarter of section 27; the southeast quarter of the
  northeast quarter and the east half of the southeast quarter of section
  28; and the east half, the east half of the northwest quarter, the
  northeast quarter of the southeast quarter, and the northeast quarter
  of the southwest quarter of section 33.

  IN TOWNSHIP 2 SOUTH OF RANGE 18 EAST.

  The southeast quarter and the east half of the southwest quarter of
  section 1.

  IN TOWNSHIP 2 SOUTH OF RANGE 20 EAST.

  The east half, the east half of the northwest quarter, the southwest
  quarter of the northwest quarter, and the north half of the southwest
  quarter of section 28; the northeast quarter and the north half of
  the southeast quarter of section 29; the south half of the northeast
  quarter, the north half of the southeast quarter, and the southeast
  quarter of the southeast quarter of section 34; the south half of the
  north half and the south half of section 35; and the southwest quarter
  of the northwest quarter, the northwest quarter of the southeast
  quarter, the south half of the southeast quarter, and the southwest
  quarter of section 36.

  IN TOWNSHIP 2 SOUTH OF RANGE 21 EAST.

  The west half of the northeast quarter, the northwest quarter of the
  southeast quarter, the east half of the west half, and the southwest
  quarter of the southwest quarter of section 32.

  IN TOWNSHIP 2 SOUTH OF RANGE 24 EAST.

  The northeast quarter of the southeast quarter and the south half of the
  southeast quarter of section 21; the northeast quarter, the north half
  of the southeast quarter, and the southwest quarter of section 22; the
  west half of the northwest quarter of section 27; the northeast quarter
  of section 28; and the northeast quarter, the southeast quarter of the
  northwest quarter, the north half of the southeast quarter, and the
  southwest quarter of section 29.

  IN TOWNSHIP 3 SOUTH OF RANGE 18 EAST.

  The west half of section 14; the west half of the northeast quarter and
  the east half of the northwest quarter of section 23; the southwest
  quarter of the northeast quarter, the southeast quarter of the northwest
  quarter, the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter, and the
  northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 31; the northeast
  quarter, the south half of the northwest quarter, and the north half of
  the southwest quarter of section 32; the south half of the northeast
  quarter and the southeast quarter of section 33; the southwest quarter
  of the northeast quarter and the south half of the northwest quarter,
  the west half of the southeast quarter, and the southwest quarter of
  section 34; the south half of section 35; and the southeast quarter of
  the northeast quarter and the southeast quarter of section 36.

  IN TOWNSHIP 3 SOUTH OF RANGE 19 EAST.

  The northeast quarter, the north half of the southeast quarter, the
  southwest quarter of the southeast quarter, and the east half of the
  southwest quarter of section 12; the northwest quarter of section 29;
  the east half of the northeast quarter, the southwest quarter of the
  northeast quarter, the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter, and
  the south half of section 30; and the southwest quarter of the northwest
  quarter and the west half of the southwest quarter of section 31.

  IN TOWNSHIP 3 SOUTH OF RANGE 20 EAST.

  The northeast quarter, the north half of the northwest quarter, the
  southeast quarter of the northwest quarter, and the northeast quarter
  of the southeast quarter of section 1; the north half of the northeast
  quarter and the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 2;
  the north half of the northwest quarter, the southwest quarter of the
  northwest quarter, and the west half of the southwest quarter of section
  5; the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter, the southeast
  quarter, and the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section
  6; and the west half of the northeast quarter and the northwest quarter
  of section 7.

  IN TOWNSHIP 3 SOUTH OF RANGE 21 EAST.

  The northwest quarter of the southwest quarter and the south half of the
  southwest quarter of section 5; the east half of the southeast quarter
  and the west half of section 6; the northeast quarter of the northeast
  quarter of section 7; and the north half of the northwest quarter of
  section 8.

  IN TOWNSHIP 3 SOUTH OF RANGE 23 EAST.

  The southeast quarter of the northeast quarter and the east half of
  the southeast quarter of section 12; the east half of section 13; the
  southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 23; the southeast
  quarter of the northeast quarter, the east half of the southeast
  quarter, and the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section
  24; the east half of the east half, the west half of the northwest
  quarter, and the southwest quarter of section 25; the northeast quarter
  of the southeast quarter and the south half of the southeast quarter
  of section 26; the south half of the south half of section 34; the
  northeast quarter, the north half of the southeast quarter, the
  southwest quarter of the southeast quarter, and the south half of
  the southwest quarter of section 35; and the northwest quarter of
  section 36.

  IN TOWNSHIP 4 SOUTH OF RANGE 18 EAST.

  The northwest quarter of the northeast quarter and the north half of the
  northwest quarter of section 3; the north half of the northeast quarter
  of section 4; the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section
  13; the west half of the northeast quarter, the east half of the
  northwest quarter, the southeast quarter, and the northeast quarter of
  the southwest quarter of section 24; the northeast quarter, the north
  half of the southeast quarter, the southwest quarter of the southeast
  quarter, and the southwest quarter of section 25; the south half of the
  southeast quarter of section 29; the northwest quarter of the northeast
  quarter and the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section
  32; the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter, the northwest
  quarter, the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter, and the south
  half of the southeast quarter of section 35; and the west half of the
  northeast quarter, the northwest quarter, and the northwest quarter of
  the southwest quarter of section 36.

  IN TOWNSHIP 6 SOUTH OF RANGE 18 EAST.

  The east half of the southeast quarter and the southwest quarter of the
  southeast quarter of section 20, and the west half of the northeast
  quarter, the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter, and the south
  half of the northwest quarter of section 29.

  IN TOWNSHIP 6 SOUTH OF RANGE 19 EAST.

  The northeast quarter, the east half of the northwest quarter, the
  southwest quarter of the northwest quarter, the north half of the
  southeast quarter, and the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter
  of section 15; the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter and the
  northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 16; the south half
  of the northeast quarter and the north half of the southeast quarter of
  section 19; and the south half of the northwest quarter and the north
  half of the southwest quarter of section 20.

  IN TOWNSHIP 6 SOUTH OF RANGE 23 EAST.

  The north half of the northwest quarter and the north half of the
  southeast quarter of section 5; the south half of the southeast quarter
  of section 8; section 17; and the west half of the northwest quarter of
  section 16.


  3.--TOWNSHIPS, SECTIONS, OR TRACTS OF LAND WITHIN WHICH INDIAN
  SELECTIONS ARE LOCATED.

  TRACT 1.

  Beginning at a point in the mid-channel of the Yellowstone River 1-1/2
  miles below the mouth of the Clarks Fork River; thence running in a
  southwesterly direction along a line parallel to and 1-1/2 miles distant
  from the mid-channel of the Clarks Fork River to the south line of
  township 2 south of range 24 east; thence west along said township line
  to the mid-channel of the Clarks Fork River; thence northeast along
  the mid-channel of the Clarks Fork River to the mid-channel of the
  Yellowstone River; thence northeast along the mid-channel of said river
  to the point of beginning.

  TRACT 2.

  All that part of township 2 south of range 24 east lying south of the
  Yellowstone River and west of the Clarks Fork River.

  TRACT 3.

  Sections 29, 31, and 32, township 5 south of range 21 east; sections 5,
  6, 7, 8, 17, and 18, township 6 south of range 21 east; and sections 1,
  2, 11, 12, 13, and 14, township 6 south of range 20 east.

  TRACT 4.

  Beginning at a point in the mid-channel of the Yellowstone River
  opposite the mouth of Duck Creek; thence running in a southwesterly
  direction along the mid-channel of the Yellowstone River to a point
  1-1/2 miles below the mouth of the Clarks Fork River; thence in a
  southwesterly direction along a line parallel to and 1-1/2 miles distant
  from the mid-channel of the said Clarks Fork River to a point 1-1/2
  miles due south of the mid-channel of the said Yellowstone River; thence
  running in a northeasterly direction along a line parallel to and 1-1/2
  miles distant from the mid-channel of the Yellowstone River to the
  mid-channel of Duck Creek; thence in a northerly direction along the
  mid-channel of Duck Creek to the point of beginning.

  TRACT 5.

  All that part of townships 2 and 3 south of range 23 lying south of the
  mid-channel of the Yellowstone River and north of a line running
  parallel thereto and 1-1/2 miles distant therefrom.

  TRACT 6.

  Beginning in the mid-channel of the main or West Fork of Red Lodge Creek
  at the point where it intersects the line known as the line of the Blake
  survey, and which was formerly supposed to be the south boundary of the
  Crow Indian Reserve; thence running due east along the lines of said
  Blake survey for a distance of 1 mile; thence running northeasterly
  along a line parallel to and 1 mile from the mid-channel of the said
  West Fork of said Red Lodge Creek for a distance of 10 miles; thence due
  west to the mid-channel of the said West Fork of said Red Lodge Creek;
  thence southwesterly along the mid-channel of the said West Fork of said
  creek to the place of beginning.

  TRACT 7.

  Townships 4 south of ranges 21 and 22 east.

  TRACT 8.

  All that part of the east half of township 1 south of range 26 east
  lying south of the Yellowstone River, and all that part of the west
  half of township 1 south of range 27 east lying south of the
  Yellowstone River.

  TRACT 9.

  Section 14, township 3 south of range 19 east.

  TRACT 10.

  Beginning in the mid-channel of the main or West Fork of Red Lodge Creek
  at the point where it intersects the line known as the line of the Blake
  survey, and which was formerly supposed to be the south boundary of the
  Crow Indian Reserve; thence running due east along the line of said
  Blake survey for a distance of 1 mile; thence running northeasterly
  along a line parallel to and 1 mile from the mid-channel of the said
  West Fork of said Red Lodge Creek for a distance of 10 miles; thence due
  west to the mid-channel of the said West Fork of said Red Lodge Creek;
  thence southwesterly along the mid-channel of the said West Fork of said
  Red Lodge Creek to the place of beginning.


In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 15th day of October, A.D. 1892, and
of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and
seventeenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JOHN W. FOSTER,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 13 of the act of Congress of March 3,
1891, entitled "An act to amend Title LX, chapter 3, of the Revised
Statutes of the United States, relating to copyrights," that said act
"shall only apply to a citizen or subject of a foreign state or nation
when such foreign state or nation permits to citizens of the United
States of America the benefit of copyright on substantially the same
basis as its own citizens, or when such foreign state or nation is a
party to an international agreement which provides for reciprocity in
the granting of copyright, by the terms of which agreement the United
States of America may at its pleasure become a party to such agreement;"
and

Whereas it is also provided by said section that "the existence of
either of the conditions aforesaid shall be determined by the President
of the United States by proclamation made from time to time as the
purposes of this act may require;" and

Whereas satisfactory official assurances have been given that in Italy
the law permits to citizens of the United States the benefit of
copyright on substantially the same basis as to the subjects of Italy:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States
of America, do declare and proclaim that the first of the conditions
specified in section 13 of the act of March 3, 1891, now exists and
is fulfilled in respect to the subjects of Italy.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 31st day of October, 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and seventeenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JOHN W. FOSTER,
    _Secretary of State_.



BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

The gifts of God to our people during the past year have been so
abundant and so special that the spirit of devout thanksgiving awaits
not a call, but only the appointment of a day when it may have a common
expression. He has stayed the pestilence at our door; He has given us
more love for the free civil institutions in the creation of which
His directing providence was so conspicuous; He has awakened a deeper
reverence for law; He has widened our philanthropy by a call to succor
the distress in other lands; He has blessed our schools and is bringing
forward a patriotic and God-fearing generation to execute His great and
benevolent designs for our country; He has given us great increase in
material wealth and a wide diffusion of contentment and comfort in the
homes of our people; He has given His grace to the sorrowing.

Wherefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, do call
upon all our people to observe, as we have been wont, Thursday, the 24th
day of this month of November, as a day of thanksgiving to God for His
mercies and of supplication for His continued care and grace.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of
the United States to be affixed.

[SEAL.]

Done at the city of Washington, this 4th day of November, 1892, and of
the Independence of the United States the one hundred and seventeenth.

BENJ. HARRISON.

By the President:
  JOHN W. FOSTER,
    _Secretary of State_.



EXECUTIVE ORDERS.


AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

JANUARY 20, 1892.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended by adding at the end
of paragraph 10 the following: "and elevator conductors;" so that as
amended the paragraph will read:

  In all the Departments: Bookbinders and elevator conductors.


BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

UNITED STATES CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION,
  _Washington, D.C., January 12, 1892_.

The PRESIDENT.

SIR: We have the honor to recommend that Executive orders heretofore
issued designating the places to be filled by noncompetitive examination
under clause (_d_) of section 2 of General Rule III be amended so as
to include among those places, in all the Departments where authorized
by law and employed, "captains of the watch" and "lieutenants of the
watch." The captains and lieutenants of the watch in the Treasury
Department and the captain of the watch in the Post-Office Department
are now included in this category, and the object of this recommendation
is to place all the Departments on the same footing with respect to
these places.

The occasion for the recommendation at this time is the receipt by
this Commission of a request from the Secretary of the Interior for a
noncompetitive examination of a person named by him for appointment as
captain of the watch in the Interior Department.

The place is now subject to competitive examination, but the Commission
sees no good reason why one rule should not apply to all the
Departments; hence this recommendation.

If you approve the recommendation, your indorsement of approval on this
letter and its return to the Commission is requested. As it is not a
change of rule, it does not require to go to the Department of State for
record. We have the honor to be, your obedient servants,

CHAS. LYMAN,
  HUGH S. THOMPSON,
    _Commissioners_.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 25, 1892_.

The within recommendation is approved.

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENTS OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

FEBRUARY 23, 1892.

Indian Rule VI is hereby amended by inserting after the word
"appointment" the following: "from one agency to another;" so that as
amended the rule will read:

  Subject to the conditions stated in Rule IV, transfers may be made
  after absolute appointment from one agency to another, from one school
  to another, and from one district to another, under such regulations as
  the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, with the approval of the Secretary
  of the Interior, may prescribe.


Indian Rule IV, section 1, clause (_b_), is hereby amended by inserting
after the word "averages" the following: "who have not been three
times certified;" so that as amended the clause will read:

  If fitness for the vacant place is tested by competitive examination,
  the Commission shall certify from the proper register of the district
  in which the vacancy exists the names of the three eligibles thereon,
  of the sex called for, having the highest averages, who have not been
  three times certified: _Provided_, That the eligibles upon any register
  who have been allowed preference under section 1754 of the Revised
  Statutes shall be certified, according to their grade, before all other
  eligibles thereon: _And provided further_, That if the vacancy is in
  the grade of matron or teacher, and the wife of the superintendent of
  the school in which the vacancy exists is an eligible, she may be given
  preference in certification if the appointing officer so requests.


Section 5 of the same rule is also hereby amended by inserting after
the word "vacancy" the following: "in any agency or;" so that as
amended the clause will read:

  In case of the sudden occurrence of a vacancy in any agency or in any
  school during a school term which the public interest requires to be
  immediately filled the Commissioner of Indian Affairs is authorized, in
  his discretion, to provide for the temporary filling of the same until
  a regular appointment can be made under the provisions of sections 1,
  2, and 3 of this rule, and when such regular appointment is made the
  temporary appointment shall terminate. All temporary appointments made
  under this authority and their termination shall at once be reported to
  the Commission.


BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., May 5, 1892_.

In the exercise of the authority vested in the President by the
seventeen hundred and fifty-third section of the Revised Statutes--

_It is ordered_, That the office of the United States Commission of Fish
and Fisheries be, and the same is hereby, classified as a part of the
classified departmental service and for the purpose of applying the
civil-service rules thereto the officers, clerks, and other employees of
said Commission are hereby arranged in the following classes, viz:

_Class A_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of less than $720, or a
compensation at the rate of less than $720 per annum.

_Class B_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $720 or more, or a
compensation at the rate of $720 or more, but less than $840 per annum.

_Class C_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $840 or more, or a
compensation at the rate of $840 or more, but less than $900 per annum.

_Class D_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $900 or more, or
a compensation at the rate of $900 or more, but less than $1,000 per
annum.

_Class E_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $1,000 or more, or
a compensation at the rate of $1,000 or more, but less than $1,200 per
annum.

_Class 1_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $1,200 or more, or
a compensation at the rate of $1,200 or more, but less than $1,400 per
annum.

_Class 2_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $1,400 or more, or
a compensation at the rate of $1,400 or more, but less than $1,600 per
annum.

_Class 3_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $1,600 or more, or
a compensation at the rate of $1,600 or more, but less than $1,800 per
annum.

_Class 4_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $1,800 or more, or
a compensation at the rate of $1,800 or more, but less than $2,000 per
annum.

_Class 5_.--All persons receiving an annual salary of $2,000 or more, or a
compensation at the rate of $2,000 per annum.

_Provided_, That no person who may be appointed to an office by and with
the advice and consent of the Senate, and that no person who may be
employed merely as a messenger, laborer, workman, or watchman, shall be
considered as within this classification, and no person so employed
shall be assigned to the duties of a classified place.

_Provided further_, That no person shall be admitted to any place
not excepted from examination by the civil-service rules in any of
the classes above designated until he or she shall have passed an
appropriate examination under the United States Civil Service Commission
and his or her eligibility has been certified to by said Commission.


BENJ. HARRISON.



CIVIL SERVICE.--AMENDMENT OF EXECUTIVE ORDERS.

MAY 7, 1892.

Executive orders heretofore issued declaring the places subject to
noncompetitive examination under clause (_d_) of section 2 of General
Rule III are hereby amended so as to include among said places the
following:

  In the Commission of Fish and Fisheries: Fish culturists and
  machinists.


BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

MAY 7, 1892.

Special Departmental Rule No. 1 is hereby amended so as to include among
the places excepted from examination therein the following:

  In the Commission of Fish and Fisheries: Ichthyologist and editor, one
  scientific assistant, captains, officers, ships writers and crews on
  vessels of the Commission, and pilots.


BENJ. HARRISON.



SEPTEMBER 16, 1892.


In order that the members of the Grand Army of the Republic employed in
the public service in the city of Washington may have the opportunity
of joining in the parade arranged for Tuesday, the 20th of September
instant, and that all others may unite with the citizens of the District
of Columbia in showing honor to the Union soldiers and sailors to be
gathered in the national capital on that occasion--

_It is hereby ordered_, That the several Executive Departments and the
Public Printing Office be closed on that day.

By the President:

BENJ. HARRISON.



AMENDMENT OF CIVIL-SERVICE RULES.

EXECUTIVE MANSION, _September 23, 1892_.

Departmental Rule X, Customs Rule VII, Postal Rule VII, and Indian Rule
VII are hereby amended by inserting in the proviso of each of said
rules, after the word "therefrom," the words "or the widow of any such
person," and after the word "he" the words "or she;" so that as amended
the proviso of each of said rules will read:

  _Provided_, That certification may be made, subject to the other
  conditions of this rule, for the reinstatement of any person who served
  in the military or naval service in the late War of the Rebellion and
  was honorably discharged therefrom, or the widow of any such person,
  without regard to the length of time he or she has been separated from
  the service.


BENJ. HARRISON.



FOURTH ANNUAL MESSAGE.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 6, 1892_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

In submitting my annual message to Congress I have great satisfaction in
being able to say that the general conditions affecting the commercial
and industrial interests of the United States are in the highest degree
favorable. A comparison of the existing conditions with those of the
most favored period in the history of the country will, I believe, show
that so high a degree of prosperity and so general a diffusion of the
comforts of life were never before enjoyed by our people.

The total wealth of the country in 1860 was $16,159,616,068. In 1890 it
amounted to $62,610,000,000, an increase of 287 per cent.

The total mileage of railways in the United States in 1860 was 30,626.
In 1890 it was 167,741, an increase of 448 per cent; and it is estimated
that there will be about 4,000 miles of track added by the close of the
year 1892.

The official returns of the Eleventh Census and those of the Tenth
Census for seventy-five leading cities furnish the basis for the
following comparisons:

In 1880 the capital invested in manufacturing was $1,232,839,670.

In 1890 the capital invested in manufacturing was $2,900,735,884.

In 1880 the number of employees was 1,301,388.

In 1890 the number of employees was 2,251,134.

In 1880 the wages earned were $501,965,778.

In 1890 the wages earned were $1,221,170,454.

In 1880 the value of the product was $2,711,579,899.

In 1890 the value of the product was $4,860,286,837.

I am informed by the Superintendent of the Census that the omission of
certain industries in 1880 which were included in 1890 accounts in part
for the remarkable increase thus shown, but after making full allowance
for differences of method and deducting the returns for all industries
not included in the census of 1880 there remain in the reports from
these seventy-five cities an increase in the capital employed of
$1,522,745,604, in the value of the product of $2,024,236,166, in wages
earned of $677,943,929, and in the number of wage earners employed of
856,029. The wage earnings not only show an increased aggregate, but an
increase per capita from $386 in 1880 to $547 in 1890, or 41.71 per
cent.

The new industrial plants established since October 6, 1890, and up
to October 22, 1892, as partially reported in the American Economist,
number 345, and the extension of existing plants 108; the new capital
invested amounts to $40,449,050, and the number of additional employees
to 37,285.

The Textile World for July, 1892, states that during the first six
months of the present calendar year 135 new factories were built, of
which 40 are cotton mills, 48 knitting mills, 26 woolen mills, 15 silk
mills, 4 plush mills, and 2 linen mills. Of the 40 cotton mills 21 have
been built in the Southern States. Mr. A.B. Shepperson, of the New York
Cotton Exchange, estimates the number of working spindles in the United
States on September 1, 1892, at 15,200,000, an increase of 660,000 over
the year 1891. The consumption of cotton by American mills in 1891 was
2,396,000 bales, and in 1892 2,584,000 bales, an increase of 188,000
bales. From the year 1869 to 1892, inclusive, there has been an increase
in the consumption of cotton in Europe of 92 per cent, while during the
same period the increased consumption in the United States has been
about 150 per cent.

The report of Ira Ayer, special agent of the Treasury Department,
shows that at the date of September 30, 1892, there were 32 companies
manufacturing tin and terne plate in the United States and 14 companies
building new works for such manufacture. The estimated investment in
buildings and plants at the close of the fiscal year June 30, 1893,
if existing conditions were to be continued, was $5,000,000 and the
estimated rate of production 200,000,000 pounds per annum. The Actual
production for the quarter ending September 30, 1892, was 10,952,725
pounds.

The report of Labor Commissioner Peck, of New York, shows that during
the year 1891, in about 6,000 manufacturing establishments in that State
embraced within the special inquiry made by him, and representing 67
different industries, there was a net increase over the year 1890 of
$31,315,130.68 in the value of the product and of $6,377,925.09 in the
amount of wages paid. The report of the commissioner of labor for the
State of Massachusetts shows that 3,745 industries in that State paid
$129,416,248 in wages during the year 1891, against $126,030,303 in
1890, an increase of $3,335,945, and that there was an increase of
$9,932,490 in the amount of capital and of 7,346 in the number of
persons employed in the same period.

During the last six months of the year 1891 and the first six months
of 1892 the total production of pig iron was 9,710,819 tons, as against
9,202,703 tons in the year 1890, which was the largest annual production
ever attained. For the same twelve months of 1891-92 the production of
Bessemer ingots was 3,878,581 tons, an increase of 189,710 gross tons
over the previously unprecedented yearly production of 3,688,871 gross
tons in 1890. The production of Bessemer steel rails for the first six
months of 1892 was 772,436 gross tons, as against 702,080 gross tons
during the last six months of the year 1891.

The total value of our foreign trade (exports and imports of
merchandise) during the last fiscal year was $1,857,680,610, an increase
of $128,283,604 over the previous fiscal year. The average annual value
of our imports and exports of merchandise for the ten fiscal years prior
to 1891 was $1,457,322,019. It will be observed that our foreign trade
for 1892 exceeded this annual average value by $400,358,591, an increase
of 27.47 Per cent. The significance and value of this increase are shown
by the fact that the excess in the trade of 1892 over 1891 was wholly in
the value of exports, for there was a decrease in the value of imports
of $17,513,754.

The value of our exports during the fiscal year 1892 reached the highest
figure in the history of the Government, amounting to $1,030,278,148,
exceeding by $145,797,338 the exports of 1891 and exceeding the value of
the imports by $202,875,686. A comparison of the value of our exports
for 1892 with the annual average for the ten years prior to 1891 shows
an excess of $265,142,651, or of 34.65 per cent. The value of our
imports of merchandise for 1892, which was $829,402,462, also exceeded
the annual average value of the ten years prior to 1891 by $135,215,940.
During the fiscal year 1892 the value of imports free of duty amounted
to $457,999,658, the largest aggregate in the history of our commerce.
The value of the imports of merchandise entered free of duty in 1892 was
55.35 per cent of the total value of imports, as compared with 43.35 per
cent in 1891 and 33.66 per cent in 1890.

In our coastwise trade a most encouraging development is in progress,
there having been in the last four years an increase of 16 per cent. In
internal commerce the statistics show that no such period of prosperity
has ever before existed. The freight carried in the coastwise trade of
the Great Lakes in 1890 aggregated 28,295,959 tons. On the Mississippi,
Missouri, and Ohio rivers and tributaries in the same year the traffic
aggregated 29,405,046 tons, and the total vessel tonnage passing through
the Detroit River during that year was 21,684,000 tons. The vessel
tonnage entered and cleared in the foreign trade of London during 1890
amounted to 13,480,767 tons, and of Liverpool 10,941,800 tons, a total
for these two great shipping ports of 24,422,568 tons, only slightly in
excess of the vessel tonnage passing through the Detroit River. And it
should be said that the season for the Detroit River was but 228 days,
while of course in London and Liverpool the season was for the entire
year. The vessel tonnage passing through the St. Marys Canal for the
fiscal year 1892 amounted to 9,828,874 tons, and the freight tonnage of
the Detroit River is estimated for that year at 25,000,000 tons, against
23,209,619 tons in 1891. The aggregate traffic on our railroads for
the year 1891 amounted to 704,398,609 tons of freight, compared with
691,344,437 tons in 1890, an increase of 13,054,172 tons.

Another indication of the general prosperity of the country is found in
the fact that the number of depositors in savings banks increased from
693,870 in 1860 to 4,258,893 in 1890, an increase of 513 per cent, and
the amount of deposits from $149,277,504 in 1860 to $1,524,844,506 in
1890, an increase of 921 per cent. In 1891 the amount of deposits in
savings banks was $1,623,079,749. It is estimated that 90 per cent
of these deposits represent the savings of wage earners. The bank
clearances for nine months ending September 30, 1891, amounted
to $41,049,390,808. For the same months in 1892 they amounted to
$45,189,601,947, an excess for the nine months of $4,140,211,139.

There never has been a time in our history when work was so abundant or
when wages were as high, whether measured by the currency in which they
are paid or by their power to supply the necessaries and comforts of
life. It is true that the market prices of cotton and wheat have been
low. It is one of the unfavorable incidents of agriculture that the
farmer can not produce upon orders. He must sow and reap in ignorance of
the aggregate production of the year, and is peculiarly subject to the
depreciation which follows overproduction. But while the fact I have
stated is true as to the crops mentioned, the general average of prices
has been such as to give to agriculture a fair participation in the
general prosperity. The value of our total farm products has increased
from $1,363,646,866 in 1860 to $4,500,000,000 in 1891, as estimated by
statisticians, an increase of 230 per cent. The number of hogs January
1, 1891, was 50,625,106 and their value $210,193,925; on January 1,
1892, the number was 52,398,019 and the value $241,031,415. On January
1, 1891, the number of cattle was 36,875,648 and the value $544,127,908;
on January 1, 1892, the number was 37,651,239 and the value
$570,749,155.

If any are discontented with their state here, if any believe that wages
or prices, the returns for honest toil, are inadequate, they should not
fail to remember that there is no other country in the world where the
conditions that seem to them hard would not be accepted as highly
prosperous. The English agriculturist would be glad to exchange the
returns of his labor for those of the American farmer and the Manchester
workmen their wages for those of their fellows at Fall River.

I believe that the protective system, which has now for something more
than thirty years continuously prevailed in our legislation, has been a
mighty instrument for the development of our national wealth and a most
powerful agency in protecting the homes of our workingmen from the
invasion of want. I have felt a most solicitous interest to preserve to
our working people rates of wages that would not only give daily bread,
but supply a comfortable margin for those home attractions and family
comforts and enjoyments without which life is neither hopeful nor sweet.
They are American citizens--a part of the great people for whom our
Constitution and Government were framed and instituted--and it can not
be a perversion of that Constitution to so legislate as to preserve in
their homes the comfort, independence, loyalty, and sense of interest
in the Government which are essential to good citizenship in peace, and
which will bring this stalwart throng, as in 1861, to the defense of
the flag when it is assailed.

It is not my purpose to renew here the argument in favor of a protective
tariff. The result of the recent election must be accepted as having
introduced a new policy. We must assume that the present tariff,
constructed upon the lines of protection, is to be repealed and that
there is to be substituted for it a tariff law constructed solely with
reference to revenue; that no duty is to be higher because the increase
will keep open an American mill or keep up the wages of an American
workman, but that in every case such a rate of duty is to be imposed as
will bring to the Treasury of the United States the largest returns of
revenue. The contention has not been between schedules, but between
principles, and it would be offensive to suggest that the prevailing
party will not carry into legislation the principles advocated by it and
the pledges given to the people. The tariff bills passed by the House of
Representatives at the last session were, as I suppose, even in the
opinion of their promoters, inadequate, and justified only by the fact
that the Senate and House of Representatives were not in accord and that
a general revision could not therefore be undertaken.

I recommend that the whole subject of tariff revision be left to the
incoming Congress. It is matter of regret that this work must be delayed
for at least three months, for the threat of great tariff changes
introduces so much uncertainty that an amount, not easily estimated, of
business inaction and of diminished production will necessarily result.
It is possible also that this uncertainty may result in decreased
revenues from customs duties, for our merchants will make cautious
orders for foreign goods in view of the prospect of tariff reductions
and the uncertainty as to when they will take effect. Those who have
advocated a protective tariff can well afford to have their disastrous
forecasts of a change of policy disappointed. If a system of customs
duties can be framed that will set the idle wheels and looms of Europe
in motion and crowd our warehouses with foreign-made goods and at the
same time keep our own mills busy; that will give us an increased
participation in the "markets of the world" of greater value than the
home market we surrender; that will give increased work to foreign
workmen upon products to be consumed by our people without diminishing
the amount of work to be done here; that will enable the American
manufacturer to pay to his workmen from 50 to 100 per cent more in wages
than is paid in the foreign mill, and yet to compete in our market and
in foreign markets with the foreign producer; that will further reduce
the cost of articles of wear and food without reducing the wages of
those who produce them; that can be celebrated, after its effects have
been realized, as its expectation has been in European as well as in
American cities, the authors and promoters of it will be entitled to the
highest praise. We have had in our history several experiences of the
contrasted effects of a revenue and of a protective tariff, but this
generation has not felt them, and the experience of one generation is
not highly instructive to the next. The friends of the protective system
with undiminished confidence in the principles they have advocated will
await the results of the new experiment.

The strained and too often disturbed relations existing between the
employees and the employers in our great manufacturing establishments
have not been favorable to a calm consideration by the wage earner of
the effect upon wages of the protective system. The facts that his
wages were the highest paid in like callings in the world and that a
maintenance of this rate of wages in the absence of protective duties
upon the product of his labor was impossible were obscured by the
passion evoked by these contests. He may now be able to review the
question in the light of his personal experience under the operation of
a tariff for revenue only. If that experience shall demonstrate that
present rates of wages are thereby maintained or increased, either
absolutely or in their purchasing power, and that the aggregate volume
of work to be done in this country is increased or even maintained, so
that there are more or as many days' work in a year, at as good or
better wages, for the American workmen as has been the case under the
protective system, everyone will rejoice. A general process of wage
reduction can not be contemplated by any patriotic citizen without the
gravest apprehension. It may be, indeed I believe is, possible for the
American manufacturer to compete successfully with his foreign rival in
many branches of production without the defense of protective duties if
the pay rolls are equalized; but the conflict that stands between the
producer and that result and the distress of our working people when
it is attained are not pleasant to contemplate. The Society of the
Unemployed, now holding its frequent and threatening parades in the
streets of foreign cities, should not be allowed to acquire an American
domicile.

The reports of the heads of the several Executive Departments which are
herewith submitted, have very naturally included a resume of the whole
work of the Administration with the transactions of the last fiscal
year. The attention not only of Congress but of the country is again
invited to the methods of administration which have been pursued and
to the results which have been attained. Public revenues amounting to
$1,414,079,292.28 have been collected and disbursed without loss from
misappropriation, without a single defalcation of such importance as
to attract the public attention, and at a diminished per cent of cost
for collection. The public business has been transacted not only with
fidelity, but progressively and with a view to giving to the people in
the fullest possible degree the benefits of a service established and
maintained for their protection and comfort.

Our relations with other nations are now undisturbed by any serious
controversy. The complicated and threatening differences with Germany
and England relating to Samoan affairs, with England in relation to the
seal fisheries in the Bering Sea, and with Chile growing out of the
_Baltimore_ affair have been adjusted.

There have been negotiated and concluded, under section 3 of the tariff
law, commercial agreements relating to reciprocal trade with the
following countries: Brazil, Dominican Republic, Spain for Cuba and
Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Salvador, the German Empire, Great Britain for
certain West Indian colonies and British Guiana, Nicaragua, Honduras,
and Austria-Hungary.[31]

Of these, those with Guatemala, Salvador, the German Empire, Great
Britain, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Austria-Hungary have been concluded
since my last annual message. Under these trade arrangements a free or
favored admission has been secured in every case for an important list
of American products. Especial care has been taken to secure markets for
farm products, in order to relieve that great underlying industry of the
depression which the lack of an adequate foreign market for our surplus
often brings. An opening has also been made for manufactured products
that will undoubtedly, if this policy is maintained, greatly augment
our export trade. The full benefits of these arrangements can not be
realized instantly. New lines of trade are to be opened. The commercial
traveler must survey the field. The manufacturer must adapt his goods
to the new markets and facilities for exchange must be established.
This work has been well begun, our merchants and manufacturers having
entered the new fields with courage and enterprise. In the case of food
products, and especially with Cuba, the trade did not need to wait, and
the immediate results have been most gratifying. If this policy and
these trade arrangements can be continued in force and aided by the
establishment of American steamship lines, I do not doubt that we shall
within a short period secure fully one-third of the total trade of the
countries of Central and South America, which now amounts to about
$600,000,000 annually. In 1885 we had only 8 per cent of this trade.

The following statistics show the increase in our trade with the
countries with which we have reciprocal trade agreements from the date
when such agreements went into effect up to September 30, 1892, the
increase being in some almost wholly and in others in an important
degree the result of these agreements:

The domestic exports to Germany and Austria-Hungary have increased in
value from $47,673,756 to $57,993,064, an increase of $10,319,308, or
21.63 per cent. With American countries the value of our exports has
increased from $44,160,285 to $54,613,598, an increase of $10,453,313,
or 23.67 per cent. The total increase in the value of exports to
all the countries with which we have reciprocity agreements has been
$20,772,621. This increase is chiefly in wheat, flour, meat, and dairy
products and in manufactures of iron and steel and lumber. There has
been a large increase in the value of imports from all these countries
since the commercial agreements went into effect, amounting to
$74,294,525, but it has been entirely in imports from the American
countries, consisting mostly of sugar, coffee, india rubber, and crude
drugs. The alarmed attention of our European competitors for the South
American market has been attracted to this new American policy and to
our acquisition and their loss of South American trade.

A treaty providing for the arbitration of the dispute between Great
Britain and the United States as to the killing of seals in the
Bering Sea was concluded on the 29th of February last. This treaty was
accompanied by an agreement prohibiting pelagic sealing pending the
arbitration, and a vigorous effort was made during this season to drive
out all poaching sealers from the Bering Sea. Six naval vessels, three
revenue cutters, and one vessel from the Fish Commission, all under
the command of Commander Evans, of the Navy, were sent into the sea,
which was systematically patrolled. Some seizures were made, and it is
believed that the catch in the Bering Sea by poachers amounted to less
than 500 seals. It is true, however, that in the North Pacific, while
the seal herds were on their way to the passes between the Aleutian
Islands, a very large number, probably 35,000, were taken. The existing
statutes of the United States do not restrain our citizens from taking
seals in the Pacific Ocean, and perhaps should not unless the
prohibition can be extended to the citizens of other nations. I
recommend that power be given to the President by proclamation to
prohibit the taking of seals in the North Pacific by American vessels
in case, either as the result of the findings of the Tribunal of
Arbitration or otherwise, the restraints can be applied to the vessels
of all countries. The case of the United States for the Tribunal of
Arbitration has been prepared with great care and industry by the Hon.
John W. Foster, and the counsel who represent this Government express
confidence that a result substantially establishing our claims and
preserving this great industry for the benefit of all nations will
be attained.

During the past year a suggestion was received through the British
minister that the Canadian government would like to confer as to the
possibility of enlarging upon terms of mutual advantage the commercial
exchanges of Canada and of the United States, and a conference was
held at Washington, with Mr. Blaine acting for this Government and the
British minister at this capital and three members of the Dominion
cabinet acting as commissioners on the part of Great Britain. The
conference developed the fact that the Canadian government was only
prepared to offer to the United States in exchange for the concessions
asked the admission of natural products. The statement was frankly made
that favored rates could not be given to the United States as against
the mother country. This admission, which was foreseen, necessarily
terminated the conference upon this question. The benefits of an
exchange of natural products would be almost wholly with the people
of Canada. Some other topics of interest were considered in the
conference, and have resulted in the making of a convention for
examining the Alaskan boundary and the waters of Passamaquoddy Bay
adjacent to Eastport, Me., and in the initiation of an arrangement for
the protection of fish life in the coterminous and neighboring waters
of our northern border.

The controversy as to tolls upon the Welland Canal, which was presented
to Congress at the last session by special message,[32] having failed of
adjustment, I felt constrained to exercise the authority conferred by
the act of July 26, 1892, and to proclaim a suspension of the free use
of St. Marys Falls Canal to cargoes in transit to ports in Canada.[33]
The Secretary of the Treasury established such tolls as were thought to
be equivalent to the exactions unjustly levied upon our commerce in the
Canadian canals.

If, as we must suppose, the political relations of Canada and the
disposition of the Canadian government are to remain unchanged, a
somewhat radical revision of our trade relations should, I think, be
made. Our relations must continue to be intimate, and they should be
friendly. I regret to say, however, that in many of the controversies,
notably those as to the fisheries on the Atlantic, the sealing interests
on the Pacific, and the canal tolls, our negotiations with Great Britain
have continuously been thwarted or retarded by unreasonable and
unfriendly objections and protests from Canada. In the matter of the
canal tolls our treaty rights were flagrantly disregarded. It is hardly
too much to say that the Canadian Pacific and other railway lines which
parallel our northern boundary are sustained by commerce having either
its origin or terminus, or both, in the United States. Canadian
railroads compete with those of the United States for our traffic, and
without the restraints of our interstate-commerce act. Their cars pass
almost without detention into and out of our territory.

The Canadian Pacific Railway brought into the United States from China
and Japan via British Columbia during the year ended June 30, 1892,
23,239,689 pounds of freight, and it carried from the United States, to
be shipped to China and Japan via British Columbia, 24,068,346 pounds of
freight. There were also shipped from the United States over this road
from Eastern ports of the United States to our Pacific ports during the
same year 13,912,073 pounds of freight, and there were received over
this road at the United States Eastern ports from ports on the Pacific
Coast 13,293,315 pounds of freight. Mr. Joseph Nimmo, jr., former chief
of the Bureau of Statistics, when before the Senate Select Committee on
Relations with Canada, April 26, 1890, said that "the value of goods
thus transported between different points in the United States across
Canadian territory probably amounts to $100,000,000 a year."

There is no disposition on the part of the people or Government of the
United States to interfere in the smallest degree with the political
relations of Canada. That question is wholly with her own people. It
is time for us, however, to consider whether, if the present state of
things and trend of things is to continue, our interchanges upon lines
of land transportation should not be put upon a different basis and our
entire independence of Canadian canals and of the St. Lawrence as an
outlet to the sea secured by the construction of an American canal
around the Falls of Niagara and the opening of ship communication
between the Great Lakes and one of our own seaports. We should not
hesitate to avail ourselves of our great natural trade advantages.
We should withdraw the support which is given to the railroads and
steamship lines of Canada by a traffic that properly belongs to us and
no longer furnish the earnings which lighten the otherwise crushing
weight of the enormous public subsidies that have been given to them.
The subject of the power of the Treasury to deal with this matter
without further legislation has been under consideration, but
circumstances have postponed a conclusion. It is probable that a
consideration of the propriety of a modification or abrogation of the
article of the treaty of Washington relating to the transit of goods
in bond is involved in any complete solution of the question.

Congress at the last session was kept advised of the progress of the
serious and for a time threatening difference between the United States
and Chile. It gives me now great gratification to report that the
Chilean Government in a most friendly and honorable spirit has tendered
and paid as an indemnity to the families of the sailors of the
_Baltimore_ who were killed and to those who were injured in the
outbreak in the city of Valparaiso the sum of $75,000. This has been
accepted not only as an indemnity for a wrong done, but as a most
gratifying evidence that the Government of Chile rightly appreciates the
disposition of this Government to act in a spirit of the most absolute
fairness and friendliness in our intercourse with that brave people.
A further and conclusive evidence of the mutual respect and confidence
now existing is furnished by the fact that a convention submitting to
arbitration the mutual claims of the citizens of the respective
Governments has been agreed upon. Some of these claims have been pending
for many years and have been the occasion of much unsatisfactory
diplomatic correspondence.

I have endeavored in every way to assure our sister Republics of Central
and South America that the United States Government and its people have
only the most friendly disposition toward them all. We do not covet
their territory. We have no disposition to be oppressive or exacting in
our dealings with any of them, even the weakest. Our interests and our
hopes for them all lie in the direction of stable governments by their
people and of the largest development of their great commercial
resources. The mutual benefits of enlarged commercial exchanges and of a
more familiar and friendly intercourse between our peoples we do desire,
and in this have sought their friendly cooperation.

I have believed, however, while holding these sentiments in the
greatest sincerity, that we must insist upon a just responsibility for
any injuries inflicted upon our official representatives or upon our
citizens. This insistence, kindly and justly but firmly made, will,
I believe, promote peace and mutual respect.

Our relations with Hawaii have been such as to attract an increased
interest, and must continue to do so. I deem it of great importance that
the projected submarine cable, a survey for which has been made, should
be promoted. Both for naval and commercial uses we should have quick
communication with Honolulu. We should before this have availed
ourselves of the concession made many years ago to this Government
for a harbor and naval station at Pearl River. Many evidences of the
friendliness of the Hawaiian Government have been given in the past,
and it is gratifying to believe that the advantage and necessity of
a continuance of very close relations is appreciated.

The friendly act of this Government in expressing to the Government of
Italy its reprobation and abhorrence of the lynching of Italian subjects
in New Orleans by the payment of 125,000 francs, or $24,330.90, was
accepted by the King of Italy with every manifestation of gracious
appreciation, and the incident has been highly promotive of mutual
respect and good will.

In consequence of the action of the French Government in proclaiming a
protectorate over certain tribal districts of the west coast of Africa
eastward of the San Pedro River, which has long been regarded as the
southeastern boundary of Liberia, I have felt constrained to make
protest against this encroachment upon the territory of a Republic which
was founded by citizens of the United States and toward which this
country has for many years held the intimate relation of a friendly
counselor.

The recent disturbances of the public peace by lawless foreign marauders
on the Mexican frontier have afforded this Government an opportunity to
testify its good will for Mexico and its earnest purpose to fulfill the
obligations of international friendship by pursuing and dispersing the
evil doers. The work of relocating the boundary of the treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo westward from El Paso is progressing favorably.

Our intercourse with Spain continues on a friendly footing. I regret,
however, not to be able to report as yet the adjustment of the claims of
the American missionaries arising from the disorders at Ponape, in the
Caroline Islands, but I anticipate a satisfactory adjustment in view of
renewed and urgent representations to the Government at Madrid.

The treatment of the religious and educational establishments of
American citizens in Turkey has of late called for a more than usual
share of attention. A tendency to curtail the toleration which has so
beneficially prevailed is discernible and has called forth the earnest
remonstrance of this Government. Harassing regulations in regard to
schools and churches have been attempted in certain localities, but not
without due protest and the assertion of the inherent and conventional
rights of our countrymen. Violations of domicile and search of the
persons and effects of citizens of the United States by apparently
irresponsible officials in the Asiatic _vilayets_ have from time to time
been reported. An aggravated instance of injury to the property of an
American missionary at Bourdour, in the Province of Konia, called forth
an urgent claim for reparation, which I am pleased to say was promptly
heeded by the Government of the Porte. Interference with the trading
ventures of our citizens in Asia Minor is also reported, and the lack of
consular representation in that region is a serious drawback to instant
and effective protection. I can not believe that these incidents
represent a settled policy, and shall not cease to urge the adoption of
proper remedies.

International copyright has been extended to Italy by proclamation[34]
in conformity with the act of March 3, 1891, upon assurance being given
that Italian law permits to citizens of the United States the benefit of
copyright on substantially the same basis as to subjects of Italy. By a
special convention proclaimed January 15, 1892, reciprocal provisions
of copyright have been applied between the United States and Germany.
Negotiations are in progress with other countries to the same end.

I repeat with great earnestness the recommendation which I have made in
several previous messages that prompt and adequate support be given to
the American company engaged in the construction of the Nicaragua ship
canal. It is impossible to overstate the value from every standpoint of
this great enterprise, and I hope that there may be time, even in this
Congress, to give to it an impetus that will insure the early completion
of the canal and secure to the United States its proper relation to it
when completed.

The Congress has been already advised that the invitations of this
Government for the assembling of an international monetary conference
to consider the question of an enlarged use of silver were accepted by
the nations to which they were addressed. The conference assembled at
Brussels on the 22d of November, and has entered upon the consideration
of this great question. I have not doubted, and have taken occasion
to express that belief as well in the invitations issued for this
Conference as in my public messages, that the free coinage of silver
upon an agreed international ratio would greatly promote the interests
of our people and equally those of other nations. It is too early to
predict what results may be accomplished by the conference. If any
temporary check or delay intervenes, I believe that very soon commercial
conditions will compel the now reluctant governments to unite with us in
this movement to secure the enlargement of the volume of coined money
needed for the transaction of the business of the world.

The report of the Secretary of the Treasury will attract especial
interest in view of the many misleading statements that have been made
as to the state of the public revenues. Three preliminary facts should
not only be stated but emphasized before looking into details: First,
that the public debt has been reduced since March 4, 1889, $259,074,200
and the annual interest charge $11,684,469; second, that there have been
paid out for pensions during this Administration up to November 1, 1892,
$432,564,178.70, an excess of $114,466,386.09 over the sum expended
during the period from March 1, 1885, to March 1, 1889; and, third, that
under the existing tariff up to December 1 about $93,000,000 of revenue
which would have been collected upon imported sugars if the duty had
been maintained has gone into the pockets of the people, and not into
the public Treasury, as before. If there are any who still think that
the surplus should have been kept out of circulation by hoarding it in
the Treasury, or deposited in favored banks without interest while the
Government continued to pay to these very banks interest upon the bonds
deposited as security for the deposits, or who think that the extended
pension legislation was a public robbery, or that the duties upon sugar
should have been maintained, I am content to leave the argument where it
now rests while we wait to see whether these criticisms will take the
form of legislation.

The revenues for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, from all sources
were $425,868,260.22, and the expenditures for all purposes were
$415,953,806.56, leaving a balance of $9,914,453.66. There were paid
during the year upon the public debt $40,570,467.98. The surplus in the
Treasury and the bank redemption fund passed by the act of July 14,
1890, to the general fund furnished in large part the cash available and
used for the payments made upon the public debt. Compared with the year
1891, our receipts from customs duties fell off $42,069,241.08, while
our receipts from internal revenue increased $8,284,823.13, leaving the
net loss of revenue from these principal sources $33,784,417.95. The net
loss of revenue from all sources was $32,675,972.81.

The revenues, estimated and actual, for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1893, are placed by the Secretary at $463,336,350.44, and
the expenditures at $461,336,350.44, showing a surplus of receipts over
expenditures of $2,000,000. The cash balance in the Treasury at the end
of the fiscal year it is estimated will be $20,992,377.03. So far as
these figures are based upon estimates of receipts and expenditures for
the remaining months of the current fiscal year, there are not only the
usual elements of uncertainty, but some added elements. New revenue
legislation, or even the expectation of it, may seriously reduce the
public revenues during the period of uncertainty and during the process
of business adjustment to the new conditions when they become known.
But the Secretary has very wisely refrained from guessing as to the
effect of possible changes in our revenue laws, since the scope of those
changes and the time of their taking effect can not in any degree be
forecast or foretold by him. His estimates must be based upon existing
laws and upon a continuance of existing business conditions, except so
far as these conditions may be affected by causes other than new
legislation.

The estimated receipts for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, are
$490,121,365.38, and the estimated appropriations $457,261,335.33,
leaving an estimated surplus of receipts over expenditures of
$32,860,030.05. This does not include any payment to the sinking fund.
In the recommendation of the Secretary that the sinking-fund law be
repealed I concur. The redemption of bonds since the passage of the law
to June 30, 1892, has already exceeded the requirements by the sum of
$990,510,681.49. The retirement of bonds in the future before maturity
should be a matter of convenience, not of compulsion. We should not
collect revenue for that purpose, but only use any casual surplus, To
the balance of $32,860,030.05 of receipts over expenditures for the year
1894 should be added the estimated surplus at the beginning of the year,
$20,992,377.03, and from this aggregate there must be deducted, as
stated by the Secretary, about $44,000,000 of estimated unexpended
appropriations.

The public confidence in the purpose and ability of the Government to
maintain the parity of all of our money issues, whether coin or paper,
must remain unshaken. The demand for gold in Europe and the consequent
calls upon us are in a considerable degree the result of the efforts of
some of the European Governments to increase their gold reserves, and
these efforts should be met by appropriate legislation on our part. The
conditions that have created this drain of the Treasury gold are in an
important degree political, and not commercial. In view of the fact that
a general revision of our revenue laws in the near future seems to be
probable, it would be better that any changes should be a part of that
revision rather than of a temporary nature.

During the last fiscal year the Secretary purchased under the act
of July 14, 1890, 54,355,748 ounces of silver and issued in payment
therefor $51,106,608 in notes. The total purchases since the passage of
the act have been 120,479,981 ounces and the aggregate of notes issued
$116,783,590. The average price paid for silver during the year was 94
cents per ounce, the highest price being $1.02-3/4 July 1, 1891, and the
lowest 83 cents March 21, 1892. In view of the fact that the monetary
conference is now sitting and that no conclusion has yet been reached,
I withhold any recommendation as to legislation upon this subject.

The report of the Secretary of War brings again to the attention of
Congress some important suggestions as to the reorganization of the
infantry and artillery arms of the service, which his predecessors have
before urgently presented. Our Army is small, but its organization
should all the more be put upon the most approved modern basis. The
conditions upon what we have called the "frontier" have heretofore
required the maintenance of many small posts, but now the policy of
concentration is obviously the right one. The new posts should have the
proper strategic relations to the only "frontiers" we now have--those
of the seacoast and of our northern and part of our southern boundary.
I do not think that any question of advantage to localities or to States
should determine the location of the new posts. The reorganization and
enlargement of the Bureau of Military Information which the Secretary
has effected is a work the usefulness of which will become every year
more apparent. The work of building heavy guns and the construction of
coast defenses has been well begun and should be carried on without
check.

The report of the Attorney-General is by law submitted directly to
Congress, but I can not refrain from saying that he has conducted the
increasing work of the Department of Justice with great professional
skill. He has in several directions secured from the courts decisions
giving increased protection to the officers of the United States and
bringing some classes of crime that escaped local cognizance and
punishment into the tribunals of the United States, where they could
be tried with impartiality.

The numerous applications for Executive clemency presented in behalf
of persons convicted in United States courts and given penitentiary
sentences have called my attention to a fact referred to by the
Attorney-General in his report, namely, that a time allowance for good
behavior for such prisoners is prescribed by the Federal statutes only
where the State in which the penitentiary is located has made no such
provision. Prisoners are given the benefit of the provisions of the
State law regulating the penitentiary to which they may be sent. These
are various, some perhaps too liberal and some perhaps too illiberal.
The result is that a sentence for five years means one thing if the
prisoner is sent to one State for confinement and quite a different
thing if he is sent to another. I recommend that a uniform credit for
good behavior be prescribed by Congress.

I have before expressed my concurrence in the recommendation of the
Attorney-General that degrees of murder should be recognized in the
Federal statutes, as they are, I believe, in all the States. These
grades are founded on correct distinctions in crime. The recognition of
them would enable the courts to exercise some discretion in apportioning
punishment and would greatly relieve the Executive of what is coming to
be a very heavy burden--the examination of these cases on application
for commutation.

The aggregate of claims pending against the Government in the Court of
Claims is enormous. Claims to the amount of nearly $400,000,000 for the
taking of or injury to the property of persons claiming to be loyal
during the war are now before that court for examination. When to these
are added the Indian depredation claims and the French spoliation
claims, an aggregate is reached that is indeed startling. In the defense
of all these cases the Government is at great disadvantage. The
claimants have preserved their evidence, whereas the agents of the
Government are sent into the field to rummage for what they can find.
This difficulty is peculiarly great where the fact to be established is
the disloyalty of the claimant during the war. If this great threat
against our revenues is to have no other check, certainly Congress
should supply the Department of Justice with appropriations sufficiently
liberal to secure the best legal talent in the defense of these claims
and to pursue its vague search for evidence effectively.

The report of the Postmaster-General shows a most gratifying increase
and a most efficient and progressive management of the great business
of that Department. The remarkable increase in revenues, in the number
of post-offices, and in the miles of mail carriage furnishes further
evidence of the high state of prosperity which our people are enjoying.
New offices mean new hamlets and towns, new routes mean the extension of
our border settlements, and increased revenues mean an active commerce.
The Postmaster-General reviews the whole period of his administration
of the office and brings some of his statistics down to the month of
November last. The postal revenues have increased during the last year
nearly $5,000,000. The deficit for the year ending June 30, 1892, is
$848,341 less than the deficiency of the preceding year. The deficiency
of the present fiscal year it is estimated will be reduced to
$1,552,423, which will not only be extinguished during the next fiscal
year, but a surplus of nearly $1,000,000 should then be shown. In these
calculations the payments to be made under the contracts for ocean mail
service have not been included. There have been added 1,590 new mail
routes during the year, with a mileage of 8,563 miles, and the total
number of new miles of mail trips added during the year is nearly
17,000,000. The number of miles of mail journeys added during the last
four years is about 76,000,000, this addition being 21,000,000 miles
more than were in operation in the whole country in 1861.

The number of post-offices has been increased by 2,790 during the year,
and during the past four years, and up to October 29 last, the total
increase in the number of offices has been nearly 9,000. The number of
free-delivery offices has been nearly doubled in the last four years,
and the number of money-order offices more than doubled within that
time.

For the three years ending June 30, 1892, the postal revenue amounted to
$197,744,359, which was an increase of $52,263,150 over the revenue for
the three years ending June 30, 1888, the increase during the last three
years being more than three and a half times as great as the increase
during the three years ending June 30, 1888. No such increase as that
shown for these three years has ever previously appeared in the revenues
of the Department. The Postmaster-General has extended to the
post-offices in the larger cities the merit system of promotion
introduced by my direction into the Departments here, and it has
resulted there, as in the Departments, in a larger volume of work and
that better done.

Ever since our merchant marine was driven from the sea by the rebel
cruisers during the War of the Rebellion the United States has been
paying an enormous annual tribute to foreign countries in the shape of
freight and passage moneys. Our grain and meats have been taken at our
own docks and our large imports there laid down by foreign shipmasters.
An increasing torrent of American travel to Europe has contributed a
vast sum annually to the dividends of foreign shipowners. The balance
of trade shown by the books of our custom-houses has been very largely
reduced and in many years altogether extinguished by this constant
drain. In the year 1892 only 12.3 per cent of our imports were brought
in American vessels. These great foreign steamships maintained by our
traffic are many of them under contracts with their respective
Governments by which in time of war they will become a part of their
armed naval establishments. Profiting by our commerce in peace, they
will become the most formidable destroyers of our commerce in time of
war. I have felt, and have before expressed the feeling, that this
condition of things was both intolerable and disgraceful. A wholesome
change of policy, and one having in it much promise, as it seems to me,
was begun by the law of March 3, 1891. Under this law contracts have
been made by the Postmaster-General for eleven mail routes. The
expenditure involved by these contracts for the next fiscal year
approximates $954,123.33 As one of the results already reached sixteen
American steamships, of an aggregate tonnage of 57,400 tons, costing
$7,400,000, have been built or contracted to be built in American
shipyards.

The estimated tonnage of all steamships required under existing
contracts is 165,802, and when the full service required by these
contracts is established there will be forty-one mail steamers under
the American flag, with the probability of further necessary additions
in the Brazilian and Argentine service. The contracts recently let for
transatlantic service will result in the construction of five ships of
10,000 tons each, costing $9,000,000 to $10,000,000, and will add, with
the _City of New York_ and _City of Paris_, to which the Treasury
Department was authorized by legislation at the last session to give
American registry, seven of the swiftest vessels upon the sea to our
naval reserve. The contracts made with the lines sailing to Central and
South American ports have increased the frequency and shortened the time
of the trips, added new ports of call, and sustained some lines that
otherwise would almost certainly have been withdrawn. The service to
Buenos Ayres is the first to the Argentine Republic under the American
flag. The service to Southampton, Boulogne, and Antwerp is also new,
and is to be begun with the steamships _City of New York_ and _City
of Paris_ in February next.

I earnestly urge the continuance of the policy inaugurated by
this legislation, and that the appropriations required to meet the
obligations of the Government under the contracts may be made promptly,
so that the lines that have entered into these engagements may not
be embarrassed. We have had, by reason of connections with the
transcontinental railway lines constructed through our own territory,
some advantages in the ocean trade of the Pacific that we did not
possess on the Atlantic. The construction of the Canadian Pacific
Railway and the establishment under large subventions from Canada and
England of fast steamship service from Vancouver with Japan and China
seriously threaten our shipping interests in the Pacific. This line
of English steamers receives, as is stated by the Commissioner of
Navigation, a direct subsidy of $400,000 annually, or $30,767 per trip
for thirteen voyages, in addition to some further aid from the Admiralty
in connection with contracts under which the vessels may be used for
naval purposes. The competing American Pacific mail line under the
act of March 3, 1891, receives only $6,389 per round trip.

Efforts have been making within the last year, as I am informed,
to establish under similar conditions a line between Vancouver and some
Australian port, with a view of seizing there a trade in which we have
had a large interest. The Commissioner of Navigation states that a
very large per cent of our imports from Asia are now brought to us by
English steamships and their connecting railways in Canada. With a
view of promoting this trade, especially in tea, Canada has imposed a
discriminating duty of 10 per cent upon tea and coffee brought into
the Dominion from the United States. If this unequal contest between
American lines without subsidy, or with diminished subsidies, and the
English Canadian line to which I have referred is to continue, I think
we should at least see that the facilities for customs entry and
transportation across our territory are not such as to make the Canadian
route a favored one, and that the discrimination as to duties to which
I have referred is met by a like discrimination as to the importation
of these articles from Canada.

No subject, I think, more nearly touches the pride, the power, and the
prosperity of our country than this of the development of our merchant
marine upon the sea. If we could enter into conference with other
competitors and all would agree to withhold government aid, we could
perhaps take our chances with the rest; but our great competitors have
established and maintained their lines by government subsidies until
they now have practically excluded us from participation. In my opinion
no choice is left to us but to pursue, moderately at least, the same
lines.

The report of the Secretary of the Navy exhibits great progress in the
construction of our new Navy. When the present Secretary entered upon
his duties, only 3 modern steel vessels were in commission. The vessels
since put in commission and to be put in commission during the winter
will make a total of 19 during his administration of the Department.
During the current year 10 war vessels and 3 navy tugs have been
launched, and during the four years 25 vessels will have been launched.
Two other large ships and a torpedo boat are under contract and the work
upon them well advanced, and the 4 monitors are awaiting only the
arrival of their armor, which has been unexpectedly delayed, or they
would have been before this in commission.

Contracts have been let during this Administration, under the
appropriations for the increase of the Navy, including new vessels and
their appurtenances, to the amount of $35,000,000, and there has been
expended during the same period for labor at navy-yards upon similar
work $8,000,000 without the smallest scandal or charge of fraud or
partiality. The enthusiasm and interest of our naval officers, both
of the staff and line, have been greatly kindled. They have responded
magnificently to the confidence of Congress and have demonstrated to
the world an unexcelled capacity in construction, in ordnance, and in
everything involved in the building, equipping, and sailing of great
war ships.

At the beginning of Secretary Tracy's administration several difficult
problems remained to be grappled with and solved before the efficiency
in action of our ships could be secured. It is believed that as the
result of new processes in the construction of armor plate our later
ships will be clothed with defensive plates of higher resisting power
than are found on any war vessels afloat. We were without torpedoes.
Tests have been made to ascertain the relative efficiency of different
constructions, a torpedo has been adopted, and the work of construction
is now being carried on successfully. We were without armor-piercing
shells and without a shop instructed and equipped for the construction
of them. We are now making what is believed to be a projectile superior
to any before in use. A smokeless powder has been developed and a
slow-burning powder for guns of large caliber. A high explosive capable
of use in shells fired from service guns has been found, and the
manufacture of gun cotton has been developed so that the question of
supply is no longer in doubt.

The development of a naval militia, which has been organized in eight
States and brought into cordial and cooperative relations with the Navy,
is another important achievement. There are now enlisted in these
organizations 1,800 men, and they are likely to be greatly extended.
I recommend such legislation and appropriations as will encourage and
develop this movement. The recommendations of the Secretary will, I do
not doubt, receive the friendly consideration of Congress, for he has
enjoyed, as he has deserved, the confidence of all those interested in
the development of our Navy, without any division upon partisan lines.
I earnestly express the hope that a work which has made such noble
progress may not now be stayed. The wholesome influence for peace and
the increased sense of security which our citizens domiciled in other
lands feel when these magnificent ships under the American flag appear
is already most gratefully apparent. The ships from our Navy which will
appear in the great naval parade next April in the harbor of New York
will be a convincing demonstration to the world that the United States
is again a naval power.

The work of the Interior Department, always very burdensome, has been
larger than ever before during the administration of Secretary Noble.
The disability-pension law, the taking of the Eleventh Census, the
opening of vast areas of Indian lands to settlement, the organization of
Oklahoma, and the negotiations for the cession of Indian lands furnish
some of the particulars of the increased work, and the results achieved
testify to the ability, fidelity, and industry of the head of the
Department and his efficient assistants.

Several important agreements for the cession of Indian lands negotiated
by the commission appointed under the act of March 2, 1889, are awaiting
the action of Congress. Perhaps the most important of these is that for
the cession of the Cherokee Strip. This region has been the source of
great vexation to the executive department and of great friction and
unrest between the settlers who desire to occupy it and the Indians who
assert title. The agreement which has been made by the commission is
perhaps the most satisfactory that could have been reached. It will be
noticed that it is conditioned upon its ratification by Congress before
March 4, 1893. The Secretary of the Interior, who has given the subject
very careful thought, recommends the ratification of the agreement, and
I am inclined to follow his recommendation. Certain it is that some
action by which this controversy shall be brought to an end and these
lands opened to settlement is urgent.

The form of government provided by Congress on May 17, 1884, for Alaska
was in its frame and purpose temporary. The increase of population and
the development of some important mining and commercial interests make
it imperative that the law should be revised and better provision made
for the arrest and punishment of criminals.

The report of the Secretary shows a very gratifying state of facts
as to the condition of the General Land Office. The work of issuing
agricultural patents, which seemed to be hopelessly in arrear when
the present Secretary undertook the duties of his office, has been so
expedited that the bureau is now upon current business. The relief thus
afforded to honest and worthy settlers upon the public lands by giving
to them an assured title to their entries has been of incalculable
benefit in developing the new States and the Territories.

The Court of Private Land Claims, established by Congress for the
promotion of this policy of speedily settling contested land titles,
is making satisfactory progress in its work, and when the work is
completed a great impetus will be given to the development of those
regions where unsettled claims under Mexican grants have so long
exercised their repressive influence. When to these results are added
the enormous cessions of Indian lands which have been opened to
settlement, aggregating during this Administration nearly 26,000,000
acres, and the agreements negotiated and now pending in Congress for
ratification by which about 10,000,000 additional acres will be opened
to settlement, it will be seen how much has been accomplished.

The work in the Indian Bureau in the execution of the policy of recent
legislation has been largely directed to two chief purposes: First,
the allotment of lands in severalty to the Indians and the cession to
the United States of the surplus lands, and, secondly, to the work of
educating the Indian for his own protection in his closer contact with
the white man and for the intelligent exercise of his new citizenship.
Allotments have been made and patents issued to 5,900 Indians under the
present Secretary and Commissioner, and 7,600 additional allotments
have been made for which patents are now in process of preparation. The
school attendance of Indian children has been increased during that time
over 13 per cent, the enrollment for 1892 being nearly 20,000. A uniform
system of school text-books and of study has been adopted and the work
in these national schools brought as near as may be to the basis of the
free common schools of the States. These schools can be transferred and
merged into the common-school systems of the States when the Indian has
fully assumed his new relation to the organized civil community in which
he resides and the new States are able to assume the burden. I have
several times been called upon to remove Indian agents appointed by me,
and have done so promptly upon every sustained complaint of unfitness or
misconduct. I believe, however, that the Indian service at the agencies
has been improved and is now administered on the whole with a good
degree of efficiency. If any legislation is possible by which the
selection of Indian agents can be wholly removed from all partisan
suggestions or considerations, I am sure it would be a great relief to
the Executive and a great benefit to the service. The appropriation for
the subsistence of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians made at the last
session of Congress was inadequate. This smaller appropriation was
estimated for by the Commissioner upon the theory that the large fund
belonging to the tribe in the public Treasury could be and ought to be
used for their support. In view, however, of the pending depredation
claims against this fund and other considerations, the Secretary of the
Interior on the 12th of April last submitted a supplemental estimate for
$50,000. This appropriation was not made, as it should have been, and
the oversight ought to be remedied at the earliest possible date.

In a special message to this Congress at the last session[35] I stated
the reasons why I had not approved the deed for the release to the
United States by the Choctaws and Chickasaws of the lands formerly
embraced in the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Reservation and remaining after
allotments to that tribe. A resolution of the Senate expressing the
opinion of that body that notwithstanding the facts stated in my special
message the deed should be approved and the money, $2,991,450, paid over
was presented to me May 10, 1892. My special message was intended to
call the attention of Congress to the subject, and in view of the fact
that it is conceded that the appropriation proceeded upon a false basis
as to the amount of lands to be paid for and is by $50,000 in excess
of the amount they are entitled to (even if their claim to the land is
given full recognition at the rate agreed upon), I have not felt willing
to approve the deed, and shall not do so, at least until both Houses of
Congress have acted upon the subject. It has been informally proposed by
the claimants to release this sum of $50,000, but I have no power to
demand or accept such a release, and such an agreement would be without
consideration and void.

I desire further to call the attention of Congress to the fact that the
recent agreement concluded with the Kiowas and Comanches relates to
lands which were a part of the "leased district," and to which the claim
of the Choctaws and Chickasaws is precisely that recognized by Congress
in the legislation I have referred to. The surplus lands to which this
claim would attach in the Kiowa and Comanche Reservation is 2,500,000
acres, and at the same rate the Government will be called upon to pay to
the Choctaws and Chickasaws for these lands $3,125,000. This sum will be
further augmented, especially if the title of the Indians to the tract
now Greer County, Tex., is established. The duty devolved upon me in
this connection was simply to pass upon the form of the deed; but as in
my opinion the facts mentioned in my special message were not adequately
brought to the attention of Congress in connection with the legislation,
I have felt that I would not be justified in acting without some new
expression of the legislative will.

The report of the Commissioner of Pensions, to which extended notice is
given by the Secretary of the Interior in his report, will attract great
attention. Judged by the aggregate amount of work done, the last year
has been the greatest in the history of the office. I believe that the
organization of the office is efficient and that the work has been done
with fidelity. The passage of what is known as the disability bill has,
as was foreseen, very largely increased the annual disbursements to the
disabled veterans of the Civil War. The estimate for this fiscal year
was $144,956,000, and that amount was appropriated. A deficiency
amounting to $10,508,621 must be provided for at this session.
The estimate for pensions for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1894, is
$165,000,000. The Commissioner of Pensions believes that if the present
legislation and methods are maintained and further additions to the
pension laws are not made the maximum expenditure for pensions will be
reached June 30, 1894, and will be at the highest point $188,000,000
per annum.

I adhere to the views expressed in previous messages that the care
of the disabled soldiers of the War of the Rebellion is a matter of
national concern and duty. Perhaps no emotion cools sooner than that
of gratitude, but I can not believe that this process has yet reached
a point with our people that would sustain the policy of remitting the
care of these disabled veterans to the inadequate agencies provided by
local laws. The parade on the 20th of September last upon the streets of
this capital of 60,000 of the surviving Union veterans of the War of the
Rebellion was a most touching and thrilling episode, and the rich and
gracious welcome extended to them by the District of Columbia and the
applause that greeted their progress from tens of thousands of people
from all the States did much to revive the glorious recollections of the
Grand Review when these men and many thousand others now in their graves
were welcomed with grateful joy as victors in a struggle in which the
national unity, honor, and wealth were all at issue.

In my last annual message I called attention to the fact that some
legislative action was necessary in order to protect the interests of
the Government in its relations with the Union Pacific Railway. The
Commissioner of Railroads has submitted a very full report, giving exact
information as to the debt, the liens upon the company's property, and
its resources. We must deal with the question as we find it and take
that course which will under existing conditions best secure the
interests of the United States. I recommended in my last annual message
that a commission be appointed to deal with this question, and I renew
that recommendation and suggest that the commission be given full power.

The report of the Secretary of Agriculture contains not only a most
interesting statement of the progressive and valuable work done under
the administration of Secretary Rusk, but many suggestions for the
enlarged usefulness of this important Department. In the successful
efforts to break down the restrictions to the free introduction of our
meat products in the countries of Europe the Secretary has been untiring
from the first, stimulating and aiding all other Government officers at
home and abroad whose official duties enabled them to participate in the
work. The total trade in hog products with Europe in May, 1892, amounted
to 82,000,000 pounds, against 46,900,000 in the same month of 1891; in
June, 1892, the export aggregated 85,700,000 pounds, against 46,500,000
pounds in the same month of the previous year; in July there was
an increase of 41 per cent and in August of 55 per cent over the
corresponding months of 1891. Over 40,000,000 pounds of inspected
pork have been exported since the law was put into operation, and a
comparison of the four months of May, June, July, and August, 1892, with
the same months of 1891 shows an increase in the number of pounds of
our export of pork products of 62 per cent and an increase in value of
66-1/2 per cent. The exports of dressed beef increased from 137,900,000
pounds in 1889 to 220,500,000 pounds in 1892, or about 60 per cent.
During the past year there have been exported 394,607 head of live
cattle, as against 205,786 exported in 1889. This increased exportation
has been largely promoted by the inspection authorized by law and the
faithful efforts of the Secretary and his efficient subordinates to
make that inspection thorough and to carefully exclude from all cargoes
diseased or suspected cattle. The requirement of the English regulations
that live cattle arriving from the United States must be slaughtered
at the docks had its origin in the claim that pleuro-pneumonia existed
among American cattle and that the existence of the disease could only
certainly be determined by _post mortem_ inspection.

The Department of Agriculture has labored with great energy and
faithfulness to extirpate this disease, and on the 26th day of September
last a public announcement was made by the Secretary that the disease
no longer existed anywhere within the United States. He is entirely
satisfied after the most searching inquiry that this statement was
justified, and that by a continuance of the inspection and quarantine
now required of cattle brought into this country the disease can be
prevented from again getting any foothold. The value to the cattle
industry of the United States of this achievement can hardly be
estimated. We can not, perhaps, at once insist that this evidence shall
be accepted as satisfactory by other countries; but if the present
exemption from the disease is maintained and the inspection of our
cattle arriving at foreign ports, in which our own veterinarians
participate, confirms it, we may justly expect that the requirement that
our cattle shall be slaughtered at the docks will be revoked, as the
sanitary restrictions upon our pork products have been. If our cattle
can be taken alive to the interior, the trade will be enormously
increased.

Agricultural products constituted 78.1 per cent of our unprecedented
exports for the fiscal year which closed June 30, 1892, the total
exports being $1,030,278,030 and the value of the agricultural products
$793,717,676, which exceeds by more than $150,000,000 the shipment of
agricultural products in any previous year.

An interesting and a promising work for the benefit of the American
farmer has been begun through agents of the Agricultural Department in
Europe, and consists in efforts to introduce the various products of
Indian corn as articles of human food. The high price of rye offered a
favorable opportunity for the experiment in Germany of combining corn
meal with rye to produce a cheaper bread. A fair degree of success has
been attained, and some mills for grinding corn for food have been
introduced. The Secretary is of the opinion that this new use of the
products of corn has already stimulated exportations, and that if
diligently prosecuted large and important markets can presently be
opened for this great American product.

The suggestions of the Secretary for an enlargement of the work of
the Department are commended to your favorable consideration, It may,
I think, be said without challenge that in no corresponding period has
so much been done as during the last four years for the benefit of
American agriculture.

The subject of quarantine regulations, inspection, and control was
brought suddenly to my attention by the arrival at our ports in August
last of vessels infected with cholera. Quarantine regulations should be
uniform at all our ports. Under the Constitution they are plainly within
the exclusive Federal jurisdiction when and so far as Congress shall
legislate. In my opinion the whole subject should be taken into national
control and adequate power given to the Executive to protect our people
against plague invasions. On the 1st of September last I approved
regulations establishing a twenty-day quarantine for all vessels
bringing immigrants from foreign ports. This order will be continued
in force. Some loss and suffering have resulted to passengers, but a
due care for the homes of our people justifies in such cases the utmost
precaution. There is danger that with the coming of spring cholera will
again appear, and a liberal appropriation should be made at this session
to enable our quarantine and port officers to exclude the deadly plague.

But the most careful and stringent quarantine regulations may not be
sufficient absolutely to exclude the disease. The progress of medical
and sanitary science has been such, however, that if approved
precautions are taken at once to put all of our cities and towns in
the best sanitary condition, and provision is made for isolating any
sporadic cases and for a thorough disinfection, an epidemic can, I am
sure, be avoided. This work appertains to the local authorities, and the
responsibility and the penalty will be appalling if it is neglected or
unduly delayed.

We are peculiarly subject in our great ports to the spread of
infectious diseases by reason of the fact that unrestricted immigration
brings to us out of European cities, in the overcrowded steerages of
great steamships, a large number of persons whose surroundings make them
the easy victims of the plague. This consideration, as well as those
affecting the political, moral, and industrial interests of our country,
leads me to renew the suggestion that admission to our country and to
the high privileges of its citizenship should be more restricted and
more careful. We have, I think, a right and owe a duty to our own
people, and especially to our working people, not only to keep out the
vicious, the ignorant, the civil disturber, the pauper, and the contract
laborer, but to check the too great flow of immigration now coming by
further limitations.

The report of the World's Columbian Exposition has not yet been
submitted. That of the board of management of the Government exhibit
has been received and is herewith transmitted. The work of construction
and of preparation for the opening of the exposition in May next has
progressed most satisfactorily and upon a scale of liberality and
magnificence that will worthily sustain the honor of the United States.

The District of Columbia is left by a decision of the supreme court
of the District without any law regulating the liquor traffic. An old
statute of the legislature of the District relating to the licensing
of various vocations has hitherto been treated by the Commissioners
as giving them power to grant or refuse licenses to sell intoxicating
liquors and as subjecting those who sold without licenses to penalties;
but in May last the supreme court of the District held against this
view of the powers of the Commissioners. It is of urgent importance,
therefore, that Congress should supply, either by direct enactment
or by conferring discretionary powers upon the Commissioners, proper
limitations and restraints upon the liquor traffic in the District.
The District has suffered in its reputation by many crimes of violence,
a large per cent of them resulting from drunkenness and the liquor
traffic. The capital of the nation should be freed from this reproach
by the enactment of stringent restrictions and limitations upon the
traffic.

In renewing the recommendation which I have made in three preceding
annual messages that Congress should legislate for the protection
of railroad employees against the dangers incident to the old and
inadequate methods of braking and coupling which are still in use upon
freight trains, I do so with the hope that this Congress may take action
upon the subject. Statistics furnished by the Interstate Commerce
Commission show that during the year ending June 30, 1891, there were
forty-seven different styles of car couplers reported to be in use, and
that during the same period there were 2,660 employees killed and 26,140
injured. Nearly 16 per cent of the deaths occurred in the coupling and
uncoupling of cars and over 36 per cent of the injuries had the same
origin.

The Civil Service Commission ask for an increased appropriation for
needed clerical assistance, which I think should be given. I extended
the classified service March 1, 1892, to include physicians,
superintendents, assistant superintendents, school-teachers, and matrons
in the Indian service, and have had under consideration the subject of
some further extensions, but have not as yet fully determined the lines
upon which extensions can most properly and usefully be made.

I have in each of the three annual messages which it has been my duty
to submit to Congress called attention to the evils and dangers
connected with our election methods and practices as they are related
to the choice of officers of the National Government. In my last annual
message I endeavored to invoke serious attention to the evils of unfair
apportionments for Congress. I can not close this message without again
calling attention to these grave and threatening evils. I had hoped that
it was possible to secure a nonpartisan inquiry by means of a commission
into evils the existence of which is known to all, and that out of this
might grow legislation from which all thought of partisan advantage
should be eliminated and only the higher thought appear of maintaining
the freedom and purity of the ballot and the equality of the elector,
without the guaranty of which the Government could never have been
formed and without the continuance of which it can not continue to
exist in peace and prosperity.

It is time that mutual charges of unfairness and fraud between the
great parties should cease and that the sincerity of those who profess
a desire for pure and honest elections should be brought to the test of
their willingness to free our legislation and our election methods from
everything that tends to impair the public confidence in the announced
result. The necessity for an inquiry and for legislation by Congress
upon this subject is emphasized by the fact that the tendency of the
legislation in some States in recent years has in some important
particulars been away from and not toward free and fair elections and
equal apportionments. Is it not time that we should come together upon
the high plane of patriotism while we devise methods that shall secure
the right of every man qualified by law to cast a free ballot and give
to every such ballot an equal value in choosing our public officers and
in directing the policy of the Government?

Lawlessness is not less such, but more, where it usurps the functions of
the peace officer and of the courts. The frequent lynching of colored
people accused of crime is without the excuse, which has sometimes been
urged by mobs for a failure to pursue the appointed methods for the
punishment of crime, that the accused have an undue influence over
courts and juries. Such acts are a reproach to the community where
they occur, and so far as they can be made the subject of Federal
jurisdiction the strongest repressive legislation is demanded. A public
sentiment that will sustain the officers of the law in resisting mobs
and in protecting accused persons in their custody should be promoted
by every possible means. The officer who gives his life in the brave
discharge of this duty is worthy of special honor. No lesson needs to
be so urgently impressed upon our people as this, that no worthy end
or cause can be promoted by lawlessness.

This exhibit of the work of the Executive Departments is submitted to
Congress and to the public in the hope that there will be found in it
a due sense of responsibility and an earnest purpose to maintain the
national honor and to promote the happiness and prosperity of all our
people, and this brief exhibit of the growth and prosperity of the
country will give us a level from which to note the increase or
decadence that new legislative policies may bring to us. There is no
reason why the national influence, power, and prosperity should not
observe the same rates of increase that have characterized the past
thirty years. We carry the great impulse and increase of these years
into the future. There is no reason why in many lines of production we
should not surpass all other nations, as we have already done in some.
There are no near frontiers to our possible development. Retrogression
would be a crime.

BENJ. HARRISON.

[Footnote 31: See pp. 141-142, 152-155, 148-152, 281-283, 249-251,
258-260, 253-258, 263-265, 279-281, 283-284.]

[Footnote 32:  See pp. 240-242.]

[Footnote 33: See pp. 290-292.]

[Footnote 34: See p. 301.]

[Footnote 35: See pp. 229-234.]



SPECIAL MESSAGES.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _December 7, 1892_.

_To the Senate_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of April 11, 1892,
requesting information in regard to the agreement between the United
States and Great Britain of 1817 concerning the naval forces to be
maintained by the two Governments on the Great Lakes, I transmit
herewith a report of the Secretary of State and accompanying papers,
giving all the information existing in that Department in regard to
the agreement in question.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 4, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 23d of December, 1892, from the Secretary of the Interior,
accompanied by an agreement concluded by and between the Cherokee
Commission and the Comanche, Kiowa, and Apache tribes of Indians in the
Territory of Oklahoma, for the cession of certain lands and for other
purposes.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 4, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
of the 23d of December, 1892, from the Secretary of the Interior,
accompanied by an agreement concluded by and between the Cherokee
Commission and the Pawnee tribe of Indians in the Territory of Oklahoma,
for the cession of certain lands and for other purposes.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 7, 1893_.

_To the Senate_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of January 6, 1893, calling
on the Secretary of State for information whether the provisions of
Senate bill No. 3513, absolutely suspending immigration for the period
of one year, are in conflict with any treaties now existing between the
United States and any foreign countries, I transmit herewith a report
from the Secretary of State, giving the information called for.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 11, 1893_.

_To the Senate_:

In response to the resolutions of the Senate dated December 20, 1892,
and January 5, 1893, respectively, I transmit herewith a report from the
Secretary of State of the 10th instant, accompanying the reports of Mr.
Walter T. Griffin, United States commercial agent at Limoges, France,
and Mr. W.H. Edwards, United States consul-general at Berlin, Germany,
which were called for by the aforesaid resolutions.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 13, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for your information, a letter from the Secretary
of State, inclosing the annual report of the Bureau of American
Republics for the year ending June 30, 1892.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, January 25, 1893_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In response to the resolution of the Senate of the 21st instant,
relating to the alleged killing of Frank B. Riley, a sailor of the
United States steamship _Newark_, in Genoa, Italy, I transmit herewith
a report on the subject from the Secretary of State.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 26, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the information of Congress, the third regular
report of the World's Columbian Commission and the report of the
president of the board of lady managers, with the accompanying papers.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _January 31, 1893_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with a resolution of the Senate, the House of
Representatives concurring, I return herewith the bill (S. 2625)
entitled "An act to provide for the punishment of offenses on the
high seas."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 2, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

On the 23d of July last the following resolution of the House of
Representatives was communicated to me:

  _Resolved_, That the President be requested to inform the House, if not
  incompatible with the public interests, what regulations are now in
  force concerning the transportation of imported merchandise in bond or
  duty paid, and products or manufactures of the United States, from one
  port in the United States, over Canadian territory, to another port
  therein, under the provisions of section 3006 of the Revised Statutes;
  whether further legislation thereon is necessary or advisable, and
  especially whether a careful inspection of such merchandise should not
  be had at the frontiers of the United States upon the departure and
  arrival of such merchandise, and whether the interests of the United
  States do not require that each car containing such merchandise while
  in Canadian territory be in the custody and under the surveillance of
  an inspector of the customs department, the cost of such surveillance
  to be paid by the foreign carrier transporting such merchandise.


The resolution is limited in its scope to the subject of the transit
of merchandise from one port in the United States, through Canadian
territory, to another port in the United States, under the provisions of
section 3006 of the Revised Statutes; but I have concluded that a review
of our treaty obligations, if any, and of our legislation upon the whole
subject of the transit of goods from, to, or through Canada is
desirable, and therefore address this message to the Congress.

It should be known before new legislation is proposed whether the United
States is under any treaty obligations which affect this subject growing
out of the provisions of Article XXIX of the treaty of Washington. That
article is as follows:

  It is agreed that for the term of years mentioned in Article XXXIII of
  this treaty goods, wares, or merchandise arriving at the ports of New
  York, Boston, and Portland, and any other ports in the United States
  which have been or may from time to time be specially designated by
  the President of the United States, and destined for Her Britannic
  Majesty's possessions in North America, may be entered at the proper
  custom-house and conveyed in transit, without the payment of duties,
  through the territory of the United States, under such rules,
  regulations, and conditions for the protection of the revenue as the
  Government of the United States may from time to time prescribe; and
  under like rules, regulations, and conditions goods, wares, or
  merchandise may be conveyed in transit, without the payment of duties,
  from such possessions through the territory of the United States for
  export from the said ports of the United States.

  It is further agreed that for the like period goods, wares, or
  merchandise arriving at any of the ports of Her Britannic Majesty's
  possessions in North America and destined for the United States may be
  entered at the proper custom-house and conveyed in transit, without the
  payment of duties, through the said possessions, under such rules and
  regulations and conditions for the protection of the revenue as the
  governments of the said possessions may from time to time prescribe;
  and under like rules, regulations, and conditions goods, wares, or
  merchandise may be conveyed in transit, without payment of duties, from
  the United States through the said possessions to other places in the
  United States, or for export from ports in the said possessions.


It will be noticed that provision is here made--

  First. For the transit in bond, without the payment of duties, of goods
  arriving at specified ports of the United States, and at others to be
  designated by the President, destined for Canada.

  Second. For the transit from Canada to ports of the United States,
  without the payment of duties, of merchandise for export.

  Third. For the transit of merchandise arriving at Canadian ports,
  destined for the United States, through Canadian territory to
  the United States, without the payment of duties to the Dominion
  government.

  Fourth. For the transit of merchandise from the United States to
  Canadian ports for export without the payment of duties.

  Fifth. For the transit of merchandise, without the payment of duties,
  from the United States, through Canada, to other places in the United
  States.


The first and second of these provisions were concessions by the
United States and were made subject to "such rules, regulations, and
conditions for the protection of the revenue as the Government of the
United States may from time to time prescribe." The third, fourth, and
fifth provisions of the articles are concessions on the part of the
Dominion of Canada and are made subject to "such rules and regulations
and conditions for the protection of the revenue as the governments of
the said possessions may from time to time prescribe." The first and
second and the third and fourth of these provisions are reciprocal in
their nature. The fifth, which provides for the transit of merchandise
from one point in the United States, through Canada, to another point in
the United States, is not met by a reciprocal provision for the passage
of Canadian goods from one point in Canada to another point in Canada
through the United States. If this article of the treaty is in force,
the obligations assumed by the United States should be fully and
honorably observed until such time as this Government shall free
itself from them by methods provided in the treaty or recognized by
international law. It is, however, no part of the obligation resting
upon the United States under the treaty that it will use the concessions
made to it by Canada. This Government would undoubtedly meet its full
duty by yielding in an ample manner the concessions made by it to
Canada. There could be no just cause of complaint by Great Britain or
Canada if the compensating concession to the United States should not
be exercised. We have not stipulated in the treaty that we will permit
merchandise to be moved through Canadian territory from one point of the
United States to another at the will of the shipper. The stipulation is
on the part of Canada that it will permit such merchandise to enter its
territory from the United States, to pass through it, and to return to
the United States without the exaction of duties and without other
burdens than such as may be necessary to protect its revenues.

The questions whether we shall continue to allow merchandise to pass
from one point in the United States, through Canadian territory, to
another point in the United States, and, if so, to what exactions and
examinations it shall be subjected on reentering our territory, are
wholly within the power of Congress without reference to the question
whether Article XXIX is or is not in force.

The treaty of Washington embraced a number of absolutely independent
subjects. Its purpose, as recited, was "to provide for an amicable
settlement of all causes of difference between the two countries."
It provided for four distinct arbitrations of unsettled questions,
including the Alabama claims, for a temporary settlement of the
questions growing out of the fisheries, and for various arrangements
affecting commerce and intercourse between the United States and the
British North American possessions. Some of its provisions were made
terminable by methods pointed out in the treaty. Articles I to XVII,
inclusive, provide for the settlement of the Alabama claims and of the
claims of British subjects against the United States, and have been
fully executed. Articles XVIII to XXV, inclusive, relate to the subject
of the fisheries, and provide for a joint commission to determine what
indemnity should be paid to Great Britain for the fishing privileges
conceded. These articles have been terminated by the notice provided
for in the treaty.

Article XXVI provides for the free navigation of the St. Lawrence,
Yukon, Porcupine, and Stikine rivers. Article XXVII provides for the
equal use of certain frontier canals and waterways, and contains no
provision for termination upon notice. Article XXVIII opens Lake
Michigan to the commerce of British subjects under proper regulations,
and contains a provision for its abrogation, to which reference will
presently be made. Article XXX provides for certain privileges of
transshipment on the Lakes and northern waterways, and contains the
same provision as Article XXIX as to the method by which it may be
terminated. Article XXXI provides for the nonimposition of a Canadian
export duty on lumber cut in certain districts in Maine and floated
to the sea by the St. Johns River, and contains no limitation as to
time and no provision for its abrogation. Article XXXII extended to
Newfoundland in the event of proper legislation by that Province the
fishery provisions of Articles XVIII to XXV, and was of course abrogated
with those articles. Article XXXIII, which provides a method for the
abrogation of certain articles of the treaty, I will presently quote
at length. The remaining articles of the treaty, namely XXXV to XLII,
provide for the arbitration of the dispute as to the Vancouver Island
and De Haro Channel boundary, and have been fully executed. Articles
XVIII, XIX, XXI, XXVIII, XXIX, and XXX each contains a provision
limiting their life to "the term of years mentioned in Article XXXIII of
this treaty." The articles between XVIII and XXX, inclusive, which do
not contain this provision, are those that provide for an arbitration of
the fishery question, which were of course terminable by the completion
of the arbitration; Article XXVI, relating to the navigation of the St.
Lawrence and other rivers, and Article XXVII, relating to the use of the
canals. The question whether Article XXIX is still in force depends,
so far as the construction of the treaty goes, upon the meaning of the
words "the term of years mentioned in Article XXXIII." That article is
as follows:

  The foregoing Articles XVIII to XXV, inclusive, and Article XXX of this
  treaty shall take effect as soon as the laws required to carry them
  into operation shall have been passed by the Imperial Parliament of
  Great Britain, by the parliament of Canada, and by the legislature of
  Prince Edwards Island on the one hand and by the Congress of the United
  States on the other. Such assent having been given, the said articles
  shall remain in force for the period of ten years from the date at
  which they may come into operation, and, further, until the expiration
  of two years after either of the high contracting parties shall have
  given notice to the other of its wish to terminate the same; each of
  the high contracting parties being at liberty to give such notice to
  the other at the end of the said period of ten years or at any time
  afterwards.


The question of construction here presented is whether the reference to
"the term of years mentioned in Article XXXIII" is to be construed as
limiting the continuance of Article XXIX to the duration of Articles
XVIII to XXV and XXX in such a way that the abrogation of those articles
necessarily carried with it the other articles of the treaty which
contained the reference to Article XXXIII already quoted, or whether
the reference to this "term of years" in Articles XXVIII and XXIX was
intended to provide a method of abrogation after ten years from the time
of their taking effect, viz, a notice of two years of an intention to
abrogate. The language of the treaty, considered alone, might support
the conclusion that Article XXXIII was intended to provide a uniform
method of abrogation for certain other articles. It will be noticed that
the treaty does not expressly call for legislation to put Article XXIX
into operation. Senator Edmunds, in the discussion in the Senate of
the joint resolution terminating the fisheries article, took the view
that no legislation was necessary. It seems to me, however, that such
legislation was necessary, and Congress acted upon this view in the law
of 1873, to which reference will presently be made. An examination of
the discussion between the plenipotentiaries who framed the treaty
furnishes this entry, which President Cleveland thought to be conclusive
of the intention of the plenipotentiaries, viz:

  The transit question was discussed, and it was agreed that any
  settlement that might be made should include a reciprocal arrangement
  in that respect for the period for which the fishery articles should
  be in force.


On March 1, 1873, Congress passed an act entitled "An act to carry into
effect the provisions of the treaty between the United States and Great
Britain signed in the city of Washington the 8th day of May, 1871,
relating to the fisheries." The act consisted of five sections, the
first and second of which provided for carrying into effect the
provisions of the treaty "relating to the fisheries." The fourth section
provided for carrying into effect section 30 of the treaty. These three
sections furnished the legislation contemplated by Article XXXIII of
the treaty to carry into effect Articles XVIII to XXV and XXX. The act,
however, went further, as will be seen by an examination of section 3,
which is as follows:

  That from the date of the President's proclamation authorized by the
  first section of this act, and so long as the Articles XVIII to XXV,
  inclusive, and Article XXX of said treaty shall remain in force,
  according to the terms and conditions of Article XXXIII of said treaty,
  all goods, wares, or merchandise arriving at the ports of New York,
  Boston, and Portland, and any other ports in the United States which
  have been or may from time to time be specially designated by the
  President of the United States, and destined for Her Britannic
  Majesty's possessions in North America, may be entered at the proper
  custom-house and conveyed in transit, without the payment of duties,
  through the territory of the United States, under such rules,
  regulations, and conditions for the protection of the revenue as the
  Secretary of the Treasury may from time to time prescribe; and under
  like rules, regulations, and conditions goods, wares, or merchandise
  may be conveyed in transit, without the payment of duties, from such
  possessions through the territory of the United States, for export
  from the said ports of the United States.


It will be noticed that provision is here made for carrying into effect
the two provisions of Article XXIX which I have already characterized as
the concessions on the part of the United States, namely, the passage
duty free from certain designated ports of the United States to Canada
of imported goods, and the passage duty free to ports of the United
States of Canadian goods for export. Section 3 of the law of 1873, which
I have quoted, however, contains a legislative construction of Article
XXIX of the treaty in the limitation that the provisions therein
contained as to the transit of goods should continue in force only so
long as Articles XVIII to XXV, inclusive, and XXX of the treaty should
remain in force.

On March 3, 1883, Congress passed a joint resolution entitled as
follows: "Joint resolution providing for the termination of articles
numbered XVIII to XXV, inclusive, and article numbered XXX of the treaty
between the United States of America and Her Britannic Majesty concluded
at Washington May 8, 1871."

The resolution provided for the giving of notice of the abrogation of
the articles of the treaty named in the title, and of no others. Section
3 contained the following provision:

  And the act of Congress approved March 1, A.D. 1873, entitled * * * so
  far as it relates to the articles of said treaty so to be terminated,
  shall be and stand repealed and be of no force on and after the time
  of the expiration of said two years.


An examination of the debates at the time of the passage of this joint
resolution very clearly shows that Congress made an attempt to save
Article XXIX of the treaty and section 3 of the act of 1873. In the
Senate on the 21st of February, 1883, the resolution being under
consideration, several Senators, including Mr. Edmunds, the chairman of
the Judiciary Committee, expressed the opinion that Article XXIX would
not be affected by the abrogation of Articles XVIII to XXV and XXX, and
an amendment was made to the resolution with a view to leave section 3
of the act of 1873 in force. The same view was taken in the debates in
the House.

The subject again came before Congress in connection with the
consideration of a bill (S. 3173) to "authorize the President of the
United States to protect and defend the rights of American fishing
vessels, American fishermen, American trading and other vessels in
certain cases, and for other purposes."

In the course of the debate upon the bill in the Senate January 24,
1887, and in the House February 23 following, the prevailing opinion
was, though not without some dissent, that Article XXIX was still in
force.

On the 6th of July, 1887, in response to an inquiry by the Secretary of
the Treasury, Mr. Bayard wrote a letter, a copy of which accompanies
this message, in which he expresses the opinion that Article XXIX of
the treaty was unaffected by the abrogation of the fisheries articles
and was still in force. In August, 1888, however, Mr. Cleveland, in
a message to Congress, expresses his opinion of the question in the
following language:

  In any event, and whether the law of 1873 construes the treaty or
  governs it, section 29 of such treaty, I have no doubt, terminated with
  the proceedings taken by our Government to terminate Articles XVIII to
  XXV, inclusive, and Article XXX of the treaty. * * *

  If by any language used in the joint resolution it was intended to
  relieve section 3 of the act of 1873, embodying Article XXIX of the
  treaty, from its own limitations, or to save the article itself, I am
  entirely satisfied that the intention miscarried.


I have asked the opinion of the Attorney-General upon this question, and
his answer accompanies this message. He is of the opinion that Article
XXIX has been abrogated.

It should be added that the United States has continuously, through the
Treasury Department, conducted our trade intercourse with Canada as if
Article XXIX of the treaty and section 3 of the act of 1873 remained
in force, and that Canada has continued to yield in practice the
concessions made by her in that article. No change in our Treasury
methods was made following Mr. Cleveland's message from which I have
quoted. I am inclined to think that, using the aids which the protocol
and the nearly contemporaneous legislation by Congress in the act of
1873 furnish in construing the treaty, the better opinion is that
Article XXIX of the treaty is no longer operative. The enactment of
section 3 of the act of 1873 was a clear declaration that legislation
was necessary to put Article XXIX of the treaty into operation, and that
under the treaty our obligation to provide such legislation terminated
whenever Articles XVIII to XXV and XXX should be abrogated. This
legislation was accepted by Great Britain as a compliance with our
obligations under the treaty. No objection was made that our statute
treated Article XXIX as having force only so long as the other articles
named were in force.

But the question whether Article XXIX is in force has less practical
importance than has been supposed, for it does not, if in force, place
any restraints upon the United States as to the method of dealing with
imported merchandise destined for the United States arriving at a
Canadian port for transportation to the United States, or of merchandise
passing through Canadian territory from one place in the United States
to another. It would be no infraction either of the letter or of the
spirit of the treaty if we should stop, unload, and carefully inspect
every vehicle arriving at our border with such merchandise; nor, on the
other hand, would Canada violate her obligations under the treaty by a
like treatment of merchandise imported through the port of New York on
its arrival in Canada. Neither Government has placed itself under any
restraint as to merchandise intended for the use of its own people
when such merchandise comes within its own territory. The question,
therefore, as to how we shall deal with merchandise imported by our own
people through a Canadian port and with merchandise passing from one
place in the United States to another through Canadian territory is
wholly one of domestic policy and law.

I turn now to consider the legislation of Congress upon this subject,
upon which, as it seems to me, the duties of the Treasury and the rights
of our people as to those phases of the transportation question to which
I have just alluded wholly depend. Sections 3005 and 3006 of the Revised
Statutes, which are taken from the act of July 28, 1866, entitled
"An act to protect the revenue, and for other purposes" (14 U.S.
Statutes at Large, p. 328), are as follows:

  SEC. 3005. All merchandise arriving at the ports of New York, Boston,
  Portland in Maine, or any other port specially designated by the
  Secretary of the Treasury, and destined for places in the adjacent
  British Provinces, or arriving at the port of [_Point Isabel_]
  [Brownsville] in Texas, or any other port specially designated by the
  Secretary of the Treasury, and destined for places in the Republic of
  Mexico, may be entered at the custom-house and conveyed in transit
  through the territory of the United States without the payment of
  duties, under such regulations as the Secretary of the Treasury may
  prescribe.

  SEC. 3006. Imported merchandise in bond, or duty paid, and products
  or manufactures of the United States, may, with the consent of the
  proper authorities of the British Provinces or Republic of Mexico, be
  transported from one port in the United States to another port therein,
  over the territory of such Provinces or Republic, by such routes and
  under such rules, regulations, and conditions as the Secretary of the
  Treasury may prescribe; and the merchandise so transported shall,
  upon arrival in the United States from such Provinces or Republic, be
  treated in regard to the liability to or exemption from duty or tax as
  if the transportation had taken place entirely within the limits of
  the United States.


Section 3102 of the Revised Statutes is also related to this subject,
and is as follows:

  To avoid the inspection at the first port of arrival, the owner,
  agent, master, or conductor of any such vessel, car, or other vehicle,
  or owner, agent, or other person having charge of any such merchandise,
  baggage, effects, or other articles, may apply to any officer of
  the United States duly authorized to act in the premises to seal or
  close the same, under and according to the regulations hereinafter
  authorized, previous to their importation into the United States, which
  officer shall seal or close the same accordingly; whereupon the same
  may proceed to their port of destination without further inspection.
  Every such vessel, car, or other vehicle shall proceed without
  unnecessary delay to the port of its destination, as named in the
  manifest of its cargo, freight, or contents, and be there inspected.
  Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to exempt such
  vessel, car, or vehicle, or its contents, from such examination as
  may be necessary and proper to prevent frauds upon the revenue and
  violations of this title.


It will be noticed that section 3005 does not provide for the transit of
merchandise through our territory from Canada to ports of the United
States for export, nor have I been able to find any other law now in
force that does provide for such transit. It would seem, therefore, that
as to this concession made by the United States in Article XXIX of the
treaty, legislation to put it into force was necessary, and that there
is no such legislation unless section 3 of the act of 1873 was saved by
the amendment to the joint resolution abrogating the fisheries articles
and Article XXX, limiting the repeal to so much of said act as "relates
to the articles of said treaty so to be terminated." The joint
resolution certainly did not repeal section 3, and if that section has
ceased to be operative it is by virtue of the limitation contained in
the section itself. I think it did expire by its own express limitation.

The question has presented itself whether section 3 of the act of 1873
(U.S. Revised Statutes, sec. 2866) repealed by implication that section
of the act of July, 1866, which is now section 3005 of the Revised
Statutes; but I am of the opinion that the last-named section was not
repealed. Section 3 of the act of 1873 was expressly intended to carry
into effect a treaty obligation and was limited as to time. It contained
no express repeal of the act of 1866, and while its provisions were
broader than the last-named act, they were not inconsistent, save in the
provision that while the act of 1873 was in force the additional ports
in the United States at which Canadian goods might be received were
to be designated by the President, whereas under the act of 1866 the
designation was by the Secretary of the Treasury. The last-named act
related also to intercourse with Mexico, and I think was unaffected
by the act of 1873.

It will be seen that the law permits merchandise arriving at the ports
of New York, Boston, Portland in Maine, and at other ports specially
designated by the Secretary of the Treasury, for places in the adjacent
British Provinces, to be entered at the custom-house of the port where
it is landed and conveyed through the territory of the United States
without the payment of duty, under regulations to be prescribed by the
Secretary of the Treasury. As these goods come immediately and fully
under the inspection of our customs officers at the principal ports, are
entered there and remain until they cross our border into Canada fully
under our supervision, there is little or no danger involved to our
revenue. The regulations prescribed by the Treasury for conducting this
traffic seem to me to be adequate.

As to merchandise imported into the United States from a contiguous
foreign country, it is provided by section 3102 that the inspection at
the first port of arrival in the United States may be avoided if the
vehicle in which the same arrives has been sealed or closed by some
officer of the United States duly authorized at some point in the
contiguous country. When the act of closing or sealing conformably
to the regulations of the Treasury has been effected, the car or
other vehicle may proceed without unnecessary delay to the port of
its destination, as named in the manifest of its cargo, freight, or
contents, and be there inspected. This privilege, however, is subject
to such examination at the point of entry to the United States as may
be necessary to prevent fraud. It is important to be noticed that the
merchandise to which this section refers is described in section 3100 as
merchandise, etc., "imported into the United States from any contiguous
foreign country."

A practice has grown up, and a traffic of considerable dimensions
under it, of allowing merchandise from China and Japan, purchased and
imported from those countries by our own citizens and landed at ports
in the Dominion of Canada, to be there loaded into cars, which, being
sealed by an officer of the United States or some one supposed to
represent him, are forwarded through the territory of Canada, across
the entire continent, and allowed to cross our frontier without other
inspection than an examination of the seals. The real fact is that the
American consul can not and does not either compare the manifest with
the contents of the cars or attach the seals. The agents of the
transportation companies are furnished by the consul with the seals and
place them upon the cars. The practice of sealing such merchandise,
notwithstanding it has been allowed by the Treasury for some years,
I think is unauthorized. Such merchandise is not imported from a
"contiguous country," but from China and Japan.

It has never become subject to the Canadian revenue laws as an
importation from Japan to Canada, but by force of the treaty or by the
courtesy of that government has been treated as subject to the revenue
laws of the United States from the time of landing at the Canadian port.
Our Treasury seal has been placed upon it; Canada only gives it passage.
It is no more an importation from Canada than is a train load of wheat
that starts from Detroit and is transported through Canada to another
port of the United States. Section 3102 was enacted in 1864, two years
before sections 3005 and 3006, and could not have had reference to the
later methods of importing merchandise through one country to the other.

The practice to which I have referred not only equalizes the advantages
of Canadian seaports with our own in the importation of goods for our
domestic consumption, but makes the Canadian ports favored ports of
entry. The detentions under this system at the Canadian ports are less
than when the merchandise is landed at a port of the United States to be
forwarded in bond to another port therein. Full effect should be given
to section 3102 as to merchandise imported into the United States from
Canada, so far as the appropriations enable the Treasury to provide the
officers to do the work of closing and sealing. It will, however, be
required that all this kind of work be done, and carefully done, by
an officer of the United States, and that the duty shall in no case
be delegated to the employees of the transportation companies. The
considerations that it is quite doubtful whether a fraud committed in
Canada by one of our agents upon our revenue would be punishable in our
courts, and that such a fraud committed by anyone else certainly would
not be, and that even if such acts are made penal by our statutes
the criminal would be secure against extradition, seem to me to be
conclusive against the policy of attempting to maintain such revenue
agents in Canadian territory.

I come now to discuss another element of this international traffic,
namely, the transportation of merchandise from one "port" in the United
States to another "port" therein over the territory of Canada. This
traffic is enormous in its dimensions, and very great interests have
grown up in the United States in connection with it. Section 3006
authorizes this traffic, subject to "such rules, regulations, and
conditions as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe;" but the
important limitation is from "port" to "port." Section 3007 of the
Revised Statutes, which exempts sealed cars from certain fees, preserves
the terms of the preceding section--from "port" to "port." It seems to
me that sections 3006 and 3007 contemplate the delivery of the sealed
cars at a "port" of the United States, there to be examined by a revenue
officer and their contents verified; but in practice the car, if the
seal is found at the border to be intact, is passed to places not
"ports" and is opened and unloaded by the consignee, no officer being
present. The bill or manifest accompanying the merchandise and the
unbroken seal on the car may furnish _prima facie_ evidence that the
amount and kind of merchandise named in the manifest and said to be
contained in the car came from a port in the United States, but
certainly it was not intended that the merchandise should go to the
owner without an official ascertainment of the correspondence between
the bill and the actual contents of the car.

I pass at this point any discussion of the question whether as a
national policy this traffic should be promoted. It is enough to say
that as the law stands it is authorized between "ports" of the United
States, and that the rules, regulations, and conditions to be prescribed
by the Secretary of the Treasury must not, in view of this declaration
of the legislative will, be further restrictive of the traffic than may
reasonably be necessary to protect the revenues of the United States.
In determining whether further regulations are reasonably necessary to
prevent frauds against our revenue it is not conclusive, at least, to
say that frauds against the revenue under the existing system have not
been discovered. The question is, Are the regulations such as to provide
proper safeguards against fraud, or are they such as to make fraud easy
to those who have the disposition to commit it? If all cars carrying
this merchandise are carefully and honestly inspected at the point of
lading and are securely closed during the transit, the revenue would be
secure, for the proper lading of these cars is not subject to duty.
Frauds can only be perpetrated by introducing products not subject to
free entry. In practice the seals and locks provided by the Treasury
Department do not give security that these cars, in the long transit in
which they are free from observation by officers of the revenue, may not
be opened and dutiable merchandise added.

The duplication of the seals used, composed of wire and lead, is easy,
and the opening of locks scarcely less so. If, however, the cars, when
they arrive in the United States, either at the point where our boundary
is crossed or at some other port of the United States, were subject to
the inspection of a revenue officer before the delivery to the consignee
or owner, the manifest could be verified. The inspection, however, is
now limited to an examination of the lock or seal. The car is not
weighed or opened to verify its contents. I do not think this is an
adequate protection against the surreptitious introduction into the
cars, while on foreign territory, of dutiable articles. It will be seen
by the letter of the Secretary of the Treasury that grain the product
of the United States is now largely transported in American vessels to
Canadian lake ports, and after being there placed in elevators is sent
east in cars sealed by agents of the Treasury.

No observation is taken of this grain until its arrival in Canada, where
only the amount and grade are noted by a Treasury agent, and a like
amount in grade and quantity (though it may be not the identical grain)
is by such agent billed and sealed in cars for carriage to the United
States. I do not find any statute authorizing this practice. Section
3006, which authorizes this interstate trade through Canada, is limited
to merchandise passing from "port" to "port" of the United States, and
plainly means that such merchandise shall be taken up by our revenue
officers at a "port" of the United States as a starting point.

The following are the conclusions at which I have arrived:

First. That Article XXIX of the treaty of Washington has been abrogated.

Second. That even if this article were in force there is no law in force
to execute it.

Third. That when in force the treaty imposed no obligation upon the
United States to use the concessions as to transit made by Canada, and
no limitation upon the powers of the United States in dealing with
merchandise imported for the use of our citizens through Canadian ports
or passing from one place in the United States to another through
Canada, upon the arrival of such merchandise at our border.

Fourth. That therefore, treaty or no treaty, the question of sealing
cars containing such merchandise and the treatment of such sealed cars
when they cross our border is and always has been one to be settled by
our laws, according to our convenience and our interests as we may see
them.

Fifth. That the law authorizing the sealing of cars in Canada containing
foreign merchandise imported from a contiguous country does not apply to
merchandise imported by our own people from countries not contiguous and
carried through Canada for delivery to such owners.

Sixth. That the law did not contemplate the passing of sealed cars to
any place not a "port," nor the delivery of such cars to the owner or
consignee, to be opened by him without the supervision of a revenue
officer.

Seventh. That such a practice is inconsistent with the safety of the
revenue.

The statutes relating to the transportation of merchandise between
the United States and the British possessions should be the subject
of revision. The Treasury regulations have given to these laws a
construction and a scope that I do not think was contemplated by
Congress. A policy adapted to the new conditions, growing in part out of
the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, should be declared,
and the business placed upon a basis more just to our people and to our
transportation companies.

If we continue the policy of supervising rates and requiring that they
shall be equal and reasonable upon the railroads of the United States,
we can not in fairness at the same time give these unusual facilities
for competition to Canadian roads that are free to pursue the practices
as to cut rates and favored rates that we condemn and punish if
practiced by our own railroads.

I regret that circumstances prevented an earlier examination by me of
these questions, but submit now these views in the hope that they may
lead to a revision of the laws upon a safer and juster basis.

I transmit herewith the correspondence between the Secretary of the
Treasury and the Attorney-General upon some phases of this question.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 6, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith, for the consideration of Congress, a communication
from the Secretary of the Interior, dated 4th instant, accompanied by an
agreement concluded by and between the Turtle Mountain Indians and the
commission appointed under the provisions of the Indian appropriation
act of July 13, 1892, to negotiate with the Turtle Mountain band of
Chippewa Indians in North Dakota for the cession and relinquishment to
the United States of whatever right or interest they have in and to any
and all lands in said State to which they claim title, and for their
removal to and settlement upon lands to be hereafter selected and
determined upon by the Secretary of the Interior upon the recommendation
of the proposed commissioners, subject to the approval of Congress.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 6, 1893_.

_To the Senate_:

I transmit herewith, as desired by the resolution of the Senate of the
4th instant, a report from the Secretary of State of the 6th instant,
with its accompanying correspondence, in relation to the draft of an
uncompleted treaty with Hawaii made in 1854.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., February 8, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith the eighth annual report of the Commissioner of
Labor. This report relates to industrial education in the United States
and foreign countries.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., February 14, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a special report of the Commissioner of Labor
relating to compulsory insurance of workingmen in Germany and other
countries.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 14, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:


I transmit herewith a communication of the 13th instant from the
Secretary of the Interior, transmitting copy of reports of Lieutenants
Brown, Gurovits, and Suplee, United States Army, who were charged
with the duty of inspecting the Navajo country, so that the Interior
Department could be advised as to the practicability of restraining the
Navajoes within their present reservations and of furnishing irrigation
and water for their flocks, together with report of the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs upon the matter with draft of an item of appropriation
to carry the same into effect.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 15, 1893_.

_To the Senate_:

I transmit herewith, with a view to its ratification, a treaty of
annexation concluded on the 14th day of February, 1893, between John W.
Foster, Secretary of State, who was duly empowered to act in that behalf
on the part of the United States, and Lorin A. Thurston, W.R. Castle,
W.C. Wilder, C.L. Carter, and Joseph Marsden, the commissioners on the
part of the Government of the Hawaiian Islands. The provisional treaty,
it will be observed, does not attempt to deal in detail with the
questions that grow out of the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the
United States. The commissioners representing the Hawaiian Government
have consented to leave to the future and to the just and benevolent
purposes of the United States the adjustment of all such questions.

I do not deem it necessary to discuss at any length the conditions which
have resulted in this decisive action. It has been the policy of the
Administration not only to respect but to encourage the continuance of
an independent government in the Hawaiian Islands so long as it afforded
suitable guaranties for the protection of life and property and
maintained a stability and strength that gave adequate security against
the domination of any other power. The moral support of this Government
has continually manifested itself in the most friendly diplomatic
relations and in many acts of courtesy to the Hawaiian rulers.

The overthrow of the monarchy was not in any way promoted by this
Government, but had its origin in what seems to have been a reactionary
and revolutionary policy on the part of Queen Liliuokalani, which put
in serious peril not only the large and preponderating interests of the
United States in the islands, but all foreign interests, and, indeed,
the decent administration of civil affairs and the peace of the islands.
It is quite evident that the monarchy had become effete and the Queen's
Government so weak and inadequate as to be the prey of designing and
unscrupulous persons. The restoration of Queen Liliuokalani to her
throne is undesirable, if not impossible, and unless actively supported
by the United States would be accompanied by serious disaster and the
disorganization of all business interests. The influence and interest of
the United States in the islands must be increased and not diminished.

Only two courses are now open--one the establishment of a protectorate
by the United States, and the other annexation full and complete. I
think the latter course, which has been adopted in the treaty, will be
highly promotive of the best interests of the Hawaiian people, and is
the only one that will adequately secure the interests of the United
States. These interests are not wholly selfish. It is essential that
none of the other great powers shall secure these islands. Such a
possession would not consist with our safety and with the peace of the
world. This view of the situation is so apparent and conclusive that no
protest has been heard from any government against proceedings looking
to annexation. Every foreign representative at Honolulu promptly
acknowledged the Provisional Government, and I think there is a general
concurrence in the opinion that the deposed Queen ought not to be
restored.

Prompt action upon this treaty is very desirable. If it meets the
approval of the Senate, peace and good order will be secured in the
islands under existing laws until such time as Congress can provide
by legislation a permanent form of government for the islands. This
legislation should be, and I do not doubt will be, not only just to the
natives and all other residents and citizens of the islands, but should
be characterized by great liberality and a high regard to the rights of
all people and of all foreigners domiciled there. The correspondence
which accompanies the treaty will put the Senate in possession of all
the facts known to the Executive.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 16, 1893_.

_To the Senate_:

I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of State of the 15th
instant, covering a report, with accompanying correspondence, respecting
relations between the United States and the Hawaiian Islands from
September, 1820, to January, 1893.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 20, 1893_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

I transmit herewith a report submitted by the Acting Secretary of State
in response to the resolution of the Senate of February 2 last, relating
to the building of the Ozama River bridge at Santo Domingo City by
American citizens.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 21, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith a communication of the Secretary of State,
transmitting the official report of the American delegates to the
International Monetary Conference convened at Brussels on November 22,
1892, with its accompaniments.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 25, 1893_.

_To the Senate of the United States_:

In compliance with a resolution of the Senate, the House of
Representatives concurring, I return herewith the bill (S. 3811)
entitled "An act to amend an act entitled 'An act to grant to the Mobile
and Dauphin Island Railroad and Harbor Company the right to trestle
across the shoal water between Cedar Point and Dauphin Island,' approved
September 26, 1890."

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, February 27, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I herewith transmit, for the information of Congress, a communication
from the Acting Secretary of State, forwarding certain bulletins of the
Bureau of the American Republics.

BENJ. HARRISON.



EXECUTIVE MANSION, _Washington, D.C., March 1, 1893_.

_To the Senate and House of Representatives_:

I transmit herewith the fifth special report of the Commissioner of
Labor. The report relates to the so-called "Gothenburg system" of
regulating the liquor traffic, the system prevailing in Norway and
Sweden.

BENJ. HARRISON.



VETO MESSAGE.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, _February 27, 1893_.

_To the House of Representatives_:

I return herewith without my approval an act (H.R. 9612) entitled "An
act to prescribe the number of district attorneys and marshals in the
judicial districts of the State of Alabama."

Under the present law there is a district attorney for the southern
district of Alabama, a district attorney for the northern and middle
districts, a marshal for the northern district, and a marshal for the
southern and middle districts.

An examination of the records of the Attorney-General's office as to the
amount of business in the courts in these districts leads me to believe
that two districts would provide amply for the disposition of all public
and private cases. The law creates two new officers, whose aggregate
compensation may be $12,000 per annum, without, it seems to me, a
justifying necessity. But the most serious objection to the legislation
is that it creates at once upon the taking effect of the law the offices
of district attorney and marshal for each of the three districts, and
the effect, it seems to me, must be to abolish the offices as they now
exist.

No provision is made for a continued discharge of the duties of marshal
and district attorney by the present incumbents. A serious question
would be raised as to whether these officers were not at once legislated
out of office and vacancies created. As these vacancies could not be
filled immediately, the business of the courts would seriously suffer.
The law should at least have contained a provision for the continued
discharge of their duties by the incumbents until the new officers were
appointed and qualified.

BENJ. HARRISON.



PROCLAMATIONS.


BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A PROCLAMATION.

Whereas it is provided by section 24 of the act of Congress approved
March 3, 1891, entitled "An act to repeal timber-culture laws, and for
other purposes"--

  That the President of the United States may from time to time set
  apart and reserve in any State or Territory having public land bearing
  forests, in any part of the public lands wholly or in part covered with
  timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not, as public
  reservations; and the President shall by public proclamation declare
  the establishment of such reservations and the limits thereof.


And whereas it is made to appear, by petition and otherwise, that the
interests of the public and the welfare of the people of the State of
Colorado will be materially benefited and subserved by the reservation
of the public and forest lands hereinafter described:

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States,
by virtue of the power in me vested by said act, do hereby set apart,
reserve, and establish as a public reservation all that tract of land
in the State of Colorado embraced in the following boundary and
description, to wit:

Beginning at the confluence of the North Fork of the South Platte River
with the South Platte River; thence up the middle of the channel of the
North Fork of the South Platte River to the range line between township
seven (7) south, ranges seventy-four (74) and seventy-five (75) west of
the sixth (6th) principal meridian; thence northerly on said range line
to the northeast corner of township seven (7) south, range seventy-five
(75) west; thence westerly on the township line between townships six
(6) and seven (7) south to the northwest corner of township seven (7)
south, range seventy-six (76) west; thence southerly on the range line
between ranges seventy-six (76) and seventy-seven (77) west to the
northeast corner of section thirteen (13), township seven (7) south,
range seventy-seven (77) west; thence westerly on the section line
between sections twelve (12) and thirteen (13) to the northwest corner
of section thirteen (13) of said township and range; thence southerly
on the section line between sections thirteen (13) and fourteen (14),
twenty-three (23) and twenty-four (24), and twenty-five (25) and
twenty-six (26) to the northeast corner of section thirty-five (35) of
said township and range; thence westerly on the section line between
sections twenty-six (26) and thirty-five (35) and twenty-seven (27) and
thirty-four (34) to the northwest corner of section thirty-four (34) of
said township and range; thence southerly on the section line between
sections thirty-three (33) and thirty-four (34) of said township and
range and sections three (3) and four (4), nine (9) and ten (10),
and fifteen (15) and sixteen (16), township eight (8) south, range
seventy-seven (77) west, to the northeast corner of section twenty-one
(21) of said last-named township and range; thence westerly on the
section line between sections sixteen (16) and twenty-one (21),
seventeen (17) and twenty (20), and eighteen (18) and nineteen (19)
to the northwest corner of section nineteen (19) of said township and
range; thence southerly on the range line between ranges seventy-seven
(77) and seventy-eight (78) west to the northeast corner of section
thirteen (13), township nine (9) south, range seventy-eight (78) west;
thence westerly on the section line between sections twelve (12) and
thirteen (13) and eleven (11) and fourteen (14) to the northwest corner
of section fourteen (14) of said township and range; thence southerly on
the section line between sections fourteen (14) and fifteen (15) to the
southwest corner of said section fourteen (14); thence westerly on the
section, line between sections fifteen (15) and twenty-two (22) and
sixteen (16) and twenty-one (21) to the northwest corner of section
twenty-one (21) of said township and range; thence southerly on the
section line between sections twenty (20) and twenty-one (21) and
twenty-eight (28) and twenty-nine (29) to the southwest corner of
section twenty-eight (28) of said township and range; thence easterly
on the section line between sections twenty-eight (28) and thirty-three
(33) to the southeast corner of said section twenty-eight (28); thence
southerly on the section line between sections thirty-three (33) and
thirty-four (34) of said township and range and sections three (3) and
four (4), nine (9) and ten (10), and fifteen (15) and sixteen (16),
township ten (10) south, range seventy-eight (78) west, to the northeast
corner of section twenty-one (21) of said last-named township and range;
thence westerly on the section line between sections sixteen (16) and
twenty-one (21), seventeen (17) and twenty (20), and eighteen (18) and
nineteen (19) to the northwest corner of section nineteen (19) of said
township and range; thence southerly on the range line between ranges
seventy-eight (78) and seventy-nine (79) west to the southwest corner of
township ten (10) south, range seventy-eight (78) west; thence westerly
on the second (2d) correction line south to the northwest corner of
section one (1), township eleven (11) south, range seventy-nine (79)
west; thence southerly on the section line between sections one (1) and
two (2), eleven (11) and twelve (12), thirteen (13) and fourteen (14),
twenty-three (23) and twenty-four (24), twenty-five (25) and twenty-six
(26), and thirty-five (35) and thirty-six (36) of said township and
range and sections one (1) and two (2), eleven (11) and twelve (12),
and thirteen (13) and fourteen (14), township twelve (12) south, range
seventy-nine (79) west, to the southwest corner of section thirteen (13)
of said last-named township and range; thence easterly on the section
line between sections thirteen (13) and twenty-four (24) of said
township and range and sections eighteen (18) and nineteen (19),
seventeen (17) and twenty (20), sixteen (16) and twenty-one (21), and
fifteen (15) and twenty-two (22), township twelve (12) south, range
seventy-eight (78) west, to the quarter-section corner between said
sections fifteen (15) and twenty-two (22); thence southerly through the
middle of sections twenty-two (22), twenty-seven (27), and thirty-four
(34) to the quarter-section corner on the south boundary of section
thirty-four (34) of said township and range; thence easterly on the
township line between townships twelve (12) and thirteen (13) south,
range seventy-eight (78) west, to the northwest corner of township
thirteen (13) south, range seventy-seven (77) west; thence southerly on
the range line between ranges seventy-seven (77) and seventy-eight (78)
west to the southwest corner of section six (6), township thirteen (13)
south, range seventy-seven (77) west; thence easterly on the section
line between sections six (6) and seven (7), five (5) and eight (8), and
four (4) and nine (9) to the southeast corner of section four (4) of
said township and range; thence northerly on the section line between
sections three (3) and four (4) of said township and range and sections
thirty-three (33) and thirty-four (34), township twelve (12) south,
range seventy-seven (77) west, to the northeast corner of section
thirty-three (33) of said last-named township and range; thence easterly
on the section line between sections twenty-seven (27) and thirty-four
(34) to the southeast corner of